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Advertising is one of the largest generators of revenue in the world

economy. Yet it remains enigmatic to a large section of people. It is akin to
dream selling for some. For others it is a sheer waste of money. Whatever
the perception, advertising in India as anywhere else continues to
mesmerize millions of people, cutting across age, gender and social and
economic disparities.

Advertising is

• Paid for
• A way of promoting products, services or
• A form of communication (between manufacturer
and consumer)
• A physical commodity
• An integral part of pop culture
• An important economic force
• A part of our urban landscape

The analysis of advertising is an integral part of Media Studies. Advertising

manifests itself in all known media forms, and is constantly seeking new
media, new channels of communication. Through looking at advertising we
can learn not only how the most simple narratives are constructed (a print
ad is simpler than a magazine article, a TVC is simpler than a feature film,
although they use the same narrative techniques), but how ideas can be
communicated at great speed, through the use of single images and words.




The word advertising originates from Latin word advertise, which

means to turn to. The dictionary meaning of the term is “to give public notice
or to give publicity”. Advertising may be defined as the process of buying
sponsor-identified media space or time in order to promote a product or an
idea. It is perhaps the most visible of all the elements in the promotion mix
and is therefore subject to much criticism from consumer groups. It is also
subjected to government regulation.

The American Marketing Association, Chicago, has defined advertising

as “any paid form of non-personal presentation or promotion of ideas, goods
or services, by an identified sponsor”.

Advertising is not just 30 seconds of entertainment during the Super

Bowl or the announcement of the new deals from the cheesy car dealer down
the street. Advertising is big business--an industry with extraordinary cultural
and economic impact. It has the power to create brand awareness and loyalty
and to stimulate demand. In its most profound form, it can turn mere products
into meaningful brands and important possessions and turn the most
mundane object into a cultural icon. Advertising can be offensive or
memorable, the center of controversy or the topic of conversation.

In its simplest form, advertising is a method of one-way communication

between an advertiser and the consumer. An advertisement is persuasive in
nature and sends an intended message through a designated medium (radio,
television, the Internet). However, in receiving a message, consumers do not
always interpret the message as the advertiser intended.

Successful advertising sales results in satisfied customers and revenue

growth for the company.




i. Advertising is a paid form and hence is commercial in nature.

Publicity is not paid for by the sponsor. Advertising is a paid

form of publicity. Thus any sponsored communication designed

to influence buyer behavior is advertising.

ii. Advertising is non-personal. Whatever the form of advertisement

(visual, spoken or written), it is directed at a mass audience and

not directly at the individual as in personal selling.

iii. Advertisements are identified with their sponsoring authority,

which is not always the case with publicity.




The history of advertising dates back to the early days of human civilization.
The evolution or growth of advertising can be briefly stated as follows:

1. Early Forms of Advertising: Three forms of advertising existed during

the pre-printing period, i.e. before 15th century. The three forms are as

a) Trade Marks: In olden days, artisans used to inscribe on their

goods such as pots, wooden tools, etc., certain marks such a
stars, moon, tiger, etc. Such marks came to be regarded as
trade marks.
The trademark was treated as a form of advertising because the
reputation of a particular trademark spread by word of mouth.
The buyer used to look for such marks before buying the
product or tools at the village fairs or such other places.

b) Town Criers: Prior to 15th centaury, shopkeepers and other

sellers appointed town criers to popularize their stores and
products. The town crier wore clowny cloths and played a
musical instrument such as drum or a flute and attracted the
attention of the people at the village fairs, bazaars etc. the town
crier used to offer samples and praise the shop and the product
soled by the shops.
Town crier were treated as a form of advertising as they
attracted the attention of t5he people and also induced or
persuaded the people to buy the products popularized by them.

c) Sign Boards: Signs or signboards have been in use for over

5000 years. In those days, sellers used to paint signs on the
rocks or boards about their goods. People were attracted by
those signs and purchased the product popularized by the signs



or signboards. For e.g., a sign of cow was used for dairy

products, row of ham for butcher’s shop etc.

2. Birth of Printing Press: In 1438, Johan Gutenberg invented the crude

form of printing press. This made possible the printed advertisements
in the following forms:

a) Hand Mills: In 1477, William Caxton from London brought out

the first ever-printed advertisement in the form of a hand mill.
The advertisement was for a religious book.

b) Newspaper Advertisement: The Gutenberg invention made

possible the printing of a newspaper. The first newspaper came
into existence in Germany around 1520, and the first newspaper
ad was published in about 1525 in Germany for a book.
The first printed English newspaper appeared in 1622 called
“The Weekly News of London”, and the first ad in an English
newspaper appeared in 1625 for a book.

c) Magazine Advertising: Magazines were first published in the

early 1700s, how ever, advertising in magazines gain
reorganization only around 1870. In those days, most of the
advertisements were in the form of posters/ handbills and in

3. Birth of Advertising Agency: In 1840 Volney Bpalmer started the first

advertising agency in America at Philadelphia. In those days, ad agencies
used to act as “salesmen of space”. They used to sell space in newspapers
and magazines on behalf of publishers to the advertisers. They used to get
25% commission for such services. The real advertising work such as
copywriting art-work etc, by the ad agencies began in the early 20th centaury.



4. Radio Advertising: Marconi invented the radio. The radio was

introduced to the public in the early 1920s.The first radio advertisement
was aired in 1922 for “Eveready Batteries” in America.
Because of the invention of radio, it was made possible to advertise to
the illiterates. The music and sound effects of radio advertising gave a
new meaning to the field of advertising.

5. Television advertising: in 1930s John L. Baird invented the

commercially viable television. It was the most impressive medium of
all times. The television advertising combined the effect of voice and
vision, music and motion. The first commercial appeared in 1949 in
USA. In India, the first TV commercial appeared on Jan.1, 1976.

6. Other Forms: In this present century several other forms of advertising

came into existence. It includes neon-signs, video, sky writing,
billboards, yellow pages, direct mail, etc.

7. Growth of Advertising Organizations: Several advertising

organizations came into existence during the 20th century. These
include Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC) in 1914 in America and later
on in other countries including India; Advertising Agencies Association
of America (AAAA) in 1945.These organization gave an added impetus
to the progress of advertising throughout the world.

8. Internet: An interesting form of advertising in the late 1990s is the

Internet. Internet can be called as electronic yellow pages. Companies
open a website wherein they provide information about the company
and the product.




There are various kinds of advertising that are based on classification.

Advertising can be classified in many ways. Some of the ways in which
it can be classified is as follows:


Area Audience Media Functions Ad. Stages


Local Consumer Press Direct & Indirect Pioneering

Regional Industrial Broadcasting Action Competitor

National Trade Outdoor Primary & Retentive
International Professional Others Product & PRA

A. On the Basis of Area:


1. Local Advertising: This is also known as retail advertising. This is

undertaken mostly by retailers in a local area, which can be a village, a
town or a city, or even in a small locality. The response expected is
"Buy at my Store".

The media used is normally the newspapers, cable network, neon

signs, posters, billboards and even local cinema and local television
networks. Local advertising builds name and goodwill of the' store and
bring in more sales from the local buyers.

2. Regional Advertising: This type of advertising is done in a particular

region, say western region, or southern region. There are marketers
who concentrate their marketing efforts in a particular region of a
country and as such they will concentrate their advertising effort in



such regions. The media used are regional television and radio
networks, regional magazines, newspapers and also outdoor media in
a particular-region.

3. National Advertising: This type of advertising is undertaken by

marketers who sell their products throughout the nation. Examples
include Colgate Palmolive, Hindustan Lever, Godrej, BPL, Sony, etc.
The response expected is "Buy my brand". The advertisements are in
respect of branded products. The media used includes national
network of television, and magazines. 'They also use newspapers,
radio, etc.

4. International Advertising: This is undertaken by MNCs and exporters

who sell in different countries. Examples include advertising by Coco
Cola, Pepsi, Philips, and others. ‘The international advertisers analyze
the same advertising campaign worldwide or they may modify their ad
campaigns depending upon the target audience in different countries.


1. Consumer Advertising: This type of advertising is done to the consumers.

Such advertising is done to create awareness and to induce action on the part
of consumers, i.e., purchase of goods and services or some other action. The
media use includes television, radio, magazines, newspapers and others.
Examples of such advertising include Colgate tooth-paste, Thumps Up, Dove
Soap, etc.

2. Industrial Advertising: This is undertaken by sellers of industrial goods.

They advertise to business people to purchase the products and services so
that they can use such items in their business activities. Examples of such
advertising include Ernco Transformers, Kirloskar Industrial Pumps, etc. The
media used includes trade journals, industrial magazines, and direct mail.

3. Trade Advertising: It is undertaken by manufacturers of consumer goods

as well as industrial goods. It is undertaken to influence the dealers to stock



and promote the advertiser's goods: Through trade advertising, the

advertiser expects the response "Stock and promote the sale of my
products. The media used includes brochures, folders, trade magazines,
and direct mail.

4. Professional Advertising: It is undertaken to influence the professionals

such as doctors, lawyers, architects, professors, etc. The media used can be
direct mail. Mostly, the professionals are approached personally by the seller.
The response expected from the professionals-is "Recommend or prescribe
my brand." This type of advertising is required for the promotion of
college/university textbooks, medicines, building materials, etc.


1. Press Media: This includes the use of newspapers and magazines. In

India, a major share (about 52%) of total advertising goes to the press media.
All advertisers can afford to pay for press advertisements as compared to
television advertising.

Press advertising can be used for future reference if so required. Again,

detailed information can be provided in the press advertisements, which may
not be possible in outdoor, television, and on radio.

2. Broadcasting Media: This includes advertising on radio and on television.

In India, television advertising is gaining importance and is ranked second in
terms of advertising expenditure after newspapers.

However, radio advertising is very insignificant in India. The share of

advertising expenditure on radio is less than 3%.

Television advertising with its voice, vision, music and motion effects
can create a good impact on the minds of the target audience. Radio
advertising also can create a good impact, especially, in the rural areas,
where some of the people may not afford to buy the television sets.



3. Outdoor Media: This includes posters, neon signs, transit, point of

purchase (POP), etc. Outdoor advertising can be a good supporting media to
other forms of advertising. It is a good form of reminder advertising,
especially, the POP advertising.

4. Other Media: This includes direct mail, handbills, calendars, diaries,

cinema advertising, Internet and so on. These miscellaneous media can play
an important supporting role .to the major media such as television, and


1. Direct Action and Indirect Action Advertising: Direct action advertising

is undertaken to obtain immediate response or action on the part of target
audience. Examples include discount sales advertising, sale along with free
gift offers, and mail-order coupon sales, etc. The media used is mostly
newspapers, and television.

2. Indirect action advertising is undertaken to influence the audience in

respect of advertiser's brand. The advertiser expects the target audience to
prefer his brand as compared to competitors whenever a buying decision
arises in future.

3. Primary and Selective Advertising: Primary advertising is undertaken

by trade association or by cooperative groups. It is undertaken to create
generic demand for products and services. For example, the Coffee Board
may advertise to consume more coffee.

4. Selective Advertising is undertaken by marketers of branded products.

The advertiser intends to create selective demand for his brand. Examples
include Pepsi Cola, Coco Cola.

5. Product and Institutional Advertising: Product or Service advertising is

undertaken to promote the sale of products and services - branded or
unbranded. Institutional advertising is undertaken to build name and goodwill



of the organisation. It is also known as corporate advertising or image

advertising. It is mostly undertaken by large firms.


1. Pioneering Stage: Advertising done during the introductory stage to

make the audience aware of the new brand is called pioneering type.
However, in real sense pioneering advertising refers to advertising of a
newly launched innovative product. Examples: ads of liquid detergents,
electric razors, electric toothbrushes, bike with a roof etc.

2. Competitive Stage: Once the product survives the introductory stage,

soon it has to face a number of competitors. Advertising undertaken to
face competition is called competitive advertising. Most of today's
advertising is competitive in nature.

3. Retentive Stage: It is also known as reminder advertising. When a

brand is used by a large share of the market, the advertising is so
designed as to maintain brand loyalty. It is undertaken to remind the
buyers to repeat the purchases of the advertised brand.


Active participants are those individuals or organizations, which are actively

associated in the field of advertising. Generally, the lists of active participants



1. Advertisers: The advertiser includes sellers of product and services, trade

intermediaries such as retailers, and social organizations. It is the
advertiser who makes the final decision in respect of the target audience,
the media of advertising, the period of ad campaign, and the size of the ad

• There are advertisers who run a couple of ads in a year, and there
are others who may run thousands of advertising messages, in a year.
• There are advertisers who undertake only product advertising,
and there are others who undertake corporate advertising as well.
• The advertisers may advertise throughout the country or they may
advertise in a particular region or local area.
• Some advertisers may make use of a number of media, whereas,
others may use only the local media such as newspapers, outdoor

2. Adverting Agencies: The advertising agency is an independent business

organization, composed of creative people who plan, prepare and place
advertising media for sellers seeking to find customers for their goods and
services. The advertising agencies earn a commission of 15 percent of the
media bill. They charge out-of-pocket expenses to their clients, i.e., the

• There are agencies that provide a complete package of services

advertising and other marketing services and there are others who provide
only specialized advertising services.
• There are agencies who earn a couple of lakhs of rupees, and there
are others like O& M, J. Walter Thompson (HTA), Lowe (formerly Lintas),
McCann-Erickson (India’s top 4 agencies) and others whose annual billings
run in crore of rupees.
• There are agencies that employ a few employees and yet others
employ hundreds of people in their offices.



3. Audience: It refers to the recipients of advertising messages, i.e., readers,

listeners, or viewers. Every advertising message is directed to either mass
audience or to selected class of audience. Every advertiser intends to convert
audience into prospects, prospects into buyers.

• The ad messages are directed to users of the advertised brand so that

they go for repeat purchases and also recommended to their friends,
neighbors and others.
• The messages are directed to non-users who may purchase the
product in future.
• The messages are also directed to the users of competitor’s products,
so that they switch over to the advertiser’s product.

4. Advertising Media: The media are the channels of communicate through

which ad messages are transmitted or communicated to the target audience.
There are several media of advertising. Each media has its own merits and

• The most frequently used media are newspapers, magazines,

television, radio, posters, billboards and neon signs.
• Each media has media vehicles. For instance, in magazines, there are
business magazines. In business magazines, the media vehicles are
Business Today, Business World, etc.
• In India, newspapers account for a major share of advertising
revenue, followed by television and magazines

5. Advertising Production Firms: These include copywriters, artists,

photographers, typographers, layout designers, producers, editors, and
others. They may be the personnel from the ad agencies or they may be hired
from outside by the agencies on job basis. These are the people who



transform the idea of an ad into a finished form the success or failure of an ad

largely depends on these people.

6. Government Authorities: The government authorities control the

functioning of the entire advertising industry. The government adopts laws and
regulations which have a direct or indirect bearing on advertising. For instance,
ads of liquor and tobacco products are not allowed on television, and radio.

Apart from government authorities, there are other individuals and

organizations, who participate in the advertising world. There are
advertising clubs, association of advertisers and agencies, audit bureau of
circulation, a number of research firms, institutions imparting advertising
skills, and so on.

Among all the marketing mix elements, advertising is probably the most
critical link between the marketer and the consumer in today’s world. Often
it is through advertising that the marketer communicates to, and reaches the
consumer even before the consumer has set sight on a product in the
market. Its ability to transform products into brands in consumer’s minds is
vital for creating and sustaining a relationship between them


Marketing Advertising




Deliver Promise
Good, effective advertising is almost a necessary condition for any
marketing effort to succeed in today’s competitive world and that is what
makes advertising a double-edged sword. If used properly, it ahs a capability
to cut the competition to pieces. If not it can bleed the company badly, even to
death. After all a double edge sword needs careful handling. A lack of clarity
in which direction it needs to be wielded can lead to self inflicted cuts and
The same is true with advertising. A good understanding of the
marketing and branding principle is a must. What role advertising is supposed
to play in the marketing game plan should be clearly defined. Clarity in
knowing what advertising is supposed to achieve, and within what marketing
and brand parameters, will give a proper direction to the entire advertising
planning and development process.

Marketing Objective,
Marketing Plan
Strategy and Mix.
Role of Advertising

Advertising Plan Objectives, Targeting,

Key Message, Creative
and Media Strategy.

It would be worthwhile here to remember that advertising is always part and

parcel of a solution to a marketing problem. It is only the means to resolve the
marketing problem and not an end in itself, and definitely no panacea.
Therefore, any outline Advertising Objective should be in line with the
marketing objective and strategy.




Objective Media

Marketing Role of
Strategy Advert-
ising Creative

Target Group Audience Style/

Positioning Key Message, Idea
Proposition Concept/

The Advertising Strategy essentially flows out of the marketing

strategy. A clear definition of the “core” target segments in the marketing
strategy will automatically translate into a well-defined target audience for
advertising. Similarly the positioning stance in the marketing strategy will
translate into the key message or proposition that the advertising needs to
focus on.

Only when it is clearly known who you are talking to and in what
context can u develop a meaningful advertising strategy of what u you are
going to say and how.

Thereafter the creative and media aspects of the advertising are

worked out. The focus of the Creative Strategy is to come up with an
advertising “idea” and campaign that can inspire and motivate the consumers
to identify with and own the brand.

The focus of the Media Strategy is to ensure that the advertising is

taken to people’s home and lives in the most visible and effective way
possible. It also needs to ensure that in doing so the advertising monies are
used as efficiently as possible.

In totality, if there is no doubt in fact that advertising is probably the

most lethal weapon a, marketer possesses – the terminator X – it is equally
true that it will take all the understanding and wisdom of a professional
marketing approach to control and direct its trigger.

If there is no clarity on the purpose to shoot, or no marked target, or no

precision in aiming, or no synchronization in when to pull the trigger, the
bullets will fly all over the place resulting in a lot of unintended, innocent, and
at times self casualties.


Marketing mix consist of four important variables of marketing, i.e. 4Ps-

Product, Price, Promotion and Place. Apart from the traditional 4Ps, there are
also other variables, i.e. Packaging, Posting, and Pace.



Advertising is an element of promotion. However, it not only assists in

promoting the product, but also affects the other variables of marketing mix.
This can be explained as follows:

1. Advertising and Product: A product is normally a set of physical

elements, such as quality, shape, size, colour and other features. The
product may be of very high quality .At times, the product is so
designed that it requires careful handling and operations. Buyers must
be informed and educated on the various aspects of the product. This
can be effectively done through advertising. Thus, advertising plays the
role of information and education.

2. Advertising and Price: The price is the exchange value of the product.
A marketer may bring out a very high quality product with additional
features as compared to competitors. In such a case, price would be
definitely high. But buyers may not be willing to pay a high price would
be definitely high. But buyers may not be willing to pay a high price.
Here comes advertising. Advertising can convince buyers regarding the
superiority of the brand and thus its value for money. This can be done
by associating the product with prestigious people, situations, or
events. Alternatively when a firm offers a low price products the job of
advertising needs to stress the price advantage by using hard hitting
copy. It is not just enough to convince, but it is desirable to persuade
the buyer. Thus advertising plays the role of conviction and

3. Advertising and Place: Place refers to physical distribution and the

stores where the goods are available Marketer should see to it that the
goods are available at the convenient place and that too at the right
time when the buyers need it. To facilitate effective distribution and



expansion of market, advertising is of great significance. Thus

advertising do help in effective distribution and market expansion.

4. Advertising and Promotion: Promotion consists of advertising,

publicity, personal selling and sales promotion technique. Businessmen
today have to face a lot of competition. Every seller needs effective
promotion to survive and succeed in this competitive business world.
Advertising can play a significant role to put forward the claim of seller,
and to counter the claims of competitor. Through effective advertising,
sellers can face competition and also help to develop brand image
and brand loyalty.

5. Advertising and Pace: Pace refers to the speed in marketing decisions

and actions. It involves among other things the launch of new products
or brand variations at greater speed than before. As and when new
brands are launched, advertising plays an important role of informing,
educating and persuading the customers to buy the product.

6. Advertising and Packaging: The main purpose of packaging is

protection of the product during transit, and preservation of quality and
quantity. Now a –days, marketers take lot of efforts to develop and
design attractive packages as they carry advertising value. A creatively
design package attract the attention of the customers. It also carries an
assurance of quality and creates confidence in the minds of
customers to buy the product.

7. Advertising and Positioning: Product positioning aims at creating and

maintaining a distinct image of the brands in the minds of the
customers. Through advertising the marketer can convey the
positioning of the brand and accordingly can influence the buying
decision of the target audience.



Thus, marketer can inform, educate and persuade the present and
potential prospects to use the product so advertised by him. Creative
ads can effectively mould customer behaviour towards the buying of a
particular brand. Effective advertising can generate repeat orders from
the existing buyer, and new orders from non-users and users of
competing brands.


The roles of advertising are many. It is designed to inform and induce

people to act upon the advertising message. It can be used to support a
cause, or to elect a candidate or raise funds for some charitable or social
organization. Most advertising however, is for the marketing of goods and
services. The role of advertising can be explained as follows:

1. Communication: There is always a need to inform the

consumers about the availability of a new and better goods and
services. It is very difficult to personally approach the prospects
throughout the market area and bring their notice the reliability of
goods and services. Advertising solves this problem through mass
communication in news papers, magazines, radio, TV, etc. advertising
creates awareness of goods and services in the market.

2. Persuasion: Today’s customer needs not only information

about the new goods and services, but he needs to persuaded to buy
the advertiser’s product because he is confronted to so many
competitive massages of competing brand. Therefore, the role of
advertising is not only to communicate but also to persuade the
prospects to buy goods and services.

3. Education: advertising brings the knowledge of the audience

about the various features of the products such as quality, uses,
advantages, price, and such other aspects. This helps the prospect to
make a proper choice of brand before he decides to purchase. Also the

audience are made aware of social problem that are forced by the
society such a s child marriages, dowry evils, smoking effects, noise
pollution, etc.through public service advertisements.

4. Expansion of Market: effective advertising helps to stimulate

more and more demand from the audience or prospects this helps to
boost up large scale production and marketing. The manufacturer /
seller can expand his market from local level to regional level to
national level and even to international level


Do consumers recognize that advertising support media?

Internet as well as other media, we can enjoy almost all web sites free
of charge thanks to advertising on it. But users sometimes search
information conatively using internet, advertisements which occupy
some part of the page and try to catch their eyes look burdensome and
disturbing their works. It may be worse than any other media.

How can we persuade Internet user of the merit of advertising?

The more users think Internet advertising burdensome and avoid to
see it, the less the value of the advertising will be. If many advertisers
stop using internet advertising, free sites will be no more. User will be
requested to pay some charge to use their favorite web sites in the
future. To persuade them that advertising is inevitable to use web sites
free of charge, it must be not bad to some sites declare to start
subscription. Users who hate subscription will understand the role of
advertising on the internet.

Internet advertising is only the gate.

Almost all banner advertising and e-mail advertising are gadgets to
make users to jump to main web site. For the time being, internet
advertising by itself will never fulfill the transaction. It makes users to



proceed to the next step such as getting more information, asking

some questions and making order and so on.

Targeting is the key.

Appropriate targeting is the key to success in the internet advertising.
Internet, more precisely, particular web sites are kinds of media to
appeal to specific target not to mass audience. There will be complete
different way from traditional mass media.

Will it be a new communication tool for the young generation?

Young generations are very familiar with computer from their
childhood. For them, internet is necessity for their life. In the 1950s and
60s, teenagers or younger children who grew up with television shared
common interests and communication concerning television. It is hardly
believable that older generation communicates each other using
internet within a few years but young generation can easily do so.


Waste in advertising refers to the failure of the advertisement or campaign to

achieve its desired objectives. The main objective of every ad is to attract the
attention of the audience and then to induce them to act upon the advertiser's
message. If the ad fails to attract the attention and induce the audience, then
one can say that there is waste in advertising. Some people talk of waste in



advertising when they feel that more money is spent on advertising than what
is actually needed.

Causes of Waste in Advertising:

The waste in advertising may be due to any or many of the following causes:-

1. Poor Planning: The advertiser may not obtain proper response from the
audience, if he plans his advertising in a poor way. For instance, the
frequency of ads may be inadequate to bring about a desired response
from the audience, or the funds allotted to a particular media may not be
sufficient. At times, an advertiser may advertise more in one place and
neglect the other market area where advertising is in fact required. Such
poor decisions on the part of the advertiser will result, in waste in

2. Wrong Targeting: The advertiser may direct the product to the wrong
target audience. The marketer or advertiser may not be able to locate
properly the markets for his product. For example, the advertiser of a soft
drink may target older generation in India. Such targeting may not work
well in a country like India where older generation are wise enough not to
get influenced by soft drink ads.

3. Wrong Selection of Media: The advertiser may make a wrong selection

of the media. This is possible when the marketer does not take the
assistance of professional ad agency to select the right media. The ad
will be directed to the wrong target audience, and as such it will result in
a waste of money and efforts. For example, a publisher of college or
university text books may advertise in newspapers or on television rather
than asking the professors to recommend.



4. Wrong Sponsoring of Programmes: The advertiser may sponsor

wrong programmes. Normally, the image of the programme or serial
must fit or match with the image of the advertised brand. For example,
the advertiser of a luxury car may sponsor a cheap comedy serial on
television which is viewed by masses, especially, belonging to lower
income groups and even middle income groups.

5. Excessive Repetition: Now-a-days, advertisers go for excessive

repetition in order to obtain a larger share of voice on the television and
radio. In fact, viewers or listeners are so fed up with the repetitive ads,
and they often switch over to other channels during the ads. Some
audience even gets irritated and they stop viewing a programme, which
is frequently interrupted by ads. There are cases where buyers stopped
buying a particular brand due to the irritation generated by repetitive
advertising and poor quality of advertising of that brand.

6. Wrong Placement of Ads: There are cases of wrong placement of ads.

This especially happens in the case of billboards and even posters.
Again, there are cases of wrong placement of the ads in the newspaper.
This is because a good number of readers do not read the entire
newspaper, and if the ad is inserted in such a place where the editorial is
hardly of interest to the target audience.

7. Poor Quality of Ads: The ads may be poorly drafted. The model or the
personality selected may have nothing with the brand, or the character of
the personality may not match with the character of the brand. For
example, if a marketer of luxury car selects a popular Hindi film
personality, then it will lead to waste as the prospective buyers of luxury
car may not influenced by a Hindi film personality. Again, the choice of
words used in the advertisement may not be proper, and the audience
may get irritated or insulted by such ads. Therefore, the advertiser
should be selective in using the right words, and selecting the right
models or personalities to endorse the brand.



8. Wrong Selection of Ad Agency: The advertiser may make a wrong

decision in the selection of the ad agency. The agency may not
understand properly the requirements of the advertiser, the nature of the
product, the nature of target audience, etc. Such agency may wrongly
advice the advertiser regarding the choice of media, the use of language,
the choice of words, the choice of personalities to endorse the brand,
and so on.

9. Wrong Time: The advertiser may select wrong time to advertise the
brand. For example, one cannot advertise for products liked by children
at late hours in the night. Again, if the product is of seasonal nature such
as umbrellas, then the advertising must be undertaken at the onset of
such season.

10. Lack of Coordination: There may be a lack of coordination among

various sections of the marketing department and other departments in
the organisation. Even if the advertising is effective and generates good
demand for the product, the production department may not be able to
increase the pace of production, or the marketing department may not be
able to distribute and provide after-sale-service effectively. This will
definitely result in waste of effective advertising.

11. Untruthful Advertising: At times, the advertiser may provide false

information in the ads. The advertiser may not be able to fool the
audience with such type of wrong information, and therefore, the money
spent on such advertising is waste.

12. Clutter of Ads: The advertisement may be inserted in a newspaper,

which is cluttered with several ads'. Again,-there may be cluttered of ads,
especially, at the time of popular serial or programme. Some of the ads
may not noticed by the audience. Again, the clutter of ads, especially, on
television irritates the audience.



13. Conditions not Conducive: At times, conditions conducive to the use of

advertising may not be present, but still the advertiser advertises the
product and as such loses a good amount of money on ads.

The above mentioned causes are some of the reasons as to why there is
waste in advertising. This can be avoided provided there is a systematic
planning of advertising and the conditions must be conducive to the use
of advertising. Again there should be proper pre-testing of ads before
they are run over a large market area. The advertiser may also go for
post-testing of ad campaign to correct mistakes, if any. Finally, there
should be proper control over the advertising budget.


Ethics is a branch of social science that deals with moral principles and
values. It differentiates what is good and what is bad. What is good should be
followed and what is bad should be discarded or avoided.



As far as advertising is concerned the advertisers should do only good

advertising. Good advertising refers to honest advertising. Only true fact;
about the product should be stated - no exaggeration - no Ties. Again, only
good products should be advertised and that too to the right audience.
There are various ethical issues in advertising ranging from the question of
validity of claims made in the ads to the matter and manner of presentation
Often vital issues are raised such as:

• Advertising of harmful products.

• Advertising to children,

• Ads in poor taste,

• False claims made in the ads,

• Excessive use of exaggeration,

• Unhealthy brand comparisons,

• Use of Testimonials, etc.

Although advertisers face ethical regulations, every issue is not covered by a

clear written rule. Many advertising issues, such as brand comparisons, use
of personalities, statistical claims, degree of exaggeration, etc, are left to the
discretion of the advertiser.

Critics feel that advertising should be objective and informative, whereas,

those who defend advertising say that ultimately the consumer makes the
Final decision. If advertising for a product is perceived as violating ethical
standards, consumers can exert pressure by refusing to buy the product.
They can also complain to the company and to the regulatory bodies.

Sometimes when advertising decisions are not governed by any regulation, it

is the advertiser who should make an ethical decision. The advertiser must
weigh the pros and cons, the good and the bad, the healthy and harmful
effects and make a value judgment about an unfamiliar situation. Even though
some ads might increase sales, an ethical advertiser should avoid the use of



offensive, double meaning tone of the ads and also the truth should not be
stretched too far. When making a claim about the product one should not
malign competitors' product, when your product is basically the same as that
of the competitors.

Advertisers must address themselves the following few questions:

• Who should and should not be advertised to?

• What should and should not be advertised?
• What should and should not be the content and tone of the advertising
• Where should and should not be advertised?




Advertising agency is one of the important component of the advertising

industry. It has played a significant role in the development of modern

Ad Agency can be defined as “an independent business organization

composed of creative and business people, who develop, prepare and
place advertising in advertising media for sellers seeking to find
customers for their goods and services.”

Evolution Of Advertising Agency

The origin and growth of advertising can be defined into five stages:
1. Period of space agents,
2. Period of space wholesalers,
3. Period of creative services,
4. Period of complete package of services,
5. Period of mega agencies

Period of space agents:

The history of American advertising records Volney B. Palmer as the first
person to have worked as a space salesman. He sets up his agency office
in Philadelphia in 1840. He solicited advertising business for the
newspaper publisher for a commission. Others followed Palmer and soon
there was competition in selling space to the prospective advertisers.

Period of wholesaling:
In about 1865 George P.Rowell started a different system of selling space.
He contracted with 100 newspapers to buy one column of space a month.
He purchased space, in lots at inside rates and sold it at higher rates in
small units to individual advertisers. He not only received his normal
commission but also made good money due to discounts on wholesaling
rates offered to him by the publishers.
Period of creative Services:
In the last decade of 19th centaury there was so much competition among
the various advertising agencies to sell space, which resulted in cutting of

rates by the various agencies. At the same time some of the publishers
started their own sales departments to sell space directly to the
advertisers. This resulted in loss to the agencies and some of the agencies
had to close down their offices. Others in order to face difficult times, hired
copywriters and artists to handle the art work and copy for the clients and
since the advertisers were offered free creative services they once again
relied on the advertising agencies. N.W.Ayer was the first person to offer
such services.

Period of complete package of services:

After World War I, a lot changed in the functioning of advertising agencies.
In 1917, the AAAA was born. This organisation worked for the
improvement in advertising standards and advertising practices. Soon the
advertising agencies started to provide full service to their clients which
included apart from writing copy and art work, planning for the client's
advertising, recommending changes in product pricing, product
distribution, conducting market research and so on. Now-a- days, the
agencies assist their clients in total marketing programme; the agency may
also work on projects, not directly related to advertising, such as public
relations, package design, sales literature and so on.

Period of Mega Agency:

A significant development of the 1980's is the development of mega
agency. Agencies world wide merge with each other to serve their clients
in a much better way. It was in 1986, Saatchi & Saatchi, a small London
based agency that started the movement and at present it is the third
largest agency network in the world (Saatchi & Saatchi enjoyed No. I
position in 1990).




Selecting the right type of advertising agency is a very difficult choice the
advertiser should make a list of all possible agencies that can serve his
purpose and the agency best qualified to provide the required and
effective services is selected. Some advertisers may select more than one
agency to handle separately its various product lines. Following are the
factors that should be considered while selecting an advertising agency:

1. Services Offered: The very important consideration in the choice of

the advertising agency is the requirements of the advertiser as to the
services in respect of advertising and non-advertising. If the agency is
well equipped to meet the requirements of the advertiser, then sue
agency can be selected. Some agencies may provide only a few
services, others package of services.

2. Location: The location of the advertising agency is of prime

importance; preferably the office of the agency should be located within
the same city where the head office of the client is located. Quite often
the client has to consult and communicate on various advertising
problems and this can be done quickly and economically, if the office of
the agency is within easy reach of the advertiser.

3. Compensation: Now-a-days agencies charge for entire services.

There is hardly anything free. The advertiser has to pay for the copy
writing, art work and other services. The rates of various agencies are
not standard and they differ from agency to agency. The advertiser
must check on the rates before finalizing the choice of the agency.
However, it does not mean that the advertiser will select an agency
whose charges are less, other factors often come into picture such as
experience and quality of services offered.

4. Personnel: The creative personnel of the agency such as the copy

writers, art directors and others must be looked into before contracting



the agency. The success of the advertiser's campaign largely depends

on the services of the creative department.

5. Size of the Agency: The size of the advertising agency must be

considered. The larger the size, the more it is preferred, however, at
times, small is beautiful because a small-agency may give more
attention to its client's work, in such cases; the small agency can be

6. Records and Reputation: The past record and reputation of the

advertising agency in the field of advertising must be studied. The
agency-client relationship, the client turnover, the success of other
clients' campaigns, the implementation of the schedule, the follow up
and such other factors must be looked into.

7. Other Accounts: The advertiser should also find out the other
accounts that are handled by the agency. In no case, the advertiser
must select that agency which handles competitor's advertising,
because there will always be suspicion of getting poor facilities and
second hand treatment and it will be wise to discard the choice of such

8. Media Connections: Some agencies do have better contacts with

various media 'owners, such as the newspaper and magazine
publishers, Doordarshan, Radio, etc. For instance, in a MARG survey
many firms perceive that Mudra has better connections with
Doordarshan than other agencies. Such agencies may be able to
influence upon the media owners and can book prime time and space
for their clients. Other agencies may lack far behind in such
connections. Therefore, the agency with better media connection be

Advertising Agency and its working



Advertising agency has become important and yet, back-ground

partners of firms. As there are several different types of advertises there are
different types of advertising agencies to cater to their demand. With
specialized products groups coming in the market, like computers and
peripherals, video products, telecom products, the need of specialized agency
has been felt as never before. Sure enough such agencies are evolving or
existing agencies, hiring persons who are technically qualified to understand
the new business.

Let us see a typical organization chart of a full function Advertising


Chief Executive Officer

Client Group 1 Client Client Client

Group 2 Group 3 Group 4
Account Creative Media Research
Management Services Services services
Account Art Press In House
Manager/Executive Director, Research
Account Planner Visualizer Electronic Outside
Media Research

A functional head that has the experience and skills is positioned in each of
the areas, like Account Management, Creative, Media and Research. In
some agencies they do not have a Research Department and they hire the
services of outside research organizations like ORG MARG in India.



Full services Agencies are capable of providing entire range of advertising

services to their clients.

Advertising agency work starts with a brief form the client to their Account
Executive. The brief constitutes of the following points:

Details of clients activities.

Clients market share, brands and their equity
Competitive brands and their value
Marketing objectives
Advertising objectives
An idea of budget meant for advertising

The role of Advertising Agency in marketing efforts of a firm can be compared

to that of a doctor who treats a patient and must be told everything necessary
for his treatment and cure and same type of confidentiality is expected from
the agency.

The Account Executive (AE), works as a close link between the agency and
its client. He represents the client at the agency and ensures that the agency
works within the framework of clients brief and in the allotted time. The word
DEADLINE is perhaps the most used word in any agency – as it has to meet
the target date of releasing the ad campaign to the media after its acceptance
by the client. The AR arranges the agency resources, creative, media
budgetary to get the best campaign for the client. AE puts across agency’s
plans and the campaign to the client to get their approval. It is more of a
sandwich kind of a role, yet it is very satisfying once the campaigns planned
are executed and bring desired results.



The Creative Department is equally important in an Advertising Agency which

is a s follows:-

Creative Director


Creative Director is responsible for the entire creative work of agency,

including, copy writing, art designing work and planning sketches for TV
Commercials. The Visualiser’s job is to ensure that copy and art is placed at
the right places and the total effect of advertisement is eye catching.
Copywriter writes the Copy, the written word in any advertisement. The Art
Director creates the visuals, the drawings, photos and sketches in the
advertising campaign. Art Director also works as the Visualizer in most
Advertising Agencies.

They focus on the suitability of the chosen market segment/s. For this
purpose either they have a research unit of their own or they hire outside
agency for gathering information. Some agencies have Research Directors to
head the department.

In certain agencies the trend is to have Account Planning Department which

arranges for the Customer’s view point, gathered from market research to
interact with creative and media for best results.

Media Department is headed by the Media Director where the media research
is conducted to find which would be the right media for the campaign. They
plan the media, frequency for advertising, its cost and coverage. They are
responsible for purchasing media space for print media and time.



Production Department does the Print and Broadcast, Telecast production

work, including hiring freelance TV Commercial makers.

Traffic Controller Department coordinates the work of different departments in

the agency and ensures that no client work is side tracked or delayed.

Marketing Department of the agency arranges information on the market

segment that excites the customers, and selects the electronic media, like
Radio and TV.

AGENCY management is conducted on day to day basis, which among other

activities involve, money and men management.

Agency organization chart is given below:-


Account Account Creative Traffic Media Research

Executive Planning Department Controller Planner Department

Most of the full service agencies have similar structure; the designations may
differ from agency to agency.


1. Full Service Agency is geared to provide complete ranges of services to

its clients, to plan create and implement the advertising as per client’s needs.
India, HTA, CLARION, LINTAS are some of the full services agencies. The
agency proposes complete communication solutions to its client, the creative,
the budget and the media.

2. Limited service Agency-usually these agencies do not provide full

service. They concentrate on creative aspects of advertising. They are well
appreciated and used by clients looking for high quality creative work while
depending on other sources for media planning and execution of the
campaign. They are also known as creative boutiques or hot shops.
Because of their lean organization they can be quite competitive.

3. Agency of Records is the large agency with financial muscle as they buy
media in bulk and sell the space not needed by them at a profit of 2% to those
agencies who are looking for media space at the peak season.

4. Specialized agencies operate to serve niche market like financial

advertising, resorted to before a firm plans to have a public issue of its shares.
In India, Clea and Sobhagya are two such agencies.

Agency profits and payments come from commissions they get from the
media for selling space to their clients. The rate of commission has been
15%. Besides, agencies also get from their clients direct fees, markups and
incentive based commissions.

For the media like outdoor, special boards and directories, the agency puts a
mark up on the price given by the media and gets paid for its efforts. In the
case of incentive base, the client pays the agency on the basis of the result
obtained by the advertising campaign.



Visit to MUDRA ad agency


Agency : Mudra Ad Agency

Place : Lower Parel (Mumbai)




Brief introduction about the ad agency?

How is an ad campaign prepared?

How is media planning done?

Recent ads made by MUDRA?

Any competitors?

How is the agent- client relationship supposed to be in an ad agency?

Any client turnover in MUDRA?

After ad making are there any responsibilities ad agency?

Awards won by MUDRA?

Presented in the next page are the answers to the questionnaire given by the

agency personnel to broaden our knowledge about the MUDRA ad agency



MUDRA – An Overview

Mudra Ad Agency, one of the leading ad agencies in India. It was really

exciting to visit ad agency office and meet their personnel’s. An agency is

dream creator for the people by preparing creative and persuasive


“Advertising is marketing a product. And advertisement itself is a

product for marketing manager.”

In 1980, Mudra started with a modest turnover of Rs.30 lakh in the first year of

operation. The first few years indicated a placid growth rate of 25%. From

1985 onwards, turnover accelerated at a furious pace. This led to Mudra

becoming the third largest agency in the country in a short span of 9 years.

Currently Mudra's turnover is in excess of Rs. 7 billion and the company

continues to maintain a healthy growth rate.

In MUDRA before making ad campaign, detail study of market research is


First step is to find out target audience.



Second, plan of action. It includes, segmentation, targeting right

consumers, dividing, positioning-identify competitor

Third, to start with actual ad campaign. It’s a team-based activity. We start

with the objective. For e.g. Reliance 501 Hungama. Hungama was the

objective of the ad.

After campaign objective next activity is---

Media plan

i) story board

ii) client presentation- T.V., radio, media.

iii) Shooting

Competitors of the “Mudra”

Agencies like- O & M, Lintas, JWT, Contract, FCB-Ulka, Grey,

Everest, Saatchi & Saatchi etc.

There are many clients of MUDRA such as Reliance infocom, Rasna,

Vimal, Mc Donald’s, LIC, Godrej, Samsung, Dabur, Orient Fans,

Nestle India Ltd, Voltas Ltd, and Symphony Ltd etc.

Agency-Client Relationship

According to MUDRA personnel’s the agent client relationship should be

like husband-wife relationship of trust and belief. Till there is a mutual faith,

relationship last long, Otherwise client turnover occurs.

Client turnover in Mudra



Client turnover happens because of various reasons and many agencies face

this. Technology, better services, relationship, policies, creativeness, prices


Mudra is also not exception to this. They lost Hutch and Kinetic.

There are many responsibilities ad agency after making ad. After ad

making they check the feedback. It’s necessary to check whether the ad is

reaching towards focusing group to get in-depth prospective. And after

feedback they take necessary action on it i.e. they change for better


For e.g. Reliance ad with Cricketer Virendra Sehwag was the worst ad they

made. Though it is very famous and has reached to the people but not the

way they wanted to. So they have identified the criticism of the ad and now

they are planning to come up with a new ad.

Awards won by Mudra

Mudra is maintaining its rank and has won several awards. Namely, -----------

Mudra has collected many accolades over the years including the "Agency of
the Year" award for 6 years besides the induction of Shri A.G.Krishnamurthy
(Ex CMD) into the Calcutta Ad Club Hall of Fame; his being chosen as the Ad
Person of the Year by A&M; his nomination as "one of the 25 key figures of
the international Ad Industry" in 1998 by British Magazine - Media
International; and the AAAI-Premnarayen Award in recognition of his
pioneering spirit and entrepreneurial vision.

1993|Total awards 55
Agency of the Year - A&M



1994 | Total awards 52

Agency of the Year
Bangalore Ad Club

1995 | Total awards 84

Agency of the Year - A&M
Advertising Person of the Year
(A.G.Krishnamurthy) - A&M

1996 | Total awards 90

Agency of the Year
Calcutta Ad Club

1997 | Total awards 67

Agency of the Year - The Pioneer
Hall of Fame (A.G.Krishnamurthy)
Calcutta Ad Club

1998 | Total awards 87

The British magazine "Media International" nominated A.G.Krishnamurthy
One of the 25 key figures of the international advertising industry

1999 | Total awards 60

Agency of the Year
Delhi Ad Club
AAAI - Premnarayen Award
(A.G. Krishnamurthy)
in recognition of his pioneering spirit and entrepreneurial vision



2000 | Total awards 72 (36 Awards of MAG)

2001 | Total awards 50 (16 Awards of MAG)

Creativity 31, USA (7 Gold Awards)

2002 | Total awards 27 (2 Awards of MAG)

2003 | Total awards 41 (1 Award of MAG)

New York Films (1)
ABBY Awards (2)
AAAI (5)
Chennai Ad Club (4)
Cochin Ad Club (7)

Creative Awards
884 awards till date







Case Study (MUDRA)

Henko – Insider Fighting

HENKEL SPICE INDIA LTD (a joint venture between majority shareholder

Henkel of Germany and SPIC of India, with a projected turnover of 350 crore
in 2001) has launched Henko Power pearls. A compact detergent pitched
against Surf Excel and Ariel compact. The price: Rs 155 for a 1-kg pack, Rs
85 for a 500 gm pack and Rs 4 for a 22 gm sachet. By end-December,
product spread in all half-million-plus population towns of India, through
distribution network which claims to include over 3,000 distributors and over
3,000 distributors and over 3, 20, 000 dealers. The concentration will be on all
million plus towns, with a skew towards the metros.

Henkel SPIC’s Problem finding and Evaluation study (PRO-FES) had

indicated that stain removal was at the top of the need hierarchy for detergent
users. This was over and above other needs such as colour protection, fabric
care and so on. Henko Powerpearls claims to have ‘stain-removing pearls
which go deep down into the fibres and remove even the toughest of stains’.
Power-pearls is a Henkel proprietary technology and these blue pearls are
manufactured at a plant in Belgium and imported to India. The product also
claims to have an enzyme cocktail’ that promises to deliver excellent results
on though stains. The fragrance, another key evaluation parameter, is also
supposed to have been imported from Germany.

What the brand want to convey to its target audience of SEC A and B
homemakers between 25-45 years of age is that ‘what is clean inside is clean
outside’ and only Henko powerpearls can go deep down into the fibres to
clean them thoroughly. Therefore, the communication is based on the idea ‘
truth is inside’, using the tagline, ‘Ultimate cleanliness Inside and Out’. The
desire is to be seen as a ‘modern’, technologically superior’, ‘premium’
product that is ‘trusted, unsurpassed and unbeatable on stain-removal
efficiency’. About Rs 10 crores is being invested in promoting the brand in the



launch phase. To generate rapid awareness and trial for the brand, there’s a
mix of above- the-line activities. While TV is the lead medium, there are road
shows and interactive programmes to take the product closer to the
consumer. Henko Powerpearls has a 45 second commercial created by
Mudra. The brand ambassador is Aman Varma, the good Samaritan in star
plus’ blockbusters soap ‘kyunki saas bhi kabhi bahu thi’ who got piped at the
post by Tulsi’s husband back from the dead, and is currently controlling the
cave doors on the game show ‘khulja sim sim’.

The compact segment is the Indian market for fabric wash products is
estimated to be around Rs 400 crores, in value, and 26,000 metric tones, in
volume. Henkel SPIC says the segment is growing at around 5 per cent in
value terms and 2 per cent in volume terms. Trends indicate that compacts
are the segment of the future, in terms of value contribution to the overall
detergent market. Other top-end innovations such as gels, tablets and so on,
which are big segments in more evolved markets, would also be natural
extensions of the compact segment. The company sees its main challenge in
communicating its claimed superiority over the available solutions, and
changing the target consumer’s perceptions to generate trial and user-ship.




Q .1 what do you think about Advertisement?

a) Something that you like to see.
b) Something which helps to sell the product.
c) Something which is enjoyable.
d) Something which gives information about the product.

Q .2 Have you heard of any advertising agency?

a) Mudra
b) O & M
c) Saatchi & Saatchi
d) Others
e) No

Q .3 Do you like any of Ads of Mudra?

a) Virendra Sehwag (Reliance India Mobile)
b) McDonalds (What is your bahana?)
c) Karishma Kapoor (Rasna)
d) Amitabh Bachhan (Dabur)

Q .4 Are celebrities required in the Ads?

a) Yes
b) No

Q .5 Should sex appeal be used for making an AD?

a) Yes
b) No

Q .6 Should advertising be done repeatedly?

a) Yes
b) No

Q .7 Does advertising adds to the price as final produce?

a) Yes
b) No

Q .8 Is their need of ethics in advertising?

a) Yes
b) No




Q.1 what do you think about Advertisement?

Views of people No. of respondents

Like to see 40
Helps to sell the product 15
Something enjoyable 10
Delivering information 35

After looking at responses about 40 people think that Advertising is something

which they like to see. About 15 people feel that it helps to sell the product
whereas 10 people think it is something which gives them enjoyment and 35
respondents feels it provides information to them about the product.



Q.2 Have you heard of any advertising agency?

Advertising Agency No. of respondents

Mudra 10
O&M 5
Saatchi & Saatchi 3
Others 15
No 67

The awareness of the advertising agency is very less about 67 people don’t
know about any advertising agency and only 10 people know about MUDRA as
an advertising agency.



Q.3 Do you like any of Ads of Mudra Advertising agency?

Ads No. of
Virendra Sehwag (Reliance India Mobile) 5
McDonalds (What is your bahana?) 40
Karishma Kapoor (Rasna) 25
Amitabh Bachhan (Dabur) 30

About 40 people have liked the Ad of Dabur & McDonalds whereas 25 people
liked Rasna Ad & only 5 people liked the Ad of Reliance Ad of Viendra Sehwag.



Q. 4 Are Celebrities required in the Ads?

Need of celebrities in No. of respondents

Yes 70
No 30

There is a majority of 70 people which supports the view that celebrities should
be involved in an Ad because it makes the Ad more watch able and brings
more weightage to the product gives their image value to the product and about
30 respondents suggest that it makes no difference no them if celebrities in an



Q. 5 Should Sex appeal be used for making an Ad?

Views of people No. of respondents

Yes 37
No 63

63 people out of 100 has a view as sex appeal should not be used in making
an Ad whereas 37 people has a view that it should be used for making an Ad
as it gives more viewership to the Ad.



Q.6 Should Advertising be done repeatedly?

Views of people No. of respondents

Yes 70
No 30

Only 30 people thinks that advertising should not be done repeatedly

whereas 70 people thinks it should be done repeatedly so that people can
remember it.



Q. 7 Does advertising adds to the price of final produce?

Views of people No. of respondents

Yes 80
No 20

A majority of people, 80 out of 100 has a view that advertising increases the
price of the product as the advertising cost is recovered by increasing the price
of product whereas 20 people suggest that it does not increases the price of
the product.



Q. 8 Is there need of Ethics in advertising?

No. of respondents
Yes 95
No 5



There is large portion of respondents who suggest that there should be ethics
in advertising i.e. 95 people and only 5 people think that ethics are not
important to them.


Finally, to conclude on my project, I would like to focus on the future of

advertising in India. There have been several events, changes developments
that have occurred in India over the last 25 years or so. These have indicated
that there are bright prospects for advertising in India.



But still a number of difficulties have been faced. Practical measures to bring
about a congenial atmosphere have to be implied. It is further followed by a
discussion on whether advertising can be regarded in India. There is a definite
trend in that direction and professionalisation of advertising seems to be
inevitable. With growing professionalisation, we can look forward to a glorious
future. The future of advertising in India is very bright since India is one of the
fastest growing markets in the world due to the size of its population and its
increasing prosperity.



o The (un)common sense of advertising

--- MR. Tiwari



o Advertising
--- Michael Vaz

o Advertising management
--- G S Rathod


o A&M


o www.mudra .com



o Economic times