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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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INTRODUCTION

Our discussion in this season was essentially on wave propagation in unbounded media,

media of infinite extent. Such wave propagation is said to be unguided in that the

uniform plane wave exists throughout all space and EM energy associated with the

wave spreads over a wide area. Wave propagation in unbounded media is used in radio

or TV broadcasting, where the information being transmitted is meant for everyone

who may be interested. Such means of wave propagation will not help in a situation

like telephone conversation, where the information is received privately by one person.

Transmission lines are commonly used in power distribution (at low frequencies) and

in communications (at high frequencies). Various kinds of transmission lines such as the

twisted-pair and coaxial cables (thinnet and thicknet) are used in computer networks such

as the Ethernet and internet.

connect a source to a load. The source may be a hydroelectric generator, a transmitter,

or an oscillator; the load may be a factory, an antenna, or an oscilloscope, respectively.

Typical transmission lines include coaxial cable, a two-wire line, a parallel-plate or

planar line, a wire above the conducting plane, and a microstrip line.

These lines shown in figure.1

Fig.1Cross-sectional view of typical transmission lines: (a) coaxial line, (b) two-wire line,

(c) planar line, (d) wire above conducting plane, (e) microstrip line.

2. TRANSMISSION LINE PARAMETERS

To describe a transmission line in terms of its line parameters, which are its resistance

per unit length R, inductance per unit length L, conductance per unit length G, and

capacitance per unit length C. Each of the lines shown in Figure.1has specific formulas

for finding R, L, G, and C. For coaxial, two-wire, and planar lines, the formulas for

calculating the values of R, L, G, and C are provided in Table.1

Note that:

1. The line parameters R, L, G, and C are not discrete or lumped but distributed as

shown in Figure 2. By this we mean that the parameters are uniformly distributed along

the entire length of the line.

2. For each line, the conductors are characterized by ac, /*c, ec = eo, and the

homogeneous dielectric separating the conductors is characterized by a, fi, e.

3. G + MR; R is the ac resistance per unit length of the conductors comprising the line

and G is the conductance per unit length due to the dielectric medium separating the

conductors.

4. The value of L shown in Table.1 is the external inductance per unit length; that is, L

= Lext. The effects of internal inductance Lm (= Rlui) are negligible as high frequencies

at which most communication systems operate.

5. For each line

Figure .2 Distributed parameters of a two-conductor transmission line

A transmission line usually connects a source on one end to a load on

the other end . we need to develop equations that describe the

voltage across the transmission line and the current carried by the

line as a function of time t and spatial position z. using the equivalent

circuit of lumped-element model describe in fig.3

Az of a two-conductor transmission line.

After derivations we obtain the following pair of equations:

Complex propagation

constant

Where a is the attenuation constant (in nepers per meter or decibels2 per meter), and (3

is the phase constant (in radians per meter). The wavelength and wave velocity u are:

positively traveling

voltage wave to current wave at any point on the line.

where Ro and Xo are the real and imaginary parts of Zo. Ro should not be mistaken for

R—while R is in ohms per meter; Ro is in ohms. The propagation constant y and the

characteristic impedance Zo are important properties of the line because they both

depend on the line parameters R, L, G, and C and the frequency of operation. The

reciprocal of Zo is the characteristic admittance Yo, that is, Yo = 1/ZO.

4.The lossless Transmission Line

A. Lossless Line (R = 0 = G)

A transmission line is said lo be lossless if the conductors of the line are perfect

and the dielectric medium separating them is lossless .

frequency components will be attenuated differently in a lossy line as a is frequency

dependent. This results in distortion .A distortionless line is one in which the

attenuation constant a is frequency independent while the phase constant .is linearly

dependent on frequency.

Note that:

1. The phase velocity is independent of frequency because the phase constant . linearly

depends on frequency. We have shape distortion of signals unless a and u are

independent of frequency.

3. A lossless line is also a distortionless line, but a distortionless line is not necessarily

lossless. Although lossless lines are desirable in power transmission, telephone

lines are required to be distortionless.

Consider a transmission line of length L, characterized by y and Zo, connected to a load

ZL as shown in Figure 4. Looking into the line, the generator sees the line with the load

as an input impedance Zin. It is our intention to determine the input impedance,

the standing wave ratio (SWR), and the power flow on the line.

After derivations we obtain the following:

The voltage reflection coefficient at any point on the line is the ratio of the magnitude

of the reflected voltage wave to that of the incident wave

The current reflection coefficient at any point on the line is negative of the voltage

reflection coefficient at that point.

by SWR) as

where

So a transmission is used in transferring power from the source to the load. The average

input power at a distance L from the load is given by an equation that is:

We have:

The first term is the incident power Pi while the second term is the reflected power Pr.

Thus previous eq. may be written as

where Pt is the input or transmitted power and the negative sign is due to the negative

going wave since we take the reference direction as that of the voltage/current traveling

toward the right.

A. Short circuit line with

7. The Smith Chart (Graphical Method)

Transmission line problem often involves manipulations with complex number, making

the time require for solution greater than that need for the same operation on a real

number. To solve this problem using the transmission line chart. Probably the most

widely used one is the Smith Chart.

Basically, this diagram shows curve of constant resistant and constant reactance. these

may represent either an input impedance or a load impedance.

By Substituting in previous eq. gives

which is the general equation of a circle of radius a, centered at (h, k). Thus eq. is

an r-circle (resistance circle) with

Fig4.1

Fig4.2

(2)Typical X circles for x = 0, ± 1/2,±1, ±2, ±5, ±oo.

Fig.(1)

Fig.(2)

Fig.5 (1) the smith chart contains the constant r-circular and X-circular

(2) Illustration of the r-, x-, and ^-circles on the Smith chart

8. Application of Short-Circuit and Open-Circuit

Measurements (Special cases)

A. Lines of Length

For the special case where βl = nπ where n is an integer (meaning that the length of

the line is a multiple of half a wavelength), the expression reduces to the load

impedance so that

for all n. This includes the case when n = 0, meaning that the

length of the transmission line is negligibly small compared to the wavelength. The

physical significance of this is that the transmission line can be ignored (i.e. treated as a

wire) in either case.

B. Quarter-Wave Transformer

For the case where the length of the line is one quarter wavelength long, or an odd

multiple of a quarter wavelength long, the input impedance becomes

Another special case is when the load impedance is equal to the characteristic

impedance of the line (i.e. the line is matched), in which case the impedance reduces to

the characteristic impedance of the line so that

9. Conclusion

A transmission line is the material medium or structure that forms all or part of a path

from one place to another for directing the transmission of energy, such as

electromagnetic waves or acoustic waves, as well as electric power transmission. Types

of transmission line include wires, coaxial cables, dielectric slabs, striplines, optical

fibers, electric power lines, and waveguides.

Normal operating mode is the TEM or quasi-TEM mode (can support TE and TM

modes but these modes are typically undesirable

Significant signal attenuation at high frequencies due to conductor and dielectric losses.

The input impedance of a line terminated in a short circuit or open circuit is purely

reactive. This property can be used to design equivalent inductors and capacitors.

problem.

Refrences

Hall,2007 .

2- Mathew N.O.Sadiku, "Elements of Electromagntics."Third edition,Oxford

University press 2001 .

3- www. Wikipedia.com

4- William H. Hayt, Jr. . John A. Buck" Engineering Electromagnetics"

Sixth Edition

HASHEMITE UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

DEPARTEMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Transmission Lines

BY

732195

Supervised by

Dr. Omar Al- Saraereh

[25-07- 2010]

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