The Lord of the Rings

The Lord of the Rings

Tolkien's own cover designs for the three volumes of the first edition Volumes: The Fellowship of the Ring The Two Towers The Return of the King Author Country Language Genre J. R. R. Tolkien United Kingdom English High fantasy, Adventure novel, Heroic romance Geo. Allen & Unwin Print (hardback and paperback)

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[2][3][4] The three volumes were entitled The Fellowship of the Ring. as well as earlier fantasy works and Tolkien's experiences in World War I.[1] The Lord of the Rings in its turn is considered to have had a great effect on modern fantasy. the Dark Lord Sauron. It was written in stages between 1937 and 1949. a Human soldier. over the course of a year in 1954±55. a Dwarf warrior. an Elven archer. From quiet beginnings in the Shire. each consisting of two books. Boromir. Legolas. in a process he described as mythopoeia. The Two Towers. the work was initially intended by Tolkien to be one volume of a two-volume set. R. mythology. The Lord of the Rings has since been reprinted numerous times and translated into many languages. Tolkien's work has been the subject of extensive analysis of its themes and origins. and Gandalf. [7] and the . included at the end of the third volume. a Human ranger. religion and the author's distaste for the effects of industrialization. much of it during World War II. a Wizard.[6] The enduring popularity of The Lord of the Rings has led to numerous references in popular culture. include philology.Preceded by The Hobbit The Lord of the Rings is an epic fantasy novel written by philologist and University of Oxford professor J. it was decided for economic reasons to publish the work as three separate volumes. the volumes are divided internally into six books. The title of the novel refers to the story's main antagonist. two per volume. the story ranges across north-west Middle-earth. Samwise "Sam" Gamgee. with several appendices of background material. Structurally. Although a major work in itself. The story began as a sequel to Tolkien's earlier. and The Return of the King.[1] Although known to most readers as a trilogy. becoming one of the most popular and influential works in the field of 20th-century fantasy literature and the subject of several films. Meriadoc "Merry" Brandybuck and Peregrin "Pippin" Took. when Tolkien submitted the first volume entitled 'The Lord of the Rings' to his publisher. who had in an earlier age created the One Ring to rule the other Rings of Power as the ultimate weapon in his campaign to conquer and rule all of Middle-earth. and on the story of The Lord of the Rings. R. with the other being The Silmarillion. However. a Hobbit land not unlike the English countryside. much abbreviated from Tolkien's originals. creating the now familiar 'Lord of the Rings' trilogy. but eventually developed into a much larger work. notably the Hobbits Frodo Baggins. but also the Hobbits' chief allies and travelling companions: Aragorn. less complex children's fantasy novel The Hobbit (1937). the impact of Tolkien's works is such that the use of the words "Tolkienian" and "Tolkienesque" has been recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary. the story was only the last movement of a larger epic Tolkien had worked on since 1917. Gimli. Tolkien. following the course of the War of the Ring through the eyes of its characters. the founding of many societies by fans of Tolkien's works.[5] Influences on this earlier work.

1 Editions and revisions o 4. The Lord of the Rings has inspired.publication of many books about Tolkien and his works. and film. Elves and Dwarves.2 Writing o 3. and Isildur cuts off his Ring and claims it as an heirloom for his line.1 Influences on the fantasy genre o 8. Isildur is later killed by Orcs. and subsequent literature. Award-winning adaptations of The Lord of the Rings have been made for radio. and continues to inspire. films and television.2 Posthumous publication of drafts o 4.3 Translations 5 Reception 6 Themes 7 Adaptations 8 Legacy o 8. and the Ring is lost in the river Anduin. music. who hides under the . He is defeated in battle. Contents [hide] y y y y y y y y y y y y 1 Synopsis 2 Main characters 3 Concept and creation o 3. Over two thousand years later.1 Background o 3. Long before the start of the novel the Dark Lord Sauron forged the One Ring to gain power over other rings held by the leaders of Men.3 Impact on popular culture 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links [Edit] Synopsis The Lord of the Rings Volume I · Volume II · Volume III The story takes place in the context of historical events in North-West Middle-earth.3 Influences 4 Publication history o 4.2 Music o 8. theatre. video games. the Ring comes into the hands of the hobbit Sméagol. artwork.

The Council of Elrond reveals much significant history about Sauron and the Ring. who breaks from the Fellowship to continue the quest to Mordor alone. Isildur's heir. rise up and overwhelm them. In Fangorn forest Aragorn.mountains. Gimli the Dwarf. where it was forged. though Sam insists on coming to assist and protect him. his dark. allowing the others to escape. Aragorn leads the hobbits toward the refuge of Rivendell. Both are unaware of its origin. and Sauron. who learns that Bilbo has the Ring. Meanwhile Sauron takes a new physical form and reoccupies Mordor. where they are befriended by the tree-like Ents. After failing to cross the Misty Mountains via the pass below Caradhras. taking his gardener and friend. At the Ford of Bruinen. Merry and Pippin escape when the orcs are slain by the Rohirrim. Gimli and Legolas pursue the orcs into the kingdom of Rohan. The hobbits flee into Fangorn forest. to seize it. master of Rivendell. Gandalf. who joins them as guide and protector. the company then travel down the River Anduin to the hill of Amon Hen. but flood waters controlled by Elrond. where they meet Aragorn. the Ringwraiths attack again. resurrected after his battle . Frodo volunteers to take the Ring. as well as the news that Sauron has corrupted the wizard Saruman. but Gandalf the Grey. They nearly encounter the Ringwraiths while still in the Shire. After leaving the Forest. they stop in the town of Bree. a wizard. Gollum is set loose. Gollum sets out in search of the Ring. Merry. and wound Frodo with a magical knife. They leave Bree after narrowly escaping attack. but shake off pursuit by cutting through the Old Forest. Legolas the Elf. With boats and gifts from the Lady Galadriel. learns of the Ring's history and advises Frodo to take it away from the Shire. but the Ringwraiths follow them to the look-out hill of Weathertop. and a "Fellowship of the Ring" is chosen to accompany and protect him: Sam. sends forth the Ringwraiths. Gandalf perishes while fighting the ancient and terrible Balrog. Meanwhile. orcs sent by Sauron and Saruman kill Boromir and kidnap Merry and Pippin. the company pass through the Mines of Moria. as Frodo Baggins inherits the Ring from Bilbo. Frodo recovers in Rivendell under the care of Elrond. where the Ring transforms him over the course of hundreds of years into a suspicious. The remaining company take refuge in the Elven forest of Lothlórien. but is captured by Sauron. it is found by Bilbo Baggins. The Council decides that the threat of Sauron is too great and that the best course of action is to destroy the Ring by returning it to Mount Doom in Mordor. The novel begins in the Shire. corrupted being called Gollum. where they are attacked by Orcs. while Frodo gradually succumbs to the wound. his old realm. saving the company. Samwise ("Sam") Gamgee. Aragorn. and two cousins. as companions. There Boromir succumbs to the lure of the Ring and attempts to take it from Frodo. Pippin. son of the Ruling Steward Denethor of the realm of Gondor. and the man Boromir. Aragorn. and. Gimli and Legolas find not the hobbits but Gandalf. Eventually he loses the Ring. Meriadoc ("Merry") Brandybuck and Peregrin ("Pippin") Took. who needs the Ring to regain his full power. where they are aided by the enigmatic and powerful Tom Bombadil. fearsome servants. Frodo leaves. as recounted in The Hobbit.

and forces himself to leave Frodo. On their way to Mordor. along with Rohan's cavalry. The Ents attack Isengard. and bites off Frodo's finger. Sauron perishes. and Gandalf strips him of his rank and most of his powers. Frodo is left seemingly dead by Shelob's bite. and the War of the Ring seemingly ends. Frodo and Sam capture Gollum. Meanwhile. King of Rohan. At the edge of the Cracks of Doom. Saruman refuses to acknowledge the error of his ways. taking the Ring with him. Sauron begins his military assault upon Gondor. his armies retreat. Legolas and Gimli come to Gondor by the Paths of the Dead. Aragorn. to alert Denethor of the impending attack. but is aided by Sam. from a stupor of despair inflicted by Saruman. under the influence of Sauron through another palantír. the Ringwraiths disintegrate. help break the siege at Minas Tirith. They are besieged by orcs. Legolas. but Sam fights her off. struggles with Frodo for the Ring. so Gandalf takes Pippin to Gondor. Finding Mordor's main gate impassable. Théoden makes a stand at the fortress of Helm's Deep. Gandalf assures them that Merry and Pippin are safe. Arwen. and Sam determines to rescue him. unknowingly leading Sauron to think that Saruman has captured the Ring-bearer. The ghostly army help him to defeat the Corsairs of Umbar invading southern Gondor. with the intent of diverting Sauron's attention from Mount Doom. and claims it for himself. Sam rescues Frodo. but in so doing falls into the fire. Sam takes the Ring. however. Aragorn is crowned Elessar. loses hope and commits suicide. the vastly outnumbered alliance of Gondor and Rohan fight desperately against Sauron's armies. Merry and Pippin rejoin the others and Pippin looks into a palantír. trapping Saruman in the tower of Orthanc. and they journey through Mordor. and to aid the Rohirrim in a stand against Saruman's armies. Gandalf rides off to gather more soldiers while Aragorn. Gollum betrays Frodo by leading him to the great spider Shelob in the tunnels of Cirith Ungol. but Gandalf arrives with reinforcements.with the Balrog and now the significantly more powerful "Gandalf the White". Gollum reappears. and force him to guide them to Mordor. and marries his long-time love. who has been following them from Moria. and Sam learns that Frodo is not in fact dead. The Ring is thus unmade. but unconscious. Minas Tirith is besieged. and the forces freed from the south. However. they travel toward a pass known to Gollum. King of Arnor and Gondor. the daughter of Elrond. Frodo weakens as they near Mount Doom. where Aragorn raises an undead army of oath-breakers in fulfilment of an old prophecy. and Denethor. Frodo is carried to the tower of Cirith Ungol. Frodo is unable to resist the Ring. a seeing-stone that Sauron had used to communicate with Saruman. Ring and all. Orcs find Frodo's body. and they travel instead to rouse Théoden. and the orcs are defeated. and Gimli ride with Théoden to Helm's Deep. . his tower crumbles into dust. Gandalf. in the climactic battle at the Black Gate of Mordor. Gandalf arrives at Minas Tirith in Gondor with Pippin. In the instant of its destruction. Théoden and the others arrive at Isengard to confront Saruman.

Saruman is killed by his former servant Gríma Wormtongue. The Witch-king of Angmar. heir of Isildur and rightful king of Arnor and Gondor. the Dwarf representative in the Fellowship. who commands Sauron's army. The four returning hobbits raise a rebellion and overthrow him. Son of King Thranduil. a corrupted Wizard who seeks the One Ring for himself. The War of the Ring thus comes to its true end on Frodo's very doorstep. containing the story of Bilbo. Gandalf. and eventually becomes Mayor of the Shire. Sam. The Nazgûl or Ringwraiths. Frodo. Frodo remains wounded in body and spirit. and some years later. After Rosie's death. Meriadoc Brandybuck. and marries Rosie Cotton. Aragorn. Sam returns home. . Sam uses his gifts from Galadriel to restore the Shire. they were enslaved to the One Ring through the Rings of Power. Merry and Pippin are acclaimed heroes. see the Lord Of The Rings box at the bottom of this page Protagonists: y y y y y y y y y Frodo Baggins. Pip or Pippin. accompanied by Bilbo and Gandalf. son of Glóin. Frodo's cousin and companion in the Fellowship. and Sauron's most powerful servant. a fallen Maia who helped the Elves forge the Rings of Power long ago. King of the Elves of Mirkwood. Boromir. sails from the Grey Havens west over the Sea to the Undying Lands to find peace. the favoured son of Denethor. the Dark Lord and titular Lord of the Rings. He crosses west over the Sea. a well-to-do Hobbit from the Shire who inherits the One Ring from Bilbo. Legolas. the last of the Ring-bearers. a Wizard who aids Frodo in his quest. Pippin and Merry.Meanwhile. ruling steward of Gondor. Samwise Gamgee. [edit] Main characters For a more comprehensive list. He forged the One Ring in secret to control all the other Rings of Power. or Merry. who is in turn killed by Hobbit archers. Saruman. Frodo is responsible for destroying the Ring in the fire of Mount Doom. Peregrin Took. the Elven prince who aids Frodo and the Fellowship. who accompanies Frodo on the quest to destroy the Ring. the Lord of the Nazgûl. however. gardener for the Bagginses. Antagonists: y y y y Sauron. Gimli. Sam gives his daughter the Red Book of Westmarch. Men of old. Frodo's cousin and companion in the Fellowship. Saruman has escaped his captivity and enslaved the Shire. nine servants of Sauron.

published in 1937. who was sent chapters as they were written while he was serving in South Africa with the Royal Air Force. Tolkien's earlier work. he remembered the Ring and its powers and decided to write about that instead. Having rejected his contemporary drafts for The Silmarillion. and the title The Lord of the Rings did not arrive until the spring of 1938. putting on hold Roverandom. he planned to write a story in which Bilbo had used up all his treasure and was looking for another adventure to gain more. and accepting Farmer Giles of Ham. but Tolkien did not complete the revision of earlier parts of the work until 1949. the significance of the Ring.a hobbit who formerly possessed the One Ring.[8] Originally. Tolkien made another concerted effort in 1946. [edit] Concept and creation [edit] Background The Lord of the Rings started as a sequel to J. Allen & Unwin thought more stories about hobbits would be popular.[8] as a serial for his son Christopher Tolkien. the story of the One Ring emerged. Tolkien began writing the story that would become The Lord of the Rings.[10] Tolkien abandoned The Lord of the Rings during most of 1943 and only re-started it in April 1944. which caused him to turn almost wholly evil and also gave him unnaturally long life. although the reasons behind Bilbo's disappearance. in 1949. R. and responded with several stories he had already developed.[8] After several false starts. R.y Gollum (named Sméagol earlier in his life) . when Tolkien was 63 years old. to request a sequel. he started "a new Hobbit" in December 1937.[9] So at the age of 45. The story would not be finished until 12 years later. and would not be fully published until 1955.[8] The popularity of The Hobbit had led George Allen & Unwin. Tolkien warned them that he wrote quite slowly. The idea for the first chapter ("A Long-Expected Party") arrived fully formed. and showed the manuscript to his publishers in 1947. however. due to Tolkien having a full-time academic position. The Hobbit. and needing to earn further money as a university examiner.[8] The story was effectively finished the next year. the publishers.[8] [edit] Influences .[8] Writing was slow. [edit] Writing Persuaded by his publishers.

fairy tales. For the religious element is absorbed into the story and the symbolism. the Ivy Bush [11] is the closest public house to Birmingham Oratory which Tolkien attended while living near Edgbaston Reservoir. but A&U were unwilling to do this. Tolkien included neither any explicit religion nor cult in his work.Mentioned at the beginning of The Lord of the Rings. religion (particularly Roman Catholicism[12]). Norse and general Germanic mythology.[20] The work was influenced by the effects of his military service during World War I. practically all references to anything like 'religion'."[12] Some locations and characters were inspired by Tolkien's childhood in Birmingham. to cults or practices. R. That is why I have not put in. led to the book being offered to Collins in 1950. Perrott's Folly is nearby. and external critics have verified the influences of William Morris[17] and the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf.[18] The question of a direct influence of Wagner's The Ring Cycle on Tolkien's work is often debated by critics. expressed the belief that The Lord of the Rings itself "urgently needed cutting". It has also been suggested that The Shire and its surroundings were based on the countryside around Stonyhurst College in Lancashire where Tolkien frequently stayed during the 1940s. moral philosophy.[16] Tolkien acknowledged.[1] [edit] Publication history A dispute with his publishers. and cosmology of the Lord of the Rings reflect his Catholic worldview. which is within easy reach of north west Edgbaston. Rather the themes. This shows in such names as "Underhill". in the imaginary world. Main article: J. "The Lord of the Rings is of course a fundamentally religious and Catholic work. unconsciously so at first. In one of his letters Tolkien states. or have cut out. After his contact at Collins.[13][14] and also Celtic[15] and Finnish mythology. and the description of Saruman's industrialization of Isengard and The Shire. where he first lived near Sarehole Mill. He intended The Silmarillion (itself largely unrevised at this point) to be published along with The Lord of the Rings. Tolkien's influences The Lord of the Rings developed as a personal exploration by Tolkien of his interests in philology.[19] There are also hints of the Black Country. he eventually demanded that they publish the book in . George Allen & Unwin. and later near Edgbaston Reservoir. R. but consciously in the revision. Milton Waldman.

[citation needed] However. and The Return of the King (Books V. The Return of the King was especially delayed. after some initial glitches. By the mid-1960s the novel had become a cultural phenomenon. claimed that The Lord of the Rings was not protected in the United States under American copyright law because the U. in volumes 6±9 of his History of Middle-earth series.[citation needed] Houghton Mifflin editions after 1994 consolidate variant revisions by Tolkien. which was dismissed by his publishers. moreover.[22] [edit] Editions and revisions In the early 1960s Donald A. unauthorized by Tolkien and without paying royalties to him. Tolkien. after which he would take a large share of the profits.S. on 11 November 1954 and on 20 October 1955 respectively in the United Kingdom. and VI.[21] The books were published under a profit-sharing arrangement.[24] [edit] Posthumous publication of drafts From 1988 to 1992 Christopher Tolkien published the surviving drafts of the Lord of The Rings. with the original intention being for them to be published in Britain. believing it gave away too much of the storyline. maps and especially indices led to the volumes being published later than originally hoped ² on 21 July 1954. The War of the Ring.). Tolkien took issue with this and quickly notified his fans of this objection.) The Two Towers (Books III. This was due largely to post-war paper shortages.[23] Grass-roots pressure from these fans became so great that Ace Books withdrew their edition and made a nominal payment to Tolkien. He had originally suggested The War of the Ring. which resulted. and IV. This text became the Second Edition of The Lord of the Rings.1952. Wollheim. in a computer-based unified text. The four volumes . Delays in producing appendices. hardcover edition had been bound from pages printed in the United Kingdom. as well as being a way to keep down the price of the book.[citation needed] They did not. and II. published in 1966."[8] For publication. and slightly later in the United States.[citation needed] Ace Books then proceeded to publish an edition. science fiction editor of the paperback publisher Ace Books. The Ring Goes East. The Ring Sets Out. well below what he would have been due. and corrections supervised by Christopher Tolkien. plus six appendices). and so Tolkien wrote to Allen and Unwin. this poor beginning was overshadowed when authorized editions followed from Ballantine Books and Houghton Mifflin to tremendous commercial success. The Treason of Isengard. The Ring Goes South. Tolkien undertook various textual revisions to produce a version of the book that would be published with his consent and establish an unquestioned US copyright. chronicling and illuminating with commentary the stages of the text's development. did not especially like the title The Return of the King. "I would gladly consider the publication of any part of the stuff. the book was divided into three volumes: The Fellowship of the Ring (Books I. The End of the Third Age. saying. whereby Tolkien would not receive an advance or royalties until the books had broken even.

R. writing. Tolkien suggested that translators attempt to capture the interplay between English and the invented nomenclature of the English work. which turns out to be death to literature itself. Auden. and lacking in fibre. Hugo Dyson complained loudly at its readings. and gave several examples along with general guidance.[26] Tolkien wrote a "Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings" (1967). "here are beauties which pierce like swords or burn like cold iron. highly positive and Tolkien's literary achievement is slowly being acknowledged as a significant one. criticized the work for a lack of psychological depth. regarded The Lord of the Rings as a "masterpiece". Lewis. on the whole. saying that he "formulated a high-minded belief in the importance of his mission as a literary preservationist. Because The Lord of the Rings purports to be a translation of the fictitious Red Book of Westmarch. into at least 38 other languages. As he was unhappy with some choices made by early translators. R.[25] Tolkien. not another Elf!'"[32][33] However. 'Oh God. S. an admirer of Tolkien's writings. The War of the Ring. an expert in philology. according to Jenkyns.carry the titles The Return of the Shadow. and lolling and shouting and saying. reviews were mixed. further stating that in some cases it outdid the achievement of John Milton's Paradise Lost. [edit] Translations Main article: Translations of The Lord of the Rings The novel has been translated. Here . The Inklings. "anemic. another Inkling. had very different feelings. ranging from terrible to excellent. with various degrees of success. writing in The New Republic. C.[29] New York Times reviewer Judith Shulevitz criticized the "pedantry" of Tolkien's literary style."[27] The New York Herald Tribune also seemed to have an idea of how popular the books would become. Recent reviews in various media have been. The Treason of Isengard. with the English language representing the Westron of the "original". examined many of these translations."[28] W."[27] The Sunday Times seemed to echo these sentiments when in its review it was stated that "the Englishspeaking world is divided into those who have read The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit and those who are going to read them. and Christopher Tolkien records Dyson as "lying on the couch. [edit] Reception Main article: Reception of J."[30] Critic Richard Jenkyns. and Sauron Defeated. Both the characters and the work itself are. H. On its initial review the Sunday Telegraph felt it was "among the greatest works of imaginative fiction of the twentieth century. and made comments on each that reflect both the translation process and his work. such as the Swedish translation by Åke Ohlmarks."[31] Even within Tolkien's literary group. Tolkien The Lord of the Rings has received mixed reviews since its inception. writing in its review that they were "destined to outlast our time.

" Despite these reviews and its lack of paperback printing until the 1960s.g. Despite its numerous detractors. Elf. writing for The Boston Globe commented that while there are movements within academia to approach The Lord of the Rings as a serious literary work.[40][41] A few critics have found what they consider to be racial elements in the story. in both the 'paternalism' of the narrative voice and the power-structures in the narrative. judged by both sales and reader surveys.[5] In 1957. In a 1999 poll of Amazon. generally based upon their views of how Tolkien's imagery depicts good and evil. The Lord of the Rings was awarded the International Fantasy Award.[38] [edit] Themes Main article: Themes of The Lord of the Rings Although The Lord of the Rings was published in the 1950s. the publication of the Ace Books and Ballantine paperbacks helped The Lord of the Rings become immensely popular in the United States in the 1960s. but were open to interpretation as the reader saw fit. Southron.[51] Tom Shippey cites the origin of this portrayal of evil as a reflection of the prejudices of European middle-classes during the inter-war years towards the industrial working class.[49] Critics have also seen social class rather than race as being the determinant factor for the portrayal of good and evil. science fiction and fantasy author Michael Moorcock critiques the world-view displayed by the book as deeply conservative. Númenórean. Hobbit.[50] In his essay "Epic Pooh". Dwarf. the 2001±2003 film trilogy has contributed to a dumbing down of the reception of the novel by the forces of mass-commercialization.[45] Commentators such as science fiction author David Brin have interpreted the work to hold unquestioning devotion to a traditional elitist social structure. and that the character's race is seen as determining their behaviour.[48] ignore the absence of evidence of racist attitudes or events in the author's personal life[45][48][49] and claim that the perception of racism is itself a marginal view.[45][46][47] cite imagery from adaptations rather than the work itself.[34] In the 2003 "Big Read" survey conducted in Britain by the BBC.[42][43][44] Counter-arguments note that race-focused critiques often omit relevant textual evidence to the contrary. ranking as one of the most popular works of fiction of the twentieth century. Ethan a book which will break your heart. The book has remained so ever since. Orc). The Lord of the Rings initially sold well in hardback. characters' race (e.[52] .[39] nor were his works a strict allegory of any kind."[37] The Lord of the Rings was awarded the Prometheus Hall of Fame Award in 2009. Tolkien insisted that the One Ring was not an allegory for the Atomic customers. The Lord of the Rings was judged to be their favourite "book of the century. The Lord of the Rings was found to be the "Nation's best-loved book." In similar 2004 polls both Germany[35] and Australia[36] also found The Lord of the Rings to be their favourite book.

the first part of what was originally intended to be a two-part adaptation of the story. Recorded Books published an audio version of The Lord of the Rings. In 1955 and 1956. and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003). In 1981. R. a new dramatization in 26 half-hour instalments. radio and stage. The Lord of the Rings was first staged in Toronto.[56] A large-scale musical theatre adaptation.The book has been read as fitting the model of Joseph Campbell's "monomyth". was released on the internet in May 2009 and has been covered in major media. All three parts received nearly universal acclaim and were each nominated for and won multiple Academy Awards. by animator Ralph Bakshi. The third was director Peter Jackson's live action The Lord of the Rings film trilogy. Tolkien . This dramatization of The Lord of the Rings has subsequently been made available on both tape and CD both by the BBC and other publishers.[54] In 1990. The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002). including consecutive Best Picture nominations. The final installment of this trilogy was the second film to break the one-billion-dollar barrier and won a total of 11 Oscars. the BBC broadcast The Lord of the Rings. "Best Director". The Return of the King (1980). it covers The Fellowship of the Ring and part of The Two Towers. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings (1978). produced by New Line Cinema and released in three instalments as The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001). including performing the songs. Inglis uses distinct voices for each character and reads the entire text. who had produced a similar version of The Hobbit (1977). R. The book has been adapted for radio four times. Canada in 2006 and opened in London in May 2007. including "Best Picture". the BBC broadcast The Lord of the Rings. For this purpose it is generally edited into 13 one hour episodes.[53] [edit] Adaptations Main article: Adaptations of The Lord of the Rings The Lord of the Rings has been adapted for film. [edit] Legacy Main article: Works inspired by J. was an animated television special by Rankin-Bass.[55] with British actor Rob Inglis ± who had previously starred in one-man stage productions of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings ± reading. "Best Screenplay". R. The second. and "Best Musical Score". R. The first was J. A 1979 dramatization of The Lord of the Rings was broadcast in the United States and subsequently issued on tape and CD. Three film adaptations have been made. a 12-part radio adaptation of the story. In the 1960s radio station WBAI produced a short radio adaptation. a fan film based on elements of the appendices to The Lord of the Rings. Ontario. The Hunt for Gollum.

lead designer of the game. half-elves. Gary Gygax. elves. Largely thanks to The Lord of the Rings.[62] and a recording of the songs performed by singer William Elvin with Swann on piano was issued that same year by Caedmon Records as Poems and Songs of Middle Earth. In 1989 the symphony was awarded the Sudler Composition Award. video games set in Middle-earth itself. British 70s rock band Led Zeppelin recorded several songs that contain explicit references to The Lord of the Rings ("Ramble On". songwriter Donald Swann. "Lothlorien". "Gollum". Danish composer and trombonist Johan de Meij completed his Symphony #1 The Lord of the Rings. and "Hobbits". orcs.[63] In 1988. the genre flowered throughout the 1960s. the Warcraft series. who was best known for his collaboration with Michael Flanders as Flanders & Swann. maintained that he was influenced very little by The Lord of the Rings. Clarke[57] and filmmakers such as George Lucas. and "Misty Mountain Hop"). with some featuring recitation by Christopher Lee. Rock bands of the 1970s were musically and lyrically inspired by the fantasy embracing counter-culture of the time. the influence of The Lord of the Rings extends to many of them as well. quite naturally. and the Elder Scrolls series of games[60] as well as. dwarves. stating that he included these elements as a marketing move to draw on the popularity the work enjoyed at the time he was developing the game.[edit] Influences on the fantasy genre The enormous popularity of Tolkien's epic saga greatly expanded the demand for fantasy fiction. and dragons. which encompassed 5 movements. [edit] Music In 1965. and enjoys popularity to the present day. features many races found in The Lord of the Rings. which Swann accepted. titled "Gandalf". However. with titles such as EverQuest. Tolkien suggested a different setting for "Namárië".[61] The songs were published in 1967 as The Road Goes Ever On: A Song Cycle. When Swann met with Tolkien to play the songs for his approval. most notably halflings (another term for hobbits).[58] Dungeons & Dragons. The Danish Tolkien Ensemble have released a number of albums that feature the complete poems and songs of The Lord of the Rings set to music. "Over the Hills and Far Away". set six poems from The Lord of the Rings and one from The Adventures of Tom Bombadil ("Errantry") to music. "Journey in the Dark". In 1970. The work also had an influence upon such science fiction authors as Frank Herbert and Arthur C. which popularized the role-playing game (RPG) genre in the 1970s. "The Battle of Evermore". awarded biennially for best wind band composition. Another band that makes use of the songs and poems featured in the stories is the Russian Caprice. the Swedish musician Bo Hansson released an instrumental concept album based on the .[59] Because D&D has influenced many popular video games.

the name of another character. took their name from a fictional place in Middle-earth. Enya wrote an instrumental piece called "Lothlórien" in 1991.[66] In one scene of the 1993 film. [edit] Impact on popular culture The Lord of the Rings has had a profound and wide-ranging impact on popular culture. was influenced by Tolkien's hero. and Burzum take their name from the Black Speech of Mordor. The heavy metal band Cirith Ungol. Later. Six Degrees of Separation. there are other references scattered through the BJH oeuvre. and composed two songs for the film The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring²"May It Be" (sung in English and Quenya) and "Aníron" (sung in Sindarin). Almost all of Summoning's songs and the entire discography of Battlelore are Tolkien-themed. many Heavy metal acts have been influenced by Tolkien. Less than a decade after this film was made.[65] "Frodo Lives!" and "Gandalf for President" were two phrases popular among American Tolkien fans during this time.[64] The album was subsequently released internationally as Music Inspired by Lord of the Rings in 1972. the South Park episode The Return of the Fellowship of the Ring to the Two Towers. the Futurama episode Bender's Game.[64] The songs "Rivendell" and "The Necromancer" by the progressive rock band Rush were inspired by Tolkien. beginning with its publication in the 1950s. the VeggieTales episode Lord of the Beans. Cirith Ungol. as a pseudonym under which their 1972 single "Breathless"/"When the City Sleeps" was released. from the 1980s to the present day." while Black Sabbath's song. And Styx also paid homage to Tolkien on their "Pieces of Eight" album with the song "Lords of the Ring. which appeared on their debut album. "The Wizard". but especially throughout the 1960s and 1970s. Parodies like the Harvard Lampoon's Bored of the Rings. and Progressive rock band Barclay James Harvest were inspired by the character Galadriel to write a song by that name. . entitled Sagan om ringen (translated as "The Saga of the Ring". including the full concept album Nightfall in Middle Earth. Progressive rock group Camel paid homage to the text in their lengthy composition "Nimrodel/The Procession/The White Rider". Gorgoroth and Amon Amarth take their names from an area of Mordor. during which time young people embraced it as a countercultural saga. Ian McKellen would play the role of Gandalf in the Lord of the Rings trilogy. and used "Bombadil". which was the title of the Swedish translation of The Lord of the Rings at the time). Paul (Will Smith) mocks the Lord of the Rings books in front of Ian McKellen's character. The Adventures of Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius episode "Lights! Camera! Danger!" and the Internet meme The Very Secret Diaries[67][68] are testimony to the work's continual presence in popular culture. Blind Guardian has written many songs relating to Middle-earth.

Recent examples include the Spiel des Jahres award winning (for best use of literature in a game) board game The Lord of the Rings by Reiner Knizia and the Golden Joystick award winning massively multiplayer online role-playing game.R Tolkien is one a Great Britains most iconic writers.In 1969 Tolkien sold the merchandising rights to The Lord of The Rings (and The Hobbit) to United Artists under an agreement stipulating a lump sum payment of £10. Since then all "authorized" merchandise has been signed-off by Tolkien Enterprises. although the intellectual property rights of the specific likenesses of characters and other imagery from various adaptations is generally held by the adaptors. video. who trade as Tolkien Enterprises.[71] Outside any commercial exploitation from adaptations. He went to university at Oxford and he later .000[69] plus a 7. The second novel I would like to talk about is not one novel but seven. from the late 1960s onwards there has been an increasing variety of original licensed merchandise.[70] In 1976 (three years after the author's death) United Artists sold the rights to Saul Zaentz Company.5% royalty after costs. The Lord of the Rings Online: Shadows of Angmar by Turbine. from posters and calendars created by illustrators such as Pauline Baynes and the Brothers Hildebrandt. to figurines and miniatures to computer.J. payable to Allen & Unwin and the author. Inc. tabletop and role-playing games.