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By George Basalla THE MODEL Phase 1: The nonscientific society or nation provides a source for European science. Phase 2: A period of colonial science. Phase 3: Completes the process of transplantation with a struggle to achieve an independent scientific tradition (or culture). Figure 1: Sequence of phases in the diffusion of Western Science 0100090000037800000002001c00000000000400000003010800050000000b0200 000000050000000c02a4053e0a040000002e0118001c000000fb021000070000000 000bc02000000000102022253797374656d00053e0a000071af00006851110004ee 8339209118000c020000040000002d01000004000000020101001c000000fb029cff 0000000000009001000000000440001254696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00000 00000000000000000000000000000040000002d010100050000000902000000020 d000000320a5a00000001000400000000003b0aa405209d2d00040000002d010000 030000000000 PHASE 1: GEOGRAPHICAL EXPLORATION European observers survey, classify, and appraise the organic and inorganic environment. Phase 1 science is not limited to the uncivilized country where European settlement is the object. It is also to be found in regions already occupied by ancient civilizations, some with indigenous scientific traditions like India and China. PHASE 2: COLONIAL SCIENCE The first colonial scientists join in the survey of the organic and inorganic environment conducted by the European observers. This training will direct the colonial scientist’s interests to the scientific fields and problems delineated by European scientists. Benjamin Franklin and Mikhail V. Lomonosov – Heroes of Colonial Science American scientists opt to pursue graduate studies or gain Ph.D.’s in Europe. Meiji Restoration – importation of American and European scientists, engineers, and physicians to serve in native universities as teachers of aspiring scientists; translation of Western scientific textbooks
PHASE 3: INDEPENDENT SCIENTIFIC TRADITION Completes the process of transplantation with the struggle to achieve an independent scientific tradition. The US and Russia replaced Western Europe as leading scientific nations. Phase 3 science is marked by a conscious struggle to reach an independent status. Tasks to be completed to attain an independent scientific culture: 1. Resistance to science on the basis of philosophical and religious beliefs must be overcome and replaced by positive encouragement of scientific research. 2. The social role and place of the scientist need to be determined in order to insure society’s approval of his labor.
Throughout the rest of the century. had removed the effective sovereignty of the Indian people. Komarov published (in 1962) the negative effects of British colonialism to the economy of India. Science. with all the result of administration to the home economy entailed in the latter term. Technology. 7. in turn. its economy had already started to become industrialized. the British established bases in India at Madras. provided that an adequate educational system already exists. Even before the British came to India. and Calcutta. Nagpur. This led to the exit of the East Indian Company while British Crown assumed the government of India. This gave Britain the ability to protect her commercial and strategic interests elsewhere in Asia. An “imperialist” is any force acting upon a relatively underdeveloped nation of the 19th century which did not directly arise from the workings of the international economy per se. 4. India became strategically important to further expansionary activity in Asia. • • After the Dutch supremacy in Southeast Asia. etc. The following are the Komarov’s claims: 1. The teaching of science should be introduced into all levels of educational system. Towns were centers of the handicraft . and its associated policy of land tenure form caused widespread unrest of which the best known was the Indian Mutiny of 1857. “Informal Imperialism” (where an industrial nation brought its political power to bear upon nominally independent states) Imperialism may include more than colonialism.3. Channels must be opened to facilitate formal national and international scientific communication. Annexation of states in India such as Satara. Clarify the relationship between science and government. A proper technological base should be made available for the growth of science. Bombay. 6. This. • • THE CASE OF INDIA E. Native scientific organizations should be founded which are specifically dedicated to the promotion of science. Jaitpur. a source of strategic raw materials and foodstuffs. The decline of the Mughals in India and the defeat of the French in 1763 provided opportunities for further British territorial expansion and direct rule over Bengal. a market for the cotton manufactures of Europe. and Imperialism I: The Case of India By Ian Inkster IMPERIALISM Imperialism represented a vent for surplus. 5.N. This can be accomplished by founding appropriate scientific journals and then gaining their widespread recognition.
military charges and civil charges were some of the administrative responsibilities were the bulk of the gains were used. technological diffusion and industrial revolution was prevented in India because of this. lack of economic sovereignty. the caste system was already disintegrating and capitalism and industrialism was rising. He also said that prior to British colonialism. weren’t hindered by the existing differentiation of peasantry and other value systems but by insufficient capital and skills needed from the people in such technologies. “De-industrialization” in India was due to the clinging of the economy to agriculture rather than manufacturing or other industries. I. The industry in India was not modeled after the British industries. further preventing the rise of capitalism in India. These were due to additional tenure and revenue system reforms of Britain. . This caused the decrease of native merchant capitalists in India. 6. he describes the economy of India during the Mughal period. The industrial workers were exploited as the production of raw materials was forced to be increased. thus preventing the development of the Indian economy and its transition from feudalism to capitalism. Reforms on tenure brought about the exploitation of peasantry by giving landlords more authority over the property of the peasant and the peasant itself. The Royal Botanic Gardens (1787) researched in economic botany. TRANSFER. In Irfan Habib’s work. 5. There was unequal trade relationship between Britain and India during the industrial revolution of Britain. 7. 3. Agricultural technology was not developed as the labor became cheaper and as the employment became scarce. 4. The British East India Company monopolized the Indian economy. The interests paid in debts. inequality in trading. and absence policies to protect the peasantry and workers. “Drain” and “de-industrialization” are the usual topics of debate in the analysis of the Indian economy. AND THE BRITISH The object of the East India Company was to transfer the European “natural history enterprise” to India for purely commercial purposes.industry during India’s pre-colonial period. mineralogy and zoology and aimed to disseminate botanical articles for the extension of national commerce and riches. A. As a conclusion. “Drain” pertains to the consumption and eventual drain of the resources of economy from its revenue as they were used mainly for administrative purposes instead of being used in the continuation of the production. Although their exports increased. DIFFUSION. Habib stated that the adaptation of new technologies. The Indian industry was saddled by the excessive colonial imports coming in and payments on taxes and other responsibilities which weren’t translated to reproduction but administrative purposes. 2. especially in agriculture. the presence of the British imperialist power in India had deprived the effective diffusion of new technologies and industrialism in India by aggression.
A. C. III. A. VI. 1. processing in Britain The activity in Education was dictated by racist attitudes Racism became prejudicial. and an activity such as the railway might strengthen Indian production of raw material rather than manufacturing because of low cost of import In contrast. and employed only Europeans in the higher offices. Discovery of resources in India. Geological Survey of India (1851) attended to commercial potential of coal. Extension of railways. Hindu attempts to establish own institutions for European studies e. and aggravate the present difficulties by adding to the educated unemployed a new class of professional men for whom there is no commercial demand. the introduction of the railway system has been seen as the high mark of British technological achievement in India. as is enumerated in Inkster’s article) . B. The fully modern sector projects became the last resort of those who sought a transfer mechanism. 1. B. A. etc. Philosophy of “downward filtration” and creation of a class of intellectual compradores which eventually may filter the masses. 1888 government Resolution reflected the failure of the Raj as a “transfer mechanism”. Raj policy did not erect institutions which could provide a significant cadre of skilled workers for Indian or western enterprise. The British response to all this was minimal. D. and the natural history enterprise. As far as technical instruction was concerned. mills and factories create demand for skilled labor and educated foremen.B. II. iron. There was considerable evidence of stirring of indigenous Indian activity despite British claims that educated classes of India were not interested in scientific instruction.g Delhi College Anglo-Indian College and Hindu Sanskrit College Aligarh scientific society Bihar Scientific Society etc. 2. Minimal number of graduates from courses such as engineering Higher colleges offered meager scientific and technical provisions and demonstrated little sensitivity to the specific.. 2. But it was also argued that little of this required service of Indian engineers. V. Karl Marx wrote: when you have once introduced machinery into locomotion of a country which possesses iron and coals. technical schools would be established. B. Steam powered machines’ economic importance were stressed. 1. C. highly localized needs of the Indian economy. 3. C. Focus was on medicine and administration rather than engineering or commerce. 4. A. The Raj industrial policy did not in fact lead to either an increased demand for skilled Indian labor or the generation of educational servicing institutions. IV.. acclimatization. The British interest remained with commerce. and there was neglect of mass primary education. you are unable to withhold it from its fabrication (but reservations still abound. B. C. C. The purpose of Societies such as these was to translate European works on science and technology to provide intellectual basis for Indian industrial and agricultural improvement. the British believed only in the “educational function” of successful industrial projects.
the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed with the provisions that China would give up its claim in Korea. The first opium war (1840-42) came about when the Chinese authorities destroyed the opium which were illegally brought and sold in China by the British traders. Italy and Austria-Hungary. Payment of war indemnity ($21. To promote the economic development of China and other colonies of Russia. China lost to the alliance of France and Britain and the Treaties of Tientsin (1858) and the Peking Convention (1860) were signed with the following provisions: Cession of the Kowloon peninsula to Great Britain.000). 4. Belgium. Under the Russian imperialism. Prussia. 2. “the victim of imperialism without annexation”.000. paid a war indemnity ($158. and cession of Formosa. The imperialist powers in China until 1895 were Europeans and Americans. became a prey of the western predatory imperialist nations after the two opium wars. Amoy. 1. Ten more ports in China were opened to international trade. the Chinese economy died during the first part of 1. The second opium war (1856-60) came about when a French missionary was killed by a Chinese. and The Opium trade was legalized.Science. 2. Denmark. 3. Technology. the Trans-Siberian railway was constructed for the following purposes: 1. This war was won by Britain and China was forced to sign the Treaty of Nanking (1842). Foreign diplomats were allowed to reside in Peking. . The war also opened China to new imperialist powers such as Russia. 2. and Liaotung Peninsula to Japan. Renouncing the island of Hong Kong to Great Britain. Ningpo. Spain. 4. To provide easier transportation of Russian troops to its colonies. As a conclusion. Foochow.000). France. Christian missionaries were given protection. Foreigners were allowed to wander to any part of China. and 3. Holland. After the loss of China in the Sino-Japanese war (1894-95). 5. China became a vulnerable country and this weakness was taken advantage by the imperialist powers—Britain. and Imperialism II: The Case of China By Ian Inkster THE CASE OF CHINA China. The provisions of the treaty were: Opening of five ports (Canton. and Enabling all British traders to do business directly with the people.000. They divided the vast land of China into pieces of territories called the Spheres of Influence over which the imperialist power has the exclusive right to exploit the natural resources found in its piece. 6. Arthur Port. and Shanghai) to British trade. 3. To connect Moscow and Vladivostok (“Dominion of the East”).
China’s social structure .imperialism (under Americans and Europeans) for only the foreigners controlled and gained in the trades.Educated Chinese comprised the Public Administration Compradores . officialdom in class structure. but is not considered a religion since it does not include devotion to any gods .Group of middlemen . 19th century .Political principles taught by Confucius . firm government . Thomas’ pertinent historiography .Neutral . declination of shipping Economic Backwardness . the Trans-Siberian railroad aided to the diffusion of technology in China. Technological transfer and industrialization could have been effective if China controlled its economy. product taxes.High investment . which is the largest treaty port. Famine wreckage. Emperor system.Small relative to size of Chinese economy Japan was more effective than China .Transport improvements TRANSFER MECHANISMS The treaty ports.Foreign relationships . technology Western Impact .Halted developments were because of increase of land. were said to have played an important role in the transfer of technology and industrial knowledge from the foreigners to the Chinese people by providing employment and training grounds. In fact Shanghai.Treaty ports .Foreign intervention: trade patterns. investment.Positive .Government intervention Economic Forwardness .A belief.China was self-sufficient in economical aspects . aside from Suez Canal.Wealthy merchants th century and early 19th century Late 18 .Chinese merchants Manchu/Ching Dynasty (1644-1911) . demographic trends.Internal barriers: Confucianism.Various aid to industry and commerce Negativity of Chinese government .China’s economic retardation .S.Foreign trade was dominated by Canton system Foreign economic relations . the same as foreign settlements. was able to establish its Gas .Insignificant Confucianism . Under the Russian imperialism.
ENLARGED INTERCOURSE – INDIA. A. I. but also the negative effects of the Western attempt for industrialization. II. the project’s progress turned out very slow. In their refusal to sanction the dredging of Woosung Bar. The Chinese officialdom’s reaction to innovations brought about by the ports is not based purely on their idealistic nature though. dialects. improved waterworks and electric power plant in the late 1800s. Fortunately. A. Still. III. in 1882. CHINA. IV. C. they saw Chinkiang and Hankow growing.Company. Shanghai. A. Instead of being helpful. The Japanese government concentrated its efforts upon the wholesale use of western techniques and personnel as a prelude to the indigenisation of knowledge and decision making. a. the small size of the systems established in China was not only due to the traditional ways of the Chinese. AND JAPAN India and China had much in common Both large in population Suffered threat and invasion Developed military despotisms Numerous languages. but also from the realities of the treaty ports culture. B. Traumatic shocks to existing economic and political systems merely reduced the efficiency of social control mechanisms and in the case of India and China loss of sovereignty over decision making in the economic sphere. 1880. Another was the development of the comprador system. the changes brought about by the ports are small. Aside from local resistance. the officials’ delayed aid for the foreigners was due to conflicts in policies. D. When the designing of the railway linking Shanghai and Soochow was started. This slowed down the introduction of Western ideas into the industry. so there was little technology transfer. water wheels for drainage and techniques for excavation were introduced The introduction of western technologies into the 43 government metal mines . The effect of the railway in the Chinese economy was little on the positive side since the foreign capital exerted control over the system. regions industrialized in a manner analogous to advancing areas of Europe and Russia in the late nineteenth century “China was too large as to absorb into itself without trace the modernization which stemmed from the treaty ports.” The history of Manchuria in the early 20th century suggests that there was little in Chinese culture which prohibited economic modernization. B. hindered the emergence of either nationalism or entrepreneurship Under the right conditions. ignorance etc. but at the expense of Shanghai. the commerce between ports included only raw materials. dominated by the compradores (Chinese merchant and manager of foreign firms). B. There was disestablishment of rural by-employments in China and India. the treaty ports were looked upon as enemies of the government. accusing the settlements as refuge for criminals and republicans. supports for the construction of the railway were improved after satisfying criteria like employing Chinese labor. In conclusion. But as a whole.the local mines of Takashima were taken over by Mitsubishi.
China seems to stand as an intellectual contender to the West. India. yet Japan used the artifacts of Western Science to escape from remaining a second-class citizen of the world.V. < for more examples refer to the article by Inkster> Of the three nations (China. (1868-75) redefined the effective resource base. Japan). and Japanese science was basically Chinese science for most of the nation’s history. .
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