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THE CONSTRUCTION OF A CURRICULUM FOR TECHNOLOGICAL COURSES IN THE MODALITY OF DL
PERETTI, André P.
UNOPAR – Universidade Norte do Paraná – firstname.lastname@example.org
ASSIS, Elisa M.
UNOPAR – Universidade Norte do Paraná – email@example.com
BATISTA, Cleide V. M.
UNOPAR – Universidade Norte do Paraná – firstname.lastname@example.org
KFOURI, Samira F.
UNOPAR – Universidade Norte do Paraná – email@example.com
RAMPAZZO, Sandra R. R.
UNOPAR – Universidade Norte do Paraná – firstname.lastname@example.org
Theme: Promoting Quality in Distance, Flexible and ICT-based Education CATEGORIES: Post-Secondary or University Education With the objective to attend people that desire a quality graduation, in tuning with the most elaborate educational tendencies, supported by an academic structure with solid theoretical-practices bases, we present the graduation courses of tecnology system of presential connected education of UNOPAR. Modality DL. During a long time the defenitions of a curriculum occurred by the activities carried out inside the University, distributed in agreement with a a pre determined organization, with selected contents and general rules of avaluation. Arising, by this concept, ideas of curricular activities without an inter-objective and clear relation. However, in the structure of pedagogical project of the tecnology graduation courses, in Distance Learning, the methodological approach is constituted in a multi discipline form, in the sense to prepare the new generations to live together, share and cooperate in the broad global society in a democratic and whole form. In this sense, the pedagogical project and the development of the curricular proposal contemplate the virtual classroom where cultural contents, values, habilities and procedures promote the construction of knowlege, using web tools as support for self study and colaroative learning. So, the curriculum of the proposed course is worked in the perspective of conception of concept maps giving conditions to the future technician to understand, analyze and explain the organizations of which he
2 participates, permitting to build, in a conscious and sistemic form, his administrative practice. Key-words: curriculum, technological, distance learning, pedagogical model, concept map.
3 1. Introduction In our globalized world, where quick changes in the society and in culture are big certainties, grows more and more the demand of solutions that guarantees the permanence of the organizations in a more and more competitive market. In the companies world the changes are quick, intense and more outstanding, however, they are not perceived by the big public, therefore occur inside the companies. The business change needs to happen in the direction of modernization, especially, based in the research and technological innovation, contemplating the applicability of the concepts learned. On the basis of that reality the North University of Paraná understands that the offering of graduate courses of technology is going to help many professionals and students all over Brazil, since the Course is offered in the modality of distance learning, through the Connected Presential Education System. 1.1. Philosophy and Purposes From the integration point of view, we understand that upon drawing a strategic directive with the intention of promoting the qualification of the population, we search for an elevation in the educational profile and level of qualification. This practice integrates the objective of the Education, Work, Science and Technology sectors that promote and assure the insertion of the state in the society of knowledge. 1.2. Conception of the curriculum During a long time the definitions of curriculum occurred because of the activities carried out inside the school, distributed according to a pre-determined organization, selected contents and general rules of evaluation, arising, by means of that conception, ideas of curricular activities. This way, we considered curriculum only what was systematically planned to function in general at school and particularly at the university. It brought, therefore, in its original idea the need to be built by the university, as an instrument that guided it in its objective to graduate. The social activities and the experience that the students brought with them were considered as a stretch of their curriculum and perceived as unlike them (defined a hierarch of status of the students as well as his concealed curriculum). The research was seen in an independent form and not always related with the education project. However, in the structure of the pedagogical project of the graduate courses in technology, in the modality of distance learning, through the System of Connected Present Education, we have felt the necessity to enlarge the concept of curriculum, that should be Concept like cultural construction that provides the acquisition of knowledge in an articulated form, considering contents and disciplines not in a linear and fragmented form, but articulated in a net of inter-relations that can guarantee the vision of totality as already referred, that promotes the formation of committed, ethical, and professional citizens. The methodological approach is constituted of interdisciplinary form, in the sense of preparing the new generations to live together, share and
4 cooperate in a broad global society in a supportive and democratic form. In that sense, the pedagogical project and the development of the curricular proposal contemplates the classroom as a space in which the cultural contents, values, abilities and procedures promote the construction of the knowledge. In this theoretical-practical construction, different disciplines should analyze, explain, propose reflections about the object of knowledge of sciences that composes the curriculum, deepening and debating ideas, investigating and experiencing scientific, ethical, political, and technical contents to provide a significant learning. By its theoretical-practical nature, essentially organic, the curriculum should be constituted as much as knowledge, competences and abilities combined as for the objectives that it seeks to achieve. This way, we define curriculum as all and any academic activities combined that are part of a course. This definition introduces the concept of curricular academic activity as been considered relevant for the student to acquire the necessary competence and abilities for his education, so that it can be evaluated internally and externally as transforming and continuous process, concept that does not exclude the conventional disciplines. The curricular academic activities of the Course are organized and unfolded in five modules, from study areas, planning to guarantee the coherence between the areas of knowledge of the course, to knowledge: EXAMPLE OF THE GRADUATE TECHNOLOGICAL COURSE IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES: Module I – Administration theories and Human Resources; Module II – Marketing analysis; Module III – Corporative finance; Module IV – Production and Organizational Logistics (Supply Chain) Module V – Entrepreneurship The curricular structure of the course is based in a structured map in a form to permit the articulation of the different areas of knowledge in management of small and medium companies, by collective and individual work, contemplating the enclosure of studies and researches, as well as of subjects and regional matters, maintaining the necessary flexibility for the development of competences and abilities of the students. The curricular matrix of the Course and the interconnection of the different disciplines, in an interdisciplinary form providing an ethics formation, innovative and criticism turned to the comprehension of the present social and organizational environment. The faculty, upon elaborating the program of the disciplines, should take in consideration the involvement of the student and promote the integration with his pair in the diverse dimensions of education. We are dealing with an evolution of the traditional system of classes in aid of an approach of education where the professor is the mediator and the student is the builder of knowledge through pedagogical articulations that involve activities of self, individual and or groups study.
2. Pedagogical Model: Significant Learning One of the principles for achieving this purpose is the systemic vision that meets the intention of the conceited maps that is integration, interrelation and articulation of the contents. The systemic theory criticizes the vision of the world in different areas organized in a separate and isolated form. Applying this theory to a graduate course, its proposal is contrary to the education and training in isolated disciplines without inter-objective and clear relation. This separation is arbitrary and with solid borders defined, what causes empty spaces between them. However, the Administration of Small and Medium Companies, while knowledge area is not divided, and the proposal of the Graduate Course of Technology is going to form the technician based in the combined competences acquired in the sum of all the disciplines of inter-related form and put into context. The map also seeks to position a discipline as a whole, in the System that is a Graduate Course, facilitating to the student and to the professors the correlation and the interdependence with other disciplines. The option for the map has the purpose to provide the academic community a pedagogical script that enables: I.The student to understand the implications of the programmatic contents and the inter-relation of it, as well as the applicability of practice in his professional activity, becoming its training in a constant search for the knowledge and critical analysis, since it will be conscious of the direction expected of the activities developed; II.To the specialist professor to establish his discipline an articulated content with the others, having as a premise to of a significant learning based in the coherence between the theory and the practical, having research as an essential element and integrator of the curriculum; III.To the electronic tutors and of room tutors the essential points for orientation and accompaniment of the students, assuring the cognitive stimulus of them, promoting the "discovery" of the concepts and its correlation with the already presented and with the coming concepts, avoiding this way only a simple presentation of them; IV.The coordination of the course is an instrument promoter of the pedagogical articulation that help in the attainment and in the development of the competences that will qualify the future technician in the performance of the Administration of Small and Medium Companies, proposed by the project. This way, the Maps of the Course and of the Pedagogical Articulation should not be taken as an end, but as a graphic representation of the pedagogical proposal and of the curricular structure idealized so that it may be possible. Therefore the interpretation of a map cannot be of conclusive or definite form, but as a presentation of evolutives concepts that are altered according to the knowledge acquired and cognitive structure of who sees it and analyzes. As additional integrator element, each module also counts with an
6 interdisciplinary paper that has the function of associating all the programmatic contents presented in the module. The interdisciplinary paper is always based in the research and in the last module it is based in contents of interdisciplinary papers developed in previous modules. This way the tele-classes discriminated in the map as pedagogical articulation has also the objective to present new contents, but mainly to correlate what was approached previously in the discipline with the global objective of the course. It seeks to acclimatize the student in the profession of technician in Administration of Small and Medium Companies making it clear in a practical form the contribution that the discipline provided for its overall formation. 3. Concept Map: Development of the Competences in the Course The Concept map of the course, presents a curricular structure turned to the development of competences, where: • the course is idealized for the development of specific competences, from catalysts elements boosted by the specialists professors; • the elements considered like catalysts are: self study supported by the digital library; practice of research; participation in forums/groups of argument in the web environment; local practical projects; mandatory curricular period of training and course conclusion paper; • Each module counts with an interdisciplinary paper with the function of integrating all of the programmatic contents presented in the module, which should be based in research. The interdisciplinary activity of the last module will be developed with base in the contents of the interdisciplinary activities of the previous modules; • each module will count with a programmatic content (CP) available previously to the student in an electronic or printed form that will be developed in: tele classes and classes-activities (TA); activities of portfolio (AP); exercises of self study (EX); interdisciplinary papers (TI); 3.1. Concept Map of the Course MODULE I – Administration Theories and Human Resources The Theories of Administration of Human Resources include the themes of subjects with which the managers of human resources come face to face and reflects the changes carried out in the administration of personnel in the last few years, providing to the student a better perception of the challenges and opportunities of the new millennium. This module includes the necessary topics for the achievement of an efficient administration of human resources, in the sector of analysis of the labor market and of the study of recruitment process, selection and training of personnel, putting into context the Brazilian reality of small and medium companies to the applicability of the concepts and matters approached in the tele-classes.
Figure 01 – Concept Map of the Programmatic Content for Theories of Administration and Human Resources
CP- Programmatic content; TI- Interdisciplinary paper; AP- Portfolio activity; EX- Self study exercises; TA- Tele-classes
MODULE II – Marketing Analysis The study of Marketing Analysis techniques permits the students to awake the interest and the learning, leading them to work with the realities imposed by the market and utilized in small and medium companies, making them apt to interfere in the organizations, understanding the importance of the marketing administration to the reach of the organizational objectives. The marketing analysis is indispensable when you intend to conquer
8 segments and enables a competitive and concrete positioning in the market. MODULE III – Corporative Finances The structure of the module of Corporate Finances was planned in a way to qualify the students to utilize the concepts and financial practices in the process of decision-making in situations, competitive environments and capital market. This module provides a more specific understanding in the area of corporate finances and offering subsidies for the development of the reflection capacity, analysis and synthesis; making the students capable of applying fully the tools presented to them during the module, using the knowledge and the necessary techniques for analysis and financial decision-making. MODULE IV - Production and Organizational Logistics (Supply Chain) According to area of activity of the company, it is fundamental that the professional is prepared to execute activities related to the areas of Production and Organizational Logistics. This module provides knowledge about the techniques utilized in the everyday life of a company, showing the line of administration and conduction of the production sectors, in order to make the results more controllable and more efficient, utilizing the information technology as a strategic and operational support to the sectors of production, logistics and supply chain. It contemplates also the study and techniques of Business Simulation in diverse environments of business. MODULE V – Entrepreneurship The Entrepreneurship is a determinant factor for obtaining success. Being capable of detecting opportunities, evaluate risks, choose qualified collaborators and delineate effective action plans are some of the fundamental abilities. The Entrepreneurship consists of the ability to innovate in organizational and personal projects, it is the art to carry out the activities with creativity and motivation, reconciling theory, science and practice, assuming an active behavior faced with routine questions, challenges and risks that arise facing the opportunities. 3.2. Concept Map: Pedagogical articulation in the Course The Concept map of the pedagogical articulation presents a proposal of significant learning, in which the specialist professor develops his programmatic content: • Establish the structure of the meanings that it intends to present to the students. • Identify the essential points necessary for the presentation of this structure. • Try to understand the cognitive structure of the students, considering the other contents presented by other specialist professors, and consequently, boosting the knowledge already acquired; • organize the programmatic content so that the student can develop
9 the progressive differentiation of the concepts presented and enabling the student the reconciliation with those contents during the course, as well as in its theoretical activities and practical; present the programmatic content to the student so that it may be possible (for student) with his cognitive capacity establish “bridges” between the meanings already absorbed and the necessary meanings to a technician; subsidize the student in the development of the interdisciplinary activity of the current module, qualify-him to the interdisciplinary activity of the last module, which related to his mandatory curricular period of training will prepare him as the Technician in Administration of Small and Medium Companies; elaborate the other activities of the portfolio so that it can be a preparation for a specific pedagogical articulation or to inter-relation of two or more pedagogical articulations and or the integration of two or more programmatic contents; participate with the pedagogical faculty of the course in the structuring of pedagogical articulations that provide the student (as mentioned previously) the correlation of the matters presented in the programmatic content to the other programmatic contents developed in the course (past and future), in the which it will be done the practical contextualization of these contents, still being seen several pedagogical information about the participation in the Connected Presential Education System, everything aiming to the preparation of the student for the development of the current interdisciplinary activity. The pedagogical articulations should enable the student to develop a progressive differentiation of the concepts presented and in these pedagogical articulations we expect the student to be able to reconcile in an integrative form the main concepts presented to him during the activities of the course.
Table – Programmatic content of the pedagogical articulation.
Programmatic content Subject 5ADM002 – ADMINISTRATIVE PROCESS 5ADM001 – ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR 5CON001 – SOCIAL AND ECONOMICS ANALYSIS 5ADM003 – HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 5MKT002 – MARKETING 5MKT001 – CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 5ADM012 – PRACTICES OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 5MAT004 – COSTS AND PRICE FORMATION 5CON002 – MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING 5MAT005 – FINANCIAL MATHMETICS 5CON003 – BUSINESS FINANCES 5CON004 – BUDGETARY AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT 5CCO001 – TECHNOLOGIAL RESOURCES AND COMPUTING 5MKT003 – INTRODUCTION TO LOGISTICS 5MKT004 – SUPPLY CHAIN AND PRODUCTION 5ADM004 – BUSINESS SIMULATION Content Programmatic CP01 CP02 CP03 CP04 CP05 CP06 CP07 CP08 CP09 CP10 CP11 CP12 CP13 CP14 CP15 CP16 TELE Class TA04 TA08 TA12 TA16 TA20 TA24 TA28 TA32 TA36 TA40 TA44 TA48 TA52 TA56 TA60 TA64
5DIR001 – BUSINESS LAW 5ADM006 – STRATEGIC ADMINISTRATION 5ADM005 – PRACTICE PERIOD OF ORIENTED TRAINING 5ADM007 – BUSINESS PLAN AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP CP17 CP18 CP19 CP20 TA68 TA72 TA76 TA80
4. Consulted Bibliography AUSUBEL, D.P.; NOVAK, J.D. e HANESIAN, H. Psicologia Educacional. Rio de Janeiro: Interamericana, 1980. FARIA, de Wilson. Mapas Conceituais: Aplicações ao ensino, currículo e avaliação. São Paulo: EPU - Temas Básicos de educação e ensino, 1995. KAWASAKI, Evelise I. FERNANDES, Clóvis T. Modelos para Projeto de Cursos Hipermídia. Tese de Mestrado, Divisão de Ciência da Computação, Instituto Tecnológico da Aeronáutica. São José dos Campos, 1996.
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