CHAPTER 1 Introduction

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Executive summary
In an era of economic globalization ports are evolving rapidly from being traditional land/sea interfaces to providers of complete logistics networks. This has been a massive link in establishing trade across countries i.e transferring goods from one place to another. Moreover ports have proven to be a major determinant for the socio-economic growth of a country interms of facilitating development of infrastructure, and establishment of businesses and firms which provide jobs to lakh’s of people in every country. And over the years there has been fierce competition between countries to develop their port infrastructure especially container terminals and related facilities, and to expand their port hinterland through introducing free trade zones with a hope of developing hub ports and international logistics centres to attract the best of deals to the respective port which translates to economic benefits. India faces stiff competition from the likes of Singapore , Oman which offers superior infrastructure and Srilanka which currently handles a large majority of the Indian transshipment cargo. In order to a bring about a change to this scenario India needed to develop container related infrastructure to be competitive in the container transshipment sector which has seen a boom of late. In keeping with this plan on the 16th February 2005, Dubai Ports World announced that it has formally signed an agreement with the Cochin Port Trust (CoPT) to construct, develop and operate an International Container Transshipment Terminal (ICTT) – An India Gateway Terminal – at Vallarpadam. Vallarpadam’ is the largest single operator container terminal currently planned in India and the first in the country to operate in a special economic zone. The new terminal will make Cochin a key centre in the shipping world reducing India’s dependence on foreign ports to handle transshipment. With the commencement of the terminal India will occupy a competitive position on the sea trade map with the likes of Singapore, Oman and Srilanka. Hence it would be useful to make a study comparing the likes of the above mentioned ports on various parameters to understand the level of competition and where India stands in today’s world of sea trade.

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Background of the study
Ports play an important economic role in maritime nations by facilitating foreign trade. They constitute an important economic activity in coastal areas. The higher the throughput of goods and passengers year-on-year, the more infrastructure, provisions and associated services are required. These will bring varying degrees of benefit or disadvantage to the local and regional economy and to the environment. Ports are also important for the support of economic activities in the hinterland since they act as a crucial connection between sea and land transport. They are thus catalysts for social and economic development in any maritime nation. Maritime transportation has been the life-blood of world trade since time immemorial. Though new modes of transportation have grown enormously shipping shall continue to occupy the lions share in world trade in the foreseeable future because of the economics inherent in sea transportation. The development of port infrastructure provides a positive impact on the economic and social growth of society. Increasing competition among hub ports has been growing as previously less developed ports in countries undergoing national economic growth have been developing port infrastructures to compete with the existing hub ports. As competition among ports has been increased, shipping alliances and major shipping lines have been taking advantage of their growing power in negotiating concessions for dedicated terminals and/or in deciding ports of call. Ports are losing thier bargaining power and have been forced to provide deep water, quality services, productivity, efficiencies, infrastructures including rails and roads, all of which are frequently demanded by shipping lines with bargaining power created by great amounts of container volume. When a port fails to meet the shipping line’s demand, it may lose its major clients. Ports and container terminal operators are under strong pressure from their clients, which means they are forced to take part in the competition among ports by actively enhancing productivity and investing a great amount of money in order to stay in the game. The demands of shipping lines (customers of ports) exercising their growing bargaining powerfor lower port tariffs, quick turnaround times, accommodation of super large ships and many other quality services, and industry trends towards containerization, super larger ships,consolidated port operations, and concessions to global operators allow for a straightforward definition of the conditions for success as hub port: _ location (proximity to major world routes) _ quick turnaround time Page | 3

_ quality services with efficiencies and productivity _ reasonable costs _ ability to accommodate super larger ships – deep water, advanced equipment _ excellent networks covering neighbouring feeder ports _ existence of logistic cluster supporting value-added logistics activities _ no red tapes and no burdensome paper works _ advanced information technology _ intermodal infrastructures- access to rail, air and road distribution networks _ local markets producing freight volume. With the new container transshipment terminal coming up at vallarpadam, to be the largest in India cochin port is preparing itself to be the premier or hub port of india. Since ports have a major role in attracting investments into a country and resulting in the economic and social development in the region there is stiff competition between major ports to attract the best of deals in import , export , transshipment etc.. With the commissioning of vallarpadam container transshipment terminal cochin port will be providing stiff competition to the other container ports in the Indian ocean region like Colombo port(Srilanka) , Salalah port(Oman) and the port of Singapore(Singapore). Hence it is imperative that a study is conducted on the economic gains the new container terminal will bring to India and the competitive features that will give cochin port an edge over the other major container ports in the region in attracting major share of container cargo.


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Secondary Data The main method of data collection is secondary in nature. Budget report and annual report of Cochin Port Trust.The various objectives of the this study was  To analyze the impact of vallarpadam terminal on the economic growth of india  To do a comparison study between vallarpadam terminal with major hub ports in the Indian ocean region. Page | 5 . company records of Dubai Port World and Cochin chamber of commerce and from the internet. Shipping Lines. Microsoft Excel. Primary Data The Primary data are collected through informal personnel interviews with the various officials of Cochin Port Trust. The data are collected from the Administration report. report of Consultant Engineering Services. Analysis The secondary data collected was analysed with data analyze tool. officials of Dubai Port World. Shipping agents etc.

Berth Page | 6 .CHAPTER 2 PORT AND SHIPPING CONCEPTS Backhaul To haul a shipment back over part of a route that it has already traveled. return movement of cargo. usually opposite from the direction of its primary cargo destination. Beam The width of a ship. Ballast tanks Compartments at the bottom of a ship that are filled with liquids for stability and to make the ship seaworthy. Ballast keel A heavy keel fitted to vessels to lower the center of gravity and improve stability.

As with the BOT. Build-own-operate-transfer (BOOT) A form of concession where a private party or consortium agrees to finance. also known as first port of call. a contract of carriage. construct. Typically assessed based on the duration of a vessel’s stay and length overall (LOA). The concessionaire bears the commercial risk of operating the facility. construct. and a receipt for goods.A place in which a vessel is moored or secured. Berth term Shipped under a rate that does not include the cost of loading or unloading. Berth dues (or quay dues or dockage) Charges for the use of a berth. Build-operate-transfer (BOT) A form of concession where a private party or consortium agrees to finance. own. operate and maintain a facility for a specific period and transfer the facility to the concerned government or port authority after the term of the concession. Page | 7 . place alongside a quay where a ship loads or discharges cargo. Broker A person who arranges for transportation of loads for a percentage of the revenue from the load. non-containerized cargo stowed directly into a ship’s hold. operate and maintain a facility for a specific period and transfer the facility to the concerned government or port authority after the term of the concession. The ownership of the concession area (port land) vests in the private party or consortium during the entire concession period and is transferred to the government or port authority at the end of the concession period. Bill of lading A document that establishes the terms of contract between a shipper and a transportation company. Breakbulk Loose. the concessionaire bears the commercial risk of operating the facility. It serves as a document of title. The ownership of the concession area (port land) remains with the government or port authority during the entire concession period. Bond port Port of a vessel’s initial customs entry to any country. Bonded warehouse A warehouse authorized by customs authorities for storage of goods on which payment of duties is deferred until the goods are removed.

undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of carriage by sea. Common carrier A transportation company that provides service to the general public at published rates. air.000 kilograms (2. or by a combination of such modes. Carrier Any person or entity who. Cartage Intraport or local hauling of cargo by drays or trucks (also referred to as drayage). tunnels. Concession Page | 8 .240 pounds.000 pounds. Cleat A device secured on the floor of a container to provide additional support or strength to a cargorestraining device. Chassis A frame with wheels and container locking devices to secure the container for movement. cars. a partition separating one part of a ship from another part. Weight tons can be expressed in terms of short tons of 2. fertilizers. Bunkers Fuel used aboard ships. or over bridges. in a contract of carriage.12 cubic meters) or cubic meters (35. frequently reserved to national flag vessels of that nation.3 cubic feet). Clearance The size beyond which vessels. Measurement tons are usually expressed as cargo measurements of 40 cubic feet (1. or a device attached to a wharf to secure mooring lines.Bulkhead A structure to resist water. or metric tons of 1. or loads cannot pass through. long tons of 2. under. Cabotage Shipments between ports of a single nation. and so forth. road. ore. highways.62 pounds). Bulk vessel All vessels designed to carry bulk cargo such as grain. inland waterway. and oil. rail. Cargo tonnage Ocean freight is frequently billed on the basis of weight or measurement tons.204.

5 feet in height. Container Steel or aluminum frame forming a box in which cargo can be stowed meeting International Standard Organization (ISO)-specified measurements. in return. vessel. bulk liquid. Container pool An agreement between parties that allows the efficient use and supply of containers. Containers come in many forms and types. vessels. rail cars. Container terminal An area designated for the handling. flat rack. refrigerated. depending on whether all or only some of its holds are fitted with container cells. open top. dropped off. a common supply of containers available to the shipper as required. 30 feet. barge. the assets revert to the public sector at expiration of the contract. storage. and where containers can be picked up.An arrangement whereby a private party (concessionaire) leases assets from an authorized public entity for an extended period and has responsibility for financing specified new fixed investments during the period and for providing specified services associated with the assets. usually consisting of one or more sheds or warehouses and uncovered storage areas where cargo is loaded (“stuffed”) into or unloaded (“stripped”) from containers and may be temporarily stored in the sheds or warehouses. or stacking on other containers. or rail). vehicle rack. and possibly loading or unloading of cargo into or out of containers. stored. 40 feet. chassis. 20 feet.5 feet or 9. or loaded or unloaded from one mode of transport to another (that is. containerships may be full or partial. Container freight station A dedicated port or container terminal area. Typical containers may be 10 feet. Container yard A container handling and storage facility either within a port or inland. maintained. the concessionaire receives specified revenues from the operation of the assets. dry bulk. 48 feet. or other special configurations. 8 feet or 8. insulated. Container vessel Ship equipped with cells into which containers can be stacked.5 feet in width. including: ventilated. truck. and 8. 45 feet. fitted with special castings on the corners for securing to lifting equipment. or 53 feet in length. Contract carrier Page | 9 .

vessel. Dredging Removal of sediment to deepen access channels. Cut-off time (closing time) The latest time a container may be delivered to a terminal for loading to a scheduled barge. Electronic data interchange (EDI) Transmission of transactional data between computer systems. or truck. provide turning basins for ships. that are transported in bulk carriers. and property taxes. Dock or quay A structure attached to land to which a vessel is moored. Measured as the vertical distance between the waterline and the lowest edge of the keel. transports passengers or cargo for compensation. Fixed costs Costs that do not vary with the level of activity. Demurrage A penalty charge against shippers or consignees for delaying the carrier’s equipment beyond the allowed free time. Draft (or draught) The depth of a ship while in the water. rent. Daily running cost Cost per day of operating a ship. Some fixed costs continue even if no cargo is carried. and ores. train. coal. such as agribulk products. for example. fertilizer. Feeder service Transport service whereby loaded or empty containers in a regional area are transferred to a “mother ship” for a long-haul ocean voyage. Page | 10 . Deconsolidation point Place where cargo is ungrouped for delivery. mostly uniform cargo. and maintain adequate water depth along waterside facilities. The free time and demurrage charges are set forth in the charter party or freight tariff. under special and individual contracts or agreements. terminal leases.Any person not a common carrier who. Dry bulk Loose.

Harbor dues (or port dues) Charges by a port authority to a vessel for each harbor entry. or used for manufacturing within the zone and re exported without duties being applied. Hold A ship’s interior storage compartment. Grounding Contact by a ship with the ground while the ship is moored or anchored as a result of the water level dropping. Forty-foot equivalent unit (FEU) Unit of measurement equivalent to one forty foot container. and vessel traffic management system. barge. may be stored in the zone without being subject to import duty regulations. Mixed cargo Page | 11 . or when approaching the coast as a result of a navigational error. Free trade zone A zone. Merchandise. but under government control. chassis. Merchandise may be stored. usually on a per gross tonnage basis. Liner A vessel sailing between specified ports on a regular basis.Foreign trade zone A free port in a country divorced from customs authority. trucks. often within a port (but not always). designated by the government of a country for dutyfree entry of any non prohibited goods. Gateway A point at which freight moving from one territory to another is interchanged between transportation lines. beacons. Gantry crane A crane fixed on a frame or structure spanning an intervening space typically designed to traverse fixed structures such as cargo (container) storage areas or quays and which is used to hoist containers or other cargo in and out of vessels and place or lift from a vessel. to cover the costs of basic port infrastructure and marine facilities such as buoys. Two twenty-foot containers (TEUs) equal one FEU. except contraband. or train. displayed. Also referred to as free port.

Terminal charge Page | 12 . Ro/ro A shortening of the term “roll-on roll-off. it is used for awkwardly shaped cargo that cannot fit on or in any other type of container. Moor To attach a ship to the shore by ropes. or a roof. Platform (or flat) A shipping container without sides. Reefer Refrigerated container or vessel designed to transport refrigerated or frozen cargo. the fee is normally based on the ship’s tonnage. or length.Two or more products carried on board one ship. Mobile crane General purpose crane capable of moving on its own wheels from one part of a port to another. draft. Stevedore Individual or firm that employs longshoremen (or dockers. ends. Panamax Maximum beam that allows vessels to pass through the locks of the Panama Canal (specifically used for dry bulk and container vessels).” Ro/ro is a cargo handling method whereby vessels are loaded via one or more ramps that are lowered on the quay. or port workers) to load and unload vessels. Normally 20 or 40 feet long. dock workers. Pilotage The act of assisting the master of a ship in navigation when entering or leaving a port or in confined water. Pilotage dues Fee payable by the owner or operator of a ship for the services of a pilot. Pilferage Stealing of cargo. Relay To transfer containers from one ship to another.

Tramp line An ocean carrier company operating vessels on other than regular routes and schedules. Top off To fill a ship that is already partly loaded with cargo. Twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU) Container size standard of twenty feet. then fills up at the second port where there is no restriction. delivery. Turnaround time The time it takes between the arrival of a vessel and its departure from port. Typically occurs where there is a draught restriction at the first load port—the ship loads a quantity of cargo corresponding to the permissive draught. Container vessel capacity and port throughput capacity are frequently referred to in TEUs. Page | 13 . Two twenty-foot containers (TEUs) equal one FEU. This method is often used to gain better vessel utilization and thereby economies of scale by consolidating cargo onto larger vessels while transiting in the direction of main trade routes. Top stow cargo Goods that are stowed on top of all others in a ship’s hold because of their relatively low density and the probability that they would be damaged if overstowed. Toplifter Forklift truck capable of lifting a container by means of its spreader. Throughput charge The charge for moving a container through a container yard off of or onto a ship. Transshipment A distribution method whereby containers or cargo are transferred from one vessel to another to reach their final destination.A charge made for a service performed in a terminal area typically referring to handling associated with receipt. compared to a direct service from the load port of origin to the discharge port of destination. Transshipment port A port where cargo is transferred from one carrier to another or from one vessel of a carrier to another vessel of the same carrier without the cargo leaving the port. Towage Charges for the services of tugs assisting a ship or other vessels in ports. frequently used as a measure of port efficiency. or inspection of cargo via land-based operations.

protection of the environment. Unloader Port equipment employed to unload ships carrying dry bulk cargo. and storage of cargo. Wharfage The charge that an owner of a facility (terminal or port) charges for the movement of cargo through that facility. stripping. tracking software. personnel (traffic operators). consolidation. distribution.”) Unmoor To remove the ropes that attach a ship to the shore. delivery. Most larger maritime ports have relatively advanced vessel traffic management systems for maritime safety. comprising equipment (such as radars. and radio communications). Page | 14 .Unitization The consolidation of a quantity of individual items into one large shipping unit for easier and faster handling through methods such as palletizing. Unstuffing (or stripping) Unloading of a container. Warehouse Covered area for the reception. slinging and containerization. Vessel traffic management system Vessel control and management system (VTMS) usually under the authority of the harbormaster. (Note: Small movable and hoistable unloaders are sometimes referred to as “vacuvators. and coordination of marine services. and regulations.


• Rapid growth in volume of world seaborne freight. • Introduction of the super mega size containership. such as: • globalization of manufacturing and outsourcing.Industry profile In an era of economic globalization. port and logistics industries. ports are evolving rapidly from being traditional land /sea interfaces to providers of complete logistics networks. especially Page | 16 . • Increase of productivity and efficiency in ports. • global trends of logistics network restructuring and reposition of regional and local distribution centre. Most ports in the world have attention to these challenges and emerging issues. ports have had to face many challenges due to unpredictable environmental changes and trends in the shipping. That is.

Shanghai and Shenzhen are expected by 2020 to be moving 56. especially container terminals and related facilities.account for nearly two thirds of global capacity. Maritime container terminals tend to be part of a larger port which can be found situated around major harbours. owned by Malcom McLean. Port of Dubai etc. Port of Hong Kong. a converted T-2 tanker.2 million and 57. but by 2020 Shanghai is expected to be overtaken by Shenzhen to become the world’s largest container port. with new structures emerging in relations between shipping lines. And also the container terminals usually provide storage facilities for both loaded and empty containers.9 million TEU respectively. Against a background of globalisation-driven rapid demand growth. on its first voyage. By 2010 Shanghai container throughput is expected to have surpassed Hong Kong. ports across the world have been trying to develop their physical infrastructures. There are close to 600 container ports across the world with an estimated combined handling capacity of 380 million TEU. Container terminal productivity deals with the efficient use of labour. Port of Shenzhen. in April 1956. currently the world’s largest port. In the most general sense productivity measures output per unit of input. To cope with these challenges and emerging issues. Texas. The industry is changing rapidly. New Jersey and the port of Houston. and to expand their port hinterland through introducing free trade zones with a hope of developing hub ports and international logistics centres.Terminal productivity measurement is a means of quantifying the efficiency of the use of these three resources. The first container ship was the Ideal-X. which carried 58 metal containers between the port of Newark. terminal operators and cargo owners.The world busiest container ports are Port of Singapore. The container terminal is the physical link between ocean and land modes of transport and a major component of the containerization system.The largest ports. Port of Rotterdam.container etc. those that can handle in excess of 1 million TEU per annum. The container port and terminal business is changing rapidly. Port of shanghai. the sector has been attracting Page | 17 .. equipment and land.

The Board is headed by the Chairman who acts as the Chief Executive Officer. By 1930-31 the Port was formally opened for vessels up to 30 feet draught. All these factors combine to place very great pressures on the sector. Chairman is assisted by the Dy. Cochin was given the status of a Major Port in 1936. of India.of India may from time to time nominate the Trustees in the Board representing various interests. Organizational structure Cochin Port Trust is an Autonomous Body under Govt. In addition.massive new inward investment . The Administration of the Port got vested in a Board of Trustees on 29th February 1964 under the Major Port Trusts Act. the general political environment within which terminals are operated is becoming much more environmentally sensitive. Organization profile History The Port of Cochin was developed during the period 1920-1940 due to the untiring efforts of Sir Robert Bristow.of India and is managed by Board of Trustees constituted by the Govt.both from operating companies and external investors. a) General Administration Department b) Traffic Department c) Accounts Department d) Marine Department Page | 18 . This means that the pressures on terminal operations and development strategies are changing very rapidly. The Govt.1963. Chairman who in turn is assisted by Department Heads and officials of the following departments functioning in the Port.

• 1 Dry Dock Page | 19 . No other port enjoys this closeness to the maritime highway.5 metres Vast Estate covering 1940 acres including land at Puthuvypeen. The Cochin Port is strategically located on the East -West trade route. which is an artificial island and was created by using dredged soil.e) Civil Engineering Department f) Mechanical Engineering Department g) Medical Department Port Description Cochin Port Trust is one of the twelve major Ports in India. The port is situated in the wellington island. FACILITIES AT A GLANCE • Well equipped container terminal • 16 berths including 3 Oil jetties • • Maximum draft of 12. The introduction of house stuffing in 1992 and commissioning of the Rajiv Gandhi Container Terminal in 1995 greatly contributed to this significant growth. This region generates a major part of maritime traffic and is situated near the main shipping routes. Cochin is also one of the premier ports in India to introduce containerization in cargo handling operations as far back as 1973 and it’s the first e-port in India. In recent years container traffic through the port registered a quantum jump. only 11 nautical miles away from the direct sea route tom Australia and the Far East from Europe. Vallarpadam & South end reclamation area. The wellington island divides the backwaters into Ernakulam channel on the east and Mattanchery channel on the west. Port of Cochin is located on the south-west coast of India in the state of Kerala.

m of covered area and 1. Reefer Points (IGTPL) 126 points of 440 Volts Dry Dock 66m x 12. of Covered accommodation Container Stack Yard (IGTPL) 1.732 sq.Storage Facility 57485 sq.m of open area Container Freight Station 10.000 sq.5m x 4m Computerized operations For yard Planning.300 ground slots including reefer.00. stacking and billing of Containers Central Documentation Centre For providing Single window clearance for exports PORT LAYOUT Page | 20 .m.

The port limits extend up to the entire backwaters and the connecting creeks and channels. jetties and stream moorings alongside these channels. berths. Page | 21 .The entrance to Port is through the Cochin Gut between the peninsular headland Vypeen and Fort Cochin. leading to west and east of Willingdon Island respectively and berthing facilities for ships have been provided in the form of wharves. From the Gut the channel divides into Mattancherry channel and Ernakulam Channel.

DP World is one of the largest marine terminal operators in the world.Dubai Port World ltd. DPI had initially applied its expertise to managing ports in the Middle East. experienced and professional team of nearly 30. Its dedicated. Its first project was at Jeddah Islamic Port (in 1999). DP World was formed in September 2005 with the integration of the terminal operations of the Dubai Ports Authority (DPA). When it was first established in 1999. bulk and other terminal cargo. which was focused on the UAE ports of Rashid and Jebel Ali. India and Europe. where it collaborated with its local partner on the management and operation of the South Container Page | 22 . with 49 terminals and 12 new developments across 31 countries.000 people serves customers in some of the most dynamic economies in the world. and DPI (Dubai Ports International) which had been set up to export this success internationally. DP World aims to enhance customers’ supply chain efficiency by effectively managing container.

DP World handled more than 43. independent of acquisitions. This acquisition gave the company a strong presence in Asia with major operations in Hong Kong and China as well as operations in Australia. The new terminal will make Kochi a key centre in the shipping world reducing India’s dependence on foreign ports to handle transshipment. Dominican Republic and Venezuela. In 2009. In January 2005. including India. The combined container throughput of both companies for 2005 was more than 35 million TEU across terminals from the Americas to Asia. Vizag. They took another giant leap forward with the acquisition of P&O in March 2006. India. The acquisition also brought with it an exciting pipeline of projects that will continue our future expansion.China and the Middle East. the international terminal business of CSX Corporation. It is the largest single operator container terminal currently planned in India and the first in the country to operate in a special economic zone.Terminal (SCT).4 million TEU (twenty-foot equivalent container units) across its portfolio from the Americas to Asia. Kochi. expanding our portfolio of terminals and adding P&O Maritime Services to the group. With a pipeline of expansion and development projects in key growth markets. across key markets globally. Page | 23 . In February 2005 DP World signed an agreement with the Cochin Port Trust (CoPT) to construct. DPI transformed its network with the strategic acquisition of CSX World Terminals (CSX WT). Romania (2003). develop and operate an international container transhipment terminal at Vallarpadam. capacity is expected to rise to around 95 million TEU over the next ten years. This grew to nearly 42 million TEU in 2006. India (2002) and Constanta. DPI then went on to develop successful operations at the ports of Djibouti (2000). Germany.

Page | 24 . world's biggest port operator.International Container Transhipment Terminal (ICTT) India's transshipment gateway is under construction at Vallarpadam near Kochi by Dubai Ports World.

Page | 25 . develop and operate an International Container Transhipment Terminal (ICTT) – An India Gateway Terminal – at Vallarpadam. Government of India. Sultan Ahmed Bin Sulayem. Mr. The project was formally launched with the laying of the foundation stone by Mr.R. The proceedings were overseen by the Hon’ble Minister of Shipping. CoPT and Mr.T. Jacob Thomas. DP World.On the 16th February 2005. Executive Chairman. The ceremony was attended by Dr. Chairman. DP World announced that it has formally signed an agreement with the Cochin Port Trust (CoPT) to construct. the Hon’ble Prime Minister of India. Manmohan Singh.

Bhatia. the Governor of Kerala. Construction of the Terminal is expected to be completed in four years and commercial operations to be started within a year of completion. the DP World will manage and subsequently transfer its operations at the ‘Rajiv Gandhi Container Terminal’ (RGCT) in Cochin Port to the new terminal upon its completion.8 km of quay and at least 16 Quay Cranes capable of handling the largest vessels afloat. the Hon’ble Chief Minister for improve yard handling. DP World has estimated that the total initial investment required will be approximately US$20 million which includes the immediate provision of four RTGs and two Mobile Harbor Cranes to the Terminal . set up to provide growth capital for infrastructure projects in India.Oommen Chandy and His Excellency.Baalu. The new terminal will make Cochin a key centre in the shipping world reducing India’s dependence on foreign ports to handle transhipment. Vallarpadam will be expanded ahead of demand to eventually total 1. Mr. six Super Post Panamax Quay Cranes and an on-dock railhead serviced by rail-mounted gantry cranes. Construction of a new four lane bridge and highway access to the ’golden quadrilateral’ road network is already underway. The DP World has been granted a 38-year concession for the exclusive operation and management of the site. Page | 26 . The first phase of the new Terminal will have a capacity of 1 million TEUs which consists of 600 metres of quay. With the finalization of this agreement. Mr. The debt is provided by a consortium of banks led by the Infrastructure Development Fund Company (IDFC). R.L. investing in quayside and yard-handling equipment and implementing state-of-the-art IT systems. with associated yardhandling equipment and a capacity of 3 million TEUs. The total cost of the project is estimated at US$500 million and will be funded by DP World through non-recourse debt funding. Ministry of Finance and meanwhile. truck turnaround time and quayside operations. Approval for the agreement was given by the Cabinet Committee of Economic Affairs of the Government of India. DP World will actively manage and invest in the facility focusing on improving productivity. the DP World has taken over the management and operation of the existing container handling facility at the RGCT prior to the transfer of its operations to the new terminal upon its completion. ‘Vallarpadam’ is the largest single operator container terminal currently planned in India and the first in the country to operate in a special economic zone.

but an economic necessity due to the fact that Singapore is lacking in land and natural resources.Strategically located on the main east-west global shipping lines and offering draft of about 16 m. it also tranships a fifth of the world's shipping containers as the world's busiest container port. Port of Singapore The Port of Singapore refers to the collective facilities and terminals that conduct maritime trade handling functions in Singapore's harbour sand which handle Singapore's shipping. connecting the port to over 600 other ports in 123 countries and spread over six continents. The Straits of Johor are currently impassable to any ship as the Johor-Singapore Causeway links Singapore to Malaysia. half of the world's annual supply of crude oil. It was also the busiest port in terms of total cargo tonnage handled until 2005. and is the world's busiest transshipment port. Thousands of ships drop anchor in the harbour. for example wafer fabrication or oil refining to generate revenue. when it was surpassed by the Port of Shanghai. Currently the world's busiest port in terms of total shipping tonnage. The Port is critical for importing natural resources. and then later re-exporting them after they have been refined and shaped in some manner. Cochin is destined to develop as the premier gateway to southern India. as also offering an alternative to Sri Lanka and Singapore for containers being transhipped for the Indian market. Page | 27 . The Port of Singapore is not a mere economic boon.

The Port of Singapore's PSA terminals include four container terminals, operated as one seamless facility, located at Pasir Panjang, Keppel, Brani, and Tanjong Pagar. The newest terminal at Pasir Panjang can accommodate the latest mega-container vessels carrying over 13 thousand TEUs. PSA Singapore Terminals is developing 23 container berths at the Port of Singapore's Pasir Panjang terminal, and another 16 berths will be added by 2018, bringing total container-handling capacity at the Port of Singapore for 50 million TEUs per year.

PSA Singapore Terminals also manages two multi-purpose terminals at Pasir Panjang at the Sembawang Wharves. These Port of Singapore terminals offer many port-related services including warehouses, open storage, and facilities for breakbulk and specialized cargoes. The Port of Singapore's Asia Automobile Terminal (Singapore) makes PSA terminals a fast-growing major automotive transshipment hub for the region.
Port Location: Port Name: Singapore Port of Singapore

Port Authority: Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA)

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Latitude: Longitude: Port Type: Port Size:

1° 17' 34" N 103° 43' 31" E Deepwater Seaport Very Large

Port of Singapore Authority(PSA) The Port of Singapore Authority (PSA) was formed on 1 April 1964 to take over the functions, assets and liabilities of the Singapore Harbour Board. With the development of Jurong Industrial Estate, the Jurong Port was opened in 1965. Further expansion followed in 1971 when the PSA converted the British Naval Base Store Basin into the Sembawang Wharves. Singapore became the first port in South-East Asia to accommodate a third-generation container vessel with the opening of a container berth at Tanjong Pagar on 23 June 1972. Pasir Panjang Wharves was set up in 1974. At that time, the PSA operated five maritime gateways: Keppel Wharves, Jurong Port, Sembawang Wharves, Tanjong Pagar Container Terminal and Pasir Panjang Wharves. There were about 12 km of wharves and more than 1.5 million sq m of warehouses. Lying at the crossroads of international ocean-going trade routes, the Port of Singapore receives an average of 140 thousand vessels per year carrying about 30 million containers, 500 million tons of cargo, and a million cruise passengers. The Port of Singapore is proud of its advanced technology, allowing the MPA to provide reliable, efficient, and secure services 24 hours a day. Page | 29

Tajong Pagar Terminal

Container births Quay length(m) Area(ha) Max depth at chart datum(m) Quay cranes Keppel Terminal

8 2300 85 14.8 29

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Container births Quay length(m) Area(ha) Max depth at chart datum(m) Quay cranes Brani Terminal

14 3200 100 15.5 42

Container births Quay length(m) Area(ha) Max depth at chart datum(m) Quay cranes Pasir Panjang Terminal

9 2600 80 15 32

Container births Quay length(m)

23 7900 Page | 31

192.9 18.2 24.332.410.792.2 2409.8 16.3 2183.4 27.1 23.329.Area(ha) Max depth at chart datum(m) Quay cranes Performance 335 16 87 TOTAL CONTAINER THROUGHPUT (in '000 TEUs) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Jan Feb Mar Apr 2.866.6 Salalah port (Oman) Page | 32 .918.940.6 2320.5 29.2 25.935.5 21.

Salalah enjoys an attractive strategic location in the heart of the Indian Ocean Rim and caters to some of the world’s largest ocean going vessels. The Salalah Port Project is the largest privatization project in Oman and is hailed as a role model for achieving the Sultanate's strategic direction of Diversification. with facilities to handle bulk cargo. Situated right at the major East-West shipping lanes.5 million TEU. Location details Page | 33 . A tender for detailed design of Terminal 2 which has just been launched which will add 1350 meters to the existing 2. The success of the port's development has been an engine for economic development in the southern region of Oman.500 vessels in 2007. container repairs. which handled about 2.Port of Salalah is a world class transshipment hub in the West Central Asia Region. The majority of the business comes from the container terminal.64 million TEU and more than 1. Today the capacity of the container terminal is 4. Omanisation and Privatization. warehousing and ship repairs. general and liquid cargoes and in addition offers value added services such as bunkering. Dhofar and has created a significant number of job opportunities for local nationals in addition to new business opportunities for local companies in the region. The Port of Salalah is a common-user multi-purpose port.205 meters linear quay. a container freight station. containers.

00 E Container Terminal Port of Salalah is one of the fastest growing terminals in the West Central Asia region situated right at the major East-West shipping lanes. With the opening of the 5th deepwater berth in May last year and the recent completion of berth 6. can service the largest vessels in the world.4'. They have. These machines.Country Province/governorate Town or city (closest) Port Name Latitude (N/S Decimal Degrees) Longitude (E/W Decimal Degrees) Oman Dhofar Salalah Salalah Port 16°56.5 million TEU in 2008. With the increase in demand for port facilities in this region.5 million TEU in 2006 to 4. the opening of the two new berths and Page | 34 . the annual throughput capacity has grown from 2. invested in eight more Super Post-Panamax gantry cranes to augment the 17 cranes that are already operating. This. with their ability to reach containers stacked 24-across on deck. the Port of Salalah has made significant investment in providing new facilities to ensure it remains an industry leader.50 N 054°05.

totaling 3.significant investment in new port handling equipment has brought the port’s capacity to about 6 million TEU annually by mid 2009. Berth 7 is expected to be operational during the first quarter of 2011.350 metres of quay wall and another 3 million TEU to the Port’s annual capacity. at the same time. Port Limits From the highest point of the high tide where the point intersect the coast at 054° 04 Min East longitude and from that point in the direction of true South to the point intersecting the line 16 ° 58 Min North latitude and from this point in the direction of true EAST to the point intersecting the 54° 5. with Berths 8 and 9 scheduled for completion during the following year. Berths 7. This project will add an additional 1.40 Min East longitude from that point in the direction of true South to the point intersecting the line 16 ° 54 Min North latitude and from that point in the direction of true west to the point intersecting the line 53° 58 Min East longitude and from this point in the direction of true North to the point intersecting coastline and from this point following the coast back to the Page | 35 . The Port’s growth strategy lays the foundation for success in reaching its goal of becoming a main global transhipment hub. 8 and 9 are known as “Terminal 2”.555 metres in length. it also ensures increased efficiency and faster vessel turnaround times. which will give us a total of nine berths. A minimum of three further container berths have been approved. The constant expansion and development of the Port of Salalah plays an important role in meeting increasing customer requirements.

Vessels exempt from pilotage are: • • • • Vessels in the service of the Navy of the Sultanate of Oman Any vessel under 200 gross tones Country craft Tenders of any recognized buoyage. Vessels approaching from the Fair way pass between a pair of light buoys (Port and Starboard) and then between the head of East Breakwater and a light buoy 0. piers.2nm NW. 16°56. the Harbor Master may insist on the use of a Pilot in the interest of Port Safety. Pilots can be provided at 30 minutes notice. Page | 36 . in which case the appropriate tariff charges will apply. Port Control You can contact the Port of Salalah Port Control on: • • • • VHF: Tel: Ch 12. 3nm East of the Breakwater Light. and buildings under the operational or administrative control of the Port authority. decks.starting point includes all Fax: +968 2321 9253 Pilotage Pilotage is compulsory and pilots may board from launch or tug and are available 24 hours.4 NM East of the Breakwater “Lat. lighting or navigational aid service Not withstanding the above items. Pilot Boarding Ground Port Pilot will board the inbound vessel 3. Pilot boards in position 16° 57'N 54°04'E. landing places. 16 +968 2321 9052 / 2321 9500 ext 423/424 Email: portcontrol@salalahport. storage areas.4'. quays. or as directed by Salalah Port Control.50 N Long 054°05.00 E” Fairway & Approach Channel Port of Salalah is entered from NE between East Breakwater and the Container Terminal. road.

16°55'5 N Long 054°02'0 E Lat. 16°55'5 N Long 054°04'0 E Lat. Bounded by the following coordinates • • Lat.Anchorage Three Anchorage areas are designated for Vessels calling at the Port of Salalah: • Area "A" for inbound vessels awaiting berthing. 16°54'0 N Long 054°02'0 E • Area "D" for inbound large vessels waiting to be berthed. Area bounded by the following coordinates: • • • • • Lat. 16°55'0 N Long 054°04'0 E • Area "C" for ship to ship bunkering operations.00 E Lat. 16°56'5 N Long 054°02'0 E Lat. 16°55'0 N Long 054°02'0 E Lat. Area bounded by the following coordinates: • • • • Lat. 16°55'0 N Long 054°02'0 E Lat. 16°56'0 N Long 054°05'. 16°56'5 N Long 054°04'0 E Lat. 16°56'0 N Long 054°04'. 16°55'5 N Long 054°04'0 E Lat. Area bounded by the following coordinates: • • • • Lat. 16°55'0 N Long 054°04'0 E Lat. 16°55'5 N Long 054°02'0 E Area "B" for vessels requiring off shore services.40 E Page | 37 . 16°54'0 N Long 054°04'0 E Lat.

6 30. 28115 4. 27. 22.5 21. Tidal Range & Flow Tidal range averages 1.40 E BA 2895. 3. 16°54'0 N Long 054°04'. 2. Berth No Length (m)MPD* 1. temperatures approx 20° to high 30° Summer.0m however.1200.• • Charts Lat.64 E) and pass between a pair of light buoys (Port & Starboard) leading to the entrance between East Break water and the Container Terminal. 4 307 15.5 Weather Prevailing winds: November to March: March to May: June to August: Monsoon wind. during the monsoon season (June to August) waves can be up to 4.025.0m to 2. 2895. 23173 9 24 200 6.0 at max. temperatures vary between 20° to 30° due to the monsoon. Page | 38 . Port Approach Vessels approaching the Port of Salalah meet the Pilots one mile east of the Fair Way Buoy (16 Degree 56. direction 230 deg. 1200.2896 and Oman 250. speed max 15-20kn during the period of June to August Temperatures approx 24°C-34°C Spring.1 29 260 2.96 N and 54 Degree 02. 16°54'0 N Long 054°05’.1201 Admiralty Pilot NP 64.0 Ramp Lct45 2. Charts BA. 1201 Admiralty pilot NP 4.5 5.8 25 115 4. 31 300 15 Oil Jetty 130 10.3 26. 6 488 17.00 E Lat. 2896 and Oman 250. Dock Water Density Density: 1.

The port operates 24 hours a day.5 million TEU to 4. With opening of Berth 5 in May 2007 and inauguration of Berth 6 in May 2008. 8 and 9 are already on the drawing board. Container Terminal The Container Terminal offers true one-stop-shopping with the full range of main and ancillary services: • • • • • • • Stevedoring Reefer Services Container M&R CFS. bulk oil. The Port of Salalah General Cargo Terminal has facilities to handle most other types of cargo including general cargo.18. to meet customer demands and prepare for the future.000 m2yard area. as well as 4 additional Super Post Panamax Cranes have been commissioned. seven days a week.5 million TEU per annum. The General Cargo Terminal is also under expansion including 500 metres additional berth and 212. The General Cargo Terminal has 12 berths ranging in length from 115 meters to 600 meters with drafts up to16 meters and has a dedicated oil pier. The Container Terminal is build and equipped to handle the world's largest container vessels with its 16. The expansions and planned growth of the Container Terminal does not stop here and berth 7.Tugs Four tugs of 55 Ton Bollard pull are available. the Port of Salalah has expanded the Container Terminal with 970 metres quay wall and increased the capacity from 2. roll on/roll off cargo and also caters to cruise vessels. There are facilities for over 980 refrigerated containers. divided in day and night shifts.5 m approach channel and is ready to welcome the next generation of vessels.5 . Port Logistics The Port of Salalah Container Terminal has 6 fully operational berths along 2. warehousing and real estate leasing Bunkering through BP Marine Cargo inspection through Henderson International Several ships chandlers Page | 39 .205 m of quay.

8 MW 2 fuel tanker. effective. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 6 fully operational berths Total yard area of 765.5-18.000 m2 2. competitive and reliable service to its customers.205 m quay wall 16 m harbor depth 16.• Customs on-site Port of Salalah has invested a great deal in superstructure equipment to provide an efficient. 1 water tanker Container Freight Station Page | 40 .5 m approach channel 500 m turning basin Vessel tracking system 17 Super Post Panamax Gantry Cranes 7 speed loaders 7 fork lifts 45 rubber tyre gantry cranes 123 tractors and 158 trailers 3 tugs 9 reach stackers 2 top loaders NAVIS yard and vessel planning system Radio data terminals VHF radios Multi cargo consolidation (Container Freight Station) Container repair facility Reefer wash facilities Emergency power plant 2.

CFS is split into outbound & inbound Cargo.In order to meet customer requirements at a modern container terminal the Port of Salalah established a CFS (Container Freight Station) in 2002. The Port of Salalah manages and operates a Container Freight Stations (CFS) within the port boundaries providing groupage services of Less than Container Loads (LCL) for exporters as well as de-consolidation services especially for importers requiring distribution. Colombo was established primarily as a port city during the colonial era. It plays a vital role in adding value to its existing services offered at the port. Out Bound • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cargo receiving Cargo Storage Cargo consolidation/vanning In Bound Cargo Devanning Cargo Storage Cargo transfer to customers Value Added Services Palletization Cross-stuffing Heavy Cargo Handling Damaged cargo tranloading Inspection/ Surveying Damaged Pallet Repairing Marking & Labeling Sea-Air cargo handling Port of Colombo . with an artificial Page | 41 . the Colombo Harbour is located in this city. Srilanka The largest and one of the busiest ports in Sri Lanka.

the Colombo Port facilities include two terminals. The Peliyagoda container yard belong to the SLPA but it is located outside the port. Capacity for dry container stacking is 44. There are 1. a warehouse is located on the yard. There is approximately 1.120 TEU and 1. Four terminals are currently operated in the Port of Colombo.harbour that has been expanded over the years.5 hectares of container terminal area and 15. Wednesday and Friday. Container offload time is approximately 3-4 days and the heaviest traffic days are Monday.000 TEU stacking capacity. The main terminal. The South Asia Gateway Terminal operates berths with a length of 940m and a depth alongside of 15 meters. It has a dredged depth 9 – 11m and 590m of quay wall.548 TEU for reefer container stacking. Jaya Container Terminal (JCT) and Queen Elizabeth Quay (QEQ). Located on the southeast side of the island. The Unity Container Terminal holds two container berths and one multipurpose berth. The total area is 20 hectares.292 m of quay wall. currently operates four main container berths and two feeder berths. The Port of Colombo lets out into the Gulf of Mannar and is considered Sri Lanka’s international hub for containers. Jaya Container. with 12 hectares of stack area.317 m2. There are 45. Warehousing at the port is divided over 9 storage facilities with a total area of 34.53 hectares of container terminal area and an 8.000 m2 of freight station area. 350m of cross-berth quay wall and a dredged depth of 12-15 m. Location details Page | 42 .

Kolomtota was the port first used by merchants from china and the far east. After independence was granted in 1948 the port was expanded with the construction of the queen Elizabeth quay together with the completion of 16 alongside berths. when the Portuguese fleet sailed in to Colombo’s harbor after more than a century and a half. It was during the latter part British rule that the port of Colombo was upgraded and converted to a sheltered harbor. who came to trade in the island's famous spices in 1505. Terminals Unity Container Terminal • • Two Container Berths 01 Multi Purpose Berth Page | 43 . the Dutch followed and occupied the country from 1656 to 1796. which dates back to the Sinhalese kotte kingdom of the 14th century. this progress was to continue in to the 90’s with deepening the access channel and improving throughput to record levels. then came the British. the port of Colombo is rated as one of the top 35 ports in the world.Country Province/governorate Town or city (closest) Port Name Latitude (N/S Decimal Degrees) Longitude (E/W Decimal Degrees) Sri Lanka Colombo Colombo Colombo Port 5 55’N to 9 50’N 79 42’E to 81 52’E HISTORY The city of Colombo derives its name from the port of kolomtota (Colombo harbor). transit sheds. gantries and other staples of a contemporary container terminal. however. and warehouses the 1980’s saw the port undergo rapid modernization with the installation of cranes. India and Persia. ruling the region as a colony until a few years after world war ii. to this day. 443 years of foreign occupation began in Srilanka.

0m Dredged Depth 590 Meters of Quay Wall 1.53 Hectares of Container Terminal Area 8000 TEU Stacking Capacity Inter Terminal Road Link with JCT and SAGT 03 Nos of quayside Container Cranes 08 Nos of RTG on Order 50 Units of Terminal Tractors • Page | 44 .0m to -11.• • • • • • • -9.

m of Container Freight Station Area Ship Planning System with Electronic Bay Plan Transfers Direct Link Computer Facilities to the Terminal Users (EDI) Real time Computer systems for Yard Planning and Yard Operations Convenient Access to Inland Container Depots and IPZ • • • • • • • • • • Total Pier Frontage Main Berth Length .000 Sq.Jaya container terminal • • • 4 Container Main Berths & 2 Feeder Berths 1.056 TEU Dry Container Stacking Capacity 1.548 TEU Reefer Container Stacking Capacity 15. Rail mounted Gantry Cranes to stack empty container 8high 45.12. 12.00 .1292m Feeder Berth Length . Quayside Container Cranes (Panamax & Super Post Panamax) 39 Nos.0m Dredged Depth 14 Nos.292m of Quay Wall + 350m of Feeder Berth Quay Wall.0m .5 Hectares of Container Terminal Area 48.360 6512 1272 720 48.350m Capacity No of slots Dry Containers JCT 1 (RTG) JCT 2 (RTG) JCT 3 (RTG) JCT 4 (RTG) Empty Stacks (RTG Planned) Top Lifters Total Dry Container Capacity 1980 2184 2376 1560 814 180 318 9232 One over Three One over Three One over Five One over Four One over Four One over Eight One over Four 7920 8736 14. Capacity Tue Alongside Depth .256 9.00m Page | 45 . Rubber tired Container Transfer Cranes 4 Nos.15.056 Stacking Height Max.15.

8t 30ea 38t 8t 7ea 2ea 45t 5ea Page | 46 .40' Trailer Gantry Crane Outreach: Rubber Tyred Gantry Cranes 28ea 51m from C/L quayside rail Lifting 55t 30ea 31.South Asia Gateway Terminals Berths Length : 940m 15m 15m 15m Depth Alongside SAGT-01 SAGT-02 SAGT-03 Area Total Area Stack Area 20 ha 12 ha Capacity Stack Reefer Slots 540 Stacking Height Three High Capacity 1620 Mobile Equipment Reach Stackers Fantuzzi Forklift Handlers Full container Fantuzzi Empty container Fantuzzi Terminal Tractors Kalma Ottawa Commando 50 Terminal Trailers Dutch Lanka .

The Colombo South Harbour will be located west of the present south-west breakwater in an area of about 600 hectares. At present. Page | 47 . he Colombo South Harbour will mainly focus on handling transshipment cargo in the subcontinent. would be positioned as the best transshipment cargo handling hub in the South Asia region.Post Panamax 03ea Outreach: 51m from C/L quayside rail Lifting Height: 35.5m above quay Super Post Panamax 06ea Expansions The Colombo South Harbour Development Project. presently under construction. the Port of Colombo alone handles 15 per cent of transshipment cargo in the subcontinent.

The channel width of the harbour is to be 560m and depth of 20m.The harbour will have four terminals of over 1. The project is part of the Colombo Port Expansion Project.4 million TEUs.50000 200.525 Total handling cap 26. the largest project undertaken by the Sri Lanka Ports Authority with a $1200 million investment. The first terminal is likely to become operational in 2010 and will have a nominal capacity of 2.220.000 150 1000 General Cargo(MT/month) 3000000 2.000 of the port Current monthly activity by wfp. Potential monthly activity by wfp. The project will raise the capacity of the Colombo Port from the existing around four million TEUs annually to about 12 million. Monthly use if augmented.50000 of the port Monthly activity 470. It is a Government built-and-owed harbour facility and will have a private-public partnership in the provision of terminal services.200m in length each to accommodate three berths alongside depths of 18m and provision to deepen to 23m to accommodate deeper draft vessels of the future. Competitive factors Capacity and discharge rates Capacity Bulk(MT/month) Container(MT/month ) 2. Port Container Facilities Container facilities Container facilities Daily off-take capacity(nb of containers) 20’ Yes 7000(20’+40’) 40’ Yes 7000(20’+40’) Page | 48 . with harbour basin depth of 18m and a 600m turning circle. The harbour will boast the latest generation of yard planning and container handling equipment and techniques.

Container Freight Stations Number of cfs Capacity of cfs Yes 4 60 Yes 4 60 Chapter 4 ECONOMIC IMPACT OF VALLARPADAM CONTAINER TERMINAL Page | 49 .

The Indian ports handle very less of containerized cargo with not enough facilities to attract the huge container ships of present. At present India consists of 12 major ports with the Mumbai port being the biggest of the lot. A major portion of the import and exports to and from India is facilitated through shipping. Most of the capacity across these ports facilitate the handling of bulk cargo (liquid bulk . In view of changing this scenario around and bringing India into prominence in global maritime trade map the Indian government entered into an agreement with global terminal operators Dubai port world to construct. dry bulk . Salalah and Singapore ports. The new vallarpadam container transshipment terminal that will commence shortly will usher in a new era in maritime trade in India. It would Page | 50 . It’s been developed to handle the largest of container ships which would turn the Cochin port into the hub port of India and is envisaged to be the premier hub port in the region challenging the likes of Colombo. develop and operate an International Container Transshipment Terminal (ICTT) – An India Gateway Terminal – at Vallarpadam.Economic impact of vallarpadam Maritime trade has been an important source of revenue for the Indian economy over the years. But recent years has seen a quantum leap in containerized cargo with huge container ships coming into the picture. break bulk). Hence the huge potential of containerized cargo was not being made use of.

Out of this 60% belongs to the southern states of Karnataka.000 per container. Page | 51 . which has a capacity of at least 12. Exports can be delivered much faster and the same goes for imports which will reach the Indian markets faster. With the opening of the ICTT at vallarpadam these problems will be solved and Indian products will be able to sell at competitive prices globally. Tamilnadu etc. On commencement of the container transshipment terminal the industrial sector is said to make gains in excess of 1000crs in the import-export sector.000-12. Larger vessels bring about economies of scale and lower cost of operations for the shipping lines.undoubtedly result in a lot economic benefits to India and Kerala in particular which shall be discussed below :The depth at the Vallarpadam terminal.500 TEUs. The huge cost involved in deepening and widening the existing shipping channel to accommodate large container vessels requiring a draught of 13-14 m and the recurring expenditure to maintain the access channel over about 12 km from the sea. 70% of the containerized cargo handled at Colombo port is from Indian states at present. to call for loading and unloading cargo. Besides resulting in financial gains there will be considerable saving of time which will give a new impetus to the industrial growth in the region. importers. 6. This results in products being comparatively more expensive in the global market. will allow mega container ships such as Emma Maersk. together with the latest technology in equipment. Since large container ships were not entertained in Indian ports the production cost in the industrial sector is much higher compared to many of the other Asian countries. With the starting of the ICTT these states will be able to save up to Rs. which then translates into lower freight rates for exporters.

This would bring real economic benefit in addition to generating new jobs for the local community. Page | 52 .000 crores is expected to come in at Vallarpadam SEZ and adjoining areas. the potential to develop that cargo base appears bright in view of the likely establishment of a port-based Special Economic Zone. Louis Cruises India. a luxury cruise ship.000 travelers could be expected to embark on their voyage from Kochi. rail and road connectivity to be funded by the Centre. an LNG gasification terminal. an international cruise terminal. 21. an international bunkering terminal. had launched operations in India using Kochi in Kerala as its homeport. ship repair facilities. Nearly 60. Louis Cruises India will operate three-day and one-day cruises to the Maldives and Colombo from December to May 2010 on board the “Aquamarine”. a subsidiary of the 12-ship Louis Cruises fleet. an SBM terminal for the oil refinery. promotion of hospitality industry and other allied industries besides creating more job opportunities. It would enhance tourism potential.Investments to the tune of a whopping Rs.

Chapter 5 COMPARISON Page | 53 .

Determinants of port competitiveness In order to study the effects of the determinants of port competitiveness. substantial productivity improvements are generally required to enable ports to meet the stringent service requirements of their customers and to obtain Page | 54 . These determinants include 1. the development of inland transport networks. we should first justify the indicators of port competitiveness. 6. landside accessibility. including the far reaching unitization of general cargo. 2001). port (terminal) operation efficiency level. the rise of mega-carriers.ports are affected by various new forces driving global competition. port selection preferences of carriers and shippers. 1) Port (terminal) operation efficiency level Since ships time at ports is an expensive activity. the depth of the navigation channel. reliability. 5. Thus. the market entry of logistics integrators. port cargo handling charges. 8. 7. the speed of container handling and consequent vessel turnaround time is a crucial factor in terms of competitiveness for port authorities and port operators (Peters. 3. adaptability to the changing market environment. the creation of network linkages among port operators. product differentiation. eight key determinants of port competitiveness are proposed based on the existing literature. In this context. 2. Since the environment in which ports operate has changed dramatically.and so on. 4.

carriers and shippers are showing less loyalty to specific ports. holding other factors constant. This rationale will also happen.competitive advantages. The higher the efficiency level of a port or terminal operation. Nowadays. Ports face the constant risk of losing important clients. 4) Port selection preferences of carriers and shippers Globalization of industry is fast breaking down the traditional practice whereby shipping companies favored certain ports. Increasingly. in turn. to the services provided by port authorities or port operators since carriers or shippers think that port charges constitute a significant part of their total transportation costs. not because of deficiencies in port infrastructure or terminal operations. equipment breakdown. or even more likely. which in turn will affect the choices of shipping lines and shippers. 1995). weather. Definitely. 2) Port cargo handling charges The price of goods or services is always an important factor that consumers will consider when selecting products with similar characteristics. If a port authority or port operator always makes delays during operation process due to strikes. 3) Reliability That price is an important factor for producers to attain more market shares does not mean that price can decide all things. the level of efficiency can represent how quickly containers are handled and how quickly vessels are turned around at ports. these charges significantly affect a port’s competitive position. carriers are also confronted with severely competitive environment in shipping market and must pursue the ways to reduce the total shipping costs to gain competitive advantages. Since the cargo handling services are most important for port users in terms of total charges. Therefore. Productivity is a measure of the efficiency of port or terminal operations. the more port users are likely to choose it as their port of call. Therefore. and accounts for the amount of resources usually required to perform a given task in a given time. which. will make the port gain more market shares. shipping companies and shippers will suffer huge losses due to these kinds of unreliability. carriers and shippers will bypass this kind of ports even if they provide the most attractive price among their competitors. Reliability means a steady and predictable performance adapted to shipping lines schedules. Reliability of port operations also influences a port_s performance (Tongzon. they usually prefer ports that can offer relative lower service charges.4 which means that a port with a lower charge is more competitive than its rivals. port charges become a major source for shipping lines to cut down total operation costs. In addition. etc. but because the client has rearranged its service Page | 55 .

and ports strategically located close to the main global trade lanes. Efficiency of inland transport to serve an increasing and most often disputed hinterland has become a critical factor of ports potential future as well as of their overall trade growth prospects. they will lose certain competitive advantages. Page | 56 . insufficient water depths in access channel and port basins prevent some ports from being a transshipment center. The days when ships were forced to call at city terminals blocked in on the landside by congested city street are long gone. the kind of port that most ports want to be. especially of vessels deployed in the container shipping market. Thus. many shipping lines want to expand their scope to include terminal operation. These larger size container ships are always used among loading centers or hub ports. and this continuous process of change raises the question about the role of port authorities. A successful port must constantly be prepared to adopt new roles in order to cope with the changing market environment. this variable is not fully correlated with port specific variables. in order to improve terminal operation performance and to integrate door-to-door transport. however. Increasingly large tonnage. 5) The depth of the navigation channel To accommodate trade growth and to offer economies of scale in a highly competitive market. 7) Landside accessibility Originally. to enhance the amount of total throughput. That Port of Singapore Authority (PSA) has recently lost its two most important clients is a convincing example. In many cases. If port authorities cannot realize the importance of this trend. Expansion of land transport systems has altered things somewhat. Thus. 6) Adaptability to the changing market environment The market environment in which ports operate has changed significantly. so it should be included as an independent port competitiveness indicator. For instance. such as efficiency and reliability. will have significant effects on port competition. or even to the Super Post-Panamax. New remote coastal terminals with good landside connections.networks or has engaged in new partnerships with other carriers. ships loaded and discharged their cargoes in towns or cities where producers and consumers are located. many shipping companies intend to increase the size of their container ships from Panamax5 to Post-Panamax. increasingly offer carriers and shippers a more appropriate option. seaports that will succeed in the 21 st century will be those that have a good understanding of customer needs. Since ports have become a prominent node in integrated logistics chains.

g.quick and safe access to port facilities from an inland transport system becomes a basic requirement for port users to evaluate their port selection options. 8) Product (service) differentiation A differentiation strategy aims at providing specific port services in market niches distinct from those provided by other ports. This is so-called economies of scope. advanced information system and high service quality) that are inimitable and durable. Page | 57 . If a port authority or port operator has some specific competencies (e.. offering greater value to the port users. Studies have shown the need for product (service) differentiation in an environment in which total number of containers is steadily increasing and terminal expansion becoming increasingly difficult. it is easier to achieve competitive advantages than his competitors.

Tariff The most important factor determining the competitiveness of a port besides facilities is the Port Tariff. each of which are subdivided into a series of individual charges. facility tariffs and service tariffs. general tariffs. Port charges are generally divided into three broad categories. a) Conservancy and port dues b) Wharfage c) Berth hire (dock or berth due) d) Transit storage e) Pilotage f) Towage g) Mooring/unmooring (berthing/unberthing) h) Stevedorage i) Warehousing j) Other tariffs Page | 58 .

Mooring/unmooring is levied as berthing/unberthing services per berthing or unberthing. Berth group Berth hire is charged in the title of dockage on the basis of length overall of vessel-hours.Singapore Four kinds of port pricing approaches are basically applied in Singapore. Lashing/unlashing charge is levied per container (S$3). Page | 59 . Navigation group Tug and pilotage services are provided by the private sector and their charges are not included in the port tariff. PSA Corporation adopts a market-based approach in that shipping companies are offered special offers according to the long-term contracts. The port tariff structure of Singapore Port is nearly identified to Port Tariff Structure Standards.

the Port of Singapore Authority (PSA) Corporation is independently responsible for pricing. lift on/off charge etc. Port Code SGSIN Local Currency SGD THC 20' Dry THC 40' Dry THC 20' Reefer THC 40' Reefer 190 SGD 280 SGD 250 SGD 360 SGD Port of Salalah Marine Charges The Consolidated Marine Charge shown below is applicable for all vessels calling at a berth on the container terminal and includes Pilotage.Singapor e 1996. Rate includes up to 24 hrs free waiting at the anchorage when available in case vessel arrives ahead of the berth availability. Storage charge is subdivided as follows: full/empty/trans-shipment and period. rehandling charge. (All Charges in US$) Charges for Containers Up to 20’ Over 20’ Loaded Containers 75 115 Empty Containers 30 40 Terms & Conditions Page | 60 . Port dues have been discounted at a 20 per cent rate since Country Port Name SINGAPOR E Singapor e . For the trans-shipment cargoes. Berthing and Unberthing Charges.Cargo operations group Stevedorage consists of the basic rate. Port Dues and daily Sanitary Charge. Tugs.

2. in case Port agrees to handle 25% additional charge is applicable • 10% additional charge for Public Holiday working • Rates include lashing and unlashing charges • Minimum billing of US$5.000 moves Loaded Containers Empty Containers More than 50. no discount on these rates is applicable • Non-cellular vessels are not normally handled at the terminal.000 moves Loaded Containers Empty Containers Charges for Refrigerated Containers Electric Supply / Monitoring of Refrigerated Containers per day Shifting Charges Within Container Terminal Within Port Area 60 per container 70 per container Page | 61 30 per container 90 75 120 105 100 80 130 115 Up to 20’ 120 90 Over 20’ 170 130 140 100 Over 20’ 200 140 Volume Discount rates are offered on Transhipment Container rates based on total number of . 7 and other hazardous cargoes requiring special handling • Direct delivery is not normally allowed and even if it is. 6. 6. and additional charge of US$ 50 per container for IMO classes 1.• No volume incentive applicable on import / export container rates • Additional charge of US$ 10 per container for hazardous containers including empty container with cargo residue.1. 5.2.000 per vessel call for total loading/unloading of Import/Export and Transhipment containers Loading / Discharging of Transhipment Containers Up to 20’ Loaded Containers Empty Containers moves within a 12 month period as follows: More than 10.000 moves Loaded Containers Empty Containers More than 25.

Stevedorage-related charges are subdivided to a very detailed level. Navigation group For port dues. A rental charge for occupying a berth at a wharf is levied after one hour from completion of discharging/unloading.000 DWT. especially in stevedorage related charges. Hiring services consists of hire of forklift truck & cranes and other equipment. Pilotage consists of pilotage payable on each arrival and professional pilot fees on the basis of 30. Cargo operations group Harbour tonnage dues are levied on the ship in addition to stevedorage for the laden containers discharged/loaded. Berth Group Berth hire is charged per 100 gross tonnage as dockage. It would be possible to assist users by simplifying them. entering dues and over hour dues and light dues are charged separately. Lifting-on/lifting-off is charged as mounting & de-mounting containers. Movement of container is charged for the movement of containers from ship to marshalling yard.Truck Loading / Unloading For each loading or unloading Weighing of Containers Use of Weighbridge Charges at CFS (Container Freight Station) Composite Rate CY to CFS or V V Up to 20’ 160 Over 20’ 220 15 per weighment 20 per container Colombo port The port tariff structure of Colombo port is subdivided in detail. Anchorage is charged from the fifth day of using anchorage for port entry. Page | 62 .

Local + T/S (inclusive of stuffing charges.35 37 148 Page | 63 1. Stevedoring 2. Mounting / Demounting 4. Harbour Tonnage Dues 3. Shut out 3. Shut Out 6.20 1.20 1. Discharging / Loading 2. Export Laden (7 clear days free of rent will accrue from the 1st day of receipt) c) Other Services 140 8 25 22 25 5. Change of Status d) MCC within port 25 25 1.STEVEDORING a) Transhipment US$ PER 20' 1. Sorting of Container 2. 100% T/S 2. but local CBM . Stuffing & De-stuffing 5. Discharging / Loading (One way) 2. Storage (21 days free of rent and if not shipped accrue from first day) b) Domestic Cargo Operations 37 25 5. Stuffing & De-stuffing e) MCC Outside port 37 47.

12 2.81 75 75 75 27.84 160.84 285.should limit to 8) Cochin Port The tariff rates at the Rajiv Gandhi container terminal are as follows: India Gateway Terminal Tariff Normal MT Container Charges Particular Foreign going Equipment Type 20' 40' Handling of Quay Crane (in USD for foreign going) Imp & Exp Stevedoring (in USD for foreign going) Transportation from QC to yard & Vice versa Handling at Container Yard including customers Container wharfage lift on/off. 178.92 74.56 213.2 124.48 106.26 40.4 475.27 213.3 187.8 1069.69 delivery/receipt to and from 237.74 267.6 356.11 356.2 45' 1425.81 2.81 2.6 Normal FCL Container Charges Page | 64 .84 149.52 Coastal (INR) 20' 40' 712.2 142.38 112.89 45' 54.4 249.

76 1140.8 foreign going) 45' Coastal (INR) 20' 40' 45' The present charges at vallarpadam container terminal are 30-60 % higher compared to charges at the Rajiv Gandhi container terminal.58 276.8 Additional Charges for Reefer Container Particular Foreign going Equipment Type 20' 40' Per container per 4 hrs or part thereof (in USD for 3.26 Imp & Exp Stevedoring (in USD for foreign going) Transportation from QC to yard & Vice versa Handling at Container Yard including customers Container wharfage lift on/off.4 8 1188 342. Page | 65 .3 400.81 45' 54.6 160.29 712.6 684.81 40.4 207.35 138.8 75 1069.57 320.76 6.22 534.52 2.81 Coastal (INR) 20' 40' 712.4 513.6 75 534.95 2.38 240.2 75 45' 1425.14 356.18 4.24 594 855.Particular Foreign going Equipment Type 20' 40' Handling of Quay Crane (in USD for foreign going) 27. delivery/receipt to and from 570.36 891 267.89 2.

Brani. Keppel. 350m of cross-berth quay wall and a dredged depth of 12-15 m. located at Pasir Panjang. Port of Colombo Four terminals are currently operated in the Port of Colombo. and Tanjong Pagar. Jaya Container. PSA Singapore Terminals is developing 23 container berths at the Port of Container berths Quay length(m) Area(ha) Max depth at chart datum(m) Cranes Designed capacity(‘000 TEUs) 54 16000 600 16 190 35000 Singapore's Pasir Panjang terminal. operated as one seamless facility. and another 16 berths will be added by 2018. currently operates four main container berths and two feeder berths. Capacity Page | 66 . The newest terminal at Pasir Panjang can accommodate the latest mega-container vessels carrying over 13 thousand TEUs. There is approximately 1. The main terminal.292 m of quay wall. bringing total container-handling capacity at the Port of Singapore for 50 million TEUs per year.Facilities Port of Singapore The Port of Singapore's PSA terminals include four container terminals.

The Peliyagoda container yard belong to the SLPA but it is located outside the port. The Unity Container Terminal holds two container berths and one multipurpose berth.000 TEU stacking capacity.53 hectares of container terminal area and an 8. The total area is 20 hectares. which handled about 2. 12000 Salalah port The majority of the business comes from the container terminal. It has a dredged depth 9 – 11m and 590m of quay wall.000 m2 of freight station area. There are 1.120 TEU and 1.5 hectares of container terminal area and 15. a warehouse is located on the yard. Page | 67 . Container berths Quay length(m) Area(ha) Max depth at chart datum(m) 11 3172 60 15  14 Quay Cranes  12 Super-Post Panamax Cranes Cranes  01 Twin_lift Super-Post Panamax Crane Designed capacity(‘000 TEUs) Approx. Today the capacity of the container terminal is 4.548 TEU for reefer container stacking. The South Asia Gateway Terminal operates berths with a length of 940m and a depth alongside of 15 meters. There are 45.5 million TEU. A tender for detailed design of Terminal 2 which has just been launched which will add 1350 meters to the existing 2.205 meters linear quay.500 vessels in 2007. with 12 hectares of stack area.64 million TEU and more than 1.for dry container stacking is 44.

Container berths Quay length(m) Area(ha) Max depth at chart datum(m) Cranes Designed capacity(‘000 TEUs) Power supply • • 6 2205 76.8 MW Cochin Port Container berths Quay length(m) Area(ha) Max depth at chart datum(m) Cranes Designed capacity(‘000 TEUs) NA 1800 110 15. 3000 Vallarpadam Terminal Page | 68 .5 16 17 Super Post Panamax Gantry Cranes 45 rubber tyre gantry cranes 4500 2.95 27 Approx.

1 23.9 18.5 29.329.918.6 2320.8 Page | 69 .410.4 27.332.6 Jan Feb Mar Apr 2.Throughput Singapore Port 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 16.5 21.2 25.792.2 2409.2 24.940.192.935.866.3 2183.

Salalah Port Containers 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Containers(000’ Tonnes) (TEUs) 2323 2488 2949 3183 3521 3928 185175 203112 226808 253715 260784 289817 Total GRAND TOTAL 2323 14103 2488 13888 2949 15257 3183 15755 3521 15494 3928 17429 Cochin Port Page | 70 .

583 0.277 1.032 1.148 1.417 Location Page | 71 .Container Traffic Projection at Vallarpadam YEARS 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 (Million TEU's) 0.834 0.931 1.

Shippers are always trying to optimize their productivity by means of cutting costs and hence adopting a route of travel that best suits their target markets is of high importance and so the location of the port comes into picture. distance to the main lines and strategic location in the global network.Among the various factors that determine the competitiveness of a major port none could be more important than the strategic location advantage the port has to offer to the shipping lines. Singapore port Salalah port Page | 72 . Shipping lines today choose their port of call mainly based on a port’s distance to the industrial agglomeration region.

avoiding potential zones of conflict and shaving up to three and a half days off sailing times. Colombo Port Page | 73 .Located in the far south of Oman near the Yemeni border. the port is just 150 miles north of the main Far East/Europe shipping lanes. This base on the Indian Ocean enables vessels trading to and from the Gulf to bypass the Straits of Hormuz.

Colombo is a major port of call for more than 30 main lines including almost all the top container carriers and more than15 feeder carriers.Strategically located at the center of the Indian ocean just close to the main sea route from far east and Australia to Europe and America. Security Page | 74 . Cochin is the closest to the International East West Shipping routes. an all weather natural Harbour is located strategically close to the busiest international sea routes: (1) Gulf to Singapore and Far East (Distance from Cochin Port -11 Nautical Miles) (2) Suez to Singapore / Far East (Distance from Cochin Port -74 Nautical Miles) Amongst all major Indian ports. This geo-strategic location of Cochin gives it a distinct advantage. Cochin port Cochin.

Ports around the world are equipping themselves with all the latest security measures to counter terrorism and other threats. Hence the level of security provided in ports is a also a factor determining competitiveness.In the wake of the 9/11 incident in USA security has become a prime concern for ports and shippers around the world. The ISPS Code and other maritime security measures were developed by IMO's Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) and its Maritime Security Working Group before being adopted by a Conference n Maritime Security in December 2002. MPA developed the following: • Guidance for establishing security measures when calling non-ISPS compliant ports • • • Ship Self-Security Assessment Checklist Licensing Regime for Regional Ferry Operators Harbour Craft Security Code/Pleasure Craft Security Code Page | 75 . 1400 Singapore–registered ships & 126 port facilities are in compliance. ISPS Code focused on commercial facilities and larger vessels To safeguard our ships and port facilities and to enhance maritime security. The purpose of the Code is to provide a standardised. Singapore Port • • • One of the first countries in the world to comply with ISPS Code deadline of 1 Jul 2004. enabling Governments to offset changes in threat with changes in vulnerability for ships and port facilities through determination of appropriate security levels and corresponding security measures. developed in response to the perceived threats to ships and port facilities in the wake of the 9/11 attacks in the United States. consistent framework for evaluating risk. What is the ISPS Code? The International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code) is a comprehensive set of measures to enhance the security of ships and port facilities.

• Access control Page | 76 . • There are four container X-Ray machines in place at the Colombo Port. All personnel and vehicles are checked on entry and exit and all goods must be manifested before entry or a document provided to remove property or equipment. Salalah port • Access to the port is restricted to port users and bona fide business community personnel. This ultra modern portal monitor was installed under the Megaports initiative in the Port of Colombo by the Department of Energy of the USA. • The Port of Salalah has security personnel and members of the Royal Oman Police to man the gates. To gain access to the port. for all the ports in the world to get CSI compliance and Sri Lanka has already complied five years ahead. An entire container could be examined in two minutes. It can now X-Ray entire containers and can detect radiation emanating from those substances that go to make nuclear bombs. Colombo Port had spent US$ 50 million in getting ISPS compliancy and CSI • compliancy for container scanning. This can be annual or a gate pass issued temporarily if the required documentation is provided. personnel must be in possession of a gate pass. Ship Repair And Ancillary Service Facilities Within The Limits Of Port Of Colombo.• Vessels entering or leaving the port may be boarded by ASSeTs(Accompany Sea Security Teams) Colombo port • Availability of crucial global compliances such as the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code) and Container Security Initiative (CSI). Port Of Colombo (All Cargo Handling Terminals. • • There is an international mandatory dead line until 2012. • The Colombo Port is the first in Asia to install the Spectroscopic Portal Monitor (SPM) under the US Mega Port Surveillance System.

night vision binoculars . Page | 77 .• • • • • • • • Access permits 24/7 roving and static patrol Vessel and facility inspections ISPS compliant Liaise with ROP and other emergency services Vehicle checks Random checks The Port of Salalah is a Container Security Initiative (CSI) port to target and pre-screen maritime cargo containers for terrorists and terrorist weapons destined for U. bomb proof blankets etc.S. Newer equipments like night patrol boat . he Port of Salalah utilizes large-scale and sophisticated radiological detection equipment to identify nuclear material. Security was tightened and all the port trust employees were provided with tamper proof passes. ports. The port control was equipped with AIS (automatic identification system) which allowed it to monitor all foreign going vessels entering or leaving the port. Cochin port • The port maintains high security arrangements and its security profile is ISPS compliant. As per the requirements of the isps code all the provision in the code document were implememnted. were inducted to give the CISF an edge in preventing intrusion into port property and also guarding against pilferage.

Chapter 6 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AND SUGGESTIONS Comparative Analysis TARIFF Page | 78 .

It has been observed that of the 4 ports under study Colombo port has the lowest container handling charges at approx. The other 3 ports Colombo . 16m draft it has basically everything a shipper can ask for. The vallarpadam container terminal that is set to commence shortly has at present comparatively higher charges compared to Colombo port. The port is well equipped to handle the largest of container vessels and with capacities of 35 million TEU’s hence it is no surprise that the port of Singapore is a major port of call for most shippers. Hence the Colombo port has a major advantage over the others in this segment at present. General port tariff structure comprises of lot of components which cannot be covered here due to lack of information and complexity involved. At present the capacity that can be handled at the Colombo port is significantly higher at 12million TEU than the other two giving it a edge. Hence terminal handling charges have been selected as the component for comparison.Port tariff is a major determinant of port competitiveness which is analysed in respect of the ports under discussion. 54 berths. LOCATION Location is a major factor of strategic advantage for hub ports that thrive on transshipment. Possessing 4 container terminals summing up to in excess of 16000m quay length .this data is not available as of present. the cochin port management has decided to bring down the charges so as to make it competitive with Colombo and other ports. Singapore has an unrivalled connectivity. In this respect it has to be said that all the ports are suitably located close to the international sea route and do not affect the business of each Page | 79 . With its strategic location. Salalah and the cochin port with the commencement of vallarpadam terminal will contesting for the best of deals in transhipement and import and export in the region since all these three posses capacities and other facilities similar in size and number. values in the ranges of 100 – 120 $ for 20’ and 40’ containers. However. Singapore port imposes the highest charges at range of 160-240 $ for 20’ and 40’ containers. There are daily sailings from the Singapore port to every major port in the world. FACILITIES Of the 4 ports the port of Singapore undoubtedly comes out on top in this segment with its vast port infrastructure. On the technology front too these three are possessing similar features.

ray machines and Spectroscopic Portal Monitor that enhances security and Singapore on the other hand has gone for steps beyond the purview of the ISPS code for dealing with various potential security issues. Hence they are taking all measures possible to counter threats in the form of terrorism . It can be seen that these two ports are well located with the potential to receive a lot more deals in comparison with Singapore though the same cannot be said in the other fronts. pilferage etc. The Colombo port has gone for additional security gadgets in the form of x. The two ports are located very close to each other and sharing a similar position in the international sea route. With the arrival of the vallarpadam container terminal a large chunk of the shipping of goods between the Indian states via the Colombo port is set to shift to the the Indian container terminal that will reduce the transport cost of shippers in this respect.other significantly as of now except in the case of Cochin and Colombo ports. Salalah port too has all the required latest security infrastructure and other measures in place to ensure secure business. The speed and efficiency of port operations is a major factor in being competitive and attracting the biggest deals. Automation of port operations is a great way to achieve this edge and based Page | 80 . A study of the security level at the four ports revealed that all the ports are in compliance with the ISPS code which is a set of regulatory measures for maritime security. At present 70% of the transshipment that takes place at Colombo is from India and the scenario is all set to change. being the fastest in the business goes a long way into helping gain a larger market share and ports are no different. SECURITY Security is a major concern of any sector in today’s world and ports are no different. Suggestions • In today’s world where time is money . Otherwise it’s a tough battle on the cards between these two attract the best of deals in transshipment.

which will serve as a value addition and attract shippers to the port. to identify the containers and integration to database • Non-containerized cargoes – mechanized systems to aid human labor • Warehousing and Logistics – space-efficient container storage and optimum container layout for minimum loading and unloading times • • The Cabotage law should be relaxed which will allow the foreign flag carriers to carry cargo between Indian ports. reefer care etc. Have aggressive marketing strategies to attract a major share of the transshipment. This will help in utilizing the full potential of the terminal. • Dynamic weighing system – at the terminal gates to monitor the weight of containers coming in and out of terminals • Container number recognition system – at the terminal gates.on the technology available at the Singapore container terminals the following can be suggested to be implemented at the new container terminal at vallarpadam : Automation could be explored in the following areas of operations: • Yard and quay cranes – to automatically load and unload containers • AGVs – autonomous driving of prime movers to move containers between quay crane. Increase the draft of the berth at the container Terminal. Provide a lot more container related services like chemical care . Page | 81 . • • • As for the Rajiv Gandhi container terminal the following can be suggested: Increase the space for container stacking area. yard crane areas and warehouses or distriparks.

sg/ http://www.Chapter 7 References References • • • • • • Page | 82 http://www.slpa.sagt.

worldportsource.• • • • • • • http://www. Wu Heng http://www. efficiency and competitiveness: Some empirical evidence from container ports (terminals)I – by Jose Tongzon Promoting Efficient and Competitive Intra-ASEAN Shipping Services – Singapore Country Report – by PDP Australia Pty Ltd/Meyrick and Associates SRI LANKA – Logistics Capacity Assessment Extract Ports Comparison Of Port Tariff Structures Port privatization.proquest.036: Automation at the Port of Singapore .com/ http://www.ATIP/Singapore • • • • Page | 83 .

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