Introduction Packaging is the science, art, and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and
use. Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages. Package labelling is any written, electronic, or graphic communications on the packaging or on a separate but associated label. Packaging is heavily integrated into our daily lives, we see it all around us, on everyday items such as chocolate bars and potato chip (crisp) packets- As explained below, the main use for packaging is protection of the goods inside, but packaging also provides us with a recognisable logo, or packaging, we instantly know what the goods are inside.
The importance of packaging
The importance of packaging can be summarised as follows: * Adequate packaging aids distribution. * Rapid and reliable distribution helps reduce malnutrition, removes local food surpluses and allows the consumer more choice in the foods available. * Packaging and distribution reduce post harvest losses, this together with a larger market allows producers to increase their income. Therefore, inadequate packaging in developing countries has profound effects on the whole pattern and total amount of food consumed.
Functions of packaging
Packaging is a means of providing the correct environmental conditions for food during the length of time it is stored and/or distributed to the consumer. A good package has to perform the following functions: * It must keep the product clean and provide a barrier against dirt and other contaminants. * It should prevent losses. Its design should provide protection and convenience in handling, during transport, distribution and marketing. In particular, the size, shape and weight of the packages must be considered. * It must provide protection to the food against physical and chemical damage (eg water and water vapour, oxidation, light) and insects and rodents. * It must provide identification and instruction so that the food is used correctly and have sales appeal.
Different packaging materials: a) Paper based packaging 1) Paper Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. While the fibers used are usually natural in origin, a wide variety of synthetic fibers, such as polypropylene and polyethylene, may be incorporated into paper as a way of imparting desirable physical properties. The most common source of these kinds of fibers is wood pulp from pulpwood trees, largely softwoods and hardwoods, such as spruce and aspen respectively. Other vegetable fiber materials including those of cotton, hemp, linen, and rice may be used.
a) Fiber processing/pulping Wood or plant cell walls are composed of fibers bound together. During pulping, these fibers are separated from each other and carbohydrate surfaces, primarily cellulose or hemicellulose, are exposed. Hydrogen bonding between these carbohydrate surfaces gives paper its strength. Fibers can be separated chemically, mechanically, or via a combination of the two. b) Chemical pulping Most chemical pulp is made using the Kraft process. The purpose of a chemical pulping process is to break down the chemical structure of lignin and render it soluble in the cooking liquor, so it may be washed from the cellulose fibers. Because lignin holds the plant cells together, chemical pulping frees the fibers and makes pulp. After Kraft pulping the pulp can be used directly for bags and boxes or further delignifed, during bleaching, to produce white pulp for printing and writing. Chemical pulps tend to cost more than mechanical pulps, largely due to the low yield, 40-50% of the original wood. Since the process preserves fiber length, however, chemical pulps tend to make stronger paper. Another advantage of chemical pulping is that the majority of the heat and electricity needed to run the process is produced by burning the lignin removed during pulping. c) Mechanical pulping There are two major mechanical pulps, thermomechanical pulp (TMP) and groundwood. In the TMP process wood is chipped and then fed into large steam-heated refiners where the chips are squeezed and fiberized between two steel discs. In the groundwood process debarked logs are fed in into grinders where they are pressed against rotating stones and fiberized. Mechanical pulping does not remove the lignin, so the yield is very high, >
95%, but also causes paper made from this pulp to yellow and become brittle over time. Mechanical pulps have rather short fiber lengths and produce weak paper. Although large amounts of electrical energy are required to produce mechanical pulp, it costs less than chemical pulp. Paper recycling processes can use either chemical or mechanical pulp. By mixing with water and applying mechanical action the hydrogen bonds in the paper can be broken and fibers separated again. Drying After the paper web is produced, the water must be removed from it in order to create a usable product. This is accomplished through pressing and drying. The methods of doing so vary between the different processes used to make paper, but the concepts remain the same. Pressing the sheet removes the water by force. Once the water is forced from the sheet, another absorbent material must be used to collect this water. On a paper machine this is called a felt (not to be confused with the traditional felt). When making paper by hand, a blotter sheet is used. Drying involves using air and or heat to remove water from the paper sheet. In the earliest days of papermaking this was done by hanging the paper sheets like laundry. In more modern times, various forms of heated drying mechanisms are used. On the paper machine, the most common is the steam-heated can dryer. These dryer cans heat to temperatures above 200°F (93°C) and are used in long sequences of more than 40 cans. The heat produced by these can easily dry the paper to less than 6% moisture. The paper may then undergo "sizing" to alter its physical properties for use in various applications. 1.2) Applications For packaging:
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corrugated box paper bag envelope wrapping tissue wallpaper
As paper is produced from natural fibres, its mechanical properties depend upon their individual strength, their length, orientation and the degree of inter-fibre bonding which can be achieved. Flow patterns in the lay-down of separate fibre layers are one aspect which can be improved by mechanical and electrostatic techniques.
3) Types of paper 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Kraft paper Butter paper Glassine paper Asphalt paper Vegetable parchment paper Wax paper Pouch paper
food packaging paper Various sizes and designs acceptable Paper material: 24g anti-oil and anti-water paper for food packaging
Greaseproof paper 4
Glassine paper (having butter paper lining of butter)
Tetra bricks (Made of paper-aluminum-PE seven-layer laminated material Suit for milk.12 months)
Different confectionery paper packaging materials( pouch papers)
. fruit and vegetable juice packaging. Shelf life up to 8 .
2) Paperboard Paperboard is a paper-like material. paperboard is referred to by weight (pounds per 1000 square feet (MSF) or edge-crush pounds per lineal inch for stacking strength properties).e. bulk and caliper are significant aspects to paperboard manufacture. boxboard etc. 0. lay term used to refer to any heavy paper-pulp based board.
2. corrugating medium. as manufacturers dealing with environmental. as the end product must be able to withstand the bending forces of packaging. Other types of paperboard are used for folding cartons. set-up boxes. and later when he began marketing it to the general public. usually over ten mils in thickness. etc. and especially products from certified sustainable sources.)..009" thick paperboard is also known as 9-point) or by name (foodboard. Thickness. though in modern times the sealed bag is plastic and is kept inside the box rather than outside. pressure (pounds per square inch). are receiving new attention. and regulatory issues look to renewable resources to meet increasing demand. carded packaging. Consequently. non-specific. health. This marked the origin of the cereal box. Cardboard is a generic.1) Types of paperboard 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Kraft board Non bending board Chip board Solid bleached sulphate board Single white liner board
. load carrying. Within the industry.i. these paperboard products are usually comprised of two or more plies to provide the required stiffness. Today paperboard packaging in general. by thickness (by thousandths of an inch. shipping etc. Some types of paperboard (corrugated medium and linerboard) are used in the construction of Corrugated fiberboard. while still maintaining their shape. or 'points' . It is now mandatory in many countries for paper-based packaging to be manufactured wholly or partially composed of recycled as well as tree-free fibers. Will Keith Kellogg first used paperboard folding cartons to hold flaked corn cereal. a heat-sealed waxed bag of Waxtite was wrapped around the outside of the box and printed with their brand name.
By the start of the 20th century. Box Manufacturers often certify the strength of boxes by imprinting a Box Maker's Certificate (BMC) on the bottom of cartons. Cases. 3. The modern method of testing the stacking strength of a corrugated box is called the Box Compression Test (BCT).
. came about as a result of an accident: he was a Brooklyn printer and paper-bag maker during the 1870s. corrugated boxes began replacing the custom-made wooden crates and boxes previously used for trade. and while he was printing an order of seed bags a metal ruler normally used to crease bags shifted in position and cut the bag.3) Corrugated Fiberboard Corrugated Fiberboard describes paper-based constructions of a fluted corrugated medium and flat linerboard(s). sustainable materials in plentiful supply and the board is fully recyclable and can be pulped down to make more paper for more board once it has ended its own life. potato or tapioca. consisting of pre-cut flat pieces manufactured in bulk that folded into boxes. This will contain the name of the company that made the box as well as the city and state where it was manufactured along with the pertinent test information. etc) The Scottish-born Robert Gair invented the corrugated box in 1842.1) Prefabricated Boxes (Cartons. Gair's invention. It is widely used in the manufacture of corrugated boxes and shipping containers. or "medium") which resists crushing under compression and gives cushioning protection to the box's contents. The board has high end-to-end strength along the corrugated flutes. Extending this to corrugated boxboard was a straightforward development when the material became available. The "liner" and "medium" (outer and inner portion of the final corrugated board product) are glued together along the outsides of the peaks and valleys of each flute. Gair discovered that by cutting and creasing board in one operation he could make prefabricated cartons. usually over ten mils in thickness. Thus the complete make-up of corrugated board is from natural. Paperboard is a paper-like material. To measure the resistance against penetration of the box wall the bursting strength test (known as a Mullen Test) is used. normally using starch adhesives. Some types of paperboard (corrugated medium and linerboard) are used in the construction of Corrugated Fiberboard. wheat. 3. The starch is derived from corn.2) Board contruction Today's corrugated board usually consists of outer flat sheets (liners) of punctureresistant paper sandwiching a central "filling" of corrugated short-fibre paper (fluted paper. as with so many other great innovations. so the box is normally designed with the flutes running vertically for stacking strength.
improving the return to the producers and opening up hitherto unaffordable export markets. "E" and "F" or microflute. The letter designation relates to the order that the flutes were invented. etc. microflute is manufactured for fine printed packaging or displays or presentation packaging for high-value contents such as spirits.Paper made from hardwood. "E" flute=1/16 inch thick. Double and triple-wall corrugated is also manufactured for specialized industrial applications and.4) Application The corrugated box was initially used for packaging glass and pottery containers. which are easily broken in transit. "B" flute is approximately 1/4 inch from the top of one flute to the next. "C". having been bulk loaded into it. not the relative sizes. Paper made from softwoods. "C" Flute is 5/16 inch from flute to flute or 42 flutes per lineal foot. Flute size refers to the number of flutes per lineal foot. then erected. the case enabled fruit and produce to be brought from the farm to the retailer without bruising. Later.3) Flute selection Common flute sizes are "A". (There had previously been a great deal of waste when. for example. 3. with their longer fibres. is strong in tension and resists puncturing and tearing better and is less plastic. It also provides a better surface for printing.)
. but is weak in tension and tears easily. For example. They can be compressed and baled for cost effective transport to anywhere in need of fibre for papermaking. "B". filled and closed at packing stations. on the other hand. short fibre pulp. Board thickness is an unreliable metric. Old corrugated boxes are an excellent source of fibre for recycling. Thus they help developing countries without sustainable wood resources build a paper and packaging industry locally and develop their exports to global markets. a rough guide is: "C" flute=5/32 inch thick. Almost all corrugated boxes are shipped flat for ease and economy of transport. or 50 flutes per foot. so tends to keep its shape. 3. oranges were craned out of the hold of a ship. However. jewellery. at the other extreme. perfume. has good compression strength and is easily moldable with moisture and heat. "B" flute=1/8 inch thick. "E" flute is 1/8 inch flute to flute or 90 flutes per lineal foot. due to various manufacturing conditions.
White corrugated box
In 1953. Subsequent landmarks in polyethylene synthesis have revolved around the development of several types of catalyst that promote ethylene polymerization at more mild temperatures and pressures. was discovered in 1976 in Germany by Walter Kaminsky and Hansjörg Sinn. the German chemist Karl Ziegler developed a catalytic system based on titanium halides and organoaluminum compounds that worked at even milder conditions than the Phillips catalyst. developed this accident into a reproducible high-pressure synthesis for polyethylene that became the basis for industrial LDPE production beginning in 1939. however. The reasons for this are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) lower costs than other materials Lower energy content Wider range of properties More scope in forming and shape Light weight coupled with strength Easier disposal after use. A third type of catalytic system.. The Ziegler and metallocene catalyst families have since proven to be very flexible at copolymerizing ethylene with other olefins and have become the basis for the wide range of polyethylene resins available
. the experiment was at first difficult to reproduce. they again produced a white waxy material. By the end of the 1950s both the Phillips and Ziegler type catalysts were being used for HDPE production. and both methods are used in industrial practice.b) PLASTICS The use of plastics in packaging has increased markedly over the last few decades. one based on metallocenes. Upon applying extremely high pressure (several hundred atmospheres) to a mixture of ethylene and benzaldehyde. Michael Perrin. The first of these was a chromium trioxide based catalyst discovered in 1951 by Robert Banks and John Hogan at Phillips Petroleum. The Phillips catalyst is less expensive and easier to work with. It was not until 1935 that another ICI chemist.
→ History & Discovery
Polyethylene was first synthesized by the German chemist Hans von Pechmann. who prepared it by accident in 1898 while heating diazomethane. particularly for foods and drinks.. Since the reaction had been initiated by trace oxygen contamination in their apparatus. England. The first industrially practical polyethylene synthesis was discovered (again by accident) in 1933 by Eric Fawcett and Reginald Gibson at the ICI works in Northwich.
It can be produced through radical polymerization. The temperature at which these occur varies strongly with the type of polyethylene. The melt point for average commercial low-density polyethylene is typically 105-115 °C.non toxic. and HDPE grades have excellent chemical resistance and do not dissolve at room temperature because of the crystallinity. loudspeakers. trichlorobenzene). lighter than water. including VLDPE. An addition polymer made from the monomer propylene. ion coordination polymerization or cationic addition polymerization. the metallocenes were the most active single-site catalysts for ethylene polymerisation known . For common commercial grades of medium-density and highdensity polyethylene. have (as of 2005) begun to replace aramids in many high-strength applications. textiles. Polyethylene (other than cross-linked polyethylene) usually can be dissolved at elevated temperatures in aromatic hydrocarbons (i. work by Fujita at the Mitsui corporation (amongst others) has demonstrated that certain salicylaldimine complexes of Group 4 metals show substantially higher activity than the metallocenes. in the form of fibers like Dyneema. it is rugged and 11
Polyethylene is a thermoplastic commodity made by the chemical industry and heavily used in consumer products
Polyethylene is a long chain . that may allow greater tuning of the polymer structure than is possible with metallocenes.. Recently.partially crystalline polymer . automotive components. and polymer banknotes. Much effort is currently being exerted on developing new single-site (so-called postmetallocene) catalysts. Most LDPE.produced by polymerization of ethene.low temperature resistant and provides good electrical insulation.e. including food packaging. thermal pants and shirts made for the military.
→ Chemical & physical properties
Depending on the crystallinity and molecular weight. laboratory equipment. it is highly water resistant. and LLDPE.e. plastic parts and reusable containers of various types. Each of these methods results in a different type of polyethylene. Until recently. trichloroethane. a melting point and glass transition may or may not be observable. made by the chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications. chemical resistant. anionic addition polymerization. It is tasteless.new catalysts are typically compared to zirconocene dichloride. MDPE. the melting point is typically in the range 120-130 °C. xylene) or chlorinated solvents (i. Such resins. Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer. toluene.
and the molecular weight.burst strength. a. It is an excellent barrier to water and water vapors. It can also be made opaque and/or have many kinds of colors. It has density range of 0. acrylic or certain other plastics can be made. b. f.unusually resistant to many chemical solvents. its Young's modulus is also intermediate.
Most commercial polypropylene has an intermediate level of crystallinity between that of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE). Although it is less tough than HDPE and less flexible than LDPE. it is much more brittle than HDPE. Its resin identification code is . Polypropylene is rugged. and can be made translucent when uncolored but not completely transparent as polystyrene.. g. which means that the chains do not pack into the crystal structure as well. c. h.
→ Classification of Polyethylene
Polyethylene is classified into several different categories based mostly on its density and branching. Very thin sheets of polypropylene are used as a dielectric within certain high performance pulse and low loss RF capacitors. This allows polypropylene to be used as a replacement for engineering plastics.impact resistance. are made from this material. LDPE is created by free radical polymerization This results in a lower tensile strength and increased ductility. but not a good barrier to
. often somewhat stiffer than some other plastics.and catalyst involved.910 . so that most plastic living hinges. such as ABS. i. e. reasonably economical. It has therefore less strong intermolecular forces as the instantaneous-dipole induced-dipole attraction is less. the crystal structure. bases and acids. LDPE (low density PE) LLDPE (linear low density PE) HDPE (high density PE) Polypropylene (PP) Polystyrene (PS) Cellulose Acetate (Cac) Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Polyvinylidene chloride (PVdC)
a) LDPE (Low density PE) It is the largest polymer used in food packaging in both the film and blow molded form. such as those on flip-top bottles.940 g/cc. The mechanical properties of PE depend significantly on variables such as the extent and type of branching.0. Polypropylene has very good resistance to fatigue. LDPE has a high degree of short and long chain branching. d.
. d) Polypropylene Polypropylene has a melting point of 320 degrees Fahrenheit (160 degrees Celsius). and 1-octene). c) HDPE (High density PE) HDPE is defined by a density of greater or equal to 0. 1-hexene. Such containers provide a good hands-on example of the difference in modulus.925 g/cc. its permeability to oxygen is fairly high so where oxidation is likely to be a problem. Lower thickness (gauge) films can be blown compared to LDPE. LDPE is used for both rigid containers and plastic film applications such as plastic bags and film wrap. Exhibits higher impact and puncture resistance than LDPE. These compounds are absorbed by LDPEwhich then swells.excellent protection against moisture.. The lack of branching is ensured by an appropriate choice of catalyst (e. garbage containers and water pipes. particularly to acids. HDPE is used in products and packaging such as milk jugsmargarine tubs. The high degree of branches with long chains gives molten LDPE unique and desirable flow properties. It posseses a much more linear structure than LDPE & has more of crystallinity . flexibility. alkalis. b) LLDPE (Linear low density PE) It has density range of 0. and relative transparency. but is sensitive to oils and greases. 1-butene. HDPE can be produced by chromium/silica catalysts.HDPE film is stiff and much harde than LDPE. inorganic solutions. commonly made by copolymerization of ethylene with short-chain alpha-olefins (e.gases. since the rubbery (softer. Ziegler-Natta catalysts or metallocene catalysts. It has excellent chemical resistance.0. and do not melt during industrial hot filling processes.it has better resistance to oils and greases . Food containers made from it will not melt in the dishwasher. Lower thickness (gauge) may be used compared to LDPE. is a substantially linear polymer.g. with better environmental stress cracking resistance compared to LDPE but is not as easy to process LLDPE is used in packaging. Chromium catalysts or Ziegler-Natta catalysts) and reaction conditions.g.915 . Rugged. with significant numbers of short branches. For this reason. Heat sealing properties are poor. decreased gas permeability and more opaque than LDPE. Many plastic items for medical or laboratory use can be made from polypropylene because it can withstand the heat in an autoclave. low density polythene is not suitable. LLDPE has higher tensile strength than LDPE.941 g/cc. After the product has cooled. particularly film for bags and sheets. LLDPE is used predominantly in film applications due to its toughness. most plastic tubs for dairy products are polypropylene sealed with aluminium foil (both heat-resistant materials). HDPE has a low degree of branching and thus stronger intermolecular forces and tensile strength. such as LDPE or polystyrene. the tubs are often given lids of a cheaper (and less heat-resistant) material. reusable plastic containers made in a wide
. translucent. more flexible) feeling of LDPE with respect to PP of the same thickness is readily apparent.
Its has excellent grease resistance and more resistant to solvents. both of which commonly have rather similar appearance. the containers are often made of slightly more economical polyethylene. Plastic pails.variety of shapes and sizes for consumers from various companies such as Rubbermaid and Sterilite are commonly made of polypropylene.003in) thick. blow moulded and extruded into film and sheet. because each methyl group takes up space and constrains backbone bending. as shown.
Plastic wrap. It can be injection moulded. although the lids are often made of somewhat more flexible LDPE so they can snap on to the container to close it. It has high resistance to fatiguewhen flexed. car batteries. wastebaskets. It is harder than either . Polyvinyl chloride is produced by polymerization of the monomer vinyl chloride.013mm (0. The relative orientation of each methyl group (CH3 in the figure at left) relative to the methyl groups on neighboring monomers has a strong effect on the finished polymer's ability to form crystals. cooler containers. Although rigid polymer.007 to 0. 14
. It is similar chemically to low density polyethylene and high density polyethylene. When liquid. and properties at ambient temperature. e) Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinyl chloride (IUPAC Polychloroethene) commonly abbreviated PVC. from 0.it is not subject to stress cracking. powdered. dishes and pitchers are often made of polypropylene or HDPE. typically sold on rolls in boxes with a cutting edge. clings to many smooth surfaces and can thus remain tight over the opening of a container with no adhesive or other devices.it is more resilient than polystyrene. is a widely used thermoplastic polymer. known as cling-film in the United Kingdom. although transparent plastics such as polyethylene terephthalate are also used for appearance. is a thin polymer material. feel.
An important concept in understanding the link between the structure of polypropylene and its properties is tacticity. The wrap.has less waxy feel. or similar consumer products come in disposable plastic bottles which do not need the improved properties of polypropylene. typically used for sealing food items in containers to keep them fresh.
In Hong Kong. LDPE is gaining market share because it is purportedly safer. un-even thickness.
Materials used Plastic wrap was first made from PVC. PVC is the most common. Historically.
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Easy to pull out of the box and easily separated by the cutter. some countries are starting to ban the use of PVC in toys for infants and food contact applications. but will not cling heavily to itself. or gel. High tensile strength and puncture resistant so that the film will not easily break apart. a company named Fine Vantage Limited is the major private label LDPE plastic wrap manufacturer. as the material is told to be toxic and harder to recycle. can offer plastic wrap testing to certify it is suitable for food contact and has the right tensile strength. It is excellent oil and grease resistant. More and more countries over the world are concerned about the environmental impact of PVC. It is also problematic to achieve full polymerization of the material. In Australia and New Zealand. Cling well with glass. Glad wrap.Commonly known brands of plastic wrap in the United States include Saran wrap.
. Even so. such as SGS. Characteristics An ideal plastic wrap should meet the following user expectations. Glad wrap is the leading brand. For household use. This is difficult to achieve. tension marks. Saran wrap is the genericized trademark. film wrinkles. It is splouble in esters and ketones and is attacked by aromatic hydrocarbons. For food catering applications. Nevertheless. PVC has good gas barrier properties and is moderate barrier to moisture vapour. known well enough to make its manufacturer concerned about its trademark becoming genericized. Close to total transparency with no haze. PVC is still used because its stretching properties offer excellent food catering presentation on the shelf. but non-PVC alternatives are now being sold because of concerns about the risk in transfer of plasticizers from PVC into food. Chemically.  In Canada. and Stretch-Tite. Some testing labs. about 30% of imported food-related products are fined by the customs officer because of a failure to meet packaging requirements. Packaged in a food-grade recyclable plastic or paper box printed with soy ink. which remains the most common material. and it clings well to more kinds of surfaces. it is resistant to weak or strong acids and alkalis. as plastic wrap is only 7 to 15 microns thick. ceramics and stainless steel. which could contain remains of vinyl chloride.
Natural polymers of LDPE and PVdC are insufficiently clingy on their own. It can be cast into molds with fine detail. an apothecary in Berlin. Pure solid polystyrene is a colorless. but can be melted at higher temperature for molding or extrusion.The original Saran Wrap is made of polyvinylidene chloride (PVdC).f) Polyvinylidene chloride (PVdC). the most common two are polyisobutene (PIB). which is less clingy than PVC. a liquid hydrocarbon that is commercially manufactured from petroleum by the chemical industry. and poly[ethylene-vinylacetate] (EVA) copolymer. Saran Premium Wrap. making the foods wrapped in it less subject to freezer burn. Styrene is an aromatic monomer. The most popularly known use of polyvinylidene chloride came in 1953. is based on LDPE as well. for example cheeses or fatty fish and meat A common alternative to PVC is low density polyethylene (LDPE). g) Polystyrene Polystyrene is a polymer made from the monomer styrene. but phthalates (most often dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). in spite of being prohibited in most countries. Newer production processes are closing the clingy gap between PVC and LDPE. The PVC-based films contain plasticizers. Germany. but also does not contain traces of potentially toxic additives. PVdC has better barrier properties than the more-permeable LDPE. It can be heat sealed. Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) is sometimes added to the material. and polystyrene is an aromatic polymer. also cause concern. most often bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA). Polystyrene can be transparent or can be made to take on
. then resolidified. polystyrene is normally a solid thermoplastic. certain polymers with lower molecular weight have to be added. a newer version of Saran Wrap. it has lower permeability to watervapour and and gases.. At room temperature. Their chains readily interact with each other and their lower molecular weight makes them more mobile within the host polymer matrix. as it increases the clinginess and the tensile strength of the film. The plasticizers were found to migrate to some foods.  Brands like Glad Cling Wrap or HandiWrap are LDPE-based. when Saran Wrap. Polystyrene was accidentally discovered in 1839 by Eduard Simon. LDPE is substantially cheaper and easier to make.However. and they do not adhere to themselves. PVdC is a copolymer of vinylidene chloride with vinyl chloride ued either for film or as coating. hard plastic with limited flexibility. a plastic food wrap was introduced. To achieve the desired clinginess.
thermoforming applications. 2) Polyesters Polyester is a category of polymers. flexibility. Deep gloss . food and other liquid containers. It has high rate of water vapor and gas transmission. Polyethylene terephthalate (aka PET.clarity. but increase its elongation and tear strength. beverage. It is sensitive to moisture and is dimensionally not stable. However these properties are dependent on humidity. which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. It is high in brittleness and to overcome this synthetic rubber can be incorporated h) Cellulose Acetate (Cac) Cellulose acetate is an amorphous thermoplastic material belonging to the cellulosic resin family. grease and solvent. PVOH is not prepared by polymerization of the corresponding monomer. emulsifying. as well as high oxygen and aroma barrier. good toughness. i) Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) Unlike most vinyl polymers. and greases. acetaldehyde. It has fairly high tensile strength. It is not heat seal able .Used as a water-soluble film useful for packaging. Therefore used in packaging of fresh fruits and vegetables. and adhesive properties. PVA has a melting point of 230°C and 180-190°C for the fully hydrolysed and partially hydrolysed grades.
. It softens at about 90-95° C. it is soluble in ketones. It is obtained by introducing the acetyl radical of acetic acid into cellulose (as cotton or wood fibres) to produce a tough plastic material. commercially it is sealed with solvent adhesives.it is resistant to strong acids and alkalis and is insolouble in aliphatic hydrocarbons and lower alcohols. higher alcohols . It is also resistant to oil. vinyl alcohol. PVA instead is prepared by partial or complete hydrolysis of polyvinyl acetate to remove acetate groups.aromatic hydrocarbons. it has high melting-point. or. oils. PETE or the obsolete PETP or PET-P) is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family that produced by the chemical industry and is used in synthetic fibers. and engineering resins often in combination with glass fiber. but is solouble in esters .ketones and chlorinated hydrocarbons. PVA also decomposes rapidly above 200°C. more specifically condensation polymers. with higher humidity more water is absorbed. and is intrinsically brittle. The monomer. The water which acts as a plasticiser will then reduce its tensile strength. in other words. chemicals. Polyvinyl alcohol has excellent film forming. It is one of the most important raw materials used in man-made fibers. almost exclusively exists as the tautomeric form. PVOH is an atactic material but exhibits crystallinity as the hydroxyl groups are small enough to fit into the lattice without disrupting it. It has high tensile strength.various colors. esters and alcohols. High transparency and good resistance to ultraviolet light. Furthermore. its has poor moisture barrier.
PET is often coated with aluminium to reduce its permeability. PET or Dacron is also used as a thermal insulation layer on the outside of the International Space Station as seen in an episode of Modern Marvels "Sub Zero". as well as a good barrier to alcohol (requires additional "Barrier" treatment) and solvents. Impet and Rynite. PET bottles are excellent barrier materials and are widely used for soft drinks. it may exist both as an amorphous (transparent) and as a semi-crystalline (opaque and white) material. Polymerization is through a polycondensation reaction of the monomers (done immediately after esterification/transesterification) with ethylene glycol as the byproduct (the ethylene glycol is recycled in production). In discussing textile applications. and Dacron. depending on its thickness. Melinex and Mylar films. Ertalyte. When produced as a thin film (often known by the tradename Mylar). It is strong and impact-resistant. PET is generally referred to as simply "polyester" while "PET" is used most often to refer to packaging applications. Terylene & Trevira fibers. It makes a good gas and fair moisture barrier. 
Chemical structure of polyethylene terephthalate
Light absortion spectrum of polyethylene terephthalate measured using a light spectrophotometer (Cary PET can be semi-rigid to rigid. (see carbonation). For certain specialty bottles. Hostaphan. It is naturally colorless and transparent.
. and is very lightweight. Its monomer can be synthesized by the esterification reaction between terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol with water as a byproduct or the transesterification reaction between ethylene glycol and dimethyl terephthalate with methanol as a byproduct. The majority of the world's PET production is for synthetic fibers (in excess of 60%) with bottle production accounting for around 30% of global demand. It is manufactured under trade names Arnite. PET sandwiches an additional polyvinyl alcohol to further reduce its oxygen permeability. and to make it reflective and opaque.Depending on its processing and thermal history.
food containers (PP. is also an excellent candidate for thermal recycling (incineration) as it is composed of carbon. it becomes significantly stiffer and more durable.When filled with glass particles or fibers. PET. hydrogen and oxygen with only trace amounts of catalyst elements (no sulfur) and has the energy content of soft coal. PET. This glass-filled plastic. The PET bottle was patented in 1973. in a semi-crystalline formulation. PET.PVC with many colors)
coextruded plastic films(printed)
. PS. PVC)
plastic food tray(Material: PP. as with many plastics. PET was patented in 1941 by the Calico Printers' Association of Manchester. PET bottle recycling is more practical than many other plastic applications. PET has a resin identification code of 1. is sold under the tradename Rynite
While all thermoplastics are technically recyclable. The primary reason is that plastic carbonated soft drink bottles and water bottles are almost exclusively PET which makes them more easily identifiable in a recycle stream.
spoilage.Reverse Printed PET Film / Multilayer Polythene Film: It is used for packing Food & Non-food items. These packing materials are durable and hence provide the needed protection of the products avoiding spillage. Laminated HDPE/PP Woven Bags These are used for attractive bulk packs used for packing bulk food.
. etc. infestation. atta.
blowing. zipped. seal-inthe-middle. frozen food. etc. milk powder. three-side-sealed. meat. spices. seafood. The styles are mainly stand up. with handle or hanger hole. nearly including all kinds of foods). pets food. juice.plastic packaging pouches and film used for food (for coffee or coffee beans. noshes. heat-cut.
. heat-sealed. sauces. cold-cut.
PE 2) Suitable for dozens of food packaging.PA. and it revolutionized the packaging industry. Cellophane was invented by Jacques E. which reacts with the cellulose and dissolves it to form a viscous. is treated with strong alkali in a process known as mercerization. daily chemical products and tea packaging 3) Good printing quality. Cellophane's low permeability to air. known as dissolving pulp. The cellophane is now clear. CPP. It first appeared commercially in the United States in 1924. a Swiss textiles engineer in 1908. which is white like cotton and contains 92–98% cellulose.
. low temperature heat sealing property. the viscose passes through a long slot into a bath of ammonium sulfate which causes it to coagulate. The mercerized pulp is aged for several days. transparent sheet made of processed cellulose.. pet food. which had been using opaque waxed paper or glassine as wrapping materials. To make cellophane. Cellophane is manufactured in a process that is very similar to that for rayon. grease and bacteria makes it useful for food packaging. orange solution of cellulose xanthate known as viscose. Brandenberger. AL. The coagulated viscose is then put into an acidic bath that returns the cellulose to its original. Rayon fibers are formed by forcing the viscose through a small hole into an acid bath that regenerates the original cellulose while carbon disulfide is given off. Special wood pulp. beverage.1) Material: lamination from high quality BOPP. PET. agriculture. excellent moisture. high transparency. oxygen and gas barrier 3) Films and foils a) Cellophane Cellophane is a thin. insoluble form. shredded pulp is then treated with carbon disulfide. The aged.
the use of the word "cellophane" has been genericized. which opened a major factory producing cellophane in Columbus. Cellulose film has since been manufactured continuously since the mid-1930s and is still used today. such as a base for self-adhesive tapes like Sellotape and Scotch Tape. It has high moisture barrier properties. Cellophane is typically 0.it is easily machinedand makes a strong package. however. a joint venture between La Cellophane SA and Courtaulds. flexible films have the following properties: * their cost is relatively low * they have good barrier properties against moisture and gases * they are heat sealable to prevent leakage of contents
.) thick. Cellophane sales are now dwindling heavily. Colorants and humectants can be added. and the fact that Viscose is becoming less common because of the polluting effects of carbon disulfide and other by-products of the process. even those not made of cellulose. OH in 1937. it is coated with polyethylene or other materials to make it heat sealable for automated wrapping machines. when DuPont built the first cellophane manufacturing plant in the US.001 in. a semi-permeable membrane in certain types of battery. They remained the largest user of imported cellophane from France until nearly 1924. there are also industrial applications.). and is often used informally to refer to a wide variety of plastic film products. The cellophane may be coated with nitrocellulose or wax to make it impermeable to water vapor. through use of alternative packaging options. Typically. It has excellent clarity and sparkle. In 1935 British Cellophane Ltd was established. It is extremely flexible and easily heat-sealed. and as a release agent in the manufacture of fibreglass and rubber products. Cellophane is also used in gift baskets and flower bouquets. As well as packaging a variety of food items. and can be made to be heat sealable from 82 to 177°C (180 to 350°F). is available in widths to 132 cm (52 in. making the dry cellophane less brittle. The glycerol acts like a plasticizer.The cellophane is then treated in a glycerol bath and dried.03 mm (0. Cellophane is widely used in food packaging due : 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) It has good tensile and impact strength.
Limitations It shrinks and gets brittle under dry conditions in winter b) Flexible films In general. Whitman's candy company initiated use of cellophane for candy wrapping in the United States in 1912 for their Whitman's Sampler.
elevated humidity enhances the film cling. These films are perfect for the protection of beverages during frequent handling and transport.Stretch Demand for shrink film is expected to increase more than five percent yearly to $1. Shrink film is also used in tandem with corrugated trays as a case overwrap. retailer and consumer * they add little weight to the product * they fit closely to the shape of the food. Polyvinyl chloride stretch film is widely used in food wrap applications and areas where greater clarity is required. LDPE Shrink Film Rolls can come either in sheets or Ufilms. which provides increased product visibility as well as cost savings over corrugated boxes. however. Metallocene LLDPE films are increasingly being used due to their better downgauging capabilities and enhanced stretch characteristics. thereby wasting little space during storage and distribution. films
Shrink Films These films are used for packing packing vegetables and fruits. Further shrink film advances will be constrained by the advantages offered by less energy and equipment intensive stretch films. beverage and FMCG. printed or non-printed in thickness ranging from 40 micron to 150 micron.and was used in frozen poultry. Advances will reflect heightened manufacturing and retail activity and the growth of multipacks in wholesale club stores. 2) shrink film yhe first shrink film was developed from Saran.
.they can be used in cold store. supermarkets and other mass retailers. 1) Stretch film The film will be aided by material improvements in terms of strength and stretchability. food .* they have wet and dry strength * they are easy to handle and convenient for the manufacturer.9 billion in 2009.another important property is their cling. further growth will be constrained by its higher cost and lesser stress retention. etc. Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) will present the best resin opportunities based on the materials high stretchability. puncture resistance and cost advantages.
Colorful deep processed cellophane
Features: 1) Substance range of 21gsm-80gsm 2) Made from cotton pulp 3) Widely used for wrapping food. 4) Unique performances of no toxin. it can be easily degraded in the environment and is popularly used in the world
4) Glass containers Made from base materials (limestone. medicament. soda. the mixing process and the ingredients have changed very little. all ingredients were simply melted together and molded while hot. etc. odorless. no static electricity and no contaminant 5) Good stiffness. but the molding techniques have progressed dramatically. battery.
. which were in plentiful supply. Since that early discovery. sand and silica). transparent and printability using common ink 6) Can be disinfected as food wrapping materials at the temperature of 190℃ without deformation 7) Very good air permeability between the molecule groups of cellophane that is favorable for keeping goods fresh 8) As cellophane is made of natural raw material.
pure glass can withstand a great amount of force. the molten glass floats on top of the tin. Large natural single crystals of quartz are pure silicon dioxide. it may still contain a small amount (less than 1 %) of iron oxides that would color the glass. Glass is a biologically inactive material that can be formed into smooth and impervious surfaces. Glass containers have the following advantages: * they are impervious to moisture. gases. The properties of glass can be modified or changed with the addition of other compounds or heat treatment. to allow stacking without container damage. without sufficient time for a regular crystal lattice to form. Synthetic amorphous silica. usually produced when the viscous molten material cools very rapidly to below its glass transition temperature. which is both flat and relatively light for a metal. When in tension.
Different food products in glass bottles
Glass is a uniform material of arguable phase.05 %. As a result. Although it is almost pure quartz..
. and upon crushing are used for high quality specialty glasses. odours and micro-organisms * they are inert and do not react with or migrate into food products * they are suitable for heat processing when hermetically sealed * they are re-useable and recyclable * they are resealable * they are transparent to display the contents * they are rigid. Common glass contains about 70–72 % by weight of silicon dioxide (SiO2). The most familiar form of glass is the silicabased material used for household objects such as light bulbs and windows. is the raw material for the most expensive specialty glasses. The most common method for glass production is using molten tin. so this sand is usually depleted before production to reduce the iron oxide amount to less than 0. When in compression. thus giving it the name "float glass". glass is brittle and will break into sharp shards. The major raw material is sand (or "quartz sand") that contains almost 100 % of crystalline silica in the form of quartz. an almost 100 % pure form of quartz.
The fabrication of most cans results in at least one "rim". where all but the top of the can is simply stamped out of a single piece of aluminum. the inside diameter of a rim. this gave rise to the two-piece can. until the last half of the 20th century. and requiring cutting or tearing of the metal as the means of opening. a label is painted directly onto the metal. Less commonly. which combined the physical strength and relatively low price of steel with the resistance to corrosion of tin. is slightly smaller than the inside diameter of the rest of the can. resulting in ease of manufacture. Such cans have a single rim at the top. 5) Metals A tin can. Most cans have dentical and parallel round tops and bottoms with vertical sides. Often the top is tin-plated steel and the rest of the can aluminum. A can usually has a printed paper or plastic label glued to the outside of the curved surface. Use of aluminium in cans began in the 1960s. that term rather reflects the near-exclusive use in cans. The flat surfaces of rimmed cans are recessed from the edge of any rim (toward the middle of the can) by about the width of the rim.
. one piece is a flat top and the other a cup-shaped piece that combines the (at least roughly) cylindrical wall and the round base. Three-piece can construction results in top and bottom "rim". scratches and thermal shock * more variable dimensions than metal or plastic containers * potentially serious hazards from glass splinters or fragments in foods. where the small volume to be contained and/or the shape of the contents suggests it.The disadvantages of glass include: * higher weight which incurs higher transport costs than other types of packaging * lower resistance than other materials to fractures. of tinplate steel. Materials No cans presently in wide use are composed primarily or wholly of tin. Cans hold diverse contents. is an air-tight container for the distribution or storage of goods. the transition between the wall and base is usually somewhat gradual. indicating its contents. Aluminum is less costly than tin-plated steel but offers the same resistance to corrosion in addition to greater malleability. also called a tin (especially in British English) or a can. but the overwhelming majority preserve food by canning. adjacent to this recessed surface. However. composed of thin metal. rather than laboriously constructed from two pieces of steel. in two-piece construction. the top and bottom may be rounded-corner rectangles or ovals. a narrow ring whose outside diameter is slightly larger than that of the rest of the can.
Different metal containers
Industry wants to force the one way bottles to get rid of recall of packagings. Glass is a perfect barrier to atmospheric oxygen.Metal cans have a number of advantages over other types of container. the high cost of metal and the high manufacturing costs make cans expensive. avoiding rancidness. including the following: • they provide total protection of the contents • they are convenient for ambient storage and presentation • they are tamperproof. There is no migration of components of the plastics to the food.
. It does not give an ultimative solution to avoid reusing contaminated packagings. However. The argument of lower weight compared with Glass bottles is insignificant because of the difficult recycling. Mineral water with carbon dioxide however shows off flavour immediately. Glass is inert. changes of colour such as brown colour of Ketchup. PET bottles are being used increasingly for soft drinks such as cola and soft drinks. Unfortunately the glass bottle is being changed to PET by Gerolsteiner mineral water producer in Germany . Reusing bottles which had been used as described before endangers the health of the consumer because of migration of the polycyclic aromatic components. 2. To detect and discard these bottles a complicated system called "sniffer" is being used detecting volatile compounds of pesticides which might be present in some bottles This system covers only a special group of substances. because off flavour caused by migration of plastic chemicals to food is not noticed by the consumer because of the dominance of the product flavoring. . They are heavier than other materials. The war between glass and plastics The war between glassworks and plastic producers fighting for increasing sales of packaging materials goes on for years. These however are of minor importance when advantages of glass packagings are cited: 1. That is why glass bottles are still used for this kind of beverage. Plastics can also bear poisons from herbicides. insecticides and other pesticides when the bottle was wrongly used for these substances. except glass. There is no danger of intake of plastic components and other chemicals and there are no alterations of taste caused by these substances. and therefore have higher transport costs. PP and PET is gaining ground because of lighter weight compared with glass and being unbreakable.
although it is not made from tin. As a result of this. loss or gain of moisture. the actual difference is imperceptible without instrumentation. the foil is sent through machines in pairs. Aluminium foil is sometimes known as al-foil or alu-foil. This unconformity of finish has led to the perception that favoring a side has an effect when cooking.
household aluminium foil
Bright colurs available
.6)Aluminium foil Aluminium foil (Aluminum foil in North American English) is aluminium prepared in thin sheets (on the order of 0. dairy products. The side where the aluminium foil was in contact with the other sheet is more matte than the exterior side. The foil acts as a complete barrier to light (which spoils fats). It is also often called tinfoil. As aluminium foil is easy to tear. odours. ready snacks and long life pet foods. Aluminium foil typically has a highly reflective side and a more matte side. and bacteria. and many other sensitive foods. or as silver paper although it is not made from silver. and can be bent or wrapped around objects with ease. Aluminium foil containers and trays are used to bake pies and to pack takeaway meals.02 mm in thickness). Aluminium foil is used to make long life packs for drinks. the foil is extremely pliable. While many believe that the shiny side's reflective properties keep heat in when wrapped on the interior and keep heat out when facing exterior. This is a result of common manufacturing processes.
Fresh meat packed in cellulose film so as used in tray packaging is threatened by Pseudomonads like Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas fragi as dominant bacteria producing smell and slime. c) Vacuum packaging : Vacuum inhibits the growth of aerobic microbes such as Pseudomonas. moulds.Bacillus. Lactobacillus is not affected by CO2. In these packagings the growth of lactobacillus is dominant. closed packaging : The atmosphere in the packaging can be modified according to the food which is being packed. CO2 can reduce growth of Listeria on meat. b)Gas barrier.
a)Gas permeable packaging : Aerobic bacteria can grow. Enterobacteriaceae can grow under anaerobic conditions. CO2 acts bacteriostatic on gram negative aerobic bacteria and bactericide because of its undissociated part of H2CO3 which enables CO2 to trespass the cell membrane and act bactericide on the cells of the bacteria. It increases shelf life substuting oxygen.
. Enzymes. CO2and in some cases O2 are used. temperature and competitive growth can produce gas like CO2.Types of plastic packaging The type of Packaging can interfere in the growth of bacteria. Nitrogen has no activity against bacteria. For some food gas packaging with modified atmosphere are used. d) Modified Atmosphere Packaging MAP : Nitrogen.
oxygen barrier multilayer foil high temperatures resistant.Polymer PVdC. flexibility and resistant to perforation
Metallized PET/PE-metallized PA/PE PVC/PET
multilayer foil mechanical stability. high temperatures resistant. HDPE.EVOH.coffee
Micropore foil-LDPE/OPP/PVCPA/PE multilayer foil LDPE.PP PA/PE-PVC/PE HDPE. PVdC.PP PET/PVdC/PE Nylon PET/PE/PVdC-PVC/PE CPET
used as Oxygen barrier multilayer foil water vapor barrier multilayer foil stability. EVA EVA sealing layer highly permeable to
Abbreviation material ABS APET CPET ECTFE ETFE Acrylbitril-Butadien-Styrol Copolymer amorphous polyester crystalline polyethylenterephthalat Ethylen-Chlortriefluorethylen Copolymer Ethylen-Tetrafluorethylen-copolymer 32
. oxygen barrier
Filling product red meat treated meat
PET/PVdC/PE APET PET/PE/PCdC Polyester
multilayer foil mechanical resistance.suitable for microwave oven multilayer foil high temperatures resistant multilayer foil mechanical resistance.Acrylnitril PET/PVdc-PVC/PE HDPE. some types
PVdC and PET as typical components.EVA EVOH FEP HDPE LDPE OPP PA PC PET PE l PFA PMMA PMP PS POM PP PPO PTFE PVC PVdC SAN
ethylen-vinylacetat ethylenvinylalcohol Tetrafluorethylen-Hexafluorpropylen highdensity polyethylen lowdensity polyethylen streched polypropylen Polyamid (Nylon) Polycarbonat Polyethylenterephthalat Polyethylen Perfluor-Alkoxylalkan Polymethyl-Methacrylat Polymethylpentene Polystyrol Polyoxymethylen Polypropylen modified polyphenylenoxid Poly-Tetrafluor-Ethylen Polyvinylchlorid polyvinilidencloride Styrol-Acrylnitril-Copolymer
Multilayer foils may have PE. Product Red meat Modified atmosphere 80% O2 + 20% CO2 Remarks CO 2reduces growth of Pseudomonas aerobic bacteria which often spoils red meat. Porc 60% O2 + 40% CO2 CO2 reduces growth of aerobic bacteria less O2 is needed because of reduced red colour of porc compared with beef
.High concentration of oxygen is needed to keep red colour.
50 .70% CO2 Oxygen is used to keep red + 0 .40% CO2 + 60 .+7°C 20 .70% CO2 + 30 .60% CO2 + 40 .70% N2
Some special remarks concerning CA packaging (Controlled Atmosphere packaging Spoilage of food can be caused by: 1. Acinetobacter and moraxella.Or they are anaerobic.80%CO2 + 20 . growing in absence of oxygen such as Clostridium producing toxins and Lactobacillus producing lactic acid.100% CO2 + 0 . Bacteria can be aerobic.20% N2
Gateau Cake and bread Pizza
50 . pH 34
.80% N2 30 . The nature of bacteria and their amount.40% N2 No oxygen should be used to reduce rancidity Fish.40% N2 colour of low-fat fish and seafood It also reduces growth of anaerobic bacteria such as Clostridium and its toxins in case of long shelf life Sliced fish. 2.20% N2 20 . low-fat 30 . growing in presence of oxygen such as Pseudomonas.70% CO2 + 30 .50% N2 Storage at +4 .50% N2 A high headspace with gas is important 20% CO2 + 80% N2
Sliced heated meat 20% CO2 + 80% N2 Fish. high-fat 60 .40% CO2 + 60 .40% O2 + 30 . Water activity aw 3.80% N2 Sliced hard cheese 80 .90% CO2 + 10 .cooked 20% CO2 + 80% N2 Hard Cheese Soft cheese 80 .
including the following: * they provide total protection of the contents * they are convenient for ambient storage and presentation * they are tamperproof.In this case 30% of of CO2 should not be exceeded. Oxygen is sometimes necessary to keep the red colour of fresh meat. Soft cheese is packed under 20 .40% CO2 because otherwise the packaging would shrink because the gas gets in solution with the product.additives and environment. Nitrogen can replace oxygen. and therefore have higher transport costs. The choice of the gas to be used during filling is therefore very important and varies from one food to another. They are heavier than other materials.Nitrogen can replace CO2 In Products such as cottage cheeseand dairy cream CA packaging with nitrogen instead of oxygen is being used. Low temperatures reduces bacteria growth. 9. except glass. Metal cans have a number of advantages over other types of container. the psycrophilic like Pseudomonas 7. Gasatmosphere oxygen can cause rancidity. Storage temperature. 8. such as our skin. Some bacteria grow even under low temperatures.4.
.used utensils and air. Hygiene during production Bacteria can be present in the raw material. Cell breathing 5. the high cost of metal and the high manufacturing costs make cans expensive. oxidizes vitamins. Hard cheese is packed under up to 100% CO2 to reduce bacterial activity and stabilizes consistency of the product. Good Manufacturing Practice CO2 reacts with water forming carbonic acid which increases acidity of the product reducing bacteria growth. Composition of the food 6. However.