# 1.

Folosind deﬁnit ¸ia s˘ a se calculeze derivatele part ¸iale f

x
(x
0
, y
0
), f

y
(x
0
, y
0
)
ˆın punctele indicate (x
0
, y
0
), pentru urm˘ atoarele funct ¸ii f : D ⊂ R
2
→ R,
unde D este domeniul maxim de derivabilitate :
1. f(x, y) = x
3
y + x, (x
0
, y
0
) = (1, 1);
2. f(x, y) = ln(x
2
+ y
3
), (x
0
, y
0
) = (−1, 1);
3. f(x, y) = e
3x+y
+ e
x+3y
, (x
0
, y
0
) = (1, −2);
4. f(x, y) =
3

x
5
y
2
, (x
0
, y
0
) = (1, −1);
5. f(x, y) = arctan xy, (x
0
, y
0
) = (2, 1);
6. f(x, y) =

xy +
x
y
, (x
0
, y
0
) = (2, 1).
Rezolvare:
1. f

x
(1, 1) = lim
x→1
f(x, 1) −f(1, 1)
x −1
= lim
x→1
x
3
+ x −2
x −1
= 4,
f

y
(1, 1) = lim
y→1
f(1, y) −f(1, 1)
y −1
= lim
y→1
y −1
y −1
= 1
2. f

x
(−1, 1) = lim
x→−1
f(x, 1) −f(−1, 1)
x + 1
= lim
x→−1
ln(x
2
+ 1) −ln 2
x + 1
=
= lim
x→−1
2x
x
2
+ 1
= −1
f

y
(−1, 1) = lim
y→1
f(−1, y) −f(−1, 1)
y −1
= lim
y→1
ln(1 + y
3
) −ln 2
y −1
=
= lim
y→1
3y
2
1 + y
3
=
3
2
2. S˘ a se studieze existent ¸a derivatelor part ¸iale, continuitatea ¸si diferent ¸ia-
bilitatea ˆın origine pentru funct ¸iile f : R
2
→R, deﬁnite prin:
1. f(x, y) =

3xy
x
2
+ y
2
, dac˘ a (x, y) = (0, 0)
0, dac˘ a (x, y) = (0, 0);
2. f(x, y) =

xy

x
2
+ y
2
, dac˘ a (x, y) = (0, 0)
0, dac˘ a (x, y) = (0, 0);
3. f(x, y) =

xy
x
2
−y
2
x
2
+ y
2
, dac˘ a (x, y) = (0, 0)
0, dac˘ a (x, y) = (0, 0);
1
4. f(x, y) =

(x
2
+ y
2
) cos
1
x
2
+ y
2
, dac˘ a (x, y) = (0, 0)
0, dac˘ a (x, y) = (0, 0).
Rezolvare:
1. f

x
(0, 0) = lim
x→0
f(x, 0) −f(0, 0)
x
= 0,
f

y
(0, 0) = lim
y→0
f(0, y) −f(0, 0)
y
= 0.
Deoarece lim
x→0,y=mx
f(x, y) = lim
x→0
3mx
2
(1 + m
2
)x
2
=
3m
1 + m
2
, m ∈ R, rezult˘ a
c˘ a f nu este continu˘ a ˆın origine.
Dac˘ a f ar ﬁ diferent ¸iabil˘a ˆın origine, atunci ar rezulta c˘ a f este continu˘a ˆın
origine, ceea ce este absurd. Prin urmare, f nu este continu˘ a ¸si diferent ¸iabil˘a
ˆın origine, dar admite derivate part ¸iale ˆın origine.
2. f

x
(0, 0) = 0, f

y
(0, 0) = 0.
Deoarece |f(x, y| =
|xy|

x
2
+ y
2

|xy|
|x|
= |y|, avem lim
(x,y)→(0,0)
f(x, y) = 0 =
f(0, 0), deci funct ¸ia f este continu˘ a ˆın origine.
Dac˘ a f ar ﬁ diferent ¸iabil˘a ˆın origine, atunci ar exista
df(0, 0) = f

x
(0, 0) + f

y
(0, 0) = 0 · dx + 0 · dy = 0
¸si lim
(x,y)→(0,0)
f(x, y) −f(0, 0) −df(0, 0)(x, y)

x
2
+ y
2
= lim
(x,y)→(0,0)
xy
x
2
+ y
2
= 0. Dar,
cum lim
x→0,y=mx
xy
x
2
+ y
2
=
m
1 + m
2
, m ∈ R, limita de mai sus nu exist˘ a. A¸sadar
f nu este diferent ¸iabil˘a ˆın origine.
3. S˘ a se determine derivatele part ¸iale de ordinul ˆıntˆai ¸si diferent ¸iala de
ordinul ˆıntˆ ai pentru urm˘ atoarele funct ¸ii f : D ⊂ R
2
→ R, unde D este
domeniul maxim de diferent ¸iabilitate:
1. f(x, y) =

x
2
+ y
2
;
2. f(x, y) = 2x
2
y −3xy + x
2
−y + 2;
3. f(x, y) = ln xy;
4. f(x, y) = ln y
x
;
5. f(x, y) = ln y
y
−ln x
x
;
6. f(x, y) = ln
x
y
;
2
7. f(x, y) = x ln y −e
y
2
+x
;
8. f(x, y) = xe
xy
;
9. f(x, y) = e
x
2
−y
;
10. f(x, y) = x
y
;
11. f(x, y) = e
x
2
+y
2
sin
2
x;
12. f(x, y) = arctan
x
y
;
13. f(x, y) = arctan

x
2
+ y
2
;
14. f(x, y) = x
2
arctan(x
2
+ y
2
);
15. f(x, y) = arcsin
y
x
, x > 0;
16. f(x, y) =

1 −x
2
−y
2
;
17. f(x, y) = ln(x +

x
2
+ y
2
);
18. f(x, y) =
x
2
−y
2
x
2
+ y
2
;
19. f(x, y) = x
2
−3xy + 2y
2
+ 3x −4y + 2;
20. f(x, y) = sin(2x + 3y);
21. f(x, y) = x
3
+ y
3
+ 3xy;
22. f(x, y) = (x −a)(y −a)(x −b)(y −b), unde a, b ∈ R;
23. f(x, y) = xy
2
e
x−y
;
24. f(x, y) = x
4
y
3
(1 −x
2
+ y);
25. f(x, y) = cos x + cos y + sin(x + y);
26. f(x, y) = sin x sin y sin(x + y);
27. f(x, y) = ln
3

x
2
+ y
2
+ arctan xy;
28. f(x, y) = ln
m n

x
2
+ y, unde m ∈ N

, n ∈ N, n ≥ 2;
29. f(x, y) = (x
2
−y
2
) sin
y
x
;
3
30. f(x, y) = sin
2
(x
2
y + xy
3
);
31. f(x, y) =
x
y
+
y
x
;
32. f(x, y) =
xy
3
x
4
+ y
2
;
33. f(x, y) = sin
x
x
2
+ y
2
;
34. f(x, y) = (x
2
+ y
2
) cos
1

x
2
+ y
2
;
35. f(x, y) =
1
x
+
x
y
+
1
y
.
4. S˘ a se determine derivatele part ¸iale de ordinul ˆıntˆai ¸si diferent ¸iala de
ordinul ˆıntˆ ai pentru urm˘ atoarele funct ¸ii f : D ⊂ R
3
→ R, unde D este
domeniul maxim de diferent ¸iabilitate:
1. f(x, y, z) = (x + y) sin yz;
2. f(x, y, z) = x
2
+ y
2
+ xyz;
3. f(x, y, z) = 3x
2
+ 2y
2
+ 3z
2
+ 2xy −3yz;
4. f(x, y, z) = −x
3
y
2
z + 10xy −2z
3
+ 4;
5. f(x, y, z) =

x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
;
6. f(x, y, z) =
x

y
2
+ z
2
;
7. f(x, y, z) = arctan
xy
z
;
8. f(x, y, z) = arctan
z

x
2
+ y
2
;
9. f(x, y, z) = ln
z
xy
;
10. f(x, y, z) = ln x
y
y
z
z
x
;
11. f(x, y, z) = ln
y

x
2
+ z
2
;
4
12. f(x, y, z) = ze
x−y
2
+ ye
x+z
;
13. f(x, y, z) = x
y
+ y
z
+ z
x
;
14. f(x, y, z) = e
xyz
3
cos(x + y);
15. f(x, y, z) =
x
y

y
z
+
z
x
;
16. f(x, y, z) = (x + a)(y + b)(z + c), unde a, b, c ∈ R;
17. f(x, y, z) = ze
xy
;
18. f(x, y, z) = ze
x
2
+y
2
+ xye
z
;
19. f(x, y, z) = sin x cos y sin(x + z);
20. f(x, y, z) = e
y
x
(z
2
−x
2
);
21. f(x, y, z) = xy
2
z
3
(6 −2x + 3y −4z);
22. f(x, y, z) = xz
x
2
−y
2
x
2
+ z
2
;
23. f(x, y, z) =
(x −y)
n
(y −z)
m
, unde n, m ∈ N

;
24. f(x, y, z) =
y
2
x
+
z
y

2
z
;
25. f(x, y, z) = cos
2
(ax + by + cz), unde a, b, c ∈ R;
5. S˘a se determine derivatele part ¸iale de ordinul al doilea ¸si diferent ¸iala
de ordinul al doilea ˆın punctele indicate (x
0
, y
0
) pentru funct ¸iile f : D ⊂
R
2
→R, unde D este domeniul maxim de diferent ¸iabilitate:
1. f(x, y) =

x
2
+ y
2
, (x
0
, y
0
) = (1, −1);
2. f(x, y) = e
xy
, (x
0
, y
0
) = (1, 0);
3. f(x, y) = ln x
2
y, (x
0
, y
0
) = (3, 1);
4. f(x, y) = ln
x
y
2
, (x
0
, y
0
) = (1, 2);
5. f(x, y) = arctan(x
2
+ y
2
), (x
0
, y
0
) = (−1, 1);
6. f(x, y) = (1 + x)
m
(1 + y)
n
, m, n ≥ 2, (x
0
, y
0
) = (0, 0);
5
7. f(x, y) = e
x
cos y, (x
0
, y
0
) = (0, π);
8. f(x, y) =
x + y
x −y
, (x
0
, y
0
) = (2, 1);
9. f(x, y) = x
3
+ y
3
−x
2
−y
2
, (x
0
, y
0
) = (1, 1);
10. f(x, y) = e
x
2
−y
2
, (x
0
, y
0
) = (1, −1).
Rezolvare:
1. f

x
(x, y) =
x

x
2
+ y
2
, f

y
(x, y) =
y

x
2
+ y
2
,
f

x
2(x, y) =
y
2
(x
2
+ y
2
)

x
2
+ y
2
, f

xy
(x, y) = −
xy
(x
2
+ y
2
)

x
2
+ y
2
,
f

y
2(x, y) =
x
2
(x
2
+ y
2
)

x
2
+ y
2
,
f

x
2(1, −1) = f

y
2(1, −1) = f

xy
(1, −1) =
1
2

2
,
d
2
f(1, −1) =
1
2

2
(dx
2
+ 2dxdy + dy
2
) =
1
2

2
(dx + dy)
2
2. f

x
(x, y) = ye
xy
, f

y
(x, y) = xe
xy
, f

x
2
(x, y) = y
2
e
xy
, f

y
2
(x, y) =
x
2
e
xy
, f

xy
(x, y) = (1 + xy)e
xy
, f

x
2
(1, 0) = 0, f

y
2
(1, 0) = 1, f

xy
(1, 0) =
1, d
2
f(1, 0) = 2dxdy + dy
2
6. S˘ a se determine derivatele part ¸iale de ordinul al doilea ¸si diferent ¸iala
de ordinul al doilea ˆın punctele indicate (x
0
, y
0
, z
0
) pentru funct ¸iile f : D ⊂
R
3
→R, unde D este domeniul maxim de diferent ¸iabilitate:
1. f(x, y, z) = ln(1 + x + y + z), (x
0
, y
0
, z
0
) = (1, 0, 1);
2. f(x, y, z) =
1

x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
, (x
0
, y
0
, z
0
) = (1, 1, 1);
3. f(x, y, z) = xe
yz
+ ye
zx
+ ze
xy
, (x
0
, y
0
, z
0
) = (1, 1, 1);
4. f(x, y, z) = x
6
yz
4
+x
4
y
3
−yz
2
+6x +2yz −2, (x
0
, y
0
, z
0
) = (1, 2, −1);
5. f(x, y, z) = ze
xyz
, (x
0
, y
0
, z
0
) = (1, 1, 1);
6. f(x, y, z) = x arctan
y
z
, (x
0
, y
0
, z
0
) = (2, 1, 1);
7. f(x, y, z) = sin
2
(x −y −z), (x
0
, y
0
, z
0
) = (π,
π
2
,
π
3
);
6
8. f(x, y, z) =
x + z
xy + z
, (x
0
, y
0
, z
0
) = (1, −1, 2);
9. f(x, y, z) =

9 −x
2
−y
2
−z
2
, (x
0
, y
0
, z
0
) = (2, 1, 1);
10. f(x, y, z) =
3

x −z
y −z
, (x
0
, y
0
, z
0
) = (2, 0, 1) .
Rezolvare:
1. f

x
(x, y, z) = f

y
(x, y, z) = f

z
(x, y, z) =
1
1 + x + y + z
f

x
2
(x, y, z) = f

y
2
(x, y, z) = f

z
2
(x, y, z) = −
1
(1 + x + y + z)
2
f

xy
(x, y, z) = f

xz
(x, y, z) = f

yz
(x, y, z) = −
1
(1 + x + y + z)
2
d
2
f(1, 0, 1) = −
1
9
(dx
2
+dy
2
+dz
2
+2dxdy +2dxdz +2dydz) = −
1
9
(dx+dy +
dz)
2
.
7. S˘a se determine derivatele part ¸iale de ordinul al doilea ¸si diferent ¸iala de
ordinul al doilea ˆıntr-un punct curent (x, y) pentru funct ¸iile f : D ⊂ R
2
→R,
unde D este domeniul maxim de diferent ¸iabilitate:
1. f(x, y) = x
3
y
2
−2xy
3
+ 3x
2
−6y + 7;
2. f(x, y) = x
4
+ y
4
−2x
2
+ 5xy −3y
6
;
3. f(x, y) =
2x −y
x + 3y
;
4. f(x, y) = e
x−y
2
;
5. f(x, y) = ye
xy
;
6. f(x, y) = (x
2
+ y
2
)e
x+y
;
7. f(x, y) = ln(x
2
+ y
3
);
8. f(x, y) = sin xy;
9. f(x, y) = arctan
x
y
;
10. f(x, y) = y
x
.
7
Rezolvare:
1. f

x
(x, y) = 3x
2
y
2
−2y
3
+ 6x, f

y
(x, y) = 2x
3
y −6xy
2
−6,
f

x
2
(x, y) = 6xy
2
+ 6, f

y
2
(x, y) = 2x
3
−12xy, f

xy
(x, y) = 6x
2
y −6y
2
,
d
2
f(x, y) = 6(xy
2
+ 1)dx
2
+ 12(x
2
y −y
2
)dxdy + 2(x
3
−6xy)dy
2
.
8. S˘ a se determine derivatele part ¸iale de ordinul al doilea ¸si diferent ¸iala
de ordinul al doilea ˆıntr-un punct curent (x, y, z) pentru funct ¸iile f : D ⊂
R
3
→R, unde D este domeniul maxim de diferent ¸iabilitate:
1. f(x, y, z) =
x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
xyz
;
2. f(x, y, z) =
x + z
y + z
;
3. f(x, y, z) = xy
2
z
3
(6 −x + 2y −z);
4. f(x, y, z) = z
2
−xe
y
+ ye
z
+ ze
x
;
5. f(x, y, z) = (x + z)e
y
x
;
6. f(x, y, z) = y

x
2
+ z;
7. f(x, y, z) = ln(x + y + z);
8. f(x, y, z) = ln xyz;
9. f(x, y, z) = cos(x + 2y + 3z);
10. f(x, y, z) = x sin y + y sin z + z sin x.
Rezolvare:
1. f

x
(x, y, z) =
1
yz

y
x
2
z

z
x
2
y
, f

y
(x, y, z) = −
x
y
2
z
+
1
xz

z
xy
2
,
f

z
(x, y, z) = −
x
yz
2

y
xz
2
+
1
xy
, f

x
2(x, y, z) =
2(y
2
+ z
2
)
x
3
yz
,
f

y
2(x, y, z) =
2(x
2
+ z
2
)
xy
3
z
, f

z
2(x, y, z) =
2(x
2
+ y
2
)
xyz
3
,
f

xy
(x, y, z) =
−x
2
−y
2
+ z
2
x
2
y
2
z
, f

xz
(x, y, z) =
−x
2
+ y
2
−z
2
x
2
yz
2
f

yz
(x, y, z) =
x
2
−y
2
−z
2
xy
2
z
2
,
8
d
2
f(x, y, z) =
2(y
2
+ z
2
)
x
3
yz
dx
2
+
2(x
2
+ z
2
)
xy
3
z
dy
2
+
2(x
2
+ y
2
)
xyz
3
dz
2
+
+
2(−x
2
−y
2
+ z
2
)
x
2
y
2
z
dxdy +
2(−x
2
+ y
2
−z
2
)
x
2
yz
2
dxdz +
2(x
2
−y
2
−z
2
)
xy
2
z
2
dydz
9. S˘a se scrie matricea Jacobi ¸si s˘a se determine jacobianul pentru
urm˘ atoarele funct ¸ii:
1. f : (0, ∞) ×[0, 2π] →R
2
, f(r, t) = (r cos t, r sin t);
2. f : (0, ∞) ×[0, 2π] ×[−
π
2
,
π
2
] →R
3
,
f(r, θ, ϕ) = (r cos θ cos ϕ, r sin θ cos ϕ, r sin ϕ);
3. f : R
2
→R
2
, f(x, y) = (xe
x−y
, x
3
y +x
2
−xy +y +3), ˆın punctul (1,1).
Rezolvare:
1. Fie f
1
(r, t) = r cos t ¸si f
2
(r, t) = r sin t.
Atunci J
f
(r, t) =

(f

1
)
r
(r, t) (f

1
)
t
(r, t)
(f

2
)
r
(r, t) (f

2
)
t
(r, t)

=

cos t −r sin t
sin t r cos t

,
¸si detJ
f
(r, t) =

cos t −r sin t
sin t r cos t

= r.
10. S˘a se scrie matricea Jacobi pentru urm˘atoarele funct ¸ii:
1. f : R
2
→R
3
, f(x, y) = (xy, x + y, x −y);
2. f : (R

)
3
→R
2
, f(x, y, z) =

xyz,
x
yz

;
3. f : (R

)
3
→R
3
, f(x, y, z) =

a
x
+ yz, bx +
1
y

1
z

, a, b ∈ R.
11. S˘ a se determine gradientul pentru urm˘ atoarele funct ¸ii f : D → R,
unde D ⊂ R
n
, n ∈ {2, 3} este domeniul maxim de diferent ¸iabilitate:
1. f(x, y) = ln
x
y
;
2. f(x, y) = (x
2
+ y
2
)e
x−y
;
3. f(x, y) = y ln(x
2
+ y
2
);
4. f(x, y) = x
3
y
2
+ 3x
2
y −2y + 7, ˆın punctul (1,-1);
9
5. f(x, y, z) = arctan
z
xy
;
6. f(x, y, z) = sin(ax + by + cz), a, b, c ∈ R;
7. f(x, y, z) = x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
, ˆın punctul (-1,1,2).
Rezolvare:
f
(x, y) = (f

x
(x, y), f

y
(x, y)) =

1
x
, −
1
y

.
f
(x, y) = (x
2
+ y
2
+ 2x, −x
2
−y
2
+ 2y)e
x−y
.
12. S˘ a se calculeze derivata urm˘atoarelor funct ¸ii dupa direct ¸ia ¸si punctele
indicate:
1. f : R
2
→ R, f(x, y) = x
2
y − xy
2
, dup˘ a direct ¸ia

1
2
,

3
2

, ˆın punctul
M(1,-1);
2. f : R
2
→ R, f(x, y) = ye
−x+y
, dup˘ a direct ¸ia axei Ox, ˆın punctul
M(1,1);
3. f : R
2
→ R, f(x, y) = 2x
3
+ 3xy − 3y
2
+ 2, dup˘a direct ¸ia grad
f
(1, 1),
ˆın punctul M(-1,1);
4. f : R
2
→R, f(x, y) =

x
2
+ y
2
, dup˘a direct ¸ia gradientului s˘ auˆıntr-un
punct curent M(x,y), x
2
+ y
2
= 0;
5. f : R

× R → R, f(x, y) = arctan
y
x
, dup˘ a direct ¸ia vectorului MN, ˆın
punctul M(1,1), unde N(3,2);
6. f : R
3
→R, f(x, y, z) = sinh x+cosh y+sinh z, dup˘ a direct ¸ia vectorului
MN, ˆın punctul M(1,2,-1), unde N(-1,1,1);
7. f : R
3
→R, f(x, y, z) = x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
, dup˘ a direct ¸ia grad
f
(1, −1, 1), ˆın
punctul M(1,-1,1);
8. f : R
3
→R, f(x, y, z) = x
3
+y
3
+z
3
−3xyz, dup˘a direct ¸ia axei Oz, ˆın
punctul M(1,-1,2);
9. f : R
3
→R, f(x, y, z) = e
x
2
+y
2
sin
2
z, dup˘ a direct ¸ia

1

3
,
1

3
, −
1

3

,
ˆın punctul M

1, 0,
π
4

;
10
10. f : R
3
→ R, f(x, y, z) = xy + yz + zx, dup˘ a direct ¸ia MN, ˆın punctul
M(1,0,4), unde N(3,-1,3);
Rezolvare:
1. f

x
(x, y) = 2xy −y
2
, f

y
(x, y) = x
2
−2xy
df
du
(1, −1) =
1
2
f

x
(1, −1) +

3
2
f

y
(1, −1) =
3(

3 −1)
2
.
10. Deoarece
−−→
MN = (2, −1, −1), ||
−−→
MN|| =

6, iar versorul direct ¸iei
−−→
MN este u =

2

6
, −
1

6
, −
1

6

avem
df
du
(1, 0, 4) =
2

6
f

x
(1, 0, 4) −
1

6
f

y
(1, 0, 4) −
1

6
f

z
(1, 0, 4) =

6
3
.
0.1 Diferent ¸iabilitatea funct ¸iilor compuse
13. S˘ a se calculeze df(x), dac˘a f = f(u, v), u = u(x), v = v(x), pentru
urm˘ atoarele funct ¸ii:
1. f(u, v) = u
2
v + 3v −2, unde u = x
3
+ x
2
+ x + 1, v = x
4
−1;
2. f(u, v) = u
n
v
m
, unde u = sin x, v = cos x, n, m ∈ N

;
3. f(u, v) = ln(u +v
2
), unde u = ax
2
+x +2, v = x
3
−bx
2
+a, a, b ∈ R;
4. f(u, v) = uv, unde u = ln
2
x, v = tan
3
(x
2
+ 1);
5. f(u, v) =
u
v
, unde u = e
x
, v = ln x;
6. f(u, v) = u
v
, unde u = sin x, v = cos x;
7. f(u, v) = ln cos
u

v
, unde u = 3x
2
, v =

x
2
+ 1.
Rezolvare:
1. f

(x) = f

u
(u, v)u

(x) + f

v
(u, v)v

(x)
ˆ
Intrucˆ at f

u
= 2uv, f

v
= u
2
+ 3, u

(x) = 3x
2
+ 2x + 1, v

(x) = 4x
3
, dup˘ a
formula de mai sus rezult˘ a f

(x) = 2uv(3x
2
+ 2x + 1) + 4x
3
(u
2
+ 3),
df(x) = (2uv(3x
2
+ 2x + 1) + 4x
3
(u
2
+ 3))dx.
11
3. Deoarece f

u
=
1
u + v
2
, f

v
=
2v
u + v
2
, u

(x) = 2ax+1, v

(x) = 3x
2
−2bx,
obt ¸inem
f

(x) =
2ax + 1 + 2v(3x
2
−2bx)
u + v
2
, df(x) =
2ax + 1 + 2v(3x
2
−2bx)
u + v
2
dx.
14. S˘a se calculeze f

x
(x, y) ¸si f

y
(x, y), dac˘ a f = f(u, v), u = u(x, y), v =
v(x, y), pentru urm˘ atoarele funct ¸ii:
1. f(u, v) =

u
2
+ v
2
, unde u = x −y, v =
x
y
;
2. f(u, v) = arctan
v
u
, unde u = x
2
+ y, v = x + y
2
;
3. f(u, v) = ln uv, unde u = x + y, v = xy;
4. f(u, v) = u
n
+v
m
−(uv)
nm
, unde u = sin(x−y), v = cos xy, n, m ∈ N

;
5. f(u, v) = ve
u
2
v
, unde u = ln(x + y), v = x
y
;
6. f(u, v) = arctan
u
v
, unde u = x sin y, v = x cos y.
Rezolvare:
1. f

x
= f

u
u

x
+ f

v
v

x
, f

y
= f

u
u

y
+ f

v
v

y
.
Cum f

u
=
u

u
2
+ v
2
, f

v
=
v

u
2
+ v
2
, u

x
(x, y) = 1, u

y
(x, y) = −1,
v

x
(x, y) =
1
y
, v

y
(x, y) = −
x
y
2
, dup˘a formulele de mai sus rezult˘ a
f

x
=
uy + v
y

u
2
+ v
2
, f

y
= −
uy
2
+ xv
y
2

u
2
+ v
2
.
2. Deoarece f

u
= −
v
u
2
+ v
2
, f

v
=
u
u
2
+ v
2
, u

x
(x, y) = 2x, u

y
(x, y) =
1, v

x
(x, y) = 1, v

y
(x, y) = 2y, dup˘a formulele de mai sus rezult˘ a
f

x
=
u −2xv
u
2
+ v
2
, f

y
=
2uy −v
u
2
+ v
2
.
15. S˘a se calculeze df(x, y), respectiv df(x, y, z) pentru urm˘atoarele
funct ¸ii:
1. f(x, y) = ϕ(xy);
12
2. f(x, y) = ϕ(x + y, x −y);
3. f(x, y) = ϕ(x
3
y −5x
2
+ 2xy
2
+ 4x + 1, x
2
y
5
−7y);
4. f(x, y) = ϕ

xy,
y
x

;
5. f(x, y, z) = ϕ(xyz, x
2
−y
2
+ z
2
);
6. f(x, y, z) = ϕ(x + yz, e
x
2
y+z
, ln xy
z
);
7. f(x, y, z) = ϕ

x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
, xarctan
y
z

;
8. f(x, y, z) = ϕ(e
−x
2
+yz
, xe
yz
, e
xyz
).
Rezolvare:
1. Fie u = xy. Astfel f(x, y) = ϕ(u(x, y)).
Avem
f

x
= ϕ

(u)u

x
= yϕ

(u), f

y
= ϕ

(u)u

y
= xϕ

(u),
df(x, y) = (ydx + xdy)ϕ

(u).
2. Fie u = x + y, v = x −y. Astfel f(x, y) = ϕ(u(x, y), v(x, y)).
Avem
f

x
= ϕ

u
u

x
+ ϕ

v
v

x
= ϕ

u
+ ϕ

v
,
f

y
= ϕ

u
u

y
+ ϕ

v
v

y
= ϕ

u
−ϕ

v
,
df(x, y) = (ϕ

u
+ ϕ

v
)dx + (ϕ

u
−ϕ

v
)dy.
16. S˘ a se calculeze d
2
f(x, y), respectiv d
2
f(x, y, z) pentru urm˘ atoarele
funct ¸ii:
1. f(x, y) = ϕ(x + y, x −y);
2. f(x, y) = ϕ

xy,
x
y

;
3. f(x, y) = ϕ(ln xy, e
xy
);
4. f(x, y, z) = ϕ(x + y −z, x −y + z, −x + y + z);
5. f(x, y, z) = ϕ

xyz,
x
yz

;
6. f(x, y, z) = ϕ(x + yz, x
2
+ y
2
−z
2
) .
13
Rezolvare:
1. Dac˘a not˘am u = x + y, v = x −y, atunci f(x, y) = ϕ(u(x, y), v(x, y))
¸si
f

x
= ϕ

u
+ ϕ

v
, f

y
= ϕ

u
−ϕ

v
, f

x
2 = ϕ

u
2 + 2ϕ

uv
+ ϕ

v
2,
f

xy
= ϕ

u
2 −ϕ

v
2, f

y
2 = ϕ

u
2 −2ϕ

uv
+ ϕ

v
2,
d
2
f(x, y) = (ϕ

u
2 +2ϕ

uv

v
2)dx
2
+2(ϕ

u
2 −ϕ

v
2)dxdy +(ϕ

u
2 −2ϕ

uv

v
2)dy
2
.
2. Dac˘ a not˘ am u = xy, v =
x
y
, atunci
f

x
= yϕ

u
+
1
y
ϕ

v
, f

y
= xϕ

u

x
y
2
ϕ

v
, f

x
2 = y
2
ϕ

u
2 + 2ϕ

uv
+
1
y
2
ϕ

v
2,
f

xy
= ϕ

u

1
y
2
ϕ

v
+ xyϕ

u
2 −
x
y
3
ϕ

v
2, f

y
2 = x
2
ϕ

u
2 −
2x
2
y
2
ϕ

uv
+
x
2
y
4
ϕ

v
2 +
2x
y
3
ϕ

v
,
d
2
f(x, y) =

y
2
ϕ

u
2 + 2ϕ

uv
+
1
y
2
ϕ

v
2

dx
2
+
2

ϕ

u

1
y
2
ϕ

v
+ xyϕ

u
2 −
x
y
3
ϕ

v
2

dxdy+

x
2
ϕ

u
2 −
2x
2
y
2
ϕ

uv
+
x
2
y
4
ϕ

v
2 +
2x
y
3
ϕ

v

dy
2
.
17. S˘a se arate c˘ a:
1. f(x, y) = ϕ(ax −by) veriﬁc˘ a ecuat ¸ia bf

x
+ af

y
= 0, a, b ∈ R

;
2. f(x, y) = ϕ

x
y

veriﬁc˘ a ecuat ¸ia xf

x
+ yf

y
= 0;
3. f(x, y) = ϕ(ax
n
− by
n
) veriﬁc˘a ecuat ¸ia by
n−1
f

x
+ ax
n−1
f

y
= 0, a, b ∈
R

, n ∈ N

;
4. f(x, y) = xyϕ(y
2
−x
2
) veriﬁc˘ a ecuat ¸ia yf

x
+ xf

y
=

x
y
+
y
x

f;
5. f(x, y) = yϕ

x
y

veriﬁc˘ a ecuat ¸ia xf

x
+ yf

y
= f;
6. f(x, y) = ϕ(

x
2
+ y
2
) veriﬁc˘ a relat ¸ia yf

x
= xf

y
;
7. f(x, y) = ϕ(xy) +

xyψ

y
x

veriﬁc˘ a ecuat ¸ia x
2
f

x
2
−y
2
f

y
2
= 0;
8. f(x, y) = e
y
ϕ

ye
x
2
2y
2

veriﬁc˘ a ecuat ¸ia (x
2
−y
2
)f

x
+ xyf

y
= xyf;
14
9. f(x, y) = ϕ(x
2
+ y
2
) veriﬁc˘ a ecuat ¸ia yf

x
−xf

y
= 0;
10. f(x, y) = ϕ(ln xy, xy) veriﬁc˘ a ecuat ¸ia xf

x
−yf

y
= 0;
11. f(x, y, z) = ϕ(xz, x
2
−y
2
+ z
2
) veriﬁc˘ a ecuat ¸ia
xyf

x
+ (x
2
−z
2
)f

y
−yzf

z
= 0;
12. f(x, y) = ϕ(x + ay) veriﬁc˘ a relat ¸ia f

x
= af

y
;
13. f(x, y) = yϕ(x
2
−y
2
) veriﬁc˘ a relat ¸ia
1
x
f

x
+
1
y
f

y
=
f
y
2
;
14. f(x, y) = xy + xϕ

y
x

veriﬁc˘ a relat ¸ia xf

x
+ yf

y
= xy + f;
15. f(x, y) = xϕ

y
x

y
x

veriﬁc˘ a ecuat ¸ia x
2
f

x
2
+2xyf

xy
+y
2
f

y
2
= 0.
Rezolvare:
1. Dac˘a u = ax − by, atunci f

x
= aϕ

(u), f

y
= −bϕ

(u), bf

x
+ af

y
=
baϕ

(u) −abϕ

(u) = 0.
18. S˘ a se calculeze derivatele part ¸iale de ordinul n pentru urm˘atoarele
funct ¸ii:
1. f(x, y) = e
ax+by
, a, b ∈ R;
2. f(x, y) = sin(ax + by), a, b ∈ R;
3. f(x, y) = (x + y)e
ax+by
, a, b ∈ R;
4. f(x, y) = x
2
e
x+y
;
5. f(x, y) = ln(x + y);
6. f(x, y, z) = e
ax+by+cz
, a, b, c ∈ R;
7. f(x, y, z) = cos(ax + by + cz), a, b, c ∈ R;
8. f(x, y, z) = ln(ax + by + cz), a, b, c ∈ R .
Rezolvare:
1. f
(n)
x
n = a
n
e
ax+by
, f
(n)
y
n = b
n
e
ax+by
, f
(n)
x
k
y
n−k
= a
k
b
n−k
e
ax+by
.
3. Folosind formula lui Leibniz pentru derivarea de ordin superior obt ¸inem
f
(n)
x
n =
n
¸
k=0
C
k
n
(x + y)
(k)
(e
ax+by
)
(n−k)
= (ax + ay + n)a
n−1
e
ax+by
,
15
f
(n)
y
n = (bx + by + n)b
n−1
e
ax+by
,
f
(n)
x
k
y
n−k
= a
k−1
b
n−k
(ax + by + k)e
ax+by
+ (n − k)a
k
b
n−k−1
e
ax+by
= (abx +
aby + kb + a(n −k))a
k−1
b
n−k−1
e
ax+by
.
19. S˘a se calculeze:
1. f
(n)
x
n (x, y) ¸si f
(n)
y
n (x, y), pentru f(x, y) = xy
3
e
xy
;
2. f
(3)
xyz
(x, y, z), f
(3)
x
2
y
(x, y, z), f
(3)
x
3
(x, y, z), pentru f(x, y, z) = e
xyz
;
3. f
(3)
xz
2
(x, y, z), f
(3)
y
3
(x, y, z), f
(3)
xyz
(x, y, z), pentru f(x, y, z) = e
xy+yz+zx
.
0.2 Extreme libere
20. S˘ a se determine punctele de extrem local pentru urm˘ atoarele funct ¸ii
f : R
2
→R:
1. f(x, y) = x
2
+ y
2
−2x + 1;
2. f(x, y) = x
2
+ y
2
+ 4x −6y + 2;
3. f(x, y) = x
2
+ y
2
−xy + 2x + 1;
4. f(x, y) = xy +
1
x
+
1
y
+ 2, x, y ∈ R

;
5. f(x, y) = x
4
+ y
4
−2x
2
+ 4xy −2y
2
+ 4;
6. f(x, y) = x
3
+ y
3
−6xy + 3;
7. f(x, y) = (x + y
2
)e
x+y
;
8. f(x, y) = xy
2
e
x−y
, x, y ∈ R

;
9. f(x, y) = sin x sin y sin(x + y), x, y ∈ (0, 2π);
10. f(x, y) = (x + 1)(y + 1)(x + y);
11. f(x, y) = (x + 2)
2
+ (x −6)
2
+ (x −5)
2
+ y
2
+ (y + 4)
2
;
12. f(x, y) = x
2
y
2
(1 −x −y), x, y ∈ R

.
16
Rezolvare:
1.
ˆ
Incepem prin determinarea punctelor stat ¸ionare, care sunt solut ¸ii ale
sistemului

f

x
(x, y) = 0
f

y
(x, y) = 0
. Avem f

x
= 2x − 2, f

y
= 2y. Obt ¸inem punctul
critic a = (1, 0). Pentru a veriﬁca dac˘a a este punct de extrem folosim
criteriul lui Sylvester aplicat matricei hessiene ˆın acest punct.
ˆ
Intrucˆ at f

x
2
=
2, f

xy
= 0, f

y
2
= 2, atunci H
f
(a) =

f

x
2
(a) f

xy
(a)
f

xy
(a) f

y
2
(a)

=

2 0
0 2

, iar

1
= 2 > 0, ∆
2
= 4 > 0, rezult˘a c˘ a a = (1, 0) este punct de minim local.
6. f

x
= 3x
2
−6y, f

y
= 3y
2
−6x.

f

x
(x, y) = 0
f

y
(x, y) = 0
⇒(0, 0), (2, 2) puncte
critice.
Avem f

x
2
= 6x, f

xy
= −6, f

y
2
= 6y.
H
f
(2, 2) =

12 −6
−6 12

; ∆
1
= 12 > 0, ∆
2
= 108 > 0, deci (2, 2) este
punct de minim local.
f

x
2
(0, 0)f

y
2
(0, 0) − (f

xy
(0, 0))
2
= −36 < 0, deci (0, 0) nu este punct de
extrem.
21. S˘ a se determine punctele de extrem local pentru urm˘ atoarele funct ¸ii
f : R
3
→R:
1. f(x, y, z) = (x −a)
2
+ (y −b)
2
+ (z −c)
2
, a, b, c ∈ R;
2. f(x, y, z) = x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
−2x + 6y −8z;
3. f(x, y, z) = x +
y
2
4x
+
z
2
y
+
2
z
, x, y, z > 0;
4. f(x, y, z) = (x−2)
2
+(x+4)
2
+(y +2)
2
+(y −4)
2
+(z −1)
2
+(z +1)
2
;
5. f(x, y, z) = x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
+ xy −x + z + 1;
6. f(x, y, z) =
1
x
+
x
y
+
y
z
+
z
16
, x, y, z > 0;
7. f(x, y, z) = 2x
2
+ y
2
−xy −xz + 2z;
8. f(x, y, z) = x
3
+ y
2
+ z
2
+ 12xy + 2z, x, y, z ∈ R

;
9. f(x, y, z) = (x −1)
2
+ (y + 2)
2
+ z
2
−3z + 5;
10. f(x, y, z) = 2x
2
−y
2
−4z
2
−4xy −2x −2y −4z −1;
17
11. f(x, y, z) = x
2
+ 4y
2
+ 9z
2
+ 6xy −2x .
Rezolvare:
1. Determin˘ am punctele stat ¸ionare rezolvˆand sistemul

f

x
(x, y, z) = 0
f

y
(x, y, z) = 0
f

z
(x, y, z) = 0.
,

2(x −a) = 0
2(y −b) = 0
2(z −c) = 0
. Obt ¸inem punctul critic (x, y, z) = (a, b, c), iar ma-
tricea hessian˘aˆın acest punct este de forma H
f
(a, b, c) =

¸
2 0 0
0 2 0
0 0 2

.
ˆ
Intrucˆ at

1
= 2 > 0, ∆
2
=

2 0
0 2

= 4 > 0, ∆
3
=

2 0 0
0 2 0
0 0 2

= 8 > 0 rezult˘ a (a, b, c)
punct de minim local.
0.3 Funct ¸ii implicite
22. Pentru funct ¸ia y = f(x), s˘a se determine:
1. f

(1) ¸si f

(1), dac˘a f(1) = 1 ¸si x
2
+ 2xy −y
2
+ x −y −2 = 0;
2. f

(1) ¸si f

(1), dac˘a f(1) = −1 ¸si x
2
+ 2xy −y
2
+ x + y + 2 = 0;
3. f

(0) ¸si f

(0), dac˘a f(0) = 1 ¸si x
3
+ y
2
−xy
2
+ y −x −2 = 0;
4. f

(0) ¸si f

(0), dac˘a f(0) = −1 ¸si x
3
+ y
3
−x
2
y
2
+ y
2
+ x −y + 1 = 0;
5. f

(1) ¸si f

(1), dac˘a f(1) = 1 ¸si x
4
+ y
4
+ xy −3 = 0.
Rezolvare:
1. Deoarece suntem ˆın condit ¸iile teoremei funct ¸iilor implicite, aplicˆ and
aceast˘ a teorem˘ a, obt ¸inem
f

(x) = −
F

x
(x, y)
F

y
(x, y)
= −
2x + 2y + 1
2x −2y −1
, f

(1) = 5
f

(x) = −
(2 + 2f

(x))(2x −2y −1) −(2 −2f

(x))(2x + 2y + 1)
(2x −2y −1)
2
,
f

(1) = −28.
23. Pentru funct ¸ia z = f(x, y), s˘a se determine:
18
1. f

x
(1, 1), f

y
(1, 1), dac˘a f(1,1)=1 ¸si x
3
+ y
3
+ z
3
+ 3xyz −6 = 0;
2. f

x
(1, 0), f

y
(1, 0), dac˘a f(1,0)=-1 ¸si xy + yz + zx + 1 = 0;
3. f

x
(0, −1), f

y
(0, −1), dac˘a f(0,-1)=1 ¸si xyz + 2ye
x
−y
2
z + 3 = 0;
4. f

x
(1, −1), f

y
(1, −1), dac˘a f(1,-1)=1 ¸si x
2
y + y
2
z + z
2
x −1 = 0;
5. f

x
(2, 2), f

y
(2, 2), dac˘a f(2,2)=0 ¸si (x + y)e
z
−xy −z = 0;
6. f

x
(0, 0), f

y
(0, 0), dac˘a f(0,0)=0 ¸si z
2
−xe
y
−ye
z
−ze
x
= 0 .
Rezolvare:
1. Deoarece suntem ˆın condit ¸iile teoremei funct ¸iilor implicite, aplicˆ and
aceast˘ a teorem˘ a, obt ¸inem
f

x
(x, y) = −
F

x
(x, y, z)
F

z
(x, y, z)
= −
x
2
+ yz
z
2
+ xy
, f

x
(1, 1) = −1,
f

y
(x, y) = −
F

y
(x, y, z)
F

z
(x, y, z)
= −
y
2
+ xz
z
2
+ xy
, f

y
(1, 1) = −1.
24. Pentru funct ¸ia y = f(x), s˘ a se determine derivatele part ¸iale de ordinul
ˆıntˆ ai ¸si al doilea:
1. ln
3

x
2
+ y
2
−arctan
y
x
= 0;
2. x
3
+ y
3
−x + y −2 = 0;
3. e
y
−e
x
+ xy = 0;
4. x
2
+ y
2
+ xy + 1 = 0;
Rezolvare:
1. f

(x) = −
F

x
(x, y)
F

y
(x, y)
=
2x + 3y
3x −2y
,
f

(x) =
(2 + 3y

)(3x −2y) −(3 −2y

)(2x + 3y)
(3x −2y)
2
.
ˆ
Inlocuind y

cu f

(x) determinat mai sus obt ¸inem f

(x) =
26(x
2
+ y
2
)
(3x −2y)
2
.
2. f

(x) = −
F

x
(x, y)
F

y
(x, y)
=
1 −3x
2
1 + 3y
2
,
19
f

(x) = −6
(x + y)(1 + 9xy(x
2
−xy + y
2
)) −6xy(x −y)
(1 + 3y
2
)
3
.
25. Pentru funct ¸ia z = f(x, y), s˘a se determine derivatele part ¸iale de
ordinul ˆıntˆai ¸si al doilea:
1. x
2
+ 2y
2
+ z
2
−4z + 8 = 0;
2. x
3
+ y
3
+ z
3
−3xyz = 0;
3. x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
−a
2
= 0 .
Rezolvare:
1. f

x
(x, y) = −
F

x
(x, y, z)
F

z
(x, y, z)
= −
x
z −2
, f

y
(x, y) = −
F

y
(x, y, z)
F

z
(x, y, z)
= −
2y
z −2
,
f

x
2
(x, y) = −
z −2 −xz

z
(z −2)
2
= −
x
2
+ (z −2)
2
(z −2)
3
, f

y
2(x, y) = −
2(z −2 −yz

y
)
(z −2)
2
=

2(2y
2
+ (z −2)
2
)
(z −3)
3
, f

xy
(x, y) =
xz

y
(z −2)
2
= −
2xy
(z −2)
3
.
26. Pentru funct ¸iile y = f(x) ¸si z = g(x) s˘a se calculeze :
1. f

(1) ¸si g

(1), dac˘a f(1) = 1, g(1) = 1 ¸si

x + 2y −z −3 = 0
x
3
+ y
3
+ z
3
−2xyz −2 = 0 ;
2. df, dg, d
2
f, d
2
g, dac˘a

xyz = a
x + y + z = b, a, b ∈ R;
3. f

(1), g

(1), f

(1), g

(1), dac˘a f(1) = 1, g(1) = 1 ¸si

x
2
+ y
2
−z
2
= 1
x
2
+ 2y
2
+ 3z
2
= 6 ;
4. df, dg, dac˘a

x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
−1 = 0
x
2
+ y −z = 0 ;
5. df, dg, d
2
f, d
2
g, dac˘a

x
2
+ y
2
+ 3z
2
= 1
x
2
+ y
2
−z
2
= 0 .
Rezolvare:
1. Fie F(x, y, z) = x+2y−z−3 = 0, G(x, y, z) = x
3
+y
3
+z
3
−2xyz−2 =
0.
20
f

(x) = −
D(F, G)
D(x, z)
D(F, G)
D(y, z)
= −

1 −1
3x
2
−2yz 3z
2
−2xy

2 −1
3y
2
−2xz 3z
2
−2xy

=
−3x
2
−3z
2
+ 2xy + 2yz
3y
2
+ 6z
2
−4xy −2xz
,
f

(1) = −
2
3
.
g

(x) = −
D(F, G)
D(y, x)
D(F, G)
D(y, z)
= −

2 1
3y
2
−2xz 3x
2
−2yz

2 −1
3y
2
−2xz 3z
2
−2xy

=
−6x
2
+ 3y
2
−2xz + 4yz
3y
2
+ 6z
2
−4xy −2xz
,
g

(1) =
1
3
.
2. f

(x) =
y(x −z)
x(z −y)
, g

(x) =
z(y −x)
x(z −y)
, f

(x) = ((z − y)
2
+ (x − z)
2
+
(x −y)
2
)
yz
x
2
(y −z)
3
, g

(x) = −f

(x).
27. S˘a se arate c˘ a funct ¸ia z = f(x, y), deﬁnit˘ a prin F(x−az, y −bz) = 0,
unde a, b ∈ R, veriﬁc˘ a relat ¸ia af

x
(x, y) + bf

y
(x, y) = 1.
Rezolvare:
Fie u = x − az ¸si v = y − bz. Atunci derivˆ and pe rˆand ˆın raport cu x
respectiv y obt ¸inem
F

u
(1 −af

x
) −bF

v
f

x
= 0
aF

u
f

y
+ F

v
(1 −bf

y
) = 0,
de unde rezult˘a
f

x
(x, y) =
F

u
(u, v)
aF

u
(u, v) + bF

v
(u, v)
¸si
f

y
(x, y) =
F

v
(u, v)
aF

u
(u, v) + bF

v
(u, v)
.
Astfel
af

x
(x, y) + bf

y
(x, y) =
aF

u
(u, v)
aF

u
(u, v) + bF

v
(u, v)
+
bF

v
(u, v)
aF

u
(u, v) + bF

v
(u, v)
= 1.
28. S˘a se arate c˘ a funct ¸ia z = f(x, y), deﬁnit˘a prin:
21
1. (y + z) sin z −y(x + z) = 0, veriﬁc˘ a ecuat ¸ia z sin zf

x
−y
2
f

y
= 0;
2. y(x+z) −(y +z)ϕ(z) = 0, veriﬁc˘ a ecuat ¸ia z(x+z)f

x
−y(y +z)f

y
= 0;
3. ϕ

x
z
,
y
z

= 0, veriﬁc˘ a relat ¸ia xf

x
+ yf

y
= z;
4. x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= ϕ(x+y +z), veriﬁc˘ a relat ¸ia (y −z)f

x
+(z −x)f

y
= x−y;
5. x
2
+y
2
−2xz −2yϕ(z) = 0, veriﬁc˘a ecuat ¸ia (y
2
−x
2
+2xz)f

x
+2y(z −
x)f

y
= 0.
Rezolvare:
1. f

x
=
y
sin z + (y + z) cos z −y
, f

y
=
x + z −sin z
sin z + (y + z) cos z −y
.
Atunci
z sin zf

x
−y
2
f

y
= z sin z
yz sin z
sin z + (y + z) cos z −y

y
2
(x + z −sin z)
sin z + (y + z) cos z −y
=
y(z sin z −y(x + z) + y sin z)
sin z + (y + z) cos z −y
= 0.
29. S˘a se determine extremele funct ¸iei y = f(x), deﬁnit˘a prin:
1. x
3
+ y
3
−3xy = 0;
2. y
2
+ 2yx
2
−4x −3 = 0;
3. x
2
−2xy + 5y
2
−2x + 4y + 1 = 0;
4. x
3
+ y
3
−3x
2
y −3 = 0;
5. y
3
+ x
2
−xy −3x −y + 4 = 0;
6. (x
2
+ y
2
)
2
= a
2
(x
2
−y
2
), a ∈ R

.
Rezolvare:
1. Punctele critice ale funct ¸iei y = f(x) sunt solut ¸iile sistemului

F

x
(x, y) = 0
F(x, y) = 0
F

y
(x, y) = 0
.
F

x
= 3x
2
− 3y, F

y
= 3y
2
− 3x. Rezolvˆand sistemul

3x
2
−3y = 0
x
3
+ y
3
−3xy = 0
3y
2
−3x = 0
rezult˘ a punctul critic x =
3

2.
22
Deoarece f

(x) =
y −x
2
y
2
−x
, f

(x) =
(y

−2x)(y
2
−x) −(2yy

−1)(y −x
2
)
(y
2
−x)
2
,
iar f

(
3

2) = −2 < 0, rezult˘a c˘ a punctul x =
3

2 este punct de maxim local.
2. Punctele critice ale funct ¸iei y = f(x) sunt solut ¸iile sistemului

F

x
(x, y) = 0
F(x, y) = 0
F

y
(x, y) = 0
.
F

x
= 4xy−4, F

y
= 2y+2x
2
. Rezolvˆ and sistemul

xy −1 = 0
y
2
+ 2yx
2
−4x −3 = 0
y + x
2
= 0
rezult˘ a punctul critic x =
1
2
.
Deoarece
f

(x) =
4(1 −xy)
x
2
+ 2y
, f

(x) =
4((−y −xy

)(x
2
+ 2y) −(2x + 2y

)(1 −xy))
(x
2
+ 2y)
2
,
iarf

1
2

= −8 < 0, rezult˘a c˘ a punctul x =
1
2
este punct de maxim local.
30. S˘a se determine extremele funct ¸iei z = f(x, y), deﬁnit˘a prin:
1. x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
−2x + 4y −6z −11 = 0;
2. x
3
−y
2
−3x + 4y + z
2
+ z −8 = 0;
3. x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
−xz −yz + 2x + 2y + 2z −2 = 0.
Rezolvare:
1. C˘ aut˘am punctele critice solut ¸ii ale sistemului

F

x
(x, y, z) = 0
F

y
(x, y, z) = 0
F

z
(x, y, z) = 0
F(x, y, z) = 0
solut ¸iile sistemului

2x −2 = 0
2y + 4 = 0
2z −6 = 0
x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
−2x + 4y −6z −11 = 0
,
care sunt (x, y, z) = (1, −2, −2) respectiv (x, y, z) = (1, −2, 8).
Avem
f

x
(x, y) =
1 −x
z −3
, f

y
(x, y) = −
y + 2
z −3
, f

x
2(x, y) = −
z −3 + (1 −x)z

x
(z −3)
2
,
f

xy
(x, y) =
(x −1)z

y
(z −3)
2
= 0, f

y
2(x, y) =
−z + 3 + (y + 2)z

y
(z −3)
2
.
23
Aplicˆ and criteriul lui Sylvester pentru hessiana ˆın punctele critice de mai
sus, obt ¸inem H
f
(1, −2, −2) =

¸
¸
1
5
0
0
1
5

, ∆
1
=
1
5
> 0, ∆
2
=
1
25
> 0, deci
(1, −2, −2) este punct de minim local, respectiv H
f
(1, −2, 8) =

¸
¸

1
5
0
0 −
1
5

,

1
= −
1
5
< 0, ∆
2
=
1
25
> 0, a¸sadar(1, −2, 8) este punct de maxim local.
31. Pentru funct ¸iile u = f(x, y) ¸si v = g(x, y) s˘a se determine:
1. df(0, 0), dg(0, 0), d
2
f(0, 0), d
2
g(0, 0), dac˘a f(0, 0) = 1, g(0, 0) = 0 ¸si

x + y + u + v −1 = 0
x
2
+ y
2
+ u
2
+ v
2
−1 = 0 ;
2. df(1, 1), dg(1, 1), d
2
f(1, 1), d
2
g(1, 1), dac˘a f(1, 1) = 1, g(1, 1) = 0 ¸si

x + 2y −u + v = 2
x
3
+ y
3
+ u
3
−3xyu −3v = 0 ;
3. df(0, 1), dg(0, 1), d
2
f(0, 1), d
2
g(0, 1), dac˘a f(0, 1) = 1, g(0, 1) = 1 ¸si

u = x + y
uv = y ;
Rezolvare:
1.
f

x
= −
D(F, G)
D(x, v)
D(F, G)
D(u, v)
= −

1 1
2x 2v

1 1
2u 2v

=
x −v
v −u
, f

x
(0, 0) = 0,
f

y
= −
D(F, G)
D(y, v)
D(F, G)
D(u, v)
= −

1 1
2y 2v

1 1
2u 2v

=
y −v
v −u
, f

y
(0, 0) = 0, df(0, 0) = 0,
g

x
= −
D(F, G)
D(u, x)
D(F, G)
D(u, v)
= −

1 1
2u 2x

1 1
2u 2v

=
u −x
v −u
, g

x
(0, 0) = −1,
24
g

y
= −
D(F, G)
D(u, y)
D(F, G)
D(u, v)
= −

1 1
2u 2y

1 1
2u 2v

=
u −y
v −u
, g

y
(0, 0) = −1, dg(0, 0) = −dx −dy,
f

x
2 =
(−v

x
+ 1)(v −u) −(v

x
−u

x
)(x −v)
(v −u)
2
, f

x
2(0, 0) = −2,
f

xy
=
−v

y
(v −u) −(x −v)(v

y
−u

y
)
(v −u)
2
, f

xy
(0, 0) = −1,
f

y
2 =
(1 −v

y
)(v −u) −(v

y
−u

y
)(y −v)
(v −u)
2
, f

y
2(0, 0) = −2,
d
2
f(0, 0) = −2(dx
2
+ dxdy + dy
2
),
g

x
2 =
(u

x
−1)(v −u) −(v

x
−u

x
)(u −x)
(v −u)
2
, g

x
2(0, 0) = 2,
g

xy
=
u

y
(v −u) −(v

y
−u

y
)(u −x)
(v −u)
2
, g

xy
(0, 0) = 1,
g

y
2 =
(u

y
−1)(v −u) −(v

y
−u

y
)(u −y)
(v −u)
2
, g

y
2(0, 0) = 2,
d
2
g(0, 0) = 2(dx
2
+ dxdy + dy
2
).
32. Pentru funct ¸iile u = f(x, y) ¸si v = g(x, y) s˘a se determine derivatele
part ¸iale de ordinul ˆıntˆ ai, dac˘a:
1. u + v = x + y, xu + yv = 1;
2. u + v = x, u −yv = 0;
3. x + y + u + v = a, x
3
+ y
3
+ u
3
+ v
3
= b, a, b ∈ R;
4. x + y = u + v, y sin u = x sin v.
Rezolvare:
1.
f

x
= −
D(F, G)
D(x, v)
D(F, G)
D(u, v)
= −

−1 1
u y

1 1
x y

=
y + u
y −x
,
25
f

y
= −
D(F, G)
D(y, v)
D(F, G)
D(u, v)
= −

−1 1
v y

1 1
x y

=
y + v
y −x
,
g

x
= −
D(F, G)
D(u, x)
D(F, G)
D(u, v)
= −

1 −1
x u

1 1
x y

=
−u −x
y −x
,
g

y
= −
D(F, G)
D(u, y)
D(F, G)
D(u, v)
= −

1 −1
x v

1 1
x y

=
−v −x
y −x
.
0.4 Extreme cu leg˘aturi
33. S˘ a se determine punctele de extrem ale urm˘atoarelor funct ¸ii f : R
2
→R,
cu leg˘aturile speciﬁcate:
1. f(x, y) = x
2
+ y
2
, 2x + 3y = 1 ;
2. f(x, y) = xy, −x + y = 1;
3. f(x, y) = x
2
+ y
2
,
x
a
+
y
b
−1 = 0, a, b ∈ R

;
4. f(x, y) = 2x + y, x
2
+ y
2
= 5;
5. f(x, y) = 3x −y, x
2
−y
2
= 2;
6. f(x, y) = xy, x + y = 1;
7. f(x, y) = x
2
+ y
2
−2y + 1, y
2
−x
2
= 1;
8. f(x, y) = x
2
+ xy + y
2
+ x −y + 1, x
2
+ y
2
−1 = 0;
9. f(x, y) =
1
x
+
1
y
,
1
x
2
+
1
y
2
=
1
4
, x, y = 0;
10. f(x, y) =
x
3
+
y
4
, x
2
+ y
2
= 1;
11. f(x, y) = x
2
−3x + (y −1)
2
, x
2
+ y
2
= 1.
26
Rezolvare:
1. Construim funct ¸ia lui Lagrange L(x, y) = f(x, y) − αg(x, y) adic˘ a,
L(x, y) = x
2
+ y
2
−α(2x + 3y −1).
Determin˘ am solut ¸ia sistemului

L

x
(x, y) = 0
L

y
(x, y) = 0
g(x, y) = 0
⇐⇒

2x −2α = 0
2y −3α = 0
2x + 3y −1 = 0
⇐⇒
x =
2
13
, y =
3
13
, α =
2
13
.
L

x
2
(x, y) = L

y
2
(x, y) = 2, L

xy
(x, y) = 0.
Deoarece d
2
L

2
13
,
3
13

= 2(dx
2
+ dy
2
) este pozitiv deﬁnit˘ a, rezult˘ a c˘a

2
13
,
3
13

este punct de minim condit ¸ionat.
2. L(x, y) = xy −α(−x + y −1), L

x
= y + α, L

y
= x −α.
Solut ¸ia sistemului

L

x
(x, y) = 0
L

y
(x, y) = 0
g(x, y) = 0
este x = −
1
2
, y =
1
2
, α = −
1
2
.
Deoarece d
2
L

1
2
,
1
2

= 2dxdy diferent ¸iem leg˘aturaˆın punctul

1
2
,
1
2

¸si obt ¸inem −dx + dy = 0, dx = dy, deci d
2
L

1
2
,
1
2

= 2dx
2
> 0. Prin
urmare punctul

1
2
,
1
2

este punct de minim condit ¸ionat.
34. S˘ a se determine punctele de extrem ale urm˘ atoarelor funct ¸ii f : R
3

R, cu leg˘ aturile speciﬁcate:
1. f(x, y, z) = x + y + z, x + y −z = 2, x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= 4;
2. f(x, y, z) = x
2
+ y
2
−z
2
, x + y + z = 1, x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= 4;
3. f(x, y, z) = x
3
+ y
3
+ z
3
, x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= 3, x, y, z > 0;
4. f(x, y, z) = x + 2y −2z, x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= 9;
5. f(x, y, z) = 2x −3y + z, x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= 14;
6. f(x, y, z) = x + 2y −2z, x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= 16;
7. f(x, y, z) = xyz, x + y + z = 5, xy + yz + zx = 8;
8. f(x, y, z) = x + y + z,
1
x
+
1
y
+
1
z
= 1, x, y, z ∈ R

+
;
27
9. f(x, y, z) = x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
,
x
a
+
y
b
+
z
c
= 1, a, b, c > 0.
Rezolvare:
1. Construim funct ¸ia lui Lagrange L(x, y, z) = f(x, y, z) −αg
1
(x, y, z) −
βg
2
(x, y, z), adic˘ a L(x, y, z) = x+y+z −α(x+y−z −2)−β(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
−4).
Determin˘ am solut ¸iile sistemului

L

x
(x, y, z) = 0
L

y
(x, y, z) = 0
L

z
(x, y, z) = 0
g
1
(x, y, z) = 0
g
2
(x, y, z) = 0
temului

1 −α −2βx = 0
1 −α −2βy = 0
1 + α −2βz = 0
x + y −z −2 = 0
x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
−4 = 0
, care sunt a
1
= (0, 0, −2), α
1
= 1, β
1
=

1
2
¸si a
2
=

4
3
,
4
3
,
2
3

, α
2
= −
1
3
, β
2
=
1
2
.
Deoarece L

x
2
(x, y, z) = L

y
2
(x, y, z) = L

z
2
(x, y, z) = −2β, L

xy
(x, y, z) =
L

xz
(x, y, z) = L

yz
(x, y, z) = 0 ¸si d
2
L(x, y, z) = −2β(dx
2
+dy
2
+dz
2
), obt ¸inem
d
2
L(a
1
) = dx
2
+ dy
2
+ dz
2
> 0, d
2
L(a
2
) = −(dx
2
+ dy
2
+ dz
2
) < 0, deci a
1
este punct de minim condit ¸ionat, iar a
2
este punct de maxim condit ¸ionat.
2. Fie L(x, y, z) = x
2
+y
2
−z
2
−α(x +y +z −1) −β(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
−4).

L

x
(x, y, z) = 0
L

y
(x, y, z) = 0
L

z
(x, y, z) = 0
g
1
(x, y, z) = 0
g
2
(x, y, z) = 0

2x −α −2βx = 0
2y −α −2βy = 0
−2z −α −2βz = 0
x + y + z −1 = 0
x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
−4 = 0

a
1
=

2 +

22
6
,
2 +

22
6
,
4 −

22
6

, β
1
=
2 +

22

22 −1
respectiv
a
2
=

2 −

22
6
,
2 −

22
6
,
4 +

22
6

, β
2
= −
3
1 +

22
,
d
2
L(x, y, z) = 2(1 −β)dx
2
+ 2(1 −β)dy
2
−2(1 + β)dz
2
.
Diferent ¸iind leg˘ aturile obt ¸inem dx+dy +dz = 0, xdx+ydy +zdz = 0 de
unde rezult˘a d
2
L(a
1
) =
4(

22 −4)

22 −1
dx
2
> 0, d
2
L(a
2
) =
4(

22 + 4)

22 + 1
dx
2
> 0,
1
¸si a
2
sunt puncte de minim condit ¸ionat.
28
0.5 Formula lui Taylor pentru funct ¸ii de o
variabila real˘a
35. S˘ a se scrie formula lui Taylor cu restul sub forma lui Lagrange ˆın punctul
a = 0, pentru urm˘atoarele funct ¸ii:
1. f(x) = e
x
;
2. f(x) = e
−x
;
3. f(x) =
1
1 + x
;
4. f(x) = ln(1 −x
2
);
5. f(x) = ln

1 + x
1 −x

;
6. f(x) = arctan x;
7. f(x) = sin x;
8. f(x) = cos x.
Rezolvare:
1. f
(n)
(x) = e
x
, ∀n ∈ N, ∀x ∈ R, f
(n)
(0) = 1, ∀n ∈ N.
Aplicˆ and formula lui Taylor cu restul sub forma Lagrange obt ¸inem
e
x
= 1 +
x
1!
+
x
2
2!
+· · · +
x
n
n!
+
x
n+1
e
ξ
(n + 1)!
, ∀n ∈ N, unde ξ este situat ˆıntre
0 ¸si x.
3. f
(n)
(x) = (−1)
n
n!(1 + x)
−(n+1)
, ∀n ∈ N, ∀x ∈ R −{−1}.
Aplicˆ and formula lui Taylor cu restul sub forma Lagrange, obt ¸inem
1
1 + x
= 1−x+x
2
−x
3
+· · ·+(−1)
n
x
n
+(−1)
n+1
x
n+1
(1+ξ)
−(n+2)
, ∀n ∈ N,
unde ξ este situat ˆıntre 0 ¸si x.
36. S˘ a se dezvolte polinomul f(x) = x
3
− 2x
2
+ 3x + 5 dup˘a puterile
ˆıntregi ale binomului x −1.
Rezolvare:
Deoarece
f

(x) = 3x
2
−4x + 3, f

(x) = 6x −4, f

(x) = 6, f
(n)
(x) = 0, ∀n ≥ 4,
f(1) = 7, f

(1) = 2, f

(1) = 2, f

(1) = 6,
29
conform formulei lui Taylor, avem f(x) = 7 + 2(x −1) + (x −1)
2
+ (x −1)
3
.
37. S˘ a se dezvolte polinomul f(x) = 2x
4
− 3x
2
+ x − 1 dup˘ a puterile
ˆıntregi ale binomului x + 1.
38. S˘a se dezvolte polinomul f(x) = x
5
+x
3
+x+1 dup˘ a puterile ˆıntregi
ale binomului x −2.
39. S˘a se evalueze eroarea comis˘a ˆın aproximarea e 1 +
1
1!
+
1
2!
+
1
3!
.
40. S˘a se calculeze valoarea aproximativ˘a ¸si apoi eroarea comis˘a, pentru:
1.

e;
2.
3

12;
3.

143;
4.
3

e;
5. ln(0, 9) .
Rezolvare:
1. Fie f(x) = e
x
. Aproxim˘am funct ¸ia f(x) cu polinomul Taylor de ordinul
n = 3, ˆın punctul a = 0, pentru x =
1
2
.
ˆ
Intrucˆ at f
(n)
(x) = e
x
, ∀n ∈ N, ∀x ∈ R obt ¸inem
f

1
2

T
3;0

1
2

= 1 +
1
2
+
1
8
+
1
48
=
79
48
= 1, 646.
Eroarea comis˘a ˆın aceast˘ a aproximare este E =

f

1
2

−T
3;0

1
2

=
e
ξ
4!2
4
, unde ξ ∈

0,
1
2

. Prin urmare E <
2
4!2
4
=
1
4!2
3
=
1
192
.
41. S˘a se evalueze eroarea comis˘a ˆın aproxim˘arile urm˘ atoare:
1. cos x 1 −
x
2
2
+
x
4
24
, x ∈ [0, 1];
2. sin x x −
x
3
6
, x ∈ [0,
1
2
];
3.
3

1 + x 1 +
x
3

x
2
9
, x ∈ [0, 1];
4. e
x
1 + x +
x
2
2
+
x
3
6
, x ∈ [−1, 1];
30
5. e
−x
1 −x +
x
2
2

x
3
6
, x ∈ [0, 1];
6. cosh x 1 +
x
2
2
, x ∈ [0, 1];
7. sinh x x +
x
3
6
, x ∈ [0, 1];
8.

1 + x 1 +
x
2

x
2
8
, x ∈ [0, 1] .
Rezolvare:
1. Eroarea comis˘ a ˆın aceast˘ a aproximare este E = |f(x) −T
n,a
(x)| pentru
n = 4 ¸si a = 0. Atunci E =

x
5
f
(5)
(ξ)
5!

=

x
5
cos

ξ +

2

5!

1
5!
.
42. S˘a se calculeze cu ajutorul formulei lui Taylor urm˘atoarele limite:
1. lim
x→0

1 + x
3
−1
x
3
;
2. lim
x→0
ln(1 + 2x) −sin 2x + 2x
2
x
3
;
3. lim
x→0
3

1 + x
2
−1
x
2
;
4. lim
x→1
3

x +

x −2
x −1
;
5. lim
x→0
cos 7x −cos 3x
x
2
;
6. lim
x→0

cos 3x −1
x
2
;
7. lim
x→∞
¸
x −x
2
ln

1 +
1
x

;
8. lim
x→0
cosh 2x −2
x
2
;
9. lim
x→0
e
x
sin x −x −x
2
x
3
;
31
10. lim
x→0
tan x −sin x
x
3
.
Rezolvare:
1. Folosim formula lui Taylor pentru funct ¸ia f(x) =

1 + x
3
− 1, ˆın
punctul a = 0 cu restul sub forma Lagrange de ordin n = 3.
Avem
f

(x) =
3x
2
2

1 + x
3
, f

(x) =
3(4x + x
4
)
4(1 + x
3
)

1 + x
3
,
f

(x) =
3(8 −20x
3
−x
6
)
8(1 + x
3
)
2

1 + x
3
, f(0) = f

(0) = f

(0) = 0, f

(0) = 3.
Cu ajutorul formulei lui Taylor obt ¸inem f(x) =
x
3
2
+
x
4
f
(4)
(ξ)
4!
.
Prin urmare lim
x→0
f(x)
x
3
= lim
x→0

1
2
+
xf
(4)
(ξ)
4!

=
1
2
.
7. lim
x→∞
¸
x −x
2
ln

1 +
1
x

= lim
x→∞
1
x
−ln

1 +
1
x

1
x
2
= lim
t→0
t −ln(1 + t)
t
2
.
Aplic˘ am formula lui Taylor pentru funct ¸ia f(t) = t −ln(1 +t) ˆın punctul
a = 0 cu restul sub forma Lagrange de ordin n = 2.
Avem f

(t) =
t
1 + t
, f

(t) =
1
(1 + t)
2
, f(0) = 0, f

(0) = 0, f

(0) = 1.
Obt ¸inem lim
t→0
f(t)
t
2
= lim
t→0

1
2
+
tf
(3)
(ξ)
3!

=
1
2
.
43. S˘ a se determine num˘arul natural n, astfel ˆıncˆ at ˆın aproximarea
f(x) T
n,a
(x), pentru funct ¸ia f(x) =

1 + x ¸si a=0, eroarea comis˘a s˘ a
ﬁe cel mult
1
16
pe intervalul [0,1].
Rezolvare:
f

(x) =
1
2
(1 + x)

1
2
, f

(x) = −
1
2
2
(1 + x)

3
2
, · · · ,
f
(n)
(x) = (−1)
n−1
1 · 3 · 5 · · · (2n −3)
2
n
(1 + x)

2n−1
2
, ∀n ≥ 2.
Trebuie s˘ a determin˘ am num˘arul natural n astfel ˆıncˆ at |f(x) −T
n,0
(x)| ≤
1
16
.
Avem
|f(x)−T
n,0
(x)| =

x
n+1
f
(n+1)
(ξ)
(n + 1)!

=
1 · 3 · 5 · · · (2n −1)
(n + 1)!2
n+1
(1+ξ)

2n+1
2
x
n+1

1 · 3 · 5 · · · (2n −1)
(n + 1)!2
n+1

1
16
de unde rezult˘ a n ≥ 2.
32
44. S˘ a se determine cel mai mic num˘ ar natural n, astfel ˆıncˆat ˆın aproxi-
marea f(x) T
n,a
(x), pentru funct ¸ia f(x) = ln(1+x) ¸si a=0, eroarea comis˘a
s˘ a ﬁe cel mult 10
−3
pe intervalul [0,1].
0.6 Formula lui Taylor pentru funct ¸ii de mai
multe variabile reale
45. S˘ a se scrie formula lui Taylor pentru urm˘ atoarele funct ¸ii ˆın punctele
indicate:
1. f(x, y) = e
x+y
, a = (−1, 1);
2. f(x, y) = ln(1 + x + y), a = (0, 0), n = 3;
3. f(x, y) = ln(1 + x)(1 + y), a = (0, 0), n = 3;
4. f(x, y) = e
x
cos y, a = (0, 0), n = 3;
5. f(x, y) = −x
2
+ 3xy
2
−15x + 12y + 2, a = (1, 1);
6. f(x, y) = x
2
+ y
2
+ xy −2x −2y + 6, a = (1, 1);
7. f(x, y) = e
x
sin y, a = (0, 0), n = 3.
Rezolvare:
1. Deoarece f
(n)
x
k
y
n−k
(x, y) = e
x+y
, ∀k = 0, n, atunci conform formulei
lui Taylor pentru funct ¸ii de mai multe variabile, rezult˘ a c˘ a exist˘a punc-
tul (ξ, η) situat ˆıntr-o vecin˘atate a punctului a astfel ˆıncˆ at ∀(x, y) ˆın aceea
vecin˘ atate s˘a avem f(x, y) = 1 +
1
1!
(x +y) +
1
2!
(x +y)
2
+· · · +
1
n!
(x +y)
n
+
1
(n + 1)!
d
n+1
f(ξ, η)(x + 1, y −1).
2. f(x, y) =
1
1!
(x + y) −
1
2
(x + y)
2
+
1
3
(x + y)
3
+
1
4!
d
4
f(ξ, η)(x, y).
46. Folosind formula lui Taylor de ordinul al doilea, s˘ a se calculeze va-
loarea aproximativ˘ a pentru:
1.

0, 98
3

1, 01;
2.

4, 02
3

7, 96;
3. (0, 95)
1,01
;
33
4. (0, 99)
2
(3, 01)
3
;
5. 1, 02(2, 02)
2
(3, 02)
3
.
Rezolvare:
1. Pentru a determina valoarea aproximativ˘a a

0, 98
3

1, 01 consider˘ am
funct ¸ia f(x, y) =

x
3

y ¸si vom aproxima f(0, 98; 1, 01) cu polinomul Taylor
de ordinul al doilea ˆın punctul (1, 1), adic˘a cu T
2;(1,1)
(0, 98; 1, 01).
Atunci f(x, y) 1 +
1
1!

1
2
(x −1) +
1
3
(y −1)

+
+
1
2!

1
4
(x −1)
2

1
3
(x −1)(y −1) −
2
9
(y −1)
2

.
Punˆ and x = 0, 98 ¸si y = 1, 01 obt ¸inem

0, 98
3

1, 01 1 +
1
1!

1
2
0, 02 +
1
3
0, 01

+
+
1
2!

1
4
(0, 02)
2

1
3
(0, 02)(0, 01) −
2
9
(0, 01)
2

=
89383
9000
0, 994.
47. S˘ a se veriﬁce dac˘ a sunt adev˘ arate urm˘ atoarele aproxim˘ari ˆın vecin˘ atatea
punctului (0, 0):
1. ln(1 + x) ln(1 + y) xy;
2. (1 + x)
m
(1 + y)
n
1 + mx + ny, m, n ∈ N

;
3.
cos x
cos y
1 −
x
2
−y
2
2
;
4. arctan
x + y
1 + xy
x + y.
Rezolvare:
1. Fie f(x, y) = ln(1 + x) ln(1 + y). Atunci f(x, y) T
2;(0,0)
(x, y) este
echivalent cu ln(1 + x) ln(1 + y) xy.
0.7 Indicat ¸ii ¸si r˘aspunsuri
1. 3. f

x
(1, −2) = 3e+e
−5
, f

y
(1, −2) = e+3e
−5
; 4. f

x
(1, −1) =
5
3
, f

y
(1, −1) =

2
3
; 5. f

x
(2, 1) =
1
5
, f

y
(2, 1) =
2
5
; 6. f

x
(2, 1) =
1
2
, f

y
(2, 1) = 0.
34
2. 3. |f(x, y)| ≤ |xy|, f continu˘a ˆın (0,0), f

x
(0, 0) = f

y
(0, 0) = 0, f
diferent ¸iabil˘ aˆın (0,0); 4.

(x
2
+ y
2
) cos
1
x
2
+ y
2

≤ x
2
+ y
2
, f continu˘ aˆın(0,0),
f

x
(0, 0) = f

y
(0, 0) = 0,

x
2
+ y
2

x
2
+ y
2
cos
1
x
2
+ y
2

x
2
+ y
2
, f diferent ¸iabil˘a
ˆın (0,0).
3. 1. f

x
=
x

x
2
+ y
2
, f

y
=
y

x
2
+ y
2
, df(x, y) =
1

x
2
+ y
2
(xdx +
ydy); 2. f

x
= 4xy − 3y + 2x, f

y
= 2x
2
− 3x − 1, df(x, y) = (4xy − 3y +
2x)dx + (2x
2
−3x −1)dy; 3. f

x
=
1
x
, f

y
=
1
y
; 4. f

x
= ln y, f

y
=
x
y
; 5. f

x
=
−(ln x+1), f

y
= −(ln y +1); 6. f

x
=
1
x
, f

y
= −
1
y
; 7. f

x
= ln y −e
y
2
+x
, f

y
=
x
y
− 2ye
y
2
+x
; 8. f

x
= (1 + xy)e
xy
, f

y
= x
2
e
xy
; 9. f

x
= 2xe
x
2
−y
, f

y
=
−e
x
2
−y
; 10. f

x
= yx
y−1
, f

y
= x
y
ln x; 11. f

x
= (2x sin
2
x+sin 2x)e
x
2
+y
2
; f

y
=
2ye
x
2
+y
2
sin
2
x; 12. f

x
=
y
x
2
+ y
2
, f

y
= −
x
x
2
+ y
2
;
13. f

x
=
x
(1 + x
2
+ y
2
)

x
2
+ y
2
, f

y
=
y
(1 + x
2
+ y
2
)

x
2
+ y
2
; 14. f

x
=
2x arctan(x
2
+ y
2
) +
2x
3
1 + (x
2
+ y
2
)
2
, f

y
=
2x
2
y
1 + (x
2
+ y
2
)
2
;
15. f

x
= −
y
x

x
2
−y
2
, f

y
=
1

x
2
−y
2
; 16. f

x
= −
x

1 −x
2
−y
2
,
f

y
= −
y

1 −x
2
−y
2
; 17. f

x
=
1

x
2
+ y
2
, f

y
=
y
(x +

x
2
+ y
2
)

x
2
+ y
2
;
18. f

x
=
4xy
2
(x
2
+ y
2
)
2
, f

y
= −
4x
2
y
(x
2
+ y
2
)
2
; 19. f

x
= 2x−3y+3, f

y
= −3x+4y−
4; 20. f

x
= 2 cos(2x+3y), f

y
= 3 cos(2x+3y); 21. f

x
= 3x
2
+3y, f

y
= 3y
2
+
3x; 22. f

x
= (2x−a−b)(y−a)(y−b), f

y
= (2y−a−b)(x−a)(x−b); 23. f

x
=
(1+x)y
2
e
x−y
, f

y
= xy(2−y)e
x−y
; 24. f

x
= 2x
3
y
3
(2−3x
2
+2y), f

y
= x
4
y
2
(3−
3x
2
+ 4y); 25. f

x
= −sin x + cos(x +y), f

y
= −sin y + cos(x +y); 26. f

x
=
sin y sin(2x+y), f

y
= sin x sin(x+2y); 27. f

x
=
2x
3(x
2
+ y
2
)
+
y
1 + x
2
y
2
, f

y
=
2y
3(x
2
+ y
2
)
+
x
1 + x
2
y
2
; 28. f

x
=
2x
n
m
(x
2
+ y)
, f

y
=
1
n
m
(x
2
+ y)
;
29. f

x
= 2x sin
y
x

x
2
y −y
3
x
2
cos
y
x
; f

y
= −2y sin
y
x
+
x
2
−y
2
x
cos
y
x
; 30. f

x
=
(2xy + y
3
) sin 2(x
2
y + xy
3
), f

y
= (x
2
+ 3xy
2
) sin 2(x
2
y + xy
3
); 31. f

x
=
35
x
2
−y
2
x
2
y
, f

y
=
y
2
−x
2
xy
2
; 32. f

x
=
y
3
(−3x
4
+ y
2
)
(x
2
+ y
2
)
2
, f

y
=
xy
2
(3x
4
+ y
2
)
(x
2
+ y
2
)
2
;
33.f

x
=
y
2
−x
2
(x
2
+ y
2
)
2
cos
x
x
2
+ y
2
, f

y
=
−2xy
(x
2
+ y
2
)
2
cos
x
x
2
+ y
2
;
34. f

x
= 2x cos
1

x
2
+ y
2
+
x

x
2
+ y
2
sin
1

x
2
+ y
2
,
f

y
= 2y cos
1

x
2
+ y
2
+
y

x
2
+ y
2
sin
1

x
2
+ y
2
; 35. f

x
=
x
2
−y
x
2
y
,
f

y
=
−x −1
y
2
.
4. 1. f

x
= sin yz, f

y
= sin yz + (x + y)z cos yz, f

z
= y(x + y) cos yz,
df(x, y, z) = sin yzdx+(sin yz +(x+y)z cos yz)dy+y(x+y) cos yzdz; 2. f

x
=
2x + yz, f

y
= 2y + xz, f

z
= xy, df(x, y, z) = (2x + yz)dx + (2y + xz)dy +
xydz; 3. f

x
= 6x + 2y, f

y
= 4y + 2x −3z, f

z
= 6z −3y; 4. f

x
= −3x
2
y
2
z +
10y, f

y
= −2x
3
yz + 10x, f

z
= −x
3
y
2
− 6z
2
; 5. f

x
=
x

x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
, f

y
=
y

x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
, f

z
=
z

x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
; 6. f

x
=
1

y
2
+ z
2
,
f

y
= −
xy
(y
2
+ z
2
)

y
2
+ z
2
, f

z
= −
xz
(y
2
+ z
2
)

y
2
+ z
2
; 7. f

x
=
yz
x
2
y
2
+ z
2
,
f

y
=
xz
x
2
y
2
+ z
2
, f

z
= −
xy
x
2
y
2
+ z
2
; 8. f

x = −
xz
(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
)

x
2
+ y
2
, f

y
=

yz
(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
)

x
2
+ y
2
, f

z
=

x
2
+ y
2
x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
; 9. f

x
= −
1
x
, f

y
= −
1
y
, f

z
=
1
z
; 10. f

x
= ln z +
y
x
, f

y
= ln x +
z
y
, f

z
= ln y +
x
z
; 11. f

x
= −
x
x
2
+ z
2
, f

y
=
1
y
, f

z
= −
z
x
2
+ z
2
; 12. f

x
= ze
x−y
2
+ ye
x+z
, f

y
= −2yze
x−y
2
+ e
x+z
, f

z
=
e
x−y
2
+ ye
x+z
; 13. f

x
= yx
y−1
+ z
x
ln z, f

y
= zy
z−1
+ x
y
ln x, f

z
= xz
x−1
+
y
z
ln y; 14. f

x
= (yz
3
cos(x+y)−sin(x+y))e
xyz
3
, f

y
= (xz
3
cos(x+y)−sin(x+
y))e
xyz
3
, f

z
= 3xyz
2
cos(x+y)e
xyz
3
; 15. f

x
=
x
2
−yz
x
2
y
, f

y
= −
xz + y
2
y
2
z
, f

z
=
xy + z
2
xz
2
; 16. f

x
= (y + b)(z + c), f

y
= (x + a)(z + c), f

z
= (x + a)(y +
b); 17. f

x
= yze
xy
, f

y
= xze
xy
, f

z
= e
xy
; 18. f

x
= 2xze
x
2
+y
2
+ ye
z
, f

y
=
2yze
x
2
+y
2
+ xe
z
, f

z
= e
x
2
+y
2
+ xye
z
; 19.f

x
= cos y sin(2x + z),
f

y
= −sin x sin y sin(x + z), f

z
= sin x cos y cos(x + z);
20. f

x
=
−2x
3
+ x
2
y −yz
2
x
2
e
y
x
, f

y
=
z
2
−x
2
x
e
y
x
, f

z
= 2ze
y
x
; 21. f

x
=
36
y
2
z
3
(6 − 4x + 3y − 4z), f

y
= xyz
3
(12 − 4x + 9y − 8z), f

z
= xy
2
z
2
(18 −
6x +9y −16z); 22. f

x
=
z(x
4
+ 3x
2
z
2
+ x
2
y
2
−y
2
z
2
)
(x
2
+ z
2
)
2
, f

y
= −
2xyz
x
2
+ y
2
, f

z
=
x(x
2
−z
2
)(x
2
−y
2
)
(x
2
+ z
2
)
2
; 23. f

x
=
n(x −y)
n−1
(y −z)
m
,
f

y
=
(x −y)
n−1
(−mx + (m−n)y + nz)
(y −z)
m+1
, f

z
=
m(x −y)
n
(y −z)
m+1
; 24. f

x
= −
y
2
x
2
,
f

y
=
2y
3
−xz
xy
2
, f

z
=
2y + z
2
yz
2
; 25. f

x
= −a sin 2(ax + by + cz),
f

y
= −b sin 2(ax + by + cz), f

z
= −c sin 2(ax + by + cz).
5. 3. d
2
f(3, 1) = −

2
9
dx
2
+ dy
2

; 4. d
2
f(1, 2) = −dx
2
+
1
2
dy
2
;
5. d
2
f(−1, 1) =
2
25
(−3dx
2
+ 16dxdy −3dy
2
); 6. d
2
f(0, 0) = m(m−1)dx
2
+
2mndxdy + n(n − 1)dy
2
; 7. d
2
f(0, π) = −dx
2
+ dy
2
; 8. d
2
f(2, 1) = 4(dx
2

3dxdy+2dy
2
); 9. d
2
f(1, 1) = 4(dx
2
+dy
2
); 10. d
2
f(1, −1) = 2(3dx
2
+4dxdy+
dy
2
).
6. 2. d
2
f(1, 1, 1) =
2
3

3
(dxdy +dydz +dxdz); 3. d
2
f(1, 1, 1) = 2e(dx
2
+
dy
2
+ dz
2
+ 4dxdy + 4dydz + 4dxdz); 4. d
2
f(1, 2, −1) = 4(39dx
2
+ 3dy
2
+
5dz
2
+ 27dxdy − 24dxdz); 5. d
2
f(1, 1, 1) = e(dx
2
+ dy
2
+ 3dz
2
+ 4dxdy +
6dydz+4dxdz); 6. d
2
f(2, 1, 1) = −dy
2
+dz
2
+dxdy−dxdz; 7. d
2
f(π,
π
2
,
π
3
) =
dx
2
+dy
2
+dz
2
−2dxdy +2dydz −2dxdz; 8. d
2
f(1, −1, 2) = 2(4dx
2
+3dy
2
+
2dz
2
−10dxdy+5dydz−6dxdz); 9. d
2
f(2, 1, 1) = −
1
3

3
(7dx
2
+4dy
2
+4dz
2
+
4dxdy + 2dydz + 4dxdz); 10. d
2
f(2, 0, 1) =
1
9
(2dx
2
−4dy
2
−4dz
2
−2dxdy +
10dydz −2dxdz).
7. 2. f

x
2 = 12x
2
− 4, f

xy
= 5, f

y
2 = 12y
2
− 90y
4
, d
2
f(x, y) = (12x
2

4)dx
2
+ 10dxdy + (12y
2
−90y
4
)dy
2
;
3. d
2
f(x, y) =
14
(x + 3y)
3
(−ydx
2
+ (x −3y)dxdy + 3xdy
2
);
4. d
2
f(x, y) = (dx
2
− 4ydxdy + (4y
2
− 2)dy
2
)e
x−y
2
; 5. d
2
f(x, y) = (y
3
dx
2
+
2(xy
2
+ 2y)dxdy + (x
2
y + 2x)dy
2
)e
xy
; 6.
d
2
f(x, y) = ((x
2
+ 4x + y
2
+ 2)dx
2
+ 2(x
2
+ y
2
+ 2x + 2y)dxdy + (x
2
+
y
2
+4y +2)dy
2
)e
x+y
; 7. d
2
f(x, y) =
1
(x
2
+ y
3
)
2
(2(y
3
−x
2
)dx
2
−12xy
2
dxdy +
3y(2x
2
−y
3
)dy
2
); 8. d
2
f(x, y) = −y
2
sin xydx
2
+2(cos xy −xy sin xy)dxdy −
x
2
sin xydy
2
; 9. d
2
f(x, y) =
2
(x
2
+ y
2
)
(−xydx
2
+ (x
2
−y
2
)dxdy + xydy
2
);
37
10. d
2
f(x, y) = y
x−2
(y
2
ln
2
ydx
2
+ 2y(x ln y + 1)dxdy + x(x −1)dy
2
).
8. 2. d
2
f(x, y, z) =
2
(y + z)
3
((x + z)dy
2
+ (x − y)dz
2
− (y + z)dxdy +
(2x −y +z)dydz −(y +z)dxdz); 3. d
2
f(x, y, z) = 2(−y
2
z
3
dx
2
+xz
3
(6 −x +
6y − z)dy
2
+ xy
2
z(18 − 3x + 6y − 6z)dz
2
+ yz
3
(12 − 4x + 6y − 2z)dxdy +
xyz
2
(36−6x+18y−8z)dydz +y
2
z
2
(18−6x+6y−4z)dxdz); 4. d
2
f(x, y, z) =
ze
x
dx
2
−xe
y
dy
2
+(2+ye
z
)dz
2
−2e
y
dxdy+2e
z
dydz+2e
x
dxdz; 5. d
2
f(x, y, z) =
2xyz + (x + z)y
2
−2x
2
y
x
4
e
y
x
dx
2
+
x + z
x
2
e
y
x
dy
2

2(xz + xy + yz)
x
3
e
y
x
dxdy +
2
x
e
y
x
dydz −
2y
x
2
e
y
x
dxdz;
6. d
2
f(x, y, z) =
1
4(x
2
+ z)
3
2
(4yzdx
2
−ydz
2
+8x(x
2
+z)dxdy+4(x
2
+z)dydz−
4xydxdz); 7. d
2
f(x, y, z) = −
1
(x + y + z)
2
(dx + dy + dz)
2
; 8. d
2
f(x, y, z) =

1
x
2
dx
2
+
1
y
2
dy
2
+
1
z
2
dz
2

; 9. d
2
f(x, y, z) = −cos(x+2y+3z)(dx+2dy+
3dz)
2
; 10. d
2
f(x, y, z) = −z sin xdx
2
−x sin ydy
2
−y sin zdz
2
+2 cos ydxdy +
2 cos zdydz + 2 cos xdxdz.
9. 2. J
f
(r, θ, ϕ) =

¸
cos θ cos ϕ −r sin θ cos ϕ −r cos θ sin ϕ
sin θ cos ϕ r cos θ cos ϕ −r sin θ sin ϕ
sin ϕ 0 r cos ϕ

,
detJ
f
(r, θ, ϕ) = r
2
cos ϕ; 3. J
f
(1, 1) =

2 −1
4 1

, detJ
f
(1, 1) = 6.
10. 1. J
f
(x, y) =

¸
y x
1 1
1 −1

; 2. J
f
(x, y, z) =

¸
yz xz xy
1
yz

x
y
2
z

x
yz
2

;
3. J
f
(x, y, z) =

¸

a
x
2
z y
b −
1
y
2
1
z
2

.
f
(x, y) =

2x
x
2
+ y
2
, ln(x
2
+ y
2
) +
2y
2
x
2
+ y
2

f
(1, −1) =
f
(x, y, z) =

yz
x
2
y
2
+ z
2
, −
xz
x
2
y
2
+ z
2
,
xy
x
2
y
2
+ z
2

;
f
(x, y, z) = (a cos(ax + by + cz), b cos(ax + by + cz), c cos(ax + by +
f
(−1, 1, 2) = (−2, 2, 4).
12. 2.
df
du
(1, 1) = −1; 3.
df
du
(−1, 1) =
18

10
5
; 4.
df
du
(x, y) = 1;
38
5.
df
du
(1, 1) = −

5
10
; 6.
df
du
(1, 2, −1) = −
2e
3

1
6
(e
2
−e
−2
); 7.
df
du
(1, −1, 1) =
2

3;
8.
df
du
(1, −1, 2) = 15; 9.
df
du
(1, 0,
π
4
) = 0.
13. 2. f

(x) = nu
n−1
v
m
cos x −mu
n
v
m−1
sin x; 4. f

(x) =
2v ln x
x
+
6ux tan
2
(x
2
+ 1)
cos
2
(x
2
+ 1)
; 5. f

(x) =
xve
x
−u
xv
2
; 6. f

(x) = (v cos x−uln usin x)u
v−1
;
7. f

(x) =
1

v
tan
u

v

−6x +
ux
2v

x
2
+ 1

.
14. 3. f

x
=
1
u
+
y
v
, f

y
=
1
u
+
x
v
; 4. f

x
= (nu
n−1
−nmu
nm−1
v
nm
) cos(x−y)−
y(mv
m−1
−nmu
nm
v
nm−1
) sin xy, f

y
= −(nu
n−1
−nmu
nm−1
v
nm
) cos(x−y) −
x(mv
m−1
−nmu
nm
v
nm−1
) sin xy; 5. f

x
=

2uv
2
x + y
+ y(1 + u
2
v)x
y−1

e
u
2
v
,
f

y
=

2uv
2
x + y
+ (1 + u
2
v)x
y
ln x

e
u
2
v
; 6. f

x
= 0, f

y
= 1.
15. 3. u = x
3
y−5x
2
+2xy
2
+4x+1, v = x
2
y
5
−7y, f

x
= (3x
2
y−10x+2y
2
+
4)ϕ

u
+ 2xy
5
ϕ

v
, f

y
= (x
3
+ 4xy)ϕ

u
+ (5x
2
y
4
−7)ϕ

v
; 4. u = xy, v =
y
x
, f

x
=

u

y
x
2
ϕ

v
, f

y
= xϕ

u
+
1
x
ϕ

v
; 5. u = xyz, v = x
2
− y
2
+ z
2
, f

x
= yzϕ

u
+
2xϕ

v
, f

y
= xzϕ

u
−2yϕ

v
, f

z
= xyϕ

u
+2zϕ

v
; 6. u = x+yz, v = e
x
2
y+z
, w =
ln xy
z
, f

x
= ϕ

u
+ 2x
2
ye
x
2
y+z
ϕ

v
+
1
x
ϕ

w
, f

y
= zϕ

u
+x
2
e
x
2
y+z
ϕ

v
+
z
y
ϕ

w
, f

z
=

u
+ e
x
2
y+z
ϕ

v
+ ln yϕ

w
; 7. u =

x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
, v = x arctan
y
z
, f

x
=
x

x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
ϕ

u
+ arctan
y
z
ϕ

v
, f

y
=
y

x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
ϕ

u
+
xz
y
2
+ z
2
ϕ

v
, f

z
=
z

x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
ϕ

u

xy
y
2
+ z
2
ϕ

v
; 8. u = e
−x
2
+yz
, v = xe
yz
, w = e
xyz
, f

x
=
−2xe
−x
2
+yz
ϕ

u
+e
yz
ϕ

v
+yze
xyz
ϕ

w
, f

y
= ze
−x
2
+yz
ϕ

u
+xze
yz
ϕ

v
+xze
xyz
ϕ

w
, f

z
=
ye
−x
2
+yz
ϕ

u
+ xye
yz
ϕ

v
+ xye
xyz
ϕ

w
.
16. 3. u = ln xy, v = e
xy
, d
2
f(x, y) =
=

1
x
2
ϕ

u
+ y
2
e
xy
ϕ

v
+
1
x
2
ϕ

u
2 +
2y
x
e
xy
ϕ

uv
+ y
2
e
2xy
ϕ

v
2

dx
2
+
+ 2

1
xy
ϕ

u
2 + 2e
xy
ϕ

uv
+ (1 + xy)e
xy
ϕ

v
+ xye
2xy
ϕ

v
2

dxdy +
+

1
y
2
ϕ

u
+ x
2
e
xy
ϕ

v
+
1
y
2
ϕ

u
2 +
2x
y
e
xy
ϕ

uv
+ x
2
e
2xy
ϕ

v
2

dy
2
; 4. u = x +y −
39
z, v = x −y +z, w = −x +y +z, d
2
f(x, y, z) = (ϕ

u
2 +2ϕ

uv
−2ϕ

uw

v
2 −

vw

w
2)dx
2
+(ϕ

u
2 −2ϕ

uv
+2ϕ

uw

v
2 −2ϕ

vw

w
2)dy
2
+(ϕ

u
2 −2ϕ

uv

uw
+ ϕ

v
2 + 2ϕ

vw
+ ϕ

w
2)dz
2
+ 2(ϕ

u
2 −ϕ

v
2 −ϕ

w
2 + 2ϕ

vw
)dxdy + 2(−ϕ

u
2 −
ϕ

v
2 +ϕ

w
2 + 2ϕ

uv
)dydz + 2(−ϕ

u
2 +ϕ

v
2 −ϕ

w
2 + 2ϕ

uw
)dxdz; 5. u = xyz, v =
x
yz
, d
2
f(x, y, z) =

y
2
z
2
ϕ

u
2 + 2ϕ

uv
+
1
y
2
z
2
ϕ

v
2

dx
2
+
+

x
2
z
2
ϕ

u
2 −
2x
2
y
2
ϕ

uv
+
2x
y
3
z
ϕ

v
+
x
2
y
4
z
2
ϕ

v
2

dy
2
+
+

x
2
y
2
ϕ

u
2 −
2x
2
z
2
ϕ

uv
+
x
2
y
2
z
4
ϕ

v
2 +
2x
yz
3
ϕ

v

dz
2
+
+ 2

u

1
y
2
z
ϕ

v
+ xyz
2
ϕ

u
2 −
x
y
3
z
2
ϕ

v
2

dxdy +
+ 2

u
+
x
y
2
z
2
ϕ

v
+ x
2
yzϕ

u
2 −
2x
2
yz
ϕ

uv
+
x
2
y
3
z
3
ϕ

v
2

dydz +
+2

u

1
yz
2
ϕ

v
+ xy
2

u
2 −
x
y
2
z
3
ϕ

v
2

dxdz; 6. u = x+yz, v = x
2
+y
2

z
2
, d
2
f(x, y, z) = (ϕ

u
2 +4xϕ

uv
+4x
2
ϕ

v
2 +2ϕ

v
)dx
2
+(z
2
ϕ

u
2 +4yzϕ

uv
+2ϕ

v
+
4y
2
ϕ

v
2)dy
2
+(y
2
ϕ

u
2 −4yzϕ

uv
+4z
2
ϕ

v
2 −2ϕ

v
)dz
2
+2(zϕ

u
2 +2(y +xz)ϕ

uv
+
4xyϕ

v
2)dxdy +2(ϕ

u
+yzϕ

u
2 −2(z
2
−y
2

uv
−4yzϕ

v
2)dydz +2(yϕ

u
2 +2(−z +
xy)ϕ

uv
−4xzϕ

v
2)dxdz.
18. 2. f
(n)
x
n = a
n
sin

ax + by +

2

, f
(n)
y
n = b
n
sin

ax + by +

2

,
f
(n)
x
k
y
n−k
= a
k
b
n−k
sin

ax + by +

2

; 4. f
(n)
x
n = (x
2
+ 2nx + n(n −1))e
x+y
,
f
(n)
y
n = x
2
e
x+y
, f
(n)
x
k
y
n−k
= (x
2
+ 2kx + k(k − 1))e
x+y
; 5. f
(n)
x
n = (−1)
n+1
(n −
1)!(x+y)
−n
, f
(n)
y
n = (−1)
n+1
(n−1)!(x+y)
−n
, f
(n)
x
k
y
n−k
= (−1)
n+1
(n−1)!(x+
y)
−n
; 6. f
(n)
x
n = a
n
e
ax+by+cz
, f
(n)
y
n = b
n
e
ax+by+cz
, f
(n)
z
n = c
n
e
ax+by+cz
, f
(n)
x
k
y
p
z
r
=
a
k
b
p
c
r
e
ax+by+cz
, k +p+r = n; 7. f
(n)
x
n = a
n
cos

ax + by + cz +

2

, f
(n)
y
n =
b
n
cos

ax + by + cz +

2

, f
(n)
z
n = c
n
cos

ax + by + cz +

2

, f
(n)
x
k
y
p
z
r
=
a
k
b
p
c
r
cos

ax + by + cz +

2

, k + p + r = n; 8. f
(n)
x
n = (−1)
n+1
(n −
1)!a
n
(ax + by + cz)
−n
, f
(n)
y
n = (−1)
n+1
(n − 1)!b
n
(ax + by + cz)
−n
, f
(n)
z
n =
(−1)
n+1
(n−1)!c
n
(ax+by +cz)
−n
, f
(n)
x
k
y
p
z
r
= (−1)
n+1
(n−1)!a
k
b
p
z
r
(ax+by +
cz)
−n
, k + p + r = n.
19. 1. f
(n)
x
n = (xy + n)y
n+2
e
xy
, f
(n)
y
n = (x
3
y
3
+ 3nx
2
y
2
+ 3n(n − 1)xy +
n(n − 1)(n − 2))x
n−2
e
xy
2. f
(3)
xyz
= (1 + 3xyz + x
2
y
2
z
2
)e
xyz
, f
(3)
x
2
y
= (2yz
2
+
xy
2
z
3
)e
xyz
, f
(3)
x
3
= y
3
z
3
e
xyz
; 3. f
(3)
xz
2
= (x + y)(2 + (x + y)(y + z))e
xy+yz+zx
,
f
(3)
y
3
= (x+z)
3
e
xy+yz+zx
, f
(3)
xyz
= (2x+2y+2z+(x+y)(y+z)(x+z))e
xy+yz+zx
.
40
20. 2. (-2,3) punct de minim local; 3.

4
3
, −
2
3

punct de minim local;
4. (1,1) punct de minim local; 5. (0,0) punct de maxim local, (−

2,

2),
(

2, −

2) puncte de minim local; 7.

5
4
,
1
2

punct de minim local;
8. (-1,2) punct de minim local; 9.

3
,

3

,

3
,

3

puncte de minim
local,

π
3
,
π
3

,

3
,

3

puncte de maxim local; 10.

1
3
, −
1
3

punct de
minim local; 11. (3,-2) punct de minim local; 12.

2
5
,
2
5

punct de maxim
local.
21. 2. (1, −3, 4) punct de minim local; 3.

1
2
, 1, 1

punct de minim
local; 4. (-1,1,0) punct de minim local; 5.

2
3
, −
1
3
, −
1
2

punct de minim
local; 6. (2,4,8) punct de minim local; 7. nu are puncte de extrem local; 8.
(24,-144,-1) punct de minim local; 9.

1, −2,
3
2

punct de minim local; 10.
nu are puncte de extrem; 11. nu are puncte de extrem.
22. 2. f

(1) = −
1
5
, f

(1) = −
28
5
3
; 3. f

(0) =
2
3
, f

(0) =
16
27
; 4. f

(0) =

1
2
, f

(0) =
3
2
; 5. f

(1) = −1, f

(1) = −
22
5
.
23. 2. f

x
(1, 0) = 1, f

y
(1, 0) = 0; 3. f

x
(0, −1) = −3, f

y
(0, −1) = 4;
4. f

x
(1, −1) =
1
3
, f

y
(1, −1) =
1
3
; 5. f

x
(2, 2) =
1
3
, f

y
(2, 2) =
1
3
; 6. f

x
(0, 0) =
1, f

y
(0, 0) = −1.
24. 3. f

(x) =
e
x
−y
e
y
+ x
,
f

(x) =
e
x+2y
−e
2x+y
+ 2(x + y −1)e
x+y
+ 2ye
y
−2xe
x
+ x
2
e
x
−y
2
e
y
+ 2xy
(e
y
+ x)
3
;
4. f

(x) = −
2x + y
2y + x
, f

(x) = −
6(x
2
+ y
2
+ xy)
(2y + x)
3
.
25. 2. f

x
=
yz −x
2
z
2
−xy
, f

y
=
xz −y
2
z
2
−xy
, f

x
2 =
2xz(3xyz −y
3
−z
3
−x
3
)
(z
2
−xy)
3
, f

xy
=
xy
4
+ x
4
y + x
3
z
2
+ z
5
+ y
3
z
2
−2xyz
3
−3x
2
y
2
z
(z
2
−xy)
3
,
f

y
2 =
2yz(3xyz −x
3
−z
3
−y
3
)
(z
2
−xy)
3
; 3. f

x
(x, y) = −
x
z
, f

y
(x, y) = −
y
z
, f

x
2 =
41

x
2
+ z
2
z
3
, f

y
2 = −
y
2
+ z
2
z
3
, f

xy
= −
xy
z
3
.
26. 3. f

(1) = −
4
5
, g

(1) =
1
5
, f

(1) = −
36
25
, g

(1) =
4
25
; 4. f

(x) =
−x −2xz
y + z
, g

(x) =
2xy −x
y + z
;
5. f

(x) = −
x
y
, g

(x) = 0, f

(x) = −
x
2
+ y
2
y
3
, g

(x) = 0.
29. 3. x = 1 punct de maxim local, x =
1
2
punct de minim local; 4. x = 0
punct de minim local, x = −2 punct de maxim local; 5. x =
5
8
punct de
maxim local; 6.

a

3
8
, a

1
8

,

−a

3
8
, a

1
8

puncte de maxim local,

−a

3
8
, −a

1
8

,

a

3
8
, −a

1
8

puncte de minim local.
30. 2. (-1,2,1) punct de minim local, (-1,2,-2) punct de maxim local;
3. (−3 −

6, −3 −

6, −4 − 2

6) punct de minim local, (−3 +

6, −3 +

6, −4 + 2

6) punct de maxim local.
31. 2. df(1, 1) = −dx −2dy, dg(1, 1) = 0. d
2
f(1, 1) = −4dx
2
−8dxdy −
10dy
2
, d
2
g(1, 1) = 8dxdy + 2dy
2
; 3. df(0, 1) = dx + dy, dg(0, 1) = −dx,
d
2
f(0, 1) = 0, d
2
g(0, 1) = 2dx
2
+ 2dxdy;
32. 2. f

x
=
y
y + 1
, f

y
=
v
y + 1
, g

x
=
1
y + 1
, g

y
= −
v
y + 1
; 3. f

x
(x, y) =
x
2
−v
2
v
2
−u
2
, f

y
(x, y) =
y
2
−v
2
v
2
−u
2
, g

x
(x, y) =
u
2
−x
2
v
2
−u
2
, g

y
(x, y) =
u
2
−y
2
v
2
−u
2
;
4. f

x
(x, y) =
x cos v + sin v
x cos v + y cos u
, f

y
(x, y) =
x cos v −sin u
x cos v + y cos u
,
g

x
(x, y) =
y cos u −sin v
x cos v + y cos u
, g

y
(x, y) =
y cos u + sin u
x cos v + y cos u
.
33. 3.

ab
2
a
2
+ b
2
,
a
2
b
a
2
+ b
2

punct de minim condit ¸ionat; 4. (-2,-1) punct
de minim condit ¸ionat, (2,1) punct de maxim condit ¸ionat; 5.

3
2
,
1
2

punct
de minim condit ¸ionat,

3
2
, −
1
2

punct de maxim condit ¸ionat; 6.

1
2
,
1
2

punct de maxim condit ¸ionat; 7. (0,1) punct de minim condit ¸ionat;
8.

2
2
, −

2
2

,

2
2
,

2
2

puncte de minim condit ¸ionat, (0,-1), (1,0)
42
puncte de maxim condit ¸ionat; 9. (−2

2, −2

2) punct de minim condit ¸ionat,
(2

2, 2

2) punct de maxim condit ¸ionat; 10.

4
5
, −
3
5

punct de minim
condit ¸ionat,

4
5
,
3
5

punct de maxim condit ¸ionat; 11.

3

13
, −
2

13

punct de maxim condit ¸ionat,

3

13
,
2

13

punct de minim condit ¸ionat.
34. 3. (1,1,1) punct de minim condit ¸ionat; 4. (-1,-2,2) punct de minim
condit ¸ionat, (1,2,-2) punct de maxim condit ¸ionat; 5. (-2,3,-1) punct de
minim condit ¸ionat, (2,-3,1) punct de maxim condit ¸ionat; 6.

4
3
, −
8
3
,
8
3

punct de minim condit ¸ionat,

4
3
,
8
3
, −
8
3

punct de maxim condit ¸ionat; 7.

4
3
,
4
3
,
7
3

,

4
3
,
7
3
,
4
3

,

7
3
,
4
3
,
4
3

puncte de maxim condit ¸ionat, (2,2,1),
(2,1,2), (1,2,2) puncte de minim condit ¸ionat; 8. (3,3,3) punct de minim
condit ¸ionat;
9.

1
a

1
a
2
+
1
b
2
+
1
c
2

−1
,
1
b

1
a
2
+
1
b
2
+
1
c
2

−1
,
1
c

1
a
2
+
1
b
2
+
1
c
2

−1

punct de minim condit ¸ionat
35. 2. e
−x
= 1−
x
1!
+
x
2
2!
+· · ·+(−1)
n
x
n
n!
+(−1)
n+1
x
n+1
(n + 1)!
e
−ξ
, unde ξ este
situatˆıntre 0 ¸si x; 4. ln(1−x
2
) = −2

x
2
2
+
x
4
4
+
x
6
6
+· · · +
((−1)
n−1
+ 1)x
n
n

+ (−1)
n
((1 + ξ)
−n−1
+ (ξ −1)
−n−1
)x
n+1
n + 1
;
5. ln

1 + x
1 −x

= 2

x +
x
3
3
+
x
5
5
+· · · +
((−1)
n−1
−1)x
n
n

+
+ (−1)
n
((1 + ξ)
−n−1
−(ξ −1)
−n−1
)x
n+1
n + 1
; 6. f(x) = arctan x implic˘ a x =
tan f; f

(x) =
1
1 + x
2
=
1
1 + tan
2
f
= cos
2
f = cos f sin

f +
π
2

, f

(x) =
sin(2f+π)f

(x) = sin 2

f +
π
2

cos
2
f, f
(3)
(x) = 2·3 sin 3

f +
π
2

cos
3
f, ...,
f
(n)
(x) = (n −1)!(1 + x
2
)

n
2
sin n

arctan x +
π
2

arctan x =
x
1

x
3
3
+
x
5
5
+· · · + sin

2
x
n
n
+
x
n+1
n + 1
(1 + ξ
2
)

n+1
2
sin

(n + 1)

arctan ξ +
π
2

; 7. sin x =
x
1!

x
3
3!
+
x
5
5!
+
43
· · · + sin

2
x
n
n!
+
x
n+1
(n + 1)!
sin

ξ +

2

;
8. cos x = 1 −
x
2
2!
+
x
4
4!

x
6
6!
+· · · + cos

2
x
n
n!
+
x
n+1
(n + 1)!
cos

ξ +

2

.
37. f(x) = −3 −(x + 1) + 9(x + 1)
2
−8(x + 1)
3
+ 2(x + 1)
4
.
38. f(x) = 43+93(x−2) +86(x−2)
2
+41(x−2)
3
+10(x−2)
4
+(x−2)
5
.
39. E = |f(x) −T
3,0
(x)| =
e
ξ
x
4
4!
<
e
4!
<
1
8
.
40. 2. f(x) =
3

x, x = 12, a = 8,
3

12 T
3;8
(12) =
743
324
= 2, 29, E =
80
81
x

11
3
<
80
81
1
2
11
=
5
81 · 2
7
; 3. f(x) =

x, x = 143, a = 144,

143
T
3;144
(143) = 11, 958; 4. f(x) = e
x
, x =
1
3
, a = 0,
3

e T
3;0

1
3

=
1, 395; 5. f(x) = ln x, x = 0, 9, a = 1, ln 0, 9 T
3;1
(0, 9) = −0, 106.
41. 2. E = |f(x) − T
3;0
(x)| =

x
4
4!
sin

ξ +

2

1
4!
; 3. E = |f(x) −
T
2;0
(x)| =

10x
3
27 · 3!
3

(1 + ξ)
8

5
3
4
; 4. E = |f(x) − T
3;0
(x)| =

x
4
e
ξ
4!

e
4!
; 5. E = |f(x) − T
3;0
(x)| =

x
4
4!
e
−ξ

1
4!
; 6. E = |f(x) − T
2;0
(x)| =

(e
ξ
−e
−ξ
)x
3
2 · 3!

1
12

e −
1
e

; 7. E = |f(x) − T
3;0
(x)| =

(e
ξ
−e
−ξ
)x
4
2 · 4!

1
48

e −
1
e

; 8. E = |f(x) −T
2;0
(x)| =

3x
3
8 · 3!
(x + 1)

5
2

1
16
.
42. 2. f(x) = ln(1 + 2x) − sin 2x + 2x
2
, a = 0, n = 3, lim
x→0
f(x)
x
3
=
4; 3. f(x) =
3

1 + x
2
− 1, a = 0, n = 2, lim
x→0
f(x)
x
2
=
1
3
; 4. f(x) =
3

x +

x−2, a = 1, n = 1, lim
x→1
f(x)
x −1
=
5
6
; 5. f(x) = cos 7x−cos 3x, a = 0, n =
2, lim
x→0
f(x)
x
2
= −20; 6. f(x) =

cos 3x − 1, a = 0, n = 2, lim
x→0
f(x)
x
2
=

9
4
; 8. f(x) = cosh 2x − 2, a = 0, n = 2, lim
x→0
f(x)
x
2
= 4; 9. f(x) =
e
x
sin x −x −x
2
, a = 0, n = 3, lim
x→0
f(x)
x
3
=
1
3
; 10. f(x) = tan x −sin x, a =
0, n = 3, lim
x→0
f(x)
x
3
=
1
2
.
44
44. E = |f(x) − T
n,0
(x)| =

(1 + ξ)
−(n+1)
x
n+1
n + 1

1
n + 1

1
10
3
, de unde
n + 1 ≥ 10
3
min
= 10
3
−1.
45. 3. ln(1 + x)(1 + y) =
1
1!
(x + y) −
1
2!
(x
2
+ y
2
) +
2
3!
(x
3
+ y
3
) +
1
4!
d
4
f(ξ, η)(x, y);
4. e
x
cos y = 1 +
1
1!
x +
1
2!
(x
2
−y
2
) +
1
3!
(x
3
−3xy
2
) +
1
4!
d
4
f(ξ, η)(x, y);
5. f(x, y) = 1 +
1
1!
(−14(x −1) +18(y −1)) +
1
2!
(−2(x −1)
2
+12(x −1)(y −
1)+6(y−1)
2
)+
1
3!
(18(x−1)(y−1)
2
); 6. f(x, y) = 5+
1
1!
(x+y−2)+
1
2!
(2(x−
1)
2
+2(x−1)(y −1) +2(y −1)
2
); 7. e
x
sin y =
1
1!
y +
1
2!
2xy +
1
3!
(3x
2
y −y
3
) +
1
4!
d
4
f(ξ, η)(x, y).
46. 2. f(x, y) =

x
3

y, (x, y) = (4, 02; 7, 96), (x
0
, y
0
) = (4, 8), f(x, y)
T
2,(x
0
,y
0
)
= 4, 003; 3. f(x, y) = x
y
, (x, y) = (0, 95; 1, 01), (x
0
, y
0
) = (1, 1),
f(x, y) T
2,(x
0
,y
0
)
= 0, 95; 4. f(x, y) = x
2
y
3
, (x, y) = (0, 99; 3, 01),
(x
0
, y
0
) = (1, 3), f(x, y) T
2,(x
0
,y
0
)
= 26, 7282; 5. f(x, y) = xy
2
z
3
,
(x, y, z) = (1, 02; 2, 02; 3, 02), (x
0
, y
0
, z
0
) = (1, 2, 3), f(x, y, z) T
2,(x
0
,y
0
,z
0
)
=
114, 6348.
47. 2. f(x, y) T
1,(0,0)
; 3. f(x, y) T
2,(0,0)
; 4. f(x, y) T
1,(0,0)
.
45

4. f (x, y) =

 (x2 + y 2 ) cos 0,

x2

1 , dac˘ a + y2 dac˘ a

(x, y) = (0, 0) (x, y) = (0, 0).

Rezolvare: f (x, 0) − f (0, 0) = 0, x→0 x f (0, y) − f (0, 0) = 0. fy (0, 0) = lim y→0 y 3mx2 3m Deoarece lim f (x, y) = lim = , m ∈ R, rezult˘ a 2 )x2 x→0,y=mx x→0 (1 + m 1 + m2 c˘ f nu este continu˘ ˆ origine. a a ın Dac˘ f ar ﬁ diferentiabil˘ ˆ origine, atunci ar rezulta c˘ f este continu˘ ˆ a ¸ a ın a a ın origine, ceea ce este absurd. Prin urmare, f nu este continu˘ ¸i diferentiabil˘ as ¸ a ˆ origine, dar admite derivate partiale ˆ origine. ın ¸ ın 1. fx (0, 0) = lim 2. fx (0, 0) = 0, fy (0, 0) = 0. |xy| |xy| Deoarece |f (x, y| = = |y|, avem lim f (x, y) = 0 = ≤ 2 + y2 (x,y)→(0,0) |x| x f (0, 0), deci functia f este continu˘ ˆ origine. ¸ a ın Dac˘ f ar ﬁ diferentiabil˘ ˆ origine, atunci ar exista a ¸ a ın df (0, 0) = fx (0, 0) + fy (0, 0) = 0 · dx + 0 · dy = 0 f (x, y) − f (0, 0) − df (0, 0)(x, y) xy ¸i s lim = lim = 0. Dar, (x,y)→(0,0) (x,y)→(0,0) x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2 xy m cum lim = , m ∈ R, limita de mai sus nu exist˘. A¸adar a s x→0,y=mx x2 + y 2 1 + m2 f nu este diferentiabil˘ ˆ origine. ¸ a ın 3. S˘ se determine derivatele partiale de ordinul ˆ ai ¸i diferentiala de a ¸ ıntˆ s ¸ ordinul ˆ ai pentru urm˘toarele functii f : D ⊂ R2 → R, unde D este ıntˆ a ¸ domeniul maxim de diferentiabilitate: ¸ 1. f (x, y) = x2 + y 2 ;

2. f (x, y) = 2x2 y − 3xy + x2 − y + 2; 3. f (x, y) = ln xy; 4. f (x, y) = ln y x ; 5. f (x, y) = ln y y − ln xx ; x 6. f (x, y) = ln ; y 2

7. f (x, y) = x ln y − ey 8. f (x, y) = xexy ; 9. f (x, y) = ex
2 −y

2 +x

;

;

10. f (x, y) = xy ; 11. f (x, y) = ex
2 +y 2

sin2 x;

x 12. f (x, y) = arctan ; y 13. f (x, y) = arctan x2 + y 2 ;

14. f (x, y) = x2 arctan(x2 + y 2 ); y 15. f (x, y) = arcsin , x > 0; x 16. f (x, y) = 1 − x2 − y 2 ; x2 + y 2 );

17. f (x, y) = ln(x + 18. f (x, y) = x2 − y 2 ; x2 + y 2

19. f (x, y) = x2 − 3xy + 2y 2 + 3x − 4y + 2; 20. f (x, y) = sin(2x + 3y); 21. f (x, y) = x3 + y 3 + 3xy; 22. f (x, y) = (x − a)(y − a)(x − b)(y − b), unde a, b ∈ R; 23. f (x, y) = xy 2 ex−y ; 24. f (x, y) = x4 y 3 (1 − x2 + y); 25. f (x, y) = cos x + cos y + sin(x + y); 26. f (x, y) = sin x sin y sin(x + y); 27. f (x, y) = ln
3

x2 + y 2 + arctan xy;
n

28. f (x, y) = lnm

x2 + y, unde m ∈ N∗ , n ∈ N, n ≥ 2;

y 29. f (x, y) = (x2 − y 2 ) sin ; x 3

30. f (x, y) = sin2 (x2 y + xy 3 ); 31. f (x, y) = 32. f (x, y) = x y + ; y x xy 3 ; x4 + y 2 x2 x ; + y2 1 x2 + y2 ;

33. f (x, y) = sin

34. f (x, y) = (x2 + y 2 ) cos 1 x 1 + + . x y y

35. f (x, y) =

4. S˘ se determine derivatele partiale de ordinul ˆ ai ¸i diferentiala de a ¸ ıntˆ s ¸ 3 ordinul ˆ ai pentru urm˘toarele functii f : D ⊂ R → R, unde D este ıntˆ a ¸ domeniul maxim de diferentiabilitate: ¸ 1. f (x, y, z) = (x + y) sin yz; 2. f (x, y, z) = x2 + y 2 + xyz; 3. f (x, y, z) = 3x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 + 2xy − 3yz; 4. f (x, y, z) = −x3 y 2 z + 10xy − 2z 3 + 4; 5. f (x, y, z) = 6. f (x, y, z) = x2 + y 2 + z 2 ; x y2 + z2 ;

7. f (x, y, z) = arctan 8. f (x, y, z) = arctan 9. f (x, y, z) = ln z ; xy

xy ; z z x2 + y 2 ;

10. f (x, y, z) = ln xy y z z x ; y 11. f (x, y, z) = ln √ ; x2 + z 2 4

y) = x2 + y 2 . (x0 . f (x. f (x. y) = ln x . y0 ) = (0. (y − z)m y2 z 2 + − . 13. 17. y0 ) = (1. y. z) = sin x cos y sin(x + z). y) = arctan(x2 + y 2 ). f (x. f (x. y) = ln x2 y. f (x. z) = e x (z 2 − x2 ). n ≥ 2. z) = xy 2 z 3 (6 − 2x + 3y − 4z). 0). S˘ se determine derivatele partiale de ordinul al doilea ¸i diferentiala a ¸ s ¸ de ordinul al doilea ˆ punctele indicate (x0 . 1). y0 ) = (3. unde n. f (x. z) = zex 2 +y 2 + xyez . z) = cos2 (ax + by + cz). f (x. m ∈ N∗ . −1). z) = exyz cos(x + y). (x0 . y. (x0 . 18. f (x. y) = exy . 15. f (x. f (x. y. z) = x2 − y 2 . y. f (x.12. f (x. c ∈ R. y0 ) pentru functiile f : D ⊂ ın ¸ R2 → R. 20. y. y z x 3 2 16. z) = (x + a)(y + b)(z + c). b. f (x. unde a. y0 ) = (1. x2 + z 2 y (x − y)n . y0 ) = (−1. 1). y. 0). f (x. y. f (x. 21. unde D este domeniul maxim de diferentiabilitate: ¸ 1. 19. z) = zexy . y. 3. b. y. f (x. c ∈ R. 5. unde a. f (x. y0 ) = (1. 2). 6. m. 4. (x0 . x y z 25. (x0 . z) = zex−y + yex+z . z) = xz 23. y. y. y. 22. f (x. z) = xy + y z + z x . z) = x y z − + . 5 . 14. f (x. y. (x0 . y. 2. f (x. y2 5. z) = 24. y) = (1 + x)m (1 + y)n .

y) = x x2 + y 2 y2 . f (x. z) = sin2 (x − y − z). 0. 0) = 1. y0 . unde D este domeniul maxim de diferentiabilitate: ¸ 1. y) = ex cos y. (x0 . 1). xy (x2 + y 2 ) x2 + y 2 . z) = xeyz + yezx + zexy . y) = fx2 (x. y. f (x. y0 ) = (1. fy (x. fxy (x. fy2 (x. y. z0 ) = (1. z π π 7. z) = ln(1 + x + y + z). 2 −y 2 . y) = x+y . 8. fxy (1. y. 2 3 6 . y) = xexy . ). f (x. y. 1). f (x. 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 d f (1. 10. y0 . fx2 (1. y. (x0 . fx2 (x. y0 ) = (1. f (x. y) = ex Rezolvare: 1. 5. 2. −1) = √ (dx + 2dxdy + dy ) = √ (dx + dy)2 2 2 2 2 2. y. f (x. y0 . fy (x. 1). (x0 . f (x. 1). y) = x3 + y 3 − x2 − y 2 . z0 ) = (1. y) = y x2 + y 2 . f (x. 1. z0 ) = (1. fy2 (1. f (x. z0 ) = (π. z) = x arctan . 1. y0 . 4. 0) = 0. y0 . (x0 . x−y 9. z) = 1 x2 + y 2 + z 2 . y) = yexy . 2. −1) = √ . 0) = 2dxdy + dy 2 6. −1) = fxy (1. π). −1). f (x. f (x. 1 fx2 (1. (x0 . y) = x2 exy . −1). d2 f (1. fxy (x. y) = y 2 exy . . 1). y 6. y) = − . (x0 . z0 ) = (2. fx (x. 1. z0 ) pentru functiile f : D ⊂ ın ¸ R3 → R. y0 ) = (2. 1). z) = x6 yz 4 + x4 y 3 − yz 2 + 6x + 2yz − 2. y0 . (x0 . (x0 . z) = zexyz . 1. y0 . y0 . fx (x. y) = fy2 (x. 0) = 1. z0 ) = (1. y0 ) = (0. z0 ) = (1. y. y) = (1 + xy)exy . (x0 . (x0 . 3.7. S˘ se determine derivatele partiale de ordinul al doilea ¸i diferentiala a ¸ s ¸ de ordinul al doilea ˆ punctele indicate (x0 . (x0 . (x2 + y 2 ) x2 + y 2 x2 (x2 + y 2 ) x2 + y 2 . −1) = fy2 (1. 1).

f (x. f (x. y0 . 5. f (x. z) = 9. 1) . y) = (x2 + y 2 )ex+y . y) = sin xy. 1. f (x. y. z) = − (1 + x + y + z)2 1 1 d2 f (1. z) = fy2 (x.8. y. y. f (x. f (x. y) = y x . f (x. y. f (x. y) = ex−y . y) = x4 + y 4 − 2x2 + 5xy − 3y 6 . y. (x0 . z) = 10. z) = fy (x. f (x. S˘ se determine derivatele partiale de ordinul al doilea ¸i diferentiala de a ¸ s ¸ ordinul al doilea ˆ ıntr-un punct curent (x. z) = fyz (x. 7. f (x. y) = ln(x2 + y 3 ). y. y. 1. 0. y) = x3 y 2 − 2xy 3 + 3x2 − 6y + 7. 8. y−z 1 1+x+y+z 1 fx2 (x. y) = arctan . f (x. y 10. y. 1) = − (dx2 + dy 2 + dz 2 + 2dxdy + 2dxdz + 2dydz) = − (dx + dy + 9 9 dz)2 . 2). z) = Rezolvare: x+z . (x0 . ¸ unde D este domeniul maxim de diferentiabilitate: ¸ 1. x 9. 3. y) = yexy . 2. z) = fz (x. z) = 7. z) = fz2 (x. y0 . f (x. y. 3 x−z . y. 7 . y. (x0 . −1. xy + z 9 − x2 − y 2 − z 2 . y) = 2x − y . z0 ) = (2. x + 3y 2 4. 0. z0 ) = (2. z0 ) = (1. f (x. y) pentru functiile f : D ⊂ R2 → R. fx (x. z) = fxz (x. y0 . 1). y. z) = − (1 + x + y + z)2 1 fxy (x. 6.

y. f (x. z) = x2 y 2 z x2 yz 2 2 2 2 x −y −z fyz (x. y) = 6(xy 2 + 1)dx2 + 12(x2 y − y 2 )dxdy + 2(x3 − 6xy)dy 2 . 5. z) = xy 2 z 3 (6 − x + 2y − z). f (x. y. 7. y. z) = − 2 + − 2. y) = 2x3 y − 6xy 2 − 6. y. d2 f (x. z) = z 2 − xey + yez + zex . 8. y. y. z) = − 2 − 2 + . y. f (x. z) = (x + z)e x . z) = . y) = 2x3 − 12xy. y) = 6xy 2 + 6. 9. fy (x. f (x. fx2 (x. fz2 (x. y. y+z 3. √ 6. y) = 3x2 y 2 − 2y 3 + 6x. yz xz xy x3 yz 2(x2 + z 2 ) 2(x2 + y 2 ) fy2 (x. y. fx (x. fy2 (x. xyz x+z . Rezolvare: 1 y z x 1 z − 2 − 2 . y. z) = ln(x + y + z). fxy (x. z) = x2 + y 2 + z 2 . z) = y x2 + z. y. fx2 (x. y. S˘ se determine derivatele partiale de ordinul al doilea ¸i diferentiala a ¸ s ¸ de ordinul al doilea ˆ ıntr-un punct curent (x. y) = 6x2 y − 6y 2 . y. z) = 2. f (x. y. y. f (x. yz x z x y y z xz xy 2 y 1 2(y + z 2 ) x fz (x. y. fxz (x. xy 3 z xyz 3 −x2 − y 2 + z 2 −x2 + y 2 − z 2 fxy (x. z) = . z) = x sin y + y sin z + z sin x. f (x. 10. z) pentru functiile f : D ⊂ ¸ R3 → R. z) = . 4. fx (x. z) = 8 y . f (x. z) = . fy (x. y. f (x.Rezolvare: 1. f (x. 8. xy 2 z 2 1. unde D este domeniul maxim de diferentiabilitate: ¸ 1. y. z) = cos(x + 2y + 3z). z) = ln xyz. y. z) = . y.

1). r sin t). sin t r cos t cos t −r sin t . ∞) × [0. ˆ punctul (1. θ. f : (0. ın 9 . t) (f2 )t (r. n ∈ {2. y) = (xex−y . s (f1 )r (r. f (x. y. f (x. y) = x3 y 2 + 3x2 y − 2y + 7. y) = (x2 + y 2 )ex−y . t) (f1 )t (r. t) = r cos t ¸i f2 (r. 2π] × [− . 1 1 a + yz. S˘ se scrie matricea Jacobi pentru urm˘toarele functii: a a ¸ 1. t) = s = r. f : (R∗ )3 → R3 . y 2. S˘ se determine gradientul pentru urm˘toarele functii f : D → R. bx + − x y z 11. sin t r cos t 10. x3 y + x2 − xy + y + 3). f : R2 → R2 . r sin ϕ). f (x. z) = 3. S˘ se scrie matricea Jacobi ¸i s˘ se determine jacobianul pentru a s a urm˘toarele functii: a ¸ 2 1. f : R2 → R3 . 3. ϕ) = (r cos θ cos ϕ. t) = (f2 )r (r. t) = (r cos t. t) = r sin t. a a ¸ unde D ⊂ Rn . 2 2 f (r. f (x. b ∈ R.-1). r sin θ cos ϕ. y. ˆ punctul (1. f (x. y) = ln . ∞) × [0. x − y). f (x. yz . f : (R∗ )3 → R2 . 3. f (x. a. f (x. t) cos t −r sin t ¸i detJf (r. x . f (r. Fie f1 (r. ] → R3 . f : (0. 2. 3} este domeniul maxim de diferentiabilitate: ¸ x 1. π π 2. y) = y ln(x2 + y 2 ). x + y. 2π] → R2 . z) = xyz. 4. z) = dz + x3 yz xy 3 z xyz 3 2(−x2 + y 2 − z 2 ) 2(−x2 − y 2 + z 2 ) 2(x2 − y 2 − z 2 ) dxdy + + dxdz + dydz x2 y 2 z x2 yz 2 xy 2 z 2 9.2(y 2 + z 2 ) 2 2(x2 + z 2 ) 2 2(x2 + y 2 ) 2 dx + dy + d f (x. t) = Atunci Jf (r. y. y) = (xy. ın Rezolvare: 1.

-1). ˆ a ¸ ın x punctul M(1. x y 2.1. 2. y) = 2x3 + 3xy − 3y 2 + 2. dup˘ directia axei Oz. a. ın 7. f : R3 → R. y. z) = sinh x+cosh y+sinh z. 12. ˆ punctul ın 1.1).-1.1. f (x. f : R3 → R.y). z) = sin(ax + by + cz). −1. b. S˘ se calculeze derivata urm˘toarelor functii dupa directia ¸i punctele a a ¸ ¸ s indicate: √ 1 3 2 2 2 . a ¸ ˆ punctul M(-1. c ∈ R. 3. dup˘ directia a ¸ 2 2 M(1. f (x. 0. . xy 6. fy (x. y 5. y). 1). f (x. f : R3 → R. f (x.2. f (x.-1. y. z) = x2 + y 2 + z 2 . f (x.1). ın 4. −x2 − y 2 + 2y)ex−y . 1).2). ˆ a ¸ ın punctul M(1. 9. y. y. dup˘ directia a ¸ 1 1 1 √ .2). 8.1). dup˘ directia gradf (1. y) = ye−x+y . y.1). f : R∗ × R → R.-1). x2 + y 2 = 0. y)) = 1 1 . z) = x3 + y 3 + z 3 − 3xyz. f (x. dup˘ directia gradf (1. gradf (x. ˆ punctul M(1. 4 10 2 +y 2 sin2 z.2). unde N(3. y) = (fx (x. ˆ punctul a ¸ ın M(1. f (x.5. f : R2 → R. y) = x2 + y 2 . f (x. √ . dup˘ directia vectorului a ¸ M N . dup˘ directia vectorului M N . f : R3 → R. −√ . f (x. ın π . y. f : R → R. unde N(-1. y) = x y − xy . gradf (x. 7. f : R2 → R. f (x. dup˘ directia gradientului s˘u ˆ a ¸ a ıntr-un punct curent M(x. z) = ex ˆ punctul M 1. ın Rezolvare: 1. ˆ a ¸ ın punctul M(1. z) = x2 + y 2 + z 2 . y) = arctan . y. f : R2 → R. 3 3 3 . dup˘ directia axei Ox. f (x. y) = (x2 + y 2 + 2x. 6. z) = arctan z .1).− . ˆ punctul (-1.

v) = uv . −1). Rezolvare: 1. 4) − √ fz (1. 2. u = u(x). fx (x. v = x2 + 1. y. − √ avem 6 6 6 √ df 1 1 6 2 (1. y) = 2xy − y 2 . y) = x2 − 2xy √ √ 3 df 1 3( 3 − 1) (1. v) = ln cos √ . v = x4 − 1. v Rezolvare: 1. unde u = sin x. v) = u2 v + 3v − 2. −1) = fx (1. v 6. u (x) = 3x2 + 2x + 1. v = ln x. f (u. a 2 df (x) = (2uv(3x + 2x + 1) + 4x3 (u2 + 3))dx. du 3 6 6 6 0. unde u = ax2 + x + 2. v)v (x) ˆ Intrucˆt fu = 2uv. iar versorul directiei ¸ −→ − 2 1 1 M N este u = √ . dac˘ f = f (u. v). unde u = ln2 x. v) = ln(u + v 2 ). v = tan3 (x2 + 1). pentru a a urm˘toarele functii: a ¸ 1. f (u. f (u. fy (x. S˘ se calculeze df (x). 11 . 0. dup˘ directia M N . √ u 7. z) = xy + yz + zx. Deoarece M N = (2. − √ . −1) = .3). 5. m ∈ N∗ . v = cos x.10. 0. 0.1 Diferentiabilitatea functiilor compuse ¸ ¸ 13.-1. f (u. n. unde u = x3 + x2 + x + 1. fv = u2 + 3. ˆ punctul a ¸ ın M(1. f (u. 4) = . unde u = ex . f (x) = fu (u. unde u = sin x. 4) − √ fy (1. −1) + f (1. unde N(3. v)u (x) + fv (u. dup˘ a a 2 3 2 formula de mai sus rezult˘ f (x) = 2uv(3x + 2x + 1) + 4x (u + 3). ||M N || = 6. unde u = 3x2 . 0. v) = un v m . f (u. f (u.0. v = cos x. −1. v) = uv. v) = u . a.4). v (x) = 4x3 . v = v(x). f : R3 → R. 4. 4) = √ fx (1. 3. v = x3 − bx2 + a. du 2 2 y 2 √ −→ − −→ − 10. f (x. b ∈ R.

dac˘ f = f (u. y) ¸i fy (x. y) = . v = x cos y. u 3. fy = 2 . fy = − √ . v). u v Cum fu = √ . v) = veu v . respectiv df (x. fx = fu ux + fv vx . fv = √ . v) = ln uv. v = . y) = 1. unde u = x − y. f (u. f (x. unde u = sin(x−y). f (u. unde u = x + y. z) pentru urm˘toarele a a functii: ¸ 1.3. uy (x. Deoarece fu = obtinem ¸ f (x) = 1 2v . y v 2. 2 + v2 u u + v2 2 15. unde u = x2 + y. v = xy . v Rezolvare: 1. y) = 2x. v) = u2 + v 2 . f (u. dup˘ formulele de mai sus rezult˘ y y uy + v uy 2 + xv fx = √ . vx (x. y). y). pentru urm˘toarele functii: a ¸ √ x 1. 4. n. ux (x. ux (x. fv = . v = xy. 2 u+v u + v2 2ax + 1 + 2v(3x2 − 2bx) 2ax + 1 + 2v(3x2 − 2bx) . fy = fu uy + fv vy . df (x) = dx. S˘ se calculeze df (x. v = x + y 2 . vy (x. 12 . u + v2 u + v2 a s 14. m ∈ N∗ . unde u = x sin y. y) = 2y. Deoarece fu = − u2 fx = u − 2xv 2uy − v . y) = 1. v) = arctan . dup˘ formulele de mai sus rezult˘ a a 2. 5. y u2 + v 2 y 2 u2 + v 2 v u . f (u. y). u (x) = 2ax+1. y. v = a v(x. y) = − 2 . v) = un +v m −(uv)nm . u2 + v 2 u2 + v 2 x 1 a a vx (x. uy (x. y). v) = arctan . S˘ se calculeze fx (x. u = u(x. fv = 2 . y) = −1. unde u = ln(x + y). v (x) = 3x2 −2bx. vy (x. f (u. f (u. y) = ϕ(xy). u 6. v = cos xy. y) = 2 +v u + v2 1.

fy = ϕu uy + ϕv vy = ϕu − ϕv . x2 y 5 − 7y). y . y. xeyz . y. f (x. −x + y + z). y) = ϕ(u(x. f (x. z) pentru urm˘toarele a a functii: ¸ 1. f (x. y) = ϕ(u(x. x . y). x − y + z. y) = ϕ(x + y. f (x. f (x. respectiv d2 f (x. f (x. y. f (x. 2.2. 5. 6. y). f (x. x − y). z) = ϕ xyz. 1. f (x. z) = ϕ(e−x Rezolvare: . y. y) = ϕ(ln xy. Astfel f (x. x2 + y 2 − z 2 ) . x 5. v(x. x2 − y 2 + z 2 ). y . y. z) = ϕ(x + yz. f (x. z) = ϕ(x + y − z. exyz ). v = x − y. y 3. 2. y) = ϕ(x + y. Fie u = xy. f (x. 4. fy = ϕ (u)uy = xϕ (u). z) = ϕ(x + yz. df (x. y) = (ydx + xdy)ϕ (u). x arctan 2 +yz 8. x . y) = ϕ xy. 4. ex 7. y) = ϕ(x3 y − 5x2 + 2xy 2 + 4x + 1. Avem fx = ϕu ux + ϕv vx = ϕu + ϕv . 13 . z x2 + y 2 + z 2 . 16. y. f (x. 3. Fie u = x + y. y)). z) = ϕ(xyz. df (x. f (x. exy ). Astfel f (x. y. z) = ϕ 2 y+z . y) = (ϕu + ϕv )dx + (ϕu − ϕv )dy. ln xy z ). y) = ϕ xy. yz 6. y)). y. Avem fx = ϕ (u)ux = yϕ (u). S˘ se calculeze d2 f (x. x − y).

f (x. 4. v = x . y) = xyϕ(y 2 − x2 ) veriﬁc˘ ecuatia yfx + xfy = a ¸ 5. S˘ se arate c˘: a a 1. a ¸ 8.Rezolvare: 1. f (x. b ∈ a ¸ ∗ ∗ R . f (x. a ¸ 2. a ¸ 3. f (x. f (x. 2. y)) a a ¸i s fx = ϕu + ϕv . y) = 2 ϕu − x 2x2 x2 2x 1 ϕv + xyϕu2 − 3 ϕv2 . f (x. atunci a a y 1 x 1 fx = yϕu + ϕv . y) = ϕ(u(x. x2 + y 2 ) veriﬁc˘ relatia yfx = xfy . atunci f (x. d2 f (x. a ¸ 14 . y). fy2 = x2 ϕu2 − 2 ϕuv + 4 ϕv2 + 3 ϕv . y) = ϕ(ax − by) veriﬁc˘ ecuatia bfx + afy = 0. y) = yϕ 6. f (x. a ¸ y √ xyψ x x2 7.n ∈ N . a. a. y) = ey ϕ ye 2y2 veriﬁc˘ ecuatia (x2 − y 2 )fx + xyfy = xyf . y2 y y y y y 2 ϕu2 + 2ϕuv + 1 ϕ 2 dx2 + y2 v 1 x x2 2x 2x2 ϕv + xyϕu2 − 3 ϕv2 dxdy+ x2 ϕu2 − 2 ϕuv + 4 ϕv2 + 3 ϕv dy 2 . y) = ϕ x y veriﬁc˘ ecuatia xfx + yfy = 0. y) = (ϕu2 + 2ϕuv + ϕv2 )dx2 + 2(ϕu2 − ϕv2 )dxdy + (ϕu2 − 2ϕuv + ϕv2 )dy 2 . y) = ϕ(axn − by n ) veriﬁc˘ ecuatia by n−1 fx + axn−1 fy = 0. v = x − y. Dac˘ not˘m u = xy. fy2 = ϕu2 − 2ϕuv + ϕv2 . fy = ϕu − ϕv . y) = ϕ(xy) + veriﬁc˘ ecuatia x2 fx2 − y 2 fy2 = 0. b ∈ R∗ . fx2 = y 2 ϕu2 + 2ϕuv + 2 ϕv2 . f (x. y y y fxy = ϕu − d2 f (x. a ¸ x y + y x f. v(x. fy = xϕu − 2 ϕv . fxy = ϕu2 − ϕv2 . y) = ϕ( x y veriﬁc˘ ecuatia xfx + yfy = f . 2 y y y y y 17. Dac˘ not˘m u = x + y. fx2 = ϕu2 + 2ϕuv + ϕv2 .

b ∈ R. y) = ln(x + y). y) = (x + y)eax+by . f (x. 4. a. Folosind formula lui Leibniz pentru derivarea de ordin superior obtinem ¸ n (n) (n) (n) 1 1 f fx + fy = 2 . a ¸ 11. z) = eax+by+cz . x2 − y 2 + z 2 ) veriﬁc˘ ecuatia a ¸ 2 2 xyfx + (x − z )fy − yzfz = 0. atunci fx = aϕ (u). bfx + afy = a baϕ (u) − abϕ (u) = 0. 3. fyn = bn eax+by . 5. Rezolvare: 1. f (x. y) = ϕ(x2 + y 2 ) veriﬁc˘ ecuatia yfx − xfy = 0. z) = cos(ax + by + cz). 15 . y. f (x. c ∈ R . c ∈ R. f (x.9. b. y) = ϕ(ln xy. y. y) = x2 ex+y . 8. a ¸ 10. y. f (x. f (x. y) = ϕ(x + ay) veriﬁc˘ relatia fx = afy . f (x. a. fxn = an eax+by . y. f (x. y) = xϕ Rezolvare: 1. y) = xy + xϕ 15. x y y y x veriﬁc˘ relatia xfx + yfy = xy + f . 6. 2. b. b ∈ R. f (x. f (x. S˘ se calculeze derivatele partiale de ordinul n pentru urm˘toarele a ¸ a functii: ¸ 1. b. a ¸ veriﬁc˘ ecuatia x2 fx2 + 2xyfxy + y 2 fy2 = 0. fxk yn−k = ak bn−k eax+by . f (x. 18. fy = −bϕ (u). b ∈ R. Dac˘ u = ax − by. y) = eax+by . a ¸ y y +ψ x x f xn = k=0 (n) k Cn (x + y)(k) (eax+by )(n−k) = (ax + ay + n)an−1 eax+by . a. a. z) = ϕ(xz. f (x. y) = yϕ(x2 − y 2 ) veriﬁc˘ relatia a ¸ 14. xy) veriﬁc˘ ecuatia xfx − yfy = 0. 3. f (x. 12. c ∈ R. z) = ln(ax + by + cz). f (x. y) = sin(ax + by). a. a. a ¸ 13. 7. f (x.

y. pentru f (x. y. fx3 (x. f (x. 6. z) = exyz . 3. pentru f (x. f (x. 9. f (x. x. x. 19. z). y) = x4 + y 4 − 2x2 + 4xy − 2y 2 + 4. 8. fy3 (x. f (x.2 Extreme libere 20. f (x. y. 3. fxn (x. s 2. x. x. 10. y) = x2 + y 2 − xy + 2x + 1. y ∈ R∗ . y. y) = sin x sin y sin(x + y). y ∈ R∗ . 16 . fxz2 (x. 7. y) = x2 y 2 (1 − x − y). f (x. (n) fxk yn−k = ak−1 bn−k (ax + by + k)eax+by + (n − k)ak bn−k−1 eax+by = (abx + aby + kb + a(n − k))ak−1 bn−k−1 eax+by . y ∈ R∗ . 4. z). y) = x2 + y 2 − 2x + 1. y. y) = x3 + y 3 − 6xy + 3. z).fyn = (bx + by + n)bn−1 eax+by . f (x. y. y. f (x. y. y) = xy 3 exy . y) = (x + y 2 )ex+y . y) = x2 + y 2 + 4x − 6y + 2. fxyz (x. z). f (x. z) = exy+yz+zx . f (x. S˘ se determine punctele de extrem local pentru urm˘toarele functii a a ¸ 2 f : R → R: 1. fxyz (x. z). f (x. y) = xy 2 ex−y . fx2 y (x. pentru f (x. x y 5. y) = (x + 2)2 + (x − 6)2 + (x − 5)2 + y 2 + (y + 4)2 . (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (n) (n) (n) 0. S˘ se calculeze: a 1. y) ¸i fyn (x. 12. z). 11. y). y ∈ (0. f (x. 2π). y) = xy + 1 1 + + 2. y) = (x + 1)(y + 1)(x + y). 2.

z > 0. z) = x2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2x + 6y − 8z. 2) este −6 12 punct de minim local. iar 2. 2) = . ∆1 = 12 > 0. y. z) = (x − 1)2 + (y + 2)2 + z 2 − 3z + 5. Obtinem punctul ¸ sistemului fy (x. 0). 21. 0)fy2 (0. f (x. 0) nu este punct de extrem. z) = 2x2 − y 2 − 4z 2 − 4xy − 2x − 2y − 4z − 1. f (x. fy = 3y 2 − 6x. 2) puncte critice. 8. Pentru a veriﬁca dac˘ a este punct de extrem folosim a criteriul lui Sylvester aplicat matricei hessiene ˆ acest punct. 0) este punct de minim local. deci (0. x. 4x y z 4. f (x. Avem fx = 2x − 2. S˘ se determine punctele de extrem local pentru urm˘toarele functii a a ¸ 3 f : R → R: 1. f (x. fx2 (0. ∆2 = 108 > 0. 12 −6 Hf (2. 3. ˆ ın Intrucˆt fx2 = a fx2 (a) fxy (a) 2 0 = . f (x. fx (x. y) = 0 ⇒ (0. y. f (x. z ∈ R∗ . f (x. fxy = 0. z) = x + y2 z2 2 + + . 9. z) = (x − 2)2 + (x + 4)2 + (y + 2)2 + (y − 4)2 + (z − 1)2 + (z + 1)2 . 10. z) = 1 x y z + + + . 0))2 = −36 < 0. ∆2 = 4 > 0. y. x. z > 0. (2. fx = 3x2 − 6y. y. z) = 2x2 + y 2 − xy − xz + 2z. 17 . ˆ Incepem prin determinarea punctelor stationare. y. fy2 = 2. a. z) = x2 + y 2 + z 2 + xy − x + z + 1. x y z 16 7. f (x. y. b. y. y. y) = 0 fy (x. fxy = −6. 6. c ∈ R. fy = 2y. 0). atunci Hf (a) = fxy (a) fy2 (a) 0 2 ∆1 = 2 > 0. y. deci (2. x. y. f (x. Avem fx2 = 6x. y) = 0 . y. f (x. care sunt solutii ale ¸ ¸ fx (x. 5. 2. y. z) = (x − a)2 + (y − b)2 + (z − c)2 . y. z) = x3 + y 2 + z 2 + 12xy + 2z.Rezolvare: 1. a a 6. rezult˘ c˘ a = (1. y) = 0 critic a = (1. fy2 = 6y. 0) − (fxy (0.

f (x. b. s˘ se determine: ¸ a 18 . b. Rezolvare:  fx (x. s a s 3. ˆ a ın Intrucˆt a 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 0 ∆1 = 2 > 0. Determin˘m punctele stationare rezolvˆnd sistemul fy (x. y) 2x − 2y − 1 (2 + 2f (x))(2x − 2y − 1) − (2 − 2f (x))(2x + 2y + 1) f (x) = − . s a s 2. y).3 Functii implicite ¸ 22. f (1) ¸i f (1). c) = 0 2 0. f (0) ¸i f (0). c).11. b. dac˘ f (1) = 1 ¸i x4 + y 4 + xy − 3 = 0. f (0) ¸i f (0). dac˘ f (0) = 1 ¸i x3 + y 2 − xy 2 + y − x − 2 = 0. 0. Obtinem punctul critic (x. s a s 5. dac˘ f (1) = −1 ¸i x2 + 2xy − y 2 + x + y + 2 = 0. z) = (a. s a s Rezolvare: 1.  2(x − a) = 0  adic˘ 2(y − b) = 0 . 23. s˘ se determine: ¸ a 1. ∆3 = 0 2 0 = 8 > 0 rezult˘ (a. y. y. f (1) ¸i f (1). ∆2 = = 4 > 0. Pentru functia y = f (x). f (1) = 5 Fy (x. iar maa ¸   2(z − c) = 0   2 0 0 tricea hessian˘ ˆ acest punct este de forma Hf (a. s a s 4. y. a ¸ a   fz (x. Deoarece suntem ˆ conditiile teoremei functiilor implicite. c) a 0 2 0 0 2 punct de minim local. f (1) ¸i f (1). aplicˆnd ın ¸ ¸ a aceast˘ teorem˘. (2x − 2y − 1)2 f (1) = −28. obtinem a a ¸ Fx (x. dac˘ f (0) = −1 ¸i x3 + y 3 − x2 y 2 + y 2 + x − y + 1 = 0. z) = 0  1. z) = x2 + 4y 2 + 9z 2 + 6xy − 2x . dac˘ f (1) = 1 ¸i x2 + 2xy − y 2 + x − y − 2 = 0. z) = 0 . y) 2x + 2y + 1 f (x) = − =− . y. Pentru functia z = f (x. y. z) = 0.

z) z + xy y 24. ln 3 x2 + y 2 − arctan y = 0. 0).0)=-1 ¸i xy + yz + zx + 1 = 0. fy (2. y) 1 − 3x2 = . 1). a s a s 2. 1) = −1. 0). 0). z) z + xy x Fy (x. dac˘ f(1. fx (1. y) 2x + 3y = . −1). 1) = −1. fx (1. Fy (x.0)=0 ¸i z 2 − xey − yez − zex = 0 . x3 + y 3 − x + y − 2 = 0.1)=1 ¸i x3 + y 3 + z 3 + 3xyz − 6 = 0. 4. fy (1. (3x − 2y)2 2. 2). Rezolvare: Fx (x. x2 + y 2 + xy + 1 = 0. fx (2. fy (0. f (1. −1). y.-1)=1 ¸i x2 y + y 2 z + z 2 x − 1 = 0. fx (1. z) y 2 + xz =− 2 . y) 1 + 3y 2 19 . −1). aplicˆnd ın ¸ ¸ a aceast˘ teorem˘. ey − ex + xy = 0. fx (0. fy (x. 4. f (x) = − 26(x2 + y 2 ) ˆ Inlocuind y cu f (x) determinat mai sus obtinem f (x) = ¸ . −1). dac˘ f(0. a s a s 5. dac˘ f(2. dac˘ f(0. y) = − Fz (x. (3x − 2y)2 1. 0). Fy (x. obtinem a a ¸ fx (x. fx (0. fy (0.2)=0 ¸i (x + y)ez − xy − z = 0. y) = − Fx (x. y) 3x − 2y (2 + 3y )(3x − 2y) − (3 − 2y )(2x + 3y) f (x) = . Pentru functia y = f (x). y. z) x2 + yz =− 2 . dac˘ f(1. x 2. fy (1. f (1. a s 3. Fz (x. 3.-1)=1 ¸i xyz + 2yex − y 2 z + 3 = 0. a s Rezolvare: 1. s˘ se determine derivatele partiale de ordinul ¸ a ¸ ˆ ai ¸i al doilea: ıntˆ s 1. y. f (x) = − Fx (x.1. 2). 6. Deoarece suntem ˆ conditiile teoremei functiilor implicite. y. 1). fy (1. dac˘ f(1.

y. y. 20 . y) = =− . f (x) = −6 (1 + 3y 2 )3 25. f (1). y. fy2 (x. d2 f. dg. y) = − 26. f (1). dac˘ f (1) = 1. x3 + y 3 + z 3 − 3xyz = 0. fx (x. Fie F (x. 3 2 (z − 3) (z − 2) (z − 2)3 1. df. g (1). d2 g. z) z−2 Fz (x. s˘ se determine derivatele partiale de ¸ a ¸ ordinul ˆ ai ¸i al doilea: ıntˆ s 1. 5. dac˘ a x2 + y 2 + z 2 − 1 = 0 x2 + y − z = 0 . d2 g. fxy (x. g (1). 2. y. f (1) ¸i g (1). a. b ∈ R. g(1) = 1 ¸i a s 2 2 2 x +y −z =1 x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 = 6 . y) = − =− . z) = x3 +y 3 +z 3 −2xyz −2 = 0. Pentru functia z = f (x. y) = − (z − 2)2 (z − 2)3 (z − 2)2 xzy 2(2y 2 + (z − 2)2 ) 2xy − . G(x. fy (x. 2. df. z) z−2 2(z − 2 − yzy ) x2 + (z − 2)2 z − 2 − xzz =− . y. 3. z) x 2y =− . x2 + y 2 + 3z 2 = 1 x2 + y 2 − z 2 = 0 . y) = − = fx2 (x. dg. x2 + 2y 2 + z 2 − 4z + 8 = 0. dac˘ a Rezolvare: 1. df. x2 + y 2 + z 2 − a2 = 0 . y. 4. dg. g(1) = 1 ¸i s a s x + 2y − z − 3 = 0 x3 + y 3 + z 3 − 2xyz − 2 = 0 . dac˘ f (1) = 1. Pentru functiile y = f (x) ¸i z = g(x) s˘ se calculeze : ¸ s a 1. z) Fx (x. d2 f. Rezolvare: Fy (x.(x + y)(1 + 9xy(x2 − xy + y 2 )) − 6xy(x − y) . y). dac˘ a xyz = a x + y + z = b. 3. Fz (x. z) = x+2y−z −3 = 0.

y) = 1. v) 28. G) 3y 2 + 6z 2 − 4xy − 2xz 2 −1 3y 2 − 2xz 3z 2 − 2xy D(y. v) + bFv (u. z) f (x) = − =− = . y − bz) = 0. v) + bFv (u. v) + = 1. de unde rezult˘ a fx (x. v) Fu (u. y) + bfy (x. v) aFu (u. g (x) = − =− = D(F. veriﬁc˘ relatia afx (x. y).D(F. f (x) = ((z − y)2 + (x − z)2 + x(z − y) x(z − y) yz 2 (x − y) ) 2 . a ¸ Rezolvare: Fie u = x − az ¸i v = y − bz. v) bFv (u. z) 1 g (1) = . y) = Astfel afx (x. deﬁnit˘ prin F (x − az. S˘ se arate c˘ functia z = f (x. x (y − z)3 27. aFu (u. G) 1 −1 3x2 − 2yz 3z 2 − 2xy −3x2 − 3z 2 + 2xy + 2yz D(x. y) = ¸i s fy (x. D(F. b ∈ R. g (x) = −f (x). v) + bFv (u. aFu (u. y). f (x) = . S˘ se arate c˘ functia z = f (x. v) aFu (u. G) 2 1 3y 2 − 2xz 3x2 − 2yz −6x2 + 3y 2 − 2xz + 4yz D(y. v) + bFv (u. y) = Fv (u. x) . deﬁnit˘ prin: a a ¸ a 21 . v) aFu (u. Atunci derivˆnd pe rˆnd ˆ raport cu x s a a ın respectiv y obtinem ¸ Fu (1 − afx ) − bFv fx = 0 aFu fy + Fv (1 − bfy ) = 0. v) . 3 D(F. g (x) = . z) 2 f (1) = − . y) + bfy (x. 3 y(x − z) z(y − x) 2. G) 3y 2 + 6z 2 − 4xy − 2xz 2 −1 3y 2 − 2xz 3z 2 − 2xy D(y. a a ¸ a unde a.

y) = 0 ¸ ¸   Fy (x. a ¸ 2. fy = . Rezolvare: 1. 6. x2 + y 2 + z 2 = ϕ(x + y + z). z z = 0. veriﬁc˘ relatia xfx + yfy = z. y 2 + 2yx2 − 4x − 3 = 0. veriﬁc˘ ecuatia z(x + z)fx − y(y + z)fy = 0. veriﬁc˘ ecuatia z sin zfx − y 2 fy = 0. a 22 . deﬁnit˘ prin: a ¸ a 1. (x2 + y 2 )2 = a2 (x2 − y 2 ). a ∈ R∗ . y) = 0   2 3x − 3y = 0 Fx = 3x2 − 3y. 3. Punctele critice ale functiei y = f (x) sunt solutiile sistemului F (x. fx = Atunci y x + z − sin z . Fy = 3y 2 − 3x. Rezolvare:  Fx (x. 4. y(x + z) − (y + z)ϕ(z) = 0. Rezolvˆnd sistemul x3 + y 3 − 3xy = 0 a  2  3y − 3x = 0 √ 3 rezult˘ punctul critic x = 2. (y + z) sin z − y(x + z) = 0. . x2 + y 2 − 2xz − 2yϕ(z) = 0. 2. sin z + (y + z) cos z − y 29. S˘ se determine extremele functiei y = f (x). a ¸ 5. y 3 + x2 − xy − 3x − y + 4 = 0. veriﬁc˘ ecuatia (y 2 − x2 + 2xz)fx + 2y(z − a ¸ x)fy = 0. x3 + y 3 − 3xy = 0. 5. x3 + y 3 − 3x2 y − 3 = 0. x2 − 2xy + 5y 2 − 2x + 4y + 1 = 0. a ¸ 4. y) = 0  1.1. veriﬁc˘ relatia (y − z)fx + (z − x)fy = x − y. sin z + (y + z) cos z − y sin z + (y + z) cos z − y z sin zfx − y 2 fy = z sin z yz sin z y 2 (x + z − sin z) − = sin z + (y + z) cos z − y sin z + (y + z) cos z − y y(z sin z − y(x + z) + y sin z) = 0. ϕ x y . a ¸ 3.

fx2 (x. z) = (1. a 2 Deoarece 4(1 − xy) 4((−y − xy )(x2 + 2y) − (2x + 2y )(1 − xy)) . y. y) = .y − x2 (y − 2x)(y 2 − x) − (2yy − 1)(y − x2 ) . y). y. y) = = 0. y) = 0  2. rezult˘ c˘ punctul x = este punct de maxim local. fy2 (x. fy (x. . y. z) = (1. Rezolvˆnd sistemul y 2 + 2yx2 − 4x − 3 = 0   y + x2 = 0 1 rezult˘ punctul critic x = . Deoarece f (x) = 2 y −x (y 2 − x)2 √ √ a a iar f ( 3 2) = −2 < 0. −2) respectiv (x. z) = 0  2x − 2 = 0   2y + 4 = 0 solutiile sistemului ¸ . a a 2 2 30. Punctele critice ale functiei y = f (x) sunt solutiile sistemului F (x. y. f (x) = . z) = 0   F (x. adic˘ a 1. z) = 0   F (x. z) = 0 y . y. y) = . y) = 0  xy − 1 = 0  2 a Fx = 4xy−4. f (x) = . −2. −2. x2 + y 2 + z 2 − xz − yz + 2x + 2y + 2z − 2 = 0. C˘ut˘m punctele critice solutii ale sistemului a a ¸  Fz (x. y) = − . Rezolvare:  Fx (x. y) = 0 ¸ ¸   Fy (x. 2. f (x) = x2 + 2y (x2 + 2y)2 1 1 iarf = −8 < 0. 8). x3 − y 2 − 3x + 4y + z 2 + z − 8 = 0. Avem 1−x y+2 z − 3 + (1 − x)zx fx (x. y) = − z−3 z−3 (z − 3)2 (x − 1)zy −z + 3 + (y + 2)zy fxy (x.  Fx (x. S˘ se determine extremele functiei z = f (x. . Fy = 2y+2x . 2 (z − 3) (z − 3)2 23 . rezult˘ c˘ punctul x = 3 2 este punct de maxim local. y. 3. x2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2x + 4y − 6z − 11 = 0. deﬁnit˘ prin: a ¸ a 1. 2z − 6 = 0    2 x + y 2 + z 2 − 2x + 4y − 6z − 11 = 0 care sunt (x.

1). 1). df (0. = v−u x 1 1 2u 2v D(F. g(0. dac˘ f (1. obtinem Hf (1. df (0. 0). 8) este punct de maxim local. Pentru functiile u = f (x. Rezolvare: 1. 1). 1) = 1 ¸i a s u=x+y uv = y . respectiv Hf (1. x) gx = − =− D(F. dg(1. G) D(u. G) D(u. v) 1 1 2y 2v y−v = . 1). v−u y 1 1 2u 2v 1 1 2u 2x u−x = . 0). 0) = 1. 0). d2 f (0. df (0. 1). d2 f (0. deci sus. 0) = 0. v) 1 1 2x 2v x−v . 3. v−u x 1 1 2u 2v 24 D(F. 0) = 0. 1) = 0 ¸i a s x + 2y − u + v = 2 x3 + y 3 + u3 − 3xyu − 3v = 0 . 8) =  5 1 . G) D(u. 1). dac˘ f (0. −2. 0 − 5 1 1 ∆1 = − < 0. f (0. 1). D(F. ∆2 = > 0. d2 g(0. a¸adar(1. s 5 25 31. ∆2 = ¸ 5 25 0 5   1 0  − (1.Aplicˆnd criteriul lui Sylvester pentru hessiana ˆ punctele critice de mai a ın   1 0 1 1  > 0. v) fy = − =− D(F. ∆1 = > 0. df (1. 1). dg(0. g(1. 1) = 1. dg(0. d2 g(1. 1) = 1. G) D(y. y) ¸i v = g(x. 0) = −1. f (0. dac˘ f (0. g(0. −2) este punct de minim local. d2 g(0. −2. v) fx = − =− D(F. G) D(u. −2. 2. v) . g (0. G) D(x. 0) = 0. 0). d2 f (1. −2) =  5 1  . 0) = 0 ¸i a s x+y+u+v−1=0 x2 + y 2 + u 2 + v 2 − 1 = 0 . −2. y) s˘ se determine: ¸ s a 1.

fx2 (0. 4. xu + yv = 1. G) D(u. u − yv = 0. y sin u = x sin v. b ∈ R. y) gy = − =− D(F. gx2 (0. v) =− fx = − D(F. v) f x2 = 1 1 2u 2y u−y = . G) D(x. 3. x + y = u + v. v−u y 1 1 2u 2v (−vx + 1)(v − u) − (vx − ux )(x − v) . 0) = −1. 0) = −2(dx2 + dxdy + dy 2 ). (v − u)2 d2 g(0. 0) = 2. a. (v − u)2 −vy (v − u) − (x − v)(vy − uy ) . gy2 (0. (v − u)2 fxy = fy 2 = (1 − vy )(v − u) − (vy − uy )(y − v) . 0) = 1. dac˘: ¸ ıntˆ a 1. g (0. 0) = −2. gx2 = (ux − 1)(v − u) − (vx − ux )(u − x) . x3 + y 3 + u3 + v 3 = b. D(F. u + v = x + y. v) 25 −1 u 1 x 1 y y+u = . 2. dg(0. G) D(u. 0) = −2. y) ¸i v = g(x. y−x 1 y . (v − u)2 d2 f (0. Rezolvare: 1. 0) = 2. 32. Pentru functiile u = f (x. fxy (0. x + y + u + v = a. y) s˘ se determine derivatele ¸ s a partiale de ordinul ˆ ai. fy2 (0. G) D(u.D(F. (v − u)2 uy (v − u) − (vy − uy )(u − x) . gxy (0. 0) = 2(dx2 + dxdy + dy 2 ). 0) = −dx − dy. (v − u)2 gxy = gy 2 = (uy − 1)(v − u) − (vy − uy )(u − y) . 0) = −1. u + v = x.

f (x. f (x. v) −1 v 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 y y+v = . G) D(u.D(F. y) = x2 + y 2 − 2y + 1. y) = 10. f (x. 6. a a ¸ cu leg˘turile speciﬁcate: a 1. f (x. G) D(u. x + y 2 = 1. x2 + y 2 − 1 = 0. v) fy = − =− D(F. x + y = 1. y = 0. f (x. x2 − y 2 = 2. S˘ se determine punctele de extrem ale urm˘toarelor functii f : R2 → R. 5. f (x. 26 . y) = 1 1 1 1 1 + . y) = xy. G) D(u. f (x. G) D(u. f (x. y−x 1 y 0. v) D(F. y 2 − x2 = 1. 2 + 2 = . x y x y 4 x y 2 + . 3 4 11. f (x. a. x2 + y 2 = 1. x y + − 1 = 0. 9. y) = x2 + y 2 . a b 4. 8. y) gy = − =− D(F. y) = x2 + xy + y 2 + x − y + 1. 2. = y−x 1 y −1 v −v − x = . x.4 Extreme cu leg˘turi a 33. −x + y = 1. G) D(y. 2x + 3y = 1 . y) = 2x + y. v) D(F. y) = x2 + y 2 . 3. y) = xy. y) = x2 − 3x + (y − 1)2 . 7. y−x 1 y −1 u −u − x . y) = 3x − y. x2 + y 2 = 5. G) D(u. b ∈ R∗ . x) =− gx = − D(F. f (x. f (x.

L(x. y) = f (x. y. y) = 2. y. Lx = y + α. Prin 2 2 1 1 urmare punctul − . x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4. z) = x + 2y − 2z. z ∈ R∗ . z) = x + 2y − 2z. f (x. 8. x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 14. y= . S˘ se determine punctele de extrem ale urm˘toarelor functii f : R3 → a a ¸ R. y) = 0 este x = − .  Lx (x. y) = x + y − α(2x + 3y − 1). y. f (x. 7. ¸  2 2 2  g(x. 2 3 Deoarece d2 L . Lxy (x. deci d2 L − . z) = x + y + z. cu leg˘turile speciﬁcate: a 1. ¸ 13 13 2. f (x. f (x. x + y + z = 1. ¸ a ın 2 2 2 2 1 1 ¸i obtinem −dx + dy = 0. α= . y. este punct de minim conditionat. ¸ a 2 2 L(x. 6. 13 13 13 Lx2 (x. x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 3. z) = x + y + z. = 2(dx2 + dy 2 ) este pozitiv deﬁnit˘. rezult˘ c˘ a a a 13 13 2 3 . f (x. y. Ly = x − α. f (x. x. ¸ 2 2 34. y) = 0 1 1 1 1 Deoarece d2 L − . f (x. x. 4. y. dx = dy. z) = 2x − 3y + z. x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 16. este punct de minim conditionat. x + y − z = 2. z) = xyz. z > 0. s ¸ = 2dx2 > 0. x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9.Rezolvare: 1. 5. f (x. y) = 0 Determin˘m solutia sistemului Ly (x. 1 1 1 + + = 1. y) adic˘. y. + x y z 27 . y = .   2x − 2α = 0   Lx (x. y. x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4. z) = x2 + y 2 − z 2 . y) = Ly2 (x. 3. y. z) = x3 + y 3 + z 3 . x + y + z = 5. y) = xy − α(−x + y − 1). y) = 0. 2. y) = 0 2x + 3y − 1 = 0 2 3 2 x= . α = − . xy + yz + zx = 8. = 2dxdy diferentiem leg˘tura ˆ punctul − . y) = 0 ⇐⇒ 2y − 3α = 0 a ¸ ⇐⇒     g(x. y) = 0  1 1 1 Solutia sistemului Ly (x. y) − αg(x. y. Construim functia lui Lagrange L(x.

22 − 1 22 + 1 adic˘ a1 ¸i a2 sunt puncte de minim conditionat. y. y. y. Fie L(x. . y. Diferentiind leg˘turile obtinem dx + dy + dz = 0. adic˘ L(x. z) − ¸ βg2 (x. y. α 2 = − . z) = x2 + y 2 + z 2 . . y. y. α1 = 1. obtinem s ¸ 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 d L(a1 ) = dx + dy + dz > 0. z) = f (x. y. b. deci a1 este punct de minim conditionat. z) = 0 ¸i d2 L(x. z) = Ly2 (x. Rezolvare: x y z + + = 1. z) = 0  y  Determin˘m solutiile sistemului Lz (x. z) = 0 . f (x. z) = Lyz (x. y. y. a2 = . β2 = . z) = x+y +z −α(x+y −z −2)−β(x2 +y 2 +z 2 −4). z) = 0      2  x + y 2 + z 2 − 4 = 0 g (x. z) = 0    L (x. z) = 0 2  1 − α − 2βx = 0    1 − α − 2βy = 0   temului 1 + α − 2βz = 0 . . Lxy (x. z) = 0 2 √ √ √ √ 2 + 22 2 + 22 4 − 22 2 + 22 a1 = . a s ¸ 28 . a b c 1. care sunt a1 = (0. y. β2 = − 6 6 6 1 + 22 d2 L(x. z) = 2(1 − β)dx2 + 2(1 − β)dy 2 − 2(1 + β)dz 2 . . iar a2 este punct de maxim conditionat. y. y. y. β1 =   x + y − z − 2 = 0    2 x + y 2 + z 2 − 4 = 0 1 4 4 2 1 1 − ¸i a2 = s . −2). y. y. a.     2x − α − 2βx = 0 Lx (x. c > 0. xdx + ydy + zdz = 0 de ¸ a √¸ √ 4( 22 − 4) 2 4( 22 + 4) 2 unde rezult˘ d2 L(a1 ) = √ a dx > 0. y. β1 = √ respectiv 6 6 6 22 − 1 √ √ √ 2 − 22 2 − 22 4 + 22 3 √ . y. y. z) = Lxz (x. z) = 0 ⇒ −2z − α − 2βz = 0     x + y + z − 1 = 0 g1 (x. z) = −2β. z). z) = x + y − z − α(x + y + z − 1) − β(x + y + z 2 − 4). Construim functia lui Lagrange L(x. . d L(a2 ) = −(dx + dy + dz ) < 0. y. ¸ ¸ 2 2 2 2 2 2. z) = −2β(dx2 +dy 2 +dz 2 ). z) = 0     2y − α − 2βy = 0 L (x. z) − αg1 (x. 0. z) = 0    g (x. . 2 3 3 3 3 2 Deoarece Lx2 (x.9. y. z) = Lz2 (x. y. d2 L(a2 ) = √ dx > 0. z) = 0   y   ⇒ Lz (x. y. a  Lx (x. y. y. adic˘ solutiile sisa ¸ a ¸   g1 (x.

∀n ∈ N. s 36. f (x) = 6. ∀n ≥ 4. 2. pentru urm˘toarele functii: a ¸ 1. ∀n ∈ N. f (1) = 2. f (x) = 6x − 4. 3. Rezolvare: 1. f (n) (x) = (−1)n n!(1 + x)−(n+1) . ∀x ∈ R. s 3. f (n) (x) = ex . ∀n ∈ N. 8. S˘ se dezvolte polinomul f (x) = x3 − 2x2 + 3x + 5 dup˘ puterile a a ˆ ıntregi ale binomului x − 1. ∀x ∈ R − {−1}. 5. ∀n ∈ N. obtinem a ¸ 1 = 1−x+x2 −x3 +· · ·+(−1)n xn +(−1)n+1 xn+1 (1+ξ)−(n+2) . f (n) (0) = 1. S˘ se scrie formula lui Taylor cu restul sub forma lui Lagrange ˆ punctul a ın a = 0. 7. 1−x 6. f (x) = ln 1+x . Aplicˆnd formula lui Taylor cu restul sub forma Lagrange. ∀n ∈ N. 29 . f (x) = arctan x. f (x) = e−x . f (1) = 7. Aplicˆnd formula lui Taylor cu restul sub forma Lagrange obtinem a ¸ 2 n n+1 ξ x x x x e +···+ + .5 Formula lui Taylor pentru functii de o ¸ variabila real˘ a 35. f (1) = 2. f (n) (x) = 0. f (x) = ln(1 − x2 ). f (x) = ex . f (x) = cos x. unde ξ este situat ˆ ıntre ex = 1 + + 1! 2! n! (n + 1)! 0 ¸i x. f (1) = 6. 1+x unde ξ este situat ˆ ıntre 0 ¸i x.0. 1+x 4. f (x) = sin x. Rezolvare: Deoarece f (x) = 3x2 − 4x + 3. f (x) = 1 .

4!24 2 4!24 4!23 192 41. √ 4. x ∈ [0. ln(0. ex 1+x+ x2 x3 + . . sin x 3. 6 2 x x2 − . √ 3 1+x 1− x− x2 x4 + . Aproxim˘m functia f (x) cu polinomul Taylor de ordinul a ¸ 1 n = 3. Rezolvare: 1. 646. 1 1 1 39. cos x 2. √ 3. unde ξ ∈ 0.0 2 2 eξ 1 2 1 1 . pentru x = . 38. 2 6 30 . f T3.conform formulei lui Taylor. 37. ]. 3 9 1+ 4.0 =1+ + + 2 2 2 8 48 48 1 1 = Eroarea comis˘ ˆ aceast˘ aproximare este E = f a ın a − T3. ˆ punctul a = 0. S˘ se evalueze eroarea comis˘ ˆ aproximarea e 1 + + + . x ∈ [−1. S˘ se dezvolte polinomul f (x) = 2x4 − 3x2 + x − 1 dup˘ puterile a a ˆ ıntregi ale binomului x + 1. ın 2 ˆ Intrucˆt f (n) (x) = ex . x ∈ [0. 2 24 x3 1 . 5. 3 12. √ 2. 9) . 1]. x ∈ [0. a a ın 1! 2! 3! 40. 3 e. S˘ se calculeze valoarea aproximativ˘ ¸i apoi eroarea comis˘. 1]. 143. Fie f (x) = ex . S˘ se dezvolte polinomul f (x) = x5 + x3 + x + 1 dup˘ puterile ˆ a a ıntregi ale binomului x − 2. ∀x ∈ R obtinem a ¸ 1 79 1 1 1 1 = = 1. S˘ se evalueze eroarea comis˘ ˆ aproxim˘rile urm˘toare: a a ın a a 1. avem f (x) = 7 + 2(x − 1) + (x − 1)2 + (x − 1)3 . Prin urmare E < = = . ∀n ∈ N. 1]. pentru: a as a √ 1. e.

lim cos 7x − cos 3x . lim . x ∈ [0. x ∈ [0.5. x ∈ [0. x→0 x3 √ 3 1 + x2 − 1 3. lim x→0 7. 2 x3 . Eroarea comis˘ ˆ aceast˘ aproximare este E = |f (x) − Tn. x2 ex sin x − x − x2 . e −x x2 x3 1−x+ − . 1]. √ 1+x 1+ Rezolvare: 1. cosh x 7. lim 9. lim x − x2 ln 1 + x→∞ 1 x . 5! 5! 5! 42. lim . 1]. lim . lim x→0 x3 ln(1 + 2x) − sin 2x + 2x2 . x→1 x−1 2. x→0 x2 5. x ∈ [0. 8. x→0 x2 √ √ 3 x+ x−2 4. 1]. 2 6 1+ x+ x2 . lim x→0 cosh 2x − 2 .a (x)| pentru a ın a nπ x5 cos ξ + x5 f (5) (ξ) 1 2 n = 4 ¸i a = 0. x→0 x3 31 . 1] . Atunci E = s = ≤ . S˘ se calculeze cu ajutorul formulei lui Taylor urm˘toarele limite: a a √ 1 + x3 − 1 . sinh x 8. 6 x x2 − . 2 8 6. x2 √ cos 3x − 1 6. 1.

S˘ se determine num˘rul natural n.0 (x)| ≤ a a a ıncˆ 1 .10. · · · . Avem 3x2 3(4x + x4 ) √ f (x) = √ . 2 1 + x3 4(1 + x3 ) 1 + x3 3(8 − 20x3 − x6 ) √ f (x) = . lim x − x2 ln 1 + = lim . pentru functia f (x) = 1 + x ¸i a=0. 1 t . f (0) = 3. t→0 t t→0 2 3! 2 43. n 2 Trebuie s˘ determin˘m num˘rul natural n astfel ˆ at |f (x) − Tn. lim tan x − sin x . ˆ ¸ punctul a = 0 cu restul sub forma Lagrange de ordin n = 3. f (x) = . Prin urmare lim 3 = lim x→0 x→0 x 2 4! 2 1 1 − ln 1 + 1 t − ln(1 + t) x x 7. 2 4! (4) 1 xf (ξ) 1 f (x) + = . f (0) = 0. astfel ˆ at ˆ aproximarea a a ıncˆ ın √ f (x) Tn. x→0 x3 √ ın 1. Folosim formula lui Taylor pentru functia f (x) = 1 + x3 − 1.a (x).0 (x)| = = (1+ξ)− 2 xn+1 ≤ n+1 (n + 1)! (n + 1)!2 1 · 3 · 5 · · · (2n − 1) 1 ≤ de unde rezult˘ n ≥ 2.1]. f (x) = − 2 (1 + x)− 2 . ∀n ≥ 2. f (0) = f (0) = f (0) = 0. = lim 1 x→∞ x→∞ t→0 x t2 x2 Aplic˘m formula lui Taylor pentru functia f (t) = t − ln(1 + t) ˆ punctul a ¸ ın a = 0 cu restul sub forma Lagrange de ordin n = 2. 2 2 2n−1 (n) n−1 1 · 3 · 5 · · · (2n − 3) f (x) = (−1) (1 + x)− 2 . 8(1 + x3 )2 1 + x3 x3 x4 f (4) (ξ) Cu ajutorul formulei lui Taylor obtinem f (x) = ¸ + . eroarea comis˘ s˘ ¸ s a a 1 pe intervalul [0. ﬁe cel mult 16 Rezolvare: 1 3 1 1 f (x) = (1 + x)− 2 . Avem f (t) = 1+t (1 + t)2 1 tf (3) (ξ) f (t) 1 Obtinem lim 2 = lim ¸ + = . f (0) = 0. f (t) = . 16 Avem 2n+1 xn+1 f (n+1) (ξ) 1 · 3 · 5 · · · (2n − 1) |f (x)−Tn. a (n + 1)!2n+1 16 32 Rezolvare: . f (0) = 1.

y) = ex+y . n = 3. y) = ex+y . 1! 2 3 4! 46. atunci conform formulei lui Taylor pentru functii de mai multe variabile. 4. Folosind formula lui Taylor de ordinul al doilea. 96. s˘ se calculeze vaa loarea aproximativ˘ pentru: a √ √ 1. 01. 6. y) = −x2 + 3xy 2 − 15x + 12y + 2. 0). 4. a = (0. 02 3 7. 0). 98 3 1. (n + 1)! 1 1 1 1 2. 1). S˘ se scrie formula lui Taylor pentru urm˘toarele functii ˆ punctele a a ¸ ın indicate: 1. 0). y). y) = ln(1 + x)(1 + y). astfel ˆ at ˆ aproxia a ıncˆ ın marea f (x) Tn. n = 3.6 Formula lui Taylor pentru functii de mai ¸ multe variabile reale 45. rezult˘ c˘ exist˘ punc¸ a a a tul (ξ. a = (1. η)(x + 1. a = (0. 0. n = 3. f (x. n. 2. 1). √ √ 2. 95)1. y) = ln(1 + x + y). η) situat ˆ ıntr-o vecin˘tate a punctului a astfel ˆ at ∀(x. y) = (x + y) − (x + y)2 + (x + y)3 + d4 f (ξ. η)(x. a 0. S˘ se determine cel mai mic num˘r natural n.01 .a (x). 7. f (x. y) ˆ aceea a ıncˆ ın 1 1 1 vecin˘tate s˘ avem f (x. f (x. f (x. ∀k = 0.44. y) = ex cos y. 5. y) = ex sin y. 1). f (x. y) = x2 + y 2 + xy − 2x − 2y + 6. a = (1. n = 3. pentru functia f (x) = ln(1 + x) ¸i a=0. eroarea comis˘ ¸ s a s˘ ﬁe cel mult 10−3 pe intervalul [0. 3. 3. 33 (n) . 0). a = (0. (0. Rezolvare: 1. a = (0.1]. y − 1). f (x. f (x. Deoarece fxk yn−k (x. f (x. a = (−1. y) = 1 + (x + y) + (x + y)2 + · · · + (x + y)n + a a 1! 2! n! 1 n+1 d f (ξ.

S˘ se veriﬁce dac˘ sunt adev˘rate urm˘toarele aproxim˘ri ˆ vecin˘tatea a a a a a ın a punctului (0. 2! 4 3 9 Punˆnd x = 0. 99)2 (3. 01) − (0. (0. −1) = 3 2 1 2 1 − . −2) = e+3e−5 . 02 + 0. 98 ¸i y = 1. 6. Pentru a determina valoarea aproximativ˘ a 0. 01 + 1! 2 3 1 1 2 89383 1 − (0. n ∈ N∗ . fx (2. 01)3 . 5. fy (1.1) (0. 1) = . adic˘ cu T2. y) = ln(1 + x) ln(1 + y). 01 obtinem a s ¸ √ √ 1 1 1 0. T2. 0): 1. cos x cos y 1− xy. 994. m.(0.0) (x. y) este 0.4. 1) = . 01 1 + − 0. + 2! 4 3 9 9000 47. 02(2. Atunci f (x. x2 − y 2 . 01) cu polinomul Taylor functia f (x. 98 3 1. 3. 01)2 = 0. 02)3 . 2 x + y. fy (2. 1. 1. 1) = . 01). 98 3 1. 1. 02)2 (3. 5. fx (1. y) 1 + 1! 2 3 1 1 1 2 + − (x − 1)2 − (x − 1)(y − 1) − (y − 1)2 .(1. 1) = 0.7 Indicatii ¸i r˘spunsuri ¸ s a 5 1. ln(1 + x) ln(1 + y) 2. fy (2. ın a 1 1 1 (x − 1) + (y − 1) + Atunci f (x. y) = x ¸ s de ordinul al doilea ˆ punctul (1. fy (1. arctan x+y 1 + xy Rezolvare: 1. 4. (1 + x)m (1 + y)n 3. 4. 02)2 − (0. 1). 3 5 5 2 34 . −2) = 3e+e−5 . Rezolvare: √ √ a 1. 98. 01 consider˘m a √ √ 3 y ¸i vom aproxima f (0. Fie f (x. y) echivalent cu ln(1 + x) ln(1 + y) xy. −1) = . 02)(0. fx (2. 1 + mx + ny. fx (1. 98.

12. 24. fy = − . 2. fy = − 2 . fx = 2xex −y . 4. fy = −(ln y + 1). fx = 2 . f continu˘ ˆ a ın(0. fy = −2y sin + cos . |f (x. 22. fy = (x2 + 3xy 2 ) sin 2(x2 y + xy 3 ). fx = yxy−1 . fx = − sin x + cos(x + y). 3. fx = (1 + x2 + y 2 ) x2 + y 2 (1 + x2 + y 2 ) x2 + y 2 2x2 y 2x3 . y) = (4xy − 3y + 1 1 x 2x)dx + (2x2 − 3x − 1)dy. 30. fx = 2x y sin y sin(2x + y). fy = −3x+4y − (x + y 2 )2 (x + y 2 )2 4. fx = 2x3 y 3 (2−3x2 +2y). fx (0. 10. 0) = fy (0. 26. 2yex +y sin2 x. fy = x y x 2 y 2 +x xy 2 xy − 2ye . f a ın 1 diferentiabil˘ ˆ (0. fy = x4 y 2 (3− 3x2 + 4y). 5. fx = (2x−a−b)(y −a)(y −b). fy = 3 cos(2x + 3y). 2x arctan(x2 + y 2 ) + 1 + (x2 + y 2 )2 1 + (x2 + y 2 )2 y 1 x 15. fx = ln y − ey +x . 1 − x2 − y 2 x2 + y 2 (x + x2 + y 2 ) x2 + y 2 4xy 2 4x2 y 18. fy = . fx = 4xy − 3y + 2x. x x2 − y 2 x2 − y 2 1 − x2 − y 2 1 y y fy = − . fx = ln y. 19. fy = sin x sin(x + 2y). ın x y 1 (xdx + x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2 ydy). fx = − . 31. fy = . fx = m 2 .2. fy = x e . fy = xy(2−y)ex−y . f continu˘ ˆ (0. 23. df (x. x + y2 x2 + y 2 1 fx (0. fx = 35 3. 11. 0) = 0. fy = xy ln x. fx = x y y 1 1 2 −(ln x + 1). 9. 1.0). ¸ a cos 2 ≤ x2 + y 2 . 0) = 0. fy = . 14. 25. f diferentiabil˘ 2 + y2 x + y2 x ˆ (0. fx = 2x−3y +3. 0) = fy (0. 16. 4. fy = − 2 . fx = . fy = . 27. y)| ≤ |xy|. fx = . fy = 3y 2 + 3x. fy = y 2 2 2 −ex −y . fx = . fy = . fy = . fx = (2x sin2 x+sin 2x)ex +y .0). fx = 2x sin − cos . fx = 2 2 x +y x + y2 x y 13. fy = (2y −a−b)(x−a)(x−b). 28. fy = . fx = . 21. fy = 2x2 − 3x − 1. 20. fx = − . fx = (1 + xy)e . fx = . fx = 2 x x x x x x (2xy + y 3 ) sin 2(x2 y + xy 3 ). df (x. fy = − sin y + cos(x + y).0). fy = x y 2 2 . 7. 17.0). 3(x2 + y 2 ) 1 + x2 y 2 n (x + y) n (x + y) y x2 y − y 3 y x2 − y 2 y y 29. fx = 2 cos(2x + 3y). 8. f = 3(x2 + y 2 ) 1 + x2 y 2 y 2y x 2x 1 + . y) = . fx = (1+x)y 2 ex−y . 3. fx = 3x2 + 3y. fy = m 2 . fx = + . 6. (x2 + y 2 ) cos 2 ¸ a ın ≤ x2 + y 2 .

fx = − . 12. fx = . fy = − sin x sin y sin(x + z). fx = e x . fy = − 2 . fz = y))exyz . f x = − . f = z x y z x + z2 y 1 z 2 2 . 33. 16. 35. 10. z) = (2x + yz)dx + (2y + xz)dy + xydz. fz = 3xyz 2 cos(x + y)exyz . fy = −2x3 yz + 10x. 3. y2 4.x2 − y 2 y 2 − x2 y 3 (−3x4 + y 2 ) xy 2 (3x4 + y 2 ) . fz = − 2 . fy = 10y. y. fx = x2 y x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2 −x − 1 fy = . 9. fx = 2 + y2 + z2 x y z 1 . fx = yxy−1 + z x ln z. fx = x2 y y z xy + z 2 . y z 2 − x2 y −2x3 + x2 y − yz 2 y 20. fy = 2 2 2 2 2yzex +y + xez . fx = zex−y + yex+z . fy = e x . fz = ex +y + xyez . fz = y(x + y) cos yz. fz = − 2 + z2 2 + y2 + z2) 2 + y2 x +y x y (x x 1 y z x x . fz = 2ze x . fy = ln x + . df (x. 13. x2 + y 2 + z 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 y2 + z2 xy xz yz . fz = exy . 32. fy = −2yzex−y + ex+z . x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2 1 x2 − y y 1 . fz = −x3 y 2 − 6z 2 . fx = − 2 . . fx = 6x + 2y. 5. 6. fy = 4y + 2x − 3z. fy = . fx = x2 y xy 2 (x2 + y 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 −2xy y 2 − x2 x x cos 2 . 8. fx = 2x cos + sin . fx = yzexy . fz = ln y + . fx = 2 2 x y + z2 (y 2 + z 2 ) y 2 + z 2 (y 2 + z 2 ) y 2 + z 2 xz xy xz fy = 2 2 . fz = (x + a)(y + xz 2 2 2 b). fx = (y + b)(z + c). fy = 2y cos + sin . fz = xy. 7. 11. fx = 2xzex +y + yez . fy = (x + a)(z + c). fy = xzexy . 1. y. fy = − . fz = 2 . fy = 2 cos 2 . 17. 19. fz = 6z − 3y. fy = 2 2 x y +z x y +z (x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2 1 1 yz . 21. fx = sin yz. fy = − . 14. fx = (yz 3 cos(x+y)−sin(x+y))exyz . fz = 2 y x +z x−y 2 x+z e + ye . 15. 4.fx = cos y sin(2x + z). fz = sin x cos y cos(x + z). fx = ln z + . fy = sin yz + (x + y)z cos yz. fy = . fx = −3x2 y 2 z + x .fx = 2 2 )2 2 2 )2 (x + y x +y (x + y x + y2 1 x 1 34. 18. fz = xz x−1 + 3 y z ln y. fz = − 2 2 . fy = (xz 3 cos(x+y)−sin(x+ xz + y 2 x2 − yz 3 3 . 2. df (x. fz = . fy = zy z−1 + xy ln x. fx = 2 x x 36 . z) = sin yzdx+(sin yz +(x+y)z cos yz)dy +y(x+y) cos yzdz. fy = 2y + xz. fz = − . fx = 2x + yz.

fz = . 10. 1. d2 f (−1. d2 f (2. fz = −c sin 2(ax + by + cz). −1. fx = − 2 . π) = −dx2 + dy 2 . 1) = − 5.y 2 z 3 (6 − 4x + 3y − 4z). 1) = √ (dxdy + dydz + dxdz). 1. d2 f (π. 1) = 4(dx2 − 3dxdy+2dy 2 ). 7. y) = 2 (2(y 3 − x2 )dx2 − 12xy 2 dxdy + (x + y 3 )2 3y(2x2 − y 3 )dy 2 ). 9. 1. 10. 3. 2. −1) = 2(3dx2 +4dxdy+ dy 2 ). −1) = 4(39dx2 + 3dy 2 + 5dz 2 + 27dxdy − 24dxdz). d2 f (1. d2 f (x. 8. 1) = e(dx2 + dy 2 + 3dz 2 + 4dxdy + π π 6dydz +4dxdz). 4. y) = (dx2 − 4ydxdy + (4y 2 − 2)dy 2 )ex−y . d2 f (x. 1) = (2dx − 4dy 2 − 4dz 2 − 2dxdy + 9 10dydz − 2dxdz). ) = 2 3 dx2 + dy 2 + dz 2 − 2dxdy + 2dydz − 2dxdz. xy 2 yz 2 fy = −b sin 2(ax + by + cz). 9 2 2 (−3dx2 + 16dxdy − 3dy 2 ). . d2 f (1. 1. d2 f (1. fx = −a sin 2(ax + by + cz). 4. 0) = m(m − 1)dx2 + 25 2mndxdy + n(n − 1)dy 2 . (x + y 2 ) 37 . 2. fy = xyz 3 (12 − 4x + 9y − 8z). 0. d2 f (1. 9. y) = (y 3 dx2 + 2(xy 2 + 2y)dxdy + (x2 y + 2x)dy 2 )exy . 14 3. 7. 22. 1) = 2 2 1 dx + dy 2 . 7. 1) = 2e(dx2 + 3 3 2 2 dy + dz + 4dxdy + 4dydz + 4dxdz). 9. 6. 1. (y − z)m+1 (y − z)m+1 x 3 2 2y − xz 2y + z fy = . fx = . 24. d2 f (x. 3. d2 f (x. 8. 5. fy = − 2 . 25. d2 f (0. 7. d2 f (1. y) = ((x2 + 4x + y 2 + 2)dx2 + 2(x2 + y 2 + 2x + 2y)dxdy + (x2 + 1 y 2 + 4y + 2)dy 2 )ex+y . y) = 2 (−xydx2 + (x2 − y 2 )dxdy + xydy 2 ). 3 (x + 3y) 2 2 4. fz = . y) = −y 2 sin xydx2 + 2(cos xy − xy sin xy)dxdy − 2 x2 sin xydy 2 . f = 2 + z 2 )2 (x x + y2 z x(x2 − z 2 )(x2 − y 2 ) n(x − y)n−1 . 2) = −dx2 + dy 2 . (x2 + z 2 )2 (y − z)m (x − y)n−1 (−mx + (m − n)y + nz) m(x − y)n y2 fy = . d2 f (x. 6. fy2 = 12y 2 − 90y 4 . fz = xy 2 z 2 (18 − z(x4 + 3x2 z 2 + x2 y 2 − y 2 z 2 ) 2xyz 6x + 9y − 16z). 1) = − √ (7dx2 +4dy 2 +4dz 2 + 3 3 1 2 2 4dxdy + 2dydz + 4dxdz). fxy = 5. 1) = −dy 2 +dz 2 +dxdy −dxdz. 8. d f (2. 2) = 2(4dx2 + 3dy 2 + 1 2dz 2 −10dxdy +5dydz −6dxdz). 2. fx2 = 12x2 − 4. 23. d2 f (2. fx = . 1) = 4(dx2 +dy 2 ). d2 f (x. y) = (12x2 − 4)dx2 + 10dxdy + (12y 2 − 90y 4 )dy 2 . y) = (−ydx2 + (x − 3y)dxdy + 3xdy 2 ). 5. d2 f (1. d2 f (3. 5. d2 f (x. d2 f (2. d2 f (1. d f (x. 2 6. 6. d2 f (1. d2 f (0.

d2 f (x. θ. z) = (x + y + z)2 1 1 1 2 dx + 2 dy 2 + 2 dz 2 . 4). 8. Jf (1. d2 f (x. −1). Jf (x. x x 1 2 2 2 2 2 6. gradf (1. 2 2 x2 y 2 + z 2 x y +z x y +z 6. z) = zex dx2 −xey dy 2 +(2+yez )dz 2 −2ey dxdy+2ez dydz+2ex dxdz. 1. y) = 1 1  . du du 5 du 38 . y. d2 f (x. y. z) = 2x 2y 2 2 2 11. 2) = (−2. d2 f (x. y. y.10. Jf (r. d2 f (x. z) = 2(−y 2 z 3 dx2 + xz 3 (6 − x + 6y − z)dy 2 + xy 2 z(18 − 3x + 6y − 6z)dz 2 + yz 3 (12 − 4x + 6y − 2z)dxdy + xyz 2 (36−6x+18y −8z)dydz +y 2 z 2 (18−6x+6y −4z)dxdz). 2. b cos(ax + by + cz). y. y. 7. y) = y x−2 (y 2 ln2 ydx2 + 2y(x ln y + 1)dxdy + x(x − 1)dy 2 ).   cos θ cos ϕ −r sin θ cos ϕ −r cos θ sin ϕ 9. gradf (−1. 1. gradf (x. 1) = . 2. ln(x + y ) + 2 . z) = − (dx + dy + dz)2 . 4. 10. 1) = −1. y) = . √ df df 18 10 df 12. 2 ((x + z)dy 2 + (x − y)dz 2 − (y + z)dxdy + (y + z)3 (2x − y + z)dydz − (y + z)dxdz). 10. d2 f (x. 2. 1) = 6. (1. 2. 2. y) = 1. −1) = x2 + y 2 x + y2 yz xz xy (−3. z) = 2xyz + (x + z)y 2 − 2x2 y y 2 x + z y 2 2(xz + xy + yz) y e x dx + e x dy − e x dxdy + x4 x2 x3 2 y 2y y e x dydz − 2 e x dxdz. 9. 3. θ. 3. 5. y. Jf (x. 4 1     y x yz xz xy x x . 3. y. z) = − cos(x+2y +3z)(dx+2dy + − 2 x y z 3dz)2 . z) =  1 − 2 − 2 1 −1 yz y z yz  a  − 2 z y 3. d2 f (x. d2 f (x. detJf (1. z) = (a cos(ax + by + cz). gradf (x. sin ϕ 0 r cos ϕ 2 −1 detJf (r. ϕ) = r2 cos ϕ. 5. y. Jf (x. z) = −z sin xdx2 − x sin ydy 2 − y sin zdz 2 + 2 cos ydxdy + 2 cos zdydz + 2 cos xdxdz. z) = 3 (4yzdx −ydz +8x(x +z)dxdy +4(x +z)dydz − 2 + z) 2 4(x 1 4xydxdz). 3. z) =  x 1 1 .− 2 2 . 1) = . 4. ϕ) =  sin θ cos ϕ r cos θ cos ϕ −r sin θ sin ϕ  . d f (x. y. y. gradf (x. (−1. b − 2 y z2 8. 7. c cos(ax + by + cz)). y. y. d2 f (x. z) = − 2 2 . (x. . 4.

(1. fy = −(nun−1 − nmunm−1 v nm ) cos(x − y) − 2uv 2 2 x(mv m−1 − nmunm v nm−1 ) sin xy. 2 (x2 + 1) 2 cos xv 1 ux u . f yϕu + e ϕv + ln yϕw . u = ln xy. fx = x y 1 2 2 2 yϕu − 2 ϕv . fz = x y y x2 y+z 2 + y 2 + z 2 . fz = xyϕu + 2zϕv . 4. fx = ϕu + 2x2 yex y+z ϕv + ϕw . fx = 0. −1) = − − (e2 − e−2 ). u = x + yz. fx = yzϕu + x x 2 2xϕv . 2. 6. df π df (1. 5. 1) = 10 du 3 6 du √du 2 3. f (x) = (v cos x − u ln u sin x)uv−1 . 8. 6. (1. f = z y + z2 v z x2 + y 2 + z 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 xy z 2 ϕ . 4. 0. fz = 2 ye−x +yz ϕu + xyeyz ϕv + xyexyz ϕw . x+y 15. 3. fy = xzϕu − 2yϕv . 9. fy = zϕu + x2 ex y+z ϕv + ϕw . v = x2 y 5 −7y. fy = ϕu + 2 ϕ . 1) = − . f (x) = + x 2 2 x 6ux tan (x + 1) xve − u . fx = + . (1. 6. v = . du du 4 2v ln x 13. f (x) = nun−1 v m cos x − mun v m−1 sin x. y) = 1 1 2y = − 2 ϕu + y 2 exy ϕv + 2 ϕu2 + exy ϕuv + y 2 e2xy ϕv2 dx2 + x x x 1 +2 ϕ 2 + 2exy ϕuv + (1 + xy)exy ϕv + xye2xy ϕv2 dxdy + xy u 1 1 2x + − 2 ϕu + x2 exy ϕv + 2 ϕu2 + exy ϕuv + x2 e2xy ϕv2 dy 2 . u = x + y − y y y 39 . 2) = 15. 7. fx = + y(1 + u2 v)xy−1 eu v . 7. v = x arctan . v = exy . fx = ϕu − 2 2 v y +z x2 + y 2 + z 2 2 +yz 2 −2xe−x ϕu +eyz ϕv +yzexyz ϕw . −1. v = x − y + z . 4. (1. 6. 5. 2. 8. 4. fy = ze−x +yz ϕu +xzeyz ϕv +xzexyz ϕw . 5. v = xeyz . fy = xϕu + ϕv . w = exyz . 3.√ df 5 df 2e 1 df 5. w = z 1 2 2 ln xy z . 16. d2 f (x. ) = 0. 3. u = x x = z x y y xz ϕu + arctan ϕv . fy = 1. u = x3 y−5x2 +2xy 2 +4x+1. −1. fx = (nun−1 −nmunm−1 v nm ) cos(x−y)− u v u v y(mv m−1 − nmunm v nm−1 ) sin xy. fy = + . u = xyz. u = e−x +yz . fy = (x3 + 4xy)ϕu + (5x2 y 4 − 7)ϕv . f (x) = √ tan √ −6x + √ v v 2v x2 + 1 1 y 1 x 14. fx = (3x2 y−10x+2y 2 + y 4)ϕu + 2xy 5 ϕv . v = ex y+z . x+y 2uv 2 2 fy = + (1 + u2 v)xy ln x eu v . f (x) = . u = xy. 7.

y. fxn = an sin ax + by + 2 2 nπ (n) (n) fxk yn−k = ak bn−k sin ax + by + . fzn = cn cos ax + by + cz + . 6. z) = y 2 z 2 ϕu2 + 2ϕuv + 2 2 ϕv2 dx2 + yz y z 2 2 2x x 2x + x2 z 2 ϕu2 − 2 ϕuv + 3 ϕv + 4 2 ϕv2 dy 2 + y y z y z 2x2 x2 2x + x2 y 2 ϕu2 − 2 ϕuv + 2 4 ϕv2 + 3 ϕv dz 2 + z y z yz 1 x + 2 zϕu − 2 ϕv + xyz 2 ϕu2 − 3 2 ϕv2 dxdy + y z y z x2 x 2x2 ϕuv + 3 3 ϕv2 dydz + + 2 xϕu + 2 2 ϕv + x2 yzϕu2 − y z yz y z 1 x + 2 yϕu − 2 ϕv + xy 2 zϕu2 − 2 3 ϕv2 dxdz. f xk y p z r = 2 2 nπ (n) k p r a b c cos ax + by + cz + . nπ nπ (n) (n) . d2 f (x. 18. z) = (ϕu2 + 4xϕuv + 4x2 ϕv2 + 2ϕv )dx2 + (z 2 ϕu2 + 4yzϕuv + 2ϕv + 4y 2 ϕv2 )dy 2 + (y 2 ϕu2 − 4yzϕuv + 4z 2 ϕv2 − 2ϕv )dz 2 + 2(zϕu2 + 2(y + xz)ϕuv + 4xyϕv2 )dxdy + 2(ϕu + yzϕu2 − 2(z 2 − y 2 )ϕuv − 4yzϕv2 )dydz + 2(yϕu2 + 2(−z + xy)ϕuv − 4xzϕv2 )dxdz. fzn = (n) (−1)n+1 (n − 1)!cn (ax + by + cz)−n . fxyz = (2x+2y +2z +(x+y)(y +z)(x+z))exy+yz+zx . 3. d2 f (x. 4. 7. fxn = (x2 + 2nx + n(n − 1))ex+y . fxn = (xy + n)y n+2 exy . fx3 = y 3 z 3 exyz . y. k + p + r = n. (3) (3) fy3 = (x+z)3 exy+yz+zx . 8. 5. u = xyz. z) = (ϕu2 + 2ϕuv − 2ϕuw + ϕv2 − 2ϕvw + ϕw2 )dx2 + (ϕu2 − 2ϕuv + 2ϕuw + ϕv2 − 2ϕvw + ϕw2 )dy 2 + (ϕu2 − 2ϕuv − 2ϕuw + ϕv2 + 2ϕvw + ϕw2 )dz 2 + 2(ϕu2 − ϕv2 − ϕw2 + 2ϕvw )dxdy + 2(−ϕu2 − ϕv2 + ϕw2 + 2ϕuv )dydz + 2(−ϕu2 + ϕv2 − ϕw2 + 2ϕuw )dxdz. fxyz = (1 + 3xyz + x2 y 2 z 2 )exyz . v = x − y + z. fxn = (−1)n+1 (n − 2 (n) (n) 1)!an (ax + by + cz)−n .z. fxz2 = (x + y)(2 + (x + y)(y + z))exy+yz+zx . y. v = 1 x . fyn = bn sin ax + by + . v = x2 + y 2 − yz y z z 2 . 1. 2. k + p + r = n. fyn = (x3 y 3 + 3nx2 y 2 + 3n(n − 1)xy + (3) (3) n(n − 1)(n − 2))xn−2 exy 2. fxk yp zr = nπ (n) (n) ak bp cr eax+by+cz . 40 (3) (3) (n) (n) (n) (n) (n) (n) (n) (n) . fx2 y = (2yz 2 + xy 2 z 3 )exyz . w = −x + y + z. fyn = (−1)n+1 (n − 1)!(x + y)−n . fxn = an cos ax + by + cz + . d2 f (x. fxk yn−k = (x2 + 2kx + k(k − 1))ex+y . fyn = (−1)n+1 (n − 1)!bn (ax + by + cz)−n . k + p + r = n. 5. fxk yn−k = (−1)n+1 (n − 1)!(x + y)−n . 2 (n) (n) (n) fyn = x2 ex+y . fyn = bn eax+by+cz . fy n = 2 nπ nπ (n) (n) bn cos ax + by + cz + . fxn = an eax+by+cz . fxk yp zr = (−1)n+1 (n − 1)!ak bp z r (ax + by + cz)−n . u = x + yz. 19. fxn = (−1)n+1 (n − 1)!(x + y)−n . 6. fzn = cn eax+by+cz .

5. . − 2) puncte de minim local. 3. (3. 1. nu are puncte de extrem. . (1. 4) punct de minim local. puncte de minim 3 3 3 3 π π 4π 4π 1 1 local. .-144.2) punct de minim local. 2). 2. −1) = −3. f (0) = . 3.0) punct de minim local. punct de maxim 5 5 local. 2. fy (0.0) punct de maxim local. f (1) = −1. 5. ey + x ex+2y − e2x+y + 2(x + y − 1)ex+y + 2yey − 2xex + x2 ex − y 2 ey + 2xy . 0) = 3 3 3 3 1. 0) = 1. − punct de 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 minim local. fxy = z 2 − xy z − xy (z 2 − xy)3 xy 4 + x4 y + x3 z 2 + z 5 + y 3 z 2 − 2xyz 3 − 3x2 y 2 z . (2. puncte de maxim local. (-2. 1 21. f (1) = − 3 . 9.1) punct de minim local.-1) punct de minim local. 2.8) punct de minim local. 10.-2) punct de minim local. 1. . 1 punct de minim 2 2 1 1 local. f (x) = 2xz(3xyz − y 3 − z 3 − x3 ) yz − x2 xz − y 2 . 3. −1) = . 3 (24. . 2) = . punct de minim local. fy (2. fx = 41 . f (0) = . 5. 7. 4. fx (2. 6. 2y + x (2y + x)3 24. 7. (-1.4 2 punct de minim local.3) punct de minim local. (-1. −3. − . 11. 2. − . 3. 9. 5. 4. y) = − . 2) = . 8. ex − y . 2 2 5 23. fx2 = 2 − xy)3 (z z z 25. fy (1. fx2 = . 0) = 0. − . 3. fx (1. (− 2. 0) = −1. fy (1.− . 2. fx (x.1. (z 2 − xy)3 2yz(3xyz − x3 − z 3 − y 3 ) x y fy 2 = . f (0) = . (0. (1. 11. 6. . fx (0. . fy (0.− 3 3 √ √ 4. punct de minim local. √ √ 5 1 ( 2. f (0) = 5 5 3 27 1 3 22 − . f (1) = − . . 28 2 16 1 22. 3. f (x) = − . nu are puncte de extrem local.− punct de minim 3 3 2 local. fx (0. 20. fx (1. 1 1 1 1 4. −2. f (1) = − . f (x) = − .4. −1) = 4. 10. fy = 2 . 4 2 2π 2π 5π 5π 8. 2 nu are puncte de extrem. y) = − . f (x) = (ey + x)3 2x + y 6(x2 + y 2 + xy) 4. −1) = . . fy (x. 12.

1) = −dx. y) = . ¸ . 30. d2 g(0. a 3 . 2 2 2 2 punct de maxim conditionat. 6. y+z y+z x x2 + y 2 5. y) = y+1 y+1 y+1 y+1 x2 − v 2 y2 − v2 u2 − x2 u2 − y 2 . 4. x = 0 2 5 punct de minim local. √ 6.2. (-1. (−3 − √ −3 − 6.1) punct de maxim conditionat. 1) = 8dxdy + 2dy 2 .0) ¸ 2 2 2 2 42 . fy (x. 7. 1) = −4dx2 − 8dxdy − 10dy 2 . ¸ ¸ . . d2 f (1. g (x) = 0. − . dg(0. g (x) = . fy = . −a 8 1 8 puncte de minim local. 3 3 z z z 1 36 4 4 . (1. (-2. 3. . gx = . fx = . 3.− . fy (x.x2 + z 2 y2 + z2 xy − . 4. √(-1. 2. v 1 v y 32. f (1) = − . 1) = 2dx2 + 2dxdy. y) = . 3. fy 2 = − . y y3 1 29. − ¸ punct de maxim conditionat.-1) punct ¸ a2 + b 2 a + b 2 3 1 de minim conditionat. 4. 2 punct de minim conditionat. (2. v 2 − u2 v − u2 v − u2 v − u2 x cos v − sin u x cos v + sin v . g (x) = 0. 5. g (1) = 5 5 25 25 −x − 2xz 2xy − x . (−3 + 6. −a . y) = . x cos v + y cos u x cos v + y cos u ab2 a2 b 33.a puncte de maxim local. df (0.1) punct de minim conditionat. 5. fx (x.-1).2. 2. f (x) = − .a . x = −2 punct de maxim local. y) = 2 . punct 2 2 1 1 3 1 de minim conditionat. gy (x.-2) punct de maxim local. y) = x cos v + y cos u x cos v + y cos u y cos u − sin v y cos u + sin u gx (x. 2. puncte de minim conditionat. − . maxim local. 4. gy = − . (0. f (x) = − . ¸ ¸ √ √ √ √ 2 2 2 2 8. 6. x = 1 punct de maxim local. gx (x. d2 g(1. 1) = 0. −4 + 2 6) punct de maxim local.1) punct de minim local. −a 8 1 8 . g (1) = . gy (x. fx (x. x = punct de 8 3 1 3 1 . 3. d2 f (0. df (1. f (1) = − . −3 + 6. −4 − 2 6) punct de minim local. fxy = − 3 . 1) = 0. √ √ √ 3. x = punct de minim local. 31. (0. y) = 2 . dg(1. 1) = dx + dy. f (x) = 26. a 8 8 8 8 −a 3 . y) = 2 . 3. 1) = −dx − 2dy.

¸ ¸ 3 3 3 4 8 8 punct de minim conditionat. . . f (x) = = = cos2 f = cos f sin f + .2.-1) punct de ¸ ¸ 4 8 8 minim conditionat.√ √ puncte de maxim conditionat. (2. −2 2) punct de minim conditionat. a a2 b2 c2 b a2 b 2 c 2 c a2 b 2 c 2 punct de minim conditionat ¸ x x2 xn xn+1 −ξ + +· · ·+(−1)n +(−1)n+1 e . (-2. . ¸ 3 3 3 4 7 4 7 4 4 4 4 7 .2) puncte de minim conditionat. 7. ¸ −1 −1 −1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + + + + 9.1. (1.1) punct de minim conditionat.1). 11. f (x) = arctan x implic˘ x = a + (−1)n n+1 1 1 π tan f . ¸ .2) punct de minim ¸ conditionat. 3. (2..3. (1. f (x) = 2 1 + x2 1 + tan f 2 π π sin(2f +π)f (x) = sin 2 f + cos2 f. √ ¸ punct de minim conditionat. f (3) (x) = 2·3 sin 3 f + cos3 f. ¸ ¸ √ √ 4 3 punct de minim (2 2. 4. . 7. 4.2. .-2.2).-2) punct de maxim conditionat. 6. (-1.2. 2 2 n π f (n) (x) = (n − 1)!(1 + x2 )− 2 sin n arctan x + 2 x x3 x5 nπ xn arctan x = − + + · · · + sin + 1 3 5 2 n n+1 xn+1 π x x3 x5 (1 + ξ 2 )− 2 sin (n + 1) arctan ξ + . (3. .3) punct de minim ¸ conditionat. . (1. ln(1−x2 ) = −2 s + + + ··· + 2 4 6 n −n−1 −n−1 n+1 ((1 + ξ) + (ξ − 1) )x + (−1)n . − ¸ 5 5 4 3 3 2 conditionat. puncte de maxim conditionat. (−2 2. ¸ 13 13 34.1) punct de maxim conditionat. unde ξ este 1! 2! n! (n + 1)! x2 x4 x6 ((−1)n−1 + 1)xn situat ˆ ıntre 0 ¸i x.-3. ¸ 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 (2. 2. e−x = 1− 43 . punct de maxim conditionat... n+1 5 3 1+x x x ((−1)n−1 − 1)xn 5. − .3. ¸ . ln =2 x+ + + ··· + + 1−x 3 5 n ((1 + ξ)−n−1 − (ξ − 1)−n−1 )xn+1 . sin x = − + + n+1 2 1! 3! 5! 35. 5. . 10. . . 9. 8. − . − . 2 2) punct de maxim conditionat. √ . .− punct de maxim conditionat. 6. ¸ −√ . −√ 5 5 13 13 3 2 punct de maxim conditionat.1.

lim 3 = x→0 x √ √ f (x) 1 3 4. f (x) = 1 + x2 − 1. cos x = 1 − 2! 4! 6! 2 n! (n + 1)! 2 37. f (x) = ex . a = 1. 106. 4. f (x) = −3 − (x + 1) + 9(x + 1)2 − 8(x + 1)3 + 2(x + 1)4 . n = x→1 x − 1 6 √ f (x) f (x) 2. ln 0. f (x) = tan x − sin x. f (x) = cosh 2x − 2. a = 1. lim 2 = 4.1 (0. x = 0. 6. 9 T3. lim 2 = −20.0 = T3. 10. n = 3. n = 2. 48 e 8 · 3! 16 41. f (x) = 3 x + x→0 x 3 √ f (x) 5 x − 2. 395. n = 1. E = |f (x) − 4! 10x3 5 x4 e ξ T2. 5. lim 3 = . n = 2. 8. 7. 9. a = 0. x = .0 (x)| = (x + 1)− 2 ≤ . 3.0 (x)| = ≤ 3 4! 27 · 3! 3 (1 + ξ)8 e 1 x4 −ξ . 5.0 (x)| = ≤ f (x) 42. 2. a = 0. a = 0. E = |f (x) − T3. 8. a = 0. a = 8. 38. 2 n! (n + 1)! 2 nπ xn xn+1 nπ x2 x4 x6 + − + · · · + cos + cos ξ + . 143 81 81 211 81 · 27 √ 1 1 T3. lim 3 = . x = 143. x = 12. n = 3.0 (x)| = e ≤ . eξ x4 e 1 < < . x→0 x 2 44 nπ x4 sin ξ + 4! 2 .144 (143) = 11. 3 e 3 3 1. 39. 2. f (x) = 3 x. 29.0 (x)| = 1 .0 (x)| = 4! 4! 4! 1 (eξ − e−ξ )x3 1 (eξ − e−ξ )x4 ≤ ≤ e− . 4.8 (12) = = 2. E = |f (x) − T3. 6. 3.0 (x)| = ≤ 4 . f (x) = 43 + 93(x − 2) + 86(x − 2)2 + 41(x − 2)3 + 10(x − 2)4 + (x − 2)5 . lim 2 = x→0 x x→0 x 9 f (x) − . 8. a = 0. f (x) = ln(1 + 2x) − sin 2x + 2x2 . f (x) = x→0 x 4 f (x) 1 x 2 e sin x − x − x . 9) = −0. a = 0. E = |f (x) − T2. E = |f (x) − T2. 3 12 T3. a = 0. 2. 3. f (x) = ln x. f (x) = x.0 (x)| = 2 · 3! 12 e 2 · 4! 5 1 1 1 3x3 e− . 4. 9. n = 3.nπ xn xn+1 nπ · · · + sin + sin ξ + . lim = . lim 2 = . f (x) = cos 7x − cos 3x. E = |f (x) − T3. 4! 4! 8 √ √ 743 40. a = x→0 x 3 f (x) 1 0. E = |f (x) − T3. 5. a = 144. f (x) = cos 3x − 1. 958. E = |f (x) − T3. E = 324 √ √ 80 − 11 80 1 5 x 3 < = . n = 2.

(x0 . 4. 95. 96). f (x.(0. (x0 .y0 ) = 4. y) T1. 4! 1 1 1 1 4. 44. (x. 7. 02). (x. f (x. 01). y) = (0.0) .0) . f (x. y.(x0 . 2. y) = 1 + (−14(x − 1) + 18(y − 1)) + (−2(x − 1)2 + 12(x − 1)(y − 1! 2! 1 1 1 2 2 1)+6(y −1) )+ (18(x−1)(y −1) ). z) T2. 3). 7282. 99. 2.(x0 . 7. e sin y = y + 2xy + (3x y − y 3 ) + 1! 2! 3! 1 4 d f (ξ. y) T2. y.y0 . (x. 02. 6348. y0 ) = (1. 003. 02. 4. 01).0 (x)| = 47.(x0 . f (x. (x0 . (x0 . y) T2. y) = (4. y). 8). f (x.z0 ) = 114. 95. y) = (0. de unde ≤ n+1 n+1 10 n + 1 ≥ 103 .(0. 45 . y) = xy . f (x. y) = x2 y 3 . f (x. 2. (x.y0 ) = 26. y0 ) = (4. ex cos y = 1 + x + (x2 − y 2 ) + (x3 − 3xy 2 ) + d4 f (ξ. 3. y0 . f (x. 2. y). y) T1. y) = 5+ (x+y −2)+ (2(x− 3! 1! 2! 1 1 1 2 2 x 2 1) + 2(x − 1)(y − 1) + 2(y − 1) ). y) T2. 6. 3. η)(x. 3. y) = x 3 y.0) . 3). a 1 2 1 (x + y) − (x2 + y 2 ) + (x3 + y 3 ) + 45. 4! √ √ 46. f (x. z) = (1.(0. η)(x. f (x. 3. z0 ) = (1.y0 ) = 0. y0 ) = (1. y) T2. 1! 2! 3! 4! 1 1 5. f (x. η)(x. 3.(1 + ξ)−(n+1) xn+1 1 1 ≤ 3 . 1. y). f (x. (x0 . f (x. 1). ln(1 + x)(1 + y) = 1! 2! 3! 1 4 d f (ξ. 02. adic˘ nmin = 103 − 1. y) = xy 2 z 3 . 5. E = |f (x) − Tn.