(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No.

9, 2010

Use of Computerized Web-Based Information System For Determining Losses in 15-6.6 KV Feeders in Traditional Electrical Network Managemment: Case Study Goma Distribution Electrical Network
Ezekiel U. Okike
Department of Computer Science University of Ibadan Ibadan, Nigeria euokike@gmail.com

Bakunzi G. Joseph
School of Computer Studies, Kampala International University Kampala, Uganda

Abstract— Electrical energy plays very vital role in modern global economy. The aim of this study is to develop a framework for a Web-Based Information System (WIS) tool for computing losses from 15 – 6.6 KV Feeders in Traditional Electrical Network Management (TENM). The study was conducted in Goma District in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Data were collected from 26 key staff of Goma Distribution Electrical Network who responded to the questionnaires and from metered reading documents used in the study. The study implemented a Computerized Web-Based Information System (CWIS) to compute different losses in Goma electrical distribution network. The CWIS computed technical losses in five 15-6.6KV feeders of Goma electrical distribution network. The study revealed that among the five feeders, feeder 1 (Sud feeder) consumes 1,469,172.6 KWH representing 66.3% of the total annual energy loss while others presented lower annual losses. This is an indication that Feeder 1 is overloaded and needed to be resized or on the alternative, the installation of another overhead cable that will take the half of the load in charge. Keywords- Electrical energy; energy distribution; feeder loss; computerized information system

INTRODUCTION Modern global economy has rapidly increased by means of the electrical energy. Electrical energy has also penetrated each area of human activities in such way that it has become a second virtual life. Furthermore, the availability of electrical energy and the quality of services (QoS) to consumers shapes and aids national development efforts. Goma electrical network is located in North Kivu Province East of Democratic Republic of Congo. With the volcanic stones covering the whole Goma town, laying underground electrical cables is very difficult. Hence the whole electrical network is made up with overhead aluminum cables. The electrical energy supplied to Goma town is from Ruzizi hydraulic generation power station located in the neighboring town of Bukavu in South-Kivu province. In Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the company in charge of generation, management, transmission, and distribution of electrical energy is the “Societe Nationale d’Electricite” (SNEL). The head office of SNEL is located in the DR. Congo capital town of Kinshasa which is 2000 kilometers away. Therefore the use of a Computerized Webbased information System (CWIS) can allow managers to use the information resources from Goma electrical distribution network through a communication medium.


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Since SNEL still uses manual reading of energy metering and manual information system, a CWIS becomes inevitable. Goma electrical network has only one Transmission Substation being coded as 2x 10MW-70/15 KV, five primary feeders (1 feeder of 6.6kv and 4 feeders of 15kv), and fifty five Distribution Substations with code 15/0.4kv6.6/0.4kv. This research is aimed at implementing a Computerized Web-Based Information System that can compute losses based on data entry from manual reading of the metering system, as well as compute technical losses (TL) in the 15kv and 6.6kv feeders. A. Statement of the Problem The use of manual information system does not show the losses incurred at all the stages of the generation, transmission and distribution of the electrical energy in Goma electrical network system. In addition to this major problem, the manual information system management includes poor data storage, slow and difficult retrieval, inconsistency in data, data redundancy, and the high probability of losing information stored in files on shelves due to damage or theft. Hence the need for a computerized information system which overcomes these problems cannot be over emphasized. B. Objectives of the study The specific objectives of this study are as follows: • To implement a Computerized Web-Based Information System (CWIS) for four 156.6KV feeder losses computation • To demonstrate the current state of electrical power supply equipment by showing the electrical power losses in the four 15-6.6KV feeder as a result of power assigned to Goma electrical network consumers by the use of the manual information management system.

Goma distribution management?



• What is the level (in percentage) of maximum losses in 15kV and 6.6kV feeders of Goma distribution electrical network?
II. A.


The Traditional Approach to Electric Power For roughly a century, the developed world has delivered electric power using the same basic fourstep approach: 1) generate power in large, centralized plants; 2) step up the power to high voltages and transmit it to regional utilities; 3) step down the power to medium voltages to distribute it locally; 4) step down the power a final time to deliver it to customer premises. (Figure 2.1.)

Figure 2.1. Traditional Electric Power Approach

Figure 2.1: The “traditional “ electric power value chain encompassed centralized generation, high voltage transmission, medium-voltage distribution, and end use by industrial, commercial and residential customers (source: Global Environment Fund, 2008) Goma Electrical Distribution Network Losses Computation procedure and framwork The electrical framework for energy losses in a distribution system is presented in the figure 2.2 .

C. Research Questions The questions to be answered in this study are: • To which level (in percentage) can a Computerized Web-based Information System (CWIS) be effectively useful for 15-6.6KV feeder losses computation in


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The steps followed to compute losses at different levels in the framework (figure 2.2) of the electrical distribution network are given below. The primary feeders are five feeders that have a total length of 46 kilometers.

LLF = 0.8 (LF)2 + 0.2 (LF) • Peak- power loss (PPL)


Peak- power loss (PPL) in 11kv line = 3 I2 R (UF)2 KW • Annual energy loss Annual energy loss = PPL 8760 LLF KWH • Average power fed





Distribution Substation

Service Mains

Service Mains

Distributor (LT lines)

V I (existing pf) (UF) Average power fed = (LF) KW with pf as power factor (cosines phi) and KW as kilowatt. (8) The losses in 15kv lines are calculated as shown below: • Percentage 15/6.6 kv line losses Percentage 15kv line losses = 100 (9)

Primary feeder Transmission Substation

Figure 2.2 Electrical Distribution Network framework


Utilization Factor (UF) at the existing power factor is given as

General architecture of the System The general architecture of the system is described by figure 3.1 below:

UF = •

Presentation GUI

Load Factor (LF) and Loss Load Factor (LLF) are given as

15.6 kv Cable losses

Transformer losses

LT losses

Vw ( ) (2) Peak-Load = Average Load = Vav ( ) (3) where n is the number of feeders, Vw is working voltage, Vav is average voltage, Ipn is the peak current and is average current in th n feeder. The working voltage Vw and the peak current Ipn are collected from the metering system. Hence , LF = (4)

Losses Computation Software System losses Other Network Information User Login


DB files

Figure 3.1 General Architecture of the System

The Graphic User Interfaces (GUI) were implemented for entering data in the database using PhP 5 with Macromedia dreamweaver 8 programming approaches as proposed by Luke and Laura (2003).


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The GUI was designed as form fields for input and display of appropriate data as required by the database for use by the various computational processes. The computational processes were implemented using appropriate international standard empirical formulae (see section 2.2). Forms for reporting errors from the system are generated automatically by the application software. The database was implemented using MYSql. In order to access information in the system, appropriate user authentication and authorization checks were implemented through the system login prompt. The web based capability of the system was implemented using PhP5 with Macromedia dreammweaver8. In all, the entire system requirement are Mysql, PhP5, macromedia dream weaver, Apacher server, and Visio Modeler.


Feeder Name Sake Sous Nord Centre Sud

Peak current 98.000 191.000 100.000 70.000 200.000

Avg current 64.000 140.500 55.000 45.000 165.000

Peak load 1974.087 1693.807 2014.375 1410.062 4028.750

Avg load 1211.604 1170.528 1041.222 851.909 3123.667

Load factor 0.613 0.691 0.516 0.604 0.775


Feeder Name Sake Sous Nord Centre Sud

Loss Load factor 0.424 0.520 0.317 0.412 0.635

Capacity Of transformer centres

Utility factor

Peak Power loss

Annual Energy loss

5280.000 5725.000 2960.000 6510.000 5350.000

0.373 0.295 0.680 0.216 0.753

18.147 112.223 53.874 5.341 263.702

67421.7 511465.2 149664.4 19319.0 1469172.5



Feeder Name Sake Sous Nord Centre Sud

A. Feeder Losses Presentation and Interpretation

The losses and loads in feeders as results of the system are presented and interpreted in this section. The resistor (Ω), peak load, average load, load factor, loss load factor, capacity transformer power, utilization factor, peak power loss, annual energy loss, cosines phi, and average power fed for each feeder have been computed by the CWIS and presented in table 4.1. The peak power losses (ppl) (kw), the average power (kw), and the 15kv6.6kv line annual energy loss (kwh) bar charts below show the repartition of loads and losses in the five feeders in order to highlight and guide managers on what decisions for corrective and preventive maintenance may be necessary in order to balance or to reduce losses.

Total Energy received 529.864 529.864 529.864 529.864 529.864

Total Energy demded 345.500 345.500 345.500 345.500 345.500

Cosine phi 0.837 0.837 0.837 0.837 0.837

Avrage Power fed 232.891 200.472 306.804 93.383 1527.712

Feeder Name Sake Sous Nord Centre Sud

Cable code Alu Alu Alu Alu Alu

Length(M) 8761.500 16270.000 5385.600 10758.000 5382.300

Ohm (R) 4.505 11.714 3.877 7.745 3.875

Working volt 11.630 5.120 11.630 11.630 11.630

Avg volt 10.9 4.8 10.9 10.9 10.9

From table 4.1 (a-d) the cumulative sum was done by the system to provide the results in table 4.2 (ab). From table 4.2a, the total length of the 15/6.6 kv cable is shown in the first column and last row as 46.557 kilometers. The next column and last row shows the total peak load computed as 11.121kva (the metered value was 11kva). Other computed values can be seen from the table with the last row of each column accounting for total for total values as follows: average load, utility factor, was equal to 7398.9 kw, utility factor is 2.31991, and total capacity of transformer center is 25.825 kva. Howerver the total power of the Substation which is 20 kva that shows there is extra power of 5.825 kva. The system computed the peak power loss in all the feeders as 453.29 kw, and the annual energy loss as 2,217043.14kwh for the year (2008). The average power fed is computed as 2361.26 kw. The loss load factor and utilization factor have been calculated in order to use their average values


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(2.310337divided by 5 and 2.31991divided by 5) in the electrical network losses calculation. It is noted that the average power factor of 0.84 is less than the standard minimum value of 0.90 as stated by Pabla (2005). From these results the study shows that the CWIS can provide information that can be used in preventive and corrective maintenance of the Goma electrical network distribution.

Feeder Name Centre Sake Nord Sous Sud

Length(M) 8761.5

Peak Load 1974.08

Avrage Load 1211.60 2382.13 3423.35 4275.26

Utility Factor

0.37 Fig 4.1 Sake Sous Nord Centre Sud 0.66 1.35 1.56 2.31

25031.5 3667.89 30417.1 5682.26 41175.1 7092.33 46557.4

The figure 4.1 reveals that the feeder named “Sud” is most overloaded, and has the highest peak power loss (ppl). At the other hand the feeder named “Center” has the lower load. From this observation the managers can well decide which steps can be taken in order to reduce the power loss in feeder Sud, and how to balance loads on other feeders which are lightly loaded.
Avrage power Fed 232.89 433.36 740.16 833.55 2361.26


Feeder Name Centre Sake Nord

Loss Load Factor 0.42 0.94 1.26 1.67

Capacity Transformer Power 5280 11005 15965 20475 25825

Peak Power loss 18.14 130.37 184.24 189.58 453.29

Annual Energy Loss 67421.72 578886.99 728551.48 747870.56 2217043.14



B. Descriptive Statistics of the System Results

Descriptive statistics of the system results are shown in the bar charts presented in figure 4.1, 4.2, and figure 4.3. The interpretation of results is given below each bar chart.

Fig 4.2

Sake Sous

Nord Centre Sud


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The figure 4.2 shows that the same feeder named “Sud” was demanding the highest power compared to others. It reveals that there is a relationship between peak power loss and average power fed. Once again the managers have the precise knowledge of the average power to be cut off from feeder named “Sud”, or the size of the transformer that can supply that average power. Normally the electrical distribution network manager is interested in how to reduce losses in order to increase profit. The Computerized WebBased Information System has the capability to compute annual losses to highlight managers about the magnitude of them. The figure 4.3 shows the annual energy losses magnitude for each feeder. KWH

According to the formular LLF = 0.8 (LF)2 + 0.2 the Loss Load Factor (LLF) is highly proportional to LF powered by 2. That means that at lower load LLF is small. But at high load LLF is near to one so that the I2 (the current) is the one highly influencing the annual energy losses. The peak ampere recorded from the metering system being of 200 A, it is visible that the annual energy losses in the feeder named “Sud” must be higher than they are in the other feeders where the peak current range from 70 A to 100 A. The feeder named “Centre” still the one having the lower value of annual losses. The bar charts in figure 5.10 are revealing that there is a correlation between the average power, the peak power loss, and annual energy losses. Managers cannot take decision on how and on which resource to be engaged to reduce losses if they do not know their magnitude. Once again the Computerized Web-Based Information System has shown it capability to compute technical losses (power losses and annual energy loss) for each feeder and has shown how it is a powerful tool to be used in making decisions for preventive and corrective maintenance. V.


Fig 4.3

Sake Sous Nord Centre Sud

The bar charts in figure 4.3 reveal that the same feeder Sud presents the higher annual losses. Out of the total annual energy loss (see table 4.2 2217043.14 kwh) the feeder Sud takes itself 1,469,172.6 kwh (see table 4.1) which represents 66.3% of the total annual energy loss. Because the peak current (of 200 ampere) demanded was very high therefore annual energy losses were also increased according to the relation: Annual Energy losses = 3 I2(UF)2 x 8760 x LLF = K I2(UF)2LLF with K equal to 3 x 8760.

Discussion of Findings Technical losses do occur in electrical feeder distribution networks. Pabla (2005) stated that the typical maximum losses (in percentage) in 15KV and 6.6KV Feeders, should be 4.0%. However, technical losses in the Goma electrical distribution network appear to be far above this range. Out of the total annual energy loss (see table 4.2 2217043.14 kwh) the feeder called “Sud” takes 1,469,172.6 kwh (see table 4.1) which represents 66.3% of the total annual energy loss. Because the peak current (of 200 ampere) demanded was very high therefore annual energy losses were also increased. Conclusion The losses in 15-6.6 KV feeders (particularly in “Sud feeder”) is very high. The implication of those losses is that they reduce the Company profit, life of


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cables and transformers, and the number of customers to be supplied with electricity. This has been hidden due the operational manual system in place. However, with a Computerized Web-Based Information System for computing losses, managers will have insight as to actual losses and be guided towards appropriate corrective and preventive maintenance necessary to minimize Goma distribution network losses.

Economy: New opportunities from the transformation of the Electric Power Sector”, Global Smart energy, 2008.

[3]W, Luke and T. Laura, PhP and MySQL Web Development, 2nd, Samms Publishing, Indianapolis . [4] A.S Pabla, Electric power distribution, 4th ed, McGraw-Hill , USA 2005. [5] Y,Wilis and D, David, “A General guide to writing research proposals and report, A hand book for beginning researchers, 2nd ed, Makerere University, Kampala, 2008. AUTHORS PROFILE Ezekiel U. Okike received the BSc degree in computer science from the University of Ibadan Nigeria in 1992, the Master of Information Science (MInfSc) in 1995 and PhD in computer science in 2007 all from the same University. He has been a lecturer in the Department of Computer Science, University of Ibadan since 1999 to date. Since September, 2008 to date, he has been on leave as a senior lecturer and Dean of the School of Computer Studies, Kampala International University, Uganda. His current research interests are in the areas of software engineering, software metrics, compilers and programming languages. He is a member of IEEE Computer and Communication societies. Bakunzi G. Joseph is an Electrical Engineer from Institut Supérieur des Techniques Appliquées de Kinshasa and postgraduate student in the School of Computer Studies, Kampala International University . He holds the B.Eng. in Electrical Engineering and recently graduated with the degree of Master of Science in Systems Software Engineering , MSc(SSE).

Recommendation From this study, the following recommendations becomes necessary for Goma electrical network distribution: • Implementation of the Computerized WebBased Information System in order to monitor losses over time for corrective and preventive maintenance of the electrical distribution network • Immediate resizing of the overloaded “Sud feeder” or installation of another overhead cable that will take the half of the load in charge. Whenever the distribution transformers are overloaded and additional loads are anticipated, then the existing transformers should be replaced by higher capacity transformers, or new transformers may be provided to cater for the loads. REFERENCES

[1] B, G. Joseph, “ Use of commputerized wedbased informmation system for determining losses in traditional electrical network management: case study of Goma electrical distribution network”. MSc thesis, School of computer Studies, Kampala International University, xv+ 120 pp, April 2010 [2]Global research Fund. “The Electricity


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