P W

Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics
I S EP

Warsaw University of Technology

Research and Trends in Power Electronics Components and Converter Topologies

Mietek Nowak

December 2004

P W
Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics
I S EP

Warsaw University of Technology

Contents (main items:) 1. Introduction

2. Semiconductor switches
3. Conservative/storage devices

4. Converter topologies
5. Future of converters technology 6. Final remarks

December 2004

P W
Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics
I S EP

Warsaw University of Technology

1.Introduction

Modern power electronics celebrates its 50th birthday. This half a century of growth of electrical energy conversion and control using semiconductor has been contemporary to and also strongly related to some civilisational phenomena: •Spectre of energy crisis and ecological issues resulting in energysaving idea and development of renewable energy sources •Rapid growth of loads supplied by converters (~1010) caused largely by the development of IT and multimedia society •Huge broadening of converter power range (0.01W-10000MW) •Continuous development of semiconductor structures in nanotechnologies driven by VLSI technology
December 2004

Introduction Basic relations determining converter development December 2004 .P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 1.

Power semiconductor switches 50-year growth of semiconductor power device „bushes” December 2004 .P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 2.

Low voltage / low power 2. Medium & high voltage/high power Main research concerns on group 1 and 3 Evaluation criteria for devices by technology type and group: FIGURE OF MERIT ( FOM) : Typical examples: (UF xQrr) v. Standard voltage/medium power 3. (technology) or (time) for diodes (UCE(on)xEs(on-off) xfS)v.P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 2. (technology) (time) for IGBT December 2004 . Power semiconductor switches Practical grouping of semiconductor devices: 1.

P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 2.25V UF <0.5V Main goal: decrease of on state voltage December 2004 .low voltage ( < 100V) UF <0. Power semiconductor switches Silicon Schottky Diodes .

PiN-Schottky .P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 2.diodes( 10000V) Basic material except Si: GaAs GaN SiC Last decade FOM for diodes December 2004 . Power semiconductor switches High voltage PiN .

05 mOhm cm2 December 2004 .P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 2. Power semiconductor switches Power MOSFET Si / SiC low voltage <100V Ron decrease from 2 mOhm cm2 to 0.

P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 2. Power semiconductor switches Workhorse of present day power electronics .IGBT One from research issues: Reverse Blocking IGBT Last decade FOM for IGBT’s December 2004 .

Power semiconductor switches Thyristor structures controlled by MOS Clasical MCT ( GEHarris) is still not competitive in relation to IGBT New De Doncker ( ISEA-RWTH) researchexpected cheap solution based on bonding of low voltage MOS with standard three layer SCR wafer December 2004 .P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 2.

Power semiconductor switches Gate Turn Off Thyristors/ Gate Commutated Thyristors GTO .integrated gate driver December 2004 .idea main problem: low gate inductance .P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 2.technology decreasing on state voltage and turn-off energy GCT .

serial IGBT High voltage stacks with N+1 or N+2 devices : Necessary condition : presspack construction which guarantees short circuit after one switch failure December 2004 . Power semiconductor switches Medium ( high) voltage switches connection of GTO/IGCT and .P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 2.

high . medium or low promising technology? Basic material Promising theoretic features Real difficulties : obtaining homogeneous epitaxial growth Structures suitable for SIC technology December 2004 . Power semiconductor switches SiC devices .P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 2.

Power semiconductor switches Power Integrated Circuits .PIC ( smart power electronic) Technical problems associated with PIC development: •Electrical isolation between high and low voltage devices •Integration of different devices including passive and conservative components •More complex thermal design of PIC Development of PIC must be justified economically because of large up-front development costs December 2004 .P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 2.

Conservative/storage devices/ transformers A. electrochemical-super(10. specific energy kJ/kg Type: polymer(5. B.01)-. Capacitors Basic evaluation parameters : specific power kW/kg. flux density •Improving of high frequency winding losses acording to proximity effect and eddy current •Integration / assembly and manufacturing technologies / integration with semiconductors. 20) December 2004 .2). temperature •Increasing of max. 0. 0.P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 3. Magnetics •Continuous progress in magnetic materials: •Decreasing of typical power loss density •Increasing of max. 0. electrolytic(2.4) ceramic (10.

. •. •... Converter topologies Classification and grouping of converters: Type of conversion: AC/DC DC/DC DC/AC AC/AC Voltage/Power Low( <100V) Medium(10010000V) High( >10000V) Technology : •Degree of integration •Switching frequency •.P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 4....//...//????? December 2004 . Applications: Drives//Computer//Multimedia//Grid systems// Power Quality //Distributed Generation//Popular Appliances//Lighting//Industrial Technologies//Car-Electronics//..

P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 4. December 2004 . Control of each converter presented is beyond discussion. Some of them will stay within the field of creative interest in near future. Converter topologies Subjective review of converters (topologies?): Selected examples which have been developed and researched in the last decade.

Converter topologies AC/DC low power AC/DC low & medium power December 2004 .P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 4.

Converter topologies AC/DC & DC/AC medium power December 2004 .P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 4.

Converter topologies AC/DC & DC/AC medium power December 2004 .P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 4.

Converter topologies AC/DC & DC/AC medium power December 2004 .P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 4.

P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 4. Converter topologies AC/DC & DC/AC high power December 2004 .

P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 4. Converter topologies AC/DC & DC/AC high power December 2004 .

P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 4. Converter topologies AC/DC & DC/AC Medium & high power DC/AC high power December 2004 .

Converter topologies DC/AC/DC low power December 2004 .P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 4.

Converter topologies DC/AC/DC low -medium power December 2004 .P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 4.

Converter topologies AC/AC -medium power December 2004 .P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 4.

P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 5. Future of converters technology •Integration in low and medium power (mainly DC/DC) Electromagnetic integration Packaging Soft switching • Detailed and „deep” thermal design •Standardisation •Integration of intelligent converters and converter systems with common power grid system •Medium frequency interfaces and energy transmitters December 2004 .

December 2004 . A new area of power electronics application .will establish a family of converters with intelligent control. making possible the simple integration with Grid and Net. SiC and other semiconductor materials are still not mature and to expensive A set of converters is very numerous and any item of these can be matched properly to concrete application. Final remarks Si-Device technology is well developed and fulfils almost all needs with regard to power conversion. Justifiable trend to increasing of converter switching frequencies force to design the „technological” converter as unified electromagnetic and thermal system Modern power electronics integrate much more than before the semiconductor technology with converter topology and its protection and control .distributed generation of energy .P W Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics I S EP Warsaw University of Technology 6. especially in low power and popular applications.

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