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The analysis of unwanted-mode vibration patterns in AT-cut quartz oscillator crystals, revealed by X-ray diffraction topography. II. A partial theoretical description of the unwanted mode
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. A theoretical description is presented. Although the vibration patterns of the coupled mode generated in crystal units in which the geometry and mass distribution of the gold electrodes is irregular can be extremely complex. Hirst Research Centre. D: Appl. Printed in Great Britain. Ditton Park. in final form 17 March 1975 Abstract.J. The unwanted mode is believed to be coupled to the fundamental mode by virtue of non-linear elastic behaviour. Phys. has been characterized by means of x-ray diffraction topography. The x-ray diffraction topographs record the nodal distribution of standing wave patterns in the plane of the plate ( X . A partial theoretical description of the 1 unwanted mode F N Goodall? and CA Wallace$ The General Electric CO Ltd. Z’) with respect to the component of particle displacement perpendicular to the selected Bragg plane. Slough. From experimental measurements of the frequency and wavelength of the periodic component in the X direction. has been described in part I. 8. Vol. Z’ plane into two components.Z’ are defined by the IRE Convention (Standards on Piezoelectric Crystals 1949) and are shown in figure 1. it is concluded that it is not a well-known coupling mode. Bucks. of a mode periodic along X vibrating at twice the fundamental resonance frequency. 1. Borehamwood. which is in close agreement with experimental observations. Thus. 1975. some indication of the relative phases of the displacement components in different directions can be deduced from a comparison of topographs obtained with different Bragg planes. one a mode periodic in x with a period of the same order as the crystal thickness. 01975 The analysis of unwanted-modevibration patterns in AT-cut quartz oscillator crystals. The characterization of an unwanted mode in AT-CUt quartz oscillator crystals. revealed by x-ray diffraction topography: 1 . Y’. which causes unwanted temperature-dependent deviations in the frequency and activity of crystal oscillator units in the frequency range 5-20 MHz by coupling to the thickness-shear mode. Wembley Received 16 September 1974. $ Now at Marconi-Elliott Avionic Systems Ltd.. Introduction In part I of the present paper (Isherwood and Wallace 1975). Herts. The latter is termed the ‘modulating mode’ because it causes an apparent amplitude and wavelength modulation of the nodal distribution. Central Research Laboratories. from vibration patterns observed in x-ray diffraction topographs. The directions X . a inode of ultrasonic vibration in AT-cut quartz crystal plates. W D 6 1RX.. the other more slowly varying with x and 2 ’ . By suitable design of t Now at Radio and Space and Research Station. it is possible as a first approximation to resolve the spatial distribution of amplitude in the X . 1843 . Phys.

face-shear and thickness-flexure. y') may be established. both of which belong to the pointtime group 2t/mt and couple at the fundamental frequency. after allowing for the residual effects of the superimposed modulating mode. in which the waveform of the particle displacement vector s(x. Inspection of the topographical patterns from different Bragg planes has indicated that the unwanted mode belongs to the 'point-time' symmetry group designated 2/n1 and its frequency. with only residual dependence on the crystal and electrode dimensions in the XZ' plane and the electrode thickness. provided that in the observed unwanted-mode patterns the XZ' dimensions of the electrodes and the extent of weakly-modulated vibration are large compared with Ax and the crystal thickness T and the electrode thickness is negligible compared with T. $4. the types of coupled mode excited in a crystal and the conditions of coupling are invariant under a uniform change of scale of all the linear dimensions of the crystal. 15 vibration patterns were selected exhibiting large areas of weakly-modulated periodic vibration extending over 7-21 periods. The frequency of the unwanted mode has also been determined.2. such that their products with the frequency are constants. the electrode geometry it has proved possible to excite unwanted-mode vibration patterns in which substantial areas consist of the periodic component in relative isolation. However. the fundamental frequency is principally governed by T while that of the unwanted mode is controlled by Ax and T. although the actual incidence of coupling will be critically affected by these parameters. The total spread of . It follows that the product Xxf at the point of coupling should be practically constant. From these measurements of wavelength and frequency it is possible to attempt R theoretical description of the periodic component of the unwanted mode. The wavelength in the X direction Ax can be measured directly from the x-ray diffraction topographs.f '2 The mode can thus be clearly distinguished from the more familiar coupling modes. The wavelengths were measured following the procedure of part I.1844 F N Goodall and C A Wallace X J Z ' Figure 1. In order to determine the product Axf. 2. Review of the experimental data Theoretically. electrodes and resultant wavelengths generated. when coupled. has been demonstrated experimentally to equal twice the resonance frequency . Principal directions in the AT-CUt of quartz ( Y X I 35' 15').

which may result from residual inhomogeneities in the crystal units (see part I.fx were found to be h 5 f x = 4 5 3 x lo3 t 0.0 and 11-5 MHz).f the wave numbers h and kt respectively. t ) = &Vi‘ sin (2nkty’lT) cos (2nlzxlT) cos ( 4 n f t ) w’(x.2’L/C22’)/p]1/2 x lo3 = 5.65 It is interesting to compare the observed value of h5f with those found experimentally for thickness-flexure and face-shear modes. It is concluded that the periodic component of the unwanted mode cannot be identified with simple flexural. V. Substitution from equation (5) . electrode dimension along X (between 0. y‘. For flexure Xzf=2*677x IO3 (SI units) and for face-shear hf = (C55’/p)1/2 5. U ’ . The relevant elastic constants for the AT-cut have been given by Mindlin (1961) and are as follows (in units of 109 SI): Cl. $3.08 x lo3 (SI units).74. and within this range it was not possible to discern any systematic correlation with frequency (between 9. and T/X. C.08 x lo3 (SI units) (Sykes 1946).’ . face-shear or extensional modes of vibration. (1) A phase velocity for the periodic component at the point of coupling can now be defined as V r = 2 h . It is convenient to normalize with respect to the crystal thickness by writing for T/h. Using the natural frequency of the unplated crystal fy the average value and standard deviation of the product X.C. = along X can be coupled to the fundamental mode provided that they too belong to the 2/m group and have twice the resonance frequency.The analysis of unwanted-mode vibration patterns 1845 results amounted to about 6 % . f ~ = 9 . y ‘ .‘= 86. Extensional modes propagating .’=8*26.y’. = [(C. The extensional phase velocity V. plane periodic solutions to the equations of motion.3). This spread is probably associated with the irregularities observed to some extent in all the vibration patterns recorded and prominently revealed in the modulating mode amplitudes. w’) the following form: of u(x. belonging to the space-time group 2/m and with frequency 2A have particle displacements s(u. is given theoretically by (4) (Mindlin and Spencer 1967) and is not comparable to Vz. 0 6 x103+0*16xl o 3 (SI units). (2) YT can be related to the elastic constants of quartz and the density (taken as 2.3 and 1.0 times the crystal length) or the frequency decrement due to electrode thickness (between 1 and 4%).70 (SI units) 3. t ) = CiWi’ sin (2nkty‘lT) cos (2nkx/T)cos ( 4 n f t ) . t ) = CdUi cos (2nkly’lT) sin (2nhx/T)cos ( 4 n f r ) (5) v’(x.. The method of solution is given in detail in the Appendix and is summarized briefly here.. C14‘= -3. propagating along X.coupled to the fundamental thickness-shear mode.65 x lo3 SI units). Solution of the equations of motion If the vibration is considered to be effectively unbounded in the X and Z’ directions.

50 0. as defined by equation (A12). which require that the surfaces of the crystal should be free from all external stresses.1. of equation (2) we have h=0. only the latter is presented here.=1*00 Index(i) U 4 VI’ 0. It is assumed that the gold electrodes are sufficiently thin for their inertia to be ignored. Wi’).41 W.775 0. one finds that the total amplitudes of displacement at y’=O and y’ = & T/2 are UO=-0.156 sin (2nhxlT).00 0. from the closest fit to the boundary conditions. Putting V Z ’ =1. and the piezoelectric stiffening effect is also ignored. and may be found by varying h until a combination of values of ki.269 4.448 0. The relative contributions from each root (or Fourier component) are determined by the need to satisfy the boundary conditions. a complete set of Fourier amplitudes has been derived. Tablel.794 0. so that the koi provide a good first approximation. -0.208 From the experimental phase velocity V.0103 w. The corresponding values of ki.07 0.00 -0.1 Table 2. Solutions to thesecularequationforh=0.720 .107 -20.779 sin (2~rhxlT).269 -0. Although both procedures were adopted in this study.180 1 2 3 .023.440 0.365 Index (i) koc 0.36 0. of h. as shown in table 2. These terms are relatively small because the displacement in each component is polarized predominantly along one of the axes of the plate.0457 1. Also tabulated are the approximate values of kt (denoted by koz) calculated by ignoring the non-diagonal terms in the secular equation.041 COS (27~hxlT) Ws‘=0. derived from the measured value of Vz (see equation A4) is a measure of the errors involved.’I Vi’ 1 2 3 0.Vi‘ and Wt‘ is yielded which satisfy all the boundary conditions. and Wit/Vi’ the three roots of the secular equation for are given in table 1. with corresponding amplitudes of displacement (Ui.1846 F N Goodall and C A Wallace into the wave equations yields a secular equation with three roots (kt)for any given value Vi‘.120 1. representing a very small discrepancy between theory and experiment. An exact solution is possible only for a specific value of h. (VO’=Wo’=O) Us=O.1. Fourier amplitude components for the minimum-error waveform putting v. Utivi‘.715 kl uti v -8. was found to be 0. Finally.. An alternative procedure is to use the experimentally determined value of h and find the combination of Fourier amplitudes which represents the closest approach to a solution of the boundary conditions. (6) (7) . The total error E. Ui. normalized with respect to VZ’.884 COS ( 2 7 ~ h ~ l T ) Vs’= 1.365. The discrepancy between h and the experimental value.

harmonic modes may be activated by non-linear elastic behaviour represented by third-order coefficients of the form Cijk'. viz. The general form of the spatial amplitude of displacement in the XY' plane is shown diagrammatically in figure 2 over a single wavelength A. y ' = t0-28T. It is therefore believed that the origin of the coupling is more likely to be the non-linear elastic forces within the crystal (Wood and Seed 1967).37T. and the finite mass of the electrodes which has to be balanced by non-zero surface stresses in the boundary equations.. E = 2. comparison of topographs obtained at similar amplitudes of lattice strain when the crystal was operated in a test oscillator and in a transmission 7-network (using a Rhode ) and Schwarz frequency synthesizer at f ~ showed very similar coupled-mode vibration patterns. confined to the periodic component only vibrating in a quasiinfinite plate. This solution can therefore be accepted as a partial theoretical description of the unwanted mode.The analysis of unwanted-mode vibration patterns 1847 . However. For example. Figure 2. harmonics may be generated by non-linear effects within the oscillator circuit. Coupling between the fundamental thickness-shear mode and the unwanted mode (both periodic and modulating components) at twice the fundamental frequency is possible by virtue of non-linear phenomena within the crystal unit and/or its associated operating circuitry.A.68T. as well and p. the finite dimensions of the electrodes in the X2'-plane. 144 . The error is of the same order of magnitude as the observed variation in VZand may be attributed to the same factors. Discussion The small discrepancy factor. indicates a fairly close agreement between theory and experiment.3 %. Alternatively. Each period contains six nodes at the following positions: x=o. X= X= y'=O 1. Spatial amplitude of displacement in the XY'-plane. JI'=O k0. and inhomogeneity in the as to experimental errors in the physical constants Ci' crystal units. coupling to the modulating mode. 4.

as is consistent with their origin in non-linear phenomena (Wood and Seed 1967). 4. It is known that its frequency is 2fR.1848 F N Goodall and C A Wallace The condition of time inversion symmetry requires that the displacement maxima of the thickness-shear mode. 96) that displacements in the modulating and periodic modes tend either to reinforce or oppose each other simultaneously in the X and Y’ directions implies that the forms of s ( y ’ ) in each component are not greatly dissimilar. The magnitude of all these effects has been observed to increase with amplitude of vibration. The frequency difference between the two branches can be observed as an apparent splitting of the frequency response peak of the fundamental mode at the temperature of coupling. however. Appendix Formulation and solution of the wave equations Let us express the particle displacements ( U . w’) in the periodic component as the . no attempt has been made in this paper to describe the modulating component of the unwanted mode. correspond to opposite phases of the unwanted-mode amplitude. that in a crystal plate unbounded in the X2’-plane with electrodes of negligible inertia. A complete theoretical description of the coupling phenomenon and its dependence on temperature and amplitude of vibration requires a more detailed description of the amplitude distribution in each of the modes and knowledge of the third-order elastic constants CijkJ. part of GEC Electrical Components. accompanied by a dip in activity. having the waveform a). when the crystal is driven in a transmission n--network. according to whether the thickness-shear displacement maxima coincide with the positive configuration of the unwanted mode. It seems most likely that the modulating modes belong to this group of thickness-shear harmonics. When the crystal is driven in a test oscillator there is a similar sharp oscillation in the frequency as the temperature is varied. It is worth noting. Because of the complexity of its amplitude distribution in the X2’-plane. the actual form of U ( x ) is critically dependent on the mass distribution in the electrodes. for which f t = O . UCOS (27ry’lT) cos (4n-f?) (c’=w’=O). As in the fundamental thickness-shear mode. 21= Acknowledgments This work was initiated by Salford Electrical Instruments Limited. The zeros of the thickness-shear displacement then coincide respectively with the negative or positive configuration of the unwanted mode. and the observation (see part I. the thicknessshear harmonic of frequency 2f R and wavelength Ay’ = T . U‘. shown in figure 2. Two branches of the coupled mode may be distinguished.and the zeroes ( f t = $ . through a research programme being carried out in the Quartz Crystals Group at the Hirst Research Centre. (9) is a solution of the equations of motion and boundary conditions. as may be verified by putting h = 0 in equations (AS) and (A7). Related harmonics belonging to the point-time group 23m with amplitudes U ( x ) varying very slowly with x have frequencies close to 2fR and small but finite amplitudes of L“ and M”. or with the negative or reversed-phase configuration.

Vi‘ and Wi’. the stresses acting on the surface planes 02.I)] (k Uf(C12’+C6e’) hkV’+(Cl. These are that. being determined by the boundary conditions.y’..W.6’h2+C24’ k’) w‘=o W‘ = 0.’ h’+c~.. with corresponding ratios of the components U. V’. if the inertia of electrodes is ignored.y’.e.1)+c22’k2]V‘+(C. i.the equations of motion reduce to the form [cl. and multiplying by (T/27r)2). (‘45) (Cl4’ Cje’) hk U+ (C66’h2 CZ4‘ k2) V’ (Csj’ h2 + + + + C44‘ k2- C66’) The condition that the amplitudes U. all derivatives in 2’ can be ignored. and thus has three roots kf for any given value of h. Since there is assumed to be no wave motion in the 2’ direction. t ) = CzUi cos (2nkty’lT) sin (27rhxlT) cos (47rft) v’(x. The general solution to the wave equation is now a linear combination of the three roots of the secular equation and the ratios of the coefficients (i. dividing by the sino and cosine factors.’2 . t ) = CiVi’ sin (27rkay‘/T)cos (27rhxlT) cos (47rft) w’(x. y’. t ) = C. W‘ should have finite values is that the determinant of their coefficients be zero.e.‘+C56’)hkW’=0 (CI2’+CGO‘) hkU+[C66’(h2. a4 and (56 be zero.The analysis o unwanted-mode vibration patterns f following Fourier sum: 1849 u(x. . while the symmetry of the AT-Cut demands that the elastic constants (All The equations of motion then take the form The fundamental frequency for thickness-shear is given by After substitution from equations (AI) and (A3) (and also dropping the summation. This yields a secular equation which is cubic in k2.l sin (2xkty‘lT)cos (27rhxlT) cos (47rft). the Fourier amplitudes of equations (Al)).

’)COS nki = 0 + k. The boundary equations may now be written as u21 VI’ a22 VZ’ a23V3’ = e2 772‘ a41 VI’ a42 VZ’ a43V3’ = e4 VZ’ (AS) 0 6 1 v ’ a62 VZ’ a63 V3’ = e6 VZ’. e4 and eG. Appl. U is predominant. etc). (Fort Monmouth.the boundary conditions are . Vl’/V2’. Phys. 42 1268 Standards on Piezoelectric Crystals 1949 Proc.+ Cz2‘ kiVi’+ C24’ kiwi’)COS nki=O Ci(C1l h V i CZ4’ V i Cd4’ W. NJ: US Army Electronics Command) p 420 . stationary with respect to variation of V I‘/ VZ‘and V3’/V2‘. 8 1827-42 Mindlin R D 1961 Quart. i. New York 37 1378 Sykes R A 1946 Quartz Crystals for Electrical Circuits ed R A Heising (New York: Van Nostrand) pp 205-48 Wood AFB and Seed A 1967 Proc. corresponding to a particular value of h. If h diKers from this value. Frequency Control Symp. Soc.6) is the subscript of the corresponding component of stress U and i (= 1. A combination of Vir exactly satisfying the boundary conditions can be found at the particular value of h for which the determinant A of the coefficients utj is zero. Let us abbreviate the coefficients of the variables Vi’ the boundary equations by the in matrix elements uji. Phys. (By definition solutions are indexed so that for i= 1. D: Appl. The choice of variable used for normalization is entirely arbitrary and there is no special reason for choosing VZ’. The complete solution is as follows: The total error may be normalized in the following expression : References Isherwood BJ and Wallace CA 1975 J . we can find the solution of equations (A8) for which the sum Ejej2 is a minimum.1850 F N Goodall and C A Wulluce After substitution from equations (Al) and the use ofy ’= i T/2. Inst. Radio Engrs. 2. The co-factor of each matrix element is denoted A j i . Math. where j (= 2.Ci(CI2‘ hU. 21st A .’) sin nk. 4. 3) is the index number of the solution to equations (A5). A solution may then be sought by a variational method. ki Substitution of the appropriate values of Ui/Vi‘ and Wi‘/Vi‘ for each root. = 0. A m . ki (A71 Ci(CBG’ Ui Cos’I7 Vi’ CjS’h W. 19 51 Mindlin R D and Spencer W J 1967 J. l Following the principles of least-squared errors. A#O and IAl is a direct measure of the discrepancy. Since the three uj are not all zero simultaneously let us write oj=ejV2’ as an error term in equation (A7) equivalent to an unbalanced stress at the crystal surface.e. yields a set of simultaneous questions in the three variables Vi’. Acoust. e2. The conditions = d (Cjej2)/d (VI’/ VZ’) d (Cjej2)/d ( V3’/ Vl’) = 0 (A91 yield two additional linear equations + + + + + + + + + Equations (A8) and (A10) constitute five relations between the five unknowns Vl’jVz’. Vs’/Vz’.

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