WINTER SCIENCE PROJECTP

Rashm Kaushal VI-A mi

1  1
 

                                                                                                                   Water in Our Life 

of water and therapy. in his book 'your body's many cries fo water'. ng. ently clear that water is one of th prime el he lements onsible for l life on earth. Whol cities hav been billed by cons le ve sidering though to live in and comm the lo ocation and availability of pure dr y rinking wat ter. in all fo orms of hyd drotherapy (composite Greek e word hydro. An A average adult body contains 4 litres of water and with just a small loss of 2. The pla of gathe ace ering was around a the w wells. Traditional a T and modern medicine have been makings u of the p n use psychologic and cal physio ological dive erse proper rties of wat ter.. dizziness. lym s..." THE HIST E TORY OF WAT O TER Water has been used s W since antiqu uity as a symbol by wh hich to express devoti ion and purity. headaches and conse s equently re each a state of e s or g pathology.as a result ch s hronic dehy ydration cau uses sympt toms that e equal disease. the hea aling spas o Loutraki in Greece. gives a erful essay on water and its vital role in the health of a water 'sta e arved' socie ety. disp playing sym mptoms of ir rritability. s a 2  2                                                                                                                      Water in Our Life  . Moree in NSW... plenishing n nutrients an organic matter. yet ef ffective. which is perhaps the follow h s wing trend in building fountains in the middle of n piazzas. Some cult tures.    With two thirds of the earth's s surface cov vered by wa ater and th human body he b consisting of 75 p percent of it it is evide t. mph. the Dalhou of usie hot springs in hot Californian sp outh Austra and Nor alia rthern Territory. Historical record of these cold spring claim 'cu ds gs ures' since t the fourteenth century The y. like t the ancient Greeks.. numer rous healing springs lo g ocated all around the world have been reco a e ognised for their bene r efits. Hepburn mineral m the border of So spas in Victoria are just a few examples. ease in our daily water intake aff r fects the eff ficiency of cell activ vity. fatigue. calming qualities o a warm b of bath or the invigoratin qualities of a cold shower.. nd while carrying a e away waste material. Further in the body. weakness. W all know of the sim d: f d We w mple. The fa amous Belg gium spas in the Arden nnes are a fine examp ple.. blood and glandular secretio a ons. For ng r centur ries. Water circulates through the l land just as it does through s respo the hum man body.7 y 42 litres h or she ca suffer fr he an rom dehydr ration. we as far a to worsh gods wh were ent as hip ho ht mand the wa aters. pas. it regulates the activities of e t flui ids. Dr F. tissues cells. f nervousness. transportin dissolvin and rep ng. He wonde ater' we dri ink provides for cell fu unction and its volume d e writes: "Since the 'wa req quirements the decre s.. Batmanghelidj.

" So questioning everything and anything that anyone tells you until it makes sense..” Jesus took it a step further: "seek. Pure water is an odourless. supplies oxygen and nutrients to the cells. If it is the truth it will feel right. physicians and innovators. mistreated and contaminated.the truth shall set you free. helps maintain proper muscle tone. 3                                                                                                                       Water in Our Life  . Socrates had once said: "an unexamined life is not worth living.. as we need to become our own educators. the appearance of green algae in the rivers and the stench and slime that comes as a result of putrefaction in the water. home and system. tasteless. Water is the common name applied to the liquid form (state) of the hydrogen and oxygen compound H2O.. clear liquid.it is necessary for the digestion and absorption of food.. a combination of things or parts forming a complex or unitary whole). Water is one of the most essential elements to good health -. Our natural heritage (rivers. Water is one of nature's most important gifts to mankind. seas and oceans) has been exploited.. a person's survival depends on drinking water.. rids the body of wastes.. Health officials emphasize the importance of drinking at least eight glasses of clean water each and every day to maintain good health. is of uppermost importance.    OUR WATER TODAY Contrary to the past. The population decline of the marine and riparian life. and serves as a natural air conditioning system.. our recent developed technological society has become indifferent to this miracle of life. Government bodies and water authorities will have us believe that it is 'safe' and we should not worry about this global alarm. are clear signs of the depth and extent of disruption that has been caused to this intricate ecosystem (a composite Greek word: eco. Essential to life... and you shall find. Awareness and action lies entirely upon us. set you free and lead you on the road of discovery and recovery.

Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. like serving as drinking water. All water pollution affects organisms and plants that live in these bodies of water and in almost all cases the effect is damaging either to individual species and populations but also to the natural biological communities. 47 percent of assessed lake acres. and 32 percent of assessed bay and estuarine square miles were classified as polluted. oceans. and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14. lagoonss. such as fish. Some 90% of China's cities suffer from some degree of water pollution and nearly 500 million people lack access to safe drinking water. and earthquake also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water. In addition to the acute problems of water pollution in developing countries. storms. An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet. 45 percent of assessed stream miles. In the most recent national report on water quality in the United States.    POLLUTION OF WATER Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes. and groundwater. 4                                                                                                                       Water in Our Life  . It occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful constituents.000 Indian children die of diarrheal sickness every day.000 people daily. Natural phenomena such as volcanoes. algae blooms. Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is impaired by anthropogenic contaminants and either does not support a human use. and/or undergoes a marked shift in its ability to support its constituent biotic communities. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases. rivers. and 1. industrialized countries continue to struggle with pollution problems as well.

upply of clean. ay 5  5                                                                                                                      Water in Our Life  . with only a small fra action unfro pre esent abov ground or in the air. for watering ou lawns a w ur and garden for ns. househo old.    USES OF WATER S W Wat resourc are sources of w ter ces water that are useful or potent tially useful to huma ans. W Water dema and alread exceeds supply in many pa dy s n arts of the w world and as the world popula ation contin nues to ris so too does the water se. We use water e every day— —for drink king. and f many u for uses that we don't necessarily see but w n y which are critical to ou lives. leaving only 3 as fresh water of which 3% f 97% o water on the Earth is salt w slightly over tw thirds i frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps. eness of th global im he mportance of preser e rving wate for ecos er system servic has on recently emerged as. fresh water h is ste eadily decr reasing. O nation's undergr Our round and su urface wat ters are vitally impo ortant to our everyda life. recreational and environm mental activ vities. Uses of water include agricultural. industrial. The rema wo is r aining ozen freshw water is m mainly foun as grou nd undwater. deman Aware nd. recreat tion. Biodiv versity-rich freshwater ecosys stems are currently declining faster servic than marine or land ecos r systems. aquaculture and e. T The framew work for a allocating w water reso ources to water use (where such a fra ers amework exists) is known as water righ hts. ve Fresh water is a renewabl resource yet the world's su le e. an the world’s we etlands ha ave been lost along with their valuable e environme ental ces. durin the 20th century. more tha half ces nly y d ng . of n water. W Water is used for irr rigation. Virt tually all of these hu o uman uses require fresh s f water. for m many indus strial proce esses and commercial uses. La ur arge quant tities of water are used to gen nerate pow and to cool wer o electr ricity-gene erating equ uipment.

The earth is a closed system. Whe es ny erever it tr ravels. Som mewhere between 7 and 75 percent of the earth surface is covere with 70 o h’s e ed water. also e st co ontain caff feine. not all this water must be c consumed in the liquid form. 11. S Soft drinks coffee. rivers. 8. and nutrients w with it. w while made up almos entirely of water. 10. s s similar to a terrarium meanin that it rarely m. e 5. w At water accou unts for ap pproximat tely 80 per rcent of an infant’s body n b weight t. a s. Nearly eve food or drink ery o of t item provides some wa m ater to the body. 6. m n 6  6                                                                                                                      Water in Our Life  . 3. Caff feine can a as a mild diuretic. The same water tha existed on the earth e at millio ons of years ago is still presen today.    12 Int teresti ing Fac of Water cts r 1. out g 8 f r 4. humans can used only about three tenth of a e hs percent of t this water Such usa r. his or her body has lost ov 1 perc ver cent of its to otal water amount.Of all the wa f ater on the earth. While the da recom aily mmended a amount of water is e eight cups per day. not fat.By the time a person feels thirs y sty. ng r loses or g gains extra matter. able water is found in groundw r water aqu uifers. water. A birth. Rou ughly 70 percent of an adult’s body is m made up of water. A healthy person can drink abo three gallons (48 cups) of water per day. T The total amount of water on t the earth is about 3 326 million cubic miles of n . 7. water carrie chemica es als. prevent act m ting water from r travelling to nec cessary loc cations in the body. and tea. f 2. a and freshw water lakes. . minera als. 12. Wa ater dissolves more substance than an other liquid. s nt 9.T The weight a person loses dire t ectly after intense physical activity is we eight from water.

Be sure at least 3 gallons of water remain in the tank so it will flush properly. A four-minute shower uses approximately 20 to 40 gallons of water. long. 1. 8. Fill the bottles with water. which use 1 to 2 gallons per flush instead of the usual 3 to 5 gallons. screw the lids on. One way to cut down on water use is to turn off the shower after soaping up. 7. Check your toilets for leaks put a little food colouring in your toilet tank. Replacing an 18 litre per flush toilet with an ultra-low volume (ULV) 6 litre flush model represents a 70% savings in water flushed and will cut indoor water use by about 30%. 2. This may save ten or more gallons of water per day. Or. you have a leak that should be repaired immediately. all household faucets should be fit with aerators. Install water-saving shower heads and low-flow faucet aerators Inexpensive water-saving low-flow shower heads or restrictors are easy for the homeowner to install. "Low-flow" means it uses less than 2. If the meter does not read exactly the same.    Water conservation in the home. Don't use the toilet as an ashtray or wastebasket Every time you flush a cigarette butt.. Turn off the water after you get your toothbrush there is no need to keep the water running while brushing your teeth. the colour begins to appear in the bowl within 30 minutes. Limit your showers to the time it takes to soap up. hot showers can use five to ten gallons every unneeded minute. safely away from the operating mechanisms.5 gallons per minute. 4. Use your water meter to check for hidden water leaks Read the house water meter before and after a two-hour period when no water is being used.. For new installations. You'll get hot water faster plus avoid wasting water while it heats up. facial tissue or other small bit of trash. Put plastic bottles or float booster in your toilet tank to cut down on water waste. put an inch or two of sand or pebbles inside each of two plastic bottles to weigh them down. and put them in your toilet tank. Just wet your brush and fill a glass for mouth rinsing. Larger leaks can waste hundreds of gallons. without flushing. wash down and rinse off. Insulate your water pipes. five to seven gallons of water is wasted. If. Take shorter showers. You can easily install a Shower Start showerhead. Also. 9. consider buying "low flush" toilets. 3. This single best home water conservation method is also the cheapest! 6. Also. buy an inexpensive tank bank or float booster. It's easy and inexpensive to insulate your water pipes with pre-slit foam pipe insulation. Most replacement parts are inexpensive and easy to install. and then turn it back on to rinse. which automatically pauses a running shower once it gets warm. 5. or add a Shower Start converter to existing showerheads. there is a leak. Check faucets and pipes for leaks a small drip from a worn faucet washer can waste 20 gallons of water per day. 7                                                                                                                       Water in Our Life  .

Repl e lace old clothes washe ers. 14. If u using a dish hwasher. hes r. If yo s d r ou're in the market for a new e cloth washer consider buying a water-saving frontload washer. Don't let the fau t ucet run wh you clea vegetab hile an bles jus rinse them in a stop st m pper sink or a pan of clean water Use a dua r c r.50% less water and 50% less energy per load. . When washing d n dishes by hand. Dual-sw easier. al-setting aerator. e Run nning tap w water to coo it off for drinking wa ol ater is wasteful. S p Start a com mpost pile a an altern as nate method of disposing food wa aste. w g 12. a 15. Minim mize use of kitchen sink garbage disposal un nits In-sink 'c carburettors require lo of water to operate properly. and also add s' ots a ume of solid in a sept tank which can lead to mainte ds tic d enance considerably to the volu problems. Store drinking water in e w d ttle. New En nergy Star rated wash hers use 35 . ses ed lit tres (5 gallo ons) for the extra rins For part loads. avoid the p W s permanent press cycle which us an adde 20 e. tial adjust water levels to match the size of the load. don't leave the w water runni ing for rinsi ing if y you have a double-bas sin. ess of 11. Ke eep a bottle of drinking water in the fridge. th here is usua no need to pre-rin the dish ally nse hes. have a single e-basin sink gather wa k. 13.    10. ashed dishe in a dish rack and rinse them with a es h ay or wivel aerato are available to make this ors spra device o a painful of hot water. with far le waste o water. ter With clothes washers. kers of dish hwashing so oap recomm mend not p pre-rinsing dishes co which is a big wat savings. the fridge in a safe drinking bot 8  8                                                                                                                      Water in Our Life  . a e se. Use your dishwasher and clothes washer for only full loads Automatic dish hwashers and clothes washers sh hould be fu loaded f optimum water ully for m onservation Most mak n. fill one with soapy water and one with r y d rinse water If you r. Rinse your razo in the sin or nk Fill the sink with a few in nches of wa arm water. This will rin your ra nse azor just as well as s runn ning water.

n't ater. tering altogether and t the lawn will go brown and dorm n mant. Don water th gutter n't he Position your spri inklers so w water lands on the law or garde not on p s wn en. Consider applying the principles of g xe eriscape for a low-maintenance. avoid wat tering on windy days. Press the mulch down around the dri s h ipline of each plant to form a o sligh depression which w prevent or minimiz water runoff.when it' full. If it stays flat. s Most lawns only need abo 1" of wa out ater each week. use d er a drought-resistant gra asses such as the new "Eco-Law w wn". Adding 2 . Plant d drought-res sistant lawns. Put an empty tuna can on your lawn . 9  9                                                                                                                      Water in Our Life  . do it long en nough for the moistur to soak d re down to the roots e When watering t wher it will do the most g re o good. This may will ual res sult in a bro own summer lawn. gs up whe you mov it doesn need wa en ve. drought re esistant yar rd.. t n n 's you u've watere about the right amo ed e ount. re. Also. Man beautifu shrubs an plants th ny ul nd hrive with far less wat f tering than other spec cies. 20. Plant slo opes with p plants that will retain water and help reduce runoff. 19. or ove seeding an existing lawn. the morni ing dew and rainfall w bring the lawn back to its usu vigor. the lawn is re eady for wa atering. w e Group p plants according to the watering needs. Dee ep-soak yo lawn our n the lawn. Let tting the gr rass grow t taller (to 3" will also promote wa ") p ater retenti ion in the soil. Durin dry spell you can stop w ng ls. Native plants will use less e water and be mo resistan to local p ore nt plant diseas ses. If it spring back s n . 16. eir g 17. bu it saves a lot of wat ut ter. Once cooler wea ather wat arrives. paved areas. shrubs and plants if you are plantin a new la ng awn.4 g inches of organic material such as com s c mpost or bark mulch w increase the ability of the will e y soil to retain mois sture. A ligh sprinklin can evap ht ng porate quick and ten to kly nds encou urage shallow root sys stems. W Water your lawn only when it nee it eds A good way to se if your la d ee awn needs w watering is to step on the grass. n e . Put a layer of m mulch around trees an plants nd Mulch will slow e h evaporation of moisture while dis n scouraging weed grow wth. 18. Repl lace herbac ceous peren nnial borders with nat tive plants. Visit our natural lawn care page for more o l m information i n. ht will ze For informat tion about d different m mulch mater rials and their best use click her e.    Water c W conser rvation in the yard and garden..

Che frequen eck ntly to keep them drip p p-free. Water cons W servation co omes natur rally when everyone in the family is aware of its e n y o im mportance. Better yet. not a h hose. such as Ec e ral coTouch. ay or 23. ariable spra nozzle fo targeted watering. to cle ean drivewa and sid ays dewalks n ses.w s wind can blo sprinkle off targe and spee evaporation. hos lings Leaks outside the house may not s e e seem as ba since the ad ey're not as visible.installing a rain b barrel water catchmen system r nt talling a sim mple drip-ir rrigation sy ystem . Try not to gs er water when it's windy . flower bed and dd d ent ng . You can great reduce t u tly the amount of water used for shr t u rubs. Use the hose only for rin r ail e nsing . ow m sys 24. also reduce wa o ater loss to evaporatio Waterin early on. and parent take the time to tea children some of t ts ach n the simple waterw ng s hich can ma ake a big di ifference. there are sever brands. ow ers et ed 22.the strategic placement of soaker h e hoses . Ad organic matter and use efficie waterin systems for shrubs. beds and lawns by: . D Don't run th hose while washing your car he g Cle ean the car using a pa of soapy water. ng in th day is also the best defence a he t against slug and othe garden pests. f Early w watering. Check for leaks in pipes. c y th cause yellowing of the leaves. wh hich are no on the market. Bu they s ut an as ndoors. ds lawns Adding organic material to y your soil wil help incre ll ease its abs sorption an water ret nd tention. Us a spray nozzle ng se n when rinsing for more ef fficient use of water. atering whe it's windy en y Early m morning is generally b better than dusk since it helps pr e revent the growth of fungus.this simple pr ractice can save as much as 150 gallons wh 0 hen washin a car. When hand watering use a va g. ca be just a wasteful as leaks in Use ho washer at spigots and hose connection to elimin ose rs e ns nate leaks. use a wate B erless car washing w stem.    21. s e r m Areas which are already planted can be 'top dressed' with compost or organic matter. and late wat tering.inst Avoid over-wate d ering plants and shrub as this can actually diminish plant healt and s bs. Use a broom. Water d during the early parts of the day avoid wa s y. savin methods around the home wh 10 0                                                                                                                       Water in Our Life  . faucets and coupl s 25.

or accum . Household rainfa catchm all ment syste ems are a appropriate in areas with an a average r rainfall gr reater tha 200mm per yea and no other an m ar. rally. water so . 11 1                                                                                                                       Water in Our Life  . and the inten nsity of ra ainfall. and are pote entially su uccessful in most h habitable locations Roof s. its efficie ency. of rainwater. or from spec s al cially prep pared areas of ground. Rain nwater ha arvesting has been used to provide d n drinking water. In some s cases rainwat may b the onl availab s. The are a number o types o system to harv ere of of ms vest rainw water rang ging from very simple to the complex industrial system Gener e x ms. or eco onomical. 19 992). rainwa ater is us sually of g good qual lity and does not r require tre eatment before cons sumption. mulating and storing. rainwater is e either har rvested from the ground or from a ro oof. can m make an i important contribu t ution to drinking w water. water for ir rrigation or to refil aquifers in a pro ll s ocess ca alled groundwater recharge. w wate for live er estock. The r rate at wh hich water can be c collected from eith system is depe her m endent on the plan area n n of the system. tents and loca institutions. ource.    WATER HARV W R VESTIN NG Rainw water ha arvesting is the g g gathering. ter be ly ble. Rainwat collect ter ted from the roofs of s hous ses. o acce essible wa ater sourc (Skinn and C ces ner Cotton. Rainwater systems are simp to construct fro inexpe R ple om ensive loc cal mater rials.

city or other inhabited area. exceeding the capacity of the shoreline to contain the water. particularly at bends or meanders and causes damage to homes and businesses along such rivers. Flooding may result from the volume of water within a body of water. such as during hurricanes that blow water into the shore areas. Severe winds over water Even when rainfall is relatively light. and vegetation cannot absorb all the water. retention ponds. or if the area was already saturated from previous precipitation. the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. the shorelines of lakes and bays can be flooded by severe winds. tsunamis. which overflows or breaks levees. when the strength of the river is so high it flows out of the river channel. 12                                                                                                                       Water in Our Life  . While flood damage can be virtually eliminated by moving away from rivers and other bodies of water. with the result that some of the water escapes its normal boundaries. sometimes increased by melting snow. Floods are caused by many factors: heavy precipitation. riverbeds. Heavy During times of rain or snow. levels. unusual high tides.    FLOODS . since time out of mind. such as a river or lake. some is absorbed by grass and vegetation. which reaches stream channels. A flood is an overflow or accumulation of an expanse of water that submerges land. Periodic floods occur on many rivers. or failure of dams. a storm tide combines the normal tide plus the storm surge. Flash floods usually result from intense rainfall over a relatively small area. River flooding is often caused by heavy rain. While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary with seasonal changes in precipitation and snow melt. with higher waves on top. Floods can also occur in rivers. people have lived and worked by the water to seek sustenance and capitalize on the gains of cheap and easy travel and commerce by being near water. or other structures that contained the water. In the sense of "flowing water". Floods occur when ponds. forming a surrounding region known as the flood plain. with little or no advance warning. but the rest. That humans continue to inhabit areas threatened by flood damage is evidence that the perceived value of living near the water exceeds the cost of repeated periodic flooding. severe winds over water. During a hurricane. Water then runs off the land in quantities that cannot be carried within stream channels or retained in natural ponds and man-made reservoirs. About 30 percent of all precipitation is in the form of runoff small and that amount might be increased by water from melting snow. some of the water is retained in ponds or soil. some evaporates. lakes. it is not a significant flood unless such escapes of water endanger land areas used by man like a village. A flood that rises rapidly. soil. is called Surface runoff. Unusual high tides Coastal areas are sometimes flooded by unusually high tides induced by strong winds over the ocean surfaces. is typically called a flash flood.

This ca be trigge an ered by an above averag prevalen of high pressure a ge nce p syst tems. climate insta ability. Lengthy periods of drought ha long be a key tri y f ave een igger for ma migratio and playe a key ass on ed role in a number of ongoing migrations and other humanitarian crises in t Horn of Africa n h n the f and a the Sahe el. exce essive irrigat tion. Overall. gl e d ing lobal warmi will resu in increa ing ult ased world r rainfall. 13 3                                                                                                                       Water in Our Life  . and c s ht. rainfall is related t the amou of water vapor in th atmosphe combine with to unt r he ere. n Hum activity can directly trigger exacerbating factors such as over far man y f h rming. It can have a sub n bstantial im mpact on the ecosystem and agricul lture of the affected regio Although droughts c persist f several years. and erosion ad d dversely imp the abil of the la to captu and pact lity and ure hold water. oposed solu utions to glo obal warmin that focus on more a ng s active techni iques. flooding me and erosion w increase in others. and especially in developi nations. solar radiation m r management through th use of t he a space sunsh hade for on may also carry with them increa ne. even a short. ed the upward forcin of the air mass conta ng r aining that water vapor If either o these is re w r. Whi these ten to be rela ile nd atively isolat in their scope. Alo with dro ong ought in som areas.    DR ROUGH HTS A dro ought is an e extended pe eriod of mon or year when a re nths rs egion notes a deficiency in its wate supply. h can for y ht cau significa damage and harm th local eco use ant he onomy. activ ted vities resulting in global climat change ar expected to trigger droughts wit a substan te re d th ntial impact on agri iculture thro oughout the world. This global phe s enomenon has a h widespr read impact on agricult t ture. of educed. winds carrying co ontinental. the resu is a drou ult ught. th occurs w his when a regio receives consistently below ave on y erage precipit tation. o ased chance of drough es ht. Defore estation. The U United Natio estimate that an are of fertile soil the ons es ea e size of Ukraine is lost every year because of drough deforestation.e reduced water o e. r rather than oceanic air masses ( i. w conten and ridg of high p nt). ges pressure are form wit behaviors which pre eas th s event or rest trict the develop ping of thun nderstorm a activity or ra ainfall over one certain region. intense drough can on. Genera ally. G er Generally. P d will Paradoxicall some pro ly.

    14 4                                                                                                                       Water in Our Life  .

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