This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
: Attitude, Behavior, Cognition Behavior is overt (observable) and covert (unobservable) Goals of Psychology: Describe, Understand, Predict, and Control or Modify Behavior Theory general framework or idea about the nature of something Nature vs. Nurture Nature (inherited), Nurture (environment) Which influences people more? Six Approaches to Behavior: y Biopsychological views behavior as the result of the nervous system functions (behavior is viewed in terms of biological responses) y Behavioral views behavior as the product of learning and associations. This view believes that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes. (John Watson + B.F. Skinner) y Humanistic believes that people are basically good and capable of helping themselves. This is concerned with the striving of healthy people for self actualization, With Rogers, it s a personcentered therapy. Empathetic Listening is used. (Carl Rogers) y Psycholoanalytic behavior is viewed as a reflection of unconscious, aggressive and sexual impulses. Freud believed that our behavior is motivated by sexual and aggressive impulses, unconscious conflicts and childhood experiences. The purpose of Freud s psychoanalysis is that it brings buried impulses to the surface. (Sigmund Freud) y Cognitive emphasizes how humans use mental processes to handle problems or develop certain personality characteristics. Concerned with all of the mental activities (thinking, knowing, remembering, communicating information, etc.) (Jean Piaget) y Sociocultural behavior viewed as influenced by the rules and expectations of specific groups or cultures. Careers: Research Psychologist those who study the origin, cause or results of certain behaviors. Applied Psychologist those who make direct use of the findings of the research psychologists (deals with clients) Psychologists: have doctoral (Ph.D., Pscyh.D., Ed.D) or masters level degrees Types of psychologists: clinical, counseling, cognitive, developmental, educational, experimental, industrial, school. M.D. psychiatrist (can prescribe medication) Wundt father of psychology. German doctor. Founded one of first formal labs for psych research. Watson American psychologist did research on animal behavior. Did little albert experiment. Freud Austrian neurologist. Created psychoanalysis and free association.
Chapter Two Scientific Method psychologists use the Scientific Method to study psychological phenomena. The scientific method is a process of developing theories or explanations of behavior. Double blind study: neither the experimenter nor the subjects know which group they belong to. Placebo a fake medication used to test the effectiveness of medications in experiments. Experimenter effect experimenter unknowingly communicates to subjects what is expected of them. Hawthorne Effect when subjects try to please the experimenter. Hypothesis: statement of results the experimenter expects to get. Operational Definitions: a definition of a variable in terms of the methods used to create or measure the variable. Must have exact measurement of item being used. Subjects: animals or people being studied. (Random assignment of subjects the use of chance to assign people to experimental and control groups to avoid bias.) Experimental Group the group of subjects whom are actually receiving the treatment Control Group the group of subjects whom are not receiving the treatment (provides data to compare against to determine effectiveness, etc.) Independent Variable The factor that the experimenter changes to tweak experiments. Dependent Variable the factor that changes as a result of the other factors. Extraneous Variables outside variables that may affect the outcome of the experiment. Other stuff that may affect the results. Methods: Survey questions on feelings, opinions, or behavior patterns. Polling to answer psych questions. (sample- group that represents a larger group) quite accurate. Some surveys aren t good representation of whole pop. Questions may not be phrased objectively. Interpretations may be distorted. Naturalistic Observations studying of subjects without their being aware that they re being watched. Behavior is observed in natural setting and is completely normal. Researcher cannot interact with the subject and therefore may incorrectly interpret an action or may not be able to explain an action. Interviews studying people face to face and asking questions. Studying how person describes themselves. Can obtain detailed information. Subjects may not be honest, presenting info in a favorable light. Researcher biases can influence the behavior. Psychologist doesn t rely much on content of what person claims. Case Study collects lengthy, detailed info about a person s background. provides background info that may shed light on current behavior. Gives idea of how person sees the world. Can result in dishonest info from person. Researchers may have a bias. Cannot generalize from the findings. Psychological Tests observation and measurement of the subject using objective measures (IQ test). No room for personal bias. Accurate info. Little distortion in results. Test is limited. Cannot accurately predict behavior. Longitudinal studies studies the same group of people over an extended period of time. Measuring from time to time. Necessary for some research. Expensive and time consuming. Cross-Sectional studies looks at different age groups at the same time to understand changes that occur during the life span. Usually represent population as a whole. Less expensive. Difference in generalizations may distort results.
APA Ethics: 1. Right to Decline 2. Openness and Honesty 3. Confidentiality 4. Assess all Potential Risks. Zimbardo Experiment 24 males hired (prisoners and guards) college age. Paid $15. Hypothesis: nature of people who populate prisons creates an awful condition. @ Stanford univ. 1971. Randomly assigned subjects. Simulated real prison in basement. Tarasoff Ruling police and psychologists have legal responsibility to warn people of potential risks and to get help for people who may potential pose a danger to others. Chapter 3 Central Nervous System consists of the brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous System consists of autonomic and somatic systems. Autonomic controls automatic involuntary movement. Sympathetic helps arouse the body during emergencies. Somatic sensory + motor nerves controls voluntary movement. Consists of Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Systems.. Parasympathetic tries to restore balance and calm us after an emergency. Sympathetic helps arouse the body during emergencies. Neurons: work by electricity. Dendrites short fibers which receive nerve impulses from other neurons. Each dendrite receives just one impulse. Receives info and sends it thru cell body to axon to next dendrite. Axon very long fiber. Carries messages away from one nerve to dendrites on other cell. Insulated by myelin sheath fatty cells speeds up the impulse. Vesicles bubble like containers of neurotransmitters located @ end of axons. Just before synapse. Small containers filled with neurotransmitters. Synapse means junction point. Space between axon and dendrites of receiving neuron. Neurotransmitters chemical messengers that transmit info across the synapse. Excite or inhibit. Excite likely to respond. Inhibit makes production of action less likely. Certain neurotransmitters only fit into certain dendrites. (acetylcholine (most common. Excitatory related to movement of all muscles. Attention, anger, aggression, sexuality, thirst. Basic bodily processes (ex. Breathing) too little = paralysis, too much = tremors and pain. ACH involved in memory (alzheimers)), Dopamine (motor functions/movement, inhibitory controls posture and movement. Parkinson s and schizophrenia. Too little = loss of control of muscles.) Endorphins (relieves pain and increases our sense of well-being. Endo=made by body itself, orphin = natural form of morphine), Norepinephrine (important for psychological arousal, mood changes, sleep, and learning. Bipolar) Lobes: 1. Frontal foremost area of brain voluntary movement, processing smell, higher mental and behavioral functions. Prefrontal area see ourselves doing things or re-experience things. Motor strip bodily movements. Olfactory area smell registers here. Frontal association area forms core of personality. Tells us what to do and feel. Makes sense of the environment. 2. Parietal bodily sensations register here. Touch, temp, pressure. Sensory strip here.
3. Occipital Lobe portion @ very back of brain. Vision makes sense of what we see. 4. Temporal hearing and some speech. Cerebral Cortex high memory and learning, thought. Processes all complex thought. Hippocampus limbic system structure involved in forming memories. Cerebellum part of the lower brain that coordinates and organizes bodily movements for balance and accuracy. Ensures that you get where you need to. Reticular Activating System the alertness control center of the brain that regulates the activity level of the body. Hypothalamus part of the lower brain that regulates basic needs (hunger, thirst, and emotions such as pleasure, fear, rage, and sexuality) Thalamus part of the lower brain that functions primarily as a central relay station for incoming and outgoing messages from body to brain to body. Amygdala limbic system structure involved in emotion, especially aggression. Endocrine System all glands and chemical messages taken together. Glands units of body that contain hormones Pituitary master gland small bean shaped, controlled by hypothalamus. Sends messages to start other glands. how tall or short we will be. Thyroid looks like bowtie. Signaled by pituitary. Controls metabolism (speed @ which body operates). Active thyroid thin tense excitable nervous. Slow thyroid sluggish, inactive, sleepy, overweight. Adrenal left and right sight of body below navel. Causes excitement & prepares body for emergency. Pumps adrenaline into body. Helps blood clot faster. Gonads sex glands make sperm or egg in reproduction. Androgen male sex hormone. Estrogen female sex hormone. Chapter 6 Consciousness awareness of or the possibility of knowing what is happening inside or outside the organism. Subconscious consciousness just below the surface. Well learned habits are in subconscious. Unconscious jealousy, hatred, love, make us act a certain way. Seeps in dreams. Stuff we are unaware of. NREM Non-Rapid Eye Movement. Decreases in length as sleep progresses. Vague, partial images and stories. Non-essential part of sleep. Sleep walking or sitting up in bed. Night terrors REM Rapid eye movement. Increases in length as sleep progresses. Essential part of sleep. Loss of muscle tone or paralyzed body. Vivid dreams. Nightmares. Sleep disorders nightmares (more infrequent rem.), rem rebound (go to sleep after REM deprived - # of rems rebound or length increases), night terrors (occurs during NREM), sleep walking/talking, insomnia (inability to fall asleep), narcolepsy (can fall asleep instantly), sleep apnea (stop breathing in sleep). Hypnosis being in a relaxed state with heightened ability to focus on specific things while ignoring distractions.
Meditation a form of self-control in which a person cuts off the outside world from consciousness. Purpose of Dreams: 1. Reorganize the brain after a day s thinking 2. To work out unsolved problems left over from the day. 3. To make sense of random stimulation to the brain. Freud believes dreams are childhood memories and are apparent in dreams. Believed that dreams have 2 parts: manifest (clear meaning what remembered on surface) and latent (hidden meaning have to think about). Males (mountains, rocks, snakes, swords). Females (hollow objects, caves, boxes.) Chapter 7 Classical condition response is involuntary stimulus generalization occurs. Operant conditioning response is voluntary stimulus generalization occurs. Subject plays a role in what is happening. Social learning type of learning. Results from viewing other people. Cognitive learning deals with thinking about what will happen. Type of learning. Pavolv s research worked with dogs (how digestive system works). Saw that eventually dogs just need to see person who feeds them to salivate. B.F. Skinner belieed how we turn out in life is a result of what we learn from all the operations we make over the years. If people get angry we think world is dangerous. If environment rewards us when we perform certain acts then we tend to repeat them. Need positive and negative reinforcement to want to continue or stop doing something. UCS unconditional stimulus stimulus that elicits a response. UCR unconditional response an automatic response to a particular stimulus. CS conditioned stimulus. Previously neutral stimulus that has been associated with a natural or unconditioned stimulus. CR conditioned response a response to a stimulus that is brought about by learning. NS neutral stimulus. Positive reinforcement congratulating someone on doing well encourages the act to be done again. Negative reinforcement being grounded for doing bad on an exam discourages the act from repeatin Generalization process in which a response spreads from one specific stimulus to other simuli that resemble the original. Extinction sudden reappearance of an extinguished response. Punishment the process of weakening a response by following it with unpleasant consequences.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.