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abundant growth of rooted and floating macrophytes. Types of ponds: We can classify ponds in various ways such as Type of ponds According to source water supply classification Spring ponds Sky ponds River ponds Perennial ponds Seasonal ponds Drainable Non-drainable Embankment ponds Excavated ponds Spawning ponds Nursery ponds Rearing ponds Stocking ponds
According to quantity of water supply According to drainage According to construction According to usage and function
y y y y y y y y y y y y y
The primary consideration for the construction of fish ponds are y y y y Selection of site Topography Soil quality Water quality .Embankment pond Planning and construction of ponds: One of the first step in planning pond construction is to determine the type of fish farming programme to be followed: y Whether only growing or stocking pond is desired y Or a complete unit of commercial fish farm is required A pond is constructed by excavating the pond area and using excavated earth to form the pond dikes. Ponds may also be made by damming up dry ravine or creek.
Topography: Topography is defined as surface feature of area.5-1%). common in mangrove areas is also not fit for fish production.Selection of site: y Site should be close to the transportation facilities y Should not be in flood affected areas or near industrial populated areas y Availability of cheap labour. The fourth side where the area drains out should be as narrow as possible. fertilizers. Soil quality: Most suitable soils for a fish pond are heavy clay silt clay clay loam waterlogged areas soil with too much sand or gravel is not suitable because its water holding capacity is very low and rate of seepage is high furthermore sandy banks will crumple down due to water pressure if suitable water tight soil cannot be found then it is possible to treat the bottom with commercial sealing compound such as botonite or asphalt cement due consideration should be given to building ponds in places where water table is low Acid sulphate soil. electricity poles should not stand in water. and extension services are also important factors y High density forest or eroded areas should be avoided y Ponds should not border big roads or canals.electricity. Water quality: y y y y y .fish seeds. The ideal site for a fish pond is one with flat area surrounded on three sides by gentle slopes (.
irrigation canals and rains. nursery. streams.2 to 2 hectares 1. lakes. For commercial farms. rearing. y They are more practical for routine work.An adequate supply of good quality water at low cost. such as topography. It also depends upon how much in cash or labour one is ready to invest. reservoirs. a large area is required Shape: Rectangular ponds are practical to construct and the most practical to manage. such as feeding.. tube wells. Stocking ponds: area depth . seining and checking water quality.Low dike height is preferable to high dikes for four primary reasons: y They are cheaper to construct and maintain. y They allow freer movement of air currents over the pond that improve surface water quality conditions. with high oxygen content and free from pollution may be regarded as good quality water. Moderately clear warm water. good minimum size for such a pond is 15 square meter in area and I m deep. water supply and purpose of fish farm. foraging breeding ponds etc. throughout the year is absolutely essential for commercial fish farming. Dikes: Dike height within 30 to 50 cm range .5 to 2 m If a farmer desire to supply fish to his own family. springs. Size: Size of ponds depends upon factors. Water sources Usual water sources are rivers. wells. and . With proper intake and drainage facilities. which comprise.
y They contribute less eroded silt to the pond water and soil. With 80:20 technology and proper erosion control.5 units laterally for each 1 unit of height is preferred. and they are more easily maintained than steeper sloped dikes.Top surfaces of pond dikes should be completely covered with sod to prevent deterioration of the dikes and prevent erosion siltation of the pond water and bottom soil. . Slope of dike: Dike slope 1. High dikes are usually a result of digging ponds too deeply. Erosion protected: Dikes erosion protected . because such slopes help prevent dike collapse.5:1 from top to bottom . Undesirable vegetative growth may develop in the water along the shore of shallower sloped dikes. A rip-rap collar extending vertically about 15 cm below and above the water line around the entire pond will help prevent both erosion and dike collapse.Dike slope of about 1. pond bottoms will not accumulate the anaerobic muds common in traditionally managed ponds in China.