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Geometry Questions
N E W Y O R K
TeamLRN
Copyright © 2002 LearningExpress, LLC.
All rights reserved under International and PanAmerican Copyright Conventions.
Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York.
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data:
LearningExpress
501 geometry questions/LearningExpress
p. cm.
Summary: Provides practice exercises to help students prepare for multiplechoice tests,
high school exit exams, and other standardized tests on the subject of geometry. Includes
explanations of the answers and simple deﬁnitions to reinforce math facts.
ISBN 1576854256 (pbk. : alk. paper)
1. Geometry—Problems, exercises, etc. [1. Geometry—Problems, exercises, etc.]
I. Title: Five hundred and one geometry questions. II. Title: Five hundred and one
geometry questions. III. Title.
QA459 .M37 2002
516'.0076—dc21 2002006239
Printed in the United States of America
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
First Edition
ISBN 1576854256
For more information or to place an order, contact Learning Express at:
55 Broadway
8th Floor
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Or visit us at:
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Introduction ix
1 The Basic Building Blocks of Geometry 1
2 Types of Angles 15
3 Working with Lines 23
4 Measuring Angles 37
5 Pairs of Angles 45
6 Types of Triangles 55
7 Congruent Triangles 69
8 Ratio, Proportion, and Similarity 81
9 Triangles and the Pythagorean Theorem 95
10 Properties of Polygons 109
11 Quadrilaterals 121
12 Perimeter of Polygons 131
13 Area of Polygons 145
14 Surface Area of Prisms 165
15 Volume of Prisms and Pyramids 175
16 Working with Circles and Circular Figures 191
Contents
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vi i i
501 Geometry Questions
17 Coordinate Geometry 225
18 The Slope of a Line 237
19 The Equation of a Line 249
20 Trigonometry Basics 259
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Geometry is the study of ﬁgures in space. As you study geometry, you
will measure these ﬁgures and determine how they relate to each other and
the space they are in. To work with geometry you must understand the dif
ference between representations on the page and the ﬁgures they symbol
ize. What you see is not always what is there. In space, lines deﬁne a square;
on the page, four distinct black marks deﬁne a square. What is the differ
ence? On the page, lines are visible. In space, lines are invisible because lines
do not occupy space, in and of themselves. Let this be your ﬁrst lesson in
geometry: Appearances may deceive.
Sadly, for those of you who love the challenge of proving the validity of
geometric postulates and theorems—these are the statements that deﬁne
the rules of geometry—this book is not for you. It will not address geo
metric proofs or zigzag through tricky logic problems, but it will focus on
the practical application of geometry towards solving planar (twodimen
sional) spatial puzzles. As you use this book, you will work under the
assumption that every deﬁnition, every postulate, and every theorem is
“infallibly” true.
Introduction
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How to Use This Book
Review the introduction to each chapter before answering the questions in
that chapter. Problems toward the end of this book will demand that you
apply multiple lessons to solve a question, so be sure to know the preced
ing chapters well. Take your time; refer to the introductions of each chap
ter as frequently as you need to, and be sure to understand the answer
explanations at the end of each section. This book provides the practice; you
provide the initiative and perseverance.
Author’s Note
Some geometry books read like instructions on how to launch satellites into
space. While geometry is essential to launching NASA space probes, a
geometry book should read like instructions on how to make a peanut but
ter and jelly sandwich. It’s not that hard, and after you are done, you should
be able to enjoy the product of your labor. Work through this book, enjoy
some pb and j, and soon you too can launch space missions if you want.
x
501 Geometry Questions
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501
Geometry Questions
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Before you can tackle geometry’s toughest “stuff,” you must under
stand geometry’s simplest “stuff ”: the point, the line, and the plane. Points,
lines, and planes do not occupy space. They are intangible, invisible, and
indeﬁnable; yet they determine all tangible visible objects. Trust that they
exist, or the next twenty lessons are moot.
Let’s get to the point!
Point
A point is a location in space; it indicates position. It occupies no space of
its own, and it has no dimension of its own.
Figure Symbol
A A
Point A
1
The Basic Building
Blocks of Geometry
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Line
A line is a set of continuous points inﬁnitely extending in opposite direc
tions. It has inﬁnite length, but no depth or width.
Plane
A plane is a ﬂat expanse of points expanding in every direction. Planes have
two dimensions: length and width. They do not have depth.
As you probably noticed, each “deﬁnition” above builds upon the “def
inition” before it. There is the point; then there is a series of points; then
there is an expanse of points. In geometry, space is pixilated much like the
image you see on a TV screen. Be aware that deﬁnitions from this point on
will build upon each other much like these ﬁrst three deﬁnitions.
Collinear/Noncollinear
collinear points noncollinear points
A B C D
A
B
C
D
Figure
There is
no symbol to
describe
plane DEF.
D
Plane DEF, or
Plane X
E
F
Figure Symbol
B C
Line BC, or
Line CB
BC
CB
2
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3
Collinear points are points that form a single straight line when they are
connected (two points are always collinear). Noncollinear points are
points that do not form a single straight line when they are connected (only
three or more points can be noncollinear).
Coplanar/Noncoplanar
Coplanar points are points that occupy the same plane. Noncoplanar
points are points that do not occupy the same plane.
Ray
A ray begins at a point (called an endpoint because it marks the end of a ray),
and inﬁnitely extends in one direction.
Figure Symbol
G H GH
Ray GH
coplanar points Z and Y each have their own
coplanar points, but do not
share coplanar points.
X
Y
Z
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Opposite Rays
Opposite rays are rays that share an endpoint and inﬁnitely extend in
opposite directions. Opposite rays form straight angles.
Angles
Angles are rays that share an endpoint but inﬁnitely extend in different
directions.
Figure Symbol
(the vertex is always
the center letter when
naming an angle
with three letters)
M
L
N
Angle M, or LMN,
or NML, or 1
∠M
∠LMN
∠NML
∠1
1
Figure Symbol
(the endpoint
is always the
first letter when
naming a ray)
I K J
JK
Opposite Rays JK
and JI
JI
4
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5
Line Segment
A line segment is part of a line with two endpoints. Although not inﬁnitely
extending in either direction, the line segment has an inﬁnite set of points
between its endpoints.
Set 1
Choose the best answer.
1. Plane geometry
a. has only two dimensions.
b. manipulates cubes and spheres.
c. cannot be represented on the page.
d. is ordinary.
2. A single location in space is called a
a. line.
b. point.
c. plane.
d. ray.
3. A single point
a. has width.
b. can be accurately drawn.
c. can exist at multiple planes.
d. makes a line.
Figure Symbol
O P
OP
Line Segment OP,
or PO
PO
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4. A line, plane, ray, and line segment all have
a. length and depth.
b. points.
c. endpoints.
d. no dimension.
5. Two points determine
a. a line.
b. a plane.
c. a square.
d. No determination can be made.
6. Three noncollinear points determine
a. a ray.
b. a plane.
c. a line segment.
d. No determination can be made.
7. Any four points determine
a. a plane.
b. a line.
c. a ray.
d. No determination can be made.
Set 2
Choose the best answer.
8. Collinear points
a. determine a plane.
b. are circular.
c. are noncoplanar.
d. are coplanar.
6
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7
9. How many distinct lines can be drawn through two points?
a. 0
b. 1
c. 2
d. an inﬁnite number of lines
10. Lines are always
a. solid.
b. ﬁnite.
c. noncollinear.
d. straight.
11. The shortest distance between any two points is
a. a plane.
b. a line segment.
c. a ray.
d. an arch.
12. Which choice below has the most points?
a. a line
b. a line segment
c. a ray
d. No determination can be made.
Set 3
Answer questions 13 through 16 using the ﬁgure below.
13. Write three different ways to name the line above. Are there still
other ways to name the line? If there are, what are they? If there
aren’t, why not?
14. Name four different rays. Are there other ways to name each ray?
If there are, what are they? If there aren’t, why not?
R S T
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15. Name a pair of opposite rays. Are there other pairs of opposite
rays? If there are, what are they?
16. Name three different line segments. Are there other ways to name
each line segment? If there are, what are they? If there aren’t, why
not?
Set 4
Answer questions 17 through 20 using the ﬁgure below.
17. Write three different ways to name the line above. Are there still
other ways to name the line? If there are, what are they? If there
aren’t, why not?
18. Name ﬁve different rays. Are there other ways to name each ray? If
there are, what are they? If there aren’t, why not?
19. Name a pair of opposite rays. Are there other pairs of opposite
rays? If there are, what are they?
20. Name three angles. Are there other ways to name each angle? If
there are, what are they? If there aren’t, why not?
N O
Q
P
8
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9
Set 5
Answer questions 21 through 23 using the ﬁgure below.
21. Name three different rays. Are there other rays? If there are, what
are they?
22. Name ﬁve angles. Are there other ways to name each angle? If
there are, what are they? If there aren’t, why not?
23. Name ﬁve different line segments. Are there other ways to name
each line segment? If there are, what are they? If there aren’t, why
not?
Set 6
Ann, Bill, Carl, and Dan work in the same ofﬁce building. Dan works in the
basement while Ann, Bill, and Carl share an ofﬁce on level X. At any given
moment of the day, they are all typing at their desks. Bill likes a window
seat; Ann likes to be near the bathroom; and Carl prefers a seat next to the
door. Their three cubicles do not line up.
Answer the following questions using the description above.
24. Level X can also be called
a. Plane Ann, Bill, and Carl.
b. Plane Ann and Bill.
c. Plane Dan.
d. Plane Carl, X, and Bill.
L M
K
N
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25. If level X represents a plane, then level X has
a. no points.
b. only three points.
c. a ﬁnite set of points.
d. an inﬁnite set of points extending inﬁnitely.
26. If Ann and Bill represent points, then Point Ann
a. has depth and length, but no width; and is noncollinear with
point Bill.
b. has depth, but no length and width; and is noncollinear with
point Bill.
c. has depth, but no length and width; and is collinear with point
Bill.
d. has no depth, length, and width; and is collinear with point Bill.
27. If Ann, Bill, and Carl represent points, then Points Ann, Bill, and
Carl are
a. collinear and noncoplanar.
b. noncollinear and coplanar.
c. noncollinear and noncoplanar.
d. collinear and coplanar.
28. A line segment drawn between Carl and Dan is
a. collinear and noncoplanar.
b. noncollinear and coplanar.
c. noncollinear and noncoplanar.
d. collinear and coplanar.
10
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11
Answers
Set 1
1. a. Plane geometry, like its namesake the plane, cannot exceed
two dimensions. Choice b is incorrect because cubes and spheres
are threedimensional. Geometry can be represented on the
page, so choice c is incorrect. Choice d confuses the words plane
and plain.
2. b. The deﬁnition of a point is “a location in space.” Choices a, c,
and d are incorrect because they are all multiple locations in space;
the question asks for a “single location in space.”
3. c. A point by itself can be in any plane. In fact, planes remain
undetermined until three noncollinear points exist at once. If you
could not guess this, then process of elimination could have
brought you to choice c. Choices a and b are incorrect because
points are dimensionless; they have no length, width, or depth;
they cannot be seen or touched, much less accurately drawn. Just
as three points make a plane, two points make a line; consequently
choice d is incorrect.
4. b. Theoretically, space is nothing but inﬁnity of locations, or
points. Lines, planes, rays, and line segments are all alignments of
points. Lines, rays, and line segments only possess length, so
choices a and d are incorrect. Lines and planes do not have
endpoints; choice c cannot be the answer either.
5. a. Two points determine a line, and only one line can pass through
any two points. This is commonsensical. Choice b is incorrect
because it takes three noncollinear points to determine a plane, not
two. It also takes a lot more than two points to determine a square,
so choice c is incorrect.
6. b. Three noncollinear points determine a plane. Rays and line
segments need collinear points.
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7. d. Any four points could determine a number of things: a pair of
parallel lines, a pair of skewed lines, a plane, and one other
coplanar/noncoplanar point. Without more information the
answer cannot be determined.
Set 2
8. d. Collinear points are also coplanar. Choice a is not the answer
because noncollinear points determine planes, not a single line of
collinear points.
9. b. An inﬁnite number of lines can be drawn through one point,
but only one straight line can be drawn through two points.
10. d. Always assume that in plane geometry a line is a straight line
unless otherwise stated. Process of elimination works well with this
question: Lines have one dimension, length, and no substance;
they are deﬁnitely not solid. Lines extend to inﬁnity; they are not
ﬁnite. Finally, we deﬁned noncollinear as a set of points that “do
not line up”; we take our cue from the last part of that statement.
Choice c is not our answer.
11. b. A line segment is the shortest distance between any two points.
12. d. A line, a line segment, and a ray are sets of points. How many
points make a set? An inﬁnite number. Since a limit cannot be put
on inﬁnity, not one of the answer choices has more than the other.
Set 3
13. Any six of these names correctly describe the line: RS
, SR
, RT
,
TR
, ST
, TS
, RST
, and TSR
. Any two points on a given line,
regardless of their order, describes that line. Three points can
describe a line, as well.
14. Two of the four rays can each be called by only one name: ST
and
SR
. Ray names RT
and RS
are interchangeable, as are ray names
TS
and TR
; each pair describes one ray. RT
and RS
describe a
ray beginning at endpoint R and extending inﬁnitely through •T
12
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13
and •S. TS
and TR
describe a ray beginning at endpoint T and
extending inﬁnitely through •S and •R.
15. SR
and ST
are opposite rays. Of the four rays listed, they are the
only pair of opposite rays; they share an endpoint and extend
inﬁnitely in opposite directions.
16. Line segments have two endpoints and can go by two names. It
does not matter which endpoint comes ﬁrst. RT
is TR
; RS
is SR
;
and ST
is TS
.
Set 4
17. Any six of these names correctly describes the line: NP
, PN
, NO
,
ON
, PO
, OP
, NOP
, PON
. Any two points on a given line,
regardless of their order, describe that line.
18. Three of the ﬁve rays can each be called by only one name: OP
,
ON
, and OQ
. Raynames NO
and NP
are interchangeable, as
are ray names PO
and PN
; each pair describes one ray each. NO
and NP
describe a ray beginning at endpoint N and extending
inﬁnitely through •O and •P. PO
and PN
describe a ray beginning
at end point P and extending inﬁnitely through •O and •N.
19. ON
and OP
are opposite rays. Of the ﬁve rays listed, they are the
only pair of opposite rays; they share an endpoint and extend
inﬁnitely in opposite directions.
20. Angles have two sides, and unless a number is given to describe the
angle, angles can have two names. In our case ∠NOQ is ∠QON;
∠POQ is ∠QOP; and ∠NOP is ∠PON (in case you missed this
one, ∠NOP is a straight angle). Letter O cannot by itself name any
of these angles because all three angles share •O as their vertex.
Set 5
21. Two of the three rays can each be called by only one name: KL
and MN
. LN
and LM
are interchangeable because they both
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describe a ray beginning at endpoint L and extending inﬁnitely
through •M and •N.
22. Two of the ﬁve angles can go by three different names. ∠KLM is
∠MLK. ∠LKM is ∠MKL is ∠K. The other three angles can only
go by two names each. ∠KMN is ∠NMK. ∠KML is ∠LMK.
∠LMN is ∠NML. Letter M cannot by itself name any of these
angles because all three angles share •M as their vertex.
23. Line segments have two endpoints and can go by two names. It
makes no difference which endpoint comes ﬁrst. LM
is ML
; MN
is
NM
; LN
is NL
; KM
is MK
; KL
is LK
.
Set 6
24. a. Three noncollinear points determine a plane. In this case, we
know level X is a plane and Ann, Bill, and Carl represent points on
that plane. Ann and Bill together are not enough points to deﬁne
the plane; Dan isn’t on plane X and choice d doesn’t make sense.
Choice a is the only option.
25. d. Unlike a plane, an ofﬁce ﬂoor can hold only so many people;
however, imagine the ofﬁce ﬂoor extending inﬁnitely in every
direction. How many people could it hold? An inﬁnite number.
26. d. Just as the ofﬁce ﬂoor can represent a plane, Ann and Bill can
represent points. They acquire the characteristics of a point; and as
we know, points have no dimension, and two points make a line.
27. b. Ann, Bill, and Carl are all on the same ﬂoor, which means they
are all on the same plane, and they are not lined up. That makes
them noncollinear but coplanar.
28. d. Carl and Dan represent two points; two points make a line; and
all lines are collinear and coplanar. Granted, Dan and Carl are on
two different ﬂoors; but remember points exist simultaneously on
multiple planes.
14
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Did you ever hear the nursery rhyme about the crooked man who
walked a crooked mile? The crooked man was very angular. But was he
obtuse or acute?
What’s my angle? Just this: angles describe appearances and personali
ties as well as geometric ﬁgures. Review this chapter and consider what
angle might best describe you.
Angles
Chapter 1 deﬁnes an angle as two rays sharing an endpoint and extending
inﬁnitely in different directions.
M
L
N
M is a vertex
ML is a side
MN is another side
1
2
Types of Angles
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Special Angles
Angles are measured in degrees; and degrees measure rotation, not distance.
Some rotations merit special names. Watch as BA
rotates around •B:
B
A
C
B A
A
C
B C
B
A
C
m∠ABC = 0
0 < m∠ABC < 90,
ACUTE
m∠ABC = 90,
RIGHT
90 < m∠ABC < 180,
OBTUSE
m∠ABC = 180,
STRAIGHT
180 < m∠ABC < 360,
REFLEX
B
A
C
B
A
C
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17
Set 7
Choose the answer that incorrectly names an angle in each preceding
ﬁgure.
29. a. ∠NOP
b. ∠PON
c. ∠O
d. ∠90°
30. a. ∠CDE
b. ∠CED
c. ∠D
d. ∠1
31. a. ∠R
b. ∠QRS
c. ∠XRS
d. ∠XRQ
R Q S
X
D
C
1
E
O
N
P
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32. a. ∠KMN
b. ∠NMO
c. ∠KML
d. ∠M
Set 8
Choose the best answer.
33. All opposite rays
a. are also straight angles.
b. have different end points.
c. extend in the same direction.
d. do not form straight lines.
34. Angles that share a common vertex point cannot
a. share a common angle side.
b. be right angles.
c. use the vertex letter name as an angle name.
d. share interior points.
35. ∠EDF and ∠GDE
a. are the same angle.
b. only share a common vertex.
c. are acute.
d. share a common side and vertex.
M
K
2
O
L N
18
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19
36. a. m∠ABC = 360°.
b. •A, •B, and •C are noncollinear.
c. ∠ABC is an obtuse angle.
d. BA
and BC
are opposite rays.
Set 9
Label each angle measurement as acute, right, obtuse, straight, or
reﬂexive.
37. 13.5°
38. 91°
39. 46°
40. 179.3°
41. 355°
42. 180.2°
43. 90°
Set 10
For each diagram in this set, name every angle in as many ways as
you can. Then label each angle as acute, right, obtuse, straight, or
reﬂexive.
44.
E T
O
B A C
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45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
2
1
J
M
K
N
W
2
1
V
U
Y
C
B
A
S
O
R
1
20
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21
Answers
Set 7
29. d. Angles are not named by their measurements.
30. b. ∠CED describes an angle whose vertex is •E, not •D.
31. a. If a vertex is shared by more than one angle, then the letter
describing the vertex cannot be used to name any of the angles. It
would be too confusing.
32. d. If a vertex is shared by more than one angle, then the letter
describing the vertex cannot be used to name any of the angles. It
would be too confusing.
Set 8
33. a. Opposite rays form straight lines and straight angles. Choices b,
c, and d contradict the three deﬁning elements of a pair of
opposite rays.
34. c. If a vertex is shared by more than one angle, then it cannot be
used to name any of the angles.
35. d. ∠EDF and ∠GDE share vertex point D and side DE. Choice c
is incorrect because there is not enough information.
36. d. Opposite rays form straight angles.
Set 9
37. 0° < 13.5° < 90°; acute
38. 90° < 91° < 180°; obtuse
39. 0° < 46° < 90°; acute
40. 90° < 179.3° < 180°; obtuse
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41. 180° < 355° < 360°; reﬂexive
42. 180° < 180.2° < 360°; reﬂexive
43. 90° = 90°; right
Set 10
44. ∠TOE, ∠EOT, or ∠O; acute
45. ∠1; obtuse
46. ∠ROS, ∠SOR, or ∠O; right
47. ∠ABY or ∠YBA; right
∠YBC or ∠CBY; right
∠ABC and ∠CBA; straight
48. ∠1; acute
∠2; acute
∠UVW or ∠WVU; right
49. ∠JKN or ∠NKJ; right
∠NKM or ∠MKN; acute
∠JKM or ∠MKJ; obtuse
50. ∠1; reﬂexive
∠2; acute
22
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Some lines never cross. Parallel lines are coplanar lines that never
intersect; they travel similar paths at a constant distance from one another.
Skew lines are noncoplanar lines that never intersect; they travel dissimilar
paths on separate planes.
When lines cross, they do not “collide” into each other, nor do they lie
one on top of the other. Lines do not occupy space. Watch how these
lines “cross” each other; they could be considered models of peaceful
coexistence (next page).
Figure Figure Symbol No Symbol
Parallel lines
a and b
Skew lines
a and b
a
b
a
b
aʈ b
3
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TwoLined Intersections
When two lines look like they are crossing, they are really sharing a single
point. That point is on both lines. When lines intersect, they create four
angles: notice the appearance of the hub around the vertex in the ﬁgure
above. When the measures of those four angles are added, the sum equals
the rotation of a complete circle, or 360°.
When the sum of the measures of any two angles equals 180°, the angles
are called supplementary angles.
When straight lines intersect, two angles next to each other are called
adjacent angles. They share a vertex, a side, and no interior points. Adjacent
angles along a straight line measure half a circle’s rotation, or 180°.
When straight lines intersect, opposite angles, or angles nonadjacent to
each other, are called vertical angles. They are always congruent.
1
2
3
4
∠1 ഡ ∠3, mЄ1 = mЄ3
∠2 ഡ ∠4, mЄ2 = mЄ4
a
b
1
2
3
4
m∠1 + m∠2 = 180
m∠2 + m∠3 = 180
m∠3 + m∠4 = 180
m∠4 + m∠1 = 180
m∠1 + m∠2 + m∠3 + m∠4 = 360
a
b
c
a
b
c
24
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25
When two lines intersect and form four right angles, the lines are con
sidered perpendicular.
ThreeLined Intersections
A transversal line intersects two or more lines, each at a different point.
Because a transversal line crosses at least two other lines, eight or more
angles are created. When a transversal intersects a pair of parallel lines, cer
tain angles are always congruent or supplementary. Pairs of these angles
have special names:
Corresponding angles are angles in corresponding positions.
Look for a distinctive F shaped ﬁgure.
When a transversal intersects a pair of parallel lines, corresponding angles
are congruent.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Angle
∠1
∠2
∠3
∠4
Corresponding Angle
∠5
∠6
∠7
∠8
1 2
3 4
∠1 ഡ ∠2 ഡ ∠3 ഡ ∠4
mЄ1 = mЄ2 = mЄ3 = mЄ4 = 90
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Interior angles are angles inside a pair of crossed lines.
Look for a distinctive I shaped ﬁgure.
Sameside interior angles are interior angles on the same side of a trans
versal line.
Look for a distinctive C shaped ﬁgure.
When a transversal intersects a pair of parallel lines, sameside interior
angles are supplementary.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Same Side Interior Angles
∠3 ∠6
∠4 ∠5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Interior
Angles
∠4
∠3
∠6
∠5
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Alternate interior angles are interior angles on opposite sides of a
transversal line.
Look for a distinctive Z shaped ﬁgure.
When a transversal intersects a pair of parallel lines, alternate interior
angles are congruent.
When a transversal is perpendicular to a pair of parallel lines, all eight
angles are congruent.
There are also exterior angles, sameside exterior angles, and alternate
exterior angles. They are positioned by the same commonsense rules as the
interior angles.
1 2
4 3
5 6
8 7
∠1 ഡ ∠2 ഡ ∠3 ഡ ∠4
∠5 ഡ ∠6 ഡ ∠7 ഡ ∠8
m∠1 = m∠2 = m∠3 = m∠4
m∠5 = m∠6 = m∠7
m∠8 = 90
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Alternate Interior Angles
∠4 ∠6
∠3 ∠5
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Two lines are parallel if any of the following statements is true:
1) A pair of alternate interior angles is congruent.
2) A pair of alternate exterior angles is congruent.
3) A pair of corresponding angles is congruent.
4) A pair of sameside interior angles is supplementary.
Set 11
Use the following diagram to answer questions 51 through 56.
51. Which set of lines are transversals?
a. l, m, o
b. o, m, n
c. l, o, n
d. l, m, n
52. •A is
a. between lines l and n.
b. on lines l and n.
c. on line l, but not line n.
d. on line n, but not line l.
m
A
n
o
l
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53. How many points do line m and line l share?
a. 0
b. 1
c. 2
d. inﬁnite
54. Which lines are perpendicular?
a. n, m
b. o, l
c. l, n
d. m, l
55. How many lines can be drawn through •A that are perpendicular
to line l?
a. 0
b. 1
c. 10,000
d. inﬁnite
56. How many lines can be drawn through •A that are parallel to line
m?
a. 0
b. 1
c. 2
d. inﬁnite
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Set 12
Use the following diagram to answer questions 57 through 61.
57. In sets, name all the congruent angles.
58. In pairs, name all the vertical angles.
59. In pairs, name all the corresponding angles.
60. In pairs, name all the alternate interior angles.
61. In pairs, name all the angles that are sameside interior.
Set 13
Use the following diagram and the information below to determine if
lines o and p are parallel. Place a checkmark (✓) beside statements that
prove lines o and p are parallel; place an X beside statements that nei
ther prove nor disprove that lines o and p are parallel.
m
n
1
2
5
7
6
8
4
3
9
11
12
10
13
14
16
15
l
o
l ʈ m, n ʈ o
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62. If ∠5 and ∠4 are congruent and equal, then ________.
63. If ∠1 and ∠2 are congruent and equal, then ________.
64. If ∠9 and ∠16 are congruent and equal, then ________.
65. If ∠12 and ∠15 are congruent and equal, then ________.
66. If ∠8 and ∠4 are congruent and equal, then ________.
Set 14
Circle the correct answer True or False.
67. Angles formed by a transversal and two parallel lines are either
complementary or congruent. True or False
68. When four rays extend from a single endpoint, adjacent angles are
always supplementary. True or False
69. Angles supplementary to the same angle or angles with the same
measure are also equal in measure. True or False
p
r
1
2
5
7
6
8
4
3
9
11 12
10
13
14
16
15
o
s
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70. Adjacent angles that are also congruent are always right angles.
True or False
71. Parallel and skew lines are coplanar. True or False
72. Supplementary angles that are also congruent are right angles.
True or False
73. If vertical angles are acute, the angle adjacent to them must be
obtuse. True or False
74. Vertical angles can be reﬂexive. True or False
75. When two lines intersect, all four angles formed are never
congruent to each other. True or False
76. The sum of interior angles formed by a pair of parallel lines
crossed by a transversal is always 360°. True or False
77. The sum of exterior angles formed by a pair of parallel lines and a
transversal is always 360°. True or False
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Answers
Set 11
51. d. In order to be a transversal, a line must cut across two other
lines at different points. Line o crosses lines m and l at the same
point; it is not a transversal.
52. b. When two lines intersect, they share a single point in space.
That point is technically on both lines.
53. b. Lines are straight; they cannot backtrack or bend (if they could
bend, they would be a curve, not a line). Consequently, when two
lines intersect, they can share only one point.
54. a. When intersecting lines create right angles, they are perpen
dicular.
55. b. An inﬁnite number of lines can pass through any given point in
space—only one line can pass through a point and be perpen
dicular to an existing line. In this case, that point is on the line;
however, this rule also applies to points that are not on the line.
56. b. Only one line can pass through a point and be parallel to an
existing line.
Set 12
57. ∠1 Х ∠4 Х ∠5 Х ∠8 Х ∠9 Х ∠12 Х ∠13 Х ∠16;
∠2 Х ∠3 Х ∠6 Х ∠7 Х ∠10 Х ∠11 Х ∠14 Х ∠15
58. ∠1, ∠4; ∠2, ∠3; ∠5, ∠8; ∠6, ∠7; ∠9, ∠12; ∠10, ∠11; ∠13, ∠16;
∠14, ∠15
59. ∠1, ∠9; ∠2, ∠10; ∠3, ∠11; ∠4, ∠12; ∠5, ∠13; ∠6, ∠14; ∠7, ∠15;
∠8, ∠16
60. ∠3, ∠10; ∠4, ∠9; ∠7, ∠14; ∠8, ∠13
61. ∠3, ∠9; ∠4, ∠10; ∠7, ∠13; ∠8, ∠14
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Set 13
62. ✓. Only three congruent angle pairs can prove a pair of lines cut
by a transversal are parallel: alternate interior angles, alternate
exterior angles, and corresponding angles. Angles 5 and 4 are
alternate interior angles—notice the Z ﬁgure.
63. X. ∠1 and ∠2 are adjacent angles. Their measurements combined
must equal 180°, but they do not determine parallel lines.
64. ✓. ∠9 and ∠16 are alternate exterior angles.
65. X. ∠12 and ∠15 are same side interior angles. Their congruence
does not determine parallel lines. When same side interior angles
are supplementary, then the lines are parallel.
66. ✓. ∠8 and ∠4 are corresponding angles.
Set 14
67. False. The angles of a pair of parallel lines cut by a transversal are
always either supplementary or congruent, meaning their
measurements either add up to 180°, or they are the same measure.
68. False. If the four rays made two pairs of opposite rays, then this
statement would be true; however, any four rays extending from a
single point do not have to line up into a pair of straight lines; and
without a pair of straight lines there are no supplementary angle
pairs.
69. True.
70. False. Adjacent angles do not always form straight lines; to be
adjacent, angles need to share a vertex, a side, and no interior
points. However, adjacent angles that do form a straight line are
always right angles.
71. False. Parallel lines are coplanar; skew lines are not.
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35
72. True. A pair of supplementary angles must measure 180°. If the
pair is also congruent, they must measure 90° each. An angle that
measures 90° is a right angle.
73. True. When two lines intersect, they create four angles. The two
angles opposite each other are congruent. Adjacent angles are
supplementary. If vertical angles are acute, angles adjacent to them
must be obtuse in order to measure 180°.
74. False. Vertical angles cannot be equal to or more than 180°;
otherwise, they could not form supplementary angle pairs with
their adjacent angle.
75. False. Perpendicular lines form all right angles.
76. True. Adjacent interior angles form supplementary pairs; their
joint measurement is 180°. Two sets of adjacent interior angles
must equal 360°.
77. True. Two sets of adjacent exterior angles must equal 360°.
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Had enough of angles? You haven’t even begun! You named angles
and determined their congruence or incongruence when two or more lines
crossed. In this chapter, you will actually measure angles using an instru
ment called the protractor.
How to Measure an Angle Using a Protractor
Place the center point of the protractor over the angle’s vertex. Keeping
these points afﬁxed, position the base of the protractor over one of the two
angle sides. Protractors have two scales—choose the scale that starts with
0 on the side you have chosen. Where the second arm of your angle crosses
the scale on the protractor is your measurement.
How to Draw an Angle Using a Protractor
To draw an angle, ﬁrst draw a ray. The ray’s end point becomes the angle’s
vertex. Position the protractor as if you were measuring an angle. Choose
your scale and make a mark on the page at the desired measurement.
4
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Remove the protractor and connect the mark you made to the vertex with
a straight edge. Voilà, you have an angle.
Adjacent Angles
Adjacent angles share a vertex, a side, and no interior points; they are
angles that lie sidebyside.
Note: Because adjacent angles share a single vertex point, adjacent angles
can be added together to make larger angles. This technique will be partic
ularly useful when working with complementary and supplementary
angles in Chapter 5.
Set 15
Using the diagram below, measure each angle.
K
Q
A
R
T
L
B
parallel
180 0 180 0
60
120
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78. ∠LRQ
79. ∠ART
80. ∠KAL
81. ∠KAB
82. ∠LAB
Set 16
Using a protractor, draw a ﬁgure starting with question 83. Complete
the ﬁgure with question 87.
83. Draw EC
.
84. ED
rotates 43° counterclockwise (left) from EC
. Draw ED
.
85. EF
rotates 90° counterclockwise from ED
. Draw EF
.
86. EG
and EF
are opposite rays. Draw EG
.
87. Measure ∠DEG.
Set 17
Choose the best answer.
88. ∠ROT and ∠POT are
a. supplementary angles.
b. complementary angles.
c. congruent angles.
d. adjacent angles.
e. No determination can be made.
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89. When adjacent angles RXZ and ZXA are added, they make
a. ∠RXA.
b. ∠XZ.
c. ∠XRA.
d. ∠ARX.
e. No determination can be made.
90. Adjacent angles EBA and EBC make ∠ABC. ∠ABC measures
132°. ∠EBA measures 81°. ∠EBC must measure
a. 213°.
b. 61°.
c. 51°.
d. 48°.
e. No determination can be made.
91. ∠SVT and ∠UVT are adjacent supplementary angles. ∠SVT
measures 53°. ∠UVT must measure
a. 180°.
b. 233°.
c. 133°.
d. 127°.
e. No determination can be made.
92. ∠AOE is a straight angle. ∠BOE is a right angle. ∠AOB is
a. a reﬂexive angle.
b. an acute angle.
c. an obtuse angle.
d. a right angle.
e. No determination can be made.
Set 18
A bisector is any ray or line segment that divides an angle or another line
segment into two congruent and equal parts.
In Anglesville, Avenues A, B, and C meet at Town Hall (T). Avenues A
and C extend in opposite directions from Town Hall; they form one straight
avenue extending inﬁnitely. Avenue B is 68° from Avenue C. The Angles
ville Town Board wants to construct two more avenues to meet at Town
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Hall, Avenues Z and Y. Avenue Y would bisect the angle between Avenues
B and C; Avenue Z would bisect the angle between Avenues A and B.
Answer the following questions using the description above.
93. What is the measure between Avenue Y and Avenue Z? What is
the special name for this angle?
94. A new courthouse opened on Avenue Y. An alley connects the
courthouse to Avenue C perpendicularly. What is the measure of
the angle between Avenue Y and the alley (the three angles inside a
closed threesided ﬁgure equal 180°)?
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Answers
Set 15
78. m∠LRQ = 45
79. m∠ART = 45
80. m∠KAL = 174
81. m∠KAB = 51
82. m∠LAB = 135
Set 16
83.
84.
85.
86.
E C
D
F
G
E C
D
F
E C
D
E C
42
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87. m∠DEG = 90
Set 17
88. e. ∠ROT and ∠POT share a vertex point and one angle side.
However, it cannot be determined that they do not share any
interior points, that they form a straight line, that they form a right
angle, or that they are the same shape and size. The answer must
be choice e.
89. a. When angles are added together to make larger angles, the
vertex always remains the same. Choices c and d move the vertex
point to •R; consequently, they are incorrect. Choice b does not
name the vertex at all, so it is also incorrect. Choice e is incorrect
because we are given that the angles are adjacent; we know they
share side XZ; and we know they do not share sides XR and XA.
This is enough information to determine the ∠RXA.
90. c. EQUATION:
m∠ABC – m∠EBA = m∠EBC
132 – 81 = 51
91. d. EQUATION:
m∠SVT + m∠UVT = 180
53 + m∠UVT = 180
m∠UVT = 127
92. d. Draw this particular problem out; any which way you draw it,
∠AOB and ∠BOE are supplementary. 90° subtracted from 180°
equals 90°. ∠AOB is a right angle.
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Set 18
93. Bisect means cuts in half or divides in half.
EQUATIONS:
m∠BTC = 68; half of m∠BTC = 34
m∠BTA = 180 – m∠BTC
m∠BTA = 112; half of m∠BTA = 56
m∠ZTB + m∠BTY = m∠ZTY
56 + 34 = 90
∠YTZ is a right angle.
94. Add the alley to your drawing. m∠Avenue Y, Courthouse, alley is
180 – (90 + m∠YTC) or 56.
Ave. A
Ave. Z
Ave. B
Ave. Y
Ave. C T
CH
a
l
l
e
y
Map of Anglesville
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Well done! Good job! Excellent work! You have mastered the use of
protractors. You can now move into an entire chapter dedicated to comple
ments and supplements. Perhaps the three most useful angle pairs to know
in geometry are complementary, supplementary, and vertical angle pairs.
Complementary Angles
∠ROQ and ∠QOP are adjacent angles ∠OTS and ∠TSO are
m∠ ROQ + m ∠QOP = 90 nonadjacent angles
m∠OTS + m∠TSO = 90
27°
O
R Q P
63°
O
T
R
S
45°
45°
45°
45°
5
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When two adjacent or nonadjacent angles have a total measure of 90°, they
are complementary angles.
Supplementary Angles
∠MOL and ∠LON are ∠XUV and ∠UVW are non
adjacent straight angles adjacent angles
m∠MOL + m∠ LON = 180 m∠XUV + m∠UVW = 180
When two adjacent or nonadjacent angles have a total measure of 180° they
are supplementary angles.
Vertical Angles
∠POT and ∠QOS are straight angles
∠POQ Х ∠SOT m∠POQ = m∠SOT
∠POS Х ∠QOT m∠POS = m∠QOT
When two straight lines intersect or when two pairs of opposite rays extend
from the same endpoint, opposite angles (angles nonadjacent to each other),
they are called vertical angles. They are always congruent.
P Q
S T
O
50°
130°
X U
V W
M L
N K
68°
0
112°
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Other Angles That Measure 180°
When a line crosses a pair of parallel lines, interior angles are angles inside
the parallel lines. When three line segments form a closed ﬁgure, interior
angles are the angles inside that closed ﬁgure.
Very important: The total of a triangle’s three interior angles is always
180°.
Set 19
Choose the best answer for questions 95 through 99 based on the ﬁg
ure below.
95. Name the angle vertical to ∠NOM.
a. ∠NOL
b. ∠KLP
c. ∠LOP
d. ∠MOP
96. Name the angle vertical to ∠TLK.
a. ∠MOR
b. ∠NOK
c. ∠KLT
d. ∠MLS
N M
S
R
T
L
K
O
P
2
3
1
42°
97°
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97. Name the pair of angles supplementary to ∠NOM.
a. ∠MOR and ∠NOK
b. ∠SPR and ∠TPR
c. ∠NOL and ∠LOP
d. ∠TLK and ∠KLS
98. ∠1, ∠2, and ∠3 respectively measure
a. 90°, 40°, 140°.
b. 139°, 41°, 97°.
c. 42°, 97°, 41°.
d. 41°, 42°, 83°.
99. The measure of exterior ∠OPS is
a. 139°.
b. 83°.
c. 42°.
d. 41°.
Set 20
Choose the best answer.
100. If ∠LKN and ∠NOP are complementary angles,
a. they are both acute.
b. they must both measure 45°.
c. they are both obtuse.
d. one is acute and the other is obtuse.
e. No determination can be made.
101. If ∠KAT and ∠GIF are supplementary angles,
a. they are both acute.
b. they must both measure 90°.
c. they are both obtuse.
d. one is acute and the other is obtuse.
e. No determination can be made.
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102. If ∠DEF and ∠IPN are congruent, they are
a. complementary angles.
b. supplementary angles.
c. right angles.
d. adjacent angles.
e. No determination can be made.
103. If ∠ABE and ∠GIJ are congruent supplementary angles, they are
a. acute angles.
b. obtuse angles.
c. right angles.
d. adjacent angles.
e. No determination can be made.
104. If ∠EDF and ∠HIJ are supplementary angles, and ∠SUV and
∠EDF are also supplementary angles, then ∠HIJ and ∠SUV are
a. acute angles.
b. obtuse angles.
c. right angles.
d. congruent angles.
e. No determination can be made.
Set 21
Fill in the blanks based on your knowledge of angles and the ﬁgure
below.
S
P
A B
T
C D
U
2 1
O
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105. If ∠ABT is obtuse, ∠TBO is ________.
106. ∠BTO and ∠OTC are ________.
107. If ∠POC is acute, ∠BOP is ________.
108. If ∠1 is congruent to ∠2, then ________.
Set 22
State the relationship or sum of the angles given based on the ﬁgure
below. If a relationship cannot be determined, then state, “They can
not be determined.”
109. Measurement of ∠2 plus the measures of ∠6 and ∠5.
110. ∠1 and ∠3.
111. ∠1 and ∠2.
112. The sum of ∠5, ∠4, and ∠3.
113. ∠6 and ∠2.
114. The sum of ∠1, ∠6, and ∠5.
1
2
4
3
5 6
l
m
n
l
o
m
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Answers
Set 19
95. c. ∠NOM and ∠LOP are opposite angles formed by intersecting
lines NR and MK; thus, they are vertical angles.
96. d. ∠TLK and ∠MLS are opposite angles formed by intersecting
lines TS and MK; thus, they are vertical angles.
97. a. ∠MOR and ∠NOK are both adjacent to ∠NOM along two
different lines. The measure of each angle added to the measure of
∠NOM equals that of a straight line, or 180°. Each of the other
answer choices is supplementary to each other, but not to ∠NOM.
98. c. ∠1 is the vertical angle to ∠TLK, which is given. ∠2 is the
vertical pair to ∠NOM, which is also given. Since vertical angles
are congruent, ∠1 and ∠2 measure 42° and 97°, respectively. To
ﬁnd the measure of ∠3, subtract the sum of ∠1 and ∠2 from 180°
(the sum of the measure of a triangle’s interior angles):
180 – (42 + 97) = m∠3
41 = m∠3
99. a. There are two ways to ﬁnd the measure of exterior angle OPS.
The ﬁrst method subtracts the measure of ∠3 from 180°. The
second method adds the measures of ∠1 and ∠2 together because
the measure of an exterior angle equals the sum of the two
nonadjacent interior angles. ∠OPS measures 139°.
Set 20
100. a. The sum of any two complementary angles must equal 90°. Any
angle less than 90° is acute. It only makes sense that the measure of
two acute angles could add to 90°. Choice b assumes both angles
are also congruent; however, that information is not given. If the
measure of one obtuse angle equals more than 90°, then two
obtuse angles could not possibly measure exactly 90° together.
Choices c and d are incorrect.
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101. e. Unlike the question above, where every complementary angle
must also be acute, supplementary angles can be acute, right, or
obtuse. If an angle is obtuse, its supplement is acute. If an angle is
right, its supplement is also right. Two obtuse angles can never be
a supplementary pair, and two acute angles can never be a
supplementary pair. Without more information, this question
cannot be determined.
102. e. Complementary angles that are also congruent measure 45°
each. Supplementary angles that are also congruent measure 90°
each. Without more information, this question cannot be
determined.
103. c. Congruent supplementary angles always measure 90° each:
m∠ABE = x
m∠GIJ = x
m∠ABE + m∠GIJ = 180; replace each angle with its measure:
x + x = 180
2x = 180; divide each side by 2:
x = 90
Any 90° angle is a right angle.
104. d. When two angles are supplementary to the same angle, they are
congruent to each other:
m∠EDF + m∠HIJ =180
m∠EDF + m∠SUV = 180
m∠EDF + m∠HIJ = m∠SUV + m∠EDF; subtract m∠EDF
from each side:
m∠HIJ = m∠SUV
Set 21
105. Acute. ∠ABT and ∠TBO are adjacent angles on the same line. As
a supplementary pair, the sum of their measures must equal 180°.
If one angle is more than 90°, the other angle must compensate by
being less than 90°. Thus if one angle is obtuse, the other angle is
acute.
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106. Adjacent complementary angles. ∠BTO and ∠OTC share a
side, a vertex, and no interior points; they are adjacent. The sum of
their measures must equal 90° because they form a right angle;
thus, they are complementary.
107. Obtuse. ∠POC and ∠POB are adjacent angles on the same line.
As a supplementary pair, the sum of their measures must equal
180°. If one angle is less than 90°, the other angle must
compensate by being more than 90°. Thus if one angle is acute,
the other angle is obtuse.
108. ∠SBO and ∠OCU are congruent. When two angles are
supplementary to the same angle or angles that measure the same,
then they are congruent.
Set 22
109. Equal. Together ∠5 and ∠6 form the vertical angle pair to ∠2.
Consequently, the angles are congruent and their measurements
are equal.
110. A determination cannot be made. ∠1 and ∠3 may look like
vertical angles, but do not be deceived. Vertical angle pairs are
formed when lines intersect. The vertical angle to ∠1 is the full
angle that is opposite and between lines m and l.
111. Adjacent supplementary angles. ∠1 and ∠2 share a side, a vertex
and no interior points; they are adjacent. The sum of their
measures must equal 180° because they form a straight line; thus
they are supplementary.
112. 90°. ∠6, ∠5, ∠4, and ∠3 are on a straight line. All together, they
measure 180°. If ∠6 is a right angle, it equals 90°. The remaining
three angles must equal 180° minus 90°, or 90°.
113. A determination cannot be made. ∠6 and ∠2 may look like
vertical angles, but vertical pairs are formed when lines intersect.
The vertical angle to ∠2 is the full angle that is opposite and
between lines m and l.
114. 180°.
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TeamLRN
Mathematicians have an old joke about angles being very friendly.
How so? Because they are always open! The two rays of an angle extend out
in different directions and continue on forever. On the other hand, poly
gons are the introverts in mathematics. If you connect three or more line
segments endtoend, what do you have? A very shy closedﬁgure.
A
B
C
D
Polygon
• made of all line segments
• each line segment exclusively
meets the end of another
line segment
• all line segments make a
closed figure
A B
C
NOT a Polygon
• AB is not a line segment
• C is not an endpoint
• Figure ABC is not a closed figure
(AC and BC extend infinitely)
6
Types of Triangles
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Closedﬁgures are better known as polygons; and the simplest polygon
is the triangle. It has the fewest sides and angles that a polygon can have.
ΔABC
Sides: AB
, BC
and CA
Vertices: ∠ABC, ∠BCA, and ∠CAB
Triangles can be one of three special types depending upon the congru
ence or incongruence of its three sides.
Naming Triangles by Their Sides
Scalene no congruent sides no congruent angles
ΔSOT ST
TO
OS
∠STO ∠TOS ∠OST
S
T
O
side
s
i
d
e
s
i
d
e
B
C A
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57
Isosceles two congruent sides two congruent angles
ΔKLO KO
Х LO
∠LKO Х ∠KLO
Equilateral three congruent sides three congruent angles
ΔABO AB
Х BO
Х OA
∠ABO Х ∠BOA Х ∠BAO
A B
O
60°
60°
60°
K L
O
l
e
g
l
e
g
base
(vertex)
501 Geometry Questions
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Naming Triangles by Their Angles
Acute Triangles three acute angles
Scalene Triangle EOF m∠EOF, m∠OFE
and m∠FEO < 90
Isosceles Triangle COD m∠COD, m∠ODC
and m∠DCO < 90
C
O
D
70°
70°
40°
E
O F
86°
54° 40°
90°
right
O
straight
A B
C
obtuse acute
180° 0°
58
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59
Equilateral Triangle ABO m∠ABO, m∠BOA
Note: Each angle is equal to 60°. and m∠OAB < 90
Equiangular Triangle three congruent angles
Equilateral Triangle NOP ∠NOP Х ∠OPN Х ∠PNO
Right Triangle one right angle two acute angles
Scalene Triangle TOS m∠TSO = 90 m∠TOS and m∠STO < 90
T
O S
leg
leg
hypotenuse
50°
40°
N
O
60°
60°
60°
P
A
O
60°
60°
60°
B
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Isosceles Triangle ORQ m∠ORQ = 90 m∠ROQ and m∠RQO < 90
Obtuse Triangle one obtuse angle two acute angles
Scalene Triangle LMO m∠LOM > 90 m∠OLM and m∠LMO < 90
Isosceles Triangle JKO m∠OJK > 90 m∠JKO and m∠KOJ < 90
Note: Some acute, equiangular, right, and obtuse triangles can also be sca
lene, isosceles, and equilateral.
25°
25° 130°
K
J
O
24°
16° 140°
M
O
L
leg
leg
hypotenuse
45°
45°
R Q
O
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Set 23
State the name of the triangle based on the measures given. If the
information describes a ﬁgure that cannot be a triangle, write, “Can
not be a triangle.”
115. ΔBDE, where mBD
= 17, mBE
= 22, m∠D = 47 , and m∠B = 47.
116. ΔQRS, where m∠R = 94, m∠Q = 22 and m∠S = 90.
117. ΔWXY, where mWX
= 10, mXY
= 10, mYW
= 10, and
m∠X = 90.
118. ΔPQR, where m∠P = 31 and m∠R = 89.
119. ΔABD, where mAB
= 72, mAD
= 72 and m∠A = 90.
120. ΔTAR, where m∠1 = 184 and m∠2 = 86.
121. ΔDEZ, where m∠1 = 60 and m∠2 = 60.
122. ΔCHI, where m∠1 = 30, m∠2 = 60 and m∠3 = 90.
123. ΔJMR, where m∠1 = 5, m∠2 = 120 and m∠3 = 67.
124. ΔKLM, where mKL
= mLM
= mMK
.
Set 24
Fill in the blanks based on your knowledge of triangles and angles.
125. In right triangle ABC, if ∠C measures 31° and ∠A measures 90°,
then ∠B measures ________.
126. In scalene triangle QRS, if ∠R measures 134° and ∠Q measures
16°, then ∠S measures ________.
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127. In isosceles triangle TUV, if vertex ∠T is supplementary to an
angle in an equilateral triangle, then base ∠U measures ________.
128. In obtuse isosceles triangle EFG, if the base ∠F measures 12°,
then the vertex ∠E measures ________.
129. In acute triangle ABC, if ∠B measures 45°, can ∠C measure 30°?
________.
Set 25
Choose the best answer.
130. Which of the following sets of interior angle measures would
describe an acute isosceles triangle?
a. 90°, 45°, 45°
b. 80°, 60°, 60°
c. 60°, 60°, 60°
d. 60°, 50°, 50°
131. Which of the following sets of interior angle measures would
describe an obtuse isosceles triangle?
a. 90°, 45°, 45°
b. 90°, 90°, 90°
c. 100°, 50°, 50°
d. 120°, 30°, 30°
132. Which of the following angle measurements would not describe
an interior angle of a right angle?
a. 30°
b. 60°
c. 90°
d. 100°
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63
133. If ΔJNM is equilateral and equiangular, which condition would not
exist?
a. mJN
= mMN
b. JM
Х JN
c. m∠N = m∠J
d. m∠M = mNM
134. In isosceles ΔABC, if vertex ∠A is twice the measure of base ∠B,
then ∠C measures
a. 30°.
b. 33°.
c. 45°.
d. 90°.
Set 26
Using the obtuse triangle diagram below, determine which of the pair
of angles given has a greater measure. Note: m∠2 = 111.
135. ∠1 or ∠2
136. ∠3 or ∠d
137. ∠a or ∠b
138. ∠1 or ∠c
a
c
b
2
3 d 1
m∠2 = 111
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139. ∠a or ∠c
140. ∠3 or ∠b
141. ∠2 or ∠d
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65
Answers
Set 23
115. Isosceles acute triangle BDE. Base angles D and B are congruent.
116. Not a triangle. Any triangle can have one right angle or one
obtuse angle, not both. “Triangle” QRS claims to have a right
angle and an obtuse angle.
117. Not a triangle. “Triangle” WXY claims to be equilateral and
right; however, an equilateral triangle also has three congruent
interior angles, and no triangle can have three right angles.
118. Acute scalene triangle PQR. Subtract from 180° the sum of ∠P
and ∠R. ∠Q measures 60°. All three angles are acute, and all three
angles are different. ΔPQR is acute scalene.
119. Isosceles right triangle ABD. ∠A is a right angle and AB = AD.
120. Not a triangle. Every angle in a triangle measures less than 180°.
“Triangle” TAR claims to have an angle that measures 184°.
121. Acute equilateral triangle DEZ. Subtract from 180° the sum of
∠1 and ∠2. ∠3, like ∠1 and ∠2, measures 60°. An equiangular
triangle is an equilateral triangle, and both are always acute.
122. Scalene right triangle CHI. ∠3 is a right angle; ∠1 and ∠2 are
acute; and all three sides have different lengths.
123. Not a triangle. Add the measure of each angle together. The sum
of the measure of interior angles exceeds 180°.
124. Acute equilateral triangle KLM.
501 Geometry Questions
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Set 24
125. 59°. 180 – (m∠C + m∠A) = m∠B. 180 – 121 = m∠B. 59 = m∠B
126. 30°. 180 – (m∠R + m∠Q) = m∠S. 180 – 150 = m∠S. 30 = m∠S
127. 30°. Step One: 180 – 60 = m∠T. 120 = m∠T. Step Two: 180 –
m∠T = m∠U + m∠V. 180 – 120 = m∠U + m∠V. 60 = m∠U +
m∠V. Step Three: 60° shared by two congruent base angles equals
two 30° angles.
128. 156°. 180 – (m∠F + m∠G) = m∠E. 180 – 24 = m∠E. 156 = m∠E
129. No. The sum of the measures of ∠B and ∠C equals 75°. Subtract
75° from 180°, and ∠A measures 105°. ΔABC cannot be acute if
any of its interior angles measure 90° or more.
Set 25
130. c. Choice a is not an acute triangle because it has one right angle.
In choice b, the sum of interior angle measures exceeds 180°.
Choice d suffers the reverse problem; its sum does not make 180°.
Though choice c describes an equilateral triangle; it also describes
an isosceles triangle.
131. d. Choice a is not an obtuse triangle; it is a right triangle. In choice
b and choice c the sum of the interior angle measures exceeds
180°.
132. d. A right triangle has a right angle and two acute angles; it does
not have any obtuse angles.
133. d. Angles and sides are measured in different units. 60 inches is not
the same as 60°.
134. c. Let m∠A = 2x, m∠B = x and m∠C = x. 2x + x + x = 180°.
4x = 180°. x = 45°.
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Set 26
135. ∠2. If ∠2 is the obtuse angle in an obtuse triangle, ∠1 and ∠3
must be acute.
136. ∠d. If ∠3 is acute, its supplement is obtuse.
137. ∠b. ∠b is vertical to obtuse angle 2, which means ∠b is also
obtuse. The supplement to an obtuse angle is always acute.
138. ∠c. The measure of an exterior angle equals the measure of the
sum of nonadjacent interior angles, which means the measure of
∠c equals the measure of ∠1 plus the measure of ∠3. It only makes
sense that the measure of ∠c is greater than the measure of ∠1 all
by itself.
139. m∠a equals m∠c. ∠a and ∠c are a vertical pair. They are
congruent and equal.
140. ∠b. ∠b is the vertical angle to obtuse ∠2, which means ∠b is also
obtuse. Just as the measure of ∠2 exceeds the measure of ∠3, so
too does the measure of ∠b.
141. ∠d. The measure of an exterior angle equals the measure of the
sum of nonadjacent interior angles, which means the measure of
∠d equals the measure of ∠1 plus the measure of ∠2. It only
makes sense that the measure of ∠d is greater than the measure of
∠2 all by itself.
501 Geometry Questions
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Look in a regular bathroom mirror and you’ll see your reﬂection. Same
shape, same size. Look at a 3 × 5 photograph of yourself. That is also you,
but much smaller. Look at the people around you. Unless you have a twin,
they aren’t you; and they do not look anything like you. In geometry, ﬁg
ures also have their duplicates. Some triangles are exactly alike; some are
very alike, and some are not alike at all.
7
Congruent Triangles
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Congruent Triangles
Same size
Same shape
Same measurements
Similar Triangles
Different sizes
Same shape
Different measurements, but in proportion
60° 30°
60°
30°
B
1
C
D
E A
2
Corresponding Angles of Similar Triangles
Are Congruent (CASTC)
Corresponding Sides of Similar Triangles
Are Proportional (CPSTP)
ЄA ഡ ЄC
ЄABD ഡ ЄCBD
ЄCDB ഡ ЄAED
2 × BC = 1 × AB
2 × BD = 1 × BE
2 × CD = 1 × AE
B
A
C
1.5
0.75
110°
0.75
R
S
Q
1.5
110°
Corresponding Parts of Congruent Triangles
Are Congruent (CPCTC)
∠A Х ∠Q
∠B Х ∠R
∠C Х ∠S
AB Х RQ
BC Х RS
CA Х SQ
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Dissimilar Triangles
Different sizes
Different shapes
Different measurements
The ability to show two triangles are congruent or similar is useful when
establishing relationships between different planar ﬁgures. This chapter
focuses on proving congruent triangles using formal postulates—those
simple reversal statements that deﬁne geometry’s truths. The next chapter
will look at proving similar triangles.
Congruent Triangles
SideSideSide (SSS) Postulate: If three sides of one triangle are con
gruent to three sides of another triangle, then the two triangles are
congruent.
B
A
C S
Q
R
Q
R
S
L
M K
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SideAngleSide (SAS) Postulate: If two sides and the included angle of
one triangle are congruent to the corresponding parts of another triangle,
then the triangles are congruent.
AngleSideAngle (ASA) Postulate: If two angles and the included side
of one triangle are congruent to corresponding parts of another triangle,
the triangles are congruent.
Set 27
Choose the best answer.
142. In ΔABC and ΔLMN, ∠A and ∠L are congruent, ∠B and ∠M are
congruent and ∠C and ∠N are congruent. Using the information
above, which postulate proves that ΔABC and ΔLMN are
congruent? If congruency cannot be determined, choose choice d.
a. SSS
b. SAS
c. ASA
d. It cannot be determined.
B
A
C S
Q
R
“included” side
B
A
C S
Q
R
“included” angle
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143. The Springﬁeld cheerleaders need to make three identical
triangles. The girls decide to use an arm length to separate each
girl from her two other squad mates. Which postulate proves that
their triangles are congruent? If congruency cannot be determined,
choose choice d.
a. SSS
b. SAS
c. ASA
d. It cannot be determined.
144. Two sets of the same book are stacked triangularly against opposite
walls. Both sets must look exactly alike. They are twelve books
high against the wall, and twelve books from the wall. Which
postulate proves that the two stacks are congruent? If congruency
cannot be determined, choose choice d.
a. SSS
b. SAS
c. ASA
d. It cannot be determined.
Set 28
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 145 through 148.
145. Name each of the triangles in order of corresponding vertices.
146. Name corresponding line segments.
ഡ
ʈ
50°
50°
60°
60°
L
M
O
N
R K
Q
P
Given:
LN QO
LM QO
X
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147. State the postulate that proves ΔLMN is congruent to ΔOPQ.
148. Find the measure of ∠X.
Set 29
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 149 through 152.
149. Name each of the triangles in order of corresponding vertices.
150. Name corresponding line segments.
151. State the postulate that proves ΔBCD is congruent to ΔEFG.
152. Find the measure of ∠y.
Set 30
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 153 through 156.
153. Name each set of congruent triangles in order of corresponding
vertices.
B E H
A C D F G I
Z
3 2 2 3 2
2
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
110°
B
C
F
D
G
E
y
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154. Name corresponding line segments.
155. State the postulate that proves ΔABC is congruent to ΔGEF.
156. Find the measure of ∠Z.
Set 31
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 157 through 160.
157. Name a set of congruent triangles in order of corresponding vertices.
158. Name corresponding line segments.
159. State the postulate that proves ΔGIJ is congruent to ΔKML.
160. Find the measure of ∠V.
G
I
M
L
J
60°
K
V
25°
Given:
JI LM
GJ KL
GI KM IM
ഡ
ഡ ഡ
ഡ
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Set 32
Use the diagram below to answer questions 161 through 163.
161. In the ﬁgure above, which triangles are congruent? What postulate
proves it?
162. ΔHGO is a ________ triangle.
163. ∠x measures ________ degrees.
B O G
H K
x
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77
Answers
Set 27
142. d. Congruency cannot be determined. In later chapters you will
learn more about similar triangles; but in this chapter you need to
know that congruent angles are not enough to prove triangles are
congruent.
143. a. As long as the arm lengths are consistent, there will be only one
way to form those cheering triangles.
144. b. Do not be afraid to sketch this problem if you are having
difﬁculty visualizing it. The wall and ﬂoor plane form a right
angle. The legs of each stack measure 12 books. Both stacks are
right triangles with leg lengths of 12 and 12.
Set 28
145. ΔLMN and ΔOPQ. (Always coordinate corresponding vertices.)
146. LM
Х OP
MN
Х PQ
NL
Х QO
(Always coordinate corresponding endpoints.)
147. AngleSideAngle postulate: ∠N Х ∠Q
LN
Х QO
∠L Х ∠O
148. x = 20. When a transversal crosses a pair of parallel lines,
corresponding angles are congruent; so, ∠ORN measures 50°.
∠OKR measures 80°, and ∠OKR’s supplement, ∠OKN, measures
100°. Finally, 180 – (100 + 60) = 20.
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Set 29
149. ΔCDB and ΔEFG. (Remember to align corresponding vertices.)
150. CD
Х EF
DB
Х FG
BC
Х GE
(Always coordinate corresponding endpoints.)
151. SideAngleSide Postulate: BD
Х FG
∠D Х ∠F
CD
Х EF
152. m∠Y = 145. ΔEFG is an isosceles triangle whose vertex measures
110°. Both base angles measure half the difference of 110 from
180, or 35°. m∠Y = m∠F + m∠G; m∠Y = 110 + 35.
Set 30
153. There are two sets of congruent triangles in this question.
ΔABC and ΔGEF make one set. ΔDBC, ΔDEF, and ΔGHI make
the second set. (Remember to align corresponding vertices.)
154. Set one: AB
Х GE
, BC
Х EF
, CA
Х FG
Set two: DB
Х DE
Х GH
BC
Х EF
Х HI
DC
Х DF
Х GI
155. SideAngleSide:
Set one: BC
Х EF
, ∠BCA Х ∠EFG, CA
Х FG
Set two: BC
Х EF
Х HI
∠BCD Х ∠EFD Х ∠I
CD
Х FD
Х IG
156. m∠Z = 90°. ΔDBC and ΔDEF are isosceles right triangles, which
means the measures of ∠BDC and ∠EDF both equal 45°. 180 −
(m∠BDC + m∠EDF) = m∠Z. 180 – 90 = m∠Z.
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Set 31
157. ΔKML and ΔGIJ. (Remember to align corresponding
vertices.)
158. KM
Х GI
ML
Х IJ
LK
Х JG
(Always coordinate corresponding endpoints.)
159. SideSideSide: KM
Х GI
ML
Х IJ
LK
Х JG
160. m∠V = 42.5°. ΔIMK is an isosceles triangle. Its vertex angle
measures 25°; its base angles measure 77.5° each. 180 – (m∠IKM +
m∠MKL) = m∠JKL. 180 – (77.5 + 60) = m∠JKL. m∠JKL = 42.5.
Set 32
161. ΔKBO and ΔHGO are congruent; SideAngleSide postulate.
162. isosceles right triangle
163. 45°
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If congruent triangles are like mirrors or identical twins, then simi
lar triangles are like fraternal twins: They are not exactly the same; however,
they are very related. Similar triangles share congruent angles and congru
ent shapes. Only their sizes differ. So, when does size matter? In geometry,
often—if it’s proportional.
Similar Triangles
AngleAngle (AA) Postulate: If two angles of one triangle are congruent
to two angles of another triangle, then the triangles are similar.
B
A
C G
F
E
8
Ratio, Proportion,
and Similarity
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SideSideSide (SSS) Postulate: If the lengths of the corresponding sides
of two triangles are proportional, then the triangles are similar.
B
A
C G
F
E
1 3 3
9
2 6
See Ratios and Proportions
AB : EF = 3:9
BC : FG = 1:3
CA : GE = 2:6
3:9 = 2:6 = 1:3
Reduce each ratio,
1:3 = 1:3 = 1:3
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83
SideAngleSide (SAS) Postulate: If the lengths of two pairs of corre
sponding sides of two triangles are proportional and the corresponding
included angles are congruent, then the triangles are similar.
Ratios and Proportions
A ratio is a statement comparing any two quantities. If I have 10 bikes and
you have 20 cars, then the ratio of my bikes to your cars is 10 to 20. This
ratio can be simpliﬁed to 1 to 2 by dividing each side of the ratio by the
greatest common factor (in this case, 10). Ratios are commonly written with
a colon between the sets of objects being compared.
10:20
1:2
A proportion is a statement comparing two equal ratios. The ratio of my
blue pens to my black pens is 7:2; I add four more black pens to my collec
tion. How many blue pens must I add to maintain the same ratio of blue
B
A
C G
F
E
1 4 3
12
See Ratios and Proportions
AB : EF = 3:12
BC : FG = 1:4
3:12 = 1:4
Reduce each ratio,
1:4 = 1:4
“included”angle
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pens to black pens in my collection? The answer: 14 blue pens. Compare
the ratios:
7:2 = 21:6,
If you reduce the right side, the proportion reads 7:2 = 7:2
A proportion can also be written as a fraction:
ᎏ
7
2
ᎏ = ᎏ
2
6
1
ᎏ
Proportions and ratios are useful for ﬁnding unknown sides of similar tri
angles because corresponding sides of similar triangles are always propor
tional.
Caution: When writing a proportion, always line up like ratios. The ratio 7:2
is not equal to the ratio 6:21!
Set 33
Choose the best answer.
164. If ΔDFG and ΔJKL are both right and isosceles, which postulate
proves they are similar?
a. AngleAngle
b. SideSideSide
c. SideAngleSide
d. AngleSideAngle
165. In ΔABC, side AB measures 16 inches. In similar ΔEFG,
corresponding side EF measures 24 inches. State the ratio of side
AB to side EF.
a. 2:4
b. 2:3
c. 2:1
d. 8:4
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166. Use the ﬁgure below to ﬁnd a proportion to solve for x.
a. ᎏ
1
6
2
ᎏ = ᎏ
(20
20
– x)
ᎏ
b. ᎏ
1
2
2
0
ᎏ = ᎏ
6
x
ᎏ
c. ᎏ
2
1
0
2
ᎏ = ᎏ
6
x
ᎏ
d. ᎏ
1
6
2
ᎏ = ᎏ
2
x
0
ᎏ
167. In similar triangles UBE and ADF, UB
measures 10 inches while
corresponding AD
measures 2 inches. If BE
measures 30 inches,
then corresponding DF
measures
a. 150 inches.
b. 60 inches.
c. 12 inches.
d. 6 inches.
55°
55° 55° 45°
45°
55°
12
12
6
6
20
x
501 Geometry Questions
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Set 34
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 168 through 171.
168. Name each of the triangles in order of their corresponding
vertices.
169. Name corresponding line segments.
170. State the postulate that proves similarity.
171. Find RQ
.
R
22
N
20
11
17
34
M
Q
O
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87
Set 35
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 172 through 175.
172. Name a pair of similar triangles in order of corresponding vertices.
173. Name corresponding line segments.
174. State the postulate that proves similarity.
175. Prove that WX
and YB
are parallel.
Set 36
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 176 through 179.
176. Name a pair of similar triangles in order of corresponding vertices.
50° 50° 50°
C A
E
B
D
7
5X X
50°
70°
50° 70°
X W
A
Y B
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177. Name corresponding line segments.
178. State the postulate that proves similarity.
179. Find AE
.
Set 37
Fill in the blanks with a letter from a corresponding ﬁgure in the box
below.
180. Choice ________ is congruent to ΔA.
181. Choice ________ is similar to ΔA.
182. Choice ________ is congruent to ΔB.
183. Choice ________ is similar to ΔB.
184. Choice ________ is congruent to ΔE.
Triangle A Triangle B Triangle C Triangle D
Triangle E Triangle F Triangle G Triangle H
Triangle I Triangle J Triangle K Triangle L
20 20 36 2
39
5
60°
30°
36° 54° 90° 36°
10 13
108°
60°
60° 60°
60° 60°
108°
62°
60° 54°
90° 30° 90°
30° 62°
10°
a b c d
e f g h
i
j
k l
5
5 2 2 36
12 10
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185. Choice ________ is similar to ΔE.
186. Choice ________ is congruent to ΔD.
187. Choice ________ is similar to ΔD.
188. Triangle(s)________ are right triangles.
189. Triangle(s)________ are equilateral triangles.
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Answers
Set 33
164. a. The angles of a right isosceles triangle always measure 45 – 45 –
90. Since at least two corresponding angles are congruent, right
isosceles triangles are similar.
165. b. A ratio is a comparison. If one side of a triangle measures 16
inches, and a corresponding side in another triangle measures 24
inches, then the ratio is 16:24. This ratio can be simpliﬁed by
dividing each side of the ratio by the common factor 8. The
comparison now reads, 2:3 or 2 to 3. Choices a, c, and d simplify
into the same incorrect ratio of 2:1 or 1:2.
166. d. When writing a proportion, corresponding parts must parallel
each other. The proportions in choices b and c are misaligned.
Choice a looks for the line segment 20 – x, not x.
167. d. First, state the ratio between similar triangles; that ratio is 10:2
or 5:1. The ratio means that a line segment in the larger triangle is
always 5 times more than the corresponding line segment in a
similar triangle. If the line segment measures 30 inches, it is 5
times more than the corresponding line segment. Create the
equation: 30 = 5x. x = 6.
Set 34
168. ΔOQR and ΔOMN. (Remember to align corresponding vertices.)
169. Corresponding line segments are OQ
and OM
; QR
and MN
;
RO
and NO
. Always coordinate corresponding endpoints.
170. SideAngleSide. The sides of similar triangles are not congruent;
they are proportional. If the ratio between corresponding line
segments, RO
and NO
is 22:11, or 2:1, and the ratio between
corresponding line segments QO
and MO
is also 2:1, they are
proportional.
90
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91
171. x = 40. From the last question, you know the ratio between similar
triangles OQR and OMN is 2:1. That ratio means that a line
segment in the smaller triangle is half the size of the corresponding
line segment in the larger triangle. If that line segment measures
20 inches, it is half the size of the corresponding line segment.
Create the equation: 20 = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏx. x = 40.
Set 35
172. ΔWXY and ΔAYB. (Remember to align corresponding vertices.)
173. Corresponding line segments are WX
and AY
; XY
and YB
;
YW
and BA
. Always coordinate corresponding endpoints.
174. AngleAngle postulate. Since there are no side measurements to
compare, only an allangular postulate can prove triangle
similarity.
175. XY
acts like a transversal across WX
and BY
. When alternate
interior angles are congruent, then lines are parallel. In this case,
∠WXY and ∠BYA are congruent alternate interior angles. WX
and BY
are parallel.
Set 36
176. ΔAEC and ΔBDC. (Remember to align corresponding vertices.)
177. Corresponding line segments are AE
and BD
; EC
and DC
;
CA
and CB
. Always coordinate corresponding endpoints.
178. AngleAngle postulate. Though it is easy to overlook, vertex C
applies to both triangles.
179. x = 42. This is a little tricky. When you state the ratio between
triangles, remember that corresponding sides AC
and BC
share
part of a line segment. AC
actually measures 5x + x, or 6x. The
ratio is 6x:1x, or 6:1. If the side of the smaller triangle measures 7,
then the corresponding side of the larger triangle will measure 6
times 7, or 42.
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Set 37
180. c. Because the two angles given in ΔA are 30° and 60°, the third
angle in ΔA is 90°. Like ΔA, choices c and i also have angles that
measure 30°, 60°, and 90°. According to the AngleAngle
postulate, at least two congruent angles prove similarity. To be
congruent, an included side must also be congruent. ΔA and the
triangle in choice c have congruent hypotenuses. They are
congruent.
181. i. In the previous answer, choice c was determined to be congruent
to ΔA because of congruent sides. In choice i, the triangle’s
hypotenuse measures 5; it has the same shape as ΔA but is smaller;
consequently, they are not congruent triangles; they are only
similar triangles.
182. k. ΔB is an equilateral triangle. Choices h and k are also equilateral
triangles (an isosceles triangle whose vertex measures 60° must also
have base angles that measure 60°). However, only choice k and
ΔB are congruent because of congruent sides.
183. h. Choice h has the same equilateral shape as ΔB, but they are
different sizes. They are not congruent; they are only similar.
184. j. The three angles in ΔE measure 36°, 54°, and 90°. Choices f and
j also have angles that measure 36°, 54°, and 90°. According to the
AngleAngle postulate, at least two congruent angles prove sim
ilarity. To be congruent, an included side must also be congruent.
The line segments between the 36° and 90° angles in choices j and
e are congruent.
185. f. Choice f has the same right scalene shape as ΔE, but they are not
congruent; they are only similar.
186. l. The three angles in ΔD respectively measure 62°, 10°, and 108°.
Choice l has a set of corresponding and congruent angles, which
proves similarity; but choice l also has an included congruent side,
which proves congruency.
92
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93
187. g. Choice g has only one given angle; the SideAngleSide
postulate proves it is similar to ΔD. The sides on either side of the
108° angle are proportional and the included angle is obviously
congruent.
188. a, c, e, f, i, j. Any triangle with a 90° interior angle is a right
triangle.
189. b, h, k. Any triangle with congruent sides and congruent angles is
an equilateral, equiangular triangle.
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In Chapters 7 and 8, you found the unknown sides of a triangle using
the known sides of similar and congruent triangles. To ﬁnd an unknown
side of a single right triangle, you will need the Pythagorean theorem.
To use the Pythagorean theorem, you must know squares—not the four
sided ﬁgure—but a number times itself. A number multiplied by itself is
raised to the second power.
4 × 4 = 16
4
2(exponent)
(base) = 16
Pythagorean Theorem
a
2
+ b
2
= c
2
9
Triangles and the
Pythagorean Theorem
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Find hypotenuse QR
.
a
2
+ b
2
= c
2
3
2
+ 4
2
= c
2
9 + 16 = c
2
25 = c
2
Take the square root of each side:
͙25 ෆ= ͙c
2
ෆ
5 = c
a = 3
b = 4
c = ?
Q
S
R
c
The longest side is always the hypotenuse;
therefore the longest side is always c.
c
c
hypotenuse
hypotenuse
leg
a
leg
b
leg
b
leg
a
a
leg
b
96
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97
Find KL
.
a
2
+ b
2
= c
2
a
2
+ 1
2
= (͙2ෆ)
2
a
2
+ 1 = 2
a
2
= 1
Take the square root of each side:
͙a
2
ෆ = ͙1 ෆ
Find CD
.
a
2
+ b
2
= c
2
20
2
+ b
2
= 40
2
400 + b
2
= 1,600
b
2
= 1,200
a = 20
E
C
D
b = ?
c = 40
a = ? L
M
K
b = 1
c = √2
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Take the square root of each side:
͙b
2
ෆ = ͙1,200 ෆ
b = 20͙3 ෆ
The Pythagorean theorem can only ﬁnd a side of a right triangle. How
ever, if all the sides of any given triangle are known, but none of the angles
are known, the Pythagorean theorem can tell you whether that triangle is
obtuse or acute.
Is ΔGHI obtuse or acute?
a = 6
H
I
G
b = 8
c = 12
Therefore, ΔGHI is obtuse.
100 < 144,
6
2
+ 8
2
a
2
+ b
2
36 + 64
c
2
12
2
144
98
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99
Is ΔJKL obtuse or acute?
Set 38
Choose the best answer.
190. If the sides of a triangle measure 3, 4, and 5, then the triangle is
a. acute.
b. right.
c. obtuse.
d. It cannot be determined.
191. If the sides of a triangle measure 12, 16, and 20, then the triangle is
a. acute.
b. right.
c. obtuse.
d. It cannot be determined.
a = 2
L
K
J
b = 2
c = 2
Therefore, ΔJKL is acute.
8 > 4
2
2
+ 2
2
a
2
+ b
2
4 + 4
c
2
2
2
4
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192. If the sides of a triangle measure 15, 17, and 22, then the triangle is
a. acute.
b. right.
c. obtuse.
d. It cannot be determined.
193. If the sides of a triangle measure 6, 16, and 26, then the triangle is
a. acute.
b. right.
c. obtuse.
d. It cannot be determined.
194. If the sides of a triangle measure 12, 12, and 15, then the triangle is
a. acute.
b. right.
c. obtuse.
d. It cannot be determined.
195. If two sides of a triangle measure 4 and 14, and an angle measures
34°, then the triangle is
a. acute.
b. right.
c. obtuse.
d. It cannot be determined.
196. If the sides of a triangle measure 2, 3, and 16, then the triangle is
a. acute.
b. right.
c. obtuse.
d. It cannot be determined.
100
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101
Set 39
Choose the best answer.
197. Eva and Carr meet at a corner. Eva turns 90° left and walks 5
paces; Carr continues straight and walks 6 paces. If a line segment
connected them, it would measure
a. ͙22 ෆpaces.
b. ͙25 ෆpaces.
c. ͙36 ෆpaces.
d. ͙61 ෆpaces.
198. The legs of a table measure 3 feet long and the top measures 4 feet
long. If the legs are connected to the table at a right angle, then
what is the distance between the bottom of each leg and the end of
the tabletop?
a. 5 feet
b. 7 feet
c. 14 feet
d. 25 feet
199. Dorothy is standing directly 300 meters under a plane. She sees
another plane ﬂying straight behind the ﬁrst. It is 500 meters away
from her, and she has not moved. How far apart are the planes
from each other?
a. 40 meters
b. 400 meters
c. 4,000 meters
d. 40,000 meters
200. Timmy arranges the walls of his shed on the ground. The base of
the ﬁrst side measures 10 feet. The base of the second side
measures 15 feet. If the walls are at a right angle from each other,
the measure from the end of one side to the end of the second side
equals
a. 35 feet.
b. 50 feet.
c. ͙225 ෆfeet.
d. ͙325 ෆfeet.
501 Geometry Questions
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Set 40
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 201 through 203.
201. Which triangles in the ﬁgure above are congruent and/or similar?
202. Find the value of x.
203. Find the value of y.
Set 41
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 204 through 206.
204. Which triangles in the ﬁgure above are congruent and/or similar?
205. Find the value of a.
206. Is ΔZSY acute or obtuse?
SU Х VU
SV Х ZY
S U
Y Z X
V W
a
Given:
SZ Х SY Х VY Х WX
UY = 7
SY = 5 2 ͙ෆ
B
C
T
D
F
y
3x
4 18
E S
Given:
CD Х BD
FD Х FE Х BT Х BS Х DT
͙ෆ
102
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103
Set 42
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 207 through 209.
207. Which triangles in the ﬁgure above are congruent and/or similar?
208. Find the value of x.
209. Find AC.
Set 43
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 210 through 215.
210. Which triangles in the ﬁgure above are congruent and/or similar?
B
A C
F
y
x
E
3
D
G
7√10
15√2
AE Х CE
AF Х BG
AB Х CB
BF Х CG
Given:
FE Х GE
EC = w
Z
A
F
B
D
E
C x
x
2
1
13√2
AE Х CE
FE Х ED
Given:
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211. Find the value of w.
212. Find the value of x.
213. Find the value of y.
214. Find the value of Z.
215. Is ΔBGC acute or obtuse?
104
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105
Answers
Set 38
190. b. This is a popular triangle, so know it well. A 345 triangle is a
right triangle. Apply the Pythagorean theorem: a
2
+ b
2
= c
2
. 3
2
+ 4
2
= 5
2
. 9 + 16 = 25. 25 = 25.
191. b. This is also a 3–4–5 triangle. Simplify the measurement of each
side by dividing 12, 16, and 20 by 4: ᎏ
1
4
2
ᎏ = 3. ᎏ
1
4
6
ᎏ = 4. ᎏ
2
4
0
ᎏ = 5.
192. a. Plug the given measurements into the Pythagorean theorem
(the largest side is always c in the theorem): 15
2
+ 17
2
= 22
2
. 225 +
289 = 484. 514 > 484. When the sum of the smaller sides squared is
greater than the square of the largest side, then the triangle is
acute.
193. c. Plug the given measurements into the Pythagorean theorem:
6
2
+ 16
2
= 26
2
. 36 + 256 = 676. 292 < 676. When the sum of the
smaller sides squared is less than the square of the largest side,
then the triangle is obtuse.
194. a. Plug the given measurements into the Pythagorean theorem:
12
2
+ 12
2
= 15
2
. 144 + 144 = 225. 288 > 225. Acute.
195. d. The Pythagorean theorem does not include any angles. Without
a third side or a deﬁnite right angle, this triangle cannot be
determined.
196. c. Plug the given measurements into the Pythagorean theorem:
2
2
+ 3
2
= 16
2
. 4 + 9 = 256. 13 < 256. Obtuse.
197. d. The corner forms the right angle of this triangle; Eva and Carr
walk the distance of each leg, and the question wants to know the
hypotenuse. Plug the known measurements into the Pythagorean
theorem: 5
2
+ 6
2
= c
2
. 25 + 36 = c
2
. 61 = c
2
. 61 = c.
198. a. The connection between the leg and the tabletop forms the
right angle of this triangle.The length of the leg and the length of
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the top are the legs of the triangle, and the question wants to know
the distance of the hypotenuse. Plug the known measurements into
the Pythagorean theorem: 3
2
+ 4
2
= c
2
. 9 + 16 = c
2
. 25 = c
2
. 5 = c.
If you chose answer d, you forgot to take the square root of the 25.
If you chose answer b, you added the legs together without
squaring them ﬁrst.
199. b. The ﬁrst plane is actually this triangle’s right vertex. The
distance between Dorothy and the second plane is the hypotenuse.
Plug the known measurements into the Pythagorean theorem:
300
2
+ b
2
= 500
2
. 90,000 + b
2
= 250,000. b
2
= 160,000. b = 400.
Notice that if you divided each side by 100, this is another 345
triangle.
200. d. The bases of Timmy’s walls form the legs of this right triangle.
The hypotenuse is unknown. Plug the known measurements into
the Pythagorean theorem: 10
2
+ 15
2
= c
2
. 100 + 225 = c
2
. 325 = c
2
.
͙325 ෆ= c.
Set 40
201. ΔSBT and ΔEFD are congruent to each other (SideAngle
Side theorem) and similar to ΔBDC (AngleAngle theorem).
202. x = 4. Because ΔBCD is an isosceles right triangle, BD
is con
gruent to CD
. Plug 3x, 3x, and 4͙18 ෆinto the Pythagorean
theorem: (3x)
2
+ (3x)
2
= (4͙18 ෆ)
2
. 9x
2
+ 9x
2
= 288.
18x
2
= 288. x
2
= 16. x = 4.
203. y = 6͙2 ෆ. In the question above, you found x = 4. Therefore, BD =
12. Since BT = DT, they both equal 6. Since BT = FD = FE, FD =
FE = 6. Plug 6, 6, and y into the Pythagorean theorem.
106
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107
Set 41
204. ΔSUY is congruent to ΔVUY (SideSideSide theorem).
205. a = 2. SU
+ UV
= ZY
. SU
= UV
. To ﬁnd the measure of SU
, plug
the given measurements of ΔSUY into the Pythagorean theorem.
7
2
+ b
2
= (5͙2ෆ)
2
49 + b
2
= 50. b
2
= 1. b = ͙1 ෆ = 1. a = 1 + 1.
206. Acute. ΔZSY is an isosceles triangle. Two of its sides measure
5͙2 ෆ. The third side measures 2. Plug the given measures into the
Pythagorean theorem. 2
2
+ (5͙2ෆ)
2
= (5͙2ෆ)
2
. Thus, 4 + 50 = 50;
54 > 50. Therefore, ΔZSY is acute.
Set 42
207. ΔACE is similar to ΔFDE (AngleAngle theorem). Both
triangles are isosceles, and they share a common vertex point.
Ultimately, all their angles are congruent.
208. x = 13. Even though you don’t know the measurement of x in
ΔABF, you do know that two sides measure x. Plug the measure
ments of ΔABF into the Pythagorean theorem. x
2
+ x
2
= (13͙2ෆ)
2
.
2x
2
= 338. x
2
= 169. x = 13.
209. 26͙2ෆ + 2. The ratio between corresponding line segments AෆEෆ and
F ෆEෆ is 13͙2ෆ + 1:1. Since FෆDෆ = 2, AC is twice the size of AE.
Set 43
210. ΔAFE and ΔBGE are congruent (SideSideSide postulate).
ΔABF and ΔBCG are congruent (SideSideSide postulate).
211. w = 21. Plug the measurements of ΔECD into the Pythagorean
theorem: 3
2
+ w
2
= (15͙2ෆ)
2
. 9 + w
2
= 450. w
2
= 441. w = 21.
212. x = 7. Corresponding parts of congruent triangles are congruent
(CPCTC). If EC
is 21, then EA
is also 21. Plug the measurements
of ΔAFE into the Pythagorean theorem: 21
2
+ x
2
= (7͙10 ෆ)
2
.
441 + x
2
= 490. x
2
= 49. x = 7.
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213. y = 14. Because of CPCTC, AE
is also congruent to BE
. If BE
is
21 and FE
is 7, subtract 7 from 21 to ﬁnd BF
. 21 – 7 = 14.
214. Z = 21͙2ෆ. Plug the measurements of ΔBEC into the Pythagorean
theorem: 21
2
+ 21
2
= Z
2
. 441 + 441 = Z
2
. 882 = Z
2
. 21͙2 ෆ = Z.
215. Obtuse. You could just guess that m∠BGC > 90°. However, the
question wants you to use the Pythagorean theorem to show
(7͙10 ෆ)
2
+ 14
2
< (21͙2ෆ)
2
.
108
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A triangle has three sides and three vertices. As a rule, there is a ver
tex for every side of a polygon. Consecutive sides are adjoining sides of a
polygon, and consecutive vertices are vertices that are at opposite ends of
a side:
D
A B
C
1
2
3
4
sides: AB, BC, CD, DA
vertices: ∠DAB, ∠ABC, ∠BCD, ∠CDA
interior ∠’s: DAB, ABC, BCD, CDA
exterior ∠’s: 1, 2, 3, 4
diagonals: AC, BD
10
Properties of
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Naming Polygons
Regular polygons are polygons that are equilateral and equiangular.
D
E
A
B
C
m∠A, ∠B, ∠C, ∠D, ∠E, < 180,
therefore polygon ABCDE is convex.
D
E F
G
H
A B
C
1 2
3
4
5 6
7
8
sides: AB = BC = CD = DE = EF = FG = GH = HA
interior ∠’s: ∠1 ≅ ∠2 ≅ ∠3 ≅ ∠4 ≅ ∠5 ≅ ∠6 ≅ ∠7 ≅ ∠8
Regular Octagon ABCDEFGH
110
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111
Vertices of a convex polygon all point outwards (all regular polygons are
also convex polygons). If any of the vertices of a polygon point inward or if
the measure of any vertex exceeds 180°, the polygon is a concave polygon.
Count the polygon’s sides. A threesided ﬁgure is a triangle. A foursided
ﬁgure is a quadrilateral. Fivesided ﬁgures or more take special preﬁxes:
Fivesided PENTAgon
Sixsided HEXAgon
Sevensided HEPTAgon
Eightsided OCTAgon
Ninesided NONAgon
Tensided DECAgon
Twelvesided DODECAgon
SET 44
State whether the object is or is not a polygon and why. (Envision
each of these objects as simply as possible, otherwise there will always
be exceptions.)
216. a rectangular city block
217. Manhattan’s grid of city blocks
218. branches of a tree
219. the block letter “M” carved into the tree
F
G
D
E
A
B
C
m∠D > 180°, therefore polygon ABCDEFG is concave.
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220. outline of a television
221. a human face on the TV
222. an ergonomic chair
223. lace
Set 45
Use the diagram below to answer questions 224 through 226.
224. Name the polygon. Is it convex or concave?
225. How many diagonals can be drawn from vertex O?
226. How many sides does the polygon have? Based on its number of
sides, this polygon is a ________.
A
B
C
D
O
E
112
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113
Set 46
Use the diagram below to answer questions 227 through 229.
227. Name the polygon. Is it convex or concave?
228. How many diagonals can be drawn from vertex O?
229. How many sides does the polygon have? Based on its number of
sides, this polygon is a ________.
Set 47
Use the diagram below to answer questions 230 through 232.
230. Name the polygon. Is it convex or concave?
231. How many diagonals can be drawn from vertex O?
S X
Y
V
U W
O
Z
L M
N
P
Q
O
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232. How many sides does the polygon have? Based on its number of
sides, this polygon is a ________.
Set 48
Use the diagram below to answer questions 233 through 235.
233. Name the polygon. Is it convex or concave?
234. How many diagonals can be drawn from vertex O?
235. How many sides does the polygon have? Based on its number of
sides, this polygon is a ________.
Set 49
Use your knowledge of polygons to ﬁll in the blank.
236. In polygon CDEFG, CD
and DE
are ________.
237. In polygon CDEFG, CE
, DF
and EG
are ________.
238. In polygon CDEFG, ∠EFG is also ________.
239. In polygon CDEFG, ∠DEF and ∠EFG are ________.
P
H
I
J
K
L
M N
O
HI Х IJ
Given:
Х JK Х
KL Х LM Х MNХ
NO Х OP Х PH
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115
Set 50
Use diagonals to draw the triangles below.
240. How many triangles can be drawn in the accompanying polygon at
one time?
241. Determine the sum of the polygon’s interior angles using the
number of triangles; verify your answer by using the formula
s = 180(n – 2), where s is the sum of the interior angles and n is
the number of sides the polygon has.
242. How many triangles can be drawn in the accompanying polygon at
one time?
243. Determine the sum of the polygon’s interior angles using the
number of triangles; then apply the formula s = 180 (n – 2) to verify
your answer.
K L
M
N
P
B
C
D
F
G
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244. How many triangles can be drawn in the accompanying polygon at
one time?
245. Determine the sum of the polygon’s interior angles using the
number of triangles; then apply the formula s = 180 (n – 2) to verify
your answer.
An irregular octagon
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y Z
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117
Answers
Set 44
216. Polygon. A single city block is a closed foursided ﬁgure; each of
its corners is a vertex.
217. Not a polygon. A grid is not a polygon because its lines intersect
at points that are not endpoints.
218. Not a polygon. Branches are open, and they “branch” out at
points that are also not endpoints.
219. Polygon. Block letters are closed multisided ﬁgures; each of its
line segments begin and end at an endpoint.
220. Polygon. A classic television screen is rectangular; it has four sides
and four vertices.
221. Not a polygon. The human face is very complex, but primarily it
has few if any straight line segments.
222. Not a polygon. An ergonomic chair is a chair designed to contour
to your body. It is usually curved to support the natural curves of
the hip and spine.
223. Not a polygon. Like the human face, lace is very intricate. Unlike
the human face, lace has lots of line segments that meet at lots of
different points.
Set 45
224. Polygon ABCDOE. As long as you list the vertices in consecutive
order, any one of these names will do: BCDOEA, CDOEAB,
DOEABC, OEABCD, EABCDO. Also, polygon ABCDOE is
concave because the measure of vertex O exceeds 180°.
225. Three diagonals can be drawn from vertex O: OA
, OB
, OC
.
OD
and OE
are not diagonals; they are sides.
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226. Polygon ABCOE has six sides; it is a hexagon.
Set 46
227. Polygon OLMNPQ. As long as you list their vertices in
consecutive order, any one of these names will do: LMNPQO,
MNPQOL, NPQOLM, PQOLMN, QOLMNP. Also, polygon
OLMNPQ is concave because vertex N exceeds 180°.
228. Three diagonals can be drawn from vertex O: OM
, ON
, OP
.
229. Polygon OLMNPQ has 6 sides; it is a hexagon.
Set 47
230. Polygon SUVWXOYZ. If you list every vertex in consecutive
order, then your name for the polygon given is correct. Also,
polygon SUVWXOYZ is concave. The measures of vertices U,
W, O and Z exceed 180°.
231. Five diagonals can be drawn from vertex O: OZ
, OS
, OU
,
OV
, OW
.
232. Polygon SUVWXOYZ has eight sides; it is an octagon.
Set 48
233. Polygon HIJKLMNOP. List every vertex in consecutive order
and your answer is correct. Also, polygon HIJKLMNOP is
regular and convex.
234. Six diagonals can be drawn from vertex O: OH
, OI
, OJ
, OK
,
OL
, and OM
.
235. Polygon HIJKLMNOP has nine sides; it is a nonagon.
118
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119
Set 49
236. Consecutive sides. Draw polygon CDEFG to see that yes, CD
and DE
are consecutive sides.
237. Diagonals. When a line segment connects nonconsecutive end
points in a polygon, it is a diagonal.
238. ∠GFE or ∠F.
239. Consecutive vertices. Look back at the drawing you made of
polygon CDEFG. You can see that ∠E and ∠F are consecutive
vertices.
Set 50
For solutions to 240 and 241, refer to image below.
240. At any one time, three triangles can be drawn in polygon
BCDFG. Remember when drawing your triangles that a diagonal
must go from endpoint to endpoint.
241. The interior angles of a convex pentagon will always measure
540° together. If the interior angles of a triangle measure 180°
together, then three sets of interior angles measure 180 × 3, or
540. Apply the formula s = 180 (n – 2). s = 180(5 – 2). s = 180(3).
s = 540.
B
C
D
F
G
501 Geometry Questions
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For solutions to 242 and 243, refer to the image below.
242. At any one time, three triangles can be drawn in polygon
KLMNP.
243. 180 × 3 = 540. Apply the formula s = 180(n – 2). Again, s = 540.
You have again conﬁrmed that the interior angles of a convex
pentagon will always measure 540° together.
For solutions to 244 and 245, refer to the image below.
244. At any one time, six triangles can be drawn in polygon
STUVWXYZ.
245. 180 × 6 = 1080. Apply the formula s = 180(n – 2). s = 180(8 – 2).
s = 180(6). s = 1,080.
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y Z
K L
M
N
P
120
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As you would guess, triangles are not squares. Neither are parallelo
grams, rectangles, or rhombuses. But squares are rhombuses, rectangles,
and parallelograms. How can this be?
Parallelograms, rectangles, rhombuses, and squares are all members of a
foursided polygon family called the quadrilaterals. Each member has a
unique property that makes it distinctive from its fellow members. A square
shares all those unique properties, making it the most unique quadrilateral.
Below are those particular characteristics that make each quadrilateral an
individual.
Quadrilateral Foursided ﬁgure
Parallelogram Foursided ﬁgure
Two pairs of parallel lines
Opposite sides are congruent
Opposite angles are congruent
Consecutive angles are supplementary
Diagonals bisect each other
Rectangle Foursided ﬁgure
Two pairs of parallel lines
Opposite sides are congruent
All angles are congruent
Consecutive angles are supplementary
Diagonals bisect each other
Diagonals are congruent
11
Quadrilaterals
TeamLRN
Rhombus Foursided ﬁgure
Two pairs of parallel lines
All sides are congruent
Opposite angles are congruent
Consecutive angles are supplementary
Diagonals bisect each other
Diagonals bisect the angle of a rhombus
Diagonals form perpendicular lines
Square Foursided ﬁgure
Two pairs of parallel lines
All sides are congruent
All angles are congruent
Consecutive angles are supplementary
Diagonals bisect each other
Diagonals are congruent
Diagonals bisect the angle of a square
Diagonals form perpendicular lines
Trapezoid Foursided ﬁgure
One pair of parallel lines
Isosceles Trapezoid Foursided ﬁgure
One pair of parallel lines
Base angles are congruent
Congruent legs
Congruent diagonals
Set 51
Choose the best answer.
246. The sides of Mary’s chalkboard consecutively measure 9 feet, 5
feet, 9 feet and 5 feet. Without any other information, you can
determine that Mary’s chalkboard is a
a. rectangle.
b. rhombus.
c. parallelogram.
d. square.
122
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123
247. Four line segments connected endtoend will always form
a. an open ﬁgure.
b. four interior angles that measure 360°.
c. a square.
d. It cannot be determined.
248. A square whose vertices are the midpoints of another square is
a. congruent to the other square.
b. half the size of the other square.
c. twice the size of the other square.
d. It cannot be determined.
249. The sides of a square measure 2.5 feet each. If three squares ﬁt
perfectly sidebyside in one rectangle, what are the minimum
dimensions of the rectangle?
a. 5 feet, 2.5 feet
b. 7.5 feet, 7.5 feet
c. 7.5 feet, 3 feet
d. 7.5 feet, 2.5 feet
250. A rhombus, a rectangle, and an isosceles trapezoid all have
a. congruent diagonals.
b. opposite congruent sides.
c. interior angles that measure 360°.
d. opposite congruent angles.
251. A ﬁgure with four sides and four congruent angles could be a
a. rhombus or square.
b. rectangle or square.
c. trapezoid or rhombus.
d. rectangle or trapezoid.
252. A ﬁgure with four sides and perpendicular diagonals could be a
a. rhombus or square.
b. rectangle or square.
c. trapezoid or rhombus.
d. rectangle or trapezoid.
501 Geometry Questions
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253. A ﬁgure with four sides and diagonals that bisect each angle could
be a
a. rectangle.
b. rhombus.
c. parallelogram.
d. trapezoid.
254. A ﬁgure with four sides and diagonals that bisect each other could
NOT be a
a. rectangle.
b. rhombus.
c. parallelogram.
d. trapezoid.
Set 52
Fill in the blanks based on your knowledge of quadrilaterals. More
than one answer may be correct.
255. If quadrilateral ABCD has two sets of parallel lines, it could be
________.
256. If quadrilateral ABCD has four congruent sides, it could be
________.
257. If quadrilateral ABCD has exactly one set of opposite congruent
sides, it could be ________.
258. If quadrilateral ABCD has opposite congruent angles, it could be
________.
259. If quadrilateral ABCD has consecutive angles that are
supplementary, it could be ________.
260. If quadrilateral ABCD has congruent diagonals, it could be
________.
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125
261. If quadrilateral ABCD can be divided into two congruent triangles,
it could be ________.
262. If quadrilateral ABCD has diagonals that bisect each vertex angle
in two congruent angles, it is ________.
Set 53
Choose the best answer.
263. If an angle in a rhombus measures 21°, then the other three angles
consecutively measure
a. 159°, 21°, 159°
b. 21°, 159°, 159°
c. 69°, 21°, 69°
d. 21°, 69°, 69°
e. It cannot be determined.
264. In an isosceles trapezoid, the angle opposite an angle that measures
62° measures
a. 62°.
b. 28°.
c. 118°.
d. 180°.
e. It cannot be determined.
265. In rectangle WXYZ, ∠WXZ and ∠XZY
a. are congruent.
b. are alternate interior angles.
c. form complementary angles with ∠WZX and ∠YXZ.
d. all of the above
e. It cannot be determined.
266. In square ABCD, ∠ABD
a. measures 45°.
b. is congruent with ∠ADC.
c. forms a supplementary pair with ∠ADB.
d. all of the above
e. It cannot be determined.
501 Geometry Questions
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267. In parallelogram KLMN, if diagonal KM measures 30 inches, then
a. KL
measures 18 inches.
b. LM
measures 24 inches.
c. diagonal LN is perpendicular to diagonal KM.
d. all of the above
e. It cannot be determined.
Set 54
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 268 through 270.
268. Using your knowledge of triangles and quadrilaterals, show that
diagonals AC and BD intersect perpendicularly.
269. Using your knowledge of triangles and quadrilaterals, what is the
length of imaginary side BP?
270. Using your knowledge of triangles and quadrilaterals, what is the
length of diagonal DB?
A B
P C D
12
12
12 8
12
a
o
m∠BCA = 72
m∠BDA = 18
126
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127
Answers
Set 51
246. c. All parallelograms have opposite congruent sides including
rectangles, rhombuses and squares. However, without more
information, you cannot be any more speciﬁc than a parallelogram.
247. b. The interior angles of a quadrilateral total 360°. Choices a and c
are incorrect because the question states each line segment
connects endtoend; this is a closed ﬁgure, but it is not necessarily
a square.
248. b. Find the point along a line segment that would divide that line
segment into two equal pieces. That is the line segment’s midpoint.
Connect the midpoint of a square together and you have another
square that is half the existing square.
249. d. Three squares in a row will have three times the length of one
square, or 2.5 in. × 3 = 7.5 in. However, the width will remain the
length of just one square, or 2.5 in.
250. c. Rectangles and rhombuses have very little in common with
isosceles trapezoids except one set of parallel lines, one set of
opposite congruent sides, and four interior angles that measure
360°.
251. b. Rectangles and squares have four 90° angles because their four
sides are perpendicular. Choices a, c, and d are all quadrilaterals,
but they are not deﬁned by their right angles.
252. a. Rhombuses and squares have congruent sides and diagonals that
are perpendicular. Because their sides are not congruent,
rectangles and trapezoids do not have diagonals that cross
perpendicularly.
253. b. A rhombus’s diagonal bisects its vertices.
501 Geometry Questions
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254. d. Diagonals of a trapezoid are not congruent unless the trapezoid
is an isosceles trapezoid. Diagonals of any trapezoid do not bisect
each other.
Set 52
255. A parallelogram, a rectangle, a rhombus, or a square. Two
pairs of parallel lines deﬁne each of these foursided ﬁgures.
256. a rhombus or a square
257. an isosceles trapezoid
258. A parallelogram, a rectangle, a rhombus, or a square. When a
transversal crosses a pair of parallel lines, alternate interior angles
are congruent, while same side interior angles are supplementary.
Draw a parallelogram, a rectangle, a rhombus, and a square; extend
each of their sides. Find the “Z” and “C” shaped intersections in
each drawing.
259. A parallelogram, a rectangle, a rhombus, or a square. Again,
look at the drawing you made above to see why consecutive angles
are supplementary.
260. a rectangle, a square, an isosceles trapezoid
261. a parallelogram, a rectangle, a rhombus, or a square
262. a rhombus or a square
Set 53
263. a. The ﬁrst consecutive angle must be supplementary to the given
angle. The angle opposite the given angle must be congruent.
Consequently, in consecutive order, the angles measure 180 − 21,
or 159, 21, and 159. Choice b does not align the angles in
consecutive order; choice c mistakenly subtracts 21 from 90 when
consecutive angles are supplementary, not complementary.
128
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129
264. c. Opposite angles in an isosceles trapezoid are supplementary.
Choice a describes a consecutive angle along the same parallel line.
265. d. XZ
is a diagonal in rectangle WXYZ. ∠WXZ and ∠XZY are
alternate interior angles along the diagonal; they are congruent;
and when they are added with their adjacent angle, the two angles
form a 90° angle.
266. a. BD
is a diagonal in square ABCD. It bisects vertices B and D,
creating four congruent 45° angles. Choice b is incorrect because
∠ABD is half of ∠ADC; they are not congruent. Also, choice c is
incorrect because when two 45° angles are added together they
measure 90°, not 180°.
267. e. It cannot be determined.
Set 54
268. Because AC and DB are intersecting straight lines, if one
angle of intersection measures 90°, all four angles of
intersection measure 90°, which means the lines
perpendicularly meet. First, opposite sides of a rhombus are
parallel, which means alternate interior angles are congruent. If
∠BCA measures 72°, then ∠CAD also measures 72°. The sum of
the measures of all three interior angles of a triangle must equal
180°: 72 + 18 + m∠AOB = 180. m∠AOD = 90.
269. a = 4͙5 ෆ. BP
is the height of rhombus ABCD and the leg of
ΔBPC. Use the Pythagorean theorem: a
2
+ 8
2
= 12
2
. a
2
+ 64 = 144.
a
2
= 80. a = 4͙5 ෆ.
270. c = 4͙30 ෆ. Use the Pythagorean theorem to ﬁnd the hypotenuse of
ΔBPD, which is diagonal BD: (4͙5ෆ)
2
+ (12 + 8)
2
= c
2
.
80 + 400 = c
2
. 480 = c
2
. 4͙30 ෆ= c.
501 Geometry Questions
TeamLRN
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The perimeter of a ﬁgure is its outside edge, its outline. To ﬁnd the
perimeter of a ﬁgure, you add the length of each of its sides together.
Regular polygons use a formula: p = ns, where p is the polygon’s perime
ter; n is its number of sides; and s is the length of each side.
Set 55
Choose the best answer.
271. A regular octagonal gazebo is added to a Victorian lawn garden.
Each side of the octagon measures 5 ft. The formula for the
gazebo’s perimeter is
a. p = 8 × 5.
b. 8 = n × 5.
c. 5 = n × 8.
d. s = n × p.
12
Perimeter of
Polygons
TeamLRN
272. Timmy randomly walks ten steps to the left. He does this nine
more times. His path never crosses itself, and he returns to his
starting point. The perimeter of the ﬁgure Timmy walked equals
a. 90 steps.
b. 90 feet.
c. 100 steps.
d. 100 feet.
273. The perimeter of Periwinkle High is 1,600 ft. It has four sides of
equal length. Each side measures
a. 4 ft.
b. 40 ft.
c. 400 ft.
d. 4,000 ft.
274. Roberta draws two similar pentagons. The perimeter of the larger
pentagon is 93 ft.; one of its sides measures 24 ft. If the perimeter
of the smaller pentagon equals 31 ft., then the corresponding side
of the smaller pentagon measures
a. 5s = 31.
b. 93s = 24 × 31.
c. 93 × 24 = 31s.
d. 5 × 31 = s.
275. Isadora wants to know the perimeter of the face of a building;
however, she does not have a ladder. She knows that the building’s
rectangular facade casts a 36 ft. shadow at noon while a nearby
mailbox casts a 12 ft. shadow at noon. The mailbox is 4.5 ft. tall. If
the length of the façade is 54 ft. long, the façade’s perimeter
measures
a. p = 13.5 × 4.
b. p = 54 × 4.
c. p = 4.5(2) + 12(2).
d. p = 13.5(2) + 54(2).
132
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133
Set 56
Choose the best answer.
276. Which perimeter is not the same?
a.
b.
c.
d.
21
5 5
37
37
4 6
30
40
7 7
35
35
501 Geometry Questions
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277. Which perimeter is not the same?
a. a 12foot regular square backyard
b. an 8foot regular hexagon pool
c. a 6foot regular octagonal patio
d. a 4foot regular decagon Jacuzzi
e. It cannot be determined.
278. Which choice below has a different perimeter than the others?
a.
b.
c.
d.
50.5
40.4
26.0
25.25
134
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135
279. The measure of which ﬁgure’s side is different from the other four
ﬁgures?
a. a regular nonagon whose perimeter measures 90 feet
b. an equilateral triangle whose perimeter measures 27 feet
c. a regular heptagon whose perimeter measures 63 feet
d. a regular octagon whose perimeter measures 72 feet
e. It cannot be determined.
280. Which ﬁgure does not have 12 sides?
a. Regular Figure A with sides that measure 4.2 in. and a
perimeter of 50.4 in.
b. Regular Figure B with sides that measure 1.1 in. and a peri
meter of 13.2 in.
c. Regular Figure C with sides that measure 5.1 in. and a
perimeter of 66.3 in.
d. Regular Figure D with sides that measure 6.0 in. and a peri
meter of 72.0 in.
e. It cannot be determined.
Set 57
Find the perimeter of the following ﬁgures.
281.
2
501 Geometry Questions
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282.
283.
284.
2
2 2 2
2 2
5
1
6
6
4
4
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
136
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137
Set 58
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 285 through 286.
285. Find the value of y.
286. Find the ﬁgure’s total perimeter.
Set 59
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 287 through 288.
287. Find the value of x.
288. Find the ﬁgure’s total perimeter.
K
D E F G
10
H I J
4
2x x 4x
Given:
quadrilateral DGHK
is a parallelogram
A
B C
E
F G H
D 6
12
8 y
501 Geometry Questions
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Set 60
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 289 through 291.
289. Find the value of x.
290. Find the value of y.
291. Find the ﬁgure’s total perimeter.
Given:
OQ Х WR
PQ Х TS
40
V U
T S R
Q P O
W
y
20
12
x
138
501 Geometry Questions
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139
Set 61
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 292 through 294.
292. Find the value of x.
293. Find the value of y.
294. Find the ﬁgure’s total perimeter.
70°
100° 42″
10″
38″
38″
5″
42″
A
B
G
J
I
H
E
D
C
y
x
501 Geometry Questions
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Answers
Set 55
271. a. To ﬁnd the perimeter, multiply the number of sides by the
measure of one side. The perimeter of this Victorian gazebo is
p = 8 × 5.
272. c. Timmy walked ten tenstep sets. To ﬁnd the perimeter of the
ﬁgure Timmy walked, multiply 10 by 10 and remember that each
side of that ﬁgure was measured in steps, not feet. Choice a forgot
to count the ﬁrst ten steps and turn that Timmy made. Choices b
and d use the wrong increment, feet.
273. c. Plug the numbers into the formula: p = ns. 1600 = 4s. 400 = s.
274. b. A proportion can ﬁnd an unknown side of a ﬁgure using known
sides of a similar ﬁgure; a proportion can also ﬁnd an unknown side
using known perimeters. ᎏ
9
2
3
4
ᎏ = ᎏ
3
s
1
ᎏ. Crossmultiply: 93s = 24 ϫ31.
275. d. Using a proportion ﬁnd x. ᎏ
1
3
2
6
ᎏ = ᎏ
4
x
.5
ᎏ. Crossmultiply. 12x =
36(4.5). x = 13.5. Polygon CRXZ is a rectangle whose sides
measure 13.5, 54, 13.5, and 54. To ﬁnd the perimeter of rectangle
CRXZ, add the measures of its sides together.
Set 56
276. b. Each ﬁgure except trapezoid B has a perimeter of 84 feet; its
perimeter measures only 80 feet.
277. d. Apply the formula p = ns to each choice. In choice a, the
perimeter of the backyard measures 12 feet × 4 sides, or 48 feet. In
choice b, the perimeter of the pool measures 8 feet × 6 sides, or 48
feet. In choice c, the perimeter of the patio measures 6 feet × 8
sides, or 48 feet. In choice d, the perimeter of the Jacuzzi measures
4 feet by 10 sides, or 40. It is obvious that the Jacuzzi has a
different perimeter.
140
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141
278. b. Each ﬁgure has a perimeter of 202 feet except hexagon B; its
perimeter measures 156 feet.
279. a. To ﬁnd the measure of each side, change the formula p = ns to
ᎏ
n
p
ᎏ = s. Plug each choice into this formula. In choice a, the sides of
the nonagon measure ᎏ
9
9
0
si
f
d
e
e
e
s
t
ᎏ, or 10 feet per side. In choice b, the
sides of the triangle measure ᎏ
2
3
7
si
f
d
e
e
e
s
t
ᎏ, or 9 feet per side. In choice c,
the sides of the heptagon measure ᎏ
6
7
3
si
f
d
e
e
e
s
t
ᎏ, or 9 feet per side. In
choice d, the sides of the octagon measure
ᎏ
7
8
2
si
f
d
e
e
e
s
t
ᎏ
, or 9 feet per side.
280. c. To ﬁnd the number of sides a ﬁgure has, change the formula p =
ns to ᎏ
p
s
ᎏ = n. Plug each choice into this formula. In choice a, ﬁgure A
has 12 sides. In choice b, ﬁgure B has 12 sides. In choice c, ﬁgure
C has 13 sides.
Set 57
281. p = 24. You can ﬁnd this perimeter by either adding the measure of
each side, or by using the formula p = ns. If you choose to add each
side, your solution looks like this: 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 +
2 + 2 + 2 = 24. If you choose to use the formula, there are ﬁve
squares; four are exterior squares or 4p and one an interior square
or 1p. The ﬁnal equation will look like 4p – 1p = P. 1p = 4 × 2.
1p = 8. 4p = 4 × 8 = 32. 32 – 8 = 24.
282. p = 50. Using your knowledge of rectangles and their congruent
sides, you ﬁnd the measure of each exterior side not given. To ﬁnd
the perimeter, you add the measure of each exterior side together.
1 + 6 + 1 + 6 + 1 + 4 + 1 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 3 + 3 + 5
+ 5 = 50.
283. p = 34 + 4͙5 ෆ. First, ﬁnd the hypotenuse of at least one of the two
congruent triangles using the Pythagorean theorem: 2
2
+ 4
2
= c
2
.
4
2
+ 16
2
= c
2
. 20 = c
2
. 2͙5ෆ = c. Add the measure of each exterior
side together: 2 + 5 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 +2 + 5 + 2 + 2͙5 ෆ + 4 + 2 + 4 +
2͙5 ෆ = 34 + 4͙5ෆ.
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284. p = 32 + 2͙5 ෆ. First ﬁnd the hypotenuse of at least one of the two
congruent triangles using the Pythagorean theorem: 1
2
+ 2
2
= c
2
.
1 + 4 = c
2
. ͙5ෆ = c. Add the measure of each exterior side together.
2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + ͙5 ෆ +
͙5 ෆ = 32 + 2͙5ෆ.
Set 58
285. y = 4͙13 ෆ. CG
and BH
are congruent because the opposite sides
of a rectangle are congruent. Plug the measurements of ΔABH
into the Pythagorean theorem: 12
2
+ 8
2
= y
2
. 144 + 64 = y
2
.
208 = y
2
. 4͙13 ෆ= y.
286. p = 48 + 8͙13 ෆ. Figure ABDE is an isosceles trapezoid; AB
is
congruent to ED
. Add the measure of each exterior line segment
together: 6 + 6 + 4͙13 ෆ+ 12 + 6 + 6 + 12 + 4͙13 ෆ= 48 + 8͙13 ෆ.
Set 59
287. x = ͙21 ෆ. In parallelogram DGHK, opposite sides are congruent,
so ΔKDJ and ΔGFH are also congruent (SideSideSide postulate
or SideAngleSide postulate). Plug the measurements of ΔKDJ
and ΔGFH into the Pythagorean theorem: (2x)
2
+ 4
2
= 10
2
.
4x
2
+ 16 = 100. 4x
2
= 84. x
2
= 21. x = ͙21 ෆ.
288. p = 14͙21 ෆ+ 20. Replace each x with ͙21 ෆand add the exterior
line segments together: 2͙21 ෆ+ ͙21 ෆ+ 4͙21 ෆ+ 10 + 2͙21 ෆ+
4͙21 ෆ+ ͙21 ෆ+ 10 = 14͙21 ෆ+ 20.
Set 60
289. x = 16. The hatch marks indicate that WT
and QR
are congruent.
Plug the measurements of ΔSQR into the Pythagorean theorem:
12
2
+ x
2
= 20
2
. 144 + x
2
= 400. x
2
= 256. x = 16.
290. y = 12. Opposite sides of a rectangle are congruent. OQ
equals the
sum of WT
, TS
, and SR
. Create the equation: 40 = 16 + y + 12.
40 = 28 + y. 12 = y.
142
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143
291. p = 144. Add the measure of each exterior line segment together:
40 + 16 + 12 + 12 + 16 + 16 + 16+ 16 = 144
Set 61
292. x = 21 inches. ΔABC and ΔJIH are congruent (SideSideSide
postulate). ΔEDC and ΔEGH are also congruent because three
angles and a side are congruent. However, ΔABC and ΔJIH are
only similar to ΔEDC and ΔEGH (AngleAngle postulate). A
comparison of side AC
to side EC
reveals a 10:5 or 2:1 ratio
between similar triangles. If AB
measures 42 inches, then
corresponding line segment ED
measures half as much, or 21
inches.
293. y = 19. Using the same ratio determined above, if BC
measures 38
inches, then corresponding line segment DC
measures half as
much, or 19 inches.
294. p = 270 inches. Add the measure of each exterior line segment
together: 2(42 + 38 + 10) + 2(21 + 19 + 5) = 180 + 90 = 270 inches.
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Perimeter is the distance around an object. In this chapter you’ll work
with area, which is the amount of surface covered by an object. For exam
ple, the number of tiles on a kitchen ﬂoor would be found by using an area
formula, while the amount of baseboard used to surround the room would
be found by using a perimeter formula. Perimeter is always expressed in
linear units. Area is always expressed in square units.
If the perimeter of a ﬁgure is the outline of a ﬁgure, then the area of a
ﬁgure is what is inside the outline; area is the amount of twodimensional
space that a planar ﬁgure occupies.
13
Area of Polygons
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A square equals 1 foot by 1 foot
The area of polygon ABCD equals 10 squares by 7 squares,
or 70 square feet
The Area of a Parallelogram
Area of parallelogram ABCD in square increments = base × height
A
D
C
B
height height
base
base
= 1 square foot
Polygon ABCD is 10 square feet by 7 square feet,
or 70 square feet
A
C D
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
B
146
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147
The Area of a Rectangle
Area of rectangle ABCD in square increments = base × height
The Area of a Rhombus
Area of rhombus ABCD in square increments = base × height
ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ(diagonal × diagonal)
The Area of a Square
Area of square ABCD in square increments = base × height
A
D C
B
height
base
A
D C
B
height
base
diagonal
1
diagonal
2
or
NOTE: a rhombus has
an area like a rectangle,
not a square
A
D C
B
height
base
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The Area of a Triangle
Area of ΔABC in square increments = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ base × height
The Area of a Trapezoid
Area of a trapezoid in square increments = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ height (base + base)
D
height
base
2
base
1
Area of Trapezoid ABCD = Area of Δ
1
+ Area Δ
2
Area of Trapezoid ABCD = ¹ base
1
× height + ¹ base
2
× height,
or ¹ height (base
1
+ base
2
)
2
1
A
C
D
B
triangle
1
triangle
2
A
C
D
B
height
base
triangle
1
Triangle
1
≅ triangle
2
therefore the area Δ
1
≅ area Δ
2
Area Δ
1
= ¹ Area of polygon ABCD
Area Δ
1
= ¹ b · h
triangle
2
148
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149
The Area of a Regular Polygon
The area of regular polygon ABCDE in square increments
= ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ apothem × perimeter
Similar Triangles
A
B
16 20
12
D
5
E
4
3 F C
Triangle
1
Area Δ
1
= ¹ (16)(12)
Triangle
2
Area Δ
2
= ¹ (4)(3)
96 6
Apothem
A
B
C
E D
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The ratio of areas between two similar triangles equals the square
of the ratio of lengths between corresponding sides.
Set 62
Choose the best answer.
295. Area is
a. the negative space inside a polygon.
b. a positive number representing the interior space of a polygon.
c. all the space on a plane.
d. no space at all.
296. Two congruent ﬁgures have
a. equal areas.
b. disproportional perimeters.
c. no congruent parts.
d. dissimilar shapes.
Ratio of Areas
Δ
1
: Δ
2
Ratio of Corresponding Parts
Δ
1
: Δ
2
96 : 6, or
AB : DE
4 : 1
BC : EF
4 : 1
CA : FD
4 : 1
(4 : 1)
2
16 : 1
150
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151
297. The area of the ﬁgure below is the sum of which areas?
a. ΔABH + CDEH + ΔHFG + ΔCEH
b. ΔABH + ΔCDE + ΔHFG
c. ΔABH + ΔCDE + ΔHFG + ΔCEH
d. ΔABH + CDEH + ΔHFG + ΔAHG
298. If two triangles are similar, the ratio of their areas is
a. equal to the ratio of the lengths of any corresponding sides.
b. two times the ratio of the lengths of any corresponding sides.
c. equal to the square of the ratio of the lengths of any corre
sponding sides.
d. It cannot be determined.
299. An apothem
a. extends from the opposite side of a polygon.
b. bisects the side of a polygon to which it is drawn.
c. is drawn to a vertex of a polygon.
d. forms half of a central angle.
Set 63
Circle whether the statements below are true or false.
300. A rhombus with opposite sides that measure 5 feet has the same
area as a square with opposite sides that measure 5 feet.
True or False.
H
G A
B
C
D
F
E
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301. A rectangle with opposite sides that measure 5 feet and 10 feet has
the same area as a parallelogram with opposite sides that measure 5
feet and 10 feet. True or False.
302. A rectangle with opposite sides that measure 5 feet and 10 feet has
twice the area of a square with opposite sides that measure 5 feet.
True or False.
303. A parallelogram with opposite sides that measure 5 feet and 10 feet
has twice the area of a rhombus whose height is equal to the height
of the parallelogram and whose opposite sides measure 5 feet.
True or False.
304. A triangle with a base of 10 and a height of 5 has a third the area of
a trapezoid with base lengths of 10 and 20 and a height of 5.
True or False.
Set 64
Find the shaded area of each ﬁgure below.
305. Find the shaded area of ΔDEF.
E
D F
6ft.
152
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153
306. Find the shaded area of quadrilateral ABCD.
307. Find the shaded area of polygon KLMNO.
308. Find the shaded area of Figure X.
12 ft.
Figure X
5 ft.
L
K M
N O
10 ft.
4 ft.
A
D C
B
8 ft.
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309. Find the shaded area of Figure Y.
310. Find the shaded area of Figure Z.
1 ft.
2 ft.
1.5 ft.
6 ft.
Figure Z
1.5 ft.
A G
E C
H
B F D
D
E
F
A
B
C
O 28
Figure Y
√2
14√2
154
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155
Set 65
Find the area of each ﬁgure below.
311. Find the area of quadrilateral ABCD.
312. Find the area of polygon RSTUV.
313. Find the area of concave polygon KLMNOPQR.
N O
P M
L Q
R K
2.5 ft.
2.5 ft.
Given:
MN = 3
4 ft.
R S
V U
T
3 ft.
15 ft.
W
B C
20 ft.
A E D
16 ft.
36 ft.
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314. Find the area of polygon BCDEFGHI.
315. Find the area of concave polygon MNOPQR.
P Q
M
N O
R
4 ft.
3 ft.
15 ft.
8 ft.
B
7 ft.
I H
G F C 2.5 ft.
10 ft.
D E
2 ft.
156
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157
Set 66
Use the ﬁgure and information below to answer questions 316
through 319.
316. Find the length of CH
.
317. Find the area of ΔCHI.
318. ΔCHI andΔABC are similar triangles. Find the area of ΔABC.
319. Find the entire area of ﬁgure ABCDEFGH.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
x
3 ft.
mAC = 8 ft.
Area of regular hexagon
HCDEFG = 45 ft.
2
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Set 67
Use the ﬁgure and information below to answer questions 320
through 322.
320. Find the measure of side x.
321. Find the measure of side y.
322. Find the measure of side z.
K
R
M N
O
P Q
10
A
L
y
x
z
RO = x
RM = y
NO = z
Area of RMNO = Area of RQPO
Area of RMNOPQ = 320 sq. ft.
Area of ΔRMA = 50 sq. ft.
158
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159
Answers
Set 62
295. b. All areas are positive numbers. Choice a is incorrect because if
an area represented negative space, then it would be a negative
number, which it cannot be. Choice c is incorrect because the area
of a plane is inﬁnite; when you measure area, you are only
measuring a part of that plane inside a polygon. Points, lines, and
planes do not occupy space, but ﬁgures do.The area of a ﬁgure is
how much space that ﬁgure occupies.
296. a. Congruent ﬁgures have congruent parts, perimeters, and areas.
297. c. The area of a closed ﬁgure is equal to the area of its
nonoverlapping parts. This answer doesn’t have to be broken
down into all triangles—quadrilateral CDEH is a part of the
ﬁgure. However, none of the answers can include quadrilateral
CDEH and ΔCEH because they share interior points. Also,
ΔAHG is not part of the closed ﬁgure; in fact, it isn’t closed at all.
298. c. The ratio of areas between two similar triangles is equal to the
square of the ratio of length of any two of their corresponding
sides: Area of triangle: area of similar triangle = (length of side:
length of corresponding side)
2
.
299. b. An apothem extends from the center of a polygon to a side of
the polygon. All apothems are perpendicular bisectors and only
span half the length of a polygon. A radius (to be discussed in a
later chapter) extends from the center point of a polygon to any
vertex. Two consecutive radii form a central angle. Apothems are
not radii.
Set 63
300. False. If the rhombus is not a square, it is a tilted square which
makes its height less than 5 feet. Consequently, the area of the
square is 25 square feet, but the area of the rhombus is less than 25
square feet.
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301. False. If the parallelogram is not a rectangle, it is a tilted rectangle
which makes its height less than 5 feet. Conseqently, the area of
the rectangle is 50 square feet, but the area of the parallelogram is
less than 50 square feet.
302. True. If two squares can ﬁt into one rectangle, then the rectangle
has twice the area of one square.
303. True. Like the squares and rectangle above, if two rhombuses can
ﬁt into one parallelogram, then the parallelogram has twice the
area of one rhombus.
304. True. One triangle has an area of 25 square feet. The trapezoid
has an area that measures 75 square feet. Three triangles ﬁt into
one trapezoid or the area of one triangle is a third of the area of
the trapezoid.
Set 64
305. 9͙3 ෆ square feet. To ﬁnd the height of equilateral ΔDEF, draw a
perpendicular line segment from vertex E to the midpoint of DF
.
This line segment divides ΔDEF into two congruent right
triangles. Plug the given measurement into the Pythagorean
x
x + x = 2x
x
x
x + x = 2x
x
160
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161
theorem: (ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ × 6)
2
+ b
2
= 6
2
; 9 + b
2
= 36; b = ͙27 ෆ; b = 3͙3 ෆ.
To ﬁnd the area, multiply the height by the base: 3͙3 ෆ feet × 6 feet
= 18͙3ෆ square feet. Then, take half of 18͙3ෆ to get 9͙3 ෆ.
306. 64 square feet. If one side of the square measures 8 feet, the other
three sides of the square each measure 8 feet. Multiply two sides of
the square to ﬁnd the area: 8 feet × 8 feet = 64 square feet.
307. 100 square feet. If one side of a regular pentagon measures 10
feet, the other sides of a pentagon measure 10 feet. If the
perimeter of said pentagon measures 50 feet (10 × 5 = 50) and its
apothem measures 4 feet, then the area of the pentagon measures
ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ × 4 feet × 50 feet = 100 square feet.
308. 720 square feet. The perimeter of a regular hexagon with sides 12
feet long equals 72 feet (12 × 6). When the apothem of said
hexagon measures 5 feet, the area of the pentagon equals ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ × 5 feet
× 72 feet = 180 square feet. Since there are four conjoined regular
hexagons, each with an area of 180 square feet, you multiply 180
square feet by 4. The honeycomb ﬁgure has a total area of 720
square feet.
309. 195 square feet. The area of this shaded ﬁgure requires the dual
use of the Pythagorean theorem and the ratio of areas between
similar triangles. First, ﬁnd half the area of ΔABC. Perpendicularly
extend a line segment from vertex A to the midpoint of CB
. The
height of right triangle ABO is 14
2
ft. + b
2
= (14͙2ෆ)
2
ft. 196 sq. ft. +
b
2
= 392 sq. ft. b
2
= 196 sq. ft. b = 14 ft. Using the height, ﬁnd the
area of ΔABC: ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ(14 ft. × 28 ft.) = 196 sq. ft. Within ΔABC is a
void, ΔDEF. The area of the void must be subtracted from 196
square feet. Since ΔABC is similar to ΔDEF (by AngleAngle
Postulate), ( )
2
=
ᎏ
19
x
6
ᎏ
. Therefore, x = 1 square foot; 196 square
feet – 1 square foot = 195 square feet.
310. 10.5 square feet. Find the area of a rectangle with sides 6 feet and
3 feet: A = 6 ft. × 3 ft. = 18 sq. ft. Find the area of both triangular
voids: Area of the smaller triangular void = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ(3 ft. × 1 ft.) = 1.5 sq.
ft. Area of the larger triangular void = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ(6 ft. × 2 ft.) = 6 sq. ft.
Subtract 7.5 sq. ft. from 18 sq. ft. and 10.5 square feet remain.
14͙2 ෆ
ᎏ
͙2ෆ
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Set 65
311. 480 square feet. You can either treat ﬁgure ABCD like a
trapezoid or like a parallelogram and a triangle. However you
choose to work with the ﬁgure, you must begin by ﬁnding the
measure of ED
using the Pythagorean theorem: 16
2
+ a
2
= 20.
256 + a
2
= 400. a
2
= 144. a = 12. Subtract 12 feet from 36 feet to
ﬁnd the measure of BC
: 36 – 12 = 24. Should you choose to treat
the ﬁgure like the sum of two polygons, to ﬁnd the area of the
entire ﬁgure, you ﬁnd the area of each polygon separately and add
them together. Parallelogram ABCE: 16 ft. × 24 ft. = 384 sq. ft.
ΔECD: ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ × 16 ft. × 12 ft. = 96 sq. ft. 384 sq. ft. + 96 sq. ft. = 480
sq. ft. Should you choose to treat the ﬁgure like a trapezoid and
need to ﬁnd the area, simply plug in the appropriate
measurements: ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ × 16 ft. (24 ft. + 36 ft.) = 480 square feet.
312. 60 + 2͙5ෆ square feet. Extend TW
to RV
. Let’s call this XW
.
XW
perpendicularly bisects RV
; as a perpendicular bisector, it
divides isosceles triangle RWV into two congruent right triangles
and establishes the height for parallelograms RSTW and VUTW.
Solve the area of parallelogram VUTW: 2 ft. × 15 ft. = 30 sq. ft.
Find the height of ΔRWV using the Pythagorean theorem: a
2
+ 2
2
= 3
2
. a
2
+ 4 = 9. a
2
= 5. a = ͙5 ෆ. Solve the area of ΔRWV: ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ × ͙5 ෆ
ft. × 4 ft. = 2͙5ෆ sq. ft. Add all the areas together: 2͙5 ෆ sq. ft. + 30
sq. ft. + 30 sq. ft. = 60 + 2͙5 ෆ square feet.
313. Area = 24.0 square feet. Rhombuses KLQR and MNOP are
congruent. Their areas each equal 2.5 ft. × 3 ft. = 7.5 sq. ft. The
area of square LMPQ equals the product of two sides: 3 ft. × 3 ft. =
9 ft. The sum of all the areas equal 9 sq. ft. + 7.5 sq. ft. + 7.5 sq. ft.
= 24 square feet.
314. Area = 60.0 square feet. The simplest way to ﬁnd the area of
polygon BCDEFGHI is to ﬁnd the area of rectangle BGHI: 10 ft.
× 7 ft. = 70 sq. ft. Subtract the area of rectangle CFED: 5 ft. × 2 ft.
= 10 sq. ft. 70 sq. ft. – 10 sq. ft. = 60 square feet.
315. Area = 70 square feet. Again, the simplest way to the ﬁnd the
area of polygon MNOPQR is to ﬁnd the area of trapezoid MPQR.
162
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163
ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ × 8 feet (4 ft. + 15 ft.) = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ × 8(19) = 76 sq. ft. Subtract the area of
ΔNPO: ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ × 3 ft. × 4 ft. = 6 sq. ft. 76 sq. ft. – 6 sq ft. = 70 square
feet.
Set 66
316. x = 5 feet. To ﬁnd x, use the given area of hexagon HCDEFG and
work backwards. The area of a regular polygon equals half the
product of its perimeter by its apothem: 45 sq. ft. = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ p × 3 ft.; p =
30 ft. The perimeter of a regular polygon equals the length of each
side multiplied by the number of sides: 30 ft. = s ft. × 6.; s = 5 ft.
317. Area = 6 square feet. ΔACH is an isosceles triangle. A line drawn
from its vertex to AC
bisects the line segment, which means mAI
=
mCI
, or ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ of 8 feet long. Since question 316 found the measure of
HC
, only the measure of HI
remains unknown. Plug the given
measurements for ΔCHI into the Pythagorean theorem. 4
2
+ b
2
=
5
2
. 16 + b
2
= 25. b
2
= 9. b = 3. Once the height is established, ﬁnd
the area of ΔCHI: ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ × 4 ft. × 3 ft. = 6 square feet.
318. Area = 24 square feet. It is given that ΔCHI and ΔABC are
similar triangles. You know the lengths of two corresponding sides,
and you know the area of the smaller triangle. Apply the rule
regarding the areas of similar triangles: ᎏ
6 sq
x
. ft.
ᎏ= (ᎏ
4
8
f
f
t
t
.
.
ᎏ)
2
. ᎏ
6 sq
x
. ft.
ᎏ=
(ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ)
2
. ᎏ
6 sq
x
. ft.
ᎏ= ᎏ
1
4
ᎏ. Crossmultiply: 6 sq. ft. × 4 = x. 24 square feet = x.
319. Area = 81 square feet. The areas within the entire ﬁgure are the
sum of its parts: 24 sq. ft. + 6 sq. ft. + 6 sq. ft. + 45 sq. ft. = 81
square feet.
Set 67
320. x = 22 feet. The area of trapezoid RMNO plus the area of
trapezoid RQPO equals the area of ﬁgure RMNOPQ. Since
trapezoids RMNO and trapezoid RQPO are congruent, their areas
are equal: ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ(320 sq. ft.) = 160 sq. ft. The congruent height of each
trapezoid is known, and one congruent base length is known.
Using the equation to ﬁnd the area of a trapezoid, create the
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equation: 160 sq. ft. = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ(10 ft.)(10 ft. + x). 160 sq. ft. = 50 sq. ft. +
5x ft. 110 sq. ft. = 5x ft. 22 feet = x.
321. y = 10͙2 ෆ feet. Work backwards using the given area of ΔRMA:
50 sq. ft. = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏb(10 ft.). 50 sq. ft. = 5 ft. × b. 10 ft. = b. Once the base
and height of ΔRMA are established, use the Pythagorean theorem
to ﬁnd RM
: 10
2
+ 10
2
= c
2
. 100 + 100 = c
2
. 200 = c
2
. 10͙2 ෆ = c.
RM
= 10͙2ෆ feet.
322. z = 2͙26 ෆfeet. Imagine a perpendicular line from vertex N to the
base of trapezoid RMNO. This imaginary line divides RO
into
another 10foot segment. The remaining portion of line RO
is 2
feet long. Use the Pythagorean theorem to ﬁnd the length of NO
:
(10 ft.)
2
+ (2 ft.)
2
= z
2
. 100 sq. ft. + 4 sq. ft. = z
2
. 104 sq. ft. = z
2
.
2͙26 ෆfeet = z.
164
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A prism is the threedimensional representation of planar ﬁgures, like
rectangles or squares. To ﬁnd the exterior area of a threedimensional
shape, called the surface area, simplify the prism or cube by breaking it
down into its planar components.
Surface Area of a Prism
A prism has six faces; each face is a planar rectangle.
Side
A
Side
B
Side
C
14
Surface Area of
Prisms
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For every side or face you see, there is a congruent side you cannot see.
If you pull each face apart, you will see pairs of congruent rectangles.
The surface area of a prism is the sum of the areas of its face areas, or Sa
= (length × width) + (length × height) + (width × height) + (width × height)
+ (length × height) + (length × width). This formula simpliﬁes into:
Sa = 2(lw + wh + lh)
6 ft. × 5 ft. × 1 ft.
disassemble
5 ft. 5 ft.
6 ft. 6 ft.
1 ft. 1 ft.
6 ft.
5 ft.
1 ft.
1 ft.
Side
A
a
Side
C
c
Side
B
b
166
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167
Surface Area of a Cube
Like the rectangular prism, a cube has six faces; each face is a congruent
square.
The surface area of a cube is the sum of its face areas, or Sa = (length ×
width) + (length × width) + (width × height) + (width × height) + (length ×
height) + (length × height). This formula simpliﬁes into: Sa = 6e
2
, where e
is the measure of the edge of the cube, or length of one side.
Set 68
Choose the best answer.
323. A rectangular prism has
a. one set of congruent sides.
b. two pairs of congruent sides.
c. three pairs of congruent sides.
d. four pairs of congruent sides.
324. How many faces of a cube have equal areas?
a. two
b. three
c. four
d. six
3 feet × 3 feet × 3 feet
disassemble
3 feet
3 feet
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Set 69
Find the surface area.
325. Mark plays a joke on Tom. He removes the bottom from a box of
bookmarks. When Tom lifts the box, all the bookmarks fall out.
What is the surface area of the empty box Tom is holding if the
box measures 5.2 inches long by 17.6 inches high and 3.7 inches
deep?
326. Crafty Tara decides to make each of her friends a light box. To let
the light out, she removes a right triangle from each side of the
box such that the area of each face of the box is the same. What is
the remaining surface area of the box if each edge of the box
measures 3.3 feet and the area of each triangle measures 6.2
square feet?
327. Jimmy gives his father the measurements of a table he wants built.
If the drawing below represents that table, how much veneer does
Jimmy’s father need to buy in order to cover all the exterior
surfaces of his son’s table?
328. The 25th Annual GoCart Race is just around the corner, and
Dave still needs to build a platform for the winner. In honor of the
tradition’s longevity, Dave wants the platform to be special; so, he
will cover all the exposed surfaces of his platform in red velvet. If
the base step measures 15 feet by 7 feet by 1 foot, and each
1 foot
7 feet
15 feet
2 feet
2 feet
2 feet
168
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169
consecutive step is uniformly 1 foot from the edge of the last step,
how much exposed surface area must Dave cover?
329. Sarah cuts three identical blocks of wood and joins them endto
end. How much exposed surface area remains?
Set 70
Find each value of x using the ﬁgures and information below.
330. Surface Area = 304 square feet
x
2x
12x
Block
3
Block
1
B
l
o
c
k
2
8.3 in.
4.0 in.
1.7 in.
Sa Block
1
Х Sa Block
2
Х Sa Block
3
15 ft.
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331. Surface Area = 936 square meters
332. Surface Area = 720 square yards
cube
1
Х cube
2
3x
3x
3x
cube
2
cube
1
4x
4.5x
4x
170
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171
Answers
Set 68
323. c. When the faces of a rectangular prism are laid sidebyside, you
always have three pairs of congruent faces. That means every face
of the prism (and there are six faces) has one other face that shares
its shape, size, and area.
324. d. A cube, like a rectangular prism, has six faces. If you have a
small box nearby, pick it up and count its faces. It has six. In fact, if
it is a cube, it has six congruent faces.
Set 69
325. Surface area = 260.24 square inches. Begin by ﬁnding the whole
surface area: surface area = 2(lw + wh + lh). Sa = 2(17.6 in.(5.2 in.)
+ 5.2 in.(3.7 in.) + 17.6 in.(3.7 in.). Sa = 2(91.52 sq. in. + 19.24 sq.
in. + 65.12 sq. in.). Sa = 2(175.88 sq. in.). Sa = 351.76 sq. in. From
the total surface area, subtract the area of the missing face:
Remaining Sa = 351.76 sq. in. – 91.52 sq. in. Remaining Sa =
260.24 square inches.
326. Surface area = 28.14 square feet. You could use the formula to
determine the surface area of a rectangular prism to also determine
the surface area of a cube, or you could simplify the equation to 6
times the square of the length of one side: Sa = 6(3.3 ft.)
2
. Sa =
6(10.89 sq. ft.). Sa = 65.34 sq. ft. Tara removes six triangular
pieces, one from each face of the cube. It is given that each
triangular cutout removes 6.2 sq. feet from the total surface area. 6
× 6.2 sq. ft. = 37.2 sq. ft. To ﬁnd the remaining surface area,
subtract the area removed from the surface area: 65.34 sq. ft. –
37.2 sq. ft. = 28.14 square feet.
327. Surface area = 318 square feet. These next few problems are
tricky: Carefully look at the diagram. Notice that the top of each
cubed leg is not an exposed surface area, nor is the space they
occupy under the large rectangular prism. Let’s ﬁnd these surface
areas ﬁrst. The top of each cubed leg equals the square of the
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length of the cube: (2 feet) = 4 sq. ft. There are four congruent
cubes, four congruent faces: 4 × 4 sq. ft. = 16 sq. ft. It is reasonable
to assume that where the cubes meet the rectangular prism, an
equal amount of area from the prism is also not exposed. Total area
concealed = 16 sq. ft + 16 sq. ft. = 32 sq. ft. Now ﬁnd the total
surface area of the table’s individual parts.
Sa of one cube = 6(2 feet)
2
= 6(4 sq. ft.) = 24 sq. ft.
Sa of four congruent cubes = 4 × 24 sq. ft. = 96 sq. ft.
Sa of one rectangular prism = 2(15 ft.(7 ft.) + 7 ft.(1 foot) + 15
ft.(1 foot)) = 2(105 sq. ft. + 7 sq. ft. + 15 sq. ft.) = 2(127 sq. ft.) =
254 sq. ft.
Total Sa = 96 sq. ft. + 254 sq. ft. = 350 sq. ft.
Finally, subtract the concealed surface area from the total
surface area = 350 sq. ft. – 32 sq. ft = 318 sq. ft.
328. Surface area = 318 square feet. Like the question above, there
are concealed surface areas in this question. However, let’s only
solve exposed areas this time around. Find the surface area for the
base rectangular prism. Do not worry about any concealed parts;
imagine the top plane rising with each step. Sa of base rectangular
prism = 2(15 ft.(7 ft.) + 7 ft.(1 foot) + 15 ft.(1 foot)) = 2(105 sq. ft. +
7 sq. ft. + 15 sq. ft.) = 2 (127 sq. ft.) = 254 sq. ft. Of the next two
prisms, only their sides are considered exposed surfaces (the lip of
their top surfaces have already been accounted for). The new
formula removes the top and bottom planes: Sa of sides only = 2(lh
+ wh). Subtracting a foot from each side of the base prism, the
second prism measures 13 feet by 5 feet by 1 foot. The last prism
measures 11 feet by 3 feet by 1 foot. Plug the remaining two
prisms into the formula:
Sa of sides only = 2(13 ft.(1 foot)) + 5 ft(1 foot)) = 2(13 sq. ft. + 5
sq. ft) = 2(18 sq. ft.) = 36 sq. ft.
Sa of sides only = 2(11 ft.(1 foot) + 3 ft.(1 foot)) = 2(11 sq. ft. + 3
sq. ft.) = 2(14 sq. ft.) = 28 sq. ft.
Add all the exposed surface areas together: 254 sq. ft. + 36 sq. ft.
+ 28 sq. ft = 318 sq. ft.
329. Surface area = 297.5 sq. in. The three blocks are congruent; ﬁnd
the surface area of one block and multiply it by three: Sa = 2(8.3
in.(4.0 in.) + 4.0 in. (1.7 in.) + 8.3 in.(1.7 in.) = 2(33.2 sq. in. + 6.8
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173
sq. in. + 14.11 sq. in.) = 2(54.11 sq. in.) = 108.22 sq. in. 108.22 sq.
in. × 3 = 324.66 sq. in. Look at the diagram: The ends of one block
are concealed, and they conceal an equal amount of space on the
other two blocks: 2 × 2(4.0 in.(1.7 in.) = 27.2 sq. in. Subtract the
concealed surface area from the total surface area: 324.66 sq. in. –
27.2 sq. in. = 297.46 sq. in.
Set 70
330. x = 2 feet. Plug the variables into the formula for the Sa of a
prism: 304 sq. ft. = 2(12x(2x) + 2x(x) + 12x(x)). 304 sq. ft. = 2(24 x
2
+ 2x
2
+ 12x
2
). 304 sq. ft. = 2(38x
2
). 304 sq. ft. = 76x
2
. 4 sq. ft. = x
2
.
2 feet = x.
331. x = 3 meters. Plug the variables into the formula for the Sa of a
prism: 936 square meters = 2(4.5x(4x) + 4x(4x) + 4.5x(4x)). 936 sq.
meters = 2(18x
2
+ 16x
2
+ 18x
2
). 936 sq. meters = 2(52x
2
). 936 sq.
meters = 104x
2
. 9 sq. meters = x
2
. 3 meters = x.
332. x = 2͙2 ෆ yards. To ﬁnd the area of one of the two congruent
cubes, divide 864 square yards by 2: ᎏ
864 s
2
q. yd.
ᎏ= 432 sq. yd. Plug the
measure of each edge into the formula Sa = 6 e
2
: 432 sq. yd. =
6(3x
2
). 432 sq. yd. = 6(9x
2
). 432 sq. yd. = 54x
2
. 8 sq. yd. = x
2
.
2͙2 ෆ yards = x.
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Is the cup half empty or half full? In geometry, it is neither half empty,
nor half full; it is half the volume.
Volume is the space within a solid threedimensional ﬁgure. Surface area
deﬁnes the outer planes of a threedimensional object; everything within is
volume. Volume is what is inside the shapes you and I see.
= the V
surface area volume
15
Volume of Prisms
and Pyramids
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Types of Prisms
You met rectangular and cubic prisms in the last chapter, and you exclu
sively used right prisms. The sides of a right prism perpendicularly meet
the base. The base is the polygon that deﬁnes the shape of the solid.
The sides of an oblique prism do not meet the base at a 90° angle.
Again, that base can be any polygon.
The most common oblique prism is the Pyramid.
Triangular
Pyramid
Square
Pyramid
Pentagonal
Pyramid
base base base
Right Triangular
Prism
Right Rectangular
Prism
Right Pentagonal
Prism
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177
The Volume of a Right Prism
The volume of a right prism = area of its base × height
The volume of a right rectangular prism = area of its base × height, or
length × width × height
The volume of a right cube = area of its base × height, or
length × width × height, or
(the measure of one edge)
3
Area
of Base
1
l
w
l
Area
of Base
1
h
e
i
g
h
t
w
l
Area
of Base
1
h
e
ig
h
t
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The Volume of a Pyramid
The volume of a pyramid = ᎏ
1
3
ᎏ (area of its base × height)
It is a third of the volume of a right prism with the same base and height
measurements.
+ +
Volume
Right Prism
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
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179
Set 71
Choose the best answer.
333. Which ﬁgure below is a right prism?
a.
b.
c.
d.
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334. Which polygon deﬁnes the shape of the right prism below?
a. triangle
b. rectangle
c. square
d. pentagon
335. What is the name of a right 12sided prism?
a. an octagonal prism
b. decagonal prism
c. dodecagon
d. tetradecagon
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181
336. Which ﬁgure below is a right hexagonal prism?
a.
b.
c.
d.
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337. Which choice describes a ﬁgure that has a third of the volume of
the ﬁgure below?
a. a right triangular prism with base sides that measure 2 in. and a
height that measures 2 in.
b. a cube with base sides that measure 2 in. and a height that
measures 2 in.
c. a triangular pyramid with base sides that measure 2 in. and a
height that measures 2 in.
d. a square pyramid with base sides that measure 2 in. and a height
that measures 2 in.
2 in.
2 in.
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183
338. Which ﬁgure below has a third of the volume of a 3 in. cube?
a.
b.
c.
d.
339. Which measurement uses the largest increment?
a. perimeter
b. area
c. surface area
d. volume
1 in.
3 in.
2 in.
1 in.
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Set 72
Find the volume of each solid.
340. Find the volume of a right heptagonal prism with base sides that
measure 13 cm, an apothem that measures 6 cm, and a height that
measures 2 cm.
341. Find the volume of a pyramid with four congruent base sides. The
length of each base side and the prism’s height measure 2.4 ft.
342. Find the volume of a pyramid with an eightsided base that
measures 330 sq. in. and a height that measures 10 in.
Set 73
Find each unknown element using the information below.
343. Find the height of a right rectangular prism with a 295.2 cubic in.
volume and a base area that measures 72.0 sq. in.
344. Find the base area of a right nonagon prism with an 8,800 cubic ft.
volume and a height that measures 8.8 ft.
345. Find the measure of a triangular pyramid’s base side if its volume
measures 72͙3ෆ cubic meters and its height measures 6 meters.
The base of the pyramid forms an equilateral triangle.
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185
Set 74
Use the solid ﬁgure below to answer questions 346 through 348.
346. What is the perimeter of one face side?
347. What is the surface area?
348. What is the volume?
Set 75
Use the solid ﬁgure below to answer questions 349 through 351.
349. What is the width and length?
350. What is the height?
351. What is the surface area?
base
1
perimeter of base = 54 in.
volume = 810 in.
3
x
2x
l = 2.1 meters
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Answers
Set 71
333. d. Choice a is a hexagonal pyramid; none of its six sides
perpendicularly meets its base. The sides of choice b only
perpendicularly join one base side, and choice c is an oblique
quadrilateral; its base is facing away from you. Choice d is the
correct answer; it is a triangular right prism.
334. d. The solid in the ﬁgure has seven sides. Subtract two base sides,
and it has ﬁve sides, one for each edge of a pentagon. You will be
tempted to answer rectangle. Remember all right prisms have
rectangles. It is the polygon at the base of the rectangle that
deﬁnes the prism’s shape.
335. b. Do as you did above: subtract two base sides—the prism has ten
sides, one for each edge of a decagon.
336. b. A hexagonal prism must have a hexagon as one of its sides. A
right hexagonal prism has two hexagons. Choice a is a pentagonal
right prism; choice c is a decagonal right prism; and choice d is not
a prism at all.
337. c. If their base measurements are congruent, a pyramid’s volume is
a third of a prism’s volume. Choices a and b are eliminated because
they are not pyramids. Choice d is also eliminated because its base
polygon is not equivalent to the given base polygon, an equilateral
triangle.
338. c. Again, you are looking for a pyramid with the same base
measurements of the given cube. Twentyseven choice a’s can ﬁt
into the given cube; meanwhile, eightyone choice d’s ﬁt into that
same cube. Only three choice c’s ﬁt into the given cube; it has one
third the volume.
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187
339. d. Perimeter uses a single measurement like an inch to describe the
outline of a ﬁgure. Area and Surface area use square
measurements, an inch times an inch, to describe twodimensional
space. Volume uses the largest measurement; it uses the cubic
measurement, an inch times an inch times an inch. Volume is
threedimensional; its measurement must account for each
dimension.
Set 72
340. Volume = 546 cubic centimeters. The area of a sevensided
ﬁgure equals onehalf of its perimeter multiplied by its apothem:
perimeter of heptagonal base = 13 cm × 7 sides = 91 cm. Area of
heptagonal base = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ × 91 cm × 6 cm = 273 square cm. The volume of
a right prism is the area of the base multiplied by the prism’s
height: volume of prism = 243 square cm × 2 cm = 546 cubic cm.
341. Volume = 4.6 cubic feet. This is a square based pyramid; its
volume is a third of a cube’s volume with the same base
measurements, or ᎏ
1
3
ᎏ (area of its base × height). Plug its
measurements into the formula: ᎏ
1
3
ᎏ(2.4 ft.)
2
× 2.4 ft. Volume of
square pyramid = ᎏ
1
3
ᎏ(5.76 sq. ft.) × 2.4 ft. = ᎏ
1
3
ᎏ(13.824 cubic ft.) = 4.608
cubic ft.
342. Volume = 1,100 cubic inches. Unlike the example above, this
pyramid has an octagonal base. However, it is still a third of a right
octagonal prism with the same base measurements, or ᎏ
1
3
ᎏ (area of its
base × height). Conveniently, the area of the base has been given to
you: area of octagonal base = 330 square inches. Volume of octagonal
pyramid = ᎏ
1
3
ᎏ(330 sq. in) × 10 in. = ᎏ
1
3
ᎏ(3,300 cubic in.) = 1,100 cubic
in.
Set 73
343. Height = 4.1 inches. If the volume of a right rectangular prism
measures 295.2 cubic inches, and the area of one of its two
congruent bases measures 72.0 square inches, then its height
measures 4.1 inches: 295.2 cubic in. = 72.0 square in. × h.
4.1 in. = h.
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344. Area = 1,000 square feet. If the volume of a right nonagon prism
measures 8,800 cubic feet and its height is 8.8 feet, then the area of
one of its two congruent bases measures 1,000 square feet: 8,800
cubic ft. = B × 8.8 feet. 1,000 square ft = B.
345. Side = 12 meters. If the volume of a triangular pyramid is 72͙3ෆ
cubic meters, work backwards to ﬁnd the area of its triangular base
and then the length of a side of that base (remember, you are
working with regular polygons, so the base will be an equilateral
triangle). 72͙3 ෆ cubic meters = ᎏ
1
3
ᎏ area of base × 6 meters. 72͙3 ෆ
cubic meters = a × 2 meters. 36͙3 ෆ square meters = a. Divide both
sides by 6͙3ෆ meters. 36͙3ෆ square meters = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ side of base × 6͙3 ෆ
meters. 6 meters = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏb. 12 meters = b.
Set 74
346. Perimeter = 8.4 meters. A cube has six congruent faces; each face
has four congruent sides. The perimeter of a single cube face is the
sum of the measure of each edge, or p = 4s. p = 4(2.1 meters). p =
8.4 meters.
347. Surface area = 26.5 square meters. The surface area of a cube is
the area of one face multiplied by the number of faces, or Sa = 6bh.
Sa = 6(2.1 meters)
2
. Sa = 6(4.41 square meters).
Sa = 26.46 square meters.
348. Volume = 9.3 cubic meters. The volume of a cube is its length
multiplied by its width multiplied by its height, or V = e
2
(e
represents one edge of a cube). V = 2.1 meters × 2.1 meters × 2.1
meters. V = 9.261 cubic meters.
Set 75
349. Length = 18 inches; width = 9 inches. Plug the given variables
and perimeter into the formula p = l + w + l + w. 54 in. = 2x + x +
2x + x. 54 in. = 6x. 9 inches = x.
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189
350. Height = 5 inches. Multiply the length and width above: 18 inches
× 9 inches = 162 square inches. This is the area of one base side.
Using the given volume and the area above, ﬁnd the third
dimension of rectangular prism A: 810 cubic in. = 162 sq. in. × h. 5
inches = h.
351. Surface area = 594 square inches. The surface area of a prism is a
sum of areas, or Sa = 2(lw + wh + lh). Plug the measures you found
in the previous question into this formula. Sa = 2(18 in. × 9 in.) +
(9 in. × 5 in.) + (18 in. × 5 in.). Sa = 2(162 sq. in. + 45 sq. in. + 90
sq. in.). Sa = 2 (297 sq. in.). Sa = 594 square inches.
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Part A
It is said that circles have no beginnings and no ends; and yet as you start
this chapter, you have just come full circle. To properly review circles, we
start with a point.
16
Working with Circles
and Circular Figures
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Center Point, Radius, Central Angle
A center point is a stationary point at the “center” of a circle. All the points
that lie on the circle are equidistant from the center point.
A radius is a line segment that extends from the center of the circle and
meets exactly one point on the circle.
Circles with the same center point but different radii are concentric
circles.
A central angle is an angle formed by two radii.
Chords and Diameters
A chord is a line segment that joins two points on a circle.
A diameter is a chord that joins two points on a circle and passes through
the center point.
Note: A diameter is twice the length of a radius, and a radius is half the
length of a diameter.
A
B
C
D
O
d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
OB and OD are each a radius
of O.
DB is a diameter
AC is a chord
OB Х OD
2 × mOB = mDB
D
C
A
B
radius
r
a
d
i
u
s
o
f
P
of
P
Points in relationship to
Circle ( P)
• B is an interior point
to P
• C is on P
• D is an exterior
to P
O
O
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193
Arcs
An arc is a set of consecutive points on a circle. Arcs can be measured by
their rotation and by their length.
A minor arc is an arc that measures less than 180°.
A semicircle is an arc that measures exactly 180°. The endpoints of a
semicircle are the endpoints of a diameter.
A major arc is an arc that measures greater than 180°.
Note: An arc formed by a central angle has the same rotation of that
angle.
A
B
C
D
O
33°
d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
r
a
d
i
u
s
AB = 33°
mAB = 10.1 inches
AB is a minor arc
ABC is a semicircle
ABD is a major arc
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Other Lines and Circles
A tangent is a ray or line segment that intercepts a circle at exactly one
point. The angle formed by a radius and a tangent where it meets a circle
is a right angle.
Note: Two tangents from the same exterior point are congruent.
A secant is a ray or line segment that intercepts a circle at two points.
Congruent Arcs and Circles
Congruent circles have congruent radii and diameters. Congruent central
angles form congruent arcs in congruent circles.
Set 76
Choose the best answer.
352. Which points of a circle are on the same plane?
a. only the center point and points on the circle
b. points on the circle but no interior points
c. the center point, interior points, but no points on the circle
d. all the points in and on a circle
A
B
D
C R O RB Х RD
OB Х OD
secant
t
a
n
g
e
n
t
194
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195
353. In a circle, a radius
a. is the same length of a radius in a congruent circle.
b. extends outside the circle.
c. is twice the length of a diameter.
d. determines an arc.
354. Congruent circles
a. have the same center point.
b. have diameters of the same length.
c. have radii of the same length.
d. b and c
Use the ﬁgure below to answer question 355.
355. Which point(s) is an exterior point?
a. A, B, C
b. D, E, F, G
c. H
d. A, E, G, H
356. •A lies 12 inches from the center of ीP. If ीP has a 1foot radius.
•A lies
a. inside the circle.
b. on the circle.
c. outside the circle.
d. between concentric circles.
A
B
C
D
E
ीP
F H
G
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357. A diameter is also
a. a radius.
b. an arc.
c. a chord.
d. a line.
358. Both tangents and radii
a. extend from the center of a circle.
b. are half a circle’s length.
c. meet a circle at exactly one point.
d. are straight angles.
359. From a stationary point, Billy throws four balls in four directions.
Where each ball lands determines the radius of another circle.
What do the four circles have in common?
a. a center point
b. a radius
c. a diameter
d. a tangent
360. From a stationary point, Kim aims two arrows at a bull’seye. The
ﬁrst arrow nicks one point on the edge of the bull’seye; the other
strikes the center of the bull’seye. Kim knows the ﬁrst arrow
traveled 100 miles. If the bull’seye is 200 miles wide, how far is
Kim from the center of the bull’seye?
a. 100 miles
b. 2͙100 ෆmiles
c. 1,000 miles
d. 100͙2ෆ miles
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197
Set 77
Use the ﬁgure below to answer question 361.
361. What is the value of x?
Use the ﬁgure below to answer question 362.
362. If the diameter of ीM is 2 inches, then what is the diameter of
ीP?
2 inches
Given
OM ഡ QO
PO ഡ QP
M
O
P
Q
C
B
A
4
3
F E
D
15
x
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Use the ﬁgure below to answer question 363.
363. Which circle is NOT congruent?
A
C
7
√74
D
2.5
√18.75
10
10√2
B
1
√24
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199
Use the ﬁgures below to answer question 364.
364. In which ﬁgure (L, N, P, O) is the set of arcs not congruent?
L. P.
B A
C
D
A
B
C
D
O. N.
A
B
A
D
C
B
AB Х CD
AB Х BA
AB Х CD
AB Х CD
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Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 365 through 367.
365. What is the length of a radius in the circle?
366. What is the area of ΔDEF?
367. Is
DHG a major or minor arc?
Part B
When you measure the edge of a circle, where and when do you stop if
there isn’t a vertex? You could go in circles trying to ﬁgure it out. Fortu
nately, you don’t have to. Greek mathematicians measured it for you and
called it pi. Actually, they named it the Greek letter pi, whose symbol looks
like a miniature Stonehenge (π). The value of π is approximately (≈) ᎏ
2
7
2
ᎏ,
or 3.14.
The Circumference of a Circle
The circumference of a circle is the circle’s version of perimeter. Circa
means around. Sailors circumnavigate the earth; they navigate their way
around the earth.
D
E
G F
H
25
20
200
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201
Circumference of a circle = π × diameter, or
π × 2 times the radius
The Measure of an Arc
Using the circumference of a circle, you can ﬁnd the measure of an arc.
C = π14 inches
D
A
B
C
7
30°
30°
360°
1
12
=
AD is ¹ of 14π inches, or
π inches ,
A
C
B
7
in
.
2 × mAB = mAC
C = π2r
C = π2 × 7 inches
C = 14π inches
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Area of a Circle
Area of a circle in square units = π × radius
2
Set 78
Choose the best answer.
368. What is the circumference of the ﬁgure below?
a. 57π inches
b. 114π inches
c. 26.5π inches
d. ͙57π ෆinches
A
57″
O
A = πr
2
A = π(7 inches)
2
A = 49π square inches
A
C
B
7
in
.
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203
369. What is the area of the ﬁgure below?
a. 51.5π square feet
b. 103π square feet
c. 206π square feet
d. 10,609π square feet
370. What is the radius of the ﬁgure below?
a. 8 centimeters
b. 16 centimeters
c. 32 centimeters
d. 64 centimeters
371. The area of a square is 484 square feet. What is the maximum area
of a circle inscribed in the square?
a. 11π square feet
b. 22π square feet
c. 484π square feet
d. 122π square feet
O
T
perimeter of = 64π centimeters O
M
N
O
2
0
6
fe
e
t
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372. If the circumference of a circle is 192π feet, then the length of the
circle’s radius is
a. 16͙6 ෆ feet.
b. 96 feet.
c. 192 feet.
d. 384 feet.
373. If the area of a circle is 289π square feet, then the length of the
circle’s radius is
a. 17 feet.
b. 34 feet.
c. 144.5 feet.
d. 289 feet.
374. What is the area of a circle inscribed in a dodecagon with an
apothem 13 meters long?
a. 26π meters
b. 156π meters
c. 42.2π meters
d. 169π meters
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 375 through 376.
C = 64π feet
O
B
A
C
D
204
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205
375.
BD is a quarter of the circumference of ीC. If the total
circumference of ीC is 64π feet, then what is the length of
BD?
a. 16π feet
b. 32π feet
c. 48π feet
d. 90π feet
376. What is the central angle that intercepts
BD?
a. an acute angle
b. a right angle
c. an obtuse angle
d. a straight angle
Use the ﬁgure below to answer question 377.
377. What is the area of the shaded ﬁgure?
a. 144 square feet – 12π square feet
b. 12 square feet – 144π square feet
c. 144 square feet
d. 144 square feet – 24π square feet + 12π square feet
12 feet
6 feet
6 feet
A
D
B
C
501 Geometry Questions
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Set 79
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 378 through 379.
378. What is the area of the shaded ﬁgure?
a. 56.25π square feet
b. 112.5π square feet
c. 225π square feet
d. 337.4π square feet
379. What is the ratio of the area of ीM and the area of ीK?
a. 1:8
b. 1:4
c. 1:2
d. 1:1
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 380 through 381.
380. If mAB
= 60 and mOB
= 75, what is the measure of OA
?
C
B
A
O
K
L 15H
M 15H
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207
381. If central angle AOC measures 60°, what is the area of the shaded
ﬁgure?
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 382 through 383.
382. If each side of a cube has an identical semicircle carved into it,
what is the total carved area of the cube?
383. What is the remaining surface area of the cube?
Using the ﬁgure below answer questions 384 through 387.
384. Find the shaded area of the ﬁgure.
385. Find the length of
AB.
386. Find the length of
CD.
387. Are
AB and
CD the same length?
A
C
D B
7.0 in.
45°
O
7.0 in.
4 in.
4 in.
4
i
n
.
2.5 in.
501 Geometry Questions
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Set 80
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 388 through 389.
388. What is the area of trapezoid ABDE?
389. What is the shaded area?
Part C
When a balloon deﬂates or a basketball goes ﬂat, the spherical object loses
a part of its volume made of air. Unlike a prism, a sphere does not have a
set of straight sides that you can measure. Its volume and surface area must
be deduced.
F
G
A
B
C
D
E
4 feet
6 feet
4√2 feet
AB Х BF Х FD Х DE
height of ΔBCD = 6 ft.
208
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209
The Surface Area of a Cylinder (A Right Prism
with Circular Bases)
Surface Area of a cylinder the sum of the area of its sides, or
in squared units
=
2πr
2
+ 2πrh
The Volume of a Cylinder
Volume of a cylinder in cubic units = area of its base × height, or π(r
2
)h
The Volume of a Cone
Volume of a cone in cubic units = ᎏ
1
3
ᎏ the area of its base × height,
or ᎏ
1
3
ᎏπ(r
2
)h
The Surface Area of a Sphere
A sphere is a set of points equidistant from one central point. Imagine a cir
cle; rotate that circle in every direction around a stationary center point.
You have created the shape of a sphere and witnessed that no matter what
slice of the sphere you take, if it is cut through the center point, it is a circle.
Surface area of a sphere in square units = 4πr
2
The Volume of a Sphere
Volume of a sphere in cubic units = ᎏ
4
3
ᎏπr
3
501 Geometry Questions
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Set 81
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 390 through 392.
390. If the volume of the cylinder P is 432π cubic feet, what is the
length of x?
391. What is the surface area of cylinder P?
392. What is the total volume of the solid?
12 ft.
P
12 ft.
x
x
x
x
Volume of cylinder P = 432π cubic ft.
210
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211
Set 82
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 393 through 395.
393. If the volume of a candy wrapper Q is ᎏ
1
6
ᎏπ cubic inches, what is the
length of x?
394. If the conical ends of candy wrapper Q have ᎏ
9
1
6
ᎏπ cubic inch
volumes each, what is the length of y?
395. What is the surface area of the candy inside the wrapper?
Set 83
Solve each question using the information in each word problem.
396. Tracy and Jarret try to share an ice cream cone, but Tracy wants
half of the scoop of ice cream on top while Jarret wants the ice
cream inside the cone. Assuming the half scoop of ice cream on
top is a perfect sphere, who will have more ice cream? The cone
and scoop both have radii 1 inch long; the cone is 3 inches high.
397. Dillon ﬁlls the cylindrical coffee grind containers each day. One
bag has 32π cubic inches of grinds. How many cylindrical
containers can Dillon ﬁll with two bags of grinds if each cylinder is
4 inches wide and 4 inches high?
x
y
inch
Q
Volume Q = , π cubic inches
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398. Before dinner, Jen measures the circumference and length of her
roast. It measures 12π round and 4 inches long. After cooking, the
roast is half its volume but just as long. What is the new
circumference of the roast?
399. Mike owns many compact discs (CDs), that he has to organize. If
his CD holder is 5 inches wide by 4.5 inches high by 10 inches
long and his CDs measure 4 inches wide by an eighth of an inch
long, how many CDs ﬁt backtoback in Mike’s CD case?
400. Munine is trying to carry her new 24inch tall cylindrical speakers
through her front door. Unfortunately, they do not ﬁt upright
through the width of the doorway. If each speaker is 2,400π cubic
inches, what is the maximum width of her doorway.
401. Tory knows that the space in a local cathedral dome is 13,122π
cubic feet. Using her knowledge of geometry, what does Tory
calculate the height of the dome to be?
Set 84
402. In art class, Billy adheres 32 identical half spheres to canvas. What
is their total surface area, not including the ﬂat side adhered to the
canvas, if the radius of one sphere is 8 centimeters?
403. Joe carves a perfect 3.0meter wide sphere inside a right prism. If
the volume of the prism is 250.0 cubic meters, how much material
did he remove? How much material remains?
404. Theoretically, how many spherical shaped candies should ﬁt into a
cylindrical jar if the diameter of each candy is 0.50 inch, and the jar
is 4.50 inches wide and 6 inches long?
405. A sphere with a 2foot radius rests inside a cube with edges 4.5 feet
long. What is the volume of the space between the sphere and the
cube assuming pi ≈ 3.14?
212
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213
Set 85
Use Puppet Dan to answer questions 406 through 414.
406. What is the volume of Puppet Dan’s hat if it measures 6 inches
wide by 6 inches high?
407. What is the volume of Puppet Dan’s head if it measures 6 inches
wide?
408. What is the volume of Puppet Dan’s arms if one segment measures
2 inches wide by 4 inches long?
2 inches
4 inches
6 inches
6 inches
1 inch
2 inches
2 inches
2 inches
2 inches
3 inches
3 inches
6 inches
5 inches
6 inches
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409. What is the volume of Puppet Dan’s hands if each one measures
2 inches wide?
410. What is the volume of Puppet Dan’s body if it measures 6 inches
wide and 6 inches long? Each end of the cylinder measures 6
inches wide.
411. What is the volume of Puppet Dan’s legs if each segment measures
2 inches wide by 5 inches long?
412. What is the volume of Puppet Dan’s feet if each foot measures
2 inches × 2 inches × 1 inch?
413. What is puppet Dan’s total volume?
414. Puppet Dan is made out of foam. If foam weighs 3 ounces per
cubic inch, how much does the total of puppet Dan’s parts weigh?
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215
Answers
Set 76
352. d. All the points of a circle are on the same plane; that includes the
points on a circle (points on the circumference), the center point,
interior points, and exterior points (unless otherwise stated).
353. a. A circle is a set of points equidistant from a center point.
Congruent circles have points that lie the same distance from two
different center points. Consequently, the radii (the line segments
that connect the center point to the points on a circle) of
congruent circles are congruent. Choices b and c are incorrect
because they describe secants. Choice d describes a chord.
354. d. Congruent circles have congruent radii; if their radii are
congruent, then their diameters are also congruent. Choice a
describes concentric circles, not congruent circles.
355. c. An exterior point is a point that lies outside a circle. Choice a
represents a set of interior points. Choice b represents a set of
points on ीP; and choice d is a mix of points in, on, and outside
of ीP.
356. b. 12 inches is a foot, so •A lies on ीP. If the distance from •A to
the center point measured less than the radius, then •A would rest
inside ीP. If the distance from •A to the center point measured
greater than the radius, then •A would rest outside of ीP.
357. c. A diameter is a special chord; it is a line segment that bridges a
circle and passes through the center point.
358. c. As a tangent skims by a circle, it intercepts a point on that circle.
A radius spans the distance between the center point of a circle and
a point on the circle; like a tangent, a radius meets exactly one
point on a circle.
359. a. Billy acts as the central ﬁxed point of each of these four circles,
and circles with a common center point are concentric.
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360. d. A bull’seye is a circle; the ﬂight path of each arrow is a line.
The ﬁrst arrow is a tangent that also forms the leg of a right
triangle. The path of the second arrow forms the hypotenuse. Use
the Pythagorean theorem to ﬁnd the distance between Kim and
the center of the bull’seye: 100 miles
2
+ 100 miles
2
= c
2
. 10,000 sq.
miles + 10,000 sq. miles = c
2
. 20,000 sq. miles = c
2
. 100͙2 ෆ = c.
Set 77
361. x = 16. Tangent lines drawn from a single exterior point are
congruent to each of their points of interception with the circle;
therefore, x is the sum of lengths AF
and EF
where AF
is
congruent to AB
, and EF
is congruent to ED
. AB
is 4, and DE
is
the difference of CE
and CD
, or 12; x is 4 plus 12, or 16.
362. Diameter ीP = 0.5. The diameter of ीO is half the diamter of
ीM. The diameter of ीO is 1 in. The diameter of ीP is half the
diameter of ीO. The diameter of ीP is 0.5 inches.
363. ीB. Use the Pythagorean theorem to ﬁnd the length of each
circle’s radius:
ीA: 7
2
+ b
2
= ͙74
2
ෆ. 49 + b
2
= 74. b
2
= 25. b = 5. Radius = 5.
ीB: 1
2
+ ͙24
2
ෆ= c
2
. 1 + 24 = c
2
. 25 = c
2
. 5 = c. Radius = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ(5) = 2.5.
ीC: 10
2
+ b
2
= 10͙2
2
ෆ. 100 + b
2
= 200. b
2
= 100. b = 10.
Radius = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ(10) = 5.
ीD: 2.5
2
+ ͙18.75
2
ෆ= c
2
. 6.25 + 18.75 = c
2
. 25 = c
2
. 5 = c.
Radius = 5.
Only ीB is not congruent to ीA, ीC, and ीD.
364. ीO. Parallel lines form congruent arcs. Two diameters form
congruent arcs. Parallel tangent lines form congruent semi
circles. Secants extending from a ﬁxed exterior point form
noncongruent arcs.
365. Radius = 15. Use the Pythagorean theorem to ﬁnd the length of
DF
: a
2
+ 20
2
= 25
2
.
a
2
+ 400 = 625. a
2
= 225. a = 15.
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217
366. Area = 150 square inches. The length of ED
is the height of
ΔDEF. To ﬁnd the area of ΔDEF, plug the measures of the radius
and the height into ᎏ
1
2
ᎏbh: ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ(15 in. × 20 in.) = 150 square inches.
367.
DHG is a major arc.
Set 78
368. b. The perimeter of a circle is twice the radius times pi: (2 × 57
inches)π.
369. d. The area of a circle is the radius squared times pi: π(103 feet)
2
.
370. c. If the perimeter of a circle is 64π centimeters, then the radius of
that circle is half of 64, or 32 centimeters.
371. c. If the area of a square is 484 square feet, then the sides of the
square must measure 22 feet each. The diameter of an inscribed
circle has the same length as one side of the square. The maximum
area of an inscribed circle is π(11 feet)
2
, or 121π square feet.
372. b. The circumference of a circle is pi times twice the radius. 192
feet is twice the length of the radius; therefore half of 192 feet, or
96 feet, is the actual length of the radius.
373. a. The area of a circle is pi times the square of its radius. If 289 feet
is the square of the circle’s radius, then 17 feet is the length of its
radius. Choice c is not the answer because 144.5 is half of 289, not
the square root of 289.
374. d. If the apothem of a dodecagon is 13 meters, then the radii of an
inscribed circle are also 13 meters. The area of the circle is π(13
meters)
2
, or 169π square meters.
375. a. The length of arc BD is a quarter of the circumference of ीC,
or 16π feet.
376. b. A quarter of 360° is 90°; it is a right angle.
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377. c. This question is much simpler than it seems. The half circles
that cap square ABCD form the same area as the circular void in
the center. Find the area of square ABCD, and that is your answer.
12 feet × 12 feet = 144 feet. Choice a and d are the same answer.
Choice b is a negative area and is incorrect.
Set 79
378. b. The radii of ीL and ीM are half the radius of ीK. Their areas
equal π(7.5 feet)
2
, or 56.25π square feet each. The area of ीK is
π(15
2
), or 225π square feet. Subtract the areas of circles L and M
from the area of ीK: 225π sq. ft. – 112.5π sq. ft. = 112.5π square
feet.
379. b. Though ीM has half the radius of ीK, it has a fourth of the
area of ीK. 56.25π square feet: 225.0π square feet, or 1:4.
380. Radius = 45 feet. Use the Pythagorean theorem: a
2
+ 60
2
= 75
2
.
a
2
+ 3,600 = 5,625. a
2
= 2,025. a = 45 feet.
381. The area of AO is π(45 feet)
2
, or 2,025π square feet. If central
angle AOC measures 60°, then the area inside the central angle is
ᎏ
1
6
ᎏ the total area of ीO, or 337.5π square feet. The area of ΔABO is
ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ(45 feet × 60 feet), or 1,350 square feet. Subtract the area inside
the central angle from the area of the triangle: shaded area = 1,350
square feet – 337.5π square feet.
382. The area of one semicircle is ᎏ
1
2
ᎏπ(r
2
): A = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏπ(2.5 in.
2
). A ≈ 3.125π
square inches. Multiply the area of one semicircle by 6: 6 × 3.125π
square inches ≈ 18.75π square inches.
383. The surface area of a cube is 6(4 inches
2
), or 96 square inches.
Subtract the area of six semicircles from the surface area of the
cube: remaining surface area = 96 square inches – 18.75π
square inches.
384. Area = 18.4π square inches.
CD is part of a concentric circle
outside ीO. Its area is π(14 inches)
2
, or 196π square inches. A 45°
slice of that area is oneeighth the total area, or 24.5π square
218
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219
inches. This is still not the answer. The area of ीO is π(7 inches)
2
,
or 49π square inches. Again, a 45° slice of that area is oneeighth
the total area, or 6.1π square inches. Subtract the smaller wedge
from the larger wedge, and the shaded area is 18.4π square inches.
385. 1.8π inches. The circumference of ीO is 14π inches. A 45° slice
of that circumference is oneeighth the circumference, or 1.8π
inches.
386. 3.5π inches. The circumference of concentric ीO is 28π inches.
An eighth of that circumference is 3.5π inches.
387. No.
AB and
CD may have the same rotation, but they do not
have the same length.
Set 80
388. Area = 48 square feet. Use the Pythagorean theorem to ﬁnd AG
.
(4͙2 ෆ ft.)
2
= (4 ft.)
2
+ b
2
. 32 sq. ft. = 16 sq. ft. + b
2
. b = 4 ft. If AG
equals 4 feet, then AF
and EF
equal 8 feet, and AE
equals 16 feet.
The area of a trapezoid is half its height times the sum of its bases:
ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ(4 ft.)(8 ft. + 16 ft.) = 2(24) = 48 square feet.
389. Area ≈ 14.88 square feet. The shaded area is the difference of
ΔBCD’s area and the area between chord BD and arc BD. The
height of ΔBCD is 6 feet. Its area is ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ(6 ft. × 8 ft.) = 24 sq. ft. The
area of
BD is tricky. It is the area of the circle contained within
∠BFD minus the area of inscribed ΔBFD. Central angle BFD is a
right angle; it is a quarter of a circle’s rotation and a quarter of its
area. The circle’s radius is 4͙2 ෆ feet. The area of circle F is
π(4͙2 ෆ ft.)
2
, or 32π square feet. A quarter of that area is 8π square
feet. The area of ΔBFD is ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ(4͙2 ෆ ft. × 4͙2 ෆ ft.) = 16 sq. ft. Subtract
16 square feet from 8π square feet, then subtract that answer from
24 square feet and your answer is approximately 14.88 square feet.
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Set 81
390. x = 6 feet. The radius of cylinder P is represented by x ; it is the
only missing variable in the volume formula. Plug in and solve:
432π cubic ft. = (πx
2
)12 ft. 36 sq. ft. = x
2
. 6 feet = x.
391. Surface area = 216π square feet. The surface area of a cylinder is
2πr
2
+ 2πrh: Plug the variables in and solve: Sa = 2π(6 ft)
2
+ 2π(6 ft.
× 12 ft.). 72π sq. ft.+ 144π sq. ft. = 216π sq. ft.
392. Total volume = 864π cubic feet. This problem is easier than you
think. Each cone has exactly the same volume. The three cones
together equal the volume of the cylinder. Multiply the volume of
the cylinder by 2, and you have the combined volume of all three
cones and the cylinder.
Set 82
393. x = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ inch. The volume of a sphere is ᎏ
4
3
ᎏπr
3
, where x is the value of
r. Plug the variables in and solve: ᎏ
1
6
ᎏπ cubic in. = ᎏ
4
3
ᎏπx
3
. ᎏ
1
8
ᎏ cubic in. =
x
3
. ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ inch = x.
394. y = ᎏ
1
4
ᎏ inch. The volume of a cone is ᎏ
1
3
ᎏ πr
2
h, where y is the value of
r. Plug in the variables and solve: ᎏ
9
1
6
ᎏπ cubic in. = ᎏ
1
3
ᎏπy
2
ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ in. ᎏ
9
1
6
ᎏπ
cubic in. = ᎏ
1
6
ᎏπy
2
. ᎏ
1
1
6
ᎏπ sq. in. = y
2
. ᎏ
1
4
ᎏ inch = y.
395. Surface area = 1.0π square inch. The candy inside the wrapper is
a perfect sphere. Its surface area is 4πr
2
. Plug the variables in and
solve: Sa = 4π(0.5 inch)
2
. Sa = 1.0π square inch.
Set 83
396. Jarret. The volume of a half sphere is ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ(ᎏ
4
3
ᎏπr
3
). Tracy’s half scoop is
then ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ(ᎏ
4
3
ᎏπ × 1 inch
3
), or ᎏ
2
3
ᎏπ cubic inches. The volume of a cone is
ᎏ
1
3
ᎏπr
2
h. The ice cream in the cone is ᎏ
1
3
ᎏπ(1 inch
2
× 3 inches), or π
cubic inches. Jarret has ᎏ
1
3
ᎏπ cubic inches more ice cream than Tracy.
397. 4 containers. The volume of each container is π(2 in.)
2
(4 in.), or
16π cubic inches. One bag ﬁlls the volume of two containers. Two
bags will ﬁll the volume of four containers.
220
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221
398. Circumference = 6͙2ෆ π inches. This is a multi step problem.
Find the radius of the roast: 2πr = 12π inches. r = 6 inches. The
volume of the roast is π(6 in.)
2
(4 in.), or 144π cubic inches. After
cooking, the roast is half is original volume, or 72π cubic inches.
Its new radius is 72π cubic inches = πr
2
× 4 inches. r = 3͙2ෆ inches.
The new circumference of the roast is 2πr, or 6͙2ෆ π inches.
399. 80 discs. This problem is not as hard as it might seem. A 4inch
wide disc’s diameter is 4 inches. Its circumference is 4π inches; it
will ﬁt snugly in a box with a 5 by 4.5 face. To ﬁnd how many CDs
will sit backtoback in this container, divide the length of the
container by the thickness of each disc: = 80 discs.
400. Less than 20 inches. The radius of a single speaker is π(r
2
× 24
inches) = 2,400π cubic inches. r
2
= 100 square inches. r = 10
inches. The width of each speaker is twice the radius, or 20 inches.
Munine’s door is less than 20 inches wide!
401. 27 feet. Half the volume of a sphere is ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ(ᎏ
4
3
ᎏπr
3
), or ᎏ
2
3
ᎏπr
3
. If the
volume is 13,122π cubic feet, then the radius is 27 feet. The height
of the dome is equal to the radius of the dome; therefore the
height is also 27 feet.
Set 84
402. 4,096π square centimeters. Surface area of a whole sphere is
4πr
2
. The surface area of half a sphere is 2πr
2
. Each sphere’s
surface area is 2π(8 centimeters
2
), or 128π square centimeters.
Now, multiply the surface area of one half sphere by 32 because
there are 32 halves: 32 × 128π square centimeters = 4,096π square
centimeters.
403. Approximately 235.9 cubic meters. Joe removed the same
amount of material as volume in the sphere, or ᎏ
4
3
ᎏπ(1.5 meters)
3
,
which simpliﬁes to 4.5π cubic meters. The remaining volume is
250 cubic meters – 4.5π cubic meters, or approximately 235.9
cubic meters.
10 inches
ᎏᎏᎏ
0.125 inches per disc
501 Geometry Questions
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404. 1,518 candies. The volume of each candy is ᎏ
4
3
ᎏπ(0.25 inches)
3
, or
0.02π cubic inches. The volume of the jar is π(2.25 inches
2
× 6)
inches, or 30.375π cubic inches. Divide the volume of the jar by
the volume of a candy ( ), and 1,518 candies can
theoretically ﬁt into the given jar (not including the space between
candies).
405. Remaining volume ≈ 57.6 ft. First, ﬁnd the volume of the cube,
which is (4.5 feet)
3
, or approximately 91.1 cubic feet. The volume
of the sphere within is only ᎏ
4
3
ᎏπ(2 feet)
3
, or approximately 33.5
cubic feet. Subtract the volume of the sphere from the volume of
the cube. The remaining volume is approximately 57.6 cubic feet.
Set 85
406. Volume of a cone =
ᎏ
1
3
ᎏ
πr
2
h. V = ᎏ
1
3
ᎏπ(3 in.)
2
(6 in.). V = 18π cubic
inches.
407. Volume of a sphere = ᎏ
4
3
ᎏπr
3
. V = ᎏ
4
3
ᎏπ(3 in.)
3
. V = 36π cubic inches.
408. Volume of a cylinder = πr
2
h. V = π(1 in.
2
× 4 in.) V = 4π cubic
inches. There are four arm segments, so four times the volume =
16π cubic inches.
409. Volume of a sphere =
ᎏ
4
3
ᎏ
πr
3
. V = ᎏ
4
3
ᎏπ(1 in.
3
). V =
ᎏ
4
3
ᎏ
π cubic inches.
There are two handballs, so two times the volume =
ᎏ
8
3
ᎏ
π cubic inches.
30.375π cubic inches
ᎏᎏᎏ
0.02π cubic inches
222
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223
410. The body is the sum of two congruent half spheres, which is really
one sphere, and a cylinder. Volume of a sphere = ᎏ
4
3
ᎏπr
3
. V = ᎏ
4
3
ᎏπ(3 in.)
3
.
V = 36π cubic inches. Volume of a cylinder = πr
2
h. V = π(3 in.)
2
(6 in.);
V = 54π cubic inches. Total volume = 90π cubic inches.
411. Volume of a cylinder = πr
2
h. V = π(1 in.
2
× 5 in.) V = 5π cubic
inches. There are four leg segments, so four times the volume =
20π cubic inches.
412. Each foot is a rectangular prism. Volume of a prism = length × width
× height. V = 2 in. × 2 in. × 1 in. V = 4 cubic inches. There are two
feet, so two times the volume = 8 cubic inches.
413. The sum of the volumes of its parts equals a total volume. 18π
cubic inches + 36π cubic inches + 16π cubic inches +
ᎏ
8
3
ᎏ
π cubic
inches + 90π cubic inches + 20π cubic inches ≈ 182.6π cubic inches
+ 8 cubic inches. If π ≈ 3.14, then V ≈ 581.36 cubic inches.
414. Multiply: ᎏ
1
3
cu
o
b
u
i
n
c
c
in
es
ch
ᎏ× 581.36 cubic inches = 1,744.08 ounces.
Puppet Dan is surprisingly light for all his volume!
501 Geometry Questions
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TeamLRN
Geometry is about the relationships of objects in space. A point is a
location in space; a line is a series of locations in space; a plane is an expanse
of locations in space. Seem familiar? It all should; it is Chapter 1 revisited.
But if space is inﬁnitely long and wide, how do you locate something that
doesn’t take up space? To locate points in space, graph a grid by drawing
horizontal and vertical lines.
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1
−1
−2
−3
−4
−5
origin
xaxis
yaxis
17
Coordinate
Geometry
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A point’s position left or right of the origin is its xcoordinate; a point’s
position up or down from the xaxis is its ycoordinate. Every point has a
coordinate pair: (spaces left or right of the yaxis, spaces above or below the
xaxis).
Plotting a Point on a Coordinate Plane
To plot a point from the origin, look at the coordinate pair. Using the ﬁrst
coordinate, count the number of spaces indicated right (x > 0) or left (x <
0) of the origin. Using the second coordinate, count the number of spaces
indicated up (y > 0) or down (y < 0) of the xaxis.
The Length of a Line
On a grid, every diagonal line segment has length; it is the hypotenuse of
an imaginary right triangle. Its length is the square root of the sum of the
square length of each leg. (It is the Pythagorean theorem revisited.)
Quadrant II Quadrant I
Quadrant IV Quadrant III
(−3,2)
(3,1)
(2,−3)
(−5,−2)
y
x
226
501 Geometry Questions
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227
a = x – x
b = y – y
c = d (the distance between two points)
c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
(Pythagorean Theorem)
d
2
= (x – x)
2
+ (y – y)
2
Set 86
Choose the best answer.
415. The origin is
a. where the xaxis begins.
b. where the yaxis begins.
c. where the xaxis intersects the yaxis.
d. not a location.
(−2 − (+4))
(2 − (−2))
Distance = √Δx
2
+ Δy
2
D = √(−2 − 4)
2
+ (2 − −2)
2
D = √(−6)
2
+ (4)
2
D = √36 + 16
D = √52 = 2√13
Pythagorean theorem
a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
√a
2
+ b
2
= c
501 Geometry Questions
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416. •A (–3,–2) lies in quadrant
a. I.
b. II.
c. III.
d. IV.
417. •M (–109,.3) lies in quadrant
a. I.
b. II.
c. III.
d. IV.
418. •Q (.01,100) lies in quadrant
a. I.
b. II.
c. III.
d. IV.
419. •R is 3 spaces right and one space above •P (–1,–2). •R lies in
quadrant
a. I.
b. II.
c. III.
d. IV.
420. •B is 40 spaces left and .02 spaces above •A (20,.18). •B lies in
quadrant
a. I.
b. II.
c. III.
d. IV.
421. •O is 15 spaces right and 15 spaces below •N (–15,0). •O lies on
a. xaxis.
b. yaxis.
c. zaxis.
d. the origin.
228
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229
422. On a coordinate plane, y = 0 is
a. the xaxis.
b. the yaxis.
c. a solid line.
d. ﬁnitely long.
423. A baseball ﬁeld is divided into quadrants. The pitcher is the point
of origin. The second baseman and the hitter lie on the yaxis; the
ﬁrst baseman and the third baseman lie on the xaxis. If the hitter
bats a ball into the far left ﬁeld, the ball lies in quadrant
a. I.
b. II.
c. III.
d. IV.
424. •A (12,3), •B (0,3) and •C (–12,3) are
a. noncoplanar.
b. collinear.
c. noncollinear.
d. a line.
425. •G (14,–2), •H (–1,15) and •I (3,0)
a. determine a plane.
b. are collinear.
c. are noncoplanar.
d. are a line.
426. The distance between •J (4,–5) and •K (–2,0) is
a. ͙11 ෆ.
b. ͙29 ෆ.
c. ͙61 ෆ.
d. ͙22 ෆ.
501 Geometry Questions
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Set 87
State the coordinate pair for each point.
427. •A
428. •B
429. •C
430. •D
x
y
C
A
B
D
230
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231
Set 88
Plot each point on the same coordinate plane. Remember to label
each point appropriately.
431. From the origin, plot •M (4,5).
432. From the origin, plot •N (12,–1).
433. From the origin, plot •O (–3,–6).
434. From •M, plot •P (0,1).
435. From •N, plot •Q (–4,0).
436. From •O, plot •R (–7,–3).
x
y
501 Geometry Questions
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Set 89
Find the distance between each given pair of points.
437. •A (0,4) and •B (0,32)
438. •C (–1,–2) and •D (4,–1)
439. •E (–3,3) and •F (7,3)
440. •G (17,0) and •H (–3,0)
232
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233
Answers
Set 86
415. c. The origin, whose coordinate pair is (0,0), is in fact a location. It
is where the xaxis meets the yaxis. It is not the beginning of
either axis because both axes extend inﬁnitely in opposite
directions, which means they have no beginning and no end.
416. c. Both coordinates are negative: count three spaces left of the
origin; then count two spaces down from the xaxis. •A is in
quadrant III.
417. b. You do not need to actually count 109 spaces left of the origin to
know that •M lies left of the yaxis. Nor do you need to count
three tenths of a space to know that •M lies above the xaxis.
Points left of the yaxis and above the xaxis are in quadrant II.
418. a. Again, you do not need to count onehundredth of a space right
of the origin or a hundred spaces up from the xaxis to ﬁnd in which
quadrant •Q lies. To know which quadrant •Q lies in, you only need
to know that •Q is right of the yaxis and above the xaxis. Points
right of the yaxis and above the xaxis lie in quadrant I.
419. d. To ﬁnd a new coordinate pair, add like coordinates: 3 + (–1) = 2.
1 + (–2) = –1. This new coordinate pair is •R (2,–1); •R lies in
quadrant IV.
420. b. To ﬁnd a new coordinate pair, add like coordinates: (–40) + 20 =
–20. .02 + .18 = .20. This new coordinate pair is •B (–20,.20); •B
lies in quadrant II.
421. b. To ﬁnd a new coordinate pair, add like coordinates: 15 + (–15) =
0. (–15) + 0 = –15. This new coordinate pair is (0,–15); any point
whose xcoordinate is zero.
422. a. The ycoordinate of every point on the xaxis is zero.
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423. b. Draw a baseball ﬁeld—its exact shape is irrelevant; only the
alignment of the players matter. They form the axis of the
coordinate plane. The ball passes the pitcher and veers left of the
second baseman; it is in the second quadrant.
424. b. •A, •B, and •C are collinear; they could be connected to make a
horizontal line, but they are not a line. Choice a is incorrect
because all points on a coordinate plane are coplanar.
425. a. Three noncollinear points determine a plane. Choices b and d
are incorrect because •G, •H, and •I do not lie on a common line,
nor can they be connected to form a straight line. Caution: Do not
assume points are noncollinear because they do not share a
common x or y coordinate. To be certain, plot the points on a
coordinate plane and try to connect them with one straight line.
426. c. First, ﬁnd the difference between like coordinates: x – x and
y – y: 4 – (–2) = 6. –5 – 0 = –5. Square both differences: 6
2
= 36.
(−5)
2
= 25. Remember a negative number multiplied by a negative
number is a positive number. Add the squared differences together,
and take the square root of their sum: 36 + 25 = 61. d = ͙61 ෆ. If you
chose choice a, then your mistake began after you squared –5; the
square of a negative number is positive. If you chose choice b, then
your mistake began when subtracting the xcoordinates; two
negatives make a positive. If you chose d, then you didn’t square
your differences; you doubled your differences.
Set 87
427. •A (1,6). To locate •A from the origin, count one space right of the
origin and six spaces up.
428. •B (–4,2.5). To locate •B from the origin, count four spaces left of
the origin and two and a half spaces up.
429. •C (7,0). To locate •C from the origin, count seven spaces right of
the origin and no spaces up or down. This point lies on the xaxis.
234
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235
430. •D (0,–3). To locate •D from the origin, count no spaces left or
right, but count 3 spaces down from the origin. This point lies on
the yaxis, and x equals zero.
Set 88
For questions 431–436. see the graph below.
Set 89
437. Distance = 28. d
2
= (0 – 0)
2
+ (4 – 32)
2
. d
2
= 0
2
+ (–28)
2
. d
2
= 784.
d = 28. Because these two points form a vertical line, you could just
count the number of spaces along the line’s length to ﬁnd the
distance between •A and •B.
438. Distance = 26. d
2
= (–1 – 4)
2
+ (–2 – (–1))
2
. d
2
= (–5)
2
+ (–1)
2
.
d
2
= 25 + 1. d = ͙26 ෆ.
439. Distance = 10. d
2
= (–3 –7)
2
+ (3 – 3)
2
. d
2
= (–10)
2
+ 0
2
. d
2
= 100.
d = 10. Again, because these two points form a horizontal line, you
P (4,6)
M (4,5)
Q (8,−1)
O (3,−6)
R (10,−9)
N (12,−1)
501 Geometry Questions
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could just count the number of spaces along the line’s length to
ﬁnd the distance between •E and •F.
440. Distance = 20. d
2
= (17 – (–3))
2
+ (0 – 0)
2
. d
2
= (20)
2
+ 0
2
. d
2
= 400.
d = 20. Because these two points also form a horizontal line, you
could just count the spaces along the line’s length to ﬁnd the
distance between •G and •H.
236
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The SLOPE of a line is the measure of its incline.
A horizontal line has zero slope. As incline increases, slope increases
until the line is vertical; the slope of a vertical line is undeﬁned, also called
no slope. Think of slope as the effort to climb a hill. A horizontal surface
is zero effort; a steep hill takes a lot of effort, and a vertical surface cannot
be climbed without equipment.
+ −
increasing
incline
increasing
incline
zero slope zero slope
no slope
18
The Slope of a Line
TeamLRN
Finding Slope
Slope is represented by a ratio of height to length (the legs of a right tri
angle), or rise to run. It is written as ᎏ
Δ
Δ
X
Y
ᎏ, where ΔY is the change in vertical
distance, and ΔX is the change in horizontal distance.
Note: Positive and negative slopes indicate direction of an incline. A pos
itive slope rises from left to right. A negative slope descends from left to
right, or rises from right to left.
Slope in a Line Equation
Every line on a coordinate plane has a line equation. Most of those line
equations have two variables, x and y. You can substitute the coordinate val
ues for every point on that line into the equation and still satisfy the equa
tion. When a line equation is written as y = mx + b, the slope of the line is
the value of m.
The Slopes of Perpendicular and Parallel Lines
Parallel lines have the same slope. Perpendicular lines have negative
reciprocal slopes. If a slope is ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ, a perpendicular slope is –2.
xaxis
yaxis
B
A
D
C
Slope A is negative
Slope B is positive
Slope C is positive
Slope D is negative
Δx
Δx
Δx
Δx
Δy Δy
Δy
Δy
238
501 Geometry Questions
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239
Set 90
Choose the best answer.
441. Pam and Sam are climbing different hills with the same incline. If
each hill were graphed, they would have the same
a. equation.
b. slope.
c. length.
d. coordinates.
442. In American homes, a standard stair rises 7″ for every 9″. The
slope of a standard staircase is
a. ᎏ
7
9
ᎏ.
b. ᎏ
2
7
ᎏ.
c. ᎏ
1
9
6
ᎏ.
d. ᎏ
9
7
ᎏ.
443. Which equation is a line perpendicular to y = –ᎏ
1
2
ᎏx + 4?
a. ᎏ
1
2
ᎏx + 4
b. y = 2x + 8
c. y = –2x + 8
d. y = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏx + 8
444. Bethany’s ramp to her ofﬁce lobby rises 3 feet for every 36 feet.
The incline is
a. ᎏ
3
1
6
fo
fe
o
e
t
t
ᎏ.
b. ᎏ
1
1
2
fo
fe
o
e
t
t
ᎏ.
c. ᎏ
1
1
2
fo
fe
o
e
t
t
ᎏ.
d. ᎏ
3
3
6
f
f
e
e
e
e
t
t
ᎏ.
501 Geometry Questions
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445. Which equation is a line parallel to y = –ᎏ
1
1
4
5
ᎏx + 7?
a. y = ᎏ
1
1
4
5
ᎏx + 12
b. y = ᎏ
1
1
5
4
ᎏx + 7
c. y = ᎏ
–
1
1
5
4
ᎏx + 12
d. y = ᎏ
1
1
5
4
ᎏx + 12
446. The yaxis has
a. zero slope.
b. undeﬁned slope.
c. positive slope.
d. negative slope.
Set 91
State the slope for each of the following diagrams.
447.
(0,0)
(10,2)
(−2,−6)
yaxis
xaxis
240
501 Geometry Questions
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241
448.
(1,10)
(−1,0)
yaxis
xaxis
501 Geometry Questions
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449.
(−3,0)
(0,−5)
yaxis
xaxis
242
501 Geometry Questions
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243
450.
Set 92
Draw each line on one coordinate plane.
451. •M (0,6) lies on line l, which has a –ᎏ
5
2
ᎏ slope. Draw line l.
452. •Q (–3,–4) lies on line m, which has a 3 slope. Draw line m.
453. •S (9,–2) lies on line n, which has a ᎏ
1
0
.
.
0
5
ᎏ slope. Draw line n.
(11,5)
(−7,5)
yaxis
xaxis
501 Geometry Questions
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Set 93
Use distance and slope formulas to prove the validity of questions 454
through 456.
454. Show that the ﬁgure with vertices A (2,–5), B (6,–1), and C (6,–5) is
a right triangle.
455. Show that the ﬁgure with vertices A (–8,3), B (–6,5), C (4,5), and
D (2, 3) is a parallelogram.
456. Show that the ﬁgure with vertices A (–5,–5), B (–5,–1), C (–1,–1),
and D (–1,–7) is a trapezoid.
244
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245
Answers
Set 90
441. b. If two lines have the same incline, they rise the same amount
over the same distance; the relationship of rise over distance is
slope.
442. a. If every step rises 7″ for every 9″, then the relationship of rise
over distance is ᎏ
7
9
ᎏ.
443. b. In the slopeintercept formula, the constant preceding the
variable x is the line’s slope. Since perpendicular lines have slopes
that are negative reciprocals, a line perpendicular to y = –ᎏ
1
2
ᎏx + 4
must have a ᎏ
2
1
ᎏ slope.
444. c. If the ramp rises 3 feet for every 36 feet, then the relationship of
rise over distance is ᎏ
3
3
6
fo
fe
o
e
t
t
ᎏ. The simpliﬁed ratio is ᎏ
1
1
2
fo
fe
o
e
t
t
ᎏ.
445. c. Parallel lines have the same rise over distance ratio, or slope.
That means in slopeintercept equations, the constant before the
xvariable will be the same. In this case, –ᎏ
1
1
4
5
ᎏ must precede x in both
equations. Choices b and d are perpendicular line equations
because their slopes are negative reciprocals of the given slope.
Choice a is an entirely different line.
446. b. The yaxis is a vertical line; its slope is ᎏ
1
0
ᎏ or undeﬁned (some
times referred to as “no slope”). The xaxis is an example of a
horizontal line; horizontal lines have zero slope. Positive slopes are
nonvertical lines that rise from left to right; negative slopes are
nonvertical lines that descend from left to right.
Set 91
447. ᎏ
2
3
ᎏ. Subtract like coordinates: –2 – 10 = –12. –6 – 2 = –8. Place the
vertical change in distance over the horizontal change in distance:
ᎏ
–
–
1
8
2
ᎏ. Then reduce the top and bottom of the fraction by 4. The
ﬁnal slope is ᎏ
2
3
ᎏ.
501 Geometry Questions
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448. 5. Subtract like coordinates: –1 – 1 = –2. 0 – 10 = –10. Place the
vertical change in distance over the horizontal change in distance:
– ᎏ
1
–2
0
ᎏ. Then reduce the top and bottom of the fraction by 2. The
ﬁnal slope is 5.
449. – ᎏ
5
3
ᎏ. Subtract like coordinates: –3 – 0 = –3. 0 – (–5) = 5. Place the
vertical change in distance over the horizontal change in distance:
ᎏ
–
5
3
ᎏ. The slope is –ᎏ
5
3
ᎏ.
450. 0 (zero slope). Horizontal lines have zero slope (ᎏ
–1
0
8
ᎏ = 0).
Set 92
For questions 451–453, see the graph below.
m
M
Q
S
n
x axis
y axis
l
246
501 Geometry Questions
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247
Set 93
454. You could draw the ﬁgure, or you could ﬁnd the slope between
each line. The slope of AB
is ᎏ
(–5
(2
–
–
(–
6
1
)
))
ᎏϭ
ᎏ
Ϫ
Ϫ
4
4
ᎏ
ϭ 1. The slope of BC
is ᎏ
(–1
(6
–
–
(–
6
5
)
))
ᎏϭ
ᎏ
4
0
ᎏ
. The slope of CA
is ᎏ
(–5
(6
–
–
(–
2
5
)
))
ᎏ, or ᎏ
0
4
ᎏ. BC
is vertical
because its slope is undeﬁned; CA
is horizontal because its slope
equals zero. Horizontal and vertical lines meet perpendicularly;
therefore ΔABC is a right triangle.
455. Again, you could draw ﬁgure ABCD in a coordinate plane and
visually conﬁrm that it is a parallelogram, or you could ﬁnd the
slope and distance between each point. The slope of AB
is
ᎏ
(–
(
8
3
–
–
(–
5
6
)
))
ᎏ, or ᎏ
2
2
ᎏ. The distance between •A and •B is ͙(Ϫ2)
2
ෆ+ (Ϫ2) ෆ
2
ෆ,
or 2͙2 ෆ. The slope of BC
is ᎏ
(
(
–
5
6
–
–
5
4
)
)
ᎏ, or ᎏ
–1
0
0
ᎏ. The distance between •B
and •C is the difference of the x coordinates, or 10. The slope of CD
is ᎏ
(
(
5
4
–
–
3
2
)
)
ᎏ, or ᎏ
2
2
ᎏ. The distance between •C and •D is ͙2
2
+ 2
2
ෆ, or 2͙2 ෆ.
The slope of line DA
is ᎏ
(
(
–
3
8
–
–
3
2
)
)
ᎏ, or
ᎏ
Ϫ
0
10
ᎏ
. The distance between •D
and •A is the difference of the xcoordinates, or 10. From the
calculations above you know that opposite AB
and CD
have the
same slope and length, which means they are parallel and con
gruent. Also opposite lines BC
and DA
have the same zero slope
and lengths; again, they are parallel and congruent; therefore
ﬁgure ABCD is a parallelogram because opposite sides AB
/CD
and
BC
/DA
are parallel and congruent.
456. You must prove that only one pair of opposite sides in ﬁgure
ABCD is parallel and noncongruent. Slope AB is ᎏ
–
0
4
ᎏ; its length is
the difference of y coordinates, or 4. Slope BC
is ᎏ
–
0
4
ᎏ; its length is
the difference of x coordinates, or 4. Slope of CD
is ᎏ
6
0
ᎏ; its length is
the difference of y coordinates, or 6. Finally, slope of DA
is (ᎏ
–
2
1
ᎏ); its
length is ͙4
2
+ (– ෆ2
2
) ෆ, or 2͙5 ෆ. Opposite sides AB
and CD
have the
same slope but measure different lengths; therefore they are
parallel and noncongruent. Figure ABCD is a trapezoid.
501 Geometry Questions
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The standard linear line equation is ax + by = c. It has no exponents
greater than one and at least one variable (x or y).
19
The Equation
of a Line
TeamLRN
Points on a Line
Every point on a line will satisfy the line’s equation. To ﬁnd whether a point
satisﬁes the equation, plug it in. To ﬁnd points along a line, use a single vari
able. Plug it in and solve for the unknown coordinate. Using a chart to
monitor your progress will help you.
x y
1 1
−1
−1 −3
0
−2x + 1y = −1
−2(1) + 1y = −1
−2 + y = −1
+2 +2
y = 1
−2(0) + 1y = −1
0 + y = −1
y = −1
−2(−1) + 1y = −1
+2 + y = −1
−2 −2
y = −3
250
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251
The SlopeIntercept Equation
A special arrangement of the linear equation looks like y = mx + b. m rep
resents the line’s slope. b represents the y coordinate where the line crosses
the yaxis.
Set 94
Choose the best answer.
457. In the linear equation y = –4x + 5, the yintercept is
a. (5,0).
b. (–4,0).
c. (0,–4).
d. (0,5).
rise
rise
run
run
slope =
2
2
=
y axis
(0,−2) y intercept
x axis
y = 1x − 2
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458. The slope of linear equation y = ᎏ
2
3
ᎏx– 1 is
a. 2.
b. ᎏ
2
3
ᎏ.
c. ᎏ
3
2
ᎏ.
d. 3.
459. What is the value of b if (–2,3) satisﬁes the equation y = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏx + b.
a. –2
b. –1
c. 3
d. 4
460. What is the value of y if (1, y) satisﬁes the equation y = –ᎏ
1
5
2
ᎏx + ᎏ
2
5
ᎏ.
a. 1
b. –2
c. –3
d. –1
461. Convert the linear equation 4x – 2y = 4 into a slopeintercept
equation.
a. y = 2x – 2
b. y = –2x + 2
c. x = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏy – 2
d. x = –ᎏ
1
2
ᎏy + 2
462. •A (–4,0), •B (0,3), and •C (8,9) satisfy which equation?
a. y = ᎏ
4
3
ᎏx + 3
b. y = ᎏ
3
4
ᎏx + 0
c. y = ᎏ
3
4
ᎏx + 3
d. y = ᎏ
6
8
ᎏx + 9
463. Find the missing y value if •A, •B, and •C are collinear: •A (–3,–1),
•B (0, y), and •C (3,–9).
a. 1
b. –1
c. –3
d. –5
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253
464. Which line perpendicularly meets line 1x + 2y = 4 on the yaxis?
a. y = –ᎏ
1
2
ᎏx + 2
b. y = 2x + 2
c. y = –2x – 2
d. y = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏx – 2
465. A (0, –2) satisﬁes which equation that parallels ᎏ
1
2
ᎏx + ᎏ
1
4
ᎏy = ᎏ
1
8
ᎏ?
a. y = 2x + ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ
b. y = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏx + ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ
c. y = –2x – 2
d. y = –2x + ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ
Set 95
A point of interception is a point in space shared by two or more lines. At
a point of interception, line equations are equal.
For each set of equations below, ﬁnd the point of interception.
466. y = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏx + 4
y = –4x + 1
467. y = –ᎏ
6
5
ᎏx – ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ
y = 1x + 1
468. ᎏ
1
2
ᎏy = 2x + 6
y = –ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx – ᎏ
1
3
ᎏ
469. y = 10x – 2
y + 3 = ᎏ
4
5
ᎏx
470. 1x + 2y = 4
ᎏ
5
2
ᎏx – y = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ
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Set 96
Use the line equations below to answer questions 471 through 474.
x = 0
y = 0
y = x –3.
471. What are the vertices of ΔABC?
472. What is the special name for ΔABC?
473. What is the perimeter of ΔABC?
474. What is the area of ΔABC?
Set 97
Use the line equations below to answer questions 475 through 479.
y = –ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx – 3
y = ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx – 1
y = –ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx – 1
y = ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx – 3
475. What are the vertices of quadrilateral ABCD?
476. Show that quadrilateral ABCD is a parallelogram.
477. Show that diagonals AC
and BD
perpendicular.
478. What special parallelogram is quadrilateral ABCD?
479. What is the area of quadrilateral ABCD?
254
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255
Answers
Set 94
457. d. When a line intercepts the yaxis, its x value is always zero.
Immediately, choices a and b are eliminated. In the slopey
intercept equation, the number without a variable beside it is the y
value of the y intercept coordinate pair. Choice c is eliminated
because –4 is actually the line’s slope value.
458. b. In the slopey intercept equation, the number preceding the x
variable is the line’s slope. In this case that number is the entire
fraction ᎏ
2
3
ᎏ.
459. d. Plug the value of x and y into the equation and solve: 3 = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ(−2) +
b. 3 = (–1) + b. 4 = b.
460. b. Plug the value of x into the equation and solve: y = –ᎏ
1
5
2
ᎏ(1) + ᎏ
2
5
ᎏ · y
= –ᎏ
1
5
2
ᎏ + ᎏ
2
5
ᎏ · y = –ᎏ
1
5
0
ᎏ · y = –2.
461. a. To convert a standard linear equation into a slope intercept
equation, single out the y variable. Subtract 4x from both sides:
–2y = –4x + 4. Divide both sides by –2: y = 2x – 2. Choices c and d
are incorrect because they single out the x variable. Choice b is
incorrect because after both sides of the equation are divided by
–2, the signs were not reversed on the right hand side.
462. c. Find the slope between any two of the given points: ᎏ
(–
(0
4
–
–
3
0
)
)
ᎏ= ᎏ
–
–3
4
ᎏ,
or ᎏ
3
4
ᎏ. •B is the y intercept. Plug the slope and y value of •B into the
formula y = mx + b. y = ᎏ
3
4
ᎏx + 3.
463. d. The unknown y value is also the intercept value of a line that
connects all three points. First, ﬁnd the slope between •A and •C:
–3 – 3 = –6. –1 – (–9) = 8.
ᎏ

8
6
ᎏ
, or
ᎏ

3
4
ᎏ
represents the slope. From
•A, count right three spaces and down four spaces. You are at point
(0,–5). From this point, count right three spaces and down four
spaces. You are at point (3,–9). Point (0,–5) is on the line
connecting •A and •C; –5 is your unknown value.
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464. b. First, convert the standard linear equation into a slopey
intercept equation. Isolate the y variable: 2y = –1x + 4. Divide both
sides by 2: y = –ᎏ
1
2
ᎏx + 2. A line that perpendicularly intercepts this
line on the yaxis has a negative reciprocal slope but has the same y
intercept value: y = 2x + 2.
465. c. First, convert the standard linear equation into a slopeintercept
equation. Isolate the y variable: ᎏ
1
4
ᎏy = –ᎏ
1
2
ᎏx + ᎏ
1
8
ᎏ. Multiply both sides
by 4: y = –2x + ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ. A parallel line will have the same slope as the
given equation; however the y intercept will be different:
y = –2x – 2.
466. (–ᎏ
2
3
ᎏ,ᎏ
1
3
1
ᎏ). Line up equations and solve for x: ᎏ
1
2
ᎏx + 4 = –4x + 1. ᎏ
1
2
ᎏx +
4x = –3. ᎏ
9
2
ᎏx = –3. x = –ᎏ
2
3
ᎏ. Insert the value of x into one equation and
solve for y: y = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ(–ᎏ
2
3
ᎏ) + 4. y = –ᎏ
1
3
ᎏ + 4. y = ᎏ
1
3
1
ᎏ. To check your answer,
plug the x and y value into the second equation. ᎏ
1
3
1
ᎏ = –4(–ᎏ
2
3
ᎏ) + 1.
ᎏ
1
3
1
ᎏ = ᎏ
8
3
ᎏ + ᎏ
3
3
ᎏ. ᎏ
1
3
1
ᎏ = ᎏ
1
3
1
ᎏ. If opposite sides of the equal sign are the
same, then your solution is correct.
467. (–ᎏ
1
2
5
2
ᎏ,ᎏ
2
7
2
ᎏ). Line up equations and solve for x: –ᎏ
6
5
ᎏx – ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ = 1x + 1.

ᎏ
6
5
ᎏ
x – 1x = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ + 1. –ᎏ
1
5
1
ᎏx = ᎏ
3
2
ᎏ. x = –ᎏ
1
2
5
2
ᎏ. Insert the value of x into one
equation and solve: y = –ᎏ
1
2
5
2
ᎏ + 1. y = ᎏ
2
7
2
ᎏ.
468. (–ᎏ
3
1
7
3
ᎏ,ᎏ
1
8
3
ᎏ). First, rearrange the ﬁrst equation so that only the
variable y is on one side of the equal sign. y = ᎏ
2
1
ᎏ(2x + 6). y = 4x +
12. Line up equations and solve for x: 4x + 12 = –ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx – ᎏ
1
3
ᎏ. 4x + ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx =
–12 – ᎏ
1
3
ᎏ. ᎏ
1
3
3
ᎏx = –ᎏ
3
3
7
ᎏ. x = –ᎏ
3
1
7
3
ᎏ. Insert the value of x into one equation
and solve for y: ᎏ
1
2
ᎏy = 2(–ᎏ
3
1
7
3
ᎏ) + 6. ᎏ
1
2
ᎏy = –ᎏ
7
1
4
3
ᎏ + ᎏ
7
1
8
3
ᎏ. ᎏ
1
2
ᎏy = ᎏ
1
4
3
ᎏ. y = ᎏ
1
8
3
ᎏ.
469. (–ᎏ
4
5
6
ᎏ,–ᎏ
7
2
1
3
ᎏ). First, rearrange the second equation so that only the
variable y is on one side of the equal sign: y = ᎏ
4
5
ᎏx – 3. Line up
equations and solve for x: ᎏ
4
5
ᎏx – 3 = 10x – 2. ᎏ
4
5
ᎏx – 10x = 3 – 2.
–ᎏ
4
5
6
ᎏx = 1. x = –ᎏ
4
5
6
ᎏ. Insert the value of x into one equation and solve
for y: y = 10(–ᎏ
4
5
6
ᎏ) – 2. y = –ᎏ
5
4
0
6
ᎏ – ᎏ
9
4
2
6
ᎏ. y = –ᎏ
1
4
4
6
2
ᎏ. y = –ᎏ
7
2
1
3
ᎏ.
256
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257
470. (ᎏ
5
6
ᎏ,ᎏ
1
1
9
2
ᎏ). First, rearrange both equations to read, “y equals”: 2y = 4 –
x. y = 2 – ᎏ
1
2
ᎏx; –y = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ – ᎏ
5
2
ᎏx. y = –ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ + ᎏ
5
2
ᎏx. Line up equations and
solve for x: 2 – ᎏ
1
2
ᎏx = –ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ + ᎏ
5
2
ᎏx. 2 + ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ = ᎏ
1
2
ᎏx + ᎏ
5
2
ᎏx. ᎏ
5
2
ᎏ = ᎏ
6
2
ᎏx. ᎏ
5
6
ᎏ = x. Insert
the value of x into one equation and solve: ᎏ
5
6
ᎏ + 2y = 4. 2y = ᎏ
2
6
4
ᎏ – ᎏ
5
6
ᎏ.
2y = ᎏ
1
6
9
ᎏ. y = ᎏ
1
1
9
2
ᎏ.
Set 95
471. •A (0,0), •B (3,0), and •C (0,3). Usually, in pairs, you would
solve for each point of interception; however, x = 0 (the yaxis) and
y = 0 (the xaxis) meet at the origin; therefore the origin is the ﬁrst
point of interception. One at a time, plug x = 0 and y = 0 into the
equation y = x – 3 to ﬁnd the two other points of interception: y = 0
– 3. y = –3; and 0 = x – 3. –3 = x. The vertices of ΔABC are A (0, 0),
B (3,0), and C (0,–3).
472. ΔABC is an isosceles right triangle. AB
has zero slope; CA
has
no slope, or undeﬁned slope. They are perpendicular, and they
both measure 3 lengths. ΔABC is an isosceles right triangle.
473. Perimeter = 6 units + 3͙2ෆ units. AB
and CA
are three units
long. Using the Pythagorean theorem or the distance formula, ﬁnd
the length of BC
. d = ͙3
2
+ 3
2
ෆ. d = ͙18 ෆ. d = 3͙2ෆ. The
perimeter of ΔABC is the sum of the lengths of its sides: 3 + 3 +
3͙2 ෆ = 6 + 3͙2 ෆ.
474. Area = 4.5 square units. The area of ΔABC is ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ its height times
its length, or ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ(3 × 3). a = 4.5 square units.
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Set 96
475. In pairs, ﬁnd each point of interception:
•A (–3,–2). –ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx – 3 = ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx – 1. –ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx –ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx = 3 – 1. –ᎏ
2
3
ᎏx = 2. x = –3;
y = –ᎏ
1
3
ᎏ(–3) – 3. y = 1 – 3. y = –2.
•B (0,–1). ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx – 1 = –ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx – 1. ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx + ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx = 1 – 1. ᎏ
2
3
ᎏx = 0. x = 0;
y = ᎏ
1
3
ᎏ (0) – 1. y = –1.
•C (3,–2). –ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx – 1 = ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx – 3. – ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx – ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx = 1 – 3. –ᎏ
2
3
ᎏx = –2. x = 3;
y = –ᎏ
1
3
ᎏ (3) – 1. y = –1 – 1. y = –2.
•D (0,–3). ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx – 3 = –ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx – 3. ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx + ᎏ
1
3
ᎏx = 3 – 3. ᎏ
2
3
ᎏx = 0. x = 0;
y = ᎏ
1
3
ᎏ (0) – 3. y = –3.
476. In slopeintercept form, the slope is the constant preceding x. You
can very quickly determine that AB
and CD
, and BC
, and DA
have
the same slopes. The length of each line segment is:
mAB = ͙10 ෆ. d = ͙(–3 – 0 ෆ)
2
+ (– ෆ2 – –1 ෆ)
2
ෆ. d = ͙9 + 1 ෆ. d = ͙10 ෆ.
mBC = ͙10 ෆ. d = ͙(0 – 3) ෆ
2
+ (–1 ෆ– –2)
2
ෆ. d = ͙9 + 1 ෆ. d = ͙10 ෆ.
mCD = ͙10 ෆ. d = ͙(3 – 0) ෆ
2
+ (–2 ෆ– –3)
2
ෆ. d = ͙9 + 1 ෆ. d = ͙10 ෆ.
mDA = ͙10 ෆ. d = ͙(0 – –3 ෆ)
2
+ (– ෆ3 – –2 ෆ)
2
ෆ. d = ͙9 + 1 ෆ. d = ͙10 ෆ.
477. The slope of a line is the change in y over the change in x. The
slope of AC
is ᎏ
–2
–3
–
–
(–
3
2)
ᎏ, or ᎏ
–
0
6
ᎏ. The slope of BD
is ᎏ
–1
0
–
–
(–
0
3)
ᎏ, or ᎏ
2
0
ᎏ.
Lines with zero slopes and no slopes are perpendicular; therefore
diagonals AC
and BD
are perpendicular.
478. Rhombus. Quadrilateral ABCD is a rhombus because opposite
sides are parallel, all four sides are congruent, and diagonals are
perpendicular.
479. Area = 12 square units. The area of a rhombus is its base times its
height or half the product of its diagonals. In this case, half the
product of its diagonals is the easiest to ﬁnd because the diagonals
are vertical and horizontal lines. AC
is 6 units long while BD
is 2
units long:
ᎏ
1
2
ᎏ
(6 units)(2 units) = 6 units.
258
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Geometry provides the foundation for trigonometry. Look at the
triangles on the next page. They are right similar triangles: their cor
responding angles are congruent and their corresponding sides are in
proportion to each other.
20
Trigonometry Basics
TeamLRN
Create a ratio using any two sides of just the ﬁrst triangle. Compare that
ratio to another ratio using the corresponding sides of the triangle next of
it. They are equal. Compare these two ratios to the next similar triangle. All
three are equal, and they always will be.
A
5
B
4
C
3
J
10
K
8
L
6
R
20
S
16
T
12
3
4
4
5
3
5
6
8
8
10
6
10
:
:
:
:
:
:
12
16, or
16
20, or
12
20, etc.
260
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261
Unlike the Pythagorean theorem, trigonometric ratios do not call the
legs of a right triangle a or b. Instead, they are called adjacent or opposite
to an angle in the right triangle.
Each combination of sides has a special name:
Sine ∠ = ᎏ
o
h
p
y
p
p
o
o
s
t
i
e
t
n
e
u
le
se
g
ᎏ, or Sin ∠ = ᎏ
h
o
ᎏ
Cosine ∠ = ᎏ
a
h
d
y
j
p
a
o
ce
te
n
n
t
u
le
se
g
ᎏ, or Cos ∠ = ᎏ
h
a
ᎏ
Tangent ∠ = ᎏ
o
ad
p
j
p
a
o
c
s
e
i
n
te
t l
l
e
e
g
g
ᎏ, or Tan ∠ = ᎏ
o
a
ᎏ
(If you can remember this phrase, then you will remember
the order of each ratio:
“O Heck, Another Hour Of Algebra”)
Using a Trigonometric Table
Trigonometric ratios for all acute angles are commonly listed in tables. Sci
entiﬁc calculators also have functions for the trigonometric ratios. Consult
A
B
o
h
a
h
o
a
BO
AB
AO
AB
BO
AO
=
=
=
A
B O O
opposite ∠B
opposite ∠A
adjacent ∠A
adjacent ∠B
Sin ∠A
Cos ∠A
Tan ∠A
o
h
a
h
o
a
AO
AB
BO
AB
AO
BO
=
=
=
Sin ∠B
Cos ∠B
Tan ∠B
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your calculator handbook to make sure you have your calculator in the
degree, and not the radian setting. Part of a trigonometric table is given
below.
Angle Sin Cos Tan
16° 0.276 0.961 0.287
17° 0.292 0.956 0.306
18° 0.309 0.951 0.325
19° 0.326 0.946 0.344
20° 0.342 0.940 0.364
21° 0.358 0.934 0.384
22° 0.375 0.927 0.404
23° 0.391 0.921 0.424
24° 0.407 0.914 0.445
25° 0.423 0.906 0.466
26° 0.438 0.899 0.488
27° 0.454 0.891 0.510
28° 0.470 0.883 0.532
29° 0.485 0.875 0.554
30° 0.500 0.866 0.577
31° 0.515 0.857 0.601
32° 0.530 0.848 0.625
33° 0.545 0.839 0.649
34° 0.559 0.829 0.675
35° 0.574 0.819 0.700
36° 0.588 0.809 0.727
37° 0.602 0.799 0.754
38° 0.616 0.788 0.781
39° 0.629 0.777 0.810
40° 0.643 0.766 0.839
41° 0.656 0.755 0.869
42° 0.669 0.743 0.900
43° 0.682 0.731 0.933
44° 0.695 0.719 0.966
45° 0.707 0.707 1.000
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263
Example: Find each value.
a. cos 44°
b. tan 42°
Solution:
a. cos 44° = 0.719
b. tan 42° = 0.900
Example: Find m∠A.
a. sin A = 0.656
b. cos A = 0.731
Solution:
a. m∠A = 41°
b. m∠A = 43°
Angles and Their Trigonometric Ratio
A trigonometric ratio can determine either of a triangle’s acute angles. First,
choose the trigonometric function that addresses the angle you are looking
for and uses the sides given.
In ΔABC, AB
is 5 inches and BC
is 10 inches. Vertex A is a right angle.
What is the rotation of ∠B?
Cos B = ᎏ
hy
a
p
d
o
ja
t
c
e
e
n
n
u
t
se
ᎏ
Cos B = ᎏ
1
5
0
ᎏ
Divide the ratio into its decimal equivalent; then ﬁnd the decimal equiv
alent on the trigonometric chart under the trigonometric function you used
(sin, cos, or tan).
Cos B = 0.500
m∠B = 60
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How to Find a Side Using a Trigonometric
Ratio and Angle
If one side and an angle are given in a right triangle and a second side is
unknown, determine the relationship of both sides to the given angle. Select
the appropriate trigonometric function and ﬁnd its decimal value on the
chart. Then solve.
In ΔABC, BC
is 20 inches and ∠B is 30°. ∠A is a right angle. Find the
length of side CA.
Sin 30 = ᎏ
hy
o
p
p
o
p
t
o
e
s
n
it
u
e
se
ᎏ
Sin 30 = ᎏ
C
20
A
ᎏ
0.500 = ᎏ
C
20
A
ᎏ
10 = CA
264
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265
Set 98
Choose the best answer. Trigonometric ratios are rounded to the
nearest thousandth.
480. Sin A = ᎏ
1
1
2
6
ᎏ for which of the following triangles?
a.
b.
c.
d.
A
B C
16
12
A
B C
16 12
A
B C
16
12
A
B C
16
12
501 Geometry Questions
TeamLRN
481. Tan A = ᎏ
1
1
3
2
ᎏ for which of the following triangles?
a.
b.
c.
d.
A
B C
13
12
A
B C
13
12
A
B C
13
12
A
B C
13 12
266
501 Geometry Questions
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267
482. Cos B =
ᎏ
1
3
3
3
ᎏ
for which of the following triangles?
a.
b.
c.
d.
483. Which trigonometric function can equal or be greater than 1.000?
a. Sine
b. Cosine
c. Tangent
d. none of the above
A
B C
33
13
A
B C
13 33
A
B C
33
13
A
B C
33
13
501 Geometry Questions
ᎏ
1
3
3
3
ᎏ
TeamLRN
484. A plane ascends at a 40° angle. When it reaches an altitude of one
hundred feet, how much ground distance has it covered? To solve,
use the trigonometric chart. Round the answer to the nearest
tenth.
a. 64.3 feet
b. 76.6 feet
c. 80.1 feet
d. 119.2 feet
485. A 20 ft. beam leans against a wall. The beam reaches the wall
13.9 ft. above the ground. What is the measure of the angle
formed by the beam and the ground?
a. 44°
b. 35°
c. 55°
d. 46°
486. Which set of angles has the same trigonometric ratio?
a. Sin 45 and tan 45
b. Sin 30 and cos 60
c. Cos 30 and tan 45
d. Tan 60 and sin 45
487. What is the sum of trigonometric ratios Sin 54 and Cos 36?
a. 0.809
b. 1.618
c. 1.000
d. 1.536
488. What is the sum of trigonometric ratios Sin 33 and Sin 57?
a. 0.545
b. 1.000
c. 1.090
d. 1.384
489. What is the sum of trigonometric ratios Cos 16 and Cos 74?
a. 0.276
b. 0.961
c. 1.237
d. 1.922
268
501 Geometry Questions
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269
490. In ΔABC, vertex C is a right angle. Which trigonometric ratio has
the same trigonometric value as Sin A?
a. Sin B
b. Cosine A
c. Cosine B
d. Tan A
491. In ΔABC, Tan ∠A = ᎏ
3
4
ᎏ. The hypotenuse of ΔABC is
a. 3.
b. 4.
c. 5.
d. 9.
492. In ΔABC, Sin ∠B = ᎏ
1
1
4
7
ᎏ. The hypotenuse of ΔABC is
a. 14.
b. 17.
c. ͙485 ෆ.
d. 0.824.
493. In ΔABC, Cos ∠C is ᎏ
2
3
2
6
ᎏ. The hypotenuse is
a. 22.
b. 36.
c. 0.611.
d. 2͙445 ෆ.
Set 99
Circle whether each answer is True or False.
494. If Sin ∠A = 358, them m∠A = 21˚.
True or False
495. The sum of the sine of an angle and the cosine of its complement
is always greater than 1.000. True or False
496. The trigonometric ratio of sin 45, cos 45, and tan 45 are equal.
True or False
501 Geometry Questions
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Set 100
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 497 through 500. Trigono
metric ratios are rounded to the nearest thousandth.
497. What is the length of x?
498. What is the length of y?
499. What is m∠A?
500. What is the sum of Sin A and Sin G?
Set 101
Use the ﬁgure below to answer question 501. Trigonometric ratios
are rounded to the nearest thousandth.
501. What is the value of x?
A
C B
2x
40°
20°
5
A
B
C
27°
40°
x
y
D
H
E
F
G
12
8
4
a
Given:
EB = x
270
501 Geometry Questions
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271
Answers
Set 98
480. a. The trigonometric ratio sine is the length of the side opposite an
angle over the length of the hypotenuse (the side opposite the
right angle).
481. b. The trigonometric ratio tangent is the length of the side
opposite an angle over the length of the side adjacent to the angle.
482. d. The trigonometric ratio cosine is the length of the side adjacent
to an angle over the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle).
483. c. The trigonometric ratios sine and cosine never equal or exceed
1.000 because the hypotenuse, the longest side of a right triangle,
is always their denominator. The trigonometric ratio Tangent can
equal and exceed the value 1.000 because the hypotenuse is never
its denominator.
484. d. The question seeks the length of a leg adjacent to ∠40. Your
only option is the trigonometric ratio tan. The trigonometric value
of tan 40 is 0.839: 0.839 = ᎏ
100
a
feet
ᎏ. a = 119.2 feet.
485. a. The problem provides the lengths of two legs and an unknown
angle. You could solve for a hypotenuse using the Pythagorean
theorem, and then use sine or cosine. But the least amount of work
uses what the question provides. Only the trigonometric ratio sin
uses the lengths of two legs. Divide 13.9 by 20 and match the
answer on the chart.
486. b. Observe the ratios formed by a 306090 triangle: Sin A is
opposite over hypotenuse. Cos B is adjacent over hypotenuse.
What is opposite ∠A is adjacent to ∠B. The ratio is exactly the
same. The sin and cosine of opposite or complementary angles are
equal (example: sin 21 and cos 69, sin 52 and cos 38).
487. b. The value of sin 54 is the same as cos 36 because they are the
sine/cosine of complementary angles. 2 times 0.809 is 1.618.
501 Geometry Questions
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488. d. Look up the trigonometric values of sin 33 and sin 57. Add their
values together. However, if your trigonometric chart does not
cover 57°, you could trace the trigonometric values of sin 33 and
cos 33, add them together and arrive at the same answer because
cos 33 is equivalent to sin 57.
489. c. Look up the values of cos 16° and the cos 74°, and add them
together. If your chart does not cover 74°, look up the values of cos
16° and the sin 16°.
490. c. Choices b and d are the same angle as the given. Choice a uses
the side adjacent to ∠A; that creates an entirely different ratio
from sin A. Only choice c uses the side opposite ∠A (except it is
called the side adjacent ∠B).
491. c. The trigonometric ratio tan does not include the hypotenuse. It
must be solved by using the Pythagorean theorem: 3
2
+ 4
2
= c
2
.
25 = c
2
. 5 = c.
492. b. Sine is the length of the side opposite an angle over the length
of the hypotenuse; consequently, the answer is the denominator of
the given fraction. Choice d is the same ratio expressed as
decimals.
493. b. Cosine is the length of the side adjacent to an angle over the
length of the hypotenuse. Again, the hypotenuse and longest side
is always the denominator.
Set 99
494. True. Look on the chart or use a scientiﬁc calculator to verify that
sin 21˚ = .358.
495. False. Individually, the trigonometric values of sine and cosine
never exceed 1.0; the sum of either the sines or the cosines of
complementary angles always exceeds 1.0; but the sine of an angle
and the cosine of its complement do not always exceed 1.0. Try it:
Sin 17 + Sin 73 = 1.248. Cos 44 + Cos 46 = 1.414.
Sin 17 + Cos 73 = 0.584. Cos 44 + Sin 46 = 1.438.
272
501 Geometry Questions
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273
496. False. Only sine and cosine have the same trigonometric ratio
value at 45°. At 45°, the trigonometric ratio tan equals 1.
Set 100
497. x ≈ 14.303. Using the angle given (you can use ∠A; as ∠B’s
complement, it measures 50°), AE
is opposite ∠B, and BE
is
adjacent ∠B. Tan 40 = opposite/adjacent. Tan 40 = ᎏ
1
a
2
ᎏ. 0.839 = ᎏ
1
a
2
ᎏ.
a (to the nearest thousandth) ≈ 14.303.
498. y ≈ 14.024. Half of BE
is CE
, or half of 14.303 is 7.152.
Judging the relationships of each side to ∠D (again, you
could use ∠C), CE
is opposite it and DE
is adjacent it.
Tan 27 = opposite/adjacent. Tan 27 = ᎏ
7.1
a
52
ᎏ. 0.510 = ᎏ
7.1
a
52
ᎏ.
a (to the nearest thousandth) ≈ 14.024.
499. m∠a = 60. FG
is a hypotenuse while HෆFෆ is a side adjacent to ∠a.
Cos a = adjacent/hypotenuse. Cos a = ᎏ
4
8
ᎏ. Cos a = 0.500. m ∠a = 60.
500. sum ∠ 1.266. The sum of sin 50 and sin 30 is 0.766 plus 0.500,
or 1.266.
Set 101
501. Sin 20 = ᎏ
2
5
x
ᎏ. 0.342 = 0.400x. x ≈ 0.855.
501 Geometry Questions
TeamLRN
Copyright © 2002 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and PanAmerican Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data: LearningExpress 501 geometry questions/LearningExpress p. cm. Summary: Provides practice exercises to help students prepare for multiplechoice tests, high school exit exams, and other standardized tests on the subject of geometry. Includes explanations of the answers and simple deﬁnitions to reinforce math facts. ISBN 1576854256 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Geometry—Problems, exercises, etc. [1. Geometry—Problems, exercises, etc.] I. Title: Five hundred and one geometry questions. II. Title: Five hundred and one geometry questions. III. Title. QA459 .M37 2002 516'.0076—dc21 2002006239 Printed in the United States of America 98765432 First Edition ISBN 1576854256 For more information or to place an order, contact Learning Express at: 55 Broadway 8th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com
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The LearningExpress Skill Builder in Focus Writing Team is comprised of experts in test preparation, as well as educators and teachers who specialize in language arts and math. LearningExpress Skill Builder in Focus Writing Team Brigit Dermott Freelance Writer English Tutor, New York Cares New York, New York Sandy Gade Project Editor LearningExpress New York, New York Kerry McLean Project Editor Math Tutor Shirley, New York William Recco Middle School Math Teacher, Grade 8 New York Shoreham/Wading River School District Math Tutor St. James, New York Colleen Schultz Middle School Math Teacher, Grade 8 Vestal Central School District Math Tutor Vestal, New York
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Contents
Introduction 1 The Basic Building Blocks of Geometry 2 Types of Angles 3 Working with Lines 4 Measuring Angles 5 Pairs of Angles 6 Types of Triangles 7 Congruent Triangles 8 Ratio, Proportion, and Similarity 9 Triangles and the Pythagorean Theorem 10 Properties of Polygons 11 Quadrilaterals 12 Perimeter of Polygons 13 Area of Polygons 14 Surface Area of Prisms 15 Volume of Prisms and Pyramids 16 Working with Circles and Circular Figures
ix 1 15 23 37 45 55 69 81 95 109 121 131 145 165 175 191
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501 Geometry Questions 17 Coordinate Geometry 18 The Slope of a Line 19 The Equation of a Line 20 Trigonometry Basics 225 237 249 259 viii TeamLRN .
you will measure these ﬁgures and determine how they relate to each other and the space they are in. Let this be your ﬁrst lesson in geometry: Appearances may deceive. you will work under the assumption that every deﬁnition. To work with geometry you must understand the difference between representations on the page and the ﬁgures they symbolize. lines are visible. lines deﬁne a square. for those of you who love the challenge of proving the validity of geometric postulates and theorems—these are the statements that deﬁne the rules of geometry—this book is not for you. TeamLRN . As you use this book. Sadly. What you see is not always what is there. In space. As you study geometry. In space. in and of themselves. It will not address geometric proofs or zigzag through tricky logic problems. and every theorem is “infallibly” true. What is the difference? On the page. four distinct black marks deﬁne a square.Introduction Geometry is the study of ﬁgures in space. every postulate. but it will focus on the practical application of geometry towards solving planar (twodimensional) spatial puzzles. on the page. lines are invisible because lines do not occupy space.
and after you are done. Problems toward the end of this book will demand that you apply multiple lessons to solve a question. Author’s Note Some geometry books read like instructions on how to launch satellites into space. and be sure to understand the answer explanations at the end of each section. It’s not that hard. and soon you too can launch space missions if you want. This book provides the practice. you should be able to enjoy the product of your labor. enjoy some pb and j. While geometry is essential to launching NASA space probes. Work through this book. x TeamLRN . so be sure to know the preceding chapters well. refer to the introductions of each chapter as frequently as you need to. a geometry book should read like instructions on how to make a peanut butter and jelly sandwich.501 Geometry Questions How to Use This Book Review the introduction to each chapter before answering the questions in that chapter. Take your time. you provide the initiative and perseverance.
501 Geometry Questions TeamLRN .
TeamLRN .
They are intangible. It occupies no space of its own. and indeﬁnable.” you must understand geometry’s simplest “stuff”: the point. Let’s get to the point! Point Point A A Figure A Symbol A point is a location in space. and the plane. and it has no dimension of its own. and planes do not occupy space. Points. it indicates position.1 The Basic Building Blocks of Geometry Before you can tackle geometry’s toughest “stuff. lines. or the next twenty lessons are moot. the line. Trust that they exist. invisible. TeamLRN . yet they determine all tangible visible objects.
or Plane X E D Figure F There is no symbol to describe plane DEF. Collinear/Noncollinear C A A B C D B D collinear points noncollinear points 2 TeamLRN . A plane is a ﬂat expanse of points expanding in every direction. As you probably noticed. In geometry. or Line CB BC B Figure C CB Symbol A line is a set of continuous points inﬁnitely extending in opposite directions. each “deﬁnition” above builds upon the “definition” before it.501 Geometry Questions Line Line BC. There is the point. space is pixilated much like the image you see on a TV screen. They do not have depth. Plane Plane DEF. Be aware that deﬁnitions from this point on will build upon each other much like these ﬁrst three deﬁnitions. Planes have two dimensions: length and width. It has inﬁnite length. then there is an expanse of points. then there is a series of points. but no depth or width.
501 Geometry Questions Collinear points are points that form a single straight line when they are connected (two points are always collinear). Coplanar/Noncoplanar Z X Y coplanar points Z and Y each have their own coplanar points. and inﬁnitely extends in one direction. but do not share coplanar points. Noncollinear points are points that do not form a single straight line when they are connected (only three or more points can be noncollinear). 3 TeamLRN . Coplanar points are points that occupy the same plane. Ray Ray GH G Figure H GH Symbol A ray begins at a point (called an endpoint because it marks the end of a ray). Noncoplanar points are points that do not occupy the same plane.
4 TeamLRN . Opposite rays form straight angles.501 Geometry Questions Opposite Rays Opposite Rays JK and JI JK I J K JI (the endpoint is always the first letter when naming a ray) Figure Symbol Opposite rays are rays that share an endpoint and inﬁnitely extend in opposite directions. or 1 L ∠M ∠LMN M 1 N ∠NML ∠1 (the vertex is always the center letter when naming an angle with three letters) Figure Symbol Angles are rays that share an endpoint but inﬁnitely extend in different directions. or NML. Angles Angle M. or LMN.
d. Set 1 Choose the best answer. d. d. has width. 5 TeamLRN . b. Although not inﬁnitely extending in either direction. cannot be represented on the page. makes a line. can be accurately drawn. ray. 3. A single point a. the line segment has an inﬁnite set of points between its endpoints. can exist at multiple planes. 2. manipulates cubes and spheres. c. point.501 Geometry Questions Line Segment Line Segment OP. b. Plane geometry a. c. b. or PO OP O Figure P PO Symbol A line segment is part of a line with two endpoints. plane. 1. line. has only two dimensions. is ordinary. A single location in space is called a a. c.
7. plane. A line. Set 2 Choose the best answer. No determination can be made. 6 TeamLRN . b. d. c. are coplanar. b.501 Geometry Questions 4. No determination can be made. c. Three noncollinear points determine a. d. are noncoplanar. points. ray. are circular. d. 8. Any four points determine a. no dimension. length and depth. b. 6. Two points determine a. Collinear points a. a ray. c. a ray. c. a line. No determination can be made. c. d. and line segment all have a. a line segment. a plane. b. endpoints. a square. a plane. determine a plane. 5. a line. d. b. a plane.
noncollinear. d. How many distinct lines can be drawn through two points? a. Are there other ways to name each ray? If there are. why not? 14. The shortest distance between any two points is a. Write three different ways to name the line above. ﬁnite. Name four different rays. Set 3 Answer questions 13 through 16 using the ﬁgure below. Are there still other ways to name the line? If there are. what are they? If there aren’t. c. 11. an arch. c. a plane. d. c.501 Geometry Questions 9. b. a line segment. solid. d. Lines are always a. b. d. R S T 13. what are they? If there aren’t. why not? 7 TeamLRN . b. b. 12. Which choice below has the most points? a. 0 1 2 an inﬁnite number of lines 10. c. straight. a line a line segment a ray No determination can be made. a ray.
Are there other ways to name each ray? If there are. why not? Set 4 Answer questions 17 through 20 using the ﬁgure below. what are they? If there aren’t. why not? 18. what are they? 20. why not? 19. Name a pair of opposite rays. what are they? 16. what are they? If there aren’t. Are there still other ways to name the line? If there are. Name ﬁve different rays. Name three different line segments. Q N O P 17. Name a pair of opposite rays. Are there other ways to name each line segment? If there are. Are there other ways to name each angle? If there are. Are there other pairs of opposite rays? If there are. Name three angles. Are there other pairs of opposite rays? If there are. what are they? If there aren’t. what are they? If there aren’t.501 Geometry Questions 15. Write three different ways to name the line above. why not? 8 TeamLRN .
Answer the following questions using the description above. what are they? If there aren’t. Are there other ways to name each line segment? If there are. K L M N 21. and Carl share an ofﬁce on level X. 9 TeamLRN . Are there other rays? If there are. Bill. Bill. Name ﬁve different line segments. Their three cubicles do not line up. why not? Set 6 Ann. why not? 23. Dan works in the basement while Ann. X. they are all typing at their desks. and Carl prefers a seat next to the door. At any given moment of the day. Name ﬁve angles. and Bill.501 Geometry Questions Set 5 Answer questions 21 through 23 using the ﬁgure below. Name three different rays. c. Plane Carl. Ann likes to be near the bathroom. Bill. Plane Ann. Plane Ann and Bill. 24. Carl. d. Bill likes a window seat. what are they? If there aren’t. Level X can also be called a. and Dan work in the same ofﬁce building. what are they? 22. b. Plane Dan. and Carl. Are there other ways to name each angle? If there are.
d. has depth. then Points Ann. If level X represents a plane. d. Bill. and is collinear with point Bill. noncollinear and noncoplanar. collinear and noncoplanar. 28. an inﬁnite set of points extending inﬁnitely. has no depth. and Carl represent points. a ﬁnite set of points. 10 TeamLRN . collinear and coplanar. and is noncollinear with point Bill. and width. noncollinear and noncoplanar. collinear and noncoplanar. then level X has a. c. d.501 Geometry Questions 25. noncollinear and coplanar. Bill. c. only three points. noncollinear and coplanar. but no length and width. has depth. If Ann. and Carl are a. then Point Ann a. b. but no width. c. d. no points. length. and is noncollinear with point Bill. and is collinear with point Bill. 26. A line segment drawn between Carl and Dan is a. If Ann and Bill represent points. b. b. 27. but no length and width. has depth and length. c. collinear and coplanar. b.
the question asks for a “single location in space. consequently choice d is incorrect. Choice b is incorrect because cubes and spheres are threedimensional. Theoretically. not two. choice c cannot be the answer either. It also takes a lot more than two points to determine a square. cannot exceed two dimensions. c. Lines and planes do not have endpoints. much less accurately drawn. or points. rays. Lines. space is nothing but inﬁnity of locations. then process of elimination could have brought you to choice c. two points make a line.501 Geometry Questions Answers Set 1 1. Plane geometry. width. Geometry can be represented on the page. If you could not guess this. Choice b is incorrect because it takes three noncollinear points to determine a plane. rays. planes remain undetermined until three noncollinear points exist at once. 11 TeamLRN .” 3. so choices a and d are incorrect. 5. and line segments only possess length. This is commonsensical. Three noncollinear points determine a plane. or depth. In fact. c. 2. The deﬁnition of a point is “a location in space. b.” Choices a. Two points determine a line. a. they have no length. b. Choices a and b are incorrect because points are dimensionless. like its namesake the plane. b. and d are incorrect because they are all multiple locations in space. 6. Choice d confuses the words plane and plain. Just as three points make a plane. and only one line can pass through any two points. 4. and line segments are all alignments of points. Lines. they cannot be seen or touched. planes. so choice c is incorrect. A point by itself can be in any plane. so choice c is incorrect. Rays and line segments need collinear points. a.
they are deﬁnitely not solid. d. 11. RT . d. as are ray names TS and TR . Always assume that in plane geometry a line is a straight line unless otherwise stated. not a single line of collinear points. Set 3 13. Finally. 12. SR . Ray names RT and RS are interchangeable. each pair describes one ray. Any four points could determine a number of things: a pair of parallel lines. Lines extend to inﬁnity. describes that line. Two of the four rays can each be called by only one name: ST and SR . TS . b. 9. and a ray are sets of points. Without more information the answer cannot be determined. Set 2 8. and TSR . a pair of skewed lines. Process of elimination works well with this question: Lines have one dimension. a line segment. d. regardless of their order. RT and RS describe a ray beginning at endpoint R and extending inﬁnitely through •T 12 TeamLRN . not one of the answer choices has more than the other. How many points make a set? An inﬁnite number. A line. they are not ﬁnite. An inﬁnite number of lines can be drawn through one point.501 Geometry Questions 7. Any two points on a given line. Collinear points are also coplanar. b. RST . length. A line segment is the shortest distance between any two points. TR . ST . 10. Any six of these names correctly describe the line: RS . Since a limit cannot be put on inﬁnity. d. as well. and no substance. Choice c is not our answer. we take our cue from the last part of that statement. Three points can describe a line. but only one straight line can be drawn through two points. Choice a is not the answer because noncollinear points determine planes. 14. and one other coplanar/noncoplanar point. a plane. we deﬁned noncollinear as a set of points that “do not line up”.
each pair describes one ray each. as are ray names PO and PN . and OQ . 15. and ST is TS. ∠POQ is ∠QOP. SR and ST are opposite rays. Set 5 21. OP . NOP . they share an endpoint and extend inﬁnitely in opposite directions. and unless a number is given to describe the angle. Two of the three rays can each be called by only one name: KL and MN . LN and LM are interchangeable because they both 13 TeamLRN . In our case ∠NOQ is ∠QON. Any two points on a given line. angles can have two names. ON and OP are opposite rays. 16. Of the four rays listed. 18. they are the only pair of opposite rays. Three of the ﬁve rays can each be called by only one name: OP . Raynames NO and NP are interchangeable. 20. ON . regardless of their order. It does not matter which endpoint comes ﬁrst. ∠NOP is a straight angle). Letter O cannot by itself name any of these angles because all three angles share •O as their vertex.501 Geometry Questions and •S. PON . PN . RS is SR. they share an endpoint and extend inﬁnitely in opposite directions. PO . RT is TR. describe that line. Set 4 17. NO and NP describe a ray beginning at endpoint N and extending inﬁnitely through •O and •P. Of the ﬁve rays listed. Line segments have two endpoints and can go by two names. Any six of these names correctly describes the line: NP . NO . they are the only pair of opposite rays. 19. TS and TR describe a ray beginning at endpoint T and extending inﬁnitely through •S and •R. and ∠NOP is ∠PON (in case you missed this one. Angles have two sides. ON . PO and PN describe a ray beginning at end point P and extending inﬁnitely through •O and •N.
Ann and Bill together are not enough points to deﬁne the plane. KL is LK. two points make a line. Bill. LM is ML. 22. but remember points exist simultaneously on multiple planes. Just as the ofﬁce ﬂoor can represent a plane. and all lines are collinear and coplanar. Ann and Bill can represent points. ∠LMN is ∠NML. points have no dimension. In this case. How many people could it hold? An inﬁnite number. 28. b. ∠KMN is ∠NMK. a. KM is MK.501 Geometry Questions describe a ray beginning at endpoint L and extending inﬁnitely through •M and •N. d. ∠KML is ∠LMK. 23. which means they are all on the same plane. Bill. Dan and Carl are on two different ﬂoors. d. Granted. and Carl represent points on that plane. Ann. 14 TeamLRN . It makes no difference which endpoint comes ﬁrst. and they are not lined up. Unlike a plane. Letter M cannot by itself name any of these angles because all three angles share •M as their vertex. and Carl are all on the same ﬂoor. 25. Two of the ﬁve angles can go by three different names. LN is NL. Dan isn’t on plane X and choice d doesn’t make sense. Carl and Dan represent two points. 27. Three noncollinear points determine a plane. and two points make a line. we know level X is a plane and Ann. d. however. Line segments have two endpoints and can go by two names. They acquire the characteristics of a point. That makes them noncollinear but coplanar. The other three angles can only go by two names each. and as we know. imagine the ofﬁce ﬂoor extending inﬁnitely in every direction. ∠KLM is ∠MLK. 26. MN is NM. Set 6 24. ∠LKM is ∠MKL is ∠K. an ofﬁce ﬂoor can hold only so many people. Choice a is the only option.
2 Types of Angles Did you ever hear the nursery rhyme about the crooked man who walked a crooked mile? The crooked man was very angular. Angles Chapter 1 deﬁnes an angle as two rays sharing an endpoint and extending inﬁnitely in different directions. Review this chapter and consider what angle might best describe you. L M is a vertex 1 M N ML is a side MN is another side TeamLRN . But was he obtuse or acute? What’s my angle? Just this: angles describe appearances and personalities as well as geometric ﬁgures.
501 Geometry Questions Special Angles Angles are measured in degrees. RIGHT B C A 90 < m∠ABC < 180. not distance. Some rotations merit special names. Watch as BA rotates around •B: A B C m∠ABC = 0 A 0 < m∠ABC < 90. STRAIGHT B A C 180 < m∠ABC < 360. ACUTE B C A m∠ABC = 90. and degrees measure rotation. REFLEX 16 TeamLRN . OBTUSE B C A B C m∠ABC = 180.
a. a. N O 29. ∠O d. ∠NOP P b.501 Geometry Questions Set 7 Choose the answer that incorrectly names an angle in each preceding ﬁgure. ∠QRS c. a. ∠XRS d. ∠D d. ∠90° C 1 D 30. ∠PON c. ∠CDE E b. ∠1 X Q 31. ∠R R S b. ∠XRQ 17 TeamLRN . ∠CED c.
d. All opposite rays a. Angles that share a common vertex point cannot a. use the vertex letter name as an angle name. only share a common vertex. have different end points. share a common side and vertex. 35. 34. c. ∠KML d.501 Geometry Questions K 2 L M O 32. do not form straight lines. d. are also straight angles. are acute. are the same angle. 18 TeamLRN . ∠NMO c. extend in the same direction. ∠KMN N b. c. c. share interior points. ∠EDF and ∠GDE a. 33. b. b. a. share a common angle side. b. be right angles. d. ∠M Set 8 Choose the best answer.
right.3° 41. 13. obtuse. straight. BA and BC are opposite rays. d. or reﬂexive. 179. b. 44.501 Geometry Questions A B C 36. •A. Set 9 Label each angle measurement as acute. •B.5° 38. a. 46° 40. 91° 39. 355° 42. 90° Set 10 For each diagram in this set. name every angle in as many ways as you can. m∠ABC = 360°. and •C are noncollinear. 180. T E O 19 TeamLRN . or reﬂexive. obtuse. c. Then label each angle as acute.2° 43. right. 37. ∠ABC is an obtuse angle. straight.
1 46.501 Geometry Questions 45. A Y B C 48. K M J N 50. 1 2 20 TeamLRN . U V 1 2 W 49. R O S 47.
35. b. Set 9 37. 34. Choices b. 32. 90° < 179. Angles are not named by their measurements. c. Opposite rays form straight lines and straight angles. If a vertex is shared by more than one angle. d. Opposite rays form straight angles. then the letter describing the vertex cannot be used to name any of the angles. acute 38.3° < 180°. ∠EDF and ∠GDE share vertex point D and side DE. obtuse 21 TeamLRN . d. It would be too confusing. If a vertex is shared by more than one angle. c. 0° < 46° < 90°. ∠CED describes an angle whose vertex is •E. not •D. 90° < 91° < 180°. Set 8 33. d. obtuse 39. d. then the letter describing the vertex cannot be used to name any of the angles. 0° < 13. 31. If a vertex is shared by more than one angle.5° < 90°. a. a. It would be too confusing.501 Geometry Questions Answers Set 7 29. Choice c is incorrect because there is not enough information. 36. then it cannot be used to name any of the angles. and d contradict the three deﬁning elements of a pair of opposite rays. acute 40. 30.
∠1. acute 45. ∠SOR. 180° < 355° < 360°. ∠1. acute ∠2. ∠TOE. right 49. right 47. ∠1. acute ∠UVW or ∠WVU. ∠ROS. reﬂexive ∠2. ∠JKN or ∠NKJ. ∠ABY or ∠YBA. 180° < 180. 90° = 90°. ∠EOT. reﬂexive 42.2° < 360°.501 Geometry Questions 41. reﬂexive 43. right ∠NKM or ∠MKN. or ∠O. acute ∠JKM or ∠MKJ. obtuse 50. right Set 10 44. straight 48. right ∠YBC or ∠CBY. obtuse 46. acute 22 TeamLRN . right ∠ABC and ∠CBA. or ∠O.
Parallel lines a and b a Skew lines a and b a b Figure a b Symbol Figure b No Symbol When lines cross. Skew lines are noncoplanar lines that never intersect. they travel similar paths at a constant distance from one another. Lines do not occupy space. nor do they lie one on top of the other. they could be considered models of peaceful coexistence (next page). Watch how these lines “cross” each other. they travel dissimilar paths on separate planes. TeamLRN . they do not “collide” into each other. Parallel lines are coplanar lines that never intersect.3 Working with Lines Some lines never cross.
and no interior points. That point is on both lines. They share a vertex. are called vertical angles. When the measures of those four angles are added. two angles next to each other are called adjacent angles. When the sum of the measures of any two angles equals 180°. or 360°. or 180°. 2 1 4 3 ∠1 ∠2 ∠3. When straight lines intersect. opposite angles.501 Geometry Questions a c a c b b TwoLined Intersections When two lines look like they are crossing. the sum equals the rotation of a complete circle. m 2 = m 4 24 TeamLRN . m 1 = m 3 ∠4. They are always congruent. Adjacent angles along a straight line measure half a circle’s rotation. the angles are called supplementary angles. they are really sharing a single point. a side. they create four angles: notice the appearance of the hub around the vertex in the ﬁgure above. When lines intersect. or angles nonadjacent to each other. a 2 1 4 b 3 m∠1 + m∠2 = 180 m∠2 + m∠3 = 180 m∠3 + m∠4 = 180 m∠4 + m∠1 = 180 m∠1 + m∠2 + m∠3 + m∠4 = 360 When straight lines intersect.
25 TeamLRN .501 Geometry Questions When two lines intersect and form four right angles. 4 8 5 7 6 1 2 3 Angle ∠1 ∠2 ∠3 ∠4 Corresponding Angle ∠5 ∠6 ∠7 ∠8 When a transversal intersects a pair of parallel lines. the lines are considered perpendicular. Because a transversal line crosses at least two other lines. eight or more angles are created. corresponding angles are congruent. certain angles are always congruent or supplementary. each at a different point. Look for a distinctive F shaped ﬁgure. Pairs of these angles have special names: Corresponding angles are angles in corresponding positions. ∠1 ∠2 ∠3 ∠4 m 1 = m 2 = m 3 = m 4 = 90 1 3 2 4 ThreeLined Intersections A transversal line intersects two or more lines. When a transversal intersects a pair of parallel lines.
26 TeamLRN .501 Geometry Questions Interior angles are angles inside a pair of crossed lines. 4 8 7 Interior Angles ∠4 ∠3 ∠6 ∠5 5 6 1 3 2 Sameside interior angles are interior angles on the same side of a transversal line. sameside interior angles are supplementary. 4 8 5 7 6 1 3 2 Same Side Interior Angles ∠3 ∠6 ∠4 ∠5 When a transversal intersects a pair of parallel lines. Look for a distinctive I shaped ﬁgure. Look for a distinctive C shaped ﬁgure.
and alternate exterior angles. 4 8 5 7 6 1 3 2 Alternate Interior Angles ∠4 ∠6 ∠3 ∠5 When a transversal intersects a pair of parallel lines. sameside exterior angles. They are positioned by the same commonsense rules as the interior angles. ∠1 ∠5 1 4 2 3 m∠1 = m∠2 = m∠3 = m∠4 m∠5 = m∠6 = m∠7 m∠8 = 90 ∠2 ∠6 ∠3 ∠7 ∠4 ∠8 5 8 6 7 There are also exterior angles. 27 TeamLRN . When a transversal is perpendicular to a pair of parallel lines. all eight angles are congruent. Look for a distinctive Z shaped ﬁgure. alternate interior angles are congruent.501 Geometry Questions Alternate interior angles are interior angles on opposite sides of a transversal line.
3) A pair of corresponding angles is congruent. n l. d. c. but not line n. n is between lines l and n. •A l. on line n. m. but not line l. b. n m o l A 51. n l. 2) A pair of alternate exterior angles is congruent. on line l. b. Set 11 Use the following diagram to answer questions 51 through 56. 52. a. d. o o. o. m. 28 TeamLRN . Which set of lines are transversals? a. on lines l and n. 4) A pair of sameside interior angles is supplementary. m. c.501 Geometry Questions Two lines are parallel if any of the following statements is true: 1) A pair of alternate interior angles is congruent.
Which lines are perpendicular? a. c. n m. d. b. n. l l. c. inﬁnite 56. How many lines can be drawn through •A that are perpendicular to line l? a. 2 d. 0 1 2 inﬁnite 54. How many lines can be drawn through •A that are parallel to line m? a. How many points do line m and line l share? a.501 Geometry Questions 53. d. 0 b. b. l 55. 10. m o. 1 c.000 d. inﬁnite 29 TeamLRN . 0 b. 1 c.
Place a checkmark (✓) beside statements that prove lines o and p are parallel. name all the angles that are sameside interior. place an X beside statements that neither prove nor disprove that lines o and p are parallel. 30 TeamLRN . In pairs. In pairs. name all the corresponding angles. 59.501 Geometry Questions Set 12 Use the following diagram to answer questions 57 through 61. In pairs. Set 13 Use the following diagram and the information below to determine if lines o and p are parallel. n o l m 1 3 4 2 5 7 8 n 6 9 11 10 12 13 15 14 16 o 57. In pairs. 61. name all the alternate interior angles. 60. 58. name all the vertical angles. name all the congruent angles. l m. In sets.
501 Geometry Questions o p 1 3 4 7 2 5 8 r 13 14 15 16 s 6 9 10 11 12 62. then ________. Set 14 Circle the correct answer True or False. 67. True or False 31 TeamLRN . Angles formed by a transversal and two parallel lines are either complementary or congruent. If ∠5 and ∠4 are congruent and equal. If ∠1 and ∠2 are congruent and equal. When four rays extend from a single endpoint. then ________. If ∠12 and ∠15 are congruent and equal. 66. Angles supplementary to the same angle or angles with the same measure are also equal in measure. then ________. True or False 68. adjacent angles are always supplementary. then ________. 65. True or False 69. then ________. If ∠8 and ∠4 are congruent and equal. 64. 63. If ∠9 and ∠16 are congruent and equal.
Parallel and skew lines are coplanar. Vertical angles can be reﬂexive. The sum of exterior angles formed by a pair of parallel lines and a transversal is always 360°. True or False True or False 74. The sum of interior angles formed by a pair of parallel lines crossed by a transversal is always 360°. If vertical angles are acute. Adjacent angles that are also congruent are always right angles. True or False 76. True or False 72. the angle adjacent to them must be obtuse.501 Geometry Questions 70. 75. True or False 77. all four angles formed are never congruent to each other. True or False 73. True or False 32 TeamLRN . Supplementary angles that are also congruent are right angles. True or False 71. When two lines intersect.
∠5. they can share only one point. ∠1 ∠2 ∠4 ∠3 ∠5 ∠6 ∠8 ∠7 ∠9 ∠12 ∠13 ∠16. In this case. ∠10. ∠8. ∠15 59. ∠9. ∠16. they cannot backtrack or bend (if they could bend. when two lines intersect. ∠6. d. ∠4. ∠2. a line must cut across two other lines at different points. they are perpen dicular. When intersecting lines create right angles. ∠10. ∠4. ∠13. ∠11. ∠7. ∠3. ∠3. ∠13 61. Lines are straight. ∠14 33 TeamLRN . When two lines intersect. b. 53. ∠10. Line o crosses lines m and l at the same point. ∠4. ∠14. b. ∠13.501 Geometry Questions Answers Set 11 51. Consequently. ∠7. ∠10. however. ∠5. ∠12. ∠14. ∠3. ∠10 ∠11 ∠14 ∠15 58. ∠7. ∠1. That point is technically on both lines. ∠13. ∠16 60. ∠11. ∠12. ∠4. b. ∠8. that point is on the line. ∠7. ∠1. ∠15. ∠14. they would be a curve. An inﬁnite number of lines can pass through any given point in space—only one line can pass through a point and be perpendicular to an existing line. 54. this rule also applies to points that are not on the line. ∠9. 56. Only one line can pass through a point and be parallel to an existing line. ∠9. not a line). ∠8. In order to be a transversal. they share a single point in space. Set 12 57. b. ∠6. a. ∠9. ∠3. it is not a transversal. ∠2. ∠8. 55. 52.
Only three congruent angle pairs can prove a pair of lines cut by a transversal are parallel: alternate interior angles. ∠1 and ∠2 are adjacent angles.501 Geometry Questions Set 13 62. ✓. False. 68. ✓. angles need to share a vertex. to be adjacent. False. X. then this statement would be true. Adjacent angles do not always form straight lines. adjacent angles that do form a straight line are always right angles. however. Parallel lines are coplanar. The angles of a pair of parallel lines cut by a transversal are always either supplementary or congruent. skew lines are not. ∠8 and ∠4 are corresponding angles. 70. False. 34 TeamLRN . and no interior points. and without a pair of straight lines there are no supplementary angle pairs. but they do not determine parallel lines. and corresponding angles. False. X. a side. then the lines are parallel. 64. Their congruence does not determine parallel lines. meaning their measurements either add up to 180°. True. Set 14 67. ∠9 and ∠16 are alternate exterior angles. ∠12 and ∠15 are same side interior angles. Their measurements combined must equal 180°. any four rays extending from a single point do not have to line up into a pair of straight lines. When same side interior angles are supplementary. 69. 65. Angles 5 and 4 are alternate interior angles—notice the Z ﬁgure. or they are the same measure. 66. If the four rays made two pairs of opposite rays. 71. 63. However. alternate exterior angles. ✓.
When two lines intersect. An angle that measures 90° is a right angle. otherwise. their joint measurement is 180°. True. 76. The two angles opposite each other are congruent. Two sets of adjacent interior angles must equal 360°. False. they could not form supplementary angle pairs with their adjacent angle.501 Geometry Questions 72. they create four angles. If vertical angles are acute. they must measure 90° each. 35 TeamLRN . angles adjacent to them must be obtuse in order to measure 180°. 75. 73. Adjacent interior angles form supplementary pairs. Adjacent angles are supplementary. Perpendicular lines form all right angles. False. Vertical angles cannot be equal to or more than 180°. True. 74. A pair of supplementary angles must measure 180°. Two sets of adjacent exterior angles must equal 360°. 77. True. If the pair is also congruent. True.
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ﬁrst draw a ray. In this chapter. Choose your scale and make a mark on the page at the desired measurement. Protractors have two scales—choose the scale that starts with 0 on the side you have chosen. Where the second arm of your angle crosses the scale on the protractor is your measurement. you will actually measure angles using an instrument called the protractor. How to Measure an Angle Using a Protractor Place the center point of the protractor over the angle’s vertex. How to Draw an Angle Using a Protractor To draw an angle.4 Measuring Angles Had enough of angles? You haven’t even begun! You named angles and determined their congruence or incongruence when two or more lines crossed. The ray’s end point becomes the angle’s vertex. TeamLRN . Keeping these points afﬁxed. position the base of the protractor over one of the two angle sides. Position the protractor as if you were measuring an angle.
Note: Because adjacent angles share a single vertex point. and no interior points. Q R A K L B T parallel 38 TeamLRN . This technique will be particularly useful when working with complementary and supplementary angles in Chapter 5. adjacent angles can be added together to make larger angles. measure each angle. Voilà.501 Geometry Questions Remove the protractor and connect the mark you made to the vertex with a straight edge. they are angles that lie sidebyside. a side. 120 60 0 180 0 180 Adjacent Angles Adjacent angles share a vertex. Set 15 Using the diagram below. you have an angle.
adjacent angles. ∠KAB 82. ∠LRQ 79. EG and EF are opposite rays. b. Draw EG . ∠LAB Set 16 Using a protractor. supplementary angles. e. complementary angles. congruent angles. EF rotates 90° counterclockwise from ED . Draw EC .501 Geometry Questions 78. draw a ﬁgure starting with question 83. Complete the ﬁgure with question 87. Draw ED . 87. 88. 85. 83. ∠ROT and ∠POT are a. 84. 86. 39 TeamLRN . ∠KAL 81. d. Draw EF . Measure ∠DEG. No determination can be made. Set 17 Choose the best answer. ∠ART 80. c. ED rotates 43° counterclockwise (left) from EC .
∠RXA. ∠EBA measures 81°. B. ∠XRA. b. 213°. Avenue B is 68° from Avenue C. 133°. they form one straight avenue extending inﬁnitely. 91. an obtuse angle. ∠ABC measures 132°. e. 233°. 92. 61°. ∠AOB is a. Avenues A. c. e. b. ∠ARX. The Anglesville Town Board wants to construct two more avenues to meet at Town 40 TeamLRN . 51°. d. When adjacent angles RXZ and ZXA are added.501 Geometry Questions 89. No determination can be made. a right angle. ∠EBC must measure a. e. In Anglesville. an acute angle. ∠XZ. Adjacent angles EBA and EBC make ∠ABC. c. 48°. d. d. Avenues A and C extend in opposite directions from Town Hall. ∠SVT measures 53°. c. Set 18 A bisector is any ray or line segment that divides an angle or another line segment into two congruent and equal parts. e. No determination can be made. ∠BOE is a right angle. c. ∠SVT and ∠UVT are adjacent supplementary angles. ∠UVT must measure a. d. b. a reﬂexive angle. they make a. No determination can be made. 90. ∠AOE is a straight angle. and C meet at Town Hall (T). b. 180°. No determination can be made. 127°.
Answer the following questions using the description above. Avenue Y would bisect the angle between Avenues B and C. What is the measure of the angle between Avenue Y and the alley (the three angles inside a closed threesided ﬁgure equal 180°)? 41 TeamLRN . Avenues Z and Y. What is the measure between Avenue Y and Avenue Z? What is the special name for this angle? 94. An alley connects the courthouse to Avenue C perpendicularly. A new courthouse opened on Avenue Y.501 Geometry Questions Hall. 93. Avenue Z would bisect the angle between Avenues A and B.
D E 85. m∠KAB = 51 82. m∠LRQ = 45 79. m∠ART = 45 80. m∠KAL = 174 81. F D C E C G 42 TeamLRN . m∠LAB = 135 Set 16 83.501 Geometry Questions Answers Set 15 78. E C 84. F C D E 86.
However. ∠AOB and ∠BOE are supplementary. The answer must be choice e. m∠DEG = 90 Set 17 88. Choices c and d move the vertex point to •R. 89. they are incorrect. 90° subtracted from 180° equals 90°. or that they are the same shape and size. This is enough information to determine the ∠RXA. EQUATION: m∠ABC – m∠EBA = m∠EBC 132 – 81 = 51 91. any which way you draw it. it cannot be determined that they do not share any interior points. consequently. c. so it is also incorrect.501 Geometry Questions 87. d. 90. Draw this particular problem out. that they form a straight line. 43 TeamLRN . EQUATION: m∠SVT + m∠UVT = 180 53 + m∠UVT = 180 m∠UVT = 127 92. and we know they do not share sides XR and XA. Choice e is incorrect because we are given that the angles are adjacent. a. e. that they form a right angle. we know they share side XZ. d. the vertex always remains the same. Choice b does not name the vertex at all. ∠AOB is a right angle. When angles are added together to make larger angles. ∠ROT and ∠POT share a vertex point and one angle side.
Z Ave. A T alley Ave. EQUATIONS: m∠BTC = 68. half of m∠BTC = 34 m∠BTA = 180 – m∠BTC m∠BTA = 112. Add the alley to your drawing. half of m∠BTA = 56 m∠ZTB + m∠BTY = m∠ZTY 56 + 34 = 90 ∠YTZ is a right angle. m∠Avenue Y. Courthouse. C 93. 44 TeamLRN . Y CH Ave. 94. alley is 180 – (90 + m∠YTC) or 56. Bisect means cuts in half or divides in half. B Ave.501 Geometry Questions Set 18 Map of Anglesville Ave.
5 Pairs of Angles Well done! Good job! Excellent work! You have mastered the use of protractors. supplementary. You can now move into an entire chapter dedicated to complements and supplements. Perhaps the three most useful angle pairs to know in geometry are complementary. and vertical angle pairs. Complementary Angles T 45° 45° O 45° 27° 63° R Q P O 45° S R ∠ROQ and ∠QOP are adjacent angles m∠ ROQ + m ∠QOP = 90 ∠OTS and ∠TSO are nonadjacent angles m∠OTS + m∠TSO = 90 TeamLRN .
opposite angles (angles nonadjacent to each other). Supplementary Angles M L V 130° W 112° 68° 0 K N U 50° X ∠MOL and ∠LON are adjacent straight angles m∠MOL + m∠ LON = 180 ∠XUV and ∠UVW are nonadjacent angles m∠XUV + m∠UVW = 180 When two adjacent or nonadjacent angles have a total measure of 180° they are supplementary angles. they are called vertical angles.501 Geometry Questions When two adjacent or nonadjacent angles have a total measure of 90°. 46 TeamLRN . They are always congruent. Vertical Angles P Q O S T ∠POT and ∠QOS are straight angles ∠POQ ∠SOT m∠POQ = m∠SOT ∠POS ∠QOT m∠POS = m∠QOT When two straight lines intersect or when two pairs of opposite rays extend from the same endpoint. they are complementary angles.
Very important: The total of a triangle’s three interior angles is always 180°. Name the angle vertical to ∠TLK. a. b. Name the angle vertical to ∠NOM. N 97° O 2 3 1 L T 42° R P S M K 95. interior angles are the angles inside that closed ﬁgure. When three line segments form a closed ﬁgure. a. ∠MOR ∠NOK ∠KLT ∠MLS 47 TeamLRN . d. c. d. b.501 Geometry Questions Other Angles That Measure 180° When a line crosses a pair of parallel lines. c. interior angles are angles inside the parallel lines. Set 19 Choose the best answer for questions 95 through 99 based on the ﬁgure below. ∠NOL ∠KLP ∠LOP ∠MOP 96.
d. 97°. No determination can be made. 90°. 40°. ∠MOR and ∠NOK ∠SPR and ∠TPR ∠NOL and ∠LOP ∠TLK and ∠KLS 98. c. a. 140°. they must both measure 90°. one is acute and the other is obtuse. 42°. ∠1. The measure of exterior ∠OPS is a. c. If ∠LKN and ∠NOP are complementary angles. d. d. e. 139°. c. ∠2. 41°. 41°. 97°. they are both obtuse. a. If ∠KAT and ∠GIF are supplementary angles. 83°. No determination can be made. 83°. 100. c. 42°. 48 TeamLRN . c. a. 42°. 41°. 101. b. Name the pair of angles supplementary to ∠NOM. and ∠3 respectively measure a. they are both obtuse. b. they are both acute. e. d. they are both acute. Set 20 Choose the best answer. one is acute and the other is obtuse. d. 99. 41°. b.501 Geometry Questions 97. b. b. 139°. they must both measure 45°.
they are a. congruent angles. If ∠DEF and ∠IPN are congruent. 103. S P U 1 A B O C 2 D T 49 TeamLRN . e. e. adjacent angles. obtuse angles. complementary angles. b. 104. e. d. and ∠SUV and ∠EDF are also supplementary angles. adjacent angles. No determination can be made. obtuse angles.501 Geometry Questions 102. right angles. supplementary angles. c. right angles. No determination can be made. then ∠HIJ and ∠SUV are a. acute angles. Set 21 Fill in the blanks based on your knowledge of angles and the ﬁgure below. right angles. acute angles. b. c. they are a. c. No determination can be made. d. b. If ∠ABE and ∠GIJ are congruent supplementary angles. d. If ∠EDF and ∠HIJ are supplementary angles.
The sum of ∠1. ∠TBO is ________. ∠4. and ∠5. ∠1 and ∠2. then state. 107. 110. ∠1 and ∠3. If ∠POC is acute. ∠6. The sum of ∠5. Measurement of ∠2 plus the measures of ∠6 and ∠5. If ∠1 is congruent to ∠2. If a relationship cannot be determined. If ∠ABT is obtuse. 112. “They cannot be determined.501 Geometry Questions 105. Set 22 State the relationship or sum of the angles given based on the ﬁgure below. and ∠3.” l m 2 1 6 5 3 4 n m l o 109. ∠6 and ∠2. then ________. ∠BTO and ∠OTC are ________. 108. 50 TeamLRN . 106. 113. 114. ∠BOP is ________. 111.
thus. Choices c and d are incorrect. c. 97.501 Geometry Questions Answers Set 19 95. or 180°. which is given. Set 20 100. ∠1 is the vertical angle to ∠TLK. a. The ﬁrst method subtracts the measure of ∠3 from 180°. 98. a. There are two ways to ﬁnd the measure of exterior angle OPS. thus. they are vertical angles. subtract the sum of ∠1 and ∠2 from 180° (the sum of the measure of a triangle’s interior angles): 180 – (42 + 97) = m∠3 41 = m∠3 99. ∠2 is the vertical pair to ∠NOM. The measure of each angle added to the measure of ∠NOM equals that of a straight line. however. d. It only makes sense that the measure of two acute angles could add to 90°. Choice b assumes both angles are also congruent. ∠MOR and ∠NOK are both adjacent to ∠NOM along two different lines. ∠NOM and ∠LOP are opposite angles formed by intersecting lines NR and MK. Any angle less than 90° is acute. they are vertical angles. but not to ∠NOM. 51 TeamLRN . The second method adds the measures of ∠1 and ∠2 together because the measure of an exterior angle equals the sum of the two nonadjacent interior angles. that information is not given. Each of the other answer choices is supplementary to each other. respectively. 96. ∠1 and ∠2 measure 42° and 97°. Since vertical angles are congruent. The sum of any two complementary angles must equal 90°. a. ∠OPS measures 139°. ∠TLK and ∠MLS are opposite angles formed by intersecting lines TS and MK. which is also given. To ﬁnd the measure of ∠3. c. then two obtuse angles could not possibly measure exactly 90° together. If the measure of one obtuse angle equals more than 90°.
When two angles are supplementary to the same angle. where every complementary angle must also be acute. Acute. e. Two obtuse angles can never be a supplementary pair. or obtuse. and two acute angles can never be a supplementary pair. 102. ∠ABT and ∠TBO are adjacent angles on the same line. its supplement is also right. Thus if one angle is obtuse. Without more information. Without more information.501 Geometry Questions 101. c. divide each side by 2: x = 90 Any 90° angle is a right angle. Unlike the question above. replace each angle with its measure: x + x = 180 2x = 180. d. If one angle is more than 90°. If an angle is right. If an angle is obtuse. 52 TeamLRN . 104. Supplementary angles that are also congruent measure 90° each. 103. they are congruent to each other: m∠EDF + m∠HIJ =180 m∠EDF + m∠SUV = 180 m∠EDF + m∠HIJ = m∠SUV + m∠EDF. this question cannot be determined. right. the other angle must compensate by being less than 90°. As a supplementary pair. supplementary angles can be acute. its supplement is acute. e. the sum of their measures must equal 180°. the other angle is acute. Complementary angles that are also congruent measure 45° each. this question cannot be determined. subtract m∠EDF from each side: m∠HIJ = m∠SUV Set 21 105. Congruent supplementary angles always measure 90° each: m∠ABE = x m∠GIJ = x m∠ABE + m∠GIJ = 180.
it equals 90°. a vertex. ∠6. The sum of their measures must equal 180° because they form a straight line. ∠SBO and ∠OCU are congruent. but vertical pairs are formed when lines intersect. 110. The remaining three angles must equal 180° minus 90°. the angles are congruent and their measurements are equal.501 Geometry Questions 106. ∠1 and ∠3 may look like vertical angles. A determination cannot be made. thus. or 90°. Equal. they measure 180°. ∠4. Adjacent supplementary angles. 113. thus they are supplementary. Obtuse. If ∠6 is a right angle. Consequently. Adjacent complementary angles. If one angle is less than 90°. The vertical angle to ∠2 is the full angle that is opposite and between lines m and l. then they are congruent. ∠6 and ∠2 may look like vertical angles. As a supplementary pair. and no interior points. the other angle must compensate by being more than 90°. ∠1 and ∠2 share a side. ∠POC and ∠POB are adjacent angles on the same line. The vertical angle to ∠1 is the full angle that is opposite and between lines m and l. 53 TeamLRN . the sum of their measures must equal 180°. All together. When two angles are supplementary to the same angle or angles that measure the same. 111. The sum of their measures must equal 90° because they form a right angle. but do not be deceived. 90°. they are adjacent. 107. Vertical angle pairs are formed when lines intersect. Thus if one angle is acute. 180°. they are complementary. they are adjacent. the other angle is obtuse. 114. ∠BTO and ∠OTC share a side. 108. A determination cannot be made. 112. ∠5. a vertex and no interior points. Together ∠5 and ∠6 form the vertical angle pair to ∠2. and ∠3 are on a straight line. Set 22 109.
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How so? Because they are always open! The two rays of an angle extend out in different directions and continue on forever. On the other hand. what do you have? A very shy closedﬁgure. If you connect three or more line segments endtoend.6 Types of Triangles Mathematicians have an old joke about angles being very friendly. B A A B C D C Polygon • made of all line segments • each line segment exclusively meets the end of another line segment • all line segments make a closed figure NOT a Polygon • AB is not a line segment • C is not an endpoint • Figure ABC is not a closed figure (AC and BC extend infinitely) TeamLRN . polygons are the introverts in mathematics.
∠BCA. and ∠CAB Triangles can be one of three special types depending upon the congruence or incongruence of its three sides. BC and CA Vertices: ∠ABC. Naming Triangles by Their Sides Scalene S no congruent sides no congruent angles O T ΔSOT ST TO OS ∠STO ∠TOS ∠OST 56 TeamLRN .501 Geometry Questions Closedﬁgures are better known as polygons. It has the fewest sides and angles that a polygon can have. and the simplest polygon is the triangle. B sid e e sid side A C ΔABC Sides: AB.
501 Geometry Questions Isosceles K two congruent sides base two congruent angles L O (vertex) ΔKLO KO LO ∠LKO le g g le ∠KLO Equilateral three congruent sides A 60° B three congruent angles 60° 60° O ΔABO AB BO OA ∠ABO ∠BOA ∠BAO 57 TeamLRN .
m∠ODC and m∠DCO < 90 58 TeamLRN . m∠OFE and m∠FEO < 90 C 70° 40° 70° D O Isosceles Triangle COD m∠COD.501 Geometry Questions Naming Triangles by Their Angles 90° right C obtuse acute 180° A O straight B 0° Acute Triangles E 86° three acute angles 54° F 40° O Scalene Triangle EOF m∠EOF.
501 Geometry Questions A 60° 60° O B 60° Equilateral Triangle ABO Note: Each angle is equal to 60°. m∠ABO. m∠BOA and m∠OAB < 90 Equiangular Triangle N 60° three congruent angles 60° O P 60° Equilateral Triangle NOP ∠NOP ∠OPN ∠PNO Right Triangle T one right angle two acute angles 50° leg hypotenuse 40° S leg O Scalene Triangle TOS m∠TSO = 90 m∠TOS and m∠STO < 90 59 TeamLRN .
equiangular. and obtuse triangles can also be scalene. right. isosceles. 60 TeamLRN . and equilateral.501 Geometry Questions O 45° leg hypotenuse 45° R leg Q Isosceles Triangle ORQ Obtuse Triangle M 24° m∠ORQ = 90 m∠ROQ and m∠RQO < 90 two acute angles one obtuse angle 140° O 16° L Scalene Triangle LMO K 25° m∠LOM > 90 m∠OLM and m∠LMO < 90 130° 25° J O Isosceles Triangle JKO m∠OJK > 90 m∠JKO and m∠KOJ < 90 Note: Some acute.
mXY = 10. mBE = 22. where mWX = 10. 117. ΔDEZ. In scalene triangle QRS. mAD = 72 and m∠A = 90. where m∠R = 94. 123. 121. 125. “Cannot be a triangle. m∠Q = 22 and m∠S = 90. ΔWXY. then ∠S measures ________. Set 24 Fill in the blanks based on your knowledge of triangles and angles. and m∠B = 47. where m∠1 = 184 and m∠2 = 86. 120. 118. if ∠C measures 31° and ∠A measures 90°. where m∠1 = 60 and m∠2 = 60. where mKL = mLM = mMK.” 115. 124. ΔKLM. where mAB = 72. 61 TeamLRN . then ∠B measures ________. 122. where m∠P = 31 and m∠R = 89. where mBD = 17. If the information describes a ﬁgure that cannot be a triangle. where m∠1 = 30. where m∠1 = 5. if ∠R measures 134° and ∠Q measures 16°. and m∠X = 90. ΔJMR. ΔPQR. 119. m∠D = 47 . In right triangle ABC. ΔBDE.501 Geometry Questions Set 23 State the name of the triangle based on the measures given. 116. mYW = 10. m∠2 = 120 and m∠3 = 67. write. ΔTAR. ΔCHI. m∠2 = 60 and m∠3 = 90. ΔQRS. 126. ΔABD.
50°. 50°. 60°. then the vertex ∠E measures ________. 130. then base ∠U measures ________. 45° b. 60° c. 45° b. 60°. if ∠B measures 45°. 90° d. In acute triangle ABC. Which of the following sets of interior angle measures would describe an acute isosceles triangle? a. 50° d. 30° b. In obtuse isosceles triangle EFG. 30°. 90°. 45°. 100° 62 TeamLRN . 100°. 50° 131. 90°. 60° c. 90°. 90°. can ∠C measure 30°? ________. Which of the following sets of interior angle measures would describe an obtuse isosceles triangle? a. 129. if the base ∠F measures 12°. 60°. if vertex ∠T is supplementary to an angle in an equilateral triangle. 120°. 45°. 128. Set 25 Choose the best answer. 90° c. 80°. In isosceles triangle TUV. 60°. 60° d. 30° 132. Which of the following angle measurements would not describe an interior angle of a right angle? a.501 Geometry Questions 127.
∠1 or ∠2 136. JM JN c. then ∠C measures a. mJN = mMN b. ∠1 or ∠c 63 TeamLRN . Note: m∠2 = 111. 33°. a b 2 c 3 d 1 m∠2 = 111 135. If ΔJNM is equilateral and equiangular. m∠N = m∠J d. 45°. b. In isosceles ΔABC. Set 26 Using the obtuse triangle diagram below. d. c. m∠M = mNM 134. 30°. determine which of the pair of angles given has a greater measure. ∠a or ∠b 138. which condition would not exist? a. 90°. if vertex ∠A is twice the measure of base ∠B. ∠3 or ∠d 137.501 Geometry Questions 133.
∠2 or ∠d 64 TeamLRN .501 Geometry Questions 139. ∠3 or ∠b 141. ∠a or ∠c 140.
117. Subtract from 180° the sum of ∠1 and ∠2. Not a triangle. Not a triangle. ∠A is a right angle and AB = AD. ∠Q measures 60°. Add the measure of each angle together. and all three angles are different. and both are always acute. 118. 121. an equilateral triangle also has three congruent interior angles. An equiangular triangle is an equilateral triangle. Acute equilateral triangle KLM. Acute equilateral triangle DEZ. Not a triangle. Every angle in a triangle measures less than 180°. and no triangle can have three right angles. 119.501 Geometry Questions Answers Set 23 115. ∠3 is a right angle. Isosceles right triangle ABD. All three angles are acute. ∠1 and ∠2 are acute. 65 TeamLRN . Not a triangle. measures 60°. like ∠1 and ∠2. Scalene right triangle CHI. Isosceles acute triangle BDE. not both. “Triangle” QRS claims to have a right angle and an obtuse angle. 120. Subtract from 180° the sum of ∠P and ∠R. 122. 123. ΔPQR is acute scalene. Any triangle can have one right angle or one obtuse angle. Base angles D and B are congruent. however. The sum of the measure of interior angles exceeds 180°. “Triangle” WXY claims to be equilateral and right. ∠3. 116. “Triangle” TAR claims to have an angle that measures 184°. Acute scalene triangle PQR. 124. and all three sides have different lengths.
Though choice c describes an equilateral triangle. The sum of the measures of ∠B and ∠C equals 75°. it is a right triangle. 180 – (m∠F + m∠G) = m∠E. 30°. d. Let m∠A = 2x. d. d. 180 – 120 = m∠U + m∠V. and ∠A measures 105°. the sum of interior angle measures exceeds 180°. 132. 156 = m∠E 129. 4x = 180°. c. A right triangle has a right angle and two acute angles. 59 = m∠B 126. m∠B = x and m∠C = x. it also describes an isosceles triangle. Step Three: 60° shared by two congruent base angles equals two 30° angles. 128. Step Two: 180 – m∠T = m∠U + m∠V. 133. 120 = m∠T.501 Geometry Questions Set 24 125. 66 TeamLRN . Choice a is not an acute triangle because it has one right angle. Step One: 180 – 60 = m∠T. 30°. In choice b and choice c the sum of the interior angle measures exceeds 180°. 30 = m∠S 127. Choice d suffers the reverse problem. 156°. x = 45°. 2x + x + x = 180°. 134. Set 25 130. Choice a is not an obtuse triangle. 60 inches is not the same as 60°. 180 – (m∠R + m∠Q) = m∠S. Subtract 75° from 180°. 180 – 24 = m∠E. 59°. 60 = m∠U + m∠V. it does not have any obtuse angles. 131. c. 180 – 150 = m∠S. 180 – 121 = m∠B. No. ΔABC cannot be acute if any of its interior angles measure 90° or more. its sum does not make 180°. 180 – (m∠C + m∠A) = m∠B. Angles and sides are measured in different units. In choice b.
∠d. 136. The measure of an exterior angle equals the measure of the sum of nonadjacent interior angles. which means ∠b is also obtuse. ∠b. ∠2. which means ∠b is also obtuse. 138.501 Geometry Questions Set 26 135. Just as the measure of ∠2 exceeds the measure of ∠3. The supplement to an obtuse angle is always acute. If ∠3 is acute. its supplement is obtuse. If ∠2 is the obtuse angle in an obtuse triangle. It only makes sense that the measure of ∠c is greater than the measure of ∠1 all by itself. ∠1 and ∠3 must be acute. which means the measure of ∠c equals the measure of ∠1 plus the measure of ∠3. 67 TeamLRN . ∠b is the vertical angle to obtuse ∠2. 141. ∠b is vertical to obtuse angle 2. which means the measure of ∠d equals the measure of ∠1 plus the measure of ∠2. ∠d. 139. They are congruent and equal. m∠a equals m∠c. ∠b. ∠c. so too does the measure of ∠b. 140. 137. The measure of an exterior angle equals the measure of the sum of nonadjacent interior angles. ∠a and ∠c are a vertical pair. It only makes sense that the measure of ∠d is greater than the measure of ∠2 all by itself.
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Unless you have a twin. some are very alike. and some are not alike at all. In geometry. Look at the people around you. Some triangles are exactly alike. ﬁgures also have their duplicates. Same shape. they aren’t you. TeamLRN . Look at a 3 × 5 photograph of yourself. but much smaller.7 Congruent Triangles Look in a regular bathroom mirror and you’ll see your reﬂection. That is also you. same size. and they do not look anything like you.
5 C Q Corresponding Parts of Congruent Triangles Are Congruent (CPCTC) AB BC CA RQ RS SQ ∠A ∠B ∠C ∠Q ∠R ∠S 1.75 110° Same size Same shape Same measurements Similar Triangles C 1 60° B 30° 2 D 30° A 60° E Corresponding Angles of Similar Triangles Are Congruent (CASTC) A C ABD CBD CDB AED Corresponding Sides of Similar Triangles Are Proportional (CPSTP) 2 × BC = 1 × AB 2 × BD = 1 × BE 2 × CD = 1 × AE Different sizes Same shape Different measurements.5 0.75 110° A 1. but in proportion 70 TeamLRN .501 Geometry Questions Congruent Triangles R B S 0.
The next chapter will look at proving similar triangles. then the two triangles are congruent.501 Geometry Questions Dissimilar Triangles R Q L K M S Different sizes Different shapes Different measurements The ability to show two triangles are congruent or similar is useful when establishing relationships between different planar ﬁgures. 71 TeamLRN . This chapter focuses on proving congruent triangles using formal postulates—those simple reversal statements that deﬁne geometry’s truths. Congruent Triangles B R A C S Q SideSideSide (SSS) Postulate: If three sides of one triangle are congruent to three sides of another triangle.
SSS b. In ΔABC and ΔLMN. 72 TeamLRN . B R “included” side A C S Q AngleSideAngle (ASA) Postulate: If two angles and the included side of one triangle are congruent to corresponding parts of another triangle. It cannot be determined. choose choice d. Set 27 Choose the best answer. ∠B and ∠M are congruent and ∠C and ∠N are congruent. 142.501 Geometry Questions B R “included” angle A C S Q SideAngleSide (SAS) Postulate: If two sides and the included angle of one triangle are congruent to the corresponding parts of another triangle. SAS c. then the triangles are congruent. ∠A and ∠L are congruent. ASA d. Using the information above. the triangles are congruent. a. which postulate proves that ΔABC and ΔLMN are congruent? If congruency cannot be determined.
a. The Springﬁeld cheerleaders need to make three identical triangles. choose choice d. 146. SSS b. Name each of the triangles in order of corresponding vertices. SAS c. a. M Given: O 50° 50° X 60° K N LN LM QO QO L R Q 60° P 145. Which postulate proves that their triangles are congruent? If congruency cannot be determined. It cannot be determined. ASA d. They are twelve books high against the wall. Which postulate proves that the two stacks are congruent? If congruency cannot be determined. The girls decide to use an arm length to separate each girl from her two other squad mates. SAS c.501 Geometry Questions 143. It cannot be determined. Both sets must look exactly alike. ASA d. 73 TeamLRN . Name corresponding line segments. Two sets of the same book are stacked triangularly against opposite walls. and twelve books from the wall. SSS b. 144. Set 28 Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 145 through 148. choose choice d.
5 1. 74 TeamLRN . Name corresponding line segments. 150. State the postulate that proves ΔLMN is congruent to ΔOPQ. Find the measure of ∠y. 148. B Z A 3 C 2 D 2 F 3 G 2 I E H 2 153. Name each of the triangles in order of corresponding vertices. C B F 1. State the postulate that proves ΔBCD is congruent to ΔEFG. Set 30 Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 153 through 156. Find the measure of ∠X. Name each set of congruent triangles in order of corresponding vertices. 151.5 D G y E 149.5 1.501 Geometry Questions 147. Set 29 Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 149 through 152.5 110° 1. 152.
Name corresponding line segments. Find the measure of ∠V. State the postulate that proves ΔABC is congruent to ΔGEF. 156.501 Geometry Questions 154. 159. Set 31 Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 157 through 160. State the postulate that proves ΔGIJ is congruent to ΔKML. 75 TeamLRN . Name corresponding line segments. 155. 158. Find the measure of ∠Z. 160. Name a set of congruent triangles in order of corresponding vertices. I Given: JI GJ GI LM KL KM G K V 60° J IM 25° M L 157.
ΔHGO is a ________ triangle. 163.501 Geometry Questions Set 32 Use the diagram below to answer questions 161 through 163. ∠x measures ________ degrees. which triangles are congruent? What postulate proves it? 162. 76 TeamLRN . B O G x K H 161. In the ﬁgure above.
∠ORN measures 50°. The legs of each stack measure 12 books. 77 TeamLRN . Set 28 145. Finally. there will be only one way to form those cheering triangles. but in this chapter you need to know that congruent angles are not enough to prove triangles are congruent. so. b. x = 20. a. ∠OKR measures 80°. Do not be afraid to sketch this problem if you are having difﬁculty visualizing it. 143. ∠OKN.) 146. In later chapters you will learn more about similar triangles.) ∠Q 147.501 Geometry Questions Answers Set 27 142. ΔLMN and ΔOPQ. measures 100°. Congruency cannot be determined. The wall and ﬂoor plane form a right angle. Both stacks are right triangles with leg lengths of 12 and 12. When a transversal crosses a pair of parallel lines. and ∠OKR’s supplement. 180 – (100 + 60) = 20. AngleSideAngle postulate: ∠N LN ∠L QO ∠O 148. d. corresponding angles are congruent. As long as the arm lengths are consistent. (Always coordinate corresponding vertices. 144. LM OP MN PQ NL QO (Always coordinate corresponding endpoints.
) 154. m∠Y = m∠F + m∠G. ∠BCA Set two: BC EF HI ∠BCD ∠EFD CD FD IG ∠EFG. 180 − (m∠BDC + m∠EDF) = m∠Z.) 150. ΔDBC and ΔDEF are isosceles right triangles. m∠Y = 110 + 35. or 35°. m∠Z = 90°.501 Geometry Questions Set 29 149. CA DE GH EF HI DF GI FG 155. 78 TeamLRN . ΔDEF. There are two sets of congruent triangles in this question. CA ∠I FG 156. ΔABC and ΔGEF make one set.) FG 151. CD EF DB FG BC GE (Always coordinate corresponding endpoints. and ΔGHI make the second set. SideAngleSide: Set one: BC EF. 180 – 90 = m∠Z. m∠Y = 145. SideAngleSide Postulate: BD ∠D CD ∠F EF 152. ΔEFG is an isosceles triangle whose vertex measures 110°. (Remember to align corresponding vertices. Both base angles measure half the difference of 110 from 180. ΔDBC. ΔCDB and ΔEFG. Set one: AB Set two: DB BC DC GE. which means the measures of ∠BDC and ∠EDF both equal 45°. Set 30 153. (Remember to align corresponding vertices. BC EF.
ΔKBO and ΔHGO are congruent.) 158. Its vertex angle measures 25°.5°. KM GI ML IJ LK JG (Always coordinate corresponding endpoints. its base angles measure 77.5° each. SideSideSide: KM ML LK 160. ΔKML and ΔGIJ. m∠JKL = 42.5 + 60) = m∠JKL.5. (Remember to align corresponding vertices. m∠V = 42. 162.501 Geometry Questions Set 31 157. 45° 79 TeamLRN . ΔIMK is an isosceles triangle. isosceles right triangle 163.) GI IJ JG 159. SideAngleSide postulate. 180 – (77. 180 – (m∠IKM + m∠MKL) = m∠JKL. Set 32 161.
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then the triangles are similar.Ratio. 8 F B Similar Triangles A C G E AngleAngle (AA) Postulate: If two angles of one triangle are congruent to two angles of another triangle. they are very related. when does size matter? In geometry. and Similarity If congruent triangles are like mirrors or identical twins. Similar triangles share congruent angles and congruent shapes. Proportion. however. TeamLRN . So. then similar triangles are like fraternal twins: They are not exactly the same. often—if it’s proportional. Only their sizes differ.
then the triangles are similar. 1:3 = 1:3 = 1:3 SideSideSide (SSS) Postulate: If the lengths of the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional.501 Geometry Questions F B 9 3 1 3 A 2 C G 6 E See Ratios and Proportions AB : EF = 3:9 BC : FG = 1:3 CA : GE = 2:6 3:9 = 2:6 = 1:3 Reduce each ratio. 82 TeamLRN .
If I have 10 bikes and you have 20 cars. 1:4 = 1:4 SideAngleSide (SAS) Postulate: If the lengths of two pairs of corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional and the corresponding included angles are congruent. The ratio of my blue pens to my black pens is 7:2.501 Geometry Questions F B 12 3 1 4 “included”angle A C G E See Ratios and Proportions AB : EF = 3:12 BC : FG = 1:4 3:12 = 1:4 Reduce each ratio. Ratios are commonly written with a colon between the sets of objects being compared. Ratios and Proportions A ratio is a statement comparing any two quantities. This ratio can be simpliﬁed to 1 to 2 by dividing each side of the ratio by the greatest common factor (in this case. then the ratio of my bikes to your cars is 10 to 20. I add four more black pens to my collection. How many blue pens must I add to maintain the same ratio of blue 83 TeamLRN . then the triangles are similar. 10). 10:20 1:2 A proportion is a statement comparing two equal ratios.
2:3 c. AngleSideAngle 165. AngleAngle b. which postulate proves they are similar? a. Caution: When writing a proportion. If ΔDFG and ΔJKL are both right and isosceles. In ΔABC. 8:4 84 TeamLRN . 2:1 d. a. 2:4 b. always line up like ratios.501 Geometry Questions pens to black pens in my collection? The answer: 14 blue pens. In similar ΔEFG. SideSideSide c. SideAngleSide d. Compare the ratios: 7:2 = 21:6. If you reduce the right side. The ratio 7:2 is not equal to the ratio 6:21! Set 33 Choose the best answer. 164. the proportion reads 7:2 = 7:2 A proportion can also be written as a fraction: 7 2 = 21 6 Proportions and ratios are useful for ﬁnding unknown sides of similar triangles because corresponding sides of similar triangles are always proportional. side AB measures 16 inches. State the ratio of side AB to side EF. corresponding side EF measures 24 inches.
then corresponding DF measures a. b. d. Use the ﬁgure below to ﬁnd a proportion to solve for x. In similar triangles UBE and ADF. 85 TeamLRN . 12 6 12 20 20 12 12 6 = = = = 20 (20 – x) x 6 6 x 20 x 167.501 Geometry Questions 166. d. UB measures 10 inches while corresponding AD measures 2 inches. 12 inches. 12 55° 6 55° 12 6 45° 55° 55° 45° x 20 a. 60 inches. c. 6 inches. b. c. If BE measures 30 inches. 150 inches.
171.501 Geometry Questions Set 34 Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 168 through 171. State the postulate that proves similarity. Find RQ. R 22 N 11 O 20 17 34 M Q 168. 86 TeamLRN . 169. Name each of the triangles in order of their corresponding vertices. Name corresponding line segments. 170.
State the postulate that proves similarity.501 Geometry Questions Set 35 Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 172 through 175. Name corresponding line segments. Name a pair of similar triangles in order of corresponding vertices. 87 TeamLRN . A 50° 5X B 50° 7 D X C 50° E 176. B Set 36 Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 176 through 179. 173. Prove that WX and YB are parallel. 174. Name a pair of similar triangles in order of corresponding vertices. 175. W 50° 70° X A 50° Y 70° 172.
Find AE. Choice ________ is congruent to ΔB. State the postulate that proves similarity. Choice ________ is similar to ΔA. 179. Triangle A 60° 20 30° a Triangle E b Triangle F Triangle B 60° Triangle C 30° Triangle D 62° 2 60° 20 60° 36 10° c 39 d Triangle G Triangle H 5 36° e Triangle I 54° 90° f Triangle J 54° 5 90° i 30° 90° 5 j 36° 10 12 108° 13 g Triangle K 60° 2 2 10 60° h Triangle L 108° 36 62° k l 60° 180. Set 37 Fill in the blanks with a letter from a corresponding ﬁgure in the box below. Choice ________ is similar to ΔB. 88 TeamLRN . 178. 184. Name corresponding line segments. 183. Choice ________ is congruent to ΔE. Choice ________ is congruent to ΔA. 182. 181.501 Geometry Questions 177.
Triangle(s)________ are equilateral triangles. Choice ________ is similar to ΔD. Choice ________ is congruent to ΔD. 189. Choice ________ is similar to ΔE. Triangle(s)________ are right triangles. 89 TeamLRN . 187. 188.501 Geometry Questions 185. 186.
The comparison now reads. If the line segment measures 30 inches. Since at least two corresponding angles are congruent. Corresponding line segments are OQ and OM. The proportions in choices b and c are misaligned. Always coordinate corresponding endpoints. c. a. If one side of a triangle measures 16 inches. When writing a proportion. d. This ratio can be simpliﬁed by dividing each side of the ratio by the common factor 8. and a corresponding side in another triangle measures 24 inches. SideAngleSide. they are proportional. b. and d simplify into the same incorrect ratio of 2:1 or 1:2. ΔOQR and ΔOMN. 165. corresponding parts must parallel each other. RO and NO. The angles of a right isosceles triangle always measure 45 – 45 – 90. If the ratio between corresponding linesegments. Choice a looks for the line segment 20 – x. 167. 170. x = 6. Set 34 168.) 169. First. then the ratio is 16:24. that ratio is 10:2 or 5:1. 2:3 or 2 to 3. and the ratio between corresponding line segments QO and MO is also 2:1. not x. RO and NO is 22:11.501 Geometry Questions Answers Set 33 164. A ratio is a comparison. 166. 90 TeamLRN . (Remember to align corresponding vertices. or 2:1. they are proportional. Choices a. d. The ratio means that a line segment in the larger triangle is always 5 times more than the corresponding line segment in a similar triangle. QR and MN. The sides of similar triangles are not congruent. it is 5 times more than the corresponding line segment. right isosceles triangles are similar. Create the equation: 30 = 5x. state the ratio between similar triangles.
CA and CB. EC and DC. Corresponding line segments are WX and AY. From the last question. In this case. x = 40. When alternate interior angles are congruent. Since there are no side measurements to compare. 175.) 177. If the side of the smaller triangle measures 7. ΔAEC and ΔBDC. AngleAngle postulate. Set 36 176. When you state the ratio between triangles. AngleAngle postulate. then the corresponding side of the larger triangle will measure 6 times 7. then lines are parallel. Create the equation: 20 = 1 x. vertex C applies to both triangles. ΔWXY and ΔAYB. it is half the size of the corresponding line segment. That ratio means that a line segment in the smaller triangle is half the size of the corresponding line segment in the larger triangle. 178. or 42. (Remember to align corresponding vertices. ∠WXY and ∠BYA are congruent alternate interior angles. 179. or 6x. AC actually measures 5x + x. Always coordinate corresponding endpoints. Though it is easy to overlook. XY acts like a transversal across WX and BY. XY and YB. Always coordinate corresponding endpoints. x = 40. Corresponding line segments are AE and BD. you know the ratio between similar triangles OQR and OMN is 2:1. remember that corresponding sides AC and BC share part of a line segment. or 6:1. only an allangular postulate can prove triangle similarity. x = 42. YW and BA.501 Geometry Questions 171. If that line segment measures 20 inches. This is a little tricky. The ratio is 6x:1x. WX and BY are parallel. (Remember to align corresponding vertices. 91 TeamLRN .) 173. 2 Set 35 172. 174.
54°. and 108°. k. i. To be congruent. choice c was determined to be congruent to ΔA because of congruent sides. The line segments between the 36° and 90° angles in choices j and e are congruent. they are only similar. They are not congruent. The three angles in ΔE measure 36°. Choice h has the same equilateral shape as ΔB. 182. To be congruent. which proves similarity. l. at least two congruent angles prove similarity. They are congruent. According to the AngleAngle postulate. Because the two angles given in ΔA are 30° and 60°. ΔA and the triangle in choice c have congruent hypotenuses. they are not congruent triangles. 185. at least two congruent angles prove similarity.501 Geometry Questions Set 37 180. Choice l has a set of corresponding and congruent angles. which proves congruency. 54°. 92 TeamLRN . and 90°. but choice l also has an included congruent side. they are only similar. and 90°. only choice k and ΔB are congruent because of congruent sides. an included side must also be congruent. ΔB is an equilateral triangle. 60°. In choice i. In the previous answer. but they are not congruent. 183. an included side must also be congruent. Choices f and j also have angles that measure 36°. h. the third angle in ΔA is 90°. they are only similar triangles. However. 186. Choices h and k are also equilateral triangles (an isosceles triangle whose vertex measures 60° must also have base angles that measure 60°). Choice f has the same right scalene shape as ΔE. Like ΔA. choices c and i also have angles that measure 30°. the triangle’s hypotenuse measures 5. According to the AngleAngle postulate. The three angles in ΔD respectively measure 62°. it has the same shape as ΔA but is smaller. 184. j. f. 10°. consequently. and 90°. 181. but they are different sizes. c.
h. Any triangle with a 90° interior angle is a right triangle.501 Geometry Questions 187. i. c. The sides on either side of the 108° angle are proportional and the included angle is obviously congruent. j. equiangular triangle. e. 189. Choice g has only one given angle. f. b. k. Any triangle with congruent sides and congruent angles is an equilateral. the SideAngleSide postulate proves it is similar to ΔD. a. 188. g. 93 TeamLRN .
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A number multiplied by itself is raised to the second power. you must know squares—not the foursided ﬁgure—but a number times itself.9 Triangles and the Pythagorean Theorem In Chapters 7 and 8. To use the Pythagorean theorem. you will need the Pythagorean theorem. To ﬁnd an unknown side of a single right triangle. you found the unknown sides of a triangle using the known sides of similar and congruent triangles. 4 × 4 = 16 42(exponent) (base) = 16 Pythagorean Theorem a2 + b2 = c2 TeamLRN .
501 Geometry Questions leg a leg a c hypotenuse c a leg b hypotenuse c b leg b leg The longest side is always the hypotenuse. therefore the longest side is always c. R c=? Q b=4 a=3 S a2 + b2 = c2 32 + 42 = c2 9 + 16 = c2 25 = c2 Take the square root of each side: 25 = 5=c c2 96 TeamLRN . Find hypotenuse QR.
200 97 TeamLRN . D 1 a = 20 E b=? c = 40 C a2 + b2 = c2 202 + b2 = 402 400 + b2 = 1. K a=? L c = √2 b=1 M a2 + b2 = c2 a2 + 12 = ( 2)2 a2 + 1 = 2 a2 = 1 Take the square root of each side: a2 = Find CD.600 b2 = 1.501 Geometry Questions Find KL.
However. the Pythagorean theorem can tell you whether that triangle is obtuse or acute. Is ΔGHI obtuse or acute? H c = 12 b=8 G a=6 I a2 + b2 c2 62 + 82 122 36 + 64 100 < 144 144. if all the sides of any given triangle are known.501 Geometry Questions Take the square root of each side: b2 = 1. but none of the angles are known.200 b = 20 3 The Pythagorean theorem can only ﬁnd a side of a right triangle. 98 TeamLRN . Therefore. ΔGHI is obtuse.
191. c. then the triangle is a. then the triangle is a. b. Set 38 Choose the best answer. 4. and 5. acute. If the sides of a triangle measure 3. ΔJKL is acute. right. 16. and 20. If the sides of a triangle measure 12.501 Geometry Questions Is ΔJKL obtuse or acute? K a=2 c=2 J b=2 L a2 + b2 c2 22 + 22 22 4+4 8 > 4 4 Therefore. d. It cannot be determined. obtuse. right. 99 TeamLRN . b. obtuse. c. d. acute. 190. It cannot be determined.
d. d. 194. b. If the sides of a triangle measure 6. then the triangle is a. It cannot be determined. and 15. acute. obtuse. 196. c. obtuse. c. d. It cannot be determined. 193. 12. If two sides of a triangle measure 4 and 14. acute. d. b. If the sides of a triangle measure 15. c. If the sides of a triangle measure 12. If the sides of a triangle measure 2. right. It cannot be determined. b. 3. right. right. c. acute. and 26. obtuse. then the triangle is a. acute. 100 TeamLRN . 16. right. right. obtuse. c. d. 17. and 22. b. It cannot be determined. then the triangle is a. and an angle measures 34°. acute.501 Geometry Questions 192. b. then the triangle is a. obtuse. and 16. It cannot be determined. 195. then the triangle is a.
c. b. and she has not moved. 35 feet. the measure from the end of one side to the end of the second side equals a. 40 meters b. Timmy arranges the walls of his shed on the ground. 61 paces.000 meters 200. If the walls are at a right angle from each other. 198. 14 feet d. 22 paces. 25 feet 199. 40. 325 feet. b. It is 500 meters away from her.000 meters d. Eva turns 90° left and walks 5 paces. 4. 50 feet. 101 TeamLRN . 36 paces. 400 meters c. If a line segment connected them.501 Geometry Questions Set 39 Choose the best answer. The base of the ﬁrst side measures 10 feet. d. then what is the distance between the bottom of each leg and the end of the tabletop? a. 225 feet. 197. The base of the second side measures 15 feet. Eva and Carr meet at a corner. c. How far apart are the planes from each other? a. it would measure a. The legs of a table measure 3 feet long and the top measures 4 feet long. If the legs are connected to the table at a right angle. Dorothy is standing directly 300 meters under a plane. She sees another plane ﬂying straight behind the ﬁrst. 7 feet c. Carr continues straight and walks 6 paces. d. 5 feet b. 25 paces.
Set 41 Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 204 through 206. 203. Which triangles in the ﬁgure above are congruent and/or similar? 205. Find the value of x. Is ΔZSY acute or obtuse? 102 TeamLRN . Find the value of y. Find the value of a. S U V W Given: SU VU SV ZY SY VY UY = 7 SY = 5 2 SZ WX Z a Y X 204. C Given: CD BD FD FE 3x T 4 18 BT BS DT B D y S E F 201.501 Geometry Questions Set 40 Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 201 through 203. Which triangles in the ﬁgure above are congruent and/or similar? 202. 206.
Set 43 Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 210 through 215. A x B C Given: AE x 13√2 2 F 1 E D FE ED CE 207. 209.501 Geometry Questions Set 42 Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 207 through 209. Which triangles in the ﬁgure above are congruent and/or similar? 208. Which triangles in the ﬁgure above are congruent and/or similar? G 15√2 C Z AF AB BF FE BG CB CG GE CE EC = w 103 TeamLRN . Find AC. Find the value of x. B Given: AE y F 7√10 x A E 3 D 210.
Is ΔBGC acute or obtuse? 104 TeamLRN . 214. Find the value of w. 215.501 Geometry Questions 211. 213. Find the value of Z. Find the value of y. Find the value of x. 212.
191. 514 > 484. 193. 225 + 289 = 484. Apply the Pythagorean theorem: a2 + b2 = c2. 194. d. 4 + 9 = 256. b. c. 13 < 256. then the triangle is obtuse. 288 > 225. c. When the sum of the smaller sides squared is greater than the square of the largest side. Plug the given measurements into the Pythagorean theorem (the largest side is always c in the theorem): 152 + 172 = 222. A 345 triangle is a right triangle. and the question wants to know the hypotenuse. Plug the known measurements into the Pythagorean theorem: 52 + 62 = c2. 61 = c. 196. 25 = 25.501 Geometry Questions Answers Set 38 190. Plug the given measurements into the Pythagorean theorem: 122 + 122 = 152. b. Simplify the measurement of each side by dividing 12.The length of the leg and the length of 105 TeamLRN . 144 + 144 = 225. Eva and Carr walk the distance of each leg. 195. 36 + 256 = 676. this triangle cannot be determined. 198. 292 < 676. so know it well. then the triangle is acute. 16 4 = 4. The corner forms the right angle of this triangle. When the sum of the smaller sides squared is less than the square of the largest side. 32 + 42 = 52. 197. a. The Pythagorean theorem does not include any angles. d. a. The connection between the leg and the tabletop forms the right angle of this triangle. 61 = c2. 25 + 36 = c2. 16. This is also a 3–4–5 triangle. Plug the given measurements into the Pythagorean theorem: 62 + 162 = 262. 192. Plug the given measurements into the Pythagorean theorem: 22 + 32 = 162. a. 9 + 16 = 25. 20 4 = 5. and 20 by 4: 12 4 = 3. Without a third side or a deﬁnite right angle. Obtuse. This is a popular triangle. Acute.
The ﬁrst plane is actually this triangle’s right vertex. FD = FE = 6. 106 TeamLRN . they both equal 6. Since BT = DT.000. and y into the Pythagorean theorem. b. Plug the known measurements into the Pythagorean theorem: 102 + 152 = c2. The bases of Timmy’s walls form the legs of this right triangle. Because ΔBCD is an isosceles right triangle. ΔSBT and ΔEFD are congruent to each other (SideAngle Side theorem) and similar to ΔBDC (AngleAngle theorem). 90. and the question wants to know the distance of the hypotenuse. BD is con gruent to CD. and 4 18 into the Pythagorean theorem: (3x)2 + (3x)2 = (4 18)2. Since BT = FD = FE. 6. this is another 345 triangle. 18x2 = 288. 9x2 + 9x2 = 288. 200. Notice that if you divided each side by 100.501 Geometry Questions the top are the legs of the triangle. x = 4.000 + b2 = 250. b = 400. 202. 199. Therefore. 3x. 203. Plug 3x. Set 40 201. 5 = c. 325 = c2. Plug the known measurements into the Pythagorean theorem: 32 + 42 = c2. y = 6 2. b2 = 160. you forgot to take the square root of the 25. 100 + 225 = c2. In the question above. x = 4. If you chose answer d. BD = 12. 325 = c. Plug 6.000. x2 = 16. The distance between Dorothy and the second plane is the hypotenuse. you found x = 4. Plug the known measurements into the Pythagorean theorem: 3002 + b2 = 5002. If you chose answer b. d. The hypotenuse is unknown. 25 = c2. you added the legs together without squaring them ﬁrst. 9 + 16 = c2.
107 TeamLRN . 206. 72 + b2 = (5 2)2 49 + b2 = 50. 54 > 50. Corresponding parts of congruent triangles are congruent (CPCTC). Thus. 9 + w2 = 450. Plug the given measures into the Pythagorean theorem. AC is twice the size of AE. b2 = 1. Plug the measurements of ΔABF into the Pythagorean theorem. x2 = 49. Two of its sides measure 5 2. ΔZSY is acute. Even though you don’t know the measurement of x in ΔABF. a = 1 + 1. ΔAFE and ΔBGE are congruent (SideSideSide postulate). then EA is also 21. To ﬁnd the measure of SU. w = 21. x = 7. you do know that two sides measure x. The ratio between corresponding line segments AE and FE is 13 2 + 1:1. 22 + (5 2)2 = (5 2)2. x2 = 169. 208. Set 42 207. ΔSUY is congruent to ΔVUY (SideSideSide theorem). Acute. Ultimately. w = 21. b = 1 = 1. 212. The third side measures 2. ΔABF and ΔBCG are congruent (SideSideSide postulate). Both triangles are isosceles. 2x2 = 338. x = 7. 26 2 + 2. Plug the measurements of ΔECD into the Pythagorean theorem: 32 + w2 = (15 2)2. SU + UV = ZY. Therefore. Plug the measurements of ΔAFE into the Pythagorean theorem: 212 + x2 = (7 10)2. 4 + 50 = 50. x = 13. 441 + x2 = 490. Set 43 210. and they share a common vertex point. all their angles are congruent. If EC is 21. SU = UV. ΔACE is similar to ΔFDE (AngleAngle theorem). 211. 209. ΔZSY is an isosceles triangle.501 Geometry Questions Set 41 204. a = 2. x2 + x2 = (13 2)2. plug the given measurements of ΔSUY into the Pythagorean theorem. w2 = 441. 205. x = 13. Since FD = 2.
441 + 441 = Z2. Because of CPCTC. 21 – 7 = 14. However. AE is also congruent to BE.501 Geometry Questions 213. If BE is 21 and FE is 7. 214. 21 2 = Z. 882 = Z2. 215. y = 14. 108 TeamLRN . You could just guess that m∠BGC > 90°. Plug the measurements of ΔBEC into the Pythagorean theorem: 212 + 212 = Z2. the question wants you to use the Pythagorean theorem to show (7 10)2 + 142 < (21 2)2. subtract 7 from 21 to ﬁnd BF. Z = 21 2. Obtuse.
∠BCD. BC. Consecutive sides are adjoining sides of a polygon. 4 diagonals: AC. ABC. BD TeamLRN . ∠ABC. there is a vertex for every side of a polygon. and consecutive vertices are vertices that are at opposite ends of a side: 10 A 1 B 2 4 D 3 C sides: AB. 3.Properties of Polygons A triangle has three sides and three vertices. CDA exterior ∠’s: 1. 2. ∠CDA interior ∠’s: DAB. CD. As a rule. BCD. DA vertices: ∠DAB.
< 180. ∠E. ∠B. ∠C.501 Geometry Questions Naming Polygons A 1 H 8 B 2 3 4 6 F 5 E C G 7 D Regular Octagon ABCDEFGH sides: AB = BC = CD = DE = EF = FG = GH = HA interior ∠’s: ∠1 ≅ ∠2 ≅ ∠3 ≅ ∠4 ≅ ∠5 ≅ ∠6 ≅ ∠7 ≅ ∠8 Regular polygons are polygons that are equilateral and equiangular. therefore polygon ABCDE is convex. ∠D. B A C E D m∠A. 110 TeamLRN .
the block letter “M” carved into the tree 111 TeamLRN . branches of a tree 219. Count the polygon’s sides. otherwise there will always be exceptions. a rectangular city block 217. Fivesided ﬁgures or more take special preﬁxes: Fivesided PENTAgon Sixsided HEXAgon Sevensided HEPTAgon Eightsided OCTAgon Ninesided NONAgon Tensided DECAgon Twelvesided DODECAgon SET 44 State whether the object is or is not a polygon and why. If any of the vertices of a polygon point inward or if the measure of any vertex exceeds 180°. A foursided ﬁgure is a quadrilateral.501 Geometry Questions B A D G E C F m∠D > 180°.) 216. (Envision each of these objects as simply as possible. Manhattan’s grid of city blocks 218. A threesided ﬁgure is a triangle. the polygon is a concave polygon. Vertices of a convex polygon all point outwards (all regular polygons are also convex polygons). therefore polygon ABCDEFG is concave.
How many diagonals can be drawn from vertex O? 226. lace Set 45 Use the diagram below to answer questions 224 through 226. a human face on the TV 222. Name the polygon. Is it convex or concave? 225. B A C O D E 224. 112 TeamLRN .501 Geometry Questions 220. How many sides does the polygon have? Based on its number of sides. outline of a television 221. this polygon is a ________. an ergonomic chair 223.
L M O N Q 227. How many diagonals can be drawn from vertex O? 229. Is it convex or concave? 231. Set 47 Use the diagram below to answer questions 230 through 232. How many diagonals can be drawn from vertex O? 113 TeamLRN .501 Geometry Questions Set 46 Use the diagram below to answer questions 227 through 229. V U W S X Z O Y 230. Name the polygon. Name the polygon. this polygon is a ________. Is it convex or concave? P 228. How many sides does the polygon have? Based on its number of sides.
Name the polygon. In polygon CDEFG. How many diagonals can be drawn from vertex O? 235. CD and DE are ________. 238. Is it convex or concave? 234. ∠DEF and ∠EFG are ________. this polygon is a ________. 237. Set 49 Use your knowledge of polygons to ﬁll in the blank. ∠EFG is also ________. Set 48 Use the diagram below to answer questions 233 through 235. I H J Given: HI KL P K NO IJ LM OP JK MN PH O L N M 233. this polygon is a ________. CE. DF and EG are ________. In polygon CDEFG. 239. How many sides does the polygon have? Based on its number of sides. How many sides does the polygon have? Based on its number of sides. In polygon CDEFG. 236. 114 TeamLRN . In polygon CDEFG.501 Geometry Questions 232.
where s is the sum of the interior angles and n is the number of sides the polygon has. How many triangles can be drawn in the accompanying polygon at one time? 243. K L P M N 242. then apply the formula s = 180 (n – 2) to verify your answer. Determine the sum of the polygon’s interior angles using the number of triangles. C B D G F 240.501 Geometry Questions Set 50 Use diagonals to draw the triangles below. 115 TeamLRN . How many triangles can be drawn in the accompanying polygon at one time? 241. Determine the sum of the polygon’s interior angles using the number of triangles. verify your answer by using the formula s = 180(n – 2).
Determine the sum of the polygon’s interior angles using the number of triangles.501 Geometry Questions U V T W S X Z Y An irregular octagon 244. then apply the formula s = 180 (n – 2) to verify your answer. 116 TeamLRN . How many triangles can be drawn in the accompanying polygon at one time? 245.
217. Not a polygon. Polygon. Not a polygon. Block letters are closed multisided ﬁgures. 218. but primarily it has few if any straight line segments. It is usually curved to support the natural curves of the hip and spine. 223. polygon ABCDOE is concave because the measure of vertex O exceeds 180°. it has four sides and four vertices. OD and OE are not diagonals. Like the human face. 225. Branches are open. OC. OB. A classic television screen is rectangular. Also. lace is very intricate. any one of these names will do: BCDOEA. Not a polygon. they are sides. OEABCD. 220. A grid is not a polygon because its lines intersect at points that are not endpoints. each of its line segments begin and end at an endpoint. 219. 117 TeamLRN . Set 45 224. Three diagonals can be drawn from vertex O: OA. The human face is very complex.501 Geometry Questions Answers Set 44 216. Unlike the human face. 221. Polygon ABCDOE. As long as you list the vertices in consecutive order. A single city block is a closed foursided ﬁgure. Not a polygon. CDOEAB. DOEABC. Polygon. Polygon. EABCDO. lace has lots of line segments that meet at lots of different points. 222. and they “branch” out at points that are also not endpoints. each of its corners is a vertex. An ergonomic chair is a chair designed to contour to your body. Not a polygon.
232. Also. If you list every vertex in consecutive order. QOLMNP. OP. OU. polygon OLMNPQ is concave because vertex N exceeds 180°. NPQOLM. Set 47 230. polygon SUVWXOYZ is concave. O and Z exceed 180°. it is a hexagon. Three diagonals can be drawn from vertex O: OM. List every vertex in consecutive order and your answer is correct. MNPQOL. polygon HIJKLMNOP is regular and convex. OS. Polygon HIJKLMNOP. The measures of vertices U. 228. it is a nonagon. Polygon OLMNPQ. Polygon OLMNPQ has 6 sides. then your name for the polygon given is correct. Also. OW. Polygon SUVWXOYZ. OJ. Polygon SUVWXOYZ has eight sides. 118 TeamLRN . 229. it is an octagon. 231. OV. Five diagonals can be drawn from vertex O: OZ. Set 48 233. and OM. ON. 235. Polygon HIJKLMNOP has nine sides. Set 46 227. 234. OL. PQOLMN. As long as you list their vertices in consecutive order.501 Geometry Questions 226. OI. Six diagonals can be drawn from vertex O: OH. W. it is a hexagon. any one of these names will do: LMNPQO. Also. OK. Polygon ABCOE has six sides.
s = 540. 241. Set 50 For solutions to 240 and 241. Diagonals. 238. The interior angles of a convex pentagon will always measure 540° together. Apply the formula s = 180 (n – 2). s = 180(3). If the interior angles of a triangle measure 180° together. Draw polygon CDEFG to see that yes. or 540. s = 180(5 – 2). ∠GFE or ∠F. Look back at the drawing you made of polygon CDEFG. Remember when drawing your triangles that a diagonal must go from endpoint to endpoint. At any one time. When a line segment connects nonconsecutive end points in a polygon. Consecutive vertices. 237. then three sets of interior angles measure 180 × 3.501 Geometry Questions Set 49 236. it is a diagonal. CD and DE are consecutive sides. refer to image below. Consecutive sides. 239. 119 TeamLRN . C B D G F 240. You can see that ∠E and ∠F are consecutive vertices. three triangles can be drawn in polygon BCDFG.
six triangles can be drawn in polygon STUVWXYZ. s = 540. 243. 180 × 6 = 1080. 245. At any one time. U V T W S X Z Y 244.080. For solutions to 244 and 245. s = 180(8 – 2). refer to the image below. 120 TeamLRN . 180 × 3 = 540.501 Geometry Questions For solutions to 242 and 243. Apply the formula s = 180(n – 2). s = 180(6). K L P M N 242. s = 1. Again. three triangles can be drawn in polygon KLMNP. refer to the image below. At any one time. Apply the formula s = 180(n – 2). You have again conﬁrmed that the interior angles of a convex pentagon will always measure 540° together.
Below are those particular characteristics that make each quadrilateral an individual. But squares are rhombuses. triangles are not squares. Quadrilateral Parallelogram Foursided ﬁgure Foursided ﬁgure Two pairs of parallel lines Opposite sides are congruent Opposite angles are congruent Consecutive angles are supplementary Diagonals bisect each other Foursided ﬁgure Two pairs of parallel lines Opposite sides are congruent All angles are congruent Consecutive angles are supplementary Diagonals bisect each other Diagonals are congruent TeamLRN Rectangle . A square shares all those unique properties. Neither are parallelograms. rhombuses. Each member has a unique property that makes it distinctive from its fellow members. rectangles. rectangles. and squares are all members of a foursided polygon family called the quadrilaterals. rectangles. How can this be? Parallelograms. and parallelograms. making it the most unique quadrilateral.11 Quadrilaterals As you would guess. or rhombuses.
246. 5 feet. 122 TeamLRN . b. Without any other information. rectangle. c. parallelogram. The sides of Mary’s chalkboard consecutively measure 9 feet. 9 feet and 5 feet.501 Geometry Questions Rhombus Foursided ﬁgure Two pairs of parallel lines All sides are congruent Opposite angles are congruent Consecutive angles are supplementary Diagonals bisect each other Diagonals bisect the angle of a rhombus Diagonals form perpendicular lines Foursided ﬁgure Two pairs of parallel lines All sides are congruent All angles are congruent Consecutive angles are supplementary Diagonals bisect each other Diagonals are congruent Diagonals bisect the angle of a square Diagonals form perpendicular lines Foursided ﬁgure One pair of parallel lines Foursided ﬁgure One pair of parallel lines Base angles are congruent Congruent legs Congruent diagonals Square Trapezoid Isosceles Trapezoid Set 51 Choose the best answer. rhombus. d. you can determine that Mary’s chalkboard is a a. square.
trapezoid or rhombus. 248. 252. rhombus or square. rectangle or trapezoid. d. rectangle or trapezoid. b. If three squares ﬁt perfectly sidebyside in one rectangle. c. d. and an isosceles trapezoid all have a. 7. d.5 feet. trapezoid or rhombus. half the size of the other square. A ﬁgure with four sides and perpendicular diagonals could be a a. rectangle or square. A rhombus. 3 feet d. what are the minimum dimensions of the rectangle? a.5 feet 250. rhombus or square. 7. rectangle or square.501 Geometry Questions 247. Four line segments connected endtoend will always form a. It cannot be determined. 7. c. c. interior angles that measure 360°. 7. congruent diagonals. opposite congruent angles. c. twice the size of the other square.5 feet. a square.5 feet. 2. A ﬁgure with four sides and four congruent angles could be a a.5 feet b. 123 TeamLRN . 249. A square whose vertices are the midpoints of another square is a. congruent to the other square. opposite congruent sides. d. b.5 feet c. an open ﬁgure. 5 feet. four interior angles that measure 360°. b. 251. c.5 feet each. d. b. a rectangle. The sides of a square measure 2. b. 2. It cannot be determined.
d. 255. rectangle. it could be ________. 124 TeamLRN . rectangle. 258. it could be ________. parallelogram. More than one answer may be correct.501 Geometry Questions 253. 256. Set 52 Fill in the blanks based on your knowledge of quadrilaterals. If quadrilateral ABCD has opposite congruent angles. d. parallelogram. c. it could be ________. rhombus. If quadrilateral ABCD has two sets of parallel lines. trapezoid. If quadrilateral ABCD has consecutive angles that are supplementary. 257. If quadrilateral ABCD has exactly one set of opposite congruent sides. If quadrilateral ABCD has congruent diagonals. 259. If quadrilateral ABCD has four congruent sides. A ﬁgure with four sides and diagonals that bisect each other could NOT be a a. 260. A ﬁgure with four sides and diagonals that bisect each angle could be a a. it could be ________. c. trapezoid. rhombus. b. b. it could be ________. 254. it could be ________.
are congruent. 264. 159° b. 21°. b. ∠WXZ and ∠XZY a. b. 262. In square ABCD. 69°. is congruent with ∠ADC. Set 53 Choose the best answer. b. measures 45°. 21°. 159°. 62°. forms a supplementary pair with ∠ADB. 266. it could be ________. It cannot be determined. It cannot be determined. d. In an isosceles trapezoid. If quadrilateral ABCD can be divided into two congruent triangles. 28°. 265. c. 69°. 125 TeamLRN . If an angle in a rhombus measures 21°. d. 21°. e. all of the above It cannot be determined. e. all of the above It cannot be determined. 21°. are alternate interior angles. In rectangle WXYZ. 263. then the other three angles consecutively measure a. the angle opposite an angle that measures 62° measures a. form complementary angles with ∠WZX and ∠YXZ. 69° e. 180°. it is ________. If quadrilateral ABCD has diagonals that bisect each vertex angle in two congruent angles. e. d. ∠ABD a. c. 118°. c. 159°. 69° d. 159° c.501 Geometry Questions 261.
Using your knowledge of triangles and quadrilaterals. Using your knowledge of triangles and quadrilaterals. what is the length of imaginary side BP? 270. d. c. LM measures 24 inches. Using your knowledge of triangles and quadrilaterals. show that diagonals AC and BD intersect perpendicularly. what is the length of diagonal DB? 126 TeamLRN . diagonal LN is perpendicular to diagonal KM. e. In parallelogram KLMN. KL measures 18 inches. 269. A 12 B 12 o 12 a D 12 C m∠BCA = 72 m∠BDA = 18 8 P 268.501 Geometry Questions 267. Set 54 Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 268 through 270. if diagonal KM measures 30 inches. then a. b. all of the above It cannot be determined.
251. 253. one set of opposite congruent sides. c. this is a closed ﬁgure. Three squares in a row will have three times the length of one square. All parallelograms have opposite congruent sides including rectangles. Because their sides are not congruent. rhombuses and squares. Choices a and c are incorrect because the question states each line segment connects endtoend. or 2. and four interior angles that measure 360°. The interior angles of a quadrilateral total 360°. a. That is the line segment’s midpoint. Choices a. without more information. A rhombus’s diagonal bisects its vertices. Rectangles and squares have four 90° angles because their four sides are perpendicular. c.5 in. b. × 3 = 7. b.501 Geometry Questions Answers Set 51 246. 248. d. c. Rhombuses and squares have congruent sides and diagonals that are perpendicular. However. b. 252. 249. b. 127 TeamLRN . However. Rectangles and rhombuses have very little in common with isosceles trapezoids except one set of parallel lines. or 2. Find the point along a line segment that would divide that line segment into two equal pieces. 247. 250. but it is not necessarily a square. but they are not deﬁned by their right angles. the width will remain the length of just one square. you cannot be any more speciﬁc than a parallelogram. Connect the midpoint of a square together and you have another square that is half the existing square.5 in. and d are all quadrilaterals.5 in. rectangles and trapezoids do not have diagonals that cross perpendicularly.
a rectangle. a rhombus. or a square. or 159. Find the “Z” and “C” shaped intersections in each drawing. Set 52 255. a rhombus or a square Set 53 263. alternate interior angles are congruent. d. a rhombus. Draw a parallelogram. 21. When a transversal crosses a pair of parallel lines. 128 TeamLRN . and 159. look at the drawing you made above to see why consecutive angles are supplementary. an isosceles trapezoid 258.501 Geometry Questions 254. Diagonals of a trapezoid are not congruent unless the trapezoid is an isosceles trapezoid. a rectangle. Diagonals of any trapezoid do not bisect each other. a rhombus or a square 257. or a square 262. Two pairs of parallel lines deﬁne each of these foursided ﬁgures. not complementary. a rectangle. choice c mistakenly subtracts 21 from 90 when consecutive angles are supplementary. Again. 260. a rhombus. while same side interior angles are supplementary. in consecutive order. a rectangle. extend each of their sides. Choice b does not align the angles in consecutive order. the angles measure 180 − 21. The ﬁrst consecutive angle must be supplementary to the given angle. 259. A parallelogram. or a square. and a square. 256. a rectangle. a. A parallelogram. an isosceles trapezoid 261. a rectangle. Consequently. a rhombus. a rhombus. a square. The angle opposite the given angle must be congruent. or a square. A parallelogram. a parallelogram.
BD is a diagonal in square ABCD. creating four congruent 45° angles. It cannot be determined. 266. a = 4 5. then ∠CAD also measures 72°. Use the Pythagorean theorem: a2 + 82 = 122. It bisects vertices B and D. a. If ∠BCA measures 72°. d. Because AC and DB are intersecting straight lines. Choice a describes a consecutive angle along the same parallel line. opposite sides of a rhombus are parallel. the two angles form a 90° angle. all four angles of intersection measure 90°. Choice b is incorrect because ∠ABD is half of ∠ADC. choice c is incorrect because when two 45° angles are added together they measure 90°. 129 TeamLRN . Also. e. they are not congruent. 480 = c2. 269. a2 + 64 = 144. a = 4 5. which means the lines perpendicularly meet. First. 270. c. a2 = 80. which means alternate interior angles are congruent. XZ is a diagonal in rectangle WXYZ.501 Geometry Questions 264. 267. if one angle of intersection measures 90°. not 180°. ∠WXZ and ∠XZY are alternate interior angles along the diagonal. Set 54 268. Use the Pythagorean theorem to ﬁnd the hypotenuse of ΔBPD. BP is the height of rhombus ABCD and the leg of ΔBPC. 80 + 400 = c2. m∠AOD = 90. which is diagonal BD: (4 5)2 + (12 + 8)2 = c2. 265. Opposite angles in an isosceles trapezoid are supplementary. and when they are added with their adjacent angle. they are congruent. c = 4 30. The sum of the measures of all three interior angles of a triangle must equal 180°: 72 + 18 + m∠AOB = 180. 4 30 = c.
TeamLRN .
12 Set 55 Choose the best answer. where p is the polygon’s perimeter. A regular octagonal gazebo is added to a Victorian lawn garden. p = 8 × 5. d. and s is the length of each side. To ﬁnd the perimeter of a ﬁgure. you add the length of each of its sides together. Regular polygons use a formula: p = ns. 8 = n × 5. c. 5 = n × 8. n is its number of sides. Each side of the octagon measures 5 ft. its outline. 271.Perimeter of Polygons The perimeter of a ﬁgure is its outside edge. s = n × p. The formula for the gazebo’s perimeter is a. b. TeamLRN .
90 feet.5 ft. If the perimeter of the smaller pentagon equals 31 ft. b. long.5(2) + 54(2). The perimeter of the larger pentagon is 93 ft. 400 ft. 5s = 31. Timmy randomly walks ten steps to the left. she does not have a ladder. b.000 ft. 93s = 24 × 31. d. one of its sides measures 24 ft. 5 × 31 = s.5(2) + 12(2). 4 ft. 93 × 24 = 31s. d. Isadora wants to know the perimeter of the face of a building. however. c. If the length of the façade is 54 ft. The perimeter of Periwinkle High is 1. p = 13. c. He does this nine more times. shadow at noon while a nearby mailbox casts a 12 ft. shadow at noon. 132 TeamLRN . 90 steps. b. The mailbox is 4. and he returns to his starting point. It has four sides of equal length. 40 ft. p = 54 × 4.5 × 4. 100 steps. tall. His path never crosses itself. Each side measures a. p = 4. p = 13. 274. 275. c. She knows that the building’s rectangular facade casts a 36 ft. the façade’s perimeter measures a. c.501 Geometry Questions 272.. d. then the corresponding side of the smaller pentagon measures a. The perimeter of the ﬁgure Timmy walked equals a. Roberta draws two similar pentagons.600 ft. 273.. b. d. 4. 100 feet.
501 Geometry Questions Set 56 Choose the best answer. 30 4 6 40 c. 21 133 TeamLRN . 35 7 7 35 b. 276. 37 5 5 37 d. Which perimeter is not the same? a.
26.501 Geometry Questions 277.25 b. 278. 40. Which perimeter is not the same? a. 25. e. c. a 12foot regular square backyard an 8foot regular hexagon pool a 6foot regular octagonal patio a 4foot regular decagon Jacuzzi It cannot be determined. 50. b.5 134 TeamLRN . Which choice below has a different perimeter than the others? a.4 d. d.0 c.
a regular octagon whose perimeter measures 72 feet e.2 in. 2 135 TeamLRN . Set 57 Find the perimeter of the following ﬁgures.4 in. Regular Figure C with sides that measure 5. Which ﬁgure does not have 12 sides? a. c. It cannot be determined.0 in. and a perimeter of 50. and a perimeter of 13. e. b. Regular Figure A with sides that measure 4. and a perimeter of 66. d.1 in. and a perimeter of 72.2 in. 281. It cannot be determined. Regular Figure B with sides that measure 1. 280.501 Geometry Questions 279.3 in.1 in. Regular Figure D with sides that measure 6. an equilateral triangle whose perimeter measures 27 feet c. The measure of which ﬁgure’s side is different from the other four ﬁgures? a. a regular nonagon whose perimeter measures 90 feet b. a regular heptagon whose perimeter measures 63 feet d.0 in.
2 136 TeamLRN . 6 1 2 1 6 2 1 1 1 4 4 1 283. 2 2 2 5 1 2 2 284.501 Geometry Questions 282.
288. 286. Find the ﬁgure’s total perimeter. Find the ﬁgure’s total perimeter. Set 59 Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 287 through 288. Find the value of y. B 6 C D y 8 A 12 H G F E 285. D E F G Given: quadrilateral DGHK 10 is a parallelogram 4 K 2x J x I 4x H 287. 137 TeamLRN . Find the value of x.501 Geometry Questions Set 58 Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 285 through 286.
Find the ﬁgure’s total perimeter. Find the value of y. 138 TeamLRN . 290. 40 O P Q Given: OQ WR PQ TS 20 x W T y S 12 R V U 289. 291.501 Geometry Questions Set 60 Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 289 through 291. Find the value of x.
501 Geometry Questions
Set 61
Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 292 through 294.
B G J
38″ 42″ 100° C A 70° 10″ y D E 5″ x
H 42″ 38″
I 292. Find the value of x. 293. Find the value of y. 294. Find the ﬁgure’s total perimeter.
139
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501 Geometry Questions
Answers
Set 55
271. a. To ﬁnd the perimeter, multiply the number of sides by the
measure of one side. The perimeter of this Victorian gazebo is p = 8 × 5.
272. c. Timmy walked ten tenstep sets. To ﬁnd the perimeter of the
ﬁgure Timmy walked, multiply 10 by 10 and remember that each side of that ﬁgure was measured in steps, not feet. Choice a forgot to count the ﬁrst ten steps and turn that Timmy made. Choices b and d use the wrong increment, feet.
273. c. Plug the numbers into the formula: p = ns. 1600 = 4s. 400 = s. 274. b. A proportion can ﬁnd an unknown side of a ﬁgure using known
sides of a similar ﬁgure; a proportion can also ﬁnd an unknown side 93 using known perimeters. 24 = 3s1 . Crossmultiply: 93s = 24 31.
275. d. Using a proportion ﬁnd x. 36 = x . Crossmultiply. 12x =
12 4.5
36(4.5). x = 13.5. Polygon CRXZ is a rectangle whose sides measure 13.5, 54, 13.5, and 54. To ﬁnd the perimeter of rectangle CRXZ, add the measures of its sides together. Set 56
276. b. Each ﬁgure except trapezoid B has a perimeter of 84 feet; its
perimeter measures only 80 feet.
277. d. Apply the formula p = ns to each choice. In choice a, the
perimeter of the backyard measures 12 feet × 4 sides, or 48 feet. In choice b, the perimeter of the pool measures 8 feet × 6 sides, or 48 feet. In choice c, the perimeter of the patio measures 6 feet × 8 sides, or 48 feet. In choice d, the perimeter of the Jacuzzi measures 4 feet by 10 sides, or 40. It is obvious that the Jacuzzi has a different perimeter.
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501 Geometry Questions 278. b. Each ﬁgure has a perimeter of 202 feet except hexagon B; its
perimeter measures 156 feet.
279. a. To ﬁnd the measure of each side, change the formula p = ns to
= s. Plug each choice into this formula. In choice a, the sides of eet the nonagon measure 90sifdes , or 10 feet per side. In choice b, the 9 eet sides of the triangle measure 27sifdes , or 9 feet per side. In choice c, 3 eet the sides of the heptagon measure 63sifdes , or 9 feet per side. In 7 72 feet choice d, the sides of the octagon measure 8 sides , or 9 feet per side.
280. c. To ﬁnd the number of sides a ﬁgure has, change the formula p =
p n
ns to p = n. Plug each choice into this formula. In choice a, ﬁgure A s has 12 sides. In choice b, ﬁgure B has 12 sides. In choice c, ﬁgure C has 13 sides. Set 57
281. p = 24. You can ﬁnd this perimeter by either adding the measure of
each side, or by using the formula p = ns. If you choose to add each side, your solution looks like this: 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 24. If you choose to use the formula, there are ﬁve squares; four are exterior squares or 4p and one an interior square or 1p. The ﬁnal equation will look like 4p – 1p = P. 1p = 4 × 2. 1p = 8. 4p = 4 × 8 = 32. 32 – 8 = 24.
282. p = 50. Using your knowledge of rectangles and their congruent
sides, you ﬁnd the measure of each exterior side not given. To ﬁnd the perimeter, you add the measure of each exterior side together. 1+6+1+6+1+4+1+4+1+2+1+2+1+2+1+3+3+5 + 5 = 50.
283. p = 34 + 4
5. First, ﬁnd the hypotenuse of at least one of the two congruent triangles using the Pythagorean theorem: 22 + 42 = c2. 42 + 162 = c2. 20 = c2. 2 5 = c. Add the measure of each exterior side together: 2 + 5 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 +2 + 5 + 2 + 2 5 + 4 + 2 + 4 + 2 5 = 34 + 4 5.
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TeamLRN
501 Geometry Questions 284. p = 32 + 2
5. First ﬁnd the hypotenuse of at least one of the two congruent triangles using the Pythagorean theorem: 12 + 22 = c2. 5 = c. Add the measure of each exterior side together. 1 + 4 = c2. 2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2+ 5+ 5 = 32 + 2 5.
Set 58
285. y = 4
13. CG and BH are congruent because the opposite sides of a rectangle are congruent. Plug the measurements of ΔABH into the Pythagorean theorem: 122 + 82 = y2. 144 + 64 = y2. 208 = y2. 4 13 = y.
286. p = 48 + 8
13. Figure ABDE is an isosceles trapezoid; AB is congruent to ED. Add the measure of each exterior line segment together: 6 + 6 + 4 13 + 12 + 6 + 6 + 12 + 4 13 = 48 + 8 13.
Set 59
287. x =
21. In parallelogram DGHK, opposite sides are congruent, so ΔKDJ and ΔGFH are also congruent (SideSideSide postulate or SideAngleSide postulate). Plug the measurements of ΔKDJ and ΔGFH into the Pythagorean theorem: (2x)2 + 42 = 102. 4x2 + 16 = 100. 4x2 = 84. x2 = 21. x = 21.
288. p = 14
21 + 20. Replace each x with 21 and add the exterior line segments together: 2 21 + 21 + 4 21 + 10 + 2 21 + 4 21 + 21 + 10 = 14 21 + 20.
Set 60
289. x = 16. The hatch marks indicate that WT and QR are congruent.
Plug the measurements of ΔSQR into the Pythagorean theorem: 122 + x2 = 202. 144 + x2 = 400. x2 = 256. x = 16.
290. y = 12. Opposite sides of a rectangle are congruent. OQ equals the
sum of WT, TS, and SR. Create the equation: 40 = 16 + y + 12. 40 = 28 + y. 12 = y.
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TeamLRN
501 Geometry Questions 291. p = 144. Add the measure of each exterior line segment together:
40 + 16 + 12 + 12 + 16 + 16 + 16+ 16 = 144 Set 61
292. x = 21 inches. ΔABC and ΔJIH are congruent (SideSideSide
postulate). ΔEDC and ΔEGH are also congruent because three angles and a side are congruent. However, ΔABC and ΔJIH are only similar to ΔEDC and ΔEGH (AngleAngle postulate). A comparison of side AC to side EC reveals a 10:5 or 2:1 ratio between similar triangles. If AB measures 42 inches, then corresponding line segment ED measures half as much, or 21 inches.
293. y = 19. Using the same ratio determined above, if BC measures 38
inches, then corresponding line segment DC measures half as much, or 19 inches.
294. p = 270 inches. Add the measure of each exterior line segment
together: 2(42 + 38 + 10) + 2(21 + 19 + 5) = 180 + 90 = 270 inches.
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TeamLRN .
13
Area of Polygons
Perimeter is the distance around an object. In this chapter you’ll work with area, which is the amount of surface covered by an object. For example, the number of tiles on a kitchen ﬂoor would be found by using an area formula, while the amount of baseboard used to surround the room would be found by using a perimeter formula. Perimeter is always expressed in linear units. Area is always expressed in square units. If the perimeter of a ﬁgure is the outline of a ﬁgure, then the area of a ﬁgure is what is inside the outline; area is the amount of twodimensional space that a planar ﬁgure occupies.
TeamLRN
501 Geometry Questions = 1 square foot A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C D 9 10 B
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Polygon ABCD is 10 square feet by 7 square feet, or 70 square feet
A square equals 1 foot by 1 foot The area of polygon ABCD equals 10 squares by 7 squares, or 70 square feet
The Area of a Parallelogram
A base B
height
height
D
base
C
Area of parallelogram ABCD in square increments = base × height
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TeamLRN
501 Geometry Questions
The Area of a Rectangle
A base B
height
D
C
Area of rectangle ABCD in square increments = base × height
The Area of a Rhombus
A base B diagonal2
height D C
or
diagonal1
NOTE: a rhombus has an area like a rectangle, not a square
Area of rhombus ABCD in square increments = base × height 1 2 (diagonal × diagonal)
The Area of a Square
A base B
height
D
C
Area of square ABCD in square increments = base × height
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TeamLRN
501 Geometry Questions
The Area of a Triangle
A base triangle2 triangle1 D C height B
Triangle1 ≅ triangle2 therefore the area Δ1 ≅ area Δ2 Area Δ1 = Area Δ1 = Area of polygon ABCD b·h
1 2
Area of ΔABC in square increments =
base × height
The Area of a Trapezoid
A triangle2 triangle1 D C B
base2 2 1 D base1 height
Area of Trapezoid ABCD = Area of Δ1 + Area Δ2 Area of Trapezoid ABCD = or height (base1 + base2 )
1 2
base1 × height +
base2 × height,
Area of a trapezoid in square increments =
148
height (base + base)
TeamLRN
501 Geometry Questions
The Area of a Regular Polygon
B
A
C
Apothem E D
The area of regular polygon ABCDE in square increments = 1 apothem × perimeter 2
Similar Triangles
B
20
16 5
E 4
A
12 Triangle1 Area Δ1 = (16)(12)
C
D
3
F
Triangle2 Area Δ2 = (4)(3)
96
6
149
TeamLRN
501 Geometry Questions Ratio of Areas Δ1 : Δ2 Ratio of Corresponding Parts Δ 1 : Δ2 AB : DE 4:1 96 : 6. no congruent parts. all the space on a plane. Set 62 Choose the best answer. c. no space at all. dissimilar shapes. a positive number representing the interior space of a polygon. 150 TeamLRN . disproportional perimeters. equal areas. or BC : EF 4:1 CA : FD 4:1 16 : 1 (4 : 1)2 The ratio of areas between two similar triangles equals the square of the ratio of lengths between corresponding sides. b. 296. c. d. Area is a. b. 295. d. Two congruent ﬁgures have a. the negative space inside a polygon.
A rhombus with opposite sides that measure 5 feet has the same area as a square with opposite sides that measure 5 feet. c. equal to the ratio of the lengths of any corresponding sides. b. It cannot be determined. b. d. forms half of a central angle. An apothem a. 299. is drawn to a vertex of a polygon. c. two times the ratio of the lengths of any corresponding sides. If two triangles are similar. d. equal to the square of the ratio of the lengths of any corresponding sides. d.501 Geometry Questions 297. 300. the ratio of their areas is a. bisects the side of a polygon to which it is drawn. The area of the ﬁgure below is the sum of which areas? D B C E F H A G a. extends from the opposite side of a polygon. Set 63 Circle whether the statements below are true or false. True or False. b. 151 TeamLRN . c. ΔABH + CDEH + ΔHFG + ΔCEH ΔABH + ΔCDE + ΔHFG ΔABH + ΔCDE + ΔHFG + ΔCEH ΔABH + CDEH + ΔHFG + ΔAHG 298.
501 Geometry Questions 301. A parallelogram with opposite sides that measure 5 feet and 10 feet has twice the area of a rhombus whose height is equal to the height of the parallelogram and whose opposite sides measure 5 feet. True or False. 305. Set 64 Find the shaded area of each ﬁgure below. A rectangle with opposite sides that measure 5 feet and 10 feet has the same area as a parallelogram with opposite sides that measure 5 feet and 10 feet. Find the shaded area of ΔDEF. 303. True or False. True or False. F 152 TeamLRN . A triangle with a base of 10 and a height of 5 has a third the area of a trapezoid with base lengths of 10 and 20 and a height of 5. E D 6ft. True or False. 302. 304. A rectangle with opposite sides that measure 5 feet and 10 feet has twice the area of a square with opposite sides that measure 5 feet.
Figure X 153 TeamLRN . 12 ft. O N M 308.501 Geometry Questions 306. A B 8 ft. Find the shaded area of quadrilateral ABCD. 5 ft. D C 307. Find the shaded area of polygon KLMNO. L 10 ft. Find the shaded area of Figure X. K 4 ft.
5 ft.5 ft. C 6 ft. G 154 TeamLRN . Find the shaded area of Figure Y. 1. Find the shaded area of Figure Z. A 1 ft. B 14√2 √2 E A D O 28 F C Figure Y 310.501 Geometry Questions 309. B 2 ft. Figure Z E D F H 1.
5 ft. W T 3 ft. U 313. 16 ft. Find the area of polygon RSTUV. V 15 ft. O Given: MN = 3 M P L 2. A E D 36 ft. Find the area of concave polygon KLMNOPQR. R S 4 ft. Find the area of quadrilateral ABCD. 311. Q K R 155 TeamLRN .501 Geometry Questions Set 65 Find the area of each ﬁgure below. N 2. 312.5 ft. B C 20 ft.
O 8 ft. C 2 ft. M 15 ft. H 315.501 Geometry Questions 314. R 156 TeamLRN .5 ft. F G D 7 ft. Find the area of polygon BCDEFGHI. P Q 4 ft. B 2. N 3 ft. Find the area of concave polygon MNOPQR. E I 10 ft.
Area of regular hexagon HCDEFG = 45 ft. Find the length of CH.2 D G E F 316. B A I x H 3 ft. 318. C mAC = 8 ft.501 Geometry Questions Set 66 Use the ﬁgure and information below to answer questions 316 through 319. 157 TeamLRN . Find the area of ΔABC. Find the entire area of ﬁgure ABCDEFGH. ΔCHI andΔABC are similar triangles. 319. 317. Find the area of ΔCHI.
Find the measure of side z. M K L y R A 10 x O z N RO = x RM = y NO = z Area of RMNO = Area of RQPO Area of RMNOPQ = 320 sq. Find the measure of side y. Area of ΔRMA = 50 sq.501 Geometry Questions Set 67 Use the ﬁgure and information below to answer questions 320 through 322. Q P 320. 321. 322. ft. Find the measure of side x. ft. 158 TeamLRN .
Apothems are not radii. 298. c. b. Two consecutive radii form a central angle. 299. c. the area of the square is 25 square feet. The area of a closed ﬁgure is equal to the area of its nonoverlapping parts. Congruent ﬁgures have congruent parts. A radius (to be discussed in a later chapter) extends from the center point of a polygon to any vertex. 297. none of the answers can include quadrilateral CDEH and ΔCEH because they share interior points. in fact. An apothem extends from the center of a polygon to a side of the polygon. Points. All apothems are perpendicular bisectors and only span half the length of a polygon. False. lines. and areas. perimeters. 159 TeamLRN . a. Choice c is incorrect because the area of a plane is inﬁnite. If the rhombus is not a square. you are only measuring a part of that plane inside a polygon. Also. then it would be a negative number. ΔAHG is not part of the closed ﬁgure. The ratio of areas between two similar triangles is equal to the square of the ratio of length of any two of their corresponding sides: Area of triangle: area of similar triangle = (length of side: length of corresponding side)2. All areas are positive numbers. and planes do not occupy space. it is a tilted square which makes its height less than 5 feet.501 Geometry Questions Answers Set 62 295. 296. when you measure area. Set 63 300. which it cannot be. However. This answer doesn’t have to be broken down into all triangles—quadrilateral CDEH is a part of the ﬁgure. Consequently. but the area of the rhombus is less than 25 square feet. Choice a is incorrect because if an area represented negative space. but ﬁgures do. b. it isn’t closed at all.The area of a ﬁgure is how much space that ﬁgure occupies.
it is a tilted rectangle which makes its height less than 5 feet. if two rhombuses can ﬁt into one parallelogram. Like the squares and rectangle above. True. Three triangles ﬁt into one trapezoid or the area of one triangle is a third of the area of the trapezoid. True.501 Geometry Questions 301. the area of the rectangle is 50 square feet. x + x = 2x x x 303. Plug the given measurement into the Pythagorean 160 TeamLRN . To ﬁnd the height of equilateral ΔDEF. If two squares can ﬁt into one rectangle. False. x + x = 2x x x 304. Set 64 305. If the parallelogram is not a rectangle. 9 3 square feet. 302. then the parallelogram has twice the area of one rhombus. draw a perpendicular line segment from vertex E to the midpoint of DF. This line segment divides ΔDEF into two congruent right triangles. True. One triangle has an area of 25 square feet. Conseqently. The trapezoid has an area that measures 75 square feet. but the area of the parallelogram is less than 50 square feet. then the rectangle has twice the area of one square.
ΔDEF. If one side of a regular pentagon measures 10 feet. from 18 sq. 195 square feet. ﬁnd the area of ΔABC: 1 (14 ft. × 2 ft. ft. Therefore.) = 196 sq. If one side of the square measures 8 feet. 10. + b2 = 392 sq. then the area of the pentagon measures 1 2 × 4 feet × 50 feet = 100 square feet. When the apothem of said hexagon measures 5 feet. ft. ft. and 10. 9 + b2 = 36. 196 square feet – 1 square foot = 195 square feet. ft. 196 sq.5 sq. The area of the void must be subtracted from 196 square feet. Using the height. the other sides of a pentagon measure 10 feet.) = 6 sq. b = 3 3. 720 square feet. + b2 = (14 2)2ft. Perpendicularly extend a line segment from vertex A to the midpoint of CB.5 square feet. 309. each with an area of 180 square feet.501 Geometry Questions theorem: ( 1 × 6)2 + b2 = 62. The area of this shaded ﬁgure requires the dual use of the Pythagorean theorem and the ratio of areas between similar triangles. Then. the other three sides of the square each measure 8 feet. 307. 2 To ﬁnd the area. The honeycomb ﬁgure has a total area of 720 square feet. x = 1 square foot. Find the area of a rectangle with sides 6 feet and 3 feet: A = 6 ft. ( 2 ) 2 = x . 64 square feet. ft. b = 27. Since there are four conjoined regular hexagons.5 square feet remain. If the perimeter of said pentagon measures 50 feet (10 × 5 = 50) and its apothem measures 4 feet. 100 square feet. the area of the pentagon equals 1 × 5 feet 2 × 72 feet = 180 square feet. The perimeter of a regular hexagon with sides 12 feet long equals 72 feet (12 × 6). ft. × 28 ft. take half of 18 3 to get 9 3. Since ΔABC is similar to ΔDEF (by AngleAngle 196 14 2 Postulate). Area of the larger triangular void = 1 (6 ft. = 18 sq. 308. 306.5 sq.) = 1. ft. you multiply 180 square feet by 4. b = 14 ft. 2 ft. Multiply two sides of the square to ﬁnd the area: 8 feet × 8 feet = 64 square feet. ft. 2 Subtract 7. 310. b2 = 196 sq. The height of right triangle ABO is 142 ft. multiply the height by the base: 3 3 feet × 6 feet = 18 3 square feet. ﬁnd half the area of ΔABC. Within ΔABC is a 2 void. First. 161 TeamLRN . × 1 ft. × 3 ft. Find the area of both triangular voids: Area of the smaller triangular void = 1 (3 ft.
× 7 ft. × 15 ft. = 2 5 sq. ft. × 4 ft.501 Geometry Questions Set 65 311. ft. × 24 ft. ft. ft.0 square feet. 315. ft. ft. Add all the areas together: 2 5 sq. 2 312. a = 5. ΔECD: 1 × 16 ft. ft. = 24 square feet. Their areas each equal 2. + 7. you ﬁnd the area of each polygon separately and add them together. Should you choose to treat the ﬁgure like a trapezoid and need to ﬁnd the area. – 10 sq. XW perpendicularly bisects RV. it divides isosceles triangle RWV into two congruent right triangles and establishes the height for parallelograms RSTW and VUTW.) = 480 square feet. The sum of all the areas equal 9 sq. 60 + 2 5 square feet. Again. = 384 sq. = 60 + 2 5 square feet. ft. 70 sq. = 30 sq. you must begin by ﬁnding the measure of ED using the Pythagorean theorem: 162 + a2 = 20. + 36 ft. as a perpendicular bisector. 313. = 480 2 sq. simply plug in the appropriate measurements: 1 × 16 ft. The simplest way to ﬁnd the area of polygon BCDEFGHI is to ﬁnd the area of rectangle BGHI: 10 ft. × 3 ft. 314. = 7. × 2 ft. Parallelogram ABCE: 16 ft. = 60 square feet. + 96 sq. × 3 ft. Find the height of ΔRWV using the Pythagorean theorem: a2 + 22 = 32. = 96 sq. = 9 ft. ft. Let’s call this XW. 256 + a2 = 400. Area = 24. = 10 sq. ft.5 ft. + 30 sq. a = 12. to ﬁnd the area of the entire ﬁgure. 162 TeamLRN . Subtract the area of rectangle CFED: 5 ft. 384 sq. ft. a2 = 5. ft. ft.5 sq. Rhombuses KLQR and MNOP are congruent. Subtract 12 feet from 36 feet to ﬁnd the measure of BC: 36 – 12 = 24. Area = 70 square feet. ft.5 sq. ft. a2 = 144. (24 ft. Should you choose to treat the ﬁgure like the sum of two polygons. The area of square LMPQ equals the product of two sides: 3 ft. Solve the area of ΔRWV: 1 × 5 2 ft. Extend TW to RV.5 sq. However you choose to work with the ﬁgure. × 12 ft. ft. ft. + 30 sq.0 square feet. the simplest way to the ﬁnd the area of polygon MNOPQR is to ﬁnd the area of trapezoid MPQR. Area = 60. a2 + 4 = 9. = 70 sq. You can either treat ﬁgure ABCD like a trapezoid or like a parallelogram and a triangle. Solve the area of parallelogram VUTW: 2 ft. 480 square feet. + 7. ft.
. ﬁnd the area of ΔCHI: 1 × 4 ft. = x 8 ft x ( 1 )2.501 Geometry Questions × 8 feet (4 ft. ft. Once the height is established. × 3 ft. Using the equation to ﬁnd the area of a trapezoid. ΔACH is an isosceles triangle. = 1 p × 3 ft. their areas are equal: 1 (320 sq. ft. 24 square feet = x. 317. + 15 ft. Since trapezoids RMNO and trapezoid RQPO are congruent. p = 2 30 ft. 76 sq. ft. – 6 sq ft. Subtract the area of 2 ΔNPO: 1 × 3 ft. It is given that ΔCHI and ΔABC are similar triangles. × 4 ft. To ﬁnd x. or 1 of 8 feet long. Crossmultiply: 6 sq. The area of a regular polygon equals half the product of its perimeter by its apothem: 45 sq. = 81 square feet.. x = 22 feet. which means m AI = mCI. ft. ft. )2. and one congruent base length is known. 6 sq. ft. The perimeter of a regular polygon equals the length of each side multiplied by the number of sides: 30 ft. ft. 2 x 4 319.) = 160 sq. only the measure of HI remains unknown. = 6 sq. × 6. ft. b = 3. create the 163 TeamLRN . Area = 24 square feet. and you know the area of the smaller triangle. The area of trapezoid RMNO plus the area of trapezoid RQPO equals the area of ﬁgure RMNOPQ. The areas within the entire ﬁgure are the sum of its parts: 24 sq. x = 5 feet. 42 + b2 = 52. = s ft. s = 5 ft. Since question 316 found the measure of 2 HC. ft. Set 67 320.. Area = 81 square feet. Apply the rule regarding the areas of similar triangles: 6 sq. = 6 square feet. b2 = 9. A line drawn from its vertex to AC bisects the line segment. ft. Area = 6 square feet. 16 + b2 = 25. + 45 sq. use the given area of hexagon HCDEFG and 1 2 work backwards. ft. = 1 .) = 1 × 8(19) = 76 sq. ft. ft. + 6 sq. 6 sq. The congruent height of each 2 trapezoid is known. Set 66 316. + 6 sq. You know the lengths of two corresponding sides. Plug the given measurements for ΔCHI into the Pythagorean theorem. = 70 square 2 feet. ft. 2 318. = ( 4 ft. × 4 = x.
z = 2 26 feet. 10 ft. Imagine a perpendicular line from vertex N to the base of trapezoid RMNO. 164 TeamLRN . 2 26 feet = z. ft. = 50 sq. Work backwards using the given area of ΔRMA: 50 sq. Once the base 2 and height of ΔRMA are established. = b. Use the Pythagorean theorem to ﬁnd the length of NO: (10 ft. RM = 10 2 feet. ft. ft. = z2.501 Geometry Questions equation: 160 sq.).)2 + (2 ft. + 4 sq. 100 + 100 = c2. 10 2 = c. 104 sq. 160 sq. 100 sq. = 5x ft. = 5 ft. 110 sq. 321. 200 = c2. ft. × b. = z2. ft. 50 sq. ft. y = 10 2 feet. ft. ft. + x). 322. use the Pythagorean theorem to ﬁnd RM: 102 + 102 = c2. + 2 5x ft. This imaginary line divides RO into another 10foot segment.)(10 ft. = 1 b(10 ft.)2= z2. The remaining portion of line RO is 2 feet long. ft. = 1 (10 ft. 22 feet = x.
To ﬁnd the exterior area of a threedimensional shape.Surface Area of Prisms A prism is the threedimensional representation of planar ﬁgures. each face is a planar rectangle. called the surface area. TeamLRN . 14 Side C Side A Side B Surface Area of a Prism A prism has six faces. simplify the prism or cube by breaking it down into its planar components. like rectangles or squares.
there is a congruent side you cannot see. 6 ft. disassemble 5 ft. 1 ft. Side Bb Side Aa Side Cc If you pull each face apart. 6 ft. you will see pairs of congruent rectangles. 6 ft. This formula simpliﬁes into: Sa = 2(lw + wh + lh) 166 TeamLRN . 1 ft. 5 ft.501 Geometry Questions For every side or face you see. 1 ft. × 5 ft. 1 ft. or Sa = (length × width) + (length × height) + (width × height) + (width × height) + (length × height) + (length × width). 6 ft. × 1 ft. 5 ft. The surface area of a prism is the sum of the areas of its face areas.
or Sa = (length × width) + (length × width) + (width × height) + (width × height) + (length × height) + (length × height). two pairs of congruent sides. each face is a congruent square. c. d. This formula simpliﬁes into: Sa = 6e2. c. 324. Set 68 Choose the best answer.501 Geometry Questions Surface Area of a Cube Like the rectangular prism. b. a cube has six faces. three pairs of congruent sides. d. or length of one side. A rectangular prism has a. 323. where e is the measure of the edge of the cube. How many faces of a cube have equal areas? a. two three four six 167 TeamLRN . 3 feet × 3 feet × 3 feet disassemble 3 feet 3 feet The surface area of a cube is the sum of its face areas. four pairs of congruent sides. b. one set of congruent sides.
If the base step measures 15 feet by 7 feet by 1 foot. Jimmy gives his father the measurements of a table he wants built. she removes a right triangle from each side of the box such that the area of each face of the box is the same. so. Dave wants the platform to be special. how much veneer does Jimmy’s father need to buy in order to cover all the exterior surfaces of his son’s table? 1 foot 7 feet 2 feet 2 feet 2 feet 15 feet 328. and each 168 TeamLRN .3 feet and the area of each triangle measures 6. he will cover all the exposed surfaces of his platform in red velvet. What is the surface area of the empty box Tom is holding if the box measures 5. To let the light out. Crafty Tara decides to make each of her friends a light box. When Tom lifts the box. In honor of the tradition’s longevity. The 25th Annual GoCart Race is just around the corner.2 square feet? 327. What is the remaining surface area of the box if each edge of the box measures 3. 325.501 Geometry Questions Set 69 Find the surface area. Mark plays a joke on Tom. He removes the bottom from a box of bookmarks. all the bookmarks fall out.6 inches high and 3. and Dave still needs to build a platform for the winner.7 inches deep? 326. If the drawing below represents that table.2 inches long by 17.
Sarah cuts three identical blocks of wood and joins them endto end. Block1 8.3 in.7 in. 330. Surface Area = 304 square feet x 2x 12x 169 TeamLRN . k2 oc Bl 4. 329.0 in. How much exposed surface area remains? Block3 1. how much exposed surface area must Dave cover? 15 ft. Sa Block1 Sa Block2 Sa Block3 Set 70 Find each value of x using the ﬁgures and information below.501 Geometry Questions consecutive step is uniformly 1 foot from the edge of the last step.
501 Geometry Questions 331. Surface Area = 720 square yards 3x cube1 cube2 3x 3x cube1 cube2 170 TeamLRN . Surface Area = 936 square meters 4.5x 4x 4x 332.
3 ft.2 in. ft. feet from the total surface area. in. pick it up and count its faces. That means every face of the prism (and there are six faces) has one other face that shares its shape.).). Sa = 351. or you could simplify the equation to 6 times the square of the length of one side: Sa = 6(3. – 91. = 37.2 sq. If you have a small box nearby.7 in.6 in. 6 × 6.14 square feet. – 37. ft. Surface area = 28. Sa = 65. = 28.14 square feet.). ft. like a rectangular prism.52 sq. It has six. in. has six faces. size. + 19.24 square inches. in. ft. subtract the area of the missing face: Remaining Sa = 351. in.76 sq. ft. one from each face of the cube.24 square inches.) + 17. A cube.2 sq.) + 5. if it is a cube. in. Sa = 2(175.34 sq. These next few problems are tricky: Carefully look at the diagram. in. in.6 in. Notice that the top of each cubed leg is not an exposed surface area.501 Geometry Questions Answers Set 68 323.88 sq. ft. Remaining Sa = 260. Tara removes six triangular pieces. c.52 sq. and area. Set 69 325. nor is the space they occupy under the large rectangular prism. Begin by ﬁnding the whole surface area: surface area = 2(lw + wh + lh). In fact. Surface area = 318 square feet.34 sq. d.(3. You could use the formula to determine the surface area of a rectangular prism to also determine the surface area of a cube.24 sq. it has six congruent faces. 326.2 sq. Surface area = 260. Sa = 6(10. It is given that each triangular cutout removes 6. Let’s ﬁnd these surface areas ﬁrst. + 65.(3. Sa = 2(17. When the faces of a rectangular prism are laid sidebyside.76 sq. From the total surface area.12 sq.)2. Sa = 2(91. To ﬁnd the remaining surface area. you always have three pairs of congruent faces. 327.2 in. subtract the area removed from the surface area: 65. 324.2 sq.(5.7 in.).89 sq. The top of each cubed leg equals the square of the 171 TeamLRN .
Sa of one cube = 6(2 feet)2 = 6(4 sq.) = 36 sq. Like the question above. ft.) = 2(14 sq. + 254 sq. It is reasonable to assume that where the cubes meet the rectangular prism. ft. ft. There are four congruent cubes. in.) = 2(127 sq.(1 foot)) = 2(105 sq. ft. ft. an equal amount of area from the prism is also not exposed. (1. Sa of sides only = 2(11 ft. + 3 sq. ft. ft. Total area concealed = 16 sq. ft. = 32 sq. Sa of four congruent cubes = 4 × 24 sq. + 7 sq. ft) = 2(18 sq. Total Sa = 96 sq. Plug the remaining two prisms into the formula: Sa of sides only = 2(13 ft.(1 foot)) = 2(11 sq. ft. Do not worry about any concealed parts. Surface area = 318 square feet. ft. ft. = 96 sq. ft. However.) + 7 ft. The three blocks are congruent. ft. = 350 sq. Sa of one rectangular prism = 2(15 ft. + 15 sq.3 in. imagine the top plane rising with each step. Finally. Surface area = 297. 329. = 16 sq.7 in. ft = 318 sq. The new formula removes the top and bottom planes: Sa of sides only = 2(lh + wh). ft.2 sq. + 36 sq.) = 254 sq. ft + 16 sq. ft. ft.) + 7 ft. Of the next two prisms. Now ﬁnd the total surface area of the table’s individual parts.(1. + 15 sq. ft. ft. + 7 sq.(1 foot) + 15 ft. Sa of base rectangular prism = 2(15 ft. ft = 318 sq. let’s only solve exposed areas this time around.) = 254 sq. ft.(1 foot)) = 2(105 sq. ft.) = 2(33.0 in. ft.) = 24 sq. subtract the concealed surface area from the total surface area = 350 sq. ﬁnd the surface area of one block and multiply it by three: Sa = 2(8.) = 28 sq.501 Geometry Questions length of the cube: (2 feet) = 4 sq.(7 ft. + 28 sq.) + 4. only their sides are considered exposed surfaces (the lip of their top surfaces have already been accounted for).5 sq.8 172 TeamLRN .(1 foot) + 3 ft. Subtracting a foot from each side of the base prism. ft. ft. ft. in. The last prism measures 11 feet by 3 feet by 1 foot. ft. + 6. ft. the second prism measures 13 feet by 5 feet by 1 foot. four congruent faces: 4 × 4 sq.3 in. ft. ft. ft.(1 foot) + 15 ft. ft. ft. + 5 sq.7 in.(7 ft.(1 foot)) + 5 ft(1 foot)) = 2(13 sq. Find the surface area for the base rectangular prism.) + 8. ft. Add all the exposed surface areas together: 254 sq.) = 2 (127 sq. 328.(4. ft.0 in. ft. – 32 sq. there are concealed surface areas in this question.
432 sq. ft.5x(4x)).2 sq. = x2. x = 2 feet. in. 304 sq.22 sq. = 6(9x2). in. yd. 173 TeamLRN .) = 108.(1. x = 2 2 yards. 3 meters = x. = x2. yd. x = 3 meters. = 432 sq. in. yd. = 76x2. 332. 4 sq. in. + 14. 331. = 54x2. Plug the variables into the formula for the Sa of a prism: 304 sq.46 sq. = 2(24 x2 + 2x2 + 12x2). 9 sq. yd. To ﬁnd the area of one of the two congruent q. in. meters = 2(52x2). ft.66 sq. Look at the diagram: The ends of one block are concealed. 936 sq. in. meters = 104x2. ft. Plug the variables into the formula for the Sa of a prism: 936 square meters = 2(4. cubes. Subtract the concealed surface area from the total surface area: 324. ft.2 sq. in. meters = x2.501 Geometry Questions sq. – 27. Set 70 330.11 sq. 8 sq.66 sq. in. 304 sq. 936 sq.5x(4x) + 4x(4x) + 4. 2 feet = x. = 297. and they conceal an equal amount of space on the other two blocks: 2 × 2(4.11 sq. = 2(38x2).) = 2(54. = 2(12x(2x) + 2x(x) + 12x(x)). in. Plug the measure of each edge into the formula Sa = 6 e2: 432 sq. 108.0 in. = 6(3x2). in. meters = 2(18x2 + 16x2 + 18x2). 2 2 yards = x. divide 864 square yards by 2: 864 s2 yd. ft. 936 sq.7 in. 432 sq. 304 sq. × 3 = 324. yd.22 sq.) = 27.
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Volume is what is inside the shapes you and I see. it is half the volume. 15 = the V surface area volume TeamLRN . Volume is the space within a solid threedimensional ﬁgure. Surface area deﬁnes the outer planes of a threedimensional object. nor half full.Volume of Prisms and Pyramids Is the cup half empty or half full? In geometry. everything within is volume. it is neither half empty.
The most common oblique prism is the Pyramid. that base can be any polygon. and you exclusively used right prisms. The sides of a right prism perpendicularly meet the base. The base is the polygon that deﬁnes the shape of the solid. Triangular Pyramid Square Pyramid Pentagonal Pyramid 176 TeamLRN . base base base Right Triangular Prism Right Rectangular Prism Right Pentagonal Prism The sides of an oblique prism do not meet the base at a 90° angle.501 Geometry Questions Types of Prisms You met rectangular and cubic prisms in the last chapter. Again.
or length × width × height. or length × width × height l Area of Base1 w he igh t The volume of a right cube = area of its base × height.501 Geometry Questions The Volume of a Right Prism The volume of a right prism = area of its base × height Area of Base1 heig ht The volume of a right rectangular prism = area of its base × height. or (the measure of one edge)3 l Area of Base1 l w 177 TeamLRN .
x x + x x + x x x x x Volume x x x Right Prism 178 TeamLRN .501 Geometry Questions The Volume of a Pyramid The volume of a pyramid = 1 (area of its base × height) 3 It is a third of the volume of a right prism with the same base and height measurements.
c. 333. Which ﬁgure below is a right prism? a. 179 TeamLRN . d. b.501 Geometry Questions Set 71 Choose the best answer.
b. an octagonal prism decagonal prism dodecagon tetradecagon 180 TeamLRN . d. b. Which polygon deﬁnes the shape of the right prism below? a. triangle rectangle square pentagon 335. c. d. What is the name of a right 12sided prism? a.501 Geometry Questions 334. c.
Which ﬁgure below is a right hexagonal prism? a. b. c.501 Geometry Questions 336. d. 181 TeamLRN .
and a height that measures 2 in. d. a square pyramid with base sides that measure 2 in. a right triangular prism with base sides that measure 2 in.501 Geometry Questions 337. and a height that measures 2 in. a. b. a cube with base sides that measure 2 in. and a height that measures 2 in. and a height that measures 2 in. Which choice describes a ﬁgure that has a third of the volume of the ﬁgure below? 2 in. 182 TeamLRN . a triangular pyramid with base sides that measure 2 in. 2 in. c.
2 in. Which ﬁgure below has a third of the volume of a 3 in. c. 339. 1 in. perimeter area surface area volume 183 TeamLRN . 1 in. c. 3 in. cube? a. Which measurement uses the largest increment? a. b. d. d.501 Geometry Questions 338. b.
8 ft. 344.2 cubic in. 342. Find the measure of a triangular pyramid’s base side if its volume measures 72 3 cubic meters and its height measures 6 meters. Find the volume of a pyramid with four congruent base sides. Find the height of a right rectangular prism with a 295. 341.4 ft. and a height that measures 10 in.0 sq. Find the volume of a right heptagonal prism with base sides that measure 13 cm. 340. Find the base area of a right nonagon prism with an 8. volume and a base area that measures 72. in. The base of the pyramid forms an equilateral triangle. in. and a height that measures 2 cm. 184 TeamLRN . 343. Set 73 Find each unknown element using the information below. an apothem that measures 6 cm. volume and a height that measures 8. The length of each base side and the prism’s height measure 2. 345.501 Geometry Questions Set 72 Find the volume of each solid.800 cubic ft. Find the volume of a pyramid with an eightsided base that measures 330 sq.
1 meters 346. What is the surface area? x 185 TeamLRN . What is the volume? Set 75 Use the solid ﬁgure below to answer questions 349 through 351. volume = 810 in. What is the height? 351.3 base1 2x 349. What is the width and length? 350.501 Geometry Questions Set 74 Use the solid ﬁgure below to answer questions 346 through 348. perimeter of base = 54 in. l = 2. What is the surface area? 348. What is the perimeter of one face side? 347.
It is the polygon at the base of the rectangle that deﬁnes the prism’s shape. an equilateral triangle. a pyramid’s volume is a third of a prism’s volume. 336. 186 TeamLRN . Twentyseven choice a’s can ﬁt into the given cube. b. Choice a is a pentagonal right prism. Choice a is a hexagonal pyramid. If their base measurements are congruent. d. and choice c is an oblique quadrilateral. meanwhile. A hexagonal prism must have a hexagon as one of its sides. You will be tempted to answer rectangle. none of its six sides perpendicularly meets its base. one for each edge of a decagon. d. Choices a and b are eliminated because they are not pyramids. its base is facing away from you.501 Geometry Questions Answers Set 71 333. you are looking for a pyramid with the same base measurements of the given cube. The sides of choice b only perpendicularly join one base side. Only three choice c’s ﬁt into the given cube. Choice d is the correct answer. and it has ﬁve sides. Do as you did above: subtract two base sides—the prism has ten sides. Again. choice c is a decagonal right prism. b. Choice d is also eliminated because its base polygon is not equivalent to the given base polygon. 335. c. and choice d is not a prism at all. A right hexagonal prism has two hexagons. Remember all right prisms have rectangles. it has onethird the volume. c. 334. eightyone choice d’s ﬁt into that same cube. one for each edge of a pentagon. 337. The solid in the ﬁgure has seven sides. it is a triangular right prism. 338. Subtract two base sides.
1 inches. an inch times an inch times an inch.100 cubic inches. Volume = 1. its volume is a third of a cube’s volume with the same base measurements.)2 × 2. The volume of 2 a right prism is the area of the base multiplied by the prism’s height: volume of prism = 243 square cm × 2 cm = 546 cubic cm. If the volume of a right rectangular prism measures 295.2 cubic in.100 cubic 3 3 in. or 1 (area of its 3 base × height).300 cubic in. it is still a third of a right octagonal prism with the same base measurements. Conveniently.0 square inches. the area of the base has been given to you: area of octagonal base = 330 square inches. Volume is threedimensional.4 ft. Area of heptagonal base = 1 × 91 cm × 6 cm = 273 square cm. in) × 10 in. Volume of octagonal pyramid = 1 (330 sq. its measurement must account for each dimension.) × 2.0 square in. Plug its 3 measurements into the formula: 1 (2.6 cubic feet. d.1 in. 341. this pyramid has an octagonal base.4 ft. then its height measures 4. Set 73 343. Perimeter uses a single measurement like an inch to describe the outline of a ﬁgure.608 3 3 cubic ft.76 sq. Volume = 4.824 cubic ft. to describe twodimensional space. Area and Surface area use square measurements. The area of a sevensided ﬁgure equals onehalf of its perimeter multiplied by its apothem: perimeter of heptagonal base = 13 cm × 7 sides = 91 cm. × h. Volume uses the largest measurement. 187 TeamLRN . 342. 4.) = 4. and the area of one of its two congruent bases measures 72. an inch times an inch. Unlike the example above. = 1 (13.2 cubic inches. it uses the cubic measurement. Set 72 340. = 1 (3. This is a square based pyramid. Volume = 546 cubic centimeters.1 inches: 295.4 ft.) = 1. ft. = 72.501 Geometry Questions 339. or 1 (area of its base × height). = h. Height = 4. However. Volume of 3 square pyramid = 1 (5.
V = 2. Surface area = 26. The surface area of a cube is the area of one face multiplied by the number of faces. Length = 18 inches. each face has four congruent sides.41 square meters).261 cubic meters. V = 9.46 square meters. 36 3 square meters = a. 347. Plug the given variables and perimeter into the formula p = l + w + l + w. If the volume of a right nonagon prism measures 8. Area = 1. p = 4(2.000 square feet: 8. 12 meters = b. Sa = 6(2. Sa = 6(4. 54 in. If the volume of a triangular pyramid is 72 3 cubic meters. Sa = 26. width = 9 inches. Side = 12 meters. or V = e2 (e represents one edge of a cube).000 square feet. Volume = 9.8 feet. 6 meters = 1 b. so the base will be an equilateral triangle). 72 3 cubic meters = 1 area of base × 6 meters.1 meters. 1. Perimeter = 8. p = 8. or Sa = 6bh.000 square ft = B. = 6x. Divide both sides by 6 3 meters. you are working with regular polygons. Set 75 349. or p = 4s.4 meters. = B × 8.3 cubic meters. 9 inches = x.1 meters)2. then the area of one of its two congruent bases measures 1.4 meters.8 feet. 54 in. 348. The volume of a cube is its length multiplied by its width multiplied by its height.5 square meters. 345. 188 TeamLRN .1 meters). 72 3 3 cubic meters = a × 2 meters.800 cubic ft.1 meters × 2.1 meters × 2.800 cubic feet and its height is 8. = 2x + x + 2x + x. A cube has six congruent faces. 2 Set 74 346. work backwards to ﬁnd the area of its triangular base and then the length of a side of that base (remember.501 Geometry Questions 344. 36 3 square meters = 1 side of base × 6 3 2 meters. The perimeter of a single cube face is the sum of the measure of each edge.
Using the given volume and the area above. 5 inches = h. = 162 sq. × 9 in. in. in. This is the area of one base side. Height = 5 inches.). × h. 189 TeamLRN . in. Surface area = 594 square inches.). × 5 in.). Sa = 2 (297 sq. Sa = 2(162 sq. + 90 sq. in. 351.501 Geometry Questions 350. × 5 in. or Sa = 2(lw + wh + lh). Sa = 2(18 in. ﬁnd the third dimension of rectangular prism A: 810 cubic in. Plug the measures you found in the previous question into this formula.) + (18 in. The surface area of a prism is a sum of areas. Multiply the length and width above: 18 inches × 9 inches = 162 square inches. + 45 sq. Sa = 594 square inches.) + (9 in. in.
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you have just come full circle. we start with a point. 16 TeamLRN .Working with Circles and Circular Figures Part A It is said that circles have no beginnings and no ends. and yet as you start this chapter. To properly review circles.
501 Geometry Questions Center Point. Radius. and a radius is half the length of a diameter. Note: A diameter is twice the length of a radius. 192 TeamLRN . A central angle is an angle formed by two radii. Central Angle P D C Points in relationship to Circle ( P) • B is an interior point to P • C is on P O ra s diu of A P radius of O • D is an exterior to P B A center point is a stationary point at the “center” of a circle. A radius is a line segment that extends from the center of the circle and meets exactly one point on the circle. All the points that lie on the circle are equidistant from the center point. Circles with the same center point but different radii are concentric circles. A diameter is a chord that joins two points on a circle and passes through the center point. DB is a diameter AC is a chord dia me ter O OB OD 2 × mOB = mDB D A chord is a line segment that joins two points on a circle. Chords and Diameters B A C OB and OD are each a radius of O.
501 Geometry Questions Arcs A B 33° diameter O rad ius AB = 33° mAB = 10. A major arc is an arc that measures greater than 180°. 193 TeamLRN . The endpoints of a semicircle are the endpoints of a diameter.1 inches AB is a minor arc ABC is a semicircle ABD is a major arc D C An arc is a set of consecutive points on a circle. A semicircle is an arc that measures exactly 180°. Arcs can be measured by their rotation and by their length. A minor arc is an arc that measures less than 180°. Note: An arc formed by a central angle has the same rotation of that angle.
Which points of a circle are on the same plane? a.501 Geometry Questions Other Lines and Circles B A O C secant tan gen t R RB OB RD OD D A tangent is a ray or line segment that intercepts a circle at exactly one point. but no points on the circle all the points in and on a circle 194 TeamLRN . only the center point and points on the circle points on the circle but no interior points the center point. c. b. A secant is a ray or line segment that intercepts a circle at two points. Congruent Arcs and Circles Congruent circles have congruent radii and diameters. Note: Two tangents from the same exterior point are congruent. Set 76 Choose the best answer. interior points. 352. d. The angle formed by a radius and a tangent where it meets a circle is a right angle. Congruent central angles form congruent arcs in congruent circles.
G H A. •A •A A. F. b. is twice the length of a diameter. 354. on the circle. Which point(s) is an exterior point? H a. E. have diameters of the same length. E F P A B G C D 355. G. 195 TeamLRN . d. c. B. a. If P has a 1foot radius. have the same center point. 356. b. have radii of the same length. outside the circle. E. In a circle. c. c. a radius a. d. d. P. b. b and c Use the ﬁgure below to answer question 355. determines an arc. b. c. H lies 12 inches from the center of lies inside the circle. is the same length of a radius in a congruent circle. extends outside the circle. C D.501 Geometry Questions 353. d. Congruent circles a. between concentric circles.
What do the four circles have in common? a. a radius. If the bull’seye is 200 miles wide. Kim aims two arrows at a bull’seye. A diameter is also a. a tangent 360. are straight angles. d. b. extend from the center of a circle. From a stationary point. The ﬁrst arrow nicks one point on the edge of the bull’seye. 100 2 miles 196 TeamLRN . meet a circle at exactly one point. c. a radius c.501 Geometry Questions 357. Kim knows the ﬁrst arrow traveled 100 miles. d.000 miles d. Where each ball lands determines the radius of another circle. Both tangents and radii a. a chord. 2 100 miles c. how far is Kim from the center of the bull’seye? a. 100 miles b. Billy throws four balls in four directions. a center point b. are half a circle’s length. an arc. b. a diameter d. 358. c. 1. 359. From a stationary point. a line. the other strikes the center of the bull’seye.
Q P O M 2 inches Given OM QO PO QP 362. C 3 15 B D 4 A F x E 361.501 Geometry Questions Set 77 Use the ﬁgure below to answer question 361. What is the value of x? Use the ﬁgure below to answer question 362. then what is the diameter of P? 197 TeamLRN . If the diameter of M is 2 inches.
7 A B √74 1 √24 C D 2. Which circle is NOT congruent? 198 TeamLRN .5 10√2 √18.75 10 363.501 Geometry Questions Use the ﬁgure below to answer question 363.
501 Geometry Questions Use the ﬁgures below to answer question 364. O. In which ﬁgure (L. B A B C N. B C D AB CD AB C CD P. A A D L. N. P. O) is the set of arcs not congruent? 199 TeamLRN . D A B AB BA AB CD 364.
Greek mathematicians measured it for you and called it pi. D 20 F G 25 E H 365. Fortunately. you don’t have to. 200 TeamLRN . where and when do you stop if there isn’t a vertex? You could go in circles trying to ﬁgure it out. The value of π is approximately (≈) 272 . What is the length of a radius in the circle? 366. or 3.14. they named it the Greek letter pi.501 Geometry Questions Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 365 through 367. Circa means around. What is the area of ΔDEF? 367. they navigate their way around the earth. Sailors circumnavigate the earth. Is DHG a major or minor arc? Part B When you measure the edge of a circle. Actually. whose symbol looks like a miniature Stonehenge (π). The Circumference of a Circle The circumference of a circle is the circle’s version of perimeter.
or π inches 201 TeamLRN .501 Geometry Questions Circumference of a circle = π × diameter. 2 × mAB = mAC C = π2r C = π2 × 7 inches C = 14π inches The Measure of an Arc Using the circumference of a circle. or π × 2 times the radius B A C 7 in. C D 30° 7 B A C = π14 inches 30° 1 = 360° 12 AD is of 14π inches. you can ﬁnd the measure of an arc.
368.501 Geometry Questions Area of a Circle Area of a circle in square units = π × radius2 C B 7 in A . What is the circumference of the ﬁgure below? 57″ A O a. 114π inches c.5π inches d. 26. A = πr 2 A = π(7 inches)2 A = 49π square inches Set 78 Choose the best answer. 57π inches b. 57π inches 202 TeamLRN .
22π square feet c. What is the maximum area of a circle inscribed in the square? a. 8 centimeters 16 centimeters 32 centimeters 64 centimeters 371.501 Geometry Questions 369.5π square feet 103π square feet 206π square feet 10. 11π square feet b. c. d. What is the area of the ﬁgure below? 206 feet N O M a.609π square feet 370. 51. The area of a square is 484 square feet. b. 122π square feet 203 TeamLRN . 484π square feet d. What is the radius of the ﬁgure below? O T perimeter of O = 64π centimeters a. b. c. d.
374. 96 feet. If the circumference of a circle is 192π feet. 17 feet. then the length of the circle’s radius is a. 26π meters b.5 feet. 169π meters Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 375 through 376. c. 373. b. then the length of the circle’s radius is a. B A C O D C = 64π feet 204 TeamLRN . c. 34 feet. 144. d. 289 feet. 42. d. 156π meters c. 384 feet. If the area of a circle is 289π square feet.501 Geometry Questions 372. 16 6 feet.2π meters d. What is the area of a circle inscribed in a dodecagon with an apothem 13 meters long? a. 192 feet. b.
90π feet C. b. d. then what is the length of BD? 376. c. BD is a quarter of the circumference of circumference of a. If the total C is 64π feet. an acute angle a right angle an obtuse angle a straight angle Use the ﬁgure below to answer question 377. d. What is the central angle that intercepts BD? a. 6 feet A B 12 feet D C 6 feet 377. b. What is the area of the shaded ﬁgure? a. 16π feet b.501 Geometry Questions 375. c. 32π feet c. 144 square feet – 12π square feet 12 square feet – 144π square feet 144 square feet 144 square feet – 24π square feet + 12π square feet 205 TeamLRN . 48π feet d.
4π square feet M and the area of K? 379. If mAB = 60 and mOB = 75. L K 15H M 15H 378. d. What is the area of the shaded ﬁgure? a. what is the measure of OA? 206 TeamLRN . 56.5π square feet 225π square feet 337. c. A O C B 380. b. b.25π square feet 112. What is the ratio of the area of a. 1:8 1:4 1:2 1:1 Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 380 through 381. d. c.501 Geometry Questions Set 79 Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 378 through 379.
382. Find the shaded area of the ﬁgure. 387.0 in. 4 in. what is the area of the shaded ﬁgure? Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 382 through 383. What is the remaining surface area of the cube? Using the ﬁgure below answer questions 384 through 387. C A 45° O 7. Find the length of AB. 4 in. 2. what is the total carved area of the cube? 383. Are AB and CD the same length? 207 TeamLRN .0 in. B D 7.501 Geometry Questions 381. 4 in. 386. 385. If central angle AOC measures 60°. 384. Find the length of CD.5 in. If each side of a cube has an identical semicircle carved into it.
What is the area of trapezoid ABDE? 389. A 4√2 feet G 4 feet B F 6 feet C AB BF FD DE height of ΔBCD = 6 ft.501 Geometry Questions Set 80 Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 388 through 389. 208 TeamLRN . Its volume and surface area must be deduced. the spherical object loses a part of its volume made of air. Unlike a prism. What is the shaded area? Part C When a balloon deﬂates or a basketball goes ﬂat. a sphere does not have a set of straight sides that you can measure. D E 388.
Imagine a circle. or = in squared units 2πr2 + 2πrh The Volume of a Cylinder Volume of a cylinder in cubic units = area of its base × height.501 Geometry Questions The Surface Area of a Cylinder (A Right Prism with Circular Bases) Surface Area of a cylinder the sum of the area of its sides. it is a circle. if it is cut through the center point. The Surface Area of a Sphere A sphere is a set of points equidistant from one central point. Surface area of a sphere in square units = 4πr2 The Volume of a Sphere Volume of a sphere in cubic units = 4 πr3 3 209 TeamLRN . You have created the shape of a sphere and witnessed that no matter what slice of the sphere you take. rotate that circle in every direction around a stationary center point. or π(r2)h The Volume of a Cone Volume of a cone in cubic units = or 1 π(r2)h 3 1 3 the area of its base × height.
x x x 12 ft. What is the total volume of the solid? 210 TeamLRN . 12 ft. 390. What is the surface area of cylinder P? 392. what is the length of x? 391.501 Geometry Questions Set 81 Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 390 through 392. x P Volume of cylinder P = 432π cubic ft. If the volume of the cylinder P is 432π cubic feet.
Dillon ﬁlls the cylindrical coffee grind containers each day. the cone is 3 inches high. but Tracy wants half of the scoop of ice cream on top while Jarret wants the ice cream inside the cone. One bag has 32π cubic inches of grinds. 396. what is the 1 length of x? 394. who will have more ice cream? The cone and scoop both have radii 1 inch long. If the volume of a candy wrapper Q is 6 π cubic inches. Q x inch y Volume Q = π cubic inches 393. How many cylindrical containers can Dillon ﬁll with two bags of grinds if each cylinder is 4 inches wide and 4 inches high? 211 TeamLRN . If the conical ends of candy wrapper Q have 96 π cubic inch 1 volumes each. 397. what is the length of y? 395. Assuming the half scoop of ice cream on top is a perfect sphere.501 Geometry Questions Set 82 Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 393 through 395. What is the surface area of the candy inside the wrapper? Set 83 Solve each question using the information in each word problem. Tracy and Jarret try to share an ice cream cone.
Jen measures the circumference and length of her roast. and the jar is 4. What is their total surface area. If each speaker is 2. If his CD holder is 5 inches wide by 4. What is the volume of the space between the sphere and the cube assuming pi ≈ 3. how many spherical shaped candies should ﬁt into a cylindrical jar if the diameter of each candy is 0.0meter wide sphere inside a right prism. the roast is half its volume but just as long. Theoretically.400π cubic inches.0 cubic meters. not including the ﬂat side adhered to the canvas.5 feet long. After cooking. Munine is trying to carry her new 24inch tall cylindrical speakers through her front door. Mike owns many compact discs (CDs). that he has to organize. Using her knowledge of geometry.501 Geometry Questions 398. What is the new circumference of the roast? 399. 401. how much material did he remove? How much material remains? 404. Before dinner. they do not ﬁt upright through the width of the doorway. In art class.14? 212 TeamLRN . what is the maximum width of her doorway. Tory knows that the space in a local cathedral dome is 13. Unfortunately. what does Tory calculate the height of the dome to be? Set 84 402.122π cubic feet.50 inch. Joe carves a perfect 3.5 inches high by 10 inches long and his CDs measure 4 inches wide by an eighth of an inch long. It measures 12π round and 4 inches long. A sphere with a 2foot radius rests inside a cube with edges 4. how many CDs ﬁt backtoback in Mike’s CD case? 400. if the radius of one sphere is 8 centimeters? 403.50 inches wide and 6 inches long? 405. Billy adheres 32 identical half spheres to canvas. If the volume of the prism is 250.
What is the volume of Puppet Dan’s head if it measures 6 inches wide? 408.501 Geometry Questions Set 85 Use Puppet Dan to answer questions 406 through 414. What is the volume of Puppet Dan’s arms if one segment measures 2 inches wide by 4 inches long? 213 TeamLRN . What is the volume of Puppet Dan’s hat if it measures 6 inches wide by 6 inches high? 407. 6 inches 6 inches 6 inches 2 inches 4 inches 3 inches 6 inches 3 inches 2 inches 2 inches 5 inches 1 inch 2 inches 2 inches 406.
What is puppet Dan’s total volume? 414. What is the volume of Puppet Dan’s body if it measures 6 inches wide and 6 inches long? Each end of the cylinder measures 6 inches wide. If foam weighs 3 ounces per cubic inch. how much does the total of puppet Dan’s parts weigh? 214 TeamLRN . 411. Puppet Dan is made out of foam. What is the volume of Puppet Dan’s legs if each segment measures 2 inches wide by 5 inches long? 412. What is the volume of Puppet Dan’s hands if each one measures 2 inches wide? 410.501 Geometry Questions 409. What is the volume of Puppet Dan’s feet if each foot measures 2 inches × 2 inches × 1 inch? 413.
As a tangent skims by a circle. d. All the points of a circle are on the same plane. If the distance from •A to the center point measured greater than the radius. Choices b and c are incorrect because they describe secants. An exterior point is a point that lies outside a circle. so •A lies on P. d. 356. Congruent circles have points that lie the same distance from two different center points. on. it is a line segment that bridges a circle and passes through the center point. 359. A diameter is a special chord. A circle is a set of points equidistant from a center point. 353. Choice a describes concentric circles. the center point. 12 inches is a foot. If the distance from •A to the center point measured less than the radius. Billy acts as the central ﬁxed point of each of these four circles. Choice d describes a chord. like a tangent. a. then •A would rest inside P. then •A would rest outside of P. interior points. Consequently. a. and choice d is a mix of points in.501 Geometry Questions Answers Set 76 352. Choice b represents a set of points on P. then their diameters are also congruent. A radius spans the distance between the center point of a circle and a point on the circle. and exterior points (unless otherwise stated). Choice a represents a set of interior points. 357. if their radii are congruent. 355. c. 358. b. that includes the points on a circle (points on the circumference). c. 215 TeamLRN . a radius meets exactly one point on a circle. and outside of P. the radii (the line segments that connect the center point to the points on a circle) of congruent circles are congruent. not congruent circles. c. and circles with a common center point are concentric. it intercepts a point on that circle. 354. Congruent circles have congruent radii.
2 D: 2. Radius = 15. x is the sum of lengths AF and EF where AF is congruent to AB. AB is 4. Parallel lines form congruent arcs. Secants extending from a ﬁxed exterior point form noncongruent arcs. and DE is the difference of CE and CD. 216 TeamLRN . C. a = 15. A bull’seye is a circle. 2 C: 102 + b2 = 10 22. miles = c2. Radius = 5.000 sq. Tangent lines drawn from a single exterior point are congruent to each of their points of interception with the circle. 242 = c2. The path of the second arrow forms the hypotenuse. x = 16. b2 = 25.752 = c2.25 + 18. The diameter of O is half the diamter of M. or 16. miles = c2. Two diameters form congruent arcs. 365. 5 = c. The diameter of O is 1 in. 6. a2 = 225.000 sq. Radius = 1 (10) = 5. Only 364. d. b = 10. 362. A. Parallel tangent lines form congruent semicircles.501 Geometry Questions 360. a2 + 400 = 625. or 12.5. Set 77 361. 20.52 + Radius = 5. and EF is congruent to ED. Diameter P = 0. B is not congruent to O.75 = c2. 25 = c2. b2 = 100. 100 + b2 = 200. 363.5. The diameter of P is half the diameter of O. x is 4 plus 12.000 sq. 100 2 = c. Use the Pythagorean theorem to ﬁnd the distance between Kim and the center of the bull’seye: 100 miles2 + 100 miles2 = c2. the ﬂight path of each arrow is a line. Use the Pythagorean theorem to ﬁnd the length of each circle’s radius: A: 72 + b2 = B: 12 + 742. Use the Pythagorean theorem to ﬁnd the length of DF: a2 + 202 = 252.5 inches. miles + 10. 18. The ﬁrst arrow is a tangent that also forms the leg of a right triangle. 25 = c2. therefore. b = 5. The diameter of P is 0. Radius = 1 (5) = 2. 10. 5 = c. and D. 1 + 24 = c2. B. 49 + b2 = 74.
A quarter of 360° is 90°. 217 TeamLRN . The length of arc BD is a quarter of the circumference of C. 373. or 96 feet. is the actual length of the radius. The area of the circle is π(13 meters)2. The area of a circle is the radius squared times pi: π(103 feet)2. If the apothem of a dodecagon is 13 meters. or 16π feet. The diameter of an inscribed circle has the same length as one side of the square. 369. If 289 feet is the square of the circle’s radius. or 121π square feet.) = 150 square inches. plug the measures of the radius and the height into 1 bh: 1 (15 in. a. To ﬁnd the area of ΔDEF. Set 78 368. not the square root of 289. The area of a circle is pi times the square of its radius. Choice c is not the answer because 144. 192 feet is twice the length of the radius. c. Area = 150 square inches. 376. 370. d. it is a right angle. DHG is a major arc. then 17 feet is the length of its radius. The length of ED is the height of ΔDEF. b. b. c. If the perimeter of a circle is 64π centimeters.5 is half of 289. then the radii of an inscribed circle are also 13 meters. d. then the radius of that circle is half of 64.501 Geometry Questions 366. a. or 169π square meters. b. The perimeter of a circle is twice the radius times pi: (2 × 57 inches)π. or 32 centimeters. 371. therefore half of 192 feet. 374. The circumference of a circle is pi times twice the radius. then the sides of the square must measure 22 feet each. If the area of a square is 484 square feet. 375. 372. 2 2 367. × 20 in. The maximum area of an inscribed circle is π(11 feet)2.
Find the area of square ABCD. a2 + 3.4π square inches. Radius = 45 feet.125π 1 1 square inches. The half circles that cap square ABCD form the same area as the circular void in the center. = 112. or 196π square inches. b. Use the Pythagorean theorem: a2 + 602 = 752 . or 96 square inches.2). or 1. 383. Choice b is a negative area and is incorrect. a = 45 feet. Their areas or 56. 379. or 1:4. The surface area of a cube is 6(4 inches2). The area of ΔABO is 1 2 (45 feet × 60 feet). This question is much simpler than it seems.75π square inches.25π square feet each. M has half the radius of K.025π square feet. feet)2. 384. Subtract the area of six semicircles from the surface area of the cube: remaining surface area = 96 square inches – 18. then the area inside the central angle is 1 6 the total area of O.025.350 square feet.625.5π square 218 TeamLRN .125π square inches ≈ 18. or 337. Though area of 380. Multiply the area of one semicircle by 6: 6 × 3.5π square feet. or 24. or 2. Subtract the areas of circles L and M π(15 from the area of K: 225π sq. ft. The area of one semicircle is 2 π(r2): A = 2 π(2.600 = 5.501 Geometry Questions 377. 12 feet × 12 feet = 144 feet. If central angle AOC measures 60°. c. Set 79 378.5 in.75π square inches. A ≈ 3. The radii of L and M are half the radius of K.5 2).5π sq. or 225π square feet. Subtract the area inside the central angle from the area of the triangle: shaded area = 1.25π square feet: 225. Area = 18.0π square feet.350 square feet – 337. it has a fourth of the K. Choice a and d are the same answer.5π square feet. 381. Its area is π(14 inches)2. A 45° slice of that area is oneeighth the total area. 56. The area of K is equal π(7. 382. ft. and that is your answer. – 112.5π square feet. b. a2 = 2. The area of AO is π(45 feet)2. CD is part of a concentric circle outside O.
and AE equals 16 feet.5π inches. × 8 ft. Use the Pythagorean theorem to ﬁnd AG.8π inches. This is still not the answer. b = 4 ft.88 square feet. The shaded area is the difference of ΔBCD’s area and the area between chord BD and arc BD. The height of ΔBCD is 6 feet. The area of a trapezoid is half its height times the sum of its bases: 1 2 (4 ft. then AF and EF equal 8 feet. 32 sq. Central angle BFD is a right angle. The 2 area of BD is tricky. Subtract the smaller wedge from the larger wedge.)2. The area of ΔBFD is 1 (4 2 ft. ft.1π square inches. If AG equals 4 feet. A quarter of that area is 8π square feet. 387. A 45° slice of that circumference is oneeighth the circumference. The circumference of O is 14π inches.)2 = (4 ft.501 Geometry Questions inches. No.)(8 ft. a 45° slice of that area is oneeighth the total area. it is a quarter of a circle’s rotation and a quarter of its area.)2 + b2.) = 24 sq. The circumference of concentric An eighth of that circumference is 3.) = 16 sq. 219 TeamLRN . or 1. or 49π square inches. Set 80 388.5π inches. O is 28π inches. 385. + b2. or 6. Its area is 1 (6 ft. The area of O is π(7 inches)2. and the shaded area is 18.4π square inches. ft. AB and CD may have the same rotation. It is the area of the circle contained within ∠BFD minus the area of inscribed ΔBFD. Again. The circle’s radius is 4 2 feet. = 16 sq. 389. 1. Subtract 2 16 square feet from 8π square feet.) = 2(24) = 48 square feet. then subtract that answer from 24 square feet and your answer is approximately 14. Area ≈ 14. 3. × 4 2 ft. 386. or 32π square feet. The area of circle F is π(4 2 ft.8π inches. + 16 ft. Area = 48 square feet.88 square feet. (4 2 ft. ft. but they do not have the same length. ft.
The surface area of a cylinder is 2πr2 + 2πrh: Plug the variables in and solve: Sa = 2π(6 ft)2 + 2π(6 ft. 1 inch = x. or 16π cubic inches. 4 containers. Sa = 1. or π 3 3 cubic inches. 2 1 1 1 8 cubic in. 1 4 inch = y. x = 6 feet. 36 sq. The ice cream in the cone is 1 π(1 inch2 × 3 inches). or 2 π cubic inches. = (πx2)12 ft. The radius of cylinder P is represented by x . ft. Multiply the volume of the cylinder by 2. and you have the combined volume of all three cones and the cylinder.501 Geometry Questions Set 81 390.0π square inch. = 216π sq. Set 83 396. Surface area = 216π square feet. This problem is easier than you think. 6 feet = x. 391. 72π sq. Plug the variables in and solve: Sa = 4π(0. 3 397.)2(4 in.5 inch)2. Plug the variables in and solve: 1 π cubic in. 220 TeamLRN . One bag ﬁlls the volume of two containers. it is the only missing variable in the volume formula. The volume of a cone is 2 3 3 1 2 πr h. Jarret. in. The volume of each container is π(2 in. Total volume = 864π cubic feet. 116 π sq.). = 394. Surface area = 1. y = 4 inch. × 12 ft. Set 82 393. = 4 πx3. The three cones together equal the volume of the cylinder. Tracy’s half scoop is 1 4 then 1 ( 4 π × 1 inch3).+ 144π sq. Two bags will ﬁll the volume of four containers. 6 1 96 π cubic in. x = 2 inch. Plug in the variables and solve: cubic in. where x is the value of 1 4 r. = 1 πy2. = x2. The candy inside the wrapper is a perfect sphere. 3 2 1 96 π 395. = 1 πy2 1 in. Plug in and solve: 432π cubic ft. Each cone has exactly the same volume. Jarret has 1 π cubic inches more ice cream than Tracy. = y2. ft.0π square inch. The volume of a cone is 3 πr2h. The volume of a sphere is 3 πr3. where y is the value of r. 6 3 x3. ft. The volume of a half sphere is 2 ( 3 πr3).). 392. Its surface area is 4πr2. ft.
divide the length of the container by the thickness of each disc: 10 inches 0. After cooking. r = 10 inches. or approximately 235.400π cubic inches. then the radius is 27 feet.9 cubic meters. Surface area of a whole sphere is 4πr2. or 144π cubic inches. The new circumference of the roast is 2πr.5 face.096π square centimeters.). or 3 πr3. This is a multi step problem. r = 3 2 inches. Circumference = 6 2 π inches.501 Geometry Questions 398. multiply the surface area of one half sphere by 32 because there are 32 halves: 32 × 128π square centimeters = 4.9 cubic meters. Munine’s door is less than 20 inches wide! 401. 3 which simpliﬁes to 4. 399. This problem is not as hard as it might seem. 221 TeamLRN .5π cubic meters. Approximately 235.122π cubic feet. The surface area of half a sphere is 2πr2. it will ﬁt snugly in a box with a 5 by 4. Joe removed the same amount of material as volume in the sphere. 403. or 72π cubic inches. 4. Less than 20 inches. Half the volume of a sphere is 2 ( 3 πr3). To ﬁnd how many CDs will sit backtoback in this container. r = 6 inches.)2(4 in. r2 = 100 square inches. Its circumference is 4π inches. The height of the dome is equal to the radius of the dome. 27 feet. therefore the height is also 27 feet.5π cubic meters. Find the radius of the roast: 2πr = 12π inches. The remaining volume is 250 cubic meters – 4. or 128π square centimeters. Now. If the 1 4 2 volume is 13. The radius of a single speaker is π(r2 × 24 inches) = 2. Its new radius is 72π cubic inches = πr2 × 4 inches. 400. The width of each speaker is twice the radius. A 4inch wide disc’s diameter is 4 inches. or 6 2 π inches.125 inches per disc = 80 discs. The volume of the roast is π(6 in. or 20 inches. or 4 π(1. the roast is half is original volume.5 meters)3.096π square centimeters. Each sphere’s surface area is 2π(8 centimeters2). Set 84 402. 80 discs.
Divide the volume of the jar by the volume of a candy ( candies). or approximately 33. ﬁnd the volume of the cube. 30. The volume of the jar is π(2. V = 3 π cubic inches. The volume of each candy is 3 π(0.25 inches)3.375π cubic inches 0.5 feet)3.375π cubic inches. Volume of a cone = 3 πr2h. Volume of a sphere = 3 πr3. so two times the volume = 8 3 π cubic inches. 409. There are four arm segments.518 candies.518 candies can theoretically ﬁt into the given jar (not including the space between which is (4.3). First. 408.02π cubic inches. V = 36π cubic inches. or 30. Remaining volume ≈ 57. so four times the volume = 16π cubic inches.) V = 4π cubic 4 4 inches. Volume of a cylinder = πr2h.1 cubic feet.)3. The volume of the sphere within is only 4 π(2 feet)3.2 × 4 in. 222 TeamLRN .501 Geometry Questions 404.)2(6 in. V = 3 π(3 in.02π cubic inches ). V = 3 π(3 in. or 4 0. The remaining volume is approximately 57. V = π(1 in. Volume of a sphere = 3 πr3. 405. or approximately 91.6 ft. 4 4 4 There are two handballs. Subtract the volume of the sphere from the volume of the cube. V = 18π cubic 1 1 inches. 1. Set 85 406. 407.5 3 cubic feet. V = 3 π(1 in. and 1.6 cubic feet.25 inches2 × 6) inches.).
6π cubic inches + 8 cubic inches. 18π cubic inches + 36π cubic inches + 16π cubic inches + 3 π cubic inches + 90π cubic inches + 20π cubic inches ≈ 182. Multiply: 1 cubic inch × 581. 413. then V ≈ 581. V = π(3 in. 3 3 V = 36π cubic inches.). 411. and a cylinder. If π ≈ 3. Total volume = 90π cubic inches. The body is the sum of two congruent half spheres. The sum of the volumes of its parts equals a total volume. V = π(1 in. so four times the volume = 20π cubic inches. V = 54π cubic inches.14. Volume of a cylinder = πr2h.2 × 5 in. There are two feet.) V = 5π cubic inches. 414. which is really one sphere. Volume of a cylinder = πr2h. V = 4 cubic inches. Each foot is a rectangular prism. Volume of a prism = length × width × height.501 Geometry Questions 410. V = 4 π(3 in. × 2 in.08 ounces. 3 ounces 8 Puppet Dan is surprisingly light for all his volume! 223 TeamLRN . 412.)3. × 1 in.36 cubic inches = 1. Volume of a sphere = 4 πr3.)2 (6 in. so two times the volume = 8 cubic inches.744. V = 2 in.36 cubic inches. There are four leg segments.
TeamLRN .
Seem familiar? It all should. graph a grid by drawing horizontal and vertical lines. a line is a series of locations in space. A point is a location in space. But if space is inﬁnitely long and wide. 5 4 3 2 1 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 yaxis 1 origin 2 3 4 5 xaxis 17 TeamLRN . a plane is an expanse of locations in space.Coordinate Geometry Geometry is about the relationships of objects in space. how do you locate something that doesn’t take up space? To locate points in space. it is Chapter 1 revisited.
count the number of spaces indicated up (y > 0) or down (y < 0) of the xaxis.−2) (2. (It is the Pythagorean theorem revisited. a point’s position up or down from the xaxis is its ycoordinate. The Length of a Line On a grid. Using the second coordinate. Using the ﬁrst coordinate.) 226 TeamLRN . count the number of spaces indicated right (x > 0) or left (x < 0) of the origin. Its length is the square root of the sum of the square length of each leg. spaces above or below the xaxis).2) (3.−3) Quadrant III y Quadrant IV Plotting a Point on a Coordinate Plane To plot a point from the origin. look at the coordinate pair.501 Geometry Questions A point’s position left or right of the origin is its xcoordinate.1) x (−5. Quadrant II Quadrant I (−3. it is the hypotenuse of an imaginary right triangle. every diagonal line segment has length. Every point has a coordinate pair: (spaces left or right of the yaxis.
d. where the xaxis begins. 415. not a location. 227 TeamLRN . b. where the yaxis begins.501 Geometry Questions a=x–x b=y–y c = d (the distance between two points) c2 = a2 + b2 (Pythagorean Theorem) d2 = (x – x)2 + (y – y)2 (2 − (−2)) Pythagorean theorem a2 + b2 + c2 √a2 + b2 = c (−2 − (+4)) Distance = √Δx2 + Δy2 D = √(−2 − 4)2 + (2 − −2)2 D = √(−6)2 + (4)2 D = √36 + 16 D = √52 = 2√13 Set 86 Choose the best answer. The origin is a. where the xaxis intersects the yaxis. c.
c. c. (.. IV. d. II. b. c. II. III. IV. I. IV.501 Geometry Questions 416. b. yaxis. II. 228 TeamLRN . d. b. 421. •R lies in quadrant a. the origin.18). IV. d. a. d. c. •B lies in quadrant a.3) lies in quadrant I. •R is 3 spaces right and one space above •P (–1. d. (–3. zaxis. •O lies on xaxis. •A a. b. III. II.. •M a. •O •B 420. (–109.02 spaces above •A (20. IV. b. d. III. 419. II. •Q a. 417. c.0).–2) lies in quadrant I. III. I. c. is 15 spaces right and 15 spaces below •N (–15. III. is 40 spaces left and .100) lies in quadrant I. b.01.–2). 418.
b. The distance between •J (4. The second baseman and the hitter lie on the yaxis. If the hitter bats a ball into the far left ﬁeld. d. •B (0. collinear. A baseball ﬁeld is divided into quadrants. d. a solid line. a line. the yaxis. 423. c. I. •A a. ﬁnitely long. d. a. 22.3). noncollinear. 424. c. b. 425. are noncoplanar.0) determine a plane.–2). the ﬁrst baseman and the third baseman lie on the xaxis. 229 TeamLRN . 426.–5) and •K (–2. b.3) are noncoplanar.501 Geometry Questions 422. c. the xaxis. are a line. 61. •G (12. b. d. II. •H (–1.0) is a. d. IV. 11. are collinear. b.15) and •I (3.3) and •C (–12. 29. the ball lies in quadrant a. y = 0 is a. c. On a coordinate plane. The pitcher is the point of origin. c. (14. III.
501 Geometry Questions Set 87 State the coordinate pair for each point. 429. A B x C D y 427. •A •B •C •D 230 TeamLRN . 430. 428.
x y 431. 433. plot •N (12. From the origin. 231 TeamLRN .–1).–3). From •N.5). plot •M (4. plot •Q (–4.–6). From •O. plot •O (–3. plot •R (–7.1). 435. 436. Remember to label each point appropriately.0). 432. 434. plot •P (0. From •M.501 Geometry Questions Set 88 Plot each point on the same coordinate plane. From the origin. From the origin.
438.0) and •H (–3.0) •C •E •G 232 TeamLRN .32) (–1. •A (0.3) and •F (7. 439.4) and •B (0.3) (17. 437.501 Geometry Questions Set 89 Find the distance between each given pair of points.–2) and •D (4. 440.–1) (–3.
419. any point whose xcoordinate is zero. Both coordinates are negative: count three spaces left of the origin. This new coordinate pair is •R (2. 1 + (–2) = –1.20).20.501 Geometry Questions Answers Set 86 415. a.0). It is where the xaxis meets the yaxis. which means they have no beginning and no end. b. a. . You do not need to actually count 109 spaces left of the origin to know that •M lies left of the yaxis. To ﬁnd a new coordinate pair. d. 416. To ﬁnd a new coordinate pair. Points left of the yaxis and above the xaxis are in quadrant II. you do not need to count onehundredth of a space right of the origin or a hundred spaces up from the xaxis to ﬁnd in which quadrant •Q lies. To ﬁnd a new coordinate pair. you only need to know that •Q is right of the yaxis and above the xaxis. The ycoordinate of every point on the xaxis is zero. 420. •A is in quadrant III. 418. c. b. It is not the beginning of either axis because both axes extend inﬁnitely in opposite directions. •B lies in quadrant II. 422. add like coordinates: 3 + (–1) = 2. This new coordinate pair is •B (–20. Points right of the yaxis and above the xaxis lie in quadrant I. 417. add like coordinates: 15 + (–15) = 0. 233 TeamLRN . To know which quadrant •Q lies in.18 = .–1). add like coordinates: (–40) + 20 = –20. whose coordinate pair is (0. This new coordinate pair is (0. Nor do you need to count three tenths of a space to know that •M lies above the xaxis. is in fact a location. (–15) + 0 = –15. then count two spaces down from the xaxis. The origin. Again.–15). 421. b.02 + .. c. •R lies in quadrant IV.
then you didn’t square your differences. 424. If you chose choice b.5). To locate •C from the origin.2. Choice a is incorrect because all points on a coordinate plane are coplanar. •B •A 428. (–4. Add the squared differences together. count seven spaces right of the origin and no spaces up or down. This point lies on the xaxis. plot the points on a coordinate plane and try to connect them with one straight line. you doubled your differences. The ball passes the pitcher and veers left of the second baseman. and •I do not lie on a common line. To locate •A from the origin. they could be connected to make a horizontal line. 429. ﬁnd the difference between like coordinates: x – x and y – y: 4 – (–2) = 6. Draw a baseball ﬁeld—its exact shape is irrelevant. a. Remember a negative number multiplied by a negative number is a positive number. d = 61. They form the axis of the coordinate plane. and take the square root of their sum: 36 + 25 = 61. 426. Caution: Do not assume points are noncollinear because they do not share a common x or y coordinate. To be certain. (−5)2 = 25. then your mistake began after you squared –5. count four spaces left of the origin and two and a half spaces up. b. then your mistake began when subtracting the xcoordinates. the square of a negative number is positive. Three noncollinear points determine a plane. Choices b and d are incorrect because •G. First. •B. Set 87 427.6). two negatives make a positive. –5 – 0 = –5. nor can they be connected to form a straight line. If you chose choice a. (1. To locate •B from the origin. b. but they are not a line. only the alignment of the players matter. and •C are collinear. •H. Square both differences: 62 = 36. 425.0). c. •C (7. If you chose d. 234 TeamLRN .501 Geometry Questions 423. it is in the second quadrant. •A. count one space right of the origin and six spaces up.
501 Geometry Questions 430.−1) N (12. Distance = 10.5) Q (8. see the graph below. d2 = 784. d = 26. you could just count the number of spaces along the line’s length to ﬁnd the distance between •A and •B. d = 28. d = 10. d2 = 02 + (–28)2.–3). d2 = 100. P (4. 439. (0. This point lies on the yaxis. Again. and x equals zero. but count 3 spaces down from the origin. d2 = (0 – 0)2 + (4 – 32)2. d2 = (–10)2 + 02. Distance = 26. count no spaces left or right. d2 = (–1 – 4)2 + (–2 – (–1))2. because these two points form a horizontal line.−1) O (3.6) M (4. you 235 TeamLRN . •D Set 88 For questions 431–436.−6) R (10. Distance = 28. 438. To locate •D from the origin.−9) Set 89 437. Because these two points form a vertical line. d2 = (–5)2 + (–1)2. d2 = 25 + 1. d2 = (–3 –7)2 + (3 – 3)2.
440. d = 20.501 Geometry Questions could just count the number of spaces along the line’s length to ﬁnd the distance between •E and •F. Because these two points also form a horizontal line. Distance = 20. d2 = 400. d2 = (20)2 + 02. d2 = (17 – (–3))2 + (0 – 0)2. 236 TeamLRN . you could just count the spaces along the line’s length to ﬁnd the distance between •G and •H.
a steep hill takes a lot of effort. also called no slope. the slope of a vertical line is undeﬁned.18 The Slope of a Line The SLOPE of a line is the measure of its incline. Think of slope as the effort to climb a hill. and a vertical surface cannot be climbed without equipment. A horizontal surface is zero effort. As incline increases. no slope − increasing incline + increasing incline zero slope zero slope A horizontal line has zero slope. slope increases until the line is vertical. TeamLRN .
501 Geometry Questions Finding Slope Slope is represented by a ratio of height to length (the legs of a right triΔY angle). where ΔY is the change in vertical distance. A positive slope rises from left to right. or rises from right to left. a perpendicular slope is –2. It is written as ΔX . B Δy Δx Δx Δy A Slope A is negative Slope B is positive Slope C is positive Slope D is negative Δx xaxis Δy C Δy D Δx yaxis Note: Positive and negative slopes indicate direction of an incline. A negative slope descends from left to right. If a slope is 1 . 2 238 TeamLRN . or rise to run. The Slopes of Perpendicular and Parallel Lines Parallel lines have the same slope. Most of those line equations have two variables. You can substitute the coordinate values for every point on that line into the equation and still satisfy the equation. the slope of the line is the value of m. Perpendicular lines have negative reciprocal slopes. x and y. Slope in a Line Equation Every line on a coordinate plane has a line equation. When a line equation is written as y = mx + b. and ΔX is the change in horizontal distance.
The incline is a. slope. c. 12 feet 1 foot . Pam and Sam are climbing different hills with the same incline. they would have the same a. The slope of a standard staircase is a. 36 feet 1 foot . b. equation. +4 y = 2x + 8 y = –2x + 8 y = 1x + 8 2 1 2x 444. 1 foot 12 feet . 442. a standard stair rises 7″ for every 9″. c. Which equation is a line perpendicular to y = – 2 x + 4? a. 16 9. If each hill were graphed. b. c. d. 9 7. d. In American homes. Bethany’s ramp to her ofﬁce lobby rises 3 feet for every 36 feet.501 Geometry Questions Set 90 Choose the best answer. 441. d. 239 TeamLRN . 7 9. 36 feet 3 feet . 2 7. c. b. d. 1 443. b. coordinates. length.
501 Geometry Questions 445. Which equation is a line parallel to y = – 15 x + 7?
14
a. y = b. y = c. y = d. y =
14 15 x + 12 15 14 x + 7 –14 15 x + 12 15 14 x + 12
446. The yaxis has
a. b. c. d. Set 91
zero slope. undeﬁned slope. positive slope. negative slope.
State the slope for each of the following diagrams.
447.
(10,2)
xaxis (0,0)
(−2,−6)
yaxis
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501 Geometry Questions 448.
(1,10)
xaxis (−1,0)
yaxis
241
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501 Geometry Questions 449.
(−3,0) xaxis
(0,−5)
yaxis
242
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501 Geometry Questions 450.
(−7,5)
(11,5)
xaxis
yaxis
Set 92 Draw each line on one coordinate plane.
451. 452. 453.
•M
(0,6) lies on line l, which has a – 5 slope. Draw line l. 2 (–3,–4) lies on line m, which has a 3 slope. Draw line m.
1.0 0.5
•Q
•S
(9,–2) lies on line n, which has a
slope. Draw line n.
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501 Geometry Questions
Set 93 Use distance and slope formulas to prove the validity of questions 454 through 456.
454. Show that the ﬁgure with vertices A (2,–5), B (6,–1), and C (6,–5) is
a right triangle.
455. Show that the ﬁgure with vertices A (–8,3), B (–6,5), C (4,5), and
D (2, 3) is a parallelogram.
456. Show that the ﬁgure with vertices A (–5,–5), B (–5,–1), C (–1,–1),
and D (–1,–7) is a trapezoid.
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The ﬁnal slope is 2 . 3 2 3. Set 91 447. c. The yaxis is a vertical line. Place the vertical change in distance over the horizontal change in distance: –8 –12 . b. In this case. its slope is 0 or undeﬁned (some1 times referred to as “no slope”). the constant before the xvariable will be the same. or slope. c. Subtract like coordinates: –2 – 10 = –12. In the slopeintercept formula. 446. – 14 must precede x in both 15 equations. 9 443. 1 444. horizontal lines have zero slope. b. they rise the same amount over the same distance. If every step rises 7″ for every 9″. the constant preceding the variable x is the line’s slope. the relationship of rise over distance is slope. If two lines have the same incline. 442. a. Positive slopes are nonvertical lines that rise from left to right. negative slopes are nonvertical lines that descend from left to right. –6 – 2 = –8. then the relationship of rise over distance is 7 . Choices b and d are perpendicular line equations because their slopes are negative reciprocals of the given slope. The xaxis is an example of a horizontal line. a line perpendicular to y = – 1 x + 4 2 must have a 2 slope. If the ramp rises 3 feet for every 36 feet. then the relationship of rise over distance is 3 foot 36 feet . 445. Since perpendicular lines have slopes that are negative reciprocals. Then reduce the top and bottom of the fraction by 4. b. Parallel lines have the same rise over distance ratio. That means in slopeintercept equations. 245 TeamLRN .501 Geometry Questions Answers Set 90 441. The simpliﬁed ratio is 1 foot 12 feet . Choice a is an entirely different line.
– 3 . 0 (zero slope). 449. The slope is – 3 . Subtract like coordinates: –1 – 1 = –2. Then reduce the top and bottom of the fraction by 2. M x axis S Q l n m y axis 246 TeamLRN . see the graph below.501 Geometry Questions 448. Place the 5 vertical change in distance over the horizontal change in distance: 5 5 –3 . 0 Set 92 For questions 451–453. Horizontal lines have zero slope ( –18 = 0). Place the vertical change in distance over the horizontal change in distance: – 10 . The –2 ﬁnal slope is 5. 450. 0 – (–5) = 5. 0 – 10 = –10. Subtract like coordinates: –3 – 0 = –3. 5.
455. Also opposite lines BC and DA have the same zero slope and lengths. Slope AB is the difference of the difference of the difference of length is –4 0 . its length is x coordinates. therefore ﬁgure ABCD is a parallelogram because opposite sides AB/CD and BC/DA are parallel and congruent. The distance between •C and •D is (3 – 3) (–8 – 2) . they are parallel and congruent. its length is 0 y coordinates. BC is vertical 4 because its slope is undeﬁned. Figure ABCD is a trapezoid. The slope of 4 (–5 – (–1)) (2 – 6) 4 (–5 – (–5)) CA is (6 – 2) . or you could ﬁnd the slope between each line. again. You could draw the ﬁgure. The distance between •D and •A is the difference of the xcoordinates. The slope of CD 2 or 2 . Opposite sides AB and CD have the same slope but measure different lengths. or 2 2. The slope of AB is (3 – 5) (–8 – (–6)) . Finally. slope of DA is ( –2 ). and •C is the difference of the x coordinates. 456. The distance between •B 22 + 22. its 42 + (–22). or you could ﬁnd the slope and distance between each point. or 4. or 4. or 10. therefore they are parallel and noncongruent. ( 2)2 + ( 2)2. you could draw ﬁgure ABCD in a coordinate plane and visually conﬁrm that it is a parallelogram. You must prove that only one pair of opposite sides in ﬁgure ABCD is parallel and noncongruent. Again. 1. or 2 . The distance between •A and •B is 2 (5 – 5) (–6 – 4) . The slope of BC or 0 . CA is horizontal because its slope equals zero.501 Geometry Questions Set 93 454. therefore ΔABC is a right triangle. which means they are parallel and congruent. From the calculations above you know that opposite AB and CD have the same slope and length. or 2 5. Slope BC is – 4 . or 10. The slope of line DA is or 0 10 . Slope of CD is 6 . its length is 0 1 y coordinates. Horizontal and vertical lines meet perpendicularly. The slope of AB is is (–1 – (–5)) (6 – 6) 4 0. or 0 –10 . 247 TeamLRN . The slope of BC is is (5 – 3) (4 – 2) . or 2 2. or 6.
TeamLRN .
19 TeamLRN .The Equation of a Line The standard linear line equation is ax + by = c. It has no exponents greater than one and at least one variable (x or y).
x −2x + 1y = −1 −2(1) + 1y = −1 −2 + y = −1 +2 +2 y= 1 −2(0) + 1y = −1 0 + y = −1 y = −1 −2(−1) + 1y = −1 +2 + y = −1 −2 −2 y = −3 y 1 1 0 −1 −1 −3 250 TeamLRN .501 Geometry Questions Points on a Line Every point on a line will satisfy the line’s equation. use a single variable. plug it in. To ﬁnd whether a point satisﬁes the equation. Plug it in and solve for the unknown coordinate. To ﬁnd points along a line. Using a chart to monitor your progress will help you.
d. 251 TeamLRN . In the linear equation y = –4x + 5. m represents the line’s slope. c. x axis rise run (0.−2) y intercept slope = rise = 2 run 2 y = 1x − 2 y axis Set 94 Choose the best answer. b.–4). 457. (0.5).501 Geometry Questions The SlopeIntercept Equation A special arrangement of the linear equation looks like y = mx + b. the yintercept is a. b represents the y coordinate where the line crosses the yaxis. (–4. (5.0). (0.0).
y) satisﬁes the equation y = – 5 x + 5 . The slope of linear equation y = 3 x– 1 is 2 a.9) satisfy which equation? a. 1 a. Convert the linear equation 4x – 2y = 4 into a slopeintercept equation. b. and •C (3. Find the missing y value if •A. and •C are collinear: •A (–3. y = 2x – 2 b. d. a. b.3). x = – 1 y + 2 2 462. a. –2 –1 3 4 12 2 460. d.–1). 3 c.501 Geometry Questions 458.y). •A (–4. What is the value of b if (–2. c. 2. 1 –2 –3 –1 461.–9). y = 3 x + 3 4 d. y = 6 x + 9 8 463. x = 1 y – 2 2 d. b. 3 2. y = 3 x + 0 4 c. d.3) satisﬁes the equation y = 2 x + b. •B (0. c. b. •B. c. 3. 459.0). y = 4 x + 3 3 b. What is the value of y if (1. •B a. 2 . and •C (8. y = –2x + 2 c. (0. 1 –1 –3 –5 252 TeamLRN . d.
501 Geometry Questions 464. ﬁnd the point of interception. –2) satisﬁes which equation that parallels 2 x + 4 y = 8 ? a. c. For each set of equations below. y = 10x – 2 y + 3 = 4x 5 470. A (0. b. y = 2 x + 4 1 y = –4x + 1 467. = 2x + 6 y = –1x – 1 3 3 1 2y 469. d. d. b. y = –1x + 2 2 y = 2x + 2 y = –2x – 2 y = 1x – 2 2 1 1 1 465. c. 1x + 2y = 4 5 2x –y= 1 2 253 TeamLRN . At a point of interception. Which line perpendicularly meets line 1x + 2y = 4 on the yaxis? a. y = – 5 x – 2 6 1 y = 1x + 1 468. line equations are equal. 466. y = 2x + y = 1x + 2 y = –2x – 2 y = –2x + 1 2 1 2 1 2 Set 95 A point of interception is a point in space shared by two or more lines.
501 Geometry Questions Set 96 Use the line equations below to answer questions 471 through 474. What is the area of ΔABC? Set 97 Use the line equations below to answer questions 475 through 479. 471. y = –1x – 3 3 y = 1x – 1 3 y = –1x – 1 3 y = 1x – 3 3 475. What is the area of quadrilateral ABCD? 254 TeamLRN . What are the vertices of ΔABC? 472. Show that quadrilateral ABCD is a parallelogram. What is the special name for ΔABC? 473. What are the vertices of quadrilateral ABCD? 476. What special parallelogram is quadrilateral ABCD? 479. 477. What is the perimeter of ΔABC? 474. 478. Show that diagonals AC and BD perpendicular. x=0 y=0 y = x –3.
ﬁnd the slope between •A and •C: 8 4 –3 – 3 = –6.–5) is on the line connecting •A and •C. In the slopey intercept equation. From this point. a. 3 459. the number without a variable beside it is the y value of the y intercept coordinate pair. Plug the slope and y value of •B into the 4 formula y = mx + b. –1 – (–9) = 8. Choice b is incorrect because after both sides of the equation are divided by –2. d. (0 – 3) –3 or 3 . You are at point (3. 458. •B is the y intercept. Plug the value of x and y into the equation and solve: 3 = 2 (−2) + 1 b. choices a and b are eliminated. From •A. Find the slope between any two of the given points: (– 4 – 0) = – 4 . or 3 represents the slope. Point (0. its x value is always zero. Choices c and d are incorrect because they single out the x variable.–9). Divide both sides by –2: y = 2x – 2. the signs were not reversed on the right hand side. In this case that number is the entire fraction 2 . The unknown y value is also the intercept value of a line that connects all three points. To convert a standard linear equation into a slope.intercept equation. b. d. count right three spaces and down four spaces. 255 TeamLRN . 4 = b. Immediately. 3 = (–1) + b. Choice c is eliminated because –4 is actually the line’s slope value. d. 462.–5). 461. –5 is your unknown value.501 Geometry Questions Answers Set 94 457. b. 6 . When a line intercepts the yaxis. You are at point (0. Plug the value of x into the equation and solve: y = – 5 (1) + 5 · y 12 2 = – 152 + 2 5 · y = – 150 · y = –2. y = 3 x + 3. 460. the number preceding the x variable is the line’s slope. Subtract 4x from both sides: –2y = –4x + 4. single out the y variable. c. count right three spaces and down four spaces. 4 463. In the slopey intercept equation. First.
501 Geometry Questions 464. b. First, convert the standard linear equation into a slopey
intercept equation. Isolate the y variable: 2y = –1x + 4. Divide both sides by 2: y = – 1 x + 2. A line that perpendicularly intercepts this 2 line on the yaxis has a negative reciprocal slope but has the same y intercept value: y = 2x + 2.
465. c. First, convert the standard linear equation into a slopeintercept
equation. Isolate the y variable: 1 y = – 1 x + 1 . Multiply both sides 4 2 8 by 4: y = –2x + 1 . A parallel line will have the same slope as the 2 given equation; however the y intercept will be different: y = –2x – 2.
466. (– 3 , 3 ). Line up equations and solve for x: 2 x + 4 = –4x + 1. 2 x +
2 11 1 1
4x = –3. 9 x = –3. x = – 2 . Insert the value of x into one equation and 2 3 solve for y: y = 1 (– 2 ) + 4. y = – 1 + 4. y = 2 3 3
11 3 11 3.
To check your answer,
11 3
plug the x and y value into the second equation. =
8 3
= –4(– 2 ) + 1. 3
+ 3. 3
11 3
=
11 3.
If opposite sides of the equal sign are the
same, then your solution is correct.
467. (– 22 , 22 ). Line up equations and solve for x: – 5 x – 2 = 1x + 1.
15 7 6 1
 5 x – 1x =
6
1 2
+ 1. – 151 x = 3 . x = – 15 . Insert the value of x into one 2 22
7 22 .
equation and solve: y = – 15 + 1. y = 22
37 8
468. (– 13 , 13 ). First, rearrange the ﬁrst equation so that only the
variable y is on one side of the equal sign. y = 2 (2x + 6). y = 4x + 1 12. Line up equations and solve for x: 4x + 12 = – 1 x – 1 . 4x + 1 x = 3 3 3 –12 – 1 . 3
13 3x
= – 337 . x = – 37 . Insert the value of x into one equation 13
1 2y
and solve for y: 1 y = 2(– 37 ) + 6. 2 13
5 71
= – 74 + 13
78 1 13 . 2 y
=
4 13 .
y=
8 13 .
469. (– 46 ,– 23 ). First, rearrange the second equation so that only the
variable y is on one side of the equal sign: y = 4 x – 3. Line up 5 equations and solve for x: 4 x – 3 = 10x – 2. 5 for y: y = 10(– 456 ) – 2. y = – 50 – 46
92 46 . 4 5x
– 10x = 3 – 2.
– 456 x = 1. x = – 456 . Insert the value of x into one equation and solve y = – 14462 . y = – 71 . 23
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501 Geometry Questions 470. ( 6 , 12 ). First, rearrange both equations to read, “y equals”: 2y = 4 –
5 19
x. y = 2 – 1 x; –y = 2
1 2
– 5 x. y = – 1 + 5 x. Line up equations and 2 2 2
1 2
solve for x: 2 – 1 x = – 1 + 5 x. 2 + 2 2 2 2y = Set 95
471.
•A
= 1 x + 5 x. 2 2
5 6
5 2
= 6 x. 2
5 6
= x. Insert
24 6
the value of x into one equation and solve:
19 6.
+ 2y = 4. 2y =
– 5. 6
y=
19 12 .
(0,0), •B (3,0), and •C (0,3). Usually, in pairs, you would solve for each point of interception; however, x = 0 (the yaxis) and y = 0 (the xaxis) meet at the origin; therefore the origin is the ﬁrst point of interception. One at a time, plug x = 0 and y = 0 into the equation y = x – 3 to ﬁnd the two other points of interception: y = 0 – 3. y = –3; and 0 = x – 3. –3 = x. The vertices of ΔABC are A (0, 0), B (3,0), and C (0,–3).
472. ΔABC is an isosceles right triangle. AB has zero slope; CA has
no slope, or undeﬁned slope. They are perpendicular, and they both measure 3 lengths. ΔABC is an isosceles right triangle.
473. Perimeter = 6 units + 3
2 units. AB and CA are three units long. Using the Pythagorean theorem or the distance formula, ﬁnd the length of BC. d = 32 + 32. d = 18. d = 3 2. The perimeter of ΔABC is the sum of the lengths of its sides: 3 + 3 + 3 2 = 6 + 3 2.
1
474. Area = 4.5 square units. The area of ΔABC is 2 its height times
its length, or
1 2 (3
× 3). a = 4.5 square units.
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501 Geometry Questions
Set 96
475. In pairs, ﬁnd each point of interception:
•A
(–3,–2). – 1 x – 3 = 1 x – 1. – 1 x – 1 x = 3 – 1. – 2 x = 2. x = –3; 3 3 3 3 3 y = – 1 (–3) – 3. y = 1 – 3. y = –2. 3 (0,–1). 1 x – 1 = – 1 x – 1. 3 3 y = 1 (0) – 1. y = –1. 3
1 3x
•B
+ 1 x = 1 – 1. 3
2 3x
= 0. x = 0;
•C
(3,–2). – 1 x – 1 = 1 x – 3. – 1 x – 1 x = 1 – 3. – 2 x = –2. x = 3; 3 3 3 3 3 y = – 1 (3) – 1. y = –1 – 1. y = –2. 3
1 3x
•D
(0,–3). 1 x – 3 = – 1 x – 3. 3 3 y = 1 (0) – 3. y = –3. 3
+ 1 x = 3 – 3. 3
2 3x
= 0. x = 0;
476. In slopeintercept form, the slope is the constant preceding x. You
can very quickly determine that AB and CD, and BC, and DA have the same slopes. The length of each line segment is: mAB = mBC = mCD = mDA = 10. d = 10. d = 10. d = 10. d = (–3 – 0)2 + (–2 – –1)2. d = (0 – 3)2 + (–1 – –2)2. d = (3 – 0)2 + (–2 – –3)2. d = (0 – –3)2 + (–3 – –2)2. d = 9 + 1. d = 9 + 1. d = 9 + 1. d = 9 + 1. d = 10. 10. 10. 10.
477. The slope of a line is the change in y over the change in x. The
(–2) slope of AC is –2 – – 3 , or –0 . The slope of BD is –10––(–3) , or 2 . 6 –3 0 0 Lines with zero slopes and no slopes are perpendicular; therefore diagonals AC and BD are perpendicular.
478. Rhombus. Quadrilateral ABCD is a rhombus because opposite
sides are parallel, all four sides are congruent, and diagonals are perpendicular.
479. Area = 12 square units. The area of a rhombus is its base times its
height or half the product of its diagonals. In this case, half the product of its diagonals is the easiest to ﬁnd because the diagonals are vertical and horizontal lines. AC is 6 units long while BD is 2 1 units long: 2 (6 units)(2 units) = 6 units.
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20
Trigonometry Basics
Geometry provides the foundation for trigonometry. Look at the triangles on the next page. They are right similar triangles: their corresponding angles are congruent and their corresponding sides are in proportion to each other.
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501 Geometry Questions
S
K 20 16
B
10
8
5
4
A
3
C
J
6
L
R
12
T
3 4 4 5
:
6 8 8 10
:
12 16, or 16 20, or 12 20, etc.
:
:
3 5
:
6 10
:
Create a ratio using any two sides of just the ﬁrst triangle. Compare that ratio to another ratio using the corresponding sides of the triangle next of it. They are equal. Compare these two ratios to the next similar triangle. All three are equal, and they always will be.
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they are called adjacent or opposite to an angle in the right triangle.501 Geometry Questions Unlike the Pythagorean theorem. A A adjacent ∠A opposite ∠B O opposite ∠A o BO = h AB a AO = h AB o = BO a AO B O adjacent ∠B o AO = h AB a BO = h AB o = AO a BO B Sin ∠A Sin ∠B Cos ∠A Cos ∠B Tan ∠A Tan ∠B Each combination of sides has a special name: Sine ∠ = opposite leg hypotenuse . then you will remember the order of each ratio: “O Heck. trigonometric ratios do not call the legs of a right triangle a or b. or Sin ∠ = o h a h o a Cosine ∠ = Tangent ∠ = adjacent leg hypotenuse . Another Hour Of Algebra”) Using a Trigonometric Table Trigonometric ratios for all acute angles are commonly listed in tables. Consult 261 TeamLRN . Instead. (If you can remember this phrase. or Cos ∠ = or Tan ∠ = opposite leg adjacent leg . Scientiﬁc calculators also have functions for the trigonometric ratios.
and not the radian setting.649 0.643 0.940 0.883 0.707 Tan 0.956 0.727 0. Angle 16° 17° 18° 19° 20° 21° 22° 23° 24° 25° 26° 27° 28° 29° 30° 31° 32° 33° 34° 35° 36° 37° 38° 39° 40° 41° 42° 43° 44° 45° Sin 0.424 0.810 0.545 0.384 0.287 0.866 0.899 0.766 0.423 0.342 0.000 262 TeamLRN .375 0.755 0.707 Cos 0.616 0.391 0.510 0.554 0.900 0.407 0.869 0.731 0.891 0.933 0.438 0.488 0.292 0.914 0.466 0.754 0.777 0.588 0.719 0. Part of a trigonometric table is given below.325 0.602 0.445 0.574 0.515 0.921 0.501 Geometry Questions your calculator handbook to make sure you have your calculator in the degree.675 0.848 0.839 0.839 0.788 0.875 0.601 0.906 0.577 0.559 0.927 0.819 0.485 0.669 0.629 0.404 0.966 1.695 0.309 0.358 0.530 0.946 0.470 0.799 0.344 0.625 0.656 0.857 0.809 0.500 0.951 0.934 0.326 0.532 0.364 0.781 0.829 0.743 0.682 0.454 0.961 0.700 0.306 0.276 0.
AB is 5 inches and BC is 10 inches. In ΔABC. a. choose the trigonometric function that addresses the angle you are looking for and uses the sides given. tan 42° Solution: a. tan 42° = 0. cos 44° b. or tan). cos A = 0. m∠A = 41° b. a. cos. cos 44° = 0. What is the rotation of ∠B? Cos B = adjacent hypotenuse Cos B = 5 10 Divide the ratio into its decimal equivalent.656 b. Vertex A is a right angle.900 Example: Find m∠A.501 Geometry Questions Example: Find each value. then ﬁnd the decimal equivalent on the trigonometric chart under the trigonometric function you used (sin. Cos B = 0. sin A = 0.731 Solution: a.719 b.500 m∠B = 60 263 TeamLRN . First. m∠A = 43° Angles and Their Trigonometric Ratio A trigonometric ratio can determine either of a triangle’s acute angles.
Find the length of side CA.500 = 10 = CA 264 TeamLRN . In ΔABC. Sin 30 = opposite hypotenuse CA 20 CA 20 Sin 30 = 0. Select the appropriate trigonometric function and ﬁnd its decimal value on the chart. ∠A is a right angle. Then solve. determine the relationship of both sides to the given angle.501 Geometry Questions How to Find a Side Using a Trigonometric Ratio and Angle If one side and an angle are given in a right triangle and a second side is unknown. BC is 20 inches and ∠B is 30°.
Trigonometric ratios are rounded to the nearest thousandth. 12 C 16 B c.501 Geometry Questions Set 98 Choose the best answer. A 16 12 C B d. 480. A 16 C 12 B 265 TeamLRN . A 16 C 12 A B b. Sin A = 16 for which of the following triangles? 12 a.
A 13 C 12 B d. A 13 C 12 B 266 TeamLRN .501 Geometry Questions 481. Tan A = 12 for which of the following triangles? 13 a. A 13 12 C B A b. 12 C 13 B c.
Which trigonometric function can equal or be greater than 1. b.501 Geometry Questions 482. Sine Cosine Tangent none of the above 267 TeamLRN . A 13 C 33 B c.000? a. d. Cos B = 33 for which of the following triangles? 13 a. A 33 C 13 B 483. A 13 33 C B d. 13 33 A 33 C 13 B b. c.
The beam reaches the wall 13.961 1. b. b. What is the sum of trigonometric ratios Sin 54 and Cos 36? a. 44° b. d. c. 35° c. beam leans against a wall. d. a. What is the sum of trigonometric ratios Sin 33 and Sin 57? a.000 1. c.545 1. b. 46° 486.922 268 TeamLRN . What is the sum of trigonometric ratios Cos 16 and Cos 74? a.809 1. When it reaches an altitude of one hundred feet.090 1. What is the measure of the angle formed by the beam and the ground? a. 55° d. 119. Sin 45 and tan 45 Sin 30 and cos 60 Cos 30 and tan 45 Tan 60 and sin 45 487.1 feet d. 0.2 feet 485.3 feet b. above the ground.6 feet c.000 1. Which set of angles has the same trigonometric ratio? a. 76.501 Geometry Questions 484.384 489. how much ground distance has it covered? To solve.9 ft. c. d. c. A 20 ft. b.536 488. Round the answer to the nearest tenth. A plane ascends at a 40° angle.618 1.276 0. 64.237 1. 0. 0. use the trigonometric chart. 80. d.
In ΔABC. In ΔABC. 14 492.501 Geometry Questions 490. 9. b. 494. Cos ∠C is 36 . 485. The hypotenuse of ΔABC is 3 a. In ΔABC.000. 0. The hypotenuse is 22 a. 0. The trigonometric ratio of sin 45. Sin B b. Set 99 Circle whether each answer is True or False. Tan ∠A = 4 . d. True or False 496. b. In ΔABC. True or False 269 TeamLRN . cos 45. 4.824. 17. 3. True or False 495. The sum of the sine of an angle and the cosine of its complement is always greater than 1. b. vertex C is a right angle. 22. If Sin ∠A = 358. Sin ∠B = 17 . 2 445. and tan 45 are equal. 36. The hypotenuse of ΔABC is a. Tan A 491. 14. d. c. 5. Which trigonometric ratio has the same trigonometric value as Sin A? a.611. c. Cosine A c. c. 493. Cosine B d. them m∠A = 21˚. d.
501 Geometry Questions Set 100 Use the ﬁgure below to answer questions 497 through 500. What is the value of x? 270 2x B TeamLRN . Trigonometric ratios are rounded to the nearest thousandth. What is the length of x? 498. What is the sum of Sin A and Sin G? C x 40° B 8 F a 4 Set 101 Use the ﬁgure below to answer question 501. A 20° 5 40° C 501. Trigonometric ratios are rounded to the nearest thousandth. A 12 Given: EB = x G E H y 27° D 497. What is m∠A? 500. What is the length of y? 499.
482.618. d. Only the trigonometric ratio sin uses the lengths of two legs. The question seeks the length of a leg adjacent to ∠40. What is opposite ∠A is adjacent to ∠B. The value of sin 54 is the same as cos 36 because they are the sine/cosine of complementary angles. d. c. a = 119. The trigonometric ratio tangent is the length of the side opposite an angle over the length of the side adjacent to the angle. 271 TeamLRN . Your only option is the trigonometric ratio tan. 2 times 0.839: 0. Cos B is adjacent over hypotenuse.2 feet.839 = 100afeet . 484. 483. The trigonometric value of tan 40 is 0. is always their denominator.501 Geometry Questions Answers Set 98 480.809 is 1. Divide 13. But the least amount of work uses what the question provides. b.000 because the hypotenuse is never its denominator. The ratio is exactly the same. The sin and cosine of opposite or complementary angles are equal (example: sin 21 and cos 69. the longest side of a right triangle. The trigonometric ratios sine and cosine never equal or exceed 1. and then use sine or cosine. b. The trigonometric ratio cosine is the length of the side adjacent to an angle over the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle). b. 481. 485.9 by 20 and match the answer on the chart. Observe the ratios formed by a 306090 triangle: Sin A is opposite over hypotenuse. You could solve for a hypotenuse using the Pythagorean theorem. The trigonometric ratio Tangent can equal and exceed the value 1. sin 52 and cos 38). The trigonometric ratio sine is the length of the side opposite an angle over the length of the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle).000 because the hypotenuse. a. The problem provides the lengths of two legs and an unknown angle. a. 486. 487.
492. Try it: Sin 17 + Sin 73 = 1. True.248. If your chart does not cover 74°. Set 99 494. d. False. Choice d is the same ratio expressed as decimals. the sum of either the sines or the cosines of complementary angles always exceeds 1. 493. c. Sine is the length of the side opposite an angle over the length of the hypotenuse. 489. 491. However. Look up the values of cos 16° and the cos 74°. and add them together. consequently. but the sine of an angle and the cosine of its complement do not always exceed 1. Cos 44 + Sin 46 = 1.0.414. the hypotenuse and longest side is always the denominator.358. Cosine is the length of the side adjacent to an angle over the length of the hypotenuse.584. Cos 44 + Cos 46 = 1. Individually. c. the trigonometric values of sine and cosine never exceed 1. Look on the chart or use a scientiﬁc calculator to verify that sin 21˚ = . Sin 17 + Cos 73 = 0. Only choice c uses the side opposite ∠A (except it is called the side adjacent ∠B). 272 TeamLRN . Choices b and d are the same angle as the given. The trigonometric ratio tan does not include the hypotenuse.438. 495. Add their values together. b.0.0. It must be solved by using the Pythagorean theorem: 32 + 42 = c2. Look up the trigonometric values of sin 33 and sin 57. if your trigonometric chart does not cover 57°. 5 = c. Choice a uses the side adjacent to ∠A. look up the values of cos 16° and the sin 16°. Again. add them together and arrive at the same answer because cos 33 is equivalent to sin 57. 490. the answer is the denominator of the given fraction. you could trace the trigonometric values of sin 33 and cos 33.501 Geometry Questions 488. that creates an entirely different ratio from sin A. 25 = c2. c. b.
855. 8 500.342 = 0. Cos a = adjacent/hypotenuse.400x. Cos a = 4 .500.303 is 7. you could use ∠C).500. 498. Using the angle given (you can use ∠A. x ≈ 0. Set 100 497. Tan 40 = opposite/adjacent.501 Geometry Questions 496. Sin 20 = 5 . it measures 50°). Half of BE is CE. sum ∠ 1. Only sine and cosine have the same trigonometric ratio value at 45°. y ≈ 14. Tan 40 = 1a2 .024.024. 0. 12 a . Judging the relationships of each side to ∠D (again. FG is a hypotenuse while HF is a side adjacent to ∠a. Tan 27 = opposite/adjacent. Set 101 501. 2x 273 TeamLRN . Tan 27 = 7.303.152. 0. False. 0.152 . At 45°.152 .839 = a (to the nearest thousandth) ≈ 14. m ∠a = 60.303. or 1. or half of 14. m∠a = 60. the trigonometric ratio tan equals 1.510 = 7. as ∠B’s complement. The sum of sin 50 and sin 30 is 0. a a a (to the nearest thousandth) ≈ 14.266. Cos a = 0.766 plus 0.266. x ≈ 14. and BE is adjacent ∠B. CE is opposite it and DE is adjacent it. AE is opposite ∠B. 499.
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