These materials are to be used only for the purpose of individual, private study and may not be reproduced in any form or medium, copied, stored in a retrieval system, lent, hired, rented, transmitted, or adapted in whole or in part without the prior written consent of Jeppesen. Copyright in all materials bound within these covers or attached hereto, excluding that material which is used with the permission of third parties and acknowledged as such, belongs exclusively to Jeppesen. Certain copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the International Civil Aviation Organisation, the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority, and the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA). This book has been written and published to assist students enrolled in an approved JAA Air Transport Pilot Licence (ATPL) course in preparation for the JAA ATPL theoretical knowledge examinations. Nothing in the content of this book is to be interpreted as constituting instruction or advice relating to practical flying. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained within this book, neither Jeppesen nor Atlantic Flight Training gives any warranty as to its accuracy or otherwise. Students preparing for the JAA ATPL theoretical knowledge examinations should not regard this book as a substitute for the JAA ATPL theoretical knowledge training syllabus published in the current edition of “JAR-FCL 1 Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes)” (the Syllabus). The Syllabus constitutes the sole authoritative definition of the subject matter to be studied in a JAA ATPL theoretical knowledge training programme. No student should prepare for, or is entitled to enter himself/herself for, the JAA ATPL theoretical knowledge examinations without first being enrolled in a training school which has been granted approval by a JAA-authorised national aviation authority to deliver JAA ATPL training.

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JA310112-000

© Jeppesen Sanderson Inc., 2004 All Rights Reserved ISBN 0-88487-362-5

Printed in Germany

ii

PREFACE_______________________

As the world moves toward a single standard for international pilot licensing, many nations have adopted the syllabi and regulations of the “Joint Aviation Requirements-Flight Crew Licensing" (JAR-FCL), the licensing agency of the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA). Though training and licensing requirements of individual national aviation authorities are similar in content and scope to the JAA curriculum, individuals who wish to train for JAA licences need access to study materials which have been specifically designed to meet the requirements of the JAA licensing system. The volumes in this series aim to cover the subject matter tested in the JAA ATPL ground examinations as set forth in the ATPL training syllabus, contained in the JAA publication, “JAR-FCL 1 (Aeroplanes)”. The JAA regulations specify that all those who wish to obtain a JAA ATPL must study with a flying training organisation (FTO) which has been granted approval by a JAA-authorised national aviation authority to deliver JAA ATPL training. While the formal responsibility to prepare you for both the skill tests and the ground examinations lies with the FTO, these Jeppesen manuals will provide a comprehensive and necessary background for your formal training. Jeppesen is acknowledged as the world's leading supplier of flight information services, and provides a full range of print and electronic flight information services, including navigation data, computerised flight planning, aviation software products, aviation weather services, maintenance information, and pilot training systems and supplies. Jeppesen counts among its customer base all US airlines and the majority of international airlines worldwide. It also serves the large general and business aviation markets. These manuals enable you to draw on Jeppesen’s vast experience as an acknowledged expert in the development and publication of pilot training materials. We at Jeppesen wish you success in your flying and training, and we are confident that your study of these manuals will be of great value in preparing for the JAA ATPL ground examinations. The next three pages contain a list and content description of all the volumes in the ATPL series.

iii

ATPL Series
Meteorology (JAR Ref 050)
• The Atmosphere • Wind • Thermodynamics • Clouds and Fog • Precipitation • Air Masses and Fronts • Pressure System • Climatology • Flight Hazards • Meteorological Information

General Navigation (JAR Ref 061)
• Basics of Navigation • Magnetism • Compasses • Charts • Dead Reckoning Navigation • In-Flight Navigation • Inertial Navigation Systems

Radio Navigation (JAR Ref 062)
• Radio Aids • Self-contained and External-Referenced Navigation Systems • Basic Radar Principles • Area Navigation Systems • Basic Radio Propagation Theory

Airframes and Systems (JAR Ref 021 01)
• Fuselage • Windows • Wings • Stabilising Surfaces • Landing Gear • Flight Controls • Hydraulics • Pneumatic Systems • Air Conditioning System • Pressurisation • De-Ice / Anti-Ice Systems • Fuel Systems

Powerplant (JAR Ref 021 03)
• Piston Engine • Turbine Engine • Engine Construction • Engine Systems • Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)

Electrics (JAR Ref 021 02)
• Direct Current • Alternating Current • Batteries • Magnetism • Generator / Alternator • Semiconductors • Circuits

iv

Instrumentation (JAR Ref 022)
• Flight Instruments • Automatic Flight Control Systems • Warning and Recording Equipment • Powerplant and System Monitoring Instruments

Principles of Flight (JAR Ref 080)
• Laws and Definitions • Aerofoil Airflow • Aeroplane Airflow • Lift Coefficient • Total Drag • Ground Effect • Stall • CLMAX Augmentation • Lift Coefficient and Speed • Boundary Layer • High Speed Flight • Stability • Flying Controls • Adverse Weather Conditions • Propellers • Operating Limitations • Flight Mechanics

Performance (JAR Ref 032)
• Single-Engine Aeroplanes – Not certified under JAR/FAR 25 (Performance Class B) • Multi-Engine Aeroplanes – Not certified under JAR/FAR 25 (Performance Class B) • Aeroplanes certified under JAR/FAR 25 (Performance Class A)

Mass and Balance (JAR Ref 031)
• Definition and Terminology • Limits • Loading • Centre of Gravity

Flight Planning (JAR Ref 033)
• Flight Plan for Cross-Country Flights • ICAO ATC Flight Planning • IFR (Airways) Flight Planning • Jeppesen Airway Manual • Meteorological Messages • Point of Equal Time • Point of Safe Return • Medium Range Jet Transport Planning

Air Law (JAR Ref 010)
• International Agreements and Organisations • Annex 8 – Airworthiness of Aircraft • Annex 7 – Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks • Annex 1 – Licensing • Rules of the Air • Procedures for Air Navigation • Air Traffic Services • Aerodromes • Facilitation • Search and Rescue • Security • Aircraft Accident Investigation • JAR-FCL • National Law

v

Human Performance and Limitations (JAR Ref 040)
• Human Factors • Aviation Physiology and Health Maintenance • Aviation Psychology

Operational Procedures (JAR Ref 070)
• Operator • Air Operations Certificate • Flight Operations • Aerodrome Operating Minima • Low Visibility Operations • Special Operational Procedures and Hazards • Transoceanic and Polar Flight

Communications (JAR Ref 090)
• Definitions • General Operation Procedures • Relevant Weather Information • Communication Failure • VHF Propagation • Allocation of Frequencies • Distress and Urgency Procedures • Aerodrome Control • Approach Control • Area Control

vi

..............2-2 1919 Aeronautical Commission of the Paris Peace Conference.......................2-1 International Law............................................................................2-1 Safety ...............................................................................Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Section 1 ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2-2 Convention of the Unification of Certain Rules to International Carriage by Air (Warsaw 1929) ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2-1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................ICAO Definitions ......................2-13 Addendum to Chapter 2 ..........................................................................................................................................................................3-3 ECAC Objectives ..............................2-3 Part I – Air Navigation ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3-5 Eurocontrol.........................................3-1 The Convention of Rome 1933/1952 ....................................................................................................................................................3-1 Leasing of Aeroplanes between JAA Operators ....3-4 Organisation and Procedures .......3-4 JAA/FAA Harmonisation ..........................................The Council ...............................2-11 Supplementary Freedoms....................................................................................................................3-3 Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA).............................................................3-3 Functions of JAA...........................................................................................2-4 Part II ..1-1 Section 2 ......................................................................................................................................................2-17 Chapter X ............................................................................................................................................................3-5 Air Law vii .............................................................................................Common abbreviations used in the JAA Central Question Bank ................................................................................................................................................2-8 The Assembly ..................................................................2-1 Scheduled and Non Scheduled Air Services............3-3 JAA Organisation ......................................3-2 Leasing of Aeroplanes Between a JAA Operator and Any Body Other Than a JAA Operator ...............................................................2-2 1944 Convention on International Civil Aviation (the Chicago Convention) .........................3-2 Leasing of Aeroplanes at Short Notice...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1-6 CHAPTER 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Background.........................................2-11 The International Air Transport Agreement and the International Air Services Transit Agreement ........................................3-1 Commercial Practices and Associated Rules (Leasing).........2-11 The Convention of Tokyo 1963 .................2-9 Annexes to the Convention ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2-8 The Organisation ..........................2-9 Other International Agreements made at Chicago ........................The Air Navigation Commission...................................3-3 European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) ......................................................................................................................................................................................2-14 Chapter IX ...........................................................................................................................................................................................2-19 CHAPTER 3 Other International and European Organisations The International Air Transport Association (IATA)..............................................2-12 The Hague Convention of 1970 ......................The International Civil Aviation Organisation.....................................................................................2-13 The Montreal Convention of 1971..........................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................................................................... 6-1 CHAPTER 7 Rules of the Air Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................................... 7-16 Special VFR (SVFR) .................................................. 4-6 Examiners (Aeroplane) .................................................................. 4-12 CHAPTER 5 Registration of Aircraft and Aircraft Markings Nationality............................................................................. 4-8 Recent Experience....................................................................................................... 7-2 Prohibited and Restricted Areas.......................................................................................................... 7-22 viii Air Law ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7-12 Instrument Flight Rules ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-2 Avoidance of Collisions .................................................................................................................................................................................................... and Registration Marks .. 4-2 Specific Requirements for Licence Issue PPL(A)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4-10 JAA Theoretical Knowledge Examinations for ATPL (A)........................................................................................................................................................ 4-1 JAR-FCL ............................................................................... 6-1 Certificate of Airworthiness ................................................................................................ 4-6 Class and Type Ratings . 7-1 General Rules .................................................................................................................................................................................. 7-14 Rules Applicable to IFR Flights within Controlled Airspace................................................................................................................................................................................. 7-2 Minimum Heights .............................. 7-7 Communications ............... 4-3 ATPL(A) Experience .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-15 Communications ................................. and Registration Marks................................................ 7-15 IFR Flight Levels ................................................................................................................................................................ 5-2 Registration of Aircraft...................... 7-17 Table of Cruising Levels............................... 4-5 Instructor Ratings ..... Common............................................................................................................ 7-2 Simulated Instrument Flight (SIF)...........................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents CHAPTER 4 Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Introduction ....................................................... 7-7 Flight Plans ........................................................................................................................... 4-1 Licensing Requirements and Regulations................................. 7-16 Cruising Levels..................................................................................................................................................................... 7-2 Cruising Levels............................................ 7-16 Position Reports.................................................................................................. 4-7 Instrument Rating (IR(A)) ........... Common.................. 7-22 Signals for Use in the Event of Interception .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4-9 Curtailment of Privileges of Licence Holders Aged 60 Years or More........... 4-5 CPL(A) Experience ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7-10 Visual Flight Rules (VFR) .............................. 5-1 Location of Nationality.................... 7-15 Rules Applicable to IFR Flights Outside Controlled Airspace................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7-2 Negligent or Reckless Operation of Aircraft ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5-3 CHAPTER 6 Airworthiness of Aircraft Introduction ................................................................................................................ 4-9 Medical Requirements ...................................................................... 7-20 Appendix 1 to Chapter 7 ......................

..........................................................................................................................................................................10-24 Missed Approach ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................8-8 CHAPTER 9 Altimeter Setting Procedures Expression of Vertical Position.....................................................................................................................................................................................................8-1 Aerodrome Signals ......................................................................................9-4 CHAPTER 10 Instrument Procedures Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................................................10-15 Accuracy of Fixes............................................11-8 Aeronautical Information Publication (AlP)..................................................8-1 Emergency Signals ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................10-36 Simultaneous Operations on Parallel or Near Parallel Instrument Runways ............................10-24 Approach Segments .......10-13 Obstacle Clearance ....................................................................................................................................................11-9 Air Law ix ........................................10-42 CHAPTER 11 Aeronautical Information Service Introduction ...........11-6 Aeronautical Information Circulars (AIC).............................................................................................................................................11-8 Contents of Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) ...........8-2 Visual Ground Signals ...................................................................................................10-8 Airways Departure Routes (SID Charts) ..................................................................................................................10-31 Holding Procedures ........................................................................................................10-1 Obstacle Clearance .......................10-5 Contingency Procedures.................................................................................................10-2 Abbreviations ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................11-3 Aeronautical Information Regulation and Control (AIRAC) ...............................................................................11-1 Responsibilities and Function ..........................10-1 Publications..................................................................................................................11-7 Pre-Flight and Post Flight Information.........................................................................................................................................................11-1 Prohibited...................................................................................10-2 Departure Procedures..10-30 Published Information ...........................................................................................................11-1 The Integrated Aeronautical Information Package (IAIP) .........................................................................................................................................10-3 Establishment of a Departure Procedure ......................10-3 Standard Instrument Departures........................................................................................................................................................10-28 Visual Manoeuvring (Circling) VM(C)A in the Vicinity of the Aerodrome............................................................ and Danger Areas.......10-24 Standard Arrivals Routes (STARS)......................................................................................................9-3 Flight Planning ..........................................................................................................................................................................8-3 Signals from the Pilot of an Aircraft to a Marshaller ............................................................................................................................................................................................10-21 Descent Gradient ..10-2 The Instrument Departure Procedure ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................9-1 Transition ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10-6 Published Information .....................................................10-8 The Instrument Approach Procedure ................ Restricted....................9-2 Use of QNH or QFE .................................................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents CHAPTER 8 Signals Introduction .................................................................................................................8-2 Acknowledgement.........11-2 NOTAM (Notice to Airmen) .....................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 15-1 Aerodrome Traffic Zone (ATZ) .......................... 12-10 Time in Air Traffic Services ........................................................................................ 12-15 Use of ACAS/TCAS Indications .................. 13-8 CHAPTER 14 Flight Information Service (FIS) Application ......................................... 15-2 Information to Aircraft by Aerodrome Control Towers .... 12-2 Classes of Airspace ............................................................................................................................................................... 12-15 CHAPTER 13 Air Traffic Control Services Introduction ....................................................... 12-7 Control Zones........................ 15-2 Traffic and Taxi Circuits ................................................................... 12-5 Flight Information Regions (FIRs) ........... 15-7 Wake Turbulence Categorization of Aircraft and Increased Longitudinal Separation Minima ............................................................................................................................................................................. 12-10 Air Traffic Incident Report (ATIR) .............................................................................................................................................................. 12-6 Control Areas .... 12-1 Objective of the Air Traffic Services (ATS)........................... 15-7 Control of Traffic in the Traffic Circuit................................................................................................................................ 15-6 Control of other than Aircraft Traffic on the Manoeuvring Area .................................................................................... 12-2 Determination of the need for Air Traffic Services..................................................... 12-7 Service to Aircraft in the event of Emergency .............................................................................................................................. 12-6 Flight Information Regions or Control Areas in the Upper Airspace ............................................................................................... 12-1 Divisions of the Air Traffic Services................................................................................ 15-5 Control of Aerodrome Traffic ........................................................................Table of Contents CHAPTER 12 Air Traffic Services and Airspace Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 12-2 Required Navigation Performance (RNP) ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 13-1 Operation of Air Traffic Control Service............................................................. 12-14 Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS – Airborne................... 15-1 Functions of Aerodrome Control Towers............................................. 12-10 ATS Route Designators .............................................................. 13-1 Air Traffic Control Service .............................................. 13-3 Emergency and Communication Failure .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14-1 Operational Flight Information Service Broadcasts (OFIS) .............................................................................. 14-2 CHAPTER 15 Aerodrome Control Service Introduction .......... 12-5 Units Providing Air Traffic Services ........................................... TCAS – Traffic) ................................................................................................................................................................................ 14-1 What is provided by a FIS .................................................... 15-9 x Air Law ...................................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................................................................20-3 Unlawful Interference with Aircraft in Flight .................19-7 Emergencies...........................20-1 Operation of Transponders ...17-2 Horizontal Separation ...................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents CHAPTER 16 Approach Control Service Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................18-1 Aircraft Using the Air Traffic Advisory Service......................................................................................................................................................................................16-4 Information for Arriving Aircraft .....18-2 Air Traffic Services Units......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17-2 Vertical Separation...........20-2 Emergency Procedures ...................18-1 Operation .....................19-1 Radar Coverage..............................................19-3 PSR Identification Procedures .....................................................................................................19-1 Identification of Aircraft .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................19-9 Use of Radar in the Approach Control Service .........................................................................................................................................17-4 Longitudinal Separation .............................................................................................. Hazards................................................18-2 CHAPTER 19 Radar in Air Traffic Control Introduction ........................................................................................................19-12 CHAPTER 20 Secondary Surveillance Radar Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... and Equipment Failures ...............................................................................17-3 Lateral Separation.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................20-3 Phraseology ..........................................................................19-4 Use of Radar in the Air Traffic Control Service ....................19-3 Position Information ...............................................................................................................................................................17-14 CHAPTER 18 Air Traffic Advisory Service Introduction ............................................................19-4 Radar Vectoring .........................................................................16-1 Arrivals .................................18-1 Objective and Basic Principles.....................................................17-6 Reduced Separation Minima.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................16-6 CHAPTER 17 Area Control Service Introduction ..................18-2 Aircraft Not Using the Air Traffic Advisory Service ...................................................20-3 Air Law xi .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................19-9 Radar Approaches ..........................................................................................................17-1 Separation.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................16-2 Approach Sequence (Stacking) ......................................................19-11 Use of Radar in Aerodrome Control..................................16-1 Departures ............................................19-3 SSR Identification Procedures ...........................................20-3 Communication Failure Procedures........................................................19-7 Radar Separation Minima ..........................................................................

.................................................. 22-4 Ground/Air Signals used by Rescue Units .......................................... 21-3 Unlawful Interference ...................................... 23-19 Apron Safety Lines.................................. 23-14 Runway Side Stripe........................................................................................................................................ 22-6 Air-To-Ground Signals ........... 23-7 Taxiway Curve ......................................................... 23-18 Aircraft Stand Markings ............. 23-10 Markings ............ 21-3 Information to Aircraft Operating In the Vicinity of an Aircraft in a State of Emergency.............................................................................................................. Taxi Holding Positions............................................................................................................................ 23-25 Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI and Abbreviated PAPI) ................................................................................................................................. 23-19 Signs ..................................................... 23-1 Types of Aerodrome.................................................................................. 23-11 Runway Markings...... 21-2 Format of Notification of Declaration ............................................................................................................... 23-2 Runways ...........Table of Contents CHAPTER 21 The Alerting Service Alerting Service .............................................................. 23-19 Information Markings............................ 23-13 Aiming Point Marking ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 23-1 Parts of an Aerodrome .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 23-16 Taxiway Intersection Marking....................................................................................................................................... 23-33 xii Air Law ............................................................................................................................................................ 21-1 Phases of the Alerting Procedure......................................................................... 23-11 Runway Centre Line Marking ........................................... 23-9 Aprons .. 23-5 Taxiways ............... 23-17 VOR Aerodrome Check-Point Marking ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 21-3 CHAPTER 22 Search and Rescue Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 23-12 Displaced Threshold Marking............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 23-19 Markers ...................................................................................................................................................................... 23-14 Touchdown Zone Marking..................................................................................................................... 22-6 CHAPTER 23 Aerodromes Annex 14................................................................................... 23-24 Approach Lighting Systems ........................................................................................................................... 22-1 Organisation................ 23-9 Holding Bays................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 23-16 Taxiway Centre Line Marking.............................. 21-3 Additional Information for the RCC................................................................................................................................................................. 23-1 Aerodrome Reference Code ........................................................................................................................................................... 23-16 Taxiway Markings ......................... 23-16 Runway Holding Position Marking............. 23-12 Threshold Markings............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 23-23 Aerodrome Lighting............ 23-10 Visual Aids for Navigation ........................................................................................... 22-2 Search and Rescue Signals ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 22-1 Operating Procedures ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 23-1 Aeronautical Data.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 23-32 Minimum Eye Height (MEHT).....................................................................

....24-2 Measures Related to Passengers and their Cabin Baggage ....................................23-34 Obstacles ............27-3 Air Law xiii ...............................................................................................................24-2 Pre-Flight Checks ........................................................................................................................24-2 Carriage of Legal Weapons ....................................23-38 Marking of Vehicles..........................................................24-1 Aims and Objectives ............23-40 Emergency Services ...............25-1 Definitions ............................................................................................27-1 The Law of the UK ..................................................................24-2 Missing Passengers ..............................................26-4 CHAPTER 27 National Law Introduction ...............................24-3 CHAPTER 25 Aircraft Accident Investigation Introduction ..............................................25-3 Notification for Accidents or Serious Incidents ............................................................................................................................................................26-1 Entry and Departure of Aircraft ..........23-34 Taxiway Lighting ..................23-40 Emergency Vehicles .................................................................24-3 Training Programmes ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................24-2 Management of Response to Acts of Unlawful Interference ..........................................................................................................................26-1 Entry and Departure of Persons and their Baggage ......................................................................................................27-3 Military Aerodrome Traffic Zones (MATZ) ...............................................................................................................................Table of Contents Runway Lights ............................................................................................................................................................. Deportees and Persons in Custody......................................................................................24-3 Flight Deck Door ..............................27-1 Royal Flights ...............................................................................................................................26-3 Departure Requirements and Procedures ... and Removal of Aircraft...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................24-2 Measures Relating to Access Control .25-1 Objective of the Investigation ............23-40 Bird Hazard ................................................................................................... Custody.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................24-1 Preventative Security Measures ....................................................................27-1 Major UK Differences ....................................................25-2 Request from State of Design or State of Manufacturer ...............................................................24-1 National Organisation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................26-4 Inadmissible Passengers..23-40 CHAPTER 24 Aviation Security General ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................25-2 Protection of Evidence..........24-1 International Co-Operation................25-3 Reports ...............................................................24-3 Isolated Aircraft Parking Position ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................25-4 CHAPTER 26 Facilitation Introduction .....................................................................................................25-2 Request from State of Registry or State of Operator .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Table of Contents xiv Air Law .

INTRODUCTION This chapter of Aviation Law contains two sections and is intended for use with all the course material provided: SECTION 1 — COMMON ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE JAA CENTRAL QUESTION BANK A A ABM ABN AC AC ACAS ACFT ACT AD ADC ADDN ADF ADI AEO AFIS AFM AGL AIP Ampere Abeam Aerodrome beacon Alternating current Altocumulus Airborne collision avoidance system Aircraft Active Aerodrome Air data computer Additional Automatic direction finding Attitude director indicator All engines operating Aerodrome flight information service Aircraft flight manual Above ground level Aeronautical Information Publication B BKN Broken C ºC CAS CAT CB CC CD CDI CDU cg Degrees Celsius Calibrated air speed Clear air turbulence Cumulonimbus Cirrocumulus Drag coefficient Course direction indicator Control display unit Centre of gravity CI CL Cm CO CP CRM CS CTR CU CWY Cirrus Lift coefficient Centimetre Communications Critical point Crew resource management Cirrostratus Control zone Cumulus Clearway BRG Bearing ALT ALTN APCH APT APU ARR AS ASDA AMSL ATA ATC ATIS ATO ATS AUX AVG AWY AZM Altitude Alternate Approach Airport Auxiliary power unit Arrival Altostratus Accelerate stop distance available Above mean sea level Actual time of arrival Air traffic control Automatic terminal information service Actual time overhead Air traffic services Auxiliary Average Airway Azimuth Air Law 1-1 .

Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions D DA DC DEG DEP DES DEST DEV D/F Decision altitude Direct current Degrees Departure Descent Destination Deviation Direction finding E E EAS EAT ECAM EFIS EGT East Equivalent airspeed Expected approach time Engine condition aircraft monitoring Electronic flight instrument system Exhaust gas temperature F ºF FAF FCST FD FIS FIS Degrees Fahrenheit Final approach fix Forecast Flight director Flight information system Flight Information Service G G GAL GND Gramme Gallons Ground H HDG HF hPa HR Heading High frequency Hectopascal Hours I IAS ILS IMC IMP GAL INS Indicated airspeed Instrument landing system Instrument meteorological conditions Imperial gallons Inertial navigation systems J J Joule INT ISA ISOL ITCZ IVSI Intersection International standard atmosphere Isolated Inter-tropical convergence zone Instantaneous vertical speed indicator HSI HT Hz Horizontal situation indicator Height Hertz GP GPWS GS Glide path Ground proximity warning system Ground speed FL FLT FMS FT FT/MIN Flight level Flight Flight management system Feet Feet per minute EICAS EOBT EPR EST ETA ETO Engine indicator and crew alerting system Estimated off blocks time Engine pressure ratio Estimated Estimated time of arrival Estimated time overhead DG DH DIST DME DP DR DVOR Directional gyroscope Decision height Distance Distance measuring equipment Dew point Dead reckoning Doppler VOR 1-2 Air Law .

mps MSA MSL MSU MLS MM MNM MNPS Microwave landing system Middle marker Minimum Minimum navigation performance specification Minimum obstruction clearance altitude Minimum off route altitude Miles per hour Metres per second Minimum sector altitude Mean sea level Mode selector unit LMT LONG LT LTD LVL LYR Local mean time Longitude Local time Limited Level Layer kt kW Knot Kilowatt Air Law 1-3 .Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 K kg kHz km Kilogramme Kilohertz Kilometre L LAT LB LDG LDP LEN LLZ LMC Latitude Pounds Landing Landing decision point Length Localiser (Localizer) Last minute change M m M M MAC MAP MAPt max MDH MDH/A MEA MET MIN Metre Mass Mach Number Mean aerodynamic chord Manifold pressure Missed approach point Maximum Minimum descent height Minimum descent height/altitude Minimum enroute altitude Meteorological Minutes N N NGT N NAT NAV Newton Night North North Atlantic track Navigation O OAT OBS OCA(H) OCL OEI Outside air temperature Omni bearing selector Obstacle clearance altitude (height) Obstacle clearance limit One engine inoperative P P PAX PET PIC PLN PNR Pressure Passenger Point of equal time Pilot in command Flight plan Point of no return POS PSI PSR PTS PWR Position Pounds per square inch Point of Safe Return Polar track structure Power OM OM OPS O/R OVC Operating mass Outer marker Operations On request Overcast NDB NM NOTAM NS Non-directional beacon Nautical miles Notice to airmen Nimbostratus MOCA MORA MPH MPS.

Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions R r RAC RAS REP RMI RMK Radius Rules of the air and air traffic services Rectified airspeed Reporting point Remote magnetic indicator Remark S S SAR SARPs SC SCT SDBY SEC SEV SFC SID SIM SKC South Search and rescue Standards and Recommended Practices Stratocumulus Scattered Standby Seconds Severe Surface Standard instrument departure Simulator Sky clear T T TA TAS TAT TC TCAS TDP Temperature Transition altitude True airspeed Total air temperature Tropical cyclone Traffic collision avoidance system Take-off decision point U U/S US-GAL Unserviceable US gallons V V VAR VDF VG VHF VIS VLF VMC VOLMET VOR vrb Volt Magnetic variation VHF direction finding station Vertical gyro Very high frequency Visibility Very low frequency Visual meteorological conditions Meteorological information for aircraft in flight VHF omni directional range Variable VSI VV VA VB VC/MC VD VF VFE VFO VLE VLO Vertical speed indicator Vertical visibility Design manoeuvring speed Design speed for max gust intensity Design cruise speed / Mach number Design dive speed Design flap speed Flap extended speed Flap operating speed Landing gear extended speed Maximum landing gear operating speed UTC Co-ordinated universal time THR TL T/O TOC TORA TS TWY Threshold Transition level Take-off Top of climb Take off run available Thunderstorm Taxiway SR SS SSR ST STAR STD STN STNR STS SVFR SWY Sunrise Sunset Secondary surveillance radar Stratus Standard arrival route Standard Station Stationary Status Special VFR Stop way RNAV ROC ROD RVR RWY Area Navigation Rate of climb Rate of descent Runway visual range Runway 1-4 Air Law .

Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 VLOF VMAX TYRE VMBE Lift off speed Maximum tyre speed Maximum break energy speed VR VREF VS Rotating speed Landing reference speed Stalling speed or minimum steady flight speed at which the aeroplane is controllable Stalling speed or minimum steady flight speed in landing configuration Stalling speed or minimum steady flight speed obtained in best configuration Speed for best angle of climb Speed for best rate of climb Critical engine failure speed Take-off safety speed for piston engine aircraft VMC VMCA VMCG VMO/MMO VMU VNE VNO Minimum control speed Air minimum control speed Ground minimum control speed Maximum operating limit speed / Maximum Mach number Minimum un-stick speed Never exceed speed Normal operating speed W VSO VS1 VX VY V1 V2 W W WC WCA Watt West Wind component Wind correction angle X W/V WPT WS WX Wind velocity Way point Wind shear Weather X XTK Cross Cross track Y XX Heavy YD Yard Z Air Law 1-5 .

self-inflicted or inflicted by other persons. within which air traffic advisory service is available. or flight characteristics of the aircraft. or designated route. By the time you complete the course. 1-6 Air Law . Accident — An occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft that takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight. or when the injuries are to stowaways hiding outside the areas normally available to the passengers and crew. Note: An aircraft is considered to be missing when the official search has been terminated and the wreckage has not been located. Aerodrome Beacon — Aeronautical beacon used to indicate the location of an aerodrome from the air. The learning objectives for 010 Air Law require that the student is able to recall definitions from a given list. Accepting Unit — ATCU next to take control of an aircraft. when the damage is limited to the engine.Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions SECTION 2 — ICAO DEFINITIONS The following definitions are from the ICAO Annexes. fairings. Advisory Route — A designated route along which air traffic advisory service is available. tyres. Advisory Airspace — Airspace of defined dimensions. including parts which have become detached from the aircraft. Note: An injury resulting in death within 30 days of the date of the accident is classified as a fatal injury by ICAO. until such time as all such persons have disembarked. installations. antennas. and would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component except for engine failure or damage. in which a person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of: being in the aircraft. wing tips. or for damage limited to propellers. or direct contact with any part of the aircraft. departure. performance. or the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure which: adversely affects the structural strength. or the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible. and surface movement of aircraft. or direct exposure to jet blast except when the injuries are from natural causes. and equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival. brakes. Do not memorise this list. Aerodrome — A defined area of land or water (including any buildings. its cowlings or accessories. small dents or puncture holes in the aircraft skin. you will be able to define all the definitions necessary to pass the examination.

still air. entering.Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Aerodrome Control Service — Air traffic control service for aerodrome traffic. if applicable. Aerodrome Control Tower — A unit established to provide air traffic control service. expressed in terms of visibility and/or RVR and DA/DH. to designate a particular point on the surface of the earth. expressed in terms of visibility and/or RVR. Aerodrome Operating Minima — The limits of usability of an aerodrome for: Take-off. air navigation. Field length means balanced field length for aeroplanes. sea level. if necessary. if necessary. cloud conditions Landing in precision approach and landing operations. Aerodrome Reference Point — The designated geographical location of the aerodrome. Aerodrome Taxi Circuit — The specified path of aircraft on the manoeuvring area during specific wind conditions. Aerodrome Reference Field Length — The minimum field length required for take-off at maximum certificated take-off mass. other than a light displayed on an aircraft. Aeronautical Ground Light — Any light specifically provided as an aid to air navigation. either continuously or intermittently. Aerodrome Traffic — All traffic on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome and all traffic flying in the vicinity of an aerodrome. Aerodrome Traffic Zone — Airspace of defined dimensions established around an aerodrome for the protection of aerodrome traffic. and Landing in non-precision approach and landing operations. standard atmospheric conditions. as appropriate to the category of the operation. Aeronautical Information Circular (AIC) — A notice containing information that does not qualify for the origination of a NOTAM or for inclusion in the AlP. or take-off distance in other cases. Aerodrome Identification Sign — A sign placed on an aerodrome to aid in identifying the aerodrome from the air. expressed in terms of RVR and/or visibility and. Note: An aircraft is in the vicinity of an aerodrome when it is in. Aeronautical Beacon — An aeronautical ground light visible at all azimuths. Aerodrome Elevation — The elevation of the highest point of the landing area. Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) — A publication issued by or with the authority of a state and containing aeronautical information of a lasting character essential to air navigation. Air Law 1-7 . administrative or legislative matters. and zero runway slope. as shown in the appropriate aeroplane flight manual prescribed by the certificating authority or equivalent data from the aeroplane manufacturer. MDA/MDH and. or leaving an aerodrome traffic circuit. cloud conditions. but which relates to flight safety. technical.

or "Landing” to indicate the particular portion of flight to which the Air Traffic Control Clearance relates. in so far as practical between aircraft which are operating on IFR flight plans. “Approach”. Air Report — A report from an aircraft in flight prepared in conformity with requirements for position. emergency position-indicating radio beacon stations may also participate in this service on designated distress and emergency frequencies. “Enroute”. AIP Supplement — Temporary changes to the information contained in the AIP that are published by means of special pages. Aeronautical Telecommunication Station — A station in the aeronautical telecommunication service. deriving its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces which remain fixed under given conditions of flight. in which survival craft stations may participate. Air Traffic Advisory Service — A service provided within advisory airspace to ensure separation. on board ship or on a platform at sea. Aeroplane — A power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft. “Take-off”. 1-8 Air Law . an aeronautical station may be located. Air Traffic — All aircraft in flight or operating on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome. Air Traffic Control Clearance — Authorization for an aircraft to proceed under conditions specified by an air traffic control unit. Note: The abbreviated term “Clearance” may be prefixed by the words “Taxi”. AIRAC — An acronym (Aeronautical Information Regulation and Control) signifying a system aimed at advance notification based on common dates. or locations. for example. and operational and/or meteorological reporting. AIP Amendment — Permanent changes to the information contained in the AIP. Aeronautical Station — A land station in the aeronautical mobile service.Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Aeronautical Mobile Service — A mobile service between aeronautical stations and aircraft stations. In certain instances. or between aircraft stations. Note: For convenience the term “Air Traffic Control Clearance” is frequently abbreviated to “Clearance” when used in appropriate contexts. of circumstances that necessitate significant changes in operating practices Air-Ground Communication — Two-way communication between aircraft and stations. Air Traffic Control Instruction — Directives issued by ATC for the purpose of requiring a pilot to take a specific action. on the surface of the earth. “Departure”.

and which is used to identify the aircraft in ground-ground ATS communications. or air traffic services reporting office. Aircraft Observation — The evaluation of one or more meteorological elements made from an aircraft in flight. aeroplane. On the manoeuvring area between aircraft and obstructions. or air traffic control service (area control service. air traffic control unit.Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Air Traffic Control Service — A service provided for the purpose of: Preventing collisions between aircraft. Aircraft Certified For Single-Pilot Operation — A type of aircraft that the State of Registry has determined. or aerodrome control service). approach control office. and. Aircraft — Any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions of the air against the earth’s surface. or aerodrome control tower. Aircraft Equipment — Articles. Air Traffic Services Unit — A generic term meaning variously. Air Traffic Service — A generic term meaning variously. approach control service. flight information service. Air Law 1-9 . for use on board an aircraft during flight. alerting service. during the certification process. flight information centre. Air Traffic Services Airspaces — Airspaces of defined dimensions. air traffic advisory service. alphabetically designated. glider. free balloon). or a unit of the Aeronautical Information Service. such as another Air Traffic Services Unit. the aircraft callsign to be used in air-ground communications. or a combination thereof which is either identical to.g. including first aid and survival equipment. within which specific types of flights may operate and for which air traffic services and rules of operation are specified. Note: ATS airspaces are classified as Class A to G Air Traffic Services Reporting Office — A unit established for the purpose of receiving reports concerning air traffic services and flight plans submitted before departure. helicopter. can be operated safely with a minimum crew of one pilot. Aircraft Identification — A group of letters. Note: An Air Traffic Services reporting office may be established as a separate unit or combined with an existing unit. or the coded equivalent of. Expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic. figures. other than stores and spare parts of a removable nature. area control centre. Air Traffic Control Unit — A generic term meaning variously. Aircraft Category — Classification of aircraft according to specified basic characteristics (e.

AIRMET Information — Information issued by a meteorological watch office concerning the occurrence or expected occurrence of specified enroute weather phenomena that may affect the safety of low-level aircraft operations and which was not already included in the forecast issued for low-level flights in the FIR concerned or sub-area thereof. and assist such organisations as required. any air transport enterprise offering or operating a scheduled international air service. Safety Not Assured — The risk classification of aircraft proximity. except those modifications which result in a change in handling or flight characteristics. Risk Not Determined — The risk classification of aircraft proximity in which insufficient information was available to determine the risk involved. Aircraft Type — All aircraft of the same basic design. Aircraft Stand — A designated area on an apron intended for parking aircraft. Alerting Service — A service provided to notify appropriate organisations regarding aircraft in need of search and rescue aid. or inconclusive or conflicting evidence precluded such determination. Airline — As provided in Article 96 of the Convention. Alert Phase — A situation wherein apprehension exists as to the safety of an aircraft and its occupants. Airway — A control area or portion thereof established in the form of a corridor equipped with radio navigation aids. in which no risk of collision has existed. in which serious risk of collision has existed. ALERFA — The code word used to designate an alert phase. No Risk Of Collision — The risk classification of aircraft proximity. AIRPROX — The code word used in an air traffic incident report to designate aircraft proximity. in the opinion of a pilot or ATS personnel. have been such that the safety of the aircraft involved may have been compromised.Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Aircraft Proximity — A situation in which. 1-10 Air Law . including all modifications thereto. as well as their relative positions and speed. Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) — An aircraft system based on SSR transponder signals that operates independently of ground based equipment to provide advice to the pilot on potential conflicting aircraft that are equipped with SSR transponders. the distance between aircraft. Aircraft proximity is classified as follows: Risk Of Collision — The risk classification of aircraft proximity. in which the safety of the aircraft may have been compromised.

a point. Air Law 1-11 . intended to accommodate aircraft for the purposes of loading or unloading passengers. Enroute Alternate — An aerodrome at which an aircraft would be able to land after experiencing an abnormal or emergency condition while enroute. or departing from. Approach Control Office — A unit established to provide ATC service to controlled flights arriving at. Destination Alternate — An aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed should it become impossible or inadvisable to land at the aerodrome of intended landing. Approach Control Service — ATC service for arriving or departing controlled flights. Alternate aerodromes include the following: Take-off Alternate — An alternate aerodrome at which an aircraft can land should this become necessary shortly after take-off and it is not possible to use the aerodrome of departure. or maintenance. Area Navigation (RNAV) — A method of navigation which permits aircraft operation on any desired flight path within the coverage of the station referenced navigation aids or within the limits of the capability of self contained aids. Apron Management Service — A service provided to regulate the activities and the movement of aircraft and vehicles on an apron. Appropriate ATS Authority — The relevant authority designated by the state responsible for providing air traffic services in the airspace concerned. parking. or cargo. fuelling. Regarding flight other than over the high seas — The relevant authority of the state having sovereignty over the territory being over flown. Altitude — The vertical distance of a level. Area Control Centre — A unit established to provide Air Traffic Control Service to controlled flights in control areas under its jurisdiction. one or more aerodromes. Area Control Service — Air Traffic Control Service for controlled flight in Control Areas. mail. Appropriate Authority Regarding flight over the high seas — The relevant authority of the state of registry. Note: The aerodrome from which a flight departs may also be an enroute or a destination alternate aerodrome for that flight. or a combination of these. or an object considered as a point measured from mean sea level (MSL).Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Alternate Aerodrome — An aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed when it becomes either impossible or inadvisable to proceed to or land at the aerodrome of intended landing. Apron — A defined area. on a land aerodrome.

including aircraft identification. arrival or departure route. ATS Route — A specified route designed for channelling the flow of traffic as necessary for the provision of air traffic services. Base Turn — A turn executed by the aircraft during the initial approach between the end of the outbound track and the beginning of the intermediate or final approach track. via a data link. Baggage — Personal property of passengers or crew carried on an aircraft by agreement with the operator. airway. ATIS — The symbol used to designate automatic terminal information service. controlled or uncontrolled route. Certify as Airworthy (to) — To certify that an aircraft or parts thereof comply with current airworthiness requirements after maintenance has been performed on the aircraft or parts thereof. Blind Transmission — A transmission from one station to another station in circumstances where two-way communication cannot be established. Cargo — Any property carried on an aircraft other than mail. routine information to arriving and departing aircraft by means of a continuous and repetitive broadcast throughout the day. Note: The term “ATS route” is used to mean variously. Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) — A surveillance technique in which aircraft automatically provide. Note: Base turns may be designated as being made either in level flight or while descending. Automatic Terminal Information Service — The provision of current. Broadcast — A transmission of information relating to air navigation that is not addressed to a specific station or stations. stores. etc. data derived from on board navigation and position fixing systems. The tracks are not reciprocal. and accompanied or mishandled baggage. four dimensional position. and additional data as appropriate. but where it is believed the called station is able to receive the transmission.Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Area Navigation Route — An ATS route established for the use of aircraft capable of employing area navigation. 1-12 Air Law . or a specified portion of the day. according to the circumstances of each individual procedure. advisory route. Ceiling — The height above the ground or water of the base of the lowest layer of cloud below 6000 metres (20 000 ft) covering more than half the sky. Barrette — Three or more aeronautical ground lights closely spaced in a traverse line so that from a distance they appear as a short bar of light.

selected or prepared as a suitable area over which an aeroplane may make a portion of its initial climb to a specified height. or mail for remuneration or hire. Controlled Aerodrome — An aerodrome at which Air Traffic Control Service is provided to aerodrome traffic. Controlled Flight — Any flight which is subject to an Air Traffic Control Clearance. Commercial Air Transport Operation — An aircraft operation involving the transport of passengers. Note: The term “Controlled Aerodrome” indicates that Air Traffic Control Service is provided to Aerodrome Traffic. Note: Change-over points are established to provide the optimum balance in respect of signal strength and quality between facilities at all levels to be used and to ensure a common source of azimuth guidance for all aircraft operating along the same portion of a route segment. Clearance Limit — The point to which an aircraft is granted an Air Traffic Control Clearance. is expected to transfer its primary navigational reference from the facility behind the aircraft to the next facility ahead of the aircraft. cargo. Control Zone — A controlled airspace extending upwards from the surface of the earth to a specified upper limit. defined by reference to very high frequency omni directional radio ranges. Control Area — A controlled airspace extending upwards from a specified limit above the earth. such as wing flaps. D. Note: Controlled airspace is a generic term which covers ATS airspace Class A. but does not necessarily imply that a Control Zone exists. B. and E. C. Clearway — A defined rectangular area on the ground or water under the control of the appropriate authority. Circling Approach — An extension of an instrument approach procedure which provides for visual circling of the aerodrome prior to landing. Controlled Airspace — An airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights in accordance with the airspace classification.Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Change-over Point — The point at which an aircraft navigating over an ATS route segment. Code (SSR) — The number assigned to a particular multiple pulse reply signal transmitted by a transponder in Mode A or Mode C. Air Law 1-13 . Configuration (as applied to the aeroplane) — A particular combination of the positions of the moveable elements. landing gear etc. which affect the aerodynamic characteristics of the aeroplane.

plus the length of the stopway. but excluding a pilot who is on board the aircraft for the sole purpose of receiving flight instruction. time. Accelerate-Stop Distance Available (ASDA) — The length of the take-off run available. in relation to the desired flight path. Cruising Level — A level maintained during a significant portion of a flight. plus the length of the clearway.Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Co-Pilot — A licensed pilot serving in any piloting capacity other than as PIC. 1-14 Air Law . if any. Declared Distances Take-Off Run Available (TORA) — The length of runway declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aircraft. if provided. Note: DA is referenced to mean sea level. including changes. Critical Power Unit(s) — The power unit(s) failure of which gives the most adverse effect on the aircraft characteristics relative to the case under consideration. Danger Area — An airspace of defined dimensions within which activities dangerous to the flight of aircraft may exist at specified times. In Category III operations with a DH the required visual reference is that specified for the particular procedure and operation. Current Flight Plan — The flight plan. Decision Altitude (DA) or Decision Height (DH) — A specified altitude or height in the precision approach at which a missed approach must be initiated if the required visual reference to continue the approach has not been established. Dead Reckoning (DR) Navigation — The estimating or determining of position by advancing an earlier known position by the application of direction. Take-Off Distance Available (TODA) — The length of the take-off run available. brought about by subsequent clearances. if provided. Landing Distance Available (LDA) — The length of the runway that is declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane landing. Crew Member — A person assigned by an operator to duty on an aircraft during flight time. and speed data. Cruise Climb — An aeroplane cruising technique resulting in a net increase in altitude as the aeroplane mass decreases. DH is referenced to threshold elevation Note: The required visual reference means that section of the visual aids or of the approach area which should have been in view for sufficient time for the pilot to have made an assessment of the aircraft position and rate of change of position.

Emergency Phase — A generic term meaning. during which a person is receiving flight instruction from a properly authorised pilot on board the aircraft. Dual Instruction Time — Flight time. as the case may be. from which it is intended that an instrument approach procedure will be commenced. Estimated Elapsed Time — The estimated time to fly from one significant point to another. following a delay. Design Taxiing Mass — The maximum mass of the aircraft at which structural provision is made for load liable to occur during use of the aircraft on the ground prior to the start of take-off. Estimated Off-Blocks Time — The estimated time at which the aircraft will commence movement associated with departure. will leave the holding point to complete its approach for a landing. uncertainty phase. the time at which it is estimated that the aircraft will arrive over the designated point. Design Take-off Mass — The maximum mass at which the aircraft. DME Distance — The line of sight distance (slant range) from the source of a DME signal to the receiving antenna. it is assumed that it will be planned to land. or. Estimated Time of Arrival — For IFR flights. the time at which the aircraft will arrive over the aerodrome. measured from mean sea level. or distress phase. if no navigation aid is associated with the aerodrome. DETRESFA — The code word used to designate a distress phase.Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Dependent Parallel Approaches — Simultaneous approaches to parallel or near parallel instrument runways where radar separation minima between aircraft on adjacent extended runway centre lines are prescribed. Expected Approach Time — The time at which ATC expects that an arriving aircraft. Displaced Threshold — A threshold not located at the extremity of the runway. for structural design purposes. is assumed to be planned to be at the start of the take-off run. For VFR flights. alert phase. Design Landing Mass — The maximum mass of the aircraft at which. for structural design purposes. Elevation — The vertical distance of a point on or affixed to the surface of the earth. Distress Phase — A situation wherein there is a reasonable certainty that an aircraft and its occupants are threatened by grave and imminent danger or require immediate assistance. defined by reference to navigation aids. Air Law 1-15 . the time at which it is estimated that the aircraft will arrive over the aerodrome. Note: The actual time of leaving the holding point will depend upon the approach clearance.

(1013. 1-16 Air Law . if specified. Fixed Light — A light having constant luminous intensity when observed from a fixed point. which is related to a specific pressure datum. and ends at a point in the vicinity of an aerodrome from which: A landing can be made. base turn or inbound turn of a racetrack procedure. Final Approach Segment — The segment of an instrument runway procedure in which alignment and descent for landing are accomplished. Note: The terms “height” and “altitude” used in the above note. Flight Level — A surface of constant atmospheric pressure. or At the point of interception of the last track specified in the approach procedure. Flight Information Centre — A unit established to provide flight information service and alerting service. Final Approach — That part of an instrument approach procedure which commences at the specified final approach fix or point. Flight Information Region — An airspace of defined dimensions within which flight information service and alerting service are provided. Note: A pressure type altimeter calibrated in accordance with the Standard Atmosphere: When set to a QNH — altimeter setting indicates altitude When set to a QFE — altimeter setting indicates height above the QFE reference datum When set to a pressure of 1013. indicate altimetric rather than geometric heights and altitudes.2 Hectopascals (hPa)) and is separated from other surfaces by specific pressure intervals. or A missed approach procedure is initiated Final Approach and Take-Off Area (FATO) — A defined area over which the final phase of the approach manoeuvre to landing is completed and from which the take-off manoeuvre is commenced. as filed with an ATS unit by the pilot or a designated representative. or where such a fix or point is not specified: At the end of the last procedure turn. Flight Information Service — A service provided for the purpose of giving advice and information useful to the safe and effective conduct of flights.Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Filed Flight Plan — The flight plan. without any subsequent changes.2 hPa — altimeter can be used to indicate flight levels. Flight Crew Member — A licensed crew member charged with duties essential to the operation of an aircraft during flight time.

Glide Path — A descent profile determined for vertical guidance during a final approach. or yield on impact so as to present the minimum hazard to aircraft. Air Law 1-17 . magnetic. Flight Procedures Trainer — See Synthetic Flight Trainer. and instructions and information necessary to the flight crew members for the safe operation of the aircraft. and servicing of an aircraft on the ground. Hazard Beacon — An aeronautical beacon used to designate a danger to air navigation. relative to an intended flight or portion of a flight of an aircraft. Forecast — A statement of expected meteorological conditions for a specified time or period. distort. as reported by an accredited observer. compass. Frangible Object — An object of low mass designed to break.Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Flight Plan — Specified information provided to Air Traffic Services Units. repair. Heavier-than-air Aircraft — Any aircraft deriving its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic forces. Flight Manual — A manual associated with the certificate of airworthiness. Note: Flight time as here defined is synonymous with the term “block to block” time or “chock to chock” time in general usage which is measured from the time an aircraft moves from the loading point until it stops at the unloading point. and for a specified area or portion of airspace. including testing equipment and cargo/passenger-handling equipment. so as to ensure the most effective utilization of the airspace. Ground Visibility — The visibility at an aerodrome. Flight Time — The total time from the moment an aircraft first moves under its own power for the purpose of taking-off until the moment it comes to rest at the end of the flight. or bound for a given aerodrome. Ground Equipment — Articles of a specialised nature for use in the maintenance. Flight Recorder — Any type of recorder installed in the aircraft for the purpose of complementing accident/incident investigation. Flight Visibility — The visibility forward from the cockpit of an aircraft in flight. Flow Control — Measures designed to adjust the flow of traffic into a given airspace. usually expressed in degrees from North (true. or grid). along a given route. Flight Simulator — See Synthetic Flight Trainer. containing limitations within which the aircraft is to be considered airworthy. Heading — The direction in which the longitudinal axis of an aircraft is pointed.

and surface movement of helicopters. or could affect. Instrument Meteorological Conditions — Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility. Holding Procedure — A pre-determined manoeuvre that keeps an aircraft within a specified airspace while awaiting further clearance. identified by visual or other means. intended to be used wholly or in part for the arrival. Incident — An occurrence. other than mean sea level (MSL). or bypassed.Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Height — The vertical distance of a level. Instrument Flight Time — Time during which a pilot is piloting an aircraft solely by reference to instruments and without external reference points. simulated instrument flight in a synthetic flight trainer approved by the licensing authority. Heliport — An aerodrome. Instrument Ground Time — Time during which a pilot is practising. INCERFA — The code word used to designate an uncertainty phase. to facilitate efficient surface movement of aircraft. and ceiling. IMC — The symbol used to designate instrument meteorological conditions. or a defined area on a structure. if a landing is not completed to a position at which holding or enroute obstacle clearance criteria apply. less than the minima specified for visual meteorological conditions. or where applicable. associated with the operation of an aircraft that affects. measured from a specified datum. a point. other than an accident. IFR Flight — A flight conducted in accordance with instrument flight rules. where applicable. departure. Note: The specified minima for VMC are contained within the Aviation Law Notes. on the ground. or an object considered as a point. 1-18 Air Law . Identification Beacon — An aeronautical beacon emitting a coded signal by means of which a particular point of reference can be identified. distance from cloud. Holding Point — A specified location. Instrument Approach Procedure — A series of pre-determined manoeuvres by reference to flight instruments with specified protection from obstacles from the initial approach fix. the final approach fix or point. in the vicinity of which the position of an aircraft in flight is maintained in accordance with ATC clearances. Holding Bay — A defined area where aircraft can be held. IFR — The symbol used to designate the instrument flight rules. from the beginning of a defined arrival route to a point from which a landing can be completed and thereafter. the safety of operation Initial Approach Segment — That segment of an instrument approach procedure between the initial approach fix and the intermediate approach fix or.

CAT IIIC — Intended for operations with no decision height and no runway visual range limitations. Precision Approach Runway. racetrack or DR track procedure and the final approach fix or point. CAT IIIB — Intended for operations with a decision height lower than 15 m (50 ft). AIC.Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Instrument Runway — One of the following types of runways intended for the operation of aircraft using instrument approach procedures: Non-Precision Approach Runway — An instrument runway served by visual aids and a non-visual aid providing at least directional guidance adequate for a straight-in approach. Supplements to the AIP. Integrated Aeronautical Information Package — A package which consists of the following elements: AIP. Checklists and summaries. Intermediate Approach Segment — That segment of an instrument approach procedure between either: The intermediate approach fix and the final approach fix or point. including the AIP Amendment service. NOTAM and pre-flight information bulletins (PIB). Air Law 1-19 . or Between the end of a reversal. Category III — An instrument runway served by ILS and/or MLS to and along the surface of the runway and: CAT IIIA — Intended for operations with a decision height lower than 30 m (100 ft). Precision Approach Runway. Category II — An instrument runway served by ILS and/or MLS and with visual aids intended for operations with a decision height lower than 60 m (200 ft) but not lower than 30 m (100 ft) and a runway visual range not less than 350 m. Category I — An instrument runway served by ILS and/or MLS and visual aids intended for operations with a decision height not lower than 60 m (200 ft) and either a visibility not less than 800 m. Precision Approach Runway. or no decision height and a runway visual range less than 200 m but not less than 50 m (JAR-OPS: 75 m). Instrument Time — Instrument flight time or instrument ground time. or a runway visual range not less than 550 m. or no decision height and a runway visual range not less than 200 m.

where the formalities incident to customs. animal and plant quarantine. Maximum Mass — Maximum certificated take-off mass. landing. height. Landing Area — That part of a movement area intended for the landing or take-off of aircraft. excluding aprons. Landing Surface — That part of the surface of an aerodrome which the aerodrome authority has declared available for the normal ground or water run of aircraft landing in a particular direction. or defect rectification. Maintenance — Tasks required ensuring the continued airworthiness of an aircraft including any one or combination of: overhaul. altitude. Landing Direction Indicator — A device to indicate visually the direction currently designated for landing and for take-off. Level — A generic term relating to the vertical position of an aircraft in flight. and taxiing of aircraft. International NOTAM Office — An office designated by a State for the exchange of NOTAM internationally. modification. immigration. Manoeuvring Area — That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off. repair. 1-20 Air Law . or flight level. the making of safety recommendations. inspection. Medical Assessment — The evidence issued by a Contracting State that the licence holder meets specific requirements of medical fitness. Investigation — A process conducted for the purpose of accident prevention that includes the gathering and analysis of information for the drawing of conclusions. and similar procedures are carried out. replacement.Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions International Airport — Any airport designated by the Contracting State in whose territory it is situated as an airport of entry and departure for international air traffic. Marking — A symbol or group of symbols displayed on the surface of the movement area in order to convey aeronautical information. It is issued following an evaluation by the licensing authority of the report submitted by the designated medical examiner who conducted the examination of the applicant for the licence. and meaning variously. public health. Location Indicator — A four letter code group formulated in accordance with rules prescribed by ICAO and assigned to the location of an aeronautical fixed station. Meteorological Office — An office designated to provide a meteorological service for international air navigation. including the determination of causes. Marker — An object displayed above ground level in order to indicate an obstacle or delineate a boundary. and when appropriate.

Minimum Sector Altitude — The lowest altitude which may be used which will provide a minimum clearance of 300 m (1000 ft) above all objects located in an area contained within a sector of a circle of 46 km (25 nm) radius centred on a radio aid to navigation. landing. Meteorological Report — A statement of observed meteorological conditions related to a specified time and location. Note: MDA is referenced to mean sea level and MDH is referenced to the aerodrome elevation or to the threshold elevation if that is more than 2 m (7 ft) below the aerodrome elevation. condition. and taxiing of aircraft. Missed Approach Point (MAPt) — That point in an instrument approach procedure at or before which the prescribed missed approach procedure must be initiated in order to ensure that the minimum obstacle clearance is not infringed. Air Law 1-21 . A MDH for a circling approach is referenced to the aerodrome elevation. forecast.Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Meteorological Information — A meteorological report. Non-Instrument Runway — A runway intended for the operation of aircraft using visual approach procedures. Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or Minimum Descent Height (MDH) — A specified altitude or height in a non-precision approach or circling approach below which descent must not be made without the required visual reference. Normal Operating Zone (NOZ) — Airspace of defined dimensions extending either side of an ILS localizer course and/or MLS final approach track. the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations. Note: The required visual reference means that section of the visual aids or of the approach area that should have been in view for sufficient time for the pilot to make an assessment of the aircraft position and rate of change of position. service. or hazard. Movement Area — That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off. analysis. consisting of the manoeuvring area and the aprons. Mode (SSR) — The conventional identifier related to specific functions of the interrogation signals transmitted by an SSR interrogator. Missed Approach Procedure — The procedure to be followed if the approach cannot be continued. in relation to the desired flight path. Only the inner half of the normal operating zone is taken into account in independent parallel approaches. and any other statement relating to existing or expected meteorological conditions. or change in any aeronautical facility. In the case of a circling approach the required visual reference is the runway environment. NOTAM — A notice distributed by means of telecommunication containing information concerning the establishment. procedure.

Pilot (to) — To manipulate the flight controls of an aircraft during flight time. Obstacle Assessment Surface (OAS) — A defined surface intended for the purpose of determining those obstacles to be considered for the calculation of obstacle clearance altitude/height for a specific ILS facility and procedure.Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions No-transgression Zone (NTZ) — In the context of independent parallel approaches. Precision Approach Procedure — An instrument approach procedure utilizing azimuth and glide path information provided by ILS. but not including short period thrust producing devices. or termination of a flight in the interest of the safety of the aircraft and the regularity and efficiency of the flight. or PAR. where a penetration by an aircraft requires a controller intervention to manoeuvre any threatened aircraft on the adjacent approach. or parts thereof that are located on an area intended for the surface movement of aircraft or that extend above a defined surface intended to protect aircraft in flight. Operator — A person. Obstacle — All fixed (whether temporary or permanent) and mobile objects. 1-22 Air Law . Operational Control — The exercise of authority over the initiation. Pilot in Command — The pilot responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft during flight. which is not penetrated by any fixed obstacle other than a low-mass and frangible mounted one required for air navigation purposes. An OCH for a circling approach is referenced to the aerodrome elevation. Note: OCA is referenced to mean sea level and OCH is referenced to the aerodrome elevation or to the threshold elevation if that is more than 2 m (7 ft) below the aerodrome elevation. used in establishing compliance with appropriate obstacle clearance criteria. organisation. independently of the continued operation of any other power-unit(s). or enterprise engaged in or offering to engage in aircraft operation. Pavement Classification Number (PCN) — A number expressing the bearing strength of a pavement for unrestricted operation. inner transitional surfaces. Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ) — The airspace above the inner approach surface. diversion. Obstacle Clearance Altitude (OCA) or Obstacle Clearance Height (OCH) — The lowest altitude or the lowest height above the elevation of the relevant runway threshold or the aerodrome elevation as applicable. MLS. continuation. Power Unit — A system of one or more engines and ancillary parts that are together necessary to provide thrust. and balked landing surface and that portion of the strip bounded by these surfaces. a corridor of airspace of defined dimensions located centrally between the two extended runway centre lines.

Primary Runway(s) — Runway(s) used in preference to others whenever conditions permit. Air Law 1-23 . Radar Approach — An approach in which the final approach phase is executed under the direction of a radar controller. Procedure Turn — A manoeuvre in which a turn is made away from a designated track followed by a turn in the opposite direction to permit the aircraft to intercept and proceed along the reciprocal of the designated track. Primary Area — A defined area symmetrically disposed about the nominal flight track in which full obstacle clearance is provided. Radar Identification — The situation that exists when the radar position of a particular aircraft is seen on a radar display and positively identified by the ATC controller. above the land areas or territorial waters of a state. Note: Procedure turns may be designated as being made either in level flight or while descending. Radar Clutter — The visual indication on a radar display of unwanted signals. Note: Procedure turns are designated “left” or “right” according to the direction of the initial turn. Pre-flight Information Bulletin (PIB) — A presentation of current NOTAM information of operational significance prepared prior to flight. according to the circumstances of each individual procedure.Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Precision Approach Runway — See Instrument Runway. Radar Contact — The situation which exists when the radar position of a particular aircraft is seen and identified on a radar display. Pressure Altitude — An atmospheric pressure expressed in terms of altitude that corresponds to that pressure in the standard atmosphere. Radar Control — Term used to indicate that radar derived information is employed directly in the provision of ATC service Radio Direction Finding Station — A radio station intended to determine only the direction of other stations by means of transmissions from the latter. Primary Radar — A radar system that uses reflected radio signals. Racetrack Procedure — A procedure designed to enable the aircraft to reduce altitude during the initial approach segment and/or establish the aircraft inbound when the entry into a reversal procedure is not practical. within which the flight of aircraft is prohibited. Prohibited Area — An airspace of defined dimensions.

within which the flight of aircraft is restricted in accordance with certain specified conditions. Reporting Point — A specified geographical location in relation to which the position of an aircraft can be reported. Rescue Co-ordination Centre — A unit responsible for promoting efficient organization of search and rescue services and for coordinating the conduct of search and rescue operations within a search and rescue region.Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Radar Monitoring — The use of radar for the purpose of providing aircraft with information and advice relative to significant deviations from nominal flight path. in symbolic form. of the position of an aircraft obtained after automatic processing of positional data derived from primary and/or SSR. regularly operated individual flights with identical basic features. Radar Separation — The separation used when aircraft position information is derived from radar sources. 1-24 Air Law . Radar Position Indication (RPI) — The visual indication. Restricted Area — An airspace of defined dimensions. in non symbolic and/or symbolic form. above the land areas or territorial waters of a state. on a radar display. Radar Service — The term used to indicate a service provided directly by means of radar. Rendering (a Licence) Valid — The action taken by a Contracting State. of the position of an aircraft obtained after automatic processing of positional data derived from primary and/or SSR. including deviations from the terms of their ATC clearances. Radar Position Symbol (RIPS) — The visual indication. Repetitive Flight Plan — A flight plan related to a series of frequently recurring. Rating — An authorisation entered on or associated with a licence and forming part thereof stating special conditions. privileges. Receiving Unit/Controller — ATS unit/ATC controller to which a message is sent. in accepting a licence issued by any other Contracting State as the equivalent of its own licence. submitted by an operator for retention and repetitive use by ATS units. Required Navigation Performance (RNP) — A statement of the navigation performance accuracy necessary for operation within a defined airspace. Radar Vectoring — Provision of navigational guidance to aircraft in the form of specific headings. or limitations pertaining to such a licence. on a radar display. based on the use of radar. as an alternative to issuing its own licence.

or Involves injury to any internal organ. or tendon damage. commencing within 7 days from the date the injury was received. nerve. or any burns affecting more than 5% of the body surface. or Involves lacerations which cause severe haemorrhage. toes. Secondary Area — A defined area on each side of the primary area located along the nominal flight track in which decreasing obstacle clearance is provided. Runway Visual Range (RVR) — The range over which the pilot of an aircraft on the centre line of a runway can see the runway surface markings or the lights delineating the runway or identifying its centre line. Serious Injury — An injury which is sustained by a person in an accident and which: Requires hospitalisation for more than 48 hours. Runway Strip — A defined area including the runway and stop way. Note: The difference between an accident and a serious incident lies only in the result. or Results in a fracture of any bone (Not simple fractures of fingers. and To protect aircraft flying over it during take-off and landing operations. or nose). Serious Incident — An incident involving circumstances indicating that an accident nearly occurred. or Involves second or third degree burns.Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Reversal Procedure — A procedure designed to enable aircraft to reverse direction during the initial approach segment of an instrument approach procedure. muscle. Air Law 1-25 . Runway — A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and take-off of aircraft. The sequence may include procedure turns or base turns. Runway Guard Lights — A light system intended to caution pilots or vehicle drivers that they are about to enter an active runway. if provided. Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) — A surveillance radar system that uses a transmitter receiver system of interrogators and transponders. Runway End Safety Area (RESA) — An area symmetrical about the extended runway centre line and adjacent to the end of the strip primarily intended to reduce the risk of damage to an aeroplane undershooting or overrunning the aerodrome. or Involves verified exposure to infectious substances or injurious radiation. intended: To reduce the risk of damage to aircraft running off the runway. Secondary Radar — A radar system wherein a radio signal transmitted from the radar station initiates the transmission of a radio signal from another station.

State of Occurrence — The State in the territory of which an accident or incident occurs. Wet Snow — Snow which. Signal Area — An area of an aerodrome used for the display of ground signals. will fall apart again upon release: Specific Gravity is up to but not including 0. normally on an ATS route. 1-26 Air Law . will stick together and tend to form a snowball: Specific Gravity is 0. and for other navigation and ATS purposes. slush. Standard Instrument Departure (SID) — A designated IFR departure route linking the aerodrome or a specified runway of the aerodrome with a specified significant point. SNOWTAM — A special series NOTAM notifying the presence or removal of hazardous conditions due to snow. which with a heel-and-toe slap down motion against the ground will be displaced with a splatter. Compacted Snow — Snow that has been compressed into a solid mass that resists further compression and will hold together or break up into lumps if picked up: Specific Gravity is 0. State of Manufacture — The State having jurisdiction over the organization responsible for the final assembly of the aircraft. Special VFR Flight — A VFR flight cleared by air traffic control to operate within a control zone in meteorological conditions below VMC. Specific Gravity: 0. at which the enroute phase of a flight commences.35. Snow (On the ground) Dry Snow — Snow that can be blown if loose or. Standard Instrument Arrival (STAR) — A designated IFR arrival route linking a significant point. Slush — Water-saturated snow. State of Design — The State having jurisdiction over the organization responsible for the type design. SIGMET Information — Information issued by a meteorological watch office concerning the occurrence or expected occurrence of specified enroute weather phenomena which may affect the safety of aircraft operations.35 up to but not including 0. by means of a special format. if compacted by hand.5 up to 0. and ice on the movement area.45 and over.45. with a point from which a published instrument approach procedure can be commenced.Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Shoulder — An area adjacent to the edge of a pavement so prepared as to provide a transition between the pavement and the adjacent surface.8. if compacted by hand. normally on a designated ATS route. Significant Point — A specified geographical location used in defining an ATS route or the flight path of an aircraft.

which provides an accurate representation of the flight deck of a particular aircraft type to the extent that the mechanical and electrical systems control functions. which is equipped with appropriate instruments. which provides a realistic flight deck environment. Take-off Surface — That part of the surface of an aerodrome which the aerodrome authority has declared available for the normal ground or water run of aircraft taking off in a particular direction. the normal environment of flight crew members. simple control functions of mechanical and electrical systems. if there is no such place of business. and which simulates instrument responses. Take-off Runway — A runway intended for take-off only. Basic Instrument Flight Trainer — A basic instrument flight trainer. Synthetic Flight Trainer — Any one of the following three types of apparatus in which flight conditions are simulated on the ground: Flight Simulator — A flight simulator. excluding take-off and landing. Taxiing — The movement of an aircraft on the surface of an aerodrome under its own power. State of Registry — The State on whose register the aircraft is entered. and the performance and flight characteristics of aircraft of a particular class. Flight Procedures Trainer — A flight procedures trainer. the operator’s permanent residence. Stopway — A defined rectangular area on the ground at the end of TORA prepared as a suitable area in which an aircraft can be stopped in the case of an abandoned take-off. but including. in the case of helicopters. and which simulates the flight deck environment of an aircraft in flight in instrument flight conditions. Taxi-Holding Position — A designated position at which taxiing aircraft and vehicles shall stop and hold position. and the performance and flight characteristics of that type of aircraft are realistically simulated.Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 State of the Operator — The State in which the operator’s principal place of business is located or. operation over the surface of an aerodrome within a height band associated with ground effect and at speeds associated with taxiing (e. Air Law 1-27 . air-taxiing). unless otherwise authorised by the aerodrome control tower.g.

Track — The projection on the earth’s surface of the path of an aircraft. beyond the threshold. the direction of which path at any point is usually expressed in degrees from North (true. For VFR flights. which may be in proximity to the position or intended route of flight. Transfer of Control Point — A defined point located along the flight path of an aircraft. Apron Taxiway — A portion of a taxiway system located on an apron and intended to provide a through taxi route across the apron. Threshold (THR) — The beginning of that portion of the runway usable for landing. to arrive over the destination aerodrome. the estimated time required from take-off to arrive over that designated point. Rapid Exit Taxiway — A taxiway connected to a runway at an acute angle and designated to allow landing aeroplanes to turn off at higher speeds than are achieved on other exit taxiways and thereby minimizing runway occupancy times. Taxiway Intersection — A junction of two or more taxiways. the estimated time required from take-off to arrive over the destination aerodrome. Traffic Avoidance Advice — Advice provided by Air Traffic Services Unit specifying manoeuvres to assist a pilot to avoid a collision. Touchdown Zone — The portion of a runway. Terminal Control Area — A control area normally established at the confluence of ATS routes in the vicinity of one or more major aerodromes. magnetic. Traffic Information — Information issued by an air traffic services unit to alert a pilot to other known or observed air traffic. and to help the pilot avoid a collision. where it is intended landing aeroplanes first contact the runway. Taxiway Strip — An area including taxiway intended to protect an aircraft operating on the taxiway and to reduce the risk of damage to an aircraft accidentally running off the taxiway. from which it is intended that an instrument approach procedure will be commenced. Total Estimated Elapsed Time — For IFR flights. at which the responsibility for providing ATC service to the aircraft is transferred from one control unit or control position to the next. including: Aircraft Stand Taxi Lane — A portion of an apron designated as a taxiway and intended to provide access to aircraft stands only.Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions Taxiway — A defined path on a land aerodrome established for the taxiing of aircraft and intended to provide a link between one part of the aerodrome and another. or grid). Touchdown — The point where the nominal glide path intercepts the runway. 1-28 Air Law . if no navigation aid is associated with the destination aerodrome. defined by reference to navigation aids. or.

Transition Level — The lowest flight level available for use above the transition altitude. Air Law 1-29 . VMC — The symbol used to designate visual meteorological conditions. VFR — The symbol used to designate the visual flight rules. and ceiling equal to or better than the specified minima. to see and identify prominent unlighted objects by day and prominent objects by night. Visibility — The ability. Visual Manoeuvring (Circling) Area — The area in which obstacle clearance should be taken into consideration for aircraft carrying out a circling approach. Visual Meteorological Conditions — Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility. Transition Altitude — The altitude at or below which the vertical position of an aircraft is controlled by reference to altitudes. Transition Layer — The airspace between the transition altitude and the transition level. as determined by atmospheric conditions and expressed in units of distance. VFR Flight — A flight conducted in accordance with the visual flight rules. Note: The specified minima are contained within these notes. Way-Point — A specified geographical location used to define an area navigation route or the flight path of an aircraft employing area navigation.Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1 Transferring Unit — ATCU in the process of transferring the responsibility for providing ATC service to an aircraft to the next ATCU along the route of flight. distance from cloud. Visual Approach — An approach by an IFR aircraft when either part or all of an instrument approach procedure is not completed and the approach is executed in visual reference to terrain. Uncertainty Phase — A situation wherein uncertainty exists as to the safety of an aircraft and its occupants.

Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions 1-30 Air Law .

which have been translated into law in the contracting states. The principal sources of International Air Law are treaties. The JAR Aviation Law exam follows the Annexes and other documents of ICAO.BACKGROUND Today. Over the years. the philosophy of ‘a safe airline is a profitable airline' has evolved. The most obvious one to the aviator is the Chicago Convention. Agreements are necessary to achieve this: Multilateral Agreements or conventions are entered into by a number of different states. Such treaties or conventions may be multilateral or bilateral. discussed later in this chapter. SHOULD refers to recommended practices. INTRODUCTION For commercial aviation to operate. They are the international agreements entered into between states. Air Law 2-1 . from which ICAO was established. or after agreed modification. Bilateral Agreements are agreements between two states. Some of the language is difficult to follow because of the use of the words SHALL and SHOULD. no convention has the right to impose rules and regulations. Only the legislative body of a state can make and impose law in that state. If a state accepts the agreement without modification. The competitive nature of the business could create the obvious temptation to 'cut corners' and increase profit. SAFETY International air transport is not just about navigation. Both Authorities and Operators have embraced safety through a system of international agreements. So the agreements reached at international conventions have to be translated into national law. Because the text of the agreement is accepted by all states that ratify the agreement. decisions concerning international civil aviation are taken by the member states of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). it is necessary for states to afford the airlines of other states the right to fly into and across their territory for both traffic and non-traffic purposes. and it becomes national law. and the ensuing law is also 'international'. so strict regulation is required to maintain safety. SHALL refers to Standards. These notes are designed to follow the JAR syllabus and are a summary of the reference material. the agreement is then 'international' in nature. The two most important of these are the International Air Transport Agreement and the International Air Services Transit Agreement. the process is known as 'ratification’. INTERNATIONAL LAW Just as no state has the right to interfere in the internal affairs of another state.

the flight will be flown. which led to the formation of the International Commission for Air Navigation (ICAN). A scheduled air service requires international agreement negotiated at government level. to which 108 states are party. persistent low passenger numbers may force a revision or cancellation of the schedule or the combination of schedules (code sharing). whereas international scheduled operations require the compliance of the authorities of the states concerned. This convention recognized that every state has complete and exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above its territory. is one of the most widely accepted unifications of private law. 1919 AERONAUTICAL COMMISSION OF THE PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE At the time of the Paris Conference in 1919.Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 SCHEDULED AND NON-SCHEDULED AIR SERVICES Since the Paris conference in 1919. CONVENTION OF THE UNIFICATION OF CERTAIN RULES TO INTERNATIONAL CARRIAGE BY AIR (WARSAW 1929) This convention. The question of jurisdiction. the first international scheduled air service began between Croydon and Paris. baggage. 2-2 Air Law . This convention was amended and simplified by the 1955 Hague Protocol. Scheduling of flights by route and timing is essential for a successful commercial operation by giving the revenue paying users a reliable timetable and route structure. once scheduled. The conference also decided that each state should keep a register of aircraft used for commercial purposes. It unifies legislation on: Documentation on the carriage of passengers. The convention lays down uniform rules governing the air carrier's liabilities in respect of passengers and goods. and provided for the innocent passage of civil aircraft of other contracting states over that state’s territory. the need has been recognised for international air services to be organised. The financial liability of airlines (operators). The Montreal Agreement of 1966 further amended the financial liability of operators. However. Within a state. The Warsaw Convention deals only with rights and obligations of contracting carriers and applies to the international carriage of persons. and cargo. Non-scheduled or charter operations are not generally open to the public. Charter operations are subject to international agreement for repetitive operations. scheduled operations are a matter for the authority of that state. baggage. whereas nonscheduled operations are 'one-off' and each flight is individually approved. The conference recommended the creation of an international body to regulate civil aviation. by defining the courts before which any action may be brought. An operator is not permitted to cancel a flight at short notice due to insufficient passengers. A schedule implies that. or cargo performed by aircraft for reward.

or loss of the passenger ticket does not affect the validity of the contract of carriage. the limit of liability for death of a passenger is $100 000. BAGGAGE CHECK For luggage. other than small personal objects that the passengers take themselves. Such importance was attached to the subject matter that 55 allied and neutral states sent representatives to Chicago. You are not required to recall the content of articles by number. the United States Government convened a conference at Chicago in 1944 to determine the future of commercial aviation when the war ended. LIABILITY OF THE CARRIER The Treaty also imposed limitations on the liability of the operator.The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Chapter 2 PASSENGER TICKET A passenger ticket shall be issued for each flight containing: The place and date of issue. which shall be subject to the rules of the convention. but to have a broad understanding of what the agreement contains. The outcome was the Convention on International Civil Aviation. In common with other international conferences. the carrier must issue a luggage ticket. The first covers International Air Navigation. the carrier will not be able to fall back on the provisions of the convention that limit liability. and the second covers the organisation that administers the terms and conditions of the agreement. the limit of liability is removed. provided that the carrier may reserve the right to alter the stopping places. where each individual article stands alone as a definitive statement. which is now the fundamental basis for agreement upon which the industry is founded. Air Law 2-3 . An indication of the place of departure and destination. The name and address of the carrier or carriers. The absence. A statement that the carriage is subject to the rules relating to the liability established by this convention usually printed on the ticket jacket. one for the passenger and the other for the carrier. Currently. The 'agreement' is in two parts. the alteration shall not have the effect of depriving the carriage of its international character. irregularity. However. and that if he exercises that right. where gross negligence can be proved. the agreement is laid out in article form. If a carrier accepts a passenger without a ticket. The luggage ticket is made out in duplicate. The agreed stopping places. 1944 CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION (THE CHICAGO CONVENTION) During the Second World War. If a carrier issues an 'electronic' ticket. then the provisions of the Warsaw Convention must be communicated by other means.

where such embarkation or discharge takes place. to require aircraft desiring to proceed over regions which are inaccessible or without adequate air navigation facilities to follow prescribed routes. when issuing regulations for their State aircraft. and in accordance with the terms of such permission or authorization. French law is applied to Monegasque [Monaco] airspace). and police services shall be deemed to be State aircraft. protection. and not to State aircraft: Aircraft used in military. cargo.Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 PART I – AIR NAVIGATION Article 1 — Sovereignty The Contracting States recognise that every State has complete and exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above its territory. Monaco has no aerodromes and no ATC system and has asked France to administer the control of air traffic over the territory of the State. it relates to the acceptance by one state of the regulation of its airspace by another state (e. Article 2 — Territory For the purposes of this convention. Suzerainty Is the acceptance by one state of the protection of another state. to impose such regulations. shall also subject to the provisions of Article 7. Such aircraft. if engaged on the carriage of passengers. or mail for remuneration or hire on other than scheduled international air services. not engaged in scheduled international air services. It has origins in feudal relationships. or mail. suzerainty. Article 3 — Civil and State Aircraft This convention shall be applicable only to civil aircraft. have the right to take on or discharge passengers. which may require the aircraft to land. or to obtain special permission for such flights. the relationship between France and Monaco. This is subject to the right of the state flown over.g. This is subject to the right of any State. except with the special permission or other authorization of that State. that they will have due regard for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft. cargo. or limitations as it may consider desirable. the territory of a State shall be deemed to be the land areas and territorial waters adjacent thereto under the sovereignty. Article 6 — Scheduled Air Services No operation of scheduled international air service may be operated over or into the territory of a Contracting State. conditions. for reasons of safety of flight. The Contracting States undertake. 2-4 Air Law . shall have the right to make flights into or transit non-stop across its territory and to make stops for non-traffic purposes without the necessity of obtaining prior permission. No State aircraft of a Contracting State shall fly over the territory of another State or land without authorization by special agreement or otherwise. Article 4 — Misuse of Civil Aircraft Each Contracting State agrees not to use civil aviation for any purpose inconsistent with the aims of this convention. Each Contracting State reserves the right. customs. or mandate of such a State. In aviation. Article 5 — Right of Non-Scheduled Aircraft Each Contracting State agrees that all aircraft of other Contracting States.

or cargo of aircraft. or to the operation and navigation of such aircraft while within its territory. Each Contracting State undertakes to ensure the protection of all persons violating the regulations applicable. Over the high seas. such as entry clearance. aircraft shall also depart from a designated customs airport. Each Contracting State undertakes to keep its own regulations uniform. and shall be complied with by aircraft upon entering or departing from or while within the territory of that State. aircraft are permitted to cross the territory of a Contracting State without landing. the rules in force shall be those established under the Convention. and cargo carried for remuneration or hire and destined for another point within its territory. Each Contracting State undertakes not to enter into any arrangements that specifically grant any such privilege on an exclusive basis to any other State or an airline of any other State. Article 11 — Applicability of Air Regulations Subject to the provisions of this Convention. the laws and regulations of a Contracting State relating to the admission to or departure from its territory of aircraft engaged in international air navigation. Article 13 — Entry and Clearance Regulations The laws and regulations of a Contracting State as to the admission to or departure from its territory of passengers. and not to obtain any such exclusive privilege from any other State. shall be applied to the aircraft of all Contracting States without distinction as to nationality. with those rules established under the Convention. every aircraft which enters the territory of a Contracting State shall. under the terms of this Convention or a special authorization.The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Chapter 2 Article 7 — Cabotage Each Contracting State shall have the right to refuse permission to the aircraft of other Contracting States to take on in its territory passengers. to the greatest possible extent. Article 10 — Landing At Customs Airport Except in a case where. but its registration may be changed from one State to another. and quarantine. if the regulations of that State so require. mail. land at an airport for the purpose of customs and other examination. immigration. or while within the territory of that State. Air Law 2-5 . shall be complied with by or on behalf of passengers. Article 12 — Rules of the Air Each Contracting State agrees to adopt measures to ensure that all aircraft flying over or manoeuvring within its territory and that every aircraft carrying its nationality mark shall comply with the rules and regulations relating to the flight and manoeuvres of aircraft there in force. customs. Particulars of all designated customs airports shall be published by the State and transmitted to the ICAO established under Part II of this Convention for communication to all other Contracting States. crew. passports. Customs Airports are frequently called 'International' airports. Article 18 — Dual Registration An aircraft cannot be validly registered in more than one State. Article 17 — Nationality of Aircraft Aircraft have the nationality of the State in which they are registered. On departure from the territory of a Contracting State. crew or cargo upon entrance into or departure from.

and involving death or serious injury. subject to compliance with the regulations of the State concerned. This exemption shall not apply to any quantities or articles unloaded. subject to control by its own authorities. Fuel. Each Contracting State. crews. passengers. except in accordance with the customs regulations of the State. 2-6 Air Law . will collaborate in co-ordinated measures which may be recommended from time to time by the convention. lubricating oils. The State holding the inquiry shall communicate the report and findings in the matter to the other State. quarantine. which may require that they shall be kept under customs supervision. the owners of the aircraft or authorities of the State in which the aircraft is registered to provide assistance as may be necessitated by the circumstances. when undertaking a search for missing aircraft. especially in the administration of the laws relating to immigration. regular equipment and aircraft spares on board an aircraft of a Contracting State. inspection fees or similar national or local duties and charges. with the procedure which may be recommended by the ICAO. Spare parts and equipment imported into the territory of a Contracting State for incorporation in or use on an aircraft of another Contracting State engaged in international air navigation shall be admitted free of customs duty. customs. and to permit.Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Article 19 — National Laws Governing Registration The registration or transfer of registration of aircraft in any Contracting State shall be made in accordance with its laws and regulations. Article 25 — Aircraft In Distress Each Contracting State undertakes to provide such measures of assistance to aircraft in distress in its territory as is practicable. from. Article 24 — Customs Duty Aircraft on a flight to. Article 22 — Facilitation of Formalities Each Contracting State agrees to adopt all practicable measures to facilitate and expedite navigation by aircraft between the territories of Contracting States. in accordance. subject to the customs regulations of the State. so far as its laws permit. Article 26 — Investigation of Accidents In the event of an accident to an aircraft of a Contracting State occurring in the territory of another Contracting State. This includes the prevention of unnecessary delays to aircraft. Article 20 — Display of Marks Every aircraft engaged in international air navigation shall bear its appropriate nationality and registration marks. or across the territory of another Contracting State shall be admitted temporarily free of duty. the State in which the incident occurs will institute an inquiry into the circumstances of the accident. and clearance. which may provide that the articles shall be kept under customs supervision and control. spare parts. or indicating serious technical defect in the aircraft or air navigation facilities. and cargo. on arrival in the territory of another Contracting State and retained on board on leaving the territory of that State shall be exempt from customs duty.

The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Chapter 2 Article 31 — Certificates of Airworthiness All aircraft engaged in international air navigation shall be provided with a certificate of airworthiness issued or rendered valid by the State in which it is registered. personnel. for the purposes of flight above its own territory. and efficiency of air navigation as may from time to time appear appropriate. procedures and organization in relation to aircraft. Article 32 — Licences of Personnel The pilot of every aircraft and the other members of the operating crew of all aircraft engaged in international navigation shall be provided with: Certificates of competency. Article 37 — Adoption of International Standards And Procedures Each Contracting State undertakes to collaborate in securing the highest practicable degree of uniformity in regulations. Article 36 — Photographic Apparatus Each Contracting State may prohibit or regulate the use of photographic apparatus in aircraft over its territory. international standards and recommended practices and procedures dealing with: Communications systems and air navigation aids. Each Contracting State reserves the right to refuse to recognize. provided that the requirements under which certificates or licences were issued or rendered valid are equal to or above the minimum standards established by the Convention. including ground marking Characteristics of airports and landing areas Rules of the air and air traffic control practices Licensing of operating and mechanical personnel Airworthiness of aircraft Registration and identification of aircraft Collection and exchange of meteorological information Log books Aeronautical maps and charts Customs and immigration procedures Aircraft in distress and investigation of accidents and other such matters concerned with the safety. regularity. Air Law 2-7 . airways and auxiliary services in all matters in which such uniformity will facilitate and improve air navigation. Article 33 — Recognition of Certificates And Licences Certificates of airworthiness and certificates of competency and licences issued or rendered valid by the Contracting State in which the aircraft is registered. certificates of competency and licences granted to any of its nationals by other Contracting States. and Licences issued or rendered valid by the State in which the aircraft is registered. shall be recognized as valid by other Contracting States. To this end the ICAO shall adopt and amend. as may be necessary. standards.

a Council. appointed by the Council. and such other bodies as may be necessary. THE ORGANISATION ASSEMBLY All Contracting States one member one vote COUNCIL 33 Contracting States elected by the Assembly (President of the Council is elected by the Council) Air Navigation Commission Air Transport Committee Legal Committee Committee on Joint Support of Air Navigation Services Finance Committee Committee on Unlawful Interference Air Navigation Commission 15 members appointed by the Council. It is made up of an Assembly. the USA and Russia in particular) have notified extensive 'differences' in their procedures. Finance Committee Not more than 13 members.Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Article 38 — Departures From International Standards and Procedures Any State which finds it impracticable to comply in all respects with the Standards and Recommended Practices adopted by ICAO may give notice of such to the Council. PART II — THE INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANISATION An organization to be named the International Civil Aviation Organization is formed by the Convention. Legal Committee Committee on Joint Support of Air Navigation Services Not more than 11 members. with not less than 9 members. with not less than 9 members. Air Transport Committee Appointed by the Council. Committee on Unlawful Interference 15 members appointed by the Council. The list of 'differences' is recorded in GEN section 7 of the AIP of the state. 2-8 Air Law . Many states adopt the ICAO SARPS without reservation whilst others (the UK. appointed by the Council.

Annex 14 — Aerodromes. ANNEXES TO THE CONVENTION The annexes are the basis of the ICAO procedures and practices: Annex 1 — Personnel Licensing. Annex 4 — Aeronautical Charts. Promote safety of flight in international air navigation. Annex 16 — Environmental Protection. Annex 8 — Airworthiness of Aircraft. Promote generally the development of all aspects of international civil aeronautics. Annex 3 — Meteorological Services. Prevent economic waste caused by unreasonable competition. THE ASSEMBLY The Assembly shall meet not less than once every three years and shall be convened by the Council at a suitable time and place. airports and air navigation facilities for international civil aviation. Annex 9 — Facilitation. Unless otherwise provided in this Convention. Meet the needs of the peoples of the world for safe. Annex 5 — Dimension Units. efficient and economical air transport. Annex 12 — Search and Rescue. Annex 18 — Transport of Dangerous Goods. Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft. Ensure that the rights of Contracting States are fully respected and that every Contracting State has a fair opportunity to operate international airlines. Air Law 2-9 . Annex 10 — Aeronautical Telecommunications. A majority of the Contracting States is required to constitute a quorum for the meetings of the Assembly. Annex 17 — Security. Encourage the arts of aircraft design and operation for peaceful purposes. Encourage the development of airways. Annex 13 — Aircraft Accident Investigation. decisions of the Assembly shall be taken by a majority of the votes cast. An extraordinary meeting of the Assembly may be held at any time upon the call of the Council or at the request of not less than 1/5th of the total number of Contracting States. Annex 7 — Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks. Annex 11 — Air Traffic Services.The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Chapter 2 Objectives The aims and objectives of the organization are to develop the principles and techniques of international air navigation and to foster the planning and development of international air transport so as to: Ensure the safe and orderly growth of international civil aviation throughout the world. All Contracting States shall have an equal right to be represented at the meetings of the Assembly and each Contracting State shall be entitled to one vote. Annex 15 — Aeronautical Information Service. Annex 2 — Rules of the Air. Avoid discrimination between Contracting States. regular.

Operating procedures that have not attained a status for adoption as International Standards and Recommended Practices. In the event of non-compliance then notification to the council is compulsory. The word 'SHALL' defines a standard. In the event of non-compliance then notification to the council is not compulsory. configuration. 2-10 Air Law . the uniform application of which is recognized as necessary for the safety or regularity of International Navigation and to which Contracting States will conform in accordance with the convention. performance. or those which are too complicated or detailed for inclusion in an Annex. Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS) These are procedures that have been adopted by the council for worldwide use. They are designed to assist in the use of the relevant document. material. Status of Annex Components All Annexes are made up of the following components. not all of which are necessarily found in every Annex: Standards and Recommended Practices Standards and Recommended Practices (generally known as SARPs) are adopted by the ICAO Council under the provisions of the Chicago Convention. They can contain: New procedures. Air Navigation Plans Air Navigation Plans detail the requirements for facilities and services for international air navigation in the respective ICAO Air Navigation Regions. personnel or procedure. material. All regulations have to be enacted as part of the law of that state. Regional Supplementary Procedures (SUPPS) These procedures are similar in status to the PANS but are for application in their respective regions. configuration. The word 'SHOULD' defines a recommended practice. personnel or procedure. the uniform application of which is recognized as desirable for the safety or regularity of International Navigation and to which Contracting States will endeavour to conform in accordance with the convention.Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 ICAO regulations are not automatically the law of a contracting state. Recommended Practice Any specification for physical characteristics. Technical Manuals These documents amplify the SARPs and PANS. performance. They are defined as follows: Standard Any specification for physical characteristics.

if state A did not want the aircraft of state B flying unrestricted over its airspace. Six A combination of Freedoms 3 and 4. (Do not get this freedom mixed up with Cabotage) Five Note 1: Revenue traffic is defined as the carriage of passengers.The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Chapter 2 ICAO Circulars Any information that is of specific interest to contracting states is transmitted by these documents. and in general this was respected. Air Law 2-11 . (These are outside the learning objectives for 010 — Air Law). or cargo. Freedom of Facilities. These freedoms are: One The freedom of innocent passage. THE INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT AGREEMENT AND THE INTERNATIONAL AIR SERVICES TRANSIT AGREEMENT These bilateral agreements established what are known as the “The Five Freedoms of the Air”. and freedoms three. then it did not enter into an agreement with that state. This does not give any traffic rights. Two Three The right to carry revenue traffic(1) from the operator state (A) to a treaty partner state (B). Revenue traffic flown between two treaty partner states (A to C) through the carrier state (B). Freedoms one and two are known as technical freedoms. four. The right to carry revenue traffic between any points of landing on flights between 3 or more treaty partner nations (A to B to C). and five are the commercial freedoms. The term 'a fifth freedom flight' is used extensively. OTHER INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS MADE AT CHICAGO By the nature of the assembled national delegations at Chicago in 1944. In essence. Individual states demanded to retain territorial rights over their airspace. it was not possible to reach unanimous agreement on all the matters discussed. SUPPLEMENTARY FREEDOMS Since 1944. a system of bilateral agreements was established which permitted states to be selective in which other states they entered into the agreements with. The right to fly across the territory of a state without landing. In order to make the agreements work. This is the most important 'freedom' as it effectively facilitates international traffic operations. Four The right to carry revenue traffic from a treaty partner state (B) to the operator state (A). evolution of international air transport has led to situations not envisioned at Chicago. The right to use (land in) foreign territory to refuel or carry out maintenance. These are now embodied in 'new' freedoms. mail.

Code Sharing.Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Seven Revenue traffic flown between two nations (A and B) by carrier of a third nation (C) without the flight originating. Pilot in Command If a person commits. Unfortunately. The agreements made at this convention cover offences and certain other acts committed on board aircraft including unlawful seizure. or landing in state C. terminating. and reduced aerodrome loading all make code sharing attractive to both aviation authorities and operators alike. so the convention was mainly concerned with establishing jurisdiction rather than addressing the problem of air piracy. The offence committed is a breach of the rules or regulations relating to the flight of aircraft in that state. 2-12 Air Law . The exercise of jurisdiction is necessary to ensure the observance of any multinational agreements between states. Nine THE CONVENTION OF TOKYO 1963 Following concern about unlawful seizure of aircraft in the early 1960s. However. This preserves the schedules but economises on aircraft and effectively increases passenger loading. considered necessary: To protect the safety of the aircraft. this is a breach of the schedule agreement between states. reduced noise nuisance. The combining of two or more scheduled flights under one operation. increased profits. which is not the State of Registry. of that state. including restraint. An offence committed on board has an effect on the territory of the state. To maintain good order and discipline. reduced pollution. Jurisdiction of Other States A contracting state. with the stipulation that the authority of any other state does not apply (see Jurisdiction of Other States). The State of Registry should take all legal steps necessary to ensure this. whilst allowing the treaty organisation (EEC) to apply cabotage to non-treaty nations. persons or property on board. an unlawful act on board an aircraft. the Japanese Government convened a meeting to tackle the problem. Eight Cabotage (within the EEC) The right to carry revenue traffic between two points within a treaty (EEC) nation by the carrier of another EEC nation. The convention covers the jurisdiction of the pilot in command and national jurisdiction. An offence has been committed on board against a national. the aircraft commander may impose reasonable measures. An offence has been committed on board against the security of that state. there was no mechanism for the imposition of authority over flights outside the territory of a state as there was for shipping. or is about to commit. may interfere with an aircraft in flight in order to exercise legal control over any offence committed on board when: An offence has been committed on board in the territorial airspace of that state. Technically. or permanent resident. National Jurisdiction The convention states that the State of Registry of an aircraft is responsible for exercising jurisdiction over offences and acts committed on board.

Destroy an aircraft in service or cause damage which renders the aircraft incapable of flight or which is likely to endanger the safety of flight. Interfere with aircraft communications or transmit information known to be false that endangers the safety of an aeroplane in flight. Destroy or damage any navigation facility or interference with its correct operation. a protocol is a diplomatic method whereby the content of an agreement can be amended without the need to re-convene the entire convention.The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Chapter 2 To enable handing a person over to the competent authorities. Note: In this context. substance or weapon: Likely to cause serious injury or death. THE PROTOCOL TO THE MONTREAL CONVENTION OF 1971 This extended the Montreal Convention to include offences committed at aerodromes serving international civil aviation. THE HAGUE CONVENTION OF 1970 Following the Tokyo Convention. THE MONTREAL CONVENTION OF 1971 The Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the safety of Civil Aviation compliments the Hague Convention by making it an offence to: Commit acts of violence on board aircraft that endanger people and property and the safety of the aircraft. Place a device on board an aircraft that is likely to destroy the aircraft. Air Law 2-13 . To disrupt the services at an airport. damage it. or render it unfit for flight. ICAO called a convention hosted by the Dutch government to address this problem. To destroy or seriously damage the facilities of an airport. including the intentional use of any device. This agreement specifies extradition of offenders and obliges contracting states to extradite offenders. if necessary. This can include removal of a passenger from an aircraft. or refusal of permission for a person to board an aircraft. To destroy or damage aircraft not in service at the airport. and after a spate of politically motivated terrorists hijackings. Passengers may also be asked to assist. The Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft defines the act of unlawful seizure and the measures to be taken by contracting states to enforce severe punishment upon perpetrators. To carry out his task the aircraft commander may require the assistance of other crew members.

or in the interests of public safety.Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 ADDENDUM TO CHAPTER 2 The LOs for 010 Air Law require the student to have knowledge of defined parts of the Chicago Convention. Such a restriction or prohibition shall be applicable without distinction of nationality to aircraft of all other States. The Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention) Article 8 — Pilotless Aircraft No aircraft capable of being flown without a pilot shall be flown without a pilot over the territory of a Contracting State without special authorization by that State and in accordance with the terms of such authorization. to search aircraft of the other Contracting States on landing or departure. Each Contracting State undertakes to ensure that the flight of such aircraft without a pilot in regions open to civil aircraft shall be controlled as to obviate danger to civil aircraft. Consultation shall be without prejudice to the application of any existing international convention on this subject to which the Contracting States may be parties. and with immediate effect. to restrict or prohibit flying over the whole or any part of its territory temporarily. For completeness. smallpox. Descriptions of prohibited areas in the territory of a Contracting State. as well as any subsequent alterations. yellow fever. Article 16 — Search of Aircraft The appropriate authorities of each of the Contracting States shall have the right without unreasonable delay. for reasons of military necessity or public safety. Article 14 — Prevention of Spread of Disease Each Contracting State agrees to take effective measures to prevent the spread by means of air navigation of cholera. typhus (epidemic). and such other communicable disease as the Contracting States shall from time to time decide to designate. restrict or prohibit the aircraft of other States from flying over certain areas of its territory. plague. in exceptional circumstances or during a period of emergency. 2-14 Air Law . and to inspect the certificates and other documents prescribed by this Convention. under any regulations as it may prescribe may require any aircraft entering the areas in the paragraphs above to effect a landing as soon as practicable thereafter at a designated airport within its territory. the remaining Articles of the Convention (those not covered in the body of Chapter 2) are reproduced below. To that end Contracting States will keep in close consultation with the agencies concerned with international regulations relating to sanitary measures applicable to aircraft. Each Contracting State reserves the right. Prohibited areas shall be of reasonable extent and location so as not to interfere unnecessarily with air navigation. Article 9 — Prohibited Areas Each Contracting State may. shall be communicated as soon as possible to other Contracting States and to the ICAO. Each Contracting State. This is provided that no distinction in this respect is made between the aircraft of the State whose territory is involved.

information concerning the registration and ownership of any particular aircraft registered in that State. a list of their names and places of embarkation and destination If cargo is carried. signals. radio services. airports. Article 28 — Air Navigation Facilities and Standard Systems Each Contracting State undertakes. in or over the territory of other Contracting States.The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Chapter 2 Article 21 — Report of Registrations Each Contracting State undertakes to supply to any other Contracting State or to the ICAO. so far as it may be practicable. on demand. The use of radio transmitting apparatus in the territory of the Contracting State whose territory is flown over shall be in accordance with the regulations prescribed by that State. codes. Nothing in this Convention shall be construed as preventing the establishment of customs free airports. in its territory. in accordance with the standards and practices recommended or established by the Convention. Article 29 — Documents Carried in Aircraft An aircraft of a Contracting State. to establish customs and immigration procedures affecting international air navigation in accordance with the practices which may be established or recommended by the Convention. engaged in international air navigation. Each Contracting State shall furnish reports to the ICAO. to: Provide. pertinent data concerning the ownership and control of aircraft registered in that State and engaged in international air navigation. shall carry the following documents in order to conform with the Convention: A certificate of registration A certificate of airworthiness The appropriate licences for each member of the crew A journey log book If equipped with radio apparatus. Collaborate in international measures to secure the publication of aeronautical maps and charts in accordance with standards that may be recommended or established by the Convention. under any regulations as the latter may decide upon. lighting and other operational practices and rules which may be recommended or established by the Convention. carry radio-transmitting apparatus if a licence to install and operate the radio has been issued by the appropriate authorities of the State in which the aircraft is registered. so far as practicable. The data obtained by the ICAO shall be made available to the other Contracting States. markings. Adopt and put into operation the appropriate standard systems of communications procedures. a manifest and detailed declarations of the cargo Article 30 — Aircraft Radio Equipment Aircraft of a Contracting State may. the aircraft radio station licence If passengers are carried. Article 23 — Customs and Immigration Procedures Each Contracting State undertakes. Radio transmitting apparatus can only be used by members of the flight crew who are provided with a radio licence issued by the appropriate authorities of the State in which the aircraft is registered. meteorological services and other air navigation facilities to facilitate international air navigation. Air Law 2-15 .

to regulate or prohibit the carriage in or above its territory of articles other than those listed in the paragraph above. except by permission of that State. Article 39 — Endorsement of Certificates and Licences Any aircraft or part thereof with respect to which there exists an international standard of airworthiness or performance. The registration or use of any such aircraft. Each Contracting State reserves the right. Article 40 — Validity of Endorsed Certificates and Licences No aircraft or personnel having certificates or licences so endorsed shall participate in international navigation. Each State shall determine what constitutes munitions of war for the purposes of this article. shall have endorsed on or attached to its airworthiness certificate a complete list of the details in respect of which it failed. provided that: No distinction is made in this respect between its national aircraft engaged in international navigation and the aircraft of the other States. Article 47 — Legal Capacity The organization shall enjoy in the territory of each Contracting State such legal capacity as may be necessary for the performance of its functions. giving due consideration. Article 49 — Powers and Duties of the Assembly The powers and duties of the Assembly shall be to: Elect at each meeting its president and other officers Elect the Contracting States to be represented on the Council. in any State other than that in which it was originally certificated shall be at the discretion of the State into which the aircraft or part is imported. in accordance with the provisions of Chapter IX Examine and take appropriate action on the reports of the Council and decide on any matter referred to it by the Council Determine its own rules of procedure and establish such subsidiary commissions as it may consider to be necessary or desirable Air Law 2-16 .Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Article 34 — Journey Log Books All aircraft engaged in international navigation shall have a journey log book in which shall be entered particulars of the aircraft. and No restriction shall be imposed which may interfere with the carriage and use on aircraft of apparatus necessary for the operation or navigation of the aircraft or the safety of the personnel or passengers. its crew and of each journey. Article 35 — Cargo Restrictions No munitions of war or implements of war may be carried in or above the territory of a State by aircraft engaged in international navigation. Any person holding a licence who does not satisfy in full the conditions laid down in the international standard relating to the class of licence or certificate which he holds shall have endorsed on or attached to his licence the details of the particulars in which he does not satisfy such conditions. for the purposes of uniformity. except with the permission of the State or States whose territory is entered. for reasons of public order and safety. and which failed in any respect to satisfy the standard at the time of its certification. to the recommendations made by ICAO. or of any certificated aircraft part.

The president need not be selected from among the representatives of the members of the Council but. his seat shall be deemed vacant and it shall be filled by the State that he represented. and • The States not otherwise included whose designation will insure that all the major geographic areas of the world are represented • The Assembly shall fill any vacancy on the Council as soon as possible. The Council shall elect from its members one or more vice presidents who shall retain their right to vote when serving as acting president. any Contracting State so elected to the Council shall hold office for the unexpired portion of its predecessor’s office No representative of a Contracting State on the Council shall be actively associated with the operation of an international air service or financially interested in such a service Article 51 — President of Council The Council shall elect its president for a term of 3 years. He may be re-elected.The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Chapter 2 Vote annual budgets and determine the financial arrangements of the organization. to subsidiary commissions. if a representative is elected. or to any other body any matter within its sphere of action Delegate to the Council the powers and authority necessary or desirable for the discharge of the duties of the organization and revoke or modify the delegations of authority at any time Carry out the appropriate provisions of Chapter XIII Consider proposals for the modification or amendment of the provisions of this Convention and. if it approves of the proposals. The duties of the president shall be to: Convene meetings of The Council The Air Transport Committee The Air Navigation Commission Serve as representative of the Council Carry out on behalf of the Council the functions which the Council assigns to him Air Law 2-17 . He shall have no vote. An election shall be held at the first meeting of the Assembly and thereafter every 3 years. to the Council. Elected members of the Council hold office until the following election In electing the members of the Council. the Assembly shall give adequate representation to: • The States of chief importance in air transport • The States not otherwise included which make the largest contribution to the provision of facilities for international civil air navigation. recommend them to the Contracting States in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XXI Deal with any matter within the sphere of action of the Organization not specifically assigned to the Council CHAPTER IX — THE COUNCIL Article 50 — Composition and Election of the Council The Council shall be a permanent body responsible to the Assembly. in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XII Review expenditures and approve the accounts of the organization Refer. at its discretion. It is composed of 33 Contracting States elected by the Assembly.

in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XI Request.Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Article 54 — Mandatory Functions of the Council The Council shall: Submit annual reports to the Assembly Carry out the directions of the Assembly and discharge the duties and obligations which are laid on it by this Convention Determine its organization and rules of procedure Appoint and define the duties of an Air Transport Committee. as well as any failure to carry out recommendations or determinations of the Council Report to the Assembly any infraction of this Convention where a Contracting State has failed to take appropriate action within a reasonable time after notice of the infraction Adopt. any situation which may appear to present avoidable obstacles to the development of international air navigation. and notify all Contracting States of the action taken Consider recommendations of the Air Navigation Commission for amendment of the Annexes and take action in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XX Consider any matter relating to the Convention to which any Contracting State refers Article 55 — Permissive Function of the Council The Council may: Where appropriate and as experience may show to be desirable. and make provision for the appointment of such other personnel as may be necessary. and facilitate the exchange of information between Contracting States on air transport and air navigation matters Study any matters affecting the organization and operation of international air transport. international standards and recommended practices. for convenience designate them as Annexes to this Convention. collect. which shall be chosen from among the representatives of the members of the Council. communicate the results of its research to the Contracting States. in accordance with the provisions of Chapter X Administer the finances of the Organization in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XII and XV Determine the emoluments of the president of the Council Appoint a chief executive officer who shall be called the secretary-general. and submit to the Assembly plans in relation thereto Investigate. issue such reports as may appear to be desirable 2-18 Air Law . including the international ownership and operation of international air services on trunk routes. at the request of any Contracting State. and after such investigation. examine and publish information relating to the advancement of air navigation and the operation of international air services including information about the costs of operation and particulars of subsidies paid to airlines from public funds Report to Contracting States any infraction of this Convention. in accordance with the provisions of Chapter VI of this Convention. and which shall be responsible to it Establish an Air Navigation Commission. create subordinate air transport commissions on a regional or other basis and define groups of States or airlines with or through which it may deal to facilitate the carrying out of the aims of this Convention Delegate to the Air Navigation Commission duties additional to those in the Convention and revoke or modify such delegations of authority at any time Conduct research into all aspects of air transport and air navigation which are of international importance.

if it so desires Advise the Council concerning the collection and communication to the Contracting States of all information which it considers necessary and useful for the advancement of air navigation Air Law 2-19 . these persons shall have suitable qualifications and experience in the science and practice of aeronautics. The Council shall appoint the president of the Air Navigation Commission.The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Chapter 2 CHAPTER X — THE AIR NAVIGATION COMMISSION Article 56 — Nomination and Appointment of the Commission The Air Navigation Commission is composed of 15 members appointed by the Council from among the persons nominated by Contracting States. modifications of the Annexes to this Convention Establish technical sub-commissions on which any Contracting State may be represented. The Council shall request all Contracting States to submit nominations. Article 57 — Duties of the Commission The Air Navigation Commission shall: Consider and recommend to the Council for adoption.

Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 2-20 Air Law .

uniform ticketing arrangements. The convention does accept compulsory recognition and execution of any foreign judgement on damage to third parties. A later Rome Convention looked at the problems of damage caused by foreign aircraft to third parties on the surface of the earth. a document issued by the Authority of a State allowing an Operator to conduct public transport flights. The reference for Leasing is JAR-OPS. etc. In simple terms. THE CONVENTION OF ROME 1933/1952 This convention produced uniformity in place of the differing national laws covering the liability of the owner or operator of an aircraft that causes damage to persons or property on the ground. but carriers are liable for damage caused to third parties. Lease Out The process of 'lending' an aeroplane. AOC Air Law 3-1 . IATA acts as the fare distribution agent. Terms used in JAR-OPS 1. The Convention makes it compulsory to insure against this liability. Dry lease The aeroplane is operated under the AOC of the lessee (the company leasing the aeroplane).165 have the following meaning: Air Operators Certificate. paying the small feeder/regional airline. JAA operator An operator certificated under JAR-OPS Part 1 by one of the JAA Member States. This not only allows 'consortium' operations (One World. then recovers the cost from the primary (international) carrier. The amount of compensation is limited. Wet lease The aeroplane is operated under the AOC of the lessor (the company who let the aircraft out). COMMERCIAL PRACTICES AND ASSOCIATED RULES (LEASING) The learning objectives require the student to have knowledge of the practice and terminology of leasing aeroplanes. The functions of IATA include the establishment of uniform fares. Lease In The process of 'borrowing' an aeroplane. The 1933 convention also regulated the right of arrest where an aircraft is seized in the case of debt. and other procedures. The IATA interlining agreements led to carriers accepting other carriers’ tickets and waybills.) but also makes regional feeder services viable.THE INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION (IATA) IATA is a body whose members are composed of airlines. but the liability is limited to a sum that is proportionate to the weight of the aircraft. the operator is liable for any damage.

Any conditions that are part of this approval must be included in the lease agreement. after the foreign regulatory authority has accepted responsibility in writing for surveillance of the maintenance and operation of the aeroplane(s). 3-2 Air Law . navigation. The JAA operator shall ensure that.Chapter 3 Other International and European Organisations LEASING OF AEROPLANES BETWEEN JAA OPERATORS Wet lease-out. The JAA operator shall ensure that. Part of the leasing agreement is that the aeroplane(s) will be maintained according to an approved maintenance programme. with regard to aeroplanes that are dry leased-in. any differences from the prescribed instrument. Wet lease-in A JAA operator shall not wet lease-in an aeroplane from a body other than a JAA operator without the approval of the Authority. with regard to aeroplanes that are wet leased-in: The safety standards of the lessor with respect to maintenance and operation are equivalent to the JAR regulations The lessor is an operator holding an AOC issued by a State which is a signatory to the Chicago Convention The aeroplane has a standard Certificate of Airworthiness issued in accordance with ICAO Annex 8. Wet lease-out A JAA operator providing an aeroplane and complete crew to another entity and retaining all the prescribed functions and responsibilities shall remain the operator of the aeroplane. Standard Certificates of Airworthiness issued by a JAA Member State other than the State responsible for issue the AOC will be accepted without further showing when issued in accordance with JAR. All leases except wet lease-out. and Any JAA requirements are complied with by the lessee's Authority. If a JAA operator retains all functions and responsibilities prescribed in Subpart C of JAROPS when providing an aeroplane and complete crew to another JAA Operator. Dry lease-out A JAA operator may dry lease-out an aeroplane for the purpose of commercial air transportation to any operator of a State which is signatory to the Chicago Convention. and safety equipment are notified to. the aeroplane(s) will be removed from the JAA operator's AOC. and are acceptable to. LEASING OF AEROPLANES BETWEEN A JAA OPERATOR AND ANY BODY OTHER THAN A JAA OPERATOR Dry lease-in A JAA operator may not dry lease-in an aeroplane from any entity other than a JAA operator. the JAA Authority will exempt the JAA operator from the relevant provisions of JAR-OPS Part 1. the Authority. communication. In this case. then that operator remains the operator of the aeroplane. Further. Any leasing activity other than the wet lease out described above requires approval of the appropriate JAA authority. unless approved by the Authority.

Through the application of uniform safety standards. JOINT AVIATION AUTHORITIES (JAA) JAA ORGANISATION The JAA has developed since the 1970s and the members are bound by the “Arrangements” signed in Cyprus by the then member states in 1990. the lease-in period does not exceed 5 consecutive days. some European civil aviation authorities started to cooperate with a view to producing common Joint Airworthiness Requirements so as to facilitate certification of products built jointly in Europe.Other International and European Organisations Chapter 3 LEASING OF AEROPLANES AT SHORT NOTICE In circumstances where a JAA operator is faced with an immediate. urgent. to discuss methods of improving commercial and technical co-operation between the airlines of the European countries participating in the conference. which includes all EC countries. CATE proposed the establishment of a permanent organisation of the European aeronautical authorities. The recommendations made by the European Parliament and the Council of Europe needed a co-ordinated approach to ensure air safety within Europe. to contribute to fair and equal competition within the member states. as well as the possibility of securing closer co-operation by the exchange of commercial rights between the European countries. provided that the lessor is an operator holding an AOC issued by a State which is a signatory to the Chicago Convention. needed to institute procedures consistent with those resulting from the EC treaty and the Single European Act. This organisation was called the European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) and held its inaugural session in 1955. ECAC OBJECTIVES Continuing the work of the CATE conference. This led to the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) Board becoming an associated body to ECAC in 1989. the required approval may be deemed to have been given. and the Authority is immediately notified of the use of this provision. To aim for cost effective safety and minimum regulatory burden so as to contribute to the European industries’ international competitiveness. ECAC membership. In 1970. The main JAA objectives are: To ensure through co-operation common high levels of safety within the member states. The JAA Board oversees arrangements between a number of ECAC states providing for co-operation in developing and implementing common safety standards and procedures. EUROPEAN CIVIL AVIATION CONFERENCE (ECAC) INTRODUCTION In 1953 a European conference convened on Co-ordination of Air Transport in Europe (CATE). In order to follow up on the recommendations adopted at the meeting. Considering any special problem that might arise from the above. Reviewing the development of intra-European air transport with the object of improvement. Air Law 3-3 . and unforeseen need for a replacement aeroplane.

The NAA issues licences and regulates the operators of that state. and the licensing of aviation personnel. whenever possible.Chapter 3 Other International and European Organisations The JAA operates in a manner that is as close as possible to a single authority. 3-4 Air Law . especially the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). that pursuance of the JAA safety objective does not unreasonably distort competition between the aviation industries of member states or place companies of member states at a competitive disadvantage with those of non-member states. on the certification of products and services. ORGANISATION AND PROCEDURES The JAA is controlled by a committee that works under the authority of the Plenary Conference of the ECAC and reports to the JAA Board of Directors General (better known as the JAA Board). To adopt measures to ensure. The JAA Board considers and reviews the general policies and long term objectives of the JAA. To co-operate on the harmonisation of requirements and procedures with other safety regulatory authorities. JAA membership is open to the civil aviation authorities of the ECAC member States. maintenance and operations. without yet formally or legally becoming a single international body where each individual state gives up its ultimate responsibilities. especially the FAA. manufacture. adopt. To develop administrative and technical procedures for the implementation of JARs. To provide the principal centre of professional expertise in Europe on the harmonisation of aviation safety regulations. and publish Joint Aviation Requirements (JARs) for the use of the Authorities in the field of design. Where feasible. Each National Aviation Authority (NAA) continues to exist and carry out specific delegated roles within the JAA. To establish procedures for joint certification of products and services and where it is considered appropriate to perform joint certification. FUNCTIONS OF JAA The authorities use the JAA to perform the following functions: To develop. to co-operate with foreign safety regulatory authorities. To implement JARs and related administrative and technical procedures in a coordinated and uniform manner.

whereas the FAA equivalent is FAR 25. Eurocontrol now provides ATC services for most European flight information regions (FIRs).Other International and European Organisations Chapter 3 JOINT AVIATION AUTHORITIES JAA Board JAA Committee Executive Board Foundation Board JAA/FAA Harmonisation Joint Steering Committee Secretary General Regulation Certification Maintenance Operations Licensing Administration JAA/FAA HARMONISATION The two major aircraft producers in the world are the United States and Europe. The effect of this has been to make European products acceptable to the North American market and also to give European manufacturers a market in Europe for spares for aircraft made in North America. the JAA acts as the regulatory body to bring the European procedures into line with the FAA. INTENTION It is the intention to eventually form the European Aviation Authority. the NAAs will provide the regulatory framework and the necessary manpower. In the USA the FAA regulates the industry. commuter category aircraft regulations are contained in JAR 23 and FAR 23. Eurocontrol also provides a very efficient centralised enroute charge recovery service on behalf of the states. Once established. Air Law 3-5 . and Bretigny near Paris. the EAA will be the regulatory body responsible for civil aviation in Europe. To optimise the use of airspace by matching capacity to demand to carry out the above. whereas in Europe the disparate national authorities were uncoordinated. Until then. The stated objectives of Eurocontrol are: To plan European air traffic management to meet future needs. EUROCONTROL Eurocontrol was formed in 1965. It actually controls operations in the upper airspace from two ATCC (Maastricht and Vienna) and has R&D facilities in Luxembourg. Maastricht. In order to overcome this. From its origins as the Maastricht (Holland) ACC. Likewise. This is in keeping with the aims of the EU and the Council of Europe. and its membership encompasses most of Europe and some non-European adjacent states. which even non-Eurocontrol states use. It is no coincidence that the regulations concerning large aeroplanes are contained in JAR 25. providing a centralised ATC service for the Benelux countries and Northern Germany.

Eurocontrol has provided the centralised flow management unit (CFMU) for European airspace. providing area control for the London FIR and UIR. ATC HARMONISATION Eurocontrol is also at the heart of the ATC harmonisation process in Europe and the surrounding states. The first link in this network is the new ATCC at Swanwick. near Southampton. which will lead to the development of a data processing and handling system capable of taking inputs from any ATC system in the world. The R&D operations of Eurocontrol are involved in the use of PRNAV to eliminate airways and also the elimination of voice communications by the use of data link systems. Virtually all flights within Europe are subject to flow management and the process is expanding to cover 'gate to gate' operations. including operations on the ground at airports.Chapter 3 Other International and European Organisations FLOW MANAGEMENT Since 1988. 3-6 Air Law .

the Learning Objectives require the student to have knowledge of ICAO Annex 1 (Personnel Licensing) and JAR Flight Crew Licensing. As these notes are intended only to provide the references to pass the examinations.K. JAR-FCL JAR-FCL is published in four parts: JAR-FCL 1 JAR-FCL 2 JAR-FCL 3 JAR-FCL 4 Aeroplanes Helicopters Medical Requirements Flight Engineers The LOs require knowledge of JAR-FCL 1 and JAR-FCL 3.INTRODUCTION For this particular subject. there are questions in the Air Law exam relating to Met. However. commonly referred to as JAR-FCL. In addition to the general requirements.. CAA publishes LASORS as guidance. JAR-FCL 1 contains JARs for the licensing of: Student pilots Private Pilots . there are areas where JAR FCL differs from Annex 1. For this reason.PPL(A) Commercial pilots .K. the majority of the questions in the CQB are drawn from ICAO.IR(A) Class and Type Rating (Aeroplane) Airline Transport Pilot Licence (Aeroplane) . they must not be used as a reference for matters relating to your licence. consult JAR FCL or your national Civil Aviation Authority. Communications etc. Unfortunately.CPL(A) Instrument Rating (Aeroplane) . Mass and Balance. the U. In the U.ATPL (A) Instructor ratings Examiners Theoretical knowledge requirements for examinations (1) Note 1: Because knowledge of the requirements for examinations is required by the LOs for 010 Air Law. the JAA FCL Committee have determined that the knowledge requirements for all subjects are examinable under subject 010 Air Law. In such cases. Air Law 4-1 .

and holding a valid medical assessment. the licence must have been issued by the State of Registry of that aircraft or by any other contracting state and rendered valid by the State of Registry. or At the discretion of the authority when a rating is revalidated. maintaining necessary ratings. or Another ICAO Contracting State and rendered valid in accordance with JAR-FCL Validity of Licence In order to exercise the privileges of the licence. JAR-FCL A licence holder shall not exercise the privileges granted by any licence or rating issued by a JAA Member State unless the holder maintains competency by meeting the relevant requirements of JAR-FCL. 4-2 Air Law . Period of Licence Issue Providing the requirements for a valid licence are maintained. The licence will be issued for a maximum period of 5 years. JAR-FCL A person shall not act as a flight-crew member of a civil aeroplane registered in a JAA Member State unless that person holds a valid licence and rating complying with the requirements of JAR-FCL. ICAO To be valid.Chapter 4 Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Annex 1 Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) have been established for licensing the following personnel: Private pilot (aeroplane and helicopter) Commercial pilot (aeroplane and helicopter) Airline transport pilot (aeroplane and helicopter) Glider pilot Balloon pilot Flight navigator Flight engineer LICENSING REQUIREMENTS AND REGULATIONS Authority to Act as a Flight-crew Member A person shall not act as a flight-crew member of an aircraft unless a valid licence is held. Within this period of 5 years the licence may be re-issued by the authority: After initial issue or renewal of a rating. For any administrative reason. a licence issued will remain in force for a period determined by the State of Licence Issue (ICAO). When the licence is full (no space available for a renewal certificate). The licence shall have been issued by: A JAA Member State. the licence must remain valid by maintaining competency. The validity of the licence is determined by the validity of the ratings contained therein and the medical certificate. meeting recent experience requirements.

because of personal ties which show close links between that person and the place where they are living. or certificate by the authority of a JAA member state in accordance with the requirements of JAR-FCL and associated procedures. Validation of a professional pilot’s licence shall not exceed one year from the date of validation. Authorisations. Air Law 4-3 . Normal Residency Normal residency means the place where a person usually lives for at least 185 days in each calendar year because of personal and occupational ties or. Exercising the Privileges of the Licence The holder of a licence or rating shall not exercise privileges other than those granted by that licence or rating. in the case of a person with no occupational ties. approval. approvals or certificates shall be accepted without formality by other JAA member states. at the discretion of the authority of that JAA member state. organization.Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Chapter 4 The licence holder must apply for the re-issue of the licence. Any further validation for use on aircraft registered in any JAA member state is subject to agreement by the JAA member states and to any conditions seen fit within the JAA. Licences Issued by Non-JAA States A licence issued by a non-JAA State may be rendered valid for use on aircraft registered in a JAA member state. Ratings. Approvals or Certificates Issued by JAA Member States Where a person. or a service has been licenced. The user of a licence validated by a JAA member state shall comply with the requirements stated in JAR-FCL. Following licence issue. Licences. This application must include all necessary documentation. authorisations. the State of Licence Issue will be informed by the JAA state. If the validation of a non-JAA licence is revoked for any reason. ratings. provided that the basic licence remains valid. authorisation. Further ratings may be obtained under JAR-FCL requirements in any JAA Member State and will be entered into the licence by the State of Licence issue. such licences. State of Licence Issue An applicant shall demonstrate the satisfactory completion of all requirements for licence issue to the authority of the State under whose authority the training and testing for the licence were carried out. issued with a rating. SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR LICENCE ISSUE PPL(A) Minimum Age 17 Medical Fitness Class 1 or Class 2 Privileges and Conditions To act as PIC or co-pilot of an aeroplane engaged in non-revenue flights. Valid ratings will be transferred to a new licence document by the authority. this State shall thereafter be referred to as the “State of licence issue”.

One cross-country flight must be of at least 150 nm. the instrument rating Experience and Crediting See CPL Experience below See ATPL experience below Licence Airline Transport Aeroplane (ATPL) 21 Class 1 medical certificate Subject to any other conditions specified in JARs. CPL(A) and an IR(A) Act as PIC or co-pilot in aeroplanes engaged in air transportation An applicant for an ATPL(A) shall have fulfilled the requirements for the issue of an ATPL(A) containing a type rating for the aeroplane type used on the skill test Licence 4-4 Air Law . Five hours may have been completed in an FNPT or a flight simulator. including 5 hours of cross-country flight time. Where previous credit for PIC time is granted the dual instruction may be reduced to not less than 20 hours. if an instrument rating course and test are included. the privileges of the holder of a CPL(A) are to: Exercise all the privileges of the holder of a PPL(A) Act as PIC or co-pilot of any aeroplane engaged in operations other than commercial aviation Act as PIC in commercial air transportation of any single pilot aeroplane Act as co-pilot in commercial air transportation An applicant for a CPL(A) shall have fulfilled the requirements for the issue of at least a CPL(A) containing the class/type rating for the aeroplane type used on the skill test and.Chapter 4 Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Experience and Crediting An applicant must have completed 45 hours flight time as a pilot of aeroplanes. and include full stop landings at two aerodromes different from the original departure aerodrome. the privileges of the holder of a ATPL(A) are to: Exercise all the privileges of the holder of a PPL(A). Where an applicant is the holder of one of the following licences then 10% of their total flight time up to a maximum of 10 hours may be credited towards the issue of the PPL(A): Helicopter Microlight helicopters Gyroplanes Microlights with fixed wings and moveable aerodynamic control surfaces Flight Instruction The applicant for a PPL(A) must have completed 25 hours dual instruction and 10 hours supervised solo. Commercial Pilot (Aeroplane) CPL(A) Minimum Age Medical Fitness Privileges and Conditions 18 Class 1 medical certificate Subject to any other conditions specified in JARs.

250 hours as PIC or at least 100 hours PIC and 150 hours as co-pilot performing under the supervision of the PIC the duties and functions of a PIC (the method of supervision must be acceptable to the authority). and 5 hours of night flight time. the following apply: Pilot in Command or Under Instruction Credited in full with all solo. An ATPL/CPL graduate of an integrated CPL/ATPL course is entitled to be credited with up to 50 hours student pilot in command (SPIC) instrument time towards the pilot in command time required for the issue of the ATPL. CREDIT TIME FOR ATPL: Helicopter flight time will be credited up to 50% of the flight time requirements. CPL and a multi engine type or class rating. 20 hours of cross country flight time as PIC. 70 hours if completed during a course of integrated training. and 100 hours of night flight as PIC or co-pilot. CREDITING OF FLIGHT TIME Unless otherwise specified. A maximum of 100 hours flight simulator time may be included in this figure. and Flight engineers will be credited with up to 50% of the flight time to a maximum of 250 hours flight engineer time CPL(A) EXPERIENCE Integrated Course 150 hours of flight time Modular Course 200 hours of flight time The applicant must have completed: 100 hours as PIC. 200 hours cross country flight of which at least 100 hours shall be as PIC or as co-pilot performing under the supervision of the PIC the duties and functions of a PIC (the method of supervision must be acceptable to the authority).Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Chapter 4 ATPL(A) EXPERIENCE An applicant for an ATPL(A) shall have completed as a pilot of aeroplanes at least 1500 hours of flight time. This must include a cross-country flight of at least 300 nm during which include full stop landings at two aerodromes different from the original departure aerodrome. 10 hours of instrument instruction time of which not more than 5 hours is to be instrument ground time. Specific qualifications required within the 1500 hours flight time are: 500 hours in multi-pilot operations on aeroplanes type certificated in accordance with JAR/FAR 25 (Transport Category) or JAR/FAR 23 (Commuter Category) or equivalent codes. Air Law 4-5 . dual instruction or pilot in command (PIC) flight time towards the total flight time required for the licence or rating. 75 hours instrument flight time of which not more than 30 hours may be instrument ground time.

The following must also have been carried out: Completed at least 30 hours on single engine piston aeroplanes of which 5 hours shall have been completed during the 6 months preceding the pre-flight entry flight test Received at least 10 hours instrument instruction of which not more than 5 hours may be instrument ground time in an FNPT or flight simulator Completed at least 20 hours of cross country as PIC including a flight totalling not less than 300 nm in the course of which full stop landings at two different aerodromes must have been made Passed a pre-entry flight test The minimum applicant age is 18 years old. flight simulator or FNPT II EXAMINERS (AEROPLANE) The following examiner roles are recognised: Flight examiner (FE(A)) Type rating examiner (TRE(A)) Class rating examiner (CRE(A)) Instrument rating examiner (IRE(A)) Synthetic flight examiner (SFE(A)) Flight instructor examiner (FIE(A)) 4-6 Air Law . To be allowed to begin a Flight Instructor (FI(A)) course the pilot must have 200 hours of flight time of which 100 hours must be PIC if the pilot is the holder of an ATPL(A) or CPL(A). 50 hours of which may be instrument ground time and have completed an approved course of at least 5 hours of flight instruction in an aeroplane. The holder of a pilot licence when acting as co-pilot performing under the supervision of the PIC the functions and duties of a PIC shall be entitled to be credited in full with this flight time required for a higher grade of licence.Chapter 4 Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Co-Pilot Credited in full with all co-pilot time towards the total flight time required for a higher grade of pilot licence. 150 hours PIC if the holder of a PPL(A) and be the holder of the knowledge requirements for CPL(A). INSTRUCTOR RATINGS An instructor rating is valid for 3 years. INSTRUCTOR RATINGS – PRIVILEGES AND REQUIREMENTS To Instruct for the Issue of a PPL Completion of 15 hours on the relevant type in the preceding 12 months To Instruct for the Issue of a CPL 500 hours of flight time including at least 200 hours of flight instruction To Instruct for the Issue of an IR 200 hours flight time in accordance with IFR. The method of supervision must be approved by the authority.

Presently. however. or a combination of both. Examiner’s authorisation is renewed at the discretion of the Authority. CLASS RATINGS Class ratings are established for single pilot aeroplanes not requiring a type rating as follows: ICAO: Single engine land Single engine sea Multi engine land Multi engine sea JAR-FCL: All single engine piston aeroplanes (land and sea) All touring motor gliders Each manufacturer of single engined turbo-prop aeroplanes (land and sea) All multi engined piston aeroplanes (land and sea) Air Law 4-7 . the need to remain current on each type/class will be limiting. CLASS AND TYPE RATINGS The holder of a licence is not permitted to act in any capacity as a pilot (except when undergoing skill testing or receiving flight instruction) unless he/she holds a valid class or type rating for the type or class of aircraft to be flown. oral. in which case. Class and type ratings are valid for one year (JAR-FCL). Validity of Authorisation An examiner’s authorisation is valid for a period of not more than 3 years. JAR OPS suggests that a pilot should not hold more class/type ratings than he/she can maintain. The flying practice element of a TR course may be flown in the specific type of aircraft or an approved flight simulator. Any rating issued may limit the holder to operating as co-pilot only. there is no limit to the number of class/type ratings a pilot may hold at any one time. To successfully complete a TR course the candidate must pass an aircraft specific practical knowledge test that can be written. the rating will be annotated accordingly. FE(A) An FE(A) is permitted to conduct skill tests and proficiency checks for the issue of PPL(A) and CPL(A) licences provided he/she has not less than 2000 hours (1000 hours for PPL(A) only) flight experience including not less than 250 hours flight instruction. ICAO does not set a validation period but leaves this to the individual contracting state to determine. Type rating requires attendance at and successful completion of an approved type rating course.Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Chapter 4 Qualification An applicant for authorisation as an examiner is to hold a licence and rating at least equal to the licence or rating for which they are applying to be authorised to examine.

Chapter 4

Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes)

TYPE RATINGS Other than those aeroplanes included in the class ratings above, the following aeroplanes require type ratings:
Each type of multi-pilot aeroplane Each type of single pilot multi engine aeroplane fitted with turbo prop or turbojet engines Each type of single pilot single engine aeroplane fitted with a turbojet engine Any other type of aeroplane the authority considers necessary

REVALIDATION OF TYPE/CLASS RATINGS Type ratings and multi engine class ratings are revalidated by successful completion of skill tests or proficiency checks, which may be carried out in a flight simulator. If a type rating has expired, refresher training may be required prior to the pilot taking a re-validating test.
ICAO Annex 6 (Operation of Aircraft) requires a pilot to demonstrate competency at two skill tests during any 12 month period with the proviso that the period between the tests is not less than 4 months. JAR-FCL Requires the pilot to pass a proficiency check once in every period of 12 months. The revalidation check taken is not more than 3 months before the expiry of the current rating. The new period of validation begins at the date of expiry of the old period. JAR-FCL also requires the pilot fly at least 10 sectors as pilot of the relevant type of aircraft, or one sector as pilot of the relevant type of aircraft with an examiner, during the period of the rating. Note: It is usual to revalidate the type rating at the same time as the renewal of the IR(A).

INSTRUMENT RATING (IR(A))
In order to fly an aircraft under IFR, a pilot requires a valid instrument rating (IR). JAR-FCL generally requires a pilot to hold a valid IR for any flight under IFR but accepts national variations in law. Privileges To pilot a multi- or single-engined aeroplane under IFR to a minimum decision height of 200 ft. Experience The pilot must hold a PPL(A) with a night qualification or a CPL(A) and have completed at least 50 hours of cross country flight time as PIC in aeroplanes or helicopters of which at least 10 hours shall be in aeroplanes. Application to ATPL(A) An instrument rating is an integral part of an ATPL (A), and a separate rating added to a CPL(A) to give the holder a CPL/IR. Without a valid IR the holder of an ATPL(A) is only permitted to exercise the privileges of a CPL licence.

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Air Law

Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes)

Chapter 4

Rating and Re-validation An IR(A) is gained by successful completion of an instrument rating test (IRT) carried out by an approved Instrument Rating Examiner (IRE). The IRT may be carried out in an approved flight simulator. An IR(A) is valid for a period of 1 year. Revalidation is achieved by successful completion of another full IRT conducted by an IRE. No period of extension is permitted for an IR(A). The revalidation IRT may be carried out during the last 3 months of validity of the current IR. If successful, the new IR will be valid from the original date of expiry of the previous IR. If unsuccessful, the current IR is then invalid and the pilot is not permitted to exercise the privileges of the IR until successful completion of another IRT. In the latter case, the period of validity of the new IR will be from the date of successful completion of the IRT.

RECENT EXPERIENCE A pilot shall not operate an aeroplane carrying passengers as the pilot in command or co-pilot unless he has carried out:
At least 3 take-offs and 3 landings as pilot flying in the same type/class or flight simulator in the preceding 90 days, and If the flight is at night, and the holder does not hold a valid Instrument Rating, one of the take-offs and one of the landings must be carried out at night. Operators who apply more stringent requirements may apply limiting criteria to pilots (in terms of Decision Height and prevailing RVR) who nevertheless meet the general recent experience criteria.

CURTAILMENT OF PRIVILEGES OF LICENCE HOLDERS AGED 60 YEARS OR MORE Generally, a commercial pilot may not exercise the privileges of his/her licence unrestricted after attaining the age of 60. France and Italy prohibit commercial flying totally by pilots when they reach the age of 60, and the Czech Republic, at the age of 62.
Age 60 – 64 The holder of a pilot licence who has reached the age of 60 years shall not act as a pilot of an aeroplane engaged in commercial air transport operations except: As a member of a multi-pilot crew and, provided that The holder is the only pilot in the flight crew who has reached age 60. Age 65 The holder of a pilot licence who has reached the age of 65 years shall not act as a pilot of an aeroplane engaged in commercial air transport operations. Note: Age 60 means the first day of the pilot’s 61st year of life. In other words, the day after he/she is 59 years and 364 days old. Generally, a pilot may exercise the privileges of an ATPL(A) licence throughout the inclusive ages of 21 – 59.

Air Law

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Chapter 4

Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes)

MEDICAL REQUIREMENTS
Fitness The holder of a medical certificate shall be mentally and physically fit to exercise safely the privileges of the applicable licence. Medical Fitness An applicant for a licence must hold a medical assessment applicable for the type of licence being applied for. An initial issue medical assessment in accordance with Annex 1 pt 6 or JARFCL 3 is required for flight-crew members. Re-validation of assessment is achieved by periodic examination accordance with Annex 1 part 6 or JAR-FCL 3, which is generally less demanding than the initial assessment. Only an approved aeromedical examiner (AME) may issue a medical assessment. Flight-crew members shall not exercise the privileges of their licence unless their medical assessment is in date. ICAO Each contracting state designates medical examiners that are authorized to issue the medical assessment. ICAO has established 3 classes of medical assessment (Classes 1, 2, and 3). The class 3 medical is applicable to Air Traffic Controllers only. JAR-FCL In order to apply for or to exercise the privileges of a licence, the applicant or holder shall hold a medical certificate issued in accordance with the provisions of JAR-FCL Part 3 (Medical) and appropriate to the privileges of the licence. The JAA has established 2 classes of medical assessment (Classes 1 and 2). Periods of Validity of Medical Assessment A medical assessment has a period of validity after which re-validation (by medical examination) is required. Upon expiry of validation, a class 1 medical assessment is automatically reduced to class 2. Therefore the holder of an ATPL(A) or CPL(A) will then not be permitted to exercise the privileges of their licence. ATPL(A) A class 1 medical assessment is required. The validity of the assessment certificate is 12 months. This reduces to 6 months after the licence holder passes their 40th birthday. CPL(A) A class 1 medical assessment is required. The validity of the assessment certificate is 12 months. This reduces (JAR-FCL) to 6 months (is recommended to reduce to 6 months - ICAO) after the licence holder passes their 40th birthday. PPL(A) A minimum of class 2 medical assessment is required. The validity of the assessment certificate is 24 months. ICAO recommends that this is reduced to 12 months after the licence holder has reached their 40th birthday. Deferment ICAO permits the deferment of the required medical examination to revalidate a medical assessment under certain circumstances. JAR-FCL does not. According to ICAO, a licence holder engaged in commercial operations in a remote area where an aeromedical examiner is not resident, may, upon receipt of a favourable report by a physician, extend the period of validity of the medical assessment for two consecutive periods of three months. The report of the physician is to be sent to the authority issuing the licence. Air Law 4-10

Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes)

Chapter 4

Failure to Re-Validate the Medical Assessment After the expiry of a medical assessment, an examination, meeting the requirements of the initial issue assessment, will be required. At the discretion of the licence issuing authority, this may be waived and the medical assessment revalidated with a periodic assessment only. Students engaged on an approved course of training are not required to maintain their class 1 assessment throughout the course. The class 1 assessment will be revalidated on the successful completion of the course by periodic assessment to enable the licence holder to fly commercially. Decrease in Medical Fitness Licence holders or student pilots shall not exercise the privileges of their licences, related ratings or authorizations at any time when they are aware of any decrease in their medical fitness which might render them unable to safely exercise those privileges, and they shall, without undue delay, seek the advice of the authority or an AME when becoming aware of: Hospital or clinic admission for more than 12 hours Surgical operation or invasive procedure The regular use of medication The need for regular use of correcting lenses Notification Every holder of a medical certificate issued in accordance with JAR-FCL Part 3 (Medical) who is aware of any significant personal injury involving incapacity to function as a member of a flight crew, or any illness involving incapacity to function as a member of a flight crew throughout a period of 21 days or more, or being pregnant, is to inform the authority in writing immediately of injury or pregnancy, and as soon as the period of 21 days has elapsed in the case of illness. Suspension of Certificate After notification, the medical certificate shall be suspended and in the case of injury or illness, the suspension will be lifted after the holder has been subsequently medically examined and pronounced fit to function as a member of the flight crew, or the authority lifts the suspension. In the case of pregnancy, the suspension may be lifted by the authority after the pregnancy has ended and the licence holder pronounced fit to resume her functions as a member of the flight crew. The suspension may be temporarily lifted during the initial pregnancy period until the pilot is unable to continue her duties. Note: The suspension of a certificate is not the same as cancellation. A suspended certificate is in ‘suspended animation’. Once the suspension is lifted, the certificate will still be valid, providing the validity expiry date has not passed. If the expiry date has passed, the examination required to lift the suspension will also re-validate the certificate for a further year.

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Chapter 4

Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes)

JAA THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE EXAMINATIONS FOR ATPL(A)
ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE FOR STUDENTS (JAR-FCL 1.490A)
There are 14 subject examinations which you must achieve 75% or more in each to pass. You are permitted to attend 6 examination sittings. If after you have attended 6 sittings and you have not attained 14 passes, you must sit all 14 examinations over again. If any subject examination is failed on four occasions, all the examinations must be retaken. Any candidate who has failed to obtain a pass in the ATPL(A) examinations within the permitted sittings, attempts or time limits, will be required to complete the minimum approved theoretical knowledge training specified below, prior to re-entering the examinations. For the integrated or modular ATPL theory course, this is a minimum of 60 hours theoretical knowledge instruction. 18 Month Rule (JAR-FCL 1.490b) You must pass all the examinations within a period of 18 months starting from the last day of the month in which you sat the first examination. For instance: If you sat the first examination in June 2004, you would have until the end of December 2005 to pass all the remaining examinations. 36 Month Rule (JAR-FCL 1.495a) After you have passed all 14 examinations, you then have 36 months from the date of passing the last examination to attain an IR(A). If you fail to attain an IR(A) within 36 months, you will have to start the examinations all over again. 7 Year Rule (JAR-FCL 1.495b) Having attained an IR(A) as above, the pass in the theoretical knowledge examinations will remain valid for a period of 7 years from the last validity date of the IR(A).

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Air Law

The Conference of Paris in 1919 required all contracting states to establish registers of all aircraft in that state other than military. When establishing the register for that state, the state becomes the State of Registration for all the aircraft in the register. Annex 7 of the Convention of International Civil Aviation contains the Standards adopted by the ICAO for the marking of aircraft.

NATIONALITY, COMMON, AND REGISTRATION MARKS
A ‘registration’ marking on an aircraft consists of two parts: The nationality mark or common mark, and The registration mark (as entered in the register of that state) Composition Apart from Switzerland and Liechtenstein where the national symbols of the States are part of the markings, the nationality and registration marks consist of a group of characters (Letters or letters and numbers). Common Mark In order to meet the requirements of an international organisation, aircraft operated by such an organisation may be required to be registered in more than one state. As no aircraft is permitted to display nationality markings of more than one state, a common marking is used instead of the nationality mark. ICAO maintains the list of aircraft registered under any common mark, but allocates responsibility to a contracting state (usually a state involved in the operation) to act as the State of Registration for the purpose of determining the airworthiness of the aircraft concerned. The common mark is assigned by ICAO (the Common Mark Agency) from an available list produced by the International Telecommunications Agency. Nationality Mark The nationality mark is selected from the nationality symbols included in the radio call signs allocated to the State of Registry by the International Telecommunication Union.

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used at sea to pass messages visually. each of which indicates a particular letter or number. The marks must be kept clean and visible at all times. Eire . When the first character of the registration mark is a letter it is preceded by a hyphen.and The three letter combinations beginning with Q used in the Q code (ie QUG – ‘I am ditching’). XXX and PAN = urgency. combinations containing (in sequence) the following are not used: The five letter combinations used in the International Code of Signals (1) . Prohibited Combinations When letters are used for the registration mark.e. Note 2: SOS = distress. Where the nationality mark consists of three characters (i. G Nationality Mark Hyphen ABCD Registration Mark Acceptable Combinations The normal combination is one character for the nationality mark and four characters for the registration mark. AND REGISTRATION MARKS GENERAL The nationality or common mark and registration mark is painted on the aircraft or affixed by any other means ensuring a similar degree of permanence.e. Oman – A4O) the registration mark consists of only two characters (i. COMMON. EI – ABC). 5-2 Air Law .e. Where the nationality mark consists of two characters (i. A4O – AB). LOCATION OF NATIONALITY.EI) the registration mark consists of only 3 characters (i. and SOS.e. XXX. PAN and TTT (2) Note 1: These are the arrangement of signal flags. TTT = safety (a third level of emergency communication alert now only used in maritime operations).Chapter 5 Registration of Aircraft and Aircraft Markings Combination The nationality or common mark precedes the registration mark. Certain arrangements of 5 flags (hence 5 letters) indicate specific meanings.

Registration Certificate State or Common Mark Registering Authority Ministry Department or Service CERTIFICATE OF REGISTRATION 1. Fuselage and Vertical Tail Surfaces On heavier-than-air aircraft the marks shall appear on each side of the fuselage between the wings and the tail surface and shall be at least 30 cm in normally viewed vertical size. Manufacture and Manufacturer’s Designation of Aircraft 3.Registration of Aircraft and Aircraft Markings Chapter 5 HEAVIER-THAN-AIR AIRCRAFT Wings On heavier-than-air aircraft the marks shall appear once on the lower surface of the wing and shall be at least 50 cm in normally viewed vertical size. shall be a replica of the form shown below. Address of Owner ………………………………………………………………. Numbers shall be Arabic numbers without ornamentation. Name of Owner …………………………………………………………………. 5.. TYPE OF CHARACTERS FOR NATIONALITY. * For use by the State of Registry or common mark registering authority Air Law 5-3 .. The certificate of registration. Aircraft Serial No 4. 6. REGISTRATION OF AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATE OF REGISTRATION The certificate of registration shall be carried in the aircraft at all times. It is hereby certified that the above described aircraft has been duly entered on the (Name of Register) in accordance with the Convention on International Civil Aviation dated 7th December 1944 and with the …………………………. in wording and arrangement. Signature ………………… Date of Issue ……………. Nationality or Common Mark and Registration Mark 2. COMMON AND REGISTRATION MARKS The letters shall be in capital letters in Roman characters without ornamentation.

made of fireproof metal. secured to the aircraft in a prominent position near the main entrance plate.Chapter 5 Registration of Aircraft and Aircraft Markings IDENTIFICATION PLATE All aircraft must carry an identification plate. or fireproof material inscribed with: Nationality or common mark Registration mark CLASSIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT Lighter-than-air Heavier-than-air Non-Power driven Power driven Non-Power driven Power driven Free Balloon Captive Balloon Airship Glider Kite Aeroplane Rotorcraft Ornithopter Gyroplane Helicopter Spherical free Spherical captive Rigid airship balloon balloon Semi-rigid airship Non spherical Non spherical Non-rigid airship free balloon captive balloon Landplane Seaplane Amphibian Land gyroplane Sea gyroplane Amphibian gyroplanes Land helicopter Sea helicopter Amphibian helicopter Land ornithopter Sea ornithopter Amphibian ornithopter 5-4 Air Law .

Flight Crew The minimum number of flight crew personnel necessary to operate the aeroplane should be listed on the C of A.INTRODUCTION Annex 8 contains the standards for airworthiness required for aircraft to meet the performance and operational requirements of Annex 6 (Operation of Aircraft). Records kept to establish the identification of the aircraft with its approved design. to have dangerous features not specifically covered by the airworthiness requirements. Continuing Airworthiness of Aircraft The continuing airworthiness of an aircraft shall be determined by the State of Registry in relation to the requirements in force for that aircraft. States should not attempt to impose operational requirements on visiting aeroplanes other than those established by the State of Registry. CERTIFICATE OF AIRWORTHINESS (C OF A) The C of A for an aircraft is issued by the State of Registration (or approved representatives). Flight tests as deemed necessary to show compliance with the airworthiness requirements. Transfer of Registration When an aircraft which has a valid C of A is entered on the register of another state. Annex 8 is published in three parts. The standards are applicable to the entire aircraft and in order for the standards to be applicable the aircraft must have at least 2 engines. with part 3 applicable to aircraft engaged in commercial air transport with a MTOM greater than 5700 Kg. An aircraft is not permitted to fly without a valid C of A. or suspected. providing they comply with Annex 6. An inspection of the aircraft during the course of construction to determine that it conforms to the approved design. The State of Registry shall also develop or adopt requirements to ensure the continuing airworthiness of an aircraft throughout its life. An inspection of the aircraft to establish that its construction and assembly are satisfactory. A state can withhold a C of A if the aircraft is known. the new State of Registry may accept the C of A as satisfactory evidence that the aircraft is airworthy. For the initial C of A to be issued the following are required: An approved design to show that the aircraft complies with the airworthiness requirements. Air Law 6-1 .

Method of Rendering a Certificate of Airworthiness Valid A State of Registry can validate the Certificate of Airworthiness issued by another state. Temporary Loss of Airworthiness Any failure to maintain an aircraft in an airworthy condition. Safety and Survival Equipment The specified safety and survival equipment is to be reliable. or shall remain valid.Chapter 6 Airworthiness of Aircraft Validity of Certificate of Airworthiness A Certificate of Airworthiness shall be renewed. or other documents. If the damage is sustained when the aircraft is in another state. The State of Registry shall require that the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft shall be determined by periodical inspections at appropriate intervals. These shall include the instruments and equipment necessary to enable the crew to operate the aeroplane within its operating limitations. readily accessible and easily identified. the State of Registry shall judge whether the damage renders the aircraft un-airworthy. Aircraft Limitations and Information Each aircraft shall be provided with a flight manual. as an alternative to issuing its own certificate. Damage To Aircraft When an aircraft has sustained damage. and its method of operation plainly marked. Least-risk Bomb Location A least-risk location on the aeroplane shall be identified where a bomb or other explosive device may be placed to minimize the effects on the aeroplane in the case of detonation. subject to the laws of the State of Registry. Instruments and Equipment The aeroplane has to be provided with approved instruments and equipment necessary for the safe operation of the aeroplane. stating the approved limitations within which the aircraft is considered airworthy. will result in the suspension of the C of A until the aircraft is restored to an airworthy condition. the authorities of that state have the right to prevent the aircraft from flying. 6-2 Air Law . That state is to inform the State of Registry immediately. This validation shall not extend beyond the period of validation of the original Certificate of Airworthiness.

. Date of Issue ……………… Signature …………………………. Aircraft Serial No * 4. Nationality or Common Mark and Registration Mark 2. * For use by the State of Registry or common mark registering authority Air Law 6-3 . Manufacture and Manufacturer’s Designation of Aircraft 3. Categories …………………………………………………………………. in respect of the above-mentioned aircraft which is considered to be airworthy when maintained and operated in accordance with the foregoing and the pertinent operating limitations. This Certificate of Airworthiness is issued pursuant to the Convention on International Civil Aviation dated 7th December 1944 and ……………………..Airworthiness of Aircraft Chapter 6 CERTIFICATE OF AIRWORTHINESS * State of Registry Issuing Authority CERTIFICATE OF AIRWORTHINESS 1.

Chapter 6 Airworthiness of Aircraft 6-4 Air Law .

Air Law 7-1 . for the time being. The Rules are defined as general rules with additional rules for flight under VFR and flight under IFR. Together the general rules and rules for flight under VFR are known as the Visual Flight Rules. rules were established to prevent accidents. Whilst these may seem somewhat quaint or unnecessary in the age of digital data and radar systems. the rules of the air as defined in ICAO Annex 1 apply. PIC is the pilot who. Compliance with the Rules of the Air When an aircraft is in flight or on the movement area of an aerodrome it must comply with a set of rules known as the Rules of the Air. is responsible for the operation of the aircraft in accordance with the rules of the air. When in flight it must comply with either the Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). ICAO Annex 1 retains the original definition of Commander which is synonymous with PIC. The JAA recently revised the definitions of PIC and Commander to cover the situation where a ‘cruise crew’ is employed on long haul operations. the rules of the air of that state have priority over the rules of the air of the State of Registry. Note: ‘PIC’ should not be confused with ‘Commander’. the ‘mark one eyeball’ still functions. It could be that the Commander is absent from the flight deck resting. without exception. whether at the controls or not. is responsible for piloting the aeroplane. or the Visual Flight Rules (VFR).INTRODUCTION From the early days of flying. When an aircraft is flying outside of the airspace of the State of Registry and outside of the airspace of any other state. Reference: Annex 2— Rules of the Air Territorial Application of the RoA Wherever an aircraft is flying in the world. the rules of the air of the State of Registry of that aircraft apply to that aircraft. Responsibility for Compliance with the Rules of the Air The PIC. The PIC may depart from the rules of the air in the interests of safety. The general rules and rules for flight under IFR are known as the Instrument Flight Rules. When flying over the territory of another state. when the new technology fails. These rules are now known as the Rules of the Air (RoA). Many of the basic rules now in force have their origins in the days before the use of radios in aircraft and are based on visual observation of activity in the air and on the ground. whilst another designated pilot is the PIC. The Commander is the pilot (he/she must be a pilot) responsible for the conduct of the flight.

7-2 Air Law . In any event. Flights away from the vicinity of an aerodrome. in the event of an emergency (the failure of the critical power unit). GENERAL RULES NEGLIGENT OR RECKLESS OPERATION OF AIRCRAFT An aircraft shall not be operated in a manner so as to endanger life or property of others. above the Transition Altitude. over whose territories the areas are established. or where applicable. AVOIDANCE OF COLLISIONS Always maintain a good look-out to detect potential collisions. flights are conducted at flight levels (FLs) for flights above the lowest useable FL or where applicable. or with specific permission from the appropriate authority. Authority of the Pilot in Command (PIC) of an Aircraft The PIC of an aircraft shall have final authority over the disposition of an aircraft while in command. a landing to be made without undue hazard to persons or property on the surface. or Drugs No person is permitted to pilot an aircraft. a report is to be submitted to the authority within 10 days. MINIMUM HEIGHTS An aircraft is not to be flown over the congested areas of cities. a consideration of the fuel requirements and alternative actions if the flight cannot be completed as planned. CRUISING LEVELS When established in the cruise. by reason of which that person’s capacity to act is impaired. Narcotics. Use of Intoxicating Liquor. PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED AREAS Aircraft are not to be flown in Prohibited or Restricted Areas except in accordance with the conditions of the restrictions. the flight conditions or the class of airspace in which the aircraft is operating. towns or settlements.Chapter 7 Rules of the Air Pre-Flight Action The PIC of an aircraft must plan the flight after having pre-briefed himself with all available information appropriate to the flight. and all IFR flights shall include a meteorological brief. unless at a height that will permit. or any narcotic or drug. and while operating on the movement area of an aerodrome. Minimum heights for VFR and IFR flights are covered in the later sections. or by the permission of the state. regardless of the type of flight. If for safety reasons the PIC decides to ignore the rules of the air or not comply with an ATC clearance. or over an open air assembly of persons. at or below the Transition Altitude. or at an altitude for flights below the lowest usable FL. he/she must report the non-compliance as soon as possible. Exceptions to this rule are during take-off and landing. Note: The movement area of an aerodrome includes the apron and the manoeuvring area. or act as flight crew while under the influence of intoxicating liquor.

Rules of the Air Chapter 7 Proximity An aircraft is not to be operated so close to another aircraft so as to create a collision hazard. Why to the right? Because it is the RIGHT thing to do!) Approaching Head-On In the event that you see an aircraft approaching head-on. and observe the other aircraft whilst the collision risk exists. must not pass over. from the responsibility of taking such action where necessary.10° of aircraft heading). Nothing in these rules relieves the PIC of an aircraft that has the right of way. unless it is well clear and takes into account the effect of wake turbulence. (“Turn the RIGHT way”. both are required to alter heading to the right. and there is a danger of collision. Approaching Head-On When two aircraft are approaching head-on. or in front of that aircraft. Air Law 7-3 . including collision avoidance manoeuvres based on resolution advisories provided by ACAS equipment. Giving Way Any aircraft that is obliged to keep out of the way of another aircraft (give way). There is no priority of aircraft type in this case. The aircraft that has the right of way is required to maintain its heading and speed. or approximately so (+/. Right of Way Right of way means the right to proceed without alteration of course. under. you and the pilot of the other aircraft must alter your courses to the right.

go ahead. Power-driven aircraft shall give way to aircraft which are seen to be towing other aircraft or objects. the aircraft that has the other on its right shall give way. Gliders shall give way to balloons. Green to Red. and balloons. Converging This aircraft. you could end up dead. all serene. Old Pilots saying: Green to Green.Chapter 7 Rules of the Air Converging When two aircraft are converging at approximately the same level. you must be seen. If you are in this aircraft to the left. on the other's right. 7-4 Air Law . Airships shall give way to gliders and balloons. has the right-of-way. Red to Red. Red to Green. gliders. you must give way by turning away in a manner that will not interfere with the other aircraft's flight path. Converging Exceptions The following exceptions apply to the general rule for converging aircraft: Power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft (aeroplanes) shall give way to airships.

or operating on the ground. whether climbing. shall give way to aircraft landing or in the final stages of an approach to land. being overtaken. No change in the relative positions of the two aircraft absolves the overtaking aircraft from this obligation until it is entirely past and clear. descending. As you overtake another aircraft travelling in the same direction. you must pass well clear on the Note: The overtaking aircraft is in a position where it is unable to see either the aircraft’s left (red light) or right (green light) navigation lights.Rules of the Air Chapter 7 Overtaking An aircraft that is being overtaken has the right of way and the overtaking aircraft. Emergency Landing An aircraft that is aware that another aircraft is compelled to land shall give way to that aircraft. or in horizontal flight. An overtaking aircraft is an aircraft that approaches from the rear on a line forming an angle of less than 70º. Taking-off An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome shall give way to aircraft taking-off or about to take-off. The pilot of an aircraft is to be alert at all times to the possibility of being overtaken. No aircraft shall take advantage of this rule by cutting in front of another aircraft that is on its final approach. shall keep out of the way by altering its heading to the right. Air Law 7-5 . Power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft shall give way to gliders. Approaching to land When two or more heavier-than-air aircraft are approaching an aerodrome to land (straight in approach or final to land). Landing An aircraft in flight. therefore before commencing a turn. has the right-of-way. a good visual scan is to be made to starboard and port as far as the view from the flight deck window will allow. aircraft at the higher level shall give way to aircraft at the lower level. Overtaking This aircraft.

Lights to be Displayed by Aircraft The manner of lighting aircraft is covered in Operational Procedures. Note 2: Red anti collision lights may meet the requirements above provided that they do not subject observers to harmful dazzle. each shall stop. Stopping An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area shall stop and hold at all taxi-holding positions unless authorized by the aerodrome control tower to continue. (2) Note 1: Lights such as landing lights and airframe floodlights may be used in addition to the anti collision light to enhance aircraft conspicuity. all aircraft on the movement area of an aerodrome shall display lights intended to indicate the extremities of their structure and to attract attention to the aircraft. all aircraft in flight or on the movement area of an aerodrome must display: Anti collision lights intended to attract the attention of other aircraft. alter its course to the right so as to keep well clear. the one that has the other on its right shall give way. No other lights shall be displayed if they are likely to be mistaken for the navigation lights. or approximately so. The law specifies the use of lights.Chapter 7 Rules of the Air Surface Movement of Aircraft When there is a danger of collision between two aircraft taxiing on the movement area of an aerodrome the following rules apply: Head-On Where two aircraft are approaching head-on. When Lights must be Displayed From sunset to sunrise (or during any other period prescribed by the appropriate authority). Navigation lights intended to indicate the relative path of the aircraft to an observer. The overtaking aircraft shall keep well clear of the other aircraft. or where practicable. Unless stationary. and otherwise adequately illuminated. When the stop bar lights are switched off the aircraft may proceed. 7-6 Air Law . Overtaking An aircraft that is being overtaken by another aircraft shall have the right of way. Converging When two aircraft are on a converging course. (1) All aircraft operating on the movement area of an aerodrome whose engines are running shall display lights which indicate that fact. This includes lighted stop bars.

Practice Instrument Approaches When a pilot is making an instrument approach for practice in VMC. shall display these lights at all times. in communication with the safety pilot. of an aerodrome (inside or outside of an Aerodrome Traffic Zone (ATZ)) are to: Observe other aerodrome traffic for the purpose of avoiding collision. FLIGHT PLANS In this section. Operation on and In the Vicinity of an Aerodrome Pilots of aircraft operating on. SIMULATED INSTRUMENT FLIGHT (SIF) In order to train pilots in instrument flying. Harmful or Dazzling Lights Pilots are permitted to switch off. The process of submitting a FPL is called ‘filing’ a FPL. and Land and take-off into the wind unless safety. the light is to be repaired prior to the next flight. the runway configuration. Anti-Collision Lights All aircraft. Make all turns to the left. an aircraft shall not be flown under SIF conditions unless it has fully functioning dual controls and a qualified pilot (who does not need to be class/type rated on the aircraft) occupies a control seat to act as safety pilot for the person who is flying under simulated instrument flying conditions. Therefore. or subject an outside observer to harmful dazzle. or in the vicinity. in flight or operating on the movement area of an aerodrome. The UK CAA format is the form CA48 that follows the ICAO standard FPL filing form. or is to be conducted in airspace where the authority has determined that a FPL is to be submitted. This requires some means of limiting the vision of the pilot flying. Where the vision of the safety pilot is not adequate. instrument meteorology conditions (IMC) have to be simulated. If an anti-collision light fails in flight. or avoid. the pattern of traffic formed by other aircraft in operation. the term ‘Flight Plan’ refers to an ATC flight plan (FPL). ATC is to be informed and the aircraft is to land and have the light repaired before continuing the flight. a competent observer. any flashing lights if they adversely affect the satisfactory performance of duties. shall occupy a position in the aircraft from which the field of vision of the observer adequately supplements that of the safety pilot. ATC authorities provide approved formats for the information required in filing a full FPL.Rules of the Air Chapter 7 Failure of Lights When a pilot is aware that a navigation light has failed. An ATC FPL is the method by which the authority is notified of the intention of a pilot to make a flight where that flight is to be provided with an ATC service. The safety pilot should have adequate vision forward and to each side of the aircraft. or reduce the intensity of. Conform with. ATC is to be informed and the aircraft landing lights are to be illuminated to draw the attention of other pilots to the aircraft. when approaching for landing or taking-off unless otherwise instructed. that are fitted with anticollision lights. or an air traffic consideration determines that a different direction should be used. The student should Air Law 7-7 . Non-compliance with the Rules of the Air will be in effect during visual meteorological conditions (VMC).

in some circumstances it is not practical to use a form. 7-8 Air Law . the FPL is to be filed at least 60 minutes before departure. For flights subject to ATFM. Where and When to File a FPL When a FPL is necessary for a flight. the flight must be repeated 10 times or more. electronic media. and Any flight across international borders. or The point of crossing an airway or advisory route. the FPL is to be filed at least 10 minutes before the aircraft is estimated to reach: The intended point of entry into an area where ATC or advisory ATC is to be provided.Chapter 7 Rules of the Air note that a FPL is what the pilot intends to do. a repetitive FPL (RPL) may be filed. For instance. file it to an Air Traffic Services (ATS) reporting office before departure. Delays after Filing In the event of a delay of 30 minutes in excess of the estimated off-block time for a controlled flight or a delay of one hour for an uncontrolled flight for which a flight plan has been submitted. Indeed. This period is also required for filing FPLs for flight in Oceanic Control Areas (OCAs). Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) To comply with the requirements of ATFM. Where the authority has determined that a FPL should be filed to facilitate coordination between civilian and military authorities or between the ATC services of adjacent states to avoid the need for interception for identification purposes. Any IFR flight in advisory airspace. not the form upon which the plan is filed. Any flight into authority designated areas or along designated routes where the appropriate ATC service is required to provide a flight information service (FIS). In the case of scheduled operations or multiple repeats of a flight. mail. and search and rescue (SAR) service. A pilot can file an FPL in flight by radio to an ATS unit. which becomes the defined departure time for that flight. a FPL is to be filed not less than 3 hours before departure. a flight across the English/Scottish border crosses the FIR boundary but does not cross an international boundary. and the pilot’s intention (his/her flight plan) may be communicated by radio to the ATC unit. or verbally (phone). The method of delivering the completed FPL form may be by hand. the ATC authority issues an estimated off-blocks time (EOBT). 60 minutes For a flight to be provided with an ATC service or advisory ATC. or an Air/Ground radio station. fax. Note: Flight across a Flight Information Region (FIR) boundary does not necessarily require the filing of a FPL. it cannot be delivered by hand because the security staff will not let you in. If the FPL is filed directly to the ATC Centre (ATCC). alerting service. To file an RPL. the flight plan should be amended or a new flight plan submitted and the old flight plan cancelled. FPLs are required to be filed before: Any flight or portion of a flight requiring an ATC service. 10 minutes For the filing of a FPL in flight. or repeated over a period of not less than 10 days.

including overdue action and costly SAR operations. or by data link. Note: ‘Departure’ is not defined. the PIC may request an amended clearance. For other VFR flights. When flying along a defined ATS route. ATC Clearances Commencement of a controlled flight may only be commenced after the receipt of an ATC clearance. Closing a FPL Until a FPL is closed. If an ATC clearance received is not satisfactory or cannot be complied with.’ It also includes ATC instructions to be complied with by the pilot. Current Flight Plan (CPL) Flight in accordance with an ATC clearance and any subsequent re-clearance. Destination aerodrome in the case of a diversion to an alternate aerodrome. Time of arrival. make the report to the nearest ATCU. or a VFR FPL for a controlled VFR flight. Air Law 7-9 . communicate the necessary changes to the ATCU as soon as practicable. Time In all communications. time is to be expressed as Co-ordinated Universal Time (UTC) utilising the 24 hour clock. it remains active and subject to ATC action. only significant changes need to be reported.Rules of the Air Chapter 7 Non-scheduled Non-commercial International Flights Annex 9 requires that non-scheduled. fly the aircraft directly between the navigation facilities used or the points that define the route. Departure aerodrome. by radio. Such a report is to contain: Aircraft identification. Adherence to the FPL A pilot operating a controlled flight is required to adhere to the CPL. Before taxiing at a controlled aerodrome a taxi clearance is to be obtained. the aircraft is to be flown along the centre line of the route. is defined as flight in accordance with the current FPL (CPL). Changing a FPL If it becomes necessary to change an IFR FPL. It is generally accepted to be the time at which the flight is intended to begin. If no defined ATS route exists. A time check is to be obtained before operating a controlled flight. Arrival aerodrome. the pilot is to make a report shortly before landing by RTF to the appropriate ATCU providing the ATC service. At the completion of a flight for which a FPL is filed. At an uncontrolled aerodrome. the pilot is to make a report to the ATCU at the arrival aerodrome in person. An initial ATC clearance includes the words ‘clear to…. non-commercial flights crossing an international boundary are to be filed at least 2 hours before the aircraft is planned to land in the destination state. If the facilities at the destination aerodrome are inadequate and no other procedures are in force.

Variation in TAS If TAS at cruising level changes (or is expected to change) by 5% or more from that given in the FPL. then Fly a normal instrument approach. If flying in IMC (2): Maintain the last assigned speed and/or level. the ETA is to be revised to ATC. Midhurst next” Termination of Control When a controlled flight leaves controlled airspace (CAS). maintain VMC and land at the nearest suitable aerodrome. for a period of 20 minutes after the failure to report over the last compulsory reporting point(3) . Proceed in accordance with the FPL to the navigation facility serving the destination aerodrome and hold on that facility. the next position and ETA should be included and optionally the ensuing position. Additional information may be requested by the ATC authority. Such reports are to be made 30 minutes after commencement of the flight. COMMUNICATIONS A controlled flight is required to maintain two way RTF communications with the controlling ATCU. ATC is to be informed as soon as possible once the aircraft lands. and Descend from the facility at the last received and acknowledged Expected Approach Time (EAT). Where approved a SELCAL watch is an acceptable alternative. if flying in VMC. position. Position Reports Unless specifically exempted by the ATC authority. Change in ETA If the ETA changes by more than +/-3 minutes. Where automatic altitude reporting has been confirmed. and altitude or FL. then. time at that position. A position report includes: aircraft identification. inform the ATC. Bookman’s Park at 49. For an airways report.Chapter 7 Rules of the Air Inadvertent Changes If a controlled flight deviates from the CPL. An example of a full airways position report is: “London Control this is Atlantic 123. or where no EAT has been issued. then at hourly intervals. and Land within 30 minutes of the ETA. in addition to squawking Mode A/7600 and maintaining a visual watch for signals. the requirement to maintain voice RTF remains. FL 170. a pilot of a controlled flight is to make position reports at the designated reporting points. omit the altitude report. Daventry at 33. In an Oceanic Control Area. the pilot reports that the aircraft is ‘clear of CAS’ at which point the provision of an ATC service ceases. Communication Failure(1) If an aircraft is unable to communicate (receive and acknowledge ATC instructions and indicate a state of emergency).3 mins or more. If Controller/Pilot Data Link Communication (CPDLC) has been established. at the ETA from the FPL (4). the following action is to be taken: Deviation from Track Adjust the heading to regain the desired track as soon as practicable. 7-10 Air Law . position reports are to be made at intervals determined by the ATC authority. If no reporting points are specified for a route. report changes in ETA of +/.

If the authority of a state has suspicions that a flight is not what is supposed to be. satellite telephone. A departing controlled IFR flight vectored by radar away from the route specified in its current flight plan and experiencing two-way radio communication failure should proceed in the most direct manner to the route specified in the current flight plan. if the pilot finds VMC then the aircraft should attempt to land whilst maintaining VMC. These may include VHF. maintain the level to which it was cleared for a period of 7 minutes and then continue its flight in accordance with the current flight plan. or has entered the airspace of a state without permission. ICAO has formulated standard phraseology (reproduced below) and signals to be used in this situation. and SSR. Note 4: If a communication failure occurs to an aircraft in a terminal holding pattern after the receipt of an ATC message indicating ‘delay not determined’ the descent at ETA would be dangerous as aircraft may still be in the holding pattern below. if no time limit or geographical limit was included in the climb clearance. Interception Each State has the right to protect its territory and to satisfy itself that any aircraft applying the freedoms of the air is bona-fide. having acknowledged an initial intermediate clearance to climb to a level other than the one specified in the current flight plan for the enroute phase of the flight. HF. Consideration should be given to squawking A/7700. find VMC and land. SATCOM. and there is a strong likelihood that the military pilot may not speak English. Interception Phraseology It is usual for military interceptor aircraft to be used for this purpose.Rules of the Air Chapter 7 Note 1: An aircraft may have many different systems for communication. cell phones. Note 2: Clearly. Data Link. it may invoke a process of interception. and experiencing two-way radio communication failure should. Total communications failure in a modern aircraft is a remote possibility. the advice is to leave the holding pattern in a safe direction maintaining the last assigned level. Note 3: This would be the time when it can be assumed safely that the ATC authority is now aware of the communications failure situation. at any time during the procedure for failure in IMC. Air Law 7-11 . Communications Failure During a Standard Instrument Departure in European Airspace A departing controlled IFR flight operating in IMC. ATC can also transmit voice RTF on the localiser channel of ILS. In this case.

VMC exists along the entire route. the pilot is the sole arbiter. or that alternate aerodromes are available for landing without flight in IMC. Unlawful Interference An aircraft subject to unlawful interference is to attempt to communicate the fact to the ATC authority together with details of any deviation from the CPL necessitated by the situation. the pilot is required to have the tables available and use them. If interception occurs after communication with the ATC authority of a state by military aircraft of that state. Indeed. then ATC will be aware of. In conditions less than VMC in a control zone (CTR) a pilot may request an ATC clearance to fly under modified VFR called Special VFR (SVFR). learning the tables is not required. The SSR system should be set to A/7500 unless A/7700 is more appropriate. In any event.Chapter 7 Rules of the Air Table: Interception Phraseology Phrases for use by INTERCEPTING Aircraft Phrase CALL SIGN FOLLOW DESCEND YOU LAND PROCEED Pronunciation KOL SA-IN FOL-LO DEE-SEND YOU-LAND PRO-SEED Meaning What is your call sign? Follow me Descend for landing Land at this aerodrome You may proceed Phrases for use by INTERCEPTED Aircraft Phrase CALL SIGN WILCO CAN NOT REPEAT AM LOST MAYDAY HIJACK LAND (Place name) DESCEND Pronunciation KOL SA-IN VILL-CO KANN-NOTT REE-PEET AM LOSST MAYDAY HI-JACK LAAND DEE-SEND Meaning My call sign is Understood. a pilot without authorisation to fly under IFR is required to satisfy him/herself that before beginning a flight under VFR. In determining the existence of VMC. Further advice on the management of situations of unlawful interference will be the subject of specific instruction by the operator during airline indoctrination. 7-12 Air Law . If a pilot is unsure as to the existence of VMC he/she should assume IMC and fly under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). VISUAL FLIGHT RULES (VFR) When permitted by the class of airspace and in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) a pilot may elect to fly under the Visual Flight Rules (VFR). will comply Unable to comply Repeat your instruction Position unknown I am in distress I have been hijacked I request to land at (Place name) I require descent International Interception Signal Tables The carriage of the International Interception Signal Tables is mandatory for international flights and as such. and may have been instrumental in ordering the interception. it is considered dangerous to do so. The International Interception Signal Tables are reproduced at Appendix 1 at the end of this chapter. It is recommended that an aircraft being intercepted squawks A/7700. In an interception situation.

2. When the ATS authority prescribe: a. in areas of low volume traffic and for aerial work at low levels. or proscribe VFR flights between sunset and sunrise. VFR flights cannot take-off or land at an aerodrome in a CTR. whichever is higher G At and below 900 m (3000 ft) AMSL or 300 m (1000 ft) above terrain. 3.9. Airspace Class A. B. Limits Unless authorized by the appropriate ATS authority. or enter an aerodrome traffic zone or traffic pattern when: The ceiling is less than 1500 ft The visibility is less than 5 km Night ATS authorities may impose conditions. FL 100 should be used in lieu of 10 000 ft. D & E (Note 3) F Above 900 m (3000 ft) AMSL or above 300 m (1000 ft) above terrain. the VMC minima applicable to the RoA as defined in Annex 2 are stated in Annex 2. b. As the reference for this section of the LOs is ICAO Annex 2. or 2) In circumstances in which the probability of encounters with other traffic would normally be low e. The major difference is in the VMC minima specified for class B airspace. C.g. VFR flights are not operated above FL200 or at transonic and supersonic speeds. Chapter 3. The ICAO minima are different from those stated in JAR OPS-1 and those applied by the UK CAA. Helicopters may be permitted to operate in less than 1500 m flight visibility. and paragraph 3. Air Law 7-13 . Lower flight visibilities to 1500 m may be permitted for flights operating: 1) At speeds that. When the height of the transition altitude is lower than 3050 m (10 000 ft) AMSL. These are graphically illustrated in table 3-1 which is reproduced below. The inclusion of VMC minima for Class A airspace does not imply permitted VFR in Class A airspace. Take-off and Landing Except when a clearance is given from an ATCU. give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision. whichever is higher Clear of cloud and in sight of the surface 5 km (Note 2) Distance From Cloud Flight Visibility 1500 m horizontally 300 m (1000 ft) vertically 8 km at and above 3050 m (10 000 ft) AMSL 5 km below 3050 m (10 000 ft) AMSLA (Note 1) Notes: 1. if manoeuvred at a speed that gives adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision.Rules of the Air Chapter 7 VMC Minima VMC is determined by a required forward visibility from the flight deck (flight visibility) and required vertical and horizontal distances from cloud. in the prevailing visibility.

towns or settlements. or over an open air assembly of persons. the flight rules to be observed are indicated in field 8 of the form.Chapter 7 Rules of the Air Minimum Heights Except when necessary for take-off and landing. Elsewhere. Aide memoir: VFR requires good VIZ. request a SVFR clearance. In order for commercial aviation to meet the expectations of the travelling public. the pilot is to: Request an amended clearance to continue to the destination aerodrome by another route remaining in VMC. Weather Deterioration below VMC If it becomes evident that a controlled VFR flight will not remain in VMC. a VFR flight shall not be flown: Over the congested areas of cities. or File an IFR FPL. VFR Flight Plan When a flight plan for a VFR flight is filed using the ICAO standard form. (VIZ) INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES Where VMC does not exist. or when operated as special VFR flights. flight in IMC has to be made possible and safe. VFR Flight Levels Except where indicated in ATC clearances or specified by the appropriate ATS authority. the commercial pilot must be satisfied that the aircraft is properly equipped for IFR flight and that any commercial pilot permitted to fly the aeroplane under IFR has an instrument rating (IR). IMC must exist. shall maintain a continuous listening watch on the appropriate radio frequency. C and D airspace. the entry in field 8 is “V”. VFR flights in level cruising flight when operated above 900 m (3000 ft) from the ground or water. 7-14 Air Law . or areas specified by the appropriate ATS authority. at a height less than 150 m (500 ft) above the ground or water. In IMC the ability to navigate with reference to the ground and to maintain a good look out for possible collision hazards is not always possible. the letter “Z” is entered in field 8. The aircraft must report its position as necessary to the ATS unit providing the FIS. or a higher datum as specified by the appropriate ATS authority. For VFR. or Land at the nearest useable aerodrome. In order to fly in IMC a commercial pilot must elect to fly under the Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). or If operating in a CTR. V to I = Z. are to be conducted at a flight level appropriate to the magnetic track as specified in the table of cruising levels. If it is intended that the flight will start under VFR and at some point change to IFR. Radio Watch A VFR flight operating within ATS routes. or where permission has been granted from the appropriate authority. when forming part of aerodrome traffic at a controlled aerodrome. Before electing to fly under IFR. ATC Clearances VFR flights shall comply with the provisions laid out in ATC clearances when operated in Class B. at a height less than 300 m (1000 ft) above the highest obstacle within a radius of 600 m from the aircraft.

and intended. an IFR flight shall be flown at a level which is at least 300 m (1000 ft) above the highest obstacle within 8 km (5 nm) of the estimated position of the aircraft. an IFR flight is to be flown at a level which is not below the minimum flight altitude established by the state whose territory is being over flown. this is increased to 600 m (2000 ft). IFR cancelled at time …. RULES APPLICABLE TO IFR FLIGHTS OUTSIDE CONTROLLED AIRSPACE An IFR flight operating in level cruising flight outside controlled airspace is flown at a cruising level appropriate to the magnetic track as specified in the table of cruising levels. Note: ‘Reasonable period’ is interpreted as about 1/3rd of the total expected flight time. The phraseology used is: “Coventry Approach this is Atlantic 123. Air Law 7-15 . between two levels or above a level. RULES APPLICABLE TO IFR FLIGHTS WITHIN CONTROLLED AIRSPACE IFR flights shall comply with the provisions of the rules laid out in ATC clearances. joining visually for runway…. Change from IFR Flight to VFR Flight An aircraft wishing to change from IFR to VFR in flight shall notify the appropriate ATS unit that the IFR flight is cancelled and communicate the changes to be made to the current flight plan to allow the flight to continue under VFR. IFR shall not be cancelled unless it is anticipated. cancel IFR.” Note: It is the IFR flight that is cancelled. The exact requirements are detailed in JAR OPS1 and are covered in Operational Procedures. Note: Mountainous terrain is defined as terrain over which the prevailing wind of 37 kts produces significant downdraughts. The correlation to track does not apply when indicated in ATC clearances or specified in the appropriate ATS authority AIP.Rules of the Air Chapter 7 Aircraft Equipment All aircraft flying under IFR are required to be equipped with suitable instruments and navigation equipment appropriate to the route to be flown. In mountainous terrain. that the flight will be continued for a reasonable period of time in uninterrupted VMC. or when specifically authorized by the appropriate authority. or encounters VMC.” The reply must be “Atlantic 123 roger. not the IFR flight plan. or if authorized to employ cruise climb techniques. Temporary Cancellation of IFR When an aircraft operating under IFR is flown in. IFR FLIGHT LEVELS An IFR flight operating in cruising flight shall be flown at a cruising level. selected from the table of cruising levels found after this section. If a minimum altitude has not been established. Minimum Levels Except when necessary for take-off and landing.

Both references require a minimum flight visibility of 1500 m to continue a SVFR flight. comply with IFR in a CTR he/she may request a special VFR (SVFR) clearance to: Enter a CTR to land at an aerodrome within the CTR. or To fly between aerodromes within a CTR. In busy CTRs. or has good reason not to. Aide memoir: IFR to VFR = Y. SVFR traffic lanes (SVFR corridors) are established as standard SVFR routes beginning at specified points on the CTR boundary and terminating at the aerodrome served by the route. and can navigate the aircraft by visual means. Take off from an aerodrome within a CTR and depart from the CTR. JAR OPS requires a ground visibility of not less than 3000 m. Two-way communications must be established with the ATS unit providing the FIS. SVFR is only applicable to CTRs. maintain a listening watch on the appropriate frequency or establish two way communications with the appropriate ATS authority. Procedure The clearance given permits flight in meteorological conditions less than VMC providing the pilot remains clear of cloud and in sight of the ground.Chapter 7 Rules of the Air COMMUNICATIONS All IFR flights operating outside controlled airspace but within or into areas. POSITION REPORTS Position reports are to be made by all IFR flights operating outside controlled airspace. If it is intended that the flight will start under IFR and at some point change to VFR. Provision of SVFR Where a pilot cannot. SPECIAL VFR (SVFR) SVFR is defined as a clearance to fly within a CTR in conditions less than VMC in which the pilot remains clear of cloud and in visual contact with the ground. ATCOs will provide separation of IFR flights from SVFR flights. and by aircraft which are required by the appropriate ATS authority to submit a flight plan. The limit of the clearance is to or from the CTR boundary and does not extend beyond the CTR. For IFR. the letter “Y” is entered in field 8. It will not be offered by ATC. IFR FLIGHT PLAN When a flight plan for an IFR flight is filed using the ICAO standard form. A pilot must request SVFR. a SVFR clearance overrides the requirement for mandatory compliance with IFR. or along routes designated by the appropriate ATS authority shall maintain a listening watch on the appropriate radio frequency. In class A airspace. (IVY). Take-off Conditions According to ICAO a SVFR flight may take off from an aerodrome in a CTR providing the ground visibility is not less than 1500 m. Under certain circumstances. 7-16 Air Law . the entry in field 8 is “I”. the flight rules to be observed are indicated in field 8 of the form.

50. 80 etc… up to 280 then 300 320 340 etc… up to 400 then 430 470 Etc… FLs 30. The basic rule is that vertical separation between IFR FLs below FL290 is 1000 ft. In areas where RVSM is applied. the separation is increased to 2000 ft to allow for the inaccuracies in barometric altimeters at altitudes where the barometric lapse rate is high (see Met notes).Rules of the Air Chapter 7 CRUISING LEVELS Semi Circular Rule The table of flight levels is based on VFR and IFR flight levels determined by reference to the magnetic track flown. 70 etc… up to 290 then 310 330 350 etc… up to 410 then 450 490 Etc… 000° Mag Even FLs Odd FLs Even FLs +500ft FLs 45 65 85 etc… up to 285 FLs 55 75 95 etc… up to 275 Odd FLs +500ft 180° Mag IFR Flight Levels In RVSM Airspace Air Law 180° Mag VFR Flight Levels 7-17 . 000° Mag FLs 40 60 80 etc… up to 280 then 310 350 390 etc… FLs 45 65 85 etc… up to 285 then 320 360 400 etc… 000° Mag Even FLs FLs 50 70 90 etc… up to 290 then 330 370 410 etc… Odd FLs Even FLs +500ft FLs 55 75 95 etc… up to 275 then 300 340 380 etc… Odd FLs +500ft 180° Mag IFR Flight Levels 180° Mag VFR Flight Levels In non – RVSM Airspace 000° Mag FLs 40. Above FL290. 60. as is the separation between VFR FLs. the table is modified.

Domestic Airspace In the upper airspace where RVSM is applied. In the upper airspace (in UIRs and OCAs) these levels quickly become occupied and congestion arises. a system of reduced vertical separation is applied whereby the 1000 ft separation between FLs is maintained up to FL410. from 24 Jan 2002 RVSM is applied between FL290 and FL410 inclusive (implying that FL290 is an RVSM level). and an SSR system with altitude reporting (mode C) connected to the system used for the automatic altitude control system. an automatic altitude control system (height lock). To overcome this (in part). the RVSM levels are defined as FL300 – FL410 (implying that FL290 is not an RVSM level). Where RVSM is applied.Chapter 7 Rules of the Air Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM) The desired cruising levels for turbo-jet aircraft are adjacent to the tropopause (typically FL350 – 370). This immediately doubles the available FLs between FL290 and the limit of the application. Oceanic Airspace In the upper airspace of an OCA. an altitude alerting system (activated by deviation from the selected altitude). FL410. Above FL410. Requirements To fly in airspace where RVSM is applied. the operator must be approved for RVSM operations. the inaccuracy in the altimeter operation is too great for continuation of the reduced minima. VFR flight is not permitted under any circumstance above FL285. Additionally. an aircraft must be equipped with two independent altitude measuring systems. This standard is known as Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM). 7-18 Air Law .

Rules of the Air Chapter 7 CRUISING LEVELS APPROPRIATE TO DIRECTION OF FLIGHT Track from 180° to 359° FL 430 (Outside of RVSM airspace) Track from 000° to 179° FL 410 FL 400 FL 390 FL 380 FL 370 FL 360 FL 350 FL 340 FL 330 FL 320 FL 310 FL 300 FL 290 FL 280 (Outside of RVSM airspace) Air Law 7-19 .

Chapter 7 Rules of the Air TABLE OF CRUISING LEVELS The cruising levels to be observed when required by Annex 2 are listed in the two tables below. by aircraft operating above FL 410 within designated portions of the airspace Note 2: Magnetic track. a modified table of cruising levels based on a nominal vertical separation minimum of 300 m (1000 ft) is prescribed for use. In areas where Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) of 300 m (1000 ft) is applied between FL 290 and FL 410 inclusive (1) TRACK (2) (3) From 000º to 179º IFR Flights Altitude FL 10 30 50 70 90 110 130 150 170 190 210 230 250 270 290 310 330 350 370 390 410 450 490 etc Metres 300 900 1500 2150 2750 3350 3950 4550 5200 5800 6400 7000 7600 8250 8850 9450 10 050 10 650 11 300 11 900 12 500 13 700 14 950 etc From 180º to 359º VFR Flights Altitude IFR Flights Altitude Feet 3500 5500 7500 9500 11 500 13 500 15 500 17 500 19 500 21 500 23 500 25 500 27 500 FL 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 430 470 510 etc Metres 600 1200 1850 2450 3050 3650 4250 4900 5500 6100 6700 7300 7900 8550 9150 9750 10 350 10 950 11 600 12 200 13 100 14 350 15 550 etc (3) VFR Flights Altitude Feet 2000 4000 6000 8000 10 000 12 000 14 000 16 000 18 000 20 000 22 000 24 000 26 000 28 000 30 000 32 000 34 000 36 000 38 000 40 000 43 000 47 000 51 000 etc FL 45 65 85 105 125 145 165 185 205 225 245 265 285 Metres 1350 2000 2600 3200 3800 4400 5050 5650 6250 6850 7450 8100 8700 Feet 4500 6500 8500 10 500 12 500 14 500 16 500 18 500 20 500 22 500 24 500 26 500 28 500 Feet 1000 3000 5000 7000 9000 11 000 13 000 15 000 17 000 19 000 21 000 23 000 25 000 27 000 29 000 31 000 33 000 35 000 37 000 39 000 41 000 45 000 49 000 etc FL 35 55 75 95 115 135 155 175 195 215 235 255 275 Metres 1050 1700 2300 2900 3500 4100 4700 5350 5950 6550 7150 7750 8400 Note 1: Except when. grid tracks as determined by a network of lines parallel to the Greenwich Meridian superimposed as a Polar Stereographic chart in which the direction towards the North Pole is employed as Grid North Note 3: Except where. or Polar areas at a latitude higher than 70º and within such extensions to those areas as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authorities. on the basis of regional air navigation agreements. from 090º to 269º and from 270º to 089º is prescribed to accommodate predominant traffic directions and appropriate transition procedures to be associated therewith are specified 7-20 Air Law . on the basis of regional air navigation agreements. under specified conditions.

or Polar areas at a latitude higher than 70º and within such extensions to those areas as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authorities. on the basis of regional air navigation agreements.Rules of the Air Chapter 7 In Other Areas TRACK (1) (2) From 000º to 179º IFR Flights Altitude FL 10 30 50 70 90 110 130 150 170 190 210 230 250 270 290 330 370 410 450 490 etc Metres 300 900 1500 2150 2750 3350 3950 4550 5200 5800 6400 7000 7600 8250 8850 10 050 11 300 12 500 13 700 14 950 etc From 180º to 359º VFR Flights Altitude IFR Flights Altitude Feet 3500 5500 7500 9500 11 500 13 500 15 500 17 500 19 500 21 500 23 500 25 500 27 500 30 000 34 000 38 000 42 000 46 000 50 000 etc FL 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 310 350 390 430 470 510 etc Metres 600 1200 1850 2450 3050 3650 4250 4900 5500 6100 6700 7300 7900 8550 9150 10 650 11 900 13 100 14 350 15 550 etc (2) VFR Flights Altitude Feet 2000 4000 6000 8000 10 000 12 000 14 000 16 000 18 000 20 000 22 000 24 000 26 000 28 000 31 000 35 000 39 000 43 000 47 000 51 000 etc FL 45 65 85 105 125 145 165 185 205 225 245 265 285 320 360 400 440 480 520 etc Metres 1350 2000 2600 3200 3800 4400 5050 5650 6250 6850 7450 8100 8700 9750 10 950 12 200 13 400 14 650 15 850 etc Feet 4500 6500 8500 10 500 12 500 14 500 16 500 18 500 20 500 22 500 24 500 26 500 28 500 32 000 36 000 40 000 44 000 48 000 52 000 etc Feet 1000 3000 5000 7000 9000 11 000 13 000 15 000 17 000 19 000 21 000 23 000 25 000 27 000 29 000 33 000 37 000 41 000 45 000 49 000 etc FL 35 55 75 95 115 135 155 175 195 215 235 255 275 300 340 380 420 460 500 etc Metres 1050 1700 2300 2900 3500 4100 4700 5350 5950 6550 7150 7750 8400 9150 10 350 11 600 12 800 14 000 15 250 etc Note 1: Magnetic track. Air Law 7-21 . grid tracks as determined by a network of lines parallel to the Greenwich Meridian superimposed as a Polar Stereographic chart in which the direction towards the North Pole is employed as Grid North Note 2: Except where. from 090º to 269º and from 270º to 089º is prescribed to accommodate predominant traffic directions and appropriate transition procedures to be associated therewith are specified.

the latter is expected to fly a series of racetrack patterns and to rock the aircraft each time it passes the intercepted aircraft You have been intercepted follow me Meaning Intercepted Aircraft Responds DAY or NIGHT Rocking aircraft. the intercepted aircraft (or to the right if the intercepted aircraft is a helicopter) and after acknowledgement. and normally to the left of.Chapter 7 Rules of the Air APPENDIX 1 TO CHAPTER 7 SIGNALS FOR USE IN THE EVENT OF INTERCEPTION Air-to-Air Visual Signals Both intercepting and intercepted aircraft must adhere strictly to the following signals. If the intercepted aircraft is not able to keep pace with the intercepting aircraft. The intercepting aircraft must pay particular attention to any signals given by the intercepted aircraft that indicate it is in a state of distress. (or to the right in the case of a helicopter) on the desired heading NOTE: Meteorological conditions or terrain may require the intercepting aircraft to reverse the positions and directions of the turn above. All signals must be given as per the tables below. normally to the left. Signals Initiated by Intercepting Aircraft and Responses by Intercepted Aircraft Intercepting Aircraft Signals 1 DAY or NIGHT Rocking aircraft and flashing navigational lights at irregular intervals (and landing lights in the case of a helicopter) from a position slightly above and ahead of. a slow level turn. flashing navigational lights at irregular intervals and following Understood will comply Meaning 7-22 Air Law .

at a height exceeding 170 ft but not exceeding 330 ft) above the aerodrome level. after overflying the runway in use or helicopter landing area. If unable to flash landing lights. and continue to circle runway in use or helicopter landing area. if. the intercepting aircraft uses the Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft DAY or NIGHT Use Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft DAY or NIGHT Use Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft Understood Understood Understood follow me Meaning Air Law 7-23 . flash any other lights available 5 DAY or NIGHT Regular switching on and off of all available lights but in such a manner as to be distinct from flashing lights 6 DAY or NIGHT Irregular flashing of all available lights In distress Cannot comply Aerodrome you have designated is inadequate Meaning Intercepting Aircraft Responds DAY or NIGHT If it is desired that the intercepted aircraft follow the intercepting aircraft to an alternate aerodrome. the intercepting helicopter makes a landing approach coming to hover near the landing area Meaning Intercepted Aircraft Responds DAY or NIGHT Rocking the aircraft Meaning You may proceed Understood will comply DAY or NIGHT Land at this aerodrome Lowering landing gear (if fitted). showing steady landing lights and overflying the runway in use or.Rules of the Air Chapter 7 Intercepting Aircraft Signals 2 DAY or NIGHT An abrupt breakaway manoeuvre from the intercepted aircraft consisting of a climbing turn of 90º or more without crossing the line of flight of the intercepted aircraft 3 DAY or NIGHT Lowering landing gear (if fitted). proceeding to land Understood will comply Signals Initiated by Intercepted Aircraft and Responses by Intercepting Aircraft Intercepted Aircraft Signals 4 DAY or NIGHT Raising landing gear (if fitted) and flashing landing lights while passing over runway in use or helicopter landing area at a height exceeding 1000 ft but not exceeding 2000 ft (in the case of a helicopter. overflying the helicopter landing area. showing steady landing lights and following the intercepting aircraft and. the intercepting aircraft raises its landing gear (if fitted) and uses Series 1 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft If it is decided to release the intercepted aircraft. landing is considered safe. In the case of helicopters. if the aircraft is a helicopter.

Chapter 7 Rules of the Air 7-24 Air Law .

The following signals may be used separately. However. or together: Use of the Morse code group XXX (---) The spoken words PAN PAN (repeated 3 times as an alerting signal) Assistance not Required When used separately. or The repeated switching on and off of the navigation lights in a manner that is distinctive from flashing navigation lights Air Law 8-1 . Distress Signals The state of DISTRESS means that an aircraft is in grave and imminent danger and requires immediate assistance. an aircraft in distress may use any means at its disposal to attract attention. and obtain help. make known its position. EMERGENCY SIGNALS Distress and Urgency Signals These signals are used to indicate that an aircraft (or other vehicle) is in a state of emergency. the pilot of an aircraft shall take the actions required by the signal. fired one at a time or at intervals A parachute flare showing a red light Urgency Signals The state of URGENCY exists when an aircraft has an urgent message to transmit regarding the safety of persons or property on board or within sight. or together. The signals are to be used only for the purposes indicated.Reference: Annex 2 – Rules of the Air INTRODUCTION When observing or receiving any of the following signals. The following signals may be used separately or together: Use of the Morse code group SOS ( --) The spoken word MAYDAY (repeated 3 times as an alerting signal) Rockets or shells showing red lights. No other signals that are likely to be confused with the authorised signals shall be used. the following signals mean that an aircraft wishes to give notice of difficulties that compel it to land without requiring immediate assistance: The repeated switching on and off of the landing lights.

All visual control rooms (VCR) in control towers are required to be equipped with a signal lamp capable of being aimed at a particular aircraft. if not so equipped. are also equipped with pyrotechnic (flare) cartridges and a means of firing them. and capable of transmitting visual Morse code. green. To complement this. a signal square is positioned on the aerodrome side of the control tower to give information to aircraft airborne. runway caravans. do not land Land at this aerodrome and proceed to apron Notwithstanding any previous instructions. During the hours of darkness by flashing the aircraft’s landing lights on and off twice or. When on the Ground During the hours of daylight by moving the aircraft’s ailerons or rudder. and white light.Chapter 8 Signals AERODROME SIGNALS Signals for Aerodrome Traffic Aircraft manoeuvring on or flying in the vicinity of an aerodrome are required to look out for and comply with visual signals from the ground. During the hours of darkness by flashing the aircraft’s landing lights on and off twice or. 8-2 Air Law . a signals mast is positioned near the control tower to give information to aircraft taxiing or stationary on the ground. by switching its navigation lights on and off twice. LIGHT FROM AERODROME CONTROL TO AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT Steady Green Steady Red Cleared to land Give way to other aircraft and continue circling Return for landing* Aerodrome unsafe. do not land for the time being * Clearances to land and taxi will be given in due course AIRCRAFT ON THE GROUND Cleared for take-off Stop Series of Green flashes Series of Red flashes Cleared to taxi Taxi clear of landing area in use Return to starting point on the aerodrome Series of White flashes Red Pyrotechnic ACKNOWLEDGEMENT When seen an acknowledgement is given by: When in Flight During the hours of daylight by rocking the aircraft’s wings. If an aerodrome accepts non-radio traffic. by switching its navigation lights on and off twice. VCRs and where situated. showing red. The following table contains the lamp and pyrotechnic signals from the VCR or a runway caravan. if not so equipped.

to indicate the landing direction. but other manoeuvres need not be confined to runways and taxiways. In the absence of a landing “T” pilots should observe the wind indicator (wind-sock) and land in the appropriate direction. A horizontal red square with one yellow diagonal when displayed in a signal area indicates that owing to the bad state of the manoeuvring area. Use of Runways and Taxiways A horizontal white dumbbell (the name of the shape) when displayed in a signal area indicates that aircraft are required to land. special precautions must be observed in approaching to land or in landing. or for any other reason. and taxi on runways and taxiways only. The same dumbbell but with black bars indicates that aircraft are required to land and take-off on runways only. The same signal may be displayed on the surface of a grass aerodrome without defined runways. L AND ING D IRE C T IO N L AND O R T AK E O FF T HIS WAY Air Law 8-3 . take-off.Signals Chapter 8 VISUAL GROUND SIGNALS These signals are displayed in the signal square: Prohibition of Landing A horizontal red square with yellow diagonals when displayed in a signal area indicates that landings are prohibited and that prohibition is likely to be prolonged. Direction for Take-off or Landing A horizontal white or orange landing T indicates the direction to be used by aircraft for landing and take-off.

X Runway X Taxiway Air Traffic Services Reporting Office The letter C vertically in black against a yellow background indicates the location of the ATS reporting office. These units are expressed in units of 10° to the nearest 10° of the magnetic compass. Marshalling Signals These signals are designed for use by the marshaller with hands illuminated as necessary to facilitate observation by the pilot. C Mandatory and Information Signs These signs are used on aerodromes. They are covered in detail in the aerodrome section of the notes. and facing the aircraft in a position: For Fixed Wing Aircraft For Helicopters 8-4 Forward of the left wing tip within view of the pilot Where the marshaller can best be seen by the pilot Air Law . yellow or white. Glider Flights in Operation A double white cross displayed horizontally in the signal area indicates that gliders are using the aerodrome. before landing and after take-off. QDM Boards Two digits displayed vertically at or near to the aerodrome control tower indicate the direction for take-off. Turns are normally made to the left and the absence of this signal implies left turns.Chapter 8 Signals Right Hand Traffic A right hand arrow of conspicuous colour (usually red and yellow stripes) indicates that turns are to be made to the right. 26 Closed Runways or Taxiways A cross of a single contrasting colour. displayed horizontally on runways or taxiways indicate an area unfit for the movement of aircraft.

Move Ahead Arms a little aside. the other arm moved across the body and extended to indicate position of the other marshaller. other arm moved across the body and extended to indicate direction of next marshaller. palms facing backward and repeatedly moved upward-backward from shoulder height. Speed of arm movement indicating rate of turn. This Bay Arms above head in vertical position with palms facing forward. TURN Turn to Your Left Right arm downward. Right or left arm down. Speed of arm movement indicating rate of turn. Proceed to Next Marshaller Right or left arm down. left arm repeatedly moved upwardbackward. Turn to Your Right Left arm downward.Signals Chapter 8 The aircraft engines are numbered: 1 Port (left) outer 2 Port (left) inner 3 Starboard (right) inner 4 Starboard (right) outer To Proceed Under Guidance of another Marshaller Marshaller directs pilot if traffic conditions on aerodrome require this action. Air Law 8-5 . right arm repeatedly moved upwardbackward.

palm downward. palms facing outwards. to indicate the number of the engine to be started. Release Brakes Raise arm. Slow Down Arms down with palms toward ground. then extend fingers. Start Engine(s) Left hand overhead with appropriate number of fingers extended. with fist clenched. Cut Engines Either arm and hand level with shoulder. CHOCKS Chocks Inserted Arms down. and circular motion of right hand at head level. 8-6 Air Law . move arms from extended position inwards. horizontally in front of the body. palms facing inwards. move arms outwards. The hand is moved sideways with the arm remaining bent. BRAKES Engage Brakes Raise arm.Chapter 8 Signals Stop Arms repeatedly crossed above the head (the rapidity of the arm movement should be related to the urgency of the stop ie the faster the movement the quicker the stop). Chocks Removed Arms down. horizontally in front of body. hand across the throat. then clench the fingers. and hand with fingers extended.

Move Back Arms by sides. swept forward and upward repeatedly to shoulder height. palms facing forward. Air Law 8-7 . then either right or left hand waved up and down indicating the left or right side engine(s) respectively should be slowed down. All Clear Right arm raised at elbow with thumb erect.Signals Chapter 8 Slow Down Engine(s) on Indicated Side Arms down with palms towards ground.

(c) Arms extended palms facing outwards. (a) Raise arm and hand with fingers extended horizontally in front of face. move arms outward. 1 engine shall be port outer engine. palms facing outwards. 4.Chapter 8 Signals SIGNALS FROM THE PILOT OF AN AIRCRAFT TO A MARSHALLER These signals are designed for use by a pilot in the cockpit with hands plainly visible to the marshaller. No. 2. For this purpose the aircraft engines shall be numbered as follows. No. the starboard inner engine and No. 3. then extend fingers. the starboard outer engine. (b) Raise arm with fist clenched horizontally in front of face. and illuminated as necessary to facilitate observation by the marshaller. move hands inwards to cross in front of face. Meaning Ready to start engine. (d) Hands crossed in front of face. the port inner engine. then clench fist. Meaning Brakes engaged. Meaning Remove chocks. Meaning Brakes released. No. 8-8 Air Law . (e) Raise the number of fingers on one hand indicating the number of the engine to be started. Meaning Insert chocks.

By using FLs all transiting aircraft in the vicinity of each other can be separated vertically without the need to reference to either local QNH or local QFE. This reference altitude is referred to as QNE. Therefore FL50 is 5000 feet above the pressure level of 1013 mb. QNE If the local QNH is below the limit of the altimeter subscale (usually about 930 mb). It is the altitude displayed at touchdown with 1013 mb set in the sub scale of the altimeter. Unit of Measure Altitude and height are measured in metres (the SI unit defined in Annex 5) or by use of the alternative SI unit of measure.Aircraft Operations (Document 8168Ops/611. This setting is referred to as QNH. The majority of altimeters in use in aircraft are calibrated in feet. the mean sea level barometric pressure derived for a known location is set in the altimeter sub scale. It is not.Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services (Document 4444 –RAC/501) EXPRESSION OF VERTICAL POSITION Altitude The vertical position of an aircraft with reference to mean sea level is referred to as altitude. Many pilots mistakenly think that QNE is the SPS. Air Law 9-1 . In order to overcome this. mb. the pilot is instructed to set the SPS (1013 mb) and land with a reference altitude displayed on the altimeter. Volume 1). Volume I . FL0 (flight level zero) exists at the vertical position where the barometric pressure is (or would be) 1013 mb. The alternative unit of measure will continue to be used until the North American states decide to fully metricise units of measure used in those states. Flight Levels Cruising levels are usually defined as Flight Levels (FLs). 1hPa = 1 mb). the altitude at touchdown will not be displayed. This setting is referred to as QFE. A flight level (FL) is the vertical position of an aircraft above a constant plane of equal barometric pressure. The standard pressure setting (SPS) is 1013 hPa (or the more commonly used unit. FLs are defined by thousands of feet with intervals of 500 ft. To display this on the aircraft altimeter. feet. To display this on the aircraft altimeter.References: Procedures for Air Navigation Services .Flight Procedures Procedures for Air Navigation Services . Height The vertical position of an aircraft with reference to a defined position on the surface of the Earth is referred to as height. and FL55 is 5500 ft above the pressure level of 1013 mb. the barometric pressure observed at a known location is set in the altimeter sub scale.

Chapter 9

Altimeter Settings Procedures

TRANSITION
Changing from QNH to SPS and the Reverse In order to maintain ATC separation between arriving and departing IFR flights, the points at which the altimeter setting is changed from QNH to SPS for departing aircraft, and from SPS to QNH for arriving aircraft is defined by the authority. ICAO requires that the authorities of all states define a transition altitude either generally or for each individual aerodrome. At the transition altitude the QNH is replaced by SPS for departing aircraft. By use of defined tables, the ATC authority at an aerodrome calculates the transition level at which arriving aircraft reset the altimeter subscale from SPS to QNH. Transition Altitude (TA) ICAO requires the TA at an aerodrome to be not less than 3000 ft. States are permitted to specify a general TA as in the case of the USA and Canada. In these states the TA is 18 000 ft. In the UK the TA varies between 3000 ft as generally applied, and 6000 ft for the London CTR. It has been suggested that a general TA of 6000 ft be applied over the whole of the UK. Transition Level (TL) Approach control offices or aerodrome control towers are required to establish the TL to be used in the vicinity of the aerodrome(s) for the appropriate period of time, on the basis of QNH reports and forecast msl pressure if required. Adjacent aerodromes may define a common TL based on the lowest of the aerodromes QNH. The TL is defined as the first available FL above the TA. Example of Determining the TL If the TA at an aerodrome is 3000 ft and the QNH is 1012 mb, when a departing pilot reaches 3000 ft the altimeter is reset from QNH to 1013 mb. This requires 1 mb to be ‘wound on’, increasing the displayed altitude by approx 27 ft. Thus the altimeter will read 3027 ft with 1013 set. The first FL above 3027 ft is FL35. This is then the TL. This assumes that FL35 is the first available FL. Some states specify a minimum depth to the Transition Layer (see below). For IFR traffic the first available FL would be FL40 (FL35 is a VFR FL). Transition Layer The airspace between the TA and TL is called the Transition Layer. Generally the maximum depth of the Transition Layer is 500 ft. However, some states (Norway for example) specify a minimum depth for the Transition Layer. In the case of Norway, it is 1000 ft. Note: In the above example of determining the TL, if the state specified a minimum depth of the Transition Layer of 1000 ft, the TL in that example would be 3027 + 1000 = 4027 ft. First available FL above 4027 is FL45.

9-2

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Chapter 9

Climbing through transition level, 1013 set, report FL Descending through transition level, QNH set, report altitude Set QNH 1003 TL Altimeter reads 3270 ft Transition Layer 230 ft Transition Level FL35 Altimeter reads 3230 ft

TAlt

Set 1013 Transition Altitude 3000 ft QNH 1003 mb

1003 mb 1013 mb

Reporting Vertical Position in the Transition Layer While ascending through the transition layer, vertical position is reported as a flight level (SPS is set), and as altitude when descending (QNH is set).

USE OF QNH OR QFE
Instrument Approach Pilots are normally instructed to set the QNH at the commencement of an instrument approach procedure even though the aircraft is above the TL. Use of QFE A pilot may elect to use either QNH or QFE as the reference for vertical position during an approach to land. When an aircraft is completing its approach using QFE, the datum reference for height will be the aerodrome elevation except where the elevation of a runway being used for an instrument approach is 2 m (7 ft) or more below the aerodrome elevation. Runway threshold elevation is always used as the reference for precision instrument approaches.

Air Law

9-3

Chapter 9

Altimeter Settings Procedures

FLIGHT PLANNING
Enroute Where a transition altitude has not been established, for flights enroute the vertical position of aircraft is expressed in terms of: Flight levels at or above the lowest usable flight level Altitudes below the lowest usable flight level Provision of Information Altimeter setting information is available from ATCUs and FICs to allow pilots to verify lowest enroute altitudes and lowest safe FLs and to calculate terrain clearance. The transition level should be included in an approach clearance when requested by the pilot or when the appropriate authority deems it necessary. QNH is included in approach clearances or clearances to enter the traffic circuit, and in taxi clearances for departing aircraft, except when it is known that the aircraft has already received the information. QFE is provided to aircraft on request or on a regular basis in accordance with local arrangements. Round Down Altimeter settings provided to aircraft are rounded down to the nearest lower whole hectopascal (mb). Pre-Flight Altimeter Operational Test The following test is carried out in an aircraft by flight crew members prior to commencement of a flight. With the aircraft at a known elevation on the aerodrome: Set the altimeter pressure scale on the current QNH/QFE setting Vibrate the instrument by tapping unless mechanical vibration is provided A serviceable altimeter indicates the elevation of the point selected, plus the height of the altimeter above this point, within a tolerance of: ± 20 m (60 ft) for altimeters with a test range of 0 to 9000 m (0 to 30 000 ft) ± 25 m (80 ft) for altimeters with a test range of 0 to 15 000 m (0 to 50 000 ft) Minimum Sector Altitude Within 25 nm of an aerodrome, the authority defines minimum sector altitudes (MSA) for each quadrant of the magnetic compass. The MSA is the lowest altitude to which an approaching aircraft (under approach control) is permitted to descend prior to commencing an instrument approach or before visual contact with the ground is established and maintained. The MSA is published on each approach plate for the aerodrome.

9-4

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Altimeter Settings Procedures

Chapter 9

MSA shown on SID plate

MSA shown on arrival plate

Air Law

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Chapter 9

Altimeter Settings Procedures

9-6

Air Law

References: Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Aircraft Operations (Document 8168OPS/611, Volume 1), Volume I - Flight Procedures

INTRODUCTION
It is not always possible to operate in good visual met conditions. Modern aircraft and radio navigation facilities permit operations in poor weather and low visibility so that a scheduled commercial service can meet the commitment of the schedule and the expectation of the travelling public. In ATC the use of radar has revolutionised terminal control but there is still a need for the pilot to gain some sort of visual criteria (visual contact with the ground) during landing operation. To this end, highly technical systems and strictly imposed procedures have been devised to reduce reliance on visual contact to the minimum. This chapter of the notes explores the instrument procedures and associated systems which permit what is termed as ‘low visibility’ operations.

PUBLICATIONS
ICAO details the SARPs for low visibility operations in Annex 6. Because the subject is large and technically complex, technical details, procedural amplification, and guidance to operators is contained in ICAO Document 8168 - Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Aircraft Operations (This book is known as PANS-OPS). The document consists of two volumes: Volume I - Flight Procedures This volume describes the operational procedures recommended for the guidance of flight operations personnel. It also outlines the various parameters on which the criteria in Volume II are based so as to illustrate the need for operational personnel including flight crew to adhere strictly to the published procedures in order to achieve and maintain an acceptable level of safety in operations. Volume II - Construction of Visual and Instrument Procedures This volume is intended for the guidance of procedure specialists and describes the essential areas and obstacle clearance requirements for the achievement of safe, regular instrument flight operations. It provides the basic guidelines to States, and those operators and organizations producing instrument flight charts, that will result in uniform practices at all aerodromes where instrument flight procedures are carried out. The LOs do not require the student to study this part of Doc 8168.

Air Law

10-1

In this section. safe. the procedures outlined in Chapter 9 provide the necessary elements of safety from terrain. In compiling the procedures using the systems specified in PANS-OPS.Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures OBSTACLE CLEARANCE The overriding concern with regard to low visibility operations is the unwanted occurrence of ‘controlled flight into terrain’. the man/machine system. or omnidirectional departures (which may specify sectors to be avoided). standard instrument departure (SID) routes and associated procedures. despite being highly trained and technically complex. strict adherence to the procedures and the laid down minima is required. 10-2 Air Law . and tolerances have to be applied to cover inadvertent deviation. Such procedures are outside the LOs for Air Law. During these phases of flights. complying with these minima will keep the aircraft on the specified flight path and. therefore. However. but are not limited to. in the process of taking-off and landing the aircraft must inevitably be flown below the defined safety altitude. Once above the transition level or whilst in the cruise. However. Departure procedures ensure the safe take-off and initial climb to safe flying speed. there is a comprehensive list of abbreviations used in the examinations. ABBREVIATIONS In Chapter 1. These assume that all engines are operating normally. The criteria in part 1 of PANSOPS are designed to provide flight crews and other flight operations personnel with an appreciation. The ‘engine-out’ case or other emergency situation is the subject of special instructions which the operator is required by law to define. from the operational point of view. This must inevitably lead to the introduction of risk. These are reproduced below. together with procedure design gradients (PDGs) and details of significant obstacles. In order to ensure acceptable clearance above obstacles during the departure phase. is not perfect. certain specific abbreviations are detailed as required knowledge. Abbreviations Used ATIS C/L DA/H DER DR EFIS FAF FAP FMS HSI IAF IF MAPt MDA/H MOC Automatic terminal information service Centre line Decision altitude/height Departure end of the runway Dead reckoning Electronic flight instrument system Final approach fix Final approach point Flight management system Horizontal situation indicator Initial approach fix Intermediate fix Missed approach point Minimum descent altitude/height Minimum obstacle clearance NOZ NTZ OCA/H OIS OM PAR PDG RNAV RSR RSS SID SOC SPI STAR TAR TP Normal operating zone No transgression zone Obstacle clearance altitude/height Obstacle identification surface Outer marker Precision approach radar Procedure design gradient Area navigation En-route surveillance radar Root sum square Standard instrument departure Start of climb Special position indicator Standard instrument arrival Terminal area surveillance radar Turning point DEPARTURE PROCEDURES The natural environment of an aircraft is in the air. instrument departure procedures may be published as specific routes to be followed (SIDs). an acceptable risk factor has been defined at 1:10 000 000. and then concentrate on positioning the aircraft at the right point and altitude to commence the en-route portion of the flight. of the parameters and criteria used in the design of instrument departure procedures which include. On the ground or during the transition from ground to air the machine is at its most vulnerable.

ESTABLISHMENT OF A DEPARTURE PROCEDURE A departure procedure will be established for each runway where instrument departures are expected to be used. a PDG of 3. or published with a PDG in the sector containing the obstacle. At many aerodromes. If an aeroplane operation requires a higher speed. Visual minima are defined as required ground visibility and cloud base prevailing at the departure aerodrome. including the positioning of navigation aids. Wind Effect The procedures will assume that pilots will not compensate for wind effects when being radar vectored. The protected areas and obstacle clearance applicable to individual types of departure are discussed later in this chapter. Lack of Navigation Aids Where no suitable navigation aid is available. there may be obstacles in the vicinity of the aerodrome that will have to be considered in determining whether restrictions to departures are to be applied. but will compensate for known or estimated wind effect when flying departure routes which are expressed as track to be made good.3% or an increased PDG if required to achieve minimum obstacle clearance. The criteria used and the detailed method of calculation are covered in the PANSOPS Volume II. departure procedures may be restricted to a given sector(s). the criteria for omni-directional departures are applied. a straight departure will be specified which is aligned with the runway centre line. Unless otherwise published. is dictated by factors such as the terrain surrounding the aerodrome and ATC requirements. a turning departure is constructed. Wherever limiting speeds or flight speeds are promulgated. This will define a departure procedure for the various categories of aircraft based on all-engines running PDG of 3. Air Law 10-3 . aerodrome operating minima are established to permit visual flight clear of obstacles. In these cases. then an alternative departure procedure must be requested.Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 THE INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE PROCEDURE The design of an instrument departure procedure. a defined departure route is not required for ATC purposes. Noise Abatement The use of automatic take-off thrust control systems (ATTCS) and noise abatement procedures will need to be taken into consideration by the pilot and the operator. Straight Departures Wherever possible. Visual Minima Where obstacles cannot be cleared by the appropriate margin when the aeroplane is flown on instruments.3% is assumed. Procedure Design Gradient Obstacle clearance is a primary safety consideration in the development of instrument departure procedures. However. they must be complied with to remain within the appropriate areas. Turning Departures When a departure route requires a turn of more than 15° to avoid an obstacle.

caused by close-in obstacles.5% gradient of obstacle identification surfaces or the gradient based on the most critical obstacle penetrating these surfaces.3% gradient is considered to prevail. PDG = 3. The minimum obstacle clearance equals zero at the DER and increases by 0. plus 0.3% is used. Gradients to a height of 60 m (200 ft) or less. PDGs greater than 3.8% of the horizontal distance in the direction of flight assuming a maximum turn of 15°. At this point the departure procedure ends and is marked by a significant point. The final PDG continues until obstacle clearance is ensured for the next phase of flight.8% increasing obstacle clearance.7% OIS 2.Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures The PDG is made up of 2.3% This altitude/height is to be published if more than 200 ft 4. additional specific height/distance information intended for obstacle avoidance may be published. Where mountainous terrain exists. consideration is given by the procedure designer to increasing the minimum obstacle clearance. In the turn initiation area and turn area a minimum obstacle clearance of 90 m (295 ft) is provided.5% = 0.3% are promulgated to an altitude/height after which the 3.5% 5m (16ft) DER Obstacle Aerodrome Elevation Procedure Design Gradient 10-4 Air Law . Where obstacles exist affecting the departure route. are not specified.8% 2. Whenever a suitably located DME exists. RNAV way-points or other suitable fixes may be used to provide a means of monitoring climb performance. whichever is the higher gradient. Mountainous terrain is defined as terrain over which the prevailing wind of 37 km/h generates significant downdraughts. Gradients published will be specified to an altitude/height after which the minimum gradient of 3.5% 3. Mountainous Terrain In areas where the terrain is described as ‘mountainous’ the minimum obstacle clearance (MOC) is increased from 1000 ft to 2000 ft.

8°/NDB 10.8°/NDB 10. during the turn. Departures that are limited to specific aircraft categories are clearly annotated. straight and turning. The design of instrument departure routes and the associated obstacle clearance criteria are based on the definition of tracks to be followed by the aeroplane.3° DER 15° Area 1 Max 15° VOR/NDB 3. the aircraft speed must be taken into account so that the aircraft remains in the protected zone.Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Aircraft Categories In defining procedures where turns are required. By definition.9 nm VOR 7.3° Area for a Straight Departure with Track Guidance Air Law 10-5 . STRAIGHT DEPARTURES A straight departure is one in which the initial departure track is within 15° of the runway centre line. There are two basic types of departure route. the pilot is expected to correct for known wind to remain within the protected airspace. VOR 7. track guidance for a straight departure must be attained from a navigation facility within 20 km (10. The following table defines the maximum speeds for the different categories of aircraft: Maximum Speeds For Turning Departures Aeroplane Category A B C D E Maximum Speed km/h (kts) 225(120) 305(165) 490(265) 540(290) 560(360) Table: Max Speed for Turning Departures STANDARD INSTRUMENT DEPARTURES A SID is normally developed to accommodate as many aircraft categories as possible.6 km (2. Track guidance may be provided by a suitably located facility (VOR or NDB) or by RNAV.5nm) NDB Departure Track 15° C/L Area 2 1.7 km (2 nm) VOR 4. When flying the published track. The SID terminates at the first fix/facility/way-point of the enroute phase following the departure procedure. established by the procedure designer.8 nm) from DER.

Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures TURNING DEPARTURES When a turning departure requires a turn of more than 15°. Track guidance must be obtained within 10 km (5. Since the point of lift-off will vary.6 km (2. The departure procedure commences at the DER. either the end of the runway or clearway as appropriate. When it is necessary to develop turning procedures to avoid an obstacle which would have become limiting. then the procedure should be detailed in the appropriate operator’s manual. the departure is constructed on the assumption that a turn at 120 m (394 ft) above the elevation of the aerodrome will not be initiated sooner than 600 m from the beginning of the runway.7 km (2 nm) VOR 4.4 nm) after the completion of the turn. Omni-directional Departures Where no track guidance is provided in the design. Splay angle VOR 7. is the responsibility of the operator.3° C/L 15° VOR/NDB Departure Track 3. at a fix or at a facility (VOR/NDB).8°/NDB 10. 10-6 Air Law . Straight flight is assumed until reaching an altitude of 120 m (394 ft) above the elevation of DER. The point for a start of a turn in this procedure must be readily identifiable by the pilot when flying under instrument conditions. which is the end of the area declared suitable for take-off.5nm) NDB 30° 30° Fix Tolerance 15° 15° DER Turning Departure – Turn at a Fix CONTINGENCY PROCEDURES Development of contingency procedures required covering the case of engine failure or an emergency in flight that occurs after V1. a turning area is constructed and the turn required is commenced upon reaching a specified altitude/height. the departure criteria are developed by using the omni-directional method.

or ensure that the ceiling and visibility will permit obstacles to be avoided by visual means. If the turn height is 120m above the DER this distance is 3.3% climb to an altitude/height where omni-directional turns can be made.5 km (1.9 nm) or less Area 2 d Turn Initiation Area for Omnidirectional Departure Standard Case Where no obstacles penetrate the 2.5 km (1.3% climb to 120 m (394 ft) will satisfy the obstacle clearance requirements. a 3.3% to a specified altitude/height before turns are permitted.Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Unless otherwise specified. The basic procedure ensures that the aircraft will climb on the extended runway centre line to 120 m (394 ft) before turns can be specified. it is necessary to fly a departure route. A clearance for such a procedure “Climb straight ahead to 1000 ft before commencing a turn to the South” Air Law 10-7 .3% PDG is presumed. 3. the procedure will specify a 3.3% or the gradient specified in the procedure whichever is the higher) will have reached the specified turn height/altitude. the procedure may identify sector(s) for which either a minimum gradient or a minimum turn altitude/height is specified. Where obstacles do not permit the development of omni-directional procedures. Sector Departures Where obstacle(s) exist.9 nm) for a 3. and at least 90 m (295 ft) of obstacle clearance will be provided before turns greater than 15° can be specified. The omni-directional departure procedure is designed using any one of a combination of the following: 30° 15° Centre Line Area 1 d = distance where the aircraft climbing at the minimum gradient (3. a 3. Specified Turn Altitude/Height Where obstacle(s) preclude omni-directional turns at 120 m (394 ft).3% gradient. the procedure may define a minimum gradient of more than 3.5% OIS and 90 m (295 ft) of obstacle prevails. Specified Procedure Design Gradient Where obstacle(s) exist.

Due to the limited requirements for IFR navigation equipment in aircraft (1 ADF and 2 NAV receivers). The published minimum gradient will be the highest in any sector that may be expected to be overflown. prohibited. The altitude/height at which a gradient in excess of 3. The SID will also specify limitations to altitude and specific track requirements to avoid arriving traffic. Typically.3% is no longer required. SIDS will not specify data to be obtained at any one instant from more than 2 VORs and 1 NDB. restricted. 10-8 Air Law . SIDs are published to cater for the operator preferred departure directions. The position and height of close-in obstacles penetrating the OIS. AIRWAYS DEPARTURE ROUTES (SID CHARTS) For aerodromes which are used for IFR flights for commercial aviation. and any significant obstacle outside the area which dictates the design of the procedure. The information listed will be published for operational reasons. a SID will require more than one radio beacon (VOR/NDB) and will normally use DME information from VOR/DME or VORTAC facilities. and danger areas. Omnidirectional Departures For omni-directional departures. or to an altitude authorized for another phase of flight eg en-route. a succeeding sector.3% minimum gradient through that sector. A fix may also be designated to mark the point at which a gradient in excess of 3. A note is included on the SID chart whenever close-in obstacles exist which were not considered for the published PDG. holding or approach. fixes or way points. For departure routes. A SID will provide track and altitude information to place the departing aircraft in the most advantageous position to enter the appropriate airway at the commencement of the enroute phase.3% is no longer used. The altitude to which the minimum gradient is specified will permit the aircraft to continue at the 3. the following information is promulgated: Significant obstacles which penetrate the OIS. SIDs will normally be restricted to 25 nm from DER. the restrictions will be expressed as sectors in which minimum gradients and/or minimum altitudes are specified to enable an aeroplane to safely overfly obstacles. A note is included whenever the published PDG is based only on airspace restriction. RNAV Routes Departure routes are labelled as RNAV only when that is the primary means of navigation utilized. The highest obstacle in the departure area. and ATC service will be provided by the approach controller responsible for traffic in the CTR. radials and DME distances depicting route segments are clearly indicated on the SID chart. All navigation facilities.Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures PUBLISHED INFORMATION Departure routes and standard instrument departures (SIDs) are produced and published in accordance with Annex 11 and Annex 4. and also other aerodromes and their specific departure and arrival routes.

At some point in history there was MID1. GNSS Procedures The use of GNSS is approved for departure procedures in many states and procedures are published in the form of GNSS/FMS/RNAV SIDS. The full designator would be ‘London Heathrow SID MID4F’. Air Law 10-9 . the operator/pilot will have to justify the action subsequently. however. The Channel Islands and possibly Spain and Portugal. GNSS SIDs are titled RNAV (PRNAV).g. the pilot must have available data from non GNSS sources (i. The route from 27R is called MID4F. An amendment to SID MID4F would be called MID4G. the current MID series is 3 and 4. If a pilot is instructed to fly a procedure for which he/she doesn’t have the chart. gear. flaps and lift enhancers in the noise abatement configuration. Aeradio. on request. Airtours). The SARPs specify the basic information to be displayed but the commercial charts are usually far more comprehensive. The Manchester SIDs via Honiley depict the route flown by flights joining A1 southbound. and the pilot is required to continue the climb as required by the SID with power. any power or configuration may be used. These departure procedures would be used for flights to Northwest France. They place the departing aircraft in a position to join airway A34 and then into A1 at FL75 and above. The first chart depicts the Midhurst SIDs from Heathrow. or when the PIC considers that his aircraft would be hazarded by compliance with noise abatement procedures.Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Radar Where radar is used for approach control. The chart below (London Heathrow – Midhurst SIDs) shows all the current SIDs from the departure runways at Heathrow terminating at the Midhurst VOR. SID Designators SIDs are ATS routes (see Chapter regarding ATS and Airspace). SID Chart Publication Each state publishes SID charts in the AIP AD section as part of the entry for the appropriate aerodrome. and to fly at the specified speed. and some operators print their own (e. ATC will. Note the accuracy of the check positions for the waypoints (accurate to 1/100 of a second of longitude. Initially. Charts are also commercially published by Jeppesen. The following SID charts are reproductions of aerodrome procedures from the UK AIP. Each SID is given a unique identifier called a designator. In an emergency. VOR/DME) so that a cross check can be made to ensure the system is functioning correctly. The letter shows the ‘amendment/change’ status of the SID route. approximately 30 cm).e. Where a GNSS SID is used. At 500 ft turns may be commenced. detail the procedure by RTF. once identified by SSR a pilot may be instructed to route directly to position. The final chart depicts a trial route for FMS/GNSS operations from Luton to the East and South East. In such cases the aircraft will be navigated directly to that position without compliance with the SID. When the series reaches 9 and a new series is required. Noise Abatement SIDs reflect the preferred noise abatement routes. the SID will require a climb to 120 m (394 ft) but in practice (and to make system management easier) a climb to 500 ft is specified. The number relates to the progressive series of routes. the number reverts to 1.

3H and 4F use the Burnham NDB as well as the London and Midhurst VORs with their associated DME.Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Standard Instrument Departures from Heathrow via Midhurst VOR Note that SIDs 3G. Air Law 10-10 . The ‘S’ bend on the westerly routes is to avoid the airspace associated with Farnborough.

Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Standard Instrument Departures from Manchester via Honiley VOR Air Law 10-11 .

Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Example of a GNSS SID for London Luton 10-12 Air Law .

Precision Procedures Precision procedures give the pilot guidance in azimuth (by defining a track to be flown) and elevation (by defining a glide path with reference to electronic equipment). procedures will be designed to provide protected airspace and obstacle clearance for aircraft up to and including Category D. The ICAO categories are: Table: Precision categories Category System minima 60 m (200 ft) 30 m (100 ft) Nil Nil Nil Decision Height RVR requirement Not less than 550 m or ground visibility not less than 800 m Not less than 350 m Not less than 200 m Not less than 50 m * None CAT I CAT II CAT III A CAT III B CAT III C Not less than 200 ft Less than 200 ft but not less than 100 ft Less than 100 ft or no DH Less than 50 ft or no DH No DH * JAR OPS specifies 75 m RVR minimum for CAT III B Speed Aircraft performance has a direct effect on the airspace and visibility needed to perform the various manoeuvres associated with the conduct of instrument approach procedures. and Precision approach (runway approach). Non Precision Procedures A non precision procedure is defined as an approach to an aerodrome made with reference to instruments in which guidance is given in azimuth (laterally) only. Each category is based on the speed at which the pilot attempts to cross the threshold of the landing runway. Air Law 10-13 . Normally. five categories of typical aircraft have been established. The instrument approach chart will specify the individual categories of aircraft for which the procedure is approved. There are two types of instrument procedures: Non precision approaches (an airfield approach). Where airspace requirements are critical.Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 THE INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE The objective of an instrument approach procedure is to provide the pilot with specific track guidance such that a descent can be made to an altitude where the required visual criteria are obtained and the aircraft landed visually. and the aircraft to be accommodated. Typically. The most significant performance factor is aircraft speed. an ILS approach is a precision procedure.3 times stalling speed in the landing configuration at maximum certificated landing mass). This provides a standardised basis for relating aircraft manoeuvrability to specific instrument approach procedures. Precision Categories ICAO and JARs specify categories of precision approach in terms of decision height/altitude and required runway visual range. Typically an NDB or VOR procedure is non precision. dictated by the terrain surrounding an aerodrome. the type of operations contemplated. procedures may be restricted to lower speed categories. Accordingly. in general. The design of an instrument approach procedure is. (Defined as 1. Vat.

In order to compensate for the reduction in safety inherent in flying close to the ground in poor or zero visibility. Procedure Design When flying a departure procedure. To achieve this. in sight. once an instrument approach procedure has been started. track guidance and. The exact requirements are the responsibility of the operator to define in the Operations Manual. it must be finished. Completing the Procedure Unless a pilot is given instructions to the contrary. The Arrival Route The Initial Segment The Intermediate Segment The Final Segment The Missed Approach Procedure 10-14 Air Law . all instrument procedures have 5 segments. is required to be more accurate the closer the aeroplane gets to the ground.Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Table: Aircraft categories for Instrument Approaches Aircraft category Vat Range of speeds for initial approach 90/150 (110*) 120/180 (140*) 160/240 185/250 185/250 Range of final approach speeds 70/100 85/130 115/160 130/185 155/230 Max speed for visual circling 100 135 180 205 240 Max speed for missed approach Intermediate Final A B C D E <91 91/120 121/140 141/165 166/210 100 130 160 185 230 110 150 240 265 275 * Max speed for track reversal or racetrack procedures Visual Approach As the intention of the procedures is to place the aeroplane in a position from which the pilot can see either the aerodrome or the landing runway. (These will be defined in the chapter devoted to Aerodromes). and will remain. the designer also applies increasing accuracy requirements for track guidance. where offered. whereas CATI and non-precision procedures. elevation guidance. being less accurate in vertical positioning. CATII and CATIII precision procedures require the use of an autopilot to achieve the accuracy of flying necessary for the low visibility operations specifications. the pilot must have visual references to the position of the runway centre line and the location of the aiming point within the touch-down zone. It will end with either a successful landing or the execution of a missed approach procedure. the aeroplane climbs to and above safety height. once established on final approach to land the pilot has the option of continuing the approach visually providing the aerodrome or runway is. specify high DH and minimum descent height (MDH). Visual Criteria For all approaches except CATIIIC. neither is it flying under VFR. thus safety increases with time and altitude. This is not converting an IFR approach into a VFR approach. For an approach procedure the reverse is true. From the start of the procedure.

During Precision Approach Radar (PAR) and Surveillance Radar Approach (SRA) procedures. The protected areas and obstacle clearance applicable to individual types of approaches are specified later. In the case of precision approach and circling approach procedures an OCA/H is specified for each category of aircraft. Track Maintenance The procedures are defined by tracks to be made good and pilots are expected to allow for the wind. The criteria used and the detailed method of calculation are covered in PANS-OPS. Circling Approach In those cases where terrain or other constraints cause the final approach track alignment or descent gradient to fall outside the criteria for a straight-in approach a circling approach will be specified. a straight-in approach will be specified which is aligned with the runway centre line. Minimum Sector Altitude (MSA) Minimum sector altitudes are established for each aerodrome and provide at least 300 m (984 ft) obstacle clearance within 46 km (25 nm) of the homing facility associated with the approach procedure for that aerodrome. The final approach track of a circling approach procedure is in most cases aligned to pass over a portion of the usable landing surface of the aerodrome.Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Fixes The approach segments begin and end at designated fixes. the controller ‘talking the aircraft down’ will adjust the required heading to counter the effects of drift. Straight In Approaches Wherever possible. a straight-in approach is considered acceptable if the angle between the final approach track and the runway centre line is 30º or less. Under certain circumstances the segments may begin at specified points where no fixes are available. Air Law 10-15 . In the case of non-precision approaches. For example: The final approach segment of a precision approach may originate at the point of intersection of the designated intermediate flight altitude with the nominal glide path. Volume II. OCA/H for Precision Procedures A precision procedure is a runway approach procedure therefore the reference for the calculation of OCA/H must be the elevation of the threshold of the landing runway. OBSTACLE CLEARANCE Obstacle clearance is a primary safety consideration in the development of instrument approach procedures. For ILS approaches pilots are required to maintain aircraft position to within half scale disposition of the deviation displays. The obstacle clearance applied in the development of each instrument approach procedure is considered to be the minimum required for an acceptable level of safety in operations. Obstacle Clearance Altitude/Height (OCA/H) For each individual approach procedure an obstacle clearance altitude/height (OCA/H) is calculated for a procedure and published on the instrument approach chart.

The general operational factors to be considered are aircraft mass. if the published OCH for a VOR/DME approach (non precision) was 130 ft and the margin or lower limit was 20 ft. If you have your own aircraft you are not required to add a margin or lower limit. Margin or Lower Limit Operators are required to specify the margin or lower limit to be added to the OCA/H to determine the DH/A or MDH/A. For instance. a minimum height above the datum is established as a ‘never below’ figure. therefore the MDH is 250 ft. the threshold elevation is used. theoretically the MDH would be 150 ft.5 nm) SRA (RTR* 1 nm) VOR NDB or Locator VDF SRA (RTR* 2 nm) * RTR = Radar Termination Range Minimum (ft) 250 300 300 300 300 350 Table: System Minima 10-16 Air Law . MDA or MDH. In this case. System Full ILS CATII Full ILS CATI ILS (no glide path) ILS back beam (not approved) PAR (no glide path) VOR/DME Minimum (ft) 100 200 250 250 250 250 System SRA (RTR* 0. System Minima Regardless of the result of calculation of DH or MDH. Factors Affecting Operational Minima In general minima are developed by adding the effect of a number of operational factors to OCA/H to produce. the system minimum for VOR/DME is 250 ft. wind. the threshold of the landing runway is 2m (7 ft) or more below the aerodrome elevation. The following table shows the system minima which override a lower DH or MDH. OCA/H for Visual Manoeuvre (Circling) (VM(C)) At the end of a non-precision approach a pilot may manoeuvre the aircraft to land in a different direction from which the approach is made. runway gradient and condition. or in the case of a nonprecision approach. This is determined in accordance with the criteria stated and may be zero. the aerodrome elevation is always used as the reference for OCA/H. temperature. If however. the reference for OCA/H is the aerodrome elevation as determined by survey. However. for each approach system (procedure or equipment). in the case of precision approaches a DA or DH.Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures OCA/H for Non-Precision Procedures A non-precision procedure is an aerodrome approach procedure in which the final segment is up to 30° displaced from the landing runway direction. In this case. elevation or the pressure altitude appropriate to the elevation of the aerodrome. The relationship of OCA/H to operating minima (landing) is shown in the following 3 diagrams.

if the threshold elevation is more than 2 m (7 ft) below the aerodrome elevation (OCH). met conditions. crew qualifications. aircraft performance. aerodrome characteristics. below which the aircraft cannot descend without infringing the appropriate obstacle clearance criteria. Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) Or Minimum Descent Height (MDH) Altitude Margin or Lower Limit Based on operational consideration of: ground/airborne equipment characteristics.Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 NON-PRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE The lowest altitude (OCA) or alternatively the lowest height above the aerodrome elevation or the elevation of the relevant runway threshold. location of guidance aid relative to runway Obstacle Clearance Altitude (OCA) Or Obstacle Clearance Height (OCH) O C A M D A Minimum Obstacle Clearance (MOC) for the Final Segment Fixed margin for all aircraft 90 m (295 ft) without FAF 75 m (246 ft) with FAF O C H M D H Height of the highest obstacle in the final approach Aerodrome Elevation or Threshold Elevation if more than 2 m (7 ft) below Aerodrome Elevation Mean Sea Level Air Law 10-17 .

ground/airborne equipment characteristics. terrain profile (Rad Alt). pressure error (pressure altimeter) Obstacle Clearance Altitude (OCA) Or Obstacle Clearance Height (OCH) O C A M D A Margin The margin is dependent upon aircraft approach speed. aerodrome characteristics. missed approach turn point.Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures PRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE The lowest altitude (OCA) or alternatively the lowest height above the elevation of the relevant runway threshold (OCH). distance from Loc Ae to R/W threshold. ILS geometry (GP angle. whichever is the higher Identification of obstacles is dependent upon: Category of operation. aircraft dimensions. Loc course width). use of autopilot (CatII approaches only) Threshold Elevation Mean Sea Level 10-18 Air Law . height loss and altimetry and is adjustable for steep glide paths and high level aerodromes O C H M D H Height of the highest obstacle or the highest missed approach obstacle. aircraft performance. crew qualifications. Decision Altitude (DA) Or Decision Height (DH) Altitude Margin or Lower Limit Based on operational consideration of: category of operation. at which a missed approach must be initiated to ensure compliance with the appropriate obstacle clearance criteria. met conditions.

met conditions. aircraft performance. aerodrome characteristics Obstacle Clearance Altitude (OCA) Or Obstacle Clearance Height (OCH) The OCH shall not be less than: Cat A 120 m (394 ft) Cat B 150 m (492 ft) Cat C 180 m (591 ft) Cat D 210 m (689 ft) Cat E 240 m (787 ft) Minimum Obstacle Clearance (MOC) Category A and B 90 m (295 ft). O C H O C A M D A M D H Height of the highest obstacle in the circling area Aerodrome Elevation Mean Sea Level Air Law 10-19 . crew qualifications. Category C and D 120 m (394 ft).Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Visual Manoeuvre (Circling) (VM(C)) Procedure The lowest altitude (OCA) or alternatively the lowest height above the aerodrome elevation (OCH) below which an aircraft cannot descend without infringing the appropriate obstacle clearance criteria Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) for Circling Or Minimum Descent Height (MDH) for Circling Altitude Margin or Lower Limit Based on operational consideration of: aircraft characteristics. Category E 150 m (492 ft).

Where no track guidance is provided during a turn specified by the procedure.see below). The MOC for a non-precision approach is made up of two areas. the primary MOC area and the Secondary MOC area. glide path information is provided which. The width of each secondary area is equal to ¼ of the total width. by definition. With a defined FAF the MOC is 70 m (246 ft) and 90 m (295 ft) without. The angle of the glide path is set to provide the required clearance from obstacles. At any point the width of the primary area is equal to ½ of the total width. Assumed lowest path MOC MOC Obstacle Obstacle Secondary Area Primary Area Total width Secondary Area MOC for a Non-precision Approach 10-20 Air Law . MOC is provided for the whole width of the primary area. MOC is provided at the inner edges gradually reducing to zero at the outer edge. must be free of obstacles. For the secondary area. the vertical cross section of which is an area located symmetrically about the centre line of each segment. Minimum Obstacle Clearance (MOC) For non-precision approaches. The degree of MOC in the primary area depends upon the availability of a Final Approach Fix (FAF) (FAF . For precision approaches. the MOC is defined as a fixed margin to be added to the height of the dominant obstacle in the final approach segment. each of the five segments of the approach is comprised of a specified volume of airspace. The vertical cross section is broken down into primary and secondary areas as shown in the diagram below. the total width of the area is considered as a primary area.Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Approach Procedure Design Where track guidance is provided in the design of an instrument approach procedure.

The intermediate approach fix (IF).Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 ACCURACY OF FIXES Fixes and points used in designing approach procedures are normally based on standard navigation systems. The factors from which the accuracy of a system is determined are: Ground station tolerance Airborne receiving system tolerance Flight technical tolerance Distance from the facility Nominal Fix Fix Tolerance Area Air Law 10-21 . These include. Fixes Formed by Intersection Because all navigational facilities have accuracy limitations. The diagram below illustrates the intersection of two radials or tracks from different navigation facilities. the geographic point that is identified is not precise. The final approach fix (FAF) or final approach point (FAP). but are not limited to: The initial approach fix (IAF). The holding fix. Intersection Fix Tolerance Factors The dimensions of the intersection fix are determined by the accuracy of the navigational system that supplies the information to define the fix. and When necessary the MAPt. but may be anywhere within an area called the fix tolerance area which surrounds its plotted point of intersection.

The pilot accuracy addition is known as flight technical tolerance.8 km (0.2º when used in an approach procedure to establish a step down fix where less than 300 m (984 ft) of obstacle clearance prevails. For instance. and the speed of the aircraft in the terminal area. controller technical tolerances. or the start of the final segment of a CATI ILS may be marked by a 75 Mhz marker beacon. when leaving an airway. DME Fix tolerance is ± 0.25% of the distance to the antenna.8º ± 1.2º (this value includes a flight technical tolerance of ± 2.7 nm).9º (this value includes a flight technical tolerance of ± 3º) Overall Tolerance of the Intersecting Facility When intersecting fixes are based on radio nav aids.25 nm) + 1.35 km (0.46 km (± 0. an aircraft may be given radar vectors to a point marking the beginning of the arrival route. the accuracy with which the pilot accomplishes this is allowed for in an addition to the basic accuracy of the equipment.5º) ILS Localiser ± 2. Terminal Area Radar (TAR) within 37km (20 nm) Fix tolerance is ± 1.45 nm) at 6000 ft and 0. The fix tolerance factors of such aids are: Surveillance Radar Radar fix accuracy is based on consideration of: radar mapping accuracy. positions and turning points may be referenced by other means.5º when used in an approach procedure to establish a step down fix where less than 300 m (984 ft) of obstacle clearance prevails. 75 MHz Marker Beacons Fix tolerances for ILS and “Z” markers for use with instrument approach procedures are calculated using the aerial polar diagram. Typically fix tolerance is +/0.1 km (± 1. the overall tolerance of the fix is assumed to be: VOR ± 4. flight technical tolerance.2 nm) at 1000 ft. accuracy is considered to be ± 7. 10-22 Air Law .4º (this value includes a flight technical tolerance of ± 2º) NDB ± 6. azimuth resolution. accuracy is considered to be ± 10.Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Accuracy of Facility Providing Track Certain radio navigation aids provide track guidance information.4º ± 6. VOR ± 5.8 nm).5 km (± 0. En-Route Surveillance Radar (ESR) within 74 km (40 nm) Fix tolerance is ± 3.3º ILS Localizer NDB Other Fix Tolerance Factors Where no radio nav aid is available or other factors constrain the use of such aids. When attempting to fly along the defined track from an aid.

17 nm NDB Fix tolerance overhead an NDB is based upon an inverted cone of ambiguity extending at an angle of 40º either side of the facility. Air Law 10-23 .83 nm Locator To improve the accuracy of ‘on tops’ some procedures employ an NDB with a 75Mhz marker co-located.84 x 3000 = 5040 ft or 0. The areas where the primary and secondary areas are increasing/decreasing in width are known as ‘splays’. the optimum and maximum distances for locating the FAF relative to the threshold are 9 km (5 nm) and 19 km (10 nm) respectively. VOR VOR provides excellent track guidance but fix tolerance overhead a VOR is based upon a cone of confusion 50º from the vertical.0 nm NDB = 2. Approach Area Splays The tolerances described above are used to narrow and widen instrument approach areas as the aircraft flies to and from a facility respectively. Final Approach Splay Reducing in width closer to the facility Missed approach Point (MAPt) FAF Primary area Secondary area Splay width at facility VOR = 2. This system is called a locator and is shown on the chart as NDB(L). The accuracy of the ‘on top’ is a factor of the width of the cone of confusion over the beacon which is a function of the aerial design of the ground installation.Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Fix Tolerance Overhead a Facility Most procedures require the aircraft to be flown over the facility providing track guidance at some point in the procedure. At 3000 ft the accuracy of the ‘on top’ is given by: 2 x tan 40° x 3000 = 2 x 0.19 x 3000 = 7140 ft or 1.5 nm FAF Location For the final approach segment (contained between FAF and MAPt). This gives reasonable track guidance with an accurate ‘on top’. At 3000 ft the accuracy of the ‘on top’ is given by: 2 x tan 50° x 3000 = 2 x 1.

the maximum permissible is 6. approximately 300 ft/nm) which is equivalent to a 3º glidepath. When arrival routes are published.5% (65 m/km) results in descent rates that exceed the recommended rates of descent for some aircraft. In the case of a precision approach the operationally preferred glidepath angle is 3º. The optimum descent gradient in the final approach should not exceed 5% (50 m/km. Where a steeper descent gradient is necessary. approximately 400 ft/nm) which is equivalent to a 3. arrival routes from the enroute phase to a fix or facility used in the procedure are published. the width of the associated area decreases from the “enroute” value to the “initial approach” value with a convergence angle of 30º each side of the axis. Pilots should consider carefully the descent rate required for non-precision final approach segments before starting the approach. or where an operational advantage is obtained. APPROACH SEGMENTS There are five segments to a standard instrument approach procedure. 10-24 Air Law . In certain cases the maximum descent gradient of 6. Segments of an Instrument Approach Procedure STANDARD ARRIVAL ROUTES (STARS) When necessary.5% (65 m/km.Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures DESCENT GRADIENT In designing instrument approach procedures adequate space is allowed for descent from the facility crossing altitude/height to the runway threshold for straight-in approach or to OCA/H for circling approaches. Establishing a maximum allowable descent gradient for each segment of the procedure provides adequate space for descent.8º glidepath. An ILS glidepath in excess of 3º is used only where alternate means of satisfying obstacle clearance requirements are impractical.

STARS for Heathrow via the Ockham VOR Air Law 10-25 .Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 This convergence begins at 46 km (25 nm) before the IAF if the length of the arrival route is greater than or equal to 46 km (25 nm). at a point where the pilot may continue the approach. This is the Initial Approach Fix (IAF) for procedures to land on runway 09L at Heathrow. Omni-directional or sector arrivals can be provided taking into account MSA. When terminal radar is employed the aircraft is vectored to a fix. or onto the intermediate or final approach track. It begins at the starting point of the arrival route if the length is less than 46 km (25 nm). This particular STAR covers arrivals from the West and North West and terminates at the Ockham VOR. The arrival route normally ends at the initial approach fix. STARs are published in the AD section of the AIP under the appropriate aerodrome. An example of a STAR is reproduced below.

The descent gradient is published. The FAF is sited on the final approach track at a distance that permits selection of final approach configuration. and no other facility is suitably situated to form a FAF. the pilot commences descent maintaining the aeroplane on or above the published DME distance/height requirements. or above. Where a step-down procedure using a suitably located DME is published. with a maximum angle of interception of 90º for a precision approach and 120º for a non-precision approach. In the initial approach segment. The FAF is crossed at. the final approach track cannot normally be aligned on the runway centre line. descent to MDA/H is made once the aircraft is established inbound on the final approach track. Final Approach — Non-Precision Approach with FAF This segment begins at the FAF and ends at the MAPt. Normally only one step-down fix is specified. The optimum and maximum distances for locating the FAF relative to the threshold are 9 km (5 nm) and 19 km (10 nm) respectively. Final approach may be made to a runway for a straight in landing or to an aerodrome for a visual manoeuvre. In procedures of this type. In the absence of a FAF. and where range information is available. the intermediate approach segment begins when the aircraft is on the inbound track of the procedure turn. descent profile information is provided. in which case two OCA/H values will be published. the aircraft has departed the enroute structure and is manoeuvring to enter the intermediate approach segment. Step Down Fix A step-down fix may be incorporated in some non-precision approach procedures. Whether the OCA/H for straight in approach limits is published or not depends on the angular difference between the track and the runway. Final Approach — Non-Precision Approach with No FAF When an aerodrome is served by a single facility located on or near the aerodrome. a procedure may be designed where the facility is both the IAF and the MAPt. and an OCA/H for final approach. Track guidance is provided along the initial approach segment to the IF. Intermediate Approach Segment This is the segment during which the aircraft speed and configuration are adjusted to prepare the aircraft for final approach. and descent from intermediate approach altitude/height to the MDA/H applicable either for a straight in approach or for a visual circling. The descent gradient is kept as shallow as possible. These procedures will indicate a minimum altitude/height for a reversal procedure or racetrack. a higher value applicable to the primary procedure. 10-26 Air Law . Where a FAF is available. The initial approach segment provides at least 300 m (984 ft) of obstacle clearance in the primary area. Where no suitable lAF or IF is available. Aircraft speed and configuration will depend on the distance from the aerodrome and the descent required. During the intermediate approach the obstacle clearance requirement reduces from 300 m (984 ft) to 150 m (492 ft) in the primary area. each with its associated minimum crossing attitude. base turn or final inbound leg of the racetrack procedure. the specified altitude/height and descent is then initiated. Final Approach Segment This is the segment in which alignment and descent for landing are made. the pilot shall not commence descent until established on the specified track. and a lower value applicable only if the step-down fix is positively identified during the approach.Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Initial Approach Segment The initial approach segment commences at the IAF and ends at the intermediate fix (IF). a racetrack or holding pattern is required. Once established on track. but in the case of a VOR/DME procedure several DME fixes may be depicted.

The calculated OCA/H is the height of the highest approach obstacle. Loss of Precision In the event of loss of glide path guidance during the approach. Except in the case of stabilised approach. approach coupling. the operational variables of the aircraft category. plus an aircraft category related allowance. Descent below the fix crossing altitude/height should not be made prior to crossing the fix. Determination of DA or DH — ILS As well as the physical characteristics of the ILS installation. The values are based on the following standard conditions: Cat I flown with pressure altimeter Cat II flown with radio altimeter and flight director Aircraft wing span is not more than 60 m and the vertical distance between the flight paths of the wheels and glide path antenna is no more than 6 m Missed approach climb gradient is 2. on-glide path position since more than half course sector deflection or more than half course fly up deflection combined with other allowable system tolerances could place the aircraft in the vicinity of the edge or bottom of the protected airspace where loss of protection from obstacles can occur. category of operation. and missed approach climb performance. or equivalent missed approach obstacle. descent may be made on the glide path to the published fix crossing altitude/height. Standard Conditions The OCA or OCH values are listed on the instrument approach chart for those categories of aircraft for which the procedure is designed. glide path interception normally occurs at heights from 300 m (984 ft) to 900 m (2955 ft) above runway elevation. Prior to crossing the fix. The ILS obstacle clearance surfaces assume that the pilot does not normally deviate from the centre line more than half a scale deflection after being established on track. the procedure becomes a non-precision approach.5% Air Law 10-27 . The OCA/H published for the glide path inoperative (ILS no GP) case will apply. The outer marker is normally used for this purpose.Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Final Approach Segment — Precision Approach – ILS The final approach segment begins at the final approach point (FAP). are considered. This is a point in space on the centre line of the localizer where the intermediate approach altitude/height intersects the nominal glide path. On a 3º glide path interception occurs between 6 km (3 nm) and 19 km (10 nm) from the threshold. Descent on the glide path must never be initiated until the aircraft is established on the localizer. Thereafter the aircraft should adhere to the on-course. the procedures specialist’s consideration is given to obstacles in the approach areas for the calculation of the OCA/H for a procedure. Check Fix The final approach area contains a fix at approximately 4DME that permits verification of the glide path/altimeter relationship. The intermediate approach track or radar vector has been designed to place the aircraft on the localizer at an altitude/height that is below the nominal glide path. In assessing these obstacles. The width of the ILS final approach area is much narrower than those of a nonprecision approach.

when the visual criteria as defined by the operator is not obtained. During the missed approach phase. The procedure is applicable to the landing runway but may be modified to cater for the instrument aid being used. The missed approach is to be initiated not lower than DA/H in the precision approach or at a specified point (MAPt) in non-precision approach procedures where the aircraft is not lower than the MDA/H. Intermediate Missed Approach. The procedure specifies a point where the missed approach begins and a point or an altitude/height where it ends. a navigational facility. For this reason the design of the missed approach is kept as simple as possible.5% No turns greater than 15° 30m MOC MDA(H) Runway Initial Missed Approach Segment Intermediate Missed Approach Segment Final Missed Approach Segment Missed Approach Segments Obstacle Clearance A missed approach procedure is designed to provide protection from obstacles throughout the missed approach manoeuvre. A missed approach procedure consists of three phases: Initial Missed Approach. the pilot is faced with the demanding task of changing the aircraft configuration. Climb established Turns greater than 15° permitted 50m MOC can be maintained MAPt 2. or at DH/A for a precision approach and at the missed approach point (MAPt) for a non-precision approach. implying that the pilot is going around the pattern again. a fix. the pilot is to fly a missed approach procedure. The MAPt in a procedure may be the point of intersection of an electronic glide path with the applicable DA/H. In commercial aviation this is commonly referred to as ‘the Go Around’ procedure. and altitude. attitude.Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures MISSED APPROACH If at any time during a procedure the pilot wishes to abandon the procedure. 10-28 Air Law . and Final Missed approach. or a specified distance from the FAF.

A missed approach procedure which is based on the nominal climb gradient of 2.5% cannot be used by all aeroplanes when operating at or near maximum certificated gross mass and engine out conditions. the pilot establishes the climb and changes aircraft configuration.5% gradient is used.5%. If a turn from the final approach track is made. Initial Missed Approach The initial phase begins at the MAPt and ends at the point where the aircraft is established in the climb. the procedure is annotated “timing not authorized for defining the MAPt. During this phase. These obstacles may result in a special procedure being established with a possible increase in the DA/H or MDA/H. It extends to the first point where 50 m (164 ft) obstacle clearance is obtained and can be maintained. Gradients of 3. and may be used for timing to the MAPt. In the event that a missed approach is initiated prior to arriving at the MAPt. In the initial segment. The operation of these aeroplanes needs special consideration at aerodromes where there are critical obstacles on the missed approach area. normally straight ahead. or At a designated altitude The turn is made upon reaching the designated altitude unless an additional fix or distance is specified to limit early turns Air Law 10-29 . this is indicated on the instrument approach chart. Climb Gradient Procedures are based on a nominal missed approach climb gradient of 2.Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 When a navigational facility or a fix defines the MAPt.” Initiating the Procedure Pilots are expected to fly the missed approach procedure as published. or 5% may be used for aircraft whose climb performance permits an operational advantage to be thus obtained. it is assumed that the pilot will make track corrections. the aircraft enters a holding pattern. Turning Missed Approach Turns in a missed approach procedure are only prescribed where terrain and other factors make a turn necessary. the pilot will normally proceed to the MAPt and then follow the missed approach procedure in order to remain within the protected airspace. It extends to the point where a new approach is started. 4. Turns of no more than 15º may be specified. The procedure will call for the climb to be started on the final approach track therefore no turns are specified in this phase. In cases where timing is not authorised. Intermediate Phase The intermediate phase is the phase within which the climb is continued. Turns may be prescribed during this phase. a specially constructed turning missed approach area is specified. the distance from the FAF to the MAPt is normally published. The turning point is specified in one of two ways: At a designated facility or fix The turn is made upon arrival overhead the facility or fix. If a gradient other than a 2. A gradient of 2% may be used in the procedure construction if the necessary survey and safeguarding can be provided with the approval of the appropriate authority. Final Phase The final phase begins at the point where 50 m (164 ft) obstacle clearance is first obtained and can be maintained. or the aircraft returns to the enroute structure.

430 are mandatory (also required knowledge for Operational Procedures). within the circling area. Obstacle Clearance When the (VM(C)A) has been established the OCA/H is determined for each category of aircraft. the ILS approach does not result in a landing but a visual circling manoeuvre. This is a commonly used procedure. not the runway used for the instrument procedure. and Bank angle.0) 4.9 (1. As such the ILS portion of the approach is not considered to be precision and therefore the lowest altitude the aircraft is permitted to descend to is MDH/A for VM(C). In this case. A pilot could make an instrument approach to 09 and with the landing runway (27) or the aiming point on 27 always in sight. to bring an aircraft into position for landing on a runway which is not suitably located for a straight in approach. the ILS to runway 27 may be totally unserviceable but the ILS to runway 09 perfectly good.0) 2.5) 6. ICAO publishes the following table of minima for VM(C). 46 km/h (25 kt) throughout the turn.7 (2.Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures VISUAL MANOEUVRING (CIRCLING) (VM(C)A IN THE VICINITY OF THE AERODROME Visual manoeuvring (circling) is the term used to describe the visual phase of flight after completing an instrument approach. Aircraft Category Minimum Obstacle Clearance m (ft) 90 (295) 90 (295) 120 (394) 120 (394) 150 (492) Lowest OCH above aerodrome elevation m (ft) 120 (394) 150 (492) 180 (591) 210 (689) 240 (787) Minimum Visibility km (nm) 1.5) A B C D E OCA/H for Visual Manoeuvre (Circling) Approach 10-30 Air Law . When this option is exercised.5) 3. The Visual Manoeuvring (Circling) Area (VM(C)A) The visual manoeuvring area for a circling approach is determined by drawing arcs centred on each runway threshold and joining those arcs with tangent lines. 20º average or 3º per second. The dimensions of the instrument approach surfaces bound this sector. The radius of the arcs is related to: Aircraft category Speed for each category Wind speed.8 (1. manoeuvre the aircraft to a point where a landing on 27 could be made. the published procedure prohibits circling within the total sector in which the obstacle exists. The advantage is that the instrument part of the procedure will result in a lower MDH/A that may be below the cloud base. whichever requires less bank (VM(C)A) Not Considered for Obstacle Clearance It is permissible to eliminate from consideration a particular sector where a prominent obstacle exists in the visual manoeuvring (circling) area outside the final approach and missed approach area. For instance.6 (2. The OCA/H for VM(C) is applicable to the aerodrome. It should be noted that the criteria for minimum visibility are advisory whereas the criteria published in JAR OPS-1.5 (3.

Because the circling manoeuvre may be accomplished in more than one direction. It is expected that the pilot will make an initial climbing turn toward the landing runway and overhead the aerodrome. and a MDA/H is specified. Each circling situation is different because of variables such as runway layout. Descent below MDA/H should not be made until visual reference has been established and can be maintained. Other aircraft may be attempting the same manoeuvre therefore the missed approach procedure must take the aircraft away from subsequent instrument aircraft. the pilot will establish the aircraft climbing on the missed approach track. different patterns will be required to establish the aircraft on the prescribed missed approach course depending on its position at the time visual reference is lost. the pilot has the landing threshold in sight. must be followed. final approach track. and the required obstacle clearance can be maintained and the aircraft is in a position to carry out a landing. wind velocity. The fixed margin is added to OCA for each category of aircraft. and meteorological conditions. should be kept in sight while at MDA/H for circling. There is no single procedure that caters for conducting a circling approach in every situation. Visual Flight Manoeuvre A circling approach is a visual flight manoeuvre. Then. PUBLISHED INFORMATION The VM(C) OCA for the aerodrome is published on the chart for the instrument part of the approach. the basic assumption is that the runway environment (the runway threshold. approach lighting aids. Missed Approach While Circling If visual reference is lost while circling to land from an instrument approach. Highest obstacle in area Radius from end of Runway The radius is based on aircraft category/speed Visual Manoeuvre (Circling) Area Air Law 10-31 .Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Minimum Descent Altitude/Height An additional margin is added to the OCA/H for operational considerations. the missed approach for the instrument procedure. or other markings identifiable with the runway). After initial visual contact.

may use these systems to carry out VOR/DME RNAV approaches providing that before conducting any flight it is ensured that the RNAV equipment is serviceable. At low intensity and remote aerodromes. The main disadvantage of using RNAV is that it relies on a navigational database to support the computer interpretation of the received information. to ensure separation from departing aircraft. the pilot has a current knowledge of how to operate the equipment so as to achieve the optimum level of navigation accuracy and the published VOR/DME facility upon which the procedure is based is serviceable. The chart below shows the ILS DME procedure for runway 08 at Luton. Even in conditions of good visibility and high cloud ceiling. Use of FMS/RNAV Equipment to Follow Conventional Non-Precision Approach Procedures When FMS/RNAV equipment is available. it may be used when flying a conventional nonprecision approach procedure. a procedure known as the ‘single beacon reversing turn procedure’ is a standard type of procedure. and the tolerances for flight using raw data on the basic display are complied with. Aircraft equipped with RNAV systems which have been approved. with limited availability of ‘off aerodrome’ navigation aids. radar vectoring to the ILS or self positioning to the ILS is the standard method of commencing an instrument approach. provided the procedure is monitored using the basic display normally associated with the procedure.Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Area Navigation (RNAV) Approach Procedures Based On VOR/DME RNAV approach procedures based on VOR/DME are assumed to be based on one reference facility composed of a VOR and co-located DME. Track Reversal and Racetrack Procedures At large aerodromes serving international commercial aviation. IFR is made mandatory by the imposition of Class A airspace and ILS approaches are required. 10-32 Air Law . If this database contains errors computed positions will be in error.

the “go around” (missed approach) procedure is flown as published on the chart. the controller will instruct the pilot to report glidepath descending to the aerodrome controller. Air Law 10-33 . at an altitude above the lowest holding altitude (LHA) and wait for clearance to begin the procedure. The ATC clearance would be “(callsign)… cleared ILS runway 08 advising turning inbound at 2000 ft” The aircraft leaves the hold on a track of 258°mag to a point on the reciprocal of the ILS localiser at DME range 5 nm.Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Localiser Ident and Frequency MSA Holding Pattern FAP (there is no defined FAF) IF IAF Procedure Turn Glidepath interception Missed Approach Procedure OCA (OCH) Glidepath information VM(C) OCA PROCEDURE An arriving aircraft would usually enter the holding pattern above the LUT NDB(L). If at DH the visual criteria is not obtained. and descent is commenced. The controller will then clear the aircraft “(callsign) report established ILS 08”. The pilot would advise ATC “(callsign) turning inbound at 2000 ft”. The aircraft is flown along the localiser beam until the glidepath is intercepted. The aircraft is then flown through a procedure turn that places the aircraft in a position to intercept the localiser beam inbound. Once established on the localiser and reported so. When cleared to the LHA in the hold. the aircraft speed will be adjusted and aircraft configuration adjusted. the IAF for the procedure.

Therefore pilots must make allowance for the wind. In still air the turn takes in excess of 2 minutes to reverse the track. From the start of the turn. The diagram below shows: Procedure turns. All turns are made at rate 1 (3°/sec) or 25° bank angle whichever is less. Note: In all the procedures. Track Reversal Procedures 45°/180° Procedure Turn This is the most common track reversal procedure. and Racetrack.Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Track Reversals There are several different track reversal methods. 10-34 Air Law . the aircraft is turned in the opposite direction through 180°. D and E. tracks are flown. Base turn. after for 1 min for Cat A and B aircraft or 1 min 15 sec for C. This places the aircraft in a position to intercept the required inbound track at 45° (the optimum converging angle). At a defined point the aircraft is turned through 45° and then flown straight and level.

this procedure takes exactly 2 minutes and is often called a 2 minute procedure. In this case. which is not approved in Europe. In still air.Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 80°/260° Procedure Turn This procedure is used where airspace is limited. Normal procedure without holding Racetrack Racetrack Reversing Turn Procedure From the above picture it is clear that there is no way that the pilot can track outbound on 065° directly from the holding pattern. for instance VOR information. The pilot must remember that indications are reversed when flying the localiser in the wrong direction! Base Turn Where accurate track guidance is available other than the ILS localiser. The aircraft is turned through 80° and the bank angle is immediately reversed to turn through 260° in the opposite direction. a base turn can be flown. when cleared to commence the approach the aircraft is flown outbound in the holding pattern and the outbound track is maintained to a defined point (in this case DME range 9 nm) at which a rate 1 turn through 180° is initiated to bring the aircraft on to the desired inbound track. Racetrack It is not always convenient for the holding pattern associated with a single beacon procedure to be oriented so that the inbound holding track can be extended directly into the outbound procedure track as in the case of Luton. Note: For either procedure. the aircraft is established in a turn at rate 1 or 25° bank angle until the inbound track is intercepted. Flying the reciprocal of the localiser course is not flying the back beam. the tracks flown are reciprocal. Air Law 10-35 . Note: The outbound leg is usually flown with reference to the ILS localiser (if the procedure is part of an ILS approach). DME distance or interception of information from another aid. At a point defined by time. The picture below shows part of the procedure for Edinburgh including a racetrack shown by the dotted line. The turns are made at rate 1 or 25° bank angle whichever is less. On the approach chart this would be specified as an ‘alternative procedure’. at the completion of the turn the aircraft will be tracking inbound on the reciprocal of the outbound track. In still air. From on top of the facility the aircraft is established on a defined track which diverges from the reciprocal of the desired inbound track.

The racetrack is only used for track reversal. In the Chapters concerned with Approach Control. similarly. The process of flying around the pattern is called ‘shuttling’.Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Note: The student must not confuse a racetrack with a holding pattern. Deviation Warning Deviations from the procedures for holding may incur the risk of excursions beyond the perimeter of the holding area into airspace used for other purposes. a holding pattern is only used for holding. As part of the IRT the student will be required to fly holding patterns to a precise degree. and enroute charts. Holding is achieved by the pilot flying the aircraft around a holding pattern. 10-36 Air Law . an ILS procedure may include a dead reckoning segment from a fix (usually the IAF) to the localiser. We have already seen that the single beacon reversing turn procedure usually starts at a holding point and it is usual for the missed approach procedure to end at a holding point. 45° Centre line ILS Localiser OM 10 nm max DR segment DR Fix VOR/DME DME range Dead Reckoning Segment HOLDING PROCEDURES Inevitably aircraft will not be able to make a straight in approach and will need to temporarily ‘park’ whilst awaiting clearance to commence the approach procedure. The point of intersection of the localiser is the beginning of the intermediate segment and will allow time for establishing on the localiser before descent is required. The process of ‘parking’ is known as holding. Dead Reckoning Segment Where an operational advantage can be obtained. The DR track will intercept the localiser at 45° and will not be more than 19 km (10 nm) in length. As such pilots must adhere to the published procedures modified where necessary by ATC instructions or local instructions published on STAR and instrument approach charts. but first the holding pattern needs to be described and the procedures for joining and flying the pattern discussed. the student will be introduced to the process known as ‘stacking’. and this will be achieved after a lot of practice.

timing may start at the completion of the outbound turn.Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Standard Pattern A holding pattern normally involves a right turn at the holding point. The pattern is defined by tracks to be made good and pilots are to allow for the wind. Holding patterns are flown at specified speeds although the FMC system in modern aircraft calculates the most cost effective holding speed and sets the speed when an autocoupled holding pattern is flown. but timing may be started at the holding point adding 1 minute for the turn. Holding Pattern and Terminology Procedure The pattern is flown making all turns at rate 1 (3°/sec) or a maximum bank angle of 25°. Left hand patterns may be specified where airspace considerations warrant. normally 1 minute starting at the abeam point. Air Law 10-37 . If the abeam point cannot be determined. The pattern is timed along the outbound leg. A left hand pattern and the associated joining procedures are a mirror image of a right hand pattern. The outbound leg may be limited by DME range.

For holdings limited to CAT A and B aircraft only. 5. unless the relevant publications indicate that the holding area can accommodate aircraft flight at these high holding speeds. 2.8 M whichever is less 520 km/h (280 kt) 3 or 0. The levels tabulated represent altitudes or corresponding flight levels depending upon the altimeter setting in use. The speed of 520 km/h. The following joining procedures assume a right hand pattern. Sector 1 (Parallel Entry) Having reached the fix. (230 kt). When joining a holding pattern. 10-38 Air Law .83 M 5 0. 4. 3.83 M 1. reciprocal to the inbound holding track for the appropriate period of time. Wherever possible. (280 kt) (0. On second arrival over the holding fix. 520 km/h (280 kt) should be used for holding procedures associated with airway route structures. When the holding procedure is followed by the initial segment of an instrument approach procedure promulgated at a speed higher than 425 km/h. The aircraft is then turned left onto the holding side to intercept the inbound track or to return to the fix. joins the pattern by one of three possible entry manoeuvres based on the sector from which the approach to the fix is made.8 M whichever is less 0.8 M) reserved for turbulence conditions shall be used for holding only after prior clearance with ATC. The sector is defined by aircraft headings and when an approach to the fix is made within 5° of the sector boundary. Joining the Pattern The pattern is defined by a holding direction (inbound magnetic track to the holding point). the pilot has the choice of the joining manoeuvre for the correct sector or for the adjacent sector if it is more operationally expeditious. the aircraft is turned right to follow the holding pattern. the holding should also be promulgated at this higher speed wherever possible.Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Holding Speeds (Note: Speeds and heights in bold are required knowledge) Holding Speeds Levels 1 Normal Conditions 425 km/h (230 kts) 4 315 km/h (170 kt) 445 km/h (240 kt) 490 km/h (265 kt) 5 2 Turbulence Conditions 520 km/h (280 kts) 4 315 km/h (170 kt) 3 Up to 4250 m (14 000 ft) inclusive Above 4250 m (14 000 ft) to 6100m (20 000 ft) inclusive Above 6100 m (20 000 ft) to 10 350 m (34 000 ft) inclusive Above 10 350 m (34 000 ft) 520 km/h (280 kt) 3 or 0. the pilot flies the aircraft to the holding point (holding fix) and dependent upon the magnetic heading at the fix. the aircraft is turned left onto an outbound heading.

Where DME is available. Air Law 10-39 . the aircraft is turned onto a heading to make good a track making an angle of 30° from the reciprocal of the inbound track on the holding side. The aircraft is turned right to intercept the inbound holding track. The aircraft flies outbound for the appropriate period of time. Time and Distance Outbound The still air flying time for the outbound and entry tracks is not to exceed one minute if at or below 14 000 ft. or one and a half minutes if above 14 000 ft. then on second arrival over the holding fix. or until the appropriate limiting DME distance is attained. Sector 3 Procedures (Direct Entry) Having reached the fix. where timing is specified. the aircraft turns right to follow the holding pattern. the aircraft is turned right to follow the holding pattern. where distance is specified.Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Sector 2 (Offset Entry) Having reached the fix. the outbound legs may be limited by a DME range.

For instance: “Atlantic 123 hold on the DAV beacon at FL 90”. Surrounding the holding area. 10-40 Air Law . the pilot should maintain the pattern until reaching the fix and then take up the required heading. If the Approach Radar controller issues radar vectoring instructions the commencement point will be stated. Descent in the Hold When ATC wants the aircraft to move to a lower level.Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Establishing in the Hold When holding for an IFR instrument procedure. the Approach Controller will clear the aircraft to the holding pattern at a specific FL or altitude. If instructed to leave the holding pattern at a specific time. the pilot will be instructed: “Atlantic 123 shuttle in the hold to FL80”. For sector 1 and 2 joins. after the second time over the holding point the aircraft should be established in the holding pattern. a buffer area is established extending laterally 5 nm from the holding area. the pilot should cut short the holding pattern to depart from the holding fix at the specified time. The descent can be started at any point in the holding pattern. This level should then be maintained until re-cleared for a lower level or to continue enroute by ATC. For sector 3 the aircraft may be established in the holding pattern after the first time over the fix. “Atlantic 123 radar vectoring for ILS Coventry runway 23. Departing the Pattern When cleared to leave the holding pattern. The pilot will acknowledge the instruction and immediately commence descent: “Atlantic 123 descending to FL 80”. Obstacle Clearance The holding area is not defined in terms of lateral dimensions. The designer will ensure that there is sufficient airspace above the MOC to encompass the holding pattern and the associated joining procedures. The MOC is reduced in steps for each nm into the buffer area until the MOC is reduced to zero at the extremity of the buffer area. Full MOC is maintained within the holding area and 1 nm into the buffer area. When level at FL80 the pilot will report “Atlantic 123 DAV holding FL80”. From your present position turn right heading 350”. Once established the pilot will report “Atlantic 123 DAV holding FL90”.

Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Holding Area and Buffer Area Reducing Minimum Obstacle Clearance (MOC) Air Law 10-41 .

Simultaneous parallel instrument departures (mode 3). or vice versa. Dependent Parallel Approaches Approaches made to parallel runways where radar separation between aircraft using adjacent ILS is applied.Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures SIMULTANEOUS OPERATIONS ON PARALLEL OR NEAR PARALLEL INSTRUMENT RUNWAYS Simultaneous operations on parallel or near parallel instrument runways in IMC are essential in order to increase capacity at busy aerodromes. It is implicit that the tracks of the aircraft will diverge after take off and that radar separation will be applied. Note: When the minimum distance between two parallel runway centre lines is lower than the specified value dictated by wake turbulence considerations. Mode 1. Mode 2. There are a variety of modes of operation associated with the use of parallel or near parallel instrument runways. Simultaneous Instrument Departures This is defined as simultaneous departures for aircraft departing in the same direction from parallel runways. the parallel runways are considered as a single runway in regard to separation between departing aircraft. Mode 4. Independent Parallel Approaches Approaches made to parallel runways where radar separation between aircraft using adjacent ILS is not applied. 10-42 Air Law . Mode 3. Segregated Parallel Approaches/Departures In this mode one runway is used for departures and the other used for arrivals. A simultaneous dependent parallel departure mode of operation is therefore not used. and Semi-mixed parallel operations. An aerodrome already having dual parallel precision approach (ILS) runways can increase capacity if these runways are safely operated simultaneously and independently when IMC exists. These are: Simultaneous parallel instrument approaches (modes 1 and 2). Segregated parallel operations (mode 4). Semi-Mixed and Mixed Operations In the case of parallel approaches and departures there may be mixed or semi-mixed operations based on the four operating modes described above. This is the normal mode of operation at London Heathrow and permits up to 90 movements (take-offs and landings) per hour.

a NOZ is established for each runway. or Departures are in progress on the other runway Mixed operations All modes of operation are possible Mode 1 or 2 4 4 3 1. the NTZ is a corridor of airspace of defined dimensions.3 or 4 Normal Operating Zone (NOZ) Where Mode 1 and Mode 2. simultaneous approaches are in operation.2.Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Semi-mixed operations One runway is used exclusively for approaches while: Approaches are being made to the other runway. Air Law 10-43 . or Departures are in progress on the other runway One runway is used exclusively for departures while: Approaches are being made to the other runway. This is airspace of defined dimensions extending to either side of the ILS localizer course. located centrally between the two extended runway centre lines where penetration by an aircraft requires controller intervention to manoeuvre any threatened aircraft on the adjacent approach into safe airspace. Only the inner half of the NOZ is taken into account for Mode 1. No-Transgression Zone (NTZ) In the context of independent parallel approaches (Mode 1).

Required runway Spacing for Parallel Operations 10-44 Air Law . All aerodromes are categorised by an aerodrome reference code. reference to code relates to the aerodrome reference code. In the diagrammatic description below.Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Runway Lateral Spacing The spacing between the centre lines of the adjacent (parallel) runways is defined as minima dependent upon the operation. This is explained fully in the chapter dealing with aerodromes.

the final vector is such as to enable the aircraft to intercept the ILS localizer course at an angle not greater than 30º and to provide at least 2 km (1 nm) straight and level flight prior to ILS localizer course intercept. The high side altitude will be 300 m (1000 ft) above the low side. and to ensure aircraft do not enter the NTZ.7 km (2. the following apply: Radar Monitoring All approaches regardless of weather conditions are radar monitored. When turns are prescribed to establish divergence. the aircraft on the adjacent ILS localizer course will be issued appropriate control instructions. When cleared for an ILS approach. Pilots should always be aware that during parallel runway operations an aircraft that makes a missed approach is actually flying a simultaneous parallel runway departure procedure. the aircraft will be instructed to return immediately to the correct track. the radar controller monitoring the approach will issue control instructions if the aircraft deviates substantially from the ILS localizer course. The main objective is that both aircraft be established on the ILS localizer course before the 300 m (1000 ft) vertical separation is reduced. pilots shall commence the turns as soon as practicable. Corrective Action If an aircraft is observed to overshoot the ILS localizer course during turn to final. Control instructions and information necessary to ensure separation between aircraft. The low side altitude will normally be such that the aircraft will be established on the ILS localizer course well before ILS glidepath interception. The ATC procedure will be to vector arriving aircraft to one or the other of the parallel ILS localizer courses.Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Vectoring to the ILS Localizer Course When simultaneous independent parallel approaches are in progress. Pilots are not required to acknowledge these transmissions or subsequent instructions while on final approach unless requested to do so. If the aircraft fails to take corrective action and penetrates the NTZ.0 nm) prior to intercepting the ILS glide path. Air Law 10-45 . only a straight in approach is permitted (no track reversals). When vectoring to intercept the ILS localizer course. Once the 300 m (1000 ft) vertical separation is reduced. are issued. Separation Each pair of parallel approaches will have a “high side” and a “low side” for vectoring. Missed Approach/Track Divergence Simultaneous parallel operations require diverging tracks for missed approach procedures and departures. to provide vertical separation until aircraft are established inbound on their respective parallel ILS localizer course. This vector enables the aircraft to be established on the ILS localizer course in level flight for at least 3.

Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures Fig: Mode 1 Independent Parallel Approaches Fig: Mode 1 Relationship between NTZ and NOZ 10-46 Air Law .

Instrument Procedures Chapter 10 Fig: Mode 2 Dependent Parallel Approaches Fig: Mode 3 Simultaneous Parallel Departures Air Law 10-47 .

Chapter 10

Instrument Procedures

Fig: Mode 4 Segregated Operations

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INTRODUCTION
Annex 15 to the Chicago Convention covers the provision of an Aeronautical Information Service (AIS). The object of AIS is to ensure the flow of information necessary for the safety, regularity and efficiency of international air navigation. Corrupt or erroneous aeronautical information can potentially affect the safety of air navigation. The role and importance of aeronautical information/data changed significantly with the implementation of: Area navigation (RNAV); Required navigation performance (RNP), and Airborne computer-based navigation systems. To satisfy the uniformity and consistency in the provision of aeronautical information that is required for operational use, states shall, as far as possible, avoid standards and procedures other than those established for international use.

RESPONSIBILITIES AND FUNCTION
Each contracting state shall provide an aeronautical information service, or provide a joint service with one or more Contracting State, and shall remain responsible for any information published. Aeronautical information shall clearly indicate that it is published under the authority of that state. Where a 24-hour service is not provided, the service has to be available during the whole period an aircraft is in flight in the area of responsibility plus a period of at least two hours before and after such a period. The aeronautical information service shall obtain information for it to provide a pre-flight information service to meet the need for in-flight information, and to ensure that information is in a form suitable for the requirements of flight operations personnel including flight crews, flight planning and flight simulator, and the ATS unit responsible for a FIS.

THE INTEGRATED AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION PACKAGE (IAIP)
The IAIP is a package that consists of the following elements: Aeronautical Information Publication (AlP), including an amendment service; Supplements to the AlP; NOTAM and pre-flight information bulletins (PIB); Aeronautical Information Circulars (AICs); Checklists and Summaries. Air Law 11-1

Chapter 11

Aeronautical Information Service

Note: AlPs are intended primarily to satisfy international requirements for the exchange of aeronautical information of a lasting character essential to air navigation. When practicable, the form of presentation is designed to facilitate their use in flight. WGS 84 As of 1 January 1984, published geographical co-ordinates indicating latitude and longitude shall be expressed in terms of the World Geodetic System - 1984 (WGS 84).

PROHIBITED, RESTRICTED, AND DANGER AREAS
Prohibited, restricted or danger areas established by a state shall, upon initial establishment, be given an identification designation and full details shall be promulgated. The identification assigned is used to identify the area in all subsequent notifications pertaining to that area. The identification is composed of a group comprising; nationality letters for location indicators assigned to the state or territory, which has established the airspace (EG is used for the UK); a letter: P - Prohibited area; R - Restricted area; D - Danger area; and a unique number within the state or territory concerned. Hence EGD001 is danger area number 001 in the United Kingdom. To avoid confusion, identification numbers are not re-used for a period of at least one year after cancellation of any area to which they refer. This will allow all aeronautical publications and charts to be reprinted at least once after the designation is cancelled.

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Chapter 11

NOTAM (NOTICE TO AIRMEN)
The AFTN shall, whenever practicable, be employed for NOTAM distribution usually in telex format. A NOTAM is originated and issued whenever the information to be distributed: is of a temporary nature and of short duration; contains operationally significant permanent changes; contains temporary changes of long duration made at short notice, except for extensive text and/or graphics. Note: Information of short duration containing extensive text and/or graphics is published as an AIP Supplement. Distribution A NOTAM is distributed to addressees to whom the information is of direct operational significance, and who would not otherwise have at least seven days prior notification. NOTAM Checklist A checklist of NOTAMs in force is issued over the AFTN at intervals of not more than one month; it refers to the latest AIP Amendments, AIP Supplements and at least the internationally distributed AICs. The checklist must have the same distribution as the actual message series to which they refer. NOTAM Summary This is a monthly printed plain language summary which is prepared and forwarded to the recipients of the integrated AIP containing details of the NOTAMs in force, the latest AIP Amendments, a checklist of AIP Supplements, and AIC issued. SNOWTAM Information concerning snow, ice, and standing water on aerodrome pavements is reported by SNOWTAM. The maximum validity of a SNOWTAM is 24 hours. However, a new SNOWTAM must be issued when there is a significant change in conditions. SNOCLO This is a term used in a VOLMET broadcast to indicate that an aerodrome is closed due to snow or snow clearance in progress.

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Aeronautical Information Service

SNOWTAM Form The SNOWTAM Form is broken into 17 sections as shown in the form below.

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Aeronautical Information Service

Chapter 11

Wheel Braking on Wet Runways The retardation effect of an aircraft’s braking system relies on friction with the surface of the runway. If the surface is not dry then the ‘amount of friction’ will be reduced. The reduction in friction can be given a factor known as the co-efficient of braking and is defined by the value of friction of the runway at an instant in time, determined by measurement, divided by the value of friction for the same runway when dry. If the runway is dry, the coefficient of braking is 1; if not dry the co-efficient is less than 1. All paved runways of 1200 m or longer are required to be calibrated for co-efficient of braking to ensure that when wet, good braking action will exist. The presence of water on a runway will be reported by RTF as follows: Dry Damp Wet Water Patches Flooded The surface is dry The surface shows a change of colour due to moisture The surface is soaked, but no significant patches of standing water are visible Significant patches of standing water are visible Extensive standing water is visible

Interpretation When a runway is reported as DRY, DAMP, or WET, pilots may assume an acceptable level of braking friction is present. WATER PATCHES or FLOODED means that braking may be affected by hydroplaning and appropriate adjustments should be considered. Water patches will be reported if at least 25% of the runway is affected. When a runway is notified as ‘slippery when wet’ take-offs and landings in wet conditions should only be considered if the distances equal or exceed the distances required for icy runways as defined in the aircraft manual. Snow, Slush, or Ice on a Runway Whenever a runway is affected by snow, slush, or ice and it has not been possible to clear the precipitant fully, the condition of the runway should be assessed, and the friction coefficient measured. The table below, with associated descriptive terms, was developed from friction data collected in compacted snow and ice and should not be taken as absolute values applicable in all conditions. If the surface is affected by snow or ice and the braking action is reported as “good”, pilots should not expect to find conditions as good as on a clean dry runway (where the available friction may well be greater than that needed). The value “good” is a comparative value and is intended to mean that aeroplanes should not experience directional control or braking difficulties especially when landing. Table: Braking Action Measured Coefficient 0.40 and above 0.39 to 0.36 0.35 to 0.30 0.29 to 0.26 0.25 and below

Estimated Braking Action Good Medium to good Medium Medium to poor Poor

Code 5 4 3 2 1

ASHTAM Information concerning an operationally significant change in volcanic activity, a volcanic eruption and/or volcanic ash cloud is reported by means of an ASHTAM. An ASHTAM provides information on the status of activity of a volcano, when a change in its activity is expected, or is, of operational significance. Information is passed using a volcano level of alert colour code given in the table. Air Law 11-5

Whenever major changes are planned and where additional notice is desirable and practicable. volcano not currently considered dangerous but caution should be exercised or (After an eruption eg a change in alert to yellow from red or orange) Volcanic activity has decreased significantly. The system is based on the establishment of a series of common effective dates at intervals of 28 days. unless the change is of a temporary nature and would not persist for the full period. Ash plume/cloud reported above FL250 or Volcano dangerous. The information notified is not changed for at least another 28 days after the effective date. volcano not currently considered dangerous but caution should be exercised Volcanic activity considered to have ceased and volcano reverted to its normal state Orange Alert Yellow Alert Green Alert AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION REGULATION AND CONTROL (AIRAC) AIRAC System AIRAC is a regulated system for the distribution of amendments to aeronautical data. Both parts are usually distributed together to subscribing organisations. eruption likely. AIRAC notification by NOTAM When an AIP Amendment or an AlP Supplement is published in accordance with AIRAC procedures a NOTAM shall be originated giving a brief description of the contents. 11-6 Air Law . a publication date of at least 56 days in advance of the effective date should be used. with ash plume/cloud not expected to rise above FL250 Volcano known to be active from time to time and volcanic activity has recently increased significantly. the effective date and the reference number to the amendment or supplement. specifically the AIP. with ash plume/cloud expected to rise above FL250 Volcanic eruption in progress but ash plume/cloud not reaching nor expected to reach FL250 or Volcano dangerous. AIRAC amendments are issued in two parts.Chapter 11 Aeronautical Information Service Table: Volcanic Activity Reporting Level of Alert Colour Code Red Alert Status of Activity of Volcano Volcanic eruption in progress. This NOTAM shall come into force on the same effective date as the amendment or supplement. eruption likely. The AIS unit distributes AIRAC information at least 42 days in advance of the effective date with the objective of reaching recipients at least 28 days in advance of the effective date.

Runways and stopways. regulations and procedures applicable to: • FIR. including broadcasts. and procedures. If more than one series is published. and • Permanent areas. of radio navigation aids and communication facilities. noise abatement procedures and any other permanent ATS procedures. or under the specifications for the origination of a NOTAM. known irregularities and maintenance periods. • CTR. withdrawal of. Taxiways and aprons. Holding and approach procedures.Aeronautical Information Service Chapter 11 AIRAC Part 1 Contents Part 1 contains information relating to the establishment. Air Law 11-7 . AICs are differentiated by subject matter by way of colour coding the paper they are printed on. frequencies. • CTA. Specification AICs are issued in printed form containing both text and diagrams if required. Positions. AIRAC Part 2 Contents Part 2 of an AIRAC issue contains information relating to the establishment. Temporary danger. AICs have a consecutive serial number based on the calendar year. call signs. each series is given an identification letter. A state may distribute AICs internationally as well as domestically. • Advisory areas. A checklist of AICs currently in force is to be issued at least once a year. AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION CIRCULARS (AIC) Need An AIC is originated whenever it is necessary to promulgate aeronautical information that does not qualify under the specifications for inclusion in the AlP. Hours of service of aerodrome. height and lighting of navigational obstacles. • Permanent danger. and Temporary areas or routes or portions thereof where the possibility of interception exists. military exercises and mass movements of aircraft. Meteorological facilities. prohibited and restricted areas. prohibited and restricted areas and navigational hazards. routes or portions of routes where the possibility of interception exists. and premeditated significant changes to: Limits (horizontal and vertical). arrival and departure procedures. withdrawal of and premeditated significant changes to: Position. • ATS routes. and facilities and services.

or facilities. facilities. maps and charts. Part 2 — Enroute (ENR) This part of the AIP provides information relating to routes. PIBs All NOTAM information is to be available to pilots in the form of pre-flight information bulletins (PIB).Chapter 11 Aeronautical Information Service Example of AIC system: The following is the UK system for coding AICs: Pink Matters relating to safety Yellow Operational matters including ATS facilities and requirements White Administrative matters e. regularity and efficiency of air navigation. AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION PUBLICATION (AIP) An AIP consists of three parts relating to the following subjects: Part 1 — General (GEN) A list of significant differences between the national regulations and practices of the State and the related ICAO SARPs and procedures. essential for the safety. regulations. legislative. Post Flight Information States shall ensure that arrangements are made for all aerodromes to receive information concerning the state and operation of the navigation facilities to be used by flight crew. information. or purely administrative matters. and additional current information relating to the aerodrome of departure. 11-8 Air Law . Planning Aeronautical information provided for pre-flight planning purposes shall include relevant elements of the Integrated Aeronautical Information Package. or notification of an explanatory or advisory nature concerning technical. and procedures. PRE-FLIGHT AND POST FLIGHT INFORMATION Pre-Flight Information At an aerodrome used for international air operations. procedures. These are given in a form that would enable a user to differentiate readily between the requirements of the State and the related ICAO provisions are found in this section. exam dates and fees Mauve Airspace reservations Green Maps and charts Note: Mauve is purple. aeronautical information shall be made available to flight operations personnel responsible for pre-flight information.g. and relative to the route stages originating at the aerodrome. Uses An AIC shall be originated whenever it is desirable to promulgate a long term forecast of any major change in legislation. All such information is made available to the AIS for dissemination. information of a purely explanatory or advisory nature liable to affect flight safety.

GEN 2 — Tables and Codes Data relating to: Measuring system. equipment and flight documents. Air traffic services. Meteorological services. AIP supplement pages are coloured in order to be conspicuous. Entry. Air Law 11-9 . Abbreviations used in AIS publications. Aircraft instruments. CONTENTS OF AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION PUBLICATION (AIP) PART 1 — GENERAL (GEN) GEN 1 — National Regulations and Requirements Information relating to: Designated authorities. Aeronautical charts. SAR. preferably in yellow (as in the UK). and services available. Summary of national regulations and international agreements/conventions. Location indicators. GEN 3 — Services Information applicable to the provision of: Aeronautical information services. holidays. List of radio navigation aids. transit and departure of aircraft. AlP Supplements Temporary changes of long duration (three months) and information of short duration which contains extensive text and/or graphics are published as AIP supplements.Aeronautical Information Service Chapter 11 Part 3 — Aerodrome Directory (AD) This part of the AIP gives physical details of aerodromes. Entry. Conversion tables. facilities. aircraft markings. and Differences from ICAO SARPs. transit and departure of cargo. Sunrise/sunset tables. Chart symbols. AlP Amendments Permanent changes to the AlP are published as AlP amendments.

and Enroute holding. Other routes. Interception of civil aircraft. ATS airspace classification. ENR 3 — ATS Routes Specifications for and routing of: Lower ATS routes. ENR 2 — Air Traffic Services Airspace Definitions and delineation of: FIR. and departure procedures. TMA. Name code designators for specific points. and Aeronautical ground lights – enroute. Flight planning. Radar services and procedures. Holding. IFR. location and specifications of: Radio navigation aids – enroute. Helicopter routes. ENR 4 — Radio Navigation Aids/Systems Details. Air traffic flow management. Regional supplementary procedures. Altimeter setting procedures. UIR. Area navigation routes. VFR. approach.Chapter 11 Aeronautical Information Service PART 2 — ENROUTE (ENR) ENR 1 — General Rules and Procedures Specific information regarding: General rules. Unlawful interference. Addressing of flight plan messages. 11-10 Air Law . Upper ATS routes. and Other regulated airspace. Air traffic incidents. Special navigation systems.

Surface movement guidance and markings. and Bird migration and areas with sensitive fauna. Local traffic regulations. AD 2 — Aerodromes Specifications of and data relating to: Aerodrome location indicator and name. Passenger facilities. Flight procedures. Aerial sporting and recreational activities.Aeronautical Information Service Chapter 11 ENR 5 — Navigation Warnings Details of: Prohibited. ATS communication facilities. Any additional information. ENR 6 — Enroute Charts Specific charts relating to the routes defined in ENR 3 PART 3 — AERODROMES (AD) AD 1 — Aerodromes/Heliports Introduction Specific information relating to: Aerodrome/heliport availability. Rescue and fire fighting services and snow plan. Aerodrome geographical and administrative data. Aprons. Approach and runway lighting. Helicopter landing area. Aerodrome obstacles. Rescue and fire fighting services. Handling services and facilities. restricted and danger areas. Military exercise and training areas. Other lighting. Other activities of a dangerous nature. Air Law 11-11 . Declared distances. ATS airspace. Radio navigation and landing aids. Runway physical characteristics. Air navigation obstacles – enroute. secondary power supply. Noise abatement procedures. Meteorological information provided. Groupings of aerodromes/heliports. Index to aerodromes and heliports. Operational hours. taxiways and check locations/positions data. Seasonal availability – clearing.

Chapter 11

Aeronautical Information Service

AD 3 — Heliports Relating specifically to heliports. Charts Related to an Aerodrome The requirement is for charts related to an aerodrome to be included in the following order: Aerodrome/heliport chart; Aircraft parking/docking chart; Aerodrome ground movement chart; Aerodrome obstacle chart – for each runway; Precision approach terrain chart; Area chart – departure and transit routes; Standard departure chart; Area chart – arrival and transit routes; Standard arrival chart; Instrument approach chart; Visual approach chart; Bird concentrations in the vicinity of aerodrome.

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Reference:

Annex 11 - Air Traffic Services Document 4444 PANS – ATM

INTRODUCTION
Since the introduction of modern Air Traffic Control service following WWII, procedures and technology have advanced and kept pace with the growth of air traffic and the advances in aircraft design. The modern ATC system is as different today to a 1950s ATCO as would be the flight deck of a Boeing 777 to a Comet pilot. Whilst there is still reliance on the individual skill of the controller, modern digital data systems, digital radar displays, and hi-speed communications all help make the controller’s job less stressful and more professional, thus enhancing safety. The success of an ATC system depends on the adherence to procedures and the application of standards. The training of Air Traffic Control Officers (ATCOs) is no less demanding than that of pilots. ATCOs are required to hold a class 1 medical certificate and are subject to regular skill tests and proficiency checks as are aircrew. As aircrew, you will see only a little of what goes on in the ATCC or the control tower, and your only contact with ATCOs will usually be by RTF. However, the LOs for 010 Air Law require the ATPL student to understand the types of ATC offered to pilots, knowledge of the types of airspace, and the standards for separation applied in them.

OBJECTIVE OF THE AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES (ATS)
The defined objectives of the ATS are to: Prevent collisions between aircraft; Prevent collisions between aircraft and obstructions on the manoeuvring area; Expedite and maintain an orderly flow of air traffic; Provide advice and information necessary for the safe and efficient conduct of flights; and Notify appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need of SAR aid, and assist such organizations as required.

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Air Traffic Services and Airspace

DIVISIONS OF THE AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES
The ATS comprises three services identified as follows: The Air Traffic Control Service To provide ATC to aircraft. Flight Information Service To provide advice and information useful for the safe and efficient conduct of flight. ICAO permits the use of radar in the provision of this service. Alerting Service To notify appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need of SAR aid, and assist such organizations as required. The Air Traffic Control Service is further sub-divided into three parts: Area Control Service The provision of ATC service for controlled flights, except those parts of such flights as described below. Approach Control Service The provision of ATC service for those parts of controlled flights associated with arrival and departure. Aerodrome Control Service The provision of ATC service for aerodrome traffic, except for those parts of flights described above.

DETERMINATION OF THE NEED FOR AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES
The need for the provision of ATS is determined by considering the following: The types of traffic involved The density of air traffic The meteorological conditions Such other factors as may be relevant

CLASSES OF AIRSPACE
When it has been determined that ATS will be provided in a particular portion of airspace or at a particular aerodrome, the airspace is designated according to the services to be provided. The designation (classes) of airspace is as follows:

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Class

Rules IFR IFR

Service ATC ATC

ATC Clearance Required

Separation IFR-IFR IFR-IFR IFR-VFR VFR-IFR VFR-VFR IFR – IFR IFR – VFR VFR – IFR

Traffic Info and avoidance

Speed Limit No

Radio Watch Yes

SVFR Yes

Use Airway; CTA; CTR; ATZ

A B

Required VFR IFR ATC ATC ATC ATC FIS ATC (1) ATC ATC FIS
(1)

No No

Yes

Yes

Airway; CTA; CTR; ATZ

C
VFR IFR

Required

VFR-VFR IFR-IFR Required None Required None IFR-IFR IFR-VFR None IFR-IFR (as far as practical) None VFR-IFR VFR-VFR IFR-VFR VFR-IFR VFR-VFR

Yes

Yes

Yes

Airway; CTA; CTR; ATZ

D
VFR IFR

Yes

Yes

Yes

Airway; CTA; CTR; ATZ

E
VFR

ATC FIS FIS FIS ADV ATC FIS

Yes Yes No No Airway; CTA

F

IFR VFR IFR

None None

Yes

Yes No Yes

No

Advisory Routes

G

VFR

FIS

None

None

Yes

No

No

FIS Routes Open FIR

Note 1: In Class D, traffic information and avoidance is provided by a service called Radar Information Service (not to be confused with the UK RIS). This is not ATC and it is not Advisory ATC as in Class F. For this purpose it is classified as ATC.

Speed Limit Where imposed, the speed limit is 250 kts IAS. ATC may impose lower speed restrictions to facilitate separation. Other speed restrictions may be applied to aircraft flying a STAR and the start point of such limits will be published on the STAR chart. Flight Information Regions (FIRs) Those portions of the airspace where it is determined that FIS and alerting service will be provided are designated as FIRs. All the airspace within the territorial limits of a state is contained with FIRs. Controlled Airspace (CAS) All airspace defined as requiring ATC or Advisory ATC providision is classified as Controlled Airspace (CAS). Outside of CAS only FIS and the Alerting Service services are provided. Control Areas and Control Zones Those airspace parts determined to receive ATC service for IFR flights and controlled VFR flights, are designated Control Areas (CTAs) or Control Zones (CTRs). The difference between a CTA and a CTR is discussed later. Where designated within a FIR, CTAs and CTRs shall form part of that FIR. ICAO states that Class E airspace cannot be used for CTRs. Air Law 12-3

Chapter 12

Air Traffic Services and Airspace

Controlled Aerodromes Those aerodromes where it is determined that ATC service will be provided to aerodrome traffic, are designated as controlled aerodromes. Oceanic Control Areas Airspace outside the territorial limits of states and therefore not subject to domestic ATC arrangements, is organised into Oceanic Control Areas (OCA). The ATC procedures applied in OCAs are defined in Doc 7030 SUPPS. The student will study the organisation of the NAT region in 070 Operational Procedures. The NAT area incorporates of the following OCAs: Shanwick OCA (the UK and EIRE) Gander OCA (Canada) New York OCA (USA) Miami OCA (USA) Santa Maria OCA (Portugal) Bodø OCA (Norway) Sønderstrom OCA (Greenland) Iceland Oceanic FIR Within the ICAO classification of airspace, airspace is utilised as follows: Class A Where the interaction of IFR and VFR traffic is not desirable mainly due to traffic density and the use of VFR flight levels, VFR is prohibited. In Europe Class A is used extensively for airways; CTAs and CTRs. In Class A CTRs SVFR is permitted. In N America (especially the USA) Class A is infrequently used. Class B Where it is considered acceptable to mix IFR and VFR traffic all of which is subject to ATC and the density of traffic is not excessive, Class B is applied. In the UK the UIR is all Class B. In N America most CTAs and CTRs are Class B. SVFR is permitted in Class B CTRs. Where an airway passes through Class B airspace, the airway adopts that classification. Class C Where there is a need for IFR and VFR traffic to be mixed but it is considered sufficient for VFR traffic to maintain its own separation from other VFR traffic, and whilst VFR traffic is separated from IFR traffic by the use of VFR FLs, Class C is applied. In Europe, most CTAs and many CTRs (especially in Eire) are Class C. There is no Class C airspace in the UK because the UK does not recognise VFR FLs. SVFR is permitted in Class C CTRs. Where an airway passes through Class C airspace, the airway adopts that classification. Class D At less busy regional aerodromes and military aerodromes used by civilian traffic CTRs are predominantly Class D. Class D allows the separation of IFR traffic and offers the ability to provide a radar information service to transiting and terminal VFR traffic in addition to the underpinning FIS. Most CTRs in the UK are Class D. SVFR is permitted in Class D CTRs. Where an airway passes through Class D airspace, the airway adopts that classification.

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Class E Where traffic is light or the activity of the traffic mainly transiting, CTAs are established with Class E airspace. Class E permits IFR and VFR but neither imposes nor offers any control over VFR traffic. Indeed, VFR traffic may operate as non-radio traffic in Class E airspace. ICAO proscribes the use of Class E for CTRs therefore SVFR is not permitted in Class E airspace. Where an airway passes through Class E airspace, the airway adopts that classification. Class F Advisory ATC service is provided in Class F airspace to participating IFR flights only. Other IFR and VFR flights are permitted but they only receive FIS. Advisory ATC is limited to the provision of the service for aircraft enroute therefore Class F is restricted to advisory routes, similar in characteristics to an airway. There is no Class F airspace in the USA. Class G Both IFR and VFR are permitted but no service other than FIS is provided. FIS routes may be defined along which FIS is guaranteed to be available. Class G is known as the Open FIR and comprises all the airspace of an FIR outside of controlled airspace (CAS).

REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE (RNP)
A containment value expressed as a distance in nautical miles from the intended position within which flights would be for at least 95% of the total flying time, or, within which 95% of flights will be contained. e.g. RNP 1 implies that an aircraft would be within a distance of 1 nm from the intended position for at least 95% of the total flying time, or 95% of aircraft flying that route will be within 1 nm of their intended position. RNP Standards The RNP standards are 1, 4, 10, 12.6, and 20. There is an interim standard of RNP 5 intended to be applied during the introduction of RNP4. Only one state, Japan, achieved RNP4 and subsequently abandoned it on the grounds of maintenance cost. To date RNP5 is the accepted standard. RNP12.6 is the standard for the North Atlantic and is derived from historic RNAV data based on triple INS navigation. RNP is to be superceded with the introduction of PRNAV through GPS. It is envisaged that BaroVRNAV and GPS approach procedures will produce an equivalent of RNP0.3.

UNITS PROVIDING AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES
ATS is provided by units established and designated as follows: Flight Information Centre (FIC) A Flight Information Centre is established to provide FIS and an alerting service within FIRs, unless the responsibility of providing such services within a FIR is assigned to an ATCU having adequate facilities for the discharge of such responsibility. An example of an FIC is London Information. Air Traffic Control Unit (ATCU) ATCUs are established to provide ATC service, FIS and alerting service within CTAs, CTRs and at controlled aerodromes. An example of an ATCU is Birmingham Approach and Aerodrome Control. Air Law 12-5

12-6 Air Law . FLIGHT INFORMATION REGIONS (FIRS) FIRs are designated to cover the whole of the air route structure within geographical limits. Where this is specifically organised the area within vertical limits is called a TCA. Where this organised. At lower levels. arriving and departing traffic for aerodromes served by the CTA will be manoeuvring to enter and leave the airway structure. are designated so as to encompass enough airspace to contain the flight paths of IFR flights for which it is desired to provide protection. and Terminal Control Areas (TCAs)). Gatwick. Within a CTA. taking into account the capabilities of the navigation aids within the area and the activity of the traffic in the area. SCOTTISH FIR LONDON FIR CONTROL AREAS CTAs (including airways. vertical delineation may be established to permit varying activities to take place. the lower limit specified for the UIR is also the upper vertical limit of the FIR. traffic may be separated for arrival and departure at specific aerodromes as in the case of Heathrow. CTAs are established at the confluence of airways in the vicinity of major aerodromes. Where the upper boundary of an FIR is limited by an UIR. An example of an ACC is the London ACC at Swanwick.Chapter 12 Air Traffic Services and Airspace Area Control Centre (ACC) An ACC provides Area Control within an FIR or within a CTA serving many busy aerodromes. Within the UK the London and Scottish FIRs provide coverage at and below FL245. Below the cruising levels of transiting traffic. An FIR includes all airspace within its lateral limits. except any upper airspace designated as an Upper Information Region (UIR). the area is called a TMA. Terminal Manoeuvring Areas (TMAs). Stansted and Luton. At the top of a CTA the traffic will be transiting and will not affect the activity below. The London and Scottish UIRs cover FL250 up to FL660. Most other states have a similar arrangement for the upper airspace where the activity of the traffic is mainly transiting.

CONTROL ZONES CTRs are defined to include all the airspace. used for IFR flights arriving at and departing from aerodromes. when defined as a FL. the upper limit of the CTR is defined. When this limit is above 900 m (3000 ft) msl it should coincide with a VFR cruising level.3 km (5 nm) from the centre of the aerodrome. 2000 ft above. but where an airway passes through a CTA or CTR of lesser classification. the lower limit of a CTA should be high enough to allow freedom of movement for VFR flights below the CTA. Airways Airways are control areas in the form of a corridor linking other CTAs. The base of an airway. In normal terrain the base would be 1000 ft above the highest terrain or in mountainous areas. or aerodromes (in the case of the CTR covering more than one aerodrome). will be a VFR FL. Airways are normally classified as either class A or class B. it will extend upwards from the surface to at least the lower limit of the CTA. The upper limit of a CTR may be higher than the lower limit of an overlying CTA. outside of CTAs. A CTA upper limit is established when either: An ATC service will not be provided above that upper limit.Air Traffic Services and Airspace Chapter 12 AIRWAY TERMINAL CONTROL AREA AIRWAY CONTROL ZONE CTA Vertical Limit The lower limit of a CTA is not less than 200 m (700 ft) above msl or the ground (whichever is higher. FLIGHT INFORMATION REGIONS OR CONTROL AREAS IN THE UPPER AIRSPACE Where a CTA extends into the upper airspace. Air Law 12-7 . Where there is no overlying CTA. The lateral limit of a CTR should extend at least 9. or The CTA is situated below an upper CTA with contiguous airspace. If a CTR is located within the lateral limits of a CTA. In practice. When the vertical limit of a CTA is above 900 m (3000 ft) msl it should coincide with a VFR cruising level. the airspace within the CTA remains part of the FIR. The base of an airway is defined to include the lowest cruising level above the highest terrain within a defined distance of the airway centreline. Think aerodromes below sea level!). the classification of the airway is reduced accordingly. in the direction(s) from which approaches may be made.

the upper limit is defined as an altitude. the lower and upper limits of controlled airspace (Airways.e. CTAs and CTRs) are defined in terms of the vertical displacement which would coincide with a VFR FL.Chapter 12 Air Traffic Services and Airspace Note: Even in states that do not recognise VFR FLs. 12-8 Air Law . Note: It is common practice to define the upper limit of CTRs as altitudes where the upper limit coincides with or is less than the transition altitude for the aerodrome(s) served by the CTR. the UK does not recognise VFR FLs but the base of airways in the UK is always a FL + 500 ft i. even if this is above 900 m (3000 ft). If you refer to the table of FLs you will find this is a VFR FL. In N America. For instance. FL75. for any CTR or CTA with an upper limit below 18 000 ft. It is generally accepted that the practical maximum upper limit of any defined CAS is FL660.

Air Traffic Services and Airspace Chapter 12 Controlled Airspace in the United Kingdom Air Law 12-9 .

when operating along an ATS route or within a specified area. The purpose of a system of route designators is to allow both pilot and ATS: To make unambiguous reference to any ATS route without the need to resort to the use of geographical co-ordinates or other means in order to describe it. prior to an aircraft taxiing for take-off. shall be given maximum assistance and priority over other aircraft as may be necessitated by the circumstances.Chapter 12 Air Traffic Services and Airspace SERVICE TO AIRCRAFT IN THE EVENT OF EMERGENCY An aircraft known or believed to be in a state of emergency. Code 7700. and Helicopter routes. an aircraft equipped with an SSR transponder is to operate the equipment as follows: Select mode A. For instance. Information pertinent to the safe conduct of the flight shall continue to be transmitted and necessary action shall be taken to expedite the conduct of all phases of the flight. the airway that joins London to Singapore is given the designator A1. 12-10 Air Law . as applicable. FIS routes. Advisory routes. Code 7500. To indicate that it is in a state of emergency. When an occurrence of unlawful interference with an aircraft takes place or is suspected. especially the safe landing of the aircraft. ATS unit clocks and other time recording devices are checked as necessary to ensure the correct time to within ± 30 seconds of UTC at all times. TIME IN AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES ATS units use Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and express the time in hours and minutes of the 24 hour day beginning at midnight. including being subjected to unlawful interference. To indicate a required level of navigation performance accuracy. To relate an ATS route to a specific vertical structure of the airspace. and To indicate that a route is used primarily or exclusively by certain types of aircraft. Aerodrome control towers shall. ATS units shall attend promptly to requests by the aircraft. provide the pilot with the correct time. ATS routes comprise: Airways. or Select mode A. or Select mode A. these time checks are given to the nearest ½ minute. ATS ROUTE DESIGNATORS Purpose of Designators Designators are the ‘code names’ given to routes established for aircraft to fly along. Upper air routes. to indicate unlawful interference. ATS units provide aircraft with the correct time on request. unless arrangements have been made for the pilot to obtain it from other sources. SIDs and STARs. Code 7600 to indicate radio failure.

L. R for routes which form part of the regional networks of ATS routes and are not area navigation routes. P for area navigation routes which form part of the regional networks of ATS routes. ‘Non regional’ implies that the route does not extend beyond the domestic airspace of a state. N. B. one supplementary letter is added as a prefix to the basic designator to designate the following: K to indicate a low level route established for use primarily by helicopters. Prefix Where applicable. Route Designator Letter Selection of the letter shall be made from: A. nonRNAV routes are defined by overflying beacons (VOR. Z for area navigation routes which do not form part of the regional networks of ATS route. have the following format: A letter followed by a number. Note: RNAV routes are defined by waypoints (VOR radial and DME range etc. with the exception of standard arrival and departure routes. and S to indicate a route established exclusively for use by supersonic aircraft during acceleration. with. G. advisory and uncontrolled ATS routes. H. J. and One suffix. V. W for routes which do not form part of the regional networks of ATS routes and are not area navigation routes. Route Designator Number The basic designator number following the letter is any number between 1 and 999. but Should be kept to a maximum of 5 characters. Air Law 12-11 . U to indicate that a route or portion of that route is established in the upper airspace.). and Q. deceleration and while in supersonic flight. Y. NDB etc.) Note: ‘Regional’ refers to the ICAO regions and implies that routes are not restricted to the domestic airspace of a state. One prefix. I. M. Number of Characters The number of characters required to compose the designator: Shall not exceed 6 characters.Air Traffic Services and Airspace Chapter 12 Composition of Designators Designators for controlled.

12-12 Air Law . The following are the applicable suffixes: F indicates that the route is an advisory route (class F airspace).Chapter 12 Air Traffic Services and Airspace Suffix A supplementary letter may be added after the basic designator of the ATS route to indicate the type of service provided or the turn performance required on the route. Y indicates that for RNP 1 routes at and above FL200. all turns on the route between 30° and 90° shall be made within the allowable RNP tolerance of a tangential arc between the straight leg segments defined with a radius of 15 nm. Z indicates that for RNP 1 routes at or below FL 190.5 nm. G indicates that the route is an FIS route in class G airspace. all turns on the route between 30° and 90° shall be made within the allowable RNP tolerance of a tangential arc between the straight leg segments defined with a radius of 22.

Air Traffic Services and Airspace Chapter 12 Belfast CTA/TMA/CTR Air Law 12-13 .

the incident must be investigated and a report raised. The form has shaded boxes for the information needed to be transmitted for the initial report. AIRPROX The ATIR dealing with proximity of aircraft (one aircraft getting too close to another) is called an AIRPROX report. The system is known an Air Traffic Incident Report (ATIR). Filing an ATIR If the ATCO becomes aware of a breach of separation standard then an AIRPROX (Controller) is to be raised. ATCOs. will determine the degree of risk involved. After the report is ‘filed’ a process of investigation starts which amongst other things. When a pilot makes an AIRPROX report. the pilot is to complete the form and file it either directly with the ATCU at the aerodrome of landing or through the Operator or the Operator’s agent. an initial report is to be made by RTF to the ATCU providing control at that time. If any deviation becomes apparent. When the aircraft has landed. The reliance on adherence to procedures underpins the philosophy of applying separation standards and both pilots and ATCOs must have faith in the standard applicability of the procedures.Chapter 12 Air Traffic Services and Airspace AIR TRAFFIC INCIDENT REPORT (ATIR) Any deviation from the standards of safety in the procedures used by pilots. There are three types of ATIR: Proximity of Aircraft. 12-14 Air Law . No risk of collision. whether intentional or accidental. and equipment used for the safe navigation of aircraft is a serious matter. If a pilot observes or becomes aware of an aircraft too close or cleared to or through the same level/altitude or to commence a manoeuvre that would cause proximity concern. Procedural inadequacy. What might appear a trivial matter may if repeated too many times. ICAO has published a standard reporting form for AIRPROX (Pilot). become catastrophic in effect. Equipment malfunction. Safety not assured. This will be classified as: Risk of collision. then he/she is to raise an AIRPROX (Pilot). ICAO has devised a system for reporting and investigating such occurrences. Risk not determined.

and That possible avoiding action shall conform to the normal ATC procedures and shall exclude consideration of aircraft capabilities dependent on ACAS equipment. The establishment of appropriate separation and the information which might be provided in relation to conflicting traffic. the controller will not attempt to modify the aircraft flight path until the pilot reports that the aircraft is returning to the current ATC instruction or clearance. Pilots shall not manoeuvre their aircraft in response to Traffic Advisories only. In particular: The prevention of collisions. of course. Air Law 12-15 . TCAS – TRAFFIC) ACAS Flight in RVSM airspace requires either ACAS or TCAS. On completion of manoeuvre the pilot is to report the action taken to ATC. The procedures to be applied for the provision of ATS to aircraft equipped with ACAS are identical to those applicable to non-ACAS equipped aircraft. the other aircraft is TCAS fitted. Pilots should use the indications generated by ACAS/TCAS remembering that the safety implications of subsequent actions must be recognised. USE OF ACAS/TCAS INDICATIONS ACAS/TCAS indications are intended to assist the pilots in the active search for. When a pilot reports a manoeuvre because of an ACAS resolution advisory. The information provided by ACAS is intended to assist pilots in the safe operation of aircraft. Action When an ACAS or TCAS resolution advisory results in the aircraft deviation from the cleared track or altitude. TCAS can coordinate up to three aircraft at any time. Note: The difference between ACAS and TCAS is that ACAS is totally autonomous whereas TCAS has the ability to coordinate the advisory information offered with the other aircraft involved providing.Air Traffic Services and Airspace Chapter 12 COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEMS (ACAS – AIRBORNE. The operation of both systems with regard to the provision of an ATCS is the same. Traffic information is provided during the manoeuvre. the pilot is to take the necessary avoiding action or allow the TCAS system to operate automatically without pre-approval or re-clearance from ATC. for the avoidance of potential collisions. and visual acquisition of conflicting traffic. Nothing prevents pilots from exercising their best judgement and full authority in the choice of the best course of action to resolve a traffic conflict.

Chapter 12 Air Traffic Services and Airspace 12-16 Air Law .

the attention of pilots is drawn to a statement that the objectives of an ATC service do not include the prevention of collision with terrain. Provision of Air Traffic Control Service Air traffic control service is provided by the various ATC units (ATCUs) detailed below. C. plus a suffix indicating the service offered. is too detailed to be included in the Annex.” AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICE Application An Air Traffic Control service is provided to: All IFR flights in Class A. entitled PANS Air Traffic Management (ATM). with the exception of Radar Vectoring. has been specially written to provide the definitive reference for the establishment of an ATC system within a state. The RTF callsigns of ATCUs consist of the geographic location of the unit. or the name of the airspace (if one has been allocated) in which the service is to be provided. Clearly. It continues: “The procedures described in the document (Doc 4444). D and E airspace All VFR flights in Class B. do not relieve the pilot of his/her responsibility for ensuring that any clearance issued by ATCUs are safe in this respect. The SARPs are complex and the underpinning organisation and system for the formulation of procedures and service provided. B. however. C and D airspace To all special VFR flights To all aerodrome traffic at controlled aerodromes Note: The ATC service provided to VFR traffic in class D airspace is a Radar Information service. ICAO Document 4444.INTRODUCTION Annex 11 to the Chicago Convention is concerned with the SARPs to be used in the delivery of ATC. the content of Doc 4444 is of primary interest to ATCOs and system designers. Indeed. the introduction to PANS ATM states that the content of Doc 4444 will be of interest to pilots. Air Law 13-1 .

It is primarily procedural control but generally uses radar. flying along airways or transiting the upper airspace. Aerodrome Control Service The aerodrome control service provides ATS to aircraft on the ground and flying in the vicinity of the aerodrome. the procedures may seem cumbersome and outmoded in today’s radar environment. or The unit providing approach control service in a CTR/CTA of limited extent which is designated for the provision of approach control service and where no ACC is established. It may not be sensible to ignore the service offered. an aerodrome traffic zone (ATZ) is established. 13-2 Air Law . the aerodrome authority has established approach control. or the name suffixed with ‘tower’. the ATCO probably knows where the aircraft is better than the pilot does when flying in IMC. The service is provided by: An aerodrome control tower or area control centre when it is necessary or desirable to combine under the responsibility of one unit the functions of the approach control service with those of the aerodrome control service or the area control service. The RTF callsign of the aerodrome controller is the aerodrome name. the use of which is not mandatory.e. If there is no CTR then the ATZ is class G. The RTF callsign of the unit providing approach control is given the suffix ‘approach’ or in the case of radar approach ‘radar’ or ‘director’ (i. the underlying provision of service is through procedural control. A radar approach controller may be utilised to provide radar vectoring within a defined radar vectoring area to separate arriving and departing traffic and to provide guidance for arriving traffic during the initial stages of an instrument approach. ‘Birmingham Approach’. The specific standards will be detailed under Area Control. London Control or Miami Centre). However. Approach Control Service Approach control is provided to all IFR flights and controlled VFR flights departing from and arriving at controlled aerodromes within CTRs. is discussed in the chapter dealing with Radar. The service is provided by an aerodrome control tower. The class of airspace of the ATZ is that of the surrounding airspace. Throughout the chapters dealing with Approach Control and Area Control. An area control centre (ACC) has an RTF callsign containing the suffix ‘control’ or ‘centre’ (i. where separation is based on distance. then the ATZ is class D. Example aerodromes are Oxford and Cambridge.e. Based on this information and the ATCO’s knowledge of the positions and altitude of other aircraft. The level of service provided depends upon the class of airspace that contains the aerodrome. ‘Bristol Radar’ or ‘Gatwick Director’). the basic ATC system uses procedural control where the pilot tells the ATCO where the aircraft is and what altitude it is at. With radar including SSR. Procedural control is based on time for horizontal separation. At all controlled aerodromes. Note: The task of providing specified services on the apron may be assigned to an aerodrome control tower or to a separate unit known as the Apron Management Service. At some busy aerodromes. The service is provided by: An area control centre (ACC). or An approach control when it is necessary or desirable to establish a separate unit. Procedural Control Modern ATC systems use radar in almost all ATC situations. Radar control. The service is procedural but generally uses radar.Chapter 13 Air Traffic Control Services Area Control Service An area control service is provided to aircraft in CAS within CTAs. the ATCO issues a clearance to the aircraft. For this reason. If the aerodrome is within a class D CTR. Note: The provision of approach control at aerodromes outside of CTRs is advisory only.

but never less than ½ of. converging or reciprocal tracks.Air Traffic Control Services Chapter 13 OPERATION OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICE In order to provide an ATC service. The minima for use with each of these is possibly less than. expressed in time or distance. Clearances issued by ATCUs provide separation: For all flights in Class A and B airspace. Composite separation Consisting of a combination of vertical and one of the other forms of separation. Between IFR flights and VFR flights in Class C airspace. Separation Methods Separation can be obtained by at least one of the following: Vertical separation Obtained by assigning different altitudes or FLs to geographically adjacent aircraft. or Lateral separation By maintaining aircraft on different routes or in different geographical areas. an ATCU shall: Be provided with information on the intended movement of each aircraft and with current information on the actual progress of each aircraft. D. Note: Communications failure procedure in the NAT area uses composite separation. those for use with each of the combined elements when applied individually. and Between special VFR flights when required by the authority. Separation Separation is the act of physically ensuring that collisions between aircraft do not take place. Between IFR flights in Class C. Horizontal separation Obtained by providing: Longitudinal separation By maintaining an interval between aircraft operating along the same. Co-ordinate clearances as necessary with other units: Whenever an aircraft might otherwise conflict with traffic operated under the control of such other units. Air Law 13-3 . Determine from the information received. Before transferring control of an aircraft to such other units. Between IFR flights and special VFR flights. the relative positions of known aircraft to each other. and E airspace. Composite separation is applied only on the basis of regional air navigation agreements. Issue clearances and information for the purpose of preventing collisions between aircraft under its control and of expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of traffic.

In delivering an ATC clearance. the controller is giving permission for the flight to commence (or continue) within CAS under his/her control with the proviso that the pilot complies with the instructions given. Air Traffic Control Clearances Before a flight under IFR or a controlled VFR flight enters controlled airspace (CAS) and prior to being provided with any ATC service. as soon as the aircraft is in the vicinity of the aerodrome and: It is considered that it will be able to complete its approach and landing with visual reference to the ground. communications and the time of expiry of the clearance 13-4 Air Law .Chapter 13 Air Traffic Control Services Transfer of Control Between ATS Units At controlled aerodromes transfer of control between the aerodrome controller and the approach controller will occur as follows: Arriving Aircraft The responsibility for the control of an aircraft approaching to land is transferred from the unit providing approach control service to the unit providing aerodrome control service. or Has landed. or Immediately after the aircraft is airborne. or Before the aircraft enters IMC. or It has reached uninterrupted VMC. An ATC clearance comprises information and instructions to the pilot of the aircraft and includes the word ‘clear’. In IMC: Immediately before the aircraft enters the runway for take-off. Content of an ATC Clearance An ATC clearance will contain: Aircraft identification as shown in the flight plan Clearance limit Route of flight Level(s) of flight for the entire route or part route and changes of level if required Any necessary instructions or information on other matters such as approach or departure manoeuvres. Departing Aircraft The responsibility for control of a departing aircraft is transferred from the unit providing aerodrome control service to the unit providing Approach Control service at the earliest opportunity: In VMC: Before the aircraft leaves the vicinity of the aerodrome. an ‘ATC clearance’ is to be given to the aircraft.

an alternative is usually offered at this stage. When prior co-ordination has been effected with units under whose control the aircraft will subsequently come under or if there is reasonable time prior to the assumption of control. to co-ordinate the clearance between all the units under whose control the aircraft will come.Air Traffic Control Services Chapter 13 Co-Ordination of Clearances An ATC clearance is to be co-ordinated between ATC units to cover the entire route of an aircraft. the aircraft will only be cleared to a point where co-ordination is reasonably certain. and co-ordination shall be expedited so that a clearance to the destination may be issued as soon as possible. or CAS boundary. or When there is reasonable assurance that prior co-ordination will be effected between those units under whose control the aircraft will subsequently come. or at that point. “Take-off not before (time)” This is given so that a pilot can calculate the time to start the aircraft’s engines. Prior to reaching such a point. the clearance limit is the destination aerodrome or. with holding instructions being issued as appropriate. A clearance limit is specified by using the name of the appropriate reporting point. a new clearance will have to be requested by the pilot. Note: If the clearance for the levels covers only part of the route. in which case. the aircraft must receive a further clearance. or a specified portion of a route as follows. Limited Clearance When co-ordination has not been achieved or is not anticipated. to enter another CTA within a period of 30 minutes. An aircraft is normally cleared for the entire route to the aerodrome of first intended landing: When it has been possible. an appropriate intermediate point. “Unable to clear (level planned)” Where ATC is unable to clear the flight at the planned level. ATC Clearance Expiry One of the following phrases may be included in the initial clearance when the Air Traffic situation necessitates: “Clearance expires (time)” This indicates that if the aircraft is not airborne by the time stated a fresh clearance is required. prior to departure. if not practicable. or aerodrome. Expiry Time The time of expiry of a clearance indicates the time after which the clearance will be automatically cancelled if the flight has not been started. co-ordination with the subsequent area control centre is obtained prior to the issue of the departure clearance. Level(s) of flight for the entire route or part thereof and changes of levels if required. Air Law 13-5 . Entering a CTA When an aircraft intends to depart from an aerodrome within a CTA. it is important for the ATCU to specify a point to which the part of the clearance regarding levels applies.

Note: The provision of vertical or horizontal separation by an ATCU is not applicable in respect of any specified portion of a flight cleared subject to maintaining own separation and remaining in VMC. 13-6 Air Law . The phrases used and meanings are: Cleared via flight plan route Is used to describe any route or portion of a route. Clearances to Fly Maintaining own Separation in VMC When requested by an aircraft. Essential Traffic Information Essential traffic is defined as controlled traffic to which separation by ATC is applicable. an ACC may clear a controlled flight to operate in VMC during the hours of daylight. for the duration of the clearance. The aircraft may fly the route subject to maintaining its own separation and remaining in VMC. Type of aircraft concerned. in which case: The clearance shall be for a specified portion of the flight during climb or descent and subject to further restrictions as and when prescribed on the basis of regional air navigation agreements. The pilot of an IFR flight. If there is a possibility that flight under VMC may become impracticable an IFR flight shall be provided with alternative instructions to be complied with in the event that flight in VMC cannot be maintained for the term of the clearance. It is for the flight so cleared to ensure that. on observing that conditions are deteriorating and considering that operation in VMC will become impossible. but which in relation to a particular controlled flight has not been applied.Chapter 13 Air Traffic Control Services Route of Flight The route of flight is detailed in each clearance when deemed necessary. Note: This information will inevitably relate to controlled flights cleared subject to maintaining own separation and remaining in VMC. it is not operated in such proximity to other flights as to create a collision hazard. for the duration of the clearance. and provided it is authorized by the appropriate ATS authority. the provision of separation by ATC is not applicable. Cleared via (designation) departure or Cleared via (designation) arrival May be used when standard departure or arrival routes have been established by the appropriate ATS authority and published in Aeronautical Information Publication. provided the route or portion of route is identical to that filed in the flight plan and sufficient routing details are given to definitely establish the aircraft on its route. Essential traffic information includes: Direction of flight of aircraft involved. Note: As a VFR flight must remain in VMC at all times. the issuance of a clearance to a VFR flight to fly subject to maintaining own separation and remaining in VMC has no other meaning other than to signify that. shall inform ATC before entering IMC and shall proceed in accordance with the alternative instructions given. Cruising level of aircraft concerned and estimated time over the reporting point nearest to where the level will be crossed.

that specified restrictions are to be applied to any additional traffic for a specified period of time for the purpose of avoiding excessive delay to aircraft in flight. particularly to protect the ILS/MLS sensitive areas during Category II or III precision instrument operations. In conditions where low visibility procedures are in operation.Air Traffic Control Services Chapter 13 Control of Air Traffic Flow When it becomes apparent to an ATCU that traffic additional to that already accepted cannot be accommodated within a given period of time at a particular location or in a particular area. on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome shall be controlled by the aerodrome control tower to avoid hazard to them or to aircraft landing. and Notwithstanding the above. Air Law 13-7 . takingoff or taxiing (1). vehicles and vehicles towing aircraft shall comply with instructions issued by the aerodrome control tower. and Vehicles shall give way to other vehicles in accordance with local instructions. persons and vehicles operating on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome shall be restricted to the essential minimum. Note 1: In the UK aircraft taxiing are required to give way to aircraft being towed. or if applicable. taxiing or taking-off. or can only be accommodated at a given rate. Emergency Vehicles P proceeding to the assistance of an aircraft in distress are afforded priority over all other surface movement traffic. including towed aircraft. Control of Persons and Vehicles at Aerodromes The movement of persons or vehicles. Ground Movement Rules Vehicles on the manoeuvring area are required to comply with the following rules: Vehicles and vehicles towing aircraft shall give way to aircraft which are landing. that unit will advise other ATCUs and operators known or believed to be concerned and PICs of aircraft destined to that location or area that additional flights are likely to be subjected to excessive delay. and Vehicles shall give way to other vehicles towing aircraft.

Automation Dependent Surveillance (ADS) This is a surveillance technique where aircraft automatically provide. is given priority over other aircraft. via data link. The form also serves as a log of the ATC communications throughout the enroute portion of a flight. Aireps may be sent by ADS if available. The operational form has columns adjacent to the parameter column for the pilot (or usually the co-pilot) to record the necessary data. Special observations (non routine) are reported as special aireps. additional requirements have been added.Chapter 13 Air Traffic Control Services EMERGENCY AND COMMUNICATION FAILURE Priority An aircraft known or believed to be in a state of emergency. Action by the Pilot in Command The pilot of an aircraft making an emergency descent is to make broadcasts indicating the level passing in the descent. however. Air Reports and Special Air Reports (Airep and Airep Special) When operational information and/or routine meteorological information is to be reported by aircraft enroute. It is expected that aircraft receiving a broadcast by ATC will clear the specified areas and stand by on the appropriate radio frequency for further clearances from the ATCU. 13-8 Air Law . If this is unsuccessful pilots should monitor the VHF emergency frequency 121. Emergency Descent Upon receipt of advice that an aircraft is making an emergency descent through other traffic. including being subjected to unlawful interference. The data consists of aircraft identification. ATC will take all possible action to immediately safeguard all aircraft concerned including broadcasts by RTF. pilots should attempt to communicate using the alternate published RTF frequencies for the ATCU concerned. data derived from on board navigation and position-fixing systems. four dimensional position information. the position report is to be given in the form of a routine air-report (airep). An example of an Airep form is shown below.500Mhz. Air-Ground Communication Failure In the event of ATC losing the ability to communicate because of ground equipment failure. and any additional data as necessary. Position Reporting The procedures for position reporting have already been covered in Chapter 7 Rules of the Air.

Meteorological Information Section 3 (outlined in green) lists the met data which (if available) should be transmitted when the flight is required to ‘report met’. Note item 15 contains the met phenomena which if encountered. Air Law 13-9 .Air Traffic Control Services Chapter 13 ICAO Standard Airep Form Position Report Section 1 (outlined in red) is a standard position report. would require the transmission of an airep special. Operational Information Section 2 (outlined in blue) includes the ETA and the fuel based endurance remaining.

Chapter 13 Air Traffic Control Services 13-10 Air Law .

destination and alternate aerodromes. in so far as practicable and when requested by a pilot. or otherwise known to the relevant ATS units. and Any other information likely to affect safety. of vessels in the area. Where this is provided it is known as a radar information service. Precedence Where ATS units provide both FIS and air traffic control service. position. Additional Information FIS provided to flights includes. For flight over water areas. etc. F and G. ice. E. the provision of air traffic control service has precedence over the provision of FIS whenever the provision of air traffic control service so requires. Do not confuse this with the UK radar service offered to traffic inside and outside of controlled airspace under the LARS service which is called Radar Information Service (RIS). Information concerning the release into the atmosphere of radioactive materials or toxic chemicals. in addition to the information already outlined. the provision of information concerning weather conditions reported or forecast at departure. Use of Radar ICAO SARPs allow the use of radar in the provision of a FIS. any available information such as radio call sign. speed. Air Law 14-1 . Information on unmanned free balloons. Information on change in the serviceability of navigation aids. D.APPLICATION FIS is provided to all aircraft which are likely to be affected by the information and which are provided with air traffic control service. Information on changes in condition of aerodromes and associated facilities. Information concerning pre-eruption volcanic activity.. volcanic eruptions. true track. and collision hazards to aircraft flying in airspace Classes C. or significant depth of water. WHAT IS PROVIDED BY A FIS FIS includes the provision of the following: SIGMET and AIRMET information. including information on the state of the aerodrome movement areas when they are affected by snow. and volcanic ash cloud.

provided the range and readability are adequate and the identification of the navigation aid is sequenced with the broadcast so that the latter is not obliterated. or One broadcast serving both arriving and departing aircraft.Chapter 14 Flight Information Services (FIS) FIS to VFR Traffic FIS provided to VFR flights includes all the information above plus the provision of available information concerning traffic and weather conditions along the route that are likely to make operation under VFR impracticable. ATIS broadcasts are not to be transmitted on the voice channel of ILS. The term VOLMET is taken from ‘meteorologie de vol’. or One broadcast serving departing aircraft. the transmission may be made on the voice channel of the most appropriate terminal navigation aid. D-ATIS is displayed on the flight deck through the EFIS system. Because it is transmitted continuously and consists of data rather than voice information. 14-2 Air Law . V-ATIS A discrete VHF frequency is used for ATIS broadcasts. preferably a VOR. it can be updated virtually instantaneously. VOLMET Meteorological information (TAFS and Metars) is broadcast on both HF and VHF where there is a need. It is passed to aircraft by the following means: Information Broadcasts When a Regional Air Navigation Agreement determines that a requirement for a broadcast exists then the following formats are followed: HF OFIS broadcast VHF OFIS broadcast Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) ATIS ATIS broadcasts are provided at aerodromes where there is a requirement to reduce the communication load on the ATS VHF air-ground communication channels. In any one data transmission information concerning multiple aerodromes can be included together with appropriate administrative information. OPERATIONAL FLIGHT INFORMATION SERVICE BROADCASTS (OFIS) The meteorological information and operational information concerning navigation aids and aerodromes included in the FIS is provided in an operationally integrated form. When provided V-ATIS comprises: One broadcast serving arriving aircraft. A VOLMET broadcast is transmitted by the FIS of a FIR (VHF) or an OCA (HF). or Two broadcasts serving arriving and departing aircraft respectively at those aerodromes where the length of a broadcast serving both arriving and departing aircraft would be excessively long D-ATIS D-ATIS is transmitted continuously on the data link system from an ACC. If a discrete frequency is not available. It typically covers many aerodromes either within the FIR or adjacent FIRs. ATIS is established as Voice ATIS (V-ATIS) which can be supplemented with Data ATIS (D-ATIS).

Outside of the hours of ATC watch. or landing from the visual circuit are given by the aerodrome controller. as defined by ICAO. The aerodrome controller may be assisted by a ground movements controller whose function would be to advise pilots of collision risks and to pass other aeronautical information. where an aerodrome is used for commercial operations under IFR the aerodrome must be licensed and under the licensing requirements the provision of an aerodrome controller will be required.Reference: Procedures for Air Navigation Services. Air Law 15-1 . An alternative to a licensed ATCO is to use a Flight Information Service Officer (FISO) who is licensed to provide FIS. with the radius. Where a FISO is appointed his/her RTF callsign will have the suffix “Information”. The aerodrome controller usually uses the aerodrome name plus the word ‘tower’ as an RTF callsign e.g. centred on the longest runway. during which the rules of the air apply.g. there is an arrivals controller and a departures controller. At busy aerodromes e. At a controlled aerodrome. The ATZ extends from ground level up to 2000 ft AGL. the ATZ is controlled airspace with ATC provided by the aerodrome controller. However. for example: Redhill Information.5 nm.RAC/501 INTRODUCTION There is no regulatory requirement for an aerodrome that is outside CAS and used only for VFR flying to have an aerodrome controller. Heathrow. It is circular. both of whom share the responsibility of the aerodrome controller. If the ground controller is required to provide ATC to aircraft on the ground. Clearances for traffic taking off and remaining in the visual circuit. Such an aerodrome is defined by ICAO as a controlled aerodrome. Doc 4444 . The ATZ reduces to uncontrolled airspace outside of the notified hours of watch of the aerodrome controller (as per the AD entry in the AIP for the state). The aerodrome controller must be a licensed ATCO. Alternatively. he/she must be a licenced ATCO. pilots may use the aerodrome if required (with permission of the land owner to avoid trespass) but may only do so in VMC.” In the UK the radius of the ATZ is dependent upon the length of the longest runway and is either 2 nm or 2. “of sufficient distance to provide protection for circuit traffic. the word ‘local’ refers to the aerodrome controller also. Coventry Tower. AERODROME TRAFFIC ZONE (ATZ) Every aerodrome regardless of ATC status has an ATZ. Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services.

SUSPENSION OF VFR OPERATIONS BY AERODROME CONTROL TOWERS Any or all VFR operations on and in the vicinity of an aerodrome may be suspended by notification to the aerodrome control tower by the area control centre within whose CTA the aerodrome is located. Aircraft landing and taking off. If the runway in use is not considered suitable. the length of runways. or their designated representatives. Aircraft operating on the manoeuvring area.Chapter 15 Aerodrome Control Service FUNCTIONS OF AERODROME CONTROL TOWERS Aerodrome control towers issue information and clearances to aircraft under their control in order to achieve a safe. in either case. fail to land 5 minutes after the expected landing time. Normally. and expeditious flow of air traffic on and in the vicinity of an aerodrome with the object of preventing collisions between: Aircraft flying in the aerodrome traffic circuits around an aerodrome. and the approach and landing aids available. Aircraft on the manoeuvring area and obstructions on that area. The notification of the area control centre of the action taken. the aerodrome controller on duty. or the appropriate ATS authority. the PIC may request permission to use another runway. 15-2 Air Law . light or other device established at an aerodrome for the guidance of aerodrome traffic. or having once reported. or air traffic conditions make another runway preferable. ALERTING SERVICE PROVIDED BY AERODROME CONTROL TOWERS Aerodrome control towers are also responsible for alerting the safety services and will immediately report any failure or irregularity of operation in any apparatus. orderly. an aircraft will land and take-off into wind unless safety. TRAFFIC AND TAXI CIRCUITS SELECTION OF RUNWAY IN USE The term ‘runway in use’ means the runway that the aerodrome control service deems to be the most suitable for use by the types of aircraft expected to land or take-off at the aerodrome. cease radio contact. Procedures The following procedures are observed by the aerodrome control tower whenever VFR operations are suspended: The holding of all departures other than those which file an IFR flight plan and obtain approval from the area control centre. such as the aerodrome traffic circuits. Aircraft will be reported to the ACC or FIC which fail to report after having been handed over to an aerodrome control tower. In selecting the runway. of the reason for taking such action if necessary or requested. Aircraft and vehicles operating on the manoeuvring area. the aerodrome control service takes into consideration surface wind speed and direction and other relevant factors. The recall of all local flights operating under VFR or special VFR. and The notification of all operators. the runway configuration. and.

including aircraft.Aerodrome Control Service Chapter 15 CRITICAL POSITIONS OF AIRCRAFT IN THE AERODROME TRAFFIC AND TAXI CIRCUITS Aerodrome controllers maintain a continuous watch on all visible flight operations on and in the vicinity of an aerodrome. and control this traffic in accordance with the procedures and traffic rules. traffic at all aerodromes within such a zone are co-ordinated so that traffic circuits do not conflict. vehicles and personnel on the manoeuvring area. If there are other aerodromes within a CTR. Final Ba se Le g Downwind Leg Air Law 15-3 .

15-4 Air Law . Position 2 If there is conflicting traffic. Aircraft should be watched closely as they approach these positions so that proper clearances may be issued without delay. Engines of the aircraft would normally be run-up here. Position 5 Clearance to taxi to hangar line or parking area is issued here. all clearances are issued without waiting for the aircraft to initiate the call. 4 3 5 2 1 6 Position 1 Aircraft initiates call to taxi for departing flight. whether these are given by light signals or radio. Position 4 Clearance to land is issued here. the departing aircraft is held at this point. runway in use information and taxi clearances given. Position 6 Parking information issued here if necessary. Position 3 Take-off clearance is issued here if not practicable at position 2.Chapter 15 Aerodrome Control Service Circuit Positions The following positions of aircraft in the traffic and taxi circuits are the positions where the aircraft normally receive aerodrome control tower clearances. Where practicable.

the QFE. with the exception of those elements that it is known the aircraft has already received: the runway to be used. The QNH and. PRIOR TO JOINING THE CIRCUIT An aircraft is provided with the following elements of information. The current surface wind direction and speed. including significant variations. WAKE TURBULENCE WARNING Aerodrome controllers shall. and to vehicles and personnel operating on the aerodrome. which may constitute a hazard to the aircraft concerned. the current RVR value(s) for the runway to be used. the QFE. to aircraft taking-off or landing. except when it is known that the information has already been received by the aircraft. The correct time. in the case of turbine engine aircraft. or when requested by aircraft. The air temperature for the runway to be used. and the QNH and. air traffic controllers should take into account the hazards caused by jet blast and propeller slipstream to taxiing aircraft. COLLISION AVOIDANCE When operating under VMC. PRIOR TO TAKE-OFF Aircraft are advised of any significant changes in the surface wind direction and speed. particularly when intersecting runways are being used. Information on essential local traffic is issued either directly or through the unit providing approach control service when. vehicle. if so requested by aircraft. or personnel on or near the manoeuvring area. the air temperature. and significant meteorological conditions in the take-off and climb out area. due to the restricted space on and around manoeuvring areas. with the exception of those elements that the aircraft is known to have already received: The runway to be used. in the order listed. and the visibility or RVR value(s) given. either on a regular basis in accordance with local arrangements or. either on a regular basis in accordance with local arrangements or if so requested by the aircraft.Aerodrome Control Service Chapter 15 INFORMATION TO AIRCRAFT BY AERODROME CONTROL TOWERS PRIOR TO TAXIING FOR TAKE-OFF Aircraft are advised of the following information. if less than 10 km. advise aircraft of the expected occurrence of hazards caused by wake turbulence. in the order listed. in the judgement of the aerodrome controller the information is necessary in the interests of safety. it is often essential that traffic information be issued to aid the PIC of an aircraft to avoid collision. or traffic operating in the vicinity of the aerodrome. when provided. Essential local traffic is considered to consist of any aircraft. or. the mean surface wind direction and speed and significant variations. it is the responsibility of the PIC of an aircraft to avoid collision with other aircraft. Air Law 15-5 . However. whenever practicable. OTHER HAZARDS In issuing clearances or instructions. The current visibility representative of the direction of take-off and initial climb.

or if the designated position is not available. It is important therefore for aerodrome control units to issue concise instructions and adequate information to the pilot to assist him in determining the correct taxi routes and to avoid collision with other aircraft or objects. a taxiway or an apron. a taxiway or an apron. or immediately adjacent to the movement area. provided no delay or risk to other aircraft will result. Note: The movement area of an aerodrome consists of the apron and the manoeuvring area. a pilot’s vision is limited. TAXIING ON THE RUNWAY For the purpose of expediting air traffic. This route shall be selected with a view to minimizing any security risks to the public. other aircraft and installations at the aerodrome. including parked aircraft and birds on the ground and in the air. Water on a runway. a taxiway or an apron. until the landing aircraft has passed the point of intended holding. Departures are normally cleared in the order in which they are ready for take-off. the aircraft shall be cleared to a position within the area or areas selected by prior agreement with the aerodrome authority. a taxiway or an apron.Chapter 15 Aerodrome Control Service INFORMATION ON AERODROME CONDITIONS Essential information on aerodrome conditions is information necessary to the safety of the operation of aircraft that pertains to the movement area or any facilities associated with the movement area. Rough or broken surfaces on a runway. 15-6 Air Law . Any other pertinent information. Snow. UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE An aircraft known or believed to be the subject of unlawful interference or which for other reasons needs isolation from normal aerodrome activities shall be cleared to the designated isolated parking position. CONTROL OF TAXIING AIRCRAFT When taxiing. whether marked or not. The taxi clearance shall specify the taxi route to be followed to the parking position. except that deviations may be made from this order of priority to facilitate the maximum number of departures with the least average delay. Other temporary hazards. aircraft may be permitted to taxi on the runway in use. Failure or irregular operation of part or all of the aerodrome lighting system. CONTROL OF AERODROME TRAFFIC ORDER OF PRIORITY FOR ARRIVING AND DEPARTING AIRCRAFT An aircraft landing or in the final stages of an approach to land normally has priority over an aircraft intending to depart. Aircraft are not permitted to hold on the approach end of the runway in use whenever another aircraft is landing or. Where such an isolated parking position has not been designated. Aircraft will not be held closer than at a taxi holding position for the runway in use. slush or ice on a runway. The essential information on aerodrome conditions includes information relating to the following: Construction or maintenance work on. Snow banks or drifts adjacent to a runway.

Persons. it shall be permitted to land if its actions indicate that that is the pilot’s intention. are required to obtain authorisation from the aerodrome control tower before entry to the manoeuvring area. With the clearance. Sufficient separation is to be applied between aircraft in the traffic circuit to allow the spacing of arriving and departing aircraft. Vehicles without radios are to be accompanied by vehicles with radios. CONTROL OF TRAFFIC IN THE TRAFFIC CIRCUIT CIRCUIT SEPARATION Aircraft in the circuit are controlled to provide the separation minima required. CONTROL OF DEPARTING AIRCRAFT Unless the ATS authority has agreed alternative acceptable procedures. JOINING THE CIRCUIT A clearance to join the circuit will be given to an aircraft approaching to land when a straight in approach is not possible.Aerodrome Control Service Chapter 15 CONTROL OF OTHER THAN AIRCRAFT TRAFFIC ON THE MANOEUVRING AREA PEDESTRIANS AND VEHICLES The movement of pedestrians or vehicles on the manoeuvring area are subject to authorization by the aerodrome control tower. Other than in accordance with normal procedure. including drivers of all vehicles. If necessary. Air Law 15-7 . landing clearance will not be withheld. TWO-WAY RADIO At controlled aerodromes all vehicles employed on the manoeuvring area must be capable of maintaining two-way radio communication with the aerodrome control tower. a departing aircraft will not normally be permitted to commence take-off until: The preceding departing aircraft has crossed the end of the runway in use. as well as hospital aircraft or aircraft carrying any sick or seriously injured persons requiring urgent medical attention. SPECIAL AUTHORIZATION Special authorisation for use of the manoeuvring area may be given to an aircraft which anticipates being compelled to land because of factors affecting the safe operation of the aircraft. UNAUTHORISED INCURSION If an aircraft enters an aerodrome traffic circuit without proper authorisation. or All preceding landing aircraft are clear of the runway in use. aircraft in the circuit will be asked to give way so as to negate any hazard created. the landing direction or runway in use is passed. Entry to a runway or runway strip or change in the operation authorised is subject to a further specific authorisation by the aerodrome control tower. or The preceding departing aircraft has started a turn away from the runway centreline.

The braking action must not be adversely affected by runway contaminants. the phrase “Clear to land after the …… ahead” is used. In any event. CONTROL OF ARRIVING AIRCRAFT Unless other procedures have been approved and are in force. In the interest of expediting traffic. all departing traffic will receive a take-off clearance from the approach controller via the aerodrome controller before entering the runway. they will not be permitted: Between a departing aircraft and a preceding landing aircraft. When the ATZ is “IMC”. The operators of the aircraft concerned agree to the procedure being used. TAKE-OFF CLEARANCE Take-off clearance may be issued to an aircraft when there is reasonable assurance that the separation prescribed will exist when the aircraft starts its take-off run. landing aircraft will not normally be permitted to cross the beginning of the runway on its final approach until: A preceding departing aircraft has crossed the upwind end of the runway. AERODROMES WITHIN A CTR If the aerodrome is within a CTR. or A preceding departing aircraft has turned away from the runway centreline. In this case. On receipt of such a clearance the aircraft shall taxi onto the runway and start the take-off run in one continuous movement. Between sunset and sunrise. a landing clearance must be given by the aerodrome controller before the arriving aircraft passes 2 nm from touchdown unless an alternative clearance has been given. In instrument conditions landing clearance will be requested by the approach controller (or approach radar controller) from the aerodrome controller when the aircraft is at 8 nm from touchdown. LAND AFTER PROCEDURE To facilitate the expeditious arrival of aircraft. or A preceding landing aircraft has moved off the runway. or such other period between sunset and sunrise as may be prescribed. 15-8 Air Law . When braking action may be adversely affected by runway contaminants. It must be during day time. In weather conditions preventing the pilot from making an early assessment of traffic conditions on the runway. an aircraft may be cleared to land with another aircraft on the runway providing there is reasonable assurance that the required separation will exist when the landing aircraft crosses the runway threshold. the approach controller will pass a conditional take-off clearance to the aerodrome controller for IFR and controlled VFR traffic departing the ATZ.Chapter 15 Aerodrome Control Service Where the ATS authority has agreed alternative procedures. The pilot of the landing aircraft must agree to the procedure being used. For this procedure to be used: The landing aircraft must be able to keep the preceding aircraft in sight. a clearance for immediate take-off may be issued to an aircraft before it enters the runway.

or between a LIGHT aircraft and MEDIUM aircraft. when operating on a runway with a displaced landing threshold: When a departing LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft follows a HEAVY aircraft arrival. the minimum is increased to 3 minutes when the lighter aircraft takes-off from: An intermediate part of the same runway. Air Law 15-9 .Aerodrome Control Service Chapter 15 WAKE TURBULENCE CATEGORIZATION OF AIRCRAFT AND INCREASED LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION MINIMA WAKE TURBULENCE CATEGORIZATION OF AIRCRAFT Wake turbulence separation minima is based on the grouping of aircraft types into three categories according to the maximum certificated take-off mass (MTOM) as follows: HEAVY (H) MTOM equal to or greater than 136 000 kg MEDIUM (M) MTOM less than 136 000 kg but greater than 7000 kg LIGHT (L) MTOM equal to or less than 7000 kg PROCEDURAL WAKE TURBULENCE SEPARATION MINIMA The procedural wake turbulence separation minima (non-radar separation minima) applied are: For Arriving Aircraft For timed approaches. or When an arriving LIGHT aircraft follows a MEDIUM aircraft departure and the projected flight paths are expected to cross. Opposite Direction Separation of 2 minutes shall be applied between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft and a HEAVY aircraft and between a LIGHT aircraft and a MEDIUM aircraft when the heavier aircraft is making a low missed approach. and the lighter aircraft is: Utilizing an opposite direction runway for take-off. However. or An intermediate part of a parallel runway separated by less than 760 m Displaced Landing Threshold Separation minimum of 2 minutes is applied between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft and a HEAVY aircraft. the following minima are applied to aircraft landing: 2 minutes longitudinal separation between a MEDIUM landing behind a HEAVY 3 minutes longitudinal separation between a LIGHT landing behind a MEDIUM or HEAVY For Departing Aircraft The minimum is 2 minutes for any lighter category aircraft taking off behind a heavier category. or When a departing LIGHT aircraft follows a MEDIUM aircraft arrival. or Landing on the same runway in the opposite direction. or On a parallel opposite direction runway separated by less than 760 m. or When an arriving LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft follows a HEAVY departure.

Chapter 15 Aerodrome Control Service 15-10 Air Law .

Normally Approach control is provided out to a range of 25 nm from a controlled aerodrome situated within a CTR. Track to be made good before proceeding on desired heading. It is normal to use radar to supplement the procedural service. Air Law 16-1 . ATCUs should attempt to permit aircraft departing on long distance flights to proceed on heading with as few turns or other manoeuvres as possible. Time. Such clearances are to specify: Direction of take-off. Expeditious Flow Departing aircraft may be expedited by suggesting a take-off direction that is not into wind. and turn after take-off. It is the responsibility of the PIC of an aircraft to decide between making such a take-off. give ATC clearances for departing controlled flights. Also to ensure an orderly flow of air traffic.Reference: Procedures for Air Navigation Services. Doc 4444 -RAC/501 INTRODUCTION Approach Control is the interface between the Aerodrome Controller and the Area Controller. DEPARTURES Departing Aircraft Approach Control is provided to all IFR departing flights and departing VFR controlled flights. IFR flights normally follow a Standard Instrument Departure (SID) profile to a convenient point at which control is transferred to an area controller for insertion into the adjacent airways system. Level to maintain before continuing climb to assigned cruising level. and waiting for normal take-off in a preferred direction. Approach control is mandatory for all IFR traffic and all controlled VFR flights within a CTR. General Procedures for Departing Aircraft The approach controller will. in consultation with the relevant airspace controller of an adjacent CTA. Note: To minimise RTF transmission and to standardise procedures. the above information is delivered by instructing the pilot to comply with a published SID. and Any other necessary manoeuvre consistent with safe operation of the aircraft. Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services. point and/or rate at which level change shall be made. and to climb to cruising level without restrictions.

ARRIVALS Arriving Aircraft Arriving flights are normally ‘handed over’ from the area controller or the CTA controller. however. when starting a procedure turn or base turn. ATCUs should advise aircraft operators or their designated representatives when anticipated delays due to traffic conditions are likely to be substantial and in any event. and both aircraft intend to follow the same track. when they are expected to exceed 30 minutes. information regarding changes in the operational status of visual and non-visual aids essential for take-off and climb. Clearances for Departing Aircraft to Climb Maintaining Own Separation in VMC When requested by the aircraft and if permitted by the appropriate ATS authority. Flights under approach control will normally be handed over to the aerodrome controller when the pilot has reported ‘field in sight’ or has passed a specific point on an instrument approach. Minimum Separation Between Departing Aircraft The following minimum procedural separations are used: One minute if the departing tracks diverge by at least 45° immediately after take-off. delayed flights shall normally be cleared in an order based on their ETD. Arriving aircraft may be required to report when leaving or passing a reporting point. If departures are delayed. the operator or a designated representative is notified and kept informed of any changes in the expected delays. a departing aircraft may be cleared to climb. 16-2 Air Law . deviations from this may be made to facilitate the maximum number of departures with the least average delay. subject to maintaining own separation and remaining in VMC until a specified time or to a specified location.Chapter 16 Approach Control Service Delays It is normal ATFM practice to delay take off rather than incur excessive holding at destination. or to provide other information required by the controller to expedite departing aircraft. This may be reduced for parallel runway or diverging runway operations. The latter need specific ATS approval. General Procedures for Arriving Aircraft When it becomes evident that delays in holding will be encountered by arriving aircraft. in order that diversionary action can be planned as far in advance as possible. to the approach controller at a convenient point usually located in the vicinity of a radio navigation facility. Information for Departing Aircraft Information regarding significant changes in the meteorological conditions in the take-off or climb out area. and information regarding essential local traffic known to the controller are transmitted to departing aircraft without delay. Two minutes where the first aircraft has filed a cruising speed that is 40 knots faster than the second. Five minutes while vertical separation does not exist.

then approach control will pass the following details: The initial approach level The point (in minutes from the appropriate reporting point) at which a procedure turn shall be carried out. or The aircraft is conducting a visual approach. Missed Approach Procedure The missed approach procedure will be specified when deemed necessary. Air Law 16-3 . an arriving aircraft may be cleared to descend. or The pilot reports that the aerodrome is and can be maintained in sight. or the pilot reports that he/she is not familiar with an instrument approach procedure. Transfers of communications are made at a point or time so that a clearance to land or alternative instructions can be issued to the aircraft in a timely manner. or the pilot reports at the initial approach level or at any time during the approach that the meteorological conditions are such that a visual approach and landing can be completed. subject to maintaining its own separation and remaining in VMC. Visual Approach An approach flown with visual reference by an aircraft flying under IFR is not a VFR approach. radar or non-radar separation is to be maintained until the pilot of a following aircraft reports having the preceding aircraft in sight. The aircraft is to be instructed to follow and maintain separation from the preceding aircraft. or The aircraft’s position has been positively determined by the use of radar.Approach Control Service Chapter 16 Descent Below MSA An arriving IFR flight is not to be cleared for an initial approach below the appropriate minimum sector altitude as specified by the State. Maintenance of Separation For successive visual approaches. Separation Separation is to be provided between an aircraft cleared to execute a visual approach and other arriving and departing aircraft. nor to descend below that altitude unless: The pilot has reported passing an appropriate point defined by a radio aid. and The final approach track Straight-in Approach If the aircraft is to be cleared for a straight-in approach then only the last item of the above list need be specified. An IFR flight may be cleared to execute a visual approach provided that the pilot can maintain visual reference to the terrain and the reported ceiling is at or above the approved initial approach level for the aircraft so cleared. Clearance to Descend Subject to Maintaining Own Separation in VMC When requested by the aircraft and if permitted by the ATS authority. Instrument Approach If it is clearly apparent to the ATC unit.

the appropriate ATCU will describe the procedures to be followed. will be provided. Specific Procedure A particular approach procedure may be specified to expedite traffic. and again between 4 pm and 7 pm. In order to accommodate all the arriving aircraft during a peak flow period. a visual approach. The following procedures are applied whenever sequenced approaches are in progress. These are known as stacks. APPROACH SEQUENCE (STACKING) General Approach Procedures Inevitably. Aircraft particularly sensitive to high fuel consumption at low levels. the alternative procedure(s) requested by the PIC should be approved if known traffic conditions permit. This is allowed whenever the availability of discrete descent paths and/or radar makes it possible to clear the aircraft for descent through the levels occupied by other aircraft.Chapter 16 Approach Control Service Full Procedure If visual reference to terrain is established before completion of the approach procedure. such as supersonic aircraft. When aircraft are being held in flight. are permitted to hold at higher levels than their order in the approach sequence indicates. dedicated holding areas are established on radio navigation beacons in the vicinity of the terminal aerodrome. speed adjustment instructions will be given to the pilot to maintain separation. unless the correct lateral separation exists. there will be delays as the economic factors of commercial operations favour certain times of the day for arrival. according to the system in use at that holding point. Where radar is used to apply separation. If a PIC of an aircraft advises of an inability to comply with the approach control holding or communication procedures. 16-4 Air Law . Aircraft must be held at a designated holding point. the pilot will be instructed to fly at a defined speed to facilitate separation. lateral or longitudinal separation from other aircraft. without losing their order in the sequence. Levels at holding points are assigned in a manner that facilitates the clearance of each aircraft to approach in its proper priority. Holding Holding and holding pattern entry has to be accomplished in accordance with procedures established by the appropriate ATS authority and published in Aeronautical Information Publications (AIP). the entire procedure must be flown unless the pilot requests. the first aircraft to arrive over a holding point should be at the lowest level. Typically the arrival peaks at Heathrow are between 7 am and 10 am. Normally. the appropriate vertical separation minima shall continue to be provided between holding aircraft and enroute aircraft while such aircraft are within 5 minutes flying time of the holding area. The omission of a specified approach procedure will indicate that any authorised approach may be used at the discretion of the pilot. and is cleared for. If entry and holding procedures have not been published or if the procedures are not known to the PIC of an aircraft. with following aircraft at successively higher levels. Speed Control In the clearance to commence the instrument procedure. The required minimum vertical.

Timed Approach Procedures When approved by the appropriate ATS authority. or a designated representative.Approach Control Service Chapter 16 Priority The stack is established in a manner that will permit arrival of the maximum number of aircraft with the least average delay. Alternatively. will be given credit for the time lost due to delay and placed in the stack at an appropriate position. the pilot desiring to hold will be cleared to an adjacent fix for holding. including the periods of runway occupancy. Parallel Runway Operations Parallel runways may be used for simultaneous instrument approaches involving: Independent parallel approaches (Mode 1) Dependent parallel approaches (Mode 2) Segregated parallel operations Air Law 16-5 . Credit Time An aircraft which has been deliberately delayed by ATC enroute to minimise terminal holding. The aircraft operator. the following procedure can be used to expedite the approaches of a number of arriving aircraft: A suitable point on the approach path. the aircraft should be given a clearance to place it at the top of the stack so that other holding aircraft may be permitted to land. or Is in communication with and sighted by the aerodrome control tower and reasonable assurance exists that a normal landing can be accomplished. and alternative procedures are not available. if practicable. A special priority may be given to an aircraft which anticipates being compelled to land because of factors affecting the safe operation of the aircraft. is specified to serve as a check point in timing successive approaches. Remaining Holding If the pilot of an aircraft in a stack has indicated an intention to hold for weather improvement. When other holding aircraft indicate their intention to continue the approach to land. or hospital aircraft or aircraft carrying any sick or seriously injured person requiring urgent medical attention. Aircraft shall be given a time at which to pass the specified point inbound. or Radar separation has been applied between the aircraft and the preceding aircraft. Flow Succeeding aircraft are cleared for approach when the preceding aircraft: Has reported that it is able to complete its approach without encountering IMC. or for other reasons. such action shall be approved. and is still required to enter the stack. This time will allow the desired interval between successive landings on the runway to be achieved while respecting the applicable separation minima at all times. shall be advised of the action taken immediately after the clearance is issued. which shall be capable of being accurately determined by the pilot.

the current RVR value(s) and the trend. If a delay of more than 30 minutes is expected and it is not possible to determine the EAT. in the order listed.Chapter 16 Approach Control Service Missed Approach Requirements for Parallel Runway Operations For Mode 1 and 2 operations. on wind shear and/or turbulence in the final approach area including the current visibility representative of the direction of approach and landing or. Note: If the controller possesses wind information in the form of components. when provided. supplemented by slant visual range value(s) if provided. whenever possible. 16-6 Air Law . Runway in use Current meteorological information Current runway surface conditions. the pilot is to be informed “delay not determined”. unless it is known that the aircraft has already received the information. INFORMATION FOR ARRIVING AIRCRAFT As early as practicable after an aircraft has established communication with the unit providing approach control service. With segregated operations the nominal departure track must diverge immediately after take-off by at least 30° from the missed approach track of the adjacent runway. should be transmitted to the aircraft. if practicable. the significant changes are: Mean head wind component 19 km/h (10 kt) Mean tail wind component 4 km/h (2 kt) Mean crosswind component 9 km/h (5 kt) The latest information. the following elements of information. The EAT is to be transmitted to the aircraft as soon as practicable and preferably not later than at the commencement of its initial descent from cruising level. in case of precipitants or other temporary hazards Changes in the operational status of visual and non-visual aids essential for approach and landing At the Commencement of Final Approach The following information is transmitted to aircraft: Significant changes in the mean surface wind direction and speed. A revised EAT is transmitted to the aircraft without delay whenever it differs from that previously transmitted by 5 minutes or more. Expected Approach Time (EAT) An EAT is to be transmitted to an aircraft by the most expeditious means whenever it is anticipated that the aircraft will be required to hold for 30 minutes or more. In the case of aircraft particularly sensitive to high fuel consumption at low levels. an EAT should. if any. the missed approach track for one runway must diverge by at least 30° from the missed approach track of the adjacent runway. be transmitted to the aircraft early enough before its intended descent time to enable the pilot to choose the method of absorbing the delay and to request a change in the flight plan if the choice is to reduce speed enroute.

Take-offs permitted in this area up to 3 minutes before estimated time aircraft A or B is over the threshold of the landing runway. or before the arriving aircraft crosses a designated fix on the approach track. in accordance with the reported scale in use. Separation of Departing from Arriving Aircraft During IFR operations. take off clearance will be granted by the approach controller when separation from arriving aircraft exists. a departing aircraft may take off in any direction until the arriving aircraft has started the procedure turn or base turn leading to final approach. Changes in observed RVR value(s). or in the case of aircraft A. A take off may also be cleared in a direction at least 45° from the reciprocal of the approach direction providing there will be at least 3 minutes until the arriving aircraft is estimated to be over the threshold of the landing runway. Changes in the operational status of required visual or non-visual aids. Two situations are considered: Complete Procedure Where an arriving aircraft is making a complete instrument approach. Significant changes in runway surface conditions. expressed in terms of minimum and maximum values. Significant variations in the current surface wind.Approach Control Service Chapter 16 During Final Approach The following information is transmitted without delay: The sudden occurrence of hazards. or changes in the visibility representative of the direction of approach and landing. until it crosses a designated fix on the approach track A Straight in Approach B Start of Procedure Turn 45° 45° No take-offs in this area after procedure turn is started or within the last 5 minutes of a straight in approach Air Law 16-7 . or take off in a direction at least 45° from the reciprocal of the approach direction providing there will be at least 3 minutes until the arriving aircraft is estimated to be over the threshold of the landing runway. Straight in Approach When an arriving aircraft is making a straight in approach. a departing aircraft may take off in any direction until 5 minutes before the arriving aircraft is estimated to be over the threshold of the landing runway.

Chapter 16 Approach Control Service 16-8 Air Law .

Whilst the complexity of the operation may appear less than that of approach control. especially over continental Europe and North America. a pilot is to make a report when at the FIR boundary. Adjacent FIRs In order to allow international commercial operations to operate. Where radar is used. pilots may be asked to adjust the route to be flown or to accept lower levels than flight planned. Flight Levels As flights progress aircraft are able to cruise at higher flight levels (or altitudes). this will involve radar identification by the assuming controller based on information from the relieving controller and SSR information. make area control a specifically demanding aspect of the ATC service. Instructions such as “route via (position)” or “maintain FL190 until (position)” or “request level change enroute” are used for revisions or interim clearances. Instructions such as “request higher after (position)” or “advise when able higher” are used when level adjustment is not practical at that time. the controllers concerned will ‘co-ordinate’ a handover such that there is a positive handover of control. Area controllers will attempt to accommodate all requests for higher levels within operational constraints. the area controller in one FIR must co-ordinate the movement of aircraft into adjacent FIRs. At the point of transfer of control to a succeeding FIR. pilots are to make the necessary reports. pilots are required to make position reports at mandatory reporting points enroute. Air Law 17-1 . the numbers of aircraft involved. Procedural Control The system underpinning area control is procedural ATC. Generally area control is applied above the levels used for terminal manoeuvring and outside of CTAs. Document 4444 PANS ATC INTRODUCTION The provision of an ATC service to aircraft flying along airways or transiting through control areas is called area control. Area control is only provided in CAS and only provided to IFR traffic or controlled VFR traffic where the class of airspace permits such traffic. To do this. at the normal cruising levels for the activity of the traffic concerned. In any event. Unless ordered to cease position reporting. In order for this to function. On enroute charts such points are noted by a black triangle ( ).Reference: Annex 11 – Air Traffic Control. The unit providing an area control service is an Area Control Centre (ACC).

No clearance is given that would reduce the spacing between two aircraft to less than the separation minimum applicable in the circumstances. flights can be cleared to climb or descend subject to maintaining their own separation and remaining in VMC. Implication of Wake Turbulence Greater separations than the specified minima are applied whenever wake turbulence or other exceptional circumstances such as unlawful interference call for extra provisions. SEPARATION General Provisions for Separation The LO’s for 010 Air Law require the student to have knowledge of the separation standards as applied in area control. These are complex but follow a definite pattern. Area controllers expect aircraft to navigate along the centre line of airways and route via the defining radio navigation aids. the provision of vertical separation will take precedent over horizontal separation. The philosophy is that ‘two aircraft at different altitudes cannot hit each other!’ Application of Separation In area control. pilots are responsible for their own navigation. D and E airspace IFR flights and VFR flights in Class C airspace Clearance to Climb or Descend Maintaining own Separation in VMC During the hours of daylight. such action should be commenced immediately and completed as expeditiously as possible. a nominal 300 m (1000 ft) below FL 290 and a nominal 600 m (2000 ft) at or above this level. 17-2 Air Law .Chapter 17 Area Control Service Airways When flying along ATS corridor routes (airways). a nominal 300 m (1000 ft) below FL410 or a higher level where so prescribed for use under special conditions. Vertical Separation Minimum The vertical separation minimum shall be: Within designated airspace. and Within other airspace. In general. It is not unusual for several questions to appear in a paper concerning the separation standards. subject to regional air navigation agreement. and a nominal 600 m (2000 ft) at or above this level. vertical or horizontal separation is provided between: All flights in Class A and B airspace IFR flights in Class C. When cleared to climb and descend. Instructions such as “from (position) route via (position)” or “from present position proceed directly to (position)” will be used to expedite the flow of traffic along routes or through areas by missing intermediate points on the flight planned route. VERTICAL SEPARATION Vertical Separation Application Vertical separation is obtained by requiring aircraft to use prescribed altimeter setting procedures to operate at different levels expressed in terms of flight levels or altitudes.

if severe turbulence is known to exist the clearance is delayed until the aircraft vacating the level has reported at another level separated by the required minimum. HORIZONTAL SEPARATION Horizontal Separation Definition There are two types of horizontal separation: lateral and longitudinal. In severe turbulence conditions the area controller would instruct aircraft A to report passing FL130 in the descent before issuing a clearance to aircraft B to descend to the level previously occupied. where necessary. When two or more aircraft are at the same cruising level. Whilst under area control. lateral separation requires aircraft to fly on different tracks separated by the required minima in terms of distance. Changes of allocated level will normally take effect at a radio navigation aid. Priority in Allocation of Cruising Level An aircraft at a cruising level normally has priority over other aircraft that request that cruising level. by distance). an area control centre normally authorises only one cruising level for an aircraft beyond its CTA. place or rate. Approach Sequence Cruising levels of aircraft flying to the same destination are assigned so that they are correct for the approach sequence at the destination. whereas longitudinal separation involves arranging flights along the same track to be separated by time (or in certain circumstances. Air Law 17-3 . Vertical Separation During Ascent or Descent Pilots in direct communication with each other may be cleared to maintain a specified vertical separation between their aircraft during ascent or descent. an aircraft may be cleared to change cruising level at a specified time. Assignment of Cruising Levels Except where cruise climb is permitted. Normally this would be the cruising level at which the aircraft will enter the next CTA. Aircraft are advised to request changes enroute to any subsequent cruising level desired once control has been transferred. Aircraft B would be cleared to descend to FL140 when aircraft A reports that it has left FL140 and is descending to FL100. the lead aircraft shall normally have priority. This may require level adjustment at a considerable distance from destination. Example: Aircraft A is cleared to descend from FL140 to FL100.Area Control Service Chapter 17 Minimum Cruising Level Except where authorized by the appropriate authority. cruising levels below a minimum flight altitude established by a State shall not be assigned. Allocation of a Previously Occupied Level An aircraft may be assigned a level previously occupied by another aircraft once the latter has reported that it is vacating. However. Area control centres shall determine the lowest usable flight level or levels for the whole or parts of the CTA for which they are responsible. Broadly.

the word buffer means distance or time which is added into a situation that allows more space to ensure that the risk of two aircraft colliding is minimised. In this context. or In different geographical locations as determined by visual observation. and one or both aircraft have reported at a distance of 28 km (15 nm) or more from the facility. By doing so. Lateral Separation Criteria and Minima The means by which lateral separation may be achieved include the following: Geographical Separation The aircraft reports over a different geographical location determined visually or by reference to a navigation aid. Buffer — A contrivance to lessen the shock of concussion. This buffer is determined by the appropriate authority and is included in the lateral separation minima.Chapter 17 Area Control Service LATERAL SEPARATION Application Lateral separation is applied so that the distance between aircraft that are to be laterally separated is never less than an established distance (the minima) taking into account navigational inaccuracies plus a specified buffer. Means of Achieving Lateral Separation Lateral separation of aircraft at the same level is obtained by: Requiring operation on different routes. or By use of navigation aids or by use of area navigation equipment. 28 km (15NM) VOR 15° 28 k m (1 5NM ) 17-4 Air Law . Track Separation Between Aircraft Using the Same Navigation Aid or Method Aircraft fly on specified tracks which are separated by a minimum amount appropriate to the navigation aid or method employed. separation would be deemed to exist when one or both aircraft are: VOR: Flying tracks separated by least 15°.

Area Control Service Chapter 17 NDB: Flying tracks separated by least 30°. the aircraft are to fly tracks which continue to diverge by at least 15° until the appropriate lateral separation minimum is established and it is possible to ensure. this point being determined either visually or by reference to a navigation aid. 28 km (15NM) FIX 45° Reduced Distance When aircraft are operating on tracks which are separated by considerably more than these minima. and one or both aircraft have reported at a distance of 28 km (15 nm) or more from the facility 28 km (15NM) NDB 30° 28 km (1 5N M) Dead Reckoning (DR) Flying tracks diverging by at least 45° and one or both aircraft have reported at a distance of 28 km (15 nm) or more from the point of intersection of the tracks. States may reduce the distance at which the lateral separation is achieved. Oceanic Entry Track Separation between aircraft entering oceanic airspace is to be achieved before the aircraft enter the OCA by flying tracks separated by the minima applied in the OCA. Alternatively. that the aircraft have the navigation capability necessary to ensure accurate track guidance. by means approved by the appropriate ATS authority. 28 km (1 5N M ) Air Law 17-5 . until separation is achieved.

It is the underlying principle that the local speed of sound for two aircraft in relatively close proximity will be the same. To arrive over a geographical location at a specified time.Chapter 17 Area Control Service Track Separation Between Aircraft Using Different Navigation Aids or Methods Track separation between aircraft using different navigation aids and RNAV equipment may be achieved by requiring the aircraft to fly on specified tracks which are determined by taking into account the navigational accuracy of the navigation aid and RNAV equipment used by each aircraft with the proviso that the protection areas established for each track do not overlap. The specified spacing reflects the accuracy of the navigation aids being used or the accuracy with which the pilot can determine his/her position. Longitudinal separation is established by requiring aircraft: To depart at a specified time. LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION Application Longitudinal separation is applied so that the spacing between the estimated positions of the aircraft being separated is never less than the prescribed minimum. Longitudinal separation between aircraft following the same or diverging tracks may be maintained by the application of the Mach Number technique in which aircraft are required to fly maintaining a specified mach number in relation to another aircraft also flying at specified mach number. To lose time. Beacon ‘hopping’ is a fairly simple case but the use of RNAV over remote areas such as oceans or deserts will require much greater distances to be applied. Longitudinal Separation Minima Based on Time In defining the separation standards for longitudinal separation it is assumed that the aircraft are at or will cross through the same level. or To hold over a geographic location until a specified time. Aircraft Flying on the Same Track Where aircraft are flying along the same track. Navigational Aid 10 MIN Navigational Aid 17-6 Air Law . the following minima are applied: 15 minutes: 15 MIN 10 minutes: if navigation aids permit frequent determination of position and speed.

faster than the aircraft following: Between aircraft that have departed from the same aerodrome. providing that in each case the lead aircraft is maintaining a TAS of 37 km/h (20 kt) or more. Aerodrome or Reporting Point 37 KMH (20 KT) or Faster 5 MIN 3 minutes: in the cases listed below provided that in each case the lead aircraft is maintaining a TAS of 74 km/h (40 kt) or more faster than the aircraft following. Aerodrome or Reporting Point 74 KMH (40 KT) or Faster 3 MIN Aircraft Flying on Crossing Tracks 15 minutes: 15 MIN Air Law 17-7 . Between departing aircraft and enroute aircraft after the enroute aircraft has reported over a fix that is so located in relation to the departure point as to ensure that 5 minute separation can be established at the point the departing aircraft will join the air route.Area Control Service Chapter 17 5 minutes: in the following cases. Between enroute aircraft that have reported over the same reporting point.

1 5 M IN FL 260 FL 250 1 5 M IN FL 240 1 5 M IN 17-8 Air Law . Navigational Aid Navigational Aid 10 MIN Navigational Aids Aircraft Climbing or Descending Traffic on the Same Track When an aircraft will pass through the level of another aircraft on the same track. the following minimum longitudinal separation shall be provided: 15 minutes: at the time the level is crossed. 1 5 M IN FL 260 FL 250 1 5 M IN FL 240 1 5 M IN or when descending.Chapter 17 Area Control Service 10 minutes: if navigation aids permit frequent determination of position and speed.

where navigation aids permit frequent determination of position and speed. 5 M IN FL 260 5 M IN 1 0 M IN FL 250 F L 2 40 5 M IN N A V IG A T IO N A ID Air Law 17-9 . provided that the level change is commenced within 10 minutes of the time the second aircraft has reported over an exact reporting point (climbing and descending cases applicable).Area Control Service Chapter 17 10 minutes: at the time the level is crossed. 10 MIN FL 260 FL 250 10 MIN FL 240 10 MIN NAVIGATION AID 10 M IN FL 260 FL 250 10 M IN FL 240 10 M IN NAV IG AT ION AID 5 minutes: at the time the level is crossed.

15 M IN FL 260 FL 250 15 M IN FL 240 15 M IN 10 minutes: if navigation aids permit frequent determination of position and speed (climbing and descending cases applicable). unless it can be determined that the aircraft have passed.Chapter 17 Area Control Service Traffic on Crossing Tracks 15 minutes: at the time the levels are crossed (climbing and descending cases applicable). Estimated Time of Passing 10 MIN 10 MIN 17-10 Air Law . 10 MIN FL 260 FL 250 10 MIN 10 MIN NAVIGATION AID FL 240 Traffic on Reciprocal Tracks Where lateral separation is not provided. vertical separation is provided for at least 10 minutes prior to and after the time the aircraft are estimated to pass.

37 KM (20 KT) or Faster DME 19 KM (10 NM) Aircraft on Crossing Tracks The separation for aircraft on the same track applies provided that each aircraft reports distance from the station located at the crossing point of the tracks. Air Law 1 (1 9 K 0 NM M ) 17-11 . and a separation is checked by obtaining simultaneous DME readings from the aircraft at frequent intervals to ensure that the minimum will not be infringed. and separation is checked by obtaining simultaneous DME readings from the aircraft at intervals as necessary to ensure that the minimum established and will not be infringed. each aircraft utilizes "on-track" DME stations.Area Control Service Chapter 17 Longitudinal Separation Minima Based on Distance Using DME Separation shall be established by maintaining not less than the specified distance(s) between aircraft positions as reported by reference to DME in conjunction with other appropriate navigation aids. 37 KM (20 KT) or Faster DME or. DME 37 KM (20 NM) 19 km (10 nm) provided the lead aircraft maintains a TAS of 37 km/h (20 kt) or more faster than the aircraft following. Aircraft on the Same Track 37 km (20 nm) provided each aircraft utilizes "on-track" DME stations. Direct controller-pilot communications shall be maintained while such separation is used.

One aircraft maintains a level while vertical separation does not exist. 19 K M 10 NM 3 (2 7 K 0 NM M ) FL 260 19 KM 10 NM FL 250 19 KM 10 NM FL 240 or when descending. 19 KM 10 NM FL 260 19 KM 10 NM 19 KM 10 NM FL 250 FL 240 DME 17-12 Air Law .Chapter 17 Area Control Service DME Aircraft Climbing or Descending on the Same Track 19 km (10 nm) at the time the level is crossed provided each aircraft utilizes "on-track" DME stations. and separation is established by obtaining simultaneous DME readings from the aircraft.

To assist pilots providing the required RNAV distance information. 150 KM 80 NM WAY-POINT FL 260 150 KM 80 NM FL 250 150 KM 80 NM FL 240 Air Law 17-13 . and separation is established by obtaining simultaneous RNAV distance readings from the aircraft. and separation is checked by obtaining simultaneous RNAV distance readings from the aircraft at frequent intervals to ensure that the minimum will not be infringed.Area Control Service Chapter 17 Aircraft on Reciprocal Tracks Aircraft utilizing on-track DME may be cleared to climb or descend to or through the levels occupied by other aircraft utilizing on-track DME provided that it is positively established that the aircraft have passed each other and are at least 10 nm apart or any other value as prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority. Aircraft on the Same Track WAY-POINT 150 KM 80 NM A 150 km (80 nm) RNAV distance based separation minimum may be used provided each aircraft reports its distance to or from the same "on-track" way point. Longitudinal Separation Minima Based on Distance Using RNAV Separation is established by maintaining not less than the specified distance between aircraft positions as reported by reference to RNAV equipment. RNAV distance based separation minima shall not be applied after ATC has received pilot advice indicating navigation equipment deterioration or failure. position reports should be referenced to a common way-point ahead of both aircraft. provided each aircraft reports its distance to or from the same "ontrack" way point. Aircraft Climbing or Descending on the Same Track A 150 km (80 nm) RNAV distance based separation minimum may be used at the time the level is crossed. RNAV distance based separation may be applied between RNAV equipped aircraft when operating on designated RNAV routes or on ATS routes defined by VOR. One aircraft maintains a level while vertical separation does not exist. Direct controller-pilot communication should be maintained. while such separation is used.

as appropriate. radar derived information of an aircraft's position is available to the appropriate ATCU. separation may be reduced. 17-14 Air Law . in association with rapid and reliable communication facilities. Special Electronic Equipment When special electronic or other aids enable the air traffic controller to predict rapidly and accurately the flight paths of aircraft and adequate facilities exist to frequently verify the actual aircraft positions with the predicted positions. or descending on the same track in an RNP RNAV environment. The reduced minima may be applied when special electronic or other aids (i.e. the separation standard may be reduced from 80 nm to 50 nm in RNP 10 airspace providing direct pilot/controller communications exist (not through a radio operator). WAY -POINT 150 km 80 NM W AY -POINT Longitudinal Separation based on RNAV where RNP is Specified For aircraft cruising. Minima may also be reduced when.Chapter 17 Area Control Service or when descending. 150 K M 8 0 NM W A Y -P O INT F L 2 60 FL 25 0 1 50 KM 8 0 NM F L 24 0 150 K M 8 0 NM Aircraft on Reciprocal Tracks Aircraft utilizing RNAV may be cleared to climb or descend to or through the levels occupied by other aircraft utilizing RNAV provided that it has been positively established by simultaneous RNAV distance readings to or from the same "on-track" way-point that the aircraft have passed each other by at least 150 km (80 nm). REDUCED SEPARATION MINIMA Reduction in Separation Minima The separation minima detailed in this chapter may be reduced as determined by the appropriate ATS authority and after prior consultation with the aircraft operators. GPS) enable the pilot of an aircraft to determine accurately the aircraft's position. procedural position reports are received that permit distance verification between aircraft every 30 minutes. climbing.

Separation When Using the Mach Number Technique The Mach number technique requires turbo jet aircraft to fly at the Mach number approved by ATC.03 faster Mach 0.e.05 faster Mach 0.Area Control Service Chapter 17 RNAV Operations When RNAV equipped aircraft operate within the coverage of electronic aids that provide the necessary updates to maintain navigation accuracy. The minimum longitudinal separation standard when using the Mach number technique is 10 minutes providing the preceding aircraft maintains a Mach speed equal to or greater than that of the following aircraft. turbulence) ATC is to be informed as soon as possible. This may be reduced if the preceding aircraft has Mach speed greater than the following aircraft: Mach Number difference between preceding and following aircraft: Mach 0. ATC is to be informed at the time of clearance issue.04 faster Mach 0.02 faster Mach 0. A request is to be made to ATC before any changes to Mach number are made. If it is not possible to maintain assigned Mach number during en route climbs or descents.06 faster Reduced Longitudinal Separation Standard 9 minutes 8 minutes 7 minutes 6 minutes 5 minutes Air Law 17-15 . Separation based on Mach number is deemed to exist when the required time interval between aircraft exists. If it is essential to make immediate changes to Mach number for safety reasons (i. separation may also be reduced.

Chapter 17 Area Control Service 17-16 Air Law .

along which all IFR traffic using the route and asking for the service would be provided with ATC. As the level of traffic increased. this should be considered normally as a temporary measure only until such time as it can be replaced by air traffic control service. however. With the introduction of the ICAO airspace classification system in the early 1980s. Today. Such areas or routes will be specified by the State concerned. The ATC support for this was very limited confined to no more than aerodrome control and enroute FIS. and it uses the words “advise” or “suggest” when a course of action is proposed to an aircraft. air traffic advisory service does not deliver clearances but only advisory information. the airspace in which this service was offered was titled Class F airspace.Reference: Procedures For Air Navigation Services. Where air traffic advisory service is implemented. This effectively limited the services to VFR only. this should not be confused with the UK radar service provided under the LARS. There were aerodromes there but no long distance scheduled air services served the islands. OBJECTIVE AND BASIC PRINCIPLES The objective of the air traffic advisory service is to make information on collision hazards more effective than it would be in the mere provision of FIS. Small regional operators used small aeroplanes to provide a limited service. For instance. It may be provided to aircraft conducting IFR flights in advisory airspace or on advisory routes (Class F airspace). and to a certain extent has remained. It was envisaged that this service would be. ICAO permits the use of radar in the provision of an advisory service. To make this quite clear. Rules of the Air. purely procedural. Air Law 18-1 . until the boom in the oil exploration and recovery business in the North Sea. Document 4444-RAC/501 INTRODUCTION The establishment of the formal route structure for airways in the FIR cannot always meet the requirements of remote aerodromes or areas of a state. OPERATION Air traffic advisory service does not afford the same degree of safety and cannot assume the same responsibilities as air traffic control service in respect of the avoidance of collisions. and in order to offer a more formalised service and a greater degree of safety. the UK CAA established a system of advisory routes for IFR traffic to use. RAS (Radar Advisory Service). since information regarding the disposition of traffic in the area concerned available to the unit providing air traffic advisory service may be incomplete. Air traffic advisory service should only be implemented where the air traffic services are inadequate for the provision of air traffic control and the limited advice on collision hazards otherwise provided by FIS will not meet the requirement. and a sub-division of ATC created called the Air Traffic Advisory Service. the Shetland and Orkney Isles of the UK were remote areas where boats were the main means of transportation to the mainland. and Air Traffic Services.

the pilots of aircraft in receipt of the service will be offered suggestions or advice as to the approved method of de-confliction. 18-2 Air Law . AIRCRAFT USING THE AIR TRAFFIC ADVISORY SERVICE IFR flights electing to use the air traffic advisory service when operating within Class F airspace are expected to comply with the same procedures as those applying to controlled flights except that the flight plan and any changes are not subjected to a clearance. shall submit a flight plan. When RTF contact is established between the aircraft and the ATCU. Note: Pilots flying under IFR because they are flying in IMC must file a FPL before entering class F airspace. giving priority to an aircraft already in advisory airspace over other aircraft desiring to enter such advisory airspace. and notify changes to the unit providing the service. Likewise no service is offered to pilots of aircraft flying under IFR who have not requested the service despite having filed a FPL. AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES UNITS An ATS unit providing air traffic advisory service shall: Advise the aircraft to depart at the time specified and to cruise at the levels indicated in the flight plan if it does not foresee any conflict with other known traffic. This is done by filing a FPL and annotating the remarks to make it clear that the Advisory Service is requested. but no clearance will be issued. It is for the pilot to decide whether or not to comply with the advice or suggestion received and to inform the unit providing the advisory service without delay. Under no circumstances will the ATCO apply ATC procedures nor will he/she assume any responsibility for separation. If conflictions arise. Suggest to aircraft a course of action by which a potential hazard may be avoided. since the unit furnishing air traffic advisory service will only provide advice on the presence of essential traffic or suggestions as to a possible course of action. selected from the tables of cruising levels for use by IFR flights outside controlled airspace. but no service is offered or available to VFR pilots other than the usual FIS. The use of the routes or airspace is not restricted to IFR only. IFR flights planning to cross an advisory route should do so as nearly as possible at an angle of 90° to the direction of the route and at a level. appropriate to its track. AIRCRAFT NOT USING THE AIR TRAFFIC ADVISORY SERVICE Aircraft wishing to conduct IFR flights within advisory airspace. Pass to aircraft traffic information comprising the same information as that prescribed for area control service. must request the service. IFR/VFR The service is only available to pilots who have stated their intention to fly under IFR by filing an IFR FPL.Chapter 18 Air Traffic Advisory Service The Commanders of aircraft flying to destinations served by class F routes or airspace. the pilot will be advised which altitude or FL should be used and advised of any other known traffic (IFR or VFR) flying along or in the vicinity of the route. of such a decision. If the service is required it must be requested. The ATCU responsible for the operation of the service will acknowledge receipt of the FPL. but not electing to use the air traffic advisory service.

Designation of Airspace Class F airspace consists of advisory routes and advisory airspace. You find this route on E(Lo)1. there is no facility for co-ordination of traffic flying along advisory routes with FIRs of adjacent states. A typical advisory route designator may be: W911F. Air Law 18-3 . As the service is limited in scope.Air Traffic Advisory Service Chapter 18 Advisory Philosophy The criteria used above should be at least those laid down for aircraft operating in CAS and should take into account the limitations inherent in the provision of air traffic control advisory service. Class F routes are given the suffix F by ICAO. advisory routes are given the suffix D therefore the 'ICAO' route W911F would in the UK be designated W911D. Class F routes are therefore limited to domestic FIRs only and do not cross the international FIR boundary between states. navigation facilities. Note: In the UK. and air-ground communications prevailing in the region. It runs from Newcastle via the IoM and stops at the London/Shannon FIR boundary.

Chapter 18 Air Traffic Advisory Service 18-4 Air Law .

in approach radar for zone and terminal activity. RADAR COVERAGE The use of radar in ATS is by necessity. Whilst procedural control is retained because if all else fails it is still there. provided reliable coverage exists in the area. Note: Monopulse technique uses azimuth information derived from aircraft responses using comparison of signals received by two or more antenna beams. Radar is also used in aerodrome control both for traffic control in the visual circuit and for surface movement guidance. Presentation of Radar Information The minimum radar derived information available for display to the controller is to include. especially those with monopulse technique or Mode S capability. Air Law 19-1 . Radar allows the ATCO to supervise the airspace from the ground without reliance on pilot reports and thus enhance safety. Rules of the Air. may be used alone. information from SSR Mode A. including in the provision of separation between aircraft. and the probability of detection. and the advances including digital systems and data handling systems have revolutionised ATC. the accuracy. PSR systems should be used in circumstances where SSR alone would not meet the ATS needs.Reference: Procedures For Air Navigation Services. This gives greatly improved azimuth resolution and less ‘garbling’ (see Radio Navigation notes) than conventional SSR sensors. radar position indications. The early GCA systems were replaced by PAR. Types of Radar Primary surveillance radar (PSR) and secondary surveillance radar (SSR) can be used either alone or in combination. and aircraft identification is established and maintained by use of assigned discrete SSR codes. radar map information. and Air Traffic Services. Mode C and Mode S. limited to specified areas of radar cover and shall be subject to limitations as specified by the appropriate ATS authority. computerised PAR is again being installed primarily at busy military aerodromes. Document 4444-RAC/501 INTRODUCTION Radar is now used widely in ATC. and the integrity of the radar system are satisfactory. almost 90% of air traffic services use radar in one form or another. provided the carriage of SSR transponders is mandatory within the area. and now with the demise of MLS. Radar is used extensively in area control where airways and upper air routes are virtually exclusively radar controlled. Information on the operating methods used is published in AlPs. SSR systems. and for monitoring SIDs and STARs. and when available.

Chapter 19 Radar in Air Traffic Control Theoretical ATC Radar Coverage of the United Kingdom 19-2 Air Law .

Thereafter. provided that the identification is established within 2 km (1 nm) from the DER of the runway used. Instructing the pilot to execute changes of heading of 30° or more and correlating the movements of one particular radar contact with the aircraft’s acknowledged execution of the instructions given. Radar identification is to be established by at least one of the following methods: SSR IDENTIFICATION PROCEDURES Where SSR is used. and by confirming that the track of the particular radar position is consistent with the aircraft path or reported heading. Use of VDF Use may be made of direction finding bearings to assist in radar identification of an aircraft. By ascertaining aircraft heading. the pilot must be informed accordingly. This method shall not be used as the sole means of establishing radar identification. and following a period of track observation. Note: Radar Label is the term used for the display of information on a radar display unit (radar screen) relating to a particular aircraft the details of which are known to the ATCU providing the radar service. PSR IDENTIFICATION PROCEDURES Where SSR is not used or not available. and when applicable. or Correlating the movements of a particular radar contact with manoeuvres currently executed by an aircraft having so reported. Direct recognition of the aircraft identification of a Mode S equipped aircraft in a radar label. Recognition of an assigned discrete code. or as bearing and distance from a point displayed on the radar map. By correlating an observed radar contact with an aircraft which is known to have just departed. the setting of which has been verified. radar identification must be established by at least one of the following methods: By correlating a particular radar contact with an aircraft reporting its position over. Observation of compliance with an instruction to squawk IDENT. in a radar label. By transfer of radar identification. if circumstances require. Observance of compliance with an instruction to set a specific code. unless so prescribed by the ATS authority for particular cases under specified conditions. Air Law 19-3 . radar identification must be established and the pilot informed. If radar identification is subsequently lost.Radar in Air Traffic Control Chapter 19 IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT Before providing a radar service to an aircraft. radar identification must be maintained until termination of the radar service. appropriate instructions issued. aircraft may be identified by one or more of the following procedures: Recognition of the aircraft identification in a radar label. By transfer of radar identification.

Defining Position Position information is passed to aircraft in one of the following forms: As a geographical position. Details of all RVA are published in the AIP for a state and the RVA for Manchester is reproduced below. this includes points at which air-reports are required for meteorological purposes. Pilots are to resume position reporting when instructed. When vectoring an aircraft. an enroute navigation aid. Immediately before termination of radar service. When the pilot requests this information. or traffic to be avoided.Chapter 19 Radar in Air Traffic Control POSITION INFORMATION An aircraft to be provided with radar service should be informed of its position: On initial identification. This allows an aircraft to be positioned at a point where visual criteria is obtained. or As distance and direction from the centre line of an ATS route. As magnetic track and distance to a significant point. and where practicable. On transfer of radar identification from another radar unit. a radar controller should tell the pilot what the purpose of the vectoring is. During radar vectoring. 19-4 Air Law . the pilot should fly the heading given and not correct for the wind. RADAR VECTORING Radar vectoring is a procedure that allows a radar controller to position an aircraft by issuing specific headings for the aircraft to fly to maintain the desired track. When terminating radar vectoring. As distance to touchdown. or that allows an instrument procedure to be commenced. vector the aircraft along routes or tracks on which the pilot can monitor the aircraft position with reference to navigation aids. Omit Position Reports The pilot may omit position reports at compulsory reporting points when specified by the ATS radar unit concerned. if the aircraft is on final approach. or an approach aid. giving the pilot the aircraft’s position and appropriate instructions as necessary. or terrain and restricted airspace to be avoided. The radar controller will amend the vectoring instructions to take account of observed drift. or that radar identification has been lost. or when advised that radar service is terminated. When the pilot is instructed to resume own navigation after radar vectoring. Procedure Radar vectoring is only carried out in a defined Radar Vectoring Area (RVA) within CAS. the radar controller will instruct the pilot to resume own navigation. As direction and distance from a known position. When a pilot’s estimate differs significantly from the radar controller’s contact position.

and. or At the specific request of the pilot. In vectoring an aircraft for circumnavigating any area of adverse weather. The controller will time the turn and advise the pilot to stop the turn after the appropriate arc has been turned through.6 km (2. routing. or In order to circumnavigate severe weather (in which case the pilot should be so informed). minimum vectoring altitudes should be sufficiently high to minimize activation of GPWS. the radar controller should ascertain that the aircraft can be returned to its intended or assigned flight path within the available radar coverage. Information Regarding Adverse Weather Information that an aircraft appears likely to penetrate an area of adverse weather should be issued in sufficient time to permit the pilot to decide on an appropriate course of action.Radar in Air Traffic Control Chapter 19 Limit of Vectoring Except when transfer of radar control has been effected prior to transfer of communication. Obstacle Clearance Whilst providing radar vectoring the ATCO will take responsibility for terrain avoidance (although the pilot should monitor the situation closely). Air Law 19-5 .5 nm). from the edge of the RVA. including that of requesting advice on how best to circumnavigate the adverse weather. Compass Failure When an aircraft has reported unreliable directional instruments. and/or aircraft operating procedures can be altered to prevent recurrences. When vectoring an IFR flight. 3° per sec) and to start the turn immediately upon receipt. if this does not appear possible. the radar controller shall issue altitude instructions such that the required obstacle clearance will exist until the aircraft reaches the point where the pilot will resume own navigation. and altitude.3 km (5 nm) is prescribed). or a distance equivalent to ½ of the radar separation minimum (where radar separation greater than 9. Whenever possible. if so desired. the radar controller will advise the pilot to make all turns at an agreed rate (normally rate 1. inform the pilot of the circumstances. unless local arrangements have been made to ensure that separation will exist with radar controlled aircraft operating in adjoining areas. Controlled flights will only be vectored into uncontrolled airspace: In the case of emergency. Operators are to report incidents involving the activation of aircraft GPWS so that locations can be identified. aircraft are not to be vectored closer than 4.

Chapter 19 Radar in Air Traffic Control Radar Vectoring Area chart for Manchester 19-6 Air Law .

the separation minima maybe reduced to 3 nm. States may apply lower minima where safety is not compromised. provide for direct routings and more optimum flight profiles. RADAR SEPARATION MINIMA The Radar Separation Standard The minimum distance that an identified radar contact may approach to another identified contact or an unidentified contact is 9. and Air Law 19-7 . This reduced minimum may only be applied when: The average runway occupancy time of landing aircraft does not exceed 50 seconds.Radar in Air Traffic Control Chapter 19 USE OF RADAR IN THE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICE Functions The information presented on a radar display may be used to perform the following functions in the provision of air traffic control service: To provide radar services to improve airspace utilization. A radar system with appropriate azimuth and range resolution and an update rate of 5 seconds or less is used in combination with suitable radar displays. as well as to enhance safety. Not Below 4. and Information regarding any significant deviations. by aircraft from the terms of their respective ATC clearances. and the range discrimination of the radar. To provide radar vectoring to arriving aircraft. To provide radar vectoring to departing aircraft. To provide radar vectoring to resolve potential conflicts. To maintain the monitoring of air traffic. Further errors are introduced by slant range and anomalous propagation. This is usually applied out to a maximum range of 40 nm from the radar head (the radar transmitter site) when the radar is used for terminal approach control. reduce delays. or ice. To provide separation and maintain normal traffic flow when an aircraft experiences communication failure within the area of radar coverage. in order to provide a non-radar controller with: Improved position information regarding aircraft under control. snow. Braking action is good and runway occupancy times are not adversely affected by runway contaminants such as slush. the beam width of the radar. The standard is defined because the position accuracy resolution of radar contacts is dependent upon the data rate of the radar system (primarily the aerial rotation period – see Radio Navigation notes).5 km (10 nm) of the runway end. Not Below 5. To provide radar vectoring to assist pilots in their navigation. maintain a watch on the progress of air traffic. including their cleared routes as well as levels when appropriate.3 km (5 nm). Reduced Radar Separation The radar separation minimum may be reduced when approved by the authority.6 km (2. Supplementary information regarding other traffic.6 km (3 nm) when radar capabilities at a given location permit.5 nm) The minimum may be further reduced between succeeding aircraft which are established on the same final approach track within 18. When applicable.

adjusted so as to ensure that separation is not reduced below the minimum. Aircraft should be advised once speed control is no longer required. 19-8 Air Law . or a surface movement guidance and control system (SMCGS)). Note that the separation minima are defined as distance not time (as in the case of procedural wake turbulence separation). Radar Wake Turbulence Minima The following wake turbulence separation minima applied by radar are applicable to the approach and departure phases of flight. or Both aircraft are using the same runway.4 km (4 nm) 9. minimum clean speed. or parallel runways separated by less than 760 m.01 Mach. or An aircraft is crossing behind another aircraft.3 km (5 nm) MEDIUM Conditions The minima set out above apply when: An aircraft is operating directly behind another aircraft at the same altitude or less than 300 m (1000 ft) below the preceding aircraft. No speed control should be applied after 8 km (4 nm) from the threshold on the final approach. Where a specific speed is given it is expressed in multiples of 20 km/h (10 knots) IAS. The wake turbulence radar separation minima does not apply. Aircraft category Preceding aircraft HEAVY Succeeding aircraft HEAVY MEDIUM LIGHT LIGHT Wake turbulence radar separation minima 7. Aircraft approach speeds are closely monitored by the controller. at the same altitude or less than 300 m (1000 ft) below. Speed Control Radar controllers may request aircraft to adjust their speed in order to facilitate radar control. and when necessary. or specific speed. Aircraft operators and pilots have been made fully aware that during reduced minimum operations of the requirement for runway occupancy time not exceeding 50 secs. by surface movement radar (SMR).1 km (6 nm) 9. Only minor speed adjustments of not more than 40 km/h (20 knots) should be requested of aircraft established on an intermediate or final approach. minimum approach speed. Aircraft may be requested to maintain maximum speed.3 km (5 nm) 11. minimum speed. or multiples of 0.Chapter 19 Radar in Air Traffic Control The aerodrome controller is able to observe the runway in use and associated exit and entry taxiways (visually. and The procedures used are published in AIP.

Radar monitoring of parallel runway operations.e. For independent parallel approaches the intercept angle should not be greater than 30°. The vector must also ensure that at least 2 nm straight and level flight occurs before glide path intercept. AND EQUIPMENT FAILURES Assistance In the event of an aircraft in. 10 miles from touchdown turn left heading 315 report localiser established”). that code will normally be maintained unless. “Atlantic 123 radar vectors for ILS runway 27 left”). Vectoring to Final Approach An aircraft vectored for final approach should be given a heading or series of headings. Before commencing radar vectoring the pilot is to be advised of the type of approach in operation and the runway in use (i. To provide separation between arriving and departing aircraft. any form of emergency. in special circumstances. Air Law 19-9 . The final vector should also provide at least 1 nm straight and level flight prior to localiser intercept. a PAR procedure starts.e. To provide PAR procedures. USE OF RADAR IN THE APPROACH CONTROL SERVICE Radar is used in approach control to perform the following functions: Radar vectoring of arriving traffic to a point at which a pilot interpreted instrument approach can be commenced. the pilot has decided or has been advised otherwise. The final vector will enable the aircraft to be established in level flight on the final approach track (localiser established) prior to intercepting the glide path on a precision approach. every assistance shall be provided by the radar controller. or appearing to be in. “Atlantic 123. SSR Code If the pilot of an aircraft encountering a state of emergency has previously been directed by ATC to operate the transponder on a specific code. the radar controller advises the pilot of the aircraft position at least once during radar vectoring (i. or a visual approach can be made. The intercept angle should be 45° or less. Approach Radar Procedure Procedures are to be established to ensure that the aerodrome controller is kept informed of the arrival sequence as well as instructions given to aircraft to maintain separation after transfer of control to the aerodrome controller. Where ATC has not requested a code to be set. Radar transfer to adjacent radar sectors shall also be effected when appropriate. calculated to close to the final approach track.Radar in Air Traffic Control Chapter 19 EMERGENCIES. To provide radar vectoring of departing aircraft where necessary. Before commencing the final approach. the pilot will set the transponder to mode A code 7700. HAZARDS. Position information shall be provided to all ATS units which may be able to give assistance to the aircraft. To provide surveillance radar approaches (SRA). The progress of an identified aircraft in emergency shall be monitored and plotted on the radar display until the aircraft passes out of radar coverage.

then the published missed approach procedure must be carried out. and the pilot instructed to contact tower. Transfer of Control to the Aerodrome Controller Transfer of communication and control to the aerodrome controller should be carried out at such a point or time to permit clearance to land or alternative instructions to be issued. with reasonable assurance.Chapter 19 Radar in Air Traffic Control Closing intercept angle 45° or less (or with parallel runway ops 30° or less) Final Approach Track Descent Point Vectoring to Intercept the Final Approach Track Final Vector Separation A minimum of 3 nm separation is given to aircraft on the same localiser course. Landing Clearance Clearance to land should be passed to an aircraft before it reaches 2 nm from touchdown. or the preceding aircraft. At that time radar vectoring would be terminated. Vectoring to the Visual Vectoring for a visual approach may be initiated provided the reported ceiling is above the minimum altitude applicable to radar vectoring and meteorological conditions are such that. It is normal ATC practice to transfer control once the pilot has reported established on the localiser (or final approach track for non ILS approaches). 19-10 Air Law . is in sight. Clearance for a visual approach will only be issued after the pilot has reported the aerodrome. If no clearance to land has been received at that range and no other instructions issued. a visual approach and landing can be carried out.

The radar controller will liaise with the aerodrome controller by intercom and relay any essential traffic information to the pilot. If the clearance has not been issued by 2 nm. At this point the aerodrome controller may either issue a landing clearance or state that the clearance will be issued subsequently. the aerodrome controller may delay the landing clearance providing it is issued before the aircraft reaches 2 nm from touchdown. for reasons of conflicting traffic. the pilot will be given alternative instructions. RTF During a radar approach. If at any time during the radar approach radar contact is lost for any significant interval of time. the pilot will be instructed to make a missed approach. if no landing clearance has been received by 2 nm. communication may be transferred directly to the ground movement controller when the pilot reports to the radar controller that the aircraft is clear of the active runway. the pilot of an aircraft making a radar approach is to be asked to confirm that the landing gear is down and locked. The angle of the glide path (or the virtual glide path) and/or the approximate rate of descent to be maintained. If continuation is not possible. Air Law 19-11 . On completion of the radar approach.Radar in Air Traffic Control Chapter 19 RADAR APPROACHES Before Commencement Before a radar approach is started. If possible. the pilot is to be informed of: The runway in use. If landing clearance has not been issued at 8 nm. or on instructions from the aerodrome controller. The applicable OCA/H. instructions issued by the radar controller concerning missed approach are to be in accordance with the published procedure. the radar controller will advise the aerodrome controller again when the aircraft is at 4 nm from touchdown and request landing clearance on behalf of the pilot. Unless required by exceptional circumstances. the pilot will maintain communication with the radar approach controller. the approach is to be continued utilising another aid or visually if the pilot reports accordingly. Landing Clearance The aerodrome controller is to be advised when an aircraft making a radar approach is 8 nm from touchdown. Missed Approach An aircraft making a radar approach should be instructed to execute the missed approach procedure when the aircraft appears to be dangerously positioned on final approach. The ‘Loss of RTF’ procedure (unless the procedure is published in the AIP and on the approach plates). the radar controller will instruct the pilot to carry out the missed approach procedure without further delay. the pilot will be informed immediately. Discontinuation If for any reason the radar approach has to be discontinued. Undercarriage At a point on final approach. In busy circuit situations.

At the descent point the aircraft will be instructed to begin descent as for a 300 ft per mile glide path. this is relayed to the pilot together with a request for landing gear confirmation and instruction to acknowledge. heading and adjustments to heading. Before reaching the computed descent point. This is achieved by radar vectoring using very accurate radar information relating to the aircraft position in azimuth and elevation with reference to the centre line and the defined glide path. The talkdown will continue until the aircraft reaches the decision height or is seen on radar to be making a missed approach. The approach shall be terminated at the earliest of: A distance of 4 km (2nm) from touchdown where range determination allows ranges to be passed every mile. the radar controller will ask the aerodrome controller for clearance to land. or Before the aircraft enters an area of continuous radar clutter. At the start of the procedure the pilot will be instructed not to acknowledge any further instructions unless requested. At 4 nm from touchdown. USE OF RADAR IN AERODROME CONTROL Surveillance Radar Surveillance radar can be used by the aerodrome controller to monitor the aircraft on final approach. monitor the movements of other aircraft in the vicinity of the aerodrome. the pilot is ‘talked’ down the glide path and along the centre line. establishing separation between succeeding departing aircraft. The aircraft shall be informed when the aircraft is approaching the point at where the descent should begin. Surveillance Radar Approach (SRA) If PAR is available then a final approach using SRA should not be carried out unless meteorological conditions are such that there is a reasonable certainty that the SRA can be completed successfully. Range information is passed and the pilot will be instructed to commence descent at the appropriate point. whilst keeping up the ‘talkdown’. 19-12 Air Law . or When the pilot reports that a visual approach can be completed. When conducting an SRA the radar controller must comply with the following: At or before the commencement of the final approach the aircraft shall be informed of the point at where the SRA will be terminated (1 nm or 2 nm from touchdown). and providing navigation assistance to VFR flights. If given. the aircraft shall be informed of the OCA/H and instructed to descend and check the appropriate minima.Chapter 19 Radar in Air Traffic Control PAR During a precision approach radar procedure. When offering navigation assistance to VFR flights the aerodrome controller should be aware of the proximity of IMC. and adjustments to the rate of descent to maintain the centre line and the glide path. The radar controller then transmits continuously passing range. SVFR flights are not to be vectored unless special circumstances (emergencies) dictate otherwise. or at 1 nm if ranges are passed every 0. Distance to touchdown is normally passed at every 2 km (1 nm) with the precomputed level the aircraft should be passing.5 nm. It is of overriding importance that the use of radar by the aerodrome controller does not detract from the visual observation of aerodrome traffic.

providing directional assistance to aircraft taxiing when requested by the pilot. determining that the runway is clear before aircraft land or take off. providing essential local traffic information on or near the manoeuvring area. Radar in the Flight Information Service The use of radar in the provision of FIS does not relieve the pilot of any responsibility for collision avoidance. In the UK this service is known as RIS and is provided by radar units as part of the LARS. Radar in the Air Traffic Advisory Service When radar is used in the provision of the air traffic advisory service. and information to assist the navigation of the aircraft. and may be used to augment visual observation of the aerodrome. providing assistance and advice to emergency response vehicles.Radar in Air Traffic Control Chapter 19 Surface Movement Radar (SMR) The use of SMR enhances the service to aerodrome traffic in low visibility operations. information about the position of significant weather and advice on how best to circumnavigate the weather. or the final decision regarding alteration of the flight plan. It may also be used to provide surveillance of areas of the manoeuvring area which cannot be observed visually. determining the location of aircraft and vehicles on the manoeuvring area. the general procedures for the use of radar in ATC are to be applied subject to the limitations of the advisory service and the airspace in which it is conducted. The information displayed on the radar display may be used to provide identified aircraft with information concerning conflicting aircraft and advice regarding avoiding action. Air Law 19-13 . Specific uses are: monitoring aircraft and vehicles on the manoeuvring area for compliance with clearances.

Chapter 19 Radar in Air Traffic Control 19-14 Air Law .

The signal from the aircraft is coded with the identification code allocated to the aircraft by the controller. which when received. the aircraft registration. These are: Mode A code 7700 Mode A code 7600 Mode A code 7500 Mode A code 2000 Mode A code 7000 Mode A code 0000 Emergency Radio failure Unlawful interference Entering an area where radar services are available and will be requesting such a service Operating in an area where radar service is available but not in receipt of a radar service Unserviceable transponder Mode S Pilots of aircraft equipped with Mode S having an aircraft identification feature shall set the aircraft identification in the transponder. Aircraft Operations (Document 8168OPS/611. Special Codes Under certain circumstances. The aircraft equipment is called a ‘transponder’: a transmitter that responds. or. altitude or level. a ground station transmits a signal that is received by the aircraft equipment and retransmitted back to the ground station. This setting shall correspond to the aircraft identification specified in item 7 of the ICAO flight plan. Air Law 20-1 . The equipment fitted to aircraft that performed the task was given the code name ‘parrot’ and this is evident in some of the phraseology we still use. and destination. Volume I . The system can also be used to identify a particular airframe and is a fundamental part of the ACAS/TCAS systems. Volume 1). permits access to the details of the aircraft’s flight plan held in the ATC data system. pilots are required to set special codes on the SSR system to indicate aircraft situation to the controller. if no flight plan has been filed. with mode A used for ident codes and mode C used for automatic altitude reporting.Flight Procedures INTRODUCTION The use of Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) has radically affected the provision of ATC especially in the enroute (Area) and terminal (Approach) phases of flight. The transmitted signal operates in different modes. SSR has its origins in WWII with the invention of a system known as Identification Friend or Foe (IFF). but simplistically.Reference: Procedures for Air Navigation Services. System The technology and the equipment used are discussed in detail in Radio Navigation. Modern ATC systems use SSR not just to identify aircraft but to give information regarding aircraft callsign.

Setting a Code The approved procedure for setting a code is designed to prevent inadvertent squawking of a special code. in communication with ATC. It is usual for the symbol to ‘flash’ when the pilot operates the “ident feature”. the transponder is to be operated at all times during flight. The tolerance value used by ATC to determine that Mode C derived level information displayed to the controller is accurate. the transponder should be set to mode A code 2000. is the reported altitude/level ± 300 ft (JAR OPS requires a tolerance of ± 200 ft). Unless advised by the ATC authority. regardless of whether the aircraft is inside or outside airspace where SSR is used for ATS purposes. Pilots are not to squawk IDENT unless requested by ATC. 20-2 Air Law . Use of Mode C Whenever Mode C is in use. set the transponder control to standby. level (or altitude) is to be reported to the nearest full 30 m or 100 ft as indicated on the pilot’s altimeter. Confirm Squawk When requested by ATC to “Confirm Squawk” the pilot shall: Verify the Mode A code setting on the transponder Reselect the assigned code if necessary. Passing a Level An aircraft is deemed to be passing through a level when the Mode C indicates it is within 300 ft of the stated level ascending or descending in the required direction. and Confirm to ATC the setting displayed on the controls of the transponder Ident Feature The system includes a facility which graphically draws the attention of the radar controller to the symbol relating to the aircraft on the radar display. Climbing or Descending An aircraft is deemed to have crossed a level when the Mode C indicates it has passed this level by more than 300 ft in the required direction. Before changing a code character. If a transponder fails in flight and cannot be repaired at an intermediate stop enroute. item 10 of the FPL (information concerning the carriage of SSR) is to be annotated “N” for nil. Change the code and then reselect ON. select the new code on the control unit not being used and then operate the changeover switch to activate the controller that has the desired code set. In the absence of any ATC directions (code instructions) or regional air navigation agreements (specific code requirements). where the aircraft system includes twin SSR controllers. Level Occupancy An aircraft is considered to be maintaining its assigned level as long as the Mode C indicates that it is within 300 ft of the assigned level. In such circumstance. Alternatively. approval may be given for the flight to continue to planned destination with the unserviceable transponder.Chapter 20 Secondary Surveillance Radar OPERATION OF TRANSPONDERS In commercial aviation an aircraft is not permitted to commence a flight with an unserviceable transponder.

A pilot having selected mode A code 7500 and subsequently requested to confirm this code by ATC shall. the PIC shall endeavour to set the transponder to mode A code 7500 unless circumstances warrant the use of mode A code 7700. track 1. The third digit indicates the control console and the last digit the allocated track number for that console. Note: Specific indoctrination concerning the handling of acts of unlawful interference will be conducted by individual operators. There are 4096 individual codes encompassing all the possible combinations of the digits 0 – 7 in 4 digit sets. For example the code 4321 would indicate a radar approach unit at a specific location. further control of the aircraft will be continued using code changes or IDENT transmissions to acknowledge receipt of clearances issued. according to circumstances. ATC System In accordance with the Regional Air Navigation agreement (RAN). PHRASEOLOGY When acknowledging mode/code setting instructions. Different procedures may be applied to Mode S equipped aircraft in areas of Mode S coverage. Note: Military automatic emergency squawk is mode A code 7777. This will activate alarm signs and sounds in the radar control room and alert all concerned to the identity of the aircraft suffering the emergency. the 7700 squawk may be superfluous. Reaching a Level An aircraft is considered to have reached its newly assigned level when the Mode C indicates that it is within 300 ft of the assigned level EMERGENCY PROCEDURES If the pilot thinks necessary.Secondary Surveillance Radar Chapter 20 Departing a Level An aircraft is considered to have left its previously assigned level when the Mode C indicates that it is more than 300 ft from the previously assigned level. when in an emergency the mode A code 7700 should be squawked. UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE WITH AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT Should an aircraft in flight be subjected to unlawful interference. COMMUNICATION FAILURE PROCEDURES The pilot of an aircraft losing two-way communications should set the transponder to mode A code 7600. A particular ATCU is usually identified by the first two digits of a code. either confirm this or not reply at all. Note: A controller observing a response on the communications failure code will ascertain the extent of the failure by instructing the pilot to “Squawk IDENT” to change code. Where it is determined that the aircraft receiver is functioning. console number 2. ATCUs utilising SSR are allocated a block of codes for the unit to use. If the pilot is already in communication with the radar controller and the emergency is declared on the radar controller’s frequency after the aircraft has been radar identified. Air Law 20-3 . So a code containing the digits 8 or 9 is invalid. pilots shall read back the mode and code to be set.

each flight will be allocated a specific SSR code during the pre-tactical phase of the ATFM procedure. 20-4 Air Law .Chapter 20 Secondary Surveillance Radar Gate-to-Gate Operations Within the ‘gate to gate’ concept of European ATC being pioneered by Eurocontrol. and that code will remain with the aircraft until the aircraft lands at the final destination.

all aircraft having filed a flight plan or otherwise known to the ATS. such unit shall notify immediately the flight information centre or area control centre responsible which shall in turn notify the RCC. the aerodrome control tower or approach control office responsible shall first alert and take other necessary steps to set in motion all appropriate local rescue and emergency organizations which can give the immediate assistance required. Notification of Rescue Co-Ordination Centres Without prejudice to any other circumstances that may render such notification advisable. Notification In the event of a state of emergency arising to an aircraft while it is under the control of an aerodrome control tower or approach control office. liaison. Notification of the area control centre. flight information centre or RCC shall not be required when the nature of the emergency is one that can be dealt with by the service concerned.Air Traffic Services ALERTING SERVICE It is essential that an aircraft experiencing an emergency or any other form of difficulty is able to communicate the fact and get assistance. Underpinning the ATS is a system of communication. Local Response Whenever the urgency of the situation so requires. Collection and Dissemination of Information Flight information centres or area control centres shall serve as the central point for collecting all information relevant to a state of emergency of an aircraft operating within the FIR or CTA concerned and for forwarding such information to the appropriate Rescue Co-ordination Centre (RCC). This system is called the Alerting Service and is the third part of the ATS system. co-operation and information interchange that is utilised to assist aircraft. in so far as is practicable. Application The Alerting Service is provided for all aircraft provided with air traffic control service. and any aircraft known or believed to be the subject of unlawful interference.References: Annex 11 . ATS units shall notify RCCs immediately an aircraft is considered to be in a state of emergency in accordance with the following phases: Air Law 21-1 .

subsequent attempts to establish communication with the aircraft or inquiries to other relevant sources have failed to reveal any news of the aircraft. or when Information has been received which indicates that the operating efficiency of the aircraft has been impaired but not to the extent that a forced landing is likely. the uncertainty phase would be declared to exist when: No communication has been received from an aircraft within a period of thirty minutes after the time a communication should have been received. whichever is earlier. or estimated by. or from the time an unsuccessful attempt to establish communication with the aircraft was first made. 21-2 Air Law . ATS units. further unsuccessful attempts to establish communication with the aircraft and more widespread unsuccessful inquiries point to the probability that the aircraft is in distress. or when Information is received or it is reasonably certain that the aircraft is about to make or has made a forced landing. or when An aircraft has been cleared to land and fails to land within 5 minutes of the established time of landing and communication has not been re-established with the aircraft. the alert phase would be declared: Following the uncertainty phase. or when An aircraft is known or believed to be the subject of unlawful interference. These are: Uncertainty Phase (INCERFA) Except when no doubt exists as to the safety of the aircraft and its occupants. or when The fuel on board is considered to be exhausted. or when An aircraft fails to arrive within thirty minutes of the ETA last notified to. Distress Phase (DETRESFA) Except when there is reasonable certainty that the aircraft and its occupants are not threatened by grave and imminent danger and do not require immediate assistance the distress phase would be declared: Following the alert phase. or to be insufficient to enable the aircraft to reach safety.Chapter 21 The Alerting Service PHASES OF THE ALERTING PROCEDURE There are three states of alert. escalating in level of concern as to the safety of an aircraft. or when Information is received which indicates that the operating efficiency of the aircraft has been impaired to the extent that a forced landing is likely. Alert Phase (ALERFA) Except when evidence exists that would allay apprehension as to the safety of the aircraft and its occupants.

Air Law 21-3 . other aircraft known to be in the vicinity of the aircraft involved shall be informed of the nature of the emergency as soon as practicable. Any action taken by reporting office. or Information that the emergency situation no longer exists. especially on the development of the state of emergency through subsequent phases. or Other pertinent remarks.The Alerting Service Chapter 21 FORMAT OF NOTIFICATION OF DECLARATION The notification shall contain such of the following information as is available in the order listed: INCERFA. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FOR THE RCC In addition to the above the RCC is given the following information: Any useful additional information. Last position report and how determined. Colour and distinctive marks of aircraft. Nature of the emergency. time and frequency used. Significant information from the flight plan. Agency and person calling. ALERFA or DETRESFA as appropriate to the phase of emergency. INFORMATION TO AIRCRAFT OPERATING IN THE VICINITY OF AN AIRCRAFT IN A STATE OF EMERGENCY When it has been established by an ATS unit that an aircraft is in a state of emergency. no reference shall be made in ATS air-ground communications to the nature of the emergency unless it has been referred to in communications from the aircraft involved and it is certain that such reference will not aggravate the situation. Unit which made last contact. UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE When an ATS unit knows or believes that an aircraft is being subjected to unlawful interference.

Chapter 21 The Alerting Service 21-4 Air Law .

In providing assistance to aircraft in distress and to survivors of aircraft accidents. Some smaller states with limited GNP have entered into arrangements with larger neighbours or treaty states where the SAR service is provided by the other state. Establishment and Designation of Search and Rescue Service Units Contracting States shall establish a rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) in each SAR region. such services are organised on the basis of regional air navigation agreements. The level of service provided depends much upon the ability of the state (financial and expertise) but it is an obligation that is taken very seriously and states will co-operate even where there is animosity between the co-operating states. In other ocean areas. Note: The phrase “regional air navigation agreements” refers to the agreements approved by the Council of ICAO normally on the advice of Regional Air Navigation Meetings. where SAR services have to be established. Typically. the RAF provides the SAR service for Cyprus whereas the USN provides SAR cover for the surrounding sea areas of Iceland. be coincident with the boundaries of corresponding FIR. states should designate suitable units of public or private services as alerting posts.INTRODUCTION Article 25 of the Chicago Convention obliges all contracting states to provide search and rescue (SAR) assistance to aircraft in a state of emergency in the territory of a state and adjacent areas of responsibility. The United Kingdom and Eire share the responsibility for the provision of SAR in the 3 FIRs and also for the Shanwick OCA. ORGANISATION Establishment and Provision of Search and Rescue Service SAR services are to be available on a 24 hour basis. Contracting States should establish rescue sub-centres whenever this would improve the efficiency of SAR services. Annex 12 contains the SARPs for SAR and ICAO also publishes Doc 7333 which provides guidance to setting up a SAR service. or areas of undetermined sovereignty. contracting states are required to do so regardless of the nationality of such aircraft or survivors. in so far as practicable. A Contracting State having accepted the responsibility to provide a SAR service in such areas is to arrange for the service to be established and provided in accordance with Annex 12. Such regions shall not overlap. Air Law 22-1 . Establishment of Search and Rescue Regions Contracting states shall publish the SAR areas (regions) within which they will provide SAR services. Boundaries of SAR regions should. In areas where public telecommunications would not permit persons observing an aircraft in emergency to notify the RCC concerned directly and promptly.

the RCC shall co-operate to the utmost with ATS units and other appropriate agencies and services in order that incoming reports may be speedily evaluated.Chapter 22 Search and Rescue Communications for Search and Rescue Services Units Each RCC is required to have a sophisticated communications system with ATSUs. Uncertainty Phase During the uncertainty phase. vessels and local services and facilities which do not form part of the SAR organisation to co-operate fully with the latter in SAR and to extend any possible assistance to the survivors of aircraft accidents. and associated service providers (i. personnel or equipment. and for providing adequate assistance at. military units. 22-2 Air Law .). a state should permit immediate entry into its territory of rescue units of other states for the purpose of searching for the site of aircraft accidents and rescuing survivors of such accidents. Co-Operation with Other Services States will arrange for all aircraft. Subject to conditions. etc. and in so far as is practicable. Each state should authorise its RCC to provide. Equipment of Rescue Units Rescue units shall be provided with facilities and equipment for locating promptly. police. when requested assistance to other RCCs. When information concerning aircraft in emergency is received from other sources than ATS units. RCCs shall. Alert Phase Upon the occurrence of an alert phase the RCC shall immediately alert appropriate SAR services units and rescue units and initiate any necessary action. the RCC shall determine to which emergency phase the situation corresponds and shall apply the procedures applicable to that phase. OPERATING PROCEDURES Information Concerning Emergencies Any authority or any element of the SAR organization having reason to believe that an aircraft is in an emergency shall give all available information to the RCC concerned immediately. other RCCs. The authorities of a state which wishes its rescue units to enter the territory of another state for SAR purposes shall transmit a request to the RCC of the state concerned or to such other authority as has been designated by that state. immediately upon receipt of information concerning aircraft in emergency. develop common SAR procedures to facilitate co-ordination of SAR operations. including assistance in the form of aircraft. where possible SARSAT and COSPAS. the scene of an accident including.e the meteorological service. evaluate such information and determine the extent of operation required. other services on whose skills and assistance the RCC can call. vessels. Co-Operation Between States Contracting states shall co-ordinate their SAR organizations with those of neighbouring contracting states.

keep the craft in distress in sight until such time as such presence is no longer necessary. he/she shall. From the information available. the guidance already given above. estimate the degree of uncertainty of this position. vessels. when the information on the emergency has been received from another source. Notify the appropriate accident investigation authorities. the pilot should take such action as will facilitate the determination of it. or which may be concerned in the operation. where possible. coastal stations. If position is not known with certainty. Note: The frequencies used by emergency locator beacons are 121. and keep him informed of developments. Notify the associated ATS unit. unless unable or it is unreasonable or unnecessary. its identification and condition. on the basis of this information and the circumstances. determine the extent of the area to be searched. Assist the aircraft in distress as far as practicable. Notify the State of Registry of the aircraft. Air Law 22-3 . or when a distress phase exists. the help of which seems likely to be required. Apparent physical condition of survivors. Inform the RCC of any developments. Procedures for Pilots-in-Command at the Scene of an Accident When a PIC observes that an aircraft or a surface vessel is in distress. draw up a plan for the conduct of the search and/or rescue operation required and communicate such plan for the guidance of the authorities immediately directing the conduct of such an operation. Time of observation expressed in hours and minutes UTC. Its position expressed in Geographical co-ordinates. or from a radio navigation aid. or a distance and true bearing from a distinctive landmark.500 MHz and 406 MHz. Notify adjacent RCCs. and.Search and Rescue Chapter 22 Distress Phase When an aircraft is believed to be in distress. Amend as necessary. in the light of circumstances. Request at an early stage such aircraft. Number of persons observed and whether persons have been seen to abandon the craft in distress. or other services not specifically included in SAR services or rescue units as are in a position to do so to: Maintain a listening watch for transmission from the aircraft in distress or from an emergency locator transmitter. Ascertain the position of the aircraft. Notify the operator. the RCC shall: Initiate action by appropriate SAR services units and rescue units in accordance with the detailed plan of operation. Number of persons observed to be afloat. The pilot should also report to the RCC or ATS unit as much of the following information as possible: Type of craft in distress.

At his discretion. They shall be used only for the purpose indicated and no other signals likely to be confused with them shall be used. he should take a bearing on the transmission and inform the appropriate RCC or ATS unit of the distress transmission. When it is necessary for an aircraft to convey information to survivors or surface rescue units. or opening and closing the throttle. SEARCH AND RESCUE SIGNALS The signals shown below shall. by mutual agreement. when used. the aircraft shall do so by transmitting its precise instructions by any means at its disposal. if practicable. If it is necessary for an aircraft to direct a surface craft to the scene of distress. such aircraft is unable to establish communication with the appropriate RCC or ATS unit. Heading in the direction in which the surface craft is to be directed. Cancelling Request for Assistance When the assistance of a surface craft is no longer required the pilot should manoeuvre the aircraft so as to cross the wake of the surface craft close astern at a low altitude and rock the wings. If no radio communications can be established the aircraft shall use the appropriate signal from those defined at the end of this section. Upon observing any of the signals given below. The pilot of any aircraft involved in SAR should calculate the endurance of the aircraft considering diversion to a nearby aerodrome to extend endurance if necessary. he shall record the position of the craft in distress if given. Procedures for Pilots-In-Command Intercepting a Distress Transmission Whenever a distress signal and/or message or equivalent transmission is intercepted on radiotelegraphy or radiotelephony by a PIC of an aircraft. If. When a ground signal has been displayed. aircraft shall take such action as may be required by the interpretation of the signal given. Crossing the projected course of the surface craft close ahead at low altitude and rocking the wings. Repetition of the above manoeuvres has the same meaning. or changing the propeller pitch. drop communication equipment that would enable direct contact to be established. or open and close the throttle. it shall. or convey the information by dropping a message. or change the propeller pitch. while awaiting instructions. hand over to an aircraft capable of establishing and maintaining such communications until the arrival of the first SAR aircraft. have the meaning indicated. proceed to the position given in the transmission. If possible. giving all available information. 22-4 Air Law . it shall.Chapter 22 Search and Rescue First Aircraft on the Scene If the first aircraft to reach the scene of an accident is not a SAR aircraft. the aircraft shall indicate whether the signal has been understood or not by use of the appropriate signal given at the end of this section. the pilot of that aircraft shall take charge of on-scene activities of all other aircraft subsequently arriving until the first dedicated SAR aircraft reaches the scene. Signals with Surface Craft The following manoeuvres performed in sequence by an aircraft mean that the aircraft wishes to direct a surface craft towards an aircraft or a surface craft in distress: Circling the surface craft at least once. and two-way communication is not available. in the meantime.

a streamer (flag/pennant) is to be attached.) Symbols shall be at least 2. Where supplies are mixed a combination of the colour codes should be used. an internationally agreed system of signals has been established. There are two sets of signals: Ground/Air Signals from Survivors The following signals may be set out in some form (marked in snow. oil on sand. Table: Colour of streamers attached to supplies Streamer Colour Red Blue Yellow Black Supply Medical supplies and first aid equipment Food and water Blankets and protective clothing Miscellaneous equipment such as stoves. burned grass in open areas etc. axes. Where such equipment is dropped.5 metres long and shall be made as conspicuous as possible. Table: Ground/Air Signals from Survivors No. compasses etc Ground-Air Visual Signal Code In order to communicate basic messages and instructions from ground parties to aircraft. 1 2 3 4 5 Message Require assistance Require medical assistance No or negative Yes or affirm Proceed in this direction Symbol V X N Y Air Law 22-5 . the colour of which will indicate to the survivors what is in the package.Search and Rescue Chapter 22 Marking of Droppable Equipment The following supplies can be dropped from aircraft which have the capability to air-drop.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Message Operation completed Have found all survivors Have only found some survivors Not able to continue.Chapter 22 Search and Rescue GROUND/AIR SIGNALS USED BY RESCUE UNITS Where search parties do not have two-way radio contact with the RCC or where they are cooperating with aircraft without two-way RTF. returning to base Have divided into 2 groups proceeding as indicated Information received that survivors/aircraft is in this direction Nothing found. or during the hours of darkness. SAR Communications Perhaps the most important role a civilian aircraft can perform in the SAR scenario is to act as a communications link. Table: Ground/Air Signals used by Rescue Units No. will continue to search Symbol LLL LL XX NN AIR-TO-GROUND SIGNALS To indicate that the ground signals have been understood. during the hours of daylight rock the aircraft’s wings. Lack of the above signals indicates that the ground signal is not understood. an aircraft will. By remaining at high altitude the aircraft can relay messages from SAR units on the surface or at low level to ATCUs or directly to the RCC using VHF or HF. flash on and off twice the aircraft’s landing lights or. if not so equipped. The aircraft at high level can also relay messages between SAR units on the surface which are not in direct line of sight communication with each other. the following signals can be used. switch on and off twice its navigation lights. The following radio frequencies are used for SAR: 22-6 Air Law .

000 MHz Application MF International distress safety and calling HF International distress safety and calling Air to Ship SAR SAR scene of search HF Lifeboat HF International Aeronautical Distress VHF VHF Maritime Distress (Channel 16) Aeronautical SAR scene of search VHF International Aeronautical Distress UHF Modulation CW (Morse) AM (voice) AM (voice) AM (voice) AM (voice) AM (voice) FM (voice) AM (voice) AM (voice) AM Sweeping tone repeated – may have voice Silence Period H+15.8 MHz 123. H+30 None None None None None None None Note Aircraft can receive using ADF Silence periods last 5 minutes Used for comms with RCC Use as directed Military ships can monitor Ship/shore VHF Military ships can monitor Military ships and aircraft guard Simultaneous transmissions on 121.000 MHz Emergency Locator Beacon None Table: SAR Frequencies Air Law 22-7 .500 MHz 406.100 MHz 243.Search and Rescue Chapter 22 Frequency 500 KHz 2182 KHz 4125 KHz 3023 KHz 5680 KHz 8364 KHz 121.500 MHz 156. H+45 H+00.

Chapter 22 Search and Rescue 22-8 Air Law .

differences under article 38 can be notified (i. a technical area. the CAA of the UK. Aeroplane reference field length is the Air Law 23-1 . or commercial interests prevail. it is not necessary for the pilot to confirm that the aerodrome is suitable for operations. Code Element 1 The code number for element 1 is determined by selecting the code number corresponding to the highest value for the aeroplane reference field lengths of the aeroplanes for which the runway is intended. a manoeuvring area. ICAO does however. The ARC consists of a code number and letter based on the requirements of the largest aeroplane for which the aerodrome is intended to be used. It is not intended that these specifications limit or regulate the operation of an aircraft. in other words. This Annex contains SARPs that detail the physical characteristics and obstacle limitation surfaces to be provided for at aerodromes.e. On some very busy international aerodromes the control of surface traffic and operations on the apron is delegated to an apron management service operated by the aerodrome operator. Knowledge of the ARC is only required for examination purposes. This does not limit the application of the SARPs to state owned or authority operated aerodromes. ICAO specifies an Aerodrome Reference Code. for instance.Aerodromes ANNEX 14 This is the Annex to the Chicago Convention that specifies the SARPs for the construction of and services required for aerodromes. AERODROME REFERENCE CODE (ARC) For the benefit of aerodrome designers and constructors. are not under ATC control. PARTS OF AN AERODROME All licensed aerodromes have an apron. an aerodrome may have a technical area.Reference: Annex 14 . Where an operator has established schedules using aerodromes and the necessary aerodrome operating minima. Where necessary. military aerodromes). Where established. and a movement area (see definitions Chapter 1). Operators are required to ascertain that any aerodromes they intend to use for commercial operations are fit for that purpose. Annex 14 is only concerned with aerodromes that are open to the public. but implies that an aerodrome licensed for commercial operations must comply with the SARPs in order for the licence to be granted. aerodromes which conduct commercial operations. At certain types of aerodrome used occasionally for commercial air transport. specify different SARPs to aerodromes used only for VFR operations compared to those for aerodromes used for instrument procedures. and certain facilities and technical services normally provided at an aerodrome. TYPES OF AERODROME ICAO does not categorise aerodromes as does. except for the entrance to and exit from.

23-2 Air Law . minutes. Code Element 2 The code letter for element 2 is determined by selecting the code letter which corresponds to the greatest wing span.5 m up to but not including 6 m 6 m up to but not including 9 m 9 m up to but not including 14 m 9 m up to but not including 14 m 14 m up to but not including 16 m Notes: 1. Table: Aerodrome Reference Code Note: For convenience the code letters and numbers are not used in the text of these notes.Chapter 23 Aerodromes minimum take-off distance required at maximum certificated take-off mass under still air and ISA conditions. Note: Outer main gear wheel span is the distance between the outermost wheels of the main undercarriage. The position is measured and reported to the aeronautical information services in degrees. 2. The data within the table is given instead.1984 (WGS-84). The ARP is typically located near the initial or planned centre of the aerodrome. whichever gives the more demanding code letter of the aeroplanes for which the use of the aerodrome is intended. AERONAUTICAL DATA GEOGRAPHICAL CO-ORDINATES Geographical co-ordinates indicating latitude and longitude are determined and reported in terms of the World Geodetic System . Aerodrome Reference Code Code Element 1 Code Number 1 2 3 4 Aeroplane Reference Field Length Less than 800 m 800 m up to but not including 1200 m 1200 m up to but not including 1800 m 1800 m and over Code Letter A B C D E F (2) Code Element 2 Wing Span Up to but not including 15 m 15 m up to but not including 24 m 24 m up to but not including 36 m 36 m up to but not including 52 m 52 m up to but not including 65 m 65 m up to but not (1) including 80 m Outer Main Gear Wheel Span Up to but not including 4. The runways and taxiways have to be at least as wide as this. The Air Law CQB was written before the introduction of code F. AERODROME REFERENCE POINT (ARP) An ARP is established for each aerodrome. and seconds.5 m 4. the table is examined in the JAR Air Law examination. or the greatest outer main gear wheel span. Planning considerations for aeroplanes with wing span greater than 80 m are contained in the ICAO aerodrome design manual. However. The ARP is usually the centre of the longest runway.

the accuracy is measured to 0. or an apron Snow. A pre-flight check location is typically located on an apron so that an altimeter check is made prior to obtaining taxi clearance thus eliminating the need for stopping after leaving the apron. The condition of the movement area and operational status of related facilities is to be monitored and reports made concerning: Construction or maintenance work Rough or broken surfaces on a runway. The information must be kept up to date and changes in conditions reported without delay. and similar information of operational significance to the ATS units. For aerodromes used by international civil aviation involving precision or non-precision approaches. The elevation of any portion of a pre-flight altimeter check location is to be within 3 m (10 ft) of the average for that location. CONDITION OF THE MOVEMENT AREA AND RELATED FACILITIES Information on the condition of the movement area and the operational status of related facilities is to be provided to the appropriate AIS units. a taxiway. or an apron Snow banks or drifts adjacent to a runway. of the area on which it is located. a taxiway or an apron Anti-icing or de-icing liquid chemicals on a runway or taxiway Other temporary hazards. including parked aircraft Failure or irregular operation of part or all of the aerodrome visual aids Failure of the normal or secondary power supply DECLARED DISTANCES The following distances shall be calculated to the nearest metre or foot for a runway intended for use by international commercial air transport: Take-off Run Available (TORA) Take-off Distance Available (TODA) Accelerate-Stop Distance Available (ASDA) Landing Distance Available (LDA) Air Law 23-3 . rounded to the nearest metre or foot. PRE-FLIGHT ALTIMETER CHECK LOCATION One or more pre-flight altimeter check locations are established for an aerodrome.25 m or one foot. Normally an entire apron can serve as a satisfactory altimeter check location. slush or ice on a runway.5 m or one foot. This enables those units to provide the necessary information required by arriving and departing aircraft.Aerodromes Chapter 23 AERODROME AND RUNWAY ELEVATIONS The aerodrome elevation is measured to the accuracy of 0. a taxiway. a taxiway. The elevation of a pre-flight altimeter check location is given as the average elevation. or an apron Water on a runway.

Chapter 23 Aerodromes TORA TODA ASDA LDA Clearway TORA ASDA LDA TODA Stopway TORA TODA LDA ASDA TORA TODA ASDA LDA Clearway Stopway LDA TORA ASDA TODA 23-4 Air Law .

air traffic requirements. and obstacle clearance. but also sited to take into account prevailing meteorological conditions. TYPES OF RUNWAY Runways are described by the types of operations that can be conducted on the runway: Non Instrument (Visual) Runway The take-off and landing criteria are determined visually with reference to ground visibility.Aerodromes Chapter 23 RUNWAYS USABILITY For an aerodrome to be used for co mercial transport. It normally starts at the beginning of a paved runway or the beginning of the marked area for a grass runway. LOCATION OF THRESHOLD The beginning of the landing runway is defined as the threshold of the landing runway. Take-off Runway A runway used only for take-off operations usually due to excessive obstacles precluding a useful approach. The marked threshold may be displaced from the start of the paved area where there is a requirement for the landing aircraft to avoid the first part of the paved area. Instrument Runway A runway to which instrument arrival and departure procedures are applied. 10 kts for field length less than 1200 m. and Non-precision runways. Wind is probably the most important meteorological consideration and runway direction must be biased towards the prevailing wind. CROSS WIND COMPONENTS Operations are to be suspended when the crosswind component exceeds: 20 kts for aeroplanes requiring reference field length 1500 m or more. Air Law 23-5 . There are two types of instrument runways: Precision runways. or there is a need for the aircraft to cross the beginning of the paved area at a height greater than would be achieved for the normal positioning of the threshold marking. 13 kts for field length less than 1500 m but not less than 1200 m. This means that the runways are not only long enough and strong enough for the aeroplanes to use. RVR cloud ceiling. the schedules agreed must be able to be operated. and day/night conditions. It is a requirement of ICAO that an aerodrome must be useable for not less than 95% of the notified hours of operation.

but not abnormal aircraft operating conditions. if provided. temperature. slope. RUNWAY WIDTH The width of a runway should be: Table: Runway Width Code Number 1 2 3 4 Code Letter A 18 m 23 m 30 m B 18 m 23 m 30 m C 23 m 30 m 30 m 45 m 45 m 45 m 45 m 60 m D E F For a precision approach runway the width should not be less than 30 m when the Aerodrome Code Number is 1 or 2. intended to reduce the risk of damage to aircraft running off the runway. humidity. surface type). It should take into account local conditions (elevation. and to protect aircraft flying over it during take-off and landing operations. 23-6 Air Law . RUNWAY STRIP A Runway Strip is defined as an area including the runway and stopway.Chapter 23 Aerodromes LENGTH OF RUNWAYS The actual length of a runway should be sufficient to permit normal operations to be carried out by the aeroplanes for which the runway is intended.

60 m where the aeroplane reference field length is less than 800 m and the runway is an instrument runway. primarily intended to reduce the risk of damage to an aeroplane undershooting or overrunning the aerodrome. A radio altimeter operating area should be established in the pre-threshold area of a precision approach runway. If the ground is undulating. STOPWAYS A stopway is defined as a rectangular area on the ground at the end of the TORA prepared as a suitable area in which an aircraft can be stopped in the case of an abandoned take-off. Width of Runway Strips A strip including a precision approach runway shall. The length of a clearway should not exceed half the length of the TORA. A RESA should extend from the end of a runway strip for as great a distance as practicable. and extend 60 m laterally. It should extend before the threshold for a distance of at least 300 m. The radio altimeter reads the vertical position of the aircraft directly above the ground. Clearway width should be at least 75 m on each side of the extended centre line of the runway. and 75 m for aeroplane reference field length less than 1200 m. A stopway shall have the same width as the runway with which it is associated. have a lateral width of at least 150 m where the aeroplane reference field length is greater than 1200 m. The physical construction of taxiways must take into account the ability of an aircraft to turn through the angle required with the wheels turning. wing span and jet efflux. Runway entrances and exits need to be planned to permit rapid egress to and from the runway and to meet the obstacle Air Law 23-7 . selected or prepared as a suitable area over which an aeroplane may make a portion of its initial climb to a specified height. and the density of traffic. the designer must consider the need for taxiways to move aircraft to and from the runways to the apron(s) in the most expeditious and uncomplicated manner. A RESA should be provided at each end of a runway strip where the aeroplane reference field length is greater than 1200 m or where the aeroplane reference field length is less than 1200 m and the runway is an instrument runway. CLEARWAY A clearway is defined as a rectangular area on the ground or water under the control of the appropriate authority. TAXIWAYS In planning the layout of taxiways. to beyond the end of the runway or stopway for a distance of at least 60 m where the aeroplane reference field length is greater than 800 m. poor visibility from the flight deck. In order to overcome this. false height information is input. but at least 90 m. Taxiways must be of equal load bearing to the runway.Aerodromes Chapter 23 Length of Runway Strip A strip should extend from before the threshold. RADIO ALTIMETER OPERATING AREA For CATII and CATIII instrument operations. and 30 m where the aeroplane reference field length is less than 800 m and the runway is a non-instrument runway. the use of a radio altimeter is required for the vertical input into the autopilot. and marked or otherwise delineated so as not to be confused with runways. This is a particular problem during descent below 100 ft for CAT III operations. on each side of the extended centre line of the runway. RUNWAY END SAFETY AREA (RESA) The RESA is an area symmetrical about the extended runway centre line and adjacent to the end of the strip. Consideration has to be given to the manoeuvrability of aircraft on the ground. a radio altimeter operating area is defined where undulations are smoothed out. The width of a RESA should be at least twice that of the associated runway. wherever practicable.

The design of a taxiway should be such that.25 m 3 m if the taxiway is intended to be used by aeroplanes with a wheel base less than 18 m. TAXIWAY DIMENSIONS The most important consideration in taxiway design is width. the runway may be used for taxiing. The designer must make sure that the aircraft has enough room on the taxiway. Where this is the case. otherwise 18 m 18 m if the taxiway is intended to be used by aeroplanes with an outer main gear wheel span of less than 9 m.5 m 4. the clearance distance between the outer main gear wheel of the aeroplane and the edge of the taxiway should be not less than: Table: Wheel to Taxiway Edge Clearance Code Letter A B C Clearance 1. additional areas at the end of the runway may be necessary to provide turning space or a turning loop.5 m 4.5 m D E F WIDTH OF TAXIWAY The width of the straight portion of a taxiway should not be less than: Table: Taxiway Width Code Letter A B C Taxiway Width 7.Chapter 23 Aerodromes clearance requirements for precision operations.5 m 10.5 m 15 m if the taxiway is intended to be used by aeroplanes with a wheel base less than 18 m. otherwise 23 m 23 m 25 m D E F 23-8 Air Law .5 m 4. when the flight deck of the aeroplane remains over the taxiway centre line markings.5 m 2. In some cases. otherwise 4.

Pilot is required to keep the nose wheel on the centre line Taxiway widening to achieve minimum wheel to edge clearance Taxiway Curve HOLDING BAYS. these lines may exceed the capacity of taxiways to cope with the waiting traffic. Pilots should also be aware of ‘swept wing growth’ during turns. TAXI HOLDING POSITIONS At busy international aerodromes queues of departing aircraft build up at peak traffic times. Taxi holding positions should be established at an intersection of a taxiway with a runway. The minimum distance for a runway holding point to be from the centreline of the runway is as follows: Air Law 23-9 .Aerodromes Chapter 23 TAXIWAY CURVES Changes in direction along taxiways should be as few as possible and the radius of the curve must be compatible with the manoeuvrability of the aircraft using the taxiway at normal taxi speeds. and at an intersection of a runway with another runway when the former runway is part of a standard taxi route. the situation is compounded by denying arriving aircraft the use of the stand. The pilot should attempt to keep the nosewheel on the centre line. widening fillets are used to increase the width of a taxiway. If held at the parking stand. This provides additional space to cope with ‘main gear wander’. A road holding position shall be established at an intersection of a road with a runway to allow vehicular traffic to remain clear of the runway during aircraft operations. If not controlled. Where necessary.

Chapter 23 Aerodromes Table: Position of Holding Points Type of Runway Non Instrument Non Precision Approach Precision Cat I Precision Cat II/III Take-off Code Number 1 30 m 40 m 60 m(2) 30 m 2 40 m 40 m 60 m(2) 40 m 3 75 m 75 m 90 m(1.2) 90 m(1. This is to be not less than 100 m from any other parking area. public area. aviation fuel. All ATC towers are required to be equipped with a signalling lamp. or communications cables).2.5 m APRONS REQUIREMENT Aprons are defined as the places on an aerodrome where passengers. as well as minor servicing of aircraft.3) 75 m Notes: 1. ISOLATED PARKING AREA A special parking area is to be designated for the parking of aircraft that have been subjected to unlawful interference. The total apron areas should be sufficient to allow the expeditious handling of traffic at maximum anticipated density. 23-10 Air Law . An aerodrome that does not accept non radio traffic does not need to have a signals square.2) 75 m 4 75 m 75 m 90 m(1. Aprons are constructed to handle slow moving traffic and to withstand higher stresses than runways. For non radio traffic the information is displayed in the signals square. may be increased if holding elevation lower than runway 2. electrical. All aerodromes used by commercial traffic under IFR are required to have an ATC tower and 2-way RTF.2. VISUAL AIDS FOR NAVIGATION INDICATORS AND SIGNALLING DEVICES The rules of the air (Annex 2) require information to be displayed so that pilots of non radio traffic may use the aerodrome. or over underground utilities (gas. building. for code F this should be 107.3) 90 m(1. may be increased to avoid interference with radio nav aids 3. such that aerodrome traffic is not disrupted. mail and cargo are loaded and unloaded.

The colour of a marking usually indicates where the marking is. MARKINGS Markings are symbols. taxiway or apron. The wind direction indicator should be in the form of a truncated cone made of fabric. Provision should be made for illuminating at least one wind indicator at an aerodrome intended for use at night. Air Law 23-11 . the signal area should be located so as to be visible from all angles of azimuth above an angle of 10º above the horizontal when viewed from a height of 300 m. and transmitting a message in Morse code up to a speed of at least 4 words per minute. The colour of the landing “T” is either white or orange. It should be surrounded by a white border not less than 0. Where required for use at night. green and white signals. Where practicable. LANDING DIRECTION INDICATOR Where provided. SIGNALLING LAMP A signalling lamp is to be provided at a controlled aerodrome in the aerodrome control tower and should be capable of producing red. a single colour. It should be located so as to be visible from aircraft in flight and on the movement area. Where two or more wind indicators are positioned on an aerodrome. The runway designation marking shall be located at the threshold as shown in the diagram below. The landing direction indicator should be in the form of a “T”.Aerodromes Chapter 23 WIND DIRECTION INDICATORS (WIND SOCK) An aerodrome is to be equipped with at least one wind direction indicator. and positioned so as to be free from the effects of air disturbance from nearby objects. RUNWAY MARKINGS Runway Designation Marking A runway designation marking shall be provided at the thresholds of a paved runway. giving a signal in any one colour followed by a signal in either of the two other colours. The signal area shall be an even horizontal surface at least 9 m square. The lamp should also be capable of: being aimed at any target as required. the ‘master’ indicator is marked with a white circle around the base of the pole. designs or characters painted on the surface of a runway. preferably white or orange should be used. a landing direction indicator shall be located in a conspicuous place on the aerodrome.3 m wide. The colour should be selected so as to make the wind direction indicator clearly visible and understandable from a height of at least 300 m. SIGNAL PANELS AND SIGNAL AREAS Where required. the landing “T” is illuminated or outlined by white lights. It should be constructed so that it gives a clear direction of the surface wind and a general indication of wind speed. for instance all runway markings are white whereas all taxiway markings are yellow.

The stripes of the threshold marking shall commence 6 m from the runway edge. If there are four parallel runways. The two-digit number shall be the whole number nearest the one-tenth of the magnetic north when viewed from the direction of approach. Characteristics A runway threshold marking shall consist of a pattern of longitudinal stripes of uniform dimensions disposed symmetrically about the centre line. When the above rule would give a single digit number it will be proceeded by a zero. The length of each stripe shall be at least equal to the length of the gap or 30 m. RUNWAY CENTRE LINE MARKINGS A runway centre line marking is required for a paved (concrete) runway. Characteristics Centre line markings shall consist of a line of uniformly spaced stripes and gaps.Chapter 23 Aerodromes Runway Designator showing magnetic azimuth (QDM) of the runway direction 27 27 27 27L Examples of Runway Designator Positions Characteristics A runway designation marking shall consist of a two-digit number and on parallel runways shall be supplemented with a letter (L for the left hand runway and R for the right hand runway). The number of stripes is a function of the runway width. They may be placed either side of the runway designator. 23-12 Air Law . for instance 27L and 27R and the next pair are 28L and 28R. A threshold marking should be provided at the thresholds of an unpaved runway. The length of a stripe plus a gap shall not be less than 50 m or more than 75 m. Where there are three parallel runways the centre runway is supplemented with C. one pair of adjacent runways are designated. The markings are located along the centre line between the runway designation markings. THRESHOLD MARKINGS A threshold marking shall be provided at the threshold of a paved instrument runway. and a paved non-instrument runway that is intended for use by international commercial air transport. whichever is greater.

a transverse stripe should be added. 27 27 27 X 27 Permanently displaced (pre threshold area fit for aircraft movement) Temporarily displaced for 6 months or less (runway designator is not moved) X Pre threshold area not fit for aircraft movement Pre threshold area fit for use by aircraft as a stopway only Air Law 23-13 .Aerodromes Chapter 23 Runway Width 18 m 23 m 30 m 45 m 60 m Number of Stripes 4 6 8 12 16 DISPLACED THRESHOLD MARKING Where a threshold is displaced from the end of a runway or where the end of a runway is not square with the runway centre line.

Where the marking is to be displayed at both the approach directions of a runway.Chapter 23 Aerodromes AIMING POINT MARKING An aiming point marking shall be provided at the approach end of a paved instrument runway greater than 800 m in length. Location A touchdown zone marking shall consist of pairs of rectangular markings as shown in the diagram below. These markings shall be symmetrically disposed about the runway centre line with the number of such pairs related to the landing distance available. and recommended for the touchdown zone of a paved non-precision approach or non-instrument runway where the runway is greater than 1200 m length. the beginning of the marking shall be coincident with the visual approach slope origin. the distance between the thresholds as follows: 23-14 Air Law . It is recommended that they are placed at each approach end of a paved non-instrument runway greater than 1200 m in length and a paved instrument runway where the runway length is less than 800 m when additional conspicuity of the aiming point is desirable. The markings required are of either Pattern A (no distance coding) or Pattern B (distance coded). Location The aiming point marking shall commence no closer to the threshold than the distance indicated in the table below. the lateral spacing shall be the same as that of the aiming point marking. Where a touchdown zone marking is provided. Table: Location of Aiming Point Marking Landing Distance Available Location and dimensions Distance from threshold to beginning of marking Less than 800 m 800 m up to but not including 1200 m 1200 m up to but not including 2400 m 2400 m and above 150 m 250 m 300 m 400 m TOUCHDOWN ZONE MARKING A touchdown zone marking is to be provided in the touchdown zone of a paved precision approach runway of greater than 800 m length. except that on a runway equipped with a visual approach slope indicator system.

Aiming point marking Runway side stripes 150 m 300 m 150 m 150 m 150 m 150 m 900 m Touchdown Zone Markings (Pattern A) on a runway less than 2400 m (aiming point 300 m from threshold) 400 m Aiming point marking 150 m 150 m 150 m 150 m 150 m 900 m Touchdown Zone Markings (distance coded .Aerodromes Chapter 23 Landing distance available or the distance between thresholds Less than 900 m 900 m up to but not including 1200 m 1200 m up to but not including 1500 m 1500 m up to but not including 2400 m 2400 m or more Pair(s) of markings 1 2 3 4 5 Spacing of Markings The pairs of markings shall be provided at longitudinal spacing of 150 m beginning from the threshold. except that pairs of touchdown zone markings coincident with or located within 50 m of an aiming point marking shall be deleted from the pattern.Pattern B) on a runway 2400 m or more (aiming point 400 m from threshold) Air Law 23-15 .

Chapter 23 Aerodromes RUNWAY SIDE STRIPE A white runway side stripe marking shall be provided between the runway edges and the shoulders of the surrounding terrain where there is a lack of contrast between the runway and the surrounding terrain. These markings provide guidance from the runway centre line to the point on the apron where aircraft stand markings commence. TAXIWAY MARKINGS Colour Taxiway markings and (in general) aircraft parking stand markings are yellow. the taxiway centre line marking should be curved into the runway centre line marking. Taxiway centre line markings shall be provided on a paved runway when the runway is part of a standard taxi route and there is no runway centre line marking or where the taxiway centre line is not co-incident with the runway centre line. 23-16 Air Law . A holding position for a runway not served by the taxiway is pattern B. A second holding point further from the runway is marked with pattern B. Apron safety lines are to be painted in a conspicuous contrasting colour to the concrete and the colour used for stand markings. The holding point itself is indicated by the mandatory sign(s) at the side of the taxiway. TAXIWAY CENTRE LINE MARKING Taxiway centre line markings shall be provided where the runway length is 1200 m or greater. At the intersection of a taxiway with a runway where the taxiway serves as an exit from the runway. The holding point closest to the runway is always pattern A. Other holding points further from the runway are additional pattern B type. There are two types of runway holding marking: pattern A and pattern B. A runway side stripe marking should be provided on a precision approach runway irrespective of the contrast between the runway edges and the shoulders of the surrounding terrain. RUNWAY HOLDING POSITION MARKING A runway holding position marking is placed at runway holding position.

A taxiway intersection marking consists of a single broken line.Aerodromes Chapter 23 Runway Holding Point Marking Pattern “A” Runway Runway Holding Point Marking Pattern “B” Runway TAXIWAY INTERSECTION MARKING A taxiway intersection marking should be displayed at an intersection of two paved taxiways where a specific holding position is needed. Air Law 23-17 .

3nm Sign at VOR Check Location with co-located DME 23-18 Air Law .3 147° 4. VOR 116.3 Sign at VOR Check Location 147° VOR 116. it shall be indicated by a check-point marking and sign. A VOR aerodrome check-point marking should preferably be white in colour but should differ from the colour used for taxiway markings. The check-point sign shall be located as near as possible to the check-point so that the sign is clearly visible from the cockpit of an aircraft properly positioned on the VOR aerodrome check-point marking. The marking shall be centred on the spot at which an aircraft is to be parked to receive the correct signal. The marking may have an arrow indicating the direction the aircraft should be pointed to receive the best signal.Chapter 23 Aerodromes Intermediate Holding Position This taxiway has priority VOR AERODROME CHECK-POINT MARKING When a VOR aerodrome check-point is established.

Mandatory instruction signs may identify a location beyond which an aircraft taxiing or vehicle shall not proceed unless authorized by the aerodrome control tower. A NO ENTRY sign shall be located at the beginning of the area to which entrance is prohibited on the left side or if practicable both sides. Signs are to be illuminated for use in RVR conditions less than a value of 800 m. The height of the identification should be adequate to be readable from the cockpit of aircraft using the stand. II. II or III holding position sign shall be located on either side of the holding position marking facing the direction of the approach to the critical area.Aerodromes Chapter 23 AIRCRAFT STAND MARKINGS Aircraft stand markings should be provided for designated parking positions on a paved apron. An information marking consists of an inscription in yellow. lead in line. information on a specific location. The markings should be positioned so as to give safe clearance when the nose wheel follows the line. or at night in association with instrument runways. and when near a runway or taxiway. when it supplements or replaces a location sign. Apron safety lines should include wing tip clearance and service road boundary lines. turn bar. category I. Stand markings should include stand identification. and alignment bar. A category I. or at night in association with non-instrument runways where the runway length is 1200 m or greater. APRON SAFETY LINES Apron safety lines shall be located so as to define the areas intended for use by ground vehicles and other aircraft servicing equipment. MANDATORY INSTRUCTION SIGNS Mandatory signs have a red background with white characters. and an inscription in black. road holding position signs and NO ENTRY signs. Stand identification (letter and/or number) should be included in the lead in line a short distance after the beginning of the lead in line. This is to ensure safe separation from aircraft. but ideally. Where there is insufficient contrast between the marking and the pavement surface. an information marking shall be displayed on the paved surface. on both sides. Air Law 23-19 . they must be sufficiently low to allow clearance for engines and propellers. turning line. CHARACTERISTICS Signs shall be frangible (not rigidly constructed so as to damage aircraft if hit). Mandatory signs include runway designation signs. A runway designation sign at a taxiway/runway intersection shall be located on the left side of a taxiway or if practicable both sides. SIGNS Signs are provided on aerodromes to convey mandatory instructions. facing the direction of approach to the runway. INFORMATION MARKINGS Where an information sign would normally be installed and it is physically impossible to install a sign. stop line and lead out line. taxi-holding position signs. or information on surface movement guidance. RUNWAY TAXI HOLDING SIGNS A taxi-holding position sign must be located on the left side of the taxiway (facing the direction from which aircraft approach the runway). the marking will include a black background where the inscriptions are in yellow and a yellow background where the inscriptions are in black. when it replaces or supplements a direction or destination sign. or III runway holding position signs. of the taxiway.

Chapter 23 Aerodromes Visual Runway Holding Point for Runway 27 27 27 Instrument Runway Holding Point for CATII operations for Runway 27 on taxiway “D” D 27 CAT II 27 CAT II D Position A1 Multiple Holding points on taxiway A1 27 Position A2 27 A1 A2 27 CAT II/III 27 CAT II/III A2 23-20 Air Law .

Intermediate Holding Position Sign – marks a holding position established to protect a priority route. whereas direction signs have black characters on a yellow background.denotes the Visual Taxi-Holding Position and also the ILS CAT I holding position where these positions are co-located.denotes the ILS CAT II Taxi-Holding Position. A Visual holding position may be established closer to the runway to expedite traffic flow. and runway vacated signs.27 CAT I/II/III 2.denotes the Taxi-Holding Position where the ILS holding positions are co-incident. Taxiway Holding Position Sign – marks a holding position on a taxiway that passes under the approach to a runway. 4. 3.Aerodromes Chapter 23 1.27 CAT II 27 CAT III 09 . CAT I Runway Taxi-Holding Position Sign . location signs. 27 . or routing (direction or destination) information. and be combined with mandatory signs as in the case of the holding point signs above. CAT III Runway Taxi-Holding Position Sign . A CAT II holding position and a Visual holding position may be established closer to the runway to expedite traffic flow. Information signs may be combined to form a location and direction sign. CAT II Runway Taxi-Holding Position Sign . destination signs. 8. A Visual holding position may be established closer to the runway to expedite traffic flow.denotes the ILS CAT I Taxi-Holding Position only where a Visual holding position is established closer to the runway. 6. B2 7. Where a location sign is combined with a runway vacated sign. runway exit signs. Information signs are contrasting yellow and black. Combined Runway Taxi-Holding Position Sign .27 CAT III 27 CAT II/III 27 CAT I/II/III 09 . NO ENTRY Sign – marks a position beyond which aircraft are not to be taxied. Information signs include direction signs.27 27 CAT I 09 . 5. Location signs have yellow characters on a black background.APPCH Table: Mandatory Signs INFORMATION SIGNS Information signs are provided where there is an operational need to identify a specific location.27 CAT 27 CAT II 09 . Visual Runway Taxi-Holding Position Sign . the yellow border is omitted. The signs may be illuminated at aerodromes used by night or in low visibility. Air Law 23-21 .denotes the ILS CAT III Taxi-Holding Position. 27 09 .

Chapter 23 Aerodromes A B1 27 A A 27 27.09 27 31 MIL APRON Taxiway Location Signs Runway Location Sign Taxiway Ending Sign Direction Sign Runway Destination Sign Runway Destination Sign for reciprocal runway (the same length of concrete) Runway Destination Sign for different runways Inbound Destination Signs (Military traffic this way) (Apron this way) A Runway Vacated Sign (left side of taxiway) End of Taxiway Sign 23-22 Air Law .

Aerodromes Chapter 23 RUNWAY ‘DISTANCE TO GO’ SIGNS Signs may be erected at the side of the runway to indicate the distance remaining to the end of the runway. markers of flat rectangular or conical shape should be placed so as to identify the runway clearly. Markers are used where there are no lights or where lighting is inadequate. In the example below. Where there are no lights. the sign indicates that there is 5000 ft of runway remaining. 5 APRON SIGNS Signs on aprons conveying information to pilots (stand numbers etc.) consist of white characters on a blue background. TAXIWAY EDGE MARKERS A taxiway edge marker shall be reflective blue and be frangible. The sign below indicates that this is stand number B3. Those located near a runway or taxiway shall be sufficiently low to preserve clearance for propellers and engines. These are usually in whole 1000s of feet and the sign has white numbers on a black background. Air Law 23-23 . UNPAVED RUNWAY EDGE MARKERS Markers should be provided when the extent of an unpaved runway is not clearly indicated. Markers must be frangible or capable of being trampled. STOPWAY EDGE MARKERS The stopway edge markers shall be sufficiently different from any runway edge markers used to ensure that the two types of markers cannot be confused. Their height shall be sufficiently low to ensure clearance for propellers and engines. B3 MARKERS A marker is an object that is positioned to indicate an obstacle or to mark a boundary. Where runway lights are provided the markers should be incorporated in the light fixtures.

Where included in the description of lighting systems. Apart from the main stadium lighting around the apron and passenger areas. A single colour .Chapter 23 Aerodromes TAXIWAY CENTRE LINE MARKERS Where taxiway centreline lighting is not provided. The markers should be coloured to contrast with the background against which they will be seen. or red and white. They are reflective green. or two contrasting colours . The markers are designed and fitted to withstand being run over by the wheels of an aircraft without damage either to the aircraft or to the markers. buildings and vehicles have lights on them as do aircraft. should be used. 23-24 Air Law . taxiway centre line markers are used which act like ‘cats eyes’ in the road. BOUNDARY MARKERS Boundary markers are used to mark the extremity of the landing area on a grass aerodrome.orange and white. The design aspects of lighting systems are beyond the LOs for this course and the syllabus is quite explicit in stating that spacing of lights apart from the essential elements of approach systems are not examinable. Type A 60 cm 1m 60 cm Min 60 cm Min Not less than 3 m Type C Type B AERODROME LIGHTING An aerodrome at night is a profusion of lights. dimensions are stated to assist the student to appreciate the appearance of the systems.orange or red. the runways are lit as are the taxiways. All the coloured lights have a purpose and the arrangements of lights also have meanings.

For an instrument runway the approach lighting is an essential part of the instrument system and can vary in complexity from a simple system consisting of a centre line and a cross bar. Aerodrome Beacon An aerodrome beacon is usually situated on top of the control tower or at an elevated position elsewhere on the aerodrome. Identification Beacon An identification beacon may be provided at an aerodrome that is intended for use at night where the aerodrome cannot be easily identified from the air by other means.Aerodromes Chapter 23 LIGHTS WHICH MAY ENDANGER THE SAFETY OF AIRCRAFT A non-aeronautical ground light near an aerodrome. to the more modern 5 bar and centreline Calvert systems (named after the designer) and the highly complex CATII/III systems associated with precision instrument approaches. sufficient emergency lights should be available. or flashing white only. stopway. it shall be suitably marked. which might endanger the safety of aircraft or cause confusion to pilots. screened. APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEMS Approach lighting systems are provided to enhance the ability of a pilot to visually acquire the runway at night or in low visibility. ELEVATED LIGHTS Elevated runway. flashing published Morse code identification letters. At a land aerodrome the identification beacon shall show flashing green characters (red at a military aerodrome). AERONAUTICAL BEACONS An aerodrome beacon or an identification beacon may be provided at an aerodrome intended for night operations. At an aerodrome without a secondary power supply. It will be either a flashing green (yellow at a water aerodrome) and white light. Elevated lights on the movement area shall be sufficiently low to ensure clearance for propellers and for the engine pods of jet aircraft. is to be extinguished. Air Law 23-25 . or otherwise modified so as to eliminate the source of danger. and taxiway lights and their supporting structures are to be frangible. INTENSITY The intensity (brilliance) of the following lights is to be variable: Approach lighting systems Runway edge lights Runway threshold lights Runway end lights Runway centre line lights Runway touchdown zone lights EMERGENCY LIGHTING It is normal for an aerodrome to have a back up power supply in the event of main supply failure (power outage). When an approach light fixture or supporting structure is not sufficiently conspicuous.

a simple approach lighting system as shown below should be provided. Runway Edge Lights Runway End Lights APAPI Threshold Lights Centreline Simple Approach Lighting System Crossbar Simple Approach Lighting System 23-26 Air Law . The centreline may be made up of barrettes not more than 3 m wide. Where physically practicable. SIMPLE APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEM The system consists of a single light source centre line extending from the threshold of the runway along the approach path for 420 m. The lights are fixed (not flashing) variable intensity white. The system may be used for a non precision instrument runway. A barrette consists of a line of 4 or 5 closely spaced lights forming a small bar. showing towards an approaching aircraft.Chapter 23 Aerodromes BARRETTES ICAO specifies standards for approach lighting based on the use of barrettes (or small bars). A single crossbar min 18 m wide and max 30 m wide is placed at a point 300 m from the threshold.

The length of the crossbars reduces as the distance to the threshold decreases. It is otherwise known as 5 bar and centreline. The system minima for CAT I is 200 ft which equates. but the pilot should see a constant width if the aircraft is on the glidepath. This makes the system a Calvert system. This gives the visual illusion of leading in to the aiming point. The spacing between the crossbars is 150 m. on a 300 ft/nm glide path (5%). The centreline must be exactly 900 m long. If the centreline is not 900 m long. at system minima (the lowest possible DH) the aircraft will be over the approach lighting and the visual criteria to land should be obtained. CAT I operations may be limited. CAT I Calvert Approach Lighting System Stopway Caution Zone PAPI Aiming Point Displaced Threshold Starter Extension Crossbars Centreline CAT I Calvert Lighting System Air Law 23-27 . If the pilot is on glidepath and centreline. It is similar to a NATO Cat I system differing only in the fact that the centre line is distance coded. to a distance of ½ nm from the threshold (assuming the aircraft crosses the threshold at 50 ft).Aerodromes Chapter 23 PRECISION APPROACH RUNWAY CATEGORY I The figure below shows a CAT I Calvert Approach Lighting system.

Chapter 23 Aerodromes ICAO CAT I Barrette Centreline Approach Lighting System 300 m Crossbar Centreline Barrettes 900 m ICAO CAT I Approach Lighting System 23-28 Air Law .

it will be less than 100 ft which will mean the aircraft is less than 300 m from the threshold. The diagrams below show both systems. CAT II/III operations are designed to give the pilot the best possible chance of landing the aeroplane. Effectively the standard system is the Calvert 5 bar and centreline with 150 m between bars. which is the inner segment. the investment in the upgraded ILS has been wasted. The CAT II/III approach lighting is further supplemented with touchdown zone flood lighting. At system minima for CAT II (100 ft) the aircraft will be 300 m from the threshold and for CAT III where DH is specified.Aerodromes Chapter 23 PRECISION APPROACH RUNWAY CATEGORIES II AND III The approach lighting systems for CAT II/III operations are modification of the CAT I Calvert system and the CAT I ICAO system. and the alternative system is the ICAO barrette system. Air Law 23-29 . If after a high precision approach flown by the autopilot. the approach lighting is no better than CAT I. So the area where the lighting needs to be enhanced is the last 300 m. The major difference is the addition of the supplementary lighting in the inner segment.

Chapter 23 Aerodromes Cat II/III Calvert Approach Lighting System COLOUR CODED CENTRELINE TOUCHDOWN ZONE FLOODLIGHTING PAPI THRESHOLD WING BARS SUPPLEMENTARY APPROACH LIGHTING CAT II/III Calvert Approach Lighting System 23-30 Air Law .

Aerodromes Chapter 23 ICAO CAT II/III Barrette Centreline Approach Lighting System Wing Strobes 300 m Crossbar Centreline Barrettes Rippling Strobe Lights CAT II/III ICAO Approach Lighting System Air Law 23-31 .

Above the glide path 2. Slightly above the glide path 3. They are precision engineered optical devices which use narrow light beams and combinations of beams to indicate above. On the glide path 4. On auxiliary runways an abbreviated PAPI system may be used which gives basic information only. Below the glide path 23-32 Air Law .Chapter 23 Aerodromes PRECISION APPROACH PATH INDICATOR (PAPI AND ABBREVIATED PAPI) PAPIs are the latest generation of visual approach slope indicators which are used to give the pilot a visual indication of the vertical deviation from the nominal glide path. The indications from a PAPI system are shown below: 1. on or below the glide path. Slightly below the glide path 5.

beside the position of the PAPI will be a number called the MEHT.5°. This requires the aiming point to be 400 m from the threshold. The maximum permitted GP angle is 3. At Heathrow. Air Law 23-33 . This is the distance between the lowest on glide path indication and the ground. The indication that the pilot gets from the PAPI is the position of his eyes with respect to the glide path. the MEHT is 70 ft.Aerodromes Chapter 23 APAPI The APAPI uses only two light sources and gives indication: Two white – above the glide path One white one red – on the glide path Two red – below the glide path MINIMUM EYE HEIGHT (MEHT) The aerodrome designer has to ensure that when an aircraft crosses the threshold of the runway that the wheels are not already on the ground. Lowest ‘On GP’ indication Minimum Eye Height (MEHT) Gear to ground height less than MEHT Fig: Minimum Eye Height MEHT SPECIFICATION The normal MEHT is 50 ft. Some aeroplanes have a considerable distance between the pilot eye height and the lowest extremity of the undercarriage and this must be catered for.) use the aerodrome the MEHT is increased because of the greater distance between the pilot’s eye and the bottom of the main gear. An alternative to moving the aiming point along the runway is to increase the glide path angle. Where large aeroplanes (B777. not the rest of the aeroplane. therefore the aiming point and the origin of the PAPI beams must be not less than 300 m from the threshold. when the pilot’s eye is over the threshold of the runway. B747 and A380 etc. On the ICAO aerodrome chart (published in the individual aerodrome section of the AD part of the AIP). On a 300 ft/nm glide path this equates to 300 m distance.

and on taxiways without centreline lighting. the groups are illuminated sequentially. edge lights. and omnidirectional. Where a stopway is created at the end of the runway all four sides of the stopway are outlined in red lights. RUNWAY LEAD IN LIGHTS Where it is felt necessary to give visual track guidance to a position where the pilot should be able to see the approach lighting. They are fixed or flashing. aprons.’ TAXIWAY LIGHTING Taxiway lights are provided to give pilots guidance and information during taxiing to and from the runways at night or during low visibility operations (RVR less than 800 m). variable intensity. They are fixed. green. indicating the proximity of the end of the runway. variable in intensity and unidirectional (facing the approach direction) except where the runway is used for circling approaches in which case. For a CAT I runway. white. They consist of centreline lights. They consist of groups of not less than three flashing white lights (which may be augmented by fixed white lights). guard lights. and preceding 600 m alternating red/white. EDGE LIGHTS Taxiway edge lights are provided at the edges of holding bays. This is called a caution zone. the threshold and the orientation of the landing runway. the edge lights are possibly yellow. variable intensity. In areas where additional lighting (stadium lighting on aprons) is adequate. they are to be white. giving the impression of the lights ‘running’ towards the runway. white. variable intensity. This effect is known as a ‘running rabbit. They are fixed. blue. RUNWAY THRESHOLD AND WING BARS Threshold lights are provided for runways with edge lights and additional wing bars where there is a displaced threshold. CIRCLING GUIDANCE LIGHTS These are for use where the existing runway or approach lights are inadequate and the runway is to be used for circling approaches. RUNWAY CENTRELINE LIGHTS Centreline lights are required on CAT II/III runways. They consist of lights indicating the approach direction. They are fixed (not flashing). lead in lights are used. Edge lights are fixed. with the only proviso that if they are flashing. edge lights may be dispensed with. 23-34 Air Law . the last 600 m or 1/3 of the runway length. They are fixed. Automatically. de/anti-icing facilities.Chapter 23 Aerodromes RUNWAY LIGHTS RUNWAY EDGE LIGHTS Edge lights are used on runways used at night or in low visibility operations (RVR less than 800 m). and unidirectional facing up the approach. red. The last 300 m of the centreline may be red. This acts as a caution zone indicating the proximity of the end of the runway. they are omni-directional. and are unidirectional facing along the runway. and stop lights at holding points. and variable in intensity. and are unidirectional showing towards the approach end of the runway. RUNWAY END LIGHTS End lights are fitted to runways with edge lights.

fixed. On exit taxiways from instrument runways. green. The bar may be augmented by two additional elevated lights at each end of the bar (off of the taxiway) where snow may be a hazard. They are to be provided where operations in RVR less than 350 m are conducted. They consist of a row of lights spaced at 3 m across the taxiway. and are designed to be visible only from aeroplanes in the vicinity of the light. STOP BARS Stop bars should be provided at taxiway intersections and holding points when it is necessary to supplement the markings and signs. variable intensity. D 27 CAT II 27 CAT II D Stop Bar with elevated extensions Air Law 23-35 .Aerodromes Chapter 23 CENTRELINE LIGHTS These are provided on taxiways for use in RVR conditions less than 350 m. This point may be marked with a ‘runway vacated’ sign and is usually coincident with the runway holding point for aircraft taxiing in the opposite direction. variable intensity. and showing red in the direction of approaching traffic. the lights may be alternating green/yellow from the centreline of the runway to a point where interference with radio navigation aids (ILS) is no longer a hazard. They are fixed.

the lights of each pair flash alternately like the lights at a railway crossing. In Configuration B. A B Guard Lights 23-36 Air Law . the lights are flashing yellow.Chapter 23 Aerodromes RUNWAY GUARD LIGHTS Runway guard lights are used to warn pilots of the proximity of a runway. In Configuration A. They are used where operations in RVR less than 550 m are conducted and stop bars are not provided. In both configurations. adjacent lights flash alternately. There are two configurations: Configuration A and Configuration B.

Aerodromes Chapter 23 Guard Lights Taxiway intersection with centreline showing SMG direction to runway Stop Bars ILS/MLS Sensitive Area Rapid Exit Taxiway Taxiway and Runway Lighting Air Law 23-37 .

where additional information about obstacles is required. the inner horizontal surface. power lines. Within the OIS. The OIS is referenced vertically to the aerodrome elevation. The OIS consists of four planes: the inner transition surface. the outer transition surface. Aeroplanes and vehicles are required to enter the cleared strip and these are also treated as obstacles. therefore on rising ground obstacles with less vertical extent may require marking when compared with obstacles on ground which is falling away from the datum height. SIDs and STARs route aircraft away from high ground and large man made obstacles. for the determination of OCA/H and MOC. For that reason. In this area no obstacles are permitted. and the outer horizontal surface. chimneys. The ILS glide path aerial and the localiser aerial are the only exceptions. Closer to the aerodrome normal buildings. and are lit (or marked in the case of vehicles) to show that they are there. Where these cannot be removed. The inner horizontal surface extends to a radius of 3000 m from the thresholds of the runway which is less than 1800 m long. CLEARED STRIP As previously discussed. approach lanes and climb out lanes are defined by the aerodrome designer and the instrument procedure designer. and 4000 m if the runway is 1800 m or more long. marked. Outer Horizontal Surface Outer Transition Surface Inner Horizontal Surface Inner Transition Surface Strip 150 m 45 m 15 Km Datum Elevation Obstacle Identification Surface (OIS) 23-38 Air Law . OBSTACLE IDENTIFICATION SURFACE (OIS) Extending from the extremity of the cleared strip at ground level. out to a radius of 15 km from the aerodrome reference point and up to a height of 150 m. the cleared strip is created either side of the runway extending at least the width of the runway on either side. Any obstacle that penetrates the OIS is considered to be an aerodrome obstacle and is required to be lit and where necessary.Chapter 23 Aerodromes OBSTACLES Clearly anything that is constructed on or near an aerodrome is a potential hazard to aeroplanes. and radio antennas become obstacles to aircraft as they descend for landing. they must be marked and lit to make their presence obvious to pilots. is a complex surface known as the OIS.

medium. Environmental issues are also considered when lighting and marking obstacles away from aerodromes. or high intensity lights.Aerodromes Chapter 23 OBSTACLES OUTSIDE THE OIS Any significant obstacle (over 150 m) which is considered to be a hazard to aviation outside of the OIS may be marked and lit to draw pilots’ attention to its presence. Where high intensity lights are fitted. The exception to mixed colour rule is where an obstacle is an aerodrome obstacle to two aerodromes. and at other times with medium intensity. Low and medium intensity lights are either red or white (but the colour is never mixed on the same aerodrome obstacle) whereas high intensity are always white. In that case. Other obstacles are lit at the top and then at 45 m intervals below. LIGHTING OF OBSTACLES Obstacles which are required to be lit because they penetrate the OIS are lit by one of three options: low. or are switched on with the normal runway/taxiway lighting. For obstacles 45 m or less that need to be lit. whereas medium and high intensity are flashing. they are lit by one low intensity light at the top. 150m 135m 90m 45m Datum High Intensity Medium Intensity Low Intensity Obstacle lights Air Law 23-39 . Such obstacles need to be unusual (high TV masts and very tall buildings) or be close to low level helicopter routes. Aerodrome obstacle lights are controlled by the aerodrome controller and either come on automatically. Low intensity lights are steady (fixed) lights. when required the obstacle is lit as high intensity. Obstacles over 45 m are lit by one medium intensity light at the top and one low intensity light at 45 m above the datum. requiring high intensity for one aerodrome and medium for the other. they flash sequentially.

Vehicles that use the aerodrome infrequently may carry a red/white chequered flag. It is recommended that they are painted ‘day-glo’ yellowish green. ICAO operates the ICAO Bird Strike Information System (IBIS) designed to collect and disseminate information concerning bird strikes. The inherent nature of aircraft operations makes fire the greatest hazard to loss of life and crash/rescue teams are trained to fight fires. Birds which have flocked together present special hazards to aircraft as multiple bird strikes can obscure windows and block air intakes. The required standard aims to achieve 2 minutes but not more than 3 minutes is required to the extremities of the aerodrome. the length of the aircraft and b. Where a trailer is towed. maintenance vehicles are painted a distinctive colour (yellow) and carry flashing yellow lights. EMERGENCY VEHICLES Paint of a distinctive colour is required for crash/rescue vehicles. When responding to an emergency. 23-40 Air Law . the fire will be allowed to burn itself out unless other aircraft and facilities are threatened. BIRD HAZARD Birds and aeroplanes share the air but birds are a constant hazard to aeroplanes at low level especially where aircraft are at the most vulnerable. LEVEL OF PROTECTION The number of fire vehicles and crews are determined from a table of categories. If the fuselage width is greater than the maximum for a category. the trailer has a low intensity obstacle light fitted. take-off. The short grass gives the birds excellent visibility and the maximum warning of the approach of predators. EMERGENCY SERVICES More than 80% of aircraft accidents occur on or within close proximity to an aerodrome. Normally. based on the size of the biggest aircraft normally using the aerodrome. and landing. emergency vehicles from outside civilian agencies show blue flashing lights. the category is increased by 1. Aerodromes are attractive to birds.Chapter 23 Aerodromes MARKING OF VEHICLES Vehicles that are permitted on the movement area of an aerodrome are to be in two-way RTF communication with the aerodrome controller. They are also required to be either lit or marked. The response time is decided when the first fire vehicle arrives at the scene and is capable of delivering fire retardant foam at half the rate required for the fire. Aerodromes are required to maintain a bird control unit and also to publish information on known migratory patterns of birds that frequent the aerodrome and surrounding areas. Aerodromes serving international commercial aviation are required to maintain facilities for the provision of a crash/rescue service. They carry flashing blue lights for use in an emergency and also the normal yellow lights for non emergency movement on the aerodrome. especially migratory species. Once all the passengers of a crashed aircraft have been rescued. special routes may be provided on aerodromes to and from the fire stations. the width of the fuselage. The categories are based on a. RESPONSE TIME It is imperative that the crash/rescue service responds promptly to incidents on the aerodrome. The objective of the provision of a crash/rescue service is to save life. or red. In order to enhance response time.

on request. You have been subjected to security measures involving search. Air Law 24-1 . crew. a written version of the appropriate parts of its national civil aviation security programme. adequate to the needs of international traffic. and maintain a national civil aviation security program. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The aim of aviation security is to safeguard international civil aviation operations against acts of unlawful interference. for each airport serving international civil aviation. The safety of passengers. It is also to ensure the establishment of an airport security programme. The states should make available to other states. and adjust relevant elements of its national civil aviation security programme accordingly. and require operators providing service from that state to implement a security programme appropriate to meet the requirements of the national civil aviation security programme of that state. include in its bilateral agreements on air transport a clause related to aviation security. Each ICAO state is required to develop. INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION Each state is required to co-operate with other states in order to adapt their respective national civil aviation security programmes as necessary. for terrorists to plant explosive devices on aircraft. ground personnel. or at least make it too difficult. scanning. as far as practicable. and ensure that requests from other states for special security measures in respect of a specific flight or specified flights by operators.GENERAL It is an unfortunate fact that international commercial aviation is now a target for terrorism and other political malcontents. are met. and the general public are the primary objective of aviation security policy. implement. and inspection all of which are effective methods of ensuring that unwanted objects or explosives are not permitted anywhere near the aircraft. aviation security measures have been developed and enforced. In order to try and prevent. or to smuggle on board weapons with which to take hostages or overpower the crew. NATIONAL ORGANISATION ICAO contracting states are required to establish a national civil aviation security programme to keep under constant review the level of threat within its territory taking into account the international situation.

or using electric. contact with other people who have not been subjected to the security screening process needs to be prevented. and their seat locations. CARRIAGE OF LEGAL WEAPONS States should ensure that the carriage of weapons on board aircraft.Chapter 24 Aviation Security PREVENTATIVE SECURITY MEASURES Each state must establish measures to prevent weapons. if applicable. MISSING PASSENGERS The state must establish measures to ensure that operators. explosives. or any other dangerous devices. requires special authorisation in accordance with the laws of the state involved. do not transport the baggage of passengers who are not on board the aircraft. PRE-FLIGHT CHECKS States must ensure that pre-flight checks of aircraft assigned to international flights include measures to discover suspicious objects or anomalies that could conceal weapons. when providing service from that state. Once the passenger passes through the security screen into the departure lounge area. 24-2 Air Law . MEASURES RELATING TO ACCESS CONTROL States are required to establish procedures and identification systems to prevent unauthorized access by persons or vehicles to the air side of an airport serving international civil aviation. the carriage or bearing of which is not authorized. States must ensure that the commander is notified as to the number of armed persons on board. In applying this standard. and then only if stowed in a place inaccessible to any person during flight time. If mixing or contact does take place. MEASURES RELATED TO PASSENGERS AND THEIR CABIN BAGGAGE Each state must ensure that adequate measures are taken to control transfer of transit passengers and their cabin baggage to prevent unauthorized articles from being taken on board aircraft engaged in international civil aviation operations. States should also ensure that the carriage of weapons in other cases is allowed only when an authorised and duly qualified person has determined that they are not loaded. electronic or batteryoperated items carried as hand baggage and/or in checked baggage. must be re-screened before boarding an aircraft. on board an aircraft engaged in international civil aviation. explosives or any other dangerous devices which may be used to commit an act of unlawful interference. by any means whatsoever. It is assumed that those who have not been screened will be screened before subsequently entering the departure area. special attention must be paid to the threat posed by explosive devices concealed in. from being introduced. and other areas important to the security of the airport. by law enforcement officers and other authorized persons acting in the performance of their duties. the passengers who have already been screened together with their cabin (hand) baggage.

and permission to land as necessitated by the circumstances. The authority of a state in which an aircraft subjected to an act of unlawful interference has landed. buildings or public areas. The state shall provide assistance to an aircraft subjected to an act of unlawful interference. or communication cables. is to notify the State of Registry of the aircraft and the State of the operator of the landing. including the provision of navigation aids. Air Law 24-3 . TRAINING PROGRAMMES Operators are to establish and maintain a training programme that enables crewmembers to act in the most appropriate manner to minimize the consequences of acts of unlawful interference. ATS. An aircraft subjected to an act of unlawful seizure which has landed. electrical.Aviation Security Chapter 24 MANAGEMENT OF RESPONSE TO ACTS OF UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE Each state must take adequate measures for the safety of passengers and crew of an aircraft that is subjected to an act of unlawful interference until their journey can continue. Care should be taken to ensure that the position is not located over underground utilities such as gas and aviation fuel and. Other relevant information is transmitted to: The State of Registry and the State of the operator Each state whose citizens suffered fatalities or injuries Each state whose citizens were detained as hostages Each Contracting State whose citizens are known to be on board the aircraft The ICAO FLIGHT DECK DOOR In all aeroplanes the flight crew compartment door must be capable of being locked from within the compartment. or believed to be the subject of unlawful interference. to the extent feasible. or which for other reasons needs isolation from normal aerodrome activities. is to be detained on the ground unless its departure is necessitated by the overriding duty to protect human life. ISOLATED AIRCRAFT PARKING POSITION An isolated aircraft parking position shall be designated as suitable for the parking of an aircraft which is known. The isolated aircraft parking position should be located at the maximum distance practicable and in any case never less than 100 m from other parking positions.

Chapter 24 Aviation Security 24-4 Air Law .

tyres. resulting in any of the following situations: 1. A person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of being in the aircraft. the specifications of Annex 13 apply to activities following accidents and incidents wherever they occurred. fairings. The applicability of the State of the Operator only applies if that State discharges any of the duties of the State of Registry with respect to accident or incident investigation. 2. self-inflicted or inflicted by other persons. or puncture holes in the aircraft skin. including parts which have become detached from the aircraft. Air Law 25-1 . or for damage limited to propellers. Note: ICAO classes an injury resulting in death within 30 days of the date of the accident as a fatal injury. or direct exposure to jet blast. (An aircraft is considered to be missing when the official search has been terminated and the wreckage has not been located). or accessories. reference to the State of the Operator applies only in the case of leased aircraft where the State of Registry is not the state in which the operator has the primary place of business. the State of Occurrence. antennas. cowlings.INTRODUCTION Annex 13 to the Chicago Convention covers accident and incident investigation. Unless otherwise stated. when the damage is limited to the engine. or in direct contact with any part of the aircraft. Except when the injuries are from natural causes. Where required. The onus for beginning an investigation rests with the authority of the state in which the accident or incident occurred. wing tips. The aircraft sustains damage or structural failure which adversely affects the structural strength. or are to stowaways hiding outside the areas normally available to the passengers and crew. performance or flight characteristics of the aircraft and would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component. 3. DEFINITIONS Accident — An occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and the time when all such persons have disembarked. Except for engine failure or damage. The aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible. brakes. small dents.

Providing that the aircraft may be moved to extricate persons. It is not the purpose of an investigation to apportion blame or liability. effaced. Safe custody shall include protection against further damage. animals and valuables. or to the public. and any other evidence remain undisturbed pending inspection by an accredited representative of the requesting state. The difference between an accident and a serious incident lies only in the result. or Results in a fracture of any bone (Not simple fractures of fingers. the State of Occurrence shall take all necessary steps to comply with this. nerve. or any burns affecting more than 5% of the body surface. Flight Recorder Protection of flight recorder evidence requires that the recovery and handling of the recorder and its recordings be assigned only to qualified personnel. Serious Injury — An injury which is sustained by a person in an accident and which: Requires hospitalization for more than 48 hours. its contents. access by unauthorized personnel. Protection of evidence shall include the preservation by photographic evidence. lost or destroyed. to prevent destruction by fire or other causes. PROTECTION OF EVIDENCE. or nose).Chapter 25 Aircraft Accident Investigation Serious Incident — An incident involving circumstances indicating that an accident nearly occurred. to transport. AND REMOVAL OF AIRCRAFT The State of Occurrence shall take all reasonable measures to protect the evidence and to protect the aircraft and its contents for such a period as may be necessary for the period of an investigation. OBJECTIVE OF THE INVESTIGATION The sole objective of the investigation of an accident or incident shall be the prevention of accidents and incidents. 25-2 Air Law . or Involves verified exposure to infectious substances or injurious radiation. CUSTODY. commencing within 7 days from the date the injury was received. and to eliminate any danger or obstruction to air navigation. REQUEST FROM STATE OF REGISTRY OR STATE OF OPERATOR If a request is received from the State of Registry. pilfering and deterioration. or Involves second or third degree burns. or the State of the Operator that the aircraft. or Involves lacerations which cause severe haemorrhage. or tendon damage. or other means of evidence which might be removed. or Involves injury to any internal organ. muscle. toes.

This must be in accord with the proper conduct of the investigation and does not result in undue delay in returning the aircraft into service where this is practicable. Air Law 25-3 . appoints an accredited representative. the State conducting the investigation should invite the operator to participate. the State of Design. Responsibility of the State of Registry and the State of the Operator Upon receipt of the notification. as soon as possible. It may delegate the whole or any part of the investigation to the State of Registry or the State of the Operator. if the aircraft involved is of a maximum take off mass greater than 2250 kg. Responsibility for Instituting and Conducting the Investigation The State of Occurrence shall institute an investigation into the circumstances of the accident. Where the citizens of a state have suffered fatalities or serious injuries. In this case the State of Occurrence shall use every means to facilitate the investigation. NOTIFICATION FOR ACCIDENTS OR SERIOUS INCIDENTS The State of Occurrence shall forward a notification of an accident or serious incident with a minimum of delay and by the most suitable and quickest means to: The State of Registry. and ICAO. be permitted to send an expert to attend the investigation. Such State shall also be responsible for the conduct of the investigation. The State of the Operator. Participation in the Investigation The State of Registry. the State of Registry and the State of the Operator shall. The State of Manufacture. Note: The State of Design may be different from the State of Manufacture.Aircraft Accident Investigation Chapter 25 REQUEST FROM THE STATE OF DESIGN OR STATE OF MANUFACTURER If a request is made that the aircraft remain undisturbed pending investigation by an accredited representative of the requesting state then the State of Occurrence shall take all reasonable steps to comply. that state will. nor the State of the Operator. if a request has been made. The State of Design. The State of Design of Concorde was the UK whereas France was the State of Manufacture because the final assembly took place at Toulouse in France. provide the State of Occurrence with any relevant information regarding the aircraft and flight crew involved. the State of Design or Manufacture will provide relevant details of the aircraft involved. Responsibility of the State of Design/Manufacture If requested by the State of Registry. When neither the State of Registry. and the State of Manufacture are entitled to appoint an accredited representative to participate in the investigation. the State of the Operator.

Note 1: Preliminary report only and in code. ICAO(1). and The State having suffered fatalities or serious injuries to its citizens (2).Chapter 25 Aircraft Accident Investigation REPORTS When the aircraft involved has a maximum take off mass greater than 2250 kg the state conducting the investigation is to send a copy of the preliminary and final reports to: The State of Registry or the State of Occurrence. The State of Manufacture. The State of the Operator. Note 2: Final report only. 25-4 Air Law . Any State which provided relevant information. The State of Design. significant facilities or expertise.

a state arbitrarily applied pedantic rules and regulations that only applied to travel by air which created delays. and immigration controls.). This contains details of all passengers (name. In the early days of international commercial aviation. application of Customs and Excise rules. a form known as the General Declaration of Shipping has to be carried when the ship is outside of the territorial waters of the state of registry. together with a statement that the aircraft is not carrying any passenger or animal suffering from a notifiable disease. a statement that it is engaged in operations complying with the requirements of the International Air Services Agreement and details of the crew. It also states the number of passengers carried. insurance. registration. the rules of the state are often more restrictive than the recommendations of ICAO. including those applied for aviation security purposes. passenger documentation. thus encouraging people to travel by train. The form includes details of the aircraft (owner. illegal immigration. so as to retain the advantage of speed inherent in air transport. as well as narcotics control. quantity of freight.INTRODUCTION Facilitation is the word used by ICAO to describe the rules and regulations designed to make international commercial aviation work. If. ENTRY AND DEPARTURE OF AIRCRAFT Contracting States are required to make procedures for the clearance of aircraft. control entry. General Declaration For ships engaged in international maritime trading and passenger carrying. This is due to technological advances rather than bureaucracy. AIM The aim of the SARPs relating to Facilitation is to try and ensure that travel and cargo handling by international commercial aviation is not disadvantaged with respect to other methods of travel. For instance. As each state is a sovereign power the necessities of each state to safeguard borders. however. A similar form is required for aircraft. and prevent abuse by way of smuggling. etc. place of birth and destination). Air Law 26-1 . Passenger Manifest Another form carried on ships is the passenger manifest. and trafficking in banned goods. it is probably quicker now to travel from the centre of London to the centre of Paris by train than by air. a similar form was required to be carried in aircraft. taxation. The intention is to get all contracting states to apply uniform rules and regulations concerning the handling of international traffic. this would be contrary to article 37. The SARPs on Facilitation are the outcome of Article 37 of the Convention and embodied in Annex 9 (Facilitation) to the Convention.

e. Stores List Ships are required to declare all goods remaining on board the ship at the destination that were intended for sale to passengers enroute. Purpose and Use of Aircraft Documents Contracting States do not require the presentation of the General Declaration when the information can be readily obtained in an alternative and acceptable manner. Where Contracting States require the presentation of information relating to crewmembers on entry and departure of aircraft. but when this type of information is required. not more than: Three copies of the General Declaration.Chapter 26 Facilitation Cargo Manifest This is similar to the Passenger Manifest but relates to cargo carried. Inbound Procedures Contracting States can require the authorised agent or the commander to deliver to the public authorities concerned. before departure of the aircraft. Contracting States can require the authorised agent or the commander to deliver to the public authorities concerned. description of the cargo. which continues to require the presentation of the General Declaration. the trade in ivory). this information shall be provided in the column headed “Total number of crew”. or unloaded from an aircraft. Three copies of the Cargo Manifest. The details include the details of the shipper. Aircraft are required to have a simple stores list mainly concerning alcohol and tobacco products sold to the passengers enroute. shall limit the information required to an absolute minimum. the recipient. on arrival of the aircraft. Outbound Procedures The following procedures relate to situations where the above forms are still required. When necessary. consumption by the crew. A Contracting State. such information shall be limited to the number of crew on board. not more than: Two copies of the General Declaration. and Two copies of a simple stores list. An attestation (statement by the commander) is acceptable. is required to accept it when signed by either the authorised agent or the commander. which continue to require the presentation of a written declaration. and passengers enroute. This also includes unaccompanied baggage. and a declaration that the cargo does not contravene any international agreements to proscribe or restrict trading in such goods (i. Where the General Declaration is still required. a crewmember can sign the health section. or for use in the running and maintenance of the ship while enroute. such as a computer printout. 26-2 Air Law . These are typically alcohol and tobacco products and dutiable fuel products. In respect of stores loaded on to. Description. Contracting States shall not require the presentation of a written declaration of stores remaining on board aircraft. Contracting States. Two copies of the Cargo Manifest. it is possible to provide this in an alternative and acceptable manner. Two copies of a simple stores list. Contracting States shall not normally require the presentation of a Passenger Manifest.

Medical Requirements In cases where evidence of protection against yellow fever is required. and details of the place and date of birth of the holder. Contracting states shall provide facilities that will enable crewmembers of airlines. the licence is sufficient for temporary admission to the State without a passport or visa. which are not required to be licensed. to obtain a crewmember’s certificate. and visas (where necessary) are required by Contracting States for the entry into and departure from their territories of visitors. other than a valid passport. Contracting States shall accept the International Certificate of Vaccination or Revaccination issued by the World Health Organisation. produced by electronic media. Clearance Procedures Contracting States shall accept an oral declaration of the content and ownership of baggage from passengers and crew. Non-Scheduled Services Each Contracting State is to extend privileges of temporary admission to those crewmembers on aircraft engaged in non-scheduled international air services. In the case of airline flight crewmembers who retain their licence in their possession when embarking and disembarking. or handwritten providing they are legible. In cases where a Contracting State continues to require entrance visas from visitors. the practice of issuing such visas without charge through reciprocal or other acceptable arrangements is encouraged. ENTRY AND DEPARTURE OF PERSONS AND THEIR BAGGAGE No documents other than those detailed above. In order for this to be permitted. Crew and Other Operators Personnel Contracting States shall ensure that when inspection of crewmembers and their baggage is required on arrival or departure. Note: The licence is recognised as a satisfactory identity document even if the holder is not a national of the State of Registry of the aircraft on which he serves. and departs on the same aircraft or on his next regular scheduled flight. Where supplementary information from visitors travelling by air is required. and remain at the airport where the aircraft has stopped or within the confines of cities adjacent to the airport. and yellow fever. passports. a photograph of the holder. Contracting States do not require visitors by air to have any other document of identity. Medical examination of persons arriving by air should normally be limited to those disembarking and coming within the incubation period of the disease concerned from an area infected with one of the three diseases requiring quarantine: plague. the licence must contain the specifications laid out in Annex 1. Air Law 26-3 . a certificate that the holder may at all times re-enter the State of Licence Issue upon production of the licence.Facilitation Chapter 26 Completion of Documents Documents may be typewritten. such inspection shall be carried out as quickly as possible. cholera. Unaccompanied baggage shall be inspected on a sampling or selective basis. this is accomplished by the use of Embarkation/Disembarkation Cards. providing that such crewmembers depart on the aircraft on its first flight out of the territory of the state.

DEPARTURE REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES Contracting States shall not require exit visas from their own nationals or residents wishing to tour abroad nor from visitors at the end of their stay. each Contracting State shall accept from that crewmember. Contracting States shall not require inspection of baggage of passengers departing from their territory. Crewmember Certificate To comply with rules for the admission of crewmembers and to stop the flight crew licence being used for purposes for which it was not intended. in the exercise of their duties. ICAO recommends the adoption of an operator issued crewmember certificate. or in special circumstances. except for aviation security measures. 26-4 Air Law . The card usually has a magnetic strip or bar code that can be automatically read by machines where access control is applied or entry authorisation to restricted areas is applied. to travel to another state as a passenger by any means of transportation in order to join an aircraft. in lieu of passport and visa for temporary admission either a licence or crewmember’s certificate. the name and a photograph of the crewmember. The certificates generally used are credit card sized and state the name of the operator. The card serves as acceptable means of identity where required. A document from the crewmember’s employer certifying the purpose of the journey may be required.Chapter 26 Facilitation Relief Crew When it is necessary for airline crewmembers. and a statement that the holder is bona fide crew engaged in international commercial aviation.

Air Law 26-5 . such as a false declaration. It therefore beholds the operator to ensure before departure that all passengers are admissible or accept the financial penalty of having to return the passenger to the departure aerodrome. JAR-OPS requires the operator to have procedures for the carriage of inadmissible persons in addition to deportees and persons in custody. DEPORTEES AND PERSONS IN CUSTODY Each state is required to have procedures in force for the handling of deportees and persons in custody. criminal record. The state will inform the operator that a person has been declared inadmissible and it then becomes the responsibility of the operator to return the person to the point of departure. In an aircraft emergency the person is to be released from restraint. escorted by a law enforcement officer. The deporting state is required to inform the operator when a deportee is being placed aboard an aircraft. no visa etc. to the state of domicile. state requesting extradition. The cost of the transportation will be borne by the deporting state or the state requesting extradition. record of deportation. Persons in Custody Where a person in judicial custody. through the process of law. false passport. Inadmissible Persons A state may refuse entry to any person found inadmissible for any reason. or any other state willing to offer shelter. The operator is required to inform the commander of the passenger being deported. and the crew are to be aware of the location of the deportee in the aircraft. the commander is to be informed of the location of the person and informed of any restraint applied to the person. The operator may seek to recover any direct costs and expenses incurred in the return passage.Facilitation Chapter 26 INADMISSIBLE PASSENGERS. usually after due process of law. is carried on an aircraft. but the operator is not permitted to charge the inadmissible passenger for the return flight before departure. Deportees A state has the right to deport or extradite foreign national citizens.

Chapter 26 Facilitation 26-6 Air Law .

The UK is a contracted state of ICAO and has notified ICAO of a considerable number of differences in accordance with Article 38.. FL100 etc.. FL85. FL55. ICAO defines flight visibility and vertical and horizontal distance from cloud. Also. FL90 etc. the JAA.e FL60. Quadrantal Rule For IFR flight outside of CAS and above the transition level up to FL245. there is no VMC criteria defined for class A airspace. The quadrants and applicable FLs are: 000 – 089 090 – 179 180 – 269 270 – 359 Air Law Odd FLs i.. The LO remains and this chapter meets the requirement for the inclusion of the differences of UK law from the ICAO SARPs and PANS. FL80. Annex 6.e. the VMC criteria for class B airspace is 8 km flight visibility at or above FL100 (10 000 ft) and 5 km below and clear of cloud. FL95 etc. Above FL245 all flights comply with the semi-circular rule for IFR flights in accordance with the table in Annex 2 for IFR flight in ‘other airspace’. JAR FCL committee decided that implementation of the requirement for national law examined was suspended and that is still the case. The UK has recognised the validity of JARs including JAR FCL under which this course and the licensing examinations are conducted. it is not fair for Dutch students taking a course in the UK to be examined on UK law. FL75. However. Fl65. Even FLs i. is not a contracting state of ICAO. pilots are required to fly at a FL dependent upon the magnetic track of the aircraft with respect to the quadrant of the compass which contains the magnetic track.. It was the intention that the differences from ICAO SARPs and PANS permitted by Article 38 of the Chicago convention would be examinable in examinations conducted in the state that had notified the differences. and Annex 8. FL70. MAJOR UK DIFFERENCES VMC Criteria In the UK. Only the United States and Russia have notified more differences.. Even FLs plus 500 ft i. The most obvious differences notified by the UK are in respect of Annex 2. However. these differences are not notified to ICAO as the regulatory body. the Rules of the Air.. Odd FLs plus 500 ft i. It is interesting to note that the UK complies with JAR-OPS and JAR FCL and these are at variance with Annex 1. FL 50. FL105 etc… 27-1 . Clearly.INTRODUCTION The Learning Objectives (LOs) for 010 Air Law include reference to National Law.e. for both classes A and B.e. THE LAW OF THE UK The regulation of aviation in the UK is through the enacted Air Navigation Order which establishes the UK CAA and recognises the JAA as a regulatory body of which the UK CAA is a participating authority.

SVFR In the UK the definition of SVFR is: “a flight made at any time in a CTR which is class A airspace or is in any other CTR in IMC or at night.5 nm. the limits of CAS (CTRs. at 3902 m (12 800 ft). Departure Separation The UK procedural separation standard for departure is 2 minutes. If the runway is not longer than 1 nm the radius of the ATZ is 2 nm.” RTF in Class F and G Airspace There is no requirement for continuous two-way RTF in class F and G airspace. Controlled Aerodrome The UK does not define a controlled aerodrome.e. Upper Limit of CAS The upper limit of CAS (the upper limit of the UIR) is FL660. Aerodrome Traffic Zone (ATZ) The size of a UK ATZ is a factor in the length of the longest runway. 27-2 Air Law . Limits of CAS In the UK all airspace above FL245 is the Upper Information Region (UIR) and is classified as class B. All flights in the UIR are controlled flights with the exception of gliders when flying in the. If the runway is longer than 1 nm the radius is 2.Chapter 27 National Law VFR Flight Levels Because of the application of the quadrantal rule. CTAs etc…) comply with the ICAO requirement for these as the equivalent of VFR FLs (i. the radar separation standard is increased to 10nm. Pilots may fly at night in VMC if they hold a night rating in addition to the basic licence. Where defined as FLs. Radar Separation Where SSR is used alone. in respect of which the appropriate ATCU has given permission for the flight to be made in accordance with special instructions instead of in accordance with IFR providing the aircraft complies with any instructions given by the ATCU and remains clear of cloud and in sight of the surface. Licensing In the UK a pilot may fly in CAS (except in class A) in IMC without an IR providing he/she holds an IMC rating additional to the basic licence. FL245 is the upper limit of the FIR and the lower limit of the UIR). designated gliding areas. Wake Turbulence Categories The UK adds a category of SMALL. The longest runway in the UK is 09L/27R at Heathrow. FL660 is also the equivalent of a VFR FL. now very limited. In CAS controlled VFR flights will be allocated FLs from the table of FLs applicable to IFR traffic. the UK does not recognise VFR FLs. VFR at Night Flight under VFR at night is not permitted in the UK.

flight below 500 ft is permitted.National Law Chapter 27 Low Flying In the UK the following restrictions to low flying are enforced: a. ROYAL FLIGHTS A Royal Flight is a flight made by Her Majesty the Queen or certain other members of the Royal Family. Aircraft are not to fly closer than 1000 m (3280 ft) to gatherings of 1000 persons or more (ICAO does not specify the number of persons). However. Royal Flight procedures are often implemented for flights made within UK airspace by other Monarchs. Special ATC procedures are implemented to provide additional separation between Royal Flight aircraft and other aircraft.500 MHz are suspended. the enhanced separation standards are applied in ‘Purple Airspace’ which is defined between reporting points and exists as detailed in the RNOTAM. Clearances to climb or descend whilst maintaining own separation in VMC will not be granted in the vicinity of a Royal Flight. c. MILITARY AERODROME TRAFFIC ZONES (MATZ) Military aerodromes in the UK. Purple Airspace Within and outside of CAS. Established CTRs may be upgraded to class A airspace during Royal flight operations in the CTR. (ICAO permits as low as 1000 ft). Gliders are not to be flown in Purple Airspace. Restrictions During the notified period of a Royal Flight in the UK FIRs. practice PAN procedures on 121. West Freugh. a temporary CTR and temporary airways to link the CTR to the airways structure will be established as published in the RNOTAM. Purple Airspace is not normally established for Royal Flight helicopters. vehicle. The extension to the ATZ is called the Military ATZ or MATZ. Air Law 27-3 . Llanbedr. Aircraft are not to fly closer than 500 ft to any person. b. The MATZ extension is not CAS and is only mandatory for military (and MoD civilian pilots). Boscombe Down) have an extension to the aerodrome traffic zone to provide additional protection to pilots of small. No aircraft is permitted to fly over towns or built-up areas (habitation) below 1 500 ft above the highest obstacle within 600 m of the aircraft track. vessel. For Royal Flights operating into or out of aerodromes not within a CTR. RNOTAM The occurrence of a Royal Flight is notified in a Royal Flight NOTAM (RNOTAM). or structure. Heads of State. The ATZ at a military aerodrome has the same status as that at any other aerodrome and is to be respected by all civilian pilots. a civilian pilot who ignores the existence of a MATZ is foolhardy. or foreign dignitaries. (Annex 2 prohibits flight below 500 ft except for take off and landing). Purple Airspace is class A. Bedford. The military and the CAA have established RTF procedures for entering and crossing a MATZ. The procedures are required knowledge for the issue of a UK CAA RTF licence. including DERA aerodromes (Farnborough. Temporary Purple Airspace will exist from 15 minutes prior to and 30 minutes after the ETA Royal Flight at the aerodrome. The diagram below is a 3-D representation of a MATZ. fast aircraft with limited navigation facilities and less than normal ability to maintain a good look out. Over clear areas or over the sea.

MATZ With 2 panhandles MATZ COMBINED MATZ 27-4 Air Law .5 nm radius dependent upon the length of the longest runway. The extension is known at the MATZ “panhandle”. The MATZ is superimposed on the ATZ and has a radius of 5 nm regardless of the length of the longest runway.Chapter 27 National Law Military Aerodrome Traffic Zone Dimensions The ATZ is either 2 nm or 2. The MATZ is extended in the direction from which instrument approaches are made to the main instrument runway. This extension is 5 nm long and exists between 1000 ft and 3000 ft above aerodrome elevation.

continue to maintain a listening watch on the military VHF frequency. by the nature of military operations the aerodrome hours may not be restricted to normal office hours and civilian pilots flying in the vicinity of military aerodromes should anticipate military activity at all times. Pilots should exercise the utmost care and make use of the military assistance at all time. be instructed to set the aerodrome QFE until departing the MATZ. others during the notified hours of ATC watch. As an example. where necessary for separation from military aircraft.The pilot should then comply with any instructions given by the military ATCO.National Law Chapter 27 Multiple or Combined MATZ Multiple or combined MATZ are where two or more MATZ overlap (CMATZ) the upper limit of the CMATZ is measured from the elevation of the highest aerodrome. it can still be a dangerous place where the likelihood of a close encounter with a fast jet aircraft is a distinct possibility. Whilst the MATZ is not CAS defined in the ANO. The pilot then gives details of the flight (type of aircraft. A civilian pilot wishing to cross through a MATZ should call the controlling authority (usually the military approach or zone controller) on the published VHF frequency not less than 15 nm or 5 minutes before entering the MATZ. and intentions). Radar may be used in the provision of this service. MATZ Penetration by Civil Pilots At aerodromes listed in the UK AIP a service will be provided by military ATCOs to assist civil pilots cross through the MATZ by providing traffic information and navigational assistance. altitude. Altimeter Setting Military approach and aerodrome operations are usually carried out with reference to aerodrome elevation with QFE set. It is usual for one aerodrome ATCU to be designated as the controlling ATCU for the CMATZ providing approach control and MATZ penetration service for the entire CMATZ. Availability of the Service Some military aerodromes operate H24. the pilot will be asked “G-CD pass your message”. However. position. The MATZ crosser will. When answered. Air Law 27-5 . The lowest aerodrome QNH is the CMATZ QNH. “Boscombe Down this is G-ABCD request MATZ penetration”. heading. The civilian pilot could wait for a reply as the controller may be working military aircraft on military UHF frequencies. and finally advise the military ATCO when departing the MATZ.

Chapter 27 National Law 27-6 Air Law .

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