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Shaker High School

MLA Style Manual

A Works Cited list is alphabetized by the first item in each entry, usually either the author or title. Ignore A, An, or The
when alphabetizing the entry. The entire Works Cited page must be double-spaced.
• Each entry must include a label indicating the format of the item, like Print, Web, etc.
• Abbreviations are required where needed: n. p. for no publisher, n. d. for no date, and n. pag. for no pagination.
• Titles of books, periodicals, and databases should be italicized, not underlined. Article titles should be in quotation marks but
not in italics.
• URLs do not need to be included for citations to online materials unless the URL is the only way for the
reader to find the web site or your teacher requires it. If you decide to include a URL, place the entire URL in angle brackets:

Book by One Author:

Ambrose, Stephen E. Lewis and Clark: Voyage of Discovery. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 1998. Print.

Book By Two or Three Authors:

Spinelli, Angelo M. and Lewis H. Carlson. Life Behind Barbed Wire. New York: Fordham University Press, 2004. Print.

Book by More Than Three Authors:

Block, Holly, et al. Art Cuba: The New Generation. New York: Abrams, 2001. Print.

Book with an Editor, No Author:

Schneider, Stephen H. ed. Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Print.

Book by Corporate Author:

American Medical Association. The American Medical Association Encyclopedia of Medicine. New York: Random, 1989. Print.

A Work in an Anthology or Collection of Essays:

Donne, John. “The Good Morrow.” Norton Anthology of English Literature. Ed. M.H. Abrams et al. 3rd ed. New York: Norton,1975.
587-588. Print.

Wang, Chenggang (Charles).“China Faces Serious Environmental Problems.” China. San Diego: CA: Greenhaven Press, Inc., 2001. 120-
126. Print.

One Volume in a Multi-Volume Work: (Specialized Encyclopedia)

“Fidel Castro Ruz.” Encyclopedia of World Biography. Ed. Paula K. Beyers. Vol. 3. Detroit: Gale, 1998. Print.

Suchlicki, Jaime. “Castro.” Encyclopedia of World Biography. Vol. 2. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1973. Print.

For Shakespearean Criticism, Nineteenth Century Literary Criticism, TCLC, CLC, Poetry Criticism, Short Story Criticism, etc.:
Guest, Boyd. “Twain’s Concept of Woman’s Sphere.” Mark Twain Quarterly. VII.2 (1945-46): 1-4. Rpt. in Twentieth-Century Literary
Criticism. Ed. Dennis Poupard. Vol. 12. Detroit: Gale, 1984. 438-439. Print.

Novels for Students, Drama for Students, Poetry for Students, etc.
When citing text from Novels for Students, etc. that is not attributed to a particular author, (i.e. the Themes, Style, Historical Context
sections, use the following format:
“The Heart is a Lonely Hunter.” Novels for Students. Ed. Marie Rose Napierkowski and Deborah A. Stanley. Vol. 6. Detroit: Gale, 1999.
101-102. Print.

When citing the commissioned essays from Novels for Students, etc. (i.e. “Criticism”), use the following format:
Kelly, David J. Critical essay. “The Heart is a Lonely Hunter.” Novels for Students. Ed. Marie Rose Napierkowski and Deborah A.
Stanley. Vol. 6. Detroit: Gale, 1999. 114-116. Print.

Article in a Reference Book (Encyclopedia, Dictionary, etc.):

The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2010. New Jersey: Primedia Reference, Inc., 1999. Print.
“Visionary.” Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary. Springfield: G. & C. Merriam Co., 1986. Print.

General Encyclopedia Article with an Author:

Hsu, Immanuel. C.Y. “Boxer Rebellion.” World Book Encyclopedia. 2007 ed. Print.

General Encyclopedia Article with No Author:

“Maid Marian.” Encyclopedia Americana. 2006 ed. Print.
A Play:
Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet. Norton's Anthology. Chicago: Hampton Publishers, 2004. 55-104. Print.

Miller, Arthur. The Crucible. New York: Penguin Books, 1996. Print.

A Pamphlet:
Your Rights Under California Welfare Programs. Sacramento, CA: California Dept. of Social Services, 2007. Print.

An Interview:
To cite an interview that you conducted, give the name of the person interviewed, the kind of interview (personal/telephone), and the date.

McCartney, Paul. Personal interview. 14 December 2010.

Article in a Scholarly Journal:
Piper, Andrew. “Rethinking the Print Object: Goethe and the Book of Everything.” PLMA 121.1 (2006): 124-38. Print.

Weintraub, Arlene, and Laura Cohen. “A Thousand-Year Plan for Nuclear Waste.” Business Week 6 May 2002: 94-96. Print.

Broad, William J. “In Harsh Light of Reality, the Shuttle is Being Re-evaluated.” New York Times 14 May 1985: C1. Print.
“World Record Sure Thing at Saratoga.” Times Union [Albany] 14 June 1985: D6. Print.

Web Sites:
Author's Last Name, First Name.“Title of the Article.” Title of Website. Publisher or Sponsoring Institution, Date posted or last updated.
Medium. Day Month Year of access. (If no publisher or sponsor is given use n.p. If no publication date is given, use n.d.)

“Clean Air Act.” EPA. Environmental Protection Agency. 22 September 2010. Web. 15 December 2010.

Gilberts, Rachel. Medieval Europe. eMuseum at Minnesota State University Mankato. 2001. Web. 10 November 2010.

“Allergies Overview.” WebMD. WebMD, LLC. 2005-2010. Web. 13 October 2010.

Online Databases (Literature Resource Center, US History in Context, Opposing Viewpoints, etc.)

Suddath, Claire. “Brief History: Nazi Fugitives.” Time 29 Nov. 2020:19. Gale World History in Context. Web. 16 Dec. 2010.

Shaffern, Robert W. “The Pardoner’s Promises: Preaching and Policing Indulgences in the Fourteenth-century English Church.” The
Historian 68.1 (2006): 49+. Gale World History in Context. Web. 16 Dec. 2010.

“Automobile, electric.” World of Invention. Gale, 2006. Gale Science in Context. 20 Dec. 2010. Print.

Do not cite Google. If your teacher requires a URL, use the URL under the picture. Include as much of the following information as
The artist’s name (last, first). Italicize the title of the work and then list the date of composition. (If unknown, use n.d. for no date).
Indicate the medium of composition. Name the institution that houses the work, if applicable. Name of the city where the work
is housed. Web or Print. Date accessed –day month year. Include the URL if the reader will not be able to find
the source without it or when you teacher requires it.

Whistler, James. Arrangement in Grey and Black: Portrait of the Artist’s Mother. 1871. Oil. Musee d’Orsay, Paris.Web. 20 Dec.
Boroznoff, Paul. Cape Fear River n.d. Photograph. Fine Art America.Web. 20 Dec. 2010. <

Online Video:
“President Barack Obama 2009 Inauguration Address.” YouTube. 20 Jan. 2009. Web. 20 Dec. 2010.