Thermophysical Properties of Materials
For Nuclear Engineering:
A Tutorial and Collection of Data

INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY
VIENNA 2008

The originating Section of this publication in the IAEA was:
Nuclear Power Technology Development Section
International Atomic Energy Agency
Wagramer Strasse 5
P.O. Box 100
A-1400 Vienna, Austria

THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS FOR NUCLEAR ENGINEERING:
A TUTORIAL AND COLLECTION OF DATA
IAEA, VIENNA, 2008
IAEA-THPH
ISBN 978–92–0–106508–7
© IAEA, 2008
Printed by the IAEA in Austria
November 2008

FOREWORD
Renewed interest in the potential of nuclear energy to contribute to a sustainable worldwide
energy mix is strengthening the IAEA’s statutory role in fostering the peaceful uses of nuclear
energy, in particular the need for effective exchanges of information and collaborative
research and technology development among Member States on advanced nuclear power
technologies (Articles III-A.1 and III-A.3).
To meet Member States’ needs, the IAEA conducts activities to foster information exchange
and collaborative research development in the area of advanced nuclear reactor technologies.
These activities, implemented with the advice and support of the various technical working
groups of the IAEA’s Department of Nuclear Energy, include coordination of collaborative
research, organization of international information exchange and analyses of globally
available technical data and results, with a focus on reducing nuclear power plant capital costs
and construction periods while further improving performance, safety and proliferation
resistance. In other activities, evolutionary and innovative advances are catalyzed for all
reactor lines such as advanced water cooled reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors,
liquid metal cooled reactors and accelerator driven systems, including small and medium
sized reactors. In addition, there are activities related to other applications of nuclear energy
such as seawater desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications.
Of particular interest is the collection and dissemination of up to date scientific and technical
data, also in view of knowledge preservation and transmission the next generation of
scientists and engineers.
This publication provides a comprehensive summary of the thermophysical properties data
needed in nuclear power engineering, viz. data for nuclear fuels (metallic and ceramic),
coolants (gases, light water, heavy water, liquid metals), moderators, absorbers, structural
materials. The correlations and equations are given, which are needed for estimation of
material properties, including thermodynamic properties (density, enthalpy, specific heat
capacity, melting and boiling points, heat of fusion and vapourization, vapour pressure,
thermal expansion, surface tension), and transport properties (thermal conductivity and
thermal diffusivity, viscosity, integral thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, and
emissivity). The detailed material properties for both solid and liquid states are shown in
tabular form. The data on thermphysical properties of saturated vapours of some metals are
also given.
The driving force behind this publication was P.L. Kirillov of the Obninsk Institute for
Atomic Power Engineering (OIATE). The IAEA would like to express its appreciation to him
and to the contributors listed at the end of this publication. The IAEA officer responsible for
this publication was A. Stanculescu from the Division of Nuclear Power.

. as to the legal status of such countries or territories.EDITORIAL NOTE The use of particular designations of countries or territories does not imply any judgement by the publisher. The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights. the IAEA. of their authorities and institutions or of the delimitation of their boundaries. nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the IAEA.

......3. 135 References to Section 4.. 38 2. K............... 121 Graphite (carbon)...3........... Na...........3........... GENERAL INFORMATION................................ Pb................2......................... Cs... 34 2....4... 81 3............3.................................. Water (H2O)... 59 3............................................4.. PbBi............................................................................ Thermophysical properties of vapours of some metals (Li............................................................................ Tables of thermophysical properties ................. Na....................CONTENTS INTRODUCTION....................................... MODERATORS..... 140 ................. 56 3......................................................3....4................... Hg....4....................................................................................................................... Uranium dioxide...................................1................... 4.....................................................3...................................1............................................ Thorium.. NaKCs............................................... 131 4... 56 3...................................................................................... 56 3.................. PbLi ......... Pb............. K........ PbLi)..............1......................................................................... Liquid metals ............................................................................1....3.................2........................4.................................................................. Plutonium dioxide ...................... Plutonium ......... Properties of liquid beryllium depending on temperature.... PbBi. Ga.............................................................3.............................4.. 118 4................................ Gases..................... 18 2................................. 24 2................................4............. 81 3................ Bi....... Beryllium oxide .............................................1...................................................... Na................... Mixed oxide fuel MOX — (U...........................................................1................ Cs)...........2............................................. 124 Beryllium ........................................... In...2.......................................... alloys NaK...........................2..........2...3............ 56 3............................................................................................................................................................. NUCLEAR FUEL.................... 44 References to Section 2.............................................. In.......... Pu)O2 ........2.............. Uranium..............1..........................1...... 24 2.. Basic thermophysical properties (Li................. 3 References to Introduction And Section 1.................. 130 4...............................2... 1 1.................... 4.......................... 21 2........1......... Uranium carbide......... 121 4............3................ 36 2......................... General performance of fissile materials and nuclear fuel .. 81 3................................................................................ 70 3.................................... 134 4. 49 3.......... Air ................. Uranium mononitride ........2.................................2.............1.............................................5....... 116 References to Section 3.............. 14 2........... 2..........................4....... Properties of solid beryllium depending on temperature .......3...... 14 2.3.............3................ Basic properties of moderators .. COOLANTS.................................... Approxcimate correlations and comments to tables on thermophysical properties (Li. K... 11 Metallic fuel...... Heavy water (D2O) ........................................ Bi.......... Helium........... 92 3...... Cs................ alloys NaK................................ Hg.............. 8 2.......................2..................................................... NaKCs........................................ 11 2...................................... Ga..... Ceramic fuel .....................

.................................................. 188 SYMBOLS ......... 170 6............... Nickel based alloys.............................................................3...... Steels...5..............2......................................... Magnesium....... 145 5.......6.............................................................2 General information........ 145 5.............. 148 6........................ 184 APPENDIX 4: GENERAL PLANT DATA OF RBMK TYPE REACTORS........... 191 .......................................... Shielding materials ........ 151 6. 145 References to Section 5....................... Boron (natural) .......................................4......................................................... 147 6.............1..................................... 152 6.......3..................................1.... Refractory metals...... 151 6..................2......................................1..................................................................................... 172 6.................................................. Aluminium ...................................................................................... High temperature stainless chromium-nickel (austenitic) steels......2..3............................................................................................1................... 151 6...... 164 6.................................................................... 189 CONTRIBUTORS TO DRAFTING AND REVIEW .........................3..............................3...1.............................................. Burnable absorbers . Materials of control rods............................ 174 APPENDIX 1: CONVERSION FACTORS OF SOME UNITS ........................................................ 159 6.............. 142 5.......................................2............................ Zirconium and its alloys................................................................... 142 5...... High temperature stainless chromium steels....................................................2.................... STRUCTURAL MATERIALS ..................................... AgInCd alloy ............................... 172 References to Section 6...................................... 6......................1...................... ABSORBING MATERIALS ...................................... 180 APPENDIX 3: GENERAL PLANT DATA OF FAST REACTORS COOLED BY LIQUID METAL .. Hafnium................................................................................................ 148 Metals .............................................1............................................... 142 5.......5.....................2............... 159 6..........................2.............................................................................................................1.. 179 APPENDIX 2: GENERAL PLANT DATA OF WWER TYPE REACTORS.....................................................

.. 6..1...2.5.2.… 6. Zirconium and its alloys……………………………..4.………………….5 (E-125)……. Zirconium-niobium (2. Properties of austenite stainless steel type 316 in solid state depending on temperature…………………………………….3. 6..……..3.…………. 6.3. 6. 6. Austenitic stainless steel type 316…………………………………... 6. Properties of liquid zirconium depending on temperature……….3.…. Zirconium-niobium alloy type E-365………………………..……………… 6.3. High temperature stainless chromium steels……….…... References to Section 6……………………………………………………………...3. 6.3. 6. 6..1. 183 APPENDIX 4 General plant data of RMBK-type reactors………………………. Nickel-based alloys……………………………………………………………. 6. Martensitic chromium steels………………………………………...2.………………………….2.6.……..2..…….……..1..…………………….2..3..………… 179 APPENDIX 3 General plant data of fast reactors cooled by liquid metal….. 6..……………. Steels………………………………………………………………………….3...2.… 188 LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS………………………………….5.2. Zirconium-niobium (1%) alloy type N-1 (E-110)…………….2..……………. Properties of austenite stainless steel type 316 in liquid state depending on temperature………………………………………….1...4.…….3..2..3.….2. Ferrite steels…………………………………………………………..… 6...1.2.…….3. 6.………. 6... Metals……………………………………………………………. High temperature stainless chromium-nickel (austenitic) steels…….2..1..………………….1. Magnesium………………………………………….1..3.3.. 6.3... 189 . 174 165 166 168 168 170 APPENDIX 1 Conversion factors of some units…………………………... Properties of solid zirconium depending on temperature…………… 6.3...3.6.2...2.. Pearlitic steels……………………………………………………….…..2..…….……………… 6.. 6. Shielding materials……………………………………….2.… 178 APPENDIX 2 General plant data of VVER-type reactors……………….………. Refractory metals……………………………………………………………………. 148 148 148 149 150 151 152 154 155 156 156 159 159 161 156 161 164 LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………………….5%) alloy type N-2. Aluminum…….3.. 187 LIST OF SYMBOLS……………………………………………………….....

Li and others) are addressed. The results of the research work on thermophysical properties of materials for the first fifteen years of nuclear power engineering development in the Soviet Union (1950–65) are reviewed in a reference book [1]. rather than on temperature alone. specific heat capacity. radiation exposure and other unidentified factors. proceedings of international conferences. The data presented were obtained by compilation of unclassified publications (more than 290 references) being in the public domain. Section 2 contains the data on nuclear fuel including general performance of fissile materials and selected types of fuel.1 MPa).INTRODUCTION The knowledge of thermophysical properties of materials is essential for designing nuclear power plants (NPP). such as structure. Thermophysical properties of materials depend on various factors. reference books. and thermophysical properties of most widely applicable materials under normal conditions (20°С. D2O). liquid metals. PbBi. production technology. IAEA reports and Internet materials. monographs. properties of 1 . The references are given at the end of each section. The methodology of data processing of the SSC RF-IPPE Thermophysical Data Center and the teaching experience of OIATE have been taken into account. plutonium. In this section. melting and boiling points. NaK. In the Obninsk Institute for Atomic Power Engineering (OIATE) some short methodic reference editions on thermophysical properties of materials assigned to students were published in 1987–94 [2–4]. The collection contains data on the properties of materials for solid and liquid states. their vapours and alloys (Na. Pb. However. This collection of data is developed for the benefit of the students majoring in power engineering as a support for the preparation of term papers. The subject structure of the publication is in agreement with the content of the IAEA report on ‘Thermophysical Properties of Materials for Water Cooled Reactors’ [5] and the classification of the Material Properties Database ‘MATPORP’ of the International Nuclear Safety Center of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) available on the Internet web site [6]. 8]. 0. thermophysical properties of coolants including some gases. and thorium) and ceramic (uranium dioxide. including thermodynamic properties (density. such as articles in journals. viscosity. The comparative characteristics of the thermal conductivity of various substances and metals are presented both as diagrams and in tabulated form. In Section 3. porosity. diploma projects. heat of fusion and vapourization. electrical conductivity. The data on the properties of liquid metals and alloys are based on the review [10]. enthalpy. water (H2O. thermal expansion. it proved to be a pressing-need to prepare a reference edition on thermophysical properties of materials applied in NPP in terms of the present-day knowledge. thermal diffusivity. integral thermal conductivity. This must be considered in solving specific problems. The publication consists of six sections and four appendices. thermal treatment. uranium nitride and carbide). mixed oxide fuel MOX. educational editions. and emissivity). the data on thermophysical fuel properties are generalized: metallic (uranium. surface tension) and transport properties (thermal conductivity. spectrum of electromagnetic radiation [9]. Section 1 introduces the data on physical constants [7. The tables of thermophysical properties of materials for corresponding temperature ranges were obtained based on the formulas given in the tutorial using Excel and MATHCAD. resolving problems for various courses in the nuclear power engineering programme. preprints.

in spite of continuing attempts. the table on conversion factors of some units is presented. graphite) are given based on monographs [15. the general data plant of main reactor types (WWER. boron carbide. which were provided to SSC RF-IPPE by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) under the agreement for mutual scientific and technical cooperation. Section 5 is devoted to the properties of neutron absorbers. 19] and IAEA reports [16. and beryllium oxide.Vapours in Ref. In the first appendix to the tutorial. 17]. a number of traditional alloys and steels used in the power industry and nuclear power engineering are addressed. 2 . molten salts and other advanced coolants. the properties of heavy water on Hill’s tables [14]. 13]. Section 4 outlines the characteristics of basic moderators such as graphite. In Section 6. 18. In the next three appendixes. AgInCd alloy). fast. properties of structural materials including metals. It was considered unreasonable to include in the tutorial the thermophysical data of high temperature organic coolants. The properties of light water are based on the tables in Refs [12. which have not yet found application in nuclear engineering. which are used in control devices and burnable absorbers (boron. [11]. beryllium.

1. Spectrum of electromagnetic radiations [9].187241 × 10−14 J = 9.022 × 1023 mol−1 F = 96485 C/mol R = 8.3807 × 10−23 J/K σo = 5.670 × 10−8 W/(m2⋅K 4) C1 = 2hc2 = 3.602 × 10−19 C 1836.626 × 10−34 J⋅s h/2π = 1. TABLE 1. GENERAL INFORMATION This Section provides a summary of general data encountered in nuclear engineering.998 × 108 m/s G = 6. PHYSICAL CONSTANTS Property Speed of light in vacuum Gravity constant Plank constant Avogadro constant Faraday constant Universal gas constant Boltzmann constant Stefan-Boltzmann constant First constant of radiation Second constant of radiation Wien constant Solar constant Acceleration of gravity (standard) Proton mass Neutron mass Electron mass Electron charge Ratio mp/me Electron-volt Value c = 2.602 × 10−19 J 3 .672 × 10−11 N⋅m2/kg2 H = 6.153 1eV = 1.055 × 10−34 J⋅s NA = 6.674928 × 10−27 kg me = 8.672623 × 10−27 kg mn = 1.742 × 10−16 W⋅m2 C2 = hc/k = 0.8066 m/s2 mp = 1.1.1. FIG.503302 × 10−10 J = 1.8978 × 10−3 m⋅K S = 1325 W/m2 go = 9.109 × 10−31 kg 1. 1.314 J/(mol⋅K) k = R/NA=1.505374 × 10−10 J = 1.01439 m⋅K C3 = λmax⋅T = 2.

UC2.2. UO2 are in Refs [1. [26]. 20]. Thermal conductivity of various materials at 0. on steels and industrial materials in Refs [23–25].FIG. on Th and other metals in Refs [21. 1. on gases and liquids at saturation line in Ref.1 Mpa. 22]. The data on U. 4 .

6 98. 27] Thermal Temp.6 - Temp.3 31.9 7.5 - 5 .9 21.2 32.0 22.6 1000 65.2.8 20.8 76.3 33.8 68.3 96.3 16.9 500 86.1 6.4 50.4 61.7 67.9 BISMUTH (Bi) 300 350 400 500 544.6 1600 25.7 800 75.0 1400 23.6 6.7 116 111 107 103 99.9 CHROMIUM (Cr) 300 93.8 80.7 21. K Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) TITANIUM (Ti) 300 21.1 1600 91.8 TIN (Sn) 300 400 505.1 GOLD (Au) 300 400 600 800 1000 1200 317 311 298 284 270 255 CADMIUM (Cd) 300 400 500 594.4 20 24 TANTALUM (Ta) 300 600 800 1000 1400 1800 2000 2400 2800 3200 - 57.3 14.8 31.6 24.3 35.9 THORIUM (Th) [21] 300 400 500 600 800 1000 1200 1500 35.3 ZIRCONIUM (Zr) 300 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 - 21.5 - Temp.2 19. conductivity K W/(m⋅K) COPPER (Cu) 300 401 400 393 500 386 600 379 800 366 1000 352 1200 339 MOLYBDENUM (Mo) 300 400 600 800 1000 1200 1500 1800 2000 2200 138 134 126 118 112 105 98 93 90 88 SODIUM (Na) 273 300 350 371.7 1200 22.8 6.7 1200 43.0 19.5 16.4 SILVER (Ag) 300 400 600 800 1000 1200 429 425 412 396 379 361 ANTIMONY (Sb) 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 24.5 TUNGSTEN (W) 300 400 600 800 1000 1200 1500 2000 2500 3000 174 159 137 125 118 113 107 100 95 91 HAFNIUM (Hf) 300 400 600 800 1000 1400 1600 1900 - 23.6 1400 87.8 104 102 98.8 1600 55.1 21.4 45.5 25.0 32.6 7.0 6.4 600 19.9 1400 58.9 28.7 43.9 400 20.2 111 119 126 114 92 43.0 7. 22.0 600 80.2 63.9 2000 99.9 48.6 7.4 77.4 1200 61.5 61.2 5.3 1900 27.6 400 24.7 92.0 68.5 COBALT (Co) 300 400 500 600 800 1000 1200 1500 - 71.6 1000 78.2 40.7 400 90.5 22.8 94.5 URANIUM (U) [5] 300 22.7 1000 20.4 82.6 ZINC (Zn) 300 400 500 600 692.3 20.0 POTASSIUM (К) 273 300 336.1 1000 38. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOLID PURE METALS AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES [21.8 11 12 13 14 Thermal Temp.7 - LITHIUM (Li) 273 300 350 400 453.7 35.5 800 34.4 17.6 62.0 28.2 69.4 800 19.6 33.3 1400 47.4 7.7 31. conductivity K W/(m⋅K) ALUMINIUM (Al) 300 237 400 240 500 236 600 236 700 225 800 218 933.6 65.6 NIOBIUM (Nb) 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 51.2 62.0 19.3 LEAD (Pb) 300 350 400 500 600.3 32.2 800 75.8 63.4 66.4 66.9 84.2 59.3 54.6 8.3 21.2 72. K 300 400 500 600 800 1000 1400 1500 Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) IRON (Fe) 80.8 43.0 88.4 64.5 208 BERYLLIUM (Be) 300 400 500 600 800 1000 1200 1400 200 161 139 126 106 91 79 69 VANADIUM (V) 300 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 30.7 55.5 58.7 38.7 1200 82.2 80.2 18.6 19.6 59.4 PLUTONIUM (Pu) [21] 300 400 450 500 550 600 700 800 900 1000 5.8 31.5 31.2 MAGNESIUM (Mg) 300 400 500 600 800 923.9 69.4 60.7 82. K Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) PLATINUM (Pt) 300 71.0 142 141 139 132 NICKEL (Ni) 300 400 500 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1500 90.4 7.1 - 66.4 66.2 58.3 - Temp.9 600 29.2 8.7 80.3 34.1 65.7 85.4 6.2 156 153 151 149 146 145 MANGANESE (Mn) 300 700 800 900 1000 7.8 9.5 23.2 61.7 34.TABLE 1.8 600 73.6 400 71.6 71.

3 48.4 63.1 23.6 Krypton (Kr) 0.6 Propane (С3Н8) 0.8 − − − − Nitrogen (N2) Hydrogen (H2) Helium (He) Oxygen (О2) Methane (СН4) Carbon dioxide (СО2) 6 .8 32.0 51.6 48.3 16.8 45.8 65.2 24.0 67.7 56.7 10.5 84.3 42.9 18.9 74.5 85.9 76.2 76.7 11.4 29.5 39.1 14.0 27.5 54.6 36.1 − − − − − 10.4 21.1 15.2 − − − − 5.7 0.0 62.1 30.3 16.3 73.7 81.6 51.1 78.7 22.7 70.5 50.9 48.8 38.2 7.7 35.0 94.7 48.0 72.2 Sulfur dioxide (SO2) 0.TABLE 1.1 24.4 12.1 24.4 29.9 86.0 31.6 33.6 10.1 59.1 99.8 0.0 21.2 11.6 45.3 64.5 − − Fluor (F2) 0.4 68.2 33.1 5.7 17.2 59.7 57.4 53.1 84.1 80.7 46.5 30.4 Carbon tetra Chloride (CCl4) 0.4 12. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GASES AND VAPOURS λ⋅(W/m⋅K) [11.6 79.7 17.0 20.4 41.0 95.3 51.1 8.0 40.7 8.7 13.9 75.0 104 124 − − Argon (Ar) 0.02 8.0 20.9 66.3.6 5.3 57.4 57.5 17.9 30.7 10.1 143 174 209 242 270 297 323 372 423 30.0 67.2 43.0 39.2 30.8 11.8 19.1 − − 7.0 160 183 220 251 279 307 329 377 427 0.3 Xenon (Хе) 0.7 14.5 46.9 61.4 74.1 − 8.5 84.5 58.1 23.5 39.9 37.4 48.2 86.0 25.9 11.0 43.1 14.0 210 246 282 313 345 380 413 486 567 0.1 69.1 8.4 14.6 14.8 53.4 45.6 21.0 34.0 61.2 23.7 59.0 − − − − − Neon (Ne) 0.1 169 214 256 290 332 368 403 477 557 50.1 53.4 56.3 Ammonia (NH3) 0.8 21.3 60.2 38.5 42. 26] Temperature Gas (Vapour) Pressure MPa °C 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 800 1000 0.8 30.3 54.1 21.1 7.6 85.6 61.5 54.1 46.0 13.2 36.8 103 118 − Carbon oxide (СО) 0.5 − − − − Chlorine (Cl2) 0.8 52.4 43.4 88.1 30.7 64.8 53.6 70.1 52.1 16.0 48.6 0.7 84.3 57.6 50.9 48.3 55.8 − − − Mercury (Hg) 0.4 47.0 80.5 82.0 − 26.2 64.1 33.6 20.0 35.1 59.2 25.3 30.3 27.2 19.8 46.1 62.0 54.1 36.

THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS [4.3 41.5 Mg) Iron Gold Iridium Indium Cadmium Potassium Cobalt Constantan (60Сu.9 3.9 37 30 88.8 39.6 16.0 8.9 Niobium Nichrome (80 Ni.7 9480 20 2790 912 165 64. 12.2 6.0 24.5 87.1 151 35 418 52 44.7 9.0 116 111 53.6 14300 50 20 20 6120 9800 19000 498 129 138 31. 25 Pb. 1 Pb) Vanadium Bismuth Tungsten Wood’s metal (50 Bi.4.2 12.2 71.TABLE 1.2 100 69. 6 Sn.0 44.0 11600 7170 7150 9850 17300 4030 17600 6540 7 . 0.4 174 10.5 Cu. 40 Ni) Lithium Magnesium Copper 99.3 170 13.7 24700 24300 20 8800 377 61.9 7340 20 7800 486 10.7 24.6 49. 20 Cr) Tin Palladium Platinum Plutonium Rhenium Rhodium Lead Argentum Carbon steel (St.9 Chromium Cesium Zinc Zirconium 20 20 2700 1848 945 1780 238 180 93.19 9080 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 700 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 534 1740 8960 8300 10200 970 8900 8570 8400 8130 7290 11970 21500 19840 21020 12500 11340 10497 7860 3570 1050 385 419 272 1234 450 267 440 615 221 242 133 130 138 246 127 234 483 85 159 401 386 147 130 92 52.26 26.2 6.99 Beryllium Bronze (84 Cu.1 24. 9Zn. 4.9 125 49.0 112 23 22.4 9720 3260 21360 20 9730 147 12. 20) Austenitic steel (Kh18N10Т) Low alloyed pearlitic steel (Kh2М) Tantalum Titanium Thorium Uranium 99.96 4280 20 5910 371 41 18.3 13 24 62.4 16400 27700 20900 11930 14100 8100 16100 20 8900 410 22. 5 Sn) Gallium Duralumin (95 Al.9 113 22.6 35.6 24.6 66.7 48.5 3.3 79.6 12300 20 20 25 500 20 20 20 70 16500 4500 11720 18600 7100 1870 7130 6500 142 522 118 174 474 242 385 290 57.4 54.1 20.5 9.3 153 18.8 20490 20 20 20 20 100 20 20 7870 19290 22400 7280 8640 860 8780 456 128 133 239 246 760 427 75 310 147 81.5 4.6 6.5 21.3 47.9 2.8 Molybdenum Sodium Nickel 99.5 Cd.7 12730 37190 37190 36640 20200 12700 19200 10900 6930 10950 10100 14400 14300 4170 11800 21500 7100 32040 14050 20 7900 470 14.7 18.8 8.32 26.8 94. 27] Material Temperature °C Density kg/m3 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) Thermal diffusivity 106(m2/с) Heat permeability* W⋅s1/2/(m2⋅K) Metals and alloys Aluminium 99.8 71.6 10.99 Copper 99.

037 0.48 0.9 100 1.12 0.51 0.12 0.77 0.33 0.4 (continued) Material Temperature °C Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) Density kg/m3 Thermal Conductivity W/(m⋅K) Thermal diffusivity 106(m2/s) Heat permeability* W⋅s1/2/(m2⋅K) Building and heat-insulating materials (in dry air) Asphalt Concrete Wood (pine) Reinforced concrete Red brick Lime-sand brick Sand Cement Cement mortar Slag concrete Asbestos fiber Asbestos cardboard Mineral wool Glass-wool Slag-wool 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 0 50 20 50 0 25 2120 2200 550 2200 1800 1900 1500 1900 1900 1500 470 900 200 200 200 - 0.046 0.4 2.10 0.23 0.28 0.113 0. .83 0. (W⋅s1/2m–2⋅K–1) (1. Kirillov P.80 0.26 1. 8 Chirkin V.20 0.23 2.18 0.19 0.1) REFERENCES TO INTRODUCTION AND SECTION 1 1.087−0.49 0.77 0. 2.28 0.28 0.93 0.35 1.095 0.13 0.114 0.2 0.107 0. − M.30 0.11 0.5 0.10 0.31 1590 1570 472 1660 1100 1140 875 802 1190 990 210 340 92 70 89 0.5 0.69 0. Thermophysical Properties of Materials for Nuclear Power Engineering/Reference Book.87 0.63 680 320 664 2700 10990 1810 630 1650 2050 1280 750 445 430 800 810 540−650 17 630 648 507 1520 1500 1250 753 1400 74 879 2700 840 890 840 1020 1130 800 750 820 816 920 660 800 Various materials Bakelite Paper Paper laminate Granite Graphite (natural) Ground (compact) Coal (brown) Quartz Ice Chalk stone Paraffin Polyvinyl chloride Polystyrene Polyurethane Polyethylene White rubber Sponge rubber Sulfur Snow (recent) Snow (dense) Window glass Quartz glass Lead glass Laminated cloth Porcelain ware Cotton *Heat permeability 20 20 25 20 20 20 20 20 0 20 30 20 20 20 25 20 20 20 0 0 20 20 20 20 25 30 1270 700 1350 2750 1700 1900 1200 2500 917 2000 925 1380 1050 1200 930 1100 250 2070 200 350 2480 2210 2890 1350 2200 80 1590 1200 1420 890 710 1150 1260 780 2040 880 2260 960 1250 2090 2500 1670 2050 720 2100 2100 800 730 680 1500 900 1150 b = λρC p .14 0.66 0.40 1.58 0.16−0.18 0.50 0.23 0.72 1.L.81 0.27 0.70 1.14 0.29 0.87 0.61 0.059 0.93 0.TABLE 1.24 0.25 0.128 0.40 0.0 0.14 0.: Atomizdat.22 0. 1994 (Russian).38 0.12 1. Thermophysical Properties of Materials for Nuclear Power Engineering/Recommended practice.81 0.12 0.32 0.06 0.16 1.05 0. − Obninsk: Edition OIATE.5 0.15 0. 1968 (Russian).S.16 0.28 1.27 0.16 1.53 0.25 0.

G.. Physics/10th ed.S.Ma. Bratkovsky. V. Ed.Kh. and enl.G. 6. Book 2nd (Russian). 14. −. 19. 20. O. Tables of Thermophysical Properties of Water and Steam/Reference book. Heat exchangers.: Atomizdat. Shires and Y.: Energoatomizdat. Miakishev G. 1994 (Russian). −Vienna: IAEA. Deniskina N. Zorin. Vinogradov. Alexandrov A. Dollezhal N. Thermal Conductivity of Industrial Materials/2nd ed.L. Kirillov P. Reference Book on Thermohydraulic Designs (Nuclear Reactors. Smithells C.S. Steam generators). 2nd rev. Minatom of Russia.gov/matprop/ Physical Quantities.Y. 24. 11. 13.S. Thermal Conductivity of Solids/Reference book.. 1984 (Russian). by A. 23. Yuriev Yu. Handbook of Physical Properties of Liquids and Gases/N.D. Glazunov. 7. − M.. 9 .K.3.: Metallurgiya.B. 1996. CRTD — vol.A. Benjamin M. 1997. ed. and enl.: Begell House Inc.: Energoatomizdat. − М. 1999. Thermophysical Properties of Materials for Water Cooled Reactors/IAEA-TECDOC– 949. Tables of Thermodynamic Properties of Heavy Water in SI Tables. 2000 (Russian). Review of Design Approaches of Advanced Pressurized LWRs/IAEA-TECDOC-861. ed. Reference book/A.L.B. N. et al. INSC Material Properties Database. Klimenko. Polezhaev.: Energoatomizdat.. ASME Steam Tables for Industrial Use/Based on IAPWS — IF97. International Encyclopedia of Heat and Mass Transfer/Ed.: MEI Press. by I. London: Publ. 3rd rev.. A.L.: Prosveshcheniye. Bogoslovskaya G. Van Nostrand Reihold Co. 25. Babushkin.J.: MEI Press. Fast Reactor Database/IAEA-TECDOC-866. Hill P.. 16.: Energoatomizdat.: Metallurgiya. 1976).Z.P. 1978. 9. Theoretical Science of Heat Engineering. − M.: TSNIIAtominform. − M.anl. V. Butterworth and Co. by A.E.E.58.: GUP NIKIET Press. Hewitt. 1999 (Russian). Okhotin. −М.M. 18. 1996. and enl.insc.P. Adamov. Ed. Metal Reference Book/Ed. M. Bukhovtsev B. MacMillan R..A..S.. AECL. − M. 17. Atomic Power Stations/3rd rev.. by S. 8. By G. E. 1980 (Russian).M. − N. Thermophysical Properties of Metals at High Temperatures/Reference edition. 2000 (Russian). 1983. 1989 (Russian). 1996. V. − M. − New York: CRC Press LLC. − http://www. ed.: IzdAT. Translated from English (5th ed. 1997. Ltd. Grigoriev. 4. Meilikhov.. Zinoviev V. 5th rev. − M. − M. 1990 (Russian). Babichev.Ya. 21. 12. Nuclear Reactor Materials and Applications. IPPE-0291. −Vienna: IAEA. − M. White Book of Nuclear Power Engineering/Edited by Prof.A. 2001.S. ed. ed. Thermophysical Properties of Liquid Metal Coolants (Reference Tables and Correlations)/Review.F. Kirillov P. 5. Yargin. Heat and Mass Transfer in Nuclear Power Installations. 1989 (Russian). and rev. − M. 1980 (Russian). Heat Engineering Experiment/Reference book Ed. 10..V. Lee V. 3rd enl. G.Ya. − Vienna: IAEA. 2001 (Russian). Chirkin V.P. Channel Nuclear Power Reactor. − M.: Mashgiz.A. − M. 1962 (Russian). Bobkov V. 15.V. and enl.: Vysshaya Shkola. 22. Margulova T. Emelianov I. Kirillov P. Grigoriev B.B. 1991 (Russian).. Vargaftik. 1981. − M.L.

1972 (Russian). 10 . Heat and Mass Transfer. − M. − M.: Nauka.: Energoatomizdat. 27. Reference Book on Thermophysical Properties of Gases and Liquids.M. 1982 (Russian). 26. V. Heat Engineering Experiment/Reference book.B.Vargaftik N. Zorin.A. Grigoriev. Edited by V.

1. Among the first class are the materials of neutron-induced fission. which is readily fissionable by thermal neutrons. The energy distribution between various fission products of one nucleus 235U is given in Table 2.2 × 10−11 J. The main fraction of this energy is kinetic energy of fission fragments that converts to heat at their slowdown. The change of Δm is relatively small and is about 0.211 2. Naturally occurring uranium contains 238U (99. Total energy released at fission of 1g of the isotope 235U is defined as: E= (1/235) 6.079 Nuclear fission is accompanied by energy production proportional to the change of nuclear mass according to the law E = Δmc2. The unique natural material of thermal fission is isotope 235U.2 kg of 235U or 1. Another isotope 238U is fissionable only by fast neutrons (>1–2 MeV).711%) as well as some other isotopes. Two natural isotopes 238U and 232Th are fertile materials. there are principally three fissionable isotopes important for the nuclear power engineering: a naturally occurring isotope (235U) and two other artificial isotopes (239Pu and 233 U) made from 238U and 232Th by neutron capture.078 2.1 [3]. because they produce new fissionable materials 239Pu and 233U by absorbing neutrons. TABLE 2. 11 . νс 2. the energy being released at one nuclear fission is close to 200 MeV or 3. Thus.2 [4].2 × 1010 J (2.5 kg of 239Pu is burnt up per day at a power of 1 MW. They are categorized into fissile materials and fertile materials providing new fuels.02 × 1023 Avogadro number × 200.283%) and 235U (0.891 per capture.1) To provide a thermal power of 1 MW per day. CHARACTERISTICS OF THERMAL NEUTRON-FISSIONABLE ISOTOPES [3] Nuclear constants U Isotopes 235 U 529 46 582 98 233 Cross-sections in barns (1 barn=10 fission. NUCLEAR FUEL 2. about 1.1. νf 575 680 742 270 1012 2. The characteristics of thermal neutron fissionable isotopes are presented in Table 2. The isotope 235U. σa Neutron yield per fission.2. is used in light-water reactors. The energy carried away by neutrino is partially compensated by γ ray absorption at radiation capture of fission neutrons by materials. 1g of nuclear fuel is used (1 W of power corresponds to 3 × 1010 fissions per second). σс –24 239 Pu 2 cm ) absorption.437 2. In thermal-neutron reactors. GENERAL PERFORMANCE OF FISSILE MATERIALS AND NUCLEAR FUEL Nuclear fuel relates to materials that are capable to release energy in the course of nuclear reactions. σf capture.1% for nucleus 235U. Thus.495 2.1.6 × 10–13 MeV to J conversion coefficient = 8. The ability of producing new fuel is used in fast neutron reactors the so called breeder reactors [1. 2].

see Table 2. Plutonium used in reactors is composed of 70% 239Pu and 20% 240Pu. which results in metal swelling. fission products accumulate in the course of uranium radiation. ENERGY DISTRIBUTION AT ONE 235U FISSION [4] Kind of energy Kinetic energy of fission fragments Kinetic energy of fission neutrons Prompt gamma energy Energy of β-particles at decay of fission products Energy of γ decay of fission products Neutrino energy Total energy Energy MeV Integral energy MeV Character of release 165–167 5 178 Released practically instantly (10−12 s) 15 Released gradually through decay chains of fission-products 6–7 6–8 7–10 10–12 Loss of energy. Besides. Metallic plutonium is not used as a fuel owing to its low melting point (~913 K). 205 Owing to the properties of metallic uranium. and considerable changes in volume are observed at phase transitions. 8]. high thermal conductivity and low linear expansion coefficient [4. 12 . as well as its chemical activity. mixed fuel МОХ (80% UO2 + 20% PuO2) is used [7]. but converts to the fissionable isotope 233U at neutron capture as a result of two β decays. it is of limited value as a nuclear fuel.2. possible heating in air and high toxic level. Тm ~ 2573 K).1). The properties of ThO2 are similar to those of UO2 and PuO2. The advantage of 233U consists in higher neutron yield per one capture (~2. Metallic uranium is unstable under the action of water and air. lower linear expansion coefficient and better compatibility with coolant and fuel cladding materials [5. PuO2 can be used as fuel. which is not fissionable.3. The most reasonable types of nuclear fuel are uranium dioxide (UO2) and mixed fuel MOX — (UO2+PuO2). The isotope 239Pu is the most-used one. although they have low thermal conductivity. that makes it possible to provide nuclear fuel breeding. six allotropic modifications. Thorium dioxide (ThO2) and mixed fuel from ThO2 and UO2. Thorium is suitable for long-term application owing to its inventory that exceeds uranium reserves several times. Plutonium is an artificial element being produced during uranium reactor operation.1).TABLE 2.21 as compared to 2. As a rule.08 of uranium and plutonium. It has three allotropic modifications. 6]. As a fuel. which leads to high temperatures and thermal stresses in fuel. The basic properties of fissile materials and nuclear fuels are presented in Table 2. The properties of PuO2 are close to those of UO2. see Table 2. whose conversions are accompanied by volume changes. These fuels have found wide applications in the nuclear power engineering. Naturally-occurring thorium is composed only of the isotope 232Th. Uranium carbide (UC). which release neutrons at fission (about 2 per one capture. As compared with MOX fuel. uranium carbide and mixed carbide fuel (U. Pu)C have higher thermal conductivity. uranium nitride (UN) and thorium based fuel are the advanced types of nuclear fuel. because of no interaction between neutrino and reactor materials approx. it is preferable to use plutonium dioxide (PuO2.

13

14420
14400
13630
13500

252

253

250

251

12870

12970

13603

13619

8930

8560

9770

9315

10100

9664

11720

19840

19050

321
(1523 K)
365
(1500 K)
317
(1500 K)
238
(1000 K)
239
(1000 K)
240
(700 K)
165
(700 K)

266
(1500 K)

3923
(3650)
3023
(2750)
2873
(2600)
3553
(3280)
3123
(2850)
2823
(2550)
2793
(2520)
1923
(1650)

344
(1523 K)

328
(1523 K)

118
(298 K)

135
(300 K)

155
(673 K)

Heat
capacity
J/(kg⋅K)

2663
(2390)

3120
(2850)

2023
(1750)

913
(640)

1405
(1132)

Tmelt, K
(tmelt),°С

* Dimension of electrical resistivity is used for all values, except as stated particularly.

10140

10600

269

264

Thorium dioxide
ThO2 [18, 21]

11440

10370

271

Plutonium dioxide
PuO2[16, 17]

10963

275

270

Uranium dioxide
UO2 [9, 19]

11720

11070

232

Thorium
Th [13, 14]

19840

19050

physical

on
fission
material

Density
kg/m3

271

244

Plutonium
Pu [11, 12]

MOX fuel
(U0,8Pu0,2)O2 [19]
Fuel,
(U0,95Gd0,05)O2 [20, 20а]
Fuel
(U0,8Th0,2)O2 [21]
Uranium nitride
UN [22, 23, 24]
Plutonium nitride
PuN [22, 25]
Uranium carbide
UC [22, 26]
Plutonium carbide
PuC [21, 22]

238

Uranium
U [9, 10]

Materials
[references]

Atomic or
molecular
mass
amu

TABLE 2.3. BASIC PROPERTIES OF FISSILE MATERIALS AND NUCLEAR FUEL

2.6
(1523 K)
2.35
(1500 K)
2.1
(1500 K)
20.9
(1000 K)
15.0
(500 K)
23.0
(700 K)
16.0
(300 K)

3.2
(1500 K)

54
(298 K)
2.6
(1523 K)
theor. density
2.2
(1500 K)

6.5
(508 K)

31.2
(673 K)

Thermal
conductivity
W/(m⋅K)

9.1
(300 K)
10.5
(300 K)
11.0
(700 K)
7.5
(300 K)
12.5
(300 K)
10.5
(300 K)
28
(300 K)

8.9
(300 K)

6.7
(300 K)

9.8
(300 K)

11.2
(298–473 K)

33.9
(400–470 K)

13.9
(300 K)

Linear
expansion
coefficient
106(1/K)

120

250

1000

146
(300 K)

6 × 10–5
Ω⋅m
(300 K)

7.32
(300 K)

150
(298 K).
102
(673 K)
13–15
(298 K)

35
(298 K)

Electrical
resistivity
108(Ω⋅m) *

2.2. METALLIC FUEL
2.2.1. Uranium
Uranium is a chemical element that has atomic number 92 and atomic mass 238.03 amu and
belongs to the actinide series. Uranium is more widespread than gold, platinum, silver,
cadmium, bismuth and mercury. Uranium is heavy, silvery white metal with high density
exceeding lead density. It is malleable, ductile metal, which is softer than steel. Uranium is
weakly radioactive and slightly paramagnetic. The basic properties of uranium are given in
Table 2.4.
Uranium has three allotropic modifications (alpha, beta and gamma); their characteristics are
presented in Table 2.5 [27, 34]. The uranium crystals are characterized by strong anisotropy
along the symmetry axes of crystals.
The mechanical properties of uranium are shown in Table 2.6 [48]. The β phase of uranium is
harder and more brittle than the α phase. Uranium in the γ phase is very soft that influences its
processing technology.

TABLE 2.4. BASIC PROPERTIES OF URANIUM UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS
(0.1 MPa; 298 K)
Property

Value
3

Density (ρ), kg/m

19050 [27]

Melting point, K (°С)

1405 (1132) [27]

Boiling point, K (°С)
Heat of fusion (ΔНf), kJ/kg
kJ/mol
acc. to data from Refs [38, 46–48, 131] kJ/mol
Heat ofvapourization (ΔНvap) kJ/kg
kJ/mol
Heat capacity, J/(kg⋅K)
J/(mol⋅K)
Thermal conductivity (λ), W/(m⋅K)

4018–4400 (3745–4127) [44–48]
36.6–39.1
8.72–9.3 [31–33]
15.5–19.6
2046
487 [31]
116.3 at 293 K
27.67 [31]
22.5 [27]
13.9 [46]
21–26

Linear expansion coefficient, 10–6 K–1
for single crystal [31, 44–48, 131]
Electrical resistivity (ρе), 10–8 Ω⋅m
acc. to data from Refs [37, 44–48, 131]

21.8 [32]
21–31

Emissivity

0.51 at λ = 67 nm [28]

Sound velocity, m/s

2490–3155 [44–48]

Critical constants [31, 95]
Temperature (Тc), K
Pressure (Рc), MPa
Molar volume (Vc), dm3/mol
Density (ρc), kg/m3

11630
611
0.045
5290

14

TABLE 2.5. CHARACTERISTICS OF ALLOTROPIC MODIFICATIONS OF URANIUM
[27, 34]

Phase

α-U

β-U

γ-U

Stability
temperature
range, K

< 942

942–1049

1049–1408

Crystal structure,
lattice dimensions
Å
Orthorhombic,
a=2.853
b=5.865
c=4.955

Density
10–3kg/m3

Volume
change
ΔV/v, %
[27]

Heat of phase transition, (ΔН)
kJ/kg

kJ/mol

α→β at 938 K
19.05

1.0–1.12

12.5

2.98

β→γ at 1049 K

Tetragonal,
a=10.795
b=5.865
c=4.955

18.11

Face-centered, cubic
a=3.525

18.06

0.6–0.7
20.0

-

4.76

γ→liquid at 1405.3
36.6

8.72

TABLE 2.6. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF URANIUM AT 298 K [48]
Property
Brinell hardness
Vickers hardness
Tensile strength, MPa
Modulus of elasticity, GPa
Poisson ratio
Shear modulus of elasticity, GPa

Value
185
190
615
190
0.22
86

2.2.1.1. Properties of solid uranium depending on temperature
Density of uranium is evaluated using following correlations obtained by linear
approximation of the data in Refs [27, 41]:
ρ (kg/m3) = 19.36 × 103 − 1.03347 T at 273 ≤ Т ≤ 942 K (α phase),
ρ (kg/m3) = 19.092 × 103 − 0.9807 T at 942 ≤ Т ≤ 1049 K (β phase),
ρ (kg/m3) = 18.447 × 103 − 0.5166 T at 1049 ≤ Т ≤ 1405 K (γ phase).

(2.2)

Heat capacity of uranium in the range of 293−942 K is calculated by expression in Ref. [1]:
Cp [J/(kg⋅K)] = 104.82 + 5.3686 × 10–3 T + 10.1823 × 10–5 T2.

(2.3)

At 942 ≤ Т ≤ 1049 K Cp = 176.4 J/(kg⋅K);
At 1049 ≤ Т ≤ 1405 K Cp = 156.8 J/(kg⋅K) [27].
Thermal conductivity in the range of 293−1405 K is estimated using the correlation obtained
by averaging the data of Fig. 4.1.1.3 in Ref. [27] on P.24 to an accuracy of ± 10%:

15

λ [W/(m⋅K)] = 22 + 0.023(T − 273)

(2.4)

Thermal diffusivity is defined by the formula:
a⋅106 (m2/s) = λ/Cpρ.

(2.5)

The properties of solid uranium evaluated by the correlations (2.2−2.5) are given in Table 2.7.
At a temperature of 1405 K uranium transfers to liquid state. The properties of liquid uranium
at melting point are shown in Table 2.8.
TABLE 2.7. PROPERTIES OF SOLID URANIUM BY CORRELATIONS (2.2–2.5)
Temperature
°С

K

Density
kg/m3

20
100
200
300
400
665

293
373
473
573
673
942

19057
18975
18871
18768
18664
18386

665
700
727
776

942
973
1000
1049

18168
18138
18111
18067

776
800
900
1000
1110

1049
1073
1173
1273
1383

17905
17893
17841
17789
17773

Heat
capacity
J/(kg⋅K)
α phase
115.1
121.0
130.1
141.3
154.6
200.2
β phase
177.2
178
178
178
γ phase
162
162
162
162
162

Thermal
conductivity
W/(m⋅K)

Thermal
diffusivity
106(m2/s)

22.5
24.3
26.6
28.9
31.2
37.4

10.2
10.6
10.8
10.9
10.8
10.2

37.4
38.1
38.7
39.8

11.6
11.8
12.0
12.4

39.8
40.4
42.7
45.0
47.5

13.7
13.9
14.5
15.6
16.5

TABLE 2.8. PROPERTIES OF LIQUID URANIUM AT MELTING POINT (1405 K)
Density
kg/m3

Heat
capacity
J/(kg⋅K)

Thermal
conductivity
W/(m⋅K)

Thermal
diffusivity
106(m2/s)

Dynamic
viscosity
mPa⋅s

Kinematic
viscosity
106(m2/s)

Surface
tension
mN/m

Electrical
resistivity
108(Ω⋅m)

17320

198

13.7

4.2

6.5

0.376

1650

60

[50]

[52]

[28]

-

[49]

-

[50]

[36]

16

Spectral
emissivity
0.34 at
λ=67 nm
[28]

Volumetric
expansion
coefficient
106/K

Prandtl
number

99

0.0935

[52]

-

9307.8) Temperature °С 1133 1200 1300 1327 1400 1500 1627 1700 1727 1827 K 1460 1473 1573 1600 1673 1723 1900 1973 2000 2100 Density kg/m3 Surface tension mN/m Kinematic viscosity 106(m2/s) 17315 17171 16956 16898 16742 16634 16255 16098 16040 15825 1654 1632 1598 1589 1565 1548 1488 1464 1455 1421 5.76 5.56 3. C = 4134. TABLE 2.6) Heat capacity Ср=198.39 4.1 MPa BY EQUATIONS (2.31 3. 52] ρ (kg/m3) = 20332 − 2.65 4.9) The properties of liquid uranium according to the correlations (2.1 MPa Density at 1405 ≤ Т ≤ 2100 K [50.94 4.17 3. the radiological properties of uranium isotopes in Table 2.146Т (2. B = 0.6–2.1.2.701 - 23330 .9. PROPERTIES OF LIQUID URANIUM AT 0.3 J/(kg⋅K) [52].8) are given in Table 2. Volumetric expansion coefficient β = 99 × 10−6 1/K [52] Surface tension at 1405 ≤ Т ≤ 2100 K [50]: σ (mN/m) = 2127 − 0.3365T ± 10% (2.37 3.10 17 .2. T (2.10 [40].6– 2.7) where A = − 5.2. (2.8) Vapour pressure at temperatures 1873 − 2273 K is defined by the formula [53]: lg P (MPa ) = 4.9. Properties of liquid uranium at 0.6557.77 4. Dynamic viscosity at Tmelt ≤ T ≤ 2973 K is calculated by the correlation [51] ln μ (mPa⋅s) = A + B⋅lnT +C/T.

131] 2260 [56–59] 10000 324 0. TABLE 2. 18 . J/mol J/(kg⋅K) Heat of fusion (ΔНf). 56–59].06 amu.13 [36. Plutonium is silvery gray metal that is formed by slow neutron bombardment of uranium as a result of radioactive neutron capture by the isotope 238U and subsequent two-stage β decay of intermediate products. BASIC PROPERTIES OF Pu UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS (0. 131] 31. delta-prime.2.2*[32] 150 [33. kJ/mol kJ/kg Heat ofvapourization (ΔНvap).081 2950 The range of another data on thermal conductivity of Pu is 4.283 Half-life years Decay energy keV 68.10. 32] 3500 (3230) [33. delta.2÷6.8 × 106 234. W/(m⋅K) Electrical resistivity. 38. K (°С) Boiling point. % 0. their properties are presented in Tables 2.12 [37] and 2. epsilon). 10–8 Ω⋅m Sound velocity. K Pressure (Рc). 38.9 159. gamma. m/s Critical constants: [31] Temperature (Тc). 140].74 W/(m⋅K) according to Refs [33.11.0055 0.TABLE 2. MPa Molar volume (Vc). kJ/mol kJ/kg Thermal conductivity. dm3/mol Density (ρc).1 MPa.8 [31.2 × 103 245. beta.09 235.046 238.04 236. RADIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF URANIUM ISOTOPES [40] Mass number amu* 232. 32] 117 350 [31. kg/m3 Melting point.05 Isotope 232 U U 234 U 235 U 236 U 238 U 233 Concentration in natural uranium. γ) U239 92 (−β) Np239 93 (−β) Pu239 94 Plutonium has six crystal modifications (alpha. kg/m3 ∗ Value 19840 [32] 913 (640) [31.04 234.8 × 107 5414 4909 4859 4679 4572 4270 Decay product 228 Th Th 230 Th 231 Th 232 Th 234 Th 229 * On the scale 12С 2.711 99. K (°С) Heat capacity.2.04 233. Plutonium Plutonium is a man-made transuranium element of the actinide series that has atomic number 94 and atomic mass 244. 32] 130 2.2 [31.2 × 105 446. The mechanism of its formation is the following: U238 92 (n. 139. 298 K) Property Density (ρ). 32] 1464 5.7 × 103 703.

701 b=4.9−9.1 7.6361 Temperature of phase transition K (°C) Heat of phase transition J/mol Volumetric expansion % α→β 395 (122±2) 3365±41 8.96 4.7±0.8 37.16)−(−3.6 32.97–10.3 at 593–713 K 36.10–3.6±0.82) TABLE 2.284 b=10.1587 b=5.6371 at 738 K a=4.7±0.1 b= +39.04–5.8–39.4) η→ε 749 (476±5) 1927±84 (−2. tetragonal at 724 < T < 749 ε-Pu Body-centered.13o at 506 K a=3.10 3.1835 b=4.162 α-Pu Monoclinic at T < 395 β-Pu Monoclinic body-centered at 395 < T < 479 γ-Pu Rhombic face-centered at 479 < T <5 92 δ-Pu Face-centered.5±1.67 γ→δ 592 (319±5) 721±84 6.12.87–8.11 at 406–470 K Mean 34.7 at 483–583 K along the axes: а= −19.81o at 463 K a=9.05 at 87–373 K 33.97–12.4–36. PROPERTIES OF PLUTONIUM PHASES [8.31 3.8244 c=10.53–3.7−6.7 5. cubic at 59 2< T < 724 δ'-Pu Face-centered.25 142–140 108–108 107–107 100–100 - 114–114 2200 1500 1100 1000 - 1200–1300 −8.85±0.86±0. cubic at 749 < T < 913 at 593 K a=4.7862 c=10.72 at 723 K 12.36)−(−0.78–2.6 c=84.489 с/a=0.2–6.85 - 5.955 at 763 K a=3. CHARACTERISTICS OF CRYSTAL STRUCTURE AND PHASE TRANSITIONS OF PLUTONIUM [37] Crystal structure.6 7. 102.4) 2933±251 (−0.40–4.0) ε→melt >913 (639.0 34.90 δ→η 724 (451±4) 80±46 (−0.TABLE 2.3 33.4−2.67 8.4 at 728 K ε 16480 at 783 K 46.5±0.1)−(0.859 β=92.3±1. Stability temperature range K Phase Lattice dimensions nm at 294 K a=6.13.5 10.0–34. 103] Property Density kg/m3 Linear expansion coefficient 106/K Heat capacity J/(mol⋅K)] Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) Thermal diffusivity 106(m2/s) Electrical resistivity 108(Ω⋅m) Sound velocity m/s α 19816 at 298 K β 17770 at 463 K Plutonium phases γ δ 17140 15920 at 508 K at 593 K δ' 16010 at 723 K −16±28 at 738–758 K along the axes: а=+305±35 b=−659±67 37.463 c=7.973 β=101.6 at 783 K 1.1 at 772–823 K 35 at 773 K 19 .1–12.62 β→γ 479 (206±3) 637±63 2.

Internal heat generation owing to fission of the Pu239 nuclei is equal to (1.21 Shear modulus of elasticity. 2. Owing to great changes in volume combined with anisotropy of most crystal phases.451 t. The mechanical properties of plutonium at 298 K are presented in Table 2. Changes of density (a) [10a] and heat capacity (b) [29] of different plutonium phases depending on temperature.14. ρ (kg/m3) = 17567 – 1. which influence on elastic and plastic properties of plutonium. In the temperature range t = 650 – 950°С. They essentially depend on temperature varying from high strength and brittleness for α phase to low strength and high ductility for δ phase at 593–723 K.1. TABLE 2. ρ·10–3kg/m3 a) b) FIG.5 Compression strength. there occur internal stresses and defects. Properties of liquid plutonium at 0. 20 .019) × 10–3 W/g. GPa 96.15–0. GPa 45 2.1. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PLUTONIUM AT 298 K [59] Property Value Brinell hardness 242 Vickers hardness 250 Tensile strength.14 [30]. MPa 400 Modulus of elasticity.1 MPa Density [141] ρ (kg/m3) = 16500 ± 80 at melting point.2.2. MPa 830 Poisson ratio 0.923±0.

15. Thermal conductivity (by estimates) λ (W/(m⋅K)) ≈ 4. It is easily amenable to processing by cold stretching. where А= −2.05 241.7 years 24110 years 6537 years 14.16. swaging and stretch forming. C = 1948 in the range Тmelt ≤ T ≤ 2313 K [51].95 h Decay energy keV 5867 220 5593 5244 5255 20. ductile metal similar to platinum. TABLE 2.84 × 106 3. Thorium Thorium is a chemical element with atomic number 90 and atomic mass 232. their characteristics are presented in Table 2.05 238. When pure. Thorium has two crystal modifications.019 - 17587 T (2.05 237. RADIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME PLUTONIUM ISOTOPES [40] Isotope 236 Pu 237 Pu 238 Pu 239 Pu 240 Pu 241 Pu 242 Pu 243 Pu Mass number amu* 236.19 × 1014 * On the scale 12С.3 Dynamic viscosity of liquid plutonium at melting point is equal to 4.15.08 ÷ 0. Metallic thorium is soft. Volumetric expansion coefficient is of β (1/K) = 50 × 10–6 in Ref. Cp (kJ/mol⋅K) = 42.33 × 108 2.06 243.06 Half-life 2. 2. thorium is silvery white.18 [64]. [60].8 4982 581.5 Decay product 232 U U 234 U 235 U 236 U 241 Am 238 U 243 Am 233 Specific activity kBq/g 1. 21 .04 amu.06 242. carbon providing the largest increase. Here а = 0. [138].97 × 1010 4. Such impurities as oxygen.27 × 106 8.86 years 45. Vapour pressure of plutonium for the temperatures 1673–2073 K is evaluated by the correlation [29.Heat capacity [138] Cp (J/kg⋅K) = 177.2 days 87.15 [40]. ductile metal.05 240.2751.05 239. The basic properties of thorium are given in Table 2.3.41 × 105 6. which occurs in nature and belongs to the actinide series.51 × 10−3 Pa⋅s according to the experimental data in Ref.2.4 years 376000 years 4. 53]: lg P (МPа ) = 4. The mechanical properties of thorium at 298 K are given in Table 2. The viscosity can be calculated by the correlation ln μ (Pa⋅s) = A + B⋅lnT +C/T.66 × 109 1.48 × 1011 6. These properties depend on the metal purity and its preprocessing. Surface tension [139] σ (mN/m) = 550 – а (Т − Тmelt) at Т < 1200 K.4909. B = 0.17 [37].10) The radiological properties of some plutonium isotopes are presented in Table 2. nitrogen and carbon increase thorium strength.

MPa 200 Modulus of elasticity.8–15. BASIC PROPERTIES OF THORIUM UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS (0.2 (393 K) [31] (13–19) × 10–8 [31. MPa Molar volume (Vc). J/(kg⋅K) J/(mol⋅K) Heat of fusion (ΔНf).17.38 at λ=67 nm. 1273–1973 K [30] 2490 [61] 14950 488 0. 61. 62]. 298 K) Property Theoretical density. K (°С) Boiling point. GPa 73.4 [63] 16. to data from Refs [31. 33] 0.18.16. m/s Critical constants: [31] Temperature (Тc). K Pressure (Рc).TABLE 2.1 Poisson ratio 0. K (°С) Heat capacity. GPa 28 22 .6 2330 [31] 540 37 [30] 54 11.27 Fatigue strength.23 69. CHARACTERISTICS OF THORIUM CRYSTAL STRUCTURE [37] Phase Structure Lattice dimension Å Temperature range of existence K α-Th Face-centered cubic а=5. W/(m⋅K) according to another data [32.11 1623 < T < 2023 TABLE 2. K–1 Electrical resistivity. kg/m3 Melting point.1 MPa. Ω⋅m Emissivity Sound velocity. dm3/mol Density (ρc). MPa 97 Shear modulus of elasticity. 61] 2023 (1750) 5063 (4790) 118 [31] 26.0723 3220 TABLE 2. kJ/mol Heat ofvapourization (ΔНvap) kJ/kg kJ/mol Thermal conductivity. kJ/kg kJ/mol Acc. 61] Linear expansion coefficient. kg/m3 Value 11720 [32. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THORIUM AT 298 K [64] Property Value Vickers hardness 35–114 Tensile strength.1 13.086 < 1623 β-Th Body-centered cubic а=4.

2.2.3.1. Properties of solid thorium depending on temperature
Density
ρ (kg/m3) = 11836 – 0.4219 T

(2.11)

Heat capacity [43]
for α-Th at Т< 1623 K Ср [J/(kg⋅K)] = − 0.0145Т2 + 3.6384Т + 111.95
(2.12)
for β-Th at 1623 K< T < 2023 K Ср [J/(kg⋅K)] = − 0.2032Т2 + 5.7774Т + 145.77 (2.12a)
Thermal conductivity
The data on thermal conductivity of thorium in different references greatly disagree. In Refs
[32, 36] and many web sites, the values of 50–54 (W/m K) are found, the temperature range
not indicated. In Ref. [134] there are the data on composition and processing of a number of
thorium specimens. These data and those in Refs [38, 43, 135, 136] are in an agreement with
accuracy of ± 15% and evaluated by the correlation:
λ [W/(m⋅K)] = 34 + 0.0133 Т,
where Т (K).

(2.13)

The values given in Refs [28, 42, 130] that indicate a considerable decrease of thorium
thermal conductivity with increasing temperature up to 10 W/(m⋅K) at 1773 K, seem to be
incorrect.
2.2.3.2. Properties of liquid thorium at Т ≥ Тmelt
Density [133] ρ = 10500 kg/m3
Heat capacity Ср = 198 J/(kg⋅K)
Dynamic viscosity ln μ (Pa⋅s) = A + B⋅lnT +C/T,
where А= − 2.9328, B = 0.3075, C = 4504 for the temperature range Тmelt ≤ T ≤ Тboil [51].
Based on this correlation μ (Тmelt) = 5.129 × 10−3 Pa⋅s. According to experimental data in Ref.
[60], the value of μ at melting point is equal 5.033 × 10−3 Pa⋅s.
Surface tension [133]:
σ (mN/m) = 978 – 0.14 (Т – Тmelt).

(2.13)

Vapour pressure of thorium for the temperature range of 2030–2229 K is defined by
correlation [53]:
lg P(МPа ) = 4.991 -

28780
T

(2.14)

Twenty five isotopes of thorium are known with mass numbers from 212 to 236, among them
only the isotope 232Th occurs in nature. In the course of 232Th decay that includes six stages of
α decay and four stages of β decay, thorium turns into stable isotope 208Pb. The radiological
properties of the most stable isotopes are given in Table 2.19 [40]. Most of other thorium
isotopes have a half-life, which is less than 10 minutes.

23

TABLE 2.19. RADIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF THORIUM ISOTOPES [11]
Mass number
amu*

Isotope
227

Th

228

Th

229

Th

230

Th

231

Th

232

Th

233

Th

234

Th

Decay energy
keV

Half-life

227.03

18.72 days

6146

228.03

1.913 years

5520

229.03

7880 years

5167

230.03

75380 years

4770

231.04

25.52 hours

4213

10

232.04

1.4 × 10 years

4082

233.04

22.3 min

1245

234.06

24.1 days

273

* On the scale 12С.

At slow neutron radiation, the isotope
the reaction:
232

90Th

1

232

Th turns into fissionable isotope

233

+ 0n → 90Th

233

U according to

−β
−β
233
→ 91Pa → 92U233

The isotope 233U is characterized by higher neutron yield per number of absorbed neutrons as
compared to other fission materials such as 235U or 239Pu. In combination with one of these
isotopes, thorium gives rise of fuel-breeding cycle in thermal-neutron reactors. The thorium
cycle is proposed for the use in advanced converter reactors.

2.3. CERAMIC FUEL
2.3.1. Uranium dioxide
Uranium dioxide is a ceramic refractory uranium compound, in many cases used as a nuclear
fuel. The basic properties of uranium dioxide are given in Table 2.20.
The crystal lattice of uranium dioxide corresponds to the face-centered cubic lattice of Ca2F
fluoride with the lattice constant а=0.5704 nm [37].
2.3.1.1. Properties of solid uranium dioxide depending on temperature
Density [67]

(

)

ρ kg / m 3 = ρ 0 (273) ⋅ K i−3 ,

(2.15)

where ρ0 (273) (kg/m3) is the theoretical density of UO2, Ki are the relative linear thermal
expansion coefficients estimated by the Martin correlations [70]:
at 273 ≤ Т ≤ 923 K.

24

TABLE 2.20. BASIC PROPERTIES OF URANIUM DIOXIDE AT 0.1 MPa, 298 K
Property
Molecular mass, amu

Value
270.3

Theoretical density ρ0, kg/m3

10960 [41]

Melting point, K (°С)

3120 ± 30 (2850) [27]

Boiling point, K (°С)

3815 (3542) [68]

Heat of fusion ΔНf, kJ/kg
kJ/mol
Heat ofvapourization ΔНvap, kJ/kg
kJ/mol
Heat capacity, J/(kg⋅K)
J/(mol⋅K)

259 ± 15
70 ± 4 [65]
1530
413 [68]
235 [66]
63.7

Thermal conductivity, W/(m⋅K)

8.68 [67]

Linear expansion coefficient, 1/K

9.75 × 10–6 [67]

Electrical resistivity, Ω⋅m

7.32 × 10–8 [69]

Total normal emissivity(εt)

0.79 [41]

K1 =

L(T )
= 0.99734 + 9.802 × 10 −6 T − 2.705 × 10 −10 T 2 + 4.291 × 10 −13 T 3 ,
L(273)

(2.16)

at 923 ≤ Т ≤ 3120 K
K2 =

L(T )
= 0.99672 + 1.179 × 10 −5 T − 2.429 × 10 −9 T 2 + 1.219 × 10 −12 T 3 .
L(273)

(2.17)

Enthalpy and heat capacity. The enthalpy of solid uranium dioxide at 298.15 ≤ Т ≤3120 K is
defined by correlation [66]:

[H (Т ) − H (298.15K )](kJ

[

mol ) = C1θ (e θ T − 1) − (e θ 298.15 − 1)
−1

−1

]+ C [T
2

2

]

− (98.15) + C 3 e − E a
(2.18)
2

T

where С1 = 81.613, θ = 548.68, С2 = 2.285 × 10−3, С3 = 2.360 × 107, Еа = 18531.7, T (K). The
uncertainty of correlation (2.18) is ± 2% in the range from 298.15 to 1800 K, and ± 3% in the
range from 1800 to 3120 K. Correlation (2.18) is approximated by polynomial [66]:

[H (T ) − H (298.15K )] (kJ / mol ) = −21.1762 + 52.1743τ + 43.9753τ 2 − 28.0804τ 3 + ,
+ 7.88552τ 4 − 0.52668τ 5 + 0.71391τ −1

(2.19)
where τ = T/1000, T (K), Н (kJ/mol).

25

As (∂H/∂T)p = Cp, after differentiation (2.18) in [66] we obtain,

C p [kJ (mol ⋅ K )] =

C1 θ 2 e θ T

(

)

T 2 eθ T −1

2

+ 2C 2 T +

C3 E a e −Ea
T2

T

.

(2.20)

Equation (2.20) has an uncertainty of ± 3% in the range from 298 to 1800 K and ± 13% at
1800−3120 K. In Ref. [67] the data on UO2 heat capacity are given in the form of polynomial:

C p [kJ (mol ⋅ K )] = 52.1743 + 87.951τ − 84.2411τ 2 + 31.542τ 3 − 2.6334τ 4 + 0.71391τ −2
(2.20а)
where τ = T/1000, T (K).
Thermal conductivity of solid UO2 with a density of 95% is estimated by correlation [71]:
λ [W (m ⋅ K )] =

100
6400
⎛ − 16.35 ⎞
+ 5 2 exp⎜

2
7.5408 + 17.692τ + 3.6142τ
τ
⎝ τ ⎠

(2.21)

where τ = T/1000, T (K). The uncertainty of correlation (2.21) is +10% in the range from
298.15 to 2000 K and +20% in the range from 2000 to 3120 K.
Taking into account the porosity (λр), the thermal conductivity of solid UO2 can be calculated
by the Brandt-Neuer correlation [72]:
λ p [W (m ⋅ K )] = λ 0 (1 − α р)

(2.22)

where α = (2.6 − 0.5τ), р is the UO2 porosity in volume fractions, λ0 the UO2 thermal
conductivity with no porosity.
Integral thermal conductivity of solid UO2 is determined as Λ (W m ) =

T

∫ λ(T ) dT .

The

293

values of integral thermal conductivity of UO2 (95% and theoretical density) defined by
numerical integration of correlations (2.21, 2.22) using MATHCAD are given in Table 2.21.
For uranium dioxide with a density of 95%, the integral thermal conductivity is approximated
by the following polynomials: at 323 ≤ T ≤ 623 K with an accuracy of ± 2%

(Λ )UO ,95% ( W
2

m) = −4211.3τ 3 + 546.65τ 2 + 8407τ − 2402 ,

(2.23)

at 623 ≤ T ≤ 3120 K with an accuracy of ± 1%.

(Λ )UO ,95% ( W
2

m) = −101.93τ 4 + 1166.9τ 3 − 4532.1τ 2 + 9460.4τ − 2372.3 .

(2.24)

For uranium dioxide of theoretical density, integral thermal conductivity is approximated by
polynomials:
at 298 ≤ T ≤ 823 K with an accuracy of ± 2%

(Λ )UO ,100% (W
2

m) = 3176.8τ 3 − 9070.2τ 2 + 13220τ − 3175 ,

(2.25)

at 823 ≤ T ≤ 3120 K with an accuracy of ± 1%

(Λ )UO ,100% (W m ) = −115.26τ 4 + 1318.1τ 3 − 5157.5τ 2 + 10746τ − 2704.3 ,
2

26

(2.26)

26 X −2 φ + 2. 2. f(Bu) = 0. (2.25 × 10 − 4 T ) + (83.00187 Bu is the function that considers the effect of decay products on crystalline matrix (solution). 2.where τ = T/1000. For calculation of thermal conductivity of irradiated uranium dioxide by the computer codes FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN.2: λ [W (m ⋅ K )] = (0.39 × 10 −10 T + 1. the following correlation [45] has been developed based on the modified NFI model: λ irr [W (m ⋅ K )] = 1 E + 2 exp(− F T ) .21. T (K).19−2.22.035 + 3.27) where Х is the deviation from stoichiometry.27) Martin [73] obtained a correlation for UO2+Х of theoretical density in the range of 773≤ T ≤3120 K and 0≤ Х ≤0.15−2.28) −1 where φ = (3120 − T ) 1347 . ( ) Linear expansion coefficient of solid UO2 [67].013 × 10 −9 T + 3.04Bu )] g (Bu ) h (T ) T (2.31) are presented in Table 2.47 X φ − 7. The correlation for calculation of thermal conductivity. T (K). 41]: λ [W (m ⋅ K )] = (0. F = 16361 K.125 × 10 −17 T 3 .9 exp((−0.38 × 10 −12 T 2 − 1.47 X − 7. h (T ) = 1 1 + 396e − Q T is the function that considers temperature dependence of annealing from radiation defects. А = 0.25 × 10 −4 T ) + −1 + (83.0 − 537 X + 7610 X 2 ) × 10 −12 T 3 .30. in Ref. Q = 6380 K is the temperature parameter. В = 2. (2. cit. Thermophysical properties of solid uranium dioxide evaluated by correlations (2. Thermal diffusivity а =λ/Cp⋅ρ.30) at 923 ≤ Т ≤ 3120 K α . 2.59Е9 ((W⋅К)/m). (2. m2/s. Based on (2. 10 −61 / Κ = 1.29) where Bu is the burnup in terms of GW day/Mt U. 10 −61 / Κ = 9. at 273 ≤ Т ≤ 923 K α .828 × 10 −6 − 6.756 × 10 −12 T 2 − 6.0 − 537 X φ + 7610 X 2 φ ) × 10 −12 T .26 X −2 + 2.00187 Bu0. which takes into account the deviation from stoichiometric composition for UO2+Х of theoretical density.035 + 3.46Е−4 (m/W).17. has been developed for a range of 773≤ T ≤ 1773 K [Washington. Е = 3.31) The linear expansion coefficient of UO2 depends on the degree of stoichiometry and the presence of other oxides. g(Bu) = 0.0452 (m⋅K)/W. 27 . (2.28 is the function that considers the effect of radiation defects. A + BT + f (Bu ) + [1 − 0.1833 × 10 −5 − 5.757 × 10 −17 T 3 .

2.43 2.63 0.82 2.83 7.69 0.12 2.1 12.41 2.6 10.21.76 9.95 0. 2.61 2.81 0.6 17.06 2.67 0.79 2.99 0.22 2.68 7.2 15.74 2.88 0.52 2.73 0.79 3.30 5. density density 7.47 1.27 2.58 0.16 3.38 1.77 1.08 2.37 5.61 8.2 10.17 1.36 3.1 18.99 2.26 3.11 2.10 2.93 1.90 3.54 0.0 11.77 6.38 2.38 2.94 3.60 0.69 0.65 7.55 0.1 16.76 9.71 0.64 3. 2.05 1.06 2.6 11.23.07 2.94 10.55 3.57 0.9 11.76 0.09 2.28 4.49 2.38 2.34 2.90 1.2 11. 2.65 0.5 18.06 2. density density 2.97 3.5 10.25 5.22 2.75 0.82 9. 2.90 9.79 9.86 9.0 13. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLID URANIUM DIOXIDE (UO2) BY EQS (2.14 2.99 5.28 2.50 5.98 6.02 1.15−2.70 2. 2.4 10.31 1.4 12.66 1.13 3.50 0.27 Integral thermal conductivity W/m 95% theor.24 1.89 4.55 0.34 8.55 2.65 0.18 2.0 17.35 4.23 1.57 1.81 2.67 0.62 2.21.07 4.78 0.46 1.71 4.24 2.79 0.4 14.0 10.32 2.25 2.19 1.7 13.26 2.06 1.74 3.17.32 1.07 2.6 .89 0.01 3.35 2.7 14.01 5.62 6.1 12.24 2.13 0.45 2.57 3.39 1.8 15.60 0.57 0.97 1.35 6.3 10.07 4.91 0.81 4.78 5.10 2.40 3.30.4 11.49 0.71 0.77 9.25 1.52 0.62 0.97 2.31 2.59 8.58 0.55 2.24 2.35 2.84 0.12 1.63 0.9 12.74 0.51 0.74 5.86 0. 2.19.61 0.16 2.03 0.TABLE 2.20а.88 2.0 14.08 0.76 9.54 0.47 1.49 3.68 1.59 0.24.1 10.56 1.38 7.53 Linear expansion coefficient 106/K 9.1 10. density density 38 44 53 61 225 254 579 659 909 1034 1280 1385 1580 1713 1780 2022 2038 2313 2282 2568 2513 2849 2732 3095 2941 3330 3140 3553 3330 3766 3511 3969 3685 4163 3851 4349 4011 4527 4165 4697 4312 4861 4455 5019 4592 5171 4724 5318 4807 5409 4853 5460 4977 5597 5098 5730 5215 5859 5330 5985 5442 6108 5552 6299 5659 6347 5776 6463 5871 6577 5975 6691 6078 6803 6181 6915 6284 7027 6388 7139 6491 7252 6596 7365 Thermal diffusivity 106 (m2/s) 95% theor.7 10.31) Temperature °C K 25 27 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1132 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 298 300 323 373 423 473 523 573 623 673 723 773 823 873 923 973 1023 1073 1123 1173 1223 1273 1323 1373 1405 1423 1473 1523 1573 1623 1673 1723 1773 1823 1873 1923 1973 2023 2073 2123 2173 2223 28 Enthalpy Heat Density capacity H(T)−H(298) kg/m3 kJ/kg J/(kg⋅K) 10950 10950 10950 10930 10910 10900 10880 10870 10850 10830 10820 10800 10790 10770 10750 10740 10720 10700 10680 10670 10650 10630 10610 10590 10580 10570 10560 10540 10520 10490 10470 10450 10430 10410 10380 10360 10330 10310 10280 10260 10230 10200 0 0 6 19 32 45 59 74 88 103 118 134 149 164 180 195 211 226 242 258 273 289 305 321 331 337 353 369 385 235 236 244 260 270 279 285 290 294 297 300 303 305 307 309 311 312 314 315 317 318 320 321 323 324 324 326 328 331 402 419 435 452 470 487 505 524 542 562 581 601 622 334 337 341 345 350 355 361 368 376 385 395 405 417 Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) 95% theor.53 0.66 4.82 0.80 3.3 13.25 2.96 3.6 16.70 2.76 0.82 0.

density density 0.43 0.7 28.5 22.33 b) 29 .15 2.21 (continued) Temperature °C K 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2397 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 2750 2800 2827 2847 2273 2323 2373 2423 2473 2523 2573 2623 2670 2673 2723 2773 2823 2873 2923 2973 3023 3073 3100 3120 Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) 95% theor.625 × 10–3 еV/K.36 .56 2.8 × 104/T (2 × ) (1–2 × ) exp [ (−0.48 0.93 3.99 3.61 2.68 2.12 2. Depending on temperature at 300–600 K.18 2.4 24.40 2.40 0.52 0.50 0.5 29.8 25.47 2.7 20.30 2.40 0.41 0.43 0.1 19.78 2.40 0.47 0.45 2.45 0.1 24.62 2.42 0.68 .51 0.44 0.35 2.2 27. [126]: 1/ρе = 3.67 2.87 3. = 5.03 eV)/kT].50 2.46 0. (2.80 2.49 0.03 2.52 0.35 2.84 2.56 2.16 Enthalpy Heat Density H(T)−H(298) capacity 3 kg/m kJ/kg J/(kg⋅K) 10170 10140 10110 10080 10050 10020 9982 9948 9912 9912 9876 9839 9801 9762 9722 9681 9639 9596 9573 9555 643 665 688 711 736 761 787 813 840 841 870 900 931 964 997 1032 1068 1106 1127 1143 430 443 458 474 490 508 527 547 566 568 589 612 636 660 685 711 738 766 781 792 Integral thermal conductivity W/m 95% theor.44 0.10 2.TABLE 2.42 2.29 2.97 3. Subsequent data in Ref.9 30.33) where ρе – (Ω⋅m).43 0.1 30.9 The data on electrical resistivity of solid UO2 can greatly disagree owing to the manufacturing process and composition of specimens.44 0.1 24.5 26.97 2.26 2.0 27.45 0.45 0.04 exp (1867/T).9 21.32) For UO2+х in the form of single crystal of non-stoichiometric composition at 773 K≤ Т≤ 1423 K the formula is proposed in Ref.42 Linear expansion coefficient 106/K 19.45 2.45 0.30 ± 0.44 0.43 0.8 23. density density 6702 7479 6808 7594 6917 7710 7027 7829 7138 7949 7252 8071 7369 8195 7487 8322 7601 8444 7608 8452 7732 8584 7859 8718 7988 8856 8120 8997 8256 9141 8394 9287 8536 9437 8681 9591 8761 9675 8820 9738 Thermal diffusivity 106(m2/s) 95% theor.44 0.72 2.46 0.9045 − T ρе 1 5662.46 0. Uranium dioxide is a semiconductor with mixed conduction and its coefficient of electrical resistivity at 20°С is of 380 ohm⋅m.48 0.42 0.13 2.61 2.3 20.38 2.3 30.40 0.46 0.32 2.2607 − T ρе (2. 125]: ρе (Ω⋅m) = 18.41 0.22 2.46 0. electrical resistivity of UO2 is described by the formula [124. = 1. (2.51 2.48 0. density density 2. [132] are evaluated by the formulas: at 286 K≤ Т ≤ 1430 K at 1430 K≤ Т ≤ 4000 K lg lg 1 830.38 × 10–23 J/K = 8.91 2. k = 1.49 0.42 0.47 0.1 22.33 a) (2.42 0.74 2.

36) is ± 1.29 × 10−3 3073 1.Total normal emissivity of solid UO2 [38] at 1000 < Т < 3120 K and a wave length of 630 nm ε t = 0.43 × 10−11 1773 1. Enthalpy of liquid UO2 in terms of J/kg [77]: [H (T ) − H (298. [76] is 8860 ± 120 kg/m3 at 3120 ≤ Т ≤ 7600 K ρ(T) kg/m3 = 8860 − 0. + 3% and −6.3. The values ofvapour pressure calculated by Eq.382 × 10 −3 T − 4.9768 × 10 6 + 0.35) are given in Table 2. + 4.47 × 10−3 2.22.35) is −40%/+60% at 1700 ≤ Т ≤3120 K. +1. + 6% and −15.36) The uncertainty of correlation (2.07 lg T T (2.78 + 1.35) Temperature K Pressure MPa 1723 3.2.13 × 10−4 2923 6.82 × 10−3 3120 2.18 × 10−4 2773 1.4% at 7600 K.93087T − 4.3% at 5400 K.84 × 10−4 2823 4.22.54 + 4. Properties of liquid uranium dioxide The thermophysical properties of liquid UO2 are discussed in Refs [76–85].15K ](kJ 30 mol ) = 2. +2.23 × 10−4 2973 9. (2. (2.37) . TABLE 2.9285 (T − 3120).76 × 10−7 2673 7.41 × 10−5 2723 1.VAPOUR PRESSURE P (MPa) ABOVE SOLID UO2 BY CORRELATION (2.34) Vapour pressure above solid UO2 [75]: lg P (Pa ) = 66.9211 × 10 9 T (2.04 × 10−4 3023 1.6% and −2% at 3500 K.53 × 10 −5 T .1.74 × 10−9 2273 7.12 × 10−10 1973 6.35) The uncertainty of correlation (2.4% at 3120 K. Density at Tmelt = 3120 K by estimations in Ref.41 × 10 −7 T 2 − 37090 − 19. (2.2% and −4% at 4500 K.2% and −10% at 6500 K.

41) The uncertainty of the correlation (2.37) is ± 2% at 3120 ≤ Т ≤ 3500 K and ± 10% at 3500 ≤ Т ≤ 4500 K.16 exp [−3.43) Normal emissivity at λ=630 nm [41]: ελ = 1 − 0.93087 + 4.5 to 3.38) Thermal conductivity of liquid UO2 was studied in Refs [78–80]. Surface tension of liquid UO2 with an uncertainty of ± 17% is calculated by formula [54]: σ (mN/m) = 513 − 0. +10% and −13% at 3500 K. (2.79 × 10−4(T − 3120) – 3.42) with an uncertainty of ± 50%.42) At 3400< Т <4000 K the dynamic viscosity of UO2 is estimated by the extrapolation of formula (2.36) we obtain: β0 (1/K) = 0.44) 31 . Thermal diffusivity а=λ/Cp⋅ρ.39) Volumetric thermal expansion coefficient β0 of liquid UO2 is determined from correlation [12]: β 0 (1 / K ) = − 1 ρ ⎛∂ρ ⎞ ⎛∂P⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + β T ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ ∂ T ⎠0 ⎝ ∂ T ⎠0 (2.6 W/(m⋅K) [81].41) is +10% and −12% at 3120 K. taking into account the correlation (2.27 × 10−7(T – 3120)2] (2.5 + 0.40) where ρ is density. (2.19 (Т − 3120). As the quantity of the second member is very low. (2. (2. According to recent data of the MATPRO computer code. the β0 value is defined by the first member. +12% and −15% at 4500 K. the subscript ‘ο‘ denotes along the saturation line. (2.9285/[8860 − 0. thermal conductivity of liquid UO2 is in the range from 2. βТ isothermal compressibility. Рvapour pressure.01375(T − 3120). thus.9285(T − 3120)]. Dynamic viscosity of liquid UO2 at 3120 K< Т <3400 K is calculated with an uncertainty of ± 25% by correlation [82]: μ (mPa⋅s) = 0.The uncertainty of correlation (2.988 exp (4620/T).921 × 109 T−2. Heat capacity of liquid UO2 is estimated with an uncertainty of ± 10% at 3120≤Т≤ 3500 K and ± 25% at 3500 ≤ Т ≤ 4500 K by the correlation [77]: Cp [J/(kg⋅K)] = 0. The λ value at 3120 ≤ Т ≤4500 K is calculated with an uncertainty of ± 40% by the empirical formula λ [W/(m⋅K)] = 2.

K.46) where Тboil is the normal boiling temperature.45) is (2.14 (20) 1.0 1211 1.99 1407 2. Evaluation of critical constants The critical temperature of material (Тc) can be preliminarily estimated based on semiempirical correlations.34Е-04 2.33Е06 1.76 - 1.91 - 1.0 1080 3.49 - 0.54. + 60% + 80% In Refs [76.12Е08 - 2.91 1716 1. Т е Т c = 0. 85] the following properties of liquid UO2 at Тmelt=3120 K are given: Volumetric expansion coefficient β = 1.3.961 − 26974 − 2.34 513 9.81Е-04 1.09Е-04 4000 8126 399 (15) 5000 7354 372 6000 6533 7000 8000 Sound velocity m/s Vapour pressure Pa 0.3. 84.76 lg T .50Е-05 3. 96] Temperature K Density kg/m3 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) 3120 8870 511 3 Volumetric expansion coefficient 106/K 1. TABLE 2.36−2.02Е07 - 1.83Е-04 1.45) − 40% − 45% at 3120 K and at 6000 K.47) .283(М ρ boil ) 0 .1. for example: Guldberg’s rule for ionic compounds [87]: Тc = Тboil/0. 86.84 1897 3. (2.18 32 .88Е08 Dynamic viscosity mPa⋅s Surface tension mN/m Normal emissivity ε 4. (2.47Е05 2.23.05 × 10−4 1/K [76] Adiabatic compressibility 3.98Е03 346 0. Watson’s correlation [88].45) are shown in Table 2. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LIQUID URANIUM DIOXIDE [76.Vapour pressure [47] at 3120 K ≤ Т ≤ 8000 K: lg Р ( MPa ) = 15. T The uncertainty of correlation (2.5 × 10−5 1/MPa [84] Sound velocity с = 1800 (m/s) [85] Thermophysical properties of liquid uranium dioxide evaluated by correlations (2.13 - 0.98 1582 2.23.08Е-04 416 - 5680 524 4876 851 2.

The critical constants of uranium dioxide are calculated based on various theoretical models including different equations of state of UO2.1996 cit. (2.24..51 0. The critical temperature of UO2 defined by correlations (2. 1978 [92] significant structure theory in view of UO2 dissociation 8840 9138 142.14 0. at whichvapour density is М/22400g/cm3.76 0.18 . [91] principle of corresponding state 8000 200 90 3.48) The Те value relates to normal boiling temperature by the correlation: lnТе =9.27 33 . R Tc 3 cm /mol. The compressibility factor Zc is calculated by the formula P (V ) Z c = c m c .1 1. 95].where ρboil is material’s density at boiling point. (Vm)c is the critical molar volume. Based on correlation (2.4 158 158 153 1. 1985 [93] solid sphere perturbation theory 7567 140.73 0. 2.283(М ρ boil )] 0 . where Рc is the critical pressure. CRITICAL CONSTANTS OF URANIUM DIOXIDE Author. The data on critical constants of UO2 are presented in Table 2. The problem of discrepancy between the data on critical constants of UO2 is analyzed in Refs [86. 95] chemical model based on thermodynamic perturbation theory 10120 965 103 2.48) is equal to 7052 K and 9306 K.46.2 (2.27 Browning.71 1. М molecular weight. respectively.47) the Тc value is calculated as: Т c = Т е [0.24.31 0.49) Correlation (2.8(Те/Тboil) − 4.31 Iosilevski et al.316 Mistura.35 Fisher.56 0. R is the universal gas constant [88]. 1989 [84] theory of essential structures 10600 158 173. equation of state 10500 219 107 2.49) is solved approximately by the Newton method [89].32 Azad. MPa.9 156 1. 2005 [86] generalization of experimental data. theory Temperature Тc K Critical constants Molar Density Pressure volume Pc ρc (Vm)c 3 MPa g/cm cm3/mol Compressibility factor Zc Menzies.61 0. in Ref. Те transient temperature. 2001 [94. TABLE 2. year.

Taking into account the scattering of the afore cited data.53943 ± 0.20 773 500 10. (2.3) × 10–6 (Т − 298) + (8 ± 2) × 10–10 (Т − 298)2.40 8.48 973 700 12. 2.54 1073 800 12.25.045 11460 2663 ± 20 (2390) 3600 (3327) 255 1365 240 6.8 The crystal structure of PuO2 is a face-centered cubic lattice of CaF2 type: а = 0.70 1173 900 12.42 573 300 9.5396 ± 0. K (°С) Heat of fusion ΔНf (kJ/kg) Heat ofvapourization ΔНvap (kJ/kg) Heat capacity Ср (J/(kg⋅K)) Thermal conductivity λ [W/(m⋅K)] Linear expansion coefficient α⋅106(1/K) 276.00007 + (4. (Vm)c = 126 cm3/mol. used in the reactors of types BR-5. Рc = 200 MPa.2.3 7. Plutonium dioxide PuO2 is ceramic fuel that makes it possible to achieve burnups of 10% of heavy atoms. 32] are as follows: Molecular mass. THE VALUES COEFFICIENT OF PuO2 [103] Temperature 34 OF TRUE LINEAR THERMAL Linear expansion coefficient 10–6 K–1 K 373 °C 100 473 200 9.87 673 400 10. 298 K [31.06 EXPANSION .005 nm.1 MPa.70 1273 1000 14.3. amu Theoretical density ρ0 (kg/m3) Melting point. K (°С) Boiling point. Basic properties of plutonium dioxide at 0. The expansion of lattice parameter in the range of 298–1550 K is described by correlation [102]: а (nm) = 0.97 873 600 11.50) TABLE 2. etc.7 ± 0.15 g/cm3. the following values of critical constants of UO2 are recommended for estimations: Тc = 10400 K. ρc = 2. IBR-2.

which after its transformation from mole heat capacity to mass one has the following form: Ср [J/(kg⋅K)] = − 4.441 − 7.52а) where τ = T/Tmelt = T/3023 is the reduced temperature.72τ 4 + 1970.445 Т + 2.74 + 7.965 × 10 5 ⎞ 3. 35 . Vapour pressure of PuO2 [102. [102] a simpler correlation is proposed. [27] the following correlation is recommended: ⎛ 571 ⎞ 347.55) The thermal conductivity of PuO2 as a function of density (at porosity up to 10%) is defined by the correlation: ⎛ ρ − ρf λ = λ 0 ⎜⎜1 − 2. Heat capacity. ⎠ (2.Taking into account the scattering of data in Refs [102.54) Thermal conductivity. (2.967 × 10 5 T ⎠ ⎝ −4 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ − 3 .52) at τ > 0. 103] on linear thermal expansion coefficient of PuO2.53) ⎣ ⎝ T ⎠ ⎦ where R is the universal gas constant = 8. In Ref. they can be approximated by correlation: α⋅10–6 (K–1) = 5.51) Enthalpy of PuO2 is calculated by correlation [27]: at τ ≤ 0.3141 J/(mol⋅K). [2] are approximated by the correlation: λ [W/(m⋅K)] = 8.4 × 5712 exp⎜ ⎟ ⎛ 1.1. The data on thermal conductivity of PuO2 used in Ref.56) where λ0 is the thermal conductivity at ρ0.243 × 10–6 Т2 + 2. 95 10 exp C p PuO [J (kg ⋅ K )] = T + × + 2 2 RT 2 RT ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 571 ⎞ ⎤ 2⎡ T ⎢exp⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ (2.856 (H u )PuO (J 2 mol) = 352544τ − 109876 .860 × 10 7 × 1. (2. (2.04 × 10–3 Т.236 × 10–6 Т2. In Ref. 142].856 (H u )PuO (J mol) = −32481 + 228656τ + 43346τ 2 − 11270τ 3 + 987. (2.366 × 10–3 Т + 293.21τ −1 2 (2.7 τ 5 + 744.5 0 ρf ⎝ ⎞ ⎟⎟ .

239 − 29240 ± 530 .. kJ/mol 413.3.072 ± 0.548 + 1.7 × 10−9(T − 273)2]−1. Dynamic viscosity of liquid PuO2 at Тmelt is 32 centipoise ±25%. The basic properties of MOX fuel (U0. Surface tension of liquid PuO2 at Тmelt is 523 dyn/cm ±15%. Mixed oxide fuel МОХ − (U. amu Density. 90].57) For more detailed data see in Refs [143. Pu) O2 depending on temperature Density of МОХ fuel is evaluated by the correlation [89. fuel of stoichiometric composition (U0.04 × 10−5(T − 273) + 8. J/(kg⋅K) 240 at 298 K [27] Thermal conductivity. Pu)O2 The term ‘МОХ’ derived from ‘mixed oxides’ relates to the nuclear fuel manufactured from uranium and plutonium oxides (UO2 + PuO2).26. The concentration of plutonium in MOX fuel is equal from 3 to 10%.8PU0.3 [27] Heat ofvapourization.59) (2. ρ (kg/m3)= 11080 [1 + 2. where 0.5 [68] Heat capacity.8 and 0.1. K (°С) 3002 (2729) [98] Liquidus temperature (ТL). K (°С) 3041 (2768) [98] Melting point. TABLE 2.28] 2.3. kg/m 3 271. 144].26.59а) .2 are the molar fractions of UO2 and PuO2.2 11074 at 298 K [89] Solidus temperature (ТS).65 × 10−4T. W/(m⋅K) 7.2)O2 are presented in Table 2.lg Р (atm) = 8.2)O2 Property Value Molecular mass. 36 (2. kJ/kg 285. ρ (kg/m3)= 10970 – 490y (y – mole fractions of PUO2). BASIC PROPERTIES OF МОХ FUEL − (U0. In the course of analysis of MOX fuel thermophysical properties.82 at 298 K for МОХ of 95% density [100] Linear expansion coefficient. T (2.3.2)O2 is usually considered. Properties of solid МОХ fuel − (U.8Pu0. 1/K 9.4 × 10–6 at 300 K [Table 2.58) 2. K (°С) 3811 (3538) [101] Heat of fusion. Hemispherical emissivity of PuO2 is defined by the correlation: ε = 0.3. K (°С) 3023 [101] Boiling point.8Pu0. (2.

00931 − 0. TL (K) = 3120.9y3.528 x + 0.21) is used to calculate heat capacity of uranium dioxide.53). Pu)O2-X is estimated by formula in Ref. In this 2 2 case.60. [100]. Heat capacity of MOX fuel can be estimated from the sum of heat capacities of its components in the ratio of molar fractions (C p )MOX = (C p )UO 0. This approach gives. u )[(m ⋅ K ) W ] = 1.20) (see Table 2.1y − 30. 11. the thermal conductivity of МОХ fuel (U. (2. C = 76.60a) where у is the PuO2 content in molar fractions. (2. (2.4907 . The standard deviation of correlations (2. 37 .54) for plutonium dioxide. Thermal conductivity of МОХ fuel with 95% density of the theoretical one is calculated by the relation [100]: [ λ MOX . [100]: at 500 K <T< Tmelt ⎛ 1 ⎞ λ [W (m ⋅ K )] = ⎜ + CT 3 ⎟ ⋅ F(P ) . 2.100% .1055 + 2. Enthalpy of MOX fuel in terms of J/mol is calculated by the sum of enthalpies of its components in the ratio from their molar fractions (H u )MOX = (H u )UO 2 0. correlation (2.Solidus/liquidus temperature (TS)/(TL) of МОХ fuel of stoichiometric composition is estimated by the Adamson correlations [98]: TS (K) = 3120. however.1055 + 0.8 + (H u )PuO 2 0. conservative values of λ MOX .44u .2 . The enthalpy of PuO2 is evaluated by Eqs (2. dimensionless quantity). 2.3y + 336.95% [W (m ⋅ K )] = 1. where Hu = H(T) − H(298.4y2 .885 × 10−4m/W. ⎝ A + BT ⎠ (2.528 X + 0. for example.864 1 + 2P (2. The value (H u )UO 2 is calculated by Eq.60a) is of ± 30 K.62) where A = F( x.61) where X is the degree of fuel nonstoichiometry (Х = 2 – O/M.7 and 3. (2.64) Based on Eqs (2. the density of МОХ fuel is 9889 kg/m3 at ТS and 9865 kg/m3at ТL. ⋅ 0. Pu)O2-X of theoretical density (Р = 0) is calculated as λ MOX .64). the thermal conductivity of МОХ fuel (U.50. B = 2.15) [27].4y2 − 99.100% = λ MOX .60) (2. and correlation (2.8 + (C p )PuO 0.61–2.95% ⋅ 1.0 − 655. as compared with the well known experimental data in Ref.9 W/(m⋅K).38 × 10−12 W/(m⋅K4) and function F(P) is found from the formula (Р porosity in fractions): F(P ) = 1 1− P .59). Based on Eq.00931 − 0.63) Here u is the burnup in fractions (dimensionless quantity).2 [27]. for temperatures 25°С and 1000°С respectively.885 × 10 − 4 T ] −1 + 76.0 − 388. In a generalized form.19).38 × 10 −12 T 3 . (2.

9 × 10 −12 T 3 (2. (2. The basic properties of uranium mononitride are presented in Table 2. namely: λ MOX .61. The thermophysical properties of MOX fuel of stoichiometric composition (U0.2)O2 in solid state according to correlations (2. high melting point and thermal conductivity.95% to λ MOX .37 × 10 −4 T ] −1 + 78. 105]. 2. Integral thermal conductivity in terms of W/m of MOX fuel both of 95% and theoretical density was evaluated as Λ = T ∫ λ(T ) dt by numerical integration of Eqs (2.12 according to Ref .037 + 1. 2.4. 2. 38 . Linear expansion coefficient of MOX fuel can be evaluated by the sum of linear expansion coefficients of their components in the ratio of their molar fractions (α )MOX = (α )UO2 0.51)) and МОХ fuel are given in Table 2.8Pu0.95% is less than the thermal conductivity of UO2 of theoretical density by about 7–10% (by the Harding estimation approximately by 5% [27]). (2.95% {1 − [(2.24) 2. 2. The thermophysical properties of МОХ fuel of stoichiometric composition in liquid state are accepted in Ref.21. Advanced types of nitride fuels for actinide transmutation are discussed in Ref.6 − 0.65) are presented in Table 2.58−2.65). increased radiation resistance and good compatibility with structural materials [104. 273 Thermal diffusivity of MOX fuel in terms of m2/s is calculated as a = λ/Cpρ.29.100% = λ MOX .31) are given in Table 2.61.[73] is evaluated as: [ λ [W (m ⋅ K )] = 0. The values of the linear expansion coefficient of UO2 calculated by correlations (2.55. [106]. The thermal conductivity of superstoichiometric MOX fuel (U.66) where у is the PuO2 content in molar fractions. Uranium mononitride Uranium nitride (UN) is the advanced nuclear fuel for fast reactors with respect to safety improvement and efficiency of reactors.30.5 T ) ⋅ 0.28.The values of the ratio λ MOX .67 x + 2.8 + (α )PuO 2 0. 0 ≤ Х ≤ 0. [27] to be the same as the properties of liquid uranium dioxide (see Table 2.05]} (2.27.100% were found by the Brandt-Neuer relation (see Eq.65) The value of λ MOX .2 [27]. Pu)O2+X of theoretical density in the range of 773 < T < 3120 − 470y.22)). The calculated values α for stoichiometric PuO2 (Eq. Uranium mononitride is characterized by high concentration of uranium.3.

69 2.53 2.06 2.28 2.70 3.01 0.23 2.8Pu0.54 0.57 0.06 2.60 0.43 2.37 5.66 0.69 6.51 0.62 1.27.80 4.82 0.76 0.58 0.96 0.78 0.24 8.59 2.55.35 2.81 2.91 8.20 1.23 2.54 0.87 2.07 3.53 0.69 0.70 3.99 0.87 3.28 3.22 2.73 0.28 4.95 0.96 3.62 3.83 0.44 2.72 0.00 1.31 2.49 0.14 1.43 2.42 2.84 4.22 2.65 0.95 2.84 1.54 2.88 2.75 0.60 0.47 2.48 3.95 0.43 7.51 8.13 1.68 2.47 5.53 0.49 2.68 2.81 2.79 0.07 1.30 3.63 2.TABLE 2.51 0.53 4.44 1.59 0.49 0.17 3.26 4.52 0.00 3.10 5.39 3. 2.07 3.53 4.85 0.85 0.93 6.05 2.60 0.58−2.71 2.55 2. density 0 0 7 18 29 41 54 66 79 92 105 118 131 144 158 171 184 198 211 224 238 251 264 278 291 304 318 331 0 371 384 397 411 424 437 450 464 477 490 503 516 529 543 556 569 582 710 730 731 752 774 795 816 837 870 879 887 0 4 16 29 42 56 70 84 99 113 128 143 158 173 188 203 218 233 248 264 279 294 310 325 341 356 372 388 0 436 453 469 486 504 521 539 558 576 596 615 636 656 678 700 722 746 793 818 819 847 875 904 934 965 1017 1031 1043 258 270 287 299 308 315 320 324 328 330 332 334 336 337 338 339 340 340 341 342 342 343 343 343 344 344 344 345 258 346 346 346 347 347 348 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 356 357 359 361 363 365 366 368 371 374 377 380 386 388 389 240 249 265 276 285 291 296 300 303 306 309 311 313 315 316 317 319 320 322 323 324 325 327 328 330 331 334 336 240 345 349 353 358 364 370 378 386 394 404 414 425 437 450 463 478 494 510 526 528 545 564 584 603 624 659 668 676 7.55 0. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MOX FUEL — STOICHIOMETRIC COMPOSITION (U0.74 2.62 2.60 0.51 0.28 2.45 3.27 1.71 0.02 3.97 2.40 2.43 2.36 2.42 2.17 3.65) Temperature °C K 25 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 25 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2397 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650 2729 2750 2768 298 323 373 423 473 523 573 623 673 723 773 823 873 923 973 1023 1073 1123 1173 1223 1273 1323 1373 1423 1473 1523 1573 1623 298 1773 1823 1873 1923 1973 2023 2073 2123 2173 2223 2273 2323 2373 2423 2473 2523 2573 2623 2670 2673 2723 2773 2823 2873 2923 3002 3023 3041 Density kg/m3 МОХ 11074 11068 11056 11044 11031 11018 11004 10990 10975 10960 10945 10929 10912 10895 10878 10861 10843 10824 10805 10786 10767 10747 10726 10706 10685 10663 10641 10619 11074 10551 10527 10503 10479 10455 10430 10405 10379 10354 10328 10301 10275 10248 10221 10193 10166 10138 10110 10083 10081 10053 10024 9995 9965 9936 9889 9876 9865 Enthalpy [(H(T)−H(298)] kJ/kg Heat capacity J/(kg/K) Thermal conductivity W/(m/K) PuO2 MOX PuO2 MOX МОХ 95% density МОХ of theor.30 2.45 2.44 2.2)O2 IN SOLID STATE BY CORRELATIONS (2.75 2.88 0.88 0.91 2.63 0.61 6.36 3.55 0.66 2.66 0.68 0.68 1.50 0.57 0.48 2.51 0.61 0.11 4.64 0.56 0.53 0.28 2.67 2.03 1.59 2.61.87 2.54 2.89 2.60 2.22 2.42 2.04 3.48 0.79 1.08 1.92 0.56 0. density density 39 300 581 901 1194 1464 1714 1948 2168 2375 2571 2756 2933 3102 3264 3419 3569 3714 3853 3989 4121 4249 4375 4497 4618 4736 4853 4968 39 5306 5417 5529 5639 5751 5862 5974 6086 6200 6314 6430 6547 6666 6787 6910 7035 7163 7293 7418 7426 7562 7701 7843 7989 8139 8384 8451 8509 45 262 662 1025 1357 1663 1947 2211 2459 2692 2913 3121 3320 3509 3690 3864 4031 4192 4347 4498 4644 4787 4925 5061 5194 5324 5453 5579 45 5950 6072 6193 6314 6435 6556 6676 6794 6922 7046 7171 7297 7425 7558 7687 7821 7958 8097 8230 8239 8384 8532 8684 8839 8998 9258 9329 9390 Thermal diffusivity 106 (m2/s) МОХ 95% density МОХ of theor.37 1.55 0.54 3.93 3.52 0.49 0.39 2.22 3.82 7.80 0.20 4.81 3.55 1.63 2.94 2.62 0.16 3.36 0.51 39 .58 0.54 0.57 0.35 3.40 6. 2.84 2.58 0.76 2.52 0.55 0.22 2.48 2.67 0.65 0.33 2.42 Integral thermal conductivity W/m МОХ МОХ 95% of theor.59 0.73 0.42 2.26 2.53 0.69 2.56 0.74 0.03 0.91 0.61 5.49 0.54 0.82 2.54 0.64 0.29 7.52 0.51 0.58 2.51 0.24 2.50 0.40 3.64 2.35 1.89 5.82 2.58 2.49 1.51 2.14 3.20 3.75 2.77 0.20 1.61 0. density 2.28 1.

6 1000 1273 12. amu Theoretical density ρ°.6 10. J/(kg⋅K) J/(mol⋅K) Thermal conductivity.8 9. kg/m3 Melting point.1 9.2 900 1173 11.13 9.5 200 473 8.33 14.20 11. BASIC PROPERTIES OF URANIUM MONONITRIDE AT 0.7 300 573 9.0 [109] 7.4 12.3 11. 2.28.20 11.4 9. W/(m⋅K) Linear expansion coefficient.TABLE 2.40 12.2 10.46 × 10–6 [109] .62 14.5 1500 1773 - 18.7 12.8 1400 1673 - 17.4 TABLE 2.4 100 373 7.9 10.6 700 973 11.5 14.0 11. K (°С) Heat capacity.1 1100 1373 - 15. LINEAR THERMAL EXPANSION COEFFICIENT OF STOICHIOMETRIC PuO2 AND MOX FUEL Linear expansion coefficient 106/K Temperature PuO2 experimental calculated [102] (Eq.0 9.8 13.1 MPa.2 9.9 МОХ fuel °C K 27 300 50 323 - 8. 1/K Electrical resistivity.51) 7. Ω⋅m 40 Value 252 14300 [107] 3123 (2850 ± 30) [108] At nitrogen pressure PN2 ≥ 0.29.1 1300 1573 - 16.2 15.6 1200 1473 - 16.5 10.90 9.20 13.3 600 873 11.9 400 673 9.90 10.1 500 773 10.47 8. 298 K Property Molecular mass.52 × 10–6 [107] 1.9 800 1073 11.25 MPa 190 48 [110] 13.1 13.

137 × 10–4T – 26616. (K) =3055⋅РN2 0.74 × 10−6 8.57 × 10−5 1427 1700 1.41 × 10 1200 1473 4.42 × 10−1 2.24 × 10−1 5.30.02 × 10−2 9.35 × 10 3.04 × 10−2 2.02832. (2.99 × 10−5 1.64 × 10−1 8.1 Properties of uranium mononitride depending on temperature Melting point as a function ofvapour pressure [Pa] of nitrogen over UN at 10–8 ≤ PN2 ≤ 7.51 × 10−7 1300 1573 6. (2.68) at 1400 ≤ T≤ 2400 K lgРU (Pa) = 11.33 × 10−2 1800 2073 2.9 × 10−3 4.4/T.1/Т.39 × 10−7 5.54 × 10−3 1600 1873 6.46 × 10 41 .34 × 10−1 1.03 × 10−2 1.4.69) Total Vapour pressure above UN is evaluated by the sum of partial pressures of PN2 and PU vapours.29 × 100 1.21 × 100 4. Partialvapour pressures of nitrogen and uranium over UN are calculated by the correlations [110]: at 1400 ≤ T≤ 3170 K lgРN2 (Pa) = 6.9654 − 5. (2. at low values of PN2 UN decomposes.46 × 10−1 1900 2173 1.33 × 10−6 1400 1673 7.36 × 10−3 1.2.14 × 10−8 1127 1400 4.45 × 100 2100 2373 2.38 × 10 2127 2400 3.11 × 10−4 8.73 × 10−8 6.16 × 10−2 2.77 × 10−4 1527 1800 1.26 × 10−4 6.78 × 10−4 1500 1773 7.5 × 105 is defined by formula [107]: Тm.3. PARTIAL PRESSURES OF NITROGEN AND URANIUM VAPOURS.57 × 100 1.25 × 100 2000 2273 5.67) Uranium mononitride melts congruently only at high values of partial pressure of nitrogen PN2.12 × 10−7 1.43 × 10 −1 3.60 × 10−6 1.81 × 10−4 1. The values of vapour pressures are given in Table 2.66 × 10−4 1.04 × 10−3 6.75 × 10−5 1. TOTAL PRESSURE ABOVE UN [110] Partial pressure Pa Temperature °C K N2 Total pressure Pa U −8 1. TABLE 2.67 × 10−3 1627 1900 1.8216 + 1.65 × 10−4 1.59 × 10−5 9.882 × 10–3T – 23543. UN(s)→U(liq) + 0.41 × 10 4.30.5 N2(gas) [112].12 × 10−2 1700 1973 4.50 × 10−4 2. because the PUN(gas) value is very low.69 × 100 2027 2300 8.

31). C [kJ (mol ⋅ K )] = 0.6 19.7 20.70) Parameter of crystal lattice of UN at 298 ≤ T≤ 2523 K [107].7 16. Thermal conductivity of UN is estimated from the empirical correlation obtained by approximation of the data in Refs [113. (2.31.2 26.4 273 15.361 .71) Heat capacity of UN at 298 ≤ T≤ 2523 K [110].3 1773 27. a (Ао) = 4.889 × 10–9T2.8 25. (2.2 28.766 × 10 T + ⎟.864⋅е−2.2 15.6 14.0 13.5 24.Theoretical density of UN at 298 ≤ T ≤ 2523 K [107].1 23.7 K is the Einstein temperature [109].264 × 10–5T + 6.4 22.4 17.897 × 10–5T2.73) Thermal conductivity of UN in view of porosity is calculated by formula [109]: λ [W/(m⋅K)] = 1.4 11. λ [W/(m⋅K)] = 1.02 0.7 18.9 11.8 13.9 18. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF UN DEPENDING ON POROSITY [109] Porosity in volume fractions Temperature K 0.0 12. The thermal conductivity of UN decreases with increasing porosity (Table 2.9 21.3 14.2029(θ T ) 2 exp(θ T ) 1.41 × T 0.7 19.8 29.14 Р T0.08 0. 2 2 T [exp(θ T ) − 1] ⎝ T ⎠ (2.6 Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) . TABLE 2.39.0 20.7 24.5 573 18.3 11.1 873 42 0.4 2300 29.879 + 3.9 16. ρ (kg/m3) = 14420 − 0.8 12.0 26.048 × 10 9 ⎛ − 18081 ⎞ −5 exp⎜ + 3.04 0. (2.01 298 14.1 12.72) where θ = 365.2779T – 4.06 0.4 23.9 25. 114] with an accuracy of ± 3% at 273 ≤ T ≤ 1300 K and ± 6% at 1700 ≤ T≤ 2300 K.6 21.1 17.3 1273 24.74) where Р is the porosity in volume fractions. (2.5 13.6 22.

17 9.9 6184 18.35 6.491 0.59 9.76 6.2 1806 15.63 9.90 8.409 × 10–9 T.499 0.6 20843 24. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF URANIUM MONONITRIDE BY CORRELATIONS (2.492 0. (2.40 5.52 7.19 8.Integral thermal conductivity Λ( W / m) = T ∫ λ(T ) dt of uranium nitride was evaluated by 293 numerical integration of correlation (2.500 0.32.45 9.43 6.62 6.65 6.496 0.6 11975 20.2 16261 22.9 8021 19. Linear expansion coefficient of UN is calculated by the correlation: at 298 ≤ T ≤ 2523 K [107] α (1/K) = 7.17 5.9 12536 21.84 5.8 34147 27. 2.02 1.85 Linear expansion coefficient 106/K 7. Thermal diffusivity of UN is found as а (m2/s) = λ/Cp × ρ.22 6.491 0.75) are presented in Table 2.489 0.94 5.7 44507 28.489 0.62 7.04 8.91 5.17 6.500 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) 190 201 211 218 223 228 232 233 237 238 241 246 250 255 260 266 273 275 281 284 292 295 305 320 338 359 365 Integral Thermal thermal conductivity conductivity W/(mK) W/m 13.8 4450 17.55 6.9 45285 Thermal diffusivity 106(m2/s) 4.9 18517 23.497 0.61 8.30 10.494 0.491 0.77 9.096 × 10–6 + 1.32 6.70−2.64 6.6 2831 16.71 6.5 28213 25.8 9954 20.34 43 .49 9.75) Thermophysical properties of uranium mononitride estimated by correlations (2.496 0.03 9.75 8.2 41660 28.32.2 36117 27.4 14079 22.490 0.75) Temperature °C K 25 100 200 300 400 500 577 600 700 727 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1427 1500 1527 1600 1627 1700 1800 1900 2000 2027 298 373 473 573 673 773 850 873 973 1000 1073 1173 1273 1373 1473 1573 1673 1700 1773 1800 1873 1900 1973 2073 2173 2273 2300 Density kg/m3 14330 14310 14278 14245 14211 14176 14148 14140 14103 14093 14065 14027 13987 13946 13904 13862 13818 13806 13773 13761 13728 13715 13681 13633 13585 13535 13522 Crystal lattice parameter nm 0.76 7.497 0.498 0.1 30790 26.016 10.493 0.490 0.76 6.86 10.0 64.76 6.78 4.96 6.73.51 6.51 8.29 8.498 0.497 0.493 0.9 25693 25.72 6. TABLE 2.47 8. 2.33 8.492 0.495 0.8 14.70−2.74 6.3 23236 24.6 9501 19.74 9.2 31946 26.7 38862 28.494 0.00 6.6 33246 26.15 5.496 0.495 0.73.7 28902 26.64 5.89 9.73) using the MATHCAD program.31 9.492 0.

375 × 10−5T).77) − (1 − 2. (2. [109]: ρе × 10–8 (Ω⋅m) = 71.125.75 1.46 1.80 .002(1 − 2.3.33. Shear modulus (G): − 2 3.14 Р Т0. The values of electrical resistivity of UN of theoretical density are given in Table 2.79 1.34. ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY OF UN OF THEORETICAL DENSITY е (Ω⋅m) [109] Temperature °C 25 27 100 200 300 400 600 800 1000 1200 1300 1327 44 K 298 300 373 473 573 673 873 1073 1273 1473 1573 1600 Electrical resistivity 106 Ωm 1.33. Mechanical properties of uranium mononitride are given in Table 2.78 1.44 × 10 ρ (2.49 e2.76) where Р is the porosity in volume fractions.67 1.35.375 × 10 5T).71 1.446 G (MPa) = 1.54 1. The basic properties of UC are presented in Table 2. Modulus of elasticity (Е): Е (MPa) = 0.58 1. Uranium carbide Uranium carbide (UC) as a nuclear fuel for fast reactors has an advantage as compared with UO2 owing to a higher density of fissile material (1.5.50 1. (2.34 times) and thermal conductivity (2. They were calculated at UN density in the range of 70 ≤ ρ ≤ 100% of the theoretical density and the temperature of 298 ≤ Т ≤ 1473 K [111].78) 2.258ρ3.46 1.Electrical resistivity of UN is estimated at 298 ≤ T ≤ 1600 K by the formula in Ref.6 times).61 1. TABLE 2.

75 896.TABLE 2.62 551.34 894. Ω⋅m 72.4 3063. amu 250 Theoretical density (ρ0).8 2833.75 568.3 1992.1 1926.66 546.4 1420.2 2770.49 536. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF URANIUM MONONITRIDE AT DENSITY OF % OF THE THEORETICAL DENSITY Temp. W/(m⋅K) 25.73 247. kJ/kg 200 50 [120] 195.2 1881. BASIC PROPERTIES OF URANIUM CARBIDE AT 0.81 810.21 251.68 242.95 735.0 1269.64 394.81 380.8 2097.0 2127.40 397. J/(kg⋅K) J/(mol⋅K) Heat of fusion.94 267.61 541.10 239.87 369.27 713.24 838.1 1313.65 252.95 791.9 3058.84 781.4 2926.51 896.14 847. K 4691 [118] 4866 [97] Heat capacity.49 357.3 [82] Linear expansion coefficient.8 1987.12 365.4 3064.06 399.5 1298.35.9 2956.07 819.3 2035.3 1328.69 520.4 1384.1 1417.60 569.4 2131.81 566.30 561.35 383.1 MPa.22 835.3 3043.8 1284.5 1410.8 2056.85 706.36 1420.2 2737.8 2705.0 856.70 756.33 361.76 829.0 1370.0 1324.35 882.0 2076.88 531.49 266.76 259. 1/K 10.97 742.22 244.28 781.42 776.6 1397. K 298 300 320 373 473 573 673 773 873 973 1000 1073 1173 1273 1373 1473 Modulus of elasticity GPa Density kg/m3 14413 14412 14407 14392 14362 14332 14301 14269 14236 14201 14192 14166 14130 14093 14055 14016 Shear modulus GPa 70% 80% 90% 100% 70% 80% 90% 100% 267.84 387.8 2131.9 2802.4 2014.40 763.57 375.50 400.0 TABLE 2.2 2856.58 372.88 728.59 721. K (°С) 2638 ± 165 (2365 ± 165) [117] 2780 ± 25 [35] Boiling point.71 890.4 3014.1 × 10–6 [115] Electrical resistivity.98 770.8 2985.71 780.4 2896.1 2116. 298 K Property Value Molecular mass. kg/m3 13630 [116] Melting point.50 556.6 kJ/mol Heat of vapourization.34 698.0 2865.53 865.12 400. kJ/kg kJ/mol 48.43 800.4 1342.01 873.27 390.82 509.9 [119] ~2120 ~530 at Тb [120] Thermal conductivity.89 749.82 733.54 249.84 569.03 525.3 1356.29 514.06 261.30 534.7 × 10−8 [115] 45 .34.22 376.31 264.43 257.0 1253.06 254.1 1949.8 1904.0 1971.98 267.

which gives more severe decrease of UC density with temperature: ρ(T) (kg/m3) = 13500 (1 − 2. [120].1/T2. (2. 2. and other factors [37. Linear expansion coefficient of UC is calculated according to Ref. temperature.7604 × 10−8 T2 − 3488.117 × 10−5Т − 3.83.83) (2. Properties of uranium carbide depending on temperature Density of UC is defined by the following correlation: ρ(T) (kg/m3) = 13630 (1 − 3.2 + 1. m2/s. t (°С). In some cases. 43. The analysis of data in Refs [121.04 × 10–8 Т2).7 − 3. (2. (2.79) where Т is temperature. With zero porosity in the temperature range from 50 to 2300°С. This correlation has been derived based on the experimental data in Refs [115.84) using the MATHCAD program.51 × 10−9 Т2). the data in different references have two-fold disagreement. 116] that were obtained by measurement of linear expansion coefficient in the temperature range from 0 to 2800°С.48 × 10 t. As a consequence. the fuel properties may be deteriorated due to carbonization of fuel element cladding [35]. [115] in the range from 0 to 2000°Сwith an uncertainty of ±15% by the correlation: 46 .13 × 10−5 Т − 2. The excess of uranium over superstoichiometric quantity results in free metallic uranium at crystal boundaries. 116]. K.2397 − 5. The effect of porosity is described by the correlation: λ(t.5.81) Thermal conductivity of UC depends on the composition.82) where Р is the porosity in volume fractions.The crystal lattice of uranium carbide is similar to that of NaCl (face-centered cubic). Thermal diffusivity a = λ/Cp ρ. manufacturing process. (2.068 × 10−6 T + 1. 2. (2.3. the thermal conductivity is estimated by the empirical correlations [37]: for 50 – 700°С λ [W/(m K)] = 21.80) Values of UC heat capacity have been obtained by the differentiation of function f (T) = Н0 – Н295 at 298≤ T ≤ 2838 K presented in Ref.84) Here. 122] results in the correlation. Сp (J/(kg K)) = 0. t Integral thermal conductivity Λ (t ) ( W / m) = ∫ λ( t )dt of uranium carbide is evaluated by 20 numerical integration of Eqs (2.04 × 10–3 t + 3. –3 for 700 — 2300°С λ [W/(m K)] = 20.1. Р) = λ(t) [(1 − Р)/(1 + Р)]. porosity (P).61 × 10–6 t2.

3 + 0.9 + 0.159 Т – 2. Vapour pressure above liquid UC above melting point at 2780 ≤ Т ≤ 6270 K is described by correlation [118] (see Table 2.68 × 10−5 Т 2. (2. [128] the data on UC eVapouration are given. 119]: ρ (kg/m3) = (12000 − 6.86) where t (°С).007 × 10−5 + 1.824 − 35700/T (2. Thermophysical properties of solid UC estimated by Eqs (2.3.39).622 − 32860/T − 0. on the basis of these data vapour pressure above solid UC at 1600 ≤ T ≤ 2780 K is estimated by following correlation: lgР (MPa) = 7. 47 .85) Electrical resistivity of UC is defined with an uncertainty of ± 15% according to Ref.715lgT (2.5.89) where Т (K).90) The critical constants of uranium carbide have a slight scattering with the exception of density (see Table 2. (2.88) 2. [116]: ρе × 108 (Ω⋅m) = 69. In Ref.38): lgР (MPa) = 8.79–2.α (1/°С) = 1. [137] apparently relating to a higher purity UC of theoretical density are estimated by formula: ρе⋅108 (Ω⋅m) = 32. (2.138 t – 2.17 × 10−9t.87) where Т (K). Properties of liquid uranium carbide depending on temperature Density of liquid UC at Тmelt< Т <Тboil is evaluated according to Refs [115.25 × 10–4 Т) ± 200. The data in Ref.2. (2.56 × 10−5 t2.36.87) are presented in Table 2.

2 82.1 2000 2273 12420 318 64.8 × 10−7 2507 2780 7.8 × 10−11 2000 2273 2.7 212.4 773 13270 240 23.6 67957 16.9 1800 2073 12550 304 54.58 11.3 900 1173 13070 255 27.0 163.7 131.33 12.7 1600 1873 12670 291 46.74 11.62 11.4 800 1073 13120 252 25.09 11.8 1900 2173 12490 311 59.48 10.4 45936 12.51 12.6 13666 7.6 249.0 2300 2573 12220 343 81.6 18560 7.6 205.3 95.4 50775 13.81 10.98 11.29 10.38 12.03 11. 7 81963 18.4 108.1 11332 7.46 10.8 23.5 246.0 × 10−12 1700 1973 3.46 12.4 190.1 33638 10.0 21186 8.27 11.25 10.3 Temperature Density kg/m3 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) Thermal diffusivity 106(m2/s) Electrical resistivity 108(Ω⋅m) TABLE 2.9 26957 9.0 1300 1573 12840 274 36.6 1700 1973 12610 297 50.6 4392 7.3 1500 1773 12730 285 42.42 12.5 120.6 61752 15.0 74683 17. VAPOUR PRESSURE ABOVE SOLID UC [128] Temperature 48 Pressure MPa °С 1600 K 1973 4.8 56036 14.8 142.2 181.8 × 10−11 1800 2073 6.8 251.1 229.6 41491 11.4 242.44 10.8 23974 8.31 10.9 232 23. 9 153.37.3 Integral thermal conductivity W/m 127 100 373 13460 215 24.9 224.8 218.5 198.3 239.4 30167 9.1 1991 8.8 1000 1273 13010 260 28.7 1100 1373 12960 264 30.1 1200 1473 12900 269 33.2 2200 2473 12290 334 75.0 9030 7.5 200 473 13420 226 300 573 13370 400 673 500 9.4 16065 7.1 172.4 1400 1673 12790 279 39.9 × 10−10 2300 2573 6.2 37402 10.75 11.53 11.1 6728 7.9 2100 2373 12350 326 70.9 700 973 13170 248 24.36.34 Linear expansion coefficient 106/K 10.5 × 10−6 72.9 600 873 13220 244 23.4 13320 237 23.7 89828 19.7 .2 234.34 12.36 12.TABLE 2. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLID UC °С K 25 298 13500 200 25.

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53 13.42 80.1. GASES The thermophysical properties of dry air and helium are presented in Tables 3.15 16.71 0.7 18.13 1.98 6.44 43.05 137 41.532 1.84 8.71 0.01 50.0 18.01 1.64 4.01 33.3.03 42.33 65.2487 0.789 0.71 0.01 1.74 3.127 1.20 1.95 139.66 15.09 90.71 0.06 3.90 33.74 0.71 0.71 0.28 2.5960 0.65 2.0 33.2683 0.1.8 19.6 20.2.29 190 46.19 22.45 5.71 0.6530 0.01 1.18 1.4 16.01 1.71 0.166 1.65 21.79 2.17 1.5075 0.00 1.06 4.0981 MPa [1] Temperature °C Density kg/m3 –50 –20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 250 300 350 100 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1.14 182.71 0. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF DRY AIR AT P = 0.92 2. 3.74 162 44.71 0.44 2.72 0.71 0.07 1.73 0.9 26.026 0.722 0.47 32.62 3.5482 0.22 81.2319 Heat capacity kJ/(kg⋅K) 1.0 24.057 1.996 0.00 1.24 3.2916 0.2 21.03 1.37 4.94 230.71 0.18 160.251 1.68 216 48.17 Prandtl number 0.71 0.207 1.99 3.1.827 0.0 29.00 1.4 17.3183 0.71 0.57 18.091 1.87 57.49 3.21 28.4418 0.97 13.6 27.6 22.01 1.72 0.03 1.941 0.75 14.60 20.16 1.85 99.10 27.20 277 53.0 31.71 0.3 20.24 46.01 1.74 0.72 2.74 4.00 1.37 3.86 2.3 25.09 1.69 20.47 7.05 2.58 17.61 40.1.99 247 51.71 0.02 30.49 36.11 1.05 1.72 0.00 1.19 19.16 24.350 1.4 19.12 3.58 19.77 36. Helium The isobaric heat capacity of helium in the range of temperatures and pressures under considerations can be accepted to be constant and be Ср = 5.26 8.51 2.3912 0.49 11.15 113 39.754 0. respectively.193 kJ/(kg⋅K).68 23.73 0.56 29.71 70.00 1.00 7.86 118. 56 .2 21.71 0.9 23. Air TABLE 3.02 1.91 26.02 1.6 21.71 0.74 22.58 2.06 1.00 1.8 17.00 1.66 31. COOLANTS 3.67 205.71 0.02 1.73 0.91 5.74 0.3510 0.869 0.66 Dynamic Thermal viscosity diffusivity 6 2 106(Pa⋅s) 10 (m /s) 14.91 60.36 309 Kinematic viscosity 106 (m2/s) 9.71 0.75 49.1 and 3.2.40 7.967 0.82 23.916 0.61 16.21 Thermal capacity 102 [W/(mK)] 2.6 36.63 26.1.

4 196.79 0.5 35.3 37.643 700 0.87 0.83 0.645 0.2 34.4 46.TABLE 3.1722 57I4 439.641 600 0.09 0.31 0.0 45.653 0.31 0.646 1.645 800 0.7710 1821 259.5208 3379 341.75 0.5 37.04286 4414 387.92 0.0 39.26 0.4282 4417 387.08 0.650 1.562 525.644 750 0.650 1000 0.3 43.8 28.327 2343 288.93 0.2 46.644 1.04946 3635 353.134 782.6439 520.3 42.8556 4420 387.37 0.92 0.645 0.9179 1301 228.08 0.1 45.7139 2080 274. Р = 1 × 105 Pa °C Thermal Dynamic Density Enthalpy kJ/kg conductivity viscosity kg/m3 W/(m⋅K) mPa⋅s Prandtl number Density kg/m3 Р = 5 × 105 Pa Enthalpy Thermal Dynamic kJ/kg conductivity viscosity W/(m⋅K) 106 (Pa⋅s) Prandtl number 100 0.75 0.57 0.33 0.646 450 0.642 650 0.9871 3641 353.3 196.2472 3637 353.646 0 2242 4156 376.08 0.2.9 40.35 0.648 0.79 0.3111 2598 302.3326 2338 288.4 43.35 0.644 500 0.0 45.64 0.650 0.672 1564 244.6646 2340 288.831 1305 229.68 0.7550 5189 418.653 0.5 22.3 48.6 196.650 350 0.8 26.8 49.9 49.8381 156 244.57 0.539 1824 259.656 0.7001 5718 439.645 0.4 55.653 300 0.2051 4675 397.653 0.645 800 0.2 169.650 0.79 0.665 0.08398 1558 244.09 0.1 22.57 0.643 550 0.6 28.8 40.660 0.05513 3116 328.2606 3377 341.77 0.4700 3898 365.5 30.100 3122 329.80 0.659 200 1.75 0.2922 2858 315.8 52.425 1083 274.285 522.4595 1300 223.644 500 0.2142 4416 387.656 250 0.650 0.87 0.31 0.3 30.6 43.642 1.83 0.642 650 0.643 550 0.7 28.09 0.643 1.3 42.024 1045 213.9390 3901 365.33 0.8 40.1 34.35 0.93 0.35 0.8192 4680 398.643 700 0.4100 4677 397.5840 2859 315.33 0.03781 5193 418.655 57 .6 32.1 48.655 0.663 150 1.8 179.2 43.5506 3119 328.45 0.5080 1040 212.2 24.8954 4160 376.68 0.09 0.6 35.7 39.2 45.4195 1560 244.0 26.1290 519.03506 5713 439.040 3382 341.4 37.3 46.57 0.4941 3638 353.644 0.64 0.7 26.2 46.1017 1039 212.44 0.646 850 0.07150 2078 274.06226 2597 302.05848 2856 315.643 750 0.3 34.77 0.646 0.2 30.4 35.26 0.68 0.68 0.87 0.0 49.653 1.79 0.3 35.3 32.80 0.665 150 0.1137 779.8 52. THERMODYNAMIC AND THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF HELIUM [2] Temp.77 0.655 250 0.9 52.656 2.5679 780.04486 4155 376.92 0.83 0.26 0.92 0.3 24.4 32.664 2.4481 4157 376.4 55.6217 2600 302.655 100 1.45 0.31 0.1 30.04705 3895 365.261 785.3 37.0 34.6 179.6 26.644 0.643 0.44 0.44 0.09200 1299 228.648 900 0.45 0.64 0.648 900 0.652 300 0.3503 5715 439.660 200 0.93 0.643 600 0.655 0.646 0.33 0.649 1000 0.660 2.44 0.653 1100 0.648 1.5 179.8 52.6 24.015 1042 212.8 39.08 0.0 22.05214 3376 341.64 0.1 24.04103 4674 397.643 400 0.242 2603 302.645 450 0.2 48.648 0.166 2862 316.3859 1819 259.642 1.4 55.75 0.93 0.1890 5194 418.0 40.643 0.45 0.1 42.648 0.07724 1818 259.77 0.5 55.06656 2337 288.3 32.80 0.643 0.653 1100 0.3573 2079 274.83 0.5 42.2 22.642 0.0 28.4 43.26 0.647 400 0.643 1.9 39.9 179.2351 3896 365.3778 5196 413.646 850 0.80 0.2775 3117 328.9 49.649 350 0.

648 4.948 3653 354.TABLE 3.640 550 4.641 650 2.45 551.6 49.88 0.6 46.560 4178 377.921 3659 354.647 4.5 42.005 1058 214.646 2.7 52.1 26.641 600 2.642 3.023 2108 275.649 1000 1.647 350 3.93 0.44 0.37 0.26 0.1 52.766 2887 317.194 3128 329.8 34.7 180.655 100 10.4 32.639 2102 275.645 850 3.08 0.0 55.8 28.652 2.6 39.921 2621 303.644 4.508 5204 419.557 443 387.93 0.805 3913 365.645 1311 229.086 532.654 3.7 34.642 3.025 1051 213.066 830 260.643 800 3.655 3924 366.09 0.09 0.7 24.8 22.644 7.5 22.259 4697 398.005 5216 419.7 49.6 0.0 35.9 30.08 0.653 11.655 2.33 0.8 42.2 49.3 40.640 650 4.88 0.840 2090 274.95 0.645 2349 289.641 700 3.2 39.6 35.557 2368 290.8 197.36 0.645 350 6.3 43.3 42.94 0.83 0.87 0.645 850 1.46 0.641 5.58 0.64 0.661 7.4 34.0 43.644 400 5.708 4426 387.645 400 2.1 37.64 0.84 0.441 4184 377.8 30.83 0.641 4.656 6.3 24.44 0.659 150 4.8 55.0 26.3 0.330 1571 244.642 450 5.2 30.0 32.963 1064 214.642 700 1.626 2881 316.3 46.651 1100 2788 5732 440.642 6.2 198.2 22.7ε7 4166 376.131 3400 342.652 200 7.900 1071 215.3 180.4 49.282 3134 329.649 4.6 45.0 35.076 3388 341.640 600 4.33 0.5 52.580 1836 260.3 39.8 45.643 7.45 0.64 0.643 3.5 48.44 0.644 4.93 0.69 0.77 0.475 2609 302.7 198.441 1317 229.9 48.33 0.970 3647 353.03 811.877 804.646 8.650 2.642 4.654 58 .31 0.403 4437 187.649 300 3.644 2.636 4685 398.642 550 2.244 2096 275.0 34. °C Density kg/m3 Thermal Enthalpy conductivity kJ/kg W/(m⋅K) Р = 6 × 106 Pa Dynamic viscosity mPa⋅s Prandtl number Density kg/m3 Thermal Enthalpy conductivity kJ/kg W/(m⋅K) Dynamic viscosity mPa⋅s Prandtl number 100 5.76 0.106 3394 342.68 0.494 79l.0 46.326 2868 316.8 40.79 0.1 48.651 1100 1.642 3.642 500 2.68 0.255 2362 289.36 0.5 26.75 0.2 55.81 0.067 4703 398.44 0.649 250 7.245 4443 388.675 4171 376.751 5222 419.81 0.3 197.1 24.648 1000 3.083 1843 260.641 5.3 52.573 1849 261.35 0.5 37.1 40.8 46.32 0.64 0.09 0.8 43.4 23.7 55.5 40.646 900 3.03 545.77 0.651 9.09 0.641 5.648 900 1.9 24.46 0.3 35.94 0.81 0.132 2627 303.649 5.094 5729 439.33 0.4 45.890 3665 354.652 3.8 37.8 37.7 48.2 181.648 8.7 182.10 0.80 0.642 2.89 0.10 0.5 26.79 0.980 1330 230.57 0.0 42.575 538.25 0.655 200 4.364 3140 329.219 1324 230.77 0.2 32.398 5724 439.699 798.4 28.151 3406 342.77 0.79 0.602 1503 245.971 1577 2453 30.9 39.642 750 3.9 28.2.258 5210 419.58 0.5 43.441 3146 330.732 3919 365.653 6.77 0.645 4.644 800 l.647 300 6.641 6.2 22. (continued) Р = 4 × 106 Pa Temp.80 0.217 1590 246.643 750 1.645 2.59 0.480 5740 440.45 0.449 4691 398.654 150 8.702 2615 303.31 0.641 500 4.96 0.83 0.656 12.26 0.955 2355 289.8 32.641 3.874 3901 365.96 0.479 2875 316.1 45.69 0.75 0.652 250 3.644 450 2.

0 968.9 667.2 980.9 666.4757 0.2 2465.7 2282.20 70.5 632.5010×104 3.774 2. 23].2 663.0 674.50 63.920 15.00 45.0020 0.3080 1.432 7.0 2392.4 2453.7 679.4120 TABLE 3.9 2406.1 998.68 376.188 4.00 93.97 391.527 1.49 95.136 3. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SATURATED WATER Temp.2929 0.00 65.604 2.32 85.0182×104 8.3392×103 3.7057×103 2. m3/kg Specific enthalpy.02 405.00 15.3 962.179 4.2467×103 5.7415×104 5.00 75.6 2273.611 1.7 2295.2080×105 1.2.3 2333.31 289.70 68.50 59.045 3.00 60.1170×102 8.060 1.181 4.00 35.2807 0.5220 1.3079 0.81 209.6 675.205 4. and are as follows.747 1.664 1.185 4.90 57.00 25.8 974.182 4.80 59.981 6.7920 1.183 4.4 2293.8595×104 4.5 2441.50 72.9 947.4137 0.5 2269.2 990.134 3.6286×103 7.659 1.1 2229.9 621.456 11.00 40.60 63.000 8.053 4.812 1.9 961. rature °C 0.658 1.658 1.529 5.516 1.2 658.946 0.0000×104 1.847 1.2687 1.9 999.435 1.5 2308.435 1.189 4.2940 0.670 1.387 2.5 2243.829 4.201 4.700 13.93 89.48 355.6581 0.217 4.343 4.1 677.597 1.9 600.960 1.00 75.003106 2087.540 3.3.00 69.50 61.6 2265.3834 0.00 5.0142×105 1.288 3.937 6.410 4.5 659.118 5.13 417.577 3.00 55.3875 0.7260×102 1.3585 0.188 4.7867×104 6.8 988.669 2.196 4.4185 0.02 313.7227 0.50 69.00 59 .0000×105 1.70 74.189 2.179 4.551 1.230 2500.1 2304.946 3.0000×104 5.8) are taken in Refs [3.647 1.90 57.4 672. Pressure.332 1.064 373.1201×104 3.3128 0.8 2417.0 2394.5 681.80 61.5 663.200 4.1 0.44 191.70 71.387 1.0000×104 1.623 1.676 1.456 1.380 10.75 146.879 1.080 11.7993 0.227 2.20 65. 3.5 2256.86 80.2 2257.0 581.5 4.3027 0.184 6.179 4.60 68.272 3.40 62.90 71.84 376.0000×104 7.4 645.0 995.64 398.0 635.36 4.00 Pressure Pa 6.8 971.191 9.4609×104 9.180 4.667 1.583 1.196 4.1697×103 4.480 5.70 62.569 2.3 676.23 461.5944×103 1.0 965.0 2369.735 3.0000×104 8.4 640.2 17.205 4.98 83.819 2.4429 0.4338×105 Heat Specific Thermal Dynamic Kinematic Thermal Surface Prandtl Density Enthalpy viscosity heat conductivity viscosity capacity tension diffusivity number 3 kg/m3 kJ/kg 6 2 10 N/m kJ/(kg⋅K) kJ/kg 103W/(m⋅K) 104(Pa⋅s) 10 (m /s) 107(m2/s) 999.90 74.3 950.84 125.0 992.3249 0.6 994.778 3.536 1.10 66.220 13.64 167.883 7.00 45.00 85.20 73. kJ/kg Specific entropy.607 1.2282×103 1.3 965.3 971.1390 1.80 60.34 230.00 110.5126 0.962 2.3397 0.3.481 3.191 4.7 2429.7 974.97 317.179 4.0000×104 7.02 62.02 42.7 958.69 99.223 4.3434 0.094 4.958 7.90 67.0 985.9 2489.677 1.1 2320.3–3.213 4.10 59.2 997.6 651.70 64.3844×103 9.7 983.0000×104 4.7 628.00 20.908 2.185 4.360 1.61 100. p.60 67.5945 0.580 75. MPa Temperature. Critical constants of water [Ref.3247 0.7 999.9 2357.649 1.9 673.341 3.00 10.754 1.677 4.13 70.012 2.00 81.1 2477.2351×104 1.60 60.0 572.478 1.958 1.0000×104 2.2 989. WATER (Н2О) The thermophysical properties of water and steam (see Tables 3.635 1.54 188.6 968. kJ/(kg⋅K) 22.7 562.6 2318.870 3.9 960.00 105.95 340.6026 0.44 419.567 1.24 251.92 104.57 334.211 4.5 669.692 1.545 1.1 2382.209 4.93 90.40 64.638 1.220 4.0 655.358 2.326 3.95 359.206 4.5761×104 2.005 2.3 977.80 60.180 4.2 614.8910 0.6 599.6 677.884 5.10 440.7 958.192 4.626 1.5 607.217 4.8 999.967 5.9 670.497 1.085 2.40 270.4 2335.0000×104 3.197 4. °С Specific volume.81 50. 4].807 2.00 21.5 978.00 30.23 293.00 58.3643 0.5 2346.00 96.0 2282.5546 0.

403 4.2230 0.1869 0.9 627.5 674.80 589.41 175.70 46.3 652.60 829.018 1.7026×105 3.50 28.730 1.293 1.60 962.9867×105 2.2245 0.3 678.4 2159.5 1689.1487 0.1055×106 2.8 1794.683 4.535 1.7 917.00 52.70 36.958 0.842 0.7 849.725 1.5547×106 1.132 1.90 670.00 54.60 920.00 230.7 674.0 682.2150 0.547 4.00 250.711 1.00 158.420 4.6 676.6 683.5 643.2 648.1424 0.TABLE 3. rature °C Pressure Pa 115.1956 0.045 1.8 684.106 1.1324 0.1724 0.856 0.00 741.930 2216.193 1.70 525.4 482.00 240.70 610.264 1.70 29.0000×105 2.5000×106 1.1350 0.943 0.0 2173.369 4.3 2031.0000×105 5.00 120.50 675.0000×105 8.20 742.345 4.1992 0.8 846.630 1.741 1.3 891.310 4.00 130.742 1.2091 0.2 798.80 .1341 0.0000×105 6.1760 0.0 1996.7 806.38 215.6 2.70 29.1 934.3 617.10 32.9 1789.149 1.328 4.886 0.1 635.3986×106 1.312 4.2305 0.9074×106 2.00 223.7 852.4 2014.00 220.915 0.1356 0.716 4.20 721.727 1.089 2.00 38. (continued) Temp.30 43.977 0.2 908.834 0.00 897.389 4.3 2014.696 1.1588 0.0000×105 3.507 1.823 1.40 875.70 632.40 561.50 1042.61 145.40 28.8 931.1 922.30 640.3 791.0 1740.1816 0.7 2107.406 4.0622×106 3.7 2163.284 4.596 1.1474 0.90 46.50 567.00 170.728 1.058 1.065 1.30 52.0 669.341 1.6 864.70 48.673 1.2 644.633 4.260 4.9 2097.307 1.9 2065.913 0.683 1.728 1.90 52.730 1.4 897.2550×106 1.10 27.419 1.789 4.1687 0.865 4.669 1.159 1.30 807.80 38.718 1.5 866.313 1.2 654.1233×106 1.00 242.9 820.213 1.873 0.9 1899.2 835.1687 0.1 1835.0000×105 7.80 990.3 2129.1721 0.4 2048.904 1.2 2133.620 1.90 30.20 42.729 1.9 2085.279 1.718 1.497 1.50 1085.375 4.217 1.7 858.874 4.582 1.5494×106 2.457 1.459 4.00 165.1 943.2 684.7610×105 5.4 1840.1320×105 3.538 1.725 1.996 0.6918×105 1.4 902.236 2.8 921.838 0.3 1713.739 1.474 4.3222×105 2.130 1.9 623.724 1.8 930.86 235.820 56.445 1.093 1.1360 0.4 683.60 54.200 1.6 2081.6509×106 3.80 1061.70 762.0026×106 1.4 1812.287 4.3 663.927 1.00 175.1563×105 4.447 4.00 185.0 881.2 912.7 1958.705 4.00 205.854 0.00 50.8 684.7 684.60 45.606 1.9245×105 9.9205×105 8.00 241.9 1946.1401 0.8 684.40 33.0 682.1865 0.715 1.6 2030.9759×106 4.8 683.2579 0.833 0.2471 0.00 190.00 133.0000×106 4.00 37.229 4.3 683.00 198.00 25.00 1.7 1919.707 1.6 672.666 1.3.83 160.10 4.7 1753.00 195.7 678.70 763.00 150.1763 0.5 666.625 4.6 1889.0000×105 1.705 1.717 1.60 943.4 664.00 170.388 4.00 120.590 1.2392 0.0 681.707 1.5 897.00 143.6 676.726 1.071 1.248 1.382 1.733 1.5000×106 3.00 210.4 622.10 49.984 1.773 4.5 1760.1 2201.693 1.55 503.767 4.96 225.1 1977.548 4.30 1049.579 1.5 840.0000×106 1.1500 0.878 0.3 659.849 0.30 43.336 4.8 682.587 1.688 1.718 1.611 4.6 639.5 1765.0000×106 3.6 2188.1917 0.84 155.3 812.2477 0.814 4.90 48.081 1.10 31.3 1939.20 653.90 50.148 2.1428 0.731 1.1323 0.1 634.70 1087.6 907.3467×106 3.8 1878.20 42.101 1.80 1037.50 44.7 656.106 1.8 684.286 4.330 2.733 1.7 2047.0000×105 4.1309 1.6150×105 4.784 1.8 1857.1653 0.0 628.692 1.89 180.036 0.60 35.00 966.6 876.7 625.00 233.2 887.8 827.4342×105 6.187 1.7968×106 3.359 1.40 47.36 179.1568 0.1 833.00 250.496 1.7240×106 1.5 926.0 939.720 1.506 4.1814×105 7.8 617.20 26.4059×106 3.639 1.0 2202.0 915.081 1.70 908.1529 0.3 813.90 24.360 4.1385 0.70 27.00 212.246 4.9 798.614 1.347 1.977 0.56 245.494 4.338 4.622 1.138 1.1 821.274 4.8 1715.835 0.432 2.60 697.392 1.447 1.897 0.0 809.866 0.018 0.8 680.20 41.40 34.0000×106 2.1 2144.90 54.0 892.1448 0.731 1.20 785.6 684.056 1.80 504.563 4.10 40.90 34.5000×106 2.731 1.70 852.843 0.00 151.20 604.4 897.1620 0.36 255.21 125.1558 0.53 135.1 870.242 1.925 0.309 4.30 200.40 1013.00 140.30 719.3227×106 60 Heat Specific Thermal Dynamic Kinematic Thermal Surface Prandtl Density Enthalpy viscosity heat conductivity viscosity capacity tension diffusivity number 3 kg/m3 kJ/kg 6 2 10 N/m kJ/(kg⋅K) kJ/kg 103W/(m⋅K) 104(Pa⋅s) 10 (m /s) 107(m2/s) 943.713 1.1380 0.650 1.2076 0.1 2113.246 4.642 1.40 1110.10 546.837 0.20 1008.3193×106 2.836 0.9 887.90 844.997 0.40 44.326 2.

050 5.879 0.798 0.291 1.817 0.2 516.1 671.2 1034.680 6.6500×107 1.00 314.6 585.7 603.50 14.00 311.2 654.6 712.605 5.4 510.7 741.090 6.1214 0.153 1.25 310.9145×106 7.4 526.16 344.2000×107 1.1190 0.7 489.7 605.270 7.170 1.9 449.918 0.1102 1.1174 0.70 1373.103 1.9 722.0 584.623 0.4 1325.840 0.540 6.00 270.953 0.324 5.738 0.3 748.765 0.8 482.3 495.30 9.40 1511.60 13.4 496.70 12.1 894.1204 0.20 23.558 1.7000×107 1.961 4.700 5.900 5.9 436.244 1.850 5.70 22.1 705.5 655.832 0.1156 0.620 7.190 7.30 1462.50 1159.6 1000.70 7.7 565.70 16.939 0.80 1184.0500×107 1.00 321.441 1.275 1.90 1429.000 0.1156 0.000 1.4 593.50 7.842 0.82 330.210 7.026 1.1281 0.00 263.61 315.3500×107 1.0556×107 1.00 275.4 680.70 1669.089 1.391 1.6 1225.70 1317.511 5.80 4.471 1.5 449.786 0.5500×107 1.3 1348.7 576.7500×107 Heat Specific Thermal Dynamic Kinematic Thermal Surface Prandtl Density Enthalpy viscosity heat conductivity viscosity capacity tension diffusivity number 3 kg/m3 kJ/kg 6 2 10 N/m kJ/(kg⋅K) kJ/kg 103W/(m⋅K) 104(Pa⋅s) 10 (m /s) 107(m2/s) 787.30 20.185 1.140 6.2 739.524 1.994 0.777 0.025 1.530 1.2 612.8 640.8 667.1188 0.5540×107 1.638 0.1187 0.50 14.031 1.835 0.5000×107 1.60 16.859 0.4 818.154 1.8 626.40 13.7 562.00 290.6000×107 1.918 0.222 5.7 1510.90 8.8 476.70 1236.00 1407.3 1027.0000×106 8.00 18.8 1379.80 4.00 318.0 750.40 5.902 0.1186 0.2 701.123 1.80 8.5000×106 9.90 11.5 759.1500×107 1.1 506.832 0.40 1289.5000×106 8.8 1473.163 1.756 0.6 783.490 5.9463×106 6.80 61 .983 0.691 0.1 1441.1 1238.0851×106 5.8 638.1301 0.67 339.525 1.7 966.50 1525.1130 0.00 336.014 1.0000×107 1.90 1590.460 1.1209 0.1 663.874 0.40 21.232 1.4 610.0 473.176 1.700 1675.835 0.080 1.416 1.20 1263.860 0.1 1163.2 1537.00 303.854 0.70 1531.258 1.0000×106 6.805 0.870 6.5 1131.30 1439.8 535.490 8.00 275.45 340.875 0.7 731.990 9.110 8.4 608.921 0.845 0.098 1.63 5.696 0.8 1574.8647×106 1.652 0.898 0.70 17.70 1344.3707×107 1.7 1505.6 777.10 1386.40 1610.966 0.3 1404.2051×107 1.1198 0.80 1450.2 713.026 1.00 330.2 362.407 1.9 538.81 335.70 1241.4500×107 1.130 1.3000×107 1.5 517.4 455.1146 0.1184 0.2 1122.1187 0.8 568.954 0.00 280.4 1570.94 265.980 6.44 324.10 3.051 1.5 1099.950 8.70 4.5 594.4 775.1248 0.873 0.7 696.1257 0.351 1.4 568.2 469.850 11.4600×107 1.9 1271.957 0.0000×106 9.312 1.7 530.779 0.50 1594.141 5.607 1.9 1661.86 333.9 730.127 1.2858×107 1.7 688.490 10.54 295.994 0.40 1551.886 0.70 1690.364 1.3 1191.818 0.853 0.6 1086.724 0.981 5.232 5.1174 0.5 524.7 1633.10 12.045 1.08 320.431 1.1230 0.5 767.1125 0.0 758.1270 0.5000×106 5.738 0.40 1649.60 8.717 24.2 1366.974 1.00 342.5 1410.552 1.3 621.36 350.708 0.840 0.511 1.216 1.417 5.79 345.90 19.015 0.066 5.1284×107 1.883 0.1238 0.5000×106 8.780 8.290 5.4416×106 7.00 1402.5 1256.1232 0.8 1639.70 1213.410 6.1140 0.5000×106 6.90 1631.681 0.6 585.70 6.67 3.1169 0.120 10.2500×107 1. rature °C Pressure Pa 257.042 1.00 347.59 280.933 0.401 5.510 7.1222 0.7 461.35 305.4000×107 1.1156 0.00 327.0 574.2 722.90 1491.6 1286.975 0.5 500.TABLE 3.7 1604.870 0.6 931.0 561.29 354.3 1067.296 1.1205 0.1247 0.20 1559.865 0.8 690.80 1292.67 4.1000×107 1.83 290.887 0.750 5.20 2.80 1154.1164 0.0 442.00 299.10 11.1285 0.320 6.4 963.6 600.30 1493.30 1570.5 1.750 0.936 0.10 1470.358 1.1 1476.27 300.855 0.00 19.1 577.8 1543.60 15.226 1.500 6.1198 0.00 1267.060 7.10 1134.20 4.6 484.711 0.5000×106 4.121 1.1194 0.86 9.792 0.4 629.904 0.2 553.939 0.1295 0.9 857.1115 0. (continued) Temp.1184 0.68 325.5877×106 9.0000×106 5.3.999 0.70 5.90 1210.509 1.752 0.1239 0.60 17.80 1363.4165×106 6.3 646.00 307.1110 0.841 0.7 767.642 0.9 1317.8 424.060 1.1169 0.0 595.2092×10б 9.6 430.4 503.835 0.00 1710.890 7.00 352.60 22.668 0.929 0.10 7.00 6.00 10.5 599.1144 0.6921×106 5.10 1340.078 1.443 1.00 285.86 285.0 1140.3 1194.384 1.733 0.0000×106 7.20 1629.44 260.10 11.7 544.682 0.

430 1817.6 2573.26 11.75 11.0 20.6 531.1 2634.9 2591.197 0.26 360.83 370.8 46.6 418. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SATURATED STEAM Temp.46 9.0 22.02 1.3 20.90 15.493 0.2 440.30 1.2 23.99 359.5 23.1 490.4 473.40 45.0000×104 1.0304 0.938 1.00941 0.5 584.546 2.1 428.0000×104 7.576 0.90 32.6 23.2 2528.32 85 85.68 0.2937 0. rature °C 0 5 10 15.0 452.500 1827.23 11.72 39.7 777.8 20.1 2477.903 1.32 9.200 1974.7 21.10 18.9 2357.1000×107 2.0656 0.10 11.8 22.91 1901 1371 1005 747.2 17.1170×102 8.7867×104 6.7 329.9 394.2504 0.79 10.8 27.1 450.512 0.39 0.8 37.1104 0.8 58.9 23.014 2.4 2537.550 0.02 1.644 0.7 103.1133 0.6 55.966 1.0 20.0 433.1 2382.8500×107 1.3 522.1109 0.1 21.540 1754.93 62 Pressure Pa 6.73 9.3 2333.68 33.31 10.16 0.7 19.62 10.16 45.982 1.0 2369.6 2318.3844×103 9.8 22.906 1.8 519.2 423.72 56.012 2.02 1.10 231.2 159.9500×107 1.3 2652.2 543.3392×103 3.0 0.1913 0.7 553.2467×103 5.3 32.0397 0.3 2600.0 69.5 38.7 2429.892 1.267 0.3.81 50 55 60 65.1120 0.47 363.524 0. (continued) Temp.02 1.70 47.0 534.198 4.7 2343.2282×103 1.02 1.0 18.0 436.17 1802 1306 964 716 546 417 321 253 197 156 151 125 101 82.2422 0.747 7.799 20.00 372.1296×107 2.100 1938.560 0.041 2500.4 2293.9 527.4.0512 0.1043×107 2.8 31.528 0.7057×103 2.2 83.50 101.2 256.870 1776.0231 0.1201×104 3.5 2308.2 127.8 419.000 812.1225 0.1150 0.42 11.86 80 81.81 68.0 412.0000×104 5.75 58.987 1.02 1.379 0.1 2519.00 371.062 1.1089 0.19 1.954 1.0 25.02 1.4228 kJ/kg 2500.8 417.02 1.5 2582.06 TABLE 3.0128 0.20 32.90 1.0000×104 Density Enthalpy kg/m 3 0.3 67.8 kJ/kg Heat Specific Thermal Dynamic Kinematic Thermal Surface Prandtl capacity heat conductivity viscosity viscosity diffusivity tension number 6 2 mN/m kJ/(kg⋅K) kJ/kg 103W/(m⋅K) 106(Pa⋅s) 10 (m /s) 106(m2/s) 1713.860 1732.6 419.70 11.3661 0.615 5.51 10.03 1.0 2645.30 64.9822×107 2.179 5.52 1.02 . rature °C Pressure Pa 355.6 201.1984 0.3 448.78 11.0 2392.02 1.510 0.00 373.980 2.63 11.93 11.076 2.502 0.5 2624.760 1855.0831 0.5 18.423 0.2351×104 1.89 10.997 1.03 1.93 89.6 2626.40 0.6286×103 7.02 1.7 2295.6 2564.896 1.3 336.0 2394.1 2608.3 404.04 1.1045 0.5761×104 1.00680 0.03 1.5 2583.3539 0.888 1.560 0.9 604.1 2304.5 2546.63 365.1116 0.0 2282.47 37.5 688.932 1.0500×107 2.9 395.5 19.1078 0.590 1889.1697×103 4.544 0.81 369.7570×107 1.9000×107 1.01 10.2 2651.02 1.927 3.45 11.0 409.0000×104 4.3086 0.347 0.27 0.607 0.0 462.109 0.04 1.485 0.119 2.1553×107 2.1097 0.00 13.521 0.95 0.02 1.431 10.60 9.9 2510.2 2465.9 2659.0 40 45 45.621 0.0682 0.02 1.5 2441.592 0.88 1.1 2320.00485 0.800 1892.959 2.05 1.10 23.75 367.00 356.918 1.100 1913.8 2417.9 154.3 19.520 1761.8 17.7415×104 5.8666×107 1.60 21.02 1.9 9.02 1.5 16.0000×104 3.1091 0.948 1.0000×107 2.7 562.22 9.48 10.75 47.493 0.4 719.1 253.999 2.18 28.9 2489.9 2406.50 14.05 1.5 734.59 11.TABLE 3.5944×103 1.028 2.738 1.7260×102 1.1174 0.720 1801.74 2.08 0.9946×104 2.214 2.0173 0.0 404.8 2617.939 1.4 18.1133 0.7 16.00 14.202 0.5 2555.18 10.6 2636.00 1.8595×104 4.00 365.925 1.6 21.02 1.5 638.913 1.587 0.00 361.4 2453.1614 0.0 405.1 2643.1304 0.155 0.973 1.1813×107 Density Enthalpy kg/m3 554.1109 0.2 411.025 2.9 45.0 35.7 22.3 496.7 1.13 70 75 75.4 Heat Specific Thermal Dynamic Kinematic Thermal Prandtl capacity heat conductivity viscosity viscosity diffusivity number 6 2 kJ/(kg⋅K) kJ/kg 103W/(m⋅K) 106(Pa⋅s) 10 (m /s) 106(m2/s) 1.5041×104 3.0 2335.0 30.5 414.8000×107 1.

130 7.04 1.6168 4.4342×105 6.85 15.61 12.2 2229.2 2257.30 13.13 1.4 2014.7 24.5930 7.1 27.8 2756.9 1899.6507 1.537 1.54 11.0 2777.6681 2.05 1.03 12.69 99.539 2.36 1.4338×105 1.5 2665.11 1.187 2.5 2256.93 22.24 1.3 24.41 16.3 35.7 2762.4 1840.1 10.1233×106 1.18 1.7 1958.8 30.25 13.311 2.6 2683.066 2.42 4.50 14.18 15.1814×105 7.8 1878.8 26.83 1.95 165 170 170.17 1.5903 0.6 2188.0 24.77 2.9 2706.9 1946.6889 9.12 1.1 2698.1290 1.1 2724.9 2768.20 1.599 2.33 14.04 3.65 5.4 2738.8 33.1609 4.753 2659.83 13.4 2801.50 14.28 63 .7 31.2 2133.0 2173.87 16.968 2.1217 4.614 12.340 2.0000×105 2.4 2048.8 2767.7 32.2090×105 1.250 3.8860 3.71 15.054 2.93 12.14 25.0082×105 7.6 24.64 13.11 23.540 2.03 1.06 16.0000×105 4.15 1.07 14.323 1.53 2.0026×106 1.1688 3.06 1.10 1.50 3.7050 0.1 2777.9 9.47 5.22 1.7 2047.0000×105 8.1 2802.0 27.30 200 205 210 212.936 6.31 6.13 1.6 29.6 2705.04 1.191 2.2 34.09 1.7 11.4239 0.99 14.5 14.9245×105 9.79 2.9 2097.8 25.9 41.5 24.84 14.918 2.68 14.4 24.6 2265.076 2.413 1.440 2.0000×105 1.077 2.50 1.9205×105 8.1 2751.61 100 105 110 115 120 120.9 2733.0967 7.51 2.3 2772.415 3.6 2030.52 15.4 2159.1 2739.95 12.5547×106 1.179 2.68 14.4 2762.6 32.042 10.1 2720.060 2.23 1.46 10.4 27.83 160 164.508 12.0000×105 1.4609×104 9.886 8.1 2144.7 23.94 13.070 3.11 13.19 1.826 1.25 2.7026×105 3.6540 5.14 12.6 2081.214 3.8604 8.50 3.1 2794.1 1977.150 3.4 28.435 2282.601 2.1 28.7 2107.8 34.3 44.121 2.23 16.1 1835.0000×104 8.6662 3.17 14.96 3.5 2243.675 1.2592 3.203 3.640 2.0 1996.4 2799.23 1.990 3.1584 5.3222×105 2.9 2797.04 1.0 2202.0000×105 7.7498 6.912 2.404 2.7 2773.3193×106 2.6 2065.5877 10.0000×105 5.7 1919.7 12.0000×106 2.04 1.00 15.1055×106 2.9 2726.237 2.846 2.2985 1.372 6.328 3.36 179.12 1.8269 0.02 1.53 135 140 143.2 20.41 175 175.6 2670.86 15.264 2.1627 2.8 2745.42 13.0 35.3 2788.39 7.2 2781.3 20.0000×105 6.101 2.4968 1.02 1.04 1.1 2757.915 2.397 3.23 12.491 5.3 25.72 20.9074×106 2.951 3.29 1.4 2798.27 12.2550×106 1.55 16.60 7.6 29.71 1.301 27.04 1.9 2085.656 2.4.1 31.1563×105 4.606 1.07 1.76 12.84 155 158.5049 0.3947 7.5 39. (continued) Temp.168 5.0 2792.96 225 7.4791 0.89 180 185 190 195 198.1454 5.2 43.15 1.51 17.9665 2.0 2802.1 41.08 1.7240×106 1.652 2.26 1.1320×105 3.61 145 150 151.513 4.3 2031.042 2.0000×106 1.38 215 220 223.70 20.06 1.5 22.411 2.14 1.396 2.3 Heat Specific Thermal Dynamic Kinematic Thermal Prandtl capacity heat conductivity viscosity viscosity diffusivity number 6 2 kJ/(kg⋅K) kJ/kg 103W/(m⋅K) 106(Pa⋅s) 10 (m /s) 106(m2/s) 2.9653 1.49 95 96.6 33.9 37.1 2113.5 2269.20 1.14 1.150 2.8 38.778 2.59 12.2421 2.6 1889.4 29.27 1.TABLE 3.352 2.561 11.716 2.08 1.0000×104 1.47 13.3986×106 1.6918×105 1.8 30.08 12.3 2129.5349 0.13 16.07 1.4 35.13 1.03 1.3 2674.9 2791.4 44.060 1.25 1.0000×105 3.837 6.3 1939.5494×106 Density Enthalpy kg/m3 kJ/kg 0.30 14.7188 1.5981 0.6703 4.10 1.11 1.9867×105 2.4 28.10 8.21 125 130 133.492 2.6150×105 4.2 2667.955 3.4 24.3 2014.275 2.66 1.910 4.5000×106 1.208 2.5000×106 2.174 2.6 42.7 2216.04 1.1220 1.9 2748.02 1.56 8.273 4.59 28.7610×105 5.16 3.02 1.05 4.5478 2.2 2713.64 15.2 37.4 2691.12 2.37 15.477 2.9 2675.77 4.0182×104 8.1 2201.6 11.7 2163.85 5.6 2273.8 1857.1 39.562 3.0 17.02 15.0142×105 1.4 2785.02 1.528 3.2 32. rature °C Pressure Pa 90 93.712 2.9 2065.22 11.78 13.999 1.

0 47.220 6.947 0.5 2674.15 19.0 91. (continued) Temp.304 0.08 18.580 5.696 23.6 1086.9 1789.136 0.167 33.17 2.8 1543.0000×106 7.38 1.08 320 321.5 1099.39 1.273 0.3 48.6509×106 3.9 2739.80 19.5 2716.7 1753.008 0.9 2725.6 1574.164 0.402 0.468 4.3 94.532 0.1 84.4 1256.89 1.6 2684.479 42.1 2803.372 5.27 18.49 18.7 2802.79 1.88 1.31 1.0622×106 3.3 79.316 0.0000×106 9.7 1604.70 17.61 315 318.341 9.6 1225.3500×107 1.6 2779.33 1.806 28.3 49.199 0.634 6.49 1.365 0.3 1348.44 1.526 55.331 0.3 1194.45 1.44 260 263.46 21.42 1.1 1163.7 91.159 0.225 0.87 18.3 54.216 4.655 4.329 5.30 1.47 1.888 6.050 7.6 Heat Specific Thermal Dynamic Kinematic Thermal Prandtl capacity heat conductivity viscosity viscosity diffusivity number 6 2 kJ/(kg⋅K) kJ/kg 103W/(m⋅K) 106(Pa⋅s) 10 (m /s) 106(m2/s) 3.7 1633.599 66.32 17.5000×106 8.984 15.323 0.1000×107 1.05 2.0000×106 5.4 50.24 20.755 3.083 54.3 2803.0000×106 8.784 0.7 1505.95 17.62 1.028 4.2858×107 1.492 0.141 4.12 2.456 0.2 1537.0 98.1 2706.0 1740.9463×106 6.171 0.02 20.83 290 290.1 1441.3460×106 3.808 8.521 0.867 0.9 2799.077 70.36 255 257.72 20.125 5.82 330 330.329 0.384 0.86 333.8 2645.5 66.8 1794.5 61.8 60.23 21.516 30.709 0.7 82.2000×107 1.299 0.527 0.701 0.60 21.637 3.8 74.712 0.817 33.53 17.12 17.4.4 2727.146 0.406 0.44 324.564 0.6 2751.002 15.58 1.346 0.4 78.70 1.36 1.168 48.4 2700.639 0.772 3.1 1238.70 1.107 1.94 1.312 62.233 0.49 1.9759×106 4.600 46.768 22.748 17.33 1.8 1639.3227×106 4.708 25.885 5.33 1.334 0.124 39.6 2765.308 4.8 62.94 265 270 275 275.314 16.7968×106 3.3 1404.21 21.0000×106 3.68 325 327.0000×106 4.158 7.472 74.27 300 303.8 53.5000×106 6.331 8.8 2758.426 0.1 2715.497 6.8 1379.388 2803.8 2778.5877×106 9.0 2803.2 2685.489 0.65 19.740 9.539 64.1 2798.38 19.809 3.442 0.97 1.042 78.48 20.56 245 250 250.74 1.35 305 307.6 2742.499 45.2 2662.5 68.5000×106 8.2 51.3 2803.0 1675.928 59.3 56.613 3.368 0.23 17.2500×107 1.363 0.7 1510.280 0.81 335 2.768 0.58 1.84 20.849 0.600 0.215 0.370 0.29 1.8 2773.89 20.TABLE 3.5 64.873 0.964 20.9 2650.5000×106 9.5000×106 4.3 45.605 0.4 66.5 1689.740 0.301 0.9 1283.1284×107 1.9145×106 7.397 0.3 60.525 18.58 10.926 0.012 4.0 2800.278 0.860 4.150 52.486 0.250 0.113 1.0 49.3 1713.7 2785.5 1765.127 1.430 4.3 71.3000×107 1.804 50.0 101.6 2794.627 5.37 1.565 0.91 16.463 58.070 5.4 16.06 2.6 2766.295 19.86 18.901 8.931 10.348 0.8 1715.28 2.7 47.160 8.023 36.54 295 299.20 20.185 0.0500×107 1.20 2.407 0.9 1661.55 1.4 97.183 0.2 1366.18 17.636 36.204 0.02 19.25 310 311 314.6 86.3 2801.9 76.8 73.0 2802.5 1760.501 0.19 19.0 81.2 2793.96 22.0 2796.3 1191.508 84.4 2734.290 0.4 87.53 1.33 1.554 7.651 0.4416×106 7.47 18.76 16.86 285 285.76 1.70 18.0000×107 1.6921×106 5.528 3.225 70.074 30.1 54.82 1.6 1410.96 21.4 70.3707×107 64 Density Enthalpy kg/m3 kJ/kg 13.3 56.126 0.4165×106 6.513 7.8 1473.0000×106 6.1 2784.266 0.429 0.157 6.5 2666.983 0.0851×106 5.5000×106 5.824 7.5000×106 3.074 77.49 17.7 2696.7 103.99 19.59 280 280.250 0.5 1131.147 0.04 18.859 9.2 51.754 0.86 235 240 241 242.9 1317.71 21.303 0.1 1476.5 2789.07 1.7 2772.1500×107 1.0 2749.591 0.186 82.047 17.349 25.117 0.640 0.67 1.87 1812.83 1.262 0.088 21.762 0.8647×106 1. rature °C Pressure Pa 230 233.561 0.4059×106 3.79 17.876 0.99 2.813 0.0 1140.2051×107 1.129 0.6 1286.0556×107 1.523 39.199 1.2092×10б 9.4 1570.32 .868 4.61 1.58 19.2 64.7 57.50 20.4 1325.022 1.

TABLE 3.4. (continued)
Temp.
rature
°C

Pressure
Pa

336.67
339.45
340
342.16
344.79
345
347.36
350
352.29
354.67
355
356.99
359.26
360
361.47
363.63
365
365.75
367.81
369.83
370
371
371.80
372
373

1.4000×107
1.4500×107
1.4600×107
1.5000×107
1.5500×107
1.5540×107
1.6000×107
1.6500×107
1.7000×107
1.7500×107
1.7570×107
1.8000×107
1.8500×107
1.8666×107
1.9000×107
1.9500×107
1.9822×107
2.0000×107
2.0500×107
2.1000×107
2.1043×107
2.1296×107
2.1500×107
2.1553×107
2.1813×107

Density Enthalpy

kg/m3

kJ/kg

87.032
91.743
92.764
96.712
101.93
102.35
107.43
113.62
119.47
126.15
127.13
133.35
141.20
143.97
149.86
159.57
166.50
170.68
183.89
200.48
202.14
213.13
223.91
227.38
248.82

2638.1
2624.8
2622.1
2610.9
2596.2
2595.0
2580.8
2563.6
2547.4
2529.1
2526.4
2509.5
2488.4
2481.0
2465.4
2440.0
2422.1
2411.4
2378.2
2337.6
2333.6
2307.5
2282.6
2274.6
2227.3

Heat Specific Thermal Dynamic Kinematic Thermal
Prandtl
capacity heat conductivity viscosity viscosity diffusivity
number
6
2
kJ/(kg⋅K) kJ/kg 103W/(m⋅K) 106(Pa⋅s) 10 (m /s) 106(m2/s)
11.30
12.07
12.24
12.92
13.93
14.02
15.04
16.64
18.04
20.17
20.71
22.84
26.13
27.57
31.81
38.04
42.00
49.71
70.89
91.65
93.40
124.9
177.2
190.3
404.0

1067.2
1034.3
1027.6
1000.7
966.4
963.6
931.1
892.7
857.4
818.4
812.7
777.5
734.4
719.5
688.5
638.9
604.5
584.3
522.3
448.2
440.9
394.3
349.8
336.1
253.2

106.0
110.8
111.8
116.0
121.7
122.2
127.8
134.6
140.5
148.9
151.7
159
172.3
176.6
188.1
205.2
217.7
224.1
244.6
266.6
309.0
346.0
390
403.0
504.0

22.22
22.47
22.55
22.79
23.10
23.13
23.43
23.82
24.15
24.57
24.65
25.02
25.53
25.73
26.08
26.70
27.21
26.75
27.51
28.78
29.70
30.5
30.76
31.6
33.2

0.255
0.245
0.243
0.236
0.227
0.226
0.218
0.210
0.202
0.195
0.194
0.188
0.181
0.179
0.174
0.167
0.163
0.157
0.150
0.144
0.147
0.143
0.137
0.139
0.133

0.108
0.100
0.098
0.093
0.086
0.085
0.079
0.071
0.065
0.059
0.058
0.052
0.047
0.044
0.039
0.034
0.031
0.026
0.019
0.015
0.016
0.013
0.007
0.009
0.005

2.37
2.45
2.47
2.54
2.64
2.65
2.76
2.95
3.10
3.33
3.37
3.59
3.87
4.02
4.41
4.95
5.25
5.93
7.97
9.89
8.97
11.0
14.0
14.9
26.2

TABLE 3.5. ISOBARIC HEAT CAPACITY OF WATER AND STEAM
Isobaric heat capacity [kJ/(kg⋅K)] at pressure (MPa)

Temp.
°C
0.01

0.02

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.5

1

2

5

10

20

50

75

100

Water
Steam
0
10
20
25
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110

4.183
1.966
4.220
4.196
4.185
4.182
4.180
4.179
4.180
4.183
1.940
1.930
1.925
1.922
1.921

4.197
2.016
4.220
4.196
4.185
4.182
4.180
4.179
4.180
4.183
4.188
4.196
1.990
1.973
1.963

4.216
2.076
4.219
4.195
4.185
4.182
4.180
4.179
4.180
4.183
4.188
4.196
4.205
2.074
2.040

4.247
2.175
4.219
4.195
4.184
4.182
4.180
4.178
4.179
4.183
4.188
4.195
4.205
4.216
4.230

4.315
2.413
4.217
4.194
4.184
4.181
4.179
4.178
4.179
4.182
4.187
4.195
4.204
4.216
4.230

4.405
2.715
4.215
4.192
4.182
4.179
4.178
4.176
4.177
4.181
4.186
4.194
4.203
4.215
4.228

4.562
3.190
4.210
4.188
4.179
4.176
4.175
4.174
4.175
4.179
4.184
4.191
4.201
4.212
4.226

5.032
4.438
4.196
4.177
4.170
4.168
4.167
4.167
4.168
4.172
4.178
4.185
4.194
4.206
4.219

6.127
7.147
4.172
4.160
4.155
4.154
4.154
4.155
4.157
4.161
4.167
4.174
4.184
4.194
4.207

23.20
45.68
4.129
4.126
4.127
4.128
4.130
4.133
4.136
4.141
4.147
4.154
4.163
4.173
4.185

4.022
4.042
4.056
4.061
4.066
4.073
4.080
4.086
4.093
4.100
4.108
4.117
4.127

3.956
3.988
4.008
4.016
4.022
4.032
4.040
4.047
4.054
4.061
4.068
4.076
4.084

3.906
3.945
3.969
3.978
3.985
3.996
4.005
4.0)2
4.019
4.026
4.033
4.040
4.047

4.179
1.941
4.220
4.196
4.185
4.182
4.180
4.179
1.927
1.912
1.907
1.905
1.905
1.906
1.907

65

TABLE 3.5. (continued)
Temp.
°C
0.01
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
220
240
260
280
300
320
340
360
380
400
420
440
460
480
500
520
540
560
580
600
620
640
660
680
700
720
740
760
780
800

66

1.910
1.913
1.916
1.920
1.924
1.929
1.934
1.938
1.944
1.954
1.965
1.977
1.989
2.001
2.013
2.026
2.038
2.051
2.064
2:077
2.091
2.104
2.118
2.131
2.145
2.159
2.173
2.187
2.201
2.215
2.229
2.243
2.258
2.272
2.286
2.300
2.314
2.328
2.344

Isobaric heat capacity [kJ/(kg⋅K)] at pressure (MPa)
0.02

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.5

1

2

5

1.921
1.922
1.924
1.927
1.930
1.934
1.938
1.942
1.947
1.957
1.968
1.979
1.990
2.002
2.014
2.026
2.039
2.052
2.065
2.078
2.091
2.104
2.118
2.132
2.145
2.159
2.173
2.187
2.201
2.215
2.229
2.244
2.258
2.272
2.286
2.300
2.314
2.328
2.344

1.956
1.952
1.949
1.948
1.949
1.950
1.952
1.954
1.958
1.965
1.974
1.984
1.995
2.006
2.017
2.029
2.041
2.054
2.067
2.079
2.093
2.106
2.119
2.133
2.146
2.160
2.174
2.188
2.202
2.216
2.230
2.244
2.258
2.272
2.287
2.301
2.315
2.329
2.344

2.019
2.004
1.993
1.986
1.980
1.977
1.976
1.975
1.976
1.979
1.985
1.993
2.002
2.012
2.023
2.034
2.045
2.057
2.070
2.082
2.095
2.108
2.121
2.135
2.148
2.162
2.175
2.189
2.203
2.217
2.231
2.245
2.259
2.273
2.287
2.301
2.315
2.329
2.345

4.246
2.123
2.090
.2.067
2.049
2.036
2.026
2.019
2.014
2.009
2.009
2.012
2.018
2.025
2.034
2.043
2.054
2.065
2.076
2.088
2.100
2.113
2.125
2.138
2.151
2.165
2.178
2.192
2.205
2.219
2.233
2.247
2.261
2.275
2.289
2.303
2.317
2.331
2.346

4.246
4.264
4.286
4.310
2.318
2.250
2.205
2.171
2.145
2.108
2.086
2.073
2.067
2.066
2.068
2.072
2.079
2.086
2.095
2.105
2.115
2.126
2.138
2.149
2.162
2.174
2.187
2.200
2.213
2.226
2.239
2.253
2.266
2.280
2.293
2.307
2.320
2.334
2.349

4.244
4.263
4.284
4.309
4.337
4.369
2.712
2.529
2.429
2.310
2.238
2.191
2.160
2.141
2.130
2.124
2.123
2.124
2.128
2.134
2.141
2.149
2.158
2.168
2.179
2.189
2.201
2.213
2.224
2.237
2.249
2.262
2.275
2.287
2.300
2.314
2.327
2.340
2.354

4.242
4.260
4.281
4.305
4.333
4.365
4.401
4.443
4.491
2.949
2.648
2.491
2.389
2.320
2.273
2.242
2.221
2.207
2.200
2:196
2.196
2.198
2.202
2.207
2.214
2.221
2.230
2.239
2.249
2.259
2.270
2.281
2.292
2.303
2.315
2.327
2.339
2.352
2.365

4.234
4.252
4.273
4.296
4.323
4.353
4.388
4.428
4.474
4.590
4.749
4.976
3.635
3.171
2.903
2.727
2.606
2.520
2.459
2.415
2.383
2.360
2.344
2.333
2.326
2.322
2.321
2.321
2.324
2.328
2.332
2.338
2.345
2.353
2.361
2.369
2.378
2.388
2.397

10

20

50

75

100

4.222 4.199 4.137 4.093 4.055
4.239 4.214 4.149 4.103 4.063
4.258 4.232 4.163 4.114 4.072
4.281 4.252 4.177 4.126 4.081
4.306 4.274 4.194 4.139 4.092
4.334 4.300 4.212 4.153 4.103
4.367 4.328 4.232 4.169 4.115
4.404 4.361 4.255 4.186 4.129
4.447 4.398 4.281 4.205 4.144
4.553 4.489 4.341 4.250 4.179
4.697 4.608 4.417 4.306 4.221
4.897 4.769 4.512 4.373 4.271
5.193 4.991 4.631 4.455 4.331
5.682 5.317 4.782 4.553 4.400
5.747 5.849 4.974 4.669 4.478
4.389 6.924 5.220 4.801 4.562
3.732 11.460 5.562 4.960 4.654
3.347 10.221 6.053 5.162 4.774
3.096 6.360 6.778 5.395 4.892
2.922 4.982 7.864 5.681 5.025
2.796 4.257 9.16 6.011 5.178
2.704 3.806 9.578 6.337 5.336
2.635 3.501 8.609 6.582 5.477
2.583 3.284 7.309 6.658 5.576
2.544 3.125 6.213 6.524 5.615
2.513 3.005 5.414 6.226 5.588
2.490 2.912 4.837 5.837 5.495
2.473 2.839 4.413 5.425 5.351
2.460 2.781 4.097 5.051 5.171
2.451 2.735 3.856 4.712 4.977
2.444 2.698 3.667 4.427 4.734
2.440 2.668 3.515 4.191 4.532
2.438 2.644 3.391 3.992 4.358
2.438 2.625 3.288 3.824 4.191
2.439 2.610 3.203 3.682 4.032
2.442 2.598 3.132 3.563 3.888
2.445 2.589 3.072 3.465 3.764
2.450 2.582 3.023 3.383 3.661
2.454 2.578 2.981 3.316 3.576

TABLE 3.6. DYNAMIC VISCOSITY OF WATER AND STEAM
Temp.
°C
0.01
Water 587.6
Steam 10.5
0 1791.8
10 1306.0
20 1001.6
25 890.1
30 797.4
40 653.0
50
10.6
60
10.9
70
11.3
80
11.6
90
12.0
100 12.3
110 12.7
120 13.1
130 13.5
140 13.8
150 14.2
160 14.6
170 15.0
180 15.4
190 15.8
200 16.2
220 17.0
240 17.8
260 18.6
280 19.5
300 20.3
320 21.1
340 22.0
360 22.8
380 23.6
400 24.5
420 25.3
440 26.1
460 26.9
480 27.8
500 28.6
520 29.4
540 30.2
560 31.0
580 31.8
600 32.6

Dynamic viscosity [µPa⋅s] at pressure (MPa)
0.02

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.5

1

2

5

10

20

50

75

100

466.0
10.9
1791.7
1306.0
1001.6
890.1
797.4
653.0
546.8
466.4
11.3
11.6
12.0
12.3
12.7
13.1
13.5
13.8
14.2
14.6
15.0
15.4
15.8
16.2
17.0
17.8
18.6
19.5
20.3
21.1
22.0
22.8
23.6
24.5
25.3
26.1
26.9
27.8
28.6
29.4
30.2
31.0
31.8
32.6

348.6
11.6
1791.7
1305.9
1001.6
890.1
797.4
653.0
546.8
466.4
403.9
354.3
11.9
12.3
12.7
13.1
13.4
13.8
14.2
14.6
15.0
15.4
15.8
16.2
17.0
17.8
18.6
19.5
20.3
21.1
22.0
22.8
23.6
24.5
25.3
26.1
26.9
27.8
28.6
29.4
30.2
31.0
31.8
32.6

282.9
12.3
1791.5
1305.9
1001.6
890.1
797.3
653.0
546.9
466.4
403.9
354.4
314.4
12.3
12.6
13.0
13.4
13.8
14.2
14.6
15.0
15.4
15.8
16.2
17.0
17.8
18.6
19.5
20.3
21.1
22.0
22.8
23.6
24.5
25.3
26.1
26.9
27.8
28.6
29:4
30.2
31.0
31.8
32.6

231.6
13.0
1791.3
1305.8
1001.6
890.1
797.3
653.0
546.9
466.4
403.9
354.4
314.4
281.8
254.7
232.1
13.3
13.7
14.1
14.5
14.9
15.3
15.7
16.1
17.0
17.8
18.6
19.4
20.3
21.1
21.9
22.8
23.6
24.4
25.3
26.1
26.9
27.8
28.6
29.4
30.2
31.0
31.8
32.6

180.1
14.1
1790.5
1305.4
1001.4
890.0
797.3
653.0
546.9
466.5
404.0
354.5
314.5
281.9
254.8
232.1
213.0
196.6
182.5
14.4
14.8
15.2
15.6
16.1
16.9
17.7
18.6
19.4
20.2
21.1
21.9
22.8
23.6
24.4
25.3
26.1
26.9
27.8
28.6
29.4
30.2
31.0
31.8
32.6

150.2
15.0
1789.3
1304.9
1001.2
889.9
797.3
653.1
547.0
466.6
404.1
354.6
314.7
282.0
254.9
232.3
213.1
196.7
182.6
170.3
159.6
15.0
15.5
15.9
16.8
17.6
18.5
19.3
20.2
21.0
21.9
22.7
23.6
24.4
25.3
26.1
26.9
27.8
28.6
29.4
30.2
31.0
31.8
32.6

126.1
16.1
1786.8
1303.8
1000.8
889.6
797.2
653.1
547.2
466.8
404.4
354.9
314.9
282.3
255.2
232.5
213.3
197.0
182.8
170.6
159.9
150.4
142.0
134.4
16.5
17.4
18.3
19.2
20.1
21.0
21.8
22.7
23.5
24.4
25.3
26.1
26.9
27.8
28.6
29.4
30.2
31.1
31.9
32.7

100.0
18.0
1779.5
1300.7
999.6
889.0
796.9
653.4
547.7
467.5
405.1
355.6
315.7
283.1
256.0
233.3
214.1
197.7
183.6
171.3
160.6
151.1
142.7
135.2
122.2
111.3
101.8
18.8
19.8
20.7
21.7
22.6
23.5
24.4
25.2
26.1
27.0
27.8
28.7
29.5
30.4
31.2
32.0
32.8

81.8
20.3
1767.9
1295.7
997.7
888.0
796.6
653.9
548.6
468.6
406.4
357.0
317.1
284.4
257.3
234.6
215.4
199.0
184.9
172.6
161.8
152.4
143.9
136.4
123.5
112.6
103.2
94.7
86.5
20.7
21.7
22.6
23.6
24.5
25.4
26.3
27.2
28.0
28.9
29.8
30.6
31.4
32.3
33.1

56.2
27.5
1746.6
1286.6
994.4
886.4
796.2
655.0
550.6
471.0
409.0
359.6
319.7
287.1
260.0
237.2
218.0
201.5
187.3
175.0
164.2
154.8
146.3
138.8
125.9
115.2
105.9
97.7
90.1
82.5
74.2
62.8
25.8
26.0
26.7
27.4
28.2
29.0
29.8
30.7
31.5
32.3
33.1
33.9

1696.5
1266.4
988.4
884.5
797.2
659.7
557.2
478.6
417.0
367.8
327.9
295.1
267.8
244.9
225.5
208.9
194.6
182.1
171.2
161.7
153.2
145.6
132.7
122.1
113.1
105.4
98.5
92.2
86.2
80.3
74.3
68.0
61.2
53.9
47.4
43.0
40.5
39.3
38.8
38.7
38.8
39.1

1668.8
1256.7
987.2
885.9
800.4
665.0
563.5
485.4
423.9
374.7
334.7
301.7
274.3
251.2
231.6
214.8
200.4
187.8
176.8
167.1
158.5
150.9
137.9
127.3
118.4
110.8
104.1
98.2
92.8
87.7
82.8
78.0
73.2
68.5
64.6
59.6
55.8
52.6
50.2
48.5
47.3
46.6

1652.0
1252.7
989.3
889.7
805.4
671.4
570.6
492.6
431.1
381.7
341.5
308.4
280.7
257.4
237.6
220.6
206.0
193.3
182.1
172.3
163.7
155.9
142.8
132.1
123.2
115.6
109.1
103.3
98.2
93.4
89.0
84.8
80.7
76.8
73.0
69.4
66.1
63.0
60.3
58.0
56.2
54.7

67

TABLE 3.6. (continued)
Temp.
°C
0.01
620
640
660
680
700
720
740
760
780
800

Dynamic viscosity [µPa⋅s] at pressure (MPa)
0.02

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.5

1

2

5

10

20

50

75

100

33.4 33.4 33.4 33.4 33.4 33.4 33.4 33.5 33.6 33.9 34.7 39.5 46.1 53.6
34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.3 34.4 34.7 35.5 40.0 46.0 52.7
35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.5 36.3 40.5 45.9 52.2
35.8 35.8 35.8 35.8 35.8 35.8 35.8 35.9 36.0 36.3 37.1 41.1 46.1 51.8
36.6 36.6 36.6 36.6 36.6 36.6 36.6 36.6 36.8 37.1 37.8 41.6 46.3 51.6
37.3 37.3 37.3 37.3 37.3 37.3 37.4 37.4 37.6 37.8 38.6 42.2 46.6 51.5
38.1 38.1 38.1 38.1 38.1 38.1 38.1 38.2 38.3 38.6 39.4 42.9 46.9 51.5
38.9 38.9 38.9 38.9 38.9 38.9 38.9 38.9 39.1 39.4 40.1 43.5 47.3 51.7
39.6 39.6 39.6 39.6 39.6 39.6 39.7 39.7 39.9 40.1 40.9 44.1 47.8 51.9
40.4 40.4 40.4 40.4 40.4 40.4 40.4 40.5 40.6 40.9 41.6 44.7 48.2 52.1

TABLE 3.7. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF WATER AND STEAM
Thermal conductivity [mW/(m⋅K)] at pressure (MPa)

Temp.
°C
0.01

0.02

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.5

1

2

5

10

20

50

75

100

Water
Steam
0
10
20
25
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
220
240
260
280
300
320
340

650.8
21.1
562.0
581.9
599.5
607.5
615.0
628.6
640.5
650.8
21.9
22.7
23.5
24.3
25.1
26.0
26.8
27.7
28.6
29.5
30.4
31.4
32.3
33.3
35.2
37.2
39.2
41.3
43.4
45.6
47.8

667.8
23.0
562
581.9
599.5
607.5
615.0
628.6
640.5
650.8
659.6
667.0
23.6
24.4
25.2
26.1
26.9
27.8
28.7
29.6
30.5
31.4
32.3
33.3
35.2
37.2
39.2
41.3
43.4
45.6
47.8

677.6
24.8
562.0
582.0
599.5
607.5
615.0
628.6
640.5
650.8
659.6
667.0
673.0
24.8
25.5
26.3
27.1
27.9
28.8
29.7
30.6
31.5
32.4
33.4
35.3
37.3
39.3
41.4
43.5
45.7
47.9

683.6
27.0
562.1
582.0
599.6
607.6
615.1
628.7
640.6
650.9
659.7
667.0
673.1
677.8
681.3
683.6
27.6
28.4
29.2
30.0
30.8
31.7
32.6
33.5
35.4
37.4
39.4
41.5
43.6
45.7
47.9

683.6
31.0
562.3
582.2
599.7
607.7
615.2
628.8
640.7
651.0
659.8
667.2
673.2
678.0
681.5
683.8
684.9
685.0
683.9
31.4
32.0
32.7
33.4
34.2
36.0
37.8
39.8
41.8
43.9
46.0
48.2

674.7
35.4
562.6
582.5
600.0
608.0
615.5
629.1
641.0
651.3
660.1
667.5
673.5
678.3
681.8
684.1
685.2
685.3
684.2
682.1
678.9
35.4
35.6
36.1
37.3
38.8
40.6
42.5
44.5
46.6
48.7

654.4
41.6
563.2
583.0
600.6
608.5
616.0
629.6
641.5
651.8
660.6
668.0
674.1
678.8
682.3
684.7
685.9
685.9
684.9
682.8
679.6
675.4
670.1
663.8
41.5
41.8
42.8
44.2
46.0
47.8
49.8

600.5
55.6
564.9
584.7
602.2
610.1
617.6
631.1
643.0
653.3
662.2
669.6
675.7
680.5
684.1
686.4
687.7
687.8
686.9
684.9
681.8
677.7
672.6
666.4
650.9
630.9
606.0
53.7
53.0
53.5
54.5

524.5
79.0
567.8
587.5
604.8
612.7
620.2
633.7
645.6
655.9
664.8
672.2
678.3
683.2
686.9
689.4
690.7
691.0
690.2
688.3
685.4
681.5
676.6
670.7
655.8
636.7
613.0
584.0
548.1
74.7
69.8

403.7
226.5
573.6
593.0
610.1
617.9
625.3
638.8
650.6
661.0
669.8
677.4
683.6
688.6
692.4
695.1
696.6
697.1
696.5
695.0
692.4
688.9
684.4
678.9
665.2
647.5
625.8
599.7
568.3
530.4
483.1

590.3
608.8
625.4
633.0
640.2
653.5
665.2
675.5
684.5
692.2
698.7
704.0
708.2
711.3
713.3
714.3
714.4
713.6
711.8
709.1
705.6
701.3
690.2
675.8
658.4
637.8
614.0
586.8
556.0

603.5
621.4
637.5
645.0
652.1
665.1
676.8
687.1
696.1
703.9
710.5
716.0
720.5
723.8
726.2
727.7
728.2
727.8
726.5
724.5
721.6
717.9
708.4
696.0
681.0
663.3
643.0
620.3
595.1

616.0
633.4
649.1
656.4
663.4
676.3
687.8
698.1
707.2
715.1
721.8
727.5
732.1
735.7
738.4
740.2
741.0
741.0
740.2
738.6
736.2
733.2
724.9
714.0
700.8
685.2
667.4
647.6
625.9

68

635.7
19.9
562.0
581.9
599.5
607.5
615.0
628.6
20.3
21.0
21.8
22.6
23.4
24.3
25.1
26.0
26.8
27.7
28.6
29.5
30.4
31.4
32.3
33.2
35.2
37.2
39.2
41.3
43.4
45.6
47.8

29 9.9 99.0 77.41 8.6 145.2 0.4 59.5 181.8 90.0 57.3 96.4 64.3 116.7 94.2 67.9 67.0 50.56 2.3 93.6 60.1 99.39 5.56 2.09 1.6 56.3 52.91 0.0 50.0 84.26 5.0 252.8 99.56 10.2 90.89 2.31 0.57 3.4 69.44 1.00 3.0 83.1 433.4 233.2 68.9 492.42 0.96 0.6 96.96 1.5 82.8 79.2 103.8 89.0 521.2 50.7 438.23 1.40 5.8 107.9 61.23 1.5 93.3 576.44 1.9 550.1 105.1 102.11 4.83 5.23 2.0 147.8 66.00 3.8 104.01 Water Steam 0 10 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Prandtl numbers at pressure (MPa) 0.40 9.8 94.2 2 5 10 20 50 75 100 51.98 6.2 67.9 79.56 3.3 69.99 2.42 1.43 1.1 54.97 0.5 59.21 1.8 55.55 0.1 88.42 9.9 300.75 1.2 77.31 4.34 4.4 141.3 52.6 74.7 53.8 90.34 4.8 142.5 102.7 463.4 99.2 102.41 5.41 6.8 78.9 141.96 3.07 7.2 99.34 4.5 93.42 9.8 108.22 2.7 470.1 104.07 6.02 0.4 50.5 77.16 2.7 86.9 363.2 113.15 0.75 1.45 13.4 537.0 91.33 1.23 1.2 88.23 2.5 69.75 1.7 107.0 289.0 67.8 66.1 50.02 1.3 96.0 105.34 5.4 85.99 6.02 0.99 12.4 69.39 9.2 176.4 96.98 0.98 1.0 55.1 90.94 10.7 54.6 64.23 2.3 96.7 144.4 219.4 96.85 6.73 6.95 1.01 1.22 12.1 85.34 4.24 1.3 184.5 90.1 61.8 89.6 63.41 9.3 107.0 74.44 1.4 57.7 107.96 0.1 99.2 100.8 91.02 5.4 434.19 1.9 105.03 1.96 0.98 1.0 88.01 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 Thermal conductivity [mW/(m⋅K)] at pressure (MPa) 0.80 6.6 88.44 1.8 68.3 96.13 6.32 1.4 69.74 1.2 77.41 9.44 13.45 0.31 1.6 90.6 82.99 1.01 1.31 1.97 1.1 481.92 5.99 6.7 329.99 6.22 2.57 3.29 4.1 56.5 69.75 1.36 3.9 52.95 2.05 6.00 3.45 13.42 9.6 82.96 1.50 3.75 1.42 1.53 2.4 141.22 1.7 89.4 100.93 1.8 104.00 3.0 102.6 291.0 419.3 75.9 309.02 1.54 13.5 93.9 141.42 5.53 3.97 0.5 342.4 110.58 1.7 235.33 4.7 276.88 0.57 3.21 2.55 3.0 88.99 1.43 13.38 5.97 0.00 1.2 263.57 3.5 152.0 101.52 5.7 94.2 0.4 81.33 1.9 66.8 119. (continued) Temp.8 59.97 0.76 1.97 0.7 66.99 6.7 223.96 1.44 1.2 504.67 5.4 57.0 242.96 1.2 77.8 114.1 91.8 142.3 52.7 54.5 110.9 61.5 104.05 0.01 1.97 2.4 59.0 85.98 0.8 104.4 94.97 0.0 102.4 64.57 11.5 83.98 1.4 69.4 103.23 1.58 1.5 59.7 107.3 85.0 228.5 61.9 68.3 102.0 57.0 57.4 111.3 391.1 0.0 102.5 52.6 107.9 79.9 108.9 104.1 0.4 89.71 0.7 65.5 219.2 98.6 178.6 74.9 61.22 1.13 6.42 5.44 1.83 0.11 6.41 13.9 330.8 79.8 104.99 6.42 5.32 1.3 64.42 3.23 2.86 2.9 80.1 50.42 5.7 602.7 75.92 6.96 1.99 2.94 4.13 6.7 90.56 1.73 1.5 82.0 88.3 64.99 6.2 62.33 1.34 4.5 144.2 20 50 75 100 TABLE 3.00 2.7 398.0 88.0 62.3 215.6 102.1 88.58 1.15 1.5 1 2 5 10 3. °C 0.7 90.5 82.03 1.12 6.36 13.9 213.05 0.TABLE 3.2 199.6 59.72 1.3 85.57 3.6 93.0 80.6 54.56 2.5 1 50.6 82.8 158.3 77.4 59.5 64.45 13.8 94.3 65.4 96.24 4.49 2.2 70.7 65.57' 3.4 82.95 8.56 2.23 1.7 70.6 74.47 9.99 2.8.2 91.8 60.7 67.9 62.7 71.3 99.47 2.42 5.8 107.7 107.92 1.86 2.13 6.21 6.96 1.97 0.34 4.5 143.55 1.3 86.23 2.6 74.6 97.2 77.7 54.3 85.00 2.75 1.44 1.2 77.96 0.34 4.0 66.13 6.04 1.84 4.23 2.96 1.17 8.58 1.3 521.58 1.55 2.96 6.57 1.12 6.7 179.7.4 52.2 99.2 57.8 377.03 3.44 1.0 109.8 83.9 80.06 4.23 1.21 69 .9 93.56 2.9 63.8 88.5 85.8 129.6 251.7 107.37 9.32 1.02 1.9 567.9 54.2 208.6 73.99 2.99 1.6 93.0 240.2 177.0 92.2 99.5 104.56 2.58 1.56 2.01 3.03 1.18 2.0 102.3 188.3 205.9 75.2 70.00 3.6 96.7 74.0 57.2 85. °C 0.42 5.32 1.5 404.14 0.8 193.1 57.4 73.96 0.1 80.3 77.5 182.45 13.98 0.00 3.0 96.3 58. PRANDTL NUMBERS OF WATER AND STEAM Temp.99 1.84 0.

1 0.91 0.93 0.92 0.03 0.92 0.96 0.79 0.94 0.95 0.14 1.92 0.88 0.15 1.93 0.91 0.93 0.93 0.95 0.13 1.83 0.94 0.94 0.90 0.90 1.94 0.91 0.90 0.07 1.88 1.77 0.73 0.01 0.92 0.92 0.93 0.TABLE 3.92 0.90 0.90 0.92 0.5 1 2 5 10 20 150 160 170 180 190 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 0.91 0.89 0.96 0.92 0.15 1.15 1.04 1.89 0.04 1.93 0.92 0.96 0.89 0.90 0.88 1.90 0.90 0.98 0.07 1.74 0.93 0.91 0.91 0.88 0.91 1.97 0. Pr are evaluated by the formulas: ν = μ/ρ.95 0.98 0.91 0.92 0.94 0.90 0.12 1.02 0.88 0.91 0.8.88 0.90 0.94 0.91 1.89 0.96 0.88 0.95 0.93 0.13 1.18 1.17 1.94 0.75 0.08 1.93 0.94 0.09 1.91 0.89 0. a⋅107 (m2/s).95 0.02 0.91 0. μ⋅104 (Pa⋅s) and λ⋅103 [W/(m⋅K)] are calculated by means of the computer code presented on the Web site of University of Athens [6].89 0. Pr = ν/а.00 0.71 0.93 0.98 0. a = λ/(Cp⋅ρ).89 1.84 1.93 0. Н (kJ/kg) and r (kJ/kg) for heavy water at saturation are taken from the Hill’s tables [5].44 1.89 0. The values ρ (kg/m3) are defined from the relation ρ=1/V.94 0.02 1.01 1.92 0.40 1.02 1.01 0.96 0.05 0.04 1.98 0.05 1.95 0.97 0.88 0.92 0.74 0.92 0.97 0.15 1.96 0.89 0.89 0.88 0.93 0.04 1.08 1.92 0. The values of ν⋅106 (m2/s).92 0.95 1-.08 1.89 0.07 1.15 1.60 1.97 0.93 0.03 1.07 1.90 0.93 0.90 0.94 0.54 1.03 0.88 0.75 0.89 0.93 0.91 0.97 0.95 0.95 0.05 1.44 0.01 0.94 0. (continued) Prandtl numbers at pressure (MPa) Temp.90 0.15 1.91 0. 70 .91 0.98 0.98 0.94 0.94 0.02 1.95 0.89 0:88 0.99 0.95 0.14 1.82 0.94 0.94 0.96 0.34 1.10 1.90 0.93 0.91 0.89 0.91 0.90 0.89 0.05 0.89 0.77 0.91 0.04 1.94 0.91 0.86 0.83 1.08 1.92 0. The values of Cp [kJ/(kg⋅K)].04 1.88 0.95 0.91 0.03 1.93 0.93 0.90 0.88 0.94 0.2 0.94 0.95 0.91 0.02 1.06 1.91 0.92 0.90 0.07 1.88 0.72 0.92 0.89 0.89 0.01 0.77 0.94 0.05 1.90 0.97 0.96 0.96 0.95 0.00 0.91 0.89 0.88 0.91 0.82 0.84 0.95 0.90 0.59 1.90 0.10 1.96 0.93 0.03 1.97 0.99 0.91 0.88 0.93 0.89 0.90 0.91 0.92 0.90 0.3.94 0.99 0.01 0.95 0.00 0.91 0.89 0.82 0.90 0.57 ' 1.97 0.90 0.92 0.08 1.74 0.88 0.97 0.89 0.75 0.81 0.95 0.88 0.92 0.97 0.92 0.88 0.96 0.88 0.94 0.90 0.89 0.88 1.94 0.92 0.91 0.92 0.94 0.92 0.01 0.91 0.88 0.91 0.96 0.99 0.91 0.90 0.91 0.90 0.90 0.84 0.95 0.89 0.92 0.92 0.89 0.96 0.72 0.94 0.94 0.97 0.89 0.83 0.98 0.89 0.83 0.90 0.36 1.95 0.93 0.13 1.94 0.89 0.78 0.90 0.88 0.93 0.81 0.95 0.96 0.08 1.88 0.90 100 1.98 0.90 0.89 0.94 0.10 1.93 0.93 0.92 0.93 0.03 1.91 0.71 2.89 0:89 0.02 0.96 0.00 0.89 0.95 0.95 0.91 0.03 1.91 0.98 0.25 1.93 0.95 0.89 0.93 0.88 0.01 1.08 1.92 0.91 0.97 0.88 1.72 0. Р (kPa).90 0.13 1.92 0. where V (m3/kg) is the specific volume presented in the Hill’s tables.15 1.87 3.93 0.98 0.97 0.85 0.76 0.95 0.92 0.89 0.81 0.93 0.95 0.88 0.91 0.96 0.89 0.90 50 75 1.90 0.07 1.94 0.89 0.92 0.89 0.90 0.96 0.90 0.00 1.81 0.86 0.92 0.28 1.96 0.88 0.88 0.14 1.91 0.92 0.09 1. °C 0.89 0.94 0.98 0.78 0.07 1.92 0.29 1.90 0.88 0.97 0.92 0.90 0.88 1.78 0.84 0.88 0.94 0.89 0.93 0.91 0.20 1.94 0.89 0.93 0.97 0.94 0.25 1.92 0.88 1.90 0.93 0.80 1.89 0.96 0.99 0.14 1.96 0.95 0.98 0.96 0.78 0.06 1.98 0.86 0.90 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.88 1.90 0.84 0.23 0.91 0.92 0.13 1.95 0.90 0.89 0.74 0.14 1.01 1.18 1.10 1.89 0. HEAVY WATER (D2O) The values of t (°C).91 0.91 0.96 0.94 0.93 0.89 0.94 0.88 0.97 0.90 0.97 0.91 0.91 0.93 0.18 1.80 0.88 0.93 0.00 0.93 0.

979 7.213 1.3 2205.999 2.2228 4.1 2193.811 7.026 1.6 2320.83 1105.982 8.871 20.5367 1.1273 1.34 1105.99 1098.965 16.2425 4.2 2234.92 73.000 4.69 1101.311 1.62 67.720 1.50 54.255 1.77 74.59 55.63 201.459 10.01 25.738 6.2143 4.99 116.442 1.59 1099.7361 0.062 5.18 38.3 621.951 10.128 6.2318 4.0 574.558 14.8275 1.702 4.512 6.341 1.5363 1.737 3.36 168.502 6.3 2269.34 1104.6 588.9 2307.2425 4.47 68.297 1.667 8.90 195.903 4.400 1.0 566.461 12.24 69.2992 1.66 153.0 2201.215 1.443 5.61 5.06 24.6492 0.61 73.5508 0.8 596.12 1103.3 621.981 Kinematic viscosity 106(m2/s) 1.2278 4.950 5.69 1100.6650 0.000 6.51 186.00 47.14 Density kg/m3 0.274 1.626 4.227 1.77 71.289 Temp.7867 0.848 7.3 2282.000 14.56 15.2107 4.5 574.2314 4.00 26.71 Pressure kPa 0.2404 4.000 14.2995 4.568 15.2367 4.5471 Thermal diffusivity 107(m2/s) 1.71 Enthalpy kJ/kg Specific heat kJ/kg 2327.269 1.58 1105.255 1.18 45.660 0.4 614.2138 Dynamic viscosity 104(Pa s) 20.5794 0.7 594.32 35.086 6.000 3.12 67.8 610.2 2217.80 4.46 1105.283 1.50 71.2202 4.331 4.20 67.57 132.54 71.2 619.269 1.7135 0.8 605.2 2295.00 20.000 11.83 1105.99 174.332 1.2393 4.42 40.00 20.93 1093.467 8.2147 4.25 70.204 19.78 96.7 608.2365 4.97 216.000 2.36 68.22 72.755 6.6160 0.50 72.00 35.2421 4.2302 4.4 601.7897 0.700 8.4 616.28 73.82 70.616 10.085 4.525 12.95 1105.1 2243.00 14.65 1094.102 7.19 132.48 1104.337 1.69 45.4 2265.215 1.321 1.9556 0.445 4.856 12.1 2282.305 7.02 70.121 12.9.9 2210.2425 4.367 12.6 2308.00 9.6 600.307 1.00 1105.65 74.000 1.72 69.000 8.74 68.8 2221.8880 1.90 1101.1 Heat capacity kJ/kg⋅K 4.863 6.5944 0.240 1.50 89.89 68.8551 0.8808 0.298 1.5 2253.6 618.995 16.7 2243.95 1105.575 10.035 4.2388 4.521 10.61 1095.40 5.344 6.63 10.549 8.57 68.634 5.97 73.95 214.241 1. °C 3.00 51.2160 4.93 146.431 8.348 1.9915 0.1 2192.9 588.15 110.718 9.9 2296.5 566.04 .3165 1.37 1093.50 30.1272 0.5 2256.551 9.2 581.6 605.022 5.2263 4.3 581.8 2230.000 6.054 Prandtl number Surface tension 103N/m 74.00 43.7 2321.6 15. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF HEAVY WATER (D2O) AT SATURATION Thermal conductivity 103W/(m⋅K) 564.324 1.27 1102.42 1097.2 613.349 TABLE 3.94 1096.48 47.00 3.60 26.991 14.045 14.2183 4.2335 4.700 0.8058 1.00 31.86 67.58 1105.93 50.227 1.

159 4.4 629.91 59.478 3.65 66.514 4.64 334.71 70.3 635.7 634.474 3.48 405.839 2.0 2168.8 2143.747 2.404 1.4526 0.51 62.3 2100.1 633.79 258.491 2.07 70.361 1.80 1078.3 2140.1753 4.1651 4.1699 4.418 1.6 2166.283 3.1603 Heat capacity kJ/kg⋅K 5.430 1.6 2119.0 636.2 628.757 4.290 4.1 2174.28 384.276 2.4 629.00 91.6 626.441 4.4766 0.5078 0.354 3.2074 4.64 295.67 384.8 630.000 22.44 1088.16 342.85 65.4332 0.3255 0.54 90.392 1.4171 0.200 20.17 363.906 3.31 397.9 2087.1800 4.5 2079.3813 0.48 Enthalpy kJ/kg 2186.297 26.2 2133.63 1090.31 59.379 1.96 58.373 1.004 3.399 1.76 Surface tension 103N/m .8 2096.640 2.1624 4.25 1081.596 3.00 90. (continued) 226.1840 4.43 1079.1725 4.151 2.00 Density kg/m3 Temp.34 64.422 1.6 2087.32 59.00 66.6 635.67 325.1610 4.127 Prandtl number 66.00 79.58 63.80 30.2004 4.67 1086.01 1069.72 1091.57 59.1 2124.05 16.2 2153.1873 4.572 2.5275 0.0 Thermal conductivity 103W/(m⋅K) 3.538 5.7 627.000 18.9 631.4 624.00 95.4911 0.732 3.114 4.3635 0.425 3.1 634.1926 4.74 311.288 3.14 61.85 60.69 62.31 60.94 1090.00 64.3150 0.00 101.430 1.47 57.373 2.413 1.997 2.1651 4.86 1067.47 64.7 635.17 1077.00 50.394 1.53 65.1684 4.4 Specific heat kJ/kg 4.01 98.00 34.78 283.00 54.3435 0.3531 0.439 Thermal diffusivity 107(m2/s) 623.77 60.406 1.1776 4.1938 4.7 635.251 Dynamic viscosity 104(Pa s) 0.679 3.616 3.11 409.01 1084. Pressure °C kPa TABLE 3.00 62.3092 0.00 28.16 279.61 321.0 635.276 2.3 632.69 1072.51 1089.2 632.3973 0.4107 0.416 2.435 1.946 2.5060 0.9 633.4702 0.6 625.95 82.13 1082.2071 4.1811 4.44 369.38 1062.87 64.23 46.7 2179.2 2071.474 3.384 1.20 65.187 5.00 77.79 270.00 87.77 61.56 353.1 2179.366 1.195 2.3255 0.80 63.00 67.712 2.77 246.00 44.00 70.79 75.3 2114.4 2127.25 100.17 100.915 4.60 80.82 40.2 2150.893 3.437 1.518 5.05 65.410 1.350 5.386 1.66 300.98 80.18 254.99 85.3721 0.92 73.788 3.000 18.50 95.08 1074.696 4.355 1.00 96.000 22.170 3.371 1.9 636.9.85 1071.2045 4.23 66.361 1.2 2159.3857 0.00 35.23 60.0 2107.760 5.91 59.2107 4.31 63.47 236.3380 0.72 1084.47 1076.1 2074.1968 4.1889 4.79 237.26 1087.24 1064.108 4.3060 Kinematic viscosity 106(m2/s) 1.2017 4.12 62.24 1067.0 624.717 3.425 1.85 1063.4385 0.00 80.126 2.

20 129.6 634.00 137.2484 0.27 180.2801 0.68 557.119 3.9 1991.468 1.9 Specific heat kJ/kg 4.2227 0.1552 4.1592 4.89 56.33 1059.31 1058.2687 0.2261 0.7 2057.77 440.824 2.1619 4.460 1.3 1959.469 1.067 2.2 2060.3 633.3 1991.526 2.1531 4.968 1.14 506.04 51.75 138.6 1999.330 2.9 1978.3 631.1535 4.1609 4.24 1035.2297 0.3 634.5 633.87 539.09 1032.1532 4.8 635.1563 4.2290 0.00 121.6 630.465 2.6 2051.53 425.469 1.95 51.2912 0.51 574.1541 4.1559 4.2 2045.7 2020.082 3.90 50.00 118.0 303.15 1042.0 632.00 224.2615 0.8 630.03 54.69 103.2982 0.10 240.4 2047.0 632.00 300.22 529.4 635.54 1026.469 2.9 630.1551 4.2579 0.1 2019.443 1.50 280.15 50.73 467.1 636.58 487.947 2.06 140.8 635.1585 4.81 120.43 1041. (continued) 420.470 1.73 Surface tension 103N/m .03 52.00 106.00 160.011 2.589 2.514 1.00 136.63 1051.46 110.0 340.4 1984.42 1030.793 1.00 191.64 571.471 Thermal diffusivity 107(m2/s) 636.58 115.1579 4.72 1028.558 1.592 1.620 1.00 261.5 2034.7 360.86 1048.7 633.9.0 Density kg/m3 Temp.92 430.2697 0.459 1.36 53.1537 4.464 1.1577 4.6 2033.446 1.2 629.00 140.03 55.575 2.00 115.62 114.58 51.73 1060.2377 0.835 2.2429 0.08 518.00 190.00 131.06 55.372 2.24 57.71 105.460 1.70 1027.938 1.17 120.10 200.29 494.33 446.32 1058.00 110.766 1.014 1.00 220.29 465.2 1977.32 57.6 2015.699 2.1570 4.9 635.0 351.445 1.658 1.926 1.17 108.82 110.6 634.50 480.1577 4.8 Thermal conductivity 103W/(m⋅K) 2.52 52.446 1.444 1.623 1.464 1.5 2024.0 635.54 1054.56 135.1536 4.65 134.02 56.269 2.1531 4.9 634.57 1046.419 2.538 1. Pressure °C kPa TABLE 3.13 54.2337 0.84 1032.00 130.2545 0.77 57.742 1.19 1050.563 1.471 1.1 628.2471 0.493 Prandtl number 58.0 1971.15 119.11 56.06 529.2844 0.7 2007.660 2.694 2.688 1.81 130.255 Dynamic viscosity 104(Pa s) 0.00 260.2380 0.466 1.86 550.039 2.291 2.2944 0.01 53.1627 Heat capacity kJ/kg⋅K 3.455 1.467 1.9 320.1536 4.99 57.88 1039.501 1.72 449.46 1045.853 1.965 2.455 1.741 2.00 162.2196 Kinematic viscosity 106(m2/s) 1.162 3.465 1.41 124.00 127.471 1.9 1965.846 1.84 548.83 140.8 1962.1550 4.2794 0.2 2005.0 636.41 125.364 2.1531 4.74 54.697 1.51 488.461 1.2208 0.99 52.34 1037.90 Enthalpy kJ/kg 2064.83 1037.97 566.11 1046.40 55.451 1.2574 0.1552 4.763 1.5 629.65 1058.63 509.

3 1898.334 1.0 580.60 1001.059 2.305 1.81 590.9.403 1.393 1.024 2.2167 0.0 660.9 624.39 1021.78 48.1678 4.1 626.1812 4.2020 4.91 676.51 45.359 1.63 1004.7 1901.89 45.2 1919.1903 0.467 1.7 1894.1707 4.0 532.7 623.87 668.38 45.66 154.0 Density kg/m3 Temp.468 1.1822 4.8 1902.182 2.1870 4.1 615.6 1933.0 460.2050 0.1993 0.74 1024.0 400.37 1006.997 1.466 Thermal diffusivity 107(m2/s) 628.87 48.76 683.2 700.1891 0.221 2.7 1932.15 45.4 1928.95 1006.0 689.17 636.422 1.7 616.0 627.36 597.3 1911.0 640.15 Enthalpy kJ/kg 1954.887 1.1903 4.00 165.953 1.94 49.0 622.470 1.28 147.083 2.95 673.1980 0.05 1014.27 159. (continued) 582.67 663.0 680.9 619.40 1012.470 1.470 1.57 160.2071 Heat capacity kJ/kg⋅K 2.133 2.468 1.0 560.43 46.942 1.33 655.472 1.2141 0.2092 0.1846 4.58 47.13 44.14 1019.6 625.15 678.4 623.92 158.1752 4.47 165.1798 4.1755 4.12 155.5 622.00 997.467 1.1729 4.0 720.472 1.21 48.1 624.20 47.3 480.70 46.4 1883.91 1022.472 1.894 1.63 45.161 2.48 613.1878 0.367 1.2070 0.0 465.2030 0.1 616.7 1938.7 620.29 164.865 1.7 1890.86 653.320 1.84 162.1940 0.471 1.8 620.1 617.33 1009.86 1011.0 500.925 1.9 1887.4 1879.1931 0.7 1876.1 619.49 634.1735 4.14 152.71 1017.7 1917.89 47.57 49.1671 4.288 1.909 1.471 1.100 2.9 1924.471 1.284 1.2064 0.472 1.472 1.24 618.2 621.0 600.50 688.36 630.0 520.851 Dynamic viscosity 104(Pa s) 0.40 592.2116 0.22 1002.37 1017.016 1.1885 0.53 145.54 1005.54 156.2045 4.959 1.468 1.1996 4.0 440.28 46.53 48.45 642.879 1.00 151.996 1.9 1947.1994 4.1976 0.3 540.75 167.00 160.4 617.190 2.037 2.91 1001.08 163.437 1.20 166.00 146.90 1008.0 606.33 49.473 1.71 142.61 46.00 1000.471 1.0 1906.3 420.1855 Kinematic viscosity 106(m2/s) 1.5 620.69 604.472 1.407 1.71 611.379 1.71 144.29 1016.265 Prandtl number 50.355 1. Pressure °C kPa TABLE 3.450 1.99 46.324 1.472 1.1665 4.80 1022.107 2.3 1948.0 1915.344 1.1894 4.470 1.1945 0.88 Surface tension 103N/m .4 Thermal conductivity 103W/(m⋅K) 1.8 625.5 618.0 405.5 1943.1646 4.58 150.94 1011.8 618.297 1.00 155.469 1.2000 0.314 1.85 380.280 1.1 Specific heat kJ/kg 4.273 1.1919 4.1917 0.2011 0.02 624.455 1.2134 0.70 47.472 1.3 627.96 149.1867 0.1 1885.473 1.13 658.0 740.1944 4.23 647.30 999.2000 4.85 49.

59 989.2542 4.78 737.1689 0.1737 0.15 697.2305 4.89 Surface tension 103N/m .27 39.3 1843.99 974.12 729.0 1200.153 1.25 Enthalpy kJ/kg 1872.90 176.216 1.14 41.1708 0.2 606.233 1.194 1.800 1.8 614.460 1.51 43.04 992.62 188.1777 0.221 1.0 1080.73 43.0 981.707 1.446 Thermal diffusivity 107(m2/s) 614.1823 0.1 1869.2254 4.0 608.52 705.648 1.1794 0.625 1.4 607.0 1180.02 714.1 1837.51 772.6 1818.221 1.448 1.461 1.462 1.465 1.2123 4.2463 4.19 179.0 780.0 1112.2384 4.146 Prandtl number 44.464 1.2253 4.00 977.0 1100.672 1.0 1244.41 44.5 610.70 697.23 701.609 Dynamic viscosity 104(Pa s) 0.2123 4.2227 4.0 820.5 1834.711 1.0 920.1 Thermal conductivity 103W/(m⋅K) 1.0 980.98 170.1 1865.8 612.455 1.3 Specific heat kJ/kg 4.08 41.2 1828.1744 0.251 1.4 1846.1843 0.64 44.2674 4.06 983.83 177.00 174.33 41.1 614.1 1835.22 994.0 940.51 180.34 987.1700 0.8 1806.74 178.71 184.169 1.2097 4.19 985.25 782.41 44.1785 0.465 1.725 1.00 180.61 984.09 42.30 43.6 1869.51 989.3 603.2175 4.2733 Heat capacity kJ/kg⋅K 1.1722 0.452 1.1670 0.93 169.00 186.00 171.33 975.1768 0.1657 Kinematic viscosity 106(m2/s) 1.2595 4.0 960.52 185.2410 4.79 40. (continued) 692.03 174.457 1.88 42.824 1.453 1.0 604.9 610.52 739.70 41.95 978.18 43.48 982.2201 4.38 758.1785 0.777 1.9 610.51 995.37 190.09 187.689 1.766 1.03 40.197 1.15 718.44 40.745 1.21 718. Pressure °C kPa TABLE 3.2 611.8 1852.2558 4.6 1852.14 971.0 880.37 722.812 1.96 175.67 42.461 1.9.659 1.2 1800.02 172.183 1.38 182.16 168.8 604.0 880.452 1.716 1.98 733.1833 0.463 1.97 978.1697 0.457 1.2332 4.95 43.2 1840.466 1.735 1.1 613.2 1000.00 760.81 710.28 42.5 1849.0 1040.457 1.766 1.05 775.201 1.6 1819.3 609.252 1.463 1.3 1822.663 1.7 1862.5 612.8 607.3 800.825 1.3 1808.77 990.239 1.00 175.07 183.449 1.1676 0.99 980.192 1.4 600.17 42.58 741.2399 4.157 1.1750 0.9 603.0 780.8 900.95 991.9 601.1 1855.39 755.5 607.03 173.457 1.1834 0.451 1.1813 0.2648 4.756 1.26 986.211 1.09 973.4 1859.258 1.0 840.81 760.2358 4.47 42.2516 4.1 601.1 1814.1759 0.20 748.75 996.788 1.5 Density kg/m3 Temp.41 988.1803 0.1740 0.837 1.7 609.227 1.459 1.175 1.87 765.32 995.20 726.2149 4.245 1.206 1.164 1.633 1.461 1.2279 4.171 1.0 860.2 1140.30 43.

407 1.7 585.02 30.3857 4.3859 4.400 1.23 961.0 2317.58 200.061 1.075 1.4650 4.0 2101.7 565.72 960.73 944.77 39.90 35.0 1300.2 595.127 1.1 1650.2 1782.531 1.1445 0.56 191.407 1.444 1.92 31.2 592.125 1.481 1.28 35.3595 4.3070 4.95 225.6 597.050 1.056 1.420 1.2859 4.1425 0.9 1763.4 Specific heat kJ/kg 4.454 1.99 868.3989 4.64 802.560 1.3 1744.96 210.9.383 1.0 589.138 1.297 Dynamic viscosity 104(Pa s) 0.69 819.3267 4.27 934.00 1260.8 1746.75 890.76 879.1538 0.81 923.75 190.73 930.72 805.1585 0.93 948.9 578.7 569.68 900.0 2550.591 1.3 1667.55 32.309 1.067 1.091 1.28 918.0 1700.79 964.1552 0.59 868.1522 0.3 1793.57 948.435 1.386 1.22 954.10 204.425 1.00 195.4 588.76 970.400 1.132 1.428 1.1480 0.73 934.432 1.096 1.04 230.0 1546.41 944.64 790.604 1.5 583.27 34.06 958.3 583.5 1725.041 1.6 578.437 1.10 33.49 957.0 1716.30 813.1 1724.1493 0.3597 4.425 1.73 937.73 941.81 38.93 846.3354 4.442 1.542 1.1618 0.1466 0.8 1695.29 838.70 195.3726 4.54 36.0 1388.566 1.1493 0.12 38.9 594.68 34. (continued) 784.8 568.439 1.402 1.374 Thermal diffusivity 107(m2/s) 599.16 964.0 1901.1507 0.71 796.1 587.58 924.1522 0.3017 4.28 Enthalpy kJ/kg 1798.2 1783.97 856.51 214. Pressure °C kPa TABLE 3.438 1.1416 Kinematic viscosity 106(m2/s) 1.2753 4.1653 0.74 31.336 1.144 1.2806 4.364 1.1565 0.0 1340.6 1768.66 38.6 576.5 2000.418 1.1620 0.4143 4.9 1705.6 563.4 596.45 803.039 1.412 1.59 36.15 825.563 1.3 1684.3 573.20 951.3 593.445 1.519 1.92 37.0 1641.031 Prandtl number 39.0 1650.0 1704.329 1.62 966.033 1.0 1460.10 34.18 937.440 1.00 228.061 1.70 915.1643 0.416 1.493 1.70 844.107 1.00 217.1595 0.97 193.1555 0.5 2200.5 1751.4384 4.55 Surface tension 103N/m .6 1663.75 38.116 1.43 35.083 1.2 580.1 1780.40 968.96 215.459 1.53 205.52 890.3332 4.9 1400.397 1.0 2100.98 31.1623 0.5 596.35 194.379 1.30 209.5 Thermal conductivity 103W/(m⋅K) 1.21 37.3463 4.84 965.5 2500.1632 0.112 1.2911 4.44 39.11 952.4451 4.075 1.0 1500.00 207.00 203.1 2700 2800 Density kg/m3 Temp.7 598.00 223.124 1.31 198.40 930.438 1.37 197.3 1735.3130 4.440 1.2923 4.9 1714.477 1.87 36.00 212.6 1800.8 1773.1439 0.0 1900.33 220.4784 Heat capacity kJ/kg⋅K 1.578 1.090 1.0 1380.93 912.416 1.2 1788.2938 4.1603 0.

68 860.61 866.1 1470.48 25.76 1081.6 524.5145 4.251 1.22 26.1254 0.1 1596.365 1.81 28.040 Dynamic viscosity 104(Pa s) 0.17 1071.295 1.267 1.43 834. (continued) 974.40 900.00 250.00 240.362 1.9 Specific heat kJ/kg 4.5597 4.08 24.5052 4.43 838.38 1140.7 1459.7 516.178 1.17 28.32 19.013 1.1308 0.79 990.31 1100.9 541.00 20.00 263.235 1.7500 4.1287 0.1322 0.10 842.14 979.00 237.14 857.1252 0.010 1.2 509.3 Thermal conductivity 103W/(m⋅K) 1.1259 0.1 532.140 1.07 252.8 1619.6726 4.37 1034.1268 0.6 1562.19 21.9892 Heat capacity kJ/kg⋅K 1.212 1.13 21.1352 0.61 1167.60 838.011 1.077 1.010 1.0 1446.0 1533.272 1.025 Prandtl number 29.00 267.48 1005.61 1025.015 1.1295 0.7925 4.41 853.319 1.089 1.9 1414.022 1.177 1.08 260.1399 0.1 1443.6438 4.334 1.9543 4.050 1.075 1.1383 0.6941 4.7618 4.51 265.107 1.00 272.78 883.00 27.07 1167.1333 0.6 535.00 247.55 22.021 1.206 1.249 1.015 1.331 1.08 250.1247 Kinematic viscosity 106(m2/s) 1.197 1.099 1.9211 4.6431 4.85 275.9.36 28.59 24.9 1577.3 509.6 1523.1332 0.318 1.65 883.302 1.95 255.22 Enthalpy kJ/kg 1624.06 888.273 1.15 22.5 558.7167 4.00 908.125 1.29 Surface tension 103N/m .7 551.010 1.249 1.78 1062.025 1.5 1414.74 1020.1282 0.04 1112.151 1.346 1.023 1.3 1401.1344 0.9548 4.216 Thermal diffusivity 107(m2/s) 559.73 875.2 547.012 1.258 1.226 1.00 275. Pressure °C kPa TABLE 3.39 23.27 1002.1 1478.20 871.6 1572.8717 4.2 506.4 522.81 19.78 25.309 1.1276 0.5323 4.265 1.012 1.66 29.31 240.8729 4.012 1.011 1.013 1.73 892.5 528.017 1.04 893.9 548.80 19.018 1.3 1548.1 1608.71 243.5538 4.9 527.75 1178.281 1.235 1.63 878.0 545.46 849.4 1492.285 1.2 555.120 1.8114 4.019 1.68 21.0 537.7 516.1 541.010 1.11 848.14 269.00 1119.348 1.2 1592.022 1.0 512.1 1426.12 1129.5874 4.76 25.061 1.15 3000 3069 3200 3357 3400 3600 3666 3800 3995 4000 4200 4347 4500 4722 4800 5000 5122 5300 5500 5546 5800 5997 6000 6200 Density kg/m3 Temp.1369 0.75 235.97 1048.8396 4.1268 0.48 864.00 257.09 23.1298 0.02 904.355 1.6 552.1315 0.96 245.45 1048.77 910.2 1512.6 1497.162 1.51 1095.337 1.1372 0.47 270.64 1143.1356 0.226 1.051 1.010 1.5965 4.10 1157.6 1548.014 1.1393 0.98 26.03 277.231 1.6154 4.17 899.5 519.00 261.24 233.

8242 5.58 1208.56 805.915 0.4 1190.2522 5.4 1293.021 1.50 1217.00 296.170 1.1223 0.00 300.1204 0.26 15.25 283.5 488.9700 6.24 295.1236 0.0311 Heat capacity kJ/kg⋅K 1.93 798.49 Surface tension 103N/m .1231 0.77 12.7 497.114 1.059 1.108 1.85 17.6 454.981 0.093 1.068 1.1313 5.1 1218.92 13.132 1.940 0.1164 Kinematic viscosity 106(m2/s) 1. Pressure °C kPa TABLE 3.7 Thermal conductivity 103W/(m⋅K) 1.925 0.1226 0.43 792.932 0.81 12.09 13.9 1217.87 807.09 15.044 1.5 1259.876 0.097 1.47 763.1205 0.998 Thermal diffusivity 107(m2/s) 502.00 285.107 1.29 1322.2 492.14 1362.6 1207.036 1.59 310.00 310.4 495.1 1317.6375 5.083 1.32 17.63 1321.1214 0.9.166 Prandtl number 18.50 825.9 469.00 6476 6600 6800 6983 7000 7200 7520 7600 8000 8088 8300 8600 8688 8800 9000 9300 9323 9500 9800 9992 10000 10300 10500 10698 Density kg/m3 Temp.9103 5.189 1.17 759.06 312.099 1.5631 5.24 1329.49 304.16 287.068 1.4 500.61 11.1 474.21 313.80 298.1 1341.09 1308.045 1.1167 0.1 Specific heat kJ/kg 5.90 1268.1 1254.28 1300.62 18.99 1349.00 306.94 11.6 463.85 1278.908 0.43 1218.88 280.5151 5.100 1.00 281.38 750.06 290.117 1.0969 5.62 11.22 772.1192 0.1200 0.87 782.074 1.35 308.00 290.158 1.15 796.2 451.58 746.0379 5.914 0.1344 5.3 1178.6889 5.24 1370.898 0.936 0.0 480.72 778.090 1.2 487.1183 0.1 1322.040 1.62 315.978 0.46 784.46 300.86 813. (continued) 1192.94 773.4890 5.1 1354.127 1.4 473.0 457.027 1.962 0.1183 0.086 1.1 1353.40 16.7689 5.3543 5.083 1.959 0.71 13.4 471.004 1.151 1.80 769.0 1247.97 821.9 1161.8 1150.155 1.030 1.1 482.90 818.054 1.43 17.126 1.198 1.6433 5.995 0.1174 0.892 0.147 1.1227 0.1215 0.82 1350.64 1264.2360 5.90 302.44 1295.08 14.069 1.892 0.25 1227.3355 5.032 1.9 1377.5 465.3 1365.9 465.1188 0.08 Enthalpy kJ/kg 1384.81 10.26 16.003 0.99 754.72 294.034 1.134 1.1173 0.83 305.1191 0.33 1198.135 1.1176 0.6 1236.77 760.46 11.204 1.3 1179.34 12.8 1276.1240 0.33 788.92 1246.012 1.0603 5.23 1378.9 495.951 0.1728 5.5 460.20 817.034 1.95 16.040 1.008 0.065 1.882 0.1180 0.4 1139.9 1288.12 10.869 Dynamic viscosity 104(Pa s) 0.67 14.29 1291.9 449.4007 5.052 1.019 1.1169 0.8219 5.8 478.7 457.1193 0.179 1.23 285.86 1242.180 1.4685 5.63 1341.78 828.

204 1.983 0.84 1451.13 4.76 Surface tension 103N/m .709 Dynamic viscosity 104(Pa s) 0.9 Specific heat kJ/kg 6.86 342.01 637.681 0.863 0.10 1554.7 435.60 338.7668 8.1144 0.9.471 1.91 1562.9 1006.53 675.5009 8.1160 0.59 8.240 1.0 884.26 1584.1124 0.854 0.815 0.9 1047.5 446.3 408.6095 6.636 1.38 317.83 708.38 9.275 1.495 1.1280 6.37 642.0359 8.19 1428.890 0.0983 9.43 337.94 344.1117 0.48 1431.9 859.36 653.4651 7.733 0.01 1436.4 895.5 1064.74 9.255 1.213 1.8 396.9 406.885 0.725 0.1147 0.57 707.99 345.8 1017.05 741.427 1.1114 0.897 0.3361 6.1146 0.18 737.18 5.14 683.824 0.13 1413. Pressure °C kPa TABLE 3.5682 6.709 0.289 1.1118 0.6 1022.577 1.1115 0.759 0.59 710.74 1407.804 0.00 321.32 8.790 0.99 346.2 833.14 1455.7 411.972 0.602 1.2 918.248 1.1156 0.5143 6.9 435.842 0.2 441.926 0.3 806.3263 Heat capacity kJ/kg⋅K 0.77 650.6 1052.303 1.930 0.1950 6.764 0.666 Thermal diffusivity 107(m2/s) 447.721 0.72 1534.95 3.41 732.2 946.1 1029.175 1.1161 0.15 8.99 10900 11000 11200 11442 11600 12000 12067 12200 12300 12600 12717 12800 13000 14000 14400 14467 14800 14839 15000 15400 15606 15800 16000 16200 Density kg/m3 Temp.62 666.54 674.64 7.34 4.71 Enthalpy kJ/kg 1127.919 0.00 324.761 0.750 0.55 4.79 340.830 0.1127 0.40 320.87 722.6 1121.54 5.28 6.828 0.1121 0.5 397.0067 8.727 0.61 5.801 0.41 1532.5 820.988 0.669 Prandtl number 10.1154 0.9 427.5 846.03 323.1131 0.960 0.06 318.1148 0.00 344.9235 7.434 1.14 1540.1149 0.0954 6.00 328.1135 0.2 Thermal conductivity 103W/(m⋅K) 1.5 402.236 1.00 340.42 666.19 7.546 1.07 5.785 0.807 0.50 8.19 10.7912 6.773 0.4 444.1158 0.11 1503.749 0.69 335.5 429.53 7.1 897.96 4.951 0.8 1110.5 1087.8857 9.19 1517.8 427.874 0.01 703.49 716.6 432.29 328.7386 6.1112 Kinematic viscosity 106(m2/s) 0.913 0.50 329.58 324.06 1439.1124 0.9 411.275 1.4 1060.3 407.0 433.1141 0.477 1.03 9.6928 8.54 1458.1 399.1139 0.78 1577.80 1568.2793 6.79 743.821 0.813 0.4879 6.96 1520.00 339.83 325.4 415.860 0.4 425.180 1.4 1096.03 718.1126 0.17 667.45 327.715 0.15 3.7215 7.82 729.79 7.847 0.1617 8.9 401.744 0.64 1466.95 1397.63 316.28 721.53 646.8291 6.6 439. (continued) 1386.03 1389.747 0.6 922.696 0.191 1.761 0.388 1.

831 1.632 0.87 352.00 354.19 359.300 32.515 0.1073 0.3 389.703 0.12 1813.65 1809.83 0.007 - - Prandtl number 394.00 350.95 0.74 16406 16600 16818 17000 17400 17669 17800 18000 18557 18600 18800 19000 19015 19400 19800 19962 20000 20400 20800 20953 21000 21400 21467 21660 Density kg/m3 Temp.707 1.1106 0.186 57.46 435.0 553.1098 0.73 Enthalpy kJ/kg 793.378 5.793 1.3 702.90 1608.65 363.33 364.8 385.653 0.1505 0.651 9.34 539.47 1.620 2.4 443.2710 0.69 2.633 0.1111 0.1 692.624 2.933 2.1379 0.7083 0.054 2.546 12.1090 0.60 355.30 Surface tension 103N/m .659 0.42 1965.0 392.0 Specific heat kJ/kg Dynamic viscosity 104(Pa s) Kinematic viscosity 106(m2/s) Thermal diffusivity 107(m2/s) 1.153 The calculation in the near-critical region is uncertain.56 1796.1 384.1089 0. (continued) 1592.2 382.1093 0.61 623.0 609.6439 0.16 565.4 390.3 382.05 1857.6 764.493 2.691 0.53 1599.68 602.7 627.919 3.7 429.1 382.1074 0.00 368.1099 0.0 492.519 0.75 1.44 483.61 1697.80 1641.46 579.20 532.516 14.570 11.9 405.22 1630.1092 0.1072 0.00 348.33 358.39 3.607 4.51 1698.70 594.366 2.744 1.665 7.016 2.21 566.1086 0.4 384.4 385.458 15.74 370.636 10.576 0.85 0.06 1679.00 358.20 0.24 578.462 14.47 1646.1083 0.544 3.95 350.8366 0.5 347.2034 0.5 591.23 1615.2937 0.584 0.4350 0.697 0.4 751.47 2.18 369.9 0.554 0.438 16.4340 0.6538 0.325 24.99 531.0 211.04 1735.40 444.32 1868.7156 0.32 493.00 348.1102 0.82 1678.0097 0.1468 0.1093 0.0098 0.00 361.40 0.616 0.5 448.1109 0.1101 0.4 590.774 6. Pressure °C kPa TABLE 3.51 358.07 359.00 364.45 1746.332 3.36 2.575 0.2597 0.0439 0.5138 0.2 237.1 382.387 2.618 10.03 2.03 572.5 393.4 630.6 339.1077 0.1108 0.79 367.61 1.21 1.672 0.161 61.00 370.625 0.372 22.416 16.6 488.535 12.39 368.60 0.80 633.20 1716.2 437.67 553.530 0.19 3.601 0.3 382.1 676.31 609.305 24.46 1.1 387.48 1769.16 365.5 722.0 779.92 1688.51 480.5 Thermal conductivity 103W/(m⋅K) 9.75 354.1 392.3 375.246 46.2144 0.03 628.5790 0.128 2.1974 0.99 599.604 11. critical point Heat capacity kJ/kg⋅K - 3.93 360.1 511.57 3.9.1082 0.617 0.664 0.685 0.0 391.89 1744.1081 0.60 619.78 1.33 0.415 18.49 514.71 1654.

46] are related to lithium contained 0. LIQUID METALS The history of the study of thermophysical properties of liquid metals in the Russian Federation has been over five decades long. 3. PbLi) Basis thermophysical properties of Li. Hg. and In are shown in Table 3. Pr = ν/a.4. K. PbLi) In the course of deriving the tables on density. Hg. 19.1. which were a totally new class of coolants. Ga. and thermophysical properties of NaK. were unknown. The use of liquid metal coolants made it possible to provide high rate of heat transfer in power plants as well as the temperatures of working surfaces of their constructions close to coolant temperature [7. Further development of nuclear power engineering required the study of properties of liquid metal coolants such as lead. 27. 3. In. Na.11 [34]. 26. 33]. 81 . [39]. Pb-Bi alloy. 30. alloys NaK. The first tables on thermophysical properties of liquid metals were developed on the basis of the results of experimental investigations performed in ENIN [28] by the initiative of Academician A. NaKCs. 10]. Bi. Na. 40. Pb. Basic thermophysical properties (Li. Specifically. 46]. Ga. The most significant research in this field were carried out in 1950–1970 years. such as low pressure in the system (owing to their high boiling point) and high thermal conductivity owing to their electron conductivity. relatively low Prandtl and Peclet numbers typical of liquid metals offer no advantages in terms of decreasing temperature nonuniformities in NPP designs as compared with water. In. NaKCs. ν (m2/s) = μ/ρ. Pb. the correlation in Ref. In the early 1950s the properties of liquid metals. Na. liquid metals have two major advantages.3. lead is considered promising for applications in new generation reactors as well as for targets of accelerator-driven systems. Bi. 10–14].% of various impurities and they are taken in Ref. 19. It has been found that a number of thermophysical properties of liquid metals have a pronounced effect on the features of both hydrodynamic and heat-mass transfer processes in power plants. Approximate correlations and comments to tables on thermophysical properties (Li. K. alloys NaK. 39. water). Other properties of alkaline metals have been detailed in the monograph [12] where more reliable sources were used in addition.4. These tables were included in many well known monographs [7. PbBi. Cs. Cs. the IPPE’s research supervisor. Ga. lithium. in particular with the development of fast sodium cooled reactors. 45. K. and Cs are shown in Table 3. PbBi. Other properties were calculated by the formulas: a (m2/s) = λ/(Cp⋅ρ). 11.12 [9]. basic thermophysical properties of Hg. As compared with other coolants (gas. 39.3–0.10 [34]. We have established that data presented in other Refs [11.4. The disadvantage of many liquid metals is also their high chemical activity at interaction with oxygen. The same data are available also in other recent monographs [25. Na-K alloy.2.I. Pb. water and structural materials.5 wt. The basic results of long-term studies on thermophysical properties of liquid metals are presented in the reviews and monographs [7. [40] was used because we believe that it is the most exact. In particular. 18. Leipunsky. etc. which may cause heat transfer deterioration in the plant under certain conditions [11]. The development of this type of coolants was associated with new requirements of nuclear power engineering. PbBi and PbLi alloys in Table 3. NaKCs. cesium.

3 71.272 0.230 0.5 212±2 192±6 425±7 0.9 18. kg/m3 110.90 solid at 20°С 534 966 862 1873 liquid at 450°С 491 844 739 1597 Atomic mass.1 × 10–7 3 × 10–7 2.6 11.22±0.0045 0.7 371 336. Cs [34] Property Li Atomic number Na K Cs 3 11 19 55 6.9 51.53 65.6 °С 1347 883 774 678 K 1620 1156 1047 951.7 89.46±0.9 kJ/kg 134.9 °С 180.1 132.28 × 10– 7 .242 kJ/(kg⋅K) liquid 450°С 4. % Critical temperature.5 98 63. kg/m3 Heat capacity solid 20°С 3.94 22. BASIC THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF Li. mN/m Volume change on melting. amu Melting point Boiling point Heat of fusion.9 50.99 39.4 × 10–7 0.0287 0.42±0.5 7.4 15.5 +2.0021 371 164 84.569 1.763 0.132 0.10.4 +3.220 Thermal conductivity solid 20°С 84.6 28.4 Critical density.8 301.7 3503±10 2497±18 2239±49 2035±23 Critical pressure. Heat of vapourization Density.40 2.6 2.5 K 453.09 kJ/mol 19409 3873 1983 495. K Compressibility z=PcVc/RTc 82 1.1 61.175 0. K.64 2.04 77.TABLE 3.9 +2.4 35.65 +2.0032 0.0832 0.212 liquid 450°С W/(m⋅K) Viscosity at 450°С. Mpa 38.205 1.6 kJ/mol 663 113.756 0.73 kJ/kg 4.95±0.54 25.7 130 102. Na. m2/s Prandtl number at 450°С Surface tension at 450°С.2 41.4±0.6 15.

2 +3.380 0.127 0. kJ/(kg⋅K) Thermal conductivity.137 0.32 °С 356.252 8.4 179. Pb. Heat of vapourization.7 1745 1552 2403 2080 K 629. mN/m Volume change at melting.0135 0. Boiling point.331 5.9 × 10–7 1.47 kJ/mol 2.27 kJ/kg 294.7 +3.6 81.82 °С –38.6 207.7 2018 1825 2676 2353 kJ/kg 11.9 429. m2/s 1.6 –3. kg/m3 5300±100 3250±100 2660±200 1760±50 2000±100 0.193 (–38.59 3. Bi.62 24.6 13 17.9°C) 11340 9780 5907 7310 liquid at 450°С 12510 10520 9854 5822 7010 solid at 20°С 27.34 35 8.276 0. Density.371 0.11. W/(m⋅K) solid at 20°С solid at 20°С liquid at 450°С Viscosity at 450°С. % Critical temperature.2 K 234.8 156.129 0.262 Prandtl number at 450°С Surface tension at 450°С.15 179.66 × 10–7 1.4 271.9 48 Atomic mass.98 0. Mpa 153.4 14.2 209.12 10.15 80.238 liquid at 450°С 0.9 327.72 114.8 857 3673 1972 kJ/mol 59.0396 0.2 28.3 600.3 × 10–7 0.0 69.265 0.5 180±30 150 400±50 250±50 Critical density.0087 0.59 × 10–7 - 83 . BASIC THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF Hg.94 1763±15 5000±200 5100±200 7200±200 6600±200 Critical pressure.9 865.1 226.48 5.8 544 302.0069 359 438 370 693 540 +3.3 –3.4 29.TABLE 3.2 50.0174 0.278 0. Ga. kg/m 3 Heat capacity.7 50. °С Heat of fusion.1 14.150 0. amu Melting point.4 40. In [34] Property Hg Atomic number Pb Bi Ga In 80 82 83 31 49 200.1 256. K Compressibility z =PcVc/RTc 0.147 0.

054609894⋅(T × 10–3)3 − 0.8 208.7 44.09 5.6 × 10–6⋅T2.7/56.5 195 398 508 °С 784 - 1638 - K 1057 - 1911 - kJ/mol - - 38. BASIC THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF NaK.2.63740lnT + 292.146 ~0. (3.4) 84 .3 × 10–7 0.0147 0.7 14.16435 – 0.4 × 10 –7 3.6 43. (3. 33.2 173.5 99.2/22.3 83/17 Boiling point Heat of fusion Heat of vapourization Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) liquid at 450°С liquid at 450°С solid at 20°С liquid at 450°С Viscosity at 450°С.873 0. 25. % - 26 2.54 × 10–7 1.941.4.5 +2.0027045593(T × 10–3)5 – 0.2) Thermal conductivity λ [W/(m⋅K)]= 24.175 10 ~40 13.1/73. mN/m Volume change on melting. Lithium [11.32/0.2 - Density.4 × 10–7 1.2 ~51 1.6 Molar fractions of components in alloy 32/68 13. PbLi ALLOYS [9] Property NaK Atomic number Melting point NaKCs PbBi PbLi 34 76.1.8 + 45.227 + 0.12 kJ/mol - - 862 - kJ/kg - - 179. (3.0053 0. kg/m3 solid at 20°С - - 10474 9495 759 1235 10150 9326 Heat capacity kJ/(kg⋅K) solid at 20°С - - 0.1) Heat capacity Cp [J/(kg⋅K)]= (31. NaKCs.16 °С −12.6 kJ/kg - - 8.016043986(T × 10–3) − 0.53799943 − 0.015087628(T × 10–3)4 + + 0. PbBi.5/55.027 110 81 393 436 (?) +2.265 × 10–3T + 2.3) Dynamic viscosity lnμ (Pa⋅s)= −4. m2/s Prandtl number at 450°С Surface tension at 450°С.9 29.128 ~0.0 × 10–3⋅T – 11.0063 0.6 (?) Weight fractions of components in alloy 22/78 4.384 0.205 × 106 T–2 – 5.12.628 × 10–6 T2)/6.1/T.00031537739(T × 10–3)6.6 ~+0.5 +3. (3.250 0.TABLE 3. 40] Density ρ⋅10–3 (kg/m3) = 0.6 −78 125 235 K 260.099963362(T × 10–3)2 + + 0.5/42.9/43.

069 × 106⋅T–2 – 19.4329 × 103⋅T]–1. Potassium [40] Density ρ⋅10–3 (kg/m3) = 0.16990711(T × 10–3) − 0.98 – 18.7093(T × 10–3) 0.0029(T × 10–3)5 (3. (3.24 × 106⋅T2)/22. (3. (3.2.2905(T × 10–3)–1 + 7.12) Vapour pressure lnPs (MPa) = −2.4.086 × 106T–2 − 24.493 × 10–3⋅T + 10.5 – 39. (3.0532ln(T × 10–3) – 19.334 × 10–3T + 15. (3. (3.7768 × 106 + 0.753(T × 10–3).2016247(T × 10–3)3− 1.034771308(T × 10–3)6.44866894(T × 10–3)5 − −0.8441 + + 1.20 × 10–6 T2 + 37. (3.057963628(T × 10–3)6 (3.7) 3.863 × 10–6T2)/39.4946ln(T × 10–3) − 13.3 × 10–3⋅T + 50.11) Surface tension σ (N/m) = 247.5) Vapour pressure lnPs (MPa) = −2.Surface tension σ (N/m) = 438.8) Heat capacity Cp [J/(kg⋅K)] = (38. (3.2. (3.0091(T × 10–3)4 + 0.3167 × 106 – 0.90281376 − 0. 40] Density ρ⋅10–3 (kg/m3)= 0.8297218(T × 10–3)2 + +2.62 × 10–9⋅T3.46537912(T × 10–3)4 + + 0.288 − 0. (3.16) 85 .1716(T × 10–3 )2 – 0.8/T.3.9249 × 109⋅T–1 + 2.4406 − 0.2.7131 × 103⋅T]–1.99.4993 + 0.20378107(T × 10–3)5 – 0.44 × 10–3T – 132.9053 × 109⋅T–1 – 2.9) Thermal conductivity λ [W/(m⋅K)]= 99.44 × 10–9T3.4268(T × 10–3)–1 + 9.00 − 142. Sodium [11.5161343(T × 10–3) −1.33 × 10–6T2 − 16.4.89660679 + 0.15) Heat capacity Cp [J/(kg⋅K)] = (39.39580lnT + 556.50568188(T × 10–3)3 − 0.13 Electrical resistivity ρе (Ω⋅m) = [4.6) Electrical resistivity ρе (Ω⋅m) = [0.26864769(T × 10–3)2 − − 0.12 – 0.098.14) 3.1 × 10–3T.10) Dynamic viscosity lnμ (Pa⋅s) = −6.0088(T × 10–3 )3 – – 0.3975634(T × 10–3)4 + 0.

2678 × 103⋅T]–1.6810162(T × 10–3)3 −4.865 × 10–3T + 24.29684317(T × 10–3)6.4.4072 − 0.1129(T × 10–3)2 − −0.49 × 10–3 T + 13.2463(T × 10–3)2 + 0.5969(T × 10–3)4 +0.65 × 10–6⋅T2 + 12.42903⋅lnT + 485.0361819(T × 10–3)4 + + 1.363 × 106 T–2 − 40. (3.30 × 10–6 T2 − 4.27) Electrical resistivity ρе (Ω⋅m) = [0.1124(T × 10–3)3 − 0.9 + 4.28) 86 .4846 − 0.1276(T × 10–3)4 + + 0.449 × 10–6T2)/132.17) Dynamic viscosity lnμ (Pa⋅s) = − 6. (3.9.3205(T × 10–3)–1 + 8.8529531(T × 10–3)2 + + 4.8/T.5 − 25.5573(T⋅10–3) + + 1.26) Vapour pressure lnPs (MPa)= − 0. (3. (3.736613(T × 10–3)5 − 0. Thermal conductivity λ [W/(m⋅K)] = 18.19) Vapour pressure lnPs(MPa) = −0.21) 3.25) (3.2.9156 – 1.4528(T × 10–3) +1. Caesium [40] Density ρ × 10–3 (kg/m3) = 1.24) Dynamic viscosity lnμ (Pa⋅s) = − 6. (3. (3.48 − 45.9875ln(T × 10–3) − 10.23) Surface tension σ (N/m) = 88. (3.8 × 10–3T.40767 lnT + 432.135(T × 10–3)5 .7226 − − 2.7063ln (T × 10–3) − 9.12 × 10–9⋅T3.3/T.1684 × 106 – 0.72 × 10–3⋅T − 32.4933(T × 10–3)3 − 0.1580 × 103T]–1.02 − 59.9394 × 109 × T–1 − 1. (3.20) Electrical resistivity ρе (Ω⋅m) = [2. (3.29801989(T × 10–3) − 2. (3.1 × 10–3T – 6.6125 × 106 + 0.5 × 10–6T2.727 − 0.0324(T × 10–3)5.Thermal conductivity λ [W/(m⋅K)] = 60.8185 × 109⋅T–1+ 0.04 × 10–9 T3.8427(T × 10–3)–1 + 8.9058924 + 0.4.18) Surface tension σ (N/m) = 130. (3.22) Heat capacity Cp [J/(kg⋅K)]= (46.

36 × 10–2 t − 6. (3.702 × 10–13 t4 + 1.37) 3. (3.014 × 10–2T − 2.33) Volumetric expansion coefficient β ⋅10 4 (1/K) = 1.8144 × 10–4 t – 7.36) Sound velocity for t = tmelt – 200°C.281(Т – 234).178 + 1. (3.29) Heat capacity Cp [J/(kg⋅K)] = 0.630 × ⋅10–5Т + 6. [6а] Vapour pressure lnPs(Pa) = 33.8896 × 10–3 t + 1.5.35) –6 –6 where ρ0 =0.39) Thermal conductivity at Т = (303–1500) [30 (1982)] λ [W/(m⋅K)] = 7. (3.9412 × 10 ohm⋅m in Ref. (3.864 × 10–3 T.199 × 10–15 t5.5337 lnT + 0. 36] Density at Т = (303–1000) K [30 (1982)] ρ⋅10–3 (kg/m3) = (6. Gallium [30.9407 × 10 ohm⋅m in Ref.308 × 10–4Т + 322.07939 exp(341.6/T – 1. (3. 27.30) Thermal conductivity λ [W/(m⋅K)] = 8.2. (3. Density [15] ρ (kg/m3) = 13595 (1 – 1.197 − 7765.682 ± 0. 16.7 × 10–5Т2.781 − 753.617 × 10–10 t3 .0075 × 10–6 t2 − 1. [8].4. ρ0 =0.4671 t ± 1 m/s.38) Heat capacity at Т = (303–1500) K [34(1991)] Cp [J/(kg⋅K)] = 417. 34 (1991)].13/T). (3.015) × 10–8Т2.617 × 10–14 t4). 34] Thermophysical and transport properties of mercury are given in Refs [16 (1971). 28. (3.31) Dynamic viscosity at Т = (303–773) K μ (Pa⋅s) =0.1508 − 6.378 × 10–6t2.262 ± 0. (3.8144 + 7. Mercury [15.4. 34.4185 × 10–8Т2 + 0.016 × 10–9 t2 – 2. (3.31 × 10–3 T 0.08 + 8.35 ± 0.6/T – 0.8625 × 10–7 t2 + 2.035) × 10–4Т + (4. а (m/s) = 1460 − 7765.40) Kinematic viscosity at Т = (303–773) K 87 .32) Surface tension [15] σ (mN/m) = 497 – 0.8049/T.01) − (6.34) Electrical resistivity at t = (−39 ÷ 1000) oC (ρ/ρ0)е⋅108(Ω⋅m) = 1 + 0.6.371 × 10–7Т2.05 × 10–10 t3 + + 2. (3.8625 × 10–11 t3 – – 2.3.016 × 10–5 t + 2.2.

9 × 10 (Т − 303). [9]: ρе⋅108 (Ω⋅m) = – 84.6 + 2. Surface tension in Ref.50) .15) + (4. (3. [28]. Thermal conductivity in Ref.8 + 108 × 10–4 (T – 600.65 ± 0.43) 3. [41]: λ [W/(m⋅K)] = 15. 22Na-78K alloy [40] Density was calculated on the basis of the additivity law by weight fractions: 1/ρNaK= 0.22/ρNa⋅+ 0. [31]: σ (N/m) = 446 − 0. it was derived on the basis of experimental data obtained by N.7. at Т = (600–1200) K in Ref.65.49) 3.A. (3.012) × 10–6Т2. 21. 31.41) Formula (3.01) − (12. 28. 30.09 ± 0. at Т = (1000–2400) K in Ref. [34 (1991): –5 σ (N/m) =708 − 3.42) Electrical resistivity at Т = (303–1500) K (in Ref.3 J/(kg⋅K).78/ρK.2. Surface tension at Т = (303–773) K (in Ref. 88 (3.322 ± 0. (3.4.206 ± 0. in Ref.ν⋅107 (m2/s) =28.45) Kinematic viscosity at Т = (303–773) K ν⋅108 (m2/s) = 15. Nikolsky et al.42 ± 0. [30]: ρе⋅108 (Ω⋅m) = (65.44) Heat capacity Cp = 147.2.42 ± 0.77 × 10–8Т3.46) Formula (3.035) × 10–2Т − (2.05) × 10–2Т. Lead [9. (3. (3.04) + (2.87 × 103/T − 2. 34. (3.0 × 10–2 T + 3. [36].4.27 × 10–6Т2.135 × 10–4Т2 + 4. 41] Density –3 3 –4 ρ⋅10 (kg/m ) = (11.73 ± 0.064(Т − 600).46) is empirical. (3. (3. [158] cited in Ref.4).48) (3.3655Т – 2.5 + 0.8.41) was derived by approximation the data in Ref. [30 (1982): ρе⋅108(Ω⋅m) = (19.47) Electrical resistivity.012) × 10 Т.

5Pb–55.7657 − 0.774427 × 10–6⋅T3 + 0. (3.2877 × 10–3T − 20.57) Thermal conductivity λ [W/(m⋅K)] = 8.4.59) Surface tension was estimated on the basis of the additivity law by molar fractions: σ (N/m) = σNa⋅0. 44. (3. 22.53) Surface tension was evaluated on the basis of the additivity law by molar fractions: σ (N/m) = σNa⋅0.1 × 10–9⋅T3. Thermal conductivity λ [W/(m⋅K)]= 15.81. 30.2Na-22. 28.737/ρCs.12102⋅ × 10–3⋅T2 – –0.9.734683⋅T + 1.32 + σK⋅0.2 + 27.4 × 10–6⋅T2)/76.23⋅T/λ. (3. (3.0570831⋅t + 33.61) Electrical resistivity ρе⋅108 (Ω⋅m) = 0.51) Cp [J/(kg⋅K)]= 0.5Bi alloy [21.54) Vapour pressure in terms of MPa was calculated by the Raoult’s law. (3.8095 × 10–6⋅T2.200382 × 10–9⋅T4 (3.139 + σK⋅0. (3.2. Electrical resistivity ρе⋅108 (Ω⋅m) = 0. (3.208.0 × 10–6⋅T2 + 16. 4. (3.434 ln(T × 10–3) – 8.62) 3.52) Kinematic viscosity ν⋅108 (m2/s)= 200.8419. 31] Density was evaluated on the basis of the additivity law by weight fractions: 89 .56) Heat capacity was calculated on the basis of the additivity law by weight fractions: Cp [J/(kg⋅K)]= (42.55) 3.3 × 10–3⋅T + 23.2K-73.435 + σCs⋅0.2014/ρK + 0. (3.433(T × 10–3)–1 + 6.8 – 35.0416/ρNa + 0.3/T.58) Dynamic viscosity lnμ (Pa⋅s) = – 6.10.78Cp(K).4. (3.6Cs alloy [40] Density was defined on the basis of the additivity law by weight fractions: 1/ρ = 0.60 Vapour pressure lnP (MPa)= 0.0006 + 30.2.353lnT + 511.22Cp(Na) + 0.68.954 – 0.Heat capacity was defined on the basis of the additivity law by weight fractions: (3.426.3 × 10–3⋅T – 41.

. 3. (3. ρ⋅10–3 (kg/m3) = 9482 −1.01) − (12.145 (t − 235).99319. 47). Vol.49 ± 0.1. 47. [28]. ρ⋅10–3 (kg/m3) = 9519 − 0. Speicher (Z.05 ± 0.509). The approximated formula (3. it can be assumed that the additivity law will be adequately true that gives the following formula: σ (N/m) = 416 − 0. (3. Density ρ⋅10–3 (kg/m3) = 9499 − 0. [41] carried out in Ref. (3. Naturfor. S.95 × 10–5⋅T2.126T + 6. [47].09) × 10–2Т.60) was derived by averaging the values of density estimated by the following three methods: 1) 2) 3) 90 calculation on the basis of the additivity law by volume fractions. (3. [31].23 ± 0. Bi − 0.850 (t − 235). Pb – 0.684Li (Li17Pb83) alloy [19.69) from calculation performed by G. ρ⋅10–3 (kg/m3) = 9495 − 0.70) . Taking into account the closeness of atomic weights of alloy components.68) approximation of data in Ref.32Pb–0. (3. their weight and volume percentages (Pb − 0. 48] Weight fractions of components in alloy: Li – 0. 31a. (3.695 (t − 235).012) × 10–4Т. 99. Taking into account the closeness of the values of surface tension of pure alloy components. the justified assessments of alloy thermal conductivity can be made by the additivity law. (3. 1984.Reiter (Nucl.2.11. No 2) that based on the experimental data obtained by H.5) + (5. The data of such calculation are in a full agreement with the experimental data in Ref. [22]: ρе⋅108 (Ω⋅m) = (83.65) This result is confirmed by direct measurements in Ref.63) Heat capacity Cp = 146 J/(kg⋅K). [28]: ν⋅108 (m2/s) = 68. 25.35 ± 0.Kuhlborsch. Electrical resistivity according to the data in Ref.71 (t − 235).64 Surface tension.66) and according to the additivity law ρе(Pb) and ρе(Bi) are practically consistent.4. Des. 1976. °С.00681.9 − 0. Thermal conductivity. Kinematic viscosity in terms of m2/s was evaluated by approximation of experimental data in Ref.0703(Т − 398). (3. Bd. Eng./Fusion.Ruppersberg and W. 44.ρ⋅10–3 (kg/m3) = (11.491.67) where t is temperature. F.

72) Thermal conductivity The calculating formula was derived by approximation of the data in Ref. by approximation of data in Ref. KfK.Heat capacity was evaluated as the mean value of heat capacity calculated by two methods: 1) 2) by the additivity law. [44]. Personal communication.1786 exp(11160/RT). (3. [19] − μ (mPa⋅s) = 0. Cp [J/(kg⋅K)]= 190.75) 2) in Ref. Schulz. (3.76) Surface tension was calculated by extrapolation of the data in Ref.00681 + CpPb⋅0. later published in Fusion Eng. 1991. Vol.74) where R is the universal gas constant = 8.77) Vapour pressure was estimated by approximation of the data in Ref. [19]: lgPs (MPa) = 10 − 9870/T.71) (3.497194 − 0.187 exp(11640/RT).314 J/(mol⋅K). [44].9 + 1. at 508 <T< 623 K μ (mPa⋅s) = 0.000136595 t. 14. [47] with reference to B.4 − 0. [44]: λ [W/(m⋅K)] = 11. (3. Cp [J/(kg⋅K)]= CpLi⋅0.. (3. Formula (3.74) was derived as mean values of dynamic viscosity given in two corresponding references: 1) in Ref. (3. (3. (3.99319.96 × 10–2 (t 235).1828 exp(11400/RT).73) Dynamic viscosity μ (mPa⋅s) = 0.925 × 10–2 (t − 235).78) Electrical resistivity in terms of Ω⋅m is based on the data given in Ref. [19]: σ (N/m) = 0. Des. 91 .

15 3.93 372.35 3.8 19.041E-05 27.2 6.49 403.91 4.65 397.8 21.57 98.7 2.5 2.22 3.055E-04 29.5 5.91 389.7 703 430 493 4213 50.076E-05 27.48 4. PROPERTIES OF LITHIUM BY EQS (3.6 523 250 509 4314 45.45 110.15 4.81 388.71 386.7 9.30 402.80 398.74 4.88 4.5 21.4 583 310 504 4272 47.768E-06 26.117E-04 28.857E-05 28.87 87.09 86.83 71.4 24.3 513 240 510 4322 44.8 2.02 390.058E-03 30.8 20.06 375.6 22.89 4.13 401.8 563 290 506 4285 46.00 75.168E-02 31.6 9.659E-02 31.0 603 330 502 4260 47.4 3.0 6.5 623 350 500 4249 48.73 82.2 6.2 20.44 382.52 383.79 76.35 100.347E-06 26.7 24.90 105.68 108.1 21.7 22.41 73.366E-07 26.01 94.8 23.89 3.52 83.51 396.589E-02 32.63 3.20 378.1 21.62 72.61 385.28 379.17 3.3.718E-02 32.20 74.217E-04 28.7 3.6 2.31 3.00 373.5 92 J/(kg⋅K) 108(Ω⋅m) .25 393.70 4.7 493 220 512 4339 44.18 3.66 89.13 376.3 653 380 498 4234 49.76 4.36 381.0 22.783E-05 27.914E-07 25.624E-03 30.1–3.8 2.3.5 23.2 543 270 507 4299 45.33 2.612E-04 29.10 5.617E-03 29.13.0 1. Tables of thermophysical properties TABLE 3.56 5.13 392.0 503 230 511 4330 44.15 3.1 643 370 499 4239 48.30 84.6 9.16 79.2 723 450 491 4205 51.7) Temperature Heat capacity Thermal Thermal Kinematic 102 conductivity diffusivity viscosity Prandtl 106(m2/s) 108(m2/s) number W/(m⋅K) Surface tension 103N/m Pressure MPa Electrical resistivity K °C Density kg/m3 473 200 513 4357 43.3 1.2 3.4.44 91.290E-07 25.5 20.5 20.96 399.9 23.453E-02 31.4 483 210 512 4348 43.529E-06 26.0 6.37 78.12 103.0 2.4 22.79 5.1 573 300 505 4279 46.70 404.49 3.6 1.22 92.4 6.2 613 340 501 4255 48.8 21.1 683 410 495 4221 50.0 24.9 533 260 508 4306 45.2 23.4 4.8 633 360 499 4244 48.1 24.87 370.581E-03 30.292E-03 30.24 2.1 1.1 1.58 77.5 19.94 80.86 3.7 4.3 24.196E-02 31.3 22.976E-04 29.6 663 390 497 4230 49.2 1.79 96.5 553 280 507 4292 46.7 593 320 503 4266 47.9 713 440 492 4209 51.2 19.45 3.4 693 420 494 4217 50.9 673 400 496 4225 49.16 5.38 394.

074E+00 2.90 70.9 60.05 50.09 33.3 61.1 40.53 1.5 33.6 35.58 33.42 33.27 59.85 27.1 39.1 306.60 1.4 328.619E-01 4.8 332.24 25.46 69.66 30.7 52.187E+02 2.152E+02 4.62 1.0 361.375E+00 9.15 62.59 55.04 53.38 49.7 366.8 38.84 28.5 351.03 28.935E-01 6.47 1.9 61.5 359.5 54.1 38.837E+02 5.18 2.56 29.5 55.308E+02 1.30 2.524E+02 8.1 61.7 40.619E+02 6.25 26.22 2. (continued) Temperature Density kg/m3 K °C 733 743 753 763 773 783 793 803 813 823 833 843 853 863 873 883 893 903 913 923 933 943 953 963 973 983 993 1003 1013 1023 1033 1043 1053 1063 1073 1083 1093 1103 1113 1123 1133 1143 1153 1163 1173 1183 1193 1203 1213 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 830 840 850 860 870 880 890 900 910 920 930 940 490 489 488 487 486 485 484 483 483 482 481 480 479 478 477 476 475 474 473 472 471 470 469 468 467 466 465 464 463 462 461 460 459 458 457 456 454 453 452 451 450 449 448 447 446 445 444 443 442 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) 4201 4198 4195 4191 4188 4185 4183 4180 4177 4175 4172 4170 4168 4166 4164 4162 4161 4159 4157 4156 4155 4154 4152 4151 4151 4150 4149 4148 4148 4147 4147 4147 4147 4147 4147 4147 4147 4147 4148 4148 4149 4149 4150 4151 4152 4153 4154 4155 4156 Thermal 102 Thermal Kinematic conductivity diffusivity viscosity Prandtl 106(m2/s) 108(m2/s) number W/(m⋅K) 51.0 35.38 31.9 320.1 335.55 31.2 93 .8 37.6 61.42 2.553E+02 4.84 31.7 347.9 57.8 52.1 60.4 52.25 32.96 1.1 299.5 34.7 315.9 41.97 52.0 33.43 63.30 51.81 2.6 302.38 2.94 1.933E+03 2.91 49.41 54.88 1.8 44.3 323.8 58.60 2.48 30.094E+02 1.58 1.6 363.64 1.20 31.57 1.45 26.5 56.74 1.35 51.4 41.99 1.87 56.08 2.6 39.3 356.70 1.44 1.9 350.6 44.TABLE 3.7 355.07 32.55 1.2 311.509E+00 4.4 343.4 39.3 37.481E+03 32.3 304.86 1.18 29.74 33.672E+02 9.25 33.4 338.54 61.64 27.76 2.8 337.3 58.2 33.73 31.0 43.66 51.83 1.7 43.4 40.2 62.4 57.4 333.5 60.55 2.72 1.61 28.70 2.5 43.8 342.1 292.4 290.44 27.80 28.80 68.43 Surface tension 103N/m Pressure MPa Electrical resistivity 108(Ω⋅m) 369.37 29.05 26.9 358.3 25.9 294.22 28.0 345.6 295.970E+02 1.237E+01 5.48 1.7 55.8 35.1 59.2 41.8 36.3 60.7 327.3 34.1 37.3 59.80 54.266E+01 7.7 59.1 353.6 321.2 57.63 52.30 30.121E+01 1.163E+01 6.6 57.5 42.98 51.1 44.01 67.02 1.93 30.99 29.816E+01 3.33 2.19 49.25 57.61 68.51 2.849E+02 2.11 30.7 56.50 1.4 297.37 2.19 54.95 61.26 2.1 364.5 58.05 27.68 53.8 301.280E+01 2.0 62.3 36.42 32.46 1.355E-01 1.1 52.7 54.3 348.85 26.1 318.90 32.44 25.2 56.7 60.522E+00 5.77 57.9 59.7 288.0 55.5 59.340E+00 1.43 56.03 25.59 32.2 54.25 66.79 1.579E+00 2.474E+01 1.0 325.8 62.76 50.12 2.42 28.74 59.462E+01 4.76 1.02 31.7 56.6 51.6 38.13.91 1.9 1.9 39.92 33.838E+01 2.32 56.7 42.4 38.897E-01 2.0 313.65 2.51 65.79 65.2 53.66 1.9 45.511E+02 7.0 34.558E+02 1.176E+01 1.32 52.792E+00 7.10 64.73 58.4 44.68 1.6 36.12 48.579E+02 3.308E+03 1.6 37.2 42.05 2.9 40.65 26.8 308.01 55.194E+00 1.0 42.81 60.52 1.5 309.701E+03 1.4 316.0 56.032E+02 3.192E+03 2.46 2.23 58.25 27.3 35.7 58.62 48.707E+00 3.5 53.5 61.64 25.575E+01 9.1 58.74 29.2 55.1 330.632E-01 3.961E-01 1.493E+03 1.1 340.2 367.64 49.676E-01 8.0 54.37 60.8 34.1 36.78 63.7 33.3 43.9 53.75 32.81 1.86 48.15 2.143E+03 1.47 50.

9 233.77 37.30 42.3 249.525E+04 5.6 247.15 1.21 1.6 63.21 1.41 37.694E+04 1.66 36.22 43.80 43.9 251.8 5.542E+04 1.99 38.66 36.21 46.84 35.90 47.1 94 950 960 970 980 990 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) 1020 1030 1040 1050 1060 1070 1080 1090 1100 1110 1120 1130 1140 1150 1160 1170 1180 1190 1060 1070 1090 1100 1110 1120 1130 1140 1150 1160 1170 1180 1190 1200 1210 1220 1230 1240 1250 1260 1270 1280 1290 1300 .23 1.52 34.421E+04 3.26 36.8 66.52 36.45 45.75 44.5 48.27 45.88 37.4 49.55 42.4 47.8 49.36 43.857E+04 2.6 50.27 45.2 266.14 1.890E+04 3.25 1.3 254.583E+03 46.697E+03 8.5 65.8 63.6 1273 1000 1283 1010 436 435 4165 4167 63.8 65.54 38.41 35.82 45.98 36.9 51.5 234.4 66.7 64.64 45.030E+04 4.5 52.79 36.2 51.7 62.9 251.1 54.0 66.1 261.1 273.4 65.8 54.6 269.9 35.41 1.10 44.6 65.45 47.23 1.114E+04 5.274E+04 1.23 1.1 236.17 1.3 50.7 46.0 65.20 1.890E+04 3.68 47.1 65.22 1.92 44.1 66.4 65.29 37.65 45.10 44.28 1.469E+03 45.9 65.224E+03 6.27 1.42 44.694E+04 1.24 1.68 42.26 44.2 51.6 65.13.2 2.6 252.6 6.2 66.9 65.926E+04 7.4 55.4 53.0 256.539E+03 9.17 1.458E+03 1.65 37.92 44.17 37.19 1.18 1.95 43.94 42.56 35.8 49.17 37.155E+04 1.70 35.368E+04 4.67 48.53 37.5 48.6 252.30 1.65 43.17 1.429E+04 6.12 36.9 52.27 35.4 34.552E+03 3.7 230.3 231.25 1.0 48.7 65.4 259.5 263.43 38.02 46.1 53.0 63.22 1.1 261.403E+04 1.75 44.TABLE 3.729E+04 5.274E+04 1.8 263.225E+04 2.0 241.42 44.6 66.42 42.70 35.12 36.26 36.7 258.034E+04 2.10 1.3 244.24 1.403E+04 1.9 51.61 46.37 1.3 64.18 1.4 49.39 36.16 1.0 65.52 36.8 56.7 282.1 49.12 1.928E+03 7.0 280.26 1.5 62.28 1.458E+03 1.2 64.4 239.7 65.046E+04 1.29 37.59 44.6 50.11 1.91 37.59 44.2 285.0 50.64 45.2 64.7 63.7 66.3 48.6 64.7 50.26 44.3 268.715E+04 4.5 276.82 45.11 43.1 65.000E+03 5.431E+04 2.09 275.431E+04 2.9 246.14 1.225E+04 2.3 254.3 249.4 283.04 37.5 48.7 238.36 287.95 43.22 38.20 1.81 1.8 47.2 52.046E+04 1.11 43.5 264.3 66.12 35.7 258.801E+03 3.3 50.91 37.5 66.0 46.17 1.34 278.06 34.32 1.454E+04 47.79 36.6 64.5 51.6 243.29 1.8 64.19 1.7 48.2 228.84 36.80 43.39 1.33 1.7 64.6 247.3 64.1 55.9 268.37 34.82 34.04 37.23 1.988E+03 4.2 65.3 46.18 1.21 34.2 266.652E+04 2.5 64.963E+04 6.97 47.35 1.4 259.9 64. (continued) Temperature Density kg/m3 K °C 1223 1233 1243 1253 1263 Thermal 102 Thermal Kinematic conductivity diffusivity viscosity Prandtl 106(m2/s) 108(m2/s) number W/(m⋅K) Surface tension 103N/m Pressure MPa Electrical resistivity 108(Ω⋅m) 441 440 439 438 437 4157 4159 4160 4162 4163 62.9 246.50 43.40 46.652E+04 2.8 53.7 55.40 1.23 1.146E+04 3.3 63.1 1293 1303 1313 1323 1333 1343 1353 1363 1373 1383 1393 1403 1413 1423 1433 1443 1453 1463 1333 1343 1363 1373 1383 1393 1403 1413 1423 1433 1443 1453 1463 1473 1483 1493 1503 1513 1523 1533 1543 1553 1563 1573 434 433 432 431 430 429 428 427 426 425 424 423 422 421 420 419 418 417 430 429 427 426 425 424 423 422 421 420 419 418 417 417 416 415 414 413 412 411 410 409 408 407 4169 4171 4173 4175 4177 4180 4182 4184 4187 4190 4192 4195 4198 4201 4204 4207 4210 4213 4177 4180 4184 4187 4190 4192 4195 4198 4201 4204 4207 4210 4213 4217 4220 4224 4227 4231 4235 4238 4242 4246 4250 4255 63.13 1.542E+04 1.32 38.9 66.034E+04 2.9 52.5 65.0 256.14 47.81 42.0 50.5 51.27 1.7 50.0 64.157E+03 3.2 52.01 45.12 1.4 54.146E+04 9.64 46.39 36.2 65.4 45.10 1.08 42.3 271.1 34.857E+04 2.41 35.11 38.

6 71.77 0.64 66.49 0.56 0.42 0.2 22.3 21.336E+00 8.5 75.5 77.42 32.85 66.489E-02 1.21 36.2 13.5 19.8 4.2 79.7 69.0 80.61 50.10 66.01 198.293E-01 6.1 Pressure Pa 95 .81 10.14 45.9 180.85 44.264E-02 2.951E-03 3.1 130 140 919 917 1370 1366 83.8 176.024E+01 4.1 25.11 K °C Density kg/m3 373 383 393 403 413 100 925 1.44 30.96 37.9 197.73 66.256E+01 3.9 66.84 66.19 53.4 158.0 78.743E-03 6.2 16.346E+02 2.7 76.732E+03 2.6 2.43 0.17 34.65 66.57 0.93 196.2 72.0 73.34 0.1 164.33 51.450E+03 1.287E+01 6.47 0.856E-04 1.9 75.73 0.7 67.0 82.58 0.4 10.04 59.91 65.82 35.6 19.5 66.44 40.59 0.62 0.77 29.060E+03 11.1 66.65 0.9 177.48 0.1 26.2 27.972E-03 1.3 77.0 71.5 84.48 66.4 79.2 161.04 28.49 39.170E+00 3.8 18.49 0.6 27.59 66.3 66.2 189.41 0.003E+03 1.69 28.01 65.843E+00 1.77 66.83 66.8 72.1 165.813E-04 10.37 57.53 47.945E-01 1.80 0.81 66.1 11.1 67.73 27.18 65.4 81.70 66.209E+03 1.7 78.27 66.3 Temperature Surface tension 103N/m 200.0 166.1 12.14.488E+00 6.1 186.560E+02 6.87 26.8 29.32 61.9 178.150E+02 1.9 172.0 185.69 0.5 12.8 174.3 75.54 66.8 423 433 443 453 463 473 483 493 503 513 523 533 543 553 563 573 583 593 603 613 623 633 643 653 663 673 683 693 703 713 723 733 743 753 763 773 783 793 803 813 823 833 843 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 915 913 911 909 907 904 902 900 898 895 893 890 888 886 883 881 878 876 873 871 869 866 864 861 859 856 854 851 849 846 844 841 839 837 834 832 829 827 824 822 820 817 815 1362 1358 1354 1350 1347 1343 1340 1336 1332 1329 1325 1322 1318 1315 1312 1309 1306 1303 1301 1298 1295 1292 1290 1287 1285 1283 1280 1278 1276 1274 1272 1270 1269 1267 1265 1264 1262 1261 1260 1259 1258 1257 1256 83.TABLE 3.60 26.42 66.89 32.802E+02 8.9 68.9 169.50 35.40 29.279E+02 1.35 66.60 38.4 17.01 48.49 110 120 923 921 1378 1374 84.72 66.8 16.44 41.2 70.8 21.6 82.027E-04 9.3 68.7 153.46 0.41 0.3 66.1 74.668E+01 2.848E-05 Electrical resistivity 108(Ω⋅m) 9.50 42.8 152.6 26.4 191.53 0.69 65.74 0.32 65.85 66.4 20.75 0.9 172.59 66.5 156.44 0.3 159.15 1.8 13.38 31.56 33.25 67.76 37.68 66.4 74.849E-02 6.267E-04 4.520E+02 5.80 65.6 25.80 66.2 28.14 26.89 0.457E-05 1.43 27.43 0.586E-01 9.14) Heat Thermal Thermal capacity conductivity diffusivity 106(m2/s) J/(kg⋅K) W/(m⋅K) 1382 84.0 15.7 28.2 188.43 0.06 1.7 83.90 31.19 55.97 0.64 43.82 66.6 73.5 157.45 0.04 27.4 70.9 20.469E+02 1.42 Kinematic 102 viscosity Prandtl 108(m2/s) number 73.50 0.98 33.51 0.0 167.45 0.19 66.0 168.141E+00 4.8–3.7 74.1 23.6 17.47 0.86 0.1 24.6 154.7 195.937E+02 3.0 182.654E+02 4.8 9.7 22.1 163.36 28.6 155.55 0.56 66.75 66.1 187.5 193.75 66.67 0.51 64.41 0.9 14.16 29.480E+00 2.904E+01 8.2 18.83 66.42 0.0 17.9 181.8 79.2 81.52 0.9 179.8 175.54 66.3 160.67 1.61 0.4 15.071E-01 1.232E-02 3.48 66.83 0.7 23.6 15.45 65.863E+02 2.9 77. PROPERTIES OF SODIUM BY EQS (3.1 76.2 162.8 81.8 173.3 14.64 0.733E-01 2.015E+01 5.946E+01 1.1 19.6 24.44 0.82 66.4 72.99 30.5 68.78 66.84 66.5 192.79 66.752E-01 4.9 167.54 0.5 13.57 30.1 69.4 11.3 190.41 194.57 65.9 66.8 70.46 70.6 80.71 0.68 66.8 12.0 170.62 66.221E+01 1.44 66.0 184.

37 0.91 21.0 139.4 63.050E+04 2.1 49.37 0.20 24.8 56.87 20.6 120.43 56.10 0.3 42.3 48.40 64.4 52.51 22.5 .86 63.2 64.7 58.3 57.9 55.38 22.9 49.437E+04 8.6 47.12 21.5 31.84 62.504E+04 4.6 62.73 25.37 0.38 0.977E+04 9.076E+05 1.3 45.30 21.38 0.38 0.97 24.636E+04 4.7 118.14.37 0.4 123.02 21.1 51.4 64.38 0.3 50.9 59.09 56.8 54.397E+05 1.2 136.9 57.177E+04 8.603E+04 1.38 0.02 23.752E+04 7.38 60.3 59.8 117.5 121.9 30.76 56.35 58.500E+03 1.4 54.998E+04 5.9 36.0 128.440E+03 2.24 58.4 122.21 25.14 22.8 116.8 129.37 0.8 63.0 138.1 2.26 22.099E+05 2.5 44.38 0.37 0.67 63.59 21.7 49.0 114.1 60.791E+05 1.1 48.9 38.309E+04 2.053E+05 3.5 57.36 23.65 60.06 22.6 142.2 32.0 150.39 Surface tension 103N/m Pressure Pa 151.05 63.1 64.119E+04 6.39 0.38 0.176E+05 1.37 0.3 3.5 59.2 111.4 56.62 62.86 0.91 22.8 140.38 0.6 53.9 129.47 63.3 48.49 21.0 34.45 20.89 26.67 53.39 0. (continued) Temperature K K Density kg/m3 853 863 873 883 580 590 600 812 810 808 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 830 840 850 860 870 880 890 900 910 920 930 940 950 960 970 980 990 1000 1010 1020 1030 1040 805 803 801 798 796 793 791 789 786 784 782 779 777 775 772 770 768 765 763 761 758 756 754 751 749 747 744 742 740 737 735 733 730 728 725 723 721 718 716 713 711 709 706 704 893 903 913 923 933 943 953 963 973 983 993 1003 1013 1023 1033 1043 1053 1063 1073 1083 1093 1103 1113 1123 1133 1143 1153 1163 1173 1183 1193 1203 1213 1223 1233 1243 1253 1263 1273 1283 1293 1303 1313 96 Heat Thermal Thermal Kinematic 102 capacity conductivity diffusivity viscosity Prandtl J/(kg⋅K) W/(m⋅K) 106(m2/s) 108(m2/s) number 1255 66.839E+05 3.3 124.188E+03 8.960E+03 4.68 23.447E+05 2.37 0.256E+04 3.3 146.37 0.620E+03 5.37 0.9 40.73 54.5 143.16 61.267E+05 2.5 60.31 52.0 56.9 140.5 50.9 116.03 53.77 24.7 51.4 62.80 20.087E+04 1.5 52.651E+05 1.1 56.637E+05 2.37 0.95 20.2 39.38 0.5 133.26 20.39 0.42 55.5 48.85 23.279E+05 3.40 1253 1252 1252 1252 1251 1251 1251 1251 1251 1252 1252 1252 1253 1253 1254 1255 1256 1256 1257 1259 1260 1261 1262 1264 1265 1267 1269 1270 1272 1274 1276 1278 1281 1283 1285 1288 1290 1293 1296 1299 1302 1305 1308 1311 65.7 141.8 52.21 23.4 34.82 59.1 42.6 119.3 53.06 62.38 0.3 109.051E+04 4.39 0.10 55.382E+03 Electrical resistivity 108(Ω⋅m) 29.57 25.TABLE 3.37 0.6 39.9 48.0 115.6 58.2 110.3 35.878E+03 3.18 24.8 64.223E+03 7.68 61.41 57.37 0.37 0.8 43.8 33.7 57.38 20.6 51.0 54.92 61.08 54.40 1254 65.8 56.65 20.1 113.6 32.940E+05 2.21 21.412E+04 1.7 35.2 52.6 59.78 22.3 135.1 137.51 20.2 37.58 20.80 21.595E+04 2.1 148.40 25.2 63.2 147.38 0.40 21.21 0.6 64.8 61.518E+05 31.37 0.0 53.37 0.0 55.7 60.52 23.91 60.4 64.32 20.6 132.4 145.6 37.40 1253 65.5 61.6 131.04 57.9 50.38 24.39 62.72 20.5 144.2 125.6 41.27 63.276E+03 9.76 55.53 59.23 64.838E+04 1.4 65.38 0.37 0.57 24.0 62.37 0.520E+05 1.10 59.38 54.38 0.94 52.241E+04 1.37 0.5 61.38 0.65 58.37 0.62 0.37 0.58 52.815E+04 2.4 134.9 151.8 46.1 112.1 149.17 60.39 0.8 50.7 130.95 58.910E+04 3.72 57.0 45.0 127.0 64.535E+04 6.283E+05 1.2 61.2 54.37 0.4 63.43 61.39 0.371E+03 6.38 0.1 58.64 22.04 20.1 126.1 54.69 21.

9 80.5 100.6 48.613E+05 4.65 0.061E+06 1.5 97.3 90.59 0.0 85.8 49.58 19.2 50.9 47.46 Surface tension 103N/m 108.519E+06 1.1 84.44 1404 39.3 44.40 1340 45.5 99.5 67.3 107.5 96.42 0.40 1332 45.94 19.179E+06 1.2 85.39 0.037E+05 4.7 84.08 20.05 0.5 101.41 0.9 89.40 1336 45.TABLE 3.42 1374 41.77 19.98 19.00 0.45 1409 39.38 19.43 1389 40.70 20.8 71.0 Pressure Pa 3.5 102.47 0.54 0.16 19.42 1370 42.29 19.5 95.40 0.4 49.308E+06 1.68 0.5 103.2 48.5 77.595E+06 Electrical resistivity 108(Ω⋅m) 66.3 87.0 93.14.5 47.1 83.511E+05 1.35 19.10 0.32 19.43 1379 41.6 69.5 98.3 46.46 0.45 1420 38.3 97.87 0.39 1321 47.91 0.12 19.4 90.46 20.19 19.7 70.46 1425 38. (continued) Temperature K °C Density kg/m3 1323 1333 1343 1353 1363 1373 1383 1393 1403 1413 1423 1433 1443 1453 1463 1473 1483 1493 1503 1513 1523 1533 1543 1553 1563 1573 1050 1060 1070 1080 1090 1100 1110 1120 1130 1140 1150 1160 1170 1180 1190 1200 1210 1220 1230 1240 1250 1260 1270 1280 1290 1300 701 699 696 694 691 689 686 684 681 679 676 674 671 668 666 663 661 658 655 653 650 647 645 642 639 637 Heat Thermal Thermal Kinematic 102 capacity conductivity diffusivity viscosity Prandtl 106(m2/s) 108(m2/s) number J/(kg⋅K) W/(m⋅K) 1314 47.41 1348 44.4 42.6 68.2 43.9 96.45 1414 38.6 43.79 0.9 45.7 78.87 19.49 0.4 82.43 1384 41.3 88.39 1325 46.8 42.55 19.0 41.76 19.40 1344 44.52 0.1 45.119E+06 1.17 19.94 19.6 87.39 1318 47.4 94.251E+05 5.9 73.59 19.005E+06 1.75 0.242E+06 1.7 44.6 50.44 1394 40.70 19.376E+06 1.41 1352 43.8 97 .71 0.8 51.4 105.41 1361 43.4 104.41 1356 43.1 47.318E+05 4.5 92.95 0.7 46.4 91.028E+05 8.0 49.44 0.3 86.98 19.39 1328 46.39 19.2 81.79 19.5 93.4 51.446E+06 1.5 45.575E+05 8.53 19.4 76.728E+05 7.594E+05 5.1 74.83 0.42 1365 42.2 75.332E+05 6.995E+05 9.924E+05 5.6 92.15 0.5 94.142E+05 7.4 106.62 0.44 1399 39.56 0.502E+05 8.9 43.4 89.771E+05 4.84 20.0 51.3 86.954E+05 6.

32 49.7 98.94 28.05 48.5 108.45 32.38 0.21) Temperature K °C Density kg/m3 373 383 393 403 413 423 433 443 453 463 473 483 493 503 513 523 533 543 553 563 573 583 593 603 613 623 633 643 653 663 673 683 693 703 713 723 733 743 753 763 773 783 793 803 813 823 833 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 821 818 816 814 811 809 806 804 802 799 797 795 792 790 788 785 783 781 778 776 774 771 769 767 764 762 760 757 755 753 750 748 746 743 741 739 736 734 732 730 727 725 723 720 718 716 713 98 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) 813 811 809 806 804 802 800 798 795 793 791 789 788 786 784 782 781 779 778 776 775 773 772 771 770 769 768 767 766 766 765 764 764 763 763 763 763 762 762 762 763 763 763 763 764 764 765 Thermal Thermal Kinematic conductivity diffusivity viscosity W/(m⋅K) 106 (m2/s) 108 (m2/s) 50.60 39.182E+01 1.02 47.9 106.71 0.68 40.6 74.6 74.8 30.65 0.22 39.98 43.58 0.16 25.4 17.1 73.68 0.8 90.2 76.9 47.1 29.9 18.62 0.5 76.31 25.783E+00 5.41 0.033E-03 6.7 84.38 0.28 30.39 0.3 73.569E+02 9.7 75.8 76.36 0.007E-01 6.2 83.53 46.59 50.50 0.815E+03 9.047E+04 Electrical resistivity 108 (Ω⋅m) 15.5 76.94 49.4 29.34 0.861E+02 6.0 22.57 37.6 23.9 104.87 50.62 45.836E+02 2.5 104.370E+02 3.84 23.2 75.949E+03 3.52 33.49 32.3 76.33 0.094E+01 1.2 20.9 75.46 0.34 30.7 82.353E+02 1.8 76.7 76.34 0.44 0.09 21.64 22.62 44.45 44.2 107.2 44.7 93.6 87.62 23.263E-03 1.0 76.1 99.615E+00 8.56 35.0 71.9 87.1 101.6 73.1 86. PROPERTIES OF POTASSIUM BY EQUATIONS (3.086E+02 7.1 45.36 43.80 39.44 41.507E+00 3.1 89.9 75.47 0.3 16.83 27.2 76.18 40.2 34.5 42.17 47.38 22.261E+01 4.4 43.37 0.8 .07 47.37 47.52 41.45 0.35 0.36 0.42 45.37 22.30 0.40 31.0 78.65 24.05 23.9 39.31 0.4 27.9 17.57 38.7 26.1 38.71 27.0 76.5 90.0 81.6 20.4 98.4 75.043E-06 1.18 43.78 46.41 46.064E+03 1.27 51.45 26.34 0.35 0.6 76.0 46.4 85.55 34.2 103.57 36.57 44.5 106.8 16.08 44.5 100.507E+03 4.76 43.26 42.3 96.7 79.63 50.58 48.54 0.8 95.0 97.9 108.463E+01 6.7 Pressure Pa 3.855E+02 4.8 72.0 76.00 25.4 74.5 72.56 39.632E+00 2.4 25.61 42.31 0.5 79.4 75.31 0.5 76.60 0.18 45.6 41.04 28.8 24.8 76.33 0.49 42.08 46.32 0.444E-02 8.5 76.83 24.08 44.073E+02 1.712E+03 7.0 72.81 21.2 31.14 22.8 100.46 24.148E+03 1.32 0.13 29.48 0.7 36.9 35.41 102 Prandtl number 0.9 76.43 0.2 23.52 21.3 76.055E+03 2.31 0.92 42.1 74.60 42.40 49.5 102.702E+03 2.0 92.89 22.30 0.4 34.3 72.207E+00 1.56 0.00 41.45 40.8 76.78 45.9 84.5 19.4 76.245E-02 2.743E+03 6.9 48.53 0.71 49.0 27.9 32.5 37.15–3.1 76.893E+03 5.40 0.59 26.33 0.7 28.1 46.402E+03 1.42 0.40 0.3 38.29 41.32 48.21 29.6 76.7 33.042E+01 8.26 24.22 53.3 76.679E+01 2.4 93.3 71.6 76.92 40.468E+03 2.1 19.015E-02 1.31 0.5 82.14 48.355E+01 3.034E+02 3.1 75.2 105.71 41.5 95.2 91.2 77.1 25.402E-01 4.410E+02 1.8 73.4 22.15.30 0.3 88.32 47.534E-01 1.54 40.152E+03 4.406E-01 2.1 94.9 74.99 49.7 75.01 39.2 80.51 0.8 102.9 76.5 31.30 Surface tension 103N/m 109.1 76.TABLE 3.391E-02 4.32 0.8 21.8 40.

29 67.2 74.25 0.5 1.58 17.71 18.94 20.30 K °C Density kg/m3 843 853 863 570 580 590 711 709 706 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) 765 766 767 873 883 600 610 704 701 768 769 38.30 17.06 51.90 68.6 64.811E+04 1013 1023 740 750 670 668 789 791 34.29 0.32 0.6 55.806E+04 2.31 0.7 73.610E+05 1093 1103 1113 820 830 840 651 648 646 807 810 813 32.9 56.33 43.65 0.9 1.384E+04 1.03 0.9 54.32 47.001E+05 3.7 67.5 8.44 0.31 19.29 0.55 19.327E+04 2.50 17.154E+05 5.29 0.39 17.2 68.33 45.5 1.65 17.0 2.58 18.3 33.29 0.33 0.358E+05 1073 1083 800 810 656 653 802 805 32.31 52.836E+05 6.334E+04 933 943 660 670 690 687 775 776 36.584E+04 Electrical resistivity 108 (Ω⋅m) 49.0 92.13 57.22 21.30 0.8 53.43 0.00 64.24 19.32 0.42 0.6 7.31 0.34 42.7 70.4 36.32 0.6 80.4 27.0 74.196E+04 973 983 700 710 680 678 781 783 35.10 18.15 63.0 75.60 20.2 51.22 17.30 38.836E+05 1243 1253 970 980 613 611 857 861 28.7 68.0 1.2 65.3 48.4 107.29 0.9 2.42 67.1 44.1 66.1 1.2 97.05 0.32 46.70 17.59 17.0 84.5 2.9 99.09 19.83 18.6 51.29 63.4 28.2 58.7 52.8 52.3 56.4 5.3 75.29 69.0 37.1 54.7 70.053E+04 893 903 620 630 699 697 770 771 37.3 62.6 86.29 0.26 20.038E+05 1.54 0.29 0.7 120.38 61.78 0.8 64.9 34.244E+05 1.2 69.9 36.5 3.29 60.38 20.0 7.3 32.9 33.397E+04 993 1003 720 730 675 673 785 787 34.9 27.8 51.5 83.5 30.27 69.64 17.87 0.8 71.708E+05 1203 1213 930 940 623 621 842 845 29.31 50.2 66.6 103.0 70.2 71.29 0.15 17.7 64.459E+05 3.92 18.59 0.8 50.965E+04 3.95 0.76 0.1 65.12 0.4 111.63 17.30 0.2 4.29 64.46 61.02 50.6 3.898E+05 2.14 56.0 28.7 67.29 70.4 113.9 26.33 0.5 105.83 65.667E+04 5.137E+05 1053 1063 780 790 661 658 797 800 33.223E+05 2.583E+05 6.0 57.54 20.2 70.70 20.29 58.5 29.738E+04 4.12 53.487E+05 1263 1273 990 1000 608 605 865 869 27.10 58.4 35.0 31.480E+05 1.8 101.8 59.5 31.533E+05 4.590E+05 2.15 (continued) Thermal Thermal Kinematic 102 conductivity diffusivity viscosity Prandtl W/(m⋅K) 106 (m2/s) 108 (m2/s) number 38.30 0.0 1.969E+05 4.29 0.3 60.29 66.5 70.9 35.4 109.5 3.0 3.64 66.0 4.981E+05 1303 1313 1030 1040 598 595 881 886 26.3 41.7 77.30 53.17 18.06 59.7 69.04 0.201E+05 1283 1293 1010 1020 603 600 873 877 27.08 17.789E+05 1163 1173 890 900 633 631 828 831 30.830E+05 Temperature Surface tension 103N/m Pressure Pa 76.0 6.54 0.0 29.224E+05 1183 1193 910 920 628 626 835 838 30.03 19.0 30.30 38.6 62.49 17.7 53.33 18.58 17.4 2.8 5.1 63.1 78.68 18.7 57.7 94.5 45.53 18.4 34.00 60.54 17.19 0.2 68.35 0.3 60.1 87.1 58.09 18.6 117.8 32.22 0.42 19.14 54.20 0.29 61.TABLE 3.29 0.5 61.0 81.96 17.50 18.29 73.68 0.6 65.605E+04 9.64 17.5 115.3 71.182E+04 953 963 680 690 685 682 778 779 35.5 67.9 47.076E+04 7.98 0.244E+05 1223 1233 950 960 618 616 849 853 29.4 91.8 58.631E+04 913 923 640 650 694 692 772 773 36.89 0.30 57.29 72.749E+05 1.2 59.61 17.772E+04 6.1 65.26 0.7 89.2 54.3 59.30 55.91 21.6 73.60 69.10 52.5 37.80 19.0 99 .30 0.7 55.62 17.1 52.30 0.461E+04 1033 1043 760 770 666 663 793 795 33.81 19.055E+05 1123 1133 850 860 643 641 816 819 31.15 55.7 43.8 50.397E+05 7.29 0.83 17.401E+05 1143 1153 870 880 638 636 822 825 31.23 0.88 18.17 67.2 56.5 5.206E+04 1.8 61.4 96.27 62.8 61.6 62.31 49.

40 16.3 45.9 32.17 16.80 0.8 46.907E+06 1.2 33.35 909 25.83 0.4 49.87 16.5 24.2 41.36 919 24.53 16.38 945 23.281E+05 8.7 139.2 28.9 172.5 44.TABLE 3.5 150.87 16.5 38.45 17.35 16.3 156.03 0.78 0.01 16.6 179.5 190.34 895 26.38 951 23.3 26.2 39.9 40.454E+06 1.35 904 25.7 40.7 38.34 900 25.3 43.76 16.5 42.93 0.39 962 22.83 16.5 27.35 16.46 Surface tension 103N/m 40.78 0.165E+06 2.3 194.387E+06 1.97 0.06 16.82 0.0 45.96 16.6 168.78 0.2 35.91 16.8 29.8 186.0 38.1 25.0 41.990E+06 2.027E+06 1.445E+06 2.4 165.4 37.6 32.7 134.9 36.44 1016 20.39 16.747E+05 1.78 0.5 39.9 36.79 0.0 30.751E+05 9.259E+06 1.65 16.0 43.79 0.89 0.42 997 21.40 973 22.7 31.91 0.1 47.84 0.076E+06 2.2 136.70 16.2 124.082E+06 1.36 924 24.81 0.3 31.6 48.645E+06 Electrical resistivity 108 (Ω⋅m) 122.5 126.670E+06 1.9 Pressure Pa 8.5 36.8 38.2 37.86 0.2 159.9 48.95 0.8 44.3 47.98 17.9 34.7 26.41 991 21.256E+06 2.8 42.544E+06 2.1 198.29 16.81 0.747E+06 1.87 0.2 175.3 162.80 0.48 16.4 29.43 1010 20.826E+06 1.9 27. (continued) Temperature K °C Density kg/m3 1323 1333 1343 1353 1363 1373 1383 1393 1403 1413 1423 1433 1443 1453 1463 1473 1483 1493 1503 1513 1523 1533 1543 1553 1563 1573 1050 1060 1070 1080 1090 1100 1110 1120 1130 1140 1150 1160 1170 1180 1190 1200 1210 1220 1230 1240 1250 1260 1270 1280 1290 1300 593 590 587 585 582 579 577 574 572 569 566 564 561 558 556 553 550 547 545 542 539 537 534 531 528 526 100 Heat Thermal Thermal Kinematic 102 capacity conductivity diffusivity viscosity Prandtl 106 (m2/s) 108 (m2/s) number J/(kg⋅K) W/(m⋅K) 890 26.0 144.1 49.239E+05 9.1 .139E+06 1.322E+06 1.15.37 934 24.6 46.79 0.23 16.596E+06 1.78 0.5 34.35 914 25.80 0.79 0.524E+06 1.2 131.00 0.2 182.3 153.198E+06 1.41 985 21.82 16.93 16.8 129.3 142.349E+06 2.39 956 23.37 940 23.7 147.59 16.40 979 22.12 16.44 1022 20.2 37.2 39.36 929 24.39 967 22.43 16.43 1003 21.45 1029 19.

795E+01 2.47 31.700E+01 1.84 0.71 0. PROPERTIES OF CAESIUM BY EQUATIONS (3.TABLE 3.08 13.002E+03 4.9 242.504E+00 5.6 228.18 21.56 19.76 0.52 46.1 230.45 19.8 49.97 57.48 12.0 244.0 67.44 19.776E+03 3.3 66.7 235.0 50.002E+02 1.53 46.10 28.373E+00 2.15 55.137E+03 Electrical resistivity 108 (Ω⋅m) 35.6 70.9 93.5 221.2 220.23 18.888E-01 8.647E+03 6.89 58.989E+02 6.5 242.29 52.1 70.42 50.51 19.46 49.9 228.26 18.6 47.4 78.4 61.218E+00 3.4 223.60 20.536E+03 1.0 221.6 72.76 59.33 0.42 0.29 14.51 0.088E-03 4.2 81.21 18.30 0.0 84.72 17.002E+03 1.298E-01 1.55 16.9 37.0 224.5 Pressure Pa 3.94 0.85 58.7 Thermal Thermal Kinematic 102 conductivity diffusivity viscosity Prandtl W/(m⋅K) 106 (m2/s) 108 (m2/s) number 19.7 68.40 19.6 244.1 54.84 14.7 231.766E+03 5.74 0.4 61.1 234.12 55.4 62.4 88.818E+03 9.8 64.62 60.20 14.8 220.52 13.53 19.75 14.4 50.7 54.75 0.78 29.9 61.6 236.6 245.3 51.044E-02 2.27 19.01 56.8 43.41 62.18 54.72 19.93 34.67 0.0 57.26 18.0 73.5 68.4 64.21 54.05 0.39 15.4 222.0 69.3 70.93 0.9 87.44 0.39 50.64 14.556E-01 2.32 19.4 46.1 55.34 51.2 45.36 51.890E+02 4.51 47.35 22.50 0.23 0.07 12.18 17.2 39.0 239.883E+03 2.47 19.05 56.19 0.50 47.9 235.65 19.16.20 0.44 49.6 55.0 66.17 0.5 59.293E+03 2.47 48.7 53.27 0.308E+02 1.28 19.53 0.421E+00 8.72 59.30 19.5 245.226E+01 1.77 19.22–3.44 27.54 45.5 57.9 223.7 240.0 219.8 51.31 19.54 45.82 13.24 18.3 74.8 226.9 55.3 245.55 45.0 59.58 0.2 225.9 64.53 0.75 0.1 65.19 32.5 226.62 19.8 80.7 76.94 23.17 0.11 0.24 13.20 Surface tension 103N/m 71.2 241.9 222.71 0.3 91.25 18.25 18.33 19.46 44.2 61.04 20.55 0.66 12.36 18.21 18.342E+03 4.2 220.17 25.97 0.2 227.80 26.55 24.9 62.6 225.0 77.145E+01 7.42 19.9 63.006E+02 3.0 38.2 53.48 44.5 60.352E-02 8.6 83.26 0.744E+02 2.69 19.52 0.54 46.5 62.5 65.24 0.48 48.29 19.40 50.109E+01 9.1 56.76 22.38 19.92 0.176E-02 4.36 62.49 19.11 0.93 15.28) Temperature K °C Density kg/m3 303 313 323 333 343 353 363 373 383 393 403 413 423 433 443 453 463 473 483 493 503 513 523 533 543 553 563 573 583 593 603 613 623 633 643 653 663 673 683 693 703 713 723 733 743 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 1835 1829 1824 1819 1813 1808 1802 1797 1791 1785 1780 1774 1768 1763 1757 1751 1745 1740 1734 1728 1722 1717 1711 1705 1699 1694 1688 1682 1677 1671 1665 1659 1654 1648 1642 1637 1631 1625 1620 1614 1608 1603 1597 1591 1586 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) 245.9 50.1 243.7 53.344E+02 8.5 220.93 0.69 36.59 19.629E-04 2.71 0.1 69.92 19.5 58.81 59.34 19.6 56.6 41.47 15.47 62.4 237.0 44.81 18.9 231.22 0.09 16.8 52.31 19.3 52.22 18.787E-03 1.4 40.5 69.63 16.39 19.67 60.52 61.4 229.2 238.75 0.2 56.588E+01 3.5 85.4 63.4 50.9 60.22 18.85 0.9 65.26 17.41 0.800E-01 4.32 52.5 52.52 47.82 19.28 19.301E+02 3.0 49.96 13.0 68.3 222.58 0.93 57.23 0.24 53.37 19.5 240.3 51.23 18.35 19.5 232.21 18.376E-02 1.660E+03 7.3 233.225E+00 1.4 57.39 13.47 19.57 61.0 60.40 0.675E+01 5.4 101 .01 15.33 0.7 58.245E+03 1.5 67.24 18.88 12.9 90.20 18.0 58.80 0.358E-04 8.27 53.08 55.

TABLE 3.16. (continued)
Temperature
K

°C

Density
kg/m3

753
763
773
783
793
803
813
823
833
843
853
863
873
883
893
903
913
923
933
943
953
963
973
983
993
1003
1013
1023
1033
1043
1053
1063
1073
1083
1093
1103
1113
1123
1133
1143
1153
1163
1173
1183
1193
1203
1213

480
490
500
510
520
530
540
550
560
570
580
590
600
610
620
630
640
650
660
670
680
690
700
710
720
730
740
750
760
770
780
790
800
810
820
830
840
850
860
870
880
890
900
910
920
930
940

1580
1574
1569
1563
1557
1551
1546
1540
1534
1528
1523
1517
1511
1505
1499
1493
1488
1482
1476
1470
1464
1458
1452
1446
1440
1434
1428
1422
1415
1409
1403
1397
1391
1384
1378
1372
1365
1359
1353
1346
1340
1333
1327
1321
1314
1308
1301

102

Heat
capacity
J/(kg⋅K)
219.6
219.4
219.3
219.2
219.1
219.1
219.1
219.1
219.2
219.3
219.4
219.6
219.8
220.0
220.3
220.6
220.9
221.3
221.7
222.2
222.6
223.1
223.7
224.3
224.9
225.5
226.2
227.0
227.7
228.5
229.3
230.2
231.1
232.0
233.0
234.0
235.1
236.1
237.2
238.4
239.6
240.8
242.1
243.3
244.7
246.0
247.4

Thermal
Thermal
conductivity diffusivity
W/(m⋅K) 106 (m2/s)
18.30
63.28
18.24
63.67
18.19
64.06
18.13
64.44
18.06
64.81
18.00
65.17
17.94
65.53
17.87
65.89
17.81
66.23
17.74
66.57
17.67
66.90
17.60
67.22
17.53
67.54
17.45
67.85
17.38
68.15
17.30
68.45
17.23
68.73
17.15
69.01
17.07
69.28
16.99
69.54
16.90
69.80
16.82
70.05
16.74
70.29
16.65
70.52
16.56
70.75
16.47
70.96
16.38
71.17
16.29
71.37
16.20
71.57
16.11
71.75
16.01
71.93
15.91
72.10
15.82
72.27
15.72
72.43
15.62
72.58
15.51
72.72
15.41
72.86
15.31
72.99
15.20
73.11
15.09
73.22
14.99
73.33
14.88
73.44
14.77
73.53
14.65
73.62
14.54
73.71
14.43
73.79
14.31
73.86

Kinematic
102
viscosity Prandtl
108 (m2/s) number
12.46
0.20
12.35
0.19
12.23
0.19
12.13
0.19
12.03
0.19
11.93
0.18
11.83
0.18
11.74
0.18
11.65
0.18
11.57
0.17
11.49
0.17
11.41
0.17
11.34
0.17
11.26
0.17
11.19
0.16
11.13
0.16
11.06
0.16
11.00
0.16
10.94
0.16
10.88
0.16
10.83
0.16
10.78
0.15
10.73
0.15
10.68
0.15
10.63
0.15
10.59
0.15
10.54
0.15
10.50
0.15
10.46
0.15
10.43
0.15
10.39
0.14
10.36
0.14
10.32
0.14
10.29
0.14
10.26
0.14
10.24
0.14
10.21
0.14
10.18
0.14
10.16
0.14
10.14
0.14
10.12
0.14
10.10
0.14
10.08
0.14
10.06
0.14
10.05
0.14
10.03
0.14
10.02
0.14

Surface
tension
103N/m
49.0
48.6
48.1
47.7
47.2
46.7
46.3
45.8
45.4
44.9
44.4
44.0
43.5
43.1
42.6
42.2
41.7
41.3
40.8
40.4
39.9
39.5
39.0
38.6
38.1
37.7
37.2
36.8
36.3
35.9
35.4
35.0
34.5
34.1
33.6
33.2
32.7
32.3
31.8
31.4
30.9
30.5
30.0
29.6
29.1
28.7
28.2

Pressure
Pa
1.063E+04
1.232E+04
1.423E+04
1.637E+04
1.876E+04
2.143E+04
2.439E+04
2.767E+04
3.131E+04
3.531E+04
3.971E+04
4.454E+04
4.982E+04
5.558E+04
6.186E+04
6.868E+04
7.608E+04
8.409E+04
9.273E+04
1.021E+05
1.121E+05
1.229E+05
1.344E+05
1.468E+05
1.600E+05
1.742E+05
1.892E+05
2.052E+05
2.222E+05
2.403E+05
2.594E+05
2.797E+05
3.011E+05
3.237E+05
3.475E+05
3.727E+05
3.991E+05
4.269E+05
4.560E+05
4.866E+05
5.186E+05
5.522E+05
5.872E+05
6.239E+05
6.621E+05
7.019E+05
7.435E+05

Electrical
resistivity
108 (Ω⋅m)
94.9
96.5
98.0
99.6
101.2
102.8
104.4
106.1
107.8
109.5
111.2
112.9
114.7
116.4
118.2
120.1
121.9
123.8
125.7
127.6
129.5
131.5
133.5
135.5
137.6
139.7
141.8
144.0
146.2
148.4
150.7
153.0
155.3
157.7
160.1
162.6
165.1
167.6
170.2
172.9
175.6
178.3
181.1
184.0
186.9
189.9
192.9

TABLE 3.16. (continued)
Temperature
K

°C

Density
kg/m3

1223
1233
1243
1253
1263
1273
1283
1293
1303
1313
1323
1333
1343
1353
1363
1373
1383
1393
1403
1413
1423
1433
1443
1453
1463
1473
1483
1493
1503
1513
1523
1533
1543
1553
1563
1573

950
960
970
980
990
1000
1010
1020
1030
1040
1050
1060
1070
1080
1090
1100
1110
1120
1130
1140
1150
1160
1170
1180
1190
1200
1210
1220
1230
1240
1250
1260
1270
1280
1290
1300

1294
1288
1281
1275
1268
1261
1255
1248
1241
1235
1228
1221
1214
1208
1201
1194
1187
1180
1173
1166
1160
1153
1146
1139
1132
1124
1117
1110
1103
1096
1089
1081
1074
1066
1059
1051

Heat
capacity
J/(kg⋅K)
248.9
250.4
251.9
253.4
255.0
256.6
258.3
259.9
261.7
263.4
265.2
267.1
268.9
270.8
272.8
274.8
276.8
278.8
280.9
283.1
285.2
287.4
289.6
291.9
294.2
296.6
298.9
301.4
303.8
306.3
308.8
311.4
314.0
316.6
319.3
322.0

Thermal
Thermal
conductivity diffusivity
W/(m⋅K) 106 (m2/s)
14.19
73.93
14.07
73.99
13.95
74.05
13.83
74.10
13.71
74.15
13.59
74.19
13.46
74.23
13.33
74.26
13.21
74.29
13.08
74.32
12.95
74.34
12.82
74.35
12.68
74.37
12.55
74.38
12.41
74.39
12.28
74.39
12.14
74.40
12.00
74.40
11.86
74.40
11.72
74.40
11.57
74.39
11.43
74.39
11.28
74.38
11.13
74.37
10.99
74.37
10.84
74.36
10.68
74.36
10.53
74.35
10.38
74.35
10.22
74.35
10.07
74.35
9.91
74.35
9.75
74.36
9.59
74.37
9.43
74.38
9.27
74.40

Kinematic
102
viscosity Prandtl
108 (m2/s) number
10.01
0.14
10.00
0.14
9.99
0.13
9.98
0.13
9.97
0.13
9.96
0.13
9.96
0.13
9.95
0.13
9.95
0.13
9.95
0.13
9.95
0.13
9.95
0.13
9.95
0.13
9.95
0.13
9.95
0.13
9.96
0.13
9.96
0.13
9.97
0.13
9.98
0.13
9.98
0.13
9.99
0.13
10.00
0.13
10.02
0.13
10.03
0.13
10.04
0.14
10.06
0.14
10.07
0.14
10.09
0.14
10.11
0.14
10.13
0.14
10.15
0.14
10.17
0.14
10.20
0.14
10.22
0.14
10.25
0.14
10.28
0.14

Surface
tension
103N/m
27.8
27.3
26.9
26.4
26.0
25.5
25.1
24.6
24.2
23.7
23.2
22.8
22.3
21.9
21.4
21.0
20.5
20.0
19.6
19.1
18.7
18.2
17.7
17.3
16.8
16.3
15.9
15.4
14.9
14.5
14.0
13.5
13.1
12.6
12.1
11.6

Pressure
Pa
7.867E+05
8.317E+05
8.784E+05
9.270E+05
9.773E+05
1.030E+06
1.084E+06
1.140E+06
1.198E+06
1.257E+06
1.319E+06
1.383E+06
1.449E+06
1.517E+06
1.587E+06
1.659E+06
1.733E+06
1.810E+06
1.888E+06
1.969E+06
2.051E+06
2.136E+06
2.223E+06
2.313E+06
2.404E+06
2.498E+06
2.593E+06
2.692E+06
2.792E+06
2.894E+06
2.999E+06
3.106E+06
3.215E+06
3.326E+06
3.440E+06
3.556E+06

Electrical
resistivity
108 (Ω⋅m)
196.0
199.2
202.4
205.7
209.1
212.6
216.1
219.7
223.4
227.2
231.1
235.0
239.1
243.3
247.6
252.0
256.5
261.1
265.9
270.8
275.9
281.0
286.4
291.9
297.6
303.4
309.4
315.7
322.1
328.7
335.6
342.7
350.1
357.7
365.6
373.8

103

TABLE 3.17. PROPERTIES OF MERCURY AT SATURATION LINE [8, 27] (FROM
CORRELATIONS 3.29–3.37)
Temperature

Heat
capacity
J/(kg⋅K)

Thermal
Thermal
conductivity diffusivity
W/(m⋅K) 106 (m2/s)

Kinematic
viscosity
10–7(m2/s)

102
Prandtl
number

Surface
tension
mN/m

Electrical
resistivity
108 (Ω⋅m)

Heat
capacity
10–3 J/kg

°C

Density
kg/m3

273

0

13595

140.4

8.18

4.285

1.242

2.81

486

94.120

306.8

293

20

13546

139.6

8.45

4.467

1.151

2.58

480

95.830

306.1

313

40

13497

138.9

8.71

4.648

1.078

2.32

475

97.616

305.4

333

60

13448

138.2

8.97

4.826

1.018

2.11

469

99.478

304.7

353

80

13400

137.6

9.23

5.002

0.969

1.94

464

101.41

304.0

373

100

13351

137.1

9.48

5.175

0.927

1.80

458

103.42

303.3

393

120

13303

136.7

9.72

5.346

0.892

1.67

452

105.51

302.6

413

140

13255

136.3

9.96

5.513

0.862

1.57

447

107.68

302,0

433

160

13207

136.0

10.19

5.675

0.836

1.47

441

109.92

301.3

453

180

13136

135.7

10.42

5.836

0.813

1.39

435

112.24

300.7

473

200

13112

135.5

10.64

5.990

0.793

1.32

430

114.64

300.1

523

250

12993

135.2

11.18

6.365

0.753

1.18

416

121.01

298.4

573

300

12873

135.3

11.69

6.710

0.723

1.07

402

127.96

296.8

623

350

12754

135.7

12.16

7.030

0.701

0.99

388

135.56

295.1

673

400

12633

136.4

12.60

7.310

0.683

0.92

374

143.90

293.3

723

450

12510

137.5

13.01

7.560

0.670

0.87

360

153.80

291.3

773

500

12386

138.9

13.39

7.780

0.660

0.83

345

163.50

289.1

823

550

12259

140.6

13.73

7.960

0.653

0.80

331

175.50

286.6

873

600

12130

142.7

14.04

8.110

0.647

0.78

317

188.40

283.8

923

650

11998

145.1

14.33

8.230

0.643

0.76

303

203.40

280.5

973

K

700

11863

147.8

14.58

8.320

0.641

0.75

289

220.80

276.8

1023 750

11725

150.7

14.79

8.370

0.640

0.74

275

240.80

272.7

1073 800

11584

154.0

14.98

8.400

0.640

0.74

261

264.00

268.0

104

TABLE 3.18. PROPERTIES OF GALLIUM BY EQUATIONS (3.38–3.43)
Temperature

Heat
capacity
J/(kg⋅K)

Thermal
Thermal
conductivity diffusivity
106 (m2/s)
W/(m⋅K)

Kinematic
viscosity
108 (m2/s)

102
Prandtl
number

Surface
tension
103N/m

Electrical
resistivity
108 (Ω⋅m)

K

°C

Density
kg/m3

303

30

6084

397.9

28.9

11.93

22.84

1.91

712.6

25.81

313

40

6077

397.4

29.5

12.22

22.66

1.85

712.1

26.02

323

50

6071

396.8

30.2

12.52

22.48

1.80

711.7

26.23

333

60

6064

396.3

30.8

12.81

22.30

1.74

711.2

26.43

343

70

6058

395.7

31.4

13.09

22.12

1.69

710.7

26.64

353

80

6052

395.2

32.0

13.38

21.95

1.64

710.3

26.85

363

90

6045

394.7

32.6

13.67

21.77

1.59

709.8

27.05

373

100

6039

394.2

33.2

13.95

21.59

1.55

709.3

27.26

383

110

6032

393.7

33.8

14.24

21.42

1.50

708.9

27.46

393

120

6026

393.2

34.4

14.52

21.25

1.46

708.4

27.67

403

130

6020

392.7

35.0

14.80

21.07

1.42

707.9

27.87

413

140

6013

392.2

35.6

15.08

20.90

1.39

707.5

28.07

423

150

6007

391.7

36.2

15.36

20.73

1.35

707.0

28.28

433

160

6001

391.2

36.7

15.64

20.55

1.31

706.5

28.48

443

170

5995

390.7

37.3

15.92

20.38

1.28

706.1

28.68

453

180

5988

390.3

37.8

16.19

20.21

1.25

705.6

28.88

463

190

5982

389.8

38.4

16.47

20.04

1.22

705.1

29.09

473

200

5976

389.4

39.0

16.74

19.87

1.19

704.7

29.29

483

210

5969

388.9

39.5

17.01

19.70

1.16

704.2

29.49

493

220

5963

388.5

40.0

17.28

19.53

1.13

703.7

29.69

503

230

5957

388.1

40.6

17.55

19.37

1.10

703.3

29.89

513

240

5951

387.6

41.1

17.81

19.20

1.08

702.8

30.09

523

250

5944

387.2

41.6

18.08

19.03

1.05

702.3

30.29

533

260

5938

386.8

42.1

18.34

18.87

1.03

701.9

30.48

543

270

5932

386.4

42.6

18.60

18.70

1.01

701.4

30.68

553

280

5926

386.0

43.1

18.86

18.54

0.98

700.9

30.88

563

290

5920

385.6

43.6

19.12

18.38

0.96

700.5

31.08

573

300

5913

385.2

44.1

19.38

18.21

0.94

700.0

31.27

583

310

5907

384.8

44.6

19.63

18.05

0.92

699.5

31.47

593

320

5901

384.5

45.1

19.88

17.89

0.90

699.1

31.67

603

330

5895

384.1

45.6

20.13

17.73

0.88

698.6

31.86

613

340

5889

383.7

46.1

20.38

17.57

0.86

698.1

32.06

623

350

5883

383.4

46.5

20.63

17.41

0.84

697.7

32.25

633

360

5876

383.0

47.0

20.88

17.25

0.83

697.2

32.45

643

370

5870

382.7

47.5

21.12

17.09

0.81

696.7

32.64

653

380

5864

382.3

47.9

21.36

16.93

0.79

696.3

32.83

663

390

5858

382.0

48.3

21.60

16.78

0.78

695.8

33.03

673

400

5852

381.7

48.8

21.84

16.62

0.76

695.3

33.22

683

410

5846

381.4

49.2

22.08

16.47

0.75

694.9

33.41

693

420

5840

381.1

49.7

22.31

16.31

0.73

694.4

33.60

703

430

5834

380.8

50.1

22.54

16.16

0.72

693.9

33.80

713

440

5828

380.5

50.5

22.77

16.00

0.70

693.5

33.99

723

450

5822

380.2

50.9

23.00

15.85

0.69

693.0

34.18

733

460

5816

379.9

51.3

23.23

15.70

0.68

692.5

34.37

105

3 38.7 35.54 686.1 25.67 15.57 14.4 27.83 10.0 57.18.63 690.53 94.56 673 400 10580 147.55 687.21 0.69 437.30 16.72 20.24 0.65 436.35 13.96 14.86 1.34 11.7 23.17 893 620 5720 376.6 37.4 58.19 1.3 52.69 10.54 14.90 933 660 5696 375.39 0.5 37.65 0.4 55.19.30 17.30 16.05 19.2 27.48 683.3 36.45 963 690 5679 375.66 692.8 54.77 98.88 1.54 13.59 689.45 681.88 19.26 953 680 5685 375.55 0.41 98.6 58.9 24.92 440.13 18.30 16.57 688.6 53.79 0.69 813 540 5768 377.1 54.5 25.2 35.47 21.80 12.88 723 450 10520 147.16 13.4 56.9 36.8 25.6 54.6 34.60 2.54 1.6 37.08 442.24 0.52 686.37 0.31 445.77 13.5 26.53 1.0 36.89 95.1 34.0 37.1 34.13 99.23 11.7 58.63 0.69 97.9 27.97 441.65 0.35 0.95 703 430 10550 147.74 438.0 55.6 51.1 52.42 713 440 10530 147.81 93.73 13.45 15.2 35.02 683 410 10570 147.87 823 550 5762 377.23 623 350 10650 147.62 863 590 5738 376.18 2.17 94.47 683.94 0.31 793 520 5779 378.43 853 580 5744 377.56 21.09 12.25 95.91 10.3 24.62 12.46 682.80 873 600 5732 376.13 443.44–3.8 35.0 59.08 943 670 5691 375.87 440.8 52.61 1. (continued) Temperature Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) Thermal Thermal conductivity diffusivity 106 (m2/s) W/(m⋅K) Kinematic viscosity 108 (m2/s) 102 Prandtl number Surface tension 103N/m Electrical resistivity 108 (Ω⋅m) K °C Density kg/m3 743 470 5810 379.7 26.06 833 560 5756 377.81 TABLE 3.63 653 380 10610 147.4 24.45 682.49 99.90 2.1 27.93 0.58 10.9 57.30 15.15 23.58 688.49 0.30 16.61 690.1 37.78 0.30 16.24 1. PROPERTIES OF LEAD BY EQUATIONS (3.64 691.37 445.72 923 650 5702 375.12 783 510 5785 378.45 12.7 38.4 26.50 803 530 5773 378.06 0.35 733 460 10510 147.30 15.09 0.7 24.97 12.19 443.30 16.49 684.23 23.85 100.07 23.3 58.5 23.0 24.26 10.51 685.83 439.03 2.97 96.46 2.8 38.1 26.30 17.21 18.78 438.16 643 370 10620 147.33 14.25 444.94 10.30 17.75 763 490 5797 379.44 681.64 20.30 16.61 96.2 38.28 106 .2 38.8 56.7 35.81 743 470 10500 147.80 10.89 15.1 23.25 843 570 5750 377.49 684.56 753 480 5804 379.30 17.38 2.96 13.77 613 340 10660 147.99 1.30 16.11 15.TABLE 3.65 691.39 22.8 26.8 25.60 689.2 57.05 97.56 687.70 633 360 10630 147.30 16.21 0.1 25.07 0.1 59.5 27.31 22.04 10.33 97.4 36.3 53.15 10.8 36.63 973 700 5673 375.6 56.35 903 630 5714 376.80 20.2 55.50 0.02 10.78 2.09 663 390 10600 147.75 14.53 686.16 14.80 0.94 773 500 5791 378.51 0.35 0.27 12.37 14.54 913 640 5708 375.03 441.6 27.97 19.50 685.49 693 420 10560 147.91 13.99 883 610 5726 376.37 10.4 36.48 10.92 0.49) Temperature Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) Thermal Thermal Kinematic conductivity diffusivity viscosity W/(m⋅K) 106 (m2/s) 108 (m2/s) 102 Prandtl number Surface tension 103N/m Electrical resistivity 108 (Ω⋅m) K °C Density kg/m3 603 330 10670 147.12 11.

16 115.29 417.29 13.63 17.00 14.30 147. (continued) Temperature K °C Density kg/m3 753 763 773 783 793 803 813 823 833 843 853 863 873 883 893 903 913 923 933 943 953 963 973 983 993 1003 1013 1023 1033 1043 1053 1063 1073 1083 1093 1103 1113 1123 1133 1143 1153 1163 1173 1183 1193 1203 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 830 840 850 860 870 880 890 900 910 920 930 10480 10470 10460 10450 10440 10420 10410 10400 10390 10370 10360 10350 10340 10320 10310 10300 10290 10270 10260 10250 10240 10220 10210 10200 10190 10170 10160 10150 10140 10120 10110 10100 10090 10070 10060 10050 10040 10030 10010 10000 9990 9980 9960 9950 9940 9930 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) 147.92 17.43 13.81 413.77 21.29 433.54 16.05 407.90 0.97 425.45 413.77 422.33 424.13 13.30 147.30 147.09 116.09 430.53 104.12 1.30 Thermal Thermal Kinematic conductivity diffusivity viscosity W/(m⋅K) 106 (m2/s) 108 (m2/s) 17.57 12.30 147.81 120.21 101.55 11.14 102.31 12.92 0.65 433.40 12.85 18.40 1.59 13.68 13.65 109.18 108.41 118.95 118.29 1.55 117.47 1.61 425.25 14.53 13.01 432.30 147.66 12.30 147.42 13.64 18.13 13.06 16.80 14.98 14.30 147.09 414.24 13.72 108.90 0.66 17.30 147.89 11.04 110.44 21.00 13.92 13.07 15.31 1.73 431.11 1.96 19.36 13.50 13.79 107.69 20.22 17.89 13.52 14.46 11.23 1.90 436.80 11.53 411.30 147.30 147.30 11.56 17.30 147.30 147.11 109.20 13.90 0.57 434.63 11.50 19.31 18.04 1.73 415.30 147.21 1.82 19.51 110.25 426.35 13.06 12.89 14.51 13.57 1.94 0.30 147.TABLE 3.60 103.88 17.93 105.26 18.90 0.30 147.39 15.88 21.69 408.80 13.30 147.62 13.48 117.69 424.44 111.34 21.39 19.12 21.41 100.30 147.58 20.14 12.98 22.49 420.98 0.48 14.09 1.27 13.60 15.48 12.17 412.30 147.50 1.37 112.62 116.74 12.20 13.61 409.17 13.30 147.30 147.05 423.72 11.26 1.30 147.01 1.97 409.19.18 13.30 147.90 0.29 16.46 104.30 147.30 147.69 115.90 21.25 107.30 147.74 101.30 113.55 21.31 11.30 147.93 418.58 110.30 147.45 429.00 0.71 13.65 417.30 147.85 420.30 147.18 19.23 114.34 1.97 0.72 19.36 20.01 21.16 14.67 107 .15 20.14 1.89 427.14 13.30 147.59 13.26 20.07 1.24 13.29 13.77 17.86 106.64 14.30 147.91 0.10 18.28 19.04 13.30 147.99 0.30 147.38 11.19 1.30 147.80 13.33 408.57 418.97 12.92 0.45 17.30 147.74 18.01 416.17 428.12 13.07 14.82 15.61 19.99 18.80 20.91 0.47 20.81 429.43 1.41 422.30 147.97 111.95 0.66 21.30 147.16 15.25 410.34 119.00 104.88 119.92 13.91 0.76 114.43 14.19 15.61 1.04 20.05 1.96 0.93 434.30 147.69 13.13 421.21 419.23 21.30 147.89 411.27 120.14 13.93 0.90 112.79 102 Prandtl number Surface tension 103N/m Electrical resistivity 108 (Ω⋅m) 1.23 12.82 14.42 18.90 0.83 113.21 435.37 415.20 121.05 15.35 13.17 1.02 117.16 13.02 1.30 147.30 147.30 147.54 1.37 1.70 14.53 18.09 13.32 106.20 22.07 19.80 16.53 427.34 14.20 18.30 147.83 12.39 105.30 147.34 17.61 14.93 20.09 22.44 13.33 14.93 0.67 102.74 121.30 147.18 14.07 103.37 431.98 15.

58 36.92 0.6 40.3 142.34 6.76E-05 7.63 2.61E-04 2.17 14.3 22.26 4.8 34.30 147.8 26.6 44.1 131.63 14.91 2.71 5.77 Surface tension 103N/m Pressure Pa Electrical resistivity 108 (Ω⋅m) 146.60 3.50–3.5 141.3 130.28 28.93 122.4 23.16 2.9 128.9 132.44 1.7 45.00E-06 3.6 25.18E+00 1.57 1.0 35.9 144.12 5.7 53.3 134.50E-03 1.38 1.4 22.54 15.63 15.16E-01 1.12E+00 1.1 25.20 3.2 25.82 15.50 2.10 1.32 29.0 123.46 14.53 35.39 2.27E-03 8.5 52.8 24.81 6.27E-05 1.6 36.30 147.TABLE 3.90 2.91 14.8 46.04 34.26E+01 3.13 405.74 22.6 22.53 123.13 122.18 1.7 24.3 24.5 145.0 39.02 0.90 0.43 31.30 Thermal Thermal Kinematic conductivity diffusivity viscosity W/(m⋅K) 106 (m2/s) 108 (m2/s) 22.16E+01 1.27 3.2 122.85 2.57 6.9 23.1 127.64 1.20 27.63 28.46 124.90 3.6 120.85 22.4 121.7 21.04 36.76 31.99 124.67 4.11 32.1 36.3 45.1 48.04E-02 5.1 22.5 25.8 50.91 0.30 147.41 33.06 123.53 4.91 13.06 1.96 0.05 30.4 39.1 23.42 22.67E+00 8.06 1.82 4.4 35.0 43.3 49.77 406.70 30.57 402.3 23.83 0.9 136.52 22.93 406.87 0.21 403.63 22.10E+01 4.1 52.0 47.39 30.06 15.31 14.7 25.7 41.1 44.43 32.70 3. PROPERTIES OF 22Na-78K WT.5 133. % ALLOY BY EQUATIONS (3.5 137.81 0.48E-01 7.87E+01 33.9 22.50E+01 9.0 25.95 2.03 14.39 4.79 0.7 136.93 28.5 129.55 27.4 43.92 0.33 7.55) Temperature K °C 273 283 293 303 313 323 333 343 353 363 373 383 393 403 413 423 433 443 453 463 473 483 493 503 513 523 533 543 553 563 573 583 593 603 613 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 108 Density kg/m3 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) 863 861 859 857 855 852 850 848 846 844 841 839 837 834 832 830 827 825 823 820 818 816 813 811 809 806 804 802 799 797 795 792 790 788 785 962 960 958 955 953 950 948 945 942 940 937 934 931 929 926 924 921 918 916 914 911 909 907 904 902 900 898 896 894 893 891 889 888 886 885 Thermal Thermal Kinematic 102 conductivity diffusivity viscosity Prandtl W/(m⋅K) 106 (m2/s) 107 (m2/s) number 21.75E-01 4.91 5.29E-08 2.27 2.30 147.50 26.76 2.0 119.13 4.1 40.15 4.49 404.1 24.7 37.15 26.66 34.4 47.60 7.79 33.7 132.82E-06 2.08 7.2 24.22 1.44 15.51 5.10 33.71 1.79 1.7 49.6 25.65E+01 7.07E-03 4.72E+00 2.88 1.33 36.51 3.30 147.48E-02 9.93 0.3 37.07 3.14 1.33 34.21E+01 5.98 4.27 1.8 42.61E+00 3.83E-07 1.92 TABLE 3.35 3.6 24.91 0.8 120.20.01 2.91 0.3 41.13 3.8 24.99 0.7 128.92 0.98 29.0 24.6 124.35 15.43 3.27E-04 9.63E+01 2.85 404.94 35.4 51.1 139.60 123.80 3.5 25. (continued) Temperature K °C Density kg/m3 1213 1223 1233 1243 1253 1263 1273 940 950 960 970 980 990 1000 9910 9900 9890 9880 9860 9850 9840 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) 147.9 140.3 126.85 0.33 5.7 23.65E-01 2.81 37.79 32.06 6.6 23.85 27.22 35.8 22.8 124.96 23.7 140.62E-02 1.33 1.30 147.10 31.5 48.3 138.4 125.4 25.02 3.0 51.1 143.3 25.73 15.87E+00 5.3 .50 1.2 7.5 24.81E-04 4.97 1.26E-06 9.75 34.63E-02 3.9 25.7 144.2 25.79 36.80 102 Prandtl number Surface tension 103N/m Electrical resistivity 108 (Ω⋅m) 0.1 135.8 38.19.

4 67.7 82.13 2.08 2.63E+03 7.49 0.09 2.51 0.31 39.0 25.38E+04 4.64 2.92 39.0 26.24 40.7 24.0 26.44 40.7 69.0 24.19 38.8 25.0 26.1 80.6 103.32 2.7 109 .56 0.02 2.78E+04 9.58 39.12 40.65E+02 8.3 113.1 76.56 2.77 39.4 25.27 2.69 0.0 26.51 2.86E+04 5.73E+04 1.70E+03 6.22 2.96E+04 2.4 100.9 79.0 59.02E+04 1.61 0.40 40.45 40.0 55.3 88.26E+04 7.20 38.25E+05 1.4 59.6 95.9 24.2 93.1 25.58 0.38 38.22E+03 1.1 25.52E+04 3.8 115.39 40.39 39.8 23.0 71.53E+03 3.1 114.4 1.7 23.5 76.72 0.0 102.30 40.5 60.98 1.9 90.70 0.7 57.5 64.2 105.8 103.1 64.41 2.7 111.7 61.50 0.56 0.33 40.68E+03 8.30 2.6 24.9 25.95 39.07 39.15E+04 3.37E+02 6.1 72.2 73.49 0.1 68.38 2.77E+03 2.97E+04 6.54 0.95 1.2 101.52 0.4 96.8 37.26 39.0 26.55 0.9 25.62E+04 1.60 0.0 94.39E+04 5.01 1.14E+02 2.64 38.24 2.TABLE 3.49 0.37E+05 55.34E+04 1.16 2.37 40.15E+05 1.0 26.52 0.17E+03 4.46 40.29 2.9 25.31 2.91 1.29E+02 53.6 99.9 26.4 24.63 0.53 0.8 633 360 780 882 25.9 86.8 37.1 60.1 89.4 23.9 75.07 39.3 57.4 74.00E+03 3.28 40.43 2.22 40.67 0.54 2.49 0.5 83.3 80.8 25.4 643 653 663 673 683 693 703 713 723 733 743 753 763 773 783 793 803 813 823 833 843 853 863 873 883 893 903 913 923 933 943 953 963 973 983 993 1003 1013 1023 1033 1043 1053 1063 1073 1083 1093 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 778 776 773 771 769 766 764 762 759 757 755 752 750 748 745 743 741 738 736 733 731 729 726 724 722 719 717 715 712 710 707 705 703 700 698 695 693 691 688 686 683 681 678 676 674 671 881 879 878 877 876 875 875 874 873 873 872 872 872 871 871 871 871 871 871 872 872 872 873 873 874 875 875 876 877 878 879 881 882 883 885 886 888 889 891 893 895 897 899 901 904 906 25.1 106.0 26.20.3 37.36 2.06 2.9 25.48 39.7 65.6 1. (continued) Temperature Density kg/m3 Heat Thermal capacity conductivity J/(kg⋅K) W/(m⋅K) Thermal diffusivity 106 (m2/s) Kinematic viscosity 107 (m2/s) 102 Prandtl number Surface tension 103N/m Pressure Pa Electrical resistivity 108 (Ω⋅m) K °C 623 350 783 883 25.45 2.6 25.05E+05 1.87 0.1 85.2 24.8 70.93E+04 4.7 77.77 38.8 58.2 61.34 2.8 62.65 0.57 2.50 0.6 25.85 38.13 40.21 2.7 73.17E+04 1.03 2.68 0.8 95.75 118.6 2.67 39.8 78.11 2.18 2.7 25.99 1.3 25.4 78.9 25.54E+03 4.93 1.5 23.18E+02 1.25 2.41 40.96 38.0 67.55 0.5 108.0 63.4 71.1 56.51 0.57 0.43E+02 4.8 74.05 2.39 40.0 98.73 117.51 0.88E+03 5.7 90.9 82.1 81.77 37.3 92.7 86.2 25.66E+02 54.19 2.55 38.2 69.22E+04 2.86 40.0 26.5 72.15 2.00 40.42 38.3 84.4 104.5 25.49 0.24 2.60 2.88 1.99E+04 8.89 1.47E+03 1.50 0.0 26.75 0.49 116.8 66.31E+02 5.7 25.92 1.59 0.53 0.2 97.5 80.55 0.12E+03 2.52 0.59 0.5 112.52 0.53 0.52E+04 1.3 109.62 0.58 0.0 23.80 0.9 111.3 24.48 40.00E+03 1.5 87.59E+04 7.0 26.5 91.9 107.47 40.1 110.73 39.99 38.8 24.48 2.5 25.86E+03 1.2 65.72E+02 3.50E+04 2.50 0.7 107.2 77.51 0.50 0.71 2.87 39.07 40.54 0.64 0.0 26.12 2.50 39.1 24.8 99.5 68.5 56.4 63.9 115.67 2.81E+04 3.96 1.63 0.

89 26.04E+06 2.30 21.9 103.3 69.9 22.9 67.12 2.42 25.5 108.90 18.10E+05 8.59 0.52 0.7 85.42E+06 1.5 84.2 97.4 76.58 32.9 99.00E+06 1.01 3.13E+06 2.85 0.67 35.92 1.9 83.TABLE 3.0 53.2 101.50 0.1 104.75 1.52 36.1 14.8 14.72 0.4 90.81 0.69 1.17E+06 1.2 77.89E+05 2.0 63.15 1.48 1.56E+06 1.64E+06 1.2 93.5 68.71E+06 1.84E+05 7.1 70.21E+05 2.1 16.05 36.79 1.08E+05 6.1 17.3 52.8 48.77 1.79 31.33 35.7 18.49 0.86 27.33 37.04E+05 9.4 86.49 0.68 3.26 35.79 2.4 19.82 36.31E+06 81.8 90.4 65.9 107.9 12.8 82.57 0.6 19.87E+06 1.39 3.70 2.52 0.2 11.99 2.84 1.4 58.18 2.8 19.67 33.6 64.00 37.03 1.9 20.5 14.7 67.63 0.5 48.72E+05 6.38E+05 2.49 0.69 34.9 91.76E+05 2.5 61.4 72.83 1.74 0.24E+05 7.6 57.23 2.11 29.97 30.1 96.49E+05 1.76 1.06E+06 1.18E+05 4.61E+05 1.3 22.00 33.07 2.49 0.35 22.8 94.2 85.26 3.78 1.8 64.40 26.6 22.18E+05 3.53 3.2 89.94 25.3 21.61 0.6 97.92 24.8 98.50 0.3 62.36E+06 1.6 71.8 86.2 66.3 55.5 45.75 1.2 73.22 1.7 20.11E+06 1.5 88.67 0.22E+06 2.9 57.9 95.5 20.03 2.89 0.3 106.04 34.76 1.80 1.3 20.8 45.9 87.0 50.51 0.65 0.09 1.49E+06 1.1 21.47 18.1 22.53E+05 1.49 0.72 21.23E+06 1.79E+06 1.9 18.82 1.4 82.49 0.49 0.5 51.5 11.70 29.79 28.95 1.86 1.1 18.83 22.77 0.54 0.8 54.2 13.89 1.52 30.4 22.0 74.3 102.30 1.9 60.6 75.6 54.0 47.5 21.2 105.3 16.1 92.8 51.76 1.16 31.53 0.28 32.66E+05 8.81 1.10 79.41E+05 3.0 .1 56.58 0.20.93 0. (continued) Temperature K °C 1103 1113 1123 1133 1143 1153 1163 1173 1183 1193 1203 1213 1223 1233 1243 1253 1263 1273 1283 1293 1303 1313 1323 1333 1343 1353 1363 1373 1383 1393 1403 1413 1423 1433 1443 1453 1463 1473 1483 1493 1503 1513 1523 1533 1543 1553 1563 1573 830 840 850 860 870 880 890 900 910 920 930 940 950 960 970 980 990 1000 1010 1020 1030 1040 1050 1060 1070 1080 1090 1100 1110 1120 1130 1140 1150 1160 1170 1180 1190 1200 1210 1220 1230 1240 1250 1260 1270 1280 1290 1300 110 Density kg/m3 669 666 664 661 659 656 654 651 649 646 644 641 639 636 634 631 629 626 623 621 618 616 613 611 608 605 603 600 598 595 592 590 587 584 582 579 576 574 571 568 565 563 560 557 555 552 549 546 Heat Thermal capacity conductivity J/(kg⋅K) W/(m⋅K) 908 911 913 916 919 922 925 928 931 934 937 940 944 947 951 955 958 962 966 970 974 978 982 987 991 996 1000 1005 1009 1014 1019 1024 1029 1034 1040 1045 1050 1056 1061 1067 1073 1078 1084 1090 1096 1102 1109 1115 23.4 17.5 96.1 19.97E+05 3.0 44.8 102.2 12.69 0.1 Thermal diffusivity 106 (m2/s) Kinematic viscosity 107 (m2/s) 102 Prandtl number Surface tension 103N/m Pressure Pa Electrical resistivity 108 (Ω⋅m) 38.8 79.7 15.42 23.81 1.46E+05 4.84 0.76 1.5 92.39 1.8 106.85 1.13 3.45E+05 6.56 0.38E+05 5.58 1.0 78.9 21.87 23.1 20.49 0.2 81.49 0.8 22.84 1.98 1.95E+06 2.2 59.37 34.5 13.9 11.51 0.57E+05 2.90 3.63 20.9 17.1 100.77 1.36 30.82 1.3 43.05E+05 2.52 2.6 101.9 71.7 60.44 2.5 100.37 2.22 28.5 1.8 13.4 18.94 32.31 27.5 12.80 1.81 37.4 94.32 1.56E+05 9.8 75.76 1.6 17.1 84.4 15.30 2.55 0.4 98.06E+05 5.94 35.7 21.3 49.1 88.18 20.3 46.60 2.5 104.04 19.65E+05 3.75 1.78 1.8 16.91E+05 4.29E+06 1.41 24.54 37.75E+05 1.79 1.0 15.6 89.75E+05 5.6 105.6 93.49 0.5 16.95 2.

3 12.47 8.57 9.36 8.23E-05 2.99 0.5 10.21 8.33E-02 2.66 7.68 10.4 112.14 8.73E-01 4.47E+00 1.89E+00 2.60 8.59E-01 7.70E+01 3.9 12.7 93.1 10.90 7.2 48.74 0.8 36.03 1.19 2.25 9.73 26.68 9.85 22.95 9.5 12.91 0.7 112.4 87.5 17.37 2.0 29.68 0.58E+02 2.2 21.04 8.03 0.6 98.7 9.51 8.1 25.08 8.12 25.65 0.76 7.5 56.29 7.81 111 .37E+00 6.1 13.11 6.62) Temperature Density kg/m3 K °C 203 213 223 233 243 253 263 273 283 293 303 313 323 333 343 353 363 373 383 393 403 413 423 433 443 453 463 473 483 493 503 513 523 533 543 553 563 573 583 593 603 613 623 633 –70 –60 –50 –40 –30 –20 –10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 1444 1441 1437 1434 1430 1427 1423 1420 1416 1412 1408 1404 1400 1396 1392 1388 1384 1380 1376 1372 1368 1364 1360 1356 1351 1347 1343 1339 1335 1330 1326 1322 1318 1314 1310 1305 1301 1297 1293 1289 1284 1280 1276 1272 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) 477 473 470 467 463 460 457 455 452 449 446 443 441 438 435 433 431 428 426 424 422 419 417 415 413 412 410 408 406 405 403 402 400 399 398 396 395 394 393 392 391 390 389 388 Thermal Thermal conductivity diffusivity 106 (m2/s) W/(m⋅K) 6.77 0.85 9.26 22.69 9.23 9.4 13.6Cs WT.26E-10 1.20 8.65 23.9 38.64 7.4 13.58 2.47 24.35E+02 6.08 1.8 43.39E-03 3.51E-01 1.9 13.68 8.86 8.85 7.5 102.35 9.25 19.7 22.7 32.54 10.41 10.3 11.35 17.65 1.69 7.76 1.14E-07 3.05 9.72 7.97E-02 1.TABLE 3.44 21.03 23.2Na-22.56E-03 1.7 95.6 21.61 7.3 114.2 40.01 8.08E+01 6.0 96.80 7.29 26.4 110.26 13.5 104.86 17.16 10.16 5.21.1 17.98 7.55 26.77 24.36E+01 1.85 0.6 60.28 10.1 88.70 20.55 1.2K-73.9 104.3 10.1 20.09E-03 6.5 8.09E-05 3.08 11.9 11.15 20.97E-04 1.03 10.3 14.5 106.73E+01 5.18 12.7 91.8 87.28E-07 9.56–3.9 35.62 7.9 28.28 8.3 99.6 12.3 24.32 18.2 105.61 7.80 25.8 108.70 0.31 1.0 94.4 18.26E+02 5.1 90.05 27.31 14.0 52.77 8.88 0.3 22.3 31.9 19.75 4.29E-05 9.86E+01 9.95 0.4 12.3 97.21E+02 1.92 8.2 103.2 13.89 1.62E-09 9.3 13.2 33.39 4.7 10.67 0.98 9.38 1.96 8.3 78.8 17.9 98.8 45.4 11.2 11.35 15.63 7.7 11.97 10.90E+00 4.8 106.63 12.8 71.72 0.1 11.7 114.8 26.9 100.53 11.8 110.79 19.5 19. % ALLOY BY TO EQUATIONS (3.2 101.80 9.02 21.9 23.78 3.82 0.9 102.41 23.63 115.4 89.37E+02 4.1 2.79 0.08 6.4 108.1 13.73 8.81 27.30E-06 1.77E-09 5.79 14.91 10.20E+00 1.8 18.2 12.67E+02 Electrical resistivity 108 (Ω⋅m) 7.15E+01 1.23 3.1 18.64E+02 3.59E-01 2.62 7.7 20.05E+02 2.12 24.43 8.0 92.37 16.41 6.3 13.6 87.13 1.28 Kinematic viscosity 108 (m2/s) 102 Prandtl number Surface tension 103N/m Pressure Pa 126 110 97.3 95.84 18.3 19.82 2.93E+01 2.41 3.7 12.24 1.1 109.46 9.1 111.46 9.01 26.41 9.72 13.61E-02 4.46 1.43 25.91E-02 8.49E+00 9.6 65.09 2.0 12.15 9.05E-08 2.68 7. PROPERTIES OF 4.8 27.3 93.0 13.86 16.9 26.79 8.64 7.83 15.6 97.8 12.92 10.6 23.0 113.4 91.73 7.6 100.6 11.59 21.18 1.1 107.42E-04 5.8 89.

1 13.13E+03 3.70 11.3 13. (continued) Temperature Density kg/m3 K °C 643 653 663 673 683 693 703 713 723 733 743 753 763 773 783 793 803 813 823 833 843 853 863 873 883 893 903 913 923 933 943 953 963 973 983 993 1003 1013 1023 1033 1043 1053 1063 1073 1083 1093 1103 112 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 830 1268 1264 1260 1255 1251 1247 1243 1239 1235 1231 1226 1222 1218 1214 1210 1206 1201 1197 1193 1189 1185 1180 1176 1172 1168 1163 1159 1155 1151 1146 1142 1138 1133 1129 1125 1120 1116 1112 1107 1103 1098 1094 1089 1085 1081 1076 1071 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) 388 387 386 386 385 385 385 384 384 384 384 384 384 384 384 384 385 385 385 386 386 387 388 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 399 400 401 403 404 406 408 409 411 413 415 417 419 421 Thermal Thermal conductivity diffusivity 106 (m2/s) W/(m⋅K) 13.24E+03 1.02E+05 1.4 12.16E+04 5.6 12.53 0.33E+04 6.89 28.32E+05 1.48 0.2 82.0 13.6 14.56 0.08E+04 1.18 20.54 0.6 81.9 12.51 0.34 28.0 12.56 15.79 28.7 63.6 13.22 29.45 0.24 28.35E+04 3.3 13.03 16.9 11.90 29.3 67.12E+03 9.0 64.2 84.46 0.10 15.6 67.6 16.34 29.9 79.63 13.45 0.5 13.4 13.56 17.55 0.62 27.46 0.1 13.7 13.45E+04 9.5 12.39E+03 1.62E+04 1.59 26.47 0.14E+03 6.2 14.49 0.7 15.0 77.2 13.0 11.4 12.27 16.45 0.54 11.69E+05 1.45 0.6 12.9 15.36 29.83 14.36 29.87 20.9 59.25 13.78 17.45 0.70 28.21E+05 1.33 29.45 14.45 0.70 12.8 27.2 58.6 13.06 13.2 69.0 57.8 16.7 12.92 27.18E+04 4.4 72.8 72.5 12.46 86.6 13.4 74.2 60.70 27.65E+04 5.5 13.02 12.14E+05 2.66E+04 2.09 29.57 0.98E+04 7.56E+05 1.09E+04 2.48 0.36E+04 2.51E+03 1.45 0.7 12.0 12.69E+04 8.95 11.45 0.7 13.47 0.45 0.5 68.46 0.3 12.3 16.6 13.01E+03 7.48 0.47 28.45 0.75E+04 4.24 11.7 13.3 56.26 19.2 15.45 0.58 0.97 19.84E+04 2.88 13.46 27.49 0.38E+03 5.8 85.62 0.21 28.45 0.4 63.0 14.20E+03 2.8 13.5 13.0 12.95 26.09 11.6 13.5 85.7 14.5 70.03 14.83E+03 2.5 13.77 27.40 28.59 0.52 12.8 70.83E+05 1.54 28.26E+02 1.6 58.49 20.52 0.6 13.00E+03 8.3 14.8 12.2 13.46 .24E+04 1.9 13.4 12.22 Kinematic viscosity 108 (m2/s) 102 Prandtl number Surface tension 103N/m Pressure Pa Electrical resistivity 108 (Ω⋅m) 17.35 29.7 65.89 28.86 12.4 61.20 29.07 27.0 12.80 28.13 29.1 62.79 16.2 13.9 83.45 0.45 0.1 12.37 29.11 18.00 29.6 78.8 12.77 26.0 12.5 12.1 15.2 12.13 21.83 18.0 0.0 66.3 12.03 17.3 13.49 27.4 15.45 0.7 8.24 14.1 12.27 29.02E+03 1.30 17.07 28.45 0.7 13.35 12.43E+05 1.18 12.1 71.12 26.11E+05 1.7 13.39 18.5 83.6 12.45 0.68 18.61 0.2 12.0 75.6 13.06 28.45 0.6 13.9 81.3 13.53 0.45 0.3 65.8 61.7 12.99E+04 3.88 15.TABLE 3.5 13.5 59.5 15.3 12.42E+04 1.72E+04 6.31 29.81 21.16 29.51 0.46 0.4 14.3 78.6 13.2 12.98E+05 2.1 12.7 76.44 13.48E+05 10.6 13.71E+03 4.9 12.1 13.27E+04 1.8 12.58 28.39 11.41 26.9 68.45 0.63E+03 3.45 0.29 27.7 74.3 12.1 13.4 13.9 12.30E+05 2.1 73.56 19.6 13.4 13.6 13.25 29.9 14.33 15.67 28.52 16.29 29.5 13.50 0.6 79.21.98 28.0 16.3 80.3 76.66 14.

6 11.61 24.5 10.57 0.41 20.26E+06 2.41E+06 1.1 10.48 26.5 11.70 23.4 47.88 24.82 19.9 50.51 0.6 11.39 28. (continued) Temperature Density kg/m3 K °C 1113 1123 1133 1143 1153 1163 1173 1183 1193 1203 1213 1223 1233 1243 1253 1263 1273 1283 1293 1303 1313 1323 1333 1343 1353 1363 1373 1383 1393 1403 1413 1423 1433 1443 1453 1463 1473 1483 1493 1503 1513 1523 1533 1543 1553 1563 1573 840 850 860 870 880 890 900 910 920 930 940 950 960 970 980 990 1000 1010 1020 1030 1040 1050 1060 1070 1080 1090 1100 1110 1120 1130 1140 1150 1160 1170 1180 1190 1200 1210 1220 1230 1240 1250 1260 1270 1280 1290 1300 1067 1062 1058 1053 1049 1044 1039 1035 1030 1025 1021 1016 1011 1007 1002 997 992 988 983 978 973 969 964 959 954 949 944 939 934 930 925 920 915 910 905 900 895 889 884 879 874 869 864 859 853 848 843 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) 423 425 428 430 432 435 437 440 443 445 448 451 454 457 460 463 466 469 472 476 479 482 486 490 493 497 501 504 508 512 516 520 524 528 533 537 541 546 550 555 559 564 569 573 578 583 588 Thermal Thermal conductivity diffusivity 106 (m2/s) W/(m⋅K) 11.7 49.0 10.76 22.5 11.71 9.5 11.48 0.7 11.2 51.87 20.7 34.5 11.29E+06 1.17E+06 1.54 29.9 10.58 0.5 11.47 0.4 29.1 41.2 11.53 33.47 22.53 0.2 36.73 9.8 11.84 25.89 9.73 19.6 31.24 24.13 22.52E+05 3.76 19.51 0.7 11.11E+06 1.2 10.79 19.74E+06 2.00E+06 2.48 34.6 10.6 11.30 30.70 36.5 32.24 27.9 45.3 49.28 21.00 20.08E+05 9.46 0.42 21.8 29.07 24.87 37.52 0.50 0.16 29.54 0.92 19.31 20.79 32.72 9.56 0.94 22.8 37.08 23.47 0.07E+05 3.59 0.4 10.42 31.8 32.69E+06 1.5 11.7 11.50 0.8 11.9 10.22 20.57E+05 4.2 31.35E+06 2.32E+05 7.4 54.56 0.62 20.61E+05 9.73 Kinematic viscosity 108 (m2/s) 102 Prandtl number Surface tension 103N/m Pressure Pa Electrical resistivity 108 (Ω⋅m) 11.75 9.02 113 .7 10.80 9.20 33.9 35.86E+05 3.48 0.55 0.3 44.1 33.03 25.17 23.6 27.5 35.5 40.40 22.92 30.51 32.83 9.7 0.59 0.05 19.58 0.51 0.58 22.68 31.5 10.5 11.06E+06 1.51 20.55 0.1 53.TABLE 3.73 9.58 21.02E+05 4.78 9.71 9.86 33.52 0.5 11.26 25.8 54.49 0.0 43.87 24.86E+05 5.9 11.3 34.35E+06 1.23E+06 1.23 22.5 11.3 10.9 11.57 0.77 29.13 20.87 19.46 25.60 35.1 10.6 11.85 36.8 10.65 25.5 11.5 11.59 56.3 2.92E+06 2.08E+06 2.5 52.31 23.48 0.84E+06 21.54 0.17E+05 8.01E+06 1.59 0.47 0.4 37.54E+06 2.47 0.13 21.6 11.74 9.5 11.3 10.67 24.6 11.07 35.77 26.46 0.5 11.17E+05 5.89 23.8 11.50 0.76 9.35 25.6 44.06 21.98 19.5 11.58 0.9 40.49 0.3 11.0 38.74 19.82E+05 6.34 35.5 11.74E+05 8.80 22.18 34.6 11.56 0.57 0.50 23.86 34.5 11.4 42.18E+05 6.54E+05 6.4 10.49E+05 5.10 26.71 9.6 39.28E+05 4.5 11.5 11.64E+06 2.78 35.46 0.86 27.6 11.1 48.72 9.15 32.89 21.3 39.08 36.86 9.76E+06 1.2 11.2 46.59 0.58 0.5 11.54 0.56E+05 1.7 11.6 11.0 10.49 0.44E+06 2.53 0.5 45.28 24.48 24.62 28.5 11.4 11.0 55.1 11.84E+06 1.9 27.7 10.51 36.61E+06 1.5 11.0 9.6 11.5 11.6 50.8 47.55 0.52 23.57 0.74 20.76E+05 4.7 11.92E+05 7.46 0.9 52.7 11.13 22.17E+06 2.2 28.6 11.01 28.21.5 11.48E+06 1.1 10.52 0.30 36.8 42.5 11.5 11.0 30.5 11.5 11.67E+05 2.98 25.93 9.82 23.7 11.29E+05 3.05 31.71 9.72 26.54E+06 1.73 21.8 11.

62 18.03 1.1 15.23 10.69 1.44 116.46 24.83 2.81 405.53 386.17 2.48 398.4 13.8 13.84 412.97 3.1 11.56 393.26 394.05 119.10 404.55 1.83 7.62 16.24 2.1 12.54 108.37 26.12 104.22 13.07 397.31 7.81 8.49 20.99 10.24 413.70 402.13 8.02 409.76 124.3 14.53 7.77 113.50 107.88 13.33 125.06 18.93 388.68 7.48 118.23 387.25 1.51 1.14 121.19 17.83 3.90 7.6 13.35 3.63–3.34 389.5 13. PROPERTIES OF 44.92 407.99 19.67 23.4 12.5 14.8 12.30 1.24 3.51 8.8 11.62 121.31 10.02 2.0 12.15 392.92 2.4 14.0 15.32 2.12 9.3 11.96 395.21 111.80 125.89 400.67 395.64 2.89 8.37 396.64 1.39 7.97 20.76 7.83 9.85 126.04 27.66 8.9 14.3 12.0 14.73 112.85 1.91 116.11 109.97 1.21 8.98 8.64 110.15 10.96 117.05 8.38 16.83 386.6 11.24 7.85 12.78 17.41 104.91 9.87 115.58 8.05 9.97 9.71 123.20 1.2 7.40 1.13 3.5Pb–55.72 26.72 28.9 15.8 14.00 118.20 9.5Bi WT.23 1.30 113.26 23.13 411.71 3.26 15.28 8.10 3. % ALLOY BY EQUATIONS (3.47 2.99 16.91 15.54 12.03 12.59 400.51 9.28 1.54 412.47 1.56 2.82 114.43 13.21 406.7 12.46 3.74 1.29 401.40 12.66) Temperature K °C Density kg/m3 403 413 423 433 443 453 463 473 483 493 503 513 523 533 543 553 563 573 583 593 603 613 623 633 643 653 663 673 683 693 703 713 723 733 743 753 763 773 783 793 803 813 823 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 10550 10530 10520 10510 10500 10480 10470 10460 10450 10430 10420 10410 10400 10380 10370 10360 10350 10330 10320 10310 10300 10280 10270 10260 10250 10230 10220 10210 10200 10180 10170 10160 10150 10130 10120 10110 10100 10080 10070 10060 10050 10030 10020 114 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 Thermal Thermal Kinematic conductivity diffusivity viscosity 106(m2/s) 108(m2/s) W/(m⋅K) 11.75 9.45 105.43 8.07 108.64 388.02 107.22.5 11.39 14.67 9.18 415.43 410.17 7.51 405.9 12.55 22.16 110.1 14.52 19.9 13.91 1.65 13.28 102 Prandtl number Surface tension 103N/m Electrical resistivity 108 (Ω⋅m) 4.60 1.65 414.34 114.75 391.39 29.10 2.80 1.28 124.36 9.96 14.41 28.18 399.95 414.37 1.5 12.44 1.93 105.36 8.26 14.23 123.44 9.48 19.1 13.39 115.58 3.28 9.2 12.11 22.68 111.59 109.40 403.2 13.4 11.7 13.98 106.0 13.37 .2 11.04 390.78 398.73 410.08 25.7 14.74 8.45 391.99 402.10 120.33 1.0 11.46 7.59 9.67 122.07 10.62 407.61 7.3 13.2 14.69 12.TABLE 3.85 24.53 119.32 408.13 13.39 2.6 14.57 120.25 112.58 15.86 393.6 12.73 2.7 11.19 122.67 14.01 21.

54 3.42 384.7 460.08 1.8 453.11 1.94 12.7 182.98 376.92E-07 1.9 182.04 11.58 12.6 182.4 125.76E-10 1.04 1.08 1.35 14.88 11.36 137.13 1.87 11.68Li WT.14 1.04 1.68E-06 124.8 182.17 133.0 128.38 19.80 379.6 125.57 16.0 125.6 17.99 129.61 18.0 461.03 130.48 2.94 128.13 11.01 12.04 3.90 7.32Pb–0.48 12.6 456.04 1.31 136.9 17.3 16.35 2.1 127.4 448.65 133.93 4.44E-06 2.0 182.3 15.01 383.58 374.7 15.51 8.31 12.32 3.44 15.0 183.67–3.26 135.83 11.72 384.79 136.66E-09 1.87 374.39 12.9 16.80 11.46 11.06 1.4 463.28 13.56E-06 4.77 2.74 135.13 12.94E-08 5.52 7.5 15.0 446.17 373.79 11.50 379.3 458.90 127.4 15.74 6.2 17.3 129. % ALLOY BY EQUATIONS (3.63 11.36 370.03 7.19 12.95 26.78) Temperature Density kg/m3 K °C 513 523 533 543 553 563 573 583 593 603 613 623 633 643 653 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 9495 9486 9478 9469 9461 9452 9444 9435 9427 9418 9410 9401 9393 9384 9376 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) 183.32 24.04E-09 6.4 182.59 12.29 11.39 12.0 17.21 11.8 15.9 457.77 372.28 375.05 1.89 8.6 15.63 10.92 11.18E-07 2.8 182.10 12.57 13.81 11.4 182.1 Thermal 102 Thermal Kinematic conductivity diffusivity viscosity Prandtl W/(m⋅K) 106(m2/s) 108(m2/s) number 12.2 182.17 12.23.46 128.93 1.7 127.5 17.3 17.17 13.27E-07 4.15 14.1 17.6 128. (continued) Temperature K °C 833 843 853 863 873 883 893 903 913 923 933 943 953 963 973 983 993 1003 1013 1023 1033 1043 1053 1063 1073 560 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 Density kg/m3 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) 10010 10000 9980 9970 9960 9950 9930 9920 9910 9900 9880 9870 9860 9850 9830 9820 9810 9800 9780 9770 9760 9750 9730 9720 9710 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 Thermal Thermal Kinematic conductivity diffusivity viscosity 106(m2/s) 108(m2/s) W/(m⋅K) 15.96 11.74 12.13 21.08 131.05 1.22 12.TABLE 3.31 12.88 10.17 23.4 16.4 17.7 130.1 16.61 381.13 132.5 16.80 11.25 368.55 126.92 139.96 14.06 1.47E-06 7.84 11.15 7.4 128.94 2.09 1.1 124.13 8.6 16.47 372.7 445.99 16.5 182.8 129.09 13.01 8.09 378.00 12.69 134.77 3.04 1.49 13.12 2.22 134.07 1.78 12.13 2.8 16.37 13.56 131.63 27.88 11.2 182.47 10.03 1.04 1.42 127.38 8.51 130.16 1.99 11.20 12.3 182.76 7.55 10.80 10.5 452.28E-07 7.90 13.0 16.10 1.7 16.80 11.44 12.66 369.54 11.57 25.83 137.11 22.31 382.42E-08 2.2 454.07 1.98 13.09 1.9 126.55 14.72 10.1 450.90 381.05 1.88 18.21 17.34E-09 3.10 385.20 380.06 1.72 102 Prandtl number Surface tension 103N/m Electrical resistivity 108(Ω⋅m) 1.2 16.76 13.62 2.39 7.84 Surface tension 103N/m Pressure Pa Electrical resistivity 108(Ω⋅m) 464.71 11.69 376.40 138.04 1.64 7.22 20.27 7.06 371.26 8.24 2.8 449.95 369.60 132.07 11. PROPERTIES OF 99.39 377.05 1.22.1 115 .38 11.95E-08 1.88 138.5 182.45 TABLE 3.7 10.96 12.3 5.3 126.05 12.

2 132.115 141 1696 0.111E-3 6.4 181.58 Thermal Dynamic Sound conductivity″ viscosity″ velocity m/s 107(Pa·s) W/(m⋅K) 106 1270 0.5 426.1 181.33 11.0 182.9 442. Thermophysical properties of vapours of some metals (Li.69 19.085 123 1410 0.3 428.69 1.89 9.66 18.4 422.16 10.0 181.730 9.0 431.329 9.97 0.127 1631 .74 12.88 18.39 9.68 10.790 3.05 19.37 20.94E-02 130.27 1.33 15.09 17.88 9.907 6.069 113 1317 0.7 136.29 18.7 419.6 139.4 134.4 137.9 427.191 8.10 10.981 1.48E-03 3.0505 0.1 435.0 134.32 1.65 9.43 1.150E-2 0.83 Surface tension 103N/m Pressure Pa Electrical resistivity 108(Ω⋅m) 443.674 Specific heat″ 10–3(kJ/kg) 21.00 0.952 5.325 6.3 181.413E-3 0.2 135.84 18.62 1.272 0.091 126 1456 0.432 4.924 9. PROPERTIES OF SATURATED LITHIUM VAPOUR Temperature K Pressure MPa Density″ kg/m3 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 0.431 0. K.94 15.759E-1 3.619 9.5 131.87 10.06 9.14 1.6 181.508 0.639 7.58E-03 5.1 136.112 140 1687 0.444E-2 0.8 135.4. (continued) Temperature Density kg/m3 K °C 663 673 683 693 703 713 723 733 743 753 763 773 783 793 803 813 823 833 843 853 863 873 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) 9367 9359 9350 9342 9333 9325 9316 9308 9299 9291 9282 9274 9265 9257 9248 9240 9231 9223 9214 9206 9197 9189 182.51 16.44E-04 2.114 5.70 9.18 1.03 1.07 18.9 137.111 139 1671 0.29 10.02E-02 1.264E-2 9.735 7.125 147 1662 0.94 11.0 131.27 9.036E-4 5.20E-04 7.374E-4 2.TABLE 3.6 441.1 139.49 17.11E-03 7.12E-05 1.0112 0.32 17.795 9.59 21.6 430.172 7.93 20.8 181.710E-3 1.81E-04 1.075 118 1364 0.0940 0.2 424.31 16.76 1.19 14.66 10.2 138.0250 0.451 5.86 11.7 133.96E-02 2.07 11.9 181.66E-02 4.49 1.44 14.68 17.27 18.7 181.53 1.90 10.16E-03 1.07 1.52 9.47 18.7 434.91 0.359 2.50 15.929 4.43E-04 5.3 181.24E-03 1.9 181.012 2.76 8.048E-2 1.72 15.03 10.9 180.34 11.2 181.78 9.4 433.117 143 1696 0.17 20.11 16.101 131 1543 0.120 144 1687 0.76 21.29 17.9 180.5 136.027 2.42 10.24.70 16.105 133 1582 0.1 181.16E-05 3.13 11.47 15.420E-1 8.138E-4 1.164 0.59 11.664 8.2 181.37 1.5 181.06 12.85 15.53 15.55 14.20 11.43 12.76 17.097 129 1501 0.770E-1 1.72E-05 9.92 16.8 438.39 21.70E-03 2.5 3.872E-4 0.3 418.40 13.54E-05 5. Na.55 10.8 132.4 181.15 16.660 0.8 423.76 13.1 133.183E-1 5.8 138.8 Thermal 102 Thermal Kinematic conductivity diffusivity viscosity Prandtl W/(m⋅K) 106(m2/s) 108(m2/s) number 14.13 15.109 137 1647 0.4 131. Cs) [11–13] TABLE 3.81 10.1 420.98 14.936 4.216 8.42E-02 1.55 1.25 10.10 1.107 135 1617 0.01 9.14 9.4.6 181.88 0.7 181.94 0.14 13.807E-2 4.421 2.122 146 1672 0.754 116 Heat capacity″ J/(kg⋅K) 3.86 0.86 19.5 134.66 20.30E-05 2.0 416.128E-4 0.23 1.0 180.90 17.6 415.45 10.05 8.5 437.69E-02 3.2 1.2 439.23.23E-04 3.881 9.

37 Heat capacity″ KJ/(kg⋅K) 1.874 5.779 1.155 1.26.407E-3 900 2.32 2.131 0.00 13.796 Specific heat″ kJ/kg 2024 1973 1920 1865 1810 1750 1685 1614 1535 1449 1356 1256 1150 Thermal conductivity″ 102W/(m⋅K) 1.135E-3 1.814 2.458 2.935 9.475 2.142 0.536E-2 1000 7.321 0. PROPERTIES OF SATURATED SODIUM VAPOUR Temp.418 Density″ kg/m3 0.24.399 2.433 2.19 4.834 0.874 0.279 2.155 1800 5. rature K 2700 2800 2900 3000 Pressure MPa Density″ kg/m3 9.977E-2 5.195 2.339E-2 0.97 2.857 8.135 0.930 1700 4.882 1.335 2.65 27.97 203 5.63 1.86 190 4.47 178 4.622 1.146 1.148 0.624 7.149 2.149 5.914 0.137 0.79 1.911 6.240 1500 1.66 4.149 6.101 1.0587 0.102 1.865 7.42 Thermal Dynamic conductivity″ viscosity″ 107(Pa·s) W/(m⋅K) 0.04 Heat capacity″ KJ/(kg⋅K) 2.722 Specific heat″ 10–3(kJ/kg) 14.389 1300 0.140 7.74 184 4. rature K 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 Pressure MPa Density″ kg/m3 9.951 0.389 0.433 3.405 2000 9. PROPERTIES OF SATURATED POTASSIUM VAPOUR Temp.583E-2 1100 0.41 15.829 Heat capacity″ J/(kg⋅K) 8.160 2.944 0.060 1.32 2.01 34.163 0.92 12.939E-2 0.22 2.181 1.0395 0.41 2.087 2.11 2.965 1600 2.021 0.381 0.733 3. (continued) Temp.45 12.965 7.400 2.744 12.492E-4 5.00 210 219 227 234 - Sound velocity m/s 614 644 674 704 731 757 781 801 816 827 830 830 826 TABLE 3.985 0.85 16.813 4.92 197 4. Pressure rature MPa K 800 6.299 7.25.142 - Sound velocity m/s 1611 1591 1571 1553 TABLE 3.233 2.TABLE 3.13 171 4.647 1900 7.727 1400 1.55 19.008 1.570 10.49 - Dynamic viscosity″ 107(Pa·s) 141 152 161 169 177 185 193 202 - Sound velocity m/s 476 502 525 548 570 589 604 613 615 610 600 587 572 117 .485 11.0166 0.98 15.193 1.185 1200 0.057 4.915 Specific heat″ kJ/kg 4255 4163 4071 3978 3885 3789 3688 3578 3459 3349 3190 3043 2890 Thermal Dynamic conductivity″ viscosity″ 7 102W/(m⋅K) 10 (Pa·s) 3.

315 0.S.96 - Dynamic viscosity″ 107(Pa·s) 204 221 236 250 264 278 292 306 321 336 352 369 385 - Sound velocity m/s 215 230 244 257 270 282 293 303 311 318 324 327 321 291 - REFERENCES TO SECTION 3 1.A. Hill P.88 54.: Metallurgiya.58.55 8.337 0. Vargaftik N. 1999 (Russian). 5.604E-2 0.B.906E-4 4.– On the web site http://arcas.A.: Nauka.031 6. 159 (Russian).323 0.365 0.285 3.319 0.: Energoatomizdat.059E-2 6. 1976.690 1.. − M.40 9. and enl. Tech. (Russian). Nat.D. 6. 1965 (Russian).37 10.213 6.876 5.P. Liquid Metal Coolants of Heat Pipes and Power Plants/Ed.23 75. P.658 - Specific heat″ kJ/kg 542 530 518 504 490 476 461 444 425 403 377 345 306 248 189 100 Thermal conductivity″ 103W/(m⋅K) 6.: Nauka.: Nauka. 1988.89 17. Krechetova G.66 1. Alexandrov A. CRTD — Vol.ntua. PP. 1999. Bystrov P.. 9. Zorin.73 26. 1972 (Russian).314 0.P. Study of Electrical Conductivity of Metals.. Tables of Thermophysical Properties of Water and Steam/Reference book. Kagan D.A.00 110. 10.8 173. No 6. 118 .: Atomizdat. PP. 7. 2.312E-5 5.. et al. PP. V. Novikov I.N.I.: Sudostroenie. Grigoriev.B.. Heavy Water Thermophysical Properties/Nuclear Engineering Section. Banchila S. rature K 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 Pressure MPa Density″ kg/m3 3.. Liquid Metal Coolants. Borishansky V. Fillipov L. − M. 1–13.S. ASME Steam Tables for Industrial Use/Based on IAPWS — IF97. Fedynsky O.863 2.M.gr/codes/heavywater. Kutateladze S. Edited by V. 1301–1304 (Russian). Heat and Mass Transfer. – Teplofizika Vysokikh Temperatur. 525–530. Heat Exchangers of Nuclear Power Plants. 3. − М.58 7.html..296 0.: MEI Press.4353 1. 1976.1065 0. Gremilov D. 3rd rev. University of Athens. 11.TABLE 3.170 0.M.A.77 10.773 8. MacMillan R. – L. AECL. 4. Reference Book on Thermophysical Properties of Gases and Liquids.101 10.D.27. Tables of Thermodynamic Properties of Heavy Water in SI Tables.453 0.760 3.. Andreev P.A. Kirilin. Metallic Melts and their Properties. Arsentiev P. ed. Grigoriev B. 11.315 0. – M. Vol..265 0. 1973. PROPERTIES OF SATURATED CAESIUM VAPOUR Temp.314 0.nuclear.N.179 1.381 0. Heat Engineering Experiment/Reference book..G. Petropoulos N. Koledov L.316 0.P.I.. − M.8 - Heat capacity″ KJ/(kg⋅K) 0.A.. Vargaftik N. −М. by V.230 0. Reference Book on Thermophysical Properties of Gases and Liquids. 8. 12. 1972.524E-3 2.13 9.M. Lee V. Fedorovich E. 1982.656E-2 0. 1981.070E-3 1.A.572 10.97 38. − М.

Vargaftik. 11–45. Liquid Lithium and Vanadium Alloys in the ITER Project. No.I. Griaznov G. Thermophysical Properties of Lead. 322–325 (Russian). V. et al. Sci. 2. No. Evtikhin V. 1988.et al. − М.A. et al. 1959.. 18. PP. 1963 (Russian). − М.. 1960 (Russian).: Energoatomizdat. Palchaev D.L. et al. − М. 465 (Russian).. − Kiev: Naukova Dumka Publ. No.P. Mikhailov V. Sidorova N. 32. − М. PP. 26. Deniskina N.: Energoatomizdat. 3rd enl.. − N. Experimental Investigation of Density of Liquid CsNaK Alloys/Collection of Abstracts: VIII All-Union Conference on Thermophysical Properties of Materials. − М. No. Density.N.. 1963 (Russian). 1982.: Acad.6 (Russian).. Nikolsky N.. No.A. 27. − Perspectivnye Materialy. Vol. Vukalovich M. 23.P. 1996. Material Science of Liquid Metal Systems of Fusion Reactors.. 8. IPPE-0291..F. Larikov L. No. Sci. P.13..M. 2158–2159 (Russian).S. Yargin. Handbook of Physical Properties of Liquids and Gases/N.. 31. No.: Metallurgiya. 24. 1971 (Russian). Problems of Metal Physics and Metal Science/Collection of papers. − Kiev: Acad..I. Liublinsky I. P. 1998 (Russian).A. − М. − Novosibirsk: Institute of Thermophysics SB of Acad. Kirillov P.L. 28.G.: Begell House Inc. PP. Thermophysical Properties of Some Metals and Alloys in Molten State/Collection: Voprosy Teploobmena.. Likalter A. Thermal Properties of Metals and Alloys. Surface Tension of Liquid Metals and Alloys/Reference book. USSR.: Metallurgiya. Glasunov M.I. Alexeeva V. 1969..: IVTAN. Fokin L. Skovorodko S.. Critical Parameters of Alkaline Metals/Review. 1999 (Russian). 1989 (Russian). Bismuth and Their Eutectic Alloy/Review. 29. 1987 (Russian).A.A. Thermophysical Properties of Mercury. USSR. Zavialsky L.:IVTAN. 23. Gogoleva V. 1985 (Russian).B.P. 119 .A. Grishin V. Buchikhin P. et al. Mozgovoy A. 199 (Russian). Lithium in Thermonuclear Space Power of the 21st Century. Zhurnal.L.. Vol. 19. Krzhizhanovsky R. Kalakutskaya N.E. Pashaev B. IPPE-0286.. Bogdanova I.K. Evtikhin V. 1959. Properties of Lithium. 43. 1.P.: IVTAN.1-061. 1995.Y.I. SSR. See also− Teploenergetika. Ivanov A.2.A. 1985.R.: Izdatelstvo Standartov. 20. No. Liublinsky I.K. 21. Estimation of Critical Parameters of Lithium and Francium/Preprint IVTAN.E. − Zhurnal Fizicheskoy Khimii. et al. Study of Surface Tension of Solutions of Lead-Bismuth System. 29. Pokrovsky N. 1981 (Russian). Nizhenko V. Chernov A. Fokin L.I. Arakelov A. its Chemistry and Technology.I. − М. − М. 15.3 (35) (Russian). − Obninsk: IPPE...G.G. Fokin L. et al..B. ed. Electrical and Thermal Conductivity of Fusible Metals in Liquid State/Reviews on Thermophysical Properties of Materials.V. − Teplofizika Vysokikh Temperatur. 5 (49) (Russian).: Atomizdat..R. Sci. Pchelkin I. and rev. Vol. Vol.. Golubev N. 16. Vinogradov. Pugachevich P.A. 2000 (Russian)..V. 22.N. − Inzhenerno-Phyzicheskiy. 30. V. Thermophysical Properties of Liquid Metal Coolant/Review.R...M.: CNIIatominform.N. Experimental Investigation of Thermal Conductivity and Electrical Resistivity of Some Binary Lead-Bismuth Alloys in Liquid State. Evtikhin V. Lithium. − М. 3. 17.G. 1984. 92–95 (Russian). 1975. 14. 25. Ultrasound Speed. − М.. − М.E. Yurchenko Yu.K. On Critical Parameters of Metals. Kirillov P.M. Ostroushko Yu. of Ukran. et al. Korzhavin V. PP. Paschuk E. Floka L..P.

− International Journal of Thermophysics. 1970.. 47. Y. S. Yakimovich K. Fomin V. 41. Thermophysical Properties of Alkaline Metals: Handbook/Ed.. Thermophysical Properties of Matter. − M.: Izdatelstvo Standartov.A. Hawkins et al. 1969. — Nuclear Engineering and Design/Fusion... 120 Subbotin V. 1999 (Russian).N. Amer. Bratkovsky.I. et al. Lithium. Dremin A. Evaluation of Parameters of Critical Point. Mitchell J.2 (Russian). Fomin V. Decai. Thermophysical Properties of Materials for Nuclear Power Engineering/Reference book.A. Univ. 45. Grigoriev.S. Y.Y. − М.: Nauka.E. 1985. by V. Shpilrain E.E. No 1.E.Z. Shpilrain E. 44. PP.: IzdAT. Vol. Kirilin. Determinations of Critical Point Data of Metals using Subsecond Pulse Heating Techniques: Preprint Techn./Ed.A. Holrayd R. D.. — N. 1072 (Russian). Skovorodko S. K. 38. Powell R. Touloukian. 1968 (Russian). − M. 1973. Physical Quantities. Iager H. 46. − Teplofizika Vysokikh Temperatur. West Lafayette.W. 48.N. 1984. Shpilrain E.133–134./Ed. Hultgren. 719–729.. N.T.. 37. 43.S.E. et al.N. 13. Lithium-Lead eutectic as breeding material in Fusion Reactors. Ed.N. 35. 199–206. Wash.W. − М. by I. R.N... Meilikhov. Vol.. N. P.S.D. S. — Metal Park (Ohio). 8th Conf. No. 11. 1985. PP. Ind..: IVTAN. 36. Handbook of Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Alkali Metals. Publ. Coen V. No 1. PP. . Thermophysical Properties of the Li17Pb83 Alloy. Selected Values of Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements/R. Study of Liquid Metal Viscosity. Babushkin.: Energoatomizdat. No. 1990. − М. Vol. Thermophysical Properties of Alkaline-Earth Metals in Liquid Phase/Reviews on Thermophysical Properties of materials. Arnoldov M. V. 14.. 1991 (Russian). − М. 1991. PP. Babichev.T. 1983. Plenum Press. 357–365.E. Leontiev A. 1975.33.A. The TPRC Data Series. 34.. No. Totsky E.P. 4. E. The Thermal and Electrical Conductivities of Molten Metals/Proc. — Journal of Nuclear Materials. Kachalov V.M.V. R.A. Pottlacher G. Fortov V. Soc. − Oxford: B. Metals.. Vol. 42. 1998. 1970 (Russian). 1983 (Russian). J. A. 39.A. Reference book/A. Ohse. 1968. Schulz B.A. Pottlacher G. et al. et al. — Fusion Engineering and Design.: Atomizdat. 5. Measurement of Thermophysical Properties of Lead by Submicrosecond Pulse-Heating Method in the Range 2000K to 5000K. Ivanovsky M. Chirkin V. of Thermal Conductivity. 46–51. Graz. 40.A.

long-term annealing at 450–500°С. The final operations of manufacturing graphite are as follows: preliminary annealing at 1000-1300°С. preparing charge from particles of different sizes. A moderator must have a high scattering cross section to provide a high collision number of neutrons per time unit prior to being captured. Typical density of reactor graphite is of 1600–1700 kg/m3. It has good moderating characteristics and satisfactory mechanical properties. BASIC PROPERTIES OF MODERATORS Neutrons being formed at fission have the energy spectrum from 0. channel reactors of high power RBMK. Another problem consists in interaction of water with zirconium (from a fuel element cladding) accompanied by formation of ZrO2 and Н2. MODERATORS 4.) to increase compression strength. incineration to purify material. etc.2.025 eV [1]. In reactor. there occurs anisotropy of product properties to parallel and to perpendicular directions vs. fuel enriched up to 2– 4% has been used in power reactors. However. The measure of this characteristic is the ratio ξΣs/Σа termed as moderating ratio. The natural uranium fuel reactor can become critical. GR-280) used in uranium-graphite reactors have rather low anisotropy. Efficient moderators of neutrons are materials with light nuclei (for example. The disadvantage of water is a low boiling point. if D2O is used as moderator. Neutron with an energy of 2 MeV undergoes on the average ξ = 19. it is impossible to make a natural uranium fuel reactor as a critical one. deuterium.1 and 4. As a result in the case of moderating neutrons by light water. a pressing axis. The basic neutron-physical and thermophysical properties of moderators are presented in Tables 4. The product of the mean number of collisions prior to being attained thermal energy (ξ) by the macroscopic scattering cross section (Σs) is called as moderating power [2.6 collisions in water prior to being moderated to energy of 0.) is an anisotropic material. beryllium. Light water (H2O) is characterized by the highest moderating power and the high absorption cross section. which is considerably smaller. For this reason. The absolute majority of reactors operate on slow (thermal) neutrons with energy of 0. as well as a low neutron-absorption cross section that not to deteriorate a neutron balance owing to nonproductive absorption in moderator mass. thus high pressures are to be applied [2]. and molding (pressing).25 eV to 10 MeV.) Water is a good moderator. 121 . In the course of molding process. as it contains a large amount of hydrogen. Its production technology is rather complicated and involves the following preliminary operations: coke crushing. Structural graphite is characterized by pronounced anisotropy of its properties.025 eV.1. Heavy water (D2O) has the absorption cross section. etc. formation of detonating mixture is possible. fining and impregnation by carbon-bearing materials (pitch. which is rather lower as compared to light water. 3]. alcohol etc. and the highest moderating ratio among all moderators. Graphite (C) used as a moderator in power reactors (gas cooled reactors. than the theoretical one (2260 kg/m3).4. Reactor artificial graphite is produced from oil coke. Such difference is caused by graphite porosity being formed during its manufacture. The disadvantages of heavy water are its high cost and the need of high pressures [2]. Pu239 nuclei and cause a larger number of fissions than high energy neutrons. hydrogen. because they are easily absorbed by 235U. water is subject to radiolysis that results in formation of gases such as hydrogen and oxygen and moreover. respectively. graphite materials (GR-220. the most probable energy is slightly smaller than 1 MeV.

0276 Heavy water D2O [1.4 240 0.176 0.0887 Zirconium hydride ZrH1.025 eV). Be.1561 0. 3] TABLE 4.69 Diffusion length. cm–1 Mean collision number to thermalization (from 2 MeV to 0.85 [1.8% and Н2O – 0. C respectively) in cm3 .496 44 Scattering cross section.122 *) For concentration of D2O – 99.230 24.7 × 10–4 0.0111 [7] Graphite C 0.6 × 10–4 0. 1023 cm–3 70.45 47 0.397 3. σs.510 0.6 Moderating power. σа.37 22.88 × 10–5 37.689 36.0626 116 2.4 0.01528 Density at normal conditions.0 11. kg/m3 Molar mass. metal Be [4. 3] 0.1156 108 4.3 0.0291 1.1784 92.1.2 2860 25. 3] .669 2.53 4.60 799 44 5620 93. 10–24 cm2 Macroscopic scattering cross section (above-thermal). ξΣs/Σа 1.926 Mean logarithmic energy loss per neutron collision with moderator nucleus Moderating ratio.01218 Beryllium. cm Number of atoms (H.165 0.2%.350 2.7 8. D. 0.673 2.0116 Beryllium oxide BeO [6] 0.6 15 1100 20.2 × 10–4 3.0197 Macroscopic absorption cross section сечение (thermal).15 1840 9. 10–24 cm2 1.5 332 0. ξΣs. n 0. Σs. BASIC NEUTRON-PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MODERATORS 0.852 56. 5] 0.666 9.206 0.75 1710 12.385 20.6 6.856 1.4 190 2100*) 147 0.3 0. amu Property Light water H2O [1.757 7. Σа. cm–1 1000 18. cm–1 660 Absorption cross section.662 1.

amu Property Light water H2O [8] - 668 74.6–14.15 K 4.1 × 10–4 0.15 × 104 - (1.5609 Heat capacity.847 × 10 –4 103/89 0.425 × 10 –4 93 1.354 × 10 –4 157 1. kJ/kg Boiling point 100 0 °C °C 273.2 101.14 4. BASIC THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MODERATORS (UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS) - 2.65–2.7) × 10–6 0.120 × 10 –6 0.98 20.6 - 4. m /°С 0.03 Heavy water D2O [8] 0.18) × 10–7 (9.01 Beryllium oxide BeO [6. kJ/kg 2 333.64 Surface tension at Тmelt.813 276.133 × 10 1000 Density. metal Be [9–11] 0. kJ/(kg K) Thermal conductivity.47 × 10–7 - 0.229 2860 19596 3416 4120 4393 2550 2823 25.58 3.012 Beryllium.15 K Melting point 18 Molar mass.2.1 Zirconium hydride ZrH1.33 475 1010 0. W/(m K) 610 - Integral emissivity at 1000 K 74.85 5.5595 4. kg/m3 –6 2256 Heat of vapourization. 1/K Thermal diffusivity.7 × 104 - 5.15–4 × 10–8 1100 24 × 10–6 0.55 × 10–4 Electrical resistivity.410 5620 - - - - 650 923 93.123 373.43 374.217 0. mN/m Vapour pressure at Тmelt.38 × 104 - 0.14 × 10–4 32–36 0.23 1100 2071 315.85 [13] . Pa - 4.710 1710 59450 27900 - - 4260 4530 12 Graphite (reactor) C [7] TABLE 4. Ω⋅m Coefficient of volumetric thermal expansion.825 1840 32963 835 2471 2744 1287 2560 9. 12] 34 × 10–6 0.8 Heat of fusion.

n). it is periodically exposed to slow heating (annealing). beryllium is not widely used for power engineering due to its high cost and such its properties as brittleness.85) is hydrogen-bearing moderator that has good moderating characteristics practically similar to those of water (see Table 4. swelling and embrittlement at radiation. 2n). Helium is formed in about ten times larger quantity than tritium.42 × 10–6 m3/mol or 0.2). nuclear reactions with formation of helium and tritium are occurred in beryllium (see below). Besides. metals that requires creation of inert atmosphere in reactor. The advantages of beryllium are in low density. their properties are being different. internal energy is being accumulated in the crystal lattice of graphite owing to atomic displacements. the main problems are in its chemical reactions with oxygen. Beryllium oxide (BeO) is used as a moderator not only in nuclear reactors. In the generation of this energy (Wigner effect). BeO is a source of additional neutrons being formed at the reactions of types (α. namely: graphite. An essential feature of beryllium is its low value of induced activity under the action of major types of radiations.7 MJ/kg. The radiation effect on BeO and its radiation stability have been extensively studied. In the case. Under radiation of BeO in reactor. 14]. These modifications are different in the structure of molecules and their arrangement in the crystal lattice. (γ. formation of helium and tritium takes place according to the reaction (n. because accumulation and generation of internal energy occurs continuously [7. 8 4 Be + 2 42 He. these reactors are characterized by reliable safety and high stability as they have the high negative temperature coefficients of reactivity. Under radiation. However. Under exposure to radiation.285 × 10–3 m3/kg [11] ρ = 2266 kg/m3 [11] .2. For more details on the change of BeO properties under radiation. and the reaction (α. Beryllium (Be) has the small absorption cross section. 14]. high melting point and low coefficient of thermal expansion (see Table 4. 6]. n). the value of stored energy in graphite can achieve up to 1. which together with a high number of atoms in 1 cm3 and the high scattering cross section provides its application as a good moderator and reflector in reactors. n): 9 4 Be + n → 26 He + 42 He. Beryllium and its compounds are toxic [2. GRAPHITE (CARBON) Carbon comes in several modifications. (n.In the course of using graphite. 4. 6 6 2 He → 3 Li + β. but also as a matrix of dispersion fuel elements. when zirconium hydride is mixed with uranium. Beryllium oxide is the best moderator among high temperature oxides. 2n): 9 4 Be + n → 48 Be + 2n.1). At high temperatures this problem is not significant. see Refs [2. Zirconium hydride is produced by heating metallic zirconium in hydrogen at 350°С [2]. The basic properties of graphite are as follows: Atomic number of carbon Atomic mass Specific volume Theoretical density 124 6 12. fullerene (produced artificially) and other.011 amu 3. water steam. Zirconium hydride (ZrН1. diamond. graphite can be heated up to 1000°С. Therefore in the case of operating graphite in reactors at low temperatures. 6 3 Li + n → 42 He + 3 H. At ordinary temperatures (<350°С) and fluence of 1019 neutr/cm2.

etc. The effect of preliminary radiation was also discovered.4 2. Min. According to early research Тmelt ≅ 3700–4000 K. The reasons of such difference are still unknown. Heat of vapourization of graphite is evaluated as 59450 kJ/kg in Ref. as well as the degree of graphitization of initial graphite.18 MeV and the operating conditions has the greatest effect on this process. thermal expansion coefficient. 25% N2. The change of the lattice parameters under radiation depends on radiation temperature. The fluence of neutrons with energy of more 0. ρ (kg/m ) 6 The graphite crystal has a layer-like structure.3. [21]. thermal conductivity. cadmium. In this case. α × 10 (1/K) 3.2/4. TABLE 4. 1710 1780 1630 Linear expansion coefficient. whereas owing to the most recent data. The basic physical characteristics of reactor graphite type GR-280 in initial state given in Table 4. atoms in each layer are located in a hexagonal lattice.6 Thermal conductivity. The surface area of graphite with pores taken into account is estimated to be 0.9 3. where the numerator is the values of characteristics to parallel direction about a pressing axis. Graphite is commonly a porous material. λ [W/(m K)] 103/89 - - Electrical resistivity. In this case. O2 < 0. In the course of operating under reactor conditions. value of integral flux and radiation rate.) or volatile matters (hydrocarbons and others). Graphite used as a moderator must not contain any impurities of elements with the high neutron absorption coefficient (boron. 16]. BASIC PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REACTOR GRAPHITE TYPE GR-280 IN INITIAL STATE [7] Property Mean value Max. It has been noted that pressing graphite during its production results in anisotropy of its physical properties. In the course of pressing. therefore. a considerable disagreement of experimental data on graphite melting point is observed [15. [18]. neutron spectrum. electrical resistivity as well as its mechanical properties takes place [20]. ρе (µΩ⋅m) 10/13 14/16 8/10 3 Density. Bonding between parallel layers is provided by weak Van der Waals forces. This is caused by difficulties of high temperature experiment.47–0. at temperatures 300–800°C and neutron flux ~ 3 × 1013 n/(cm2s) [17]. Тmelt ≅ 4530-080 K.In recent years.3. Reactor graphite with density of 1740 kg/m3 has porosity in the region of 23% [19].6/5. 125 . thermal and electrical conductivity of graphite is higher in this direction as compared to transverse direction. Thermophysical properties of graphite can greatly differ depending on its production method and owing to its anisotropic structure. there occurs the change of graphite properties caused by displacement of carbon atoms from the lattice sites.7/4. Heat of fusion of graphite is evaluated as 27900 kJ/kg in Ref. Graphite blocks of RBMK reactor with dimensions of 250 × 250 × 600 mm are manufactured from graphite type GR-280 and designated to operate under conditions of gas medium with composition: 75% Не.87 m2/g [18]. the change of such graphite properties as density.01%. and the denominator is the values of these characteristics to perpendicular direction about a pressing axis. particles of coke are oriented along the pressing direction.

108 1.12 × 10–5Т 1.3203 × 108T –3 − 1. At 1273≤ Т ≤ 3273 K Ср [kJ/(kg⋅K)] = 1.105 2. At 298≤ Т ≤ 1273 K Ср [kJ/(kg⋅K)] = 2.013 2.) Temperature °C 25.730 1. The heat capacity of graphite according to Eqs (4.0231T + 3.969 × 10–8Т2.120 2.2.131 + 6.035 2.090 2.648 1.2) (4.961 1.2671 × 105T–1 − − 6.15 27 77 127 186 227 327 427 527 627 727 827 927 1027 1127 1227 1327 1427 1527 1627 1727 1827 1927 2027 126 K 298.988 2.134 .60145 × 107T–2 + 3. at which the energy of thermal vibrations of atoms provides a way for them to fill again the vacant sites in the crystal lattice.Radiation of graphite at rather low temperatures (<300°C) results in the accumulation of displaced atoms in the interlattice area.–4. Therefore.4. TABLE 4. HEAT CAPACITY OF GRAPHITE BY EQUATIONS (4.848 1.3) (4.199 × 1010T –4 .9963 × 109T–3.15 300 350 400 459 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 Heat capacity KJ/(kg⋅K) 0.1) (4.542 1.848 0.055 2.715 0. (4.62 × 10–4Т − 9.892 1.4.4) is given in Table 4.404 1. This causes the accumulation of Wigner energy that can be generated with increasing temperature up to the level.2.220 1.795 1.3 .2) is of ± 10%.2671 × 105T –2 + + 1. Enthalpy and heat capacity of graphite are calculated by the following formulas of the MATPROP code [22]: H(T) − H(298.15) (kJ/kg)= − 1446. At 3273≤ Т ≤ 5000 K Ср [kJ/(kg⋅K)] = 6.4. The uncertainty of Eq. graphite is to be annealed to prevent accumulation of such energy [17].9322 × 10–5T2 + 4.929 1.4) These formulas are in a good agreement with the well known experimental data. (4.982 1.04 + 2.8645 × 10–5 T − 4.073 2.031 + 7.711 0.–4.

147 2.216 2.247 2.5. TABLE 4.257 2. (continued) Temperature °C 2127 2227 2327 2427 2527 2627 2727 2827 2927 3027 3127 3227 K 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 Heat capacity kJ/(kg⋅K) 2. UNCERTAINTIES OF DATA ON GRAPHITE HEAT CAPACITY Temperature K <500 500–800 800–2500 2500–3000 >3000 Uncertainty % on average 10 Linear from10 to 5 5 Linear from 5 to 11 11 TABLE 4. DENSITY OF REACTOR GRAPHITE IN INITIAL STATE [17] Temperature °C 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Density kg/m3 1710 1710 1710 1700 1700 1700 1700 1690 1690 1680 1680 127 .267 Values of enthalpy and heat capacity of graphite type UPV-1 in the range of temperature range 1200–2000 K are given in Ref. The uncertainties in data on heat capacity of graphite are shown in Table 4.160 2. [23].5.227 2.237 2.6.195 2.206 2.4. Density of reactor graphite depending on temperature is presented in Table 4. At high temperatures the data by various authors disagree greatly (± 20% and more).TABLE 4.6 [17].183 2.172 2.

and denominator is the value of coefficient to perpendicular direction about a pressing axis.2/6. εt is the integral radiation coefficient [25. 128 . temperature is presented in Table 4. The results of available experimental research and the recommendations given in reference books differ significantly. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR THERMAL EXPANSION OF REACTOR GRAPHITE IN INITIAL STATE Thermal conductivity λ [W/(m⋅K)] Linear expansion coefficient 106 (1/K) Ref. [24] Ref.Thermal conductivity of reactor graphite in initial state depending on temperature based on different data is presented in Table 4. particularly at Т > 2000 K that can be shown from the following correlations.8. TABLE 4.1 900 43/32 - - 5.6) The electrical resistivity of electrode graphite vs. for the transverse directions and along the axis [26].0 800 45/34 65/48 - 5.6/5. Emissivity of graphite for λ = 0. The table presents also the values of coefficient of linear thermal expansion. [17] Ref. [18] 20 103/89 120/85 - 3. 27].5) according to data in Ref.2 1000 40/30 - 59 5.8313 – 36781.65 µm is given in Table 4.1/6.8/5.2/4. where the numerator is the value of coefficient to parallel direction about a pressing axis.7.9.2 300 70/54 93/68 - 4.9/6. which are true within the narrow range of temperatures: according to data in Ref.5 400 65/50 85/64 - 4.0 200 77/60 103/74 - 3.9 100 90/74 113/80 - 3.5/T (4.8/5. [11] at 1700–3000 K lgP (Pа) = 15.7.3/6. [17] Temperature °C Ref.8 600 53/40 73/55 - 4.7488 – 40384.5/T (4.7 500 59/46 79/60 88 4. [25] at 1850–3400 K lgP (Pа) = 12.4/5.9 700 48/37 68/51 75 4.4/5.3 1500 - - 45 - 2000 - - 40 - 2500 - - 36 - 3000 - - 26 - 3250 - - 18 - 3500 - - 6 - Vapour pressure above solid graphite. where ελ is the spectral radiation coefficient.2/5.

129 .92 1. 28].03 2.65 µm to blackbody radiation with the same wave length and temperature).77 1.15 2. where a and b are the directions that are parallel and perpendicular about a pressing axis.48 1.18 1.86 0.9.86 0.83 2400 0.70 1.97 2.82 1.80 1.87 1.82 1.77 1.55 1.45 1.32 2.65 1.88 1600 0.77 1.86 0.38 1.38 1. **ελ — spectral coefficient of thermal radiation (the ratio of body radiation at wave length λ = 0.10 2.90 1400 0.37 2.87 1.58 1.42 1.5 1.92 1.73 1.86 0.80 2800 0.86 0.25 2.85 1.20 2. 23] Temperature K 1000 εТ * ελ** 0.84 0. ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY 10–5 Ω m OF ELECTRODE GRAPHITE [26] Temperature °C 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 Transverse direction Along the axis 2. EMISSIVITY OF GRAPHITE [21.60 1.40 1. The experimental results are presented in Table 4.85 0.42 2.8. respectively.80 1.81 2600 0.87 0.39 1.85 2000 0.86 0.84 2200 0.79 *εТ — coefficient of thermal radiation (the ratio of total body radiation to total blackbody radiation at the same temperature).65 1.0 2.94 1200 0.95 TABLE 4.10.TABLE 4.86 0. Radiation effect on thermophysical properties of graphite at radiation temperature 500-550°C and measurement temperature 20°С was studied in Refs [17.50 1.97 1.86 1800 0.42 1.

5 22.8 37.95 7.8 37.87 5.68 7.1 17.1 17.5 22.012 amu 4.8 37.541 × 10–3 m3/kg [25] 1848 kg/m3 [29] 1287°C = 1560 ± 10 K [11] 2471°C = 2744 K [25] 1442 kJ/kg [25] 32290 kJ/kg [25] 12650−13000 m/s [25.3 7.8 39 41.24 5.4 14.91 - 4.2 37.02 5.24 7.1 17.85 7.28 5.5 1712 1710 1692 1686 1677 1671 1664 1657 1650 1643 1638 1636 1634 1633 1638 1640 1648 1657 1671 1696 1772 1772 1840 - λ20 W/(m⋅K) а 75 42 31.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 ρ20 10 (kg/m3) –6 1710 1710.1 17.63 7.5 78 - .8 23.0 19.8 37.4 31.1 - а 4.28 5.24 5.12 7.5 22.3.24 5.6 17.5 21.8 37.5 9.8 37.28 5.3 12.5 22.1 5.1 5.15 5.1 17.8 14.9 67.28 5.89 6.80 7.4 4.877 × 10–6 m3/mol or 0.94 5.3 15.8 11. BERYLLIUM The basic properties of beryllium are as follows: Atomic number Atomic mass Specific volume Theoretical density Melting point Boiling point Heat of fusion* Heat of vapourization Sound velocity * The data are in the range 877–1625 kJ/kg 130 ρe20 ( Ω⋅m) α20 10–6 (1/K) 4 9.1 18.98 6.57 7.06 - b 5.6 11.7 45.1 17.1 17.1 17.15 5.52 7.06 5.8 24.1 17.TABLE 4.8 37.45 7.28 5.18 MeV 0 0.5 49.4 8.1 17.17 7.1 17.80 7.4 55.8 37.24 5.8 37.0 23.8 37.40 7.06 7.7 5.5 22.72 6.28 5.29 7.55 6.5 24.20 6.44 6.5 22.8 37.5 10. RADIATION EFFECT ON THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GRAPHITE AT 500–550°С [17.5 17.3 10. 28] Neutron fluence F × 10–21 (1/cm2) E > 0.0 - b 55 30.8 37.10.5 33 34 37 40 46 54 60 - b 13 23.74 7.5 22.62 4.28 5. 30] а 10 22 29 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32.54 4.5 22.19 5.2 12.8 37.3 22.19 5.1 15.8 37.8 4.3 23.

after exposure of 1000 h at 1300 K (see Table 4.398 2.09 1. production method and processing.84 − 0.8) Thermal conductivity is defined by the formula derived on the basis of the recommended data in Ref.646 157 146 133 122 111 102 94 87 81 76 72 69 67 67 3.9) Thermal diffusivity in terms of m2/s is determined as a = λ C p ρ .20 2. thermal conductivity can differ by 1.82 2.970 3.5 15 18 22 26 30 34 - 1) For hot-pressed beryllium.21 1. (4. [11]: ρ(Т) (kg/m3) = 1869.0 6.15 1.9) are presented in Table 4.97 1.07168T − 1.1097 + 0.12).871 2. 2) Thermal conductivity of beryllium specimens depends on their density.167 3.3. (4.58 1. As it can be seen from Table 4.068 3.674 2.54 3.265 3.11.11.773 2.76 1.22 1.7) Heat capacity is calculated from correlation in Refs [30. Properties of solid beryllium depending on temperature Density is estimated by the formula based on the data in Ref.5–2 times [32].477 2.0 12. TABLE 4.561 3.12.7–4.07 Electrical resistivity 108( Ω⋅m) [30] 4.5 – 0.4.467 × 10–5 T2. 3) Smoothed curve for specimen 2 — hot-pressed beryllium.1723 T + 5.31 1. 131 .985 × 10 −3 T − 0.7–4. The basic thermophysical properties of solid beryllium evaluated by Equations (4. purity. 31]: C p [kJ (kg ⋅ K )] = 2.1. (4.5 9.576 2. BASIC THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLID BERYLLIUM BY EQUATIONS (4.381 × 10 5 T −2 .462 3. Data on heat capacity given in reference books often differ because of they are not related with structure and density of beryllium.43 1.6151 × 10–5T2 .364 3.50 2.9) Temperature °C K 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1287 293 373 473 573 673 773 873 973 1073 1173 1273 1373 1473 1560 Density1) kg/m3 Heat capacity2) J/(kg⋅K) Thermal conductivity3) W/(m⋅K) Thermal diffusivity 105(m2/s) 1847 1841 1832 1823 1814 1805 1795 1785 1774 1764 1752 1741 1729 1719 2. [32]: λ [W/(m⋅K)] = 202.

0.13. INTEGRAL EMISSIVITY COEFFICIENT OF BERYLLIUM εt [30] Temperature °С 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1287 132 K 293 373 473 573 673 773 873 973 1073 1173 1273 1373 1473 1560 εt 0.044 0.373 0.103 0.13 [30].497 0.8 84. the specimens are as follows: 1) 2) 3) 4) Well-annealed polycrystalline beryllium of high purity. Emissivity of beryllium.12.12. The similar situation is observed for electrical resistivity of beryllium specimens.65 µm in solid and liquid state is 0.4 - 156 146 132 119 110 100 86 80 78 75 73 67 182 170 156 145 134 120 109 96 86 84 82 76 97 91 84 78 74 68 64 61 57 55 51 46 TABLE 4.274 0.198 0. Hot-pressed beryllium.55µm.054 0. The integral emissivity coefficient of beryllium as a function of temperature is presented in Table 4.062 0.In Table 4.811 .047 0.2 78.2 90.651 0.050 0.81.8 69. for a wave length of 0. respectively [30]. Cold-pressed beryllium. TABLE 4. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF BERYLLIUM IN RELATION TO ITS STRUCTURE AND PRODUCTION METHOD [28] Temperature K 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 Specimens 1 2 3 4 Thermal conductivity [W/(m⋅K)] 200 161 139 126 115 106 98.61 [11].142 0.61 and 0. The spectral radiation coefficient of beryllium ελ for a wave length of 0. Hot-pressed beryllium after exposure of 1000 hours at 1300 K.7 73.077 0.

TABLE 4.8 TABLE 4.3 800 15.9 600 14.9 20. The values of linear expansion coefficients of beryllium to the directions.6 21.2 25−500 16.454 × 10 −4 T − .14. 31.2 25−800 - 25−900 - 25−1000 18.5 14.4 25−400 15. The following two correlations are known: in Refs [30. ANISOTROPY OF COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR THERMAL EXPANSION OF BERYLLIUM [30] Temperature K 300 α⁄ ⁄ × 10 6 (1/K) α⊥ × 10 6 (1/K) 9. The values of mean linear expansion coefficient α for the corresponding temperature range are shown in Table 4.186 + 1.0 18.2 1000 17.4 1200 19.494 − T 133 .15.11) lg P( mm Hg ) = 6. which are parallel and perpendicular about a pressing axis. (4.5 25−300 14. 33].5 25−200 13.14 [30]. α⁄ ⁄ and α⊥ respectively. MEAN COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR THERMAL EXPANSION OF BERYLLIUM [30] Temperature °C α × 106 (1/K) 25−100 11.4 400 11.Coefficient of linear thermal expansion of beryllium. [30] at Tmelt < T < 2058 K 11710 .9 500 12.10) T in Ref. 34] at T < Tmelt 16734 lg P( at ) = 6.15.5 23. (4.9 16. are presented in Table 4.0 25−600 - 25−700 17.4 Vapour pressure above solid beryllium.2 12. the value of α⁄ ⁄ is somewhat decreased by 5–10%. and the value of α⊥ increased by 20–30% [25. After annealing.

8% of the theoretical density according to the data in Ref. [11] at 960 ≤ T ≤1500 K another formula follows: lg P( Pa ) = 11.263 6.2.14 4.14) Heat capacity of liquid beryllium at Т > Тmelt is 3. 4. Equations (4.64 × 10–4 1200 2.470 × 10–6 1000 3.554 × 10–3 2.116(T − 1560 ) .8 1700 53. VAPOUR PRESSURE [Pa] ABOVE SOLID BERYLLIUM Temperature K 500 600 700 800 900 Eqs (4. (4.44 1900 284.11) were transferred to the SI-system [P (Pa)].67 × 10–3 2.3 kJ/(kg K) in Ref.12) Eq. Properties of liquid beryllium depending on temperature Density of liquid beryllium at 99.13) are presented in Table 4. [8] at 1000 ≤ T ≤2000 K another equation follows: lg P( Pa ) = 10.90 - 273.656 34. [11] at Т < 2750 K is estimated by formula: ρ(T ) ( kg / m 3 ) = 1690 − 0.10 2000 579.333 × 10–4 1.059 × 10–23 2.3.737 1.371 × 10 2.882 × 10 1100 1.11) 6.380 × 10 –17 –13 –10 5.51 120. [25] and 1145 mN/m at 1553 K in Ref.16.654 1.911 8. T (4.389 − 16755 .13) The values of vapour pressure above solid beryllium calculated by Equations (4.16.40 × 10–4 1.41 91. (4.0308 1400 0. [11]. 134 .12) According to the data in Ref.43 1600 19.2407 1500 1.990 − 16252 . TABLE 4.13) - - - - - - - - 5. 4. [9] Surface tension of liquid beryllium is 1100 mN/m at 1773 K in Ref. (4.129 26. In this case.10–4.0312 0.920 × 10 4.915 1800 129.190 × 10 –8 –6 Eq.10.23 - 731.According to the data in Ref.364 × 10 2.10.2681 0.305 × 10 –8 - –6 5.80 × 10–3 1300 0.2637 0. T (4.0317 0.

988 2.17.6 (27.8 35.617 1. 3.347 0. and α is coefficient of linear thermal expansion of BeO.04 kJ/kg [6].5) (12) (11.251 0.9) - 4.92 - 135 .17.910 1.308 0.1 ± 0. kg/m3 Melting point.54 10.0) (12.5 (14.144 2.452 0.318 [6] 157 79. (4.16)] 5.27 9.253 2.464 1.1 47.12 10.047 0.229 1.37 7.166 2. kJ/kg Heat of vapourization kJ/kg 25.225 0. (4.50 6.826 1. °C (K) Boiling point.399 0.036 2.9 54.0116 amu 8.187 2.0 (21.70 10.35 10. °C (K) Heat of fusion.014 2.4.7 30.15) 3 where ρ0 = ρ(t=0) = 2870 kg/m .4.19 8.720 0.58 9.269 0.0) 24.95 7.87 10.296 2.101 2.9 66.253 1.93 9. The basic thermophysical properties of beryllium oxide for a density of 2870 kg/m3are presented in Table 4.191 0.200 0.231 2. m3/mol or m3/kg Theoretical density.18)] 1. The heat of phase transition is 2.79 8.4 40.383 1.322 × 10–4 m3/kg 3010 ± 0.89 10. BASIC THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BERYLLIUM OXIDE FOR A DENSITY OF 2870 kg/m3 Temperature K °C 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 373 473 573 673 773 873 973 1073 1173 1273 1373 1473 1573 1673 1773 1873 1973 2073 2173 2273 2373 2473 Density kg/m3 Heat capacity KJ/(kg⋅K) Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) Thermal diffusivity 105(m2/s) [Eq.81 10.57 8.122 2.209 2.057 2.515 0.188 - Linear expansion coefficient 106(1/K) [Eq.8 (16.0) 18.15)] 3005 2999 2992 2985 2977 2968 2958 2948 2937 2926 2915 2903 2891 2879 2867 2855 2844 2833 2822 2813 - [Eqs (4.05 6.5) 15.93 10.607 0. β = 3α is coefficient of volumetric thermal expansion of BeO. 4. Density of beryllium oxide is calculated by correlation [25]: ρ (kg/m3) = ρ0 (1− βt).31 × 10–6 m3/mol. TABLE 4.17.079 2.731 1.819 1.274 2.60 6. (4.872 0.3 kg/m3 [25] 2550°C (2823 K) [6] 4120°C (4393 K) [25] 3416 kJ/kg [25] 19600 kJ/kg [6] At temperature of 2050–2150°C the polymorphic transformation of phases α→β takes place. BERYLLIUM OXIDE The basic properties of beryllium oxide are as follows: Molecular mass Molar volume.

678 kJ/(kg⋅K).791 + 0.455 + 0. (4.16) This equation generalizes the data in Refs [6.4 9. 12. such factor as the purity of specimen (quantity and type of impurity) as well as its production technology is of considerable importance.0 10.0 9. The Beo specimens manufactured by the same technology show a wide scattering in the linear expansion coefficient up to 20–25% (see Table 34 on P. [6] on P. The data on coefficients of linear thermal expansion for BeO differ greatly.9 10.539 × 10–7t2 – 3.8 10.18) Beryllium oxide has the highest specific heat capacity among all refractory oxides. 56.The coefficient of linear thermal expansion of ВеО is calculated as: α × 106 (1/K) = 5. TABLE 4. The data are also known as the graphical curve of function α⋅= f(t) published in Ref. to [36–39] 6. In this case.5 11 11.2 7.6 - Data acc.133 +4.9 . 57 in Ref.18.5 12.6 10.65 × 10–3t – 1.5 10. (4.544 × 105Т –2.5 6.606 × 10–3Т – 0. The comparison of the values of linear thermal expansion coefficient for ВеО is shown in Table 4. 35]: At 298≤ Т ≤ 1200 K Сp [kJ/(kg⋅K)] = 1. 12].0 7.7 8.2 12.6 10. [6]).8 10.201 × 10–3Т. to [6.15 10. Heat capacity of beryllium oxide is evaluated by correlations in Refs [6.621 × 10–10t3. At temperature T > 2820 K.4 10.18.9 10.0 7. This data scattering is caused by imperfection of applied methods and equipment [6].9 10. (4. COMPARISON OF VALUES OF LINEAR THERMAL EXPANSION COEFFICIENT [10–6/K] FOR ВеО Temperature °C 100 200 400 600 800 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 136 Mean value acc.2 9.3 9.17) At 1200 ≤ Т ≤ 2820 K Сp [kJ/(kg⋅K)] = 1. the value of Сp is equal to 2. 25] 5.

19.9 25.5 900 1173 20.3 15.2 12. and other parameters can vary by an order (see Table 4.6 47.8 66. temperature. The data on emissivity of beryllium oxide are shown in Table 4.5 - - - 1400 1673 15. P.01 30. Thermal conductivity of beryllium oxide like other properties depends on specimen purity. 6. Beryllium oxide has extremely high thermal conductivity. thus its density. The data on the BeO specimen with a density of 2250 kg/m3 and impurity concentration of ~1.8 58. the more decreases thermal conductivity.1 15.9 113 41.9 84.6 27. which exceeds thermal conductivity of most other oxides.0 22.65 600 873 46.1 17. At a temperature of 100°C.4 34.Thermal conductivity.4 54.20.6 1000 1273 17. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF BERYLLIUM OXIDE IN RELATION TO DENSITY AND TEMPERATURE [32] Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) Temperature °C K ρ = 3010 kg/m3 ρ = 2870 kg/m3 ρ = 2620 kg/m3 ρ = 2000 kg/m3 ρ = 1890 kg/m3 100 373 220 157 157.25 18.5% produced by sintering at 2100°C in the nitrogen atmosphere [in Ref.5 800 1073 27. TABLE 4. the more is the specimen density.1 300 573 133.1 66. 1012 Ω⋅m at 1600°C and 109 Ω⋅m at 2000°C [6].6 700 973 36.3 33.9 40.8 8.21 [6] 137 .6 - 13.8 - - - 1200 1473 16.19) [32].9 400 673 93 54. 103] are presented in Table 4. High purity specimens of ВеО have more high resistivity. Electrical resistivity of beryllium oxide like other properties depends heavily on the specimen purity and its density.5 20.9 35.3 24 - 8.01) - - - 1800 2073 - - - - - Under neutron radiation.4 10. The variations of thermal conductivity caused by radiation can be eliminated by thermal annealing at 1400°C. the value of ρе for ВеО is equal to ~1012 Ω⋅m.2 16.1 14.4 (12. 1016 Ω⋅m at 1000°C.7 41.5 200 473 174.0 15.7 500 773 69.6 79. namely: 1020 Ω m at 20°C.8 46.

463–0.19) .48 0.499 0.6 × 105 2100 8 × 104 TABLE 4.392–0.453–0.5 × 106 1700 1.405 0.470–0.13 − 138 31030 T (4.5 × 105 2000 1.146 Vapour pressure above solid beryllium oxide is calculated by correlation in Ref.382 0.46 0.5 × 106 1800 6.351 - 1300 0.447 0.665 µm) 900 0.135 2100 - 0.113 1900 - 0.50 0.420–0.44 0.475–0.514 0.34 - - 1000 0.6 × 109 1200 8 × 108 1300 8 × 107 1400 2.517 0.102 1800 0.08 1600 0. ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY OF BERYLLIUM OXIDE [6] Temperature °C Electrical resistivity (Ω⋅m) 1000 8 × 109 1100 1.091 1700 0.124 2000 - 0.37 - - 1100 0.20.TABLE 4.5 × 107 1500 8 × 106 1600 3.42 0.057 1400 0.425 0. [38]: at 1000 ≤Т≤ 2800 K lg P( Pa ) = 13.361–0.49 0.439–0.513 0. EMISSIVITY OF BERYLLIUM OXIDE [6] Emissivity Temperature K Integral εt Total ε Monochromatic ελ (λ = 0.5 × 105 1900 3.474–0.40 - - 1200 0.336–0.51 0.474 0.068 1500 0.21.

8 2500 2773 252. (4.22. TABLE 4.22.68 × 10–12 1100 1373 3.39 × 10–10 1200 1473 1. evaporation of beryllium oxide occurs in the form of beryllium atoms. the comparison between calculations and experimental data shows a considerable disagreement.19) 800 1073 1.20) are presented in Table 4. Eq.According to the calculations presented in Refs [6.53 × 10–7 1400 1673 3. (4. 38].19.20) The values of vapour pressure above ВеО calculated by Equations (4.25 × 10–5 1600 1873 4. However.5 BeO in liquid state. Eq. 4.01 × 10–1 2100 2373 1.13 2200 2473 3.82 × 10–6 1500 1773 4.20) 2550 2823 475 2700 2973 2780 2900 3173 226 × 102 3100 3373 143 × 103 3300 3573 737 × 103 3500 3773 319 × 104 3700 3973 119 × 105 139 .252 × 10–4 1700 1973 2.63 × 10–16 900 1173 4. Vapour pressure above beryllium oxide in liquid state is estimated as: at 2850 ≤Т ≤ 4120 K lg P( Pa ) = 17.88 − 42920 T (4.16 × 10–8 1300 1573 2.08 × 10–2 2000 2273 3.45 × 10–2 1900 2173 7. VAPOUR PRESSURE ABOVE BERYLLIUM OXIDE Temperature Pressure Pa °C K BeO in solid state.75 × 10–14 1000 1273 5.53 × 10–3 1800 2073 1.82 2300 2573 15.

Experimental Investigation of Temperature Fields of RBMK Reactor Channel./Translated from English.. 15. by [18]).: Energoatomizdat. 22. − Teplofizika Vysokikh Temperatur. 173. Vol. Novoselsky O. 12. PP. 1963 (Russian).E. Enthalpy and Heat Capacity in the Temperature Range 1200–2000 K/GSSSD 25–90. Vol. Fizica si Tehnologia Materialelar Nucleare. (Oxford at the Clarendon Press. 1120–1125 (Russian).. Introduction to Theory of Thermal-Neutron Reactors. 2001 (Russian). − М. No. 64–71 (Russian).M. Beryllium as a Moderator. −New York: A Wiley-Interscience Publ. 1984]. 1965. 8.: Mir. Melting of Graphite and Liquid Carbon. 22. Buchnev L. PP. 25. − M. 14.. Hausner H. Sokursky [Materials for Nuclear Engineers/Ed. 1989 (Russian). by M. Trofimov A. White D. Vol. Graphite UPV-1T. 17. Yadernaia Energetika.E. By F. 395–397 (Russian). − M. 1972 (Russian). − London: Temple Press Lim.N.M. Shtern Z. 140 Galanin A. et al. .T. Ed. 13. Ed. Beryllium Oxide/2nd rev. Azhazha V.E. P. − L. McIntosh and T. 11.: Metallurgiya. 6. 1960). 6. No. et al. By AV. PP. No 2. 42. − Atomic Energy Review. Drits.E. 1973 (Russian). 10. 3. 1990 (Russian). Ubelohde A. 1.: Nauka. − М.J.M. Graphite and its Crystal Compounds/Translated from English. − Teplofizika Vysokikh Temperatur.A. 1954. Heal. Beryllium/Translated from English. 2. ЕТ-01/53.A. 8. − М. et al. 159. 2004./Proc. Publ.Yu. 451. Basharin A. Reactor Graphite... 1371 — 1379 (Russian). − M. Viatkin S. 5. 1962 (Russian). PP.gov/matprop/graphite/enthc/index.: Energiya. Int. −Journal of Chemical Physics. Enthalpy and Heat Capacity of Graphite. 23.A.J. Experimental Investigation of Enthalpy of Graphite Quasi-Mono Crystals..: IIL. Vol. No. P.K. − Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk. Thermophysical Properties of Non-metallic Materials (Oxides)/Reference book. 269 (Russian).php.: Atomizdat. 16. Krzhizhanovsky R. Methods for Increasing Accuracy of Measurements at Experimental Determination of Graphite Melting Point. Zinoviev V. 99 –166 Beliaev R. Legasov [A Guide to Nuclear Power Technology/Ed.: Metallurgiya. − http://www.B. −1956. Ursu I. 2003. Vol. Ed.: Metallurgiya.REFERENCES TO SECTION 4 1. 24. − М. 9. P. 1.N. Maximum Design Temperature of Graphite Laying/Preprint NIKIET No. P. 19.insc. 18. 1989. Currie L. 312 (Russian).: Izdatelstvo Standartov.A.: Atomizdat. 20. Acad. 1997 (Russian).Yu. et al. Savvatimsky A. 103–114 (Russian).H. Hydride systems/Handbook. 1992 (Russian). Chusov I. Rahn et al. Conf. 1984.. Thermophysical Properties of Metals at High Temperatures/Reference edition. 4. 1960].I.A. Kuznetsov − М. Romania. N.: Energoatomizdat. Gabaraev B. 12. et al. PP. Berk D. Prozorov V. 2000. Properties of Elements/Handbook in Two Volumes. 3. Vargaftik N.− М. ed. Handbook on Nuclear Power Technology.Yu. Materials for Nuclear Reactors/Translated from English. by V. Vol. by Yu. Vol. 1965 (Rus). Glocker G. − Atomnaia Energia. 1980 (Russian). − Izvestiia Vuzov. et al. Bucuresti. and enl. Lewis F. 1963. 1982.D.. PP.R. Reference Book on Thermophysical Properties of Gases and Liquids. on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. 21. − М. − М. 1987. (Cit. 19. No.: Gosatomizdat. 1967 (Russian). 7. − М.

1950. Meet. by [6]) (Russian). on Beryllium Oxide. Bratkovsky. Toropov N. 38. − M. 29.S.S. Vol. Kubashevsky O.. and enl. Artificial Graphite.. 1986 (Russian).: Metallurgiya. Glushko. Thermochemistry in Metallurgy. 31. Book 2 (Russian).1963.. − M.. Barzakovsky V.N. 1974 (Russian). Naukova Dumka.:Izdatelstvo AN SSSR. of Intern.: IIL. IV. Conf. Graphite Spec..V. − Journal of Electrochem.B. Beryllides. 383. P. Thermal Expansion of Solids. et al.P.: Atomizdat. Babichev. ed.S. − М.Z. 2003. 21–25. Nucl. − М. 1968 (Russian). Ed. − Journal of Nuclear Materials. Beryllium Oxide/Proc. 1984 (Russian). A. Sydney. 27. 36.10. Wockham A.V.I. (Cit.P. 35. − M. Thermal Conductivity of Solids/Reference Book. 1982. Kotelnikov R. HighTemperature Chemistry of Silicate and other Oxide Systems. Ostrovsky V.: Energoatomizdat. Translated from English. 1954 (Russian). Soc. Virgiliev Yu. Shipkov N.. Okhotin. − Kiev. 26. 3rd rev. N. 34. 13–16.P. 28. 141 . Vol. Grigoriev.: Energoatomizdat.S. Extra Refractory Elements and Compounds. − М. Gulbransen E.I. 39.: Nauka.. 1964. 32. Gurvich et al. by [30]).25. − M. 1991 (Russian). E. et al. −М. by A. Buddery J.: IIL. Evans E. Ed. Darwin J. Beryllium Oxide. by I. 1959 (Russian).: Nauka. 1962 (Russian). High Temperature Engineering/Translated from English.J.. 37. L. 14. Physical Quantities. − M. 30. Novikova S. Beryllium/Translated from English. Thermodynamic Properties of Individual Substances/Ed. 97. et al. 33. Babushkin.M. − М.A. Japan. 4-th Int. Reference book/A. Samsonov G. International Database on Irradiated Nuclear Graphite Properties//Proc.: Metallurgia 1969 (Cit.A. Meilikhov. Vol.. by V. Kostikov V. 1963 (Russian). −М. 1966 (Russian).09.A..: IIL.

the stainless steel plates with boron additives or cavities 142 . In fast neutron reactors with liquid metal cooling. Boron carbide is refractory material with a melting point of 2450°С. low cost and good processibility [9]. The basic problem of using boron carbide consists in its swelling caused by helium formation under reactions [1. rods compensating and controlling a reactor power. The basic requirements to materials of control rods and burnable absorbers are the high neutron absorption cross section and stability at operating temperatures. ABSORBING MATERIALS The materials that absorb neutrons are used in reactor core in the following three cases: 1) 2) 3) Emergency shutdown rods. 5. whereas alloy AgInCd − in the casing of austenite steel or nickel alloy.1. MATERIALS OF CONTROL RODS Materials of control rods used in water cooled reactors are boron carbide (B4C) and silver based alloys (80% Ag. Boron carbide as powder or pellets is loaded into tubes of austenite steel. Shim rods compensate a fuel excess above its critical mass. 9]: 10 В + n → 3H + 2 4He. Boron (natural) Boron (natural) is a mixture of two isotopes 19% 10В and 81% 11В.1. 15% In. 2]. After several years of operation the boron carbide rods should be replaced to prevent the cladding damage. 10В + n → 7Li + 4He. Isotope 10В has the absorption thermal neutron cross section of 3840 × 10–24 cm2. they are quickly pulled in it. Physical and nuclear properties of chemical elements with the high neutron absorption cross section are given in Table 5. resistance to shocks and vibrations. and in the case of need. 5% Cd). high wear strength.1.1 [2–6]. Emergency shutdown rods are designed for quick cessation of fission reaction under accident conditions. Pure boron is rarely used. the functions of absorbing rods can be combined [1. In some cases. Absorbing materials are to be high resistant to radiation effects and to have good corrosion resistance in coolant medium. Each of these cases has own peculiarities and problems. which can be dispersed uniformly in fuel or placed in certain sections. These requirements limit the choice of these materials.5. Additives to moderator for compensation of excess reactivity or to coolant in the emergency core cooling system (ECCS). and in the case of fuel burn-up. boron carbide is used usually.2. The basic thermophysical properties of absorbing materials are presented in Table 5. they are pulled out from the core up to their full removal. Natural boron is characterized by lower absorbing ability due to dilution. as well as low density to provide quick movement of these rods. 5. At normal operation these rods are located outside of the core. Burnable absorbers. Materials of control rods (the only moving part of the reactor core) are to have high mechanical strength. Control rods are located within the core and used for fine control and transition from one power level to another. Instead of the rods.

0 585 162 25.5 2550 113 12.filled with B4C powder can be used.52 7310 156.9 2167 63 Isotope Content in mixture % Isotope absorption cross section 10–24 cm2 10 19.8 65 180 35.8 202 155 14.5 13550 –39 356. TABLE 5.1 390 Dysprosium Hafnium 66 72 162.78 MeV releases per one action and formation of helium gas occurs.8 37.81 2330 2075 2550 790 Silver 47 107.5 180 163 24. At absorption of neutron 10В (n.9 9200 155 52.9 130 164 28.5 178. These plates are also to be replaced periodically every 4–7 years.0 75 179 13.96 5240 822 1597 1850 143 .65 254000 161 19.2 91 Cadmium 48 112.9 766.9 3990 107 51.1.9 2150 151 47.25 7895 1311 3233 48900 157 15.36 20600 Indium 49 114.6 2024 194 115 95. it is necessary to cool down control rods and to provide for a cavity for helium accumulation. in order to reduce pressure in a rod cladding.1 2700 177 18.6 109 48.41 8650 320. PHYSICAL AND NUCLEAR PROPERTIES OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS WITH THE HIGH NEUTRON ABSORPTION CROSS-SECTION [2–6] Temperature Element Atomic number Atomic mass amu Density kg/m3 Тmelt °C Тboil °C Mean absorption cross section of all stable isotopes 10–24 cm2 Boron 5 10.7 363 Europium 83 151.4 8550 13310 1412 2230 2562 3100 948 105 Mercury 80 200.4 1500 178 27. As a result. α). energy of 2. The density of power release in B4C runs to 75 W/cm3.87 10500 961.8 61000 Gadolinium 64 157. Using B4C in fast neutron reactors is of particular complexity due to higher density of neutron flux (as compared with thermal neutron reactors) and decrease of B4C operating life.4 14 199 16.

α.811 B4C B nat.1 [7.1 × 10–8 5.24 [7. 4] Ta . 2] Alloy AgInCd - 10. Coefficient of linear thermal expansion. BASIC THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ABSORBING MATERIALS 35.2 413 7340 2050 352 [10] Eu2O3 - 8. 8] HfB2 TABLE 5. 4] Hf - 22.5 [7.3 290 8100 2340 373 [10] Dy2O3 12.2 5.9 [3.⋅10–61/K Electrical resistivity. °C 55.85 [7. 8] BN 9.9 22.81 [7. 8] ZrB2 28.5 60 230 10170 800 108. 8] [3. 4] 10.5 (3÷8) × 10–3 5 1.7 848 2250 3000 24.8 × 104 Properties are given at temperatures 20–200°C. amu Property 1.3 2.1 2.4 × 10–8 6.2. J/(kg⋅K) Thermal conductivity. W/(m⋅K) 4.1 [1.4 7.3 26 387 4520 2920 69.7 × 107 2 28.3 363 13090 2220 178.6 396 11200 3240 200. kg/m3 2450 2075 Melting point.5 23 230 6090 3050 112.5 [3.3 22.144 960 92 387 27 Heat capacity.6 50 140 16650 2996 180. Molecular mass. 8] TiB2 12 5. Ω⋅m 2510 2330 Density.

BURNABLE ABSORBERS Burnable absorbers are used either as assemblies of rods in the form of solid absorbents located in certain sections of the reactor core or its uniformly mixed mixture with fuel. The service life of hafnium rod can exceed 10 years [9.3–7%) mixture. Hafnium. it is well processed. so that the rate of its burn-up corresponds to the rate of fuel burn-up. The developed technology makes it possible to obtain high density of cermet with 70% (vol. 9]. The comparison characteristics of control rod materials are given in Table 5. Moreover. to profile density of heat flux in the core and to provide optimum burn-up. its corrosion resistance in water is higher than that of zirconium cladding. The gadolinium isotopes 155Gd. which has the high half-life (270 days) [1. Hafnium Hafnium (natural) is a mixture of six isotopes. 2] 145 . 12]. which allows to provide lower temperatures of the construction design. is characterized by necessary mechanical strength.3 [2]. borosilicate glass with B2O3 concentration of 12. the pellets of Al2O3 + B4C (3.1. 5. The advantage of hafnium is that in the course of its interaction with neutron.2.In recent years. Gadolinium is burnt up more fully to the end of fuel cycle that provides a better balance of neutrons and a better use of fuel.) of B4C. In spite of the low volume concentration of cooper. However. Low corrosion resistance in water and high cost of alloy are the reasons that hafnium is used as an absorbing material. Burnable absorbers are used to compensate excess reactivity at the beginning of fuel cycle. the advantages of composition UO2 + Gd2O3 overweigh its disadvantages [1. Combined using boron solution in water and fuel of type as mixture of gadolinium oxide with uranium dioxide enables to reduce the initial concentration of boric acid in coolant by more than 6 times. Its swelling under the action of neutron flux is not too large. the thermal conductivity of cermet at 400–700°С is much higher and is in the range of 45–50 W/(m K) instead of 18–20 W/(m K) for B4C. which can be used without cladding. 157Gd have the high thermal neutron capture cross section.1. The materials of burnable absorbers are to have necessary concentration of absorbent. good stability and ability to maintain high mechanical properties under radiation. The disadvantage of alloy AgInCd is that coolant can be contaminated by radioactive isotope 110Ag. research were performed on using cermet B4C + Cu as an absorbing material for fast reactors [11]. The disadvantages of using this mixture are as follows: 1) 2) Lower thermal conductivity and lower melting point as compared with UO2. 5.3. from which 174Hf has the highest thermal neutron absorption cross section. it can be used in reactor for about 10 years. 5. Application of pellets from a uniform mixture of UO2 + 8%Gd2O3 can achieve a weak change of reactivity (or its constancy) during the core service life. AgInCd alloy The alloy AgInCd has compensating ability that is lower by 15% than that of B4C. In pressurized water reactors. Complexity of manufacturing fuel assemblies. formation of helium does not occur. therefore.2.5% or solution of boron compounds (boric acid) in coolant are normally used.

95 0. L — low. COMPARISON OF CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTROL ROD MATERIALS [2] >2 >2 >5 10 20–30 20–25 30 3–5 4–8 - - - 10–15 1 Relative cost M P P P - - P P G - - - M Corrosion resistance in water - - -"- No technology - -"- No technical advantages Low operability One of the best materials The same Reference material Note .2 7.9 - Eu2O3–70% B4C CdB6 W-70% B4C Pyrohafnates DySmHf2O2 8300 6800 4700 3600 4500 6700 4800 2340 13100 - - - 10200 1780 Density kg/m3 0.7 1.8 - Metal Eu2O3 Europium 13.4 0.5 0.93 ~1 >1 >1 ~1.9 7.0 - Alloy AgInCd Boron 8.9 1. - 1.1 0.6 6.1 0.0 Boron B4C (73% of theoretical density) Material Number of atoms in sm3.85 1 Compensating ability Processibility*: H — high.7 1.85 - - - 0.023 0. P — poor. M — medium.059 4.146 - - - - Ag In Cd Hafnium 6. G — good.3.3 - - 4. 10–22 - - - - H H - H L - - - L H Swelling at radiation M M P P P M - P G - - - G G Processibility* TABLE 5.9 2.4 EuB6 1.

: Energoatomizdat. Monakhov A. 1960 (Russian). 305−311 (Russian).. Maruyama T. Ursu I.S. 10.: Energia. 1990 (Russian). Shtern Z..Yu.A. Legasov [A Guide to Nuclear Power Technology/Ed. Vargaftik N..REFERENCES TO SECTION 5 1. Romania.F. Arabey. PP. Samsonov G. Bucuresti.T. 12.B. 36. − M. Thermophysical Properties of Non-metallic Materials (Oxides)/Reference book. 1965 (Russian). 1984]. Isotopes and Properties of Elements. 8. 1982. Ed. 1972 (Russian). − М. Absorbent Materials to Control Nuclear Reactors/Translated from English. 147 .G.E.S. Drits. 380−385. its Compounds and Alloys..: Energoatomizdat.Ya. −New York: A Wiley-Interscience Publ. 1999. Reference Book on Thermophysical Properties of Gases and Liquids. 2. 11. 4. Samsonov G. Onose S..S. Ed. − M. 1989. Gerasimov V. Boron. Vol. 1963 (Russian). Acad. Refractory Compounds. Ed. − М.V. 1973 (Russian). Properties of Elements/Handbook in Two Volumes. 4. 1968 (Russian).V. V.G..: Metallurgia. − Kiev: Izdatelstvo AN USSR. Markovsky L. Valyashko M.: Metallurgia. Chekunov.: Atomizdat. 1982 (Russian). Kuznetsov − М. − M. by V. No. by V. Handbook on Nuclear Power Technology.: Atomizdat. PP. Zhigach A.. N.J. 3. 9. 6. Publ.E.V.− М. Materials of Nuclear Engineering. by M. Rahn et al. Thermophysical Properties of Materials for Nuclear Power Engineering/Reference book. 5. Kulikov I. Chirkin V.: Metallurgia./Translated from English. Thermal Conductivity of B4C/Cu Cermet.: Nauka. By F. − L. Krzhizhanovsky R. − Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology. − М. Fizica si Tehnologia Materialelar Nucleare. 1997 (Russian).V. 7.

ГР (GR) — gaseous oxygen refining. Zr. У (U)– carbon steels.1. and the physical properties of some structural materials at melting point are shown in Table 6.3. . TABLE 6. Р (R) — high speed steels with letter at the beginning of grade. Mg. mainly they used as alloys (Al. Ni. ferritic and austenitic. Metals are rarely used in pure state. Some core materials are likely to have the lower cross sections of thermal neutron capture. steels are classified as pearlitic. ВД (VD) — vacuum-arc refining. DESIGNATIONS OF STEELS [12] Letter identifications in steel grade [cyrillic (latin)] А (А) Б (B) В (V) Г (G) Д (D) Е (Е) К (К) Л (L) М (М) Н (N) П (P) Р (R) С (S) Т (Т) У (U) Ф (F) Х (Kh) Ц (Ts) Ю (Yu) ‘r’ 148 Alloying element in steel Nitrogen Niobium Tungsten Manganese Cooper Selenium Cobalt Molding material Molybdenum Nickel Phosphorus Boron Silicon Titanium difference in concentration Al and other elements Vanadium Chromium Zirconium Aluminium Rare-earth element Steels and alloys produced by special methods are additionally identified through hyphen in the end of grade by letters: [cyrillic (latin)] А (A) — automatic steels with letter at the beginning of grade or high quality steels with letter in the end of grade. ПД (PD) — plasma insertion followed by vacuum-arc refining. The chemical elements in steel grades are identified with letters (see Table 6. on the contrary. STRUCTURAL MATERIALS 6.. The basic physical properties of some structural materials under normal conditions are presented in Table 6. The name of steel and alloy types consists of the element designation followed by figures. Depending on the structure. shielding materials should have the considerable neutron capture cross sections.2. martensitic. The first figures before to steel grade indicate carbon concentration in hundredth of percent. Ш (Sh) — electroslag remelting with letter at the end of grade or bearing steel with letter at the beginning of grade.1. GENERAL INFORMATION Many various materials are used in the designs of reactor core. unless otherwise specified. ВО (VO) — vacuum-oxygen refining. some others such as absorbers. Nb. which indicate mean percentage of alloying element.1). ВИ (VI) — vacuum-induction melting.6. А–А (A-A) — specially for nuclear power engineering. steels. Mo).

91 24.320 0.1812 0.897 Heat capacity kJ/(kg⋅K) 14.48 0.8 24.8 5.215 4.66 Electrical resistivity 10–8 Ω⋅m TABLE 6.290 0.440 0.93 54.9 12.2–4.5 Nb [31.31 1. 19] Atomic mass amu Thermal neutron capture cross section 10–24cm2 [35] 6550 6580 - 6570 6550 6520 7950 7750–7810 7150 8570 8900 10200 7870 1740 1848 2700 Density kg/m3 1845 1827 1837 1855 1440 1480–1500 1907 2477 1455 2623 1538 650 1288 660 Melting point °С 0.15 4.98 Material.3 Beryllium [14. 19.8 5.8 2. 34] Zircalloy 2 [31.2 5. 19] Zr + 1 Nb [31.5–4. reference Nickel [14. 2 — Austenitic stainless steel type 1Kh18N10Т and SS 316.70 52 Stainless steel austenite [3] Steel (13% Cr) [3] 1 Chromium 2 55.22 91. 19] 9.7 16.040 1.5 5.56 8.53 8.315 0. 34] Zr + 2.265 0.43 0.293 0.060 0.2 4.2 11.8 5.14–6.9 8. 34] Zircalloy 4 [31.70 3.3 13.29 8.825 0.1 17 19 18 24 16 42 95 54 88 147 74 156 200 220 Thermal conductivity W/(mK) 5.5 6.37 91.450 0.0 70.09 0.0 11.249 0.13 6.4 8.84 4.94 Iron [14.31 4.185 2.3 23. 14.31 5.55 9.24 91.38 Zirconium 99. 55.2 3.88 2.7 26. 19] 58.0 57.4 2.7 3.5–2. 19] 92.33 4.23 Concentrat ion of nuclei 1022 cm–3 [35] 1 — Low carbon high chromium stainless steel of martensitic-ferrite class.9 7. 19] Niobium [14. 36] 91.278 0.0 12.50 0.3 Linear expansion coefficient 10–6 1/K - 74.8 11.85 Magnesium [14.32 4.99% [14.0 40 72.6–9.191 0.450 1.49 4.178 0.1806 0.2. BASIC PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME STRUCTURAL MATERIALS UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS . 19] Molybdenum [1.0 72.26 91. 34] 0.07 1.23 6.01 Aluminium [14.34 4.149 95.0 2.

88) 2040 109 4.99% [34] 3.150 2792 Boiling point. 1177 3330 1410 835 735 J/(kg⋅K) Thermal conductivity of 98 75** 84 33 69 liquid material. 36]* ~6 100 2130 (6. BASIC PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME STRUCTURAL MATERIALS AT MELTING POINT [1. 933 Melting point.4 at melting ΔV/V. 13% Cr) [9] ~5. 2 Austenitic stainless steel of types 1Kh18N10Т and SS 316.61) 45** 467 6020 − ~200** ~4600 2110 Zr+1% Nb [34] ~6.25) 70 420 9080 6191 382 ~5080 2896 Molybdenum Мо .24 (1. 1.6 1.85 4.1 138 83 10–8 Ω⋅m Volume expansion 6.8 (4. * These data should be refined.2 7426 7580 450 65 (5. kJ/kg 397 880 357 240 295 Heat of 10896 32963 5267 5916 6441 vapourization.8 3.1 − ~1550 (4.6−5.2.7 2.45 (4. ** References only for metals.81) 1520 (4. % 1 Low carbon high chromium stainless steel of martensitic-ferrite class.31) 36** 467 6000 6358 230** 4682 2128 Zirconium Zr 99.41 4.3. K Properties Aluminium Al 400 6519 6290 962 46 4.0 − ~1550 (4. W/(m⋅K) Dynamic viscosity.7−5. 14. 6.8 45 26.5 2945 2180 Chromium Cr 302 5017 2750 Niobium Nb 3. kJ/kg Density of liquid 2368 1690 1580 7034 7770 material. 15.4 10–3 Pa⋅s Surface tension.82)** 22** − 6980 − 775 − − 852 ~240** 3090 1713 Steel2 Kh18N10Т [9] ~240** 3010 1770 Steel1 (С<0.5% Nb [34] TABLE 6.25 1.95) 2.8−6.62) 39** 467 6040 − ~215** ~4600 2100 Zr+2. 915 1100 550 1830 1735 mN/m [8] Electrical resistivity of liquid material.2−5.8 1540 115 5.58 3.9 − − ~4 ~1500 4. 24.6 141 1455 7. K 2744 1560 Beryllium Be 1363 923 Magnesium Mg 3134 1811 Iron Fe 3186 1728 Nickel Ni Heat of fusion. kg/m3 Heat capacity. 19.

6. which reduce strength characteristics of metal.6 h [35].2.6 × 10–24cm2) and Mn (13.09 − 1. Fuel elements with claddings from magnesium alloys apply for 151 .8 0.3–0.4 × 10–24cm2).4–0.8–4.8 ≤0.0% 0.1.5% Mg have good nuclear properties.4. 6.09 − 0.6% ⎩ up to 100–300°С up to 100–300°С ⎧ Si ⎨ ⎩Mg ⎧Mn ⎨ ⎩ Cu 0. Aluminium alloys were used to manufacture claddings of uranium units (blocks) operating in reactors at temperatures up to 200°С and low pressures. Aluminium Aluminium is applied in research water cooled reactors at temperatures of 100–130°С. Low corrosion resistance of duralumin alloys in water and steam at temperature >200°С is another obstacle to use duralumin in nuclear engineering. Besides.2. duralumin alloys acquire high strength at normal temperatures.1 − 1.8 0.8–4.5 ≤0. lower corrosion activity in contact with water as compared with duralumin.7 D16(high strength) 3.0% After thermal processing.8 0.6 − 2. Alloying aluminium by various metals permits to increase the range of operating temperatures [32]: up to 150–320°С ⎧ Fe 0. iron are used for claddings and matrices of dispersion fuel elements at temperature up to 200–230°С.4–0.2% 0.2.4. the isotopes of these elements are characterized by high induced radioactivity with high half-lives for 64Cu –τ (1/2) = 12.5 1. Composition of duralumin different grades is presented in Table 6.9 ≤0. It has the low thermal neutron absorption cross section. Aluminium alloys with nickel. low density and high thermal conductivity.7 ≤0.5 These alloys cannot be used for nuclear engineering owing to the high absorption cross section of Cu (3. METALS 6. TABLE 6. COMPOSITION OF DURALUMIN GRADES [3] Element content % Grade Cu Mg Mn Si Fe D1 3.8 h and 56Mn – τ (1/2) = 2. and they have found use in some constructions [33].5 − 3.12 − 2.2% 0.2–1. At higher temperatures.5% ⎪Cr 0.1 − 1. intermetallics types UAl3 and UAl4 are formed in the course of aluminium contact with uranium.2.3% ⎪ ⎨ Ni 0. Aluminium-magnesium alloys types AMg-5 and AMg-7 contained up to 7. Magnesium Magnesium is used to manufacture fuel element claddings and matrices of dispersion fuel elements.

In the Russian Federation.8% Al) are well compatible with metallic uranium at temperatures up to 500°С. in which tin is the basic alloying element that provides improvement of their mechanical properties.5 (Э-125) is applied for tubes of assembly channels. 1 2 WWER — water–water power reactor RMBK — graphite channel-type reactor of large power 152 (6.224 amu 6511 kg/m3 [34] 1855°C (2128 K) [31] 4409°C (4680 K) [31] 153 ± 4 kJ/kg [23] 638 kJ/kg [1] 0.024 g/(m2day) in the course of 8000 h testing [16.01 Be + 0. the decrease of corrosion resistance in water and steam is taken place that resulted in the need for additional alloying [33].1 Nb. which can be eliminated. Zirconium is well compatible with nuclear fuel and characterized by high processing properties.uranium-graphite and heavy water reactors. The oxidation kinetics is defined by expression: Δm = k τn. Under irradiation. depends on their corrosion resistance. the alloy type Ozhenit-0.18 × 10–24 cm2 [35] Zirconium alloys with niobium are used as claddings of fuel elements of WWER1. for example. High corrosion resistance of niobium alloyed metals in water (350 K) and steam at temperatures of 400–550°С is caused by their ability to passivation with formation of protective films. 17].25 Sn. oxidation in the presence of water steam. However in this case. The maximum temperature. 33]. The corrosion rate of the Zr + 2.5 (0. These alloys are the basis material of assembly channel of RBMK reactor. The Zr + 1% Nb alloy of type N-1 (E-110) is used for fuel element claddings. Basic properties of zirconium are as follows: Atomic number Atomic mass Density at normal conditions Melting point Boiling point Heat of fusion Heat of vapourization Molar volume Thermal neutron capture cross section 40 91. Zirconium and its alloys Zirconium is a metal with high melting point (1850°С). RBMK2 and transport reactors.3. Its thermal neutron absorption cross section is less than 1 × 10–24cm2.1) . have a wide distribution in the USA. 0. 0. by alloying with niobium.5% Nb alloy does not exceed 0. The disadvantage of these alloys is a high tendency to grain growth. where natural uranium is used as fuel and carbon dioxide (СО2) as coolant аt temperatures of 350–450°С. This alloy is close to Zircalloy by its mechanical properties and can be used in water and steam at temperatures up to 400°С [34]. they are highly resistant to oxidation. The disadvantages of zirconium are low strength properties and low heat resistance.1402 × 10–8 m–3 [14] 0.1 Fe. 0. The claddings from magnesium alloys of type Magnox (Mg + 0. loss of strength properties. 6. Alloys of type Zircalloy.2. The zirconium thermal conductivity is close to that of stainless steel. the corrosion rate increases only by 5–10% [18]. Magnesium can fire at temperatures of 470–500°С in the atmosphere of oxygen and air [32. the Zr + 2.5% Nb alloy of typeN-2.1 Ni) with low alloying was developed. at which zirconium alloys can be used in water cooled reactors.

5.8 0. the values of k.3 steam 400 30.2 0.6) at 1100 ≤ Т ≤ 2000 K ρе ⋅108 (Ω⋅m) = 92.181 T – 96. (6. (6.9918 × 103 T–1. (6.62 Zirconium Zr-1% Nb alloy Zr-2.1) medium Temperature °C Pressure MPa k n water 350 16.4) TABLE 6.7) The basic thermophysical properties of solid zirconium according to Equations (6.5.142 + 7.22 0.38 water 350 16.0 0. Electrical resistivity of Zr is defined by following correlations: at T < 1100 K ρе ⋅108 (Ω⋅m) = −2.71 × 10–7 T3 + 2.904 × 10–2 T+ 4.0 0.3.47 steam 350 16.7) are shown in Table 6.08×10–6 T2 +10.5329 × 10–6 T2 + 2.5 steam 400 30.462 + 0.85 + 2.249 × 10–4 T2 − 5. PARAMETERS OF OXIDATION KINETICS OF ZIRCONIUM AND ITS ALLOYS [17] Conditions Metal Parameters of Eq. (6.5 0.2 0.596 + 0.5% Nb alloy Thermal conductivity of Zr at T < 2000 K with an accuracy of ± 10% is evaluated as: λ [W/(m⋅K)] = 8. n coefficients depend on the composition of alloy and temperature. (6.3 0.5) Thermal diffusivity of Zr in 10–6 (m2/s) is calculated a = λ C p ρ . Some data on oxidation kinetics of zirconium and its alloys are presented in Table 6. 153 .where Δm is the weight increment of zirconium owing to formation of oxide film for time τ in hours.2 × 10–9 T3.1685 T.2–6.58 steam 450 30.0141 T – 3.7 0.3) for β phase of Zr at 1100 ≤ Т ≤ 2128 K Cp [J/(kg K)] = 276.8527 + 7.7×10–9 T3.27×10–2 T. (6. (6.8 0.1 × 10–6 T2 + 36.2.1.0 0.08 × 10–10 T4.6.71 water 300 8.8 0.8 0. 6.2) Heat capacity of Zr is calculated as [20]: for α phase of Zr at 298 ≤ Т ≤ 1100 K Cp [J/(kg K)] = 238.35 0. Properties of solid zirconium depending on temperature [19–25] Density of Zr is defined by correlation: ρ(T) (kg/m3) = 6550 − 0.0820 × 10–3 T + 2.

6 6. (6.20 133 1000 6382 360 21.2–6.6 10.48 + 1.63192 + 0.40 129 1700 6264 344 30.9 7.30 120 1300 6331 313 24. ρе⋅108 (Ω⋅m) = 130 + 8⋅10–3T.2 7.11 131 1800 6247 354 31. ρе⋅108 (Ω⋅m) = − 65.46 Electrical resistivity 108(Ω⋅m) 46 300 6499 285 21.74588 × 10–3 T3 − 5.66 141 Temperature K Density kg/m3 298 6.76 141 2128 6191 396 36.11) .13 66 500 6466 310 19.5 6.2.5 − 0.05008 × 10–4 T2 − − 4.66 127 1600 6280 335 28.3 5.10319T − 5. (6.0937 × 10–5 T2 + + 1.2 Thermal diffusivity 106(m2/s) 11.56831 × 10–11 T3.TABLE 6.3 9.9) Electrical resistivity is calculated by the correlation.80 134 1900 6230 366 33.7 5.6 8.47 136 2000 6213 378 34.64305 × 10–13 T4 .26469 × 10–12 T4.8) Heat capacity Ср [kJ/(kg⋅K)] = − 1. ρ(Тboil)=5590 kg/m3.42 46 400 6483 298 19.5 9. (6.3. BASIC THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLID ZIRCONIUM BY EQS (6.47829 × 10–8 T3 + 3.09 115 800 6415 340 19.11 122 1400 6314 320 25.11 122 1200 6348 307 23.53 143 1200 6348 307 23.6 8.4 9.10 126 900 6398 350 20.5 7.6 9.0 6.0 9. ρ(Тmelt) = 6107 kg/m3. Properties of liquid zirconium depending on temperature [20–24] Density ρ (kg/m3) = 6844.2.30 120 1300 6331 313 24.90 125 1500 6297 327 27.5 8.0 9.35 139 1100 6365 370 22.609898 T + 2. 154 (6.50 85 600 6449 320 19.19 102 700 6432 331 19.6.10) or a more exact equation.26174 × 10–7 T2 + 5.9 9.12 138 2100 6196 392 36.0 7.5 8.16791 × 10–8 T3 − 9.7) 6500 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) 285 Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) 21.2 11.

Zirconium-niobium (1%) alloy type N-1 (E-110) The basic component of Zr + 1% Nb alloy is zirconium with the following content of other elements (%): Nb – (0. Si − 0. C – 0.0 4000 5655 644 164.8 3500 5791 568 158.3.0 3800 5711 608 162.0 4100 5626 667 164.9 6.004.003.9 2300 6073 510 148. Al – 0.Mean coefficient of volumetric expansion β = 39 × 10–6 1/K.1 2600 6007 477 150.3 2500 6029 462 150. Surface tension [23] at 2128 K (1855°С) σ = 1455 mN/m.05.9 3600 5765 580 159. TABLE 6.8 3300 5842 548 156.0 3900 5683 625 163. 155 .001÷0.9÷1. Ti – 0. Thermophysical properties of liquid zirconium in the temperature range from 2128 to 4100 K calculated on the basis of Eqs (6.8–6.6 2400 6051 445 149. Fe – 0. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LIQUID ZIRCONIUM BY EQS (6.8 3400 5817 558 157.7 [21–23].2.9 3200 5867 539 155.02.11) Temperature K Density kg/m3 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) Electrical resistivity 108(Ω⋅m) 2128 6110 700 147. Ni – 0.015.007.11) are presented in Table 6.3 2900 5939 512 153.8– 6.3.003. Dynamic viscosity μ = 8 × 10–3 Pa⋅s [24].3 2200 6095 645 147. at 2733 K (2460°С) σ = 1395 mN/m.002).0 3100 5891 531 154. N – 0.1 3000 5915 522 154.1).8 2700 5984 490 151.5 2800 5962 502 152. O – 0. H – (0.004.7.9 3700 5738 593 161.

27] at 300 ≤ Т ≤ 1100 K Cp [J/(kg K)] = 238 + 0.74 × 10–6 T2.0663 T.16а) Spectral emissivity at temperature of 350−450 K is ε = (0.86 + 1. (6.5 − 0.16) (6. (6.286 T.12) Heat capacity [26.02 Т.13а) Thermal conductivity [28] at 300 ≤ Т ≤ 1100 K λ [W/(m⋅K)] = 23. (6.8.13) at 1100 ≤ Т ≤ 2000 K Cp [J/(kg K)] = 281 + 0.08 + 0. (6.22 + 1.68 × 10–5 T2.411 × 10–2 T + 2.82 × 10–3 T.16а) are presented in Table 6.2535 T − 2.0391 × 10–4 T2 + 9. at 1100 ≤ Т ≤ 1600 K λ [W/(m⋅K)] = 1.14) (6. (6.14а) Thermal diffusivity in 10–6 m2/s is defined as a = λ C p ρ . Thermophysical properties of Zr + 1% Nb alloy calculated by correlations (6. 156 .505 × 10–8 T3.Some thermophysical properties of this alloy are as follows: Melting point Phase transition point Heat of fusion Heat of phase transition Density at 298 K 2130 K 1140 K 150–160 kJ/kg 42 kJ/kg 6550 kg/m3 Density at 300 ≤ Т ≤ 1100 K [34] ρ(T) (kg/m3) = 6636 − 0.5 + 0.15) Electrical resistivity [28] at 300 ≤ Т ≤ 1100 K ρe⋅108 (Ω⋅m) = −9. at 1200 ≤ Т ≤ 1500 K ρe⋅108 (Ω⋅m) = 94.184) [34].159 T. Linear expansion coefficient [29] at 300 ≤ Т ≤ 1100 K α⋅106 (1/K) = 5. (6.12–6.0192 T + 1.167–0.

Density at 20°С is equal to 6530 kg/m3.5 14.16а) Electrical resistivity 108(Ω⋅m) 10.5 11. Fe – (0.1 MeV are considered in Ref.8.5).95 66 318 18.0 – 1.0 - - 2100 6035 420 35.172 T − 5.17) Thermal conductivity [37].04 × 10–4 Т + 8.5).3 400 6522 302 500 6493 600 Temperature K Density 300 kg/m3 51 6.1 8.0 - - Heat capacity Thermal conductivity J/(kg⋅K) W/(m⋅K) Thermal diffusivity 106 (m2/s) 6550 286 19. (6. Thus the value of λ prior to radiation exposure is defined as: 157 .87 × 10–5 T2. (6.68 112 900 6379 381 19.583 + 348 Т–1 + 1.5 12.4.77 18. (α + β) → β 880–910°С. The thermophysical properties of the alloy type E-635 are similar in general to the properties of the alloy type E-110.6 - 120 1500 6207 380 31.0 - 118 1400 6236 374 29.7 10. at 400 ≤ Т ≤ 1500 K λ [W/(m⋅K)] = 10.1).0 8.8 8.49 101 800 6407 365 18.18) The data on thermal conductivity of the alloy type E-635 in unirradiated state and after exposure to radiation at the neutron flux of 2 × 1022 n/cm2 and Е > 0. The particular correlations are presented below [37.12-6.1 8.5 12.8 6.4 5.4 6. Zirconium-niobium alloy type E-635 The Zr-Nb alloy type E-635 differs from the previous alloy type E-110 by addition of such alloying elements as Sn and Fe.2. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF Zr + 1% Nb ALLOY BY EQS (6.4 7.5 9.04 136 1100 6321 413 22.2 6.5 13.1 6.3.1 7.2 - 116 1300 6264 367 27. The composition of this alloy based on zirconium is the following (%): Nb – (0.13 79 6464 333 18.3 8.5 14.3 - 122 1600 6178 387 33. 38].86 123 1000 6350 397 21. Sn – (1.735 × 10–6 Т2.31 90 700 6436 349 18. Phase transition point α → (α + β) 630–650°С.1 6. Heat capacity in β phase at Т > 1200 K: Cp [J/(kg K)] = 221 + 0.22 150 1200 6293 360 25.TABLE 6.3 – 0.9 – 1. [38].3 Linear expansion coefficient 106 (1/K) 5.9 8.

Ni – 0.02 − 3 × 10–4 Т (6.001÷0.λ [W/(m⋅K)] = 13. (6.5. C – 0.20) Heat capacity at 300 ≤ Т ≤ 1100 K Cp [J/(kg K)] = 221 + 0. Al – 0.0115T. Zirconium-niobium (2.5%) alloy type N–2.172 T − 5.5 × 10–3 (Т – 273).003.18b) Spectral emissivity at temperature of 1700–2000 K is defined by equation from data in Ref. O – 0.015. 158 .21) at 1100 ≤ Т ≤ 1600 K Cp = 380 J/(kg K) Thermal conductivity at 300 ≤ Т ≤ 1100 K λ [W/(m⋅ K)] = 14 + 0. [29].004.5. λ [W/(m⋅K)] = 13. Fe – 0. Thermal diffusivity in 10–6 m2/s is defined as (6.3.1 + 5.87 × 10–5 T2.65 µm)= 1. H − (0. N – 0.02.20–6.5% Nb alloy with zirconium as the basis is as follows (%): Nb – 2.007.002). Some thermophysical properties of this alloy are as follows: Melting point Phase transition point Heat of fusion Heat of phase transition Density at 298 K 2130 K 1140 K 150–160 kJ/kg 40 kJ/kg 6570 kg/m3 Density ρ(T) (kg/m3) =6657 − 0.05.1 + 1.2. (6.9. Thermophysical properties of Zr + 2.004.5 (E-125) [31] Composition of Zr + 2.6 × 10–2 (Т – 273).18а) and after radiation exposure.2861 T. (6.5% Nb alloy calculated by Eqs (6. Ti – 0. (6.22) are shown in Table 6.22) a = λ C pρ . The values of linear expansion coefficients are taken in Ref. [37]: ε (λ = 0.19) 6.003. Si – 0.

3. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF Zr + 2. Depending on the concentration of chromium and other alloying elements. In some cases.5% Nb ALLOY BY EQS (6.4 11. they replace more expensive chromium-nickel stainless steels.10 [55].0 1000 6371 334 25.8 600 6485 303 20.9 700 6457 313 22.1.11 [54]. The chemical composition of some pearlitic steels is shown in Table 6. The linear expansion coefficient is reduced with increasing the chromium concentration and rises as temperature is increased. These steels are used to manufacture high pressure vessels and tubes for thermal power plants.9 10.3 800 6428 321 23. steels are classified as pearlitic.3 400 6543 280 18. The thermal conductivity of chromium steels and alloys used in heat exchangers of NPP is shown in Table 6.0 3. The most important thermophysical properties of materials used for NPP units are thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient. STEELS 6. because chromium has a favorable effect on corrosion resistance of steel at high temperatures.6 4.2 5.1 10. the structure and thermal processing.7 12.9.0 1100 6342 339 26.TABLE 6.20–6.4 4. Pearlitic steels are referred to low alloyed alloys.3.9 Linear expansion coefficient 106(1/K) [29] 4.8 10.1 4. K Density kg/m3 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) 300 6571 267 17. martensitic.2 11.1. 159 . High temperature stainless chromium steels The steels alloyed by chromium have found a wide use in nuclear reactor industry. At the content of Cr < 5%.4 - 1200 6314 380 - - - 1300 6285 380 - - - 1400 6256 380 - - - 1500 6228 380 - - - 1600 6199 380 - - - 2100 6056 - - - - Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) Thermal diffusivity 106(m2/s) 6.9 5.4 900 6400 328 24.5 9. Thermophysical properties of steels of basic classes are presented in Table 6.6 10.5 12. ferrite and austenitic.7 500 6514 292 19. These properties govern the heat transfer processes and occurrence of thermal stresses in constructions [39–48]. the thermal conductivity of steel decreases with increasing temperature and rises at the content of Cr >12%. The thermal conductivity of steel is reduced as the chromium content is increased. Pearlitic steels are not prone to intergranular attack (IGA) and stress-corrosion cracking.22) Temp.6 4.

°С - 50.0 14. kg/m3 Property - 14.5 11.5 945 492 1400–1425 8000 12Kh18N9Т 73–95 18.1 966 438 1410–1440 7750 20Kh13 105 13 10. J/(kg⋅K) 7830 10 Density.2 10. Ω⋅m Linear expansion coefficient.6 14.09 47.160 1530 Temperaturemelt.5 (700°С) Thermal conductivity. 106 1/K 451 (100°С) Heat capacity.5 615 (900°С) 442 1390 8170 Nickel based alloy KhN67МVТYu .75 25.10.6 15 (20–100°С) (20–500°С) ρе 108 (20°С).6 16.7 - 459 1490–1450 7810 35 Pearlitic steels 32 13.0 - 475 1450–1500 7860 11Kh11N2V2МF Martensitic steels TABLE 6.6 27. W/(m⋅K) 11.2 - 471 1400–1450 7800 12Kh1МF 60 11.02 11.9 16.3 - 492 1383–1410 7820 20Kh25N20S2 Austenitic steels 124 13.8 41.3 9.7 12.0 15. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF STEELS OF BASIC CLASSES 75 17.

55 0.2 0.25–0.4–0.6 26.6–0.6–0.5–0.7 18.8–1.8 0.37 ≤0.5 23.3–0.025/- 16GNМ 0.4–0.0 46.8–2.1 - 1.2–0.0–1.12–0.7 47.5–3.5–3.1 Kh18N10Т 14.1 21.25–0.8 0.18 - 0.25 - - - - -/0.22–0.6 24.37 ≤0.18 12KhМ 0.6 0.8–1.10–0.8 - - - 15Kh2МFА 0.6 - - 12Kh1МF 0. pipelines.3–0.65 0.42 1.4 16.3–0.1 0.9 18.4 0.8–1.2–2.09–0.1–1. These thermophysical properties are of great importance for evaluation of thermal stresses in reactor vessel [47]. They also characterized by the low linear expansion coefficient of (12–13) × 10–6K–1 as compared with that (15–17) × 10–6K–1 of chromium-nickel stainless steels.7 - - - 11 14 16 18 20 22 25 27 29 31 14.7 27.3 0. 161 . CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOME PEARLITIC STEELS [55] Element content % Steel grade С Cr Mo Mn V/Nb Ni Si Cu/Al 0.4 0.6 - - - - Kh18N9 16.35/- ≤0.8 15.13–0.12 0.7 0.37 ≤0.8 27. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF STEELS AND ALLOYS USED FOR HEAT EXCHANGERS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS [54] Temperature °С Alloy grade 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Thermal conductivity.12.27 2.8 0.2 23.15 0.3 47.6 0.3 14. W/(m⋅K) 1Kh2М 48.08–0.7 - - - - - - - - 15М 0.3 0.4–0.37 ≤0.5–0.35–1.4–0.7 21.3 18.6 0.16 2.17–0.4 20.8 0.025/- 15Kh2NМFА 0.12/- 1.8 - 0.6 0.0 25.0 24.4 16.5 24.9 38.0 - - - - 05KhN46MVB4 - 12.4 28.9 - - - 0.13–0.11.4 - KhN55МVTs 0Kh18N16М3B (EI-847) TABLE 6.13–0.15–0.8 36.35 - 0.7 0.35/ 0.0 37.4 25.08–0.15–0.30/- 12Kh2МFB 0.22–0.9 48.7 26.7–1.15/- 0.6 - - - - Kh2МFB 41.25–0.0 38.5 22.27 2.17–0.2 45.3 - - <0.8–3. pearlitic steels are used to manufacture reactor vessels and heads.0 0.15/- 25Kh3МFА 0.1–0.7 - 0.6–0.5–0. steam generators and other units operating in contact with water.1 10KhSND In nuclear power engineering.3/- 15Kh3NМFА 0.3 36. The low alloyed steels have the high thermal conductivity of 30–50 W/(m⋅K) instead of that 12–17 W/(m⋅K) for the high alloyed steels.4 23.5–0.08–0.TABLE 6.4–0.16 0.6–0.4 20.5 0.8 20.35–0.35/- 0.17–0.6 0.0 0.65/- 48ТS-1 0.7 - - 38KhМYuА 0.9–1.0 18.8 25.2 - - - 03Kh21N32М3B - 13.17–0.7 21.18 2.4–0.1–2.5–0.3–0.0 19.2 18.3 0.25–0.18 1.6 0.12 2.3 18.35/- ≤0. steam and liquid metals in the temperature range of 250–580°С.

85 7.7404 × 10–3 Т2.3.1.1 8. TABLE 6.6 38.5 14.9 12. Heat resistance of these steels increases by their alloying with molybdenum and vanadium (12KhМ1F).0 14.2 − 0.4 23. 51]: for steel type 15Kh2NМfА Сp [J/(kg⋅К)] = 482.5 13. These steels are designated for continuous operation (pipelines.0 16.1 Steel 10GN2МFА Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) Thermal diffusivity 106(m2/s) [11] Linear expansion coefficient 106(1/K) [11] [12] [13] 12.93 5. Steels of type12Kh2МFB and similar ones have high plastic properties.1.9614 × 10–3 Т2.17 7.26 years. (6. °С 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 162 K 293 373 473 573 673 773 873 973 1073 1173 1273 1373 Steels 15Kh2NМFА 15Kh2МFА 15Kh3NМFА 25Kh3МFА Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) Thermal diffusivity 106(m2/s) [12] [11] 458 474 507 555 617 694 786 893 1015 1152 1303 1469 (55) (52) 47. welding and others.57 6. The specific heat capacity of pearlitic steels of two types is determined from the following correlations [50.4 14.0 6.8 15.87 6.5% Cr and 1% Мо gain susceptibility to formation of brittle structure that results in difficulties during manufacture operations such as deformation.9 37.5 .4 466 476 505 553 621 708 814 940 1084 1248 1431 1633 14.0 25.6 16.15 13.2 11. superheaters. Pearlitic steels Pearlitic steels are characterized by good processing properties.43 4.9 10.81 5.4 10.6.2 15.1 6.80 4.5290Т + 0. Corrosion products of these steels contain no Co impurities. They are well welded between each other and with other steels. collectors).47 11.13. The main disadvantage of pearlitic steels is their poor resistance to oxidation in air at the low chromium content (≤1%). These disadvantages are eliminated by steel alloying with niobium.6 23.4 11. In the course of cooling in air. the presence of which deteriorates the radiation environment as a result of the formation of the isotope 60Со with a half-life of 5.73 7.2 30.3 − 0.35 5.28 5.7 28.23) for steel type 10GN2МFА Сp [J/(kg⋅К)] = 536. pearlitic steels with the content of 2–2.05 3.2979Т + 0.2 11. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME PEARLITIC STEELS Temp. (6.3 41.24) Thermophysical properties of some pearlitic steels are given in Table 6.5 9.8 24.3 13.13.00 4.

30 С Cr Mo V W Nb 0. Steels with the Cr concentration of 14–16% are referred to the stainless class.8 0. In the case when the higher resistance to oxidation is required as compared with pearlitic steels. martensitic chromium steels can be used to manufacture pipelines. Cr. heat exchangers and accessories.5 0. Due to the effect of oxygen. Nb. fastening elements and control mechanisms.8 With the use of chromium steels for nuclear power engineering. the corrosion rate of chromium steels increases owing to the formation of galvanic couples.5 0. slits etc.30 1.17 11−13 0. In nuclear power engineering.7−2.12 13 1.8−1.08 11−13 − − − − Other elements − 1Kh13 0.2 − − 1Kh12МVBF ~0.14 ~11.20−0.7 0.16−0. in particular in boiling reactors.12−0. TABLE 6.0 0.7 ~0.45 − ~4 − − − Ni0.15 12−14 − − − − − 2Kh13 0.21 10.5 0.6−0.10 ~12 ~1 − 2Kh11МFB 0.0−13.1 B 0. V and others is rather small and does not exceed thousandth percent.30 1Kh12МV4B ~0.40 − − − 1Kh12В2МF 0. The chemical composition of the complex-alloyed stainless chromium steels is presented in Table 6. which depends on the Cr content. 163 . their corrosion resistance. the chromium steels type Kh13 with the different content of carbon and alloying elements are used to manufacture pipelines.4 0. The heat resistance of steels with the content of 13% Cr increases at their alloying by Mo.8 − 0.14 [47].19 10. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COMPLEX-ALLOYED STAINLESS CHROMIUM STEELS [47] Element content % Steel grade 0Kh13 ≤ 0. In the case of the use of chromium-nickel steels in the circuit.6−0.20−0.3. The corrosion rate of chromium steels in water with impurities increases at the presence of gaps.09−0. is to be taken into account.2.20–0.15−0.14.7−1. In liquid sodium used as coolant.40 2Kh12VNМF 0.6 ~0. Martensitic chromium steels At the boron concentration of more than 2–3%.1 0. The oxygen impurity in sodium has a considerable effect on corrosion processes in it.5−0.9 0.42 ~0. in particular for nuclear power engineering. The corrosion resistance of low alloyed pearlitic steels and martensitic ones in water and steam at high temperature is distinctly lower than that of stainless steel with the high chromium content.18 11.4–0. steels acquire the martensitic structure that causes problems in the course of manufacturing various components. solubility of chromium steel components such as Fe.12−0. This leads to the necessity of precautions.15−0. superheaters.15−0.25−0.0−11.30 - 0. W and Nb.10−0.004 0. which have been taken to reduce depositions of corrosion products on heat-transfer surfaces and to improve the radiation environment.0−11.30 1Kh13М2BFR 0. They are used in the case when high corrosion resistance simultaneously with high oxidation resistance are desired.6.24 12−14 − − − − − 1Kh11МF 0.1.

2 27.8) (29. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME MARTENSITIC-FERRITE CHROMIUM STEELS [46] Temperature Steels of types 08Kh13. PbBi).3 (12. whereas the maximum operating temperature of chromium steels is 580–620°С. Nb. swell slightly under irradiation and have a tendency to grain growth and brittleness.16 [47].5) - Steel type 16Kh12NМS (EP-823Sh) Electrical resistivity 108(Ω⋅m) Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) Thermal diffusivity 106(m2/s) (180) 160 142 127 116 107 98 89 80 - 22.3.1 28. Table 6. The contact of low alloyed pearlitic steels with sodium results in decarbonization of a surface layer of steels.7 23.8 26.5) Linear expansion coefficient 106(1/K) 10.3. 6.4 23. 12Kh13 and 20Kh13 °С K Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 293 373 473 573 673 773 873 973 1073 1173 1273 440 468 522 561 620 689 780 966 - Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) (22) (23.1.2) (29.3 - 12. pumps and accessories). These steels can be used in liquid metal circuits (Pb.1 24.6 13.1 27. However owing to low heat resistance of chromium steels at temperatures above 600°С. TABLE 6. they are not used widely. 49.9 14.19 [46.18 and Table 6. The composition of some stainless chromium-nickel steels is given in Table 6. Ferrite steels Stainless high chromium steels of this class (15–30% Cr) have substantial oxidation resistance at high temperatures and high corrosion resistance in aggressive environments and atmosphere.2) 24.1 13. The properties of some grades of austenitic steels are presented in Table 6. Ta. respectively. steels with the Cr content of 12% are characterized by high corrosion resistance in the non-isothermal sodium flux.9 13.2 13. Steels with the chromium content of 25–30% have high oxidation resistance. these steels are alloyed by such additives as Ti. 50. Thermophysical properties of some martensiticferrite chromium steels are presented in Table 6. To reduce their tendency to grain growth. Steels with the chromium content of 17% have low heat resistance.0 13. pipelines. vessel internals. At temperature of 600°С and the oxygen concentration of ≤5 × 10–3%.5 (28.7 28.mass transfer is enhanced under non-isothermal conditions or at the presence of dissimilar materials in the circulation system.0 11.0 12.2.4 26.7 13.15 [46]. High temperature stainless chromium-nickel (austenitic) steels These steels are basic structural materials for manufacturing NPP units (fuel element claddings. They can be used for electrical resistance elements of heaters. N as well as silicon and aluminium (1–5%).4 11. 52]. They can operate at 650–750°С.2 27. 164 .1 - 6.1 10.17 [49–51].65 12.7 25.3. heat exchangers.15.7 11.

Alloying chromium-nickel steels by molybdenum (content of 2–3%) increases their heat resistance and corrosion resistance in water and steam.005 0Kh18N10 W 165 .12 18 12 0.08 15 35 3. % Steel grade Notes С Cr Ni Ti Nb Mo ≤0.5 - - - 0Kh18N12B ≤0. In particular.45 14 14 - - 0.8 Al-1. Nb.08 18 10 - - - Analog of steel type 304 0Kh18N10Т 0.6 - - Kh18N12М2Т ≤0. COMPOSITION OF STAINLESS CHROMIUM-NICKEL STEELS [47] Element concentration. these steels are of great importance for nuclear power engineering.0 - Analog of steel type 317 (EI-847) 0Kh16N15М3BR ≤0.3%) and Al (1–3%) has found the most application. intermetallic compounds may occur in the steel structure that will serve to harden steels so called intermetallide hardening.2.4 - 0Kh16N15М3B ≤0.08 18 12 - - 3.16.65 3. these steels have the high nickel content of 20–35%.15 14 14 - - 0.4 - 2.0 Analog of steel type 316 1Kh14N14V2М ≤0.5 2.06 16 15 - 0. B-0. Therefore. The operation experience of water cooled and liquid metal reactors indicates that at temperature <550°С the most widespread stainless austenitic steel type of 1Kh18N10Т can provide safe operation of fuel element claddings. In this case. At higher operating temperatures.03–0.7 - B-0.06 16 15 - 0.4 - Kh15N35V3Т3YuR ≤0.0 - - 2. W and other elements are to be applied. Intermetallide hardening of chromiumnickel steels achieved by alloying with Ti (2.4 2.06 18 12 - 0. steels alloyed by Mo.5 Analog of steel type 316 with titanium Kh18N12М3 ≤0. TABLE 6.06 18 10 C 5(%) - - Analog of steel 321 1Kh18N10Т ≤0.12 18 10 0.07 4Kh14N14V2М 0.75 2.

2 20.7 21. 52] Temperature °С K 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 293 373 473 573 673 773 873 973 1073 1173 1273 166 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) 468 486 510 531 553 574 594 614 634 655 676 Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) (15.5 (31.17.4 20.9 4.15 5.1 21.5 24.6 17.1 19.8 22.7 19.6 18. 50.1 17.7 17.7 20.83 5.2 23.0 18.9 20.1) 16.2 18.45 4.2 18.18. PROPERTIES OF AUSTENITIC STEEL TYPE 08Kh18N10Т [49–51] Temperature °С K Density kg/m3 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 293 373 473 573 673 773 873 973 1073 1173 1273 1373 1473 7900 7862 7821 7778 7732 7684 7634 7582 7527 7470 7411 7349 7285 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) Thermal diffusivity 106(m2/s) 478 495 516 537 558 579 600 622 643 664 685 706 727 16.8 26.3 17.47 4.70 4.2 17.7 18.30 5.1 20.51 4.TABLE 6.50 4.4 24.8 23. PROPERTIES OF AUSTENITIC STEELS OF TYPES 12KH18N9Т AND 12 Kh 18N10Т [46.42 4.6 TABLE 6.5 21.2 18.7 26.2 19.8 16.53 4.45 Linear expansion coefficient 106(1/K) 15.8 18.4 - Electrical resistivity 108(Ω⋅m) 7580 87 94 99 105 109 114 - .00 5.4 17.4 4.1 27.1) Linear expansion coefficient 106(1/K) 16.6 19.7 19.5 28.4 28.0 17. 49.2 16.

49. Corrosion cracking of austenitic steels can take place in the presence of oxygen in water steam (saturated. which can result in the restriction of their efficiency.9 18.5 17. The value of radiation damage depends heavily on alloying.19. the boundaries of metal grains are subject to selective fracture in water and steam.1 Linear Expansion coefficient 106(1/K) (15. Each atom of material undergoes up to 50 and more displacements at fluence of 2 × 1023 n/cm2 that presents a complicated problem.5 Electrical resistivity 108(Ω⋅m) 71 74 82 89 95 100 105 109 - Molybdenum and vanadium are the basic alloying elements. these effects do not appear that is caused by annealing radiation defects.9 20.8 27.6 26. primarily. 52] Temperature K °С Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 293 373 473 573 673 773 873 973 1073 1173 1273 512 529 546 567 592 630 638 642 646 651 - Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) 15.9 19. the increase of strength and yield point as well as the decrease of plasticity is taken place. Over a short time period.9 16. another dangerous type of corrosion is known such as intercrystalline (intergranular) corrosion (ICC). failure is caused by combined effect of two factors such as inobservance of water regime norms.TABLE 6. In most cases.6 18.4 23. The content of titanium and niobium is to be of 5 and 8% respectively. heat exchangers and fuel element claddings of boiling reactors.g. the increase of content of chlorides and oxygen in water.2) 16.3 18. 167 . the metal. In austenitic steels.0 17. e. which add to austenitic steels to increase their high temperature resistance that is defined.0 18.4 28. and its failure happens unexpectedly with no preliminary visible changes. The service experience of water cooled NPP shows that the most often failure units are steam generators. whereas the content of carbon is of 0. In this case.01%. by the enhancement of strength of interatomic bonds.1 19. as well as at supercritical parameters). PROPERTIES OF AUSTENITIC STEEL 12Х18Н9 [46. For example. structure and mechanical properties. corrosion cracking may take place. Adding of such elements as chromium and nickel has an opposite effect. which effect on this process (see above).1 21. Moreover.9 25. The protection against such type of cracking is based on depressing of factors. At neutron fluence of 1023 n/cm2. and action of tensile stresses. Under radiation of austenitic steels with neutrons at temperatures of 100–400°С. The higher is the carbon content in steel.5 18. The steels alloyed by titanium (type of 1Kh18NН10Т and others) are widely used.3 19. superheated. The ICC phenomenon is prevented by alloying steel with titanium and niobium. which is not affected by total corrosion.0 17. 50. Within the temperature range from 625 to 650°С. is attacked by through cracks. the more it is subject to ICC due to the formation of chromium carbides at grain boundaries. swelling of fuel element claddings from steel alloyed by molybdenum (type 0Kh18N12М2-3) is reduced by 2 times as compared with those from steel type 0Kh18N10. swelling of chromium-nickel steels is observed that is manifested as the change of component shape and sizes.

25–6.894 × 10–5 Т2 .7 MPa Тc = 9600 K ρc = 1143 kg/m3 6. Austenitic stainless steel type 316 Austenitic stainless steel type 316 is an analogue of Russian steel type Kh18N12М3.25) Heat capacity Сp [J/(kg⋅K)]= 462 + 0. Mo – (2–3). Basic properties of steel type 316 are as follows [43]: Molecular mass 55.2. S – <0.01571 Т. Cr – (16–18).9354 Melting point 1430°C (1703 K) Boiling point 2817°C (3090 K) Heat of vapourization 7450 kJ/kg Heat of fusion 270.6.3. Thermal diffusivity 10–6 m2/s is defined as (6.2.20.398 × 10–3 T + 3.28) are presented in Table 6. P – <0.269 × 10–7 T2. 168 .134 Т. Si – ≤1.86% Critical constants Рc = 456. (6.1.0.26) Thermal conductivity λ [W/(m⋅K)] = 9.4209 Т – 3.248 + 0.(10-14). (6. The properties of austenitic stainless steel type 316 in solid state calculated by correlations (6.045.03. Ni . (6.27) Linear expansion coefficient α 106 (1/K) = 17.89 + 2. Mn – ≤2. Properties of austenite stainless steel type 316 in solid state depending on temperature Density ρ (kg/m3) = 8084 − 0.28) a = λ C pρ .08. This steel is characterized by the following composition (%): C – 0.2.3.0 kJ/kg Volume increase at melting 3.

2 32.7 6.833 × 10–6 T2.2 22.33) 169 .0 7.25–6.9 21.1183 − 18868 . lg P(Pa ) = 11.6 20.TABLE 6.2 21.5 6.917 × 10–4 T + 2.8 4.0393 Т – 1.6 21.6 22.29) Heat capacity Сp = 775 J/(kg⋅ K).41 +0.003279Т.2 − 3.5 5.2 19.1 18.7 20.4 19.801 × 10–4 Т2.5 17.5958 T . Thermal conductivity [43] λ [W/m⋅ K] = 12.8 23.2.0 15.5 28.2 6.1 4.7 20.9 6.9 3.4 25.0 5.4 4.9 22.4 35. (6. (6. Linear thermal expansion coefficient α⋅106 (1/K)= 18.20.7 31.7 7.1 29. Properties of austenite stainless steel type 316 in liquid state depending on temperature Density ρ (kg/m3) = 7433 + 0.2 5. PROPERTIES OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL TYPE 316 IN SOLID STATE BY EQS (6.3.2 21. (6.3.30) Thermal diffusivity in 10–6 m2/s is defined as a = λ C p ρ .8 34.0 26. (6.0 6.32) Vapour pressure above liquid steel type 316 is determined as.6 18.7 5.64 + 3.2 18.3 20.28) Temperature K Density kg/m3 Heat capacity J/(kg⋅K) Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) Thermal diffusivity 106(m2/s) Linear expansion coefficient 106(1/K) 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 7954 7909 7864 7817 7770 7722 7674 7624 7574 7523 7471 7418 7365 7311 7256 502 516 529 542 556 569 583 596 609 623 636 650 663 676 690 14.31) Dynamic viscosity lg μ ( mPa ⋅ s) = 2385.5 3. T (6.0 20.9 19.

3 1.2 28.2678 × 10 −6 T − 1. However at radiation.8 3.6 3.6 21.34) Temperature K Density kg/m3 Thermal conductivity W/(m⋅K) Thermal diffusivity 106(m2/s) 1750 2000 2250 2500 2750 3000 3250 3500 3750 4000 4250 4500 4750 5000 6950 6790 6610 6410 6180 5930 5660 5360 5050 4710 4350 3960 3560 3130 18.1 × 105 5.0 70 11.3 19.34) are shown in Table 6.9 4.4 × 109 Dynamic viscosity mPa s 5.81 0.5 × 107 2.1 23.4. They are also used for control rod channels.9 2.1 1.87 × 10 1.94 × 10 9. The operating temperature of nickel based alloys can be within the range of 800–850°C instead of that 650–750°C for austenitic steels.4 3.2 × 106 2.76 Pressure Pa 2.or to an accuracy of ± 30%. TABLE 6. The main advantage of nickel based alloys is high heat resistance properties.8 × 107 6. λ. NICKEL BASED ALLOYS These alloys are promising for fuel element claddings of reactors with supercritical steam parameters at pressure of 23–25 MPa and temperature up to 600°C.92 0.3 7.3 21.7 × 103 1.1 × 105 4.2 × 106 1. W/(m⋅K) at 100°C at 500°C at 700°C Electrical resistivity.8 6.0 0.2 23.8 8.8 15.2 135 9.⋅106 (Ω⋅m) 170 Kh18N12 Kh20N80 Steel grade KhN77ТYu Kh15N60М20V5 20 15.4 × 107 2. ρe.3 5. Al and Ti (see Table 6.4 22.0 140 .9 24.29–6.2 18.29–6.0 26.2 × 105 8. α 106 (1/K) in the range of 20–800°C Thermal conductivity.7 25.5 26.52 × 102 1. T (6.0 7.23).2 4.8 × 106 8.9 Linear Expansion coefficient 106(1/K) 1.3 25. their heat resistance is decreased.1 15.4 × 106 1.8 10.3 × 105 1.9 1.21. TABLE 6.22.97 × 10 5. PROPERTIES OF SOME NICKEL BASED ALLOYS [1−3] Property Linear expansion coefficient.4 × 102 3. PROPERTIES OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL TYPE 316 IN LIQUID STATE BY EQS (6.2 4.4 1. The basic alloying elements of such alloys are Cr.0 2.1 11.22 [56–58].8 5.5 17. The properties of some nickel based alloys are given in Table 6.6 × 108 1.6 1.34) The properties of austenitic stainless steel type 316 in liquid state in the temperature range from 1750 to 5000 K calculated by Eqs (6.9 4.2 1.5 4.47496 − 22027.21 [43.29 × 104 1.2 × 107 6.2 16.0 19.1 19.5 × 106 4.8 20.86 1.7 × 104 2.0 28.6 24.61 + 67. 44].2 126 10. lg P ( Pa ) = 23.3 27.4359 ln T .8 × 104 6.86 0.0 × 108 5.8 5.

5 Si-0.7 - - - Others .1 2.10 Kh15N60 KhN77ТYu KhN77ТYuR KhН75VМFYu KhN70VМТYu KhN80ТBYu KhN82ТYuМB Hastalloy С Hastalloy Х Incoloy 800 Inconel 600 Inconel Х 750 Inconel 718 Inconel 625 C Kh20N80 (nichromium) Steel type basis 55 basis basis 32 45 basis basis basis basis 75 basis basis 58 77 Ni 23 21 17 17 20.10 ≤0.06 ≤0.5 Mn-0.15 0.12 ≤0.08 0. 71] 5 12.3 Be ≤ 0.8 ~1.15 ≤0.75 ≤ 0.5 22 16 9 16 15 10 21 21 16 20 Cr 0.6 2.0 ≤ 1.01 - - Ce 4.12 0.4 Mn-0.2 - - ~1.35 Cu-0.0 ≤ 5.35 Al-0.0 ≤ 5.5 - - ~6 ~5.15 2. COMPOSITION OF NICKEL BASED ALLOYS [63.1 - 2.23.8 0.12 ≤0.0 ≤ 1.0 Al-0.01 ≤0.0 basis basis Fe Element content % - 3.8 2 4.07 ≤0.35 Si-0.8 0.25 - - - - - Nb Si-0.75 - - 1.01–0.0 Al-1 Mn-1.75 - - - - 3 2.08 0.15 5.5 Si-0.15 ≤0.6 ~4.30 - - - V~0.8 Mn-0.0 ≤ 3.10 0.7 - - - - Mo - - - - - 0.2 ≤ 0.3 - ~5 ~5.5 9 10 46 20 6 ≤ 3.2 Al (Mn) TABLE 6.5 1.3 - - - 9 ~1.04 0.01 B – 0.02 - ≤0.6 ~2.5 Si-0.171 ≤0.5 - - Ti Mn-1.0 - - - - W - - - - - - - - - ≤0.4 1.02 V~0.15 0.3 0.

6. namely: boron-bearing compounds В4С. debris).5. e. 3) γ particles and neutrons. β particles in the course of absorption produce secondary (deceleration) radiation in the form of γ quanta with an energy of 0. limonite 2Fe2O3⋅3Н2О as well as high density materials. the additions are used such as barium sulphate. The maximum values of operating temperatures of these metals are about 0. Cr. the high neutron absorption cross section. tubes. Niobium and its alloys are the most promising for the use in NPP due to beneficial combination of heat resistance. There are three types of radiation: 1) heavy ionized particles (α particles. heat capacity 840 J/(kg⋅K). Nb. metal scrap.and neutron radiations. gravel. the high scattering and absorption cross sections of γ quanta. 70].5-1.g. concretes and heavy elements are the widespread shielding materials. V. The density of normal concrete containing ~10% water is about 2450 kg/m3. The shielding characteristics of concrete are improved by adding the substances. water is contained in the following three forms: 1) In bound state with other compounds. etc. protons. To give it necessary properties. K. The protection against the first two types of radiation produces no problems. are considered as refractory ones. β particles is not too large. Mo and W. Concrete shielding is considerably cheaper than others and presents a mixture of elements with low and mean atomic mass. Water. Portland cement and water) is most economical to use for shielding. It is believed that ordinary concrete (a mixture of sand. The general physical properties of refractory materials are shown in Table 6. REFRACTORY METALS Metals with melting point ranging in 2400–3400°C and higher. Ta. 3) As moisture in concrete pores. In concrete. The mixtures of substances with low atomic mass and heavy metals possess the best properties of protection against gamma. 6. However.5 W/(m⋅K).5) × 10−6 m2/s. which heavily absorb neutrons.25 [60. because the freepath length of α. However. thermal diffusivity (0.5 of tmelt. 2) β particles (positive or negative charged electron). and corrosion properties.24. 71]. NaK alloys at 1000–1100°C) as well as for superheaters of water cooled NPP [72].2–1. They can be used for manufacturing fuel element claddings. 2СаО⋅3В2О3⋅Н2О. 2) As adsorbed on surfaces of cement paste. 172 . SHIELDING MATERIALS The radiation shielding is provided by surrounding the radiation source with walls or layers from radiation absorbing materials. such protection is less economical and used only in research type and other reactors [63. (°C). thermal conductivity ~1. They provide efficient moderating and absorption of radiation.e.6. limonite. The shielding material is to have high moderating efficiency (i. involve light elements). nuclear characteristics and processing properties. The composition of niobium and molybdenum alloys is presented in Table 6.5 MeV and X ray radiation. pump components and other elements of NPP circuits with liquid metal (Na.

4 0.Concrete performs two functions: 1) In the view of building material.02 0.7 4.5–15 12.24.85 8.7 1.08–0.5 Ti 1.08 0. 71] Properties Atomic number Atomic mass.2 0.03 Ce to 0.25 0. 10–8 Ω⋅m Material Tantalum Chromium Ta Cr 73 24 Vanadium V 23 Niobium Nb 41 Molybdenum Mo 42 Tungsten W 74 50.94 183. amu 3 Atomic volume.25 Ti Alloys of types VN-3.88 7.40 0.26 [69.72 1.833 0.98 1. °C Density.3–4.132 33 54 57–63 67–94 138 170 8. F-48. TABLE 6.1 0. TZM.02 0.9 2. COMPOSITION OF NIOBIUM AND MOLYBDENUM ALLOYS [56.25.450 0.6 6.641 0.996 95.5 4. 64] Element content % Alloy type Nb basis basis basis basis - VN-3 VN-4 D-43 F-48 VM-1 VM-2 TZM TZC Mo 4. 1022/cm3 Macroscopic capture cross section.9–15 5–5.5–16 12.632 4.03 0.3 6.95 51.0 0. TZC — for temperatures of 1000–1300°C (USA).0035 0.6 18. Concrete technology is a separate engineering field.265 0.942 92. kg/m 3 Heat capacity.42 9.9–5. BASIC PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF REFRACTORY METALS [60.83 10.1 0.2 - ≤ 0.3 4.555 0.35 10.12 0.722 0.2–22 12.15 W 10 10 C 0.069 0.23 9.19 1890 2477 3017 1907 2623 3422 6110 8570 16400 7150 10220 19300 0.3 2.4 Ti to 0.1 ≥ 0.25–0. Concretes consisting of various components allow the combination of material composition with regard to specific requirements. 10–24cm2 for thermal neutrons for fast neutrons (65 KeV) Melting point.422 0. cm /mol Concentration of nuclei. The properties of a number of shielding concretes applied for NPP are presented in Table 6. VN-4.15 Ti or others 0.250 0.65 173 . 70].54 0.0 5 basis basis basis basis Zr 1. TABLE 6.8–5.2 4. 2) As radiation shielding material.6 ≥ 0.1 21.3 7.01 ≤ 0. W/(m K) Linear expansion coefficient. VМ-1.2 Ti 0.9–7. 10–6 1/K Electrical resistivity.140 0.906 180.135 0.5 19. VМ-2 — for temperatures of 1250–1500°C (Russian Federation). J/(kg K) Thermal conductivity.44 0.552 0. Alloys of types D-43.

it has low radiation resistance and is fire dangerous. Vol. Properties of Fast Reactor Materials. Heat Power Engineering and Heat Engineering.108 400−450 Water has good protection properties owing to a high concentration of hydrogen nuclei. Book 1 (Russian). Lithium hydride is not stable at high temperatures.4 9. − M. Boral (a mixture of 10−50% boron carbide and aluminium powder coated with aluminium plates and hot rolled). 174 Zinoviev V. tungsten. Morita K. boron-bearing steels. and metal hydrides. Thermodynamic Properties and EOS for Fast Reactor Safety Analysis. REFERENCES TO SECTION 6 1. 193–211. polyethylene softens.: Metallurgia. and enl. cm–1 Maximum operating temperature °С 6000 8. N. 1995 (Russian). 3. II. 183. 4.A. %) [69. Fast Breeder Reactors/Translated from English. Fisher E.2 0. plastic materials. PP.5 Scrap metal 52.9 М-400.8 Metal 50. To attenuate γ-radiation.26. 1998.7 Serpentinite 45.8 Serpentinite 29. PROPERTIES OF SHIELDING CONCRETES USED FOR NPP (WEIGHT COMPOSITION.09 300−400 3550 8... boron-bearing materials are used such as boron carbides. 7. 2001. thus it is used at temperatures below 100°С. and Reynolds A. 1986 (Russian). It is odor free. polyethylene. In a number of reactors lithium hydride. uranium and others is added to neutron shielding. Thermophysical Properties of Metals at High Temperatures/Reference edition. ed.5 Steel shot 37.6 В4С 1. cm Aggregates Concrete type Cement grade Fine Coarse Admixes Neutrons Heavy М-500.5 Ironserpentinite Density kg/m3 γ radiation Neutron removal cross section Σ. However. paraffin wax. − М.6 Water 8.1 8. Vatolin. Ed. 70] Relaxation distance. by Acad. −. 11. 5.3 0. Polyethylene is a good material for protection against neutrons. 3rd rev.15 350 2300 9.9 15. 2. M. does not interact with acids.8 Serpentinite 29.: Energoatomizdat. For protection against neutrons. boron carbide or mixtures of boron carbide with aluminium are used as neutron shielding materials. Thurnay K. Concrete contains considerable amount of hydrogen in the form of bound and free water. Walter A. Hydrogen may be introduced in the shielding as water.: MEI Press.5 Water 2. 1989 (Russian). − М.5 Serpentinite М-400. Pt. General Problems/Reference book Ed. a layer from materials such as lead. V.V. Transport Properties of Metallic and Slag Melts/Handbook. . alkalis. 15. molybdenum. by A.6 Water 6. Zorin. not toxic.A.: Metallurgiya. Klimenko.7 0. at ~700°С it melts and dissociates into hydrogen and lithium [64].E.TABLE 6.M. − Nuclear Engineering and Design. At temperatures of 104–116°С. oils and most spirits.

1994. Preliminary Recommendation.5% Nb in Water and Steam at High Temperature.A. 29. Volkhonsky E.gov/matprop/zirconium/ Korobenko V. Dremin A.. Koledov L. Rumiantsev V. 364– 365 (Russian). — Teplofizika Vysokikh Temperatur. 2003. 5. Molten State of Matter/Ed.R.G.matweb. The Determination of Thermophysical and Physical parameters/In collection: Problems of Core Confinement in Reactor Vessel. Grischuk A. Liusternik V. Corrosion and Electrochemical Behavior of Zirconium Alloy with 2..N.G. Petrova I.N. 539–543.. Gromova A.: Metallurgiya. metaldata. Kondratiev V. 1072–1080 (Russian).P. Postovalov V.. 175 . Gerasimov V. − Zhurnal Fizicheskoy Khimii. Vol. 77.insc. Theory of Transfer in Liquid Metals.V.com/materials/ Larikov L...efunda. Ltd.: Atomizdat. 566–572 (Russian). 6.. 2001. Musaeva Z. — Kiev: Naukova Dumka. 23. 19..E. Fortov V.: Metallurgiya. Experimental Investigation of Transport Properties of Zirconium.com/ Enthalpy and Heat Capacity of Solid Zirconium. 26. 18. 1992. 1090–1093 (Russian).I. PP. Properties of Liquid Zirconium up to 4100 К.V. 25. — М.E.: Metallurgiya. − М. No. Troianov V. 1970. 1984 (Russian) Smithells C.G. PP.D. by A. — М. Nizhenko V. — http://www. Floka L. Ubbelohde A. Savvatimsky A.. by S. 712–719 (Russian). Peletsky V. 14.I. Korobenko V. Leontiev A. 860–869 (Russian). Vol. Romanov E. PP. 12.: Energoatomizdat. Translated from English (5th ed. PP. Vol.info (Russian). PP. Surface Tension of Liquid Metals and Alloys/Handbook. Kononenko V. Vol. 1985 (Russian).Ya. — High Temperature–High Pressure. 16. − Teplofizika Vysokikh Temperatur.I.: Energoatomizdat. 13. No. − M. by Yu. 21.. − Teplofizika Vysokikh Temperatur.G.E.I. PP.. — Obninsk: SSC RF-IPPE.M.. 1981 (Russian). Dollezhal N. 4. 41. Thermal Properties of Metals and Alloys. 17. 1742–1747 (Russian). Ed... 2001. Savvatimsky A.A.. Properties of Metals. Taran. 5. 1993. Channel Nuclear Power Reactor. 22.A. Metal Reference Book/Ed. − М. No. 30. Shutko I. No.I. Popov V.I. 15. 24. 1980 (Russian). Efanov A.A. Butterworth and Co. Thermal Conductivity of Solids/Reference book. 10. 39. The Online Materials Database. Korobenko V.anl. Glazunov. Vol.N.I.F. 25. London: Publ. − http://www. Vol. 7. − М. − M.N. 1976 (Russian). 8.I.. 1978)..N. 74–75 (Russian).U. − Teplofizika Vysokikh Temperatur. PP. — Atomnaia Energiya.6... Emelianov I. 13. Temperature Dependence of Density and Electrical Resistance of Liquid Zirconium up to 4100 K. 10. Savvatimsky A. Fuel Elements of Nuclear Reactors. 11. 1976). Yurchenko Yu. Translated from English (New York: Wiley. –http://www. 1975. No.A. — Teplofizika Vysokikh Temperatur. Vol.P... Metallic Melts and their Properties. Properties of Metals. 9. Arsentiev P. The Estimation of Parameters of Critical Point. Peletsky V. 1980 (Russian) Samoilov A. 6.. 39. Kabankova N.P. 20.J. 1982 (Russian).. − http://www. Vol. Specific Heat Capacity of Liquid Zirconium up to 4100 К.S. 2003. Okhotin. No. No..P. System of Steel Designation in Russia and Other Countries of CIS. PP. Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity. PP.: Metallurgiya. 1985 (Russian).V.N.N. 5.

Ed. 1994. − M../Translated from English. Acad. 1988 (Russian).: Mashinostroenie. Vol. Thermodynamic Properties and EOS for Fast Reactor Safety Analysis.. by B. Fisher E.. Vol. by N. 193–211. Vishkarev A.D.V. 1993. ..: Energoatomizdat.. 560–564 (Russian). S. 1990 (Russian).: Metallurgiya. − М. II. No. 30. 183. Grades of Steels and Alloys/V.A.. Sorokin. N.A.M.U. 29.: Thermophysical Aspects of WWER Safety. Spectral (λ=0. Nikulina A. Two Parts. 2. . Platonov P. Encyclopedia in 40 volumes. Clarendon Press. Properties of Molten Metals. Kobylyansky G.. Korostin O. − М. 1977 (Russian).A. Nikulina A. No. − М. PP. 68.O. 162−170 (Russian). Structural Materials/Handbook. Structural Materials of Nuclear Reactors/Ed. 2. 1999 (Russian). Mechanic Engineering.A. Ed. 223–226 (Russian). Ursu I. Peletsky V.27. Emsley J.. 31.5% Nb Alloys. Peletsky V. Beskorovainy. Handbook on Nuclear Power Technology. Volosnikova. 1–2. Prasolov P.A.. Experimental Investigation of Thermophysical Properties of Alloy E6-35 at High Temperatures/Proc.S. 1984]. Bucuresti.. Viktorov V. Petrova I. Publ. 43. by V. Properties of Fast Reactor Materials. 36. Anisotropy of Deformation Constants and Thermal Expansion Coefficients of Zr-1% Nb and Zr– 2. 33.I. − Nuclear Engineering and Design. Peletsky V.E.E. 1990 (Russian)..K. Corrosion Steels and Alloys.I.. − М. Grigoryan V. Nikulina A. PP. 1985 (Russian). 37.65 mm) Radiation of Zr-1% Nb Alloy at Solidus Temperature. of Inter.: Mashinostroenie. Vol..: Atomizdat. 31.E. −New York: A Wiley-Interscience Publ. and Reynolds A. 32.. No. Petrova I. 98–101 (Russian).. Petrova I.: Energoatomizdat. 1998.N. 1997.: Energoatomizdat. Publ.: Mashinostroenie. PP. 2-ed. 1990. Reshentnikov N. Vol. Pt. Fizica si Tehnologia Materialelar Nucleare. 1982. Oxford. Conf. Bushe et al. Chugunov O.P. The Elements.E. Efanov. Ostrovsky O. 1995.. 176 PP (Russian).J..A. Handbook.E.G. by V.G.. 40. − М. 1991. 1989 (Russian). − М. 34. Radiation Stability of Zirconium and ZirconiumBased Alloys (Reference Information on Radiation Matter Science). Fast Breeder Reactors/Translated from English.V. 1980 (Russian). − Teplofizika Vysokikh Temperatur. 1996. − Obninsk. Ed. PP.V. − М. − Atomnaia Energiya. Novoselov A. by V. − M. − Vienna: IAEA. 710–714 (Russian). 1994 (Russian). Petrova I. Zaimovsky A. 33. Walter A. Arzamasov.: Energoatomizdat. Ed. Legasov [A Guide to Nuclear Power Technology/Ed. 36. 28. 41. Brostrem. By F. Thermophysical Properties of Materials for Water Cooled Reactors/IAEA-TECDOC949. Peletsky V. No.: SSC RF-IPPE.I. 44. Sorokin. 176 Liusternik V. Samsonov V.N. Rahn et al..G.G.: SSC RF — NIIAR. Fuel Elements of Nuclear Reactors. A.E.. − Teplofizika Vysokikh Temperatur. − М.. Tsykanov..V. 5.I.: Metallurgiya. PP. V. Ulianin E. 42.A. Samoilov A. Zirconium Alloys in Nuclear Power Engineering. PP./Ed.E. Shestak V. 2. Vol. 4. 1998. 39..I. 45. − Dimitrovgrad.N. Morita K.N. Experimental Investigation of Calorimetric Properties of Reactor Materials Based on Zirconium Alloy Е-110.K.F. Samsonov B. 46. Vyatkin et al.A. 35. Romania. Thurnay K. − Teplofizika Vysokikh Temperatur. 38. Vol. Popov N. Experimental Investigations of the Properties of Zr-1% Nb Alloy. by A. 1986 (Russian).E. Vol.

1.: Metallurgiya. Encyclopedia of Modern Technology. No. 1987 (Russian). 61. 50. 08Kh18N10Т. Legasov [A Guide to Nuclear Power Technology/Ed. Ed. Thermophysical Properties of Metals at High Temperatures/Reference edition. No. Transport Properties of Metallic and Slag Melts. Mitenkov et al. Encyclopedia in 40 volumes.I. Cherniakov V.: Mashinostroenie.I. In 2 volumes.: Energoatomizdat. S. Kulandin.: Energoatomizdat. Structure and Properties of Liquid and Solid Metals.V. Rumiantsev V. 450–459 (Russian). 74–75 (Russian). − М.S. Efanov A. Chernov A. 1988. Structural Materials/Ed.D. — M. Vol. PP. 63. 52. No. 58. 60. Vol. Beskorovainy. Mechanic Engineering.G. Zinoviev V. Two Parts.M. − М. 5. Specific Enthalpy and Heat Capacity of Steels of Types 22К. by G. Handbook on Nuclear Power Technology. Radiation protection at NPP/Ed. Troianov V. − M. Structural Materials of Nuclear Reactors/Ed. 1978 (Russian).D. − М. − M. 64. − Kiev: Naukova Dumka.. 1977 (Russian).: Atomizdat. 1965 (Russian). PP.. 1994. Biological Protection of Nuclear Reactors/Translated from English..A. 3 (Russian). 1989 (Russian). Design of Heat Exchangers for NPP/F.M.J.P. Suvorov. 1999 (Russian).D. N. − Teplofizika Vysokikh Temperatur. by N. Tsypin./Translated from English.M. 2 (Russian). 2003.S. High-Temperature Inorganic Compounds/Collected book. 67. by N. 55.47. Vol. Ershov G..V. Chekhovsky V. Samoylov A. 1984]. Tumanov. 1965 (Russian). − М. PP. by Acad. The Determination of Thermophysical and Physical parameters/In collection: Problems of Core Confinement in Reactor Vessel. 1982 (Russian).. by V. − М. 1016–1020 (Russian). and Reynolds A. Beskorovainy. − М. 56.A. Arseev I. V.G.: MEI Press. PP. 1–2.: Energoizdat. Vol. Experimental Iinvestigation of thermal Diffusivity of Structural Steels in the Temperature Range of 700–1450 К. 1964.T. 49. 3. 1978 (Russian).V. 1995 (Russian). 65. 51. 2. Roschupkin V. 1988. PP. Popov V. −New York: A Wiley-Interscience Publ.. 1989 (Russian). Materials and Technology. by A...: Atomizdat. Tarasov V. 62.D. Ed. Samsonov. Shitova A. 59. 1988 (Russian). 26. Pokrasin M. − L. 1016–1020 (Russian).V. S. No. — Obninsk: SSC RF-IPPE. Structural Materials of Nuclear Reactors/Ed. 57. 396–397 (Russian). Volkov V. 15Kh2NМFА.. Dispersion Fuel Elements.. Zorin. By F. Atamanov et al.V.M. Rahn et al.: Energoatomizdat. Two Parts. 39. Walter A. − M. 1986 (Russian).: Energoatomizdat. by A. 1977 (Russian). 48.Ya. Klimenko and V. 2001.: Sovetskaya. − M. 5. Vol.E. − М.: Metallurgiya. 10GN2МFА.. Kurichenko A. Vol. Fast Breeder Reactors/Translated from English. Fordeeva L..A. 26. 26. Roschupkin V. Vol.A.: Metallurgiya. Vol. Design and Operation of Space NPP/A.A. − М. Ivliev A. Handbook/Ed. Experimental Investigation of Heat Capacity and Enthalpy of Steels of Austenitic Class Type 12Kh18N9Т and 12Kh18N10Т in the Temperature Range of 300–1678 К. Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants/Handbook ed. 66. The Same. Entsiklopedia. − Teplofizika Vysokikh Temperatur. Vatolin. Fundamentals of Theory. 177 ..S.: Atomizdat. 1988.A..V. Timashov. Kashtanov A.K. 53..V. − М.− Teplofizika Vysokikh Temperatur.M. − Teplofizika Vysokikh Temperatur. 54. by A.: Atomizdat.N.

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1868 W 1 kgf × m/s = 9.400 s Rankine degree l°Ra = 0.3048 m 1 yard (yd) = 0.4516 × 10–4 m2 1 ft2 = 9.2903 × 10–2 m2 1 barrel = 0.163 W 1 kW = 860 kcal/hr 1 kcal/(m2hr) = 1.6 106 J 1 hp-hr = 2. nautical = 1.609 km 1 mile.1557 × 107 s 1 days = 86.1 Pa × s 1 kgf × s/m2 = 9.785 × 10–3 m3 1 in3 = 1.6387 × 10–5 m3 1 ft3 = 2. statute = 1.806б5 J 1 kcal = 4186. Energy Power Density of heat flux 1 inch (in) = 0.25 К Centigrade degree 1°С = 1 К 1 mile/hour= 1.546 × 10–3 m3 1 gallon (US) = 3.832 × 10–2 m3 1 year = 3.1628 W/m2 1 Btu/(hrft2) = 3.8067 Pa × s Kinematic viscosity 1 Stokes (St) = 10–4 × m2/s 179 .66056 × 10–27 kg 1 pound (lb) = 0.1 MPa 1 bar = 105 Pa 1 kgf/m2 = 9.80665 Pa 1 mm H20 = 9.556 К Fahrenheit degree 1°F = 1.Appendix 1 CONVERSION FACTORS OF SOME UNITS Length Square Volume Time Temperature Velocity Mass Density Force Pressure Work.0254 m 1 foot (ft) = 0.8 J 1 Btu = 1.53 × 10–2 kg/m3 1 lb/ft3 = 16.80665 W 1 hp = 734.852 km 1 in2 = 6.163 W/(m × К) 1 Btu/(s × ft × F) = 6.9144 m 1 mile.05506 кJ 1 cal/s = 4.499 W 1 kcal/hr = 1.3558 J 1 erg = 10–7 J 1 kgf × m = 9.02 kg/m3 1 dyne= 10–5 N 1 kg-force (kgf) = 9.80665 N 1 lb-force (lbf) = 4.159 m3 1 gallon (UK) = 4.1534 W/m2 Thermal conductivity 1 kcal/(hr × m × К) = 1.4536 kg 1 g/ft3 = 3.648 106 J 1 lb × ft = 1.80665 Pa 1 mm Hg = 133.80665 104 Pa ≈0.448 N 1 at = 9.23 × 103 W/(m × К) Dynamic viscosity 1 poise (P) = 0.3 Pa 1 Whr = 3600 J 1 kWh = 3.609 km/hr 1 atomic mass units = 1.

4 wt. gross TECHNICAL DATA Units WWER-440 Russian Federation Appendix 2 <=5.5 4000 1300 1.35 98.67 4957 3.9/2.88 m m Equivalent core diameter 4.8 4465 3.86 7975.10 1. Vienna: 1996) .5 293.2 69.80 4.7 sintered UO2 241 2. net Reactor thermal output Power plant output.81 16.6/4.53 Reactor Core 6.9/3.180 403.16 3.8/3.9/323.4 32.5 20800 454. including pressurizer Number of coolant loops Power plant efficiency.1/323.0/4.0/3.53 - 294.5 2.9 15.9 15.5 34 18.0 3.9 10. % Enrichment (range) of first core 1.5 45.1 6590.7 3000 WWER-1000 (V-392) Gidropress Russian Federation 1000 Number of fuel assemblies 84 - - kW/l kW/kg U kW/m Average core power density (volumetric) Average fuel power density Average linear heat rate 3150 m2 Heat transfer surface in the core 2.0 3. Germany 1. IAEA.65 3.50 20891 448.70 10140 - 4 349 - kW/m2 Heat flux Fq 107.0 3.81 - 291.7 2 34.2 - 292.5 3914 1350 ABB CENP KNGR (System 80+) Korea.4 - 18.50 22240 380+75 4 35. of USA GENERAL PLANT DATA OF WWER TYPE REACTORS (Based on IAEA-TECDOC-861.7 4900 1750 EPR France.8/325 15.00 103. Rep.04 3.4 sintered UO2 80 sintered UO2 42 UO2 t Weight and type of loaded fuel - 151 163 Fuel Pin Assembly 605.6/3/4.6 269/300 12.5/330 15.81 - 291/323. Review of Design Approaches of Advanced Pressurized LWRs.7 1375 408 Active core height m/c Maximum coolant velocity in subassembly С Reactor operating pressure Coolant temperature at inlet/outlet to pressure vessel kg/s MPa Steam flow rate 0 m 3 % MW MW(e) Primary circuit volume.40 2 32.7 18040 - 4 35 1800 630 VPBR-600 OKBM Russian Federation Reactor Coolant System 30.8/2.5 8290 - 6 29.14 6359.0 - 17.3 sintered UO2 or PuO2 241 602.3 15.658 3.00 95.0 124 sintered UO2 241 598.

4 VPBR-600 OKBM Russian Federation Reactor Pressure Vessel 18 9.65 Zr-4 139 18 287 3530 - 4800 triangular 52000 18–24 4.7 0.3 Material of cylindrical shell Design pressure/temperature mm Wall thickness 0 mm Inner diameter Number of absorber rods mm Cladding tube wall thickness Cladding tube material Number of spacers Number of control rods Number of guide tubes for control rods Number of fuel pins in assembly mm Fuel assembly total length Type of fuel assembly MW day/t months Operating cycle length Average discharge burnup of fuel wt.1 0. without cover cover 4670 3.7 ABB CENP (System 80+) KNGR Korea.60 Zr+1%Nb - 126 - - MPa/ C 12 WWER-1000 (V-392) Gidropress Russian Federation 4.0 18 EPR France.181 kg mm Overall weight of fuel assembly Active length of fuel pins mm Outer diameter of fuel pin mm t Total height Vessel weight - t Transport weight (RPV head) - - t Transport weight (lower part) - 500 140 3560 - 9. with hexagonal.7 31700 square 16х16 4350 18–24 12 or 4 per assembly 3810 662.7 0.3 low carbon steel 16MND5/20Mn low carbon steel 15X2MPА steel SA 508 class 2 MoNi55 SA-509 and 3 880 405 508 18/350 - 23960 265 5440 18 9.635 Zr-4 11 93 5 93 236 236 3810 662.3 17.7 60000 square 16х16 4127.2 17.1 0.1 0.2/343. Rep.% Units Enrichment of reloaded fuel at equilibrium core TECHNICAL DATA WWER-440 Russian Federation .0/4.5 18 4.4 - 417 15Kh2 NMFA 17.5 17.6/351 - 13105 250+7.625 Zr-4 9 89 25 264 4200 65000 square 17x17 4800.5 4870 24 9.635 Zr-4 11 - 15280 229 4630 4 or 12 9.2/343.65/350 850 19100 190 4070 - 115. Germany - 15280 230 4630 4 or 12 9.61 Zr alloy 121 18/1 311 3530 - 28600 43000 hexagonal.5 0. of USA - 81.

07 12580 - 2 Vertical U-tube Cylindrical Dry.27 1633 16/1.1/1.5 66400 13930 1 in 12 sections Once-through. single Primary Containment 0Kh18N10T 9500 4300 220/ /6.9 1079 19. double containment: steel sphere and containment of reinforced concrete 23000 SB 163 NiCr Fe alloy 5890 232/7. vertical VPBR-600 OKBM Russian Federation Prestressed concrete Cylindrical Cylindrical (reinforced concrete) Incoloy 800 or Inconel 690 - 230/7. Rep.2 285/6.2/ 285/6.38 950 13.36 289/7.9 2200 /1.36 2276 19/ 5980 8171 4 U-tube heat exchanger EPR France.182 0 С/MPa С/MPa mm mm - - - Maximum outer diameter Total height Tube material Type and material Overall form (spherical/cylindrical) 0 Feedwater temperature/pressure Steam temperature/pressure kg/s Steam flow rate at nominal conditions mm Number of heat exchanger tubes Tube dimensions (outer diameter/thickness) m2 Units Heat transfer surface Number Type TECHNICAL DATA - - - - - - - 829 - - 2510 - Horizontal U-tube titanium alloy Cylindrical Dry.07 12580 14460 2 Vertical U-tube with integral moisture separator and economizer ABB CENP (System 80+) KNGR Korea.05/1. Germany Dry. of USA . double containment: steel/reinforced concrete 3800 - 230/ 305/6.5 9157 5130 4 Horizontal U-tube WWER-1000 (V-392) Gidropress Russian Federation Steam Generator WWER-440 Russian Federation Cylindrical Prestressed reinforced concrete Inconel 690 22987 6172 232.

Germany - 3000 1 HP/2LP - 1500 1 HP/3LP condense К-600-5.9/285 1800 7.3 200/ 60000 40/36.3 500/ 7500 WWER-1000 (V-392) Gidropress Russian Federation 53/61.3 96300 61 1 480/ 91180 45.2/287. LP — low pressure rpm - Type of turbines Turbine Plant - - - 2 vol.0 - - - 1 0.183 m HP section inlet pressure/temperature MPa/ С 4.51 VPBR-600 OKBM Russian Federation 6. HP/LP/LP): HP — high pressure.7/70 ABB CENP (System 80+) KNGR Korea.5 365/143. of USA . Rep.g.%/day kPa/0С 3 m Units Number of turbines per reactor Design leakage rate Design pressure/temperature (severe accident situations) Free volume Dimensions (diameter/height) TECHNICAL DATA WWER-440 Russian Federation 6.6 1 <1 4 80000 1/ EPR France.41 - Turbine speed 0 - Number of turbine sections per unit (e.8 1800 1 HP/3LP tandemcombined in line 6 flow tandem 1 HP/3LP 1 <0.9/500 1 0.

7 505 544 pool 800 2100 BN-800 GENERAL PLANT DATA OF FAST REACTORS COOLED BY LIQUID METAL (Sodium for all reactors except for BREST-OD-300 cooled by lead) 80/5400 0.340 0.5/24.5 420 540 pool 300 700 BREST 0.335 0.397 0.400 0.329 0.380 0.48 0.34 0.381 0.215 112 2020/110 17UO2/16U 17UO2/16UO2 O2 UO2 1000 1580 410/4.306 0.3/26.2 520 550 pool 600 1470 General Data 0.390 0.218 - 113 UN 400 206 - 380 Fuel mm Height of fissile zone С/MPa С mm о о Equivalent diameter of outer core zone Steam conditions (temperature/pressure) Coolant temperature in secondary circuit at inlet to steam generator С 470 о 8 Coolant temperature in primary circuit at inlet to intermediate heat exchanger MW(e) Electric power 8 loop MW/th Thermal power BR-10 Type of primary circuit Units TECHNICAL DATA 0.5 505 529 loop 280 714 Monju Demonstration Reactors Appendix 3 - 2080 - - UN-PuN 1100 2232 520/25.5/870 16/21 PuO2-UO2 930 1800 483/12.22 77 1220/75 0.235 8808 81 18.7 521 542 pool 1242 2990.5 CEFR Experimental Reactors BN-600 UO2 1030 2050 Core 500/13.6/93.6 97.9 1000 4051 490/18.445 0.37 0.29 0.2/21.4 65.415 0.2 49/ PuO2-UO2 500 605.287 0.207 121.1 780 4450 495/13.229 7900 1000 3700 487/17.33 0.361 0.245 1400 13.184 kg kg Fissile material content of a core U235/Pu239/ Total plutonium Core volume fractions averaged over whole core fuel sodium steel 90/ % Inner/outer core enrichment 0.7 515 550 pool 1600 4200 BN-1600 Commercial Size Reactors 0.7 880 2560 490/13.5 415 430 loop 130 750 BN-350 0.220 2710 30/1870 19.7 PuO2-UO2 18.24 5780 142/4054 16/19.8 480/10 495 514 pool 23.5 525 545 pool 1580 3600 EFR .34 0.0 SPX-1 0.23 58 95/53 45–75/ PuO2-UO2 450 460 430/8 480 545 loop 12 50 BOR-60 0.375 0.

185 Number of safety/control rods Pressure of fission product gas in fuel pin at operating temperature and maximum burnup Maximum cladding surface temperature of core fuel pin Maximum linear power of fuel pins in core С MPa о kW/m mm Overall length of fuel pin Cladding material (steel) mm х1015 n/cm2.6 - - Monju 3/ 2 4.52 331 207/ 72 5.4 7 86–90/ 0 0.6 - 160 137/ - - up to 12%/6.5 - 1100/ 670 EFR .76 62300/45500 1867/ 1132 CEFR 4.6 - 1796/ 1152 BN-800 2500 8.5 260000 1940/ 1615 BOR-60 5.305 37 96–100/ 0 3.0 3.0 3/ 2 2/ 2(Ni) 710 44 2/ 2 3.3 3.s Outer diameter/ thickness of fuel pin Number of fuel pins per subassembly Number of subassemblies in inner/outer core maximum average 1622 6.8% - BREST 24/ 21 4.0 693 48 12/ 2 - 675 48.4 127 211/ 198 8.7 Stainless steel Cr16Ni15Mo2Mn TiSi (СW) - 9.47 217 108/ 90 6.2 635 52 AIM1 or PE 16 2645 8.5 5.5/ 0.3 3.9/ 0.8/ 0.4/ 0.00/ 0.42/ 0.5 2.9 675 36 Cr16Ni15M Cr16Ni15Mo2 Steel o2MnTiSi Mn TiSi (СW) Type 316 (СW) 2445 6.40 61 82/ 0 2.63 62300/ 45500 MW day/t max/ average Burnup Neutron flux 2182/1588 BR-10 Experimental Reactors kW/l fuel Units Power density (maximum/averaged over core) TECHNICAL DATA 1587/ 940 BN-600 2445 6.6 80000/50000 1250/ 785 SPX-1 Commercial Size Reactors 5+12 6.6/ 0.6– 8.5 Fuel Pin Assembly 97000/5800 97000/60000 0 1195/1155 BN-350 Demonstration Reactors 2410 6.4 600 40 6/ 2 5.86 0.4 4.0 695 47 6/ 3 6.4 127 136/ 139 2800 6.5/ 0.2/ 0.1 3.56 271 193/ 171 6.46 620 43 Cr16Ni15Mo3 316 Ti (20% Nb CW) 1100 4.0 620 48 Cr17Ni13Mo2 5Mn1.4 127 61/ 113 6.97 1.0 565 44 Cr16Ni15 Mo3Nb 615 8.9/ 0.55 331 258/ 216 5.5TiSi 2700 8.8 5.5 - - 1130/ 670 BN-1600 up to 40 - - - 12/ 2 5.

0 396 274 260 48.7 1 1 0 487 240 8 8 8 505 240 - - - 520 340 - 505 325 510 315 415 260 495 310 480 210 380 270 - 540 - 1.3 8600 8400 820 1025 3 3 BN-800 13.7 451/309 505/451 10 10 0 490 217 505 309 547 354 7.5 469/325 505/469 449/328 518/449 518/449 13.7 19500 17800 2600 2700 3 6 BN-1600 Commercial Size Reactors .0 270 220 16 25 2 2 BOR-60 Experimental Reactors 470 350 4.0 4.0 6600 6090 770 830 3 3 Monju 430 280 7. of steam generators per secondary circuit evaporators superheaters reheaters Sodium temperature in steam generator at inlet/outlet to evaporator superheaters reheaters Pressure of steam at the outlet of superheater Steam temperature at steam generator inlet/outlet Coolant temperature in primary circuit hot leg cold leg Coolant temperature in primary circuit hot leg cold leg Maximum coolant velocity in core Coolant flow rate (total) Sodium inventory Number of coolant loops TECHNICAL DATA BN-600 - MPa - 10.7 3. С 0 С 0 С 0 m/s kg/s t pc.7 -/345 515/- 2 0 18.4 345/ -/525 1 0 490 237 18.7 15700 13100 3200 1500 4 4 SPX-1 550 397 5.7 5 2 2 BR-10 С 0 pc.186 primary secondary primary secondary primary secondary No.5 345/ -/525 1 0 490 240 525 345 525 345 515 345 495 240 545 395 7.8m3/с - 740m3 Pb 4 - 529 397 6.2 2 2 CEFR Demonstration Reactors 545 330 8. Units 13.9 4250 3090 760 760 3 3 BREST 535 365 8.0 48 50 1.4 3950 4400 470 450 6 6 Heat Transport System BN-350 514 360 5.8 19300 15300 2200 1300 3 6 EFR 545 395 7.8 2 2 0 410 158 1 1 0 480 190 1 1 0 430 200 12.9 391/260 417/319 -/463 310/495 463/- 300/450 8.

509–515. 1994. White Paper of Nuclear Power/Edited by Prof.25Cr1 Mo and SS 1400 9 Cr1 Mo CEFR 2. Vienna.03 130000 cylindrical with dome (carbon steel) 17800 50 7100 - - - - - - - - rectangular (concrete) 14000 30 12900 10Cr2 Mo 9Cr1Mo (evap. VNB and superh. 2001.: NIKIET Press. Fast reactor Database. Adamov.25Cr1 Mo BOR-60 Experimental Reactors 30 12600 - - rectangular (concrete) - - rectangular (concrete) Containment Building 11900 50 6000 12860 Cr18Ni19 2. ANS.−Proc.25Cr1 Mo BN-600 Reactor Vessel 2. E.05 136000 cylindrical (reinforced concrete) 15900 35 17200 9 Cr1 Mo VNB 9 Cr1 Mo VNB EFR Bibliography IAEA-TECDOC-1531.1 cylindrical with dome (concrete & steel) 17000 8340 50 8800 9 Cr1 Mo 2.O. vol.187 mm Total height MPa Maximum design pressure - - - 4500 7 338 BR-10 20 - - rectangular (concrete) 6200 0. USA. 17–21 April 1994. 1 pp.25Cr1 Mo 2. of ARS'94 Topical Meeting.25Cr1 Mo 2. in one unit) 10Cr2 Mo austenitic steel VNB 2. Adamov E. IAEA. 2006. et al.25Cr1 Mo BN-350 BREST BN-800 0. Conceptual Design of BREST-300 Lead cooled Fast Reactor. m3 Gross volume Material mm Wall thickness - mm superheater evaporator Units Inside diameter Tube material: TECHNICAL DATA . Pittsburg.3 6500 cylindrical with dome (concrete) 17300 60 21000 - Ni33Cr21 TiAlMn SPX-1 Commercial Size Reactors 0.25Cr1 Mo BN-1600 0.O. MINATOM of Russian Federation − М.25Cr-1 Mo Monju Demonstration Reactors - - cylindrical building (concrete) 14000 25 17000 2.

5 8 4 2200 < 0.Ya.: Atomizdat. 1980.9 MPa/0С Reactor Core Core height (length) m Equivalent core diameter m Core volume m3 Heat transfer surface m2 Average linear power kW/kg U Average power density (volumetric) kW/l Average heat flux from a fuel surface unit kW/m2 Maximum power of fuel (evaporation) channel kW Coefficient of radial power generation non-uniformity Coefficient of axial power generation non-uniformity Fuel Assembly 6. Emelianov I.4/280 6. p. Nuclear Power Plants/3rd rev. vol. 1978.33 1. 188 .5 1560 8. − М.4/280 7. Fuel.9 6.8 760 9070 17.4 6. − Nuclear Engineering International.3 10.2-1. 9 Zirconium alloy 235 2 1025/62.Appendix 4 GENERAL PLANT DATA OF RBMK∗ TYPE REACTORS TECHNICAL DATA Electric power Thermal power Overall Efficiency Units MW MW Reactor Coolant System Coolant flow rate through reactor m3/s 0 Core inlet/outlet coolant temperature С Average steam quality at outlet of evaporation channels % Steam output of reactor kg/s Steam pressure in separators MPa RBMK-1000 2х500 3200 31.4 270/284 14. Russian Federation.2 350 3000 1.A.5 10 189 U metal 1.4 192 U metal 1. ∗ RBMK — High Energy Channel Reactor. 578. % day MW/day t mm mm mm t/h % m t MPa Bibliography: Dollezhal N.9 270/284 30 2450 6. The Pressure Tube Nuclear Reactor.3/30..8 4.Kh.8 1080 18500 1693 2 18 13. 28.25–1.7 216.35 7. No.3 RBMK-1500 2х750 4800 31. 47. ed.1 2. 2002.6/34 292 10 Steam pressure/temperature ahead of turbine Mass and type of fuel Initial enrichment Operating cycle duration Average burnup Number of fuel (evaporation) channels Number of fuel assemblies in a fuel channel Number of fuel pins in a fuel assembly Outer diameter of fuel pin Thickness of fuel pin cladding Material of fuel pin cladding Number of control rods Number of evaporation circulating loops Outside diameter/thickness of header wall Number of main centrifugal pumps Number of separating drums Steam output of separating drum Permissible steam humidity at the outlet of separating drum Dimensions (diameter/length) of separating drum Weight of separating drum (in dry state) Pressure in ECCS t wt.9 Zirconium alloy 179 2 1025/62. and enl.0 11. Margulova T. − М.8 760 8850 25.0 11.6 0. 29. Services.1 2.3 540 4500 1. New Plants.6 0. 24–26.5 8 4 1450 < 0.: Vysshaia Shkola. The power of GE technology at work.8 690 21000 1661 2 18 13.4 1.

01439 m⋅ K Wien constant C3 = λmax⋅T = 2.414 dm3/mol 189 .1 MPa Atomic mass unit 1 amu = 1.742 × 10−16 W⋅m2 Second constant of radiation C2 = hc/k = 0.055⋅10−34 J⋅s Avogadro constant NA = 6.503302 × 10−10 J = 1.670 × 10−8 W/(m2⋅ K 4) First constant of radiation C1 = 2hc2 = 3.626 × 10−34 J⋅s h/2π = 1.674928 × 10−27 kg Electron mass me = 8.3807 × 10−23 J/K Stefan-Boltzmann constant σo = 5.672623 × 10−27 kg mn = 1.96 amu Molecular mass of water M = 18.672 × 10−11 N⋅m2/kg2 Plank constant H = 6.109 × 10−31 kg Electron charge 1.660 × 10−27 kg Mole volume of ideal gas 22.505374⋅10−10 J = 1.SYMBOLS Speed of light in vacuum c = 2.015 amu Sound velocity in air A = 343 m/s at 20оС.314 J/(mol⋅ K)⋅ Boltzmann constant k = R/NA=1. 0.602 × 10−19 C Ratio mp/me 1836.8978 × 10−3 m⋅ K Solar constant Acceleration of gravity (standard) S = 1325 W/m2 go = 9.022 × 1023 mol−1 Faraday constant F = 96485 C/mol Universal gas constant R = 8.602 × 10−19 J Proton mass SOME USEFUL DATA Molecular mass of air M = 28.998 × 108 m/s Gravity constant G = 6.187241 × 10−14 J = 9.153 Electron-volt 1eV = 1.8066 m/s2 Neutron mass mp = 1.

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CONTRIBUTORS TO DRAFTING AND REVIEW Bobkov. E. V. Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE).E.P. Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE). United Institute of High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences (IVTAN). L.R. V. A.I.N. Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE). Russian Federation 191 . Russian Federation Popov. United Institute of High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences (IVTAN). Russian Federation Petrov. V. Russian Federation Rumiantsev. Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE). Russian Federation Fokin.V. Russian Federation Savvatimsky.

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