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Specify learning outcomes of nalization and integration of the duplication exists in terms of
each study unit which should units of study. However, the author progression and content of
Learning outcomes are a promise demonstrate the link between seized the opportunity to conduct some units of study.
about what students who success- the respective units and the con- an in depth curriculum review of 3. The degree rationalization and
fully complete a course or a unit of ceptual framework and degree the degree using the LOM (Figure integration was adversely affect-
Learning-outcomes approaches to study will know, understand, or be objectives 1) that was specifically developed ed by the arbitrary designation
curriculum design and review able to do as a result. The educa- 4. Develop the content of study for this purpose. The procedure of some of the units of study.
Dhia Al Bakri tional importance of this promise is units guided by the objectives adopted in this review involved: For instance the biophysical
Faculty of Agriculture, Food & Natural Resources that it focuses on what the students and learning outcomes of the science strand was weighted
themselves do, not what the tutor or respective units • analysing background informa- heavily towards land subjects
teacher does. When teaching design tion and historical data on the expense of water content.
5. Develop subject delivery strate-
starts from a foundation of learning • undertaking informal discus- Land-related units accounted
gies for each unit of study that
A learning-outcomes
(LOM) was developed to pro-

vide a basis for efficient curriculum
framework about learning. This may
also be because the members invari-
ably have different perceptions and
outcomes, it is easier to focus on
how students will apply what they
would achieve effective teaching
and learning and measure learn-
sion and consultation with con-
cerned academic staff
for 95 credit points (cp) (50%
of the total degree work load,
learn, and it takes into account that 192 cp). But water-related
design and review of interdisciplin- agendas. Depending on the dynamic ers’ progress and development. • considering formal and informal
learning is about skills as well as units accounted for less than
ary degree programs. The Bachelor and personal politics of the WP, the Assessment of learning out- feedback from current degree
knowledge, and it begins to incor- 25 cp (13% of the total degree
of Land and Water Science (BLWSc) resultant curriculum is invariably comes should be both forma- students,
porate active learning into courses units). Both the remediation
was used as a case study to test the poorly integrated or rationalized tive and summative. Formative • conducting online search of
and sessions (Wareing 2004). technology and socioeconomic
value of LOM. The importance and greatly influenced by the teach- assessment gives students feed- other degrees who offered pro-
back on their work about how strands were underrepresented,
of such conceptual models is the ing agenda with very little emphasis To overcome or minimize the short- grams similar to the BLWSc. This
well they are accomplishing the accounting for less than 7%
emphasis placed on achieving great- on the desired learning outcomes of comings of the curriculum design/ review covered 17 undergradu-
learning outcomes, and helps and 9% of the total degree units
er transparency for both teachers the degree. review process of a given degree, it is ate degrees offered in Australia
them adjust their activities; it respectively
and learners and as tools for plan- imperative that a conceptual model and abroad (e.g. University of
ning teaching and achieving effec- helps students to do better Arizona 2003
is adopted to guide the various stages
tive learning outcomes (D’Andrea Development of Learning - and gives information about edu/swcs/instruction/land_ To overcome some of the above
of this complex process. The LOM
1999). In addition, a solid concep- Outcomes Model (LOM) how successful their teaching water.html, University of deficiencies, the following recom-
(Figure 1) was developed and used as
tual model would provide a basis for is. Summative assessment con- Gloucestershire 2004 www. mendations were suggested:
The design of learning experiences a framework to conduct a compre-
continuous improvement, where the tributes to the course, module, University of
in higher education is becoming hensive, rigorous and efficient review
curriculum is continually monitored or degree result; it produces a Western Australia 2004 http://
increasingly outcome-led through process. The application of LOM
and improved in incremental steps mark or a grade. Summative admission, Develop degree aims and
rational curriculum planning to should proceed in an integrated
(Smith et al., 2001). The overall assessment also contributes to graduate/courses/html/land_ learning outcomes
the development of expressive out- and focused way following the steps
process of curriculum design and the proof that students can and_water_management. Aims: To produce graduates
comes, which includes subject-based, outlined below:
review should aim to produce a do what the course or degree equipped with the necessary knowl-
personal transferable and generic claims that they will be able to
cohesive, balanced and up to date academic outcomes. Learning out- 1. Establish the strategic direc- The LOM has identified the follow- edge, competency, critical think-
degree program that is conducive to do (Wareing 2004). ing, and skills to work as technical
comes represent what is formally tion of the degree by clearly ing main deficiencies in the design
effective learning. assessed and accredited to the stu- stating the aims and learning 6. Conduct regular evaluation and of the then existing curricula: advisers, researchers, managers, or
dent and they offer a starting point outcomes of the study program. review of the study units and teachers in a variety of situations
Given that interdisciplinary degree for a viable design of curricula in This step should be guided by degree program. It is imperative
programs such as the BLWSc are higher education (Allan, 1996). The the University/Faculty’s generic that the curriculum review and
normally developed by incorporat- Learning-Outcomes Model reflects a graduate attributes, number and design seek and incorporate
ing many pre-existing units of study feedback from key stakehold- Learning outcomes are a promise about what
holistic approach to the assessment background of the academics in students who successfully complete a course
sourced from other programs, there of outcomes, based upon the values the faculty, perceived demands ers & take into consideration
is a particular need to ensure that new developments in respective or a unit of study will know, understand,
and mission of the institute. The first from, and background of, pro- or be able to do as a result.
the curriculum is well rationalized step in developing this model is the spective student population, fields.
and integrated. Traditionally, cur- identification of overarching institu- and professional requirements
riculum design and review of these tional learning outcomes that pro- and industry expectation.
degrees is generally carried out by a vide a framework for development Application of LOM 1. Absence of clear reference to related to land and water resources.
2. Develop a conceptual frame-
working party (WP) consisting of of more program-specific learning the strategic direction of the In addition to the technical ability,
work for the degree structure The Bachelor of Land & Water
several academic staff representing outcomes. Collectively, the insti- degree due to lack of state- the graduates will have empathy and
and identify the main study Science (BLWSc) is an interdisci-
relevant departments and schools. tutional and programmatic learn- ments of aims and learning commitment to contribute mean-
strands. This conceptual frame- plinary 4-year degree commenced
The WP party recommendations ing outcomes inform decisions on outcomes. Furthermore, learn- ingfully, if opportunities arise, to
work should accurately reflect in 2000 and an internal curricu-
are invariably based on reaching learning outcomes at the individual ing outcomes of many units of sustainable development, rehabili-
the degree aims and objec- lum review was undertaken during
some sort of consensus about the course level. Assessment methods study were poorly defined and tation and remediation of land and
tives and designate a relative 2003-2004. This review focused
proposed study program. The pro- and tools are subsequently designed integrated. water resources.
weighting for the different study mainly on operational and structur-
cess is largely carried out on an ad to measure achievement of these strands. Develop degree struc- al aspects of the degree. Due to time 2. The degree structure was not
hoc basis and tends to be inefficient intended institutional, program, and Learning outcomes: On the com-
ture and identify core and elec- and resource constraints, very little supported by an articulated
and time consuming due to the course learning outcomes (Hjelm pletion of the degree, the graduates
tive units of study within each analysis was carried out in relation to rationale or a conceptual frame-
lack of an agreed upon conceptual and Baker 2001). should be able to:
strand learning outcomes, content, ratio- work. A degree of overlap or

21 Institute for Teaching and Learning Synergy Issue 23 August 2006 22

Robinson W. The flow Evaluation in Higher Education. it was recom- Biophysical Science (50%) Water. itself on the view that teach- the land component on the also assists in making the review ing should be designed to Teaching. should encompass four main and Watt K. national and interna. 5. Resource Management. focusing on subject’s and stu- focusing on freshwater ecology industry. Perth.) Learning out- comes and information literacy: Conceptual Framework What’s learning outcome? Society & Degree Structure Degree rationalization and 5. and future devel. Socioeconomic strand. The conceptual model NIGERIA. 1. 21 (1): 93-108 over 30 years through asso- ones. (Accessed on 22 July ducing units or modules deal. Biometrics. their learning outcomes.) land and water resources at priate technical and scientific as well as an indicative weighting of Department of Soil. (2004. water science.V. http:// student populations. (1999. dents’ own learning outcomes.html. Articulate statements defining University of Gloucestershire 2004. 35(2):275-288. ance through a continuous curricu- ties within the context of land sound policies and legislation remediation technology strand.) Quality assur- tems and socioeconomic activi. www.Landscape orga- Generic Graduate Demand & Resources indicative weighting were developed units of study. Studies in Higher ary teaching and learning for Content Development mental basis: Education. apply appropriate scientific 4. including relevant Work. advice to land and water users. Strengthen the remediation Learning Outcomes requirements if the degree is to be curriculum design and review of ate/courses/html/land_and_water_ technology strand by intro- certified (policy). institutions in the Middle East. The proposed strands and the learning outcomes of all the its interim report. London. Remediation Technology (20%) Socioeconomics (15%) World Wide Web Edition. and Wright C. it is ing and learning in higher education. Food & Natural Dhia Al Bakri is a Senior further degree rationalization and Resources for reviewing an early Lecturer in Environmental Learning Outcomes integration was required to ensure draft of the paper. Learning & Dalton B.) Learning outcomes in been actively involved in terti- could be implemented on an incre. and students. www. The author wishes to thank The research that was conducted to unit/module in resource man. Ketteridge & S. of study proposed for each strand University of Arizona (2003. Dhia’s biophysical science strand which outcome of the curriculum design presentation at University of Lagos. Rehabilitation. Consultation of lum review process. opment and management of and integration strand.Bakri@usyd. efficient Assessment Strategies Using community input for curricu. His main research areas and interests focus on with the recommended learning The LOM approach provided a sustainable water and catch- outcomes and conceptual frame. community. and research (15%) on a pilot project. of assessment. Bioremediation. To enable students achieve the Study Program ing: Implication from four models and effects of land and water vent resource degradation and learning outcomes of this multi. Education.) BLWSc Evaluating individual student learn- investigate and diagnose causes technological solutions to pre. To ensure that planning. Correct the imbalance in the adversely influence the process and tion and curriculum design. University of Western Australia academics in the faculty. Recycling. Course information. Further improve the content received from the Sustainable Development between the biophysical sys. tribution from all stakeholders and (Accessed on 25 June 2004). PP 5-8. (2001. Invited Europe and Australia. produce and critically analyse Climate. Management at the University of Units of Study that the curriculum is consistent Conclusions of Sydney. Engineering Resource Economic. professional can be adapted to conduct sound admission. Cheltenham. process comprehensive. Figure 1. of Agriculture. Allan J. 26 land and water resources chart (see Figure 2) shows the areas Figure 2. These statements vides a suitable framework to seek nization and water resource manage- Attributes Background of Available taking into consideration: Degree should be consistence with the and incorporate much needed con. Learning-outcomes model (LOM) for curriculum design and review and progression of the current 23 Institute for Teaching and Learning Synergy Issue 23 August 2006 24 . To contact Dhia about this offering some of the current ing and learning: Outcomes-based work. points). core land units as optional.’ in Fry. Pollution Policy.. and biochemistry as well as should be an integral and critical D’Andrea V.) Engineering educa. Treatment Smith C. Learning Abstracts. opment of new technology (Dalton ate study programs and can enhance ing with pollution control and and Wright 1999). This approach minimises sub- of Units of Study ciation with several academic jectivity and potential bias that may Badiru A. use models to assess and pre. rehabilitation technology Wareing number and background of the comes and used to guide the establish a sound basis to facilitate future reviews and Prospective Students aims and learning objectives. (2002.) Bachelor of Science-Land demands from the professional and units. internal review committee prepares (Accessed on 30 September 2003). Geology. of total study load of 192 credit 3. This can be achieved by and cost–effective. apply integrated catchment Proposed conceptual Kogan Page. Feedback part of the process. sound rationale to develop new References ment management He has work. Water and the local. other undergraduate and postgradu. approach to education builds is weighted heavily in favour of and review. total degree aims and learning out. GIS Control. 2004). Ecology. anticipated contribution to the total units dealing with surface and recommended that this consulta. dict environmental impact of anthropogenic activities on 6. explain the interconnectedness and water resources mended that the study program Geomorphology. The LOM pro.) Organising teach. study load (given as percentages ground water hydrology tion should be undertaken after the swcs/instruction/land_water. Acknowledgement of College. degradation and pollution to rehabilitate degraded land disciplinary degree. the various strands in terms of their Environmental Sciences: Land and tional levels managers and policy makers. ment.) foster students’ learning and expense of the water compo. email: Monitoring. Proposed conceptual framework of the BLWSc degree (5): 489-502.. facilitate their development as Degree Aims & 4. Dr W. H. Soil.. (2001. 1. methods and techniques to management strategies and framework Hjelm M. & Review meaningful and timely feedback is Marshall (eds). Biology. The author believes that the LOM and water Environmental 2. perceived content development of the (2004. Journal of Social professionals and scholars by introducing new units/modules the stakeholders. D. management. and Baker R. Assessment and 3. Chemistry. communicate effectively appro. scientific data for formulating strands: Biophysical science strand. A Handbook on teach- 2. (1999. Herbert D. Research & Integration lum review (CCR) strategy: reflections and water management concerning sustainable devel. the following improvements degree program and identify weak. nesses and shortcomings in existing higher education. Vervoort of the Faculty develop the LOM has revealed that agement. National and University unit integration ics strand by offering a core Libraries. (1996. UK. Consolidate the socioeconom. 4 (3).