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major land battle of the Civil War occurred at Bull Run Creek, near the town of Manassas, Virginia, on July 21, 1861. Brig. Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard, the hero of Fort Sumter, commanded the Confederate army. His force of 20,000 protected a rail link that led to Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's army in the lower Shenandoah Valley. Johnston's 12,000 men faced a Federal force of 18,000 commanded by the aged Robert Patterson, a veteran of the War of 1812. The Federals attacked the stone bridge. Confederate Capt. Nathan G. “Shanks” Evans perceived that the Federal attack in his front was merely a maneuver. In the first battlefield use of the wigwag telegraph system. Beauregard rushed his forces toward Henry Hill to support Evans. 2) General George McClellan General George McClellan was an American soldier and Union commander. He was a brilliant strategist, organizer, and trainer of troops during the American Civil War. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he was commissioned major general in the regular army and, after the First Battle of Bull Run, commanded the Army of the Potomac, the troops in and around Washington, D.C. In November 1861 he was appointed commander in chief of the Union army.
3) The anaconda plan The Anaconda Plan was drawn up by General Winfield Scott to end the American Civil War in favor of the North. The plan was never officially adopted by the Union, but elements of it were employed throughout the course of the war. It involved four main parts. Although the plan was devised early in the war, it was derided by several newspapers and was reluctantly adopted by the Union's leaders. The plan as originally conceived by Scott also advised passivity, in that it suggested that once the Southern states were effectively cut off from their resources, the North should wait for capitulation. Nonetheless, the particulars of the plan were all carried through, the first three proving indeed to be the most decisive factors of the war. 4) Ulysses S. Grant As the Civil War reached its peak, Grant sought to win control of the Mississippi Valley. In February 1862, he took Fort Donelson in Tennessee, which was the first Union victory of strategic importance. The Confederates surrendered, and President Lincoln promoted Grant to major general of volunteers in 1863. As the fierce battles of the Civil War continued, some began to question General Grant's military leadership. At Shiloh, Grant fought one of the bloodiest battles in the West. Some called for him to be replaced. President Lincoln fended off demands that Grant be removed by saying, "I can't spare this man — he fights." With President Lincoln's support, Grant was determined to move ahead to victory. He captured Vicksburg, the key city on the Mississippi River, which cut the Confederacy in two. He then broke the Confederate hold on Chattanooga, Tennessee. 5) The battle of Shiloh
The Battle of Shiloh, also known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing, was a major battle in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, fought April 6–7, 1862, in southwestern Tennessee. A Union army under Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant had moved via the Tennessee River deep into Tennessee and was encamped principally at Pittsburg Landing on the west bank of the river. Confederate forces under Generals Albert Sidney Johnston and P.G.T. Beauregard launched a surprise attack on Grant there. The Confederates achieved considerable success on the first day, but were ultimately defeated on the second day. At Shiloh, Grant fought one of the bloodiest battles in the West. Some called for him to be replaced. 6) General Robert E. Lee He was a career United States Army officer and combat engineer. He became the commanding general of the Confederate army in the American Civil War and a postwar icon of the South's "lost cause." A top graduate of West Point, Lee distinguished himself as an exceptional soldier in the U.S. Army for 32 years. He is best known for having commanded the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War. In early 1861, President Abraham Lincoln invited Lee to take command of the entire Union Army. Lee declined because his home state of Virginia was, despite his wishes, seceding from the Union. When Virginia declared its secession from the Union in April 1861, Lee chose to follow his home state. 7) Jefferson Davis He was an American statesman and leader of the Confederacy during the American Civil War; serving as the President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history. Davis fought in
the Mexican-American War as a colonel of a volunteer regiment, and was the United States Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce. Both before and after his time in the Pierce Administration, he served as a U.S. Senator representing the State of Mississippi. As a senator, he argued against secession, but did agree that each state was sovereign and had an unquestionable right to secede from the Union. 8) The battle of Antietam The battle of Antietam was fought on September 17, 1862, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, and Antietam Creek, as part of the Maryland Campaign, was the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with about 23,000 casualties. After pursuing Confederate General Robert E. Lee into Maryland, Union Army Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan launched attacks against Lee's army, in defensive positions behind Antietam Creek. At dawn on September 17, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker's corps mounted a powerful assault on Lee's left flank. Nevertheless, Lee's invasion of Maryland was ended, and he was able to withdraw his army back to Virginia without interference from the cautious McClellan. It had unique significance as enough of a victory to give President Abraham Lincoln the confidence to announce his Emancipation Proclamation, which discouraged the British and French governments from potential plans for recognition of the Confederacy. 9) Lincoln’s Use of Presidential power All that occurred during the very turbulent period of the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln is usually considered to be a hero. During his presidency, he managed to keep the United States of America together and gave a people held in bondage,
American slaves, the freedom they so desperately deserved. Like almost every president who preceded him, Lincoln's actions at the time were somewhat controversial. Some of his most controversial decisions might actually be considered now to be abuses of the Presidential power. During his terms as president, he suspended the Writ of Habeas Corpus, and upheld the Declaration of Independence above the Constitution. Many even agreed that he abused presidential powers. 10) The Emancipation Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation is an executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War under his war powers. The proclamation did not cover the 800,000 slaves in the slave-holding border states of Missouri, Maryland, West Virginia or Delaware, which had never declared a secession; slaves there were freed by separately state and federal actions. The state of Tennessee had already mostly returned to Union control, so it also was not named and was exempted. Virginia was named, but exemptions were specified for the 48 counties that were in the process of forming West Virginia, as well as seven other named counties and two cities. Also specifically exempted were New Orleans and thirteen named parishes of Louisiana, all of which were also already mostly under Federal control at the time of the Proclamation. 11) African American Soldiers in the US Army News from Fort Sumter set off a rush by free black men to enlist in U.S. military units. They were turned away, however, because a Federal law dating from 1792, but then a change occurred. While recruiting black troops in Virginia in late 1864, and thus began the opening for black men to begin enlisting for the
army. By the end of the Civil War, roughly 179,000 black men served as soldiers in the U.S. Army and another 19,000 served in the Navy. Nearly 40,000 black soldiers died over the course of the war. Black soldiers served in artillery and infantry and performed all noncombat support functions that sustain an army, as well. Black carpenters, chaplains, cooks, guards, laborers, nurses, scouts, spies, steamboat pilots, surgeons, and teamsters also contributed to the war cause. 12) The battle of Gettysberg This most famous and most important Civil War Battle occurred over three hot summer days, July 1 to July 3, 1863, around the small market town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. It began as a skirmish but by its end involved 160,000 Americans, and is often referred to as the turning point of the war. The battle lasted three long days with many things happening. Between 46,000 and 51,000 Americans from both armies were casualties in the three-day battle. That November, President Lincoln used the dedication ceremony for the Gettysburg National Cemetery to honor the fallen and redefine the purpose of the war in his historic Gettysburg Address. 13) The presidential election 1864 Lincoln's chances for reelection appeared dim for much of 1864. No president had won a second term since Andrew Jackson more than 30 years ago. More importantly, Lincoln was weakened by widespread criticism of his handling of the war. The Union had suffered a long string of disappointments and many faulted the president's strategy. Further, conservative forces in the North were outraged by the Emancipation Proclamation and feared its impact on the future of society. Much maneuvering occurred in the Republican Party prior to the convention because of Lincoln's
apparent vulnerability. Various names were advanced as presidential possibilities: General Benjamin F. Butler, Vice President Hannibal Hamlin, General U.S. Grant, Treasury Secretary Salmon P. Chase. But it ended up being between Abraham Lincoln and George McClellan, and Lincoln came out victorious. 14) John Wilkes Booth John Wilkes Booth was an American stage actor who assassinated President Abraham Lincoln at Ford's Theatre, in Washington, D.C., on April 14, 1865. Booth was a member of the prominent 19th century Booth theatrical family from Maryland and, by the 1860s, was a well known actor. He was also a Confederate sympathizer vehement in his denunciation of the Lincoln Administration and outraged by the South's defeat in the American Civil War. He strongly opposed the abolition of slavery in the United States and Lincoln's proposal to extend voting rights to recently emancipated slaves.
Alyssa Gill Period 1 APUSH 11/26/10 Objectives 9 and 10
9) Examine the emergence of dissent and disorder in the Confederacy and the Union in the final two years of the Civil War, and explain the impact of these forces on the two combatants. Opposition at home for the South The South did not have the same industrialization and railroads that the North had. They also had more of a lack of natural resources, because of the this the South felt the war more strongly. The plantation owners began to rebel against the government, the government had been taking their slaves and using them to build forts, the plantation owners were upset when Confederate leaders burned large amounts of cotton, so the Union could not use it. The South lost many men and the people they left behind mourned their loss, because of this they could not fully commit to the cause of the war. For the ordinary people living in the South there was not enough food to go around, people began to riot stealing food and refusing to pay taxes. Men did not wish to stay in the army because they knew that their family was suffering at home. Because of this many confederate men began to desert the army. Opposition in the North People in the north began moving towards a more peaceful movement, they wanted to end the war and stop all the fighting and bloodshed. This movement grew under the leadership of a North Carolina Democrat named William W. Holden, over the summer of 1863 over 100 meetings for peace took place.
Most of the wartime protest in the South was in politics,
Democrats blamed Lincoln for the war and death toll along with many other things, the peace Democrats supposedly encouraged draft resistance, discouraged enlistment, and sabotaged communications. Impact of the war opposition on both sides Both sides suffered from people who were disheartened with Many people began to believe that the war should be ended the war, and no longer supported it. and that peace should be negotiated between the North and the South.
10) Discuss the financial and human costs of the Civil War, and indicate what issues were resolved and what issues were left unresolved at war’s end. Financial and human costs of the civil war The total number of casualties on both sides exceeded 1 million, more men had died in this civil war than in any other war the U.S has fought in. Along with the large numbers of deaths, hundreds of Thousands of men also died as a prisoner of war in the thousands of men were seriously wounded in this battle. opposite sides prisons, a fact that devastated many people. Issues that the war resolved Slavery was no longer legal in either the North or the South, the slaves that had lived in the South were liberated by the Union’s troops.
The union was preserved, and the secession of the South from Dissent flourished in both the North and South, which played a
the North was officially ended, they were forced to come back. crucial role in the collapse of the Confederacy. Issues that the war did not resolve The rights of the newly freed black slaves were not yet determined, and because of this many people were not sure where the slaves would fit in with normal life. Americans knew that secession was dead, but they were unsure of the fact if they should support a centralized nationalistic government. The white Southerners who had owned plantations as their living where unsure what to do, they could no longer use the free labor of slaves, and the lack of slaves made cotton a crop that was not as profitable. Many women were widowed due to the war and many children were also orphaned, they did not know what to do to make an income. People did not know what to do with all the dead who had to be identified and properly buried.