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7 96.9 144.3 1177 1235 1298 1370 . Speed vs.6 198.9 Speed (rpm ) 1133.Observations 1. Field resistance ( R f ) Rf () 0 44.
7 149.2. Armature resistance (R a) Ra () 0 52. Speed vs.3 248.1 95.7 297 Speed (rpm) 1133.3 900 745 580 346 242 .
59 . Terminal Voltage vs. Field Current (If) Terminal Voltage ( V ) 6.3.52 0.46 0.6 192 200 201 208 209 Field ( If ) ( A ) 0.50 0.00 0.55 0.
Experimentally we checked the functionality of holding coil by increasing the shunt field resistance of the shunt DC motor. To avoid this phenomenon a starter is introduced to the motor. . there is no such counter emf. the resistance of aramature winding is so small. In case the power supply disconnects the field become zero and holding coil releases the starting arm. L A F Live supply Armature winding Field winding To turn the motor on the starter must be slowly turned until it is held by the No volt coil. Therefore. Therefore. Moreover. Therefore. the holding coil providing safety of armature winding. a counter-emf is generated. it is called as 3-point starter. the armature current reaches the maximum when the motor starts. When turned gradually the current flowing in the armature winding increases slowly. This increases the armature current. counter emf is absent since there is no rotation. after the armature current exceeded a particular amount the holding coil is short circuited releasing the holfding arm. Therefore. When the motor starts. damages might be caused in the armature winding due to the high current flowing throuh the starting time. There are several methds of starting methods in DC motors.Discussion The Importance of Having a Starting Method of a DC Motor When a DC motor starts to revolove. This interrupts the power supply protecting armature winding from high currents. we focused on 3-point starter method. A and F. In our practical. Then at start up the limiting factor of the armature winding is only the resistance in armature winding. It contains 3 point L. In overload situations overload relay (OC) operates and short circuits.
It took a while for the operator to increase the input power gradually to operating speed. There were two main types of rheostats for starting only and for both starting and stopping. The coil of the holding magnet is connected across the line when the arm is moved from the off position. it offers functionality of tripping in overcurrent conditions.Other Starting Methods of DC Motors There are several methods of starting methods found in DC motors. But in the process of doing so. y y Manual starting rheostat 4 . Rheostats do not includ no-voltage magnetic holding feature. 4 ± Point Starter Drawback of 3point starter has made it quite unpopular. However.point starter Manual Starting Rheostat Early DC motor-starters were manual. The holding magnet and the resistors function in the same way that of the 3-point starter 4point starter provides the motor with no voltage protection. causesing it to spring to the off position if power is lost. we reduce both field winding current and HC (holding coil) current causing it to weaken the magnetism. The outcome would be the release of the holding arm disconnecting the DC supply. To increase the speed of the motor the armature winding current should be increased. slight fluctuations in the dc supply would these unscheduled stops. Therefore. The holding magnet will release the arm when the vlotage drops below a specific value. . The cheaper one was the first. This drawback is eliminated in 4-point starter.
it is in saturation. the output load will assume a continuous signal at a lower current or voltage. the signal switches the transistor from completely µoff¶ to full µon¶. The rheostat method suffers from the high wattage heat problem as the due to its functionality using resistive properties.Methods of Speed Control in DC Motors Wherever there is an electric motor. So the motor speed is controlled by the duty cycle of the signal. and there is a much lower voltage drop across it and neither it dissipate as much power nor get nearly as hot compared to previous method. A transistor is used to drive the load. . If the switching is done fast enough. the less the signal is on. A transistor can be arranged in an amplifier configuration so that the current through the collector and emitter is controlled by a much smaller current through the transistor base. Some applications only require a switch. Therefore. However. If the signal is µon¶ more higher average currents spins the motor faster. PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) / Chopper Drives The most efficient of all schemes of DC motor speed controlling is pulse width modulated (PWM) control. This method too is not effective very much since heavy loads might heat up transistor. Rheostat Using a rheostat provides infinitely many speeds available. The transistor will now effectively drop the unwanted voltage across itself and the connected motor's speed will vary proportionally. the lower the average current flow slows down the motor speed. When the transistor is full on. as the complexity of requirements increases it may need speed control and direction control. That is how long the transistor is on compared to how long it is µoff¶. there is some way to control it. Semiconductors are much cheaper than the usual wire-wound rheostat and can accomplish same results. Transistor Linear Amplifier In this method rheostat is replaced by a transistor. Instead of applying a signal to control the continuous current through the transistor. this method is not suited for large motor control. The main disadvantages of this method are its complexity and the possibility of generating radio frequency interference. but the signal controlling the transistor is much different. but can work fine for small ones.
But in dynamic braking without storing the energy. Mostly in electric and hybrid cars. Regenerative Braking (Regen for short) Regeneratrive braking is used reduces motor speed by converting some of its kinetic energy into another useful form of energy. This net voltage would produce an enormous reverse current many times the original maximum current. supply voltage of the motor is lower than counter emf fascilitating the motor work as a generator and charge the battery. it is dissipated across a resistor. In this method. traditional friction brakes are used with regen braking in ocasions where. the polarity of the supply voltage is reversed. Sudden reverse of the terminals of the source. Therefore. The counteremf Ec-e of the armature is no longer has counter effect but adds to the supply voltage Es. The motor will start to turn the other way when it stops due to the reverse voltage. However.Other Methods of Electrical Breaking in DC Motors y y Plugging ± reversal of polarity Regenerative Braking Plugging ± Reversal of Polarity This is the quickest method to stop a motor. In regenerative braking. this method is used to store energy wasted at times of applying brakes. when the motor stops an automatica null-speed device is introduced to motor shaft for circuit interruption. This current would cause severe damages so swiftly. y y y motor is running lower speed the supplying battery is fully charged in case of failures in regen braking system The following diagram shows the stooping time of dynamic and regen braking . To avoid this resistor is used in series with the reversing circuit. makes the net voltage acting on the armature circuit becomes (Ec-e + Es) where Ec-e is counter-emf and Es supply voltage.