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Viruses, Worms and Trojan Horses.

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..............2................... EMAIL ATTACK.....................................................................................................9 7....................................................2 WHAT IS SPYWARE/ADWARE?.......................................................................................3 WHAT IS SPAM?.2 What can you do to Avoid Viruses?......................................................7 6..........................................................................8 7........................................5 FIREWALLS...................................................................................................................1 What can you do to Avoid Spyware/Adware?.......................3................................................................................................................3 2.......................................................4 3..............................................................................8 7..........................2 WHAT IS PHISHING?.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 5...................9 7...........5 4.........................................2...............................................................5 4.......................................... TROJAN HORSE.................2........................................................ SPYWARE/ADWARE.....................................3.....................................................................................................................................3 Real Time Scanner and Virus Scan working Together......................................................9 7....2....................................................................................1 How are Viruses Transmitted?.........................................4 3...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2......................................................................................2 1..........................................................7 SECURITY CHECKLIST...........................1 Real Time Scanner:...3 2.......................7 7......8 7..........Contents: CONTENTS:.....................................................................6 5...................................................3...........11 BIBLIOGRAPHY:...10 7.......................................................4 ANTI-SPYWARE/ADWARE...................10 7...2.............................................................................................1 SECURITY DEFINITION: .............................................................................2 WHAT IS A VIRUS?.........................................................................................................................................................................8 7.....................................................................................3 2...........................2...............................................................................................................7 6....................................................................................5 4.....9 7.........................................................................12 2 ..................6 6.........................................................................................................................6 4...............................7 6................................................................................................................................1 How are Trojan Horses Transmitted?..................... WORMS............... SECURITY......................................................1 WHAT ARE WORMS.... THREATS TO YOUR COMPUTER............................2 Virus Scan:........................2 BACKGROUND:..................................3 ANTIVIRUS SOFTWARE........................2 What can you do to Avoid Trojan Horses?................................................4 3.......1 WHAT IS AN EMAIL ATTACK?........5 4.............................................................................................. .............3 2.........................1 How are Worms Transmitted?............................................................. VIRUSES.............................................................................................................2 What can you do to Avoid Worms?..............................................................6 BACKUPS..................1 WHAT IS A TROJAN HORSE........................................................................................4 3....

2. and the moment someone opens the file. With the use of multimedia. the virus is released onto the computer.1 How are Viruses Transmitted? The most common way of getting a virus is through email attachments. This kind of virus can spread rapidly if the files are shared over a network. because they install without your knowledge. Viruses are a well known and common problem in computer systems. Shockwave Flash animation files. It is of great importance that you know your enemy so that you can protect yourself and your system from their attacks which include:      Viruses. Again. the most common form these files have been compressed zip file. Threats to Your Computer Computer users today are under constant threat from hackers. 2. and other people with malicious intent.1. 3 . They are transmitted in many different ways. and JAVA applets load on your computer from just one page. using several different methods to spread at a very fast pace.2 What is a Virus? A virus is program or piece of code that is loaded onto your computer without your knowledge. Viruses 2. Just browsing the Internet can allow viruses onto your computer. Viruses have already been found in each of these files. virus-writers. and it is possible to pick up a virus just by surfing the Internet. and runs against your wishes. Trojans Worms Spyware/Adware Email Attacks 2. There are many types of programs that do bad things on your computer. There are other ways of picking up virus-type programs. and they each have their own label. Another way viruses are gain access to computers is through shared files or disks. All of them fall under the “virus” category. the virus attaches itself to a normal file. it is not uncommon to have MP3s. All computer viruses are manmade. Lately.

Instant messaging worms spread through instant messaging applications by sending links to infected websites to everyone on the local contact list. The worm will arrive as email. instead it stays on their server while you view it. Infected file sending is less effective as the recipient needs to confirm receipt. also the email service runs antivirus scans on their own computers in an effort to control the spread of email viruses. The transmitting method is the same as is used above. 3. like Hotmail or Yahoo Mail are far less likely to transmit attachment viruses because the email never makes it to your computer.2 What can you do to Avoid Viruses? Computers that are not connected to the Internet are less likely to pick up viruses. but it may also link to code on an external website. The only difference between these and email worms are the way chosen to send the links. The addresses it sends itself to are often from the infected computers email system or files.2.2. Email attachment viruses can be controlled if you refuse to open attachments from unknown sources. Web mail clients. but they are still at risk to an infected file by means of a floppy disk or CD that you may borrow from someone that is aware or unaware that it is infected. 3. as most email attachment viruses require you to open the file before it can do any damage.2. Anywhere that your computer can get outside information is a possible place where a virus can attack. 4 .1 How are Worms Transmitted? Email Worms spread via email messages. such as using up the computer's resources and possibly shutting the system down. save the file and open it before infection will take place. When the worm is activated it will send itself by using the email system. IRC worms main target are chat channels. The best way to prevent viruses on your computer is to install an antivirus program. sending infected files or links to infected websites. Worms 3. the body of the message or attachment will contain the worm code.1 What are Worms A worn is a type of virus that replicates itself over a computer network and usually performs malicious actions.

therefore if you protect the connections. spreads the worm to that machine. Computers running their own servers. rather than going through higher level protocols such as email or IRC. The transmission of the program doesn't always happen through email.2 What can you do to Avoid Worms? Worms spread around using network connections. An infected machine aggressively scans random computers on both its local network and the public Internet attempting an exploit against a port and if successful.    Do Frequent Windows Updates Install and Maintain an Antivirus Program Use an Internet Firewall 4. 3. They typically disguise themselves as innocent looking files that appear to be safe to click on. downloaded from a Web site or by transmission via CD or floppy disk.1 What is a Trojan Horse A Trojan horse is a malicious program that looks like a helpful application in order to trick you into installing it. or spreading to other machines. The worst feature of a Trojan horse is the fact that the user takes part in infecting their own computer. These programs and services open a network port giving attackers the opportunity to communicate with these programs from anywhere on the Internet so they should be avoided or properly secured.File-sharing networks worms place a copy of themselves in a shared folder under a non conspicuous name. There are three things you can do to stop Worms’ dead in their tracks.2. Now the worm is ready for downloading via the network and spreading of the infected file will continue. Because of this you should not open attachments on emails that are from an unknown source. although the latter is uncommon but very effective. Internet worms target low level TCP/IP ports directly. but can be sent to you in an Instant Message. 5 . 4. you can stop the Worms from getting onto your machine. Trojan Horse 4. Windows file sharing.2.1 How are Trojan Horses Transmitted? A large amount of trojan horses are transmitted because the user was tricked into running an infected program. or programs that provide filesharing capabilities such as Instant Messengers are also prone to transmission of trojan horses.

2 What can you do to Avoid Trojan Horses? The best way to detect and remove Trojans is through a good antivirus program.1 What can you do to Avoid Spyware/Adware? There are a number of ways spyware can get on your PC.4. There are many antivirus programs on the market. will make changes to your computer that can be annoying and can cause your computer slow down or crash 4.2 What is Spyware/Adware? Spyware is a type of software that gets personal information from you and it is often connected to software that shows advertisements. but it may appear at the end of a license agreement or privacy statement. 5. Sometimes the inclusion of unwanted software in a given software installation is documented. These programs have the ability to change your Web browser's home page or search page. They also make it very difficult for you to change your settings back to the way you originally had them The key in all cases of spyware is whether or not you understood what the software would do and agreed to install the software on your computer. including the license agreement and privacy statement. This does not imply that all software which provides ads or tracks your online activities is bad.2. 6 .2. Whenever you install something on your computer. called adware. two of most popular software packages are Norton Antivirus and McAfee Virus Scan. Sometimes unwanted software. One way is to inadvertently install the software while installing other software that you do want. If you suspect that there may already be spyware on your PC then you will need antispyware software to remove it. Spyware/Adware 5. or add additional components to your browser you don't need or want. you should be extremely carefully and read all disclosures. which you did not knowingly install. Programs and services that open a network port should be avoided or properly secured.

 Sending spam emails to randomly generated addresses with the opportunity to “opt out” of receiving further messages by replying to the email.3 What is Spam? Spam is unwanted email advertisement. A nasty person tries to obtain some information belonging to you like credit card numbers.  Involuntarily adding your email address to a list when you sign up for a service.  The virus sends out the same email that tricked you to everyone in your address book by means of your email address. and the sequence continues on and on. Literally billions of emails are sent out by some undesirable person in the hopes of making a sale or sales! In order to create emailing lists for mass distribution the person may try a number of methods which include:  Faking a petition for what seems to be a good cause but the petition is not sent to its stated destination and instead each email is added to a list for advertisements. 6.  Your contacts believe this email is from you and trustingly open the attachment  This infects their computers.1 What is an Email Attack? Large numbers of viruses are circulated around the internet through email attachments.  Because you recognize the email address you download the file and run it. Email Attack 6.6. Methods include:  You receive an email from an email address known to you and a file is attached. 7 . Instead of taking email addresses off a list when you reply more spam is sent as you have now disclosed that it is an active address. 6.2 What is Phishing? Phishing is a type of scam designed to steal your identity. Phishing schemes usually come via spam e-mail or pop-up windows. This is done by means of tricking you into handing over information under false pretences. passwords. account information. or other personal information.  You have just infected your computer with a virus.  Circulating spyware that will send the contents of your address book.

or correctly configure the software to operate more securely.1 Security Definition: Computer security is the prevention and detection of unauthorised users of your PC. Often they want to gain control of your computer so they can use it to launch attacks on other computer systems. Intruders (also known as hackers. to obtain and install the patches.  Virus scan. Intruders may be able to watch all your actions on the computer. 7. It is up to you. Intruders are always discovering new ways to access computer software via holes.2 Background: In today’s world we use computers for everything from banking and investing to shopping and communicating with others through email or chat programs. your computer may be a target. attackers. or crackers) do not care about your identity.7.3 Antivirus Software. Even if you have a computer connected to the Internet only to play the latest games or to send email to friends and family. the user. financial statements or personal information stored on your computer so for this reason it is vital that a computer system have security. 8 . Security 7. Antivirus programs search for and remove:  Viruses  Trojans  Worms Antivirus programs perform two distinct and separate functions protect your computer:  Real time scanner. When holes are discovered by your computer vendors they will usually write patches to address the problem. 7. You probably do not want someone reading your email. or cause damage to your computer by reformatting your hard drive or changing your data.

7.1 Real Time Scanner: The function of the real time scanner is to stop viruses getting on your computer. but if at all possible every day. Some Internet Service Providers (ISPs) include anti-spyware software in their service package but you can download an antispyware program from the internet which is free or you can opt for one that you pay for. you do not have to worry about running it.3. like Word or Excel. antivirus software can't protect you from threats as it does not know what to look for. If the file in quarantine is an important document that you do not want to lose it may be possible that a professional virus removal group could attain the data from the file for you. Internet and Email connections are also monitored by this scanner. which will block viruses from gaining access to your computer.  If the virus scan locates an infected file. 7. 7.4 Anti-Spyware/Adware. Antivirus programs need to be updated as a range of new viruses appear every month.  If it fails it will move the file to a 'quarantine area'  This separates infected files from the rest of the computer. The program scans the computer in the background unknown to you as you work. This is the most precise type of scan that can be done on your computer and also the toughest. It is performed automatically. Keeping a file in quarantine is a good idea because the software which does not know how to clean it at present may be able to clean it and restore it in the future. it will try to eliminate the virus. Without updates. as some viruses may be connected to particular programs.3. and to look for a short list of the most common viruses.7.3. 9 .2 Virus Scan: The function of the virus scan is to carry out a full memory scan to ensure that there are no virus programs running in memory and do a file-by-file examination of every part of your hard drive. stop existing viruses from damaging files.3 Real Time Scanner and Virus Scan working Together To ensure that nothing gets past the real time scanner and has time to do damage:  A full virus scan should be done at least once a week. You may become aware of performance loss in your computer while executing a complete virus scan. You should not be running other programs while scanning for viruses.

you copy files from your hard drive to the disk (or other media) drive you're storing a copy on.A newer method compares certain crucial parts of the packet to a database of trusted information. Making backup copies of your files and keeping them in a separate place enables you to retrieve data in the event of something happening to the originals on your computer. To do the backup.6 Backups. 10 . Review the files discovered by the tool for spyware and any other unwanted software.5 Firewalls. and then incoming information is compared to these characteristics. most anti-spyware software will provide a list of questionable programs discovered on your computer.After you've downloaded and installed one of these programs. the information is allowed through. 7. Information travelling from inside the firewall to the outside is observed for basic characteristics. When the scan is complete. Stateful inspection . You may have to do this more than once. simply follow the directions and use it to scan your computer. Proxy service . If the assessment produces a reasonable match. and there can be different ways to perform the same task.Information from the Internet is retrieved by the firewall and then sent to the requesting system and vice versa. The method differs from computer to computer. Firewalls use one or more of three methods to manage traffic flowing in and out of the network: Packet filtering is where packets are checked against a predetermined list of filters. Otherwise it is discarded. A firewall is a program or hardware device that keeps harmful forces away from your computer system or network by filtering the information coming through the Internet. The program should provide instructions to clear out any spyware/adware by selecting suspicious files for removal 7. Packets that do not make it through the filters are discarded.

I update other pieces of software when I know updates are available. I scan my computer with my Anti-Spyware software on a regular basis.7. I back up my files on a regular basis. I have Antivirus software. I treat all emails requesting personal information with suspicion.                  11 . I scan my computer with Antivirus software at least once a week. I never open email attachments I don't recognize. I update my Anti-Spyware software on a regular basis. I have a firewall. I never accept free offers from pop-up advertisements. I update my Antivirus software on a regular basis.7 Security Checklist. I update the operating system on a regular basis. I never install software from pop-up windows. I have Anti-Spyware software. I am careful of who I give my email address to. I never give out personal information through email. I read user agreements before installing software or signing up for a service.

webopedia.google.acns.Bibliography: http://www.com http://guides.org http://en.howstuffworks.com http://www.edu http://www.ie 12 .answers.org http://www.irchelp.com http://www.wikipedia.fsu.radified.org http://images.cert.com http://garnet.

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