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# c 


     
 
      
   
ECE Department, Florida Int¶l University

## c  Due to its effectiveness in the !"#c c"\$c"

modeling and analysis of difficult and complex
systems, state-space representation has become A system è p is a device that maps a set of
outputs- .
an integral part of engineering. This paper
presents an introduction to the concept of state Mathematically, è   -p or   è
space modeling and uses this concept in the .
analysis of a simple circuit block-the Double 
Differentiator circuit. The double Differentiator
is a circuit that has a variety of applications. One
such application is in signal generators like the
Wien bridge Oscillator where it is used to
remove distortions. This paper analyses this
circuit, checks its stability, controllability and 
also uses the MathWorks SIMULINK® to
examine the effects of varying different circuit System N showing inputs and Output

elements.

## h  State-Space equations, Differentiator (set of internal variables) information needed to

uniquely specify the system response given the
input variables over the time interval (X , ) .
circuit, Controllability, Stability

 
A state space representation or model is a
Most practical engineering problems are not mathematical abstraction of the behavior of
physical or dynamic system as a set of input,
easy to solve analytically. In such cases, we may
output and state variables related by first-
require numerical methods to solve such order differential equationsp . The state space
problems. These solutions are usually iterative model provides a convenient and compact way
and may need a lot of intermediate steps to get to model and analyze systems with multiple
to a solution. A very useful characterization of inputs and outputs. With  inputs and outputs,
linear circuits is the use of transfer functions, we would otherwise have to write down
which is the frequency domain response  Laplace transforms to encode all the
information about a system. Unlike the
equivalent of the circuit¶s time domain input-
frequency domain approach, the use of the state
output relations. The limitation of this method is space model is not limited to systems with linear
that it does not use information of the internal components and zero initial conditions. "State
structure of the system thereby, giving limited space" refers to the space whose axes are the
control of the closed loop behavior in a system state variables. The state of the system can be
with feedback. represented as a vector within that space .


  "%
    

"%
 
 
The standard form for the mathematical The p of a system is any variable of the
description of a system is written as a set of p system that is of great concern. A set of state
coupled first-order ordinary differential variables will not necessarily include all the
equations for continuous time systems and a set variables of direct engineering interest. An
of n coupled first order difference equations for arbitrary output variable   in a system of order
discrete time systems. This standard form of pwith ppinputs may be generally written:
expression is known as the p  . In
the continuous time system, the time derivative X   X X X
of each state variable is expressed in terms of the
state variables  ()
  p p p p
p () and the For continuous time systems.
system inputs 1()
  pppp
p(). The general
case for the continuous time system with n state X    X  X  X 
equation is
For discrete time systems.
] V1 (
p

p)
] V2 (
p

p)
:  : &'  (  )   


]  Vp(
p

p)  (

Where ]  
,and  and
are vectors. The system model for a linear time invariant
continuous system is made up of a set of n state
equations described in terms of matrices A and
In the discrete time system, the general case is
B, and a set of output equations described in
given as
terms of matrix C and D. Modeling a linear time
] X  
 X  X X 
invariant system involves deriving the elements
] X  
 X  X X 
that make up these matrices A, B, C and D.
The system model can then be written in this
:  :
] X  
 X  X X 
form

(t) c(t) +
(t)
Again,  and
are vectors
;X(t) +
(t)

## Matrices A and B are attributes of the system

Each state variable is a time varying component
established from the system structure and
of the column vector ().This form of the state
elements while matrices C and D are the output
equations explicitly represents the basic
equation matrices established by the choice of
elements contained in the definition of a state
output variables.
determined system. Given a set of initial
conditions, the values of the ] pat some time X

and the inputs for p p X , the state quations
&*" ""c
explicitly specify the derivatives of all state Inserting electrical reactance into the feedback
variables. The value of each state variable at
loop of an operational amplifier circuit makes
some time ǻplater may then be found by direct
integration. The system state at any instant may the output respond to changes in the input
be interpreted as a point in an -dimensional voltage over . This effect is achieved using a
p , and the dynamic state response () capacitor. Capacitors oppose voltage change by
can be interpreted as a path or trajectory traced creating current in the circuit: that is, they either
out in the state space.  charge or discharge in response to a change in

applied voltage. A differentiator is a circuit
whose voltage output is proportional to the rate c     

of change of the input voltage or a circuit whose
voltage output is relative to a time derivative of The differentiator circuit is used as a high pass
the voltage input. filter, as a rate of change indicator in process
instrumentation, as a building block in
Two types of differentiator circuits exist; waveform generation and as a building block for
passive and active differentiator circuits. The process controllers.
passive differentiator circuit is fundamentally a
four terminal network made up of two passive
network elements. It is a simple high-pass filter.
The active differentiator circuit on the other
hand is usually made up of a combination of
active and passive network elements such as
operational amplifiers, capacitors and resistors.
The ideal active differentiator is inherently
unstable in practice due to the presence of some
high frequency noise in every electronic system.
An ideal differentiator would amplify this small & A Double Differentiator Circuit
noise .

Since the output voltage of a differentiator is
+cc'!
proportional to the input frequency, high
frequency signals (such as electrical noise) may 
  X  
   X      
saturate or cutoff the amplifier. For this reason, a 
resistor is placed in series with the capacitor in
 X
  X  
   X      
the input that establishes high frequency limit
beyond which differentiation no longer occurs. 
To achieve greater attenuation at higher
frequencies (or prevent oscillation), a feedback
capacitor is added in parallel with the feedback From equation (1), we can write
resistor. This converts the differentiator to an
  X -   X


integrator at high frequencies for filtering.
 
X  X
p

##  X -  X

       
X  X

##   X - X   X

-------- 

X  X
 Ideal Active Differentiator Circuit.
     
  X   -

      
And making necessary substitution gives     
 
pppp 
 
 - X  X
       
X  X Equation (8) is a second order LTI equation

## Dividing both sides of equation (4) by C3, we By letting

have   
Ó
   ;   p
     
  - X  X
        p
X   X  
 p
 
p
Equation (8) can be written as
Integrating equation (5) gives
  

 X    X    X  

  
   X   X    
   X    
----p  p
 

## Assuming that the circuit has initial voltage and

Substituting equation (6) into equation (3), gives current across the circuit elements as 0, we apply
the Laplace transform to equation (9) to get
 X       X
    X X   X
X     X ]   ]    ]   ] ]
 - X  X
-    p
]   ]    !p
  X
The output voltage to input voltage relationship
This becomes
of the circuit or transfer function can be written
 X  
 
 X as
    X X
X
X      X
 " #"  \$"

- - X-   p p
  " "   " %"
   X

-    p
 X

## By differentiating, equation (7) can be expressed Equation (11) can be expressed as

as a second order linear time-invariant (LTI) \$" #"#
-
pp p
equation as shown %" "  "

##   X    X

   X

X       X
  X     X

-

## +      

  X X 
p

Based on equation (12) a block diagram can be
@earranging, drawn as shown
! 
---)  p
 

## Using the Faddeev-Leverrier algorithm, the

expressionp]  )- is evaluated

è  è )
 p

X]  )  ]]
 
- --
 ] 
 ]
p
+ Block Diagram of State-Space Modeled
Circuit ] !  
è ]
è  
p
From the block diagram representation of the ! ] - !
system, a state-space equation of the system in
 ]

]  )  p
] 
 ]
 
controllable form can be written as
]
]  ] p

 
The poles of the system are atp]  p
]   ]   ]
p 

## ] Therefore the system being stable would dependp

      
-pp  p onpp
    pbeing imaginary or less thanp  p
]
when real since that would ensure that pole is
In compact form, the above system of equation always left side of the s-plane.
can written as
pp
 !  !
 
&
 '
&p
   This stability is investigated by the equation

&   
; &

   & ¥¥¥ (14) (]   ]  ) 
 p

## p Again, the matrices B, C and D are from the

state-space equation and are
+  
      p
The system is investigated for stability by
!
  ppppppppppppppp !p
checking its internal stability and output-input
stability. 

## ipp -( ]

pthe poles of the Evaluatingp" #p
expression:
 ]  ) 
 
( ]  ]  ) 
"
------p
, ",
 ]
 !
*+" ".
p       
 ppp
"    "  ] 
Whereppis the identity matrix andppis the given
# "# #/" "
matrix from the state-space equation. p p ppppp
ppppppp
"   " "   "
p p pp---- " 
#" 
p  ø   ø
 
 ø
 

 "
 ø
ø ø
ø p
The poles of the system are at-
ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppø
ø
ø ø
ø ø p

  
] 
 
  ø
øp

p

    ø
ø p
pAgain, the system being stable would dependponpp

##     p being imaginary or less thanp  p

when real since that would ensure that pole is  
  ø ø p
always left side of the s-plane.

    ø ø p

  ø
ø p
p
k    ø ø

  ø
ø p
+&    ,     .
k  k     ø ø
For this system the controllability matrixppp
Finally, closed loop system is given
Ë   ) p

 )
k 
 1
!  ! 
Ë p  
  ø ø ø
ø 
!
The rank of thep\$%&pis 2. Therefore, the system
 1 p

is controllable.

Since the system is controllable, a controller can
be designed to improve its stability. -#'c"'*"
!"#
Suppose the system is to be redesigned with
poles atp ø -andp ø p such that it¶s closed loop For this simulation, we investigate the effect of
characteristic polynomial is given asp varying a1 and a2 in the state-space equation
using SIMULINK®. Note that a1and a2 are
'()ip * p!p *(ø p *(ø p
dependent on the values of the circuit elements
By finding the inverse ofp \$%&and the chosen for the double differentiator.
transformation matrix +p
p
  0  !
% ! ppppppppppp+! ! p
 ! 0) ! 

!pi p!pi+ p

pLetpk  

 p

## The controlled system would be given by

Fig 4 Input signal of square wave
""""

## .pA.S. Sedra and K.C. Smith,

³ð p p p , 5th ed.
Oxford University Press New York 2004,
pp 112-113
.pM. Javed et al,p @ ,p ,p @  p
-p  p . /pppð0-
IJCSNS International Journal of Computer
- Output waveform for a11.; a2 0.25; b
Science and Network Security, VOL.8
0.25
No.4, April 2008, pp 48-50

## .pP.E Wellstead, ³-p p 10 p

 p ð-/ Academic Press Ltd,
London 1979 pp 1

## .pY.C. Gao, ³!! p 2 3 #p -4-p  p

50p p 6 , Department of
Electrical Engineering, Florida
. Output waveform for a10.25; a228; b0.25 International University Miami, Lecture 2
Fall 2010
.'

## It can be seen that selecting circuit elements such

that a1 is greater than a2, dampens or attenuates the
output signal while performing little or no
differentiating effect though the system is stable
while selecting circuit elements such that a2 is
significantly greater than a1 gives better
differentiating effect and gain at the cost of system
stability. Therefore in the design of a double
differentiator for an application, system elements
must be chosen in such a way that a balance
between the differentiating effect and stability is
achieved.