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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

Introduction to the
Philosophy of the
Human Person
Quarter 1- Module 1
The Meaning and Method of Doing
Philosophy

Department of Education ● Republic of the Philippines


Introduction to the Philosophy of the Human Person
Alternative Delivery Mode
Quarter 1- Module 1: The Meaning and Method of Doing Philosophy
First Edition, 2020

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Published by the Department of Education-Division of Misamis Oriental


Superintendent: Jonathan S. Dela Peña, Ph.D., CESO V
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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

i
Introduction to the
Philosophy of the
Human Person
Quarter 1- Module 1
The Meaning and Method of Doing
Philosophy

This instructional material is collaboratively developed and reviewed by


Teacher, School Head, Public School District Supervisor, and Education
Program Supervisors of the Department of Education- Misamis Oriental
Division. We encourage teachers and iiother education stakeholders to email
their feedback, comments and recommendations to the Department of
Education-Misamis Oriental at misamis.oriental@deped.gov.ph

We value your feedback and recommendations.

Department of Education ● Republic of the Philippines

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No.
Cover page
Table of Contents iv
Overview 1
General Instructions 2
Lesson 1: The Meaning and Method of Doing Philosophy 3
What I Need to Know 3
4
What I Know
4
What’s In 4
What’s New 5
What Is It? 6
Lesson 1.1 7
What I Know 7
What’s In 8
Lesson 1.2 9
What I Know 9
What’s In 10
What’s New 11
What Is It? 12
Lesson 1.3 12
What I Know 13
What’s In 13
What’s New 14
What Is It? 15
What’s More 15
What I Have Learned 16
What Can I Do 17
Assessment 18
Answer Key 19
References 20
OVERVIEW
Hello dear learners! Welcome to this module on Introduction to the Philosophy of the
Human Person. This module will help you understand the meaning and process of doing
philosophy of the human person as an embodied being in the world and the environment as a
means towards a holistic understanding of life. It contains activities that will help you reflects
on a concrete experience in a philosophical way and demonstrates various ways of doing
philosophy and evaluate opinion. The module is self – instructional and allows you to learn in
your own space, at your own pace. So, relax and enjoy learning.

To the teacher:

This lesson assume that the teacher has already introduced to his/ her learners
knowledge about philosophy and its importance as discipline and a means of understanding
life.

The primary goal of this module is to help learners engaged in some simple activities
in order to have necessary skills and understanding and reflects on a concrete experience in
a philosophical way.

To the Learners:

At the end of this module, you will be able to reflect on your daily experiences from a
holistic point of view and acquires critical and analytical thinking skills so that you can apply
this critical and analytical thinking skills to the affairs of your daily life and should be able to
demonstrate a capacity for a critical and analytical reflection from the perspective of a holistic
and profound vision of life.

In order to achieve the objectives of this module, it is necessary to have completed all
the module for you to fully understand the activities and discussions.

Specifically, this module consists of the following lessons:

 Lesson 1.1- The Difference Between Holistic Perspective from a Partial Point of View
 Lesson 1.2 – The Value of Doing Philosophy
 Lesson 1.3 – Doing a Philosophical Reflection

1
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

For the learners: For the teacher:


To be guided in achieving the To facilitate and ensure the
objectives of this module, do the students’ learning from this module,
following: you are encouraged to do the
following (you may edit this part):
1. Read and follow instructions
carefully. 1. Clearly communicate
2. Write all your ANSWERS in learning competencies and
your PHILOSOPHY objectives
ACTIVITY NOTEBOOK. 2. Motivate through
3. Answer the pretest before applications and connections
going through the lessons. to real life.
4. Take note and record points 3. Give applications of the
for clarification. theory
5. Compare your answers 4. Discuss worked-out
against the key to answers examples
found at the end of the 5. Give time for hands-on
module. unguided classroom work
6. Do the activities and fully and discovery
understand each lesson. 6. Use formative assessment
7. Answer the self-check to to give feedback
monitor what you learned in 7. Introduce extensions or
each lesson. generalizations of concepts
8. Answer the posttest after 8. Engage in reflection
you have gone over all the questions
lessons. 9. Encourage analysis through
higher order thinking
prompts
10. Provide alternative formats
for student work
11. Remind learners to write
their answers in their
Philosophy Activity
Notebook

2
Lesson The Meaning and Method

1 of Doing Philosophy
The study of this subject is an initiation to the activity and process of philosophical
reflection as a search for a synoptic vision of life. At the end of the course, you should be able
to reflect on their daily experiences from a holistic point of view, acquire critical and analytical
thinking skills and should be able to apply this critical and analytical thinking skills to the affairs
of daily life and become truthful, environment-friendly and service-oriented. Actively committed
to the development of a more humane society and articulate their own philosophy of life.

WHAT I NEED TO KNOW?

Objectives: After going through this module, you are expected to understand the
meaning and process of doing philosophy, to:

1. Distinguish a holistic perspective from a partial point of view PPT11/12-Ia-1.1


2. Realize the value of doing philosophy in obtaining a broad perspective on life
PPT11/12-Ib-1.2
3. Do a philosophical reflection on a concrete situation from a holistic perspective
PPT11/12-Ib-1.3

Before heading on to our lesson, let us first check what you already know.

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WHAT I KNOW?

INSTRUCTION: Write your answer in the space provided


below.

What words come to mind when you hear the word Philosophy? Why do we need to
study Philosophy?

Great job! Later we will see if your answers are correct by reading the rest of
this module.

WHAT’S IN?

The word philosophy comes from two Greek words: philos (love) and sophia (wisdom).
The ancient Greeks used this term to refer to “love of wisdom” and they soon applied it to the
study or discipline that uses human reason to investigate the ultimate causes, reasons, and
principles which govern all things.

Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence,


knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

Philosophy in simple words is a way of thinking about the world, the universe, and
society. It works by asking very basic questions about the nature of human thought, the nature
of the universe, and the connections between them. The ideas in philosophy are often general
and abstract.

Philosophy is the study of humans and the world by thinking and asking questions. It
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is a science and an art. Philosophy tries to answer important questions by coming up with
answers about real things and asking "why?"

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WHAT’S NEW?

Do you know of some Greek Philosophers?


Philosophers- are people who engage in philosophy.

Direction: Identify the following person in the picture below. Write your answer on the
space provided below.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki

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WHAT IS IT?

The most notable ancient Greek philosophers are:

Pythagoras (570 BCE to 495 BCE)- A mathematician and scientist, he was credited with
formulating the Pythagorean theorem.

Heraclitus (535 BCe to 475 BCE)- He proposed that everything that exists is based on a
higher order or plan which he called logos.

Democritus (460 BCE to 370 BCE)- He devoted himself to the study of the causes of natural
phenomena.

Diogenes of Sinope (412 BCE to 323 BCE)- He was a known advocate of living a simple and
virtuous life.

Epicurus (341 BCE to 270 BCE)- He believed that philosophy could enable man to live a life
of happiness.

Socrates (470 BCE to 399 BCE)- He was considered the foremost philosophers of ancient
times. He was credited with formulating the Socratic method- means of
examining a topic by devising a series of questions that let the learner examine
and analyze his knowledge and5views regarding the topic.

Plato (427 BCE to 347 BCE)- A student of Socrates, he wrote down his mentor’s teaching and
incorporated some of his own ideas into them. Plato’s most significant ideas
included his Theory of Forms, which proposes that everything that exist is based
on an idea or template than can only be perceived in the mind. Plato is also
known for his dialectic- a method of inquiry where two opposing ideas are
discussed in an attempt to arrive at new knowledge. Plato’s lasting contribution
to learning was his founding of the Academy, an institution of higher learning.

Aristotle (384 BCE to 322 BCE)- He attended the Academy, and was the prominent student
of Plato. For him, all ideas and views are based on perception and our reality is
based on what we can sense and perceive. His studies in logic led to the
formulation of a formal process of analyzing reasoning which give rise to
deductive reasoning-the process by which specific statements are analysed to
reach a conclusion or generalization.

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Lesson The Difference Between
1.1 Holistic Perspective from
a Partial Point of View
We have already discussed the meaning of Philosophy from our previous lesson. Now,
let us proceed to another topic.

 Holistic thinking refers to a perspective that considers large-scale patterns in


systems. A holistic perspective requires an individual to have an open mindset and
ability to get the general sense or impression regarding a situation.

 Partial thinking focuses on specific aspects of a situation. The partial view is an


important component of analytical thinking, as an individual focuses on certain
areas or aspects of a problem in order to understand it.

Pretest
WHAT I KNOW?

Direction: Give a brief answer to the following question. Write your answer on
the space provided below.

1. Give a situation where you are adopted a holistic view in looking at a problem or
situation.

2. How can having a holistic view help us become better individuals.

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WHAT’S IN

The term "holistic thinking" refers to a big picture mentality in which a person
recognizes the interconnectedness of various elements that form larger systems, patterns and
objects. Thinking holistically is the opposite of analyzing something, which involves breaking
down a larger system into its details.

Holistic medicine is a prominent example of holistic thinking. A medical professional


who believes in holistic care considers the relationship between the mind, body and spirit. For
example, holistic doctors don't just provide patients with medications. Instead, they look at
ways to improve life balance and eradicate health problems from their root source, such as
high stress or bad nutrition.

In philosophy, point of view describes the perception of an event or phenomenon and


how exactly it is viewed. Point of view often is shaped by an individual's beliefs or experiences.
Though partial thinking is useful, philosophy utilizes holistic thinking in making sense of
problems and issues related to the human experience.

People tend to apply an analytical perspective when looking at problems or situations.


A holistic view gives rise to a more appreciative perspective about life, as we are able to look
at life in its totality.

TWO DIFFERENT TYPES OF THINKING

Study.com

8
Lesson The Value of Doing

1.2 Philosophy in Obtaining a


Broad Perspective on Life
Why do we philosophize? We all have the potential to philosophize since we have the
tendency to wonder and doubt.

A philosopher is a good communicator who can clearly and adequately present his or
her ideas.

Doing philosophy can be applied in day-to-day activities and life perspectives. Because
it involves an evaluative process, doing philosophy allows a person to make better decisions
and act accordingly to situations with the help of various philosophical skills. On life
perspectives, philosophy enables reflective thinking which greatly influences a person’s view
of life, challenges, and relationships

In doing philosophy, a holistic perspective on the subject is always required. Failure to


do so or only using a partial point of view may lead to illogical or incorrect conclusions.

WHAT I KNOW

Direction: Give a brief answer to the following question. Write your answer in space
provided below.

1. How can a person benefit from philosophizing?

2. What are the reasons that compel a person to engage in philosophical thinking?

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WHAT’S IN

Plato traced man’s need to philosophize to his sense of


wonder. Whenever we are confronted with an experience, we
always wonder how it came about.

French philosopher Rene Descartes traced the need to philosophize to doubt. In life,
we will be faced with several ideas and arguments which present themselves as “truths”. A
critical and questioning perspective is necessary to determine if indeed these ideas or views
are correct or true.

Swiss-German philosopher Karl Jaspers saw the need to philosophize because of


experience. These experiences limit situation, philosophy provides us a means to understand
adverse or challenging conditions, and to rise above them and gain new knowledge and
perspective.

The need to philosophize is


driven by the love for wisdom. To love
wisdom is to have an insatiable desire
for truth.

Philosophy itself is a distinct


area of knowledge with its own goals,
concerns, and ways of doing things.

https://thefearlesshustle.com/

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WHAT’S NEW?

Direction: Based on the picture below. Identify the branches of Philosophy. Write your
answer on the space provided.

PHILOSOPHY
WHAT IS IT?

The following are the branches of philosophy that deals


with a particular aspect of life or phenomena.

Aesthetics is the branch of Philosophy which deals with beauty and what makes things
“beautiful”.

Logic is branch of philosophy which deals with correct reasoning.

Epistemology discusses the nature of knowledge and knowing.

Ethics is the branch which deals with moral questions and dilemmas.

Political Philosophy studies governments and deals with questions of justice, power and the
rights and obligations of citizens.

Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy which deals with questions regarding reality and
existence.

Philosophy of the Human Person-is an area in philosophy that understand the human
person from a philosophical perspective.

Lesson Doing a Philosophical


1.3 Reflection on a Situation
from Holistic Perspective
 Reflection requires a person to be willing to examine one’s thoughts, feelings, and
action and to learn more about one’s life and experiences.
 Human self-reflection is the capacity of humans to exercise introspection and to
attempt to learn more about their fundamental nature and essence.
 Philosophy has an important place in our daily lives. Engaging in philosophical
reflection leads to the development of beneficial skills that individuals can apply in
everyday situations.

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WHAT I KNOW

Direction: Give a brief answer to the following question.


Write your answer on the space provided below.

1. Have you ever had an experience where reflecting on your actions benefitted you?

2. Has reflection ever helped you avoid making a bad decision?

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WHAT’S IN

Reflection is vital in ensuring that our actions and decisions are well thought out and
are done with due regard for their implications and consequences on ourselves, others, and
our surroundings.

When we reflect, we can judge whether our actions or decisions are reasonable or not.
Doing Philosophy enables a person to engage in critical analysis and interpretation of
concepts, definitions, arguments, and problems.

Doing Philosophy also improves problem-solving and decision making. The ability to
analyze a problem or dilemma, identify the significant aspects, and come up with alternative
solutions is an important skill learned through philosophy.

In the process of doing philosophy, it is critical to have a holistic point of view-the


perception of looking at all aspects of a situation first before making a conclusion.

Wisdom as it refers to a person’s ability to apply knowledge to daily life particularly in


making sound choices and judgment is the intended product of philosophizing.

Finally, knowledge of Philosophy can contribute to self-development.

Examples of activities that emanated


from a deliberate reflection
 Learning from your previous mistakes and not repeating them
again
 Evaluating and knowing the best choice from a set of options
 Gaining a holistic point of view first before making any conclusion

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WHAT’S NEW?

Direction: Complete the table below. Write your answer on the space provided.

ACTIONS WHAT MUST BE DONE BEFORE THE


ACTION?
1. Buying a new gadget
2. Choosing friends
3. Eating food
4. Deciding where to study in College
5. Joining an organization in school
6. Helping a stranger
7. Going out with friends
8. Posting your opinion or feelings in the
social media
9. Going out with the opposite sex
10. Confronting a person who verbally
hurt you

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WHAT IS IT?

Based on your answers in Table 1, what must before making


actions? Do you consider it helpful if you do this before making actions? Why or why not?

Simple action seems to take a whole new meaning when one engages in reflection.
Like buying a new gadget, think of the questions you asked yourself as you consider buying
the said item.

You may start with simple questions, but since we are in reflective and philosophizing
mood, we try and think of deeper questions and reflect on the situation

WHAT’S MORE

Direction: TRUE OR FALSE. Write TRUE if the statement is correct otherwise choose
FALSE. Write your answer on the space provided.

1. Plato traced man’s need to philosophize to his sense of wonder.


2. The need to philosophize is driven by the love for wisdom.
3. This is an area in philosophy that understand the human person from a
philosophical perspective is holistic thinking.
4. Swiss-German philosopher Karl Jaspers saw the need to philosophize because
of doubt.
5. Aesthetics is branch of philosophy which deals with beauty.
6. Ethics is a branch of philosophy which deals with correct reasoning.
7. Logic is a branch of philosophy which discusses the nature of knowledge and
knowing.
8. Philosophy of the Human Person is a branch of philosophy which deals with
moral questions and dilemmas.
9. Metaphysics is branch of philosophy which deals with questions regarding
reality and existence.
10.Political Philosophy is branch of philosophy which studies governments and
deals with questions of justice, power and the rights and obligations of citizens.

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WHAT I HAVE LEARNED

Direction: Fill in the blanks. Write your answer on the space provided.

Experience Knowledge Greek


Holistic Thinking Partial Thinking Lover of Wisdom

 Philosophy – comes from two ____________________word philos (love) and sophias


(wisdom) is the study of general and fundamental questions
about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
 Philosophers – or ______________________ people who are engage in philosophy.
 A man needs to philosophize because of his sense of wonder, doubt and
______________________.
 Philosophy does not limit itself to its own field as it makes sense of information gathered
from various fields of _________________________ (e.g., science, psychology,
economics, politics, etc.,)
 Philosophy of the Human Person is an area in philosophy that understand the human
person from a philosophical perspective which involves holistic thinking and
_______________________.
 Philosophical reflection is important in our daily lives as it ensures that our actions and
decisions are well thought by using a deeper, holistic perspective.
 In doing philosophy, critical, logical, and analytical thinking, observation, and
communicative skills were involved.

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WHAT I CAN DO

Direction: Write your answer on the space provided below.

1. List down instances in your life that you were able to engage in philosophy.

2. How did philosophy help you address your situation?

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ASSESSMENT

After our lesson, let us now check what you have


learned.

Direction: encircle the letter of the correct answer.

1. The word Philos is a Greek word means_________.


a. Love b. Wisdom c. Philosopher d. Philosophy

2. Sophia is a Greek word for ___________.


a. Love b. Wisdom c. Philosopher d. Philosophy

3. The people who engages in philosophy are called________.


a. Love b. wisdom c. Philosophy d. Philosopher

4. He was considered the foremost philosophers of ancient times. He was credited with
formulating the Socratic method___________.
a. Plato b. Aristotle c. Socrates d. Democritus

5. A student of Socrates, he wrote down his mentor’s teaching and incorporated some of
his own ideas into them included his Theory of Forms________.
a. Plato b. Aristotle c. Socrates d. Democritus

6. It refers to a perspective that considers large-scale patterns in systems______.


a. Doubt b. Academy c. Holistic Thinking d. Partial Thinking

7. It focuses on specific aspects of a situation, as an individual focuses on certain areas


or aspects of a problem in order to understand it.
a. Doubt b. Academy c. Holistic Thinking d. Partial Thinking

8. It is the process by which specific statements are analysed to reach a conclusion or


generalization.
a. Academy b. Deductive reasoning c. Holistic d. Partial

9. It requires a person to be willing to examine one’s thoughts, feelings, and action and
to learn more about one’s life and experiences.
a. Reflection b. Observation c. Knowledge d. Doubts

10. The Greek term for philosophy, philosophia, means ___.


a. Holistic Thinking d. Partial Thinking c. Love of wisdom d. Knowledge

Congratulations!
You have completed your journey in this module. You did a great job!
It’s now time to go on to the next adventure…Good luck!

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ANSWER KEY

Rubrics for Short Answer


Correct answer Correct answer Correct answer Correct answer
but not in a written in a written in a written in a
sentence sentence but no sentence with 1 sentence with 2
supporting detail supporting detail supporting details
from the text from the text
1 2 3 4

2019
REFERENCES
Roberto D. Abella, M.Div., D.Min. (2016). Introduction to the Philosophy of the Human Person.
Philosophy meaning. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophy)
Holistic thinking. https://www.reference.com/world-view/holistic-thinking-71825abaad1c20ca
Partial point of view. https://study.com/academy/answer/what-is-partial-point-of-view.html
Self-reflection. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-reflection
The difference between holistic and partial thinking.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4yTVInz1eOg
https://www.slideshare.net/arielgilbuena7/intro-to-the-philosophy-of-the-human-person-
chapter-1-the-process-of-doing-philosophy
https://www.reference.com/world-view/holistic-thinking-71825abaad1c20ca
https://study.com/academy/answer/what-is-partial-point-of-view.html
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JBTnhWEWf38
https://www.google.com/search?q=what+is+philosophy&oq=what+is+philo&aqs=chrome.1.6
9i57j0l7.8372j0j8&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8
https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophy
https://study.com/academy/lesson/big-picture-vs-detail-oriented-thinking.html
https://thefearlesshustle.com/5-ways-to-stay-positive-through-life/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristotle
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socrates
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epicurus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plato
https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Browse/prek-12-subject-area/test-preparation/Type-
of-Resource/Rubrics

21
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