acetabulum Cuplike cavity on lateral surface of the hip bone that receives the femur.

acromegaly is a hormonal disorder that results when the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone (hGH). appositional growth Growth accomplished by the addition of new layers onto those previously formed. axial Relating to the head, neck, and trunk; one of the two major divisions of the body. bony callus spongy bone created by fibrocartilaginous buildup during bone repair calcaneus the heel bone calcitonin (not technically a ³thyroid hormone´) Hormone released by the thyroid that promotes a decrease in calcium levels of the blood; also called thyrocalcitonin. calcitriol the active form of vitamin D found in the body (vitamin D3) canaliculi a small channel found in ossified bone capitulum and trochlea found at the distal end of the humerus bone and the medial portion of the articular surface of the humerus carpals the cluster of bones in the hand between the radius and ulna and the metacarpus cervical The seven vertebrae of the vertebral column located in the neck. chondrocytes Mature cell form of cartilage. clavicle a bone that makes up part of the shoulder girdle (pectoral girdle). coccyx commonly referred to as the tailbone, is the final segment of the human vertebral column, of three to five (usually four) fused vertebrae collagen The most abundant of the three fibers found in the matrix of connective tissue. compact bone Dense outer layer of skeletal bone; lamellar bone. condyle projections on the lower extremity of femur. It is the more prominent and is the broader both in its antero-posterior and transverse diameters. cranial Bony protective encasement of the brain and organs of hearing and equilibrium; also called the skull. diaphysis Diffusion of solute(s) through a semipermeable membrane. diploe The internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones.

endochondral ossification Embryonic formation of bone by the replacement of calcified cartilage; most skeletal bones are formed by this process. endosteum Connective tissue membrane covering internal bone surfaces. epicondyles larger and more prominent than the lateral epicondyle, is directed a little backward; it gives attachment to the ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow-joint epiphyseal plate Plate of hyaline cartilage at the junction of the diaphysis and epiphysis that provides for growth in length of a long bone. epiphysis The end of a long bone, attached to the shaft. ethmoid bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain. fibrocartilaginous callus The most compressible type of cartilage; resistant to stretch. Forms vertebral discs and knee joint cartilages. fibula or calf bone is a bone placed on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below. It is the smaller of the two bones, and, in proportion to its length, the most slender of all the long bones. foramen magnum n the occipital bone, the foramen magnum (Latin: 'great hole') is one of the several oval or circular apertures in the base of the skull (the foramina), through which the medulla oblongata (an extension of the spinal cord) enters and exits the skull vault. foramen/foramina Hole or opening in a bone or between body cavities. fossa A depression, often an articular surface. frontal Longitudinal (vertical) plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts. gigantism a condition characterized by excessive height growth. glenoid cavity On the lateral angle of the scapula is a shallow pyriform, articular surface, the glenoid cavity (or glenoid fossa of scapula), which is directed lateralward and forward and articulates with the head of the humerus growth hormone Hormone that stimulates growth in general; produced in the anterior pituitary; also called somatotropin (STH). hematoma Mass of clotted blood that forms at an injured site. hydroxyapatite the main mineral component of dental enamel, dentin, and bone interstitial growth Growth from a number of different centers within an area. The growth process most apparent during cartilage formation.

in adults. the intervertebral foramina. metatarsals The metatarsus consists of the five long bones of the foot.-V. cartilage is not involved or present in this process. It consists of five cylindrical bones which are numbered from the radial to the ulnar side (ossa metacarpalia I-V). sutures An immovable fibrous joint. spongy bone Internal layer of skeletal bone. by their union. pectoral girdle Bones that attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton. except for the mandible. and form. periosteum Double-layered connective tissue that covers and nourishes the bone. medullary cavity The marrow cavity in long bones. also called Haversian system. rickets Disorder in which bones are inadequately mineralized.). and has two surfaces. osteoblasts Bone-forming cells. parietal are bones in the human skull and form. trabeculae (1) Any of the fibrous bands extending from the capsule into the interior of an organ. perichondrium Fibrous. maxilla The maxillae are the largest bones of the face. Three bones form the elbow joint: the humerus of the upper arm. osteocytes Mature bone cell. which are numbered from the medial side (ossa metatarsalia I. pelvis Consists of the paired coxal bones that attach the lower limbs to the axial skeleton. olecranon process The elbow joint. the sides and roof of the cranium. pelvic girdle vs. connective-tissue membrane covering the external surface of cartilaginous structures. caused by insufficient dietary calcium or vitamin D deficiency. includes the clavicle and scapula. the whole of the upper jaw. Unlike endochondral ossification. all bones of the skull are united by sutures. osteoclasts Large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix. pelvises or pelves) is the bony structure located at the base of the spine (properly known as the caudal end). (2) struts or thin plates of bone in spongy bone. unit of bone. Also called cancellous bone.intervertebral foramen When the vertebrae are articulated with each other the bodies form a strong pillar for the support of the head and trunk. and the vertebral foramina constitute a canal for the protection of the medulla spinalis (spinal cord). contains fat (yellow marrow). and the paired radius and ulna of the forearm. especially those found in the skull. parathyroid hormone Hormone released by the parathyroid glands that regulates blood calcium level. osteons System of interconnecting canals in the microscopic structure of adult compact bone. by their union. while between every pair of vertebræ are two apertures. parathyroid glands Small endocrine glands located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland. thyroid One of the largest of the body's endocrine glands. os coxae The pelvis (pl. Found in bone marrow metacarpals The metacarpus is the intermediate part of the hand skeleton that is located between the fingers distally and the carpus which forms the connection to the forearm. . Each bone is irregularly quadrilateral in form. (2) series of actions for a specific purpose. occipital Forms most of the posterior wall and base of the skull externally. for the transmission of the spinal nerves and vessels. intramembranous ossification is one of two types of bone formation and is the process responsible for the development of flat bones. processes (1) Prominence or projection. metaphysis the body of cartilage that separates the epiphyses and the diaphysis of long bones during growth. mesenchymal cells are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types. each presents for examination a body and two extremities. and four angles. with one exception. straddles the anterior trachea. four borders. one on either side.

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