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Leadership is the process of encouraging and helping others to work enthusiastically towards objectives. Leadership is a group phenomenon It involves interaction between two or more people Leadership is the ability to inspire confidence and support for those trying to achieve goals An effective manager is one who has ability to effectively lead his people towards the accomplishment of organizational goals. Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. The main theme of leadership is follower ship. It is the willingness of people to follow that makes a person leader. Leaders must have a good number of followers. Leadership is follower ship. Leadership is the ability to influence people’s behaviors so that they will work willingly toward the achievement of group goals. Leader provides direction towards goal accomplishment. Leadership involves other people- employees or followers. People tend to follow those whom they see as providing a means of achieving their own needs and wants.
Ingredients of leadership
Leadership has some basic ingredients. Among the important these are: 1. The ability to use power effectively and in a responsible manner,
2. The ability to comprehend that human beings have different motivation forces at different times and in different situations. 3. The ability to inspire, 4. The ability to act in a manner that will develop a climate conducive to responding to and arousing motivation.
Qualities of a leader
1. Time consciousness: An implementation of a decision depends on specific time. A leader should utilities his/her time properly. 2. Flexible attitude. 3. Mentality of taking responsibility. 4. Ability to understand others. 5. Ability to take decision 6. Communication skill. 7. Ability to control emotion: A successful leader must control his emotion over logical and real fact. 8. Education and experience : A leader should have enough educational ability and experience such ability and experiences are can increase the personality of the leader to subordinates 9. Organizational knowledge: A successful leader should be a good organizational knowledge 10. Honesty and sincerity : A leader must be honest and sincere to his work. Deviations of work lead man to the pinnacle of glory. 11. Personality :A leader should have attractive and strong personality. 12. Patience : patience is an important part of a good leader. In an odd situation a leader can not lead without patience. 13. Energy & ability : A successive leader never be self-centered. A leader must have physical and mental abilities. 14. Courage and determinate: A leader without courage and determinate can not lead the right things. What leaders do? Sight--Direction
Insight--Vision Inspiration--Motivation. Direction setting Challenging Task View things broadly Create Different Alternatives-contingency mapping No Rigidity Create Vision and Strategies Vision Clear vision Communicate to everyone Easy Communication Repeat the Message Allow Challenges Recognize the size of task Credibility How they Motivate to achieve the vision Empowerment Encourage Optimistic/ positive Thinking Respect Individual Recognize and Reward Controlling and Problem Solving Great Leaders a Live with integrity, lead by example a develop a winning strategy or “big idea” a build a great management team a inspire employees to greatness a create a flexible, responsive organization a use reinforcing management systems SIGNIFICANCE OF LEADERSHIP • It translates vision into reality
• It is a group phenomenon, It is a process of encouraging & helping others to work enthusiastically towards the objectives • Without leadership, organizations move too slowly, stagnate, and lose their way. • Leadership is crucial in implementing decisions successfully. Leaders and Managers: A Comparison Experts argue that leadership and management are different. Abraham Zaleznik (1986) argues that leaders are different from managers and they are very different kind of people. They differ in motivation, personal history and how thy think and act. 1. Managers tend to take impersonal attitudes toward goals, whereas leaders take a personal and active attitude towards goals. 2. Managers tend to take moderate risk and establish strategies and make decisions. Leaders work from high-risk positions. 3. Managers are appointed to their positions. Their ability to influence employees is base don the formal authority inherent in that position. 4. Leaders are appointed or merge from within a work group and are able to influence others for reasons beyond formal authority. 5. Managers prefer to work with people; they avoid solitary activity because it makes them anxious. Leaders, who are concerned with ideas, relate to people in more intuitive and emphatic ways. 6. John Kotter (1990 ), in his article “What leaders really do” published in HBR, also tries to distinguish between a leader and a manager. He argues
that management is about coping with complexity. 7. Good management brings about order and consistency by formulating plans, designing organization structure and monitoring results against the plans. 8. Leadership, in contrast, is coping with change. Leaders establish vision of the future and articulate this vision and inspire people to overcome hurdles. 9. Managers use the authority inherent in their designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members. Motivational skills are a critical component of leading whereas the focus of management is planning and directing (Stoner, 1996). Kotter believes that organizations need both strong leadership and organization. All managers should be leaders. But not all leaders have the skills of effective managers and thus, all leaders should be managers. An individual can influence others does not means that he can also plan, organize and control. Leader is someone who can influence others and who has managerial authority.
Theories of leadership Theories of leadership
Leaders are born, not made. Examples are Thatcher, Nelson Mandela, Clinton. Martin Luther King. Leaders share certain inborn personality traits- physical, mental and personality. Main traits are drive, self-confidence, honesty, integrity, ambition, interpersonal skill and willingness to cooperate. Main limitations are: 1. No universal traits that predict leadership in all situations. 2. It is unclear in separating cause from effect. For example, does self confidence create leadership, or does success as a leader build self confidence? Leaders are made, not born. It is possible to acquire leadership qualities by training and education. We could teach leadership, we could design programs that implanted behavioral patterns in individuals who desired to be effective leaders.
Leaders are made, not born.
1. Trait Theory A. Leadership Traits: represent the personal characteristics that differentiate leaders from followers.
Historic findings reveal that leaders and followers vary by - intelligence - dominance
- self-confidence - level of energy and activity - task-relevant knowledge • Contemporary findings show that - people tend to perceive that someone is a leader when he or she exhibits traits associated with intelligence, masculinity, and dominance - people want their leaders to be credible - credible leaders are honest, forward-looking, inspiring, and competent Key Leadership Traits to Develop Self-Confidence Trustworthiness Assertiveness Emotional Stability Sense of Humor Self-Awareness and Self-Objectivity Cognitive Skills Emotional Intelligence Passion and Enthusiasm B. Gender and leadership - men and women were seen as displaying more task and social leadership, respectively - women used a more democratic or participative style than men, and men used a more autocratic and directive style than women - men and women were equally assertive - Women executives, when rated by their peers, managers and direct reports, scored higher than their male counterparts on a variety of effectiveness criteria STYLES OF LEADERSHIP Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people.
There are many ways to lead and every leader has his or her own style Autocratic leadership style • Leaders take decisions without reference to anybody else • Rely on threats and punishment to influence employees • Do not trust employees • It often results in de-motivation and alienation of staff • It is valuable in some types of business where decisions need to be made quickly Laissez faire leadership style In this type of leadership style, the leadership responsibilties are shared by all i.e. by employees also. It is important in those businesses where creative ideas are required. Highly motivational as people have control over their work life. It give rise to good team work and interpersonal relationships Democratic leadership style This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process. The leader maintains the final decision. It is used when leaders have some part of information and employees have other parts. Hence it is a style of mutual benefit. Bureaucratic leadership style Leader act according to the policies and procedures. In this style, the leader enforces the rules. This style can be effective when employees are required to understand certain standards or procedures. This is a very appropriate style for work involving serious safety risks (such as working with machinery, with toxic substances or at heights) or where large sums of money are involved.
PATERNELISTIC LEADERSHIP STYLE • Under this leadership style the leader acts as a “ father figure” • He takes the important decisions himself but in certain cases he may even consult the people working with him . He even believes in the need to support staff as the role of this kind of leader is more or less likely to that of a father figure TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE It is an ancient way of leadership style Focus is on completion of short term tasks. Team leader have right to punish the members TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE Creates the feeling of team spirit Has a vision of future & spent time for communicating with each other CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIPP STYLE Leader believes in his or her capabilities rather than team’s capabilities Under any circumstance if the leader leaves the organization members in crisis Developing Charisma Communicate a Vision Make frequent use of metaphors and analogies Inspire trust and confidence Be highly energetic and goal oriented Be emotionally expressive and warm Make ample use of your true stories Smile frequently, even if you are unhappy Be candid Make everyone feel that he/she is important Make non-verbal signals of self-confidence Be willing to take risks
SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE Sometimes differential model is helpful in leading A good leader may switch on his duty from event to event Developing your own Leadership Potential Acquire broad experience Model effective leaders Self-develop leadership traits Become an integrated human being (know thyself) Practice a little leadership Help your leader lead
CONCLUSION leadership is the ability to influence a group towards the achievement of goals Organizations need strong leadership and strong management for optimal effectiveness True leadership effectiveness may be a result of exhibiting the right behaviors at the right time