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John S. Jett Visiting Research Professor Stetson University firstname.lastname@example.org
Jeffrey M. Ventre Physician New Orleans, LA, USA email@example.com
Manuscript Submitted to The Orca Project
Appendix A Compiled by John Kielty Appendix B Adapted by the Authors
Keto & Tilikum Express the Stress of Orca Captivity
The practice of keeping killer whales in captivity has proven to be detrimental to the health and safety of animals and trainers alike. On Christmas Eve, 2009, trainer Alexis Martinez was killed by a male captive bred orca named Keto, who was on loan from Sea World to a facility called Loro Parque, in the Canary Islands, Spain. Two months later, on 24 February 2010, trainer Dawn Brancheau was killed by Tilikum, an animal involved with two previous human fatalities. Medical Examiner (ME) reports described massive trauma to both Dawn and Alexis. Neither death was accidental.
While orca captivity generates large profits for companies like Sea World (SW), life in a shallow concrete tank is greatly impoverished compared to the lives of their free-ranging counterparts. Trainer deaths, whale deaths, and numerous documented injuries to both trainers and whales provide evidence of several key issues related to killer whale captivity. Tilikum is representative of the many social and health issues plaguing captive orcas. Typically spending their entire lives within tight family groupings, orcas captured from the wild, including Tilikum, have been traumatically extracted from the security, comfort and mentoring which these groupings provide. Captured animals are confined to small, acoustically-dead, concrete enclosures where they must live in extremely close proximity to other whales with which they often share no ancestral, cultural or communication similarities. The resultant infighting amongst captive orcas is exacerbated by virtue of having no place to run, as confinement fails to provide spatial escape options that natural settings offer. As a result, social strife is common in captivity, including aggression, in which whales are cut, raked, and rammed, usually by members higher on the social ladder. In one particularly brutal example, Kandu V, a female orca at Sea World of California (SWC), bled to death after 11.9 years (4332 days) in captivity when an artery was severed at the upper jaw (See Appendix). The wound was self-inflicted as she collided with another whale in a display of dominance. Over the next 45 minutes, and in view of the public, she slowly bled out, spouting blood from her blowhole until she died.
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orcas at SW and other facilities. “acute bacterial septicemia. Steel gates are the primary method of separating orcas prior to training sessions.” This is an uncomfortable husbandry procedure for the whales. Social strife and boredom accompanying orca captivity also contribute to broken teeth. Consequently. This clash involved Kayla and the original “Baby Shamu. After “tooth drilling” is complete. shows.” should make one ponder how bacteria entered her bloodstream. It is common for separated whales to bite down on the horizontal metal bars. which have been observed refusing to participate by sinking down into the water. under-stimulated and bored animals also “chew” metal bars and mouth concrete pool corners. trainers must irrigate (flush) the bored out teeth two-three times each day. or splitting from their keepers.” Kalina.It was whale to whale aggression that resulted in cancellation of the “Believe” show immediately prior to Tilikum pulling Dawn Brancheau into the water at Sea World of Florida (SWF). like Six Flags. shuddering. Kayla and Kalina). This breakage leaves the pulp of some teeth exposed. trainers drill holes through the pulp and into the jaw via an endodontic procedure called a modified “pulpotomy. which makes a root canal procedure impossible. the roots of many of their teeth are immature. In addition. tooth fragments can sometimes be found on the pool bottoms following these displays.” It is not clear how bacteria entered her bloodstream. like the main stage at SWF. Kalina would die on 4 October 2010 at the age of 25 from “acute bacterial septicemia. Although this level of aggression usually causes reaction from the other whales in adjacent pools. Page 2 of 21 .g. This time. (Kalina’s reported cause of death. thrash and dismember his trainer. or when aggressive tensions exist between animals (e. it is unclear how this clash factored into Tilikum’s choice to grab. or to “jaw-pop” through the gates as they display aggression at each other. and sepsis. the decaying pulp forms a cavity that leads to food plugging. The reaction of the orca’s immune system to this plugging is to create inflammation and eventually a focus for systemic infection. making them poor candidates for release into the wild. in June of 2010. bacteremia. If left alone. Kayla and Kalina were fighting again. Because of the relative youth of most captive whales. As a consequence. often possess a significantly reduced number of viable teeth. Just four months later. Instead. See Appendix A). Kayla inflicted a significant laceration above Kalina’s right eye. to prevent abscess. for the rest of the orca’s life. using a variable speed drill. forcing yet another show cancellation.
These open bore holes represent a direct route for pathogens to enter the blood stream where they can then be deposited into the tissue of various organs throughout the body. pathology reports. a division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric (NOAA). pneumonia. stroke. as a means of obfuscating relevant data. So despite the prevalence of poor teeth. gingivitis. [NOTE: Please see the attached Appendix A for captive orca birth. many whales reportedly die of pneumonia. capture. Unfortunately. marine industry claims are difficult to fully investigate. it is not known what role they play in captive orca deaths. and introduces a new statistic. and other relevant documentation of the lives and deaths of captive orcas are poorly archived at the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). Along these lines. Instead. the federal agency tasked with tracking captive marine mammal data. and heart attack. This compiled spreadsheet reconstitutes missing and/or coded information contained in the NMFS's Marine Mammal Inventory Report (MMIR). For example. and death data. and under a relative cloak of secrecy.” (MDC) measured in days for ease of comparison and computation. by utilizing code numbers.] Page 3 of 21 . by park personnel.In the medical field it is known that poor dentition can lead to a host of diseases including valvular heart disease. such as the heart or kidney. Could the cause of pneumonia be bacteria carried to the lungs from rotting food plugs or tooth decay? This is unclear due to insufficient research and lack of scrutiny. marine parks such as SW typically avoid attaching animal names with the cetacean records kept by the aforementioned agencies. orca necropsies are mostly done inhouse. Unfortunately. “Mean Duration of Captivity.
the use of antibiotics is often the immediate response to an animal appearing “off” or “slow. but were suspicious of the respiratory tract based on history of other whales with similar blood parameters and clinical signs. like Tagamet. “This whale had a similar issue last October that was treated and fully resolved. The deleterious effects of chronic antibiotic usage are well established. It is unknown where the inflammation was. According to a preliminary report prepared by the Investigative and Enforcement Services of USDA APHIS (US Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) and obtained via the Freedom of Information Act. such as orcas. It is reasonable to expect that as public opinion shifts toward disfavoring killer whale captivity.” and at any given time one or more orcas may be receiving antibiotics. but they had ruled out the teeth using a thermography unit. it is common practice to administer on-going prophylactic medications such as those that reduce stomach acid production and block histamine. as are the effects of a life spent in water treated with oxidative agents meant to kill E. Tilikum was on antibiotic and antifungal drugs for an “inflammatory issue” with an elevated white blood cell count beginning “about February 11” (2010) and during the time he pulled Ms. alive. As such. are typically packed into the morning feeding sessions by pushing them through the gills of herring (fish). Similarly. Dead captive killer whales are bad public relations and they serve to fuel the anti-captivity movement. such as antibiotics. coli and other pathogens. the pressure on veterinary and animal care staff to utilize prophylactic medications to prevent future deaths will increase. Brancheau to her death. Also in the report. Page 4 of 21 . malnutrition. and susceptibility of the host to opportunistic pathogens such as fungi and yeast. and include disruption of normal bacterial flora in the gut. Stressrelated ulcers are common in captive marine mammals and must be dealt with medically.” Pills.Veterinary and animal care workers at marine parks are under considerable pressure to keep valuable captive assets. The long-term consequences of other commonly used medications at marine parks are poorly understood.
among other physiological risks. forage. little is known of the long-term effects on captive orcas exposed to the sun to such an unnatural extent. Dorsal collapse is a phenomenon nearly exclusive to captivity as it is rarely seen in wild orcas. and others. The USDA-APHIS. based upon animal and human studies. It is known that UV radiation exposure is a factor in the development of cataracts. More obvious are the drastic changes in dorsal fin architecture (bending) that accompany a life spent at the surface. 100% of adult captive male dorsal fins have succumbed to gravity versus approximately one percent of free-ranging orcas. one can speculate that the impacts are anything but positive. or who otherwise spend inordinate amounts of time surface resting. has historically been ineffective in ensuring compliance with the numerous regulations designed to provide minimum standards of care for captive marine mammals. The resultant physical deconditioning amongst captives is poorly understood from a long-term health perspective. and immune systems as animals float motionless at the surface. in darker water. Less understood are the consequences from increased ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure to the skin. Compounding the issue. Consequently. and at greater depths. however. possibly secondary to cataract formation. a random visitor to SWF will almost certainly find Tilikum. with most spending many hours surface resting. Furthermore. captive orcas swim only limited distances. communicate. at least one serious trainer injury has been linked to a whale’s poor visual acuity. and trainers or animal care staff will apply sun-block and black (colored) zinc oxide to the backs of those animals which show signs of burn. statically suspended and without significant movement for long periods. water in orca tanks is shallow and clear. which is charged with enforcement of Animal Welfare Act (AWA) provisions such as protection from the weather and direct sunlight. Contrastingly. especially in low latitude environments with elevated sun exposure. as few captive orcas live to old age. Orcas in marine parks sometimes suffer from sunburn. Unfortunately. and none spend time looking up at humans with their heads “on deck. with little horizontal or vertical space in their enclosures.Wild killer whales can swim a hundred miles daily as they socialize. eyes. and breed. In stark contrast. Page 5 of 21 .” In the medical community it is also accepted that UV radiation can act as an immunosuppressant and can cause retinal damage. offering no natural protection from the sun’s harmful rays. free-ranging orcas spend most of their time at higher latitudes.
For comparison. For example. at approximately 2-3% of their body weight each day. and which constitute nearly half of their captive diet. However. and baleen whales. family.15 years. (2005). In the wild they consume a diet of live (not dead) prey items depending on which cultural subset they come from. marine parks have enjoyed 60 live births since 1977. New Zealand orcas are known to feed on sharks and rays. we have calculated the mean duration of captivity (MDC) to be less than nine years. In the wild. Although staff members at these parks are trained to repeat the script that the fish is of “restaurant quality. Clupea harengus (herring). the mean age at first birth has been estimated to be 14 . Thaleichthys pacificus (smelt). with nine deceased (32%). and represented in Appendix A. captive orcas often become pregnant much earlier. or born at a theme park. “single calves are subsequently born at five-year intervals (from the mid-teens) over a [span] lasting about 25 years. not scavengers. SW alone has had 28 live births. At Sea World this consists of frozen-thawed whole fish. since captives receive essentially the same diet every day. and stable matrilines. while Icelandic and Northwestern orcas eat herring and salmon. as are ten of the mothers.” Reproductive senescence (the equivalent of menopause) occurs around 40 years of age. and regarding “Northern Resident” orcas. Approximately 157 orcas have died in captivity.). Globally. 32 of those animals (53%) are already deceased (Dec. successful calf-rearing is facilitated by mentoring mid-wives.” they fail to mention that free-ranging orcas don’t typically eat smelt. and Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (pink salmon). which are the size of sardines. orcas in captive environments are forced to eat a non-varied diet of carrion. Marine parks such as Sea World tout their ability to provide environments adequate to keep orcas alive. Based on revised estimates by Olesiuk. this claim is not supported by the evidence. Still others feed on marine mammals such as sea lions. Additionally. Although from diverse places of origin. nor is it known what long-term health consequences arise from feeding captive orcas food inconsistent with their culture. Page 6 of 21 . porpoise. In regard to wild female reproductive lifespan. they are more susceptible to vitamin deficiencies from a lack of prey variety.Orcas are carnivores. Based upon the MMIR data. This is regardless of whether an orca was extracted from the ocean. Ellis and Ford. not including stillborns and miscarriages. It is not known how refrigeration and freezing of these fish impact the nutritional quality. However.
Keep in mind that killer whale gestation is approximately 18 months in duration. including immature mothers refusing. Page 7 of 21 . SWF) and an Icelandic mother Gudrun (Dec. Taima was a true hybrid. Kohana is not nursing this young orca and it is not clear whether it will survive via bottle and tube feedings. As an aside. being genetically half-transient and half-Icelandic. This is happening currently with a captive orca named Kohana. wild orcas typically spend their entire lives with family members who. in October of 2010. unknown in nature. 2/25/1996. who is famous as SW’s second AI calf. at the age of 20. or not knowing how. SWF).” Fathered by a transient bull named Kanduke (Dec. Was Taima too young at eight years of age to have Sumar (Dec. to properly nurse their calves. Taima was a notoriously poor mother as well. At SWF. contrary to the common practice at marine parks of moving young whales to other parks and away from family. and for his own protection he was shipped out of Orlando prior to his first birthday. 9/7/2010. Understand that Pacific transients and North Atlantic (Icelandic) ecotypes refer to two culturally and genetically distinct types of orcas that do not interact in the wild. among other things. she has recently given birth at eight years of age. as she was deemed aggressive and unpredictable. assist mothers with calf-rearing (see Appendix B for a summary of Kalina's travel record to various parks). SWC)? It is known that she became very aggressive with him. On loan from SW to Loro Parque. wild Northern Resident calves are “born at five-year intervals. Taima was also eventually banned from performing with trainers in the water. and to reiterate. She died from a prolapsed uterus while giving birth to her fourth calf on 6 June 2010.Giving birth at a young age comes with risks. 9/20/1990.
According to the records. It is not known what attributes have contributed to their exceptionally long lives (by captive longevity standards). Tilikum) that have been living in captivity for greater than 28 years.7 and 8.9 years. Additionally. and future steps to prevent morbidity and mortality amongst the human keepers of captive orcas. expanding the overall population from 152 to 193. to include all whales still alive in captivity (including these long-lived whales). MDC and lifespan are the same for captive born orcas. NOAA. especially when compared with free-ranging orca longevity.In light of Ms. the MDC equals 2413 days or 6. the Mean Duration of Captivity (MDC). Lolita. While parks such as SW should be credited for some of the early research on basic killer whale behavior and physiology. However. Page 8 of 21 . and six (Corky. only produces a median duration of captivity of 3108 days or 8. This is a surprisingly low number. there are 41 whales currently living at marine parks. the recent focus of public discourse has been on the safety measures in place at marine mammal facilities. a review of the scientific literature suggests that very little new knowledge is being generated as a result of orca captivity. Kasatka. Safety measures aside. We acknowledge that the MDC is not equivalent to lifespan for captured animals. NMFS and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). and that the MDC only addresses dead whales for which data exist (n=152). Ulises. the objective of this article is to identify several key issues related to the whales themselves. However. respectively). Brancheau’s horrific death. and regulatory agencies such as the USDA. the public. it is a valid approximation based upon the historical preference of whale collectors to extract the younger orcas of a given clan or pod.6 years. We also acknowledge that husbandry procedures and veterinary care may have improved with time. To incorporate both dead (n=152) and living whales (n=41) we utilized the Kaplan-Meier (KM) method of examining captive orca survival. APHIS. Employing the median as most representative of the central tendency of the dataset. the authors introduce a new statistic. It is our hope that a more holistic understanding of orcas within captive environments may lead to better judgments by park managers. For our population of 152 killer whales that have lived and died in captivity. Katina.5 years. and helps predict orca survival in captivity. Using KM. this method allows “credit” to be given for those whales that are still living. which allows for the evaluation of lifespan in captivity. we can be 95% sure that the true median duration of captivity lies between 998 and 3250 days (2.
Though the data suggests that the post-Kalina birth cohort whales are living shorter lives. Both Drs Jett and Ventre worked as trainers at Sea World of Florida for a combined total of 12 years. John Kielty. whose mother and family group are still alive. Carol Ray. In short. Chica. links to related documents. the MDC between the two is not statistically significant. their life spans are decreased and their behaviors altered from the stressors associated with confinement. whales with broken and bored teeth. Animals such as Lolita at the Miami Seaquarium.com and Orca Tracker. The authors thank Wendy Cooke. such as Tilikum. news and stories. would be to phase out captive populations naturally. they began professional careers that allow for this unique perspective. Jeffrey Ventre. Page 9 of 21 . and whose teeth are in relatively good shape. Kim Ventre. purely for entertainment purposes. For an online version of this document with the latest updates. As we've demonstrated. 26 September 1985. Howard Garrett. John Jett.Using “Baby Shamu's” landmark birth as a point when successful captive birthing began.theorcaproject. unnatural spaces. stop breeding the animals and let those already in captivity live out their lives. additional content. is a visiting research professor focusing on waterway management issues at Stetson University. are likely poor candidates for release back to their natural habitat without ongoing human intervention. a geospatial interactive map connecting orca events and scholars from around the world. the MDC differs little between the pre-Kalina (2453 days = 6. One solution.D. and with Dawn Brancheau. Colleen Gorman. n=105) and post-Kalina birth cohorts (2323 days = 6. After SeaWorld. The time has come to evolve beyond keeping killer whales confined in small. Samantha Berg. They worked with several orcas. MD. via attrition. and Tim Zimmermann for their contributions to this paper. and many others. Ph.7 years. and we support. n=47). However.4 years. including Tilikum. may be candidates for a transitional reintroduction to the wild. is a medical physician specializing in physical medicine and rehabilitation in New Orleans. which has already been proposed. visit www.
880 7.145 4. USA Marine World Africa USA.391 2.597 1. Florida. France SeaWorld of California.416 8. USA Marineland of the Pacific.745 1.115 6. CA.334 65 971 909 970 15 28 2. Japan Marineland of Canada Hoi Wai (Peanuts) F (Suzie Wong) Hugo M Hyak II (Tung-Jen) Jumbo Junior M M F Page 10 of 21 . CA. Canada Kamogawa SeaWorld. CA Marineland Antibes. USA Kamogawa SeaWorld. Japan Nanki Adventure World.356 1. Japan Private Residence Japan Marineland Antibes. Japan Kamogawa SeaWorld. USA Kamogawa SeaWorld.051 7. CA. USA Ocean Park.Appendix A: Captive Orca Longevity Table I Pre-Kalina Mortalities: Orcas Entering Captivity prior to 9-26-85 Orca Name Ahab Benkei Benkei II (Ushikawa) Benkei III Betty Bjossa Bonnie Calypso Canuck Canuck II Caren (Calen) Chappy Chi Chimo Clovis Corky Corky II's Calf (No Name) Corky II's Calf (No Name) Cuddles Dzul-Ha (Shamu) Finna Frankie Freyja (Patty) Gudrun Haida Haida II M M M M F F F F M M F M F F M M M F M M M M F F M F Begin Captivity 10/1968 02/26/1979 10/1980 02/1982 10/1978 11/19/1980 04/1968 12/11/1969 03/12/1972 10/12/1977 11/1979 08/08/1970 02/26/1979 03/1970 08/08/1970 04/1968 02/28/1977 07/22/1985 10/1968 07/1979 11/19/1980 07/1973 11/1984 10/1976 10/1968 10/1982 10/1977 02/1968 04/1968 08/08/1970 11/1984 Date of Death 1974 1989 07/1983 12/1983 09/08/1987 10/08/2001 08/15/1968 12/1970 12/1974 08/02/1981 05/04/1987 04/1974 05/1979 11/02/1972 02/1973 12/1970 03/15/1977 08/20/1985 04/1974 1983 10/06/1997 01/29/1974 09/16/1987 02/25/1996 10/03/1982 08/2001 04/21/1997 03/04/1980 02/16/1991 07/1974 06/01/1994 Duration of Years of Life in Captivity (days) Captivity 1. Japan Sealand of the Pacific.921 3.629 134 355 989 1. Canada SeaWorld of California. Japan SeaWorld of Florida. Canada Marineland Antibes.502 15 10 3 2 9 21 0 1 3 4 8 4 0 3 2 3 0 0 6 4 17 1 3 19 14 19 20 12 23 4 10 Reported Cause of Death Unknown Acute Pneumonia Malignant Lymphoma Unknown Pneumonia Chronic Bronchopneumonia Heart Failure Unknown Candidiasis Chronic Kidney Disease Agranulocytosis Periostitis of Lumbar Bone Unknown Pneumonia.424 3. Bacteremia associated w/ Endomyometritis Lung Infection Necrosis of Cerebrum/ Fungal Infection Severe Intestinal Blood Loss Aneurysm Cerebral Artery Pneumonia Liver Dysfunction Brain Damage Place of Death US Navy Hawaii Nanki Adventure World. England Aquarama on Parade. Japan Taiji Whale Museum. USA Marineland of the Pacific. Redwood City.006 665 3. France SeaWorld of Florida.264 7. USA Vancouver Aquarium. Hong Kong Miami Seaquarium. Canada SeaWorld of Texas.011 1. France Marineland of the Pacific. USA Sealand of the Pacific. Chediak-Higashi-Syndrome Myositis Mediastinal Abscess Brain Damage Asphyxiation Streptococcal Mediastinal Abscess Unknown Pneumonia Influenza Acute Enteritis Septicemia. Mexico Vancouver Aquarium.281 6. USA Dudley Zoo.166 213 1. USA SeaWorld of California.089 5. Streptococcal Septicaemia.
453 1. Infection. Maxillary Bilateral Fracture SeaWorld of California.720 5. Liver Necrosis Pneumonia Uraemia-Nephritis Place of Death SeaWorld of Texas. Japan SeaWorld of California.513 105 76 5. Netherlands Sea-Arama Inc. Skin Disease. WA. Japan Marineland of the Pacific. CA. USA New York Aquarium.Appendix A: Captive Orca Longevity Table I Pre-Kalina Mortalities: Orcas Entering Captivity prior to 9-26-85 Orca Name Kahana Kandu Kandu II Kandu III Kandu V Kandu VII Kanduke (Kandu IV) Kandy Katy Kenau Kenny Kianu (Clyde) Kilroy Kim (Oum) Kim II King Kiva Kona Kona II Kotar Lil Nooka Lupa Magnus Mamuk Milagro Miracle Moby Doll Namu Nandu Natsidalia Nemo F F M F F M M F F F M F M M M M F F F M M F M M M F M M M M M Begin Captivity 1978 02/15/1967 08/1971 08/1971 10/12/1977 11/1984 08/16/1975 08/1973 02/15/1967 10/25/1976 12/11/1969 05/09/1968 02/1967 06/1976 10/1982 11/1979 06/18/1982 08/1971 10/12/1977 1978 08/08/1970 02/1968 10/26/1977 10/15/1968 08/08/1985 08/02/1977 07/16/1964 06/23/1965 11/1983 04/1968 10/1981 Date of Death 05/14/1991 06/16/1971 10/1979 06/1975 08/21/1989 12/21/2005 09/20/1990 11/16/1973 05/1967 08/06/1991 05/1972 06/1980 09/23/1978 07/24/1982 11/23/2005 10/04/1983 08/03/1982 09/28/1977 10/15/1987 04/1995 03/18/1971 09/06/1968 12/18/1977 06/14/1974 02/10/1991 01/1982 10/09/1964 07/09/1966 03/02/1988 11/1968 11/17/1986 Duration of Years of Life in Captivity (days) Captivity 4. USA SeaWorld of California.244 8. Drowning. Canada Seattle Marine Aquarium.248 3.615 83 381 1. Argentina Sealand of the Pacific. USA Hemorrhage. Canada Vancouver Aquarium. TX. Canada Windsor Safari Park. USA SeaWorld of Florida. USA Aquarama Sao Paulo. USA Sea-Arama Inc.655 6. Adrenal Gland Tumor Heart failure Thrombocytosis SeaWorld of Florida. USA Nanki Adventure World. USA Harderwijk Dolphinarium.400 876 4. BC. England Page 11 of 21 . USA SeaWorld of California. CA.872 13 4 8 4 12 21 15 0 0 15 2 12 12 6 23 4 0 6 10 17 1 1 0 6 6 4 0 1 4 1 5 Reported Cause of Death Severe Trauma. USA SeaWorld of Florida.434 45 2. France Marineland Antibes.587 210 1.982 1. TX.332 7. WA.250 2. Intestinal Ganglioneuroma Pneumonia.401 4.582 2. USA Marineland of Canada SeaWorld of California. France Kamogawa SeaWorld. USA Marineland Antibes.070 2. USA Marineland of the Pacific.405 4.881 1. Also reported as Pulmonary Abscession Pulmonary Abscession Acute Hemorrhagic Pneumonia Asphyxiation Pneumonia Agranulocytic Anaemia Acute Streptococcal Septicemia Unknown Drowning Drowning.299 225 215 52 2. USA SeaWorld of Texas. Brazil Pender Harbour. USA Cancer Marineland of Canada Viral Leptomenigitis Acute Pneumonia Unknown Hemorrhagic Bacterial Pneumonia Pneumonia Gastrointestinal Disease Gangrenous Pneumonia Lung Abscess Pneumonia Acute Pneumonia Respiratory Failure Septicemia. USA Marineland of Canada Seattle Marine Aquarium.013 1. USA Acuario Mundo Marino.Clostridium Perfrigens.
365 9. Australia Marineland.446 415 358 6. Canada Saedyrasafnid Aquarium. Gastrointestinal Tract Canada Pneumonia. Ruptured Kidney Pneumonia Haemophilia Neck Injury Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Pyogranulomatous. Influenza Acute Bronchopneumonia Nephropathy Mediastinal Abscess. Japan Nutritional Disorder Nanki Adventure World. USA Seattle Marine Aquarium. Canada Perforated Post-Pyloric Ulcer. Pneumonia Clacton Pier. USA SeaWorld of California. Redwood City. CA Clacton Pier.863 610 100 100 35 62 65 70 120 241 65 Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown 7. Old Age Unknown Unknown Traumatic Shock Pneumonia Brain Abscess Mycotic Meningoencephalitis Marineland of Canada Marineland of the Pacific. UK Saedyrasafnid Aquarium.758 790 10 3. WA. WA. USA Page 12 of 21 . USA Marineland of Canada SeaWorld of California. Abscess in Sealand of the Pacific. Iceland Birth Complications. Japan Enoshima Aquarium. Iceland Pneumonia Saedyrasafnid Aquarium. UK Taiji Whale Museum. Japan Enoshima Aquarium.060 11 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown 20 1 3 12 26 2 20 2 15 1 1 18 2 0 8 Reported Cause of Death Acute Bronchopneumonia Appendicitis Heart Attack Place of Death Marine World Africa USA. CA. Septicemia SeaWorld of Florida. WA. Japan Sealand of the Pacific.317 275 991 4. Australia Nanki Adventure World. Japan SeaWorld of Texas. USA Unknown Pneumonia. USA Seattle Marine Aquarium.441 599 5. Iceland Seattle Marine Aquarium. USA Marineland. calf. Japan Acute Enterotoxaemia Marineland of Canada Traumatic Shock.Appendix A: Captive Orca Longevity Table I Pre-Kalina Mortalities: Orcas Entering Captivity prior to 9-26-85 Orca Name Nepo Neptune No Name No Name No Name No Name No Name No Name No Name No Name No Name No Name No Name No Name No Name No Name Nootka (Knootka) Nootka II Nootka III Nootka IV Nootka V Orky Orky II Patches Ramu Ramu II Ramu IV Ruka (Orca) Sacchi Sacchi's Calf (No Name) Samoa M M M F F F F M M M M F * * * F F M M F F F M M M M M F F M F Begin Captivity 12/15/1969 10/1981 10/26/1978 10/26/1978 02/26/1979 02/26/1979 11/1979 10/1981 02/1982 10/1982 11/1984 04/1969 02/1970 11/1971 11/1971 11/1981 03/1970 08/1973 08/16/1973 10/1982 11/1981 07/25/1967 05/10/1968 12/12/1969 02/15/1967 04/1969 08/08/1970 10/1981 02/1982 05/01/1982 11/1983 Date of Death 07/10/1980 06/01/1983 02/1979 02/1979 03/31/1979 04/28/1979 01/1980 12/11/1981 06/01/1982 05/27/1983 01/1985 Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown 03/13/1990 05/1974 05/1976 09/13/1994 01/08/2008 07/1969 09/26/1988 08/1971 01/12/1982 05/21/1970 08/1971 03/29/2000 04/1984 05/11/1982 03/14/1992 Duration of Years of Life in Captivity (days) Captivity 3. USA Ruptured Aorta Sealand of the Pacific. CA. USA Marineland of the Pacific. USA SeaWorld of Florida. Salmonellosis. USA Seattle Marine Aquarium.569 706 7. Delivered a stillborn Nanki Adventure World. WA.
CA Kamogawa SeaWorld. 110 orcas that entered captivity on or before 09/25/1985 are shown.Appendix A: Captive Orca Longevity Table I Pre-Kalina Mortalities: Orcas Entering Captivity prior to 9-26-85 Orca Name Sandy Scarred Jaw Cow Shamu Shawn Skana (Walter) Spooky Surfer Girl Tai Taiji Tula Vigga Wanda (Newport) Whale (Wally) Winnie (Frya) Winston (Ramu) Yaka Zero F F F F F M F M M M F F F F M F * Begin Captivity 03/12/1973 03/1970 10/31/1965 01/1978 02/15/1967 10/31/1978 05/26/1979 02/26/1979 12/1978 07/1968 11/19/1980 11/18/1961 08/08/1970 10/12/1977 08/08/1970 12/15/1969 09/01/1972 Date of Death 10/1977 05/15/1970 08/23/1971 09/03/1979 10/05/1980 11/10/1978 06/03/1979 06/1982 12/1978 10/1968 08/14/2000 11/20/1961 10/04/1971 04/11/2002 04/28/1986 10/29/1997 09/15/1972 Duration of Years of Life in Captivity (days) Captivity 1. Netherlands Six Flags Marine World. Pneumonia Pneumonia. If month is not known: default month is "01" (January).950 5. USA Marineland of the Pacific. USA Vancouver Aquarium. CA. *Gender unknown The data utilized in this report was obtained from “The Orca Project Database” at www. USA Pedder Bay. CA. Vallejo. Five orcas with an unknown duration of captivity are removed for the purpose of MDC calculations. BC. USA SeaWorld of California. Colitis Pneumonia. Japan Table I: PRE-KALINA Notes: The preceding table (Table I) does not include stillborn calves. Japan Harderwijk Dolphinarium. Perforated Gastric Ulcer Unknown Harpoon Wound External Fungus Heart Failure. (n=105) Where estimated dates were required due to insufficient historical data. CA. Canada Marineland of the Pacific.191 5 90 7.744 10. Redwood City.124 607 4. Page 13 of 21 . newspaper and news archives. Gastroenteritis Heart Failure GI Tract Obstruction Chronic Cardiovascular Failure Pleuritis/Pneumonia From Upper Respiratory Infection Unknown Place of Death SeaWorld of Florida. marine mammal publications. USA SeaWorld of California.181 14 5 0 6 2 14 0 0 3 0 0 20 0 1 24 16 28 0 Reported Cause of Death Cerebral Haemorrhage Malnutrition Septicemia Pneumonia General Mycotic Infection Pneumonia. miscarriages or other unsuccessful pregnancies that occurred during captivity. Kidney failure.com which was compiled from multiple sources including National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Marine Mammal Inventory Reports (MMIRs). Germany SeaWorld of Texas. Orca mortalities from capture operations are not included. Canada SeaWorld of California. Brain/Lung Abscess.210 2 421 8. values were calculated using the following criteria: If day of month is not known: default day is "01" (1st day of month).theorcaproject.660 74 2. websites. USA Marine World Africa USA. USA Munchen Aquarium. Japan Taiji Whale Museum. CA Taiji Whale Museum. government oversight agencies and marine mammal park documents and is believed to be accurate as of the date of publication.978 10 7 1. USA Marine World Africa USA.
226 9.Appendix A: Captive Orca Longevity Table II Post-Kalina Mortalities: Orcas Entering Captivity after 9-25-85 Orca Name Ai (Al) Algonquin April Asuka Athena Baby Shamu II F M F F F F Begin Captivity 10/1989 12/18/1999 04/07/2004 02/07/1997 08/08/2004 01/05/1986 01/06/1988 11/13/1988 03/08/1995 10/1985 11/20/1994 10/09/2005 09/15/1998 09/26/1985 08/28/1994 11/04/1988 08/24/1992 02/02/1997 09/30/1991 02/07/1997 11/1987 03/03/1995 04/21/1996 10/01/1985 10/21/1992 02/1986 02/09/1997 02/07/1997 09/26/2003 02/10/2006 09/17/1992 02/04/1992 Date of Death 08/25/1995 08/13/2002 05/2004 09/19/2007 04/2009 01/16/1986 02/04/2000 12/04/1988 03/08/1995 01/21/2005 12/28/1994 06/15/2008 10/20/2004 10/04/2010 1998 05/05/1999 10/25/1992 09/19/2008 01/04/1992 09/18/2004 10/07/1997 03/03/1995 03/04/2000 01/14/2011 08/01/2004 04/1986 06/14/1997 06/17/1997 10/24/2003 02/13/2006 09/17/1992 03/10/1992 Duration of Years of Life in Captivity (days) Captivity 2.239 4. Russia Kamogawa SeaWorld.414 9.628 0 1. Japan Marineland of Canada Port of Nagoya Aquarium. USA Unknown Acuario Mundo Marino. Bacterial SeaWorld of Texas. Japan Pneumonia Multifocal Pyogranulomatous SeaWorld of Texas. Canada Nanki Adventure World. Japan Marineland of Canada Marineland of Canada Sea Paradise. Coast of Japan Nanki Adventure World. after birth.699 11 4. Died minutes Vancouver Aquarium. Canada No Name (akaM Father Kshamenk) Nootka IV's Calf M (No Name) Page 14 of 21 . Japan Acuario Mundo Marino.139 1. USA W/Gram+Filamentous Acute Necrotizing Encephalitis SeaWorld of Texas.155 971 24 3. Argentina Sealand of the Pacific. USA Marineland of Canada Severe Suppurative Hemorrhage. Canada Ruptured Umbilical Cord. Birth Complications Unknown Immune System Deficiency Ulcerative Colitis (Necropsy pending) Internal Infection Unknown Systemic Viral Infection (Herpes Grp) Bacterial Pneumonia (Bronchopneumonia) Unknown Unknown Unknown Infection. Extremely High White Blood Cell Count. USA Meningitis Acute Bacterial Septicemia Traumatic Shock Marineland of Canada SeaWorld of Florida. Argentina Malnutrition Vancouver Aquarium.055 38 982 2. USA Pneumonia Drowning Marineland of Canada Heart Failure Brain Infection Bacterial Pneumonia.778 3.224 3. Port of Nagoya Aquarium.245 99 2. Japan Vancouver Aquarium.303 60 125 130 28 3 0 36 6 3 0 11 5 0 12 0 0 20 0 3 6 25 3 11 0 12 0 8 10 0 4 25 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Reported Cause of Death Candidiasis Twisted Intestine Malnutrition Unknown Unknown Heart Defect Place of Death Nanki Adventure World.874 1. Japan Utrish Dolphinarium.839 61 4.411 21 0 7. Japan Marineland of Canada Japanese Fishermen Group. Japan Marineland of Canada Belen (Bethlehem) F Bjossa's Calf (No Name) Bjossa's Calf (No Name) Goro Haida II's Calf (No Name) Halyn Hudson Kalina Kanuck Katerina Kiska's Calf (No Name) Ku Kyosha Kyu Maggie (Magy) (Miss Piggy) Maggie's Calf (No Name) Malik (E-Day) Nami Neocia (Baby October) No Name No Name No Name No Name No Name F F M * F M F M F M F F M F M F F F F M F F M SeaWorld of California. Japan Nanki Adventure World. Japan Kamogawa SeaWorld. Japan Kamogawa SeaWorld. Canada Acute Pneumonia Nanki Adventure World.
Malnutrition. government oversight agencies and marine mammal park documents and is believed to be accurate as of the date of publication.theorcaproject.062 760 7. miscarriages or other unsuccessful pregnancies that occurred during captivity. websites. Japan Unknown Kamogawa SeaWorld. values were calculated using the following criteria: If day of month is not known: default day is "01" (1st day of month). USA SeaWorld of Florida. If month is not known: default month is "01" (January). Forty-seven orcas that entered captivity on or after 09/26/1985 are shown. Infection.037 5. France SeaWorld of California. USA SeaWorld of Texas.750 827 60 1. Gave birth to premature calf on Nanki Adventure World. Japan Table II: POST-KALINA Notes: The preceding table (Table II) does not include stillborn calves. Osteoarthritis Immune System Failure. 8-26-04. marine mammal publications. newspaper and news archives. (n=47) Where estimated dates were required due to insufficient historical data. Orca mortalities from capture operations are not included. Hong Kong Unknown. Page 15 of 21 . USA SeaWorld of California.151 4.Appendix A: Captive Orca Longevity Table II Post-Kalina Mortalities: Orcas Entering Captivity after 9-25-85 Orca Name Nootka V's Calf (No Name) Nova Nyar Pascuala Prince (Bubba) Ran (Lan) Ran's Calf (No Name) Sarah Shachi Sharkan Splash Sumar Taima Taku Tanouk (Yamato) F M F F M F F F F F M M F M M Begin Captivity 05/27/1998 11/06/1996 12/31/1993 04/10/2007 10/1987 10/1989 08/26/2004 05/31/2003 02/1986 10/1989 08/15/1989 05/14/1998 07/11/1989 09/09/1993 10/1989 Date of Death 06/07/1998 08/20/2001 04/01/1996 06/10/2007 07/10/1991 08/29/2004 08/28/2004 04/26/2006 03/1988 01/03/2009 04/05/2005 09/07/2010 06/06/2010 10/17/2007 10/24/2000 Duration of Years of Life in Captivity (days) Captivity 10 1. USA Sea Paradise. Japan Broken Skull Nanki Adventure World.380 5. USA Vallarta Dolphin Adventures.496 7.com which was compiled from multiple sources including National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Marine Mammal Inventory Reports (MMIRs). Mexico Ocean Park. Japan Bacillus Pyocyanique Acute Perforating Gastric Ulceration w/ Associated Peritonitis Acute Intestinal/Mesentric Vol Peracute Uterine Prolape Severe Multifocal Interstitial Pneumonia Unknown Marineland Antibes. Pseudomonas Place of Death Marineland of Canada Marineland of Canada SeaWorld of Florida.635 5. Japan Pneumonia Sea Paradise. *Gender unknown The data utilized in this report was obtained from “The Orca Project Database” at www.714 4.447 2 1. Starvation Suppurative Encephalitis.041 0 5 2 0 4 15 0 3 2 19 16 12 21 14 11 Reported Cause of Death Unknown Pneumonia.
701 6.Appendix A: Captive Orca Longevity Table III Orcas Presently Living in Captivity Orca Name Adan Corky II Earth Freya Ikaika Inouk Kalia Kasatka Katina (Kandu VI) Katina's calf (No Name) Kayla Keet Keto Kiska Kohana (Makea) Kshamenk Kyuquot (Ky) (Kyuquet) Lara Lolita (Tokitae) Lovey Malia Morgan Nakai Nalani Orkid Oscar (Wolfie) Ran II Sakari Shouka Skyla Stella M F M F M M F F F M F M M F F M M F F F F F M F F M F F F F F Origin Captive Born Wild Capture Captive Born Wild Capture Captive Born Captive Born Captive Born Wild Capture Wild Capture Captive Born Captive Born Captive Born Captive Born Wild Capture Captive Born Wild Capture Captive Born Captive Born Wild Capture Captive Born Captive Born Rescue Captive Born Captive Born Captive Born Wild Capture Captive Born Captive Born Captive Born Captive Born Wild Capture Begin Captivity 10/13/2010 12/27/1969 10/13/2008 10/1982 08/25/2002 02/23/1999 12/21/2004 1978 1978 10/09/2010 11/26/1988 02/02/1993 06/17/1995 10/1979 05/03/2002 09/19/1992 12/24/1991 02/08/2001 08/08/1970 01/11/1998 03/12/2007 06/23/2010 09/01/2001 09/18/2006 09/23/1988 11/1987 02/25/2006 01/07/2010 02/25/1993 02/09/2004 10/23/1987 Duration of Years of Life Captivity (days) in Captivity 102 15.539 2.791 378 6. USA SeaWorld of Florida. USA SeaWorld of Florida.431 1. Spain Marineland of Canada Loro Parque. Japan Kamogawa SeaWorld.072 4.437 3. Florida. USA Six Flags Discovery Kingdom. Japan Sea World LLC Sea World of Florida Harderwijk Dolphinarium. Spain Kamogawa SeaWorld. USA SeaWorld of California. Spain SeaWorld of California. USA Loro Parque.634 14.971 3. Spain Acuario Mundo Marino.072 106 8. Argentina SeaWorld of Texas.226 12. USA SeaWorld of California.003 833 10. USA SeaWorld of Florida. USA SeaWorld of Florida. Japan Page 16 of 21 . USA Loro Parque. Japan Marineland Antibes. Japan SeaWorld of Texas. France Marineland of Canada Marineland Antibes. France SeaWorld of California.777 4.538 8.409 212 3. Japan Miami Seaquarium.697 11.562 5.757 1. USA SeaWorld of Texas.072 12. CA.350 2. Netherlands SeaWorld of California.588 8. USA Kamogawa SeaWorld.158 8.341 3.184 6. USA Kamogawa SeaWorld. USA Kamogawa SeaWorld.095 6.493 0 41 2 28 8 12 6 33 33 0 22 18 16 31 9 18 19 10 40 13 4 1 9 4 22 23 5 1 18 7 23 Present Location Loro Parque. USA Kamogawa SeaWorld.485 1.
Spain Kamogawa SeaWorld. USA Marineland Antibes.888 4.456 3.142 5. France Marineland Antibes.Appendix A: Captive Orca Longevity Table III Orcas Presently Living in Captivity Orca Name Takara Tekoa Thor (Bingo) Tilikum Trua Tuar (Flash) Ulises Unna Valentin Wikie F M M M M M M F M F Origin Captive Born Captive Born Wild Capture Wild Capture Captive Born Captive Born Wild Capture Captive Born Captive Born Captive Born Begin Captivity 07/09/1991 11/08/2000 11/1984 11/1983 11/23/2005 06/22/1999 11/19/1980 12/27/1996 02/13/1996 06/01/2001 Duration of Years of Life Captivity (days) in Captivity 7.136 3. USA SeaWorld of Texas.theorcaproject.581 9.231 11. Page 17 of 21 . The data utilized in this report was obtained from “The Orca Project Database” at www. France Table III: LIVING ORCAS Notes: The preceding Table includes all orcas known to be held in captivity throughout the world as of date of publication. USA SeaWorld of Texas. Where estimated dates were required due to insufficient historical data.024 5. USA SeaWorld of Florida. websites. If month is not known: default month is "01" (January).946 1. government oversight agencies and marine mammal park documents and is believed to be accurate as of the date of publication.com which was compiled from multiple sources including National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Marine Mammal Inventory Reports (MMIRs).730 9. newspaper and news archives. USA SeaWorld of California. USA Loro Parque.521 20 10 26 27 5 12 30 14 15 10 Present Location SeaWorld of Texas. (n= 41) “Duration of Captivity” is calculated as of 01-20-2011. marine mammal publications. Japan SeaWorld of Florida. values were calculated using the following criteria: If day of month is not known: default day is "01" (1st day of month).
It is the biopsychosocial profile of Kalina. Her premature death reminds us that even the best facilities cannot replicate life in the open ocean. the original Baby Shamu. Kalina died at the age of 25 from acute bacterial septicemia. As the first successful birth of an orca at a theme park. It is not known how bacteria entered her bloodstream. Kalina's survival demonstrated the minimal spatial requirements needed for successful nursing behavior(s).Appendix B: Kalina Profile (1994) The Sea World of Texas (SWT) document (represented in this Appendix) was provided to SWF trainers in October of 1994. Page 18 of 21 . she ushered in the modern age of killer whale captivity.
(10-14-1993) Differentiating Characteristics Prominent lower jaw Clean. # SWF-Oo-8501 SEA WORLD OF TEXAS ANIMAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT ANIMAL PROFILE Kalina (Orcinus Orca) Sex: Female Born: 9/26/1985 Length: 16.slight lean to the left with notch towards base of fin Dark markings on roof of mouth Two freckles on right side of face Lower front two teeth slightly worn Secondary Reinforcers Fish play Water hose on top of head Water jet play Tongue and mouth tactile Body tactile Socialization with other whales Overall play Variable feed Bucket pour Toys Visual stimulation Learning new behaviors Show sequence/environmental changes Object retrieval Chew rope Floating disc Cart follow with fish toss Kelp Barrel (under supervision) Page 19 of 21 .Appendix B: Kalina Profile (1994) 1.9 ft.0. smooth skin Hook shaped dorsal fin -. Weight: 4444 bls.
Page 20 of 21 . but to concentrate on keeping her calm and controlled. She was next transferred from California to Texas on May 30. Since her energy and excitability level runs high. Uncooperative behavior also occurs during heavy show schedules which manifests into tight. 1985. Progress is at its most efficient when a minimum of trainers work with her to insure consistent criteria. She responds very well to a wide array of interactions. push or bow over her trainer in the water. Her next transfer was from Texas to Florida on October 29. She did exhibit some aggression towards trainers for a short period (two weeks following the birth) when attempting to get her to start eating. aggitated behavior and very obvious incorrect responses to Sd's. although nothing to excess. She has demonstrated good "mothering" skills without being overprotective. Will aggressively and physically displace less dominant whales when frustrated. 1990. she regularly solicits attention from trainers. On February 2. 1994. She would displace the calf during water work if the trainer was attempting to give too much attention to the calf.Appendix B: Kalina Profile (1994) Finds Aversive Major environmental and social changes Unclear/confusing situations Divided attention Long term separation Pulls away from tactile from strangers Aggressive Tendencies When excited or confused. 1993 she bore a male calf (Keet) fathered by Kotar. She does not seem to enjoy interacting with new people and will show discriminatory behavior. it is important during both land and water sessions to have fun. She has a negative history with nets and has swam into them. either initiated by her or from signals from the others. She was born to Katina and fathered by Winston. She does have a short attention span appearing to have difficulty relaxing or becoming distracted during quiet relationship sessions. Kalina is a consistent animal. This also holds true during training sessions. she may slide over. learning and creativity. Uncooperative behavior from her arises due to social situations with other whales. Summary Kalina was the first killer whale calf born at Sea World of Florida on September 26. Being motivated more by secondary reinforcers than food. confused or sees an imbalance in attention. 1991. Kalina was transferred from Florida to Ohio on February 12. 1990. She was then transferred from Ohio to California on October 13.
This "aggressive tendency" has diminished significantly over the past two years. Aggression involves anything from slight bumping or sliding over her trainer to a complete bow over her trainer. Page 21 of 21 . her interactions with toys has been reduced. If given a toy." since she has shown similar excitement during waterwork. Her aggression has been decreasing due to concentration on controlling her excitability and frequent rewards for calmness and acceptance of the situation or mistakes.Appendix B: Kalina Profile (1994) Kalina Profile Kalina's past history with toys during playtimes has shown extreme excitement to borderline "aggression. Her assertive tendencies had been seen mostly during waterwork. yet this behavior has not been observed during the past few years. it should be closely monitored. Her history states she has opened her mouth on trainers. Her calls to stage and water desensitization are always stressed and rewarded with primary on a high ratio. The last episode of a "swim over" occurred in 1992.
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