VULGyiR Latin







by Microsoft®

Cornell University Library

PA 2619.G7S


introduction to vulgar Latin

3 1924 021

623 800


by Microsoft®

This book



by Microsoft Corporation


cooperation with Corneii University Libraries, 2007.

You may use and print


copy in

iimited quantity

for your personai purposes, but

may not distribute


provide access to


(or modified or partiai versions of it)

for revenue-generating or other

commerciai purposes.


by Microsoft®

PUBLISHERS 1907 by Microsoft® . HEATH & Digitized CO.I)eatb'5 flDot>ern tHanduage Qctics AN INTRODUCTION VULGAR LATIN BY C.. H. A. D. C. U. S. GRANDGENT Fbofbssor of Romance Languagss in Harvahd University BOSTON.

Digitized by Microsoft® . 1907. By D.V^-^5 3J( Copyright. Heath & Co. C.

not exhaustively. abreast of current scholarship.— . but with even fulness I fear. have tried. Digitized byiUicrosoft® . to treat all portions of the subject. have endeavored to keep I at every stage. however. Romance making. others are cited in the appropriate places in the C. Grandgent. I hope. furthermore. it be of some interest to has been long in the Classical scholars as well. I Philology. PREFACE. who wish to look further into special My principal authorities are listed in the Bibliotext. somewhat scanty as compared with the other It will be seen that I have continually furnished abundant references for the guidance of those topics. "^^HILE this book is intended primarily for students of it will. H. graphy. that the is Syntax — perhaps unavoidably parts. Although it.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.... ^ . .. Pages MAPS The Roman Empire The Neo-Latin Territory in Europe BIBLIOGRAPHY. ... 7-8 Words used in Classic but not in Vulgar Latin ... AND Their Meanings. xvii INTRODUCTION i-S VOCABULARY WoBDS. with Abbreviations PHONETIC ALPHABET and Other Symbols X. . Sense Restricted Sense Extended .... ^ .. . 6-29 6-12 6 7-8 7 .. xi x xi xiii-xvi .. . 8-9 Synonyms Substitutes.. and Pronouns Prefixes used with Verbs Suffixes Suflixes for Suffixes for Verbs Nouns Adverbs iv Digitized 18-23 Suffixes for Adjectives Suffixes for 23-25 25-26 27-28 Change of Suffix by Microsoft® . Words used alike in Classic and in Vulgar Latin Words used differently in Classic and in Vulgar Latin .. 9 9-10 10 10-12 Ii>-i2 Particles Words used in Vulgar but not in Classic Latin Native Words Foreign Words I2 Uerivation Post-Verbal Prefixes 13-29 Nauru . Adjectives.. 13 13-16 13-14 14-16 16-28 16-17 Prefixes used with Nouns.

Adjectives Pronouns- Verbs Adverbs Fiepositions 28-29 29 20 Conjunctions SYNTAX Order of Words Use of Words Nou»s and Adjectives Comparison Numerals Pronouns Personal and Possessive Pronouns Demonstratives Interrogatives and Relatives Indefinite . Gerund Gerundive .Table of Contents. 30-59 30-32 32-41 32-34 33 33-34 34-38 Pronouns 34 35-36 36-37 37-38 38 ^^38-39 Verbs Adverbs Prepositions 39-41 ^ Conjunctions 41 Use of Inflections Cases 42-59 42-48 42-43 43 43-44 Locative Vocative Genitive Dative Ablative 44-4S 45-47 48^ Accusative Fall of Declension Verb-Forms Impersonal Parts Supine 48 48 48-51 48—49 '. . Future Active Participle Digitized 49 49 49 by Microsoft® . Compounds v Pages 28-29 28 28 28 28 Nouns . .

Pages Present Participle Perfect Participle Infinitive 5° 50 5°~5I 51-52 Voice Mood Imperative Subjunctive 52-54 52 5^-54 54-59 54-5^ Tense The Perfect Tenses Future and Conditional 5^59 60-143 60-61 61-68 61-66 61-62 62-63 63 63 64 64-66 PHONOLOGY Syllabication Accent Primary Stress Vowels in Hiatus Compound Verbs Iliac. Greek Paroxytones Greek Proparoxytones Other Foreign Words Secondary Stress Unstressed Words 64 64-65 65-66 66 66-67 67-68 68-77 68-70 71-77 Quantity Position Vowel Quantity Vowels in Hiatus Lengthening before Consonants Disappearance of the Old Quantity Development of a New Quantity 72-73 73-75 75-76 76-77 77-104 78-82 82-gi Vowels Greek Vowels Accented Vowels Single Vowels 82-87 82-83 Digitized o by Microsoft® .vi Table of Contents. Illic Ficatum Numerals Greek Words Greek Oxytones .

before Front Vowels and G before Back Vowels and G Final and before Consonants . 11 2-1 14 Palatals Dentals Liquids 114-118 118-121 121-124 121-123 123-124 L R Sibilants 124-126 127-132 132-137 Nasals Labials P Digitized 132-133 by Microsoft® ..Table of Contents.. e vii Pages 83-84 84 . .. Q.. 104-143 106-137 106-107 107-114 109-112 112 C and G Q.. ^ »" I o 84 84-85 85-86 H u 86 86-87 87 a Diphthongs te 88-90 88-89 89-90 au eu ce ui Influence of Labials Clerical Latin 90 90 90 91 91 Unaccented Vowels 91-104 in Unaccented Vowels Initial Syllable Hiatus 93-96 96-98 98-99 99-102 102-104 Intertonic Syllable Penult Final Syllable Consonants Latin Consonants Aspirate Gutturals .

Nasals. and Sibilants Z Germanic Consonants 141-143 144-187 144-161 144-147 144 145-146 146-147 MORPHOLOGY NotJNS AND Adjectives Gender Masculine and Feminine Masculine and Neuter Feminine and Neuter Declension of Nouns First Declension 147—156 149-151 Second Declension Third Declension Loss of Declension Declension of Adjectives 151-152 152—156 156 157-158 158-159 159-161 161-165 161-162 Comparison Numerals Pronouns and Pronominai. Adjectives Personal Pronouns Possessives Demonstratives Interrogative Indefinite 162-163 163-164 165 165 and Relative Pronouns Pronouns and Adjectives Verbs The Four Conjugations First Conjugation 166-187 166-170 166-167 167 Second Conjugation Third Conjugation Fourth Conjugation Fundamental Changes in 167-170 170 Inflection 170-173 Digitized by Microsoft® . X Liquids. *. A 138 138 138-139 140 140-141 K. n. r. Pages B F V .viii Table of Contents. T e. 133-13S 13s i3S-'37 137 137—141 u Greek Consonants B.

Strong Perfects Pluperfect and Future Perfect Perfect Participle 177-180 180-182 183 Personal Mndings 183-185 186-187 189-219 INDEX Digitized by Microsoft® . Inchoative Venbs ix Pages Present Stems Imperfect Perfect 173-174 174-176 176-177 177-182 » Weak Perfects .Table of Contents.

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

2^ ed. Romanische Forschungen VII. Bausteine: Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie. 1899. Histoire de la langue roumaine. Bechtel. : Part — — . Vol. Audollent: A.Pipoque Densusianu: O. A volume of mis- Bayard : L. I. Bonnet. New ed. possibly as early as the third century. Wiener Studien XIV. Corssen : W. i). Mussafia. mlrovingienne. App. 1902.. 1906. Per. S. L. (Vol. Die griechischen Wbrter im Franzosischen. ed. I. Bon. Mllanges Boissier 5-9. Cooper: F. -Carnoy: A. Bayard. Digitized b)microsoft® . 145 ff. Archiv : Archiv filr lateinische Lexicographie und Crammatik mit Einschluss des dlteren Mittellateins. Cf. Le latin de saint Cyprien. I. Densusianu. Pr. A. Defixionum Tabellae. Cohn. Vocalismus und Betonung der rischen Franzosisch nach ihren Spuren lateinischen Sprache.T. Le latin d'Espagne d'aprh les inscriptions. AudoUent. 1868-70. Mohl. 1905. BIBLIOGRAPHY WITH ABBREVIATIONS. Word Formation in the Roman Sermo Plebeius. Heraeus. Cohn : G. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. Quarterly. : 1902-03. Carnoy. cellaneous studies issued in honor of A. Claussen. Bechtel: E. A Latin list of and incorrect spellings. Dottin: G.Cooper. Ueber Aussprache. Dottin. W. Introduction 1899. 1863 1893 Claussen T. 1895. 1901. : Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. 1902. : correct- Die Appendix Probi. Le latin de Grigoire de Tours. Cf. M. Leipzig. Silviae Peregrinatio. Corssen. D'Arbois: H. <J la chronologic du latin vulgaire. G. C.. 1872.. La dlclinaison en Gaule d. 1904. in Romor nische Forschungen XV. 774. Manuel pour servir h Vltude de I'antiquiti celtique. 1891. Melanges Renier 301-309. 1890. 278 ft. Die Suffixwandlungen im Vulgdrlatein und im vorlittera- im NeufranzSsischen. Chronologie : F. d'Arbois de Jubainville.

Kluge. : Meyer-Liibk'e. Grammaire des langues romanes. ed. . W. Franz.. in France. Romanen und Germanen in ihren Wechselbeziehungen.. jd or ninth century. in the eighth Cf. Hoppe. -Grundriss : G. W. alten Italien. XXVI. Koschwitz. probably 521 ff. Historische Syntax der lateinischen Sprache. Grbber. Reviewed by G. 2d ed. KofEmane : G. Kluge F. : W. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. Edon: G. Cassel : II. Hammer. Paris in Rom. 1879Digitized by Microsoft® . Gl. Die lateinisch-romanischen Elemente im Althochdeutschen. — 1888- M. et prononciation du latin savant et du latin popu- 1882. 1894. Foerster and E. ed. a: Zur Geschichte des franzosischen 3. Dubois. 1898. Keil. 1901.. Zs. of Vol. Goelzer. Franz. Dubois A. Die Reichenauer Glossen in Zs. Lateinisch-romanisches Wdrterbuch. 498. Foerster and E. Grammatici Latini. 1857-1880. Reichenauer Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. 48. 1892. Hetzer. Korting: G.. Haag. Draeger: A. 1890vols.. Franz : 1883. 1903. Etude lexicograpkique grammaticale de Kasseler Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. W. Kbrting. Gl. W. Hoppe: H. Facere G. 641 7. XXII.. Eckinger T. 1896 — Futurum G. Keil: H. 2d ed. 1902. I. Eckinger. Meyer-Liibke. Le developpement de facere dans langues romanes. 1893. in Archiv saint Jlrome. Cf. : century. £E.: 1900. Grundriss der romanischen Philologie. 2d ed. Die Orthographie lateinischer Worter ingriechischen : : Inschriften. Entstehung und Entwickelung des Kirchenlateins. Draeger. La latiniti d'Ennodius. 157. P. £criture laire. Koff mane. 2 1902. Beiheft Gram. Syntax und Siil des Tertullian. Made in France in the eighth Reich. £don. . 3 vols. Rydberg. Rydberg. Thielmann. 1903. 2d 1878. G. 569. Die locale Verbreitungfriihester romanischer Lautwandlungen im. Habere mit dem et Infinitiv und die Entstehung des la latiniti de romanischen Futurums. 1904 Haag : O.. XIV BlBIJOGRAPHY. EinfUhrung in das Studium der romanischen les Sprachwissenschaft. Made. 1902. : : P. K. H. 1901. : : Hammer in Grundriss I^. Die Latinitdt Fredegars.. 1884. Koschwitz. Einf .

Studies in the tions. 1903. Fortsetzung. N. Etudes sur la langue et la grammaire de Ciciron. Lebreton.XXX). Spr. I goo. Olcott. 1898. du frangais prilittiraire. 1901. perhaps from Spain. 451. xv W. Pogatscher. Itala und Vulgata. : F. Meyer-Lubke. Petite phonltique Phon. Silvia AquitancE Peregrinatio ad loca sancta.Bibliography. Observations on the Use of Certain Prepositions in to the Petronius with special reference Part. Habere mit dem Part. : Roman Sermo Plebeius. G. Cf. E. auf Aussprache und Recht- schreibung beziiglichen Eigenthiimlickkeiten in den Inschriften aus Gallia Narbonensis. : Leipzig. Regnier. 1901. S. Zur Lautlehre der griechischen. G. Olcott : G. Lexique F. Pr. 509: Peregrinatio iiii-viii. 1887. : La langue des inscriptions de la Gaule. : P. 1897. M. ed. : LiteraturblattfUrgermanischeundromanischePhilologie. Loth. Les mots latins dans les langues brittoniques. 1869. 1892-1902. 1905. : : Ltblt. M. Pers. Digitized by Microsoft® . Silvice Aquitanm 1898. 1892. Btudes sur le lexique du latin vulgaire. Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. Thielmann. Perf Per. P. Gamurrini. Mohl. Marchot. in Grundriss V. T. t^ Verzeichniss der ed. lateinischen und romanischen Lehnworte im Altenglischen : II. 259. Hilarius.. Die lateinische Sfrache in den romanischen : Landern. See Bechtel. Perf. Quillacq. The Latin Language. Geyer. . ad loca sancta. Cf.S. La premiire personne du pluriel en gallo-roman. 1898. Lebreton J. Hilarii Tractatus de Mysteriis et Hymni et S. Neumann Franz Neumann. Pogatscher A. Ferotin. Le viritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. and S. De latinitate libelli qui inscriptus est Peregrinatio loca sancta. sit Quillacq : : J.. lat. Lindsay: W. ad 367 ff. De la latinitl des Sermons de saint Augustin. 1886. : 1 901. Ronsch. H. R. Vokalismus der Tonsilben. Oliver: A^Oliver. 372. with special reference to the Latin Sermo Vulgaris. Mohl. J. Monthly.'i>(eue. Pirson: J. in Itinera hierosolymitana saculi Written probably in the latter part of the fourth century by an ignorant nun. Pass. . PI. in P. 1899. 'P. 1888. Pirson. Teil. Wolfflin in Archiv IV. Archiv II. Neue: Formenlehre der lateinischen Sprache. A. 1900. Quomodo lingua latina usus S. Loth J. Regnier: A. 1894. 1888. Ang^ade. J. Substantives Word Formation of the Latin Inscrip- and Adjectives. Lindsay.

116. Substrate : G. Windisch: E. Tiktin : : H. II. 276. in Grundriss P. Waters: W. 424. : Zeitschrift Jur romanische Philologie. : Zur Entstehung der romanischen Wortstellung aus der lateinischen. 1885. 117. ^KvA. 371. VI. 1&&2. Sittl: K. Cena Trimalchionis. 453.nn&r. 1890. 234. 1903. 1900. Spr. Vulgdrlateinische Substrate romanischer Worter. Zauner: A. Die franzosische und provenzalische Sprache ihre Mundarten. IV. Romanische Sprachwissenschaft. Vok. fr. 100. : S. 138. Four to sLx 1879. Beitrdge zu einer Darstellung der romanischen Elemente im Latein der Historia Francorum des Gregor v. Zs. : Zeitschrift fiir franzosische Sprache und Litteratur. in Grundriss P. Schuchardt. in 204. : Wolfflin : E. 371. Zs. III. Vol. Quarterly. Petronius. 422. und Thurot : Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits de la Biblioth^que nationale et : attires bibliothiques Vol. in Studi Medievali I. Grober. in Grundriss P. Seelmann. 564. Stolz: F. Grammatik der lateinischen Sprache. Suchier. Charles Thurot.. Tours. V. Paris.: E. Notices et Extraits de divers manuscrits latins pour servir A fhistoire des doctrines grammaticales au moyen dge. Bibliography. 1868. Som. Urbat R. Waters. E. 171. Archiv I. Wblfflin. 3 vols. 25. 264. H. Die keltische Sprache. Sepulcri. numbers a year. 125. Sepnlcri : Gregorio A. Le alterazioni fonetiche e morfologiche nel latino di Magno e del suo tempo. XII. I. VII. 1902. Quarter- ly. Suchier: H. Historische 1894. 539. which only occasional reference is made are cited in full in Digitized by Microsoft® . to Works the text. Die rumdnische Sprache. Die lokalen Verschiedenkeiten der lateinischen SpracAe.xvi Richter Elise Richter. Paris. Chemnitz and Leipzig. Windisch. 1 856-68. 377. Tiktin. 507. XQ. Romania. Lateinische und romanische Comparaiion. Urbat. Die Ausprache des Latein nach physiologisch-historischen Grundsdtzen. Der Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. Halle. Stolz.

(an acute accent) after a consonant letter shows that the consonant is (a dot) • C '^ / (a hook)' under a palatal. not >• indicates derivation. is conjectural. . * (an asterisk) before a word shows that the form attested. = the sound of ng in English long. the sound of Spanish v and i/i *. = the sound of e in French me. under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is close. J) ii o. q e. := rounded i.c = the sound of ch in German ach. SMALL CAPITALS mean that the forms so printed occur in inscriptions (but this indication is used only when for some special reason it seems desirable). the sound of German «. o = rounded the sound of German = the sound of th in English thin. The other marks and abbreviations employed are so generally accepted as to need no explanation. the source standing at the open end of the figure.PHONETIC ALPHABET AND OTHER SYMBOLS. vowel letter shows that the vowel is open. S =z > the sound of in English i/iis. . (a semicircle) under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is not syllabic. . whichever way it be turned. =r bilabial /S v. Digitized by Micrqsoft® xvii .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

the in 102-1. tribes. Lat. The Latinization of these peoples was the work of several centuries^: by 272 b.. and. southern Gaul in 120. Latin language never gained a foothold in Greece. Spain was made a province in 197.talyjt_was Italic tribes.n central j._Semites. D. also Meyer-Lubke. The and Teutones were destroyed was a province. Celts. Chronologie . tEe bri fall "oO^thage in 146. Empire it has remained. a little district on the is The Latin tongue was thus extended to many peoples. Venetia cast her lot with Rome in 215. LATIN. c. and linguistic habits. Illyrians in^sou^hea^emjmd southwestern Italy respectively by and Greeks. and Africa. I Digitized by Microsoft® . The extent of the Roman Empire on p. representing different races.AN INTRODUCTION TO VULGAR I. civilizations. all Italy was subdued south of the Macra and the Rubicon. forsaken in the third century. Celts. Aquitanians. Throughout this territory the official language Latin._ Germanic and others still. Raetia in 15. in 50. Tiber. Illyria was absorbed after 167. in adopted by Etruscans and by various n orthern Italy by Ligurians. Sardinia and Corsica in 238. X. pp. for the most part. political changes drove it in the rest of the from Great Britain. 451-455. beyond the peninsula it spread among Ligurians. Africa after Iberians. northern Cim- Gaul Dacia was colonized in 107 A. originally the speech of shown by the map was Latium. and quite cut off from the rest of the Latin-speaking world in the sixth. j. Sfr. Sicily became a province in 241. the Orient. 'See Mohl.. IHy- _rians .

jfor : e. Spr. c. The Social War. until the 90-89 B. that the language carried effect. and to some degree in the peninsula. Latin was simply substituted for foreign tongues.^ When Latin conquered. elex for The Italian word zavorra by Microsoft® . etc. The Latin tongue. 2. 464. but especially p^eriods. of Latium was adopted by tribes using. Africa. Digitized may be Oscan. moreover. however. and Oscan was used in inscriptions until the first century of our era. 445. Europe where Latin in its modern forms is now spoken. and there must have been a variety of accent. Italian nn : for nd.2 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. like every living language. xi marks the parts of ica. the alteration being most rapid in the earliest and the latest Furthermore. The evidence of inscriptions and of grammarians indicates that from the beginning to the end of Roman history speech was constantly changing. kindred At first there was sturdy resistance. Latm. considerable local dive^ences. Chronologie 98-99. conflict of or less with the native idioms .g2eaking peoples_ were not_ homogeneous.'' In the outlying provinces. in the main. alL southern Italy was under Oscan influence. The map on p. the resulting geographical dis- crepancies are manifest in early monuments. It should be remembered. and there was little or no mixture. nevertheless a few native words were kept. but there doubtless were still noticeable differences in pronunciation and even in vocabulary. Pomex. has always been in an unstable condition. [§ 2 until the present day. and their In Italy the language §peech_reflected_their varied origin. and has been carried thence to Amerand Asia. Kff. there were at all times. it blended more languages. piimex. Oscan forms are ligud for and k for lege^ pru for pro^ ni for 'The is S. The before the Social War. had a levelling and speech in Italy ^ See Chronologie 133 and I16-120. became more uniform. ilex are perhaps Umbrian possibly Etruscan Lat.

from the consciously polite utterance of cultivated society.^ Vulgar Latin naturally developed differently in ^ * Cf Lai.. and is also between city Injatfi. What wecalTVuIit gar Latin is the speech of the middle classes. _excegting ^reece andthe £entiiry after Christ. XV-XXX. the earlier acquisitions received a more popular. vowel is it Neither the dialect of the slums or of the us of not a few urban and rustic grammarians distinct tell vulgarisms that are not perpetuated in the It is Romance tongues. 3.the classes. more offtcial speech. under the Empire the variations probably came to be no greater than those /the^kter colonies a now to be found in the English of the British Empire. not an independent offshoot of Old Latin: system. Administration and ImiHtary service tended to obliterate distinctions.. . Roman territory. ugper and that of the lower and^coiintry speech. throughout the Republic and the Empire. . and from the slang of the lowest quarters of the city.t&L.from the everyday language on the other hand. was constantly developing away from the archaic standard of elegant parlance. not the primitive. though affected by all of these. while popular usage tends to quick change. drawing away . provinces was not identicial: it represented different chronological stages and different local dialects of jI^aUc^Latin . Digitized by Microsoft® . from the brogue of the country.^ fields: it continues the Classic. 1 . 463-464. 3 i\2_ik^_J£X?. We may say in general that the East. was completelyTaFinized by the fourth "^ "" of With the beginnings culture and literature there came inevitably a divergence between the language of . as It is grew out of early Classic Latin. Literary influence conservative and refining. the common idiom. %J3] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Spr. Cf Cooper . Republican and early Imperial times educated speech became highly^ artificial.

tqa^bout -6oo . see Lat. in the last few centuries of this epoch._jjid an abundant use of prefixes and. such as articles and prepositions. 492-497. YjJgar Lsatijl. We rfote an. . inj^e^ixth Jix . Kiibler Archiv VIII. due partly to phonetic but mainly to syntactic causes. Furthermore. some to a tendency to assimi^tejmlike adjacent sounds (so ipse is spoken isse.enormous development of modifying and determining words. from about 200 b.4 . Althou. for African Latin. and the diphthong at is reduced to e). we may put it. suftseSWe 4. * For a history of the Latin language. until the dialects of distant localities became mutu^ ally unintelligible. become is most sharply differentiated from Classic Latin when schools decayed „ . ^l^ various localities. ai almost in iCf. Sittl and Hammer. we shall see was always tending to become more flexible and more explicit. the universal inclination of language to diverge was reinforced by the original habits of the diverse speakers and by such peculiarities of native accent as hacl survived. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. vedus).^ Ctassic and VulgarXatin. Pirson and Carnoy also. B. i6i. progressed.A-P. some of which can be ascribed to an inclination to discard those parts of words that are not necessary for their identification (as vetulus when viridis. we observe certain changes in pronunciation. some to a desire for differentiation (which lowers i to e to make it more remote from i ). .seventh century of our era. If we compare that the latter find also a gre at sim plification of inflections. as far as the levelling inEuence of schot^l and army permitted.ALjUus--poin-t we ~may_ say that Vulgar XiSi^ stops and the . being accelerated and the military organization was broken. c.^ The differentiatign.JLQmance languages _begin. then. Spr. period lasts.^ any definite date must be arbitrary. Digitized by Microsoft® . some to unknown reasons! WEy~" for instance. roughly The speaking.

possib^'as early as the third century'. ^Cf. andrmosTim- ^portant o f_all. Zur Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. E. and W. 5 universally be came is e. 301 G.glossaries aDi. Fcerster in Wiener Studien XIV. 641 K.iSgS. made in France There is an interesting collection of Defixionum Tabellce. the subsequent developments. S. Die Appendix Probi. Silvia Peregrinatio. early and late. A. a considerable iragment of a description of travel in the East. Archiv XIV. and VII.* All of these are to be used with caution. Paris in Melanges Renier 301. 1904. Of ^speciaTvalue are the Peregrinatiqjidjqtasancta. Hetzer in Zs. Aussprache des Latein. 1899. list of spellings. 6t. Gioixr. a problem as yet unsolved. Wolfflin. . Itinera hierosolymitana sceculi mi-viii. Lot. 455-461. Meyer-Liibke. Audollent. see Stolz. while au did not in Latin generally. 'See W. the A^endix Probi^ z. 1902 . S. "See 119. Le veritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. Bechtel. F6rotin. . Foerster and KDfSiiitbdnll>fr. fourth century^. 401. 1866-68. 204 if. 259 M. and the establishment of unattested Vulgar Latin words. Zur Mulomedicina Chironis in Archiv XII. 367.Jists„jof JacQlxacJtjOTmjs. Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. the occasional lapses in cultivated authors. of the^TConraHcel languages. Schuchardt. 35. Beiheft 7. the distinction of learned and popular words. Die Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. Grober. Ueber die Latinitat der Peregrinatio ad loca sancta in Archiv IV.. G. For a brief account of the Latin grammarians. 1885. Heraeus. E. W. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 1902. a few texts w ritten by persons of scanty education. Herseus. Lommatzsch. Cf. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. ^ Utilized by E. 551.— An become^ o. in the eighth century. P. see G. Seelmann.. 55-67. XXX). in Archiv I.ijecurring. Geyer. Sprachgziellen und Wortquellen des lateiniscken Worierbuchs in Archiv I. 278. . 4 For the chronology of developments. Spr.' spells by A. "See P. the nonClassic forms. the so-called Glossary of Reichenau. E. 25 ff. . * Used by H. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. Melanges Boissier 5 W. . some . by an uneducated woman (probably a Spanish nun) of the latter good and bad pajt of the. Zur Sprache der Mulomedicina Chironis in .Mili/BaoilSisches Uebungsbuch. in inscriptions and early manu- ^scripts'. 5* Our sou rces of information' concerning the„ current spoken La tin are^ the statements of grammarians^.

264ff. so cams. Grober. On the other hand. ff. puteus. WORDS USED ALIKE IN CLASSIC AND VULGAR LATIN. 453ff.I. in. iiyS. II. suus)'. popular use tends to restrict them. vendere. Herasus. ~ technical words not found in literature. {damnum — dui)^ in Arckiv: I. VulgSrlateinische Substrate romanischer . 125 {quadraginta — rascu' {reburrus — runcare). — icaccubus — curbus). longus. Die romische Soldatensprache in Arckiv XH. Digitized b^Wlicrosoft® . the vulgar idiom has homely metaphors of its own and numerous specific.) Worter ff. speech of the literary and fashionable classes should differ from that of the common people so Literature inclines to extend it is in all civilized communities. (eber III. 255. ff. {Hie — lamna)^ So?^' {lacusta — mille)\ IV. Die Sprache der romiscken Kinderstube in Archiv XIII. 185-203. A. see G. It is natural that the The the senses of words. audire. 2'/$^. bonus. 138 {hmdus — iticem). ff. yj^ (supplement. 539 —Jiiicum)^ 424£f. For an approximately complete vocabulary. viridis. VOCABULARY. male. (sabanum — lare)^ 234 VI. (Jlagrare —gTttta). 422 {pbedire — putidus)-. reconstructed out of Romance words. 6. . ^See Densusianu. has many poetic figures and many abstract terms unknown to the crowd. For a thorough discussion of reconstructed forms. amare. see G.iooff. 1901. mater. {minacicE — nutrire). bene. polite language. too. the nucleus of the language. ff. altus. filius. WORDS AND THEIR MEANINGS. 233 ff. Lateinish-romanisches Worterbuch. 149. [abbreviare buttis). pater. 1. to speak. V. W. forming. si. quando. Examples are : 7. Korting. ii6fif. dicere. This class includes a great mass of words. pants. {tabanus — ziruiare). ff. vacca .

lectio =^ 'dxoifin' machinari='g[mA. perhaps Cf.' to^x^a . SENSE RESTRICTED. se piicare=' go'. not 'sophism' nor 'deceit'. Many words kept their literal but lost their metaphorical sense: captio ='a. ro6ur= 'o^. 283. Quillacq 54-79. tractatus= 'treatise'. new meaning in addition ambulare= 'march'. assume to the old one: Bechtel 137. Bon.^ The general use of a word in an extended sense is not common.11. . Dubois 185-225. Digitized by Microsoft® . Bayard 63-202. Bayard 105. orbus—'hXmd'. 'text'. 8. Archiv XII. etc. but there are some examples /(7r^j = 'strong' in all 10.. collocare= 'go to bed'. G.'. etc. defi' 9. 'authority'. Per.. i ^ns— 'chM'./22J£Sfe 46. necare = Bon. = 'rebJiKe§. and also 'continue'. Very many Classic words are used in Vulgar Latin with a different sense: comparare =^h\xy'.. 286).'» Many Pirson 260-262. be classified under the heads of restriction or extension of meaning.ct of taking'.'k'. Bon. G. 269-270. WORDS USED DIFFERENTLY AND IN VULGAR LATIN. mulier='-vi\ie'. Dubois 220. nor 'best b. a word assuming a more or concrete signification {^se : icognatus\=z ' brother-in-law coUocare^ 'put to bed' dominicus =: divinus . hcec eestimare non capit. etc. nite This happens frequently. viaticum = ']ox\xntY'. 286. Capit a ssumed the meaning of fieri potes t: R. 351—352. 1 a. SENSE EXTENDED. part'. 243. § 10] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. however. : senses. Bon. IN CLASSIC 7 a. focus=^iix&\ paganus= 'pagan'. yUloi:^. non capit utique videri Deus. non capit prophetam perire. words. Pirson 257-258 . ingenium := 'trick'. Regnier 24. Hoppe Most 48. of the examples can ». 272.. not 'strength'. 235-328.

proles. ergo. etc. Waters Ch. cum. Ecclesiastical Latin.tes moral obligation. quoad. Bechtel 144. 38. : . fascia means a measure of land. they were either borDigitized by Microsoft® . Bon. an. Waters Ch. Pirson 255 ^^l^lj^j^^ ^^^^ habuit serpentes).25. wW«/« = 'miracles' (in imitation of the Greek). .".13. Classic ployed at the vulgar speech or went out of use before the earliest Jubere. quia. 66. at. 204. satis = 'much'. Unde came to mean 'and so'. postquam. Dubois 218. hamo has the sense of French on. autem. is very rich in abstract nouns (G. Poetic aurora. G. apud. So various prepositions and conjunctions (as ad. vel. 3. 391-397. tamen must have been sed. horrescere. etc. . ita. but most of them are new formations. fletus.. Bon.loco forsitan quattuor milia. sive. hand. 44. 37. quidem. ^: moribund. Bechtel 127 {habebat de eo. monuments of the Romance languages: so funus. 418. Dubois. replicare= 'reply'. etc. 328. res is used of persons. G.per. 58 {bella res). Latin words either were not em- II. Bayard 83. When lost terms were needed for literary or other purposes. Bayard 94.). Regnier 20. and quasi. 422 (in area Noe . utrum. Per. ut. unus = 'a'. etiam. . Regnier 29 {in came paucas habet virgines sanctimoniales). populus «/««^«j= 'common people'. Per. igitur. [§ n 'go'. quin. nam. = 'pass Regnier 27 {quadraglnta dies fecit). Bechtel 144. quod. Dubois 301-308). quomodo) assumed new functions. WORDS USED Numerous all in m CLASSIC BUT NOT IN VULGAR LATIN. although it is common in the Peregrinatio... /V/-. etc. etc. donee. ^2S= 't^he' and 'he'. de. Very many adverbs and conjunctions dis-"~\ I appeared saltern. 258 fif. terms and some abstract nouns were not needed: frondifer. quoque. the French ilj> a. quippe. del>ere 'mdica. facere (time)'. to be sure. enim..8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. diu.

clerical 9 rowed from Classic or Latin (as nobilis) or replaced by new constructions (as *carrica for onus). 472. crus gave to gamba.*avica. G. and by villa. vitrUus hypatraster. Raetian. os to bucca.\ Dubois 209. Olcott XXV. For mansio. Some words were replaced by diminutives. ignis hy focus. French. tanti. Italian. SYWOHYMS. magnus to grandis. to genitores. some nouns by derivative adjectives: avis ^ by aucellus. noverca by *matraster. Sometimes a term was replaced by a word not found in Classic Latin at all: anser-wAs driven out by *auca (<.. Spanish. ^ Zauner 41-4. one often crowded out the other: atrium gave way to cars. Indus to jocus. 'dwelling') only in . domus by casa. sol According to Olcott XVIII. 324. diminutive of avis). Italian.Va&T* capum) is preserved by Rumanian. Rumanian. Dubois 212. *filiaster. French. mansio. omnes by toii. Dubois 220. Italian. senex to vetulus. avus by *aviolus. b. 472 ferre to portare. . mansio ( Roman. Occasionally the substitute aliquis yielded in part to res -vi&y was apparently a slang word: nata. i'^o^^ tot hy quanti. . R. ^ * Caput (or rs. equus to caballus. hospitale^. edere in the main to manducare.2. Sometimes the survivor was far from a synonym in Classic Latin: discere was displaced hy apprendere. Provengal. privignus by 13.§ 13] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. R. Provenjal. . Bechtel i^o^gena to gabata. French and Provencal mansio and hospitale. ^-j 2 parentes . Digitized ^^^ by Microsoft® . testa by Cf. . R. Rjetian. emere by comparare. Portuguese. SUBSTITUTES. R. When Latin had two words nearly synonymous. R. Portuguese prefer casa. nunc by hora. 336. cur to quare.. 12. cf. humerus by spatula.338.. Cf Zauner 41-42. 337. urbs by civitas. 345. a. ^capitia (<^caput) by Spanish and . casa occurs only in Italian inscriptions. R. R. R. Among the Romance languages. 272. caput to testa''. 313.

Some of these were probably old Digitized by Microsoft® . Occasionally.lo in part An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. c. 201.). Gl. G. quod. credens. paucum tempus for haud diu). Bon. schedula. ^w^ by diurnus. ergo. neptilla. 472 mane h^ Diminutives were extremely common in late matutinum. conjunctions. Fro. the by quando and other conjunctions. by subsitution. most part by vetulus. quando. yielded to apud. hiems by hibernum. 184-185. etc. Cf. dies largely . R. and Dacia preferred /^r. quoniam were often replaced by quomodo. The place of cum was taken various substitutes. 403. etc. etc.).). . igitur. in Gaul. tamen. sed. too. words were replaced by phrases: diu by longum tempus (Bon. 4. by other words. and adverbs were lost 14. WORDS USED IN VULGAR BUT NOT IN CLASSIC LATIN. Autem. doubtless under the influence of per. ne. utrum were assumed by si.). became *por. which replaced /^r and pro in Spain and to a considerable extent in northern Gaul. etsi. mammula-:=^^zxiA\aoVs\t. R. 203. Ab was made unnecessary by de and per. appear in Classic Vulgar Latin evidently had many words that do not texts. infemus. ut were ousted by functions of an. etiam. Adjectives used as nouns were etc. 395-396. infemus. Reich. frequent also: R. cuculla. pra. Dubois 147 {novellus'). Many prepositions. 121-130 {cereolus. vetus for [§ 15 by *soUculus._ Cis. erga. Densusianu. 108-121 {brevis. to propter were displaced southern Gaul. d'lJ way pro and per. Olcott 250-263 {gemelli. 15. Latin: G. PARTICLES. ex gave to de. R.x\naucella. apud-<n2iS partially supplanted by adj cum. and other phrases. 100-107 {arida. ver by vemum tempus. Italy.

Grammont. 237. § 405). mamma.. mots. Audollent 199. 63. sed non genttlis. 186. pa(J>)pa. II. Waters Ch. tata.adj. etc. pappus = 'gra. and f. Archiv VIII. Herzog in Bausteine e. *rettna=: 'rein'. some Were borrowed from other languages. ing 'touch'. nonnus. 16. gente). as *miaulare. 156-157. adj. 53. pudoris finis. Vr. E. Archiv XIII.). SubstrateY. St. etc.). 234. atta. 154. Archiv XIII.ndta. Ch. It. prode.. circare = 'hnnV . Substrate ficatum. Cyprian to the bishop of Carthage). a. Pirson 243. detached 176-177). from the noun finis in such phrases as honorum finis. Neue II. Pr. fins onors. gavia (used by Pliny). Substrate V. *prodis. and 'go' (cf. 97. *gentis. finis honoris > 484. Archiv XIII. Some native words are rarely attested. (so. 106. Korting (found in the 7th century). so not improbably the original of the Romance words mean'find'. ii native terms that do not happen to occur in the works preserved. bxmca. 17. Onomatopees et Revue des langues romanes XLIV.§ 17] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. A few that must have existed are not attested at all: *refusare. and perhaps those of the words meaning 'gape'. . cloppus Densusianu 196.g. 468-469 (^quid enim prode est homini. gent. tatus. Bayard 179 (applied . fuit prode illis. 151-153. 270-271. R. (Fr. Densusianu Archiv XIII. Densusianu 190. Likewise words made by ono- matopoea. fine fino). drappus. 151— 152. between genitus and from prodest (cf. although they were doubtless in common use: amma. Pirson 244. NATIVE WORDS. fin. Archiv XIII. XVII. some were late creations. serutinus. baro — 'athlete'. trepalium. potis est = potest. (Fr. Archiv XIII. Digitized by Microsoft® .'. expressifs in M. cf. Rom. Some of the unattested words were obviously late developments: *finis. It. 154. battalia. adj. Archiv XII. hoc enim prode fit vobis. 158. norma. apparently a cross then m. 421.

12 An 18. cf. G. dulcor. evangelizare. such as alauda. as baptizatio. zare. numerous verbs in -izare. Some were introduced by fashionable etc. 224. apparently borrowed by popular speech: amygdalum. anathematizare. *ausare. prophetizare. Bechtel 95 {cata mansiones. Cf. *dulcior = 'sweetness'. FOREIGN WORDS. wfltan 19. *soliculus. scandalizare. there are many Greek words in Petronius: hepatia. *vir{t)dura. haribergum. Dubois 144. carricare. Waters Ch. Bon. 226. cata. *coraticum.. modernus. few Celtic terms were adopted. folUa. This subject chapter.. Judaizare. R. *nivicare. Gram. schema. 211. a distributive preposition. Very many Greek terms used by ecclesiastical writers never became popular. 44. Bon. 225. sagma. zelare. sabbatizare. hapja. thesaurizare . alberca. Digitized by Microsoft® . which affected familiarity with Greek. Reich. Waters Ch. G. * abbellire . some of popular creation. verging 247 {cata mane mane). eunuchizare. cata pascha). some made by Christian writers. A werra. More Germanic words (of. Pirson 236). colaphizare. We find a large number of Greek words. a few of them on the sense of 'every'. vertragus. Regnier VIII. and not a few new derivatives. will be discussed at length in the following may be given here: post-verbal dolus <dolere. 205-226: anathema. African Latin was freest in word formation. According to Olcott XIX. haunjan. colaphus. Reich. [§ 19 Late Latin was rich in derivatives. §71. baptizare. diaconissa. confessor = 'martyr'. b. catechiblasphemare . as allegorizare. Introduction) found their way into Latin: bannus. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Gl. but a few examples Gl. (cf. More came in through the Christian vocabulary: angelus. prophetare. *man{u)aria. dactylus. 66. society. vict(u)alia..

367. etc. 98. 35. some of them made with new suffixes (as —icca. —itta)} Petronius shows a fondness for long derivatives. Vok. " Cooper XXXVI. as canere. 130 . '^ . 1. and finally composite words. Petronius. satire). then prefixes.e. a. Digitized by Microsoft® .or bi. 13 DERIVATION.. such as gaudimonium (Waters Ch.* We shall consider first postverbal nouns (i. which in- the literary language creased. 170 . who were especially addicted to prepositional compounds with con-. in-. Vulgar Latin is very rich in derivatives and comit has many affectionate diminutives. whereas in reality both come from a primitive verb. Cooper XXX ff. next suffixes. Late writings almost all abound in abstract nouns (Cooper 1-2). Bon. 61). " Cooper 246-297. PREFIXES. Regnier etc. 246-247. XL VI. pounds . I. Bis. 22. facility of word formation. a fictitious primitive noun was derived from a number of verbs in Vulgar Latin and in the Romance languages so dolus from dolere. 2. See Gram. bisacutus. Cooper XXXIV. 430-693 Densusianu 156-173.§ 22] An Introduction to VulgaW Latin. G. II. saltus — saltare. AND PRONOUNS. (pairs in : VII (blamed by St. Augustine).was used with some adjectives and appar: ently with a few nouns bisaccium. B. POST-VERBAL NOUNS. ADJECTIVES. sub-. substantives taken from the roots of verbs). 21. which the noun seems to come from the derivative verb.^ PREFIXES USED WITH NOUNS. G.* popular speech preserved and This freedom of formation was abused by African authors. After the model of cantus — cantare. In strictly Classic texts there appear to be no 20. ' » bimaritus. really living suffixes \ but the lost.


An Introduction
Ad-, con-, de-,

to Vulgar Latin.


dis—, ex-, in-, re:

and some others were
*adaptus ; commixtius,

occasionally used to form adjectives

G. 160 defamatus ; *disfactus; exsucus; inanimatus ; *replenus.
Cf. G.




Ac-, atque-,

ecce-, eccu-,

met- were used as demonstrative

prefixes to



pronominal adjectives and to adverbs. Eccu— is ecce eum; its origin being forgotten, it was used in

Vulgar Latin as a synonym of ecce. Met, primarily a suffix, came to be used as a prefix through such combinations as semet ipsum, understood as se metipsum. In archaic writings
reinforced demonstratives as eccum, eccam,


ecca, eccillum., eccillam, eccillud, eccistam

are not



Vulgar Latin examples are ac Classic texts they are rare. sic; atque ille-; ecce hie; * eccu iste ; * eccu sic. Substrate VI,





Cf. A.

Kohler, Die Partikel

ecce in

Archiv V,

See §§ 65, 66.



25. Ad-, con—, de-, dis—, ex—, in—, re— were freely used, disbeing mainly a Vulgar Latin prefix: abbreviare, G. 179 * a.d;

cap(i)tare ; adgenuculari, R. 181; adpretiare, R. 181, G. 180;
adpropiare, R. 181, G. 180; adunare, R. 182; confortare, R. 185,

* cominitiare ; complacere, R. 184; deaurare, G. 182 * disjejunare; exaltare, G. 183; excoriare, G. 182; impinguare, G. 181


G. 183; *infurcare; recapitulare, G. 185; *requcerere.
con—, de- lost their special significance;

Ad—, ad— was particularly

favored in Spain, con- in Italy.
ally there

Cf. Lat. Spr. 487.

was a change

of prefix


was used with the

sense of expectare, * convitare sometimes took the place of invitare; dis-

was often substituted

for ex-.


Ab-, contra-, per—, sub-, super supra-, tra trans— were

by Microsoft®

§ 3i]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


used occasionally: * aboculare ; *contrafacere; *perdonare ; subG. 185; * subdudere ; subsannare, R. 199, G. 187; superabundare, G. 187; * super—* suprafacere ; *trabucare ; *transaudire,

annare; transplantare, G. 188.
27. Extra- was sometimes used and 2«/ra— in Italy: * extrabuccare ; 28.
in Italy

and Dacia, infra-

* infraponere ; *intratenere.


e-, ob-, prce-,

pre-, pro-, retro— were apparently

not used to form new verbs in the popular spoken language,
although some of them are occasionally so employed by late
writers: opprobare, G. 184; prcedesiinare, G. 184


prolongare, G. 184.



sometimes replaced by ad—:


> addormire.

Foris and minus came to be used as prefixes in some

Foris was confounded Gaul with the Frankish _;?r- (= ver-) verslahen = Old Fr. See G. Baist, Frdnkisches fir— im altesten Franzosiforbatre. schen in Romanische Forschungen XII, 650; cf. Rom. XXX, For this use of minus, compare the phrase minus est^ 633. caritas in quantum adest in quantum deest, Regnier 109


* minuscredere.






autem minus


Cf. § 245.


Some verbs

take a double prefix

adimplere; coexcitare,

R. 207

(cf. Quintilian, coexercitatus); deexacerbare, R. 207

*deexcitare; *exeligere.




the restoration of the


form of

the primitive verb, was a regular process in Vulgar Latin (cf. §139): aspargo for aspergo is blamed by Velius Longus, £don

Cyprian, Bayard 3; commando is, according to Velius Longus, the usual form, rather than commendo,



used by


S. 60, ifidon

131; consacrati


occur in inscriptions,




Bon. 49°;

^^f^'^i ^30^°





An Introduction
Bon. 490.

to Vulgar Latin.



Computo, 58-64, Bon. 486-493. prdsto seem to cdnsto, consuo, erigo, exeo, infio,

have been regarded as simple verbs

S. 64.

primitive form of prefixes; but this

Late writers were in the habit of restoring the full, was doubtless merely a

matter of spelling, and did not indicate the



In TertuUian, Cyprian, and some others there is generally no assimilation of the prefix other writers, such as

Gregory of Tours, apparently used both assimilated and unassimilated forms. Bayard 12-15: adpetere, conpendium, inproius, obfero, subplanto. Bon. 178-188: adtonitus, conmittere,
inlatus, obprimere, subcuvibere.



in —are; occasionally


Nexhsfrom nouns^ generally end
sometimes in

in -iare or —ire;

which was eventually sup-

planted in Italy and in Gaul by —izare (for pronunciation see

§339)- This last ending came from Greek -dfiv through borrowed words, such as baptizare. For a list of Greek verbs in -i^etv adopted by Christian writers, see R. 248-249 (cf. §19 above); some new formations were used, as catechizare. In early Latin this same ending appears as -issare (attidsso, rhetorisso): see A. Funck, Die Verba auf issare und izare in

Archiv III, 398.


— * dom'nizare;

—plagiare —


oculare; pedinare; plantar.e; potionare; * trepaignire ;



follicare ;

* nivicare ;


Cooper 205-245, Dubois 151-162, Quillacq 41-46, Bonnet 471-474.

"Cf. R. 154-162.

by Microsoft®


§ 36]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

in —are,


Verbs from

and perfect participles e.r\A

—iare, —ire; also in' -icare (cf. albicare), —itare (cf. debilitare,
visitare), —escere


—iscere (cf. canescere, mollescere); possibly


angiistare; *ausare; captivare

confortare ; falsare

gravare ; levare ; * oblltare ; rictare ; Usare ; * abbellire ; tiare ; * captiare ; humiliare ;

— * vanitare —


alleviare; * al-

unire ;


Icetiscere ; vilescere ;

— amari— *blan-




verbs from perfect participles (frequentatives, etc.)

replace the original verbs: adjuvare "> adjutare ; audere'^ausare; canere'^cantare ; uti>usare.

lost their frequentative or inchoative sense







156. in -icqre


Verbs from other verbs end


fodere), —itare (cf. clamitare <,clamare')\ also in -escere, -Iscere
(cf. florescere,

* bullicare

< buUere





inchoative force:

apparescere ;

Vulgar Latin has many old frequentive verbs G. 178-179, Cooper 205. There are some late diminutives in —aculare, —tculare, -uculare, through diminutive nouns or adjecWe find also tives (ci. periculari <,periculum'): * saltlculare. some miscellaneous imitative formations * expaventare (and some others) apparently after the analogy of prasentare * misculare perhaps after maculare.


Greek verbs in -av,

-eiv, etc.,

when taken

into Latin, reg-

KvP€pvav>gubemare ; pXa(r<j}rifidv'>b/asphemare. Cf. Claussen 795. But ^aXS.av>psallere, perhaps through the analogy oifallere: Claussen 796. Germanic verbs in -an or -on regularly passed into the first


in —are:

conjugation in Latin





guidare ; roubon




"jR^etcA. ;

in -jan

went into the fourth
It. guamire. Digitized by Microsofi®


> hatire,


warnjan >

as victualia (cf. neuter plural of the gerundive. placentia. Waters Ch. Bon. -dtus. used to designate a place (as gallinarium). 31-37. etc. —aria : see -ia. -igo. 95. was used. 1 [§ 37 SUFFIXES FOR NOUWS. Digitized by Microsoft® . -^a. —ata : see -ta. -ago. as senatus (common in Petronius. 40. -ugo were characteristic of rustic speech: —al. a neuter plural. 59. came to be used as a feminine singular: *facienda. was very fond of diminutives: adules- centulus. R. G. Cf. iCf. Some go endings. -ar.i in 37. *ducatus. *pollicare. participles H ia (as benevolentia. -ens: see Adjectives. Dubois 99-136. 39. are the following: : Ch. Cf. tives. apparently. used to — Haag 41 form f eminines nepta. to form nouns from nouns: g. essentia. fragraniia . taurellus. e. too. in Italy and Gaul * canalia •< canis. 74). 6\. was extended: clericatus. Bon. G. as miraUlia. 49-52. volatilia. -are. as a feminine singular with an augmentative and pejorative signification.8 — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Ch. for nouns and adjectives: liminare. Cooper 1-91.. -affcum * coraticum. Pirson 123. socera. was extended: breviarium. etc. Ch. Olcott 176-182. -enda. : -anda. was extended: coxale. (as viaticum) was extended. 79-102. -ans. Olcott 73-78. -antia. * calamarium. Bon. 95. The commonest endings -a. Cf. -die. R. -alia. * credeniia . 453-463. Olcott 187-189. Latin. used to form adjectives and also nouns. Cf. G. were used to form abstract nouns from verbs: Cf. 355. were used The Christian writers are especially rich Waters Ch. Cooper in. iio-iii). -entia. G. porcellus. especially names of parts of apparel (as bracchiale). the collective plural -ilia. -dnus: see Adjectives. -arium. 366. -arius: see Adjectives. *sperantia. Vulgar in deriva- Petronius. in a collective sense. . Quillacq 15-31. made from present significantid). bonatus. b. Olcott 238-239.

. animalico . 170. -ia. -Tela. -ia. unaccented. see —ium. Olcott 131-134. Valinca. II. R. Gram. vitulus. —ens: see Adjectives. G. -uc(c)us. 335. It.' *libraria. being used in pet names. used to form feminines (as avus. Karica) first appears in Africa in feminine proper names. -Mum. ramenc . etc. and Nouveaux (aise no. Portuguese. 31-37. Bonica. hence an ending -fflWa. from Greek -ia through Christian writers and speakers monarchla. consirier.. see A. Cf. 481. : used (cf . Arbonenca. etc. which lost its diminutive force: anulus. cf. philosophia . -tcca (as Bodicca. Olcott 173-176. It was often attached to words in -arius. —icius: see Adjectives. It may have arisen in the first place from a childish pronunciation of -iclus. as desiderium. -enda : see —anda. and Dacia. = ' nouns (as victoria). 457. avid): neptia. 19 -cellus. 283ff. Rum. -entia : see -antia. So calamellus. XXXI. Pir- son 123. -incus or -inguus (as propinguus). 333ff. -cius: see Adjectives. was used beside -cuius: So * domnicellus. porculus. and Rumanian: Sp.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. perhaps also *-ingus and locally -ancus.. § 173. etc. abstract extended *fortia fortia n. avicula. Les substantifs en -ier et le essais de philologie fran- Rom. diminutive. —ceus. Horn- —iceus. —eum : -ia. Thomas. ing in Zs. 591. 1-2 1. navi- —ceus. -ensis: see Adjectives. XXXV.- -culum. navicella. unaccented. 91-92. -iccus. -crum (as miraculum. See A. cula. —tea: see Archiv fiir das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Litera: turen CXIV. etc. diminutive (as castellum). manica. —eus: see Adjectives. porcellus. Cf. it was then extended to Spain. wvicella. Digitized by Microsoft® solingo. was probably Cf. -ellus. to form pi. lavacrum) were occasionally used: *genuculum. anellus . somewhat extended: Old Fr. XIX. Sardinia. —ans. Cf. Einf. suffixe -arius. Pr. XX. -occus. was mighty deeds of God Koff'. was often used beside -Ulus. mane 76). and came to be used as a diminutive suffix in Spanish. was used for many new words: Pr. For -accus. possibly of Ligurian origin (Rom. vitellus.).

used to form nouns from verbs (as certdmen. Germanissa. adjectives. from the Greek Cf. was used for prophetissa. § 172. -eum (as cafitium. the i being short in Gaul. camerlingo. -iva : see Olcott 224-226. amourette. etc. vestimenium). *granditia. —itia. Sp. Cusanca. -laaa. bonito. R.. -Uies. It came to be very widely used as a diminutive suffix for nouns. Fr. Cooper 251. -men. like littera beside litera. li. A. and central and northern Italy. -otus. Montaninus) originally denoted appurtenance. generally long in the Spanish peninsula and in -Ittus. sometimes in Spain and Gaul. Zs. lausenga. 56-59. 22-25. -ttas : see —tas.. following. -0 {-onem). conjectures that have come from the Germanic ending that now appears as in such names as Heinz. It. doucet. Cf. see —tUdo. XXVIII. calcaneum) : see G. An It Introduction to Vulgar Latin. with the -ing. Cf. cf. -itUdo : —ium. Cf. (Cooper XLV): *altitia. serpentinus. -dttus as alternative Sardinia: nouns. some new formations: ^dukissa. then resemblance. (as paffiXurcra. Zimmermann. -monium. W. Florentinus . as a suffix for proper names: feminine tus. Sagitta. Olcott 123-131. were extended. were both are rare in Rumanian -ities especially in the south . 343. -tnus (as caninus. originally used to indicate a characteristic (as Digitized btbo). especially : diminutive nouns. so pythonissd). used to form nouns from adjectives (as munditia -ies). Pirson 226: Julianeta^ Nonnita^ N'onniit Its origin is unknown. Olcott see -iio. in inscriptions in Italy -ittus first appears during the Empire and Dacia. Raetia. masculine Muritta. etc. Sp. and also for adjectives. -issa. was by Microsoft® . Bonitta^ Caritta^ Julitta^ Livitta^ Suavitta. it was freely used. R. -mentum. —monia: see Olcott 81-82. -lius. especially -mentum : *gubernamentum. then smallness. a German patronymic ending. Pirson 228. Einf. was used for some nouns and perhaps for adjectives (see -incus above): Pr. much extended. Attitta. grassetto. Cf. Fr. was probably confounded. -icca. Olcott 200-204. forms of -dtus. . Olcott 78-80. regards -dttus. 251.20 Sp. but sometimes to form new adjectives to form domnina = 'young lady'. Nebitta. in [§ 37 some regions. -mum. may have arisen from a childish pronun- ciation of -iclus -a: it may Meyer-Liibke. -io : 134-136. etc. fioretto. bacito.

Cyprian). 475. 102-106. *deUta. timor. -sa. used to form from verbs nouns denoting place. someDigitized by Microsoft® . —sor (—torem. -iita. sapor). -tus. trinitas. See Archiv V. 222. R. was apparently used : first of young animals. as an augmentative or pejorative. used to denote the agent (as Cf. 82-83. 63. Gaul often as a 56. narraius: cf. 45-56. in 21 commonly employed diminutive: g&lo. : extensa. Substrate IV.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. etc. especially in Gaul: dulcor. —tas {-tdtem). Cf. started perhaps with such forms as defensa. Cf. G. casotta. purltas . G. origin (cf. ostensio. C. Olcott 2-23. then as a general moderate diminutive It. 88-122. *perdtta. So deitas from deus. later -dta. —sura: see —ilra. prensio. remissa. R. —Stus. see —torium. e. Bayard 19-22 (very -tio.fossato. 44-45. 415. 88. G. -sionem). R. as *annatd). Collin in Archiv XIII. revoluUo. 83. : -or (-orem). —sor: see -ior. -sorium. *vendita. potto). —sio : see -ito. used as nouns. venuta. —sa : see —ia. XIII. They were considerably used to make abstract nouns from verbs (and —ata was sometimes attached to nouns. —trix. -sorem). -Sttus. aggravatio. -ittus). *flator. were very freely employed (but show few traces in Ru- manian : Cooper XLV) : necdtor. viror. used to designate the agent -orium . 69-82. Cf. St. Jerome. -or {-oreni). as collectus. *sentor. boccone. used to form abstract nouns from verbs (as mansio. *nutritio. Olcott 83-87. G. -tricem. i. unknown etc. are very common in St. In Gaul these nouns came to be feminine: Bon.. —sorium: see —torium. used to form abstract nouns (as candor. Olcott amdtor.. andata. of see -tor. *lucor. and other late writers: abbreviatio. ostensor. -sio i^tionem. -sus: see —ta. and were reinforced —ta. was freely employed :ya/jfi'aj. Olcott 33-51. It. —sus. recubitus . *reddita. nativitas . -(orium. aquilotto. 453. mensor). 85- Bayard 24-25. used to make abstract nouns from adjectives. —tor. G. 503-504 {dolor. R. perfect participles by fourth declension nouns in -tus. *flavor. Cyprian. in.). It. Olcott 58-69. etc. trobaire. beveire. 122. 223. -tus and -j«j were preferred in Dacia (Cooper XLV) collecta. Pr.G. common in St. lectio. Fr. 55-63. *movita. feminine perfect participles with a feminine noun understood. Bayard 19-22. was employed for many new formations of the same kind. aiglon.

were tended. -tuda (-tiidinem). Sometimes the genitive or the accusative was taken as a basis. R. Olcott 51-58. Einf. G. ixrikiipvWov. : gummi-s. Cf. gave : millefolium. —a. -is. stricturd). tensura. natatorium. -ov regularly became respectively -us. -e. or -i (Claussen 799) TT^Trepi'^ piper. 88-90. reposito- rium. gave oleum. nutritura. ^6-gy. see —ta. cursorium). oratorium. > p6KLT-qs -I in became -a (Claussen 798-799) : Xa/iirds -7)S. -Ala. used to form abstract nouns from perfect participles (as censura. fell popular words either or became -a. ornatura. There are a few exceptions for special reasons (Claussen 795) cXaiop. G. ^•vir'dura. 38. instead of the nominative (Claussen 800-802): iXi^avros'^ elepliantus . [§ 38 ex- times instrument (as dormitorium. instead of -is (Claussen 798) pausis "^pausa. popular words became -o (Claussen 797) X^wi'> lea. *certitudo. diminutive (as vitulus). Digitized by Microsoft® . Cf. sinape . -aius.: : : 22 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -tus (Claussen 798): rpiiKTijs '^ irucia . -ta or -us. -um : Claussen 796. *frig' dura . -11. 197.)u~^ gumma. by popular etymology. etc. : became -a. -pa cima. -as in popular words generally > lampa. from adjectives was extended. Kbii. missorium. ossulum. When Greek nouns were endings were adapted as follows: — borrowed by Latin. mensorium. § 171. the -OS. used to fortitudd). Olcott 194-196. ^pressorium. 31-37. '^planura. —tus: see -ta. etc. Bon. -s-iira. -iita: Cf. in popular words gave a feminine -ma (Claussen 796-797) > f -pos preceded by a consonant became -fr (Claussen : 797): 'AWfai'5po$>- Alexander. influenced by olere. later from adjectives also. mesSee sura. pressura. payLda'^ -(an in magida. Olcott 69-73. -T7)s became -a. boletus. -ura and -t-ura. often taking the place of —culum (cubiculum much > accubitorium) (as *C(ssorium. make abstract nouns servitudo. 40-45. was used for a few new formations *alaudula. -IS often clvain'^ sinapis. R. : in late Latin often replacing -or {fervor > *fervurd) were extended. -tura : see —ura. kviuj.

—dneus -anius. It. The phonetic development of this suffix was apparently Gaul and some other regions the earliest examples are glan: 'Cf. Die Adjectiva auf -icius in Archiv V. : see A. Thomas. —artcius. *leviarius. became and —icius (as sigillaricius). regalis. 464-467. -ens {-an/em. attached to nouns Cf. Cooper 92-163 (diminutives.). and form nouns of occupation (as aquarius. Olcott 137-173. * setaceus . popular in Gaul 62 (Hacherece. aKfnriKot'^ scopulus . pomarius). Quillacq 32-40. Cf. Olcott 226-238. 144. Cf. Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise etc. K^paffos : "^cerd-sus *cerSsus. -dlis. -Sris (as singularis) was extended: particularis. Digitized by Microsoft® . erroneus) were slightly ex- tended: *caroneus. *Sicilianus. Tuscanus. Eon. Wolfflin. iTTroTiiXij "^spatula. '^passans^ make adjectives and nouns from verbs: credens. a combination of —arius — *capiianus. Olcott 182-187. mixticius. episcopalis. used also in the masculine to gentarius. pelliceus). tempaccio. *werrarius. was used to form adjectives of place (occasionally time) and nouns of office: biduanus. 143. 164-195). were extended: *cortilis. and adjectives. denoting appurtenance (as paganus. G. -entem). § 39] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -aceus being employed later as an augmentative and pejorative suffix for adjectives and finally for nouns: chartaceus formaceus . 415. etc. c. used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as Cf. peculiar in — apothecarius *marinarius. poiens). -tlis. geniilis). —anus. G. used to make from nouns adjectives denoting material (as arenaceus. Dubois 136-151. Bechtel 83. were used freely to ^ currens . Olcott 215-220. -arius. -iceus -ictus. -oneus —onius (as extraneus. spontaneus. present participles (as amans. to denote connection. decanus. arespecially in the latter function: . were extended (especially in rustic speech: Cooper iii). Bechtel 83. imaginarius . Romanus). »?«i/«a»2«. Mapa"^ cithara ciihlra. See E. 23 The unaccented vowel of the penult was often changed in conformity with Latin habits (Claussen 802-806) Sl&^oKos'^ diabolus diabulus..i are the following: 39« The commonest endings : — —abllis see —hilis. -ans. was much extended. *ducaHs. -actus -actus. SUFFIXES FOR ADJECTIVES.

turrensis. G. 222. sis). XXXI. -er. A. Marchot. — ia (6th century) and sorcerus <C^* sortiarius (8th century) the earliest forms in French and Provenyal are —ers. Zimmermann. however. Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise 119. 135-140. 159-160. and was much employed rare. Olcott 209-213. Zimmermann.' exauguratus. 296 (cf. or -dbilis. fageus. —iero are probably borrowed. Spanish -ero and Italian -aio are perfectly regular. Cf. was slightly extended (but is Rumanian: Cooper XLV). Zs. as -erius or —erus. -bUis. especially in learned words it is Rumanian (Cooper XLV) acceptabilis . G. indicibilis. I. Chairibertus repeatedly used for Charibertus by Fredegarius Haag 7. P. i^t. timo- Olcott 244-250. denoting material (as aureus). that -iarius was a. *Frankensis. Italian —aro is easily explained and Italian —iere. XXVI. -ensis. anaiiarius. XXI.^* markensis . —ens : see —ans. Digitized by Microsoft® . showing that while the French forms may perhaps be derived from -arius and -iarius. *cariierribilis). 137. papyrius. I. pronounced —arius. 34-36). was much used to : make ratus. E. and Bausteine 641). Die Geschichte des lateinischen Suffixes — arius in den romaniscken Sprachen^ and E. or i before the a. -ier. by the analogy of the plural -ari. 109-116. Le suffixe -arius dans les langues romanes. § 227.. then —iers. On the other hand. diligibilis . Phon. Cf. -tbilis. the derivative was sometimes used as a noun: panne us . the derivatives being sometimes employed as nouns * cortensis . Thomas. -atus. Olcott 142). real suffix (cf. G. Staaff. capabilis. vallensis. Cf. : tabilis . : -eus -ius. 481 (cf. -i [§ 39 glandarius . adjectives in the popular language: Cf. postulates -ar(i)us and -er{i)us. especially in popular speech. *pagensis. G. —ceus -cius : see -iceus. 591. e. R. Gram. too. *faiatus. 155. querceus. points out that many words have c. Cf. try to derive all the forms from -arius. and that this pronunciation spread to the neo-Latin speakers. and when umlaut affected the a of these. that -iarius and —carius may have established —iers in French. R. in an objective suffix used to make adjectives very common in Christian writers in late Latin. rare in — -{bUis : see —bilis. G. used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as/orenwas greatly extended. —iceus —icius: see dcetts. a perfect participle ending (as sceleraius). Rom. Zs. suggests that the Germans in Gaul associated -arius with their proper names in -areis 01 —ari. from verbs (as amabilis. the Proven9al cannot. Olcott 339-344. is .24 deria <i_ An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

Olcott 220-223. was used for -icus in some late words: *Angliscus. sapidus.' 40. : d. dune The usual endings are as follows: — num nunc. § 40] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. donique in cites eight examples of dune. is Archiv I. Rum. Tiktin 597. one of them from Gaul. were used for some new formations: defensorius In Provengal and Rumanian -torius was extended. SUFFIXES FOR ADVERBS. diminutive (as albulus).) Cf. 158. —Andus (as jocundus) was used in Spanish and Proven9al for a few words Pr.). made up of -t-or. ? I.. —sorius: see —tortus —tortus. G. G. mansorius. ~ius : see —eus. -orius: see -iorius. Digitized by Microsoft® . -sorius. Franz. promptulus. I. new formations : *restivus. sliglitly -idus (as rapidus) was extended: exsucidus. = + . -ivus (as nativus) occurs in a few 224-226. 157-158. censere censor censorius). Gram. -ittus: see Nouns. -iscus. 155 (Tertullian)j *npidus. with the or of sense of -Wlis the gerundive: Pr. G. Cooper 196-204. (C. Cf. L. 552. Possibly *anc is derived from an in the same Substrate II. -inus {as fraxinus) was used for a few adjectives: quercinus. -ulus. Bon. 241. -inus : see Nouns. '*Frankiscus. volon. punidor. 467-470. in St. 193-197 {angelice. etc. -oneus : see —dneus. Cf Olcott . Ill. etc. was a favorite with Christian writers. -uius (as canutus) was somewhat extended: *camutus. way: -e cf. Dubois 163-171. lo) Pirson 252 IX. from the Greek cleri- Cf. — . juratoriH. —ce -c (as ne nee. It was 'Cf. 4810. was used especially in words 25 : -icus (as medicus) cus. —s-or H ius (as notare notor notorius. probably a fusion of Greek -ktkos {Syriscus) and Germanic -isk (Thiudiscus). very common Jerome: G. turn tunc) was apparently used to form dum ce (cf. —ilis: see —dlis. 103-106.

: modo modo =^ •only yesterday. etc. multum. firma mente. Fr. Reich. Many examples so. XXX. -um generally coincided in pronunciation (multum = multo. for emphatic effect.' ' Waters Ch. etc. Ch. adverbs were preserved in comhence other ad- jectives came to be used as adverbs (as W. Gl. bocconi. piano. Later. Spr. . *bona mente. Zs. Cyprian (Bayard 32-34). to adverbs: insiememente. now now so. whence such formations as Brittanice. Cf. -tim was favored by St. It. They are rare in St. -iter: see -ter. soave). -0 and etc. Jerome. -ter (as brevUer) was not preserved in common speech. however. II. 337. forte. as forti mente. 339- Repetition was used. caldo. mente. perhaps after the Vulgar Latin period. Some lons. G. Cyprian (Bayard 34-35) and some other : writers. 197-201 infantiliter. 42. 428. -ones (in Italy also with- out the preposition) came into use Cf. Ch. * ipsa mente.). basso. being especially common in St.' cf. Ch. and occurs also in Romanice. though much used in ecclesiastical Latin (G. Then it was employed in a more general sense: pari mente. tarde. . It. Ch. modo sic modo sic^ nee sursum nee deorsum non cresco. Lat. poco. Digitized by Microsoft® . 46. Many such mon speech. mente was used with any adjective that could make an adverb of manner. noii). Gram. obstinata mente. Adverbs of manner came to be made with the ablative This noun was first used with an adjective to denote a state of mind. 45 . male. alto. etc.26 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. but rata. Rom. This formation is not common. 487. 689. * longa mente. XXIX. a ginocchioni. but was not kept alive in popular Latin. longe. are to be found in Petronius 37. Normannice. and in Rumanian nearly all adjectives may be so used (as greii. In the Romance languages mente was sometimes added comment. pure. [§ 41 preserved in popular speech in bene. a recu230. chiaro. *mala mente. XXXIII. jocunda mente. 245. 58. in Rumanian.). adverbial phrases on the model : ad . as sometimes in Classic Latin. common in other late writers: clanculo. § SS- 41. as It. Fr. sola mente.

peduculus. pavoT~^*pavura. sortcem *sortcem. Corssen S. by Microsoft® .. 460." App. Cohn 172-180. loquela'^ loquella. Cf. -drius. Waters Ch.§ 42] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cohn 1 51-154. etc. Cf. rancor"^* ran- > > cilra. Cohn 41-42. Cohn 42— 52. -drius: see Suffixes for Adjectives. Cf. (3) Alteration of a suffix: — Cf. § 195). etc. : ericius *eruius. —dtuszzz—ttus=:i—utus: barbatus '^barbutus . R. —dnus^—dneus: Cohn 160-172. suadela"^ suadHla. famtlia */amtlia. etc. -elus"^ -ellus (common in late Latin): camelus'^ camellus. 17-28. lenHc-Ula Cf. carnatus *carnutus. Cf. —iilus'^—ellus: aniilus'^ anellus . extraneus * extranus . Cf. Cf. cornlciila *cornuula. subterraneus ^ subterranus. R. Cf. Cohn 180-205." —enus'^-inus: "Byzacenus non Byzacinus. 321. Cohn 184. querela'^ guerilla. ~or(—drem)'^-ura: calor'^*calura. R. lanatus lanutus. Pr. 96): "querela. 42. —cuius !> cHlus : see -tllus. 27 CHANGE OF SUFFIX. —tllus^—ellus: axtlla"^ ascella. Cohn -tius'^-itus : vacuus'^*v(lcitus (cf. -^ —iciilus : capUHlus * capttulus . -ix(-icem) consilium * consilium. venenum"^ *veninum. Cohn 30-31. 131. -iculus =z -UcJilus : ossiculum ossMculum. e. substitutes one suffix for manipulus. Cohn 213I. pediculus Cf. -tc-aius *lenficiila. -ex(-ecem) -ix(-uem) : vervecem berbicem. 460. R. The popular language sometimes manuplus for another. Cohn 219-226. 460. as are: — The principal types (1) Subsitution of a : rare one -alius — new or common suffix for an old or > -callus : see -tllas. -ilius =^ -ilius : 154-160. cauda- Cohn —Ic'eus —icius ^=. (2) Indiscriminate use of two suffixes: — Cf. Cf. 216. 65. avicUla'^ avicllla. 460. Caper (Keil VII. loquela per unum /. Digitized Cohn 274-291. -iceus -icius 184. Cohn = -ix(-icem): Cohn 147-151. tus cauditus. 227.

Digitized by Microsoft® . bis coctum. But male habitus. in odio^ loco. 121 : Greek etc.28 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. PRONOUNS. /oris mittere. 426 ad mane. enfuir). There were many compounds made up of a preposition and an adverb: ab ante. 191. mentaver) minus pretiare. 231. . flectere. etc. Cohn 264-274.. ab intus. late pronunciation of [§ 47 -enus'^-lnus through sagina {Vok. HOUWS. omnimodus . Bechtel loi. style. were popular. etc. etc. manu So tenere. a longe. inde fUgere (> Fr. 483. 232. Reich. Bon. as mortificare: e. R. mente habere (> Pr. 47. 190. in Gl. 231. G. 483. a. antemittere. Substrate 553-554. Bechtel loi. Bechtel loi. These compounds generally belonged to the literary G. 130-134. saine. Acer arbor (> Fr. Cohn 226—264. d. Cake pistare. 483. 4. cornis. ab olim. etc. a semel. etc. Bon. b. erable) alba spina. incus incudo * inciimtnem. a /oris. ^ranucula. R. ad subito. I. —iculus ? ^^'—Hciilus : genuciclum . ADVERBS. 234. Cf. c. 203. 484. a foras. — = . genu- G. Ill. 131. . ad sero. Cf. a contra. 'just now'. -udo i^udtneni)'^ -umen (-iimtnem) : consuetudo *costumen. In church writers there are G. Bon. R. Bechtel loi. Bechtel loi. crucifigere. 483. medio die. avis struthius. many verbs in -ficare. i<)i\ 45. a modo. G. 194. . Bechtel loi ad semel. 46. ij as i: uayijv))'^ 7th century) "^ > Old Fr. . See §§ 24. COMPOUNDS. VERBS. G. Bon. R.. bene placitum. medio ADJECTIVES. 43. Bechtel loi ad horam 'presently'. G. 44. intra videre. uniunigenitus . 65. 160-170: magnisonans . Bon.

3. etc. e contra. Lexique 48. in is Archiv I. de intus. in hodie. Some compounds two prepositions: * de ad {y. Mohl.13. Bechtel 102. were used as prepositions: ab ante. de retro. 232.— 49] — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.8. 232. 437. 38) says: Ubi semel res inclinata amici de medio. 74.these adverbial Some 40. consist of Bechtel 102. in by the ablative or the accusative). de super. 203. de retro. and ad. E. It. d^ ante. still different nature : ac Per. 233. G. Bechtel 102. 85. is de+ab. Raetian dad from the Oscan da. 232. de magis. 235. 487. de intus. 484.). G. Bechtel 102. de sursum. Per. 23S. ad — — R. in contra.. G. of . Sardinian dave. R. et at ubi. de sub. per girum zxiA per giro ^ circa. 487.28.17. following compounds are of a sic. de deorsum. is A compound made up of preposition + noun found in: in giro (followed 102. Substrate III. * dabe. 68. Cf. Bon. de post. 232. Lat. 484. f. Spr. Bechtel 102. R. Bon. Per. Abante. in mane. R. 29 tunc. Bechtel loi. 426. R. Bechtel 102. 40. in ante. Bechtel 102. At ubi and ad ubi. in ante. 75. The sic. 49. 484. G. Bon. Lexique 38-47. Digitized by Microsoft® . Spr. R. etc. 484-486 (cf.19. doe. day-. 203. dad may be it is the result of a fusion rather than a combination of de Some have thought it came from found from the 7th century on he would derive It.. da. * in semel. CONJUHCTIONS. ex tunc. PREPOSITIONS. 235. 268. de contra. Bon. G. In any case probably a late product. 39. 433. Lat. Bechtel loi. Per. Slightly different intus in. Bechtel loi. usque hodie. Bechtel medio. 72. Wolfflin. Bechtel 102. and some others similar to them. Haag 75. R. says da . 203. ^ Romance da. etc. R. compounds. 203. in contra^ Petronius (Waters Ch. R. de semel. g. de intra.15. et Per. dat and from a southern Latin *dadl. de inter. and Old Sp. de forts.

Romance puts the emphasis at the end of the sentence. It does not permit the arbitrary- separation of osition noun of it members that belong together. but psychic. as in the "In multis hoc rebus dicere habemus" of Lucretius. the difference being due to a diverse conception of the structure of language: Latin places the modifier before. 1903. is not primarily rhythmic. such as the prepand the word it governs. Nevertheless there is really a fundamental difference between the old order and the new: Romance has. proceeding from the exemplified The modern order is the known to the unknown. byMicrosoft® . or the adjective and the modifies. and were not characteristic of daily speech. by this sentence : The ^ ^ old arrangement " Fabius syptax. so to speak. 50. Latin in the middle. as in Ovid's "In nova fert animus mutatas Neither does it dicere formas /corpora. Spr." allow the collocation words of the same part of speech that belong logically in different places. from which work most of the matter of Digitized this chapter was taken. Latin to a certain extent a diminuendo movement {^Lat.^ is The Romance order of simpler and more rational than that Classic Latin. Zur Eniwicklung der romanischen Wortsiellitng aus dcr lateinischen. The most irrational features of the Classic Latin construction were surely artifical. Ill. The principle. See Meyer-Liibke. however. a crescendo.II. Gram. SYNTAX/ A. for a comprehensive account of Romance See Elise Richter. is logical. ORDER OF WORDS. Romance more after the word modified. 491).

It is indigenous in Latin. 490). 31 sequatus imperio Hannibalern et virtute et fortuna superiorem vidit." omnia brevia. The modern order was not abruptly substituted for the On the contrary. not imitated from the Greek. et fuit ibi quadraginta diebus et quadraginta noctibus" i^Per. quod sanctus Moyses ascendit in montem Domini. Classic Latin may be said to represent an in- termediate stage. angelus meus praecedet te. there was a long struggle. 37. tu autem vade." "Hasc loca sunt The change constitutes a progress in language . while the revolution was in progress. Petronius has notably short periods and an approach to the new structure. and for centuries the ancient and the modern type were used side by side. especially in Cicero. in inscriptions and popular writers. was always a tendency to put a stressed word followed by an unaccented one. from the Peregrinatio : "Hasc est autem vallis ingens et planissima. with generally increasing frequency." The following examples illustrate the later structure: "Mors perfecit tua ut essent et natura montuosa impedita ad rem militarem. it occurs sporadically also in literary authors. 34). all cultivated peoples have made it. from the earliest texts down . But until the fourth century the majority of Latin sentences have the old arrangement. which independently effected the same transformation. The following is a good sample of the style of the Vulgate: "Cui respondit Dominus Qui peccaverit mihi. in qua filii Israhel commorati sunt his diebus. 33. Spr.21-24). delebo eum de libro meo. Digitized According to Meyer- by Microsoft® . There first. it is to be found in Latin. By the fourth century Here is a characteristic passage the new order prevailed. et due populum istum quo locutus sum Ego autem in die ultionis tibi. visitabo et : 52. such as a connective or an atonic pronoun {Lat. hoc peccatum eorum" {Exodus XXXII. 51 • old.§ 52] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

precedes its but qui le voit. Digitized by Microsoft® . In dependent clauses. malum malum. voit definite article. which were naturally of less im- portance. In a few other respects the old arrangement lingered and under certain conditions is still preserved . and were attached preferably to the first word in the sentence : . An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Use of In- Repetition writers : for intensive effect is not uncommon . noun in all the The Romance languages except Rumanian and Albanian (Zauner 40).. in late Commodian. sitions are There were great changes in the functions of pronouns. the old order survived longer than in independent.32 Liibke. etc. when unstressed. and sometimes the whole predicate precedes in certain constructions the dependent infinitive may stand before the finite verb (as Pr. it was in the early stages of the Romance languages It. R.For the simplification flections. [§ 55 XXI. of inflections. prepositions. §40. Wolfflin 4 bene bene. 53. B. and so cf. indefinite article developed out of ille A definite and an and unus. personal pronouns. were always enclitic in Latin. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. : negative and intensive under some circumstances the object may come before the verb. I. Fr. vedolo but le non lo vedo. aiutatemi but or m'aiutate . however. morir adverbs precede their verb . fortis fortis. Zs. 54- USE OF WORDS. Many uses of prepoconnected with the loss of inflections: these will be discussed under the Use of Inflections. conjunctions. 280. see the 55. and adverbs. malus malus. volgra). bonis bonis. 313. Cf.

. //wj levior. Anplus congruus and maxime congruus (Wolfflin 16. however. as omnium levior (Wolfflin 68-71). 415—417). in Sidonius Apollinaris (Wolfflin 29). To avoid ambiguity. occasionally in : Classic Latin. 33 COMPARISON. common Adverbs. Cf. as their precise sense in St. etc. Little by little the old comparative and superlative lost 1 from being employed frequently with merely an intensive force (Wolfiflin 83). plus felix. substitute for the superlative In the Romance languages a was made by prefixing the defiit nite article to the comparative.§ 57] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. plus popularis. but no example of has been found. Commodian. R. maxime pessima. cf. (R. b. melius sanus (Wolfflin 16). a. The comparative came to be used for a superlative. etc. old comparative forms remained. Vitruvius. Digitized by Microsoft® . . 451. (Wolfflin 47). magis melior. Unus was used as an indefinite article. plus dulce. WUMERALS. etc. the plus and magis constructions were employed more and more to express a distinct comparison plus : miser in Tertullian. From early times certain periphrases were used to emphasize the thiravLS. as Plautus. prceclarum. 280). see Morphology. comparative idea. as Ovid's inertioratas (Wolfflin 63-68). (Wolfflin 46). frequently in late and popular writers • For the forms of numerals. 166-170. etc. Sepulcri 232 . this formation came to be popularly regarded as the regular one: magis mirabilem. plus formosus in Nemasianus. Augustine's sancta atque dulcissima (Wolfflin 57-63). toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period. in Many use. and in hie estfilius mens carissimus. 56. ..' lepida 57. and the superlative was often really a positive in meaning. See Archiv VIII. magis . and also for a positive. BOn. is likely that this device it existed in late Vulgar Latin. Finally. etc.

see Hoppe Bayard 133. . The personal pronouns came into more and more fre- quent use. Digitized by Microsoft® . Ego and common in Petronius. The demonstratives. and 104. PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. Hoppe 102-103. Is. were employed as personal pro- nouns of the third person. suus being generally substituted for ejus. ipse. 48. Per. Pronouns were much more used than G. There was great irregularity in the use of reflexives. 948 accessit unus servus. Cf. Pseud. Ordinal numerals. . except a few of the smallest. 26. Regnier 10. R. were apparently not century. in Classic Latin : 59. en. §158. 25. Dubois 333-336b. especially the possessives. Idem went out of popular use. Petronius. tu are very 60. . being replaced by ille For the encroachment of ipse on idem. 489. An . according as they were accented or unaccented (as suus and sus): see Morphology. 58. Bon. The adverb inde : occasionally as a genitive neuter pronoun came to be used nemo inde dubitat.34 . too. Plautus. . Many pronouns developed double forms. 408-409. mulier. adeum una sorella. especially ilk. . a. much used in popular speech after the fifth 2. [§ 62 una etc. exinde-='¥x. . PRONOUNS. Waters Ch. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 425 cf. DEMONSTRATIVES. was often replaced by ille and ipse (Bechtel and eventually was preserved in vulgar speech only in 145). 580. Spr. where it was not recog- 62. G. the combination eccum {^=ecce eum). 403-404. See Lat. 61.

Franz. meaning 'it' or 'that. 2. Franz. eeee we find early eeee ego. however. of the final stage. too. with the exception of the neuter hoe." Digitized by Microsoft® . . ille ipse. At any rate. in id ipsum monastyriu. 65. Intorno ai continuatori neolatini del "ipsu-" in Arehivio glottologieo italiano XV. especially in Spain and southern Gaul. • A combination of two demonstratives was : common in Christian writers iste hie. eeeu" was some regions. The last three have left no trace. Hie. 424.-- ipse ille. is the fusion of the two parts into one word. 3 II. Toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period hie was apparently going out of 63. iste ille. Catalan aqueix. This last compound was used as a neuter pronoun. influenced in 1 Cf Plautus. aquese. Hoppe 104. by atque or ae (as in ac sic). generally invariable. in id ipsam rem. eeee ille. common 64. 424 (cf. G. 646): in Plautus. R. is ipse. 2.). was perhaps used as a prefix (^Gram. eeee nunc. Eeee and eeeum (pronounced eceu) were used as demon- strative prefixes (cf. R. aquesse. ille. 407. I. G. as id ipsum velatn. use. such combinations being until the probably not reached Vulgar Latin period. there are examples of iste for hie in Caesar's time (Densusianu 178). atque is est (^Stiehus 582). 3 II. Glor. and iste 405-406. nized.§ 65] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Mil. etc. too. hie ipse. Quillacq 126). and also as a demonstrative adjective. §24): hie. II. came to be used indiscriminately (G. Hie and is. R. Atque. common The end Plautus. Bayard 130-132). eeee tu. were confused by late writers (Bayard 132). maintains that eceu' was the basis in all the Empire. lat. Pg. 303 (discussing Sp. 25 : " Ubi tu's ? — Eccum. Ascoli. atque ipse illie est {^Epidicus 91). where likewise the id lost its significance. 424-425. iste ipse.^- desso). also eeee iste. 35 and in the extremely common phrase idipsum (>It.' as id ipsum sapite.

Quillacq 126-127. * celle. m. quern for quce. In Bon. quce as m. 36 An When iste Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 427 (iiirum hujic cujus est zona hcBc). 66. as f. means infrequent: hie. with the prefix met-. sg. * cueste and * eccelle. became * metipsimus. pi. for * accuelle. were used also as definite Ille in this function very common: R. These compounds developed into * ecceste. semet ipsum {Philip. (395-396). * accesie. Examples of the others are by no R. ipse. 484). guem quis qua very often as n. * ceste. hie. is was probably more literary than popular. pi. f. This use of ipse. as n. INTERROGATIVES AND RELATIVES. etc. c. 67. Ille.. there was an emphatic form ipsimus (used by This. II.. 423—425. as 69. it is Furthermore. 68. . XXX. quod as m. people said for ' ' that eccHlle or eccu'ille. ipse. as n. the masculine qui tooV in inscriptions. sg. is. 391-396 we find qui used as n. is is Cf. Bon. The ipsemet suffix -met was used also as an intensive prefix. : common Audollent 549. as ace. and pi.. Ille. were used as personal pronouns of the third person. 8). * accueste. tions from the fifth century on Digitized cf. ' this ' eccHste or eccu'tste.).. 419-420 {cito proferte mihi stolam illam primam). becoming metipse through such combinations as temet ipsum {Ecclus. especially ille.. 391-392. §24.. R. pi. 276 {qui. . pi. Petronius: Waters Ch. Beside ipse. : the place of the feminine quce it occurs in Christian inscripR. by Microsoft® . hie. as ace. The forms were greatly confused by late writers. Cf. * cue lie. § 60. In popular speech qui was apparently used regularly for . articles. n. 69. 22). Ego met ipse is blamed by Donatus {Lat. ille lost [§ 69 and their distinctive force. * accelle. Spr.. * eccuelle. R. 423 {in ipsa multitudine). is. * eccueste.

G. chants. and was used as an interrogative and The adverb unde came to have occasionally the meaning of French dont (Bon. cata tres Hence *cata anus. by Greek merxard Tfth. conjectures *ne inde. Plautus. *nec ente or *ne ente was apparently used as an equivalent for nihil. Pg. The neuter aliquid was more extended aliqui alius : Pr. *caf itnus. in Italy. Meyer-Liibke. Some Classic Latin pronouns fell into disuse. The principal indefinite pronouns 71- and adjectives used G. in such phrases as cata unum Kaf tva.' > = ^ magis: see plus. 237. 394 (^qui f. 393. along the Mediterranean. d. *d'unde. nemo was kept nUllus. pi. *ne^ps^unus.). 390-391. and Dacia: Lat. cepit. Qualis was kept. ^ne ipse icnus. etc. § 84. quern Quid. Cf. Jerome. Cf. inde came to mean. alguien. 650. Omnis and omnia were kept Digitized by Microsoft® . G. 178). was employed as a relative pronoun. 25. 51. hdmo was used sometimes like French on: Per. Archiv I. and eventually * de unde.§ 7i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 415-417. 'some' or 'any. 485. Beiheft 7. Spr. Sardinia.). 415- in late popular speech are as follows : — aliquanti took the place of aliqui and aliquot: aliquanta oppida aliquis flourished especially in the west: Sp. 416. moreover. Snus *aliqu'ilnus * alicUnus.. after the model of id. alques. 417. 528 a. mDEFHTITE PRONOUNS. 53 {^qui for quce in 70. Haag f. sg. alius filius. II. and f. § 19. alguem. quid: Archiv I. Zs. There may have been a neuter *alid. mUltus. and alter viere confused in common speech: G. 580. Bon. d. 37 quam). as a relative. This confusion is more frequent in late Latin: St. and some new compounds were made. nemo judical alterum. cata was probably introduced. nee unus. omnis: see totus. Gram. 55. gradually encroached on quod: Bon. in Italy. in certain constructions.

§§ 163. § 53. § 1 1 7. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 204. 427. 414. 402-403 ifota tormenta diaboli in me veniant. R. Regnier 108-109 {guanto plus quantus. ubi being used for quo. (St. tantus totus. iinus. pronounced also tottus (S. see quantus. quhquis. 212. Glor. 403). quts. Propertius: Densusianu 179. being used for quisquis and quicumque (Bayard res and : res nata = ' anyone '. quanti justi esuriunt. a pleonastic use of debeo. Unde was employed by Microsoft® in the sense of Digitized . G. for eo: Lat. Cf. also a common pleonastic use of coepi with the in- instead of the perfect: see § 124. «»w. 409-411). quique. is often used pleonastically Bayard 99-100. [§ 73 plus and magis were confused: tenetur tanto plus timetur. There finitive. 336-337. 692. R. Bechtel 143. Spr. Videri. 691-693: commonens ut 72. custodire debeant. Frequent in late Latin Bon. totis horis. Mil. persona. VERBS. Claudian. G. 338. qualis. tantis lacri- 413-415 qui. (2). too. 3.38 faucus. tot. Cf. 345. is . talis. 121) and perhaps *tuttus. Quisque was much extended 135). . : 4. Jerome. The words referring to the "place in "place into which" were confused. was sometimes used for omnis : Plautus. This use was common in late Latin: Densusianu 178. which" and the ibi 73. ' : (G. 488. Cf. 109). ' anything R. quisque. There are examples as early as Drager 104. tantus replaced quot. . Compare the old is Italian use of dovere. G. 415). ADVERBS.

is Ab. 76. egredere de ecelesia. sed ecce hie est. of Inflections. Ad for apud occurs Digitized in Plautus. from the third century ex {Lat. occurs occasionally: Dieit unus ex uno angulo: Eeee hie Alius ex alio angulo: Non. 37. and the old comparative and superlative forms became rarer: see § 56. . having been replaced by on. Lexique 43. de utero matris nati sunt sic. 341 jaspide. 7. 39 'where' (Zj. 487. also 'therefore' and 'where84. any de. according to Mohl. procedit. § 74. Hoppe 78. Cases. Terence. is Per. aliquid postulare. R. Repetition was used for in- tensive effect: satis Seneca. G. for ne with the subjunctive common: G. The functions of prepositions were very much extended not found in (Bayard 137-158): see Use 77. 435. . Bechtel 105. PREPOSITIONS. semper semper. . 5. . 395.). Totum occurs often as an adverb: places. 339. Beiheft fore': 157). and others by Microsoft® . 342 . Regnier in. Hoppe 38): de palatio exit. Spr. muri de lapide de adversario vivo de deeimis. 395-396.§ 78] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. usurped the place of which also. . Regnier The absolute use of non. 38. Plus was often substituted for magis. and many other 75- Double negation frequent: R. Bene. Bechtel 105. cf. Plus and magis were used more and more for comparison. Regnier no. Hoppe 38 .14. R. etc. Die amice unde tristis es. multum. 446-447 {nee is fado est. were employed as intensives more than in Classic Latin. Non no. and magis for potius: Bayard no. G. meaning 'no'. It apparently has no successors in the Romance languages. ggressus de area. Wolfflin 5. Dubois 332. nee de cubiculo . G. of the Italic dialects except Latin. . nihil.

Bechtel 103.. [§ 80 (Oliver 5-6). Bechtel 105 juxta drachmcB cording to exemplum. Circa. except in Gaul. 489. etc. apud is repeatedly found for cum in the Latin writers of Gaul. aveCj not from apud + hoc. but from * (pp. Super sometimes replaced de: fallere vos super hanc rem. 71) Fr. Mohl. 390-392. Hoppe 37. and common Fer. Urbat 27 {tractans apud me metipsum. also ab una manu pallas altaris tenerem. ad post (p. ab he takes from apud. frequently meant 'concerning': frustrati circa veritatem. Bechtel 104. but from ad hoc from Italic Pr. La preposition cum et ses successeurs en gallo-roman in Bausteine 61. 343 . . and so came cum in that Pro often had the sense of 'for. pro memoria illius. Pro itself was partially replaced by per (cf. est oratio. Digitized by Microsoft® . and cum for apud in Gregory of Tours. Bechtel 106 super anima commendatus. G. Bechtel 106.27- in late writers (R. derive the Mohl would Old It. § 14). 37. 40 An Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. Urbat 10): ad ipsum fontem facta cf. am amb. as he says. appo. 42. Severus. replaced by ad. to supplant a critical period for Gaul. but Pr. am. nos. G. G. not from apud. 343.. 75-76). ' : Juxta often signified acjuxta consuetudinem. Spr. and more frequently by later authors: Lat. volo pro legentis attendimus locum ilium facilitate abuti sermone vulgato. ad For the most part apud-^-a.^ 79. where ab seems Apud is used for cum by Sulpicius to be used for apud).' and replaced ob and propter : fides pro una muliere perfida. a new word.?. apud. Hoppe Hoppe ' 41. in authors of the second and third centuries. had a great vogue country. in the Empire. According to F. where it was kept with the sense of cum: Haag 74. cum probably disappeared from actual use in Gaul by the fourth century. but was substituted lor'per in other regions (Urbat 34-35)80. being. ' .

encroaches on quando in the 22. same text (37. 8. ' ' ' Digitized by Microsoft® . Quod. 424 {unde inquit Dominus). 83. R. temporal sense. G. Quia. vade retro me. he. 24. which in late Latin was often reduced to qui or qua (see § 168) frequently took the place of quod: Regnier 111-112. &'took the place of a« and utrum (R. . cf. etc. Quod to for very common AudoUent ' £0 quod cdLiae 27.) seems to be used. quasi: Per. and was . 13. CONJUNCTIONS. de forts. Peregrinatio : Qua. aut is sometimes equivalent to et . Ac sic recurs continually in the Pere49. Regnier often used for ne and num (G. 'when'. : R. quare sometimes replaced ^«^^and quia: G. 39. Quando displaced cum in the quod. Ut 82. §§ 70. and 'wherefore': G. quia. . 334): subtus terram. 6. Retro. forts. foras were freely used as prepositions (R. Unde sometimes means therefore for but by late writers. meaning 'and so' or 'so': 40. and many other places Bon.' § 84] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. subtus. 398-400. 431-432. . 403-405. with the infinitive «/ is is : not infrequent 549. 403. 430): videte si Ac si frequently did service for potest did. 48. ^. in). Regnier 11 2-1 13. and quoniam : R. 399. R. . in most cases. guoniam {^SMddlt&r Jubere. ut : R. . 427—428) are used very often by late writers instead of the accusative and infinitive construction: R. etc. 46. 73. Cur. Tamen in the grinatio. Bayard 161. Aut cf. etc. Bechtel 119-120. Eventually ut was generally discarded. 399. 445-446. often supplanting quando. 323.. Regnier in. cf. Quomodo became a great favorite. 402. 41 81. etc. 84. merely Magis is much employed to indicate a subordinate clause. et: Per. rm\c\\ used in the sense of that ' : Per.

Palestina (G. ' " Cf. 86. plural in Andecavis > Flntbus > Fimes. LOCATIVE.1 42 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. of the locative ablative singular in Ttbiiri^ Tivoli . Hence employment arises in late writers a great irregu- of cases^: G. 412-415. Cf. Digitized by Microsoft® . remained eventually missa Anastasi. larity in the . Florentice^ Firenze. etc. USE OF INFLECTIONS. Partsiis > > Parigi Paris. than in the literary language. There is confusion even in Petronius. Quillacq 96- for African Latin. 8$. 1. the locative was replaced by in with the ablative (Hoppe 32 in Alexandria) or by ad with the accusative (Urbat 10). several examples Bechtel no. Archiv VIII. 378. in the Peregrinatio fit : There find are. for confusion after verbs and adjectives. from prepositional the beginning.. [§ 86 C. etc. In popular speech prepositions were more used. who occasionally uses the accusative for the dative and the ablative. When the locative of names of localities was kept. and very often with place names also. Aquis Acqui Aix. rare in Classic Latin. et sic fit missa ecclesitz. We remnants of the locative geni- tive in Agrigentt> Girgenti. Pirson 169-202. and the use of cases became more and more 103 restricted. ut Clusil~^ Chiusi. of the locative ablative Angers. The locative. it generally came to be regarded as an inin Archivio glottologico italiano IX. as time went on. a. increasingly took the place of pure case distinctions. R. 322). : > etc. CASES. the domi or domo of Cicero becomes in domo in Seneca. constructions. Bianchi With other words. only in names of places. B. Arimtnt> Rimini. however. Astis Asti. 302-326. 174-176 .

R. . R. IV. 528 a. Pirson 194. Hoppe 38. 12. de aceto plenum. Oliver 14. 396. d. etc. and Livy. R. generally . c. Sepulcri 217. Spr. 628 aliquid de . 481. 89. VOCATIVE. terminus de nostra donatione. 396. the nominative in most words in and such words as had a separate vocative form is like it : tended to discard Plautus. de sorore nepus. de pomis =^som& apples. sometimes by the dative. domine. Cicero. R. Spr. 43 variable form we find such locatives used as nominatives : from the third century on Lat. Lat. Terence Heaut. Plautus. son 197. lumine. Bechtel 104. de studentibus. de nostris bonis. the genitive probably ceased to be really popular. Cf. Urbat 20. de animalibus. 6ioff. little. b. occur in mens for mi is very common (Regnier 34). Bon. vocatives in -us. de coleritieis). 87. possessor de propria terra. Digitized by Microsoft® . The vocative Classic Latin. cited by Draeger I. For the partitive genitive we find: nil 53. de Deo munus. gustabit de meo. aliquid habet de verecundia discipuli. XVII. Regnier 54. instead of -e. neminem de prcesentibus. quid de scientia. was supplanted by other by the ablative with de (which occurs Examples as early as Plautus). 396. II. According to Meyer-Liibke. Introduction to Vulgar Latin.' -P^r. Pir. such Horace. abound: expers partis Verr. bus gentilibusque multitudo magna (also quidam ex Acts 4. Bechtel 104. The genitive.. clerici de ipsa ecclesia. except perhaps in a few set phrases. de oleo. curator de sacra via. as mi 88. de spiritu Moysi. Hoppe 38. 40. little by constructions. R. cf. 342 numquid Zacchaus de bono habebat. 487.§ 89] An . 39. In Vulgar Latin the vocative form probably disappeared entirely. 426. save in set combinations. partem de istius impudentia.10. i. Archiv I. GENITIVE. 1. ..

= went to the bishop'. ad me magna nuntiavit. S. paganorum. etc. etc. muro muris. IV.. loquitur ad Jeremiam. Spr. however. and probably in some proper names: lUna dies. dicens ad eum. Per. in good many set Sepulcri 218. Pirson Digitized omne regnum. 13. Capt. Bechtel 103. a. 3513. etc. Bon. etc. Urbat 12. ad quern promissio facta. fui ad episcopum etc. de noctis cHjus. DATIVE. etc. tempore > It. ange- lorum. ad omnem injuriam im330. g. Bechtel 104.. ad me ad Dei officio paratus. matre mece. Spr. Livy II. .. G. in a words that belonged especially to clerical Latin. [§ 90 by the beginning of the third century. illujus. Paoli. Lat Spr. D'Arbois 13 alme Maria. L. apparet ad agricolas. 194.. some pronouns. I. est ministerit. di notte tempore (later di notte tempo). We it to replace however.44 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. G.. 135. in honore . Dominus ad restituit Moysen dicit. True. form either with the ablative or with the genitive (e. as early as Plautus. XXV. 488. ad propinquos restituit.. the fear of ambiguity naturally fostered this practice and the dative. 487. IX. C. inscription of 57 B. 329. alta node silentia. causa causis. G. : Zs. find. The genitive was retained. patiens. si pecunia most nouns and in the plural of all. 1. Cf. in the singular of was identical in substitution became very general 64. ad id templum data erit.. stable than the genitive: 90. a tendency by the accusative with ad: ad carnuficem dabo. ad quern dixit. in most of the Empire : ait ad me. Oliver by Microsoft® . Urbat 12. 329. It. in certain . De Re Rustica I. D'Arbois 91-93. In late Latin a wrong form was often used a deo honorem in an inscription in Gaul. ii. Inasmuch as the Plautus. ad vestram 'I Bechtel 102-103. etc. Varro. . 1019.C. mart maribus). 4. 341—342 in /undo ilia villa. The dative was more Lat. '^^^ hcec affectionem darem. 40. illorum. etc. Fieri. Plautus.

de se. not ad. 481). R. in feminine adjectives (as romine). super. illui tilt. De is : Hoppe 14. de manibus suis. 426. is For de= 'than. 339-342. reinforced by the analogy of prepositional substitutes for the genitive and dative. R. de- ceptus. Bechtel 104. Cyprian. ab Ariulfi astutia the most frequent erubescens de infamia sua.G. ab a prcemio minorem scriptura sancta commemoratos. G. a came superatur. G.. Digitized by Microsoft® .). XXX. Sepulcri 218. Regnier . super was used: imposuerat manus me misericordiam prastare. ABLATIVE. ml. de singularitate famosum. Hoppe 105). nobilior de obsoletiore matrice. in the first declension (as case). de oculis. 34. occurs also: ex causa humana salutis. Ab common : ab omni specie idololatrice intactum. 35. favored the use of prepositions with the ablative. Bechtel 104 (cf. Spr. and lingered rather late Gaul (Za/. Hoppe. etc. Regnier 54-56. Hoppe 33 . occidam de lancea. Regnier 54. St. 335.§ 92] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Sepulcri 218. except in pronouns {cici. Regnier 51 . to distinguish its various functions. Bechtel de contumelia sua. Hoppe Hoppe 34. The dative remained in Dacia. The analytical tendency of speech. gaudet de victus necessitate causatur. Sometimes super eum. and so in 91. de virgine natus est. 92. digni de cmlo Castores. Hoppe 33. Rumanian has kept the dative. tibi.' see Zs. Ex R. elsewhere it probably disappeared from really popular speech by the end of the Empire. 36. de te beati sunt. etc. de vestra rideat CBmulatione. Hoppe 36. 45 3-4. Bechtel 105. 337. 393 patrem de regno privavit. Hoppe 33. Bechtel 105. ab sceleribus parce. Cf. esse. 392-395. cited by WolfHin $2. c. ex infirmitate fatigata. 641. in its original function and also as a genitive. 56.

263. Hoppe 31 . after the fall of final m and the of quantitative distinctions in unaccented syllables. XXXI. the accusative being used in J 95- There is evidence of the confusion of accusative and first ablative as early as the century. The fusion of the two cases was doubtless helped by the fact that certain prepositions might be combined with either accusative or ablative. for the ablative: .. late The use of prepositions became really neccessary in the loss spoken language. ad unum gladii ictum 93. Regnier 58 Hoppe 31 in maxilla asina delevi mille vires. ferventes. in camo amore Dei 9 in bonis operibus abundetis. . D'Arbois footnote 27. R. in fif. Spr. Hoppe 33. etfreno maxillas eorum constringe. 5. . Lat. G. Bechtel 95 . in inscriptions. donum dono. : [§ 95 often found . cum Cf. K. 94. quo in tempore. in most of the Latin territory. Cum cum it was probably not with the accusative is very frequent: cum suos Lat. in aU words. epistolam.46 An In is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. G. Sometimes ad ov per with the accusative is substituted per hoc. Ps. Spr. Bechtel 103. cum res nostras. 347 R. but very common before the third. fructum fructu. E. 344-347. its stead. Sepulcri 218 pugnare ad ursos. discenies. sodales. Regnier 60. Cf. in illo die. diem die. 397 . ad diem. because. the little ablative differed or not at all from the accusative in the : singular of most words causam causa. The accusative form substituted for the ablative after by Microsoft® Digitized . Rand in is Modem Philology II. per nomen vocavit. and that the ablative and accusative singular were pronounced alike. ad horam sextam aguntur. of the Empire the ablative plural end form was generally discarded. patrem It is likely that before the patre. caput desecare. 488. Bechtel 103-104. etc. 488.396-397.

. proper names with as Delia Casa. however. the accusative ante cruce. Bechtel 95 contra ipso loco. the nominative absolute took 45.. its place : Bechtel 09-1 1 o. etc. etc. Waters Ch. sine fructum.— — — § 97] — —— — . etc. 58. 96. Bechtel 99 . etc. in popular speech. Bechtel 97-98 erat in villas. . etc. The some fixed expressions. puteo. ilia. cib fatto. anno. D'Arbois 152.. — intra civitate sua. visa loca sancta omnia {Per.. perhaps in such phrases as It. de. medium maris. + abl. 40. intro spe- — lectione. Bechtel 96 de martyrium. — prope super civitate hac. R. — Bechtel 96 — . . et bene- dicens nos episcopusprofectisumus. D'Arbois 70-71 ex fines R. for abl. tuos. videbo te in publicum. that the ablative absolute survived in a few common 1 like It. 406-412. Hoppe 40-41 in the Per. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. — : pro hoc ipsud. post . pro nos. Bechtel 94 ante sole.. R. Bechtel loi . in correct use of in etc. R. . Bechtel 96 de hoc ipsud. ..6—412.. de eo torrentem. 410. etc. the ablative form very often written for . is three times as common as the + ace. R. 406-412. Bechtel loi. . ante sole. circa Bechtel 95 . etc.. . infinem Deus fecit ccelum et terram. for ace. Hoppe 40-41 12 examples of in + ace. 47 other prepositions: a monazonies. pari mente. quomodo. Bechtel 96. . ecclesia majore. Bechtel 96 de actus. per valle and 21 other cases of /ifr+abl. Bechtel 99 lunca. 8). in Per. R.. ablative ist' 97. -juxta aqua ipsa. It is likely. ecclesia. 406-412. probably in some expressions. Bechtel 94—101 venit in civitate sua. . Bechtel 100. 406-412. vendere cento soldi. too. ad . Bechtel 99.. is Conversely. generally. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. de camem.. . de ipsas .. etc. such as hora. Bechtel xoo\ post morte. 406-412. — — — foras in came conversa. Bechtel loi. luce. Bechtel loi — propter populo. R. Bechtel 94. Bechtel 95. was kept only in etc. D'Arbois 27 de rigna nostra.

however. cordance with their idea of correct Latin. G. being recentury on. Many parts of the verb went out of popular use. Clerics. ad Babyloniatn duxit. g. regionem venit. 103. consules ad Africam profecti sunt. from use. in the rest of the Empire only two —a nominative and an accusativenaturally tried to write in ac- ablative. a. The supine disappeared from general the first placed. VERB-FORMS. 328. (i) Supine. 99. Cf. 2. 100. many new tendencies manifested them- IMPERSONAL PARTS. By the end of the Vulgar Latin period there probably remained in really popular use (aside from pronouns and a number of set formulas) in Dacia only three cases. by the infinitive: as cum Digitized by Microsoft® . these obsolete parts were employed by writers with more or less inaccuracy. Regnier 52. 327. In the parts that remained selves. FALL OF DECLENSION. and 101. ^i. After verbs of motion ad was often used. 98. also is by the ablative Bechtel : 1 08-9. fui ad ecdesiam. Regnier 51-52.48 An Introduction f. per iotos octo dies etc. omatus est. Bechtel 103. infinitive 102. instead of the simple accusative: eamus in forum. G. sometimes in. ad isfam Duration of time was expressed by per with the ac- cusative. tota autem nocte vicibus dicuntur p salmi. [§ 103 ACCUSATIVE. were replaced by other locutions. to Vulgar Latin. Waters Ch. Only the present active and the present and perfect participles were left intact.

except when style.§ io6] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. 57. esse. the gerundive was discarded. R. Densusianu sanando. Dubois 275. The ablative gerund was . assurgens popu- lando. 57 179. 847-849. 49 veneris ad bibere. took the place of a relative cIzms^: faveant mihi pro Cf. in place of the future: with 388. Cf. quomodo potest hie nobis camem dare ad manducare. qui pertransivit benefaciendo et Cf. ejus nomine pugnaturo. 432—433. ex- cept in some standing phrases. Cap. however. Gerund. however. Future Active Participle. In Rumanian. 386R. 8. Terence. as a future passive participle. Draeger II. The ablative form of the gerund substitute for the present participle: ita miserrimus tando. (3) Gerundive. in a literary 388—389. hanc Marcion captavit errando. G. V. R. 2. St. potestatem curare. R. G. The gerundive was used est. Sermones 225. came to be replaced With the exception by the sometimes with a prep- osition: dat manducare. 490. G. Spr. 4. the i. Augustine. from the third century on. the supine was preserved: Tiktin 596. Lat. it The future active participle Vulgar Latin. G. 433-434. 490. conciendo ad se multitudinem. became more and more a fui fugiet Eun. Digitized by Microsoft® . necessitas tacere. Hoppe 105. for the future (as facturus sum). (4) 106. Spr. Lat. : sic legendo. 389. R. 363. (2) 104. 432. of the ablative form. etc. 433. 430. Jilius hominis tradendus Cf. Hoppe multa vidi sometimes used for a conditional clause cavendo salvi erimus. cites Livy. Eventually.erund infinitive. it was probably rare in late was used with esse as a substitute Sometimes. and Tacitus.

109. quoniam. perspicue exposuit quod ager nesciebat quia Jesus erat. G. wishing to avoid vulgarisms. was replaced by the ablative gerund: see Gerund above. scribitur. as will presently be seen. the perfect instead of the present infinitive very common: R. 371-373. it for a relative clause: it Often. (licent eo quod filii Israhel eas posuerint. 659-671. Verbs that had no perfect participle were obliged to make one. no. G. credidit ei quia esset vere Jilius Dei. nemo mentiens plorat. G. however. ut spiritu valeatnon ignoramus. sciens quod — libenter haberetis hcec cognoscere. The perfect participle was kept. 431-432 {malunt credidisse. 377. Bon. 107. however. ut. 389. etc. Bechtel 112—115. its use was greatly extended through new methods of forming the passive and the perfect tenses.. and as a noun see Derivation. legitur dixisse Deus. 375-385. often misused the infinitive + accusative: Digitized G. The infinitive + accusative construction was more and third century on: G. G. Writers occasionally substituted 388. etc. Sometimes it was employed periphrastically with esse: G. mundus sit.). si ipse est ascendens in ccelos. Suffixes for Adjectives. Regnier 63. and was used as an : adjective -ans. It more avoided from . de corpore loquor. (5) [§ no Present Participle. The perfect and passive infinitive forms eventually In late writers.the was replaced sometimes by the passive. 371. The present participle was kept. and. (6) Perfect Participle. : Eva vidisse de- G. 108. but often by a clause in- troduced by quia. by Microsoft® . G. 383 . (7) Infinitive. quod. 385. etc.50 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. is disappeared: see Voice and Tense below. 371-375. Late writers.

Spr. Bon. . 370. 647. G. 177. by Microsoft® . P. It Hoppe malum tions: replaced the subjunctive with ut and similar construcvadent orare. 363-370. ipsum vivere accedere est. quce legi digna sunt. Regnier 73. Regnier 106. ' 112. 673. male fecisti dare Spiritum sanctum. It took the place of a relative or indirectly interrogative after certain verbs: clause nesciendo qua petere. 366. aliter exprimere non est. non venit justos vocare. timuisti . Bon. b. R. mean he was loved': flection is loved etc. Bechtel 117. G. etc. Regnier Digitized 63. to Under the ' influence of carus '. up the classic practice as far as they were Although authors kept able.§ 112] An On Introduction to Vulgar -Latin.. 51 111. est. Cf. Thielmann. Hoppe 42-52: Ninus regnare primus. some examples may be culled from late writings: denuo factus filius fui.. revertitur omnis populus resumere se. non habent unde reddere tibi. of the popular formation . conjectus in carcerem fuerat. 430. etc.. Cf. per velle perdidit bonum posse. 42. the other hand. Regnier 106. facere. 490. see Draeger was made up and. It wias often used as a noun: totum vivere anima carnis est. amant ignorare. venit aliquis audire. VOICE. G. Venantius Fortunatus. functions: see Supine bonus et dicere et facere. Hoppe 60 mors salva erit cum fuerit devorata. 368. 363. Regnier 73. Facere mit dem Infinitiv in Archiv III. 671-675. cited in Lat. to of the perfect participle ern Italy y?^). G. the infinitive assumed many new and Gerund above. Hoppe 61. Bechtel 117: valeamus assumi. Regnier 74 mihi prcecepit hac loqui. G. Hoppe 60. I. amatus est came Hence amatus fuit signified he Then a whole passive in2 76ff. some the — except the perfect gerundive — gradually + esse (in north- disappeared from ordinary speech. participle The old passive forms extent. permissa est accedere.

Rom. (2) Subjunctive. by the indicative (found in Pirminius). 455. much as it is used by Microsoft® . XXXII. verbs are used as active verbs by Petronius. as in the case oi frusirare frustrari. Regnier 69. being replaced by the indicative in many . -At the end of the Vulgar Latin period it in popular speech. (i) Imperative. se sanare ^= sanari in the 4th century. deponent verbs became active. and Dacia by the infinitive: Zat. and in Italy. and also for the first. homo with the force of French on. Dubois 275 notes that the forms in -0 are very rare in Ennodius. very Digitized was probably used. An As Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. the subjunctive being used for the third person. In late vulgar speech mori. In the intermediate period the passive was frequently replaced by reflexive and active constructions. The subjunctive was limited to fewer functions. Even in Classic Latin there is often hesita- tion. who lived in southern Gaul in the fifth century. scribitur When littera seemed archaic. constructions: cum hi omnes tarn excelsi sunt. followed the same Bonnet 402-413. see c. The imperative came to be restricted to the second person singular and plural of the present. Bechtel 115 si scire vultis quid facitis. for the use of 25. MOOD.52 113. sequi. 114. etc. facit se hora quinta. Many deponent course. 117. irascere irasci. etc. and littera scripta est vulgar. etc. In negative commands the imperative was often placed by the subjunctive. Gaul. I'er.. [§ 117 the passive inflection disappeared. 490. Bechtel 126. Spr. re- 116. people said littera se scribit and litteram scribunt or litteram scribit homo: ct. 55. 115.

R. The perfect subjunctive the future perfect indicative.iX. Digitized It was apparently confused with was thus preserved in Spain by Microsoft® . The in the use of it. The pluperfect : imperfect subjunctive gradually gave way to the Bellum Africanum {^Lat. Regnier 27-28. Cf. in dependent clauses that are not adversa- nor dubitative. etc. 53 in the Romance Late writers. potuisset. exWriters of the third and fourth centuries cept in Sardinia. while trying to follow the traditional practice. place was taken by the infinitive: vergine. in indirect In conditions not contrary to tive discourse and indirect questions. 431 cites many examtimui ne inter nos bella fuissent orta. : cdntdse. cf. Gregory the Great (Sepulcri 226) and others. It apparently began with debuvoluisset. Spr. Spr. Regnier 68-71. 418. and with perthis use is common in the fect infinitives like tacuisse for tacere {Lat. On the other hand. 355-357. 428-430. used freely for the imperfect by isset. 489). 489: examples from the 4th century). § 72. ples. late writers often put the subjunctive where Classic authors would have put the indicative: G. G.&x facio. Cf. Sittl 133-134. Sometimes. 357-362- (118. Sometimes the subjunctive was replaced by deieo with the infinitive: debeant accipi = accipiantur. the indicative was often substituted for the subjunctive: R. etc.§ 119] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. as In Rumanian the pluperfect subjunctive has assumed the show uncertainty function of a pluperfect indicative 119. •a. imperfect subjunctive ultimately went out of use. ecce Pater fecit Filium nasci de fact. were less logical and evidently less spontaneous than Classic authors in their employment of the subjunctive. its G. languages. § III.

however. future. 28. see § 118. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cf. Bon. perf ^11. 516. omnis res lictas habeo. Fart. For the imperfect and pluperfect subsee. perf 415. Densusianu 181. perf. The present and imperfect and the present subjunctive remained. (i) The Perfect Tenses. the mean- ing of this locution began to shift to the perfect. ilia omnia missa habeo. I. and Rumanian and V. in Classic Latin. construction very common in Cicero in a sense that closely approaches the perfect: satis . ff. dialects: cf. In the and future perfect indicative great changes took place. 414-415. perf. perfect. Fart. junctive. Digitized Bon.. which led also to thS formation of a new perfect and pluperfect subjunctive. collocatas habent.54 An in Italian i. De Lollis in Zs. Fart. pluperfect. in legal phraseology. Draeger I. habeo deliberatum. way with Even adjectives: miserum habere. § 124. yarf«»2 habeo. § 119. In late Lastin this compound often had simply a peribi vos meaning: metuo enim ne habeam fatigatos. pecunias magnas 294. I. 423. by Microsoft® . 535 is . 518-521. Draeger 122. Fart. Draeger 295. 405. TENSE. C. indicative 120. for the perfect subjunctive. rationes cognitas habeo. perf. The . XXIX. however. fect 294-295. in general. 689-691. etc. perf. or something akin to it: Cato the elder. Plautus. [§ 122 and Bausteine Cf. Crescini in d. used in the same Part. scriptum habeo. re- Fart. with their old functions. Regnier Cf. Part. Part. § 117. 619. In Classic Latin habeo with the perfect participle was used to express a lasting condition: Hannibal quia fessum It was militem praliis operibusque habebat. 537-538. perf. compertum ego habeo. 690. perf 372 . 121. Tiktin 596. 376. quid Athenis exquisitum habeam. episcopum invitatum habes. Sallust.

489. etc. transalaret in etc. furet. Regnier 28. Old French Sainte Eulalie. and continued to be used. In the same way a future perfect was made: de Ccesare satis dictum habebo. Some late writers were fond of :\ substituting for Cf. sometimes as a conditional.. 70. which supplanted more and more the original was increasingly confined to its aorist Lat Spr. with esse. 537. perfect bant. The preterit use occurs in dixerat. and to some extent in Italy. pouret. but still lingered. 620). elsewhere . in the case of neuter verbs. however. it cxpi with an infinitive: Waters Ch. Digitized by Microsoft® . and in the Italian /ora -Cfueram. with the force of a future indicative or subjunctive. in the Spanish peninsula. On the model of this new perfect. 123. 541. Sepulcri 227. in some southern Italian dialects (notably in the Rosa in the fresca aulentissima). 543. sometimes as a preterit. The old pluperfect indicative became rarer. gener ally with the aorist sense. si Dominum iratum haberes. 124. ortaret. tional function. it 55 In popular speech function: perfect form.§ 124] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. perf. Reich. quas in cerario conditas habeDraeger I. : quam semper cognitam habui. auret. perf. the Gl. § 72. its vogue began in Gaul in the fifth century. Eventually an entire perfect inflection was built up with habere the sixth: Part. XXIX. In the Spanish peninsula. was preserved in Spanish. the old perfect meaning was not entirely lost. etc. I [ sometimes with its original sense.. a compound pluwas constructed Cicero. in Proven9al. The old perfect form remained in popular use. boltier' in the Old The condiItalian Ritmo Cassinese (^Zs. The old future perfect was apparently confused with the perfect subjunctive. Fart. which came down from the Classic Latin use in conditional sentences. 294.

The old audibo. gations. dormibo forms were kept late {Futurum 161). cantdre. During the Empire there was a strong tendency to substitute these or other constructions Classic Latin turus sum. PL 141-142. inquis. pervidet. Sepulcri 225. the formation in —bo. As the tense became rare in speech. The old pluperfect subjunctive was used as an imperfect: see § 118. These causes or others made the future unpopular. which approached the meaning of the future. 98. § 119. I. only in Rome and the immediate vicinity. Bechtel 112. Bechtel 90-91. Digitized by Microsoft® . Bechtel 112. quando 64. [§ 126 dialects of Italy. The substitution si vis ecce ire became frequent in all sorts of constructions: nam modo pedibus duco vos ibi. had some circumlocutions. which The Latin mistakes were made in writing: Vok. the future in the first two conjugations was suggestive of the imperfect. was native. Draeger I. Future and Conditional. future was not uniform in the four conjuwas used in three of them and prevailed in two. Pers. 286 ff. such as fachabeo dicere. (2) 125. Sepulcri 225-226. jam crastina non eximus. and in Dacia: Sp. Old Sp. was liable to confusion with the present subjunctive and indicative. Regnier Cf. Cf. Pr. Regnier viii. delenda est. corrigis. qiiando mutarisi eras. and we find such 126. Furthermore. and in the other two.. cum volueris et imus tecum ostendimus tibi. in late pronunciation. cantdro.— S6 in An some Introduction to Vulgar Latin. according to Mohl. errors as respondeam for respondebo (^Futurum 158). for the future forms (such periphrases are particularly fre- quent in African church Latin) : (1) The present indicative for the future is common in Cicero in conditional sentences: Lebreton 188-190.

being so used by Cicero and nius. Ovid. Hoppe 44 nan habent retribuere. I. . however. was habeo with the dicere ^=:. This habeo construction dare habet finally took the sense of a simple future: Tertullian. 447 unde mihi dare habes aquam vivam.. . R. Densusianu 181 in Italy . debeo dicere: tibi polliceri. later. 370. in multis hoc . frobare non habent. as in Sueto- means I. See §§ 105. § 129] An The Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the oldest Rumanian future is voiujurd or Jurd vom: Tiktin 599. Cicero. Trist. . ( ^w^ was a favorite with late nos futuri sumus resurgere. habes invenire in manibus — tollere habet. Cf. 447-449. (4) Debere kept in Sardinian. — St. R. mandare habewas very common in late writers: Hoppe 43 filius Dei mori habuit. Hoppe 44-45 . infinitive was another substitute. venire habet. 28. Hoppe 44 it . videre habetis. 449 Regnier 28.. . etc.— Servius. infinitive: In Classic Latin habeo habeo quod dicam. or Digitized by Microsoft® . aliter prcedicantur bent. Cf. 447 multa habeo dicere. 129. venire + infinitive were used also. De Re ut id mihi habeam curare. R. qui nasci habent. Cf. Jerome. G. 128. Futurum 48 ff. Futurum 180. I. Ad Famil. nee verba nobis ista did habent. et sicnihil tuis. In these senses habes spectare. Velle in this sense was preserved in Dacia. 711. 448 exire habebat. tantum habeo Lucretius VI. cui velle habet. R. Regnier 29. Rustica 5. + + It was 5) Vadere. rebus dicere habemus. I 127. Varro. (3) Velk and /^w^ + infinitive were frequent: G. i. etc. 123. St. . R. Regnier century. The form that prevailed. Augustine. It had become common by the sixth In the early stages of the Romance languages. quam evenire haDeus corpus. bam. 106.. ire. 57 (2) future participle writers: stc et Bayard 256. it many others. . I. 423.

Bayard 257. [§ 130 possibly in the latest stage of Vulgar Latin. to match such a sentence as venire habebat or habuit. Finally the two words were fused into one. Bayard 256. Hilary seem to show a simple conditional use of the compound: quod lex nova dari haberet. Haag 54. but this union was not completed until after the beginnings of the Romance literatures. just before the habeo. St. cantare or he cantar. 489. in Classic Latin. addarabo. Herodes principes sacerdotum ubi nasci habebat Christus interrogat. and in Portuguese it is not completed Old Sp. where it was employed with an implication of obligation or necessity. ista civitas esterminari haberet quod esset venturus et 130. and occurs in Old Italian Pg. . an imperfect of the was constructed. manifestari habebat. Cyprian and St. There are sure examples from the fifth century on: Lat. there quod was needed a past construction and corresponding to venire habeo. it was natural that amaturus eram should give m way to bam. separation is common in Old Provencal. Digitized by Microsoft® . something like si potuissem venire habebam or habui was called for.. Haag See Morphology. Quillacq 116. amaturus eram or fui was often used and when amaturus sum was replaced by amare habeo. On the model of this future. The earliest examples of the Romance future are found in Fredeyet. fazel-o-he. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. So it seems to be used by Tertullian. Spr. In Classic Latin.— 58 . new form. in place of amassem the conclusion of a conditional sentence. garius: Justinianus dicebat 'daras'. Hoppe 43-45. although sometimes with him the meaning borders on a real conditional: non traditus autem traduci habebas. though not immutably. The phrase existed. or conditional. etc. ready for use. the infinitive came to stand regularly. pati haberet. amare habedicit quod like dixit si possum venire habet. 55. Furthermore.

The ')ie origin of the full Rumanian conditional. Bildung des rumanischen Konditionalis in Zs.§ 130] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. see H. Tiktin. form in the Romance languages see in general. XXVIII. 691. for a discussion of the question. not' bvious. parallel to that of the future: Moris hology. cintareasH. of this 59 The development as. Digitized by Microsoft® .

position. Lat. sic-cus. but to have followed the usage of Greek spelling. that a consonant group. fact. mit-to. A single consonant between vowels certainly went with the second po-si-tus. They add In point of that etymological considerations often disturb the operation of the rule. was usually divided consonant noc-tem. PHONOLOGY. SYLLABICATION. or in half of a double consonant: a-ni-ma. the syllable always ended in a vowel. however. 132-151. all consonant groups. as in ob-liviscor. supporting it with purely theoretical considerations. The principles of syllabic division are rather difficult to establish. al-ter. except a mute + a liquid. It is altogether likely. poets may or may not make tinebrcB. it In the Classic I. Spr. or in a liquid or nasal followed by another consonantin the next syllable. phdretra. a-mnis. etc. Cf. It is likely that in Old Latin the division came before the Digitized by Microsoft® .III. no-ctem. prop-ter. in the spoken language. etc. The division of j + consonant they regard as uncertain {a-s- trum)\ doubtless in reality the s was nearly syllabic. A. According to these writers. pro-pter. The Latin grammarians seem to have given no heed to actual speech. as in Italian. then. In Vulgar Latin this : combination almost invariably attracts the accent cathidra. Quintilian 5 recom- mends vdlucres. 131. The group mute + liquid makes position in the older dramaafter the first : : tists : Nsevius accents integrant. 466. S. in-fans. and not pirfe-ctus. made position an^ attracted the accent: perfSc-tus. 132.

Accented vowel of the penult. after the accent on cd- the preceding vowel. but subsequently. The penult vowel before mute + liquid (cf. I. pi. We speech a that final have reason to believe that in closely connected consonant was carried over to the next word. computo. the accent falling on the e Digitized by Microsoft® . co-lu-bra. ACCENT. and perhaps : some othfc. unchanged: bonitatem. There seem to be a few exceptions to the rule palpres < pdlpebras. 133. 30-34. inUgram. 892-906 S. In the earliest stage of the language appar- ently fell on the first syllable: Corssen II. both consonants were carried over lub-ra. co-liib-ra. however. PRIMARY STRESS. otherwise on the antepenult — developed . and /. cor exsultat = co r-exsultat. : We — a. § 136] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. There are. had become fixed : 6i liquid. the place of the accent was literature began. some cases in which the Classic principle fails to operate or the Classic stress has been shifted 135. delicto. Old Fr. both in the literary and in the spoken language. ing to which the accent The falls Classic Latin system — accordis on the penult long. if : word began with a vowel B. became y. colubra. through the Classic period even after the distinctions of quantity were lost. § 132) normally has the stress in Vulgar Latin: cathedra. if that syllable as early as and remained. the beginning a it 134. The Latin accent was probably from regularly stress accent. when immediately followed by the 136. Franz. 13. have seen that Vulgar Latin regularly accents according to the Classic quantitative accentuation.. Old Fr. VOWELS m HIATUS. poltre < *pullitra.

inclausus. 1889 (pvte6lis). when immediately followed by the vowel falling of the penult. It is possible. however. habMrunf^ * hdb^erunt. etc. displtcet>*displdcet. COMPOUND VERBS. tuds. etc. effect diios. 137. paries. dedit. re- 139. p. §31): deficit >* disfdcit. II. . adsteti. Cf. VI. 56. became e but if the preceding consonant was . the accent on the preceding syllable: bat{^t)iiere'>* bdtty^ere'> bdttere . tenueram by tenui. S. Cf § 225. 51. Jespersen. reddedit. 138. I. became w. tra- addedi. parjites^paretes^ C. Gram. It was favored also by the analogy of miilier. S. Sepulcri 213-215. 468. provided the composite nature of the formation was understood and the parts were recognized (cf. S. > putjdlis. Lehrbuch der Phonetik. perdedit. Here the shift was apparently due in each case to analogy. [§ 139 following vowel: put^olis ~:> mul(eris>muljMs. '/« regularly re-nigat. etc. reiinet > * ret^net. C. in which the vowel in hiatus is atonic. that suos. consuere'>*cdns^ere'> cdnsere .pi(teus. riquirit "^ * requkrit. reddtdi "^ reddMi. L. imp Itcaf^* imp Heat.62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. it was palatalized: \i&xwt f aretes. b. Lat Spr. battuere being influenced by bdttuo. tenueram > * tenj^eram. so parietes" L. hiatus seems to have had no on the accent in Latin. habuerunt by hdbuit. condedit. 192. On the same plan new verbs were formed: *de-minat. etc. Aside from these cases. but * muVeres. Verbs compounded with prefixes were generally constructed with the accent and the vowel of the simple verb. presteti. calefacis. itios were sometimes pronounced duds.. 668-670. /. I. etc. consuere by cdnsuo. This change X. conteneo. 3714 (paretes).. O. seems to be due to a tendency to shift the stress to the more sonorous of two contiguous vowels: cf. Accented u. suds. crededi. Digitized by Microsoft® . So 54 .

came to be used only in the sense of 'read. Through this word there came into use the culinary terms /tedium. n. . cdlligo and some others not even the composite nature was perceived. for instance. ficatum. 63 RMpit became being with In felt. for some unknown reason. Ficatum or prevailed in Dacia. 435 L. was preferred in and southern Italy. * redpit.' c. d. . all meaning 'liver. Sardinia preserved both ficatum and ficatum. 42. the simple verbs having become rare or having taken a different sense: legere. *ftcatum.§ i4i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Paris in Miscellanea linguistica in onore di Graziadio H. Clddat in Revue de philologie fran(aise et de littirature XV. Ascoli 41 See G. It is found in late Latin in the form sycotum. Priscian says ^^ illic pro mice": S. Ficatum. perhaps under the influence of a vulgar *hepdte for hepar. Gaul had ficatum and ficatum. the composite character of the word although the compound was no longer associated capere. 141. *fdcatum. fecitum. n-LAc. ficotum. a cross between /««/«/« was kept in Sicily and in the Spanish peninsula. There existed in Greek a word 'figlike'. later. a fusion of ficatum and * sicotum. The adverbs iliac. which should properly have been pronounced sycotum . Reetia. 235Digitized by Microsoft® . XXV. *ficotum */dciium.Lic. 140. by a change of suffix. which was applied by cooks to a liver. and northern Italy. .' Ficatum. a . FICATUM. illic accented their last syllable through the analogy of hdc^ hlc. 515 and XXVIII. central 2jaA.simple translation of (tvkwtov. (tdicwtoi/ (Pirson 40). it probably became *secotum. Schuchardt in Zs. 'liver'.

fj. Digitized by Microsoft® . Greek paroxytones were mostly accented according to the quantity of the penult: ypa(j>tov>grdp/iium.o^'^ spdstnus.ix. etc. Ti.ira. when by Latin. may represent popular stress.guadraginta. Xa. The shift was probably due to a tendency to differentiate the numerals from one compare the floating accent in English thirteen^ another in Melanges natural : fourteen. 42 ff. with the Greek > Occasionally the accent was kept by doubling the consonant. terms borrowed by ear from the Greek. See M.vr] <f>apiTpa'>p/tdretra ox phar'etra (cf.tnginta. see § 141. a. iraXa/ir/ ^pd/ma. 144. Optisdna)':>lt. irapa. stressed ^vKwrov. tisana..TKj6. 337. Kafxapa^cdmera. S..'i'^ mdc(k)- tna. kTzi<jTo\rj~> epistula —ola. 143. 392. Keil V. of Greek words was varied. 69-70. Greek oxytones. e.virahersvigintt. Wahlund. \ were sometimes accented on the antepenult: Consentius mentions a faulty pronunciation triginta. [§ 145 NUMERALS. § 134). sometimes the word was made to conform to the Latin principle.qumqudginta. fdia. (nraa-it. 1 142. It. Somewas preserved. irapaT-fi^'^ pirata. etc. Tairav6s>* iapinus. Greek Paroxytones. (>pMd/a)> It. II.64 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. > ( ^purpura.poKri'^pardbula. Claussen 809. Vok.. mdgida. Cf. as polifpus. Ihm in Archiv VII. voXvTrovs '^ polypus^ irop(f>vpa /jMyiSa. apparently the first syllable: (2) 145. borrowed Idmpa^s).r/xa-vj'^- were stressed according to the Latin system: ^pa-)QiLT^> drdch{u)ma. 461. lines quarranta occurs in a late inscription. Rydberg . G. <f>Ld\rj XoXepa > chdlera) > colira. (1) Greek Oxytones. however. Ther\. 4-5 Pirson 97. The accentuation times the Greek stress GREEK WORDS.

The ending -2i2. I. Claussen 814-821. phonia. § 17. Claus- accentuation: Kxnta. KaXafiOi > calamus. 42). etc. kKo. by Microsoft® . Claussen 813-814.. > platea platea.t&o. 149.<TTopia> kistdria. -eum -ium. 42£f. -ia 146. and sophta. > ec(^c)Usia. —aav sometimes became -ea -ia. sometimes —ea. sen 809.. etc. The pronunciations melodia. -eum: ^a. Kuiv(im&ov> conopeum -eum —ium. ylvecTK "^ ginesis. 65 but it more likely that the Italian forms are book-words with a shifted accent. 42-49. Cf. (with a KoXa^o^ > cdld- Trpea-ftvrepov > presbyterum new nominative took the prisbyter). Cf.cupressus. Claussen 810— 811. Late Latin grammarians mention a pro- nunciation of Greek words with the Greek accent (S.puj<jo%~^* ciiparissosy.'avfi<l>(ovia>sym- Later a fashionable pronunciation -ia. the accent remained un- changed phus. penetrated popular speech {(ro<l>ia> sopMa. The endings -aa.) and produced a new Latin ending -ia. 55-56. raXaxTov > talintum. A few early borrowed words perhaps show the Old Latin Cf.- was at first generally assimilated to p\a. 2-3. it accent afivcraoi > abyssus. Cf. Thomas in Rom. When : the penult vowel was in position. XXXI. doubtless favored by Cliristian influence. Greek Proparoxytones. iKKXtjaia the Latin fiipXla^Mblia. etc. Cf. S. When : the penult was short. of proparoxytones is The treatment complicated. (3) 147.. 35.§ 149] ^^ Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. S. A.<j-(^r]fLux. Gram.'Kav&ov'> balneum.>blasp hernia. 'i.. Digitized jSawTia-fui > baptisma. but their statements are too vague to be of use. Suffixes for Nouns. are attested: S. 148. which was used to form new words: see Derivation. Claussen 812. a-riirta>s^pia.

49): Umbrian Fr. [§ 153 'EyKava-Tov.. Tricasses'>Yx. however. Bayeux. 48-49) Ka. xa/xtvos it : caminus. 'ldKioPoi>/dcobus. ^\axr<^-i] (T'aia. Ut cdrne carnem liberdns p^rderit quos c6ndidit. t^aWtava'^. Hues Hudn. 152. apparently took the accent in book-words but not in words learned by ear (S. at the beginning of the century. writes: Beatus iuctor skculi Servile c6rpus fnduit. 151. OTHER FOREIGN WORDS.66 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Dottin 103. Dreux.pv6<^vKKov Occasionally the consonant group was simplified and the accent remained : > * garofulum. a-iKlvov^ linum. ipr]iuis> eremus eremus : > (Prudentius). etc. contrary to Latin rules (S.T]\ai> camelus -ellus. Ka. When the penult vowel was long and not in position. Ne Digitized by Microsoft® . Spr.Tri. 466). Some words borrowed from other languages kept e. KpoKohaKoi'^ crocodilus.> sinapi sindpi. Germanic words were apparently made to conform to Latin types: H'&go HUgun > Hugo Hugdnem > Fr. of Vulgar and from semi-popular Kluge 500. > 150. we can determine the rhythm Latin. etc. Celtic Baiocasses > > Z>urdcasses'^'Px. .ballcena. 2. As far as SECONDARY STRESS. Troyes.o%> bldsphemus (Prudentius). their original accent. ayKvpa>dncora. j3ovTvpov> *se'- biHtyrum (^milius Macer). Fisaurum It.ov tdolum (both in Prudentius: Lat. became both encdustum and incaustum. of accented and unaccented fifth Thus Sedulius. Some words have both pronunciations et8<i)A. 153. it consisted in a tolerably regular alternation syllables. Pharo. judging from phonetic changes late Latin verse.

F\6rentino beside Fvrenze. circum-Utora (Quintilian s). and the secondary was shifted or *pdrauldre. cdlapMin Pr. it and the vowel bearing it was was apparently treated as an accented vowel: * amicUdtem~^'?x. 154. v€ttovdglia beside vittdria. stress. Many words. its syllabic value. In many cases the intervening vowel fell out or lost Then the primary and the secondary ac- lost cent were brought together. 156. te-videt. 155. Short. in Latin as in other lan- guages. felidtatem. In some derivatives. Idcrlmosa. the root syllable may have received an irregular stress through the analogy of the primitive: * drboricellus. UNSTEESSED WORDS. cave-facias. When it followed the tonic. especially prepositions and conjunctions. in Italian. Casdrem. B\i6logn{no beside Bologna. amistdt. 67 ' The secondary then. Gdllias. Digitized by Microsoft® . clerc. as well as some adverbs and pronouns. but probably the vowel bearing it had more force than a wholly unaccented final vowel: sdcer{>'PY. 38-39) dma-me. cum Pr. but clmPr. sdzer. *parduldre *pardbuldre : > > > filiiis "^^/ilius. non-dmat. were used only as enclitics or proclitics. however. fell on the second syllable from the tonic: cuptditosus. syllables to the beginning or had no accent. so. colp.^plach. and were attached as additional end of other words (S. clirgue while cUr'cum > > > cdlbe while cdlpum > Pr. When the secondary stress preceded the tonic. dd-tibi. cdlidHs cdldus. In late formations e or i in hiatus did not count as a sylla- ble: * cotninitidre. I. pldcttiim'^'Pr. dolorosa. strong. it was weak. unemphatic words.: § 156] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

by Microsoft® . If such particles had more than one syllable. but we may surmise that in common speech it was more marked in stressed than in unstressed vowels. . 73-79. Words sometimes sa. see §§132. (cf. A syllable was long if it contained ( i ) a long vowel or a diphthong or (2) any vowel + a following consonant. position checked it is 160. In some of the Romance languages the development of the preceding vowel. 134. how great the difference was we do not know. S. sel. ' I 159. did a final consonant Digitized §133): Jffl-/> Fr.5"^ illas and sometimes unstressed and * las. was doubtless carried over to the next syllable and did not make position: see §133. pere. eccum istum > 'cu" p II. perhaps influenced proclitic hy plus. par-tern > Fr. however. For the syllabication of mute + liquid. became *mais and * mas. QUANTITY. apparently. elision. 1. 56-57. [§ i6o 157. the consonant was final and the next word began with a vowel. and probable that the beginnings of this differentiation go back to Vulgar Latin times : pa-rem > Old Fr. Every 'LaXin vowel was by nature either lon^ prshort.68 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. did not prevent the development: pa-trem^Y-ic. Mute + liquid Neither. 1110. If. part. the consonant. stressed tended to develop double forms: sua and Cf. We must distinguish between the quantity of vowels and the quantity of syllables. 379-390. sUay- C. they tended to become monosyllabic: unstressed magis. ecce that vowel: ilium v{det^ hic^ (but ecce hie > ecc'tc) For 158. see Franz. istu' (but iccum istum > eccu'istu'). in connected speech. POSITION. 'lu' A 'c'ic dissyllabic beginning with a vowel seems to have regularly lost vldet. per.

j < peccol- lum. 162. ciepa. VIII. glossa glosa. mut{t')ire. Stolz 223-224. biica bucca . I. 129.fe-rus. this may result merely the case with the doublet czto> S-p.^glut[t)tre. 118: mIssit) > causa. S. nollo. which prevailed in Romance. Similarly one / was lost in mallo. in the contracted endings -dsse -dssem etc. paullum. but often it must represent an actual difference in pronunciation. siccus ' '' sicccus.* co-pVit. gluto glutto . §163. is common in Greek and Latin manu- scripts: S. camelus camellus.§ 163] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cuor{e) 161. formossus > > > mtsit. cedo. Early in the Empire caussa ss after vowels was apparently reduced to casus. doubtless beone with a long vowel + — + a double consonant: brdchium brdcchium . buc{c)lna. pupa puppa. giving Sp. hoc erat hocc S. Fr. In Latin texts there is much confusion of single and double consonants. diphthongs and long 112-120): cdssus> formosus. Sp. (S. citto {C. L. cippus. 163. Cf. missit (S. as seems to be ves(s)ica. cuba. -esse -essem etc. especially before the accent: bal{l)cBna. Cf. Cf. corpo <:_cdr-pus. coUo < <icd-r. tap{p)ete. c. In some words from bad spelling. This did not occur. — fuore <fd-ris. perhaps litera littera. had two forms. Fr. ferro <ifer-rum_. cetto. mucus miiccus . cot{t)idie. mtllia (but not in mille : Pompeius. cuopre <. however. stupa stuppa. 69 Compare tus. cf. copa. 125-126 (Velius Longus and Pompeius). It. ii594)>It. Jiipiter Juppiter. the other with a short vowel . etc. Stolz 222—225. Italian fiero <.fiel(^e) Kferl. coupe. Digitized by Microsoft® . petto pietra<pe-tra. § 42 ctpus a single consonant. S. cuppa. : The The single antiquity of double t is attested by an old inscription Lexique loi. 127). —Isse —tssem etc. Many words certainly longing to different Latin dialects... coppa . cupola and erat. cuve. in— 132. It.^ ec{c)lesta. where we have perhaps only a change of suffix.

and a large part of lateinischen See Clara Hiirlimann. + anguilla—* angutUa (> It. toiius was used by Pirminius. Stella. tenne. reviewed by Meyer-Lubke in Ltblt. For *iiUius see Digitized by Microsoft® . dialect stella) = (>It. lattrones. Gaul. vowel and the double consonant : angutla (> Sp. mattrona. (>It. was very widespread and prevailed in Italy. suppremis. a consonant was doubled 122. Archiv XIV. jubemmus. botte). * butts (<j8oi)tis) *buttis (>It. 612. suppra. strennuor. Sic. 339. I. Vok. In aqua the double con: sonant. * According to Lat. conservdmus Vok. having both the long. § 204(2). there was occasionally a third. 334. 403. strinna). jubemus lltus littus. Lexique 95-98) + Stella (>It. ^Stella Vok. Stolz 223. local ing to F. Cf. baca bacca. XXIV. messi). 485. Leicique 98-104. before / and u in the old Italic dialects compare the Italian doubling infabbro. Spr. seemingly a cross between the other two. bellua. iota estreine) (>Sp. ^(ji. Rsetia. (> It. Gram. stilla). cascio). conservammus. attested by inscriptions and by Christian poets. chdne{<x°-'^) 261.5 547. 164. Beside the two forms indicated.^ + strenna = * strenna (> It. prevalent in Africa or in Italy. cf. [§ 164 may perhaps be added: cdseus * cdsseus bdsium *bassium (>It.^)—* tdtta (> Pr. 1. So perhaps Diomedes' Itttera: Fr. * stela (>01d esteile: cf." Cf. Zs. strena (> Old Fr. I. voile. anguilla). Die Entwicklung des aqua in den romanischen Sprachen. iConsentius: " per adjectionem litterje io««»! pioioto.488. mist * missi 261 {iubimmus iobemmus). channe. etc. frattre. I. This doubling indicates in most cases a Accordpronunciation. XXVI. tota. toda) ¥ totta (Keil V.70 An To these Introduction to Vulgar Latin. brdca bracca. S. In late Latin inscriptions and manuscripts a consonant was sometimes doubled before r or u: acqua. toute). anguila) Fr. bascio). Mohl. tennuis. G. strenna.

III. secondus. 212. the vowels having. the quantity of the vowel is ' in general easily ascertained. the distinction U was clear by the first century of our era. None of the grammarians apparently distinguished « and «. as minses. the same sound in Idtus and Idtus. i and u were allowed to drop still lower. (S. is made with the tongue lying flat in the bottom of the mouth. Spr. was often used for e in inscriptions (S. i ff. cites Tertullian for an e (S. 176. (S. 146. 174. Originally.§ i66] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the evidence of inscriptions. . i. Za(. 175. 208. in 165. In the case of a. 461. by 250. long dis- - tinguished only by duration. 183-184). and u were eventin ually differentiated. and several fifth century grammarians plainly distinguish e from e (S. and short vowels were redit.. Terentianus from q (S. the short vowels being open while the sentio. 467. mulus Later. in debet and mnum \ \ and minus. about 480. as menus. as ocsor. 195. for instance. most of the Empire. Writers do not clearly distinguish i and i. is given the testimony of grammarians. d. 211). That is. similar to i. however. and i for e. but is used for u in inscriptions. etc. distinguishes do other grammarians (S. 0. this nomen and novus. for the vowels of brief duration the tongue was not in lifted quite so high as for those held longer. 2. if the word is used in verse. 182). 216-217). there was no such differentiation.. In Digitized by Microsoft® . which and became e and see §§201. 71 VOWEL QUANTITY. in the fifth century (S. 200-201).. II. 211). 193). According to Meyer-Liibke. In Vok. e. long and short e. long were close gula. However may have been. etc. 166. is often used for i in inscriptions. 182). and so Maurus. : vendo pinus pi^er. perhaps. all : of later date. from the second century on cs Marius Victorinus. in iillus and multus. until Consentius. about 350 a. 151. etc. distinguishes two ^-sounds Pompeius. in Vok. II. I. solus sqlet. In open syllables.

^T. At 208). Classic i Latin o&ers frtgidus (of. their regular quantity in hiatus. 105). duo>dui = dui. 99). were apparently pronounced also with short u 81-82). Fr. a. by Microsoft® . so cut. Romance undecim. VOWELS Ilf HIATUS. then. plus kept inscriptions (dIes originally long vowel. 101-102). 93. languages. etc. Substrate II. proved old inscriptions . and. etc. but an inscription has dIctatori (S. jectured from the etymology. 105). sometimes marked in inscriptions. require a short some Romance forms support Classic luridus. but the i. 93): these preserved their languages. and in Ennius close vowel in the Romance (S. is The Classic rule that a vowel before another vowel short is not absolute even for verse. 187). via— via. but it is sometimes given by gram- marians. others demand u. frIgida. (S. loir calls for *gltrem h&siA^ gltrem. siius'>Digitized spus> sous (S. before u was apparently differentiated into 0: dvum> oum (cf. Naturally long vowels. Aulus Gellius prescribes dictum. 98. after u had become (see §§ 165. ultra (S. except Spanish. [§ 167 closed syllables and in words not used is by poets the quantity sometimes conOccasionally the in many cases doubtful . their Dies. cf. at least in part. although we do find the spellings dius and mius (S. nutrire. by S. any a later stage. attested by pIvs piivs. probably kept their original Naturally short vowels doubtless had development also: deus = deus. testimony conflicts: some inscriptions have carIssimo.72 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. fut. found in inscrip- tions. others karessimo. and the practice of poets was not always in accordance with spoken usage. Vowels in hiatus with the last syllable offer difficulties. S. in Plautus. and often shown by subsequent developments in the Romance languages. with a restora- tion of the V through the plural ova). 167..2^)>oum (and also ovum.

: 236. 236). XXV. 73 varia- 216. major. mai-ius Digitized (£don by Microsoft® . There may have been other special Cf. d. hut peijor. as Cicero approved of Aiiacem. used for quod in late Latin. b. 1894.(4). Quintilian states that Pirson 74. *pldja. see Gram. 170. 169. §217. Horning in Zs. Quia. into pei-ius. ei-ius. According to some grammarians. Recherches sur Forigine de la conjonction 'que' et des formes romanes iquivalentes. Franz. which had begun to assume the functions of quod (see §§69. maiiorem. J. 341. vowels were lengthened before j. Maiiam. with double i (S. words were short. (S. gave {Lat. Pirson 16).. §208. 250 in these a.§ i7o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. but the / was doubled was a glide from the vowel to the/. LENGTHENING BEFORE CONSONANTS. We find in eiius. Jean- jaquet. For a still. 82 cf. coiiux. Maiiam. 468). different theory. Troja. 246-248. I. The Romance languages. on the other hand. before a consonant. inscriptions such S. 236). as in ejus. 357-390. 168.. Cicero preferred aiio. For another see A. etc. Velius Longus adds that etc. Troja. 3 II. Fluere was supplanted in popular usage by plovere Fluvia. we should write Troiia also Priscian analyzes pejus. way to Cf. Cf. a II. it became qua. point to open vowels in pejor. Franz. qua{ni). 352-355). Troija. The apparent contradiction disappears tianus Maurus. cuiius. 104) that the vowels there that is. spellings as Aiiax. if we accept the statement of Teren- who says (S. which prolonged the — first syllable: not pejor. tions in different countries. however. under the influence of qua and : . Spr. 207). had a peculiar development from the sixth century on before a vowel it was pronounced qui' and was confused with quid.

s: cosul. 467). tjk: quinque. n was followed by a fricative (/. regnum. 400. the evidence of the inscriptions I. etc. 91). lignum. s. coxwenire through continere. 89. but the length and the close quality of the vowel remained. however. for the usage of Cicero and others. etc. u. 90. who wrote in the sixth century. Romance and late Vulgar Latin words with ns (except in Cf. benegnvs by Microsoft® . [§ 172 regularly early in Latin. According to Meyer-Liibke {Gram. 77-78. but only after H had be- come i. cojugi. a very late authority. conjungere through conducere. t. remains. 91. (2) Before gn vowels were lengthened according to Priscian and inscriptions mark length in dtgnus. Lat. n occurred in the middle of many words. call for dtgnus./.. pugnus. But inasmuch as n occurs before /". u. etc. Spr. not f. /.. all trace of the of the vowel: consul consul cosul cosul. signum sigillum). Priscian. tions: so pensare. sposus. mesis. 86. (S. nasality disappeared. etc. Cf §311. in-: so infantem through indignus. and v only at the end of prefixes. it and the preceding vowel was cesor. S. however. as above) are either learned terms or new formaS. Archiv XIV. tferi. S. tion of later date. beside the old popular *pesare.74 171. 172. S. Before J. so that the result Digitized was t. (cf. tsula. the vowel was lengthened. the n being restored only in com- lengthened by compensation: pounds before initial nare. «. signum. coventio. sanctus. An Introduction When fell to Vulgar Latin. compounds See S.- cf. (i) Vowels were apparently lengthened before Cf. for inscriptions. S. The Romance is languages. pignus. and the fall was permanent. it was usually restored by the analogy of the full forms con-. or v). and some philologists regard the passage in question as still still an interpola54. but insig- It is altogether likely that the n fell through nasalization If so. 78. . for inscriptions.

and were often obliterated. and a was often used for e in inscriptions (S. L. as in aut (S. On shift the other hand. seems to observe quantity in stressed and to neglect it in unstressed syllables. resulting from the original quantity. The old quantity itself was It during the Empire. "miserce dativus est non adverbium. in the fourth century. in the Classical Review I. 183—184: bence. Cornu. I. for the most part seems to have disappeared from unstressed syllables by the third or fourth century but confusion The nominative singular -is set in as early as the second. 66). through a by Microsoft® . (S. the preservation of quantity in post-tonic Digitized mostly in the third and fourth centuries.). doubtless equivalent to the benIgnus of C. XV. and the plural —es were confounded by 150 A. in unaccented syllables the distinctions were doubtless weaker. about 250. DISAPPEARAHCE OF THE OLD QUANTITY. 2153. in the third or fourth century. show. The distinctions in quality. XII. 226). as due to a vulgar or local pronunciation. J. (S. D. in so far as all. prefers to regard such forms as dlgnus. This seems a very plausible C. difference in quantity 173. L. however. tells us that au is short in Other grammarians syllables.§ 174] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. Versbau des Commodian in Bausteine 576. warn against quantitative mistakes: so Servius. XII. which is 75 in C. D. of accent. remained. 174. Latin words borrowed by the Britons. through the Latin period and developed further in the Romance languages. The was probably greater and more constant in accented than in unaccented vowels. 722. . The poetry of Commodian. and we find numerous metrical errors in other late poets: cf. explanation. unaccented Terentianus Maurus." etc. they existed at c. lost. 311. Buck. in stressed syllables. 75).

e. dixi plicds. all other vowels 176. fructus by Microsoft® . d>ii ox 6 while d>o: Franz. i?> e 01 i. Digitized fqrmas fori. 178). entirely diverse from the old.if>« while u and u. too. It is possible that the quantity of unstressed vowels was better kept in the provinces than in Italy. retain the quantity of vowels that bear the accent: Pogatscher. vendo vents. in the Roma (S. show the preservation of the quantity of stressed vowels: Loth 64. and not complete before the end of the sixth. taken over in the fifth and sixth centuries. and based on th|fe situation of the vowel. d. Latin words borrowed by the Britons from the second to the fifth century. In most of the Empire accented vowels not in position were pronounced long. as aques for eques in 197 (S. Much late poetry disregards quantity altogether. In accented syllables there are sporadic examples of confusion by the second century. 106). e and ?. but probably the disappearance of the old distinction was not general before the fourth and fifth centuries. On the other hand.76 syllables: An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. [§ 176 Loth 72. Latin words borrowed by Old High German indicate a retention of long i and u before the accent: Franz. Moreover. 175. 467). are distinguished by quality also. clares that "Afrae aures de correptione St. 65. Augustine devocalium vel produc- Pompeius and other tione non judicant" (^Lat. grammarians blame the confusion of cequus and equus (S. Spr. for. tity short: sdncto vales. / At the end of the Latin period a new system of quangrew up. fourth century. DEVELOPMENT OF A HEW QUANTITY. distinguish by quantity t and i. and o. The Latin words in Old High German. Latin words in Anglo-Saxon. criticizes Servius. 107. 225). but mostly in the third and fourth.

103—104. cqr'^lt. Meyer-Liibke in different in Einf.q. i. ce. have seen (§ 165) ti. all stressed vowels were appar- ently long: tempus. syllables before a labial (as in proommus') a short further- more. and the conditions of diphthongization were very diverse in different localities. VOWELS. Portugal. beside a. particularly in northern Gaul: z'f«f. 0. An isolated example. XXV. I. 178. 213). Lombardy. d. 735).§ 178] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. he puts in the fourth and fifth u were pronounced open. we find vobit for obiit (S. and in unaccented ii. vieni. cq/r me-l no-s re-m In Spain and in some parts neisf of Gaul. We shall see presently Digitized by Microsoft® . We and i. in £at. 77 gule. Latin had the vowels au. goule. e. also ui. and Sicily apparently did not participate in this early breaking. which in the transition from Latin to the Romance languages re1 77- It is likely that these in sulted in diphthongization in a large part of the Empire. 561-562. nepotis (A. but as posterior to it the fifth century. : Niipos. ^^/a > Old Fr. porta. Gram.f>It. the groups that e. Zimmermann in Zs. close. dis- appearance of the which it displaced. This pronunciation doubtless sprang up with the old. southern Gaul. 467. «^j>Fr. In 419 D. Spr. while a was not' affected by q-aawti-ty. perhaps only a blunder. /w>01d Fr. nounced new long vowels were promost regions with a circuinflex intonation. (rets. u. tre-s. occurs in an inscription made a little before 120 a. cb. t. nous. d. says that the development was and independent in the several Romance languages. eu. o. The vowels most affected were e and q. cuor. ca-the-drd te-ni-brds . a. he describes it as common to all.

Per. but popular speech substituted for unfamiliar vowels the sounds of the vernacular. as *waidanjan~>*wadaniare. a-Ktjvrj'^ sctsna scena. 181.La > blasphemia > It. bottega. partly from the various pronunciations of the vowels in the several Greek dialects.iro6riKTf)~:>apotheca^ It. by Microsoft® . the Greek This pronunciation was letters were sounded as in Greek. was in Greek originally a long e.78 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. popular origin it often had the Greek open sound kKKkfitrU > 182. which became *trewa. (n)Tria~^ sapia. was pronounced a: ^axriM^ Phdsis. ceu). 179. bestemmia. The history of Greek vowels is very complicated: — GREEK VOWELS. * skivare. (f>dXayi -> phalanx. seppia. but also sepia "^ i: It. partly from the channel (written or oral) through which they came. eu generallyremained du. long or short. iu is found in skiuha?i> ated in some fashion to the Latin system. and ui (as in cut) was lit. eu (^cduius. In the Germanic vocabulary there is not much to be noted: at in words adopted early apparently became a. According to Quintilian (£don 64-65). The foreign vowels of borrowed words were assimil- In the few Celtic words that were taken over there are no important peculiarities. [§ 182 (§§209.nd ce>e. doubtless the ideal of people of fashion. The inconsistencies in this substitution arise partly from the different dates at which words were borrowed. A. 210) that cB>e a. so in some late words. but early in our became t. Late words often show Digitized do-Ki/Tiys > ascitis. eu (or iu) appears in treuwa (or triuwa). it H era : eclesia. as In words of more ji\acr<\>r}fi. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin e: a. while au. and 180.

p1. Cf. ixova<TT'^piov'>raora-n-rj- nastirium. 184. op<^a. Tiov Claussen 854-855. /. Claussen 869-870. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: > cophinus. menta. was probably q. 185. in 186. Pr.v6% > orphanus. I. Digitized by Microsoft® .. pxirov > blttum'> It. antiefne. occasion- yXStrira > It. apa. > artemtsia > Old Fr. '%Ti<^avo'. E was close in some It. It. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: <j><!tKri In popular words it apparently became ^.ix6py7)>amurca. /iu(rT^ptov> mistirium.. piivOrj^ menta'> It. tttw^os > It. Sp. crLvaTn> sinapi^ senape. it was In assimilated to Latin t: ^lp.> piper. chiosa. but perhaps dialectically q (cf. Cf.— § i86] An etc. ermo. etc. open in others. seems to have had a very open sound. 79 40.. 80x1^ > dqga> It.yermo. "^-phoca.Chrlstus Chrestus.^ purpura. ropvos > tqrnus > It. was generally close. tapit. cf. O most dialects was kocjuvo's o. and occasionally the same word had both pronunciations: a. cresme.' It. sometimes open: eprjfios'^ er'mus er'mus'^ It. ally u: tructa. even when long. KiBpo'i'>cedrus'>In book-words it > Fr. In popular words it was sometimes close. <^iKo'i>phtlus.o'i'> phlmus . popular words I In book-words later e oz e. oo-/x'^ >. pttqcco. 183. armeise. Christianus Chres- tianus. rprnKTiji'^ Cf. opiyavos > became e. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Xpla-ro^'^. but sometimes open. ^^. Old Fr. t apparently later often e: apOplriKOi > ariAriticus '> It artetico. orma. cedro. Greek dialects. Neumann etc. was assimilated to Latin e: yevans Agenesis. apTepXa-M It. etc. Claussen 855-857. dqga.vri^ovo%'>-* antefona'^ Qi\A Fr. 1re7rf. Claussen 853-854. mienta. tapis. ^(fila-pa^ chrisma> cresima. K6ppi>gummi. -p-hqra). at least in the principal dialects. In popular words it. li bietal It. etc.. apparently became I. iKKXriKrCiu "> edisice. ^ia>drrp > boletus. a. regamo.'>- Stephanus Stephanus. 9. irop^vpo.

we find: "Marsyas non in others (S. Zefurus. Cf.vt)> was shortened. grotta. 'OXvcro-eu? > Ulixes. calotta. It. > ancilia . S. originally pronounced u. (S. For some words we find an occasional spelling X. v regularly was assimilated to Latin u Ionic it jUijXXos 2ig-22i): Pvpara> bursa . etc. <jTvpai : . Towards the end of the Republic. was unrounded into /. which subsequently. in which the ^ is a later local development. Pr. App. Pr. . irv^os mullus. later in Attic and became ii. in the case of v. — > concha. buxus. Livius Andronicus In ayKvpa ancora. 187." "myrta non murta." '^ tymum non tumum. yppl-q > Claussen 857-860. 221). murta." "porphyreticum marmor non purpureticum marmor.yKvKw. Spr. in the 9th or loth century. Lat. 'OSuo-o-eta > Odissta. In Tp\yTa. KpvTTTrj > It. Mva-Ca^ Jfysia Mmsia. ''tymum non tu- mum.p-q>cumba. 221. KviJ. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 221). which may represent a Greek dialect pronunciation between u and ii: yvpo'i> gyrus gmrus .. u is the spelling in some words. which is genCicero erally represented.. — KoKn^o-i^ cqlaphus cojaphus. truttna the v storax. Cf. Marsuas. Pr. these probably have nothing to do with KoXvizTpa.. AudoUent 536. by the spelling y. Olumpus. The spelling / occurs sometimes before Augustus 6. According to Cassiodorus. In the older borrowed words. 468. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. The App. > > and a few other words the v for some reason became o.8o torno. Koyxiy <tt/3o<^os [§ 187 chorda. says: "Burrum semper Ennius." App. KpvTrTy)> crupta . perhaps taken mostly from Doric (Claussen 865). y In the App. cultivated people adopted for Greek words the Ionic-Attic pronunciation. In inscriptions we find misteriis. fivpros busta seems to represent a peculiar local development: cf. etc. motto. etc. . > > > buxida {=pyxis) in Theodorus Priscianus and in glosses. Pirson 39. Pr. /iCSos > It. Y was > strqppus. > It." Among the common people the unfamiliar ii was assimilated to i. nunquam Pyrrhum" (S.

originally cb 188. amido. Cf.§ 192] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. Cf. Claussen 872-873. M. 81 has "gyrus non girus. > It. bisante. giro. f. Claussen 860-869. Tu/iTravov > Fr. oi.. etc. KoXoKvuT-q"^ cologuinta. /ceXttJcr/xa > ? It. yrJi/'os — kvkvo%> gesso is e: yvpo% cecino. cf. Cf. > scilinga. «S(i)Xov> pirata. (as in aiyi^'^ tsgis). or z before vowels. which to be pronounced as in ^otfio^'^it Phxbus Phebus Sometimes. . then. see § 141. Such forms Clepatra for as " ermeneumata non erminomata" {App. It. 190. 76-77. 189.." giret. Cleopatra. Cf. <? In Latin. tdolum. toreomatum from Topfxpa. may be merely misspellings: Some Romance forms show u: 875-877. 191. the penult was often shortened: Khj. long.> platea. i. /. if Pirson 39. For o-vkcutoj/. frequently became qui: The modern Greek pronunciation is represented by some Romance words: afi. oTJpt-yya which became It. Kapa^iuriys'^ paradtsus . cima. was usually pronounced short. J before consonants. b. j8u^ai'r6s > It.rihtui. etc. etc. later e. A V> au. KS/«i>It. Bechtel etc. Claussen 01 originally "became came (S. giro. Frigia. probably a local development. except before vowels. 6r]travp6i> thesaurus.• ^ ^generally became ^« E3pos > -£'«''«J'. 277). Claussen 873-875. § Kd 223.TSa. however. In -eios -eta —tiov. 192. became ai. Digitized as in -Koivr] >poina. later ce (as in poina). finally. > It. Cf. e. £/ was doubtless originally pronounced ei in Greek. about the third century.v\ov > It.. which came to be proClaussen nounced 871-872. misterii. . cf. if Audollent 535. from the sixth to the fourth century c. as in Atas > Aiax.'> w€ipaTyi<s'^ — KA£ki>> Medea. AI timbre. MaTa > Maia.). Pr. as in AWiovux > Ethiopia Ethiopia. e. a became Clio. by Microsoft® became 0. Cf. This i. ciurma.

0. for cmmeterium < Koi/tjyTiyptov. a. L. Olcott 33. 1527 d 33.T\Kov). and Sarthere was a clr^slus. Kipaaoi) there must have been a Latin * cerlsus. senetus. Cf. 195. But in Gaul. SINGLE VOWELS. which was used in southern Italy. unchanged in the greater part of the Empire: caput. I. it probably had a forward pronunciation tending somewhat toward e: cf. then q. 468. Substrate (4) I. doubtless originally pronounced ou in Greek. malum « cf. (5) jiSKav) there was a melum (<i)i. S. For nasal vowels. — For vowels in hiatus. Cimiterium cymiterium. Claussen 878-879. ot. ACCENTED VOWELS. then 'Valuer (whence alicrem alecrem). Spr. see § 39. 544. Spr. which was used elsewhere Lat. It is possible that dlacer (whence alacrem) > *dlecer (whence alecrem). volumptczte in Gl. vocatio. C. 468. etc. (2) (3) For the suffix -arius. became comcedia. In Latin it usually became u: fipovxo's> bruchus. (6) Beside vacuus there was a vHcuus: vocuam. factum. Rome. 441. 468 cf. especially in the north. see § 167. used by Petronius and others: Lat. « : . So beside dinia. VI. a 194. Reich. latus. manus.. Beside cerasus *clra. and agnetus (for agndtusi) in Fredegarius. under the influence of l?vis: Beside GREVE. Like 193. I. Spr. Doric cf. crepere.B.slus. (i) Some words had a peculiar development: — Beside alacrem the Romance languages seem to postulate alecrem and alej:rem. C. 198. L. A regularly remained dat-e. <u Claussen 877-878. Cf. ovpavo's'^ Uranus. see § 171. I.82 as in An iroirjTtji Introduction to Vulgar Latin. CKwas then if. Lat. Haag 6. The o was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . 171. perhaps indicates an ignorant confusion of « ce: KOiixMSia'^ and Cf. Substrate II. I. N. Beside gravis there was a grevis. [§ 195 "^-foeta. tantus. patrem. -arius.

). This would account for bistia (= bestia) found in late Latin. S. 359-364. as in cinsum. shift of conjugation: see In Gaul this substitution of it i for e was so very com- mon that must signify something. to u. —esimus. for vindimia instead of vindemia. I. became vacdre. iox co- gnusco and other verbs in —usco for -osco. These spellings are due in the main s -¥ to the identity of /and i in late pronunciation: see § 165. probably- at least in most re- gions: debere. In Sicily. no proof of historical con: nection between the phenomena 197. vendere. and -tsco. diheto. T is very often used for e in inscriptions and late —ido for —edo. conjectures that consonant may have tended to raise e to i. Spr. By a change § which was pronounced remained unchanged in Vulgar Latin. filix. debet. writings: Gregory the Great has crudilitas. Carnoy 15 ff. Calabria. III. {Lexique 115). old vocdre. for -elis and —His. —isco for —esco. and southern Apulia e In old Oscan. 328. and conversely ver iox etc. I.. vindo. Sepulcri. Spr. cf . I. -isimus for vir.ficit. II. 613. 466.. etc. 189-190. also for colustra. verus. {ficet in the 3d century. for —esco 26o£f. in Studi Medievali Medievali I. vocivus regularly whence by analogy vdcat vScuus became ^vdcitus^ for vocat: Lat. minsam.: for the confusion of -ere and 6911. Also Vok. Some of the —esco >-tsco cases are surely due to a §§414-415. which was spoken in nearly the has become i. etc. same region.. of suffix original. for crisco and other verbs for adimplisti.§ igS] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Lat.. etc. — in -isco for -esco. I. iox fistus. Digitized It probably indicates an by Microsoft® . 468. Studi A. I. vacivus 83 {^vacuus). Cf. mercedem. dulcido.. -elius and —llius. 127 287-289. habetis. -Ire. etc. 198. Republican times. Long e {% 165). etc.: Sepulcri 193-194. 196. e. e became i in late {Lexique 106). 614-615. however. There is.

spelling e for ^ is common from Digitized the third century on frecare. vexit. remained unchanged: I. 1 200. etc. minus. Spr. teneo. Vok. Fngidus. became. is to be regarded as a new formation on the model of noster rather than as the old form. criscit. 397. sidibus. i pronounced i (§ 165). : (3) Beside sicula there was a secula (Lexique Ii9)>-It. According to Lat. which supplanted vester. 468. ferus. viiium. circulns. § i66. It is interesting to note that Celtic e also became i: Dottin 99. tulate (4) stegola Varro seems to pos- something like * steva for For St. which was pronounced e (see § 165). : by Microsoft® . see § 177. ingraviscente. qulnque (^Substrate (i) 546). Cf. fedilis. Lexique 114. dico. i. quiiscit. exit. 8-9: adoliscens. see § 229. e 199. in north- e>ei (verum> Old Fr. stiis. Short i. except in Spain. Pirson 2-5: lo-ii: requiiscit. etc. piscem. rictu. tepiscit. found in Gregory of Tours fur das Studium der neueren Sprachen CXV. minsis. vinum. later. this very high Spr. riges. festa. delitus. The 201. Neumann adoliscens. villa. Cf. stiva. quaginsima. tile. I. (Lexique 119) mentions a rustic speca for spica. (cf. e in nearly all the Empire: btbo. stilla. doubtless by the third century and sporadically earlier. rigna. seniscit. ferrum. perhaps through association with rtgidus. etc. habitur. quincriscens. [§ 201 extremely close pronunciation of the e ern Gaul. mille.ii(i. venit. ficit. It. rigna.84 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Archiv (2) Beside ilex there was an elex. Cf. Haag 3iiff. 0) . segolo. etc. audtre. Short e. veir): Lat. must have become *frtgidus ij^frigdus). minses. Bon. tris. Long i. vaster. 106-113: minse. (4). pronounced / (§ 165). remained unchanged: bene. Lexique 104-105: ficerent. For the development (i) of diphthongs.

Digitized by Microsoft® . Spr. Neumann 23-25. as it (§ 165). solus. often used for e (cf. became i: cf. Calabria. 469. semuL. zV/z///). Spr. 468. etc. «. R.. For ou 203. In Sardinia and a part of Corsica this change did not take and both t and i i. like e from e. etc. 106. 468. used by Gregory the Great and for ostium others. sponsus. In southern Italy e from i. has become § 196. The popular ustium I. Spr. Long 0. etc... 11 7-1 23. attested also by in- scriptions (S.. In Sicily.§203] legare. Apulia of e to /.. etc. Haag II. 6 202. amure. i is Bon. 85 menus. 202). and southern did in old Oscan: cf. corregia. Beside simul there was a *sSmul. Spr. Carnoy 15^-. benivolus. very common etc. sene. etc. (i) (2) Beside camtsia there was a camTsia: Substrate I. viduriiis. remained unchanged most regions: colorem. S. see the end of § 197. 214. under the influence of dexter: Lat.. trebus. 463. § 196.. vea.. 541. at least in hora. ceteneris. AudoUent 535. sebe. karessemo. 198): minses. etc. Conversely (S. 200-201. These two islands were taken > from Rome by the Vandals in 458 and added to the African kingdom. nomen. etc. minester. is The spelling u for etc. Pirson 13.. Stu^i Medievali 613) is perhaps to be ex- plained in this way. place. S. §§ 197. see § 167. (3) Sinister was replaced by sinexter. trea. S. 463. after that they were perhaps isolated: Einf. > ou. etc... forma. (Zat. Pirson 8-10. 195. cognusco. Quintilian and Varro mention 166) a rustic e for I. R. the change For agnusco. accepere. 468): furma. ^/z<^(= minester. pronounced in Vulgar Latin. etc. perhaps through the analogy of semel: Lat. -^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in Gaul {^Lat.

K. sg. No satisfactory explanation has been proposed the most plausible. mueble postulate Cf. old Fr. forum.. mortem. puni. Nyrop. *tutti or *tucti: It. Cf. tutt3 . sg. una. q before n + dental. in north- ern Gaul. perhaps. frundes (for fontes. court. in mobilis. 216. the analogy of mSveo. The rustic Latin funics. § 198. a large part of northern Rsetia it position. App.86 etc. folia. Italy. which Haag 13. namely. pronounced u (§ 165). some of the Romance forms point to nom. remained unchanged: bonus. pi. sortem. frondes) are perhaps connected with Italian yb«fe and other words containing o for 205. tuit. (i) > Old. pi. There are a few peculiar cases: and Sp. and western was probably formed a little forward of its normal It was certainly not u. § 217. the plural. cognusco. S. nullus. Lexique 102-104. see Long u. tottus (§ 163). Digitized by Microsoft® . gluria. Italian tutto . nun. probably represents a very close sound. the influence of cuncti on toti. Grammarians mention the protrusion of the lips: S." § 177. Fr.. may have come through 6 pronounced ^ (§ 165). (2) Beside totus and *tuttus or *tuctus. pi. Grammaire I. meuble. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. durus. or at least to a tutti. Cf. etc. Neapolitan sg." where tutti is defined as alle. § 187. cf. Pr. solet. tutto. Pr. U is occasionally used for o in inscriptions: lucus. pi. uuela alle. Cassel: " aiatutti. totto. forts. 206. For the development of diphthongs. tot.. — presumably through Fr.. 211—212. 126-130. etc. Short 0. but it doubtless slightly This pronunciation may have been due to the historique de langue francaise approached it. remained unchanged most of the Empire: cura. later. [§ 206 It Bon. in But in Gaul. ^'formica noxi furmica.. is that of Mohl. locus. The Such a form seems to be attested by the Gl. became ou or u: cortem 204.

Bon. Mohl pumex there was XXVI. criidus > criz) Loth 67-68. Jleuve. covetum (= is Haag 14. in Latin words borrowed by the Celts « is generally treated like Celtic (murus ". NUptia. 517. Spr. etc. u. giila. etc. which lasted down into the Empire. Substrate IV.. see § 167. Cf. ruptus. and both u and . Beside luridus there probably was a *l-S. jUvlnis. probably by in most of the Empire: bucca. etc. 132-135. 216). culpa. 468. became nSptim: (3) Beside in Zs. 467. became. For qu (i) (2) > qu. unda. Pirson 15-17. tomolus. §§ 169.§ 2o8] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. fiUvium.. jeune call for local q in coliibra. presumably taken very early. pronounced u (§ 165).). § 217. toneca. « > z (cii^a cili. (i) (2) The following special cases are to be noted: — Cf. Cf. 134." from nSvus). u> Spr. tonica. In place of niirus we find ndrus (R. by Microsoft® . "colubemon colober. In Sardinia. 136. cubtturn). 464. F. Fr. change did not take place. u 208. through the analogy of *nSvius ("bridegroom. . servos." from nSvus) Lat. and Dacia this u : Lat. 469. Beside angHstia there must have been *angSstia. > : 207." "formosus noTiformunsus.. Short the fourth century or earlier. couleuvre. corso. The spelling is common in late documents: "columna non colomna. a part of Corsica. Celtic by the second century. The old spelling for u after v {yoltus.rdus: Substrate III. G. Pr. (3) There are other local irregularities. 87 linguistic habits of the Celts: u> t in Great Britain cf. and ndra." "turma non iorma" (cf. due to the analogy of sdror and * nSvia (" bride. pomice. 217. Digitized Cf. a pomex: Bon." "puella non poella"). perhaps only orthographic: Lat.> mur) but in a few. App. Albania. Spr. 465) and nSra (S. Windisch 396-397. 617-618. people ssiA plSvere (used by Petronius (4) Instead oi pluere axA pKvia and others) and *pldja: Lat. Spr.

represents the sound better than ai: E is etc. stressed cb was probably still a diphthong in the city but had become e in rustic Latium. 225. ^ was originally written through the mutual attraction of later e: ccecus. 225.): found early in Campania. 166—168. Neumann 13 (and Fort- mon to Volscian seizung 21-23): famina. The Pompeius blames the confusion of csquus spelling e for cb was usual in unacfrom the fourth century on. Carnoy It was probably general everywhere by the second 69-84. cen224. Cf. Hence. In Spanish inscriptions e occurs from the first S. In certain words a vulgar and dialect pronunciation com- and Faliscan (Hammer 7. b.. Spr. qucero. sepes 188. century on (Carnoy 78): questus (2d century). in stressed syllables in the first century of our era and later. etc. sepes. Cf. 8). 210. 178. came into general use: fenum. such scBpes both forms were preserved. Bechtel Digitized by Microsoft® . quiceti. fifth it cented syllables (as sancte) before the third century. century: Einf. 465. especially in Pompeii (presta. spellings as fcecit. septum. § 78. Cf. About the first century b. 178. tury. seta. etc. its and pronounced ai. preda prceda. igo.88 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 687 ff. in stressed syllables (as questor) may be called regular by the century: S.. ccelum. etc. The regular change oi ce to e took place largely in Republican times in unaccented syllables. S. says that cb Terentius Scaurus. some hundred years later e came into the city and pervaded the middle of the provinces: Lat. e. but two parts it became cb. 'Sox fenum fcenum. Carnoy 79-80. £ for a in dative endings occurs early: Corssen I. in the first S. S. c. and equus : S. [§ 210 DIPHTHOUGS. when Varro cited edus for hadus as a rural form. ae 209. preda. by analogy.

the earli^est stage of French in Italian causa> chose . I. orata. Cf. Clodius : Ham- and Plotus are common in first mer 4. Digitized by Microsoft® . In C/^j-a../464. 304.: § 212] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ostrum. Vok.: into Spr.. toru. is 223 spellings Cladius. Dibmedes. Priscian. and 465-466. grece. or possibly (2) they are only orthographic. 89 75-76: cedat. coming through derivatives. gaudium. orum. inscriptions of the I St and 2d centuries). Conversely ce was often erroneouslyused for e (S. etc. where and second centuries B. in the first it the city. 162-164. occur inscriptions Carnoy 85. 301 S.. taurus. generally remained in Vulgar*^ Latin: aura. Cludo for claudo is common. Bayard 5.. century second century Carnoy 85. Cf. where au was normally preserved this pronunciation was used also in the country around So. Perhaps they represent a provincial pronuncia- tion. 183-184) and for Greek r) (as scanam. II.C. plostrum Carnoy App. its existence in 211. Hammer : 15-19. in Oscan territory. ^^ auris non cotes. in Portuguese as ou. such as occludo: Vok. — speak of a rustic or archaic o for au: Corssen fif. original q (i) is proved by the treatment and Spanish it did not become of c in ^ until had broken into uo or ue. Carnoy 100 (cludo in two Sp. an Au. etc. Festus. In Rumanian and Provengal it was preserved as au. Carnoy 85-86 (clusa. the dialects of northern \i^?s~\(>\. The f there S. Pirson 27. in the Probus. etc. Lexique 104). In Umbrian inscriptions we find Latin. 8. in general. in place of Latin au: and There are some examples in Pompeii. oricla". are pretty common in various countries Carnoy 86-95. 655-663. II. R. etc. with a for au when an u in the next syllable. Glacus.). Hammer central Italy: Chronologie . Pr. Scarus. crept was used by the lower classes: Lat. pronounced du. Rome. coda. and others The grammarians : — . etc. Umbrian and Faliscan had 4-5. Festus cites 95. orum. 212.

Ui. etc. later e: coepi. oricla. * auddere for occtdere. is its and pronounced oi. find amenus. cxlum. was not preserved in any popular words. eheu. Carnoy 84. explodo. Lat. the intermediate stage Phoebe. sodes. " sorex ve\ saurex. eu 214. neuter. of ce and e is mentioned by late grammarians: In late Latin a bad spelling. oe 215. foces. Cicero used loreola. became popular: coscus. seu). was preserved: For the development oifui. postulated by some Romance forms. In the Per. Bechtel 76. fosnum. 0. ce for ce and e. Vulgar Latin in a few words : coda. 0. II. *^^ Cf. eu. 227. plodo.. ccementa. eui~us. au was occasionally used for 160): Festus. auscu/um . Europa. [§ 216 {^Chronologie Conversely. see § 431. hUic. pcenates. This rustic and vulgar while the in Romance — which was pronounced — was generally adopted from au was 0. The confusion S. 228. illHi. neu. may be that for reflected by the spelling phyeb^ E is attested by inscriptions in the first century ceperint. Cf. etc. cepi. 464. plotus occur also. pronounced eu (as in ceu. 293ff. but two parts it became It pcenitet. Vok. ui pronounced lii. fcemina. S. lotus. S. stus. Phebus. we C. (cf. Spr." Cf. codex. S. poena. 1890. of our era: Cf. ote. mm227. CE was originally written through the mutual attraction of presumably 0. Eu. coles =^ caulis. Carnoy 95. Digitized cHi. L. Cf. pollulum: si audes. 213. I. 228. Marius Victorinus. heu. 227. Hammer 4)= aut. by Microsoft® . Umbrian suffoco. plaudo. mmrore. S.go An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Classic fauces. 216. Jilodere. IV. Ola.

A general influence of this kind can hardly be regarded as proved for any combination except ou. but did not fall. became ou: S. qt INFLUENCE OP LABIALS. possibly through a lingering the Old Latin accent: cf. see §§ N. pluere'^ ployere. i = i. 218. u were lowered one stage labial. by Microsoft® . After that. e. maintains ceding or following even if it by a preq was separated from the to e. Osservazioni al precedence lavoro. 476. mobilis'^* mqbilis. 2. q. UNACCENTED VOWELS. The discussion is continued by Pieri. dvum~>* ovum. influence of The vowels of the final syllable lost much of their distinct- ness. in vulgar speech. which 217. the evidence is not convincing. see G. etc. ibid. Pieri.. a = a. XXVII. u ^u (or a and ce ^e. = 0. d. see § 167. — vowel by a liquid. juvenis'^*jovenis. until long after the Vulgar Latin period. au:=q ox au. — 457. Although many examples are cited. e. a following labial tends to open a vowel: colubra>* colqbra. 219. until the reforms of Charlemagne. — For secondary 153-155. § 134. For a criticism of the theory. p. e=e. q. to Vulgar Latin. B. La vocal tonka alterata dal contatto d'una consonante labiate in Archivio glottologico italiano XV. stress. Ascoli. Jluvium'>*flqvium. CLERICAL LATEff. for the In clerical Latin the vowels were probably pronounced most part as ii). Among unstressed vowels. I ' According to some philologists. 579. those of the first syllable had most resistance. except sporadically.§ 219] An Introduction c. in general. that f. and then only Digitized in a part of the Empire. La vocal tonka alterata da una consonante labiale in Zs.

" (Weakest were medial vowels immediately following the stress. syllables: I. except in initial syllables. found in place of quasi. Quase. 21-24. pontufex "^pontifex. § 419. dc(^u)lus. 7. 3 During the Classic period it generally became t: decumus~> decimus. In inscriptions we find such frig{i)daria. According to Quintilian I. 221. spelled both with u and with i: Carnoy 65-69. > maximus. etc. 196-198. av{^i)dere. etc. S. vtr{i)dis. i was certainly distinct from Digitized In final i: sentis. being sometimes accented. [§ 221 Grammarians sibe are testify to the confusion of and u: S. 251. 9)." In the vulgar speech simus seems to have Cf. in Classic and Vulgar Latin: cal{i)dus. Brutus. (i). however. 203-208. syllables. 30—36. In general Latin quantity did not sensibly affect the quality of unstressed vowels.92 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. developed two forms. in unaccented . etc. employed only before labials. In Spanish in- we find maximus.. cf. Spr. "in here neque e plane nequi i auditur. 35 Franz. scriptions etc.. Lindsay 25-26. and even there the difference must have been small. 199-200. bdl{i)neum. Haag 15-24. SUmus. In early Latin there was an inclination to syncope: ar{i)ddrem. Fredegarius is very uncertain in his use of unstressed vowels: 220. vetranus: S. sibi: S. but simus was favored by Augustus and by some purists of his time (Lindsay 29). secondary or the primary 47-48. jur(^i)go. For the confusion of unaccented e and i. This tendency continued. siimus -and simus. in moderation. see Pirson 41—47. maxumus quodlubet"^ guodlibet. The former was the one generally adopted in Classic Latin. 2 1 2. see Pirson. for o and u. ID re vailed in Italy and southern Gaul. forms as infri. iv. "Messala. 466. cal[e)fdcere. According to Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. U was cf. Agrippa pro sumus simus scripserunt. Lat. by Microsoft® .

These. facias. probably by the century of our and sporadically earlier. UNACCENTED VOWELS IN HIATUS. Pr. e. Plautus. In Greek transliterations kv for qui (as in cf. §187. 234. and Seneca: deorsum in Lucretius. left a. fluviorutn) are found in Ennius. e." "vacui gon 224." S. quem. senti. Maiiam not ab. Horace. abietiItalia counts as three syllables in poets of the ' bus in Virgil. u followed by a vowel was originally itself. oKuAas) very common: Eckinger 123-125. however. Quintilian and Velius Longus cite the spellings Aiiax. senttt> It. vindemiator'va. placuit. a vowel but lost its syllabic value in early Classic times: acua > aqua. 223. the u was ap- parently not reduced to a semivowel until the end of the In some other words the syllabic value of u was kept. and will be out of consideration in the present chapter. will be treated as consonants. fectf^Vr. fudxis. 93 stbi. In perfects. Juvenal. Digitized by Microsoft® . used before Joseph. Horace. After gutturals. "vacua non vaqua. at least in theory. feci. abiete.§ 224] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. qui. nocuit. such as Classic period. 236. sometimes short. rather late: Velius Longus distinguishes aquam from acuam. 232. and u in hiatus with following vowels first lost their syllabic value era. then. Bonnet notes that etc. 222. Occasional examples (such as dormio. Quintilian says that u and i in uos and iam are not vowels: S.g. Ovid.. Virgil. sente. > distinguere. fes. So it was in qualis. /"and u followed by a vowel and beginning a syllable were apparently pronounced as consonants from the earliest times. fis. Lucretius. Lucilius. alio. App. a. is distinguere qucBro. Otherwise. as approved is by Cicero: S. In tibi the final vowel was sometimes long. vaqui.. i.

II>'43. So alea>alea'^alja. abias. 187. it was probably a semi-learned word. likewise eccu'kic> *eccwic. 234. was used as a trisyllable by Sedulius in the fifth century. etc. ie. Valerius Probus has parietibus: £don 208. 463.94 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Hence arises. lancia. vinia. aleum. etc. cavia." KeilVII. "ares veteres pro anVi. L. tenueram > tenweram (§137). R. Uniamenta. VI. "non iamus sed eamus. then. a new y and a new w. calcius. Lauriatus. Suavis. * de-excito~^* dexctto'^ It. S. prehcndere 225. S. exiat. coclia. The pronunciation speech by the first u was probably regular in popular . We have. it became soef in French. Pr. In the same vi2. at an early date: arietem (^^\-^6)'> are tern (Varro. noxeus.. solia.. abiat. C.sapui > saj>ui> sapwi. century or before by the third century. however. in late Latin spelling.. Bayard 4. Caper. fasiolus. a great confusion of e and i in hiatus: capriolvs (cf. the semivowels pre- sumably developed into the fricative consonants y and w: S. Audollent 535. 00." " sobrius per i non per e scribendum. parieUs {%i2t^)>p aretes. the / remaining long enough to palatalize the / (the Romance e was doubtless a later analogical development). App. 106. in late Latin. i. earn {=jani). [§ 225 early Empire. Consentius declares that trisyllabic soluit and . mulierem (% 1^6) ". four-syllable induruit are barbarisms Caesellius is undecided whether tenuis has three syllables or two: S. 231-232. 103. Vok. with a narrowing of the mouth-passage. palleum. and // apparently being contracted into e.y Jiliolus>Jiljdlus (§136). I. ee. u6 developed differently. 06 and u6 into o. soave in Italian. lintium. 3714 (Rome). valiat. cf- Carnoy 33-35. 232. desto. But the combinations ei -. Cf. calciare. faciebam'>*facebam.:> Digitized by Microsoft® .filius'>ftlius'^Jiljus. eacit {^=jacei). eccu'istay-* ecwista (§65).> mul'erem. as e.dixisse": Carnoy 43). §136).

ho-Tievex. opus. . 226. cf.. the Viduus. 2 1 7 ) . " coquens non cocens". qudmddo> comodo. '' coqui non cod. duodecim'^ dodecim (Pirson 58: dodece). quat{t')uor'^quattor (^. U often fell irregularly II.. equus S. cf. Carnoy 221). in quum>cum. Pr. in late inscriptions. quoi{f)tdie> stingo . kept its u: Old Fr.'K. z/ after all consonants fell before unaccented u probably by the middle of the first century. abattas. 95 prendere. hence *cocma). > ecus {^App. . fell commoner After gutturals. before unaccented by the second century: antiquus "> anticus carduus^^cardus. . coquo^coco {App. Carnoy 117. 105. suus'> sus. contin{u)ari. vef. Furthermore. unguo'>ungo {ungo. Jan{u)arius: Vok. defendere. Caper. inndcuus>inndcus. tinguo~^ttngo (Caper. 472: ero)." Keil VII. sttnguo > guere non tingere. Velius Longus." Keil VII. Bayard 7. § 227] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. pendere. Febr{u)arius. uncis = unguis. mortuus'^p- cottidie. requebit. tendere. "tin352. £ruum'>erum {Lat. battuo "^ batto (cf.and perhaps also ol opera. 468-469. Similarly. 218) quator — in. tuum'^tum. Digitized by Microsoft® . 106). distinguunf> distingunt (ac- cording to Velius Longus. then *prendere through the analogy of reddere and perhaps also of ascendere. Pr. Pirson 57 (cf." " coqus non cocus". Audollent 536). — cdhdrtew^ cortem.oSmsiT\& mortus. Gl. unguntur. coquus'^ cocus {App.'). S. doubtless under the influence of vidua. Pr. So apparently aruum^* arum. "ungue non unge. Reich. "equs non ecus ". some writers use no u in distinguere. S. (Pirson 58) quatro (7th century. / after a consonant fell before unaccented i: Velius audit '^ audi. common Carnoy 43). then *cdpenre *cdp'rtre through the analogy of co. tdrqueo>*torquo> *tdrco. ministerW^ ministeri. ungi. Spr. cooperire"^ coperlre. u before stressed u and 0: 536. Audollent See §354. consiln'^ consilt. quteius'> quetus.. £don 130). 227. 351).. S. 217-218.

Some however. subinde.. 171-1 72. must have existed 229. ce all came to be sounded e. ridemus. E. 136. i: should be spelled with double late words. agusias. 223. 109. au became a if there was an accented u in the next syllable. * agurium (cf. 135—138. Spr. 57. movetis. plordre. S. (Bcclesia. (Lat. Comelii. Lat. Caper says "ausculta non asculta. dtrectus generally '> drictus)\ quirttare~>*dritare. colorem. Koffmane no. fxddre. 470): rddicem. In a few words the vowel of the initial syllable was an r: *corrStulare^*^roflare. -n and —ns: Dtonysii>lt. golosus gylosus (ior gulosus). e For the confusion of Carnoy 17-33. Bon. some Italian (common by i in inscriptions. l remained i. far as As or u. I. naufragium. is very often replaced divota. moniti (for muniti). dolere. frumentum. Cf. A(u)runci. in Gallic inscriptions cf.. Keil VII. i. 223 Pirson 26). lost before also. videre. hibernus. gaudere. Spr." S. 470): dilevit. Some minor peculiarities are to be noted: (i) A after/ apparently tended to become e: Old dialect forms) . INITIAL SYLLABLE. audere. kept It. d'rectus (^Vok. debere. A(u)gustus. one can judge from spellings and subsequent developments. it [§ 229 Longus found etc. Lat. ce. '^senatus non sinatus" App. necessary to say that Claudii. Spr. i.96 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. a{u)sculto. Arunci occurs in manuscripts of Virgil. Digitized by Microsoft® . Bon. /^22: Jejunus after prefixes lost its first syllable: * dis-junare. 11. Vok. but otherwise remained unchanged (cf. > *jenua > Sardinian genna. S. cetdtem. tenere. valere. Pr. Farisiis > Parigi. a was pronounced a. etc. 0^ remained p. and see Audollent 535. 470) (2) Classic/awKa mimoricB. Agustus is frequent from the second century on. — Latin /(j/»««j > Classic Jejunus (the original a seems to be preserved in Classic Januarius '^ Jenuarius . Julii. I. long or short. b. Bechtel 76. dvitdtem. Dionigi.. Bon. and u were finally all pronounced 228.

205) . Cf. 234-235) . I was occasionally assimilated to a following accented a : ^gdntem It. in late Latin. mUtare. and Spanish. cf. A form ni for ne is found from early times Pirson 3. divmus"^ demnus. sometimes became se. and Old Rumanian. century on (Foi. Italian. II. II. 127). oricla. is that original Latin ei. 213): App. < e In miraUlia the i ap- parently became (5) U and a. 224 ff. turrente (Bon. Italian sed on the model of ched: si is preserved in French. retundatio. 126. (4) / tended to become e.. Lexique \2Z-iz6. I. cf. Italian. possibly through confusion with dis-. Rom. cf. Spr. Old Genoese zagante. Franz. : 97 Di. if i followed. Pr. etc. attested by Servius. salvatico. se in Portuguese. attested from the sixth 87. JUntfSrus'^jeniperus (Lat.. C. serorihus..jaian.Jaiant. serori. Pr. 3 II. Lat. (6) O appears as u mfurmica (App. cf. Umbrian ate. is common : in Gregory the etc. silvdticus> salvaticus (Gl. by dissimilation. 470) > Old Fr. §§ 212. Old French. Pr^. This perhaps indicates a close pronunciation cf. if there was an accented i in the next syllable:^ dividSre'^*devTdlre.for i in 422-424. fimre'^fenire. z. nutrire (beside *nqtrire). e became southern Italy from the fourth to the sixth century RIVOCAVERIT. also sometimes in serore (Lat. Lindsay 40). Great: dirivare. Bon. Reich. Rum. mcinus vecinus. cf.. cf. Spr. Si. This led to the prefixing of a 2. Lexique > I04ff. 470. According to Mohl. in manuscripts and inscriptions. Lexique 105-108. I. in fourth century inscriptions. the e is perhaps due to the Haag II. Spr. Sfr. 225. through the influence of the prefix re—. § 198. Einf. sdlbatec. §§ 69. in vulgar speech was often replaced by (cf. nise. L. §111. Au 230. so *ot (for aut: cf. as in 6' before a consonant was doubtless long and sharp. salvage. XXXV. Pirson 27. Lexique I2z. 82). front vowel (until the seventh century nearly always an ' later e Mohl's view. became instead of Digitized by Microsoft® . 470). Vitruvius. : (3) > *jagante > Old Yr. 131). analogy of *que quid^ quod (cf. putator O is changed to e in retundus (Vok.§ 23o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. so that at the modern a syllabic effect — beginning of a word it had s-chola. 213. Lexique 123. 3 II. (Bon. de-. Carnoy (7) 107). which prevailed in Vulgar Latin. mUrare. was kept by analogy in many words : dUrare. in very late texts there is frequent confusion of si and sed (Franz. Vr. Proven9al. Lexique 120. Lat. 470) and/m?- perus (App. 16^.

prosthetic vowel earliest occurs in Greek inscriptions. 445-446. ab sceleribus. indistinct towards the erally kept: bdn{i)idtem. II. 467. in the third century (Carnoy 114-116). spatii. dv{i)idtem. 317. 317 R.. dub{i)idre. ispose. Spania. mirabilia. etc. In some regions they began to fall regularly before the close of the Vulgar Latin period.(pronounced w-): expiendido. spandere for ex- pandere. splorator. IHTERTONIC SYLLABLE... Dubois 171. The es-. Grammarians took But in no note late until St. Digitized by Microsoft® . isperabi. sp. Isidore. Cf. dil{i)cdtus. [§ 231 often e) to the s or e when tio vowel preceded first is — in i-schola. in the fifth it is very common: espiritum. . compardre comperdre. exs— (pronounced «-) and /«j-. N. Dubois 1 71-17 2. Latin texts ab rather than a was used before words besc. etc. istatuam. scalciare for excalceare. cdlK^o^cdre. Vok. ^w. 469-470. and occasionally disappeared. cdrr(i)care. Koffmane 109. spiratio for inspiratio. Spania. frigiddria frigddria. Pirson 59-60. instruo for struo. S. 3656-. 316-319. estatio. hispatii for Bechtel 78. fourth and found repeatedly. 445. — By this term is meant syllable following the secondary and preceding the primary stress. not frequently. of it iscola. scoriare for excoriare. S. R. The The in Latin example probably it is iscolasticus. ismaragdus. Estephanus. spectante for expectante. though iscripta. stantia for instantia. Spanus. ab scandalo. B. This i came to be regarded as a regular part of the word. Pirson 60. Bon. etc. is. but a was gen231. Vowels so situated probably became more and more end of the Empire. ischola. written Barcelona in the second century. in the seventh century. cirebellum. isiudio. strumentum. cdp[i)idlis. cf. S. tlie C. 148.98 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bon. istare.thus produced was confounded with ex-. st: ginning with Bon. Slementum 6limintum.

in Sepulcri 201—202. The penult. principle tended to oblit- 232. There was probably a conflict between cultivated and popular pronunciation. of this vowel. however. comare for coronare. insola. Pir- Franz. F. dedcavit. son 52. meretis.• anemis. etc. R. dixemus. Cf. 118. Neumann in Zs. vetranus. Mintsterium apparently became minsterium early enough for the n to before the s: see §171. c. 464.. Cf. Bon. The Vulgar Latin rhythmic erate one of the two post-tonic syllables of proparoxytones. was weaker and more exposed to syncope. 131— 135. etc. : Frigdaria occurs Cf. being next to the accent. Koffmane III. The fall of the vowel of course disturbed the Vulgar Latin rhythm: see § 153. and the conditions differed widely in different regions. XIV. stablarius..§ 233] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. 99 sdcramintum. 467. R. omne)\ classified. etc. uomini). PENULT. liquid A weakened and by Microsoft® . etc. fall 559. d. in the second century b. the uneducated pronounced 'om'nes beside socerum there was sScrum. 12. We find in late Latin much confusion of e and /. similarly As far as the general phenomena can be we may say that in popular words in penult tended to (i) fall common speech the vowel of the under the following conditions: — Between any Consonant and a Liquid. Neumann 22. both types The treatment inconsistent often being preserved in the Romance languages: thus while the literary and official world said {h)dmines (>It. pi. cf. vowel preceded by a consonant and followed by a fell in the earlier part of the Vulgar Digitized 233. Bon. Likewise o and u: ambolare. Substrate IV. was apparently very Vulgar Latin. (>Pr.. Pirson 51. v^recundia. separdre seperdre. 116.

). compera. Franz. hilerus. which must have been slow in entering the common vocabulary. peduclum. comp'tus. D. aspra. 3 To -clus was assimilated in popular Latin the ending -talus: capitulus"^* capiclus . Vok. vic(u)lus. Pirson 51). 1899. In some words we find a weakened to e: socro. App. cdm{i)tem. App. escaped this absorption: cni. Waters Ch. maniplus. a. villus. masclus. spatula'. both becoming —cuius in Classic Latin.' For a vowel between a labial and a liquid. mdsc{u)lus. ftsiula>*Jiscla. Pr. § 284. oclos. Lexique 63. amples are found in inscriptions: AudoUent 538. as in auricula. Carnoy 12. Digitized by Microsoft® . e^-16 . frigidus^frigdus. vowel preceded by a labial and followed by a confall early: 235. felicla. as in saclum. But a few words. Eseram for Isaram. (cf. But if the the ^ began to be palatalized (so apparently in 9 I.). Later they were confused. 234. Franz. d. 96. seperat (about 500 A. Cceseris. 1 digitum> dicCf. Juglus. bdc{u)lus. anglus. tum.').^-* spatla. Pirson 51. frdgilis. fecrunt fecru. virginem. Latin originally had the two diminutive endings —clus and -cuius {<i-co-lo). Pr. § 259. aunclus. dedro for dederunt. ci. at any rate in some regions: bdjulus. Lexique 64. A sonant was inclined to bublus.loo An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. These by Plautus.stulum> crustlum (found in 18 Cf. both -clus in {^<i—tlo). dc{ii)lus. scaplas. the vowel seems to have been kept. [§ 235 Latin period: altra. (2) Between a Labial and any Consonant. Oclus and some others occur in Petronius: see W. Pirson 49-50. vitulus>veclus. see first consonant -Cvas a palatal. I. 57. Many exI. In vigilafp-* viglat the vowel fell before (2) below. spec{ii)lum. ins(u)la. 16-18. were kept distinct vulgar speech: artic{u)lus.. vemdc(^u)lus. Cf. Die Sprache des Petronius und die Glossen. Bon. gracilis. Pr. Heraeus. App. 195-196. cltera.

App. pdp{u)lus. the fall When ab or av was brought next to a consonant by it of a following vowel. offla. 236. 4th century). dvidus avunculus"^ aunculus. Pirson 51. colpus. * dvka "^ auca. (3) Between a Liquid and any Consonant. f{b{u)la. Franz. vdpulo baplo. Franz. KofiEmane iii. Waters Ch. domnicus. but often there were double forms the process began very early audus. Vegetius. 467. Varro. Ci. p I. Franz. Digitized different condi§ 233) . Franz. occurs in Lamna Petronius has bublum. nibula. Varro. lardum. pi. : § 238] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. c6l{a)phus {ci. 13. 13. 3 \. Cf. ioi tri- dib{i)tum. per- colopabat. Cf. h6m{i')nes jiiv{e)nis . 44. Cato. valde. * ndvitaf.. Plautus. * cldvido> claudo (cf. poplus. In d6m(i')nus the mn form may be mane domni. Plautus (cf. Juvenal. 238. 12. found in glosses. Ovid. 44. pardbula>*paraula *parabla. fdbula>*faula *fabla.. etc. in R. tions: In some words the vowel fell under digitum> dictum. Reich. fulica fulca. Horace. sablum. 237. (4) Miscellaneous. Gl. Franz. virdis. caldus. sablum. Plautus. Caesar. . (cf.^-* nautat . tdbula>*taula *tabla. Pirson 50. *navi- > fragus>naufragus). Koff109. Horace and Vitruvius. Waters Ch. A vowel preceded by a liquid and followed by a consonant was subject to syncope at all periods: ardus. 467. Pliny.{i')nus. domnus in St. Plautus). Pr. Franz. hdmula. either everywhere or in a large region: drbi^o^rem. R. virdiaria. domnulus. merto. Augustine.). however. 15 soldus. 15-16 (cf. p I. frigidus by Microsoft® . i2ff. tremulat. . generally became au. 56. pi. Martial. gdbata>*gauta *gabta. the older: d6m.Jibla. pi. Waters Ch. Petronius. In some words. the vowel was kept. b{u)la.

carcatus. cdrrico'^*carco. posius. Some of these In a part of Gaul dmita'^* anta. (2). Digitized by Microsoft® . vindico. debita~^* depta. frdx(i)nus. Later. A vowel preceded by </ or ^ and followed by c seems to have remained longer than most other vowels that fell at all: judico.: = collocat. shortened forms were used in other regions. Pompeii (fridam). posturus. dic{i)mus. and Ligurian territory. ally fell. they had not fallen already. See Morphology. rapidus > > *rapdus. pi2tidus'^*puttus.102 An (cf. ntHdus>*niiius. 240. mdnica'>* manca. fimina *femna. culicet culcet Cf. 13-14 (ci. (3). p I. semita'^* senta. (fricda)." Aus and flaus have left no representatives. Aquitanian. Pr. etc. and a number of vowels otherwise placed fell under different conditions in various regions: pdnere'^*ponre. habitus > * abtus. Cato). App. tdllere > * tolre. 241. probably late. about the eighth century. clericus^*clercus. Suchier 732. FINAL SYLLABLE. c6llocat'>-*colcat. we find "avus non aus. Pr. Reich. 233). e. they generi. but rius is evidently the ancestor of Italian and Spanish rio. [§ 241 ^frigdus maxima^ masma. Pirson 50. pers{i)ca. In the transition from Vulgar Latin to the Romance in so far as languages the vowels in classes (i). — were — syncopated with some regularity. § Introduction to Vulgar Latin." "flavus non Jlaus" "rivus non rius. The vowels regularly remained through the Vulgar Latin period. 2d century. Franz. Through a large part of the Empire -avit>-aut: umphaut is found in Pompeii. dominica-^ * dominca. 239. Lucretius. All three forms are probably examples of a tri- phonetic reduction that affected certain regions. Gl. medicus. sid(^e)cim. viaticum. . In the App. except a and in Celtic.

So. Cf. perhaps. It is likely that final vowels were especially ob- scure in Gaul in the sixth and seventh centuries. Bechtel 75-76. were all probably sounded e. etc. etc. describes the final vowel of here as neither quite e nor quite Cf. as in to Vulgar Latin. tibe. dmdt. Spr. 3 I. bonds. a. mihe. vii. tristes. were not usually distinguished (cf.Xxa. by Microsoft® . uxore. 243. especially e after liquids: Caper. in I. for / is frequent in the dative and ablative. 41. Italian. which in Sicily be- came eventually // t remained // was 0. inflection. has "barbarus non barbar. E luce. Carnoy45: Digitized dative. The App. famul = A. modern must have been often elided or syncopated in the interior of a phrase." These curious forms are probably not the result of a phonetic development. in late Latin. but generally they were confounded {Lat. Spr. About the eighth century a probably became ? in northern Gaul. he i. but are rather due to a local change of languages.§ 244] An Introduction Final vowels. ablative. vii. Pr. §210): apte^aptcB.. was naturally pronounced a. sancta. "bibere non biber". See Franz. fructu. etc. pradiscer." "masculus non mascel. tristts. Lexique 118. haber in an inscription. iv and I. 244. feci. sentls. bom. t. corpus. which became u in Sicily. e. praber. cotidia. 103 242. The changes in pronunciation led to great confusion in spelling. Quintilian says that Livy wrote sibe and quase. morior. E I. etc. 469). In some localities this and this u were kept distinct.. which left no trace in the Romance famulus. u was u. and i came to be used almost indiscriminately. facul =facilis. long or short. conder. tanger in manuscripts. tribunal{e). Old 'Lz. autumnal {e). tristem. Neumann 7-8 cites ten cases of e for a: Italice. according to the testimony of numerous inscriptions {Lat. Examples: dmds. 469). E and a." ^^figulus nonfigel.

T. movit. •quat{u)or'>quatro. tenit. L. [§ 246 Es and are continually interchanged: 24. K. Spr.. regis ^reges. So et it: Bechtel 88-89. D. C. Audollent 535. Carnoy 13. of om for um. became in Gaul mis-. very etc./^^.. omnes ^ omnis (3d century). in us was particu128. sem- per'^* sempre . = maris. etc. etc. an R. 43-44. etc. Q. Carnoy 13-15.. used as a prefix (cf.. under the influence of dis-. and um is very common in Per. Minus. ^and Fwere used both and u and for the consonants/ and v. posuet. 115. Neumann 11-13. for the vowels i were B. Carnoy 48 bonus = bonos. of.. 'Im. Bon. Carnoy 48. N. Cf.. 61 examples of u for ablative In Vok. 916. 116. letters The Latin consonant P. and us for os.4 G. common in Per. mares etc. G. S. monumento ^= monumentum. K. In words ofteii used as proclitics final -er. Vok.. also in Gregory the Great.. old letter equivalent to C.. -re. With and u it was the same. cf. F. omnes ^^omnis. I. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin period. E. X. M. 131 has spoliatur for spoliatot. §29) as in minus-pretiare. and 121. Bon.. Sepulcri 201. was kept in Digitized some formulas . Sepulcri 229-230.. there are between 126 and 563 a. Lat. Joannis. etc. I. Ill. V. etc. -£?. -ro: inter'>*intre. II. Phon. larly common 42. etc. siiper'>-*supre.. Z. Os and us were interchanged from the third century on awi' = annos. as well as frequent instances of ablative in um. Bon. d. in etc. it need by Microsoft® . etc. H. Neumann 11-13. 246. CONSONANTS. Sepulcri 203-204.r became Carnoy 221. Bon. Haag 245..104 An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. os The confusion of for us. : . 474. Cf. 11 1. Bon. accusative plural G|^l|ii Jilius—Jilios.

passus. liquids. Pirson 88. Double cf. terra. Bon. nasals. ^ and g before front vowels were palatalized and were then subject to further alterations. labials. see §§ 162. sibilants. In words borrowed from Greek and German there were several foreign consonants. or / in hiatus: see § 224. the combination Q was generally used only Jf stands for ks. which also changed to /8. //>/ vowels. and n ceased to be sounded before s. which will be discussed after the native ones. m and n became silent at the end of a word. with The consonants will now be considered in detail. Digitized by Microsoft® . h was silent. lastly the Germanic. sonants The principal developments that affected Latin conmay be summed up as follows: b between vowels was opened into the bilabial fricative /3. gutturals. Z in Old Latin apparently meant j. 105 in not be separately considered. first the native Latin. serra.§ 248] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the Celtic need not be separately studied. dentals. Pirson 85. Pirson 83-91. In addition to the above. taken up The Latin consonants will be in the following order: aspirate. For Fredegarius see Haag 39-40. The voicing of intervocalic surds began during the Vulgar Latin period. see §161. § 223). later it represented a different Latin version of Greek t. palatals. Vulgar Latin had a new w and y coming from originally syllabic u. For w>j and For double forms like of single cipus ctppus. next the Greek. consonants are often written single in early inscriptions. which will be treated below (§§338-339). 319-320). e.or ss (S. nullus.. In late spelling there is some confusion and double consonants: anos. vacca. Q V= kw (cf. 163. Double consonants regularly kept after long their long pronun- ciation: annus. and thus became identical V. 158. 248. 247. fillio.

Gellius quotes P.e. incohare are archaic calls Terentius Scaurus and vehemens incorrect. 251. 1." In inscriptions we find such forms as reprehensus aduc. Quintilian commends the spelling deprendere: S. cortis. Grammarians say that A is not a letter but a mark There is no trace of Latin k in of aspiration: S. 117. Pr. G. Cf. in such words as sepu/c/irum. 399. Quintilian says the ancients used h but little. 249. 264-265. Digitized by Microsoft® . 263.— io6 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Probus states that traho is pronounced trao: Lindsay 57. S. as in quisquis honos tumuli: Keil V.. hinsidias. honera : Pompeius notes that k sometimes makes position. Initial h was surely very feeble and often silent during In Cicero's time and in the early Empire there was an attempt to revive it in polite society. which led to frequent misuse by the ignorant. a.. If -was weak and uncertain at all times in Latin. being little or nothing more than a breathed on-glide: S. and cites "ados ircosque": S. doubtless the Romance It languages. Nigidius Figulus fit to the effect that "rusticus sermo i. vemens: S. Cf. the Republic. comprendit. but Cicero's contemporaries much. mi. probably disappeared when medial: . etc. 262-263. "adhuc non aduc. vehemens. and both he and Velius Longus declare there is no h \VLprendo: S. of "Arrius. 266." see S. as in terga fatigamus hasta. Grammarians felt obliged to discuss in detail the spelling of words with' or without h : S. nil. 267—268. first XI. App. 264. 266. 250. [§ 251 LATIN CONSONANTS. Gellius says ahenum. 266. 263-264. sometimes does not. ASPIRATE. 255-256. very much as happens in Cockney English to-day: for the would-be elegant chommoda.. si speaks of bygone generations as using k very S. Paris in I?om. — aspires perperam".

S. After h had become pronunciation of medial h as Italian pronunciation of there grew up a school which has persisted in the Latin and has affected some words in silent.§ 254] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. of S. oratia. quooperta cot. hossa. Before u and first however. hodio. ymnus. by Microsoft® . 252. 253- C and K did not differ in value except that C some- times did service for dicitos G: App. 82-87. I. § 226. the Empire. 351. Vulgar Latin reduction of que to Digitized qui to ki: Lat. less indisetc. GUTTURALS. C. '^digitus = digitos. nichil. 819. heremum. S. haram. But in Dacia. 341-344. the kw was 340-341.. ospitiutn. Mens. cocus : see §226. etc. 254. 264. unless analogy led to a substitution of cociior coqui throvigh. Cf. R. OSTIA... I. condam. C. Pr. etc. too. L. k. 345-346. 455. hegit. 107 is dropped in a few inscriptions towards the end of the Republic: arrespex (for haruspex). I. as in eastern Italy. Cf. criminately used: abeo. S. 924. 351-352. kw was Before other vowels the regularly kept in most of k. Cf. Q and C: S.L. Q F was Audollent 536. 1034. probably earlier in local or vulgar iii. R. 473. dialects: Quintilian VI. E. etc. anc. pronounced kw: 0. non dicitus". C. There was some confusion.. = coperta. etc. southand Sicily subsequent developments point to a ke. cottidie. In Rome are found: e[redes]. in quo ante=^inBechtel 78-79. omo. 462-463. ortus. S. abitat.... Bechtel 78. ic. cf. L. hostium. Sheldon in Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Litera- turel (1892). In Pompeii h is freely omitted. other languages: michi. 345. choante.. ora. records a pun of Cicero on cogue and quoque. oe. I. and H after the third century it is everywhere more or eres. 350reduced to k by the or second century. etc. b. Spr. I. I. etc. 265-266. secuntur. Bechtel 77-78. S.

for some reason. e. For ks>-)(S. ern Gaul apparently sk regularly became ks. to Carnoy have become *laceus: Substrate 255. 352. excutere. of a metathesis of ks into sk: axilla"^ ascella. 353 (cf. Lexique 93). S. Carnoy 157.. Laqueus seems. 256. S. es~ for ex.: see Melanges Wahlund t^^. merx.. S. first [§ 256 In quinque the w was lost by dissimilation: cinqve. milex. S. 221.. On In norththe other hand.'' "miles non milex. etc." "locuples non lucuplex. viscit). felis. 351. began as shown by Anglo-Saxon borrow- ings and by such Latin forms as frigare. Bechtel 139. in late Latin. I. sometimes. etc.before vowels.). gium. exponere." In parts of Italy ks between vowels was assimilated into ss by the first century. Carnoy 171. but not in syllables etc. There are some examples. BissiT BisiT VISIT = vixit. migat in inscriptions Digitized by Microsoft® . 353." "poples noT\ poplex. Carnoy Eckinger 126 (2eorros). buxus'^* buscus vixit>\iyiC\Ti (i. 274. Fr. fifth tury. 353. 145. xanto. App. Cf. Carnoy 158." Keil VII. Cinqvaginta. nasco. So ex-^es. Carnoy 159. Caper. destera. in At about the same time : final ks cojus. as in * essaexire. The voicing of intervocalic surds doubtless it is early as the fifth century. dester. found in Spain (so cinqv. S. III. see § 266. After a consonant ks early tended to become s: Piautus uses mers for est. 341. /'m«7/« > prixsilla. cinctivs. cen- inscriptions. by analogy. as in cresco. but this was only local: alesan[der]. mextum for mcestum. extimare for cestimare. etc. 353. Lindsay 102.. subornatris. ^ stood for ks: S. 98. ubi materia per s. By the second reduced to or third century ks before a consonant was 170.: Hence cf. pregiiax became s. Audollent 537. 346. except in mono^prmgnans. "aries non ariex. conjus. io8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ''cah dicendum. cf. s: sestus is common in inscriptions.

Franz. In Central Sardinia. Before the front vowels e and the velar stops k and g were drawn forward. / 258. of the cataveris ^^ cadaveris. however. kera. in central and southern Italy. 472.— — § 258] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and Dacia the k' stage was apparently kept longer than in most regions: Lat. on the evidence of inscriptions and manuscripts. gat. and in Sicily. kena. occubavit. A. sigricius ^= secretins. etc. siubri. Densusianu 111-112. in some places perhaps as early as the first century. XXV. Digitized by Microsoft® . pagandum. became g and gr: *gaveola. maintains. i25ff.g'. Voicing was not general. early in the Empire or before. while c>gz. Rydberg.. Cf. 731. Dalmatia. Haag 27—28. I.. found in the 4th century. etc. 7th century. immudavit. etc. that t>d'm the fifth century and the beginning of the sixth. and Dacia. there are many examples from the sixth century: Lat. finds in inscriptions some slight evidence of a change of t to d during the Empire. . crassus + grossus'^grassus. t were voiced in Gaul in the second half of the sixth century. kelu. in a few words. deghe<. Some above examples show that consonants followed by r shared in the voicing. noghe < nucem. Vok. According to Loth 21-26. Haag 28-29. Zimmermann. ne121. 3 I. 109 and manuscripts. etc. Haag 27. (i) Cf. pontivicatus. Spr. C and G before Front Vowels. Carnoy 123. G seems to have been attracted sooner than k : in Sardinian we find k before e or i preserved as a stop whiles is not decern. Spr. intervocalic c.t least two centuries earlier. at least as early as the seventh century. kircare. Initial c and cr. Dalmatia. 257. Carnoy eglesia. 474. etc. southern Italy.. and Illyria k' went no further. lebra. cubidus. 2d century. but reina. into a mediopalatal position k'. 32. Zs.. etc.. kima. * gratis. p.

neglienda. Pr. 473. 473. = conjugi. Vok. Pirson 97 quarranta = qicadraginta. and after a consonant. in through legit. coi^i. genarivs. both in popular and in Gerapolis for HierapoHs. Digitized by Microsoft® . re{g)ina. no An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in nearly all the Empire. the regularly remained. Before happened.e... agere = ^ aiere. argentum. "calcostegis Neumann 75... Grammaire des langues ro- I. but is " weak " before other vowels. Spr. Sicily. . etc. "-frigida non fricda"). fused. agebat ^ aiebat.. Spain. Pirson 97 celiens.. vigtlat had become *viglat. Haag 34 manes 1' . etc. II. 275. 61. 173. 461 .. this Haag 33. and portions of Sardinia. jSctevTt = viginti. praepalatal clerical and Latin: App. F. Gepte. D'Arbois 10. Spr.Gi 5. §233. 3 I.): it its disap- pearance (as in pldngit. 15-16): cf. lenubam = Bon. genvarivs. This y. to the effect g has "its own sound " (i. Thm-ot 77. 460) trienta. 461. Lat. Pirson iniens. non cakosieis. that of English g in gem) before e and /. leges. so *pa{g)e{n)sis. {g)inti. except colliens when analogy forced *colliente. (cf.>maester. Troge. 250. agebat Lat. = Sepulcri 205. Stolz 349. Cf. 349. 3. colliens. Per. S. Voi. iesta. etc. ingens aiebat. . fmucrrpo. S.. with the following e or i if this vowel was stressed: vi- mag2ster'>*mayister'. Vok. II. etc. After the accent. G' by the fourth century had become had opened into y. Agrientum." geiuna= Jejuna. But sometimes : fused with a following i proparoxy tones roitus {=irdgitus z= rogdtus). Cf. frigidus in most of the Empire had become frigdus {App.1 1 Some light is thrown on the later clerical pronunciation by a statement in a fragment of a tenth century treatise on Latin pronunciation. similarly perhaps the proclitic ma{g)is. diriens.Gi. a part of southwestern Gaul. Genavam. recoUiendo. Tragani. Diez. when it was intervocalic. 239. maestati. and digitus in some places had become dictus {Franz. S. and southwestern Italy remained at the y stage elsewhere the y developed further in the Romance languages. [§259 259. Pr. II.

. S. in the fifth century we find bintcente. the earlier grammarians: prsepalatal. I. paze (6th or 7th cenFrankish tins (German zins') is from fifth borrowed probably in the 595. and is almost like q before other vowels. septrvm. k'y had become t'y: t'yentu. ka. in the Comptes rendus des seances de I'Academie des Inscriptions. 7. 348. that c has " its own sound " before c and i. 359. and Libit. consiensia. it is stated ts. XXX.§ 26i] An K' Introduction to Vulgar Latin.S^ was palatalized also: crescere. . 322 P. 81. dut'yere. century some writers distinguish Rom. In the school pronunciation of the seventh and eighth centuries c before e and i In the treatise cited in the preceding note. 151. XXXIII. Meyer-Liibke in Einf. XIV. or praepalatal. 617). 348 cites fes[it]. duk'ere. 1893. and qu. articulation: k'entu. There is no mention of first it by 340. Paris in Journal des savants.. intcitamento: P. of this glide the group then. in the Annuaire de I'^cole pratique des 261. as early as the third ce. in Lat.itury must have had nearly front. G. 51-53. S. Fetite phonetique du franfais prelitieraire. everywhere a The next step was the development of an audible glide. nascere. E. tury). etc. apparently as and postpalatal. 360. 1893. Vok. a short y. Cf. 1 was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . W. For a discussion of the subject. Marchot. XXVI. 163. co{g)ndscere. duk'yere. see H. piscem. developed into or ts: t's'entu or Speakers were apparently unaware of the phenomenon until the assibilation was complete.1 century: F. Zs. Guarnerio in Supplementi aWArchivio glottologico italiano IV (1897). By the fifth century the k' had passed a little further forward and the Through a modification tsentu. census. S. 21-51 (cf. in 260. in the t's sixth or seventh century. G. mediopalatal. In the half of the third ce. Thurot 77. Schuchardt. Mohl. 1901. Cf. between the k' and the following vowel: k'yentu. ffautes-^tudes. Vok. 123-126. fascem. and in Rom. 1900. I.

But ligdre. Carnoy 127 (cf. due. Vok. — mainly. so * ledlis. Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie [§264 3131!. and then developed further: carum>'Fr. 146. ga in most of that country became k'a. probably by the end of the seventh century. pacare. found about the sixth century. and apparently remained under learned or under analogical influence in others: avstvs from the second century on. Franz. hoc. avste. frvalitas. 242-243). in the front of the 263. through alliteration. negdre. 349. sic factum). so. see Palatals below. by Microsoft® . cher. (3) C and G Final and before Consonants. Carnoy 155-160 (who puts the assibilation in the sixth century and earlier). For ce. fammi {<ifac mi). ecce htc. * liamen. pagdnus. of a local assibilation of c as early as the second century. ka. however. See. ci. 3 II. Italian die. 50). S. I. jambe. gustus. Sfir. g'a. however. At the end cf. K and g before vowels not formed mouth usually remained unchanged: canis.112 An 472. S- — — perhaps 349). 129 (other examples in manuscripts. sic. Intervocalic g before the accent fell in many words in all or a part of the Empire. too.. of a word the guttural seems : to have been regularly preserved in Vulgar Latin fac. Inasmuch as a had in Gaul a front pronunciation (§ 194). realis in Gl. see Archiv XV. § 256. dimmi (< die mi). siffatto {<. *redlis (for XXX. (2) C AND G before Back Vowels. see Zs. Reich. the proclitic eo for ego. For a possible indication. y^ 264. the c must have been Digitized lost. gamba>'Ex. Occasionally. eccu'hdc.. in Introduction to Vulgar Latin. negare. 262.

XXV. and likewise substituted x^ fo"^ ^^' Suchier 735. Cf. 735. Zs. 348. antiqui quasi dumecita appellabant quae nos dumeia. became um: fraumenta. Pr. Lat. The Celts perhaps pronounced the Latin beginning. In late texts nee is often written ne before a consonant. * exsire . frigdus. § 186. Zaf. LATTVCjE (3OI etc. and there is a confusion of si and sic: Franz. subsequently drawn forward to the praepalatal position santus. 472. through assimilation to a following initial consonant: PA iot fac. > Fr. 265. 236-240. Old ct Windisch 394. "dumecta S. Gm Pr. D.e.. Einf. 278. "pegma non peuma" Digitized St. which seems to have been assimilated first into nt in parts of the Empire. S. oclus. in the south even in the first century: AVTOR. fait. sante. ^^auctor non autor". 113 no doubt. 399). 398*fC'X^um>Vx. be explained otherwise: Irish ocht-n corresponding to Latin octo. Lat.. — sanctum 268.^ Ft. App. in Pompeii.).. see § 255.) . D. Spr. 476. Before another consonant k and g were for the most part kept through the Vulgar Latin period: actus. Pr." 348. 267. irqyfua. "sagma by Microsoft® . App. A.g. Isidore. fata. Spr. eissir. however. sank. that the y was retained very generally in Gaul and perhaps some other regions. in see § 254.). 9 II. I. The resultant phenomena can. and «'. OTOBRIS (380 A. etc. §650. For ks of Italy = x. saint. For kw 266.. 215-224.. regnancte. ( i. There is reason to believe. S. = qu.§268] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Carnoy 172. PR/EFETTO. Spr. Xf some parts was assimilated into U by the beginning of the fourth century. otogentos. santo. inasmuch as their own rf had as x^ from the become ^f (e. 472. however. Gram. probably by the century: defuntus. *viglat (§233). cuntis. fleuma. Nkt became yt. Festus.

324) and zesv =/esu. cunnuscit. Compare oz^^ hodie (S. pi{g)ntia. 115-116.114 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. rcenante. eiius. gaudium. hodie. odium. 476. similarly the ^ was sometimes etc. Fortsetzung 7. Haag 34. venio. Italian sauma [or salma^ dicitur" (i. 327. Palatalization was commonest probably were reduced to y in vulgar speech: deorsum. Cf. between in vowels. edmus. 272. Gn was still variously treated in different regions. ZVNIOK = junior (S. 271. which comes from Koxfrn. ZACOiJVS = diaconus. and subjected to further modifications. in popular words apparently became r parts of the Empire: fra{g)rare. soma. Gr. pere{g)rtnum. ftlia. sauma 269. 239). connato. as calma from Soma occurs in Gl. assimilated into n or n in others. habeam.. In cognosco the decomposed — g generally disappeared. in the latter part of the Empire. Latin / was pronounced being identical in sound with the consonant that developed out of e and / (§ 224): jam. of ii was often used: coiiugi. Dy and^. exagium.e. (S. Cf.. etc. d.. 323) and Zovk^la= Julia (Eckinger 80). renum. aayixa). I. Stolz 275. teneaf. being preserved in some. [§272 quae corrupte vulgo S. no SCO. adjuiare. Reich. Pirson 75. followed a consonant. 364 a. audiam. diumus. fageus. rarest in Dacia. that consonant was often less assimilated. cujus. podium. Lat. 270. y. the after the fall of initial g in gnosco —-into lost in cognatus : word being co~ and Vok. and also salma. videavi . ajutit =adjutet. Cf. Carnoy Digitized by Microsoft® . conjux. Pirson 76. PALATALS. inte{g)rum. Instead i (=/) the spelling mann. t. ni{g)rum. sometimes entirely absorbed by the in Gaul. Spr. Neu- When y more or y. madias = maias.

Haag anoget = *inodiaf. It hordeurh > It. *deyo: cf. means dy. and perhaps through slurring due to constant and careless use. St. di. n' before the end of the Empire: ftlius. 461. = maio. The reduced forms cf. 63. 324. fiios. represented by the spellings Aureia. Z is often used in inscriptions. S. probably dz : podium proferenda est. licpioi = Sergius.(4). deggio. etc. however. ny. : orzo. between vowels. Audollent 537 zogenes. aggio. His- pania. 339): z^s cf. Congianus =. 320. 323. magias ^= maias. The S. palea. But through the analogy of audio"^* auyo. 208.. De. or dz (cf. Gl. Georg. aios = Carnoy 162. mezzo. debeo often became *ayo. melius. 115 162. probably became veniam. = dies. Pr. Waters Ch." S. another — doubtless more elegant — pronunciation. sapcha. by Microsoft® . in others especially in Italy the cultivated dz. tilia. but it we generally cannot whether t." S. but not everywhere. Corneius. sappia. prandium > It. pranzo. S. § . lated in Vulgar Latin beside abbio. folia. Condianus. Vok. In most words the vulgar jv prevailed. towards the end of the Empire. appears that the labials were not regularly assimi- sapiam > It. Carnoy 161.§274] ^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cor- aytos. 321. 34. Carnoy 162. Digitized etc. teneat. di sine sibilo Isidore letter tell grsecum enim nomen est. II. juria = jurgia. Servius in Virg. Ly. habeo. The : dz pronunciation was especially favored after a consonant 273.. but medium ^^ > It. 216. Media. ridia =! corrigim. Reich. most of the Empire: 274. writes. generally prevailed. Haag 34. says. sacriius—SiaKpiTOi. from radius Italian has both raggio — — and razzo. "solent Itali dicere ozie pro hodie. y. This palatal pronunciation may be 327. Remidium — Eemigium. madio S- 349. had poggio. /'. etc.i£=die. in Yox plUvia a form *pldja was substituted §§ 169. It. debbio. which was > It. II. video>*veyo.

" In the treatise published by Thurot (see footnote to § 259). in the similar in sound. Cf. silentium. postea. Pirson 72. unless preceded by s. 321) "benedictio et oratio et talia t debent habere in psenultima syllaba. caseus. 475. is confused with the spelling c being prescribed in amicicia. oli. see § 277. foreign words borrowed from Latin oleum indicate the same irregularity. avaricia. and ty. see § 296. S. Riquier 131 &nd pitid in popular speech). tercius. servicium. duricia. consiensia. the an exception-: cf. Vok. prophetia. d. Oleum. Lat. is pronounced like c. ti. / 'i'l^^^y. According to Albinus (S. /' [§276 later: were probably reduced to ex-eligit. Bon. . I. sty were generally assimilated of sy later: *bassiare. is Pr. 'ApovKiavoi = Aruntianus. Sp. we are told that ti. termina(an acrostic in Com- ciONES in (2d century). Fr. scy.. tercia. malleus. concupiscencia many examples Gaul in the 5th century. as in etiam. olio.). between vowels. a sound similar to English sh in ship: basium. being respectively k'y second and third centuries. Eckinger 99.d. were very and t'y (cf. p. ocium. Pg. malicia.. Ssy. eAaiov.y«j/i«'a (in an edict of Diocletian).. Stolz 51. ci. Spr.). huile. non c. doubtless became during the VulgHRjatin period /.ii6 Lly. I'g' to Vulgar Latin. . Digitized by Microsoft® .). isoff. Fr. etc. leticia. defeniciones (222235 A. It. also in nuncius. justicia. quatio. modian). pudicicia. D. mansionem. In later school pronunciation cy and ty were sounded alike.. D. Cf. 171 especially common in Gallic inscriptions of the seventh century. D. Densusianu in. collt^t. 323. An Introduction ll'g'.). Cy and ty. For rv. fascia. etc. and hence were often confused: a. For the confusion 276. staacio (601 a. furthermore. from oleo. 78. etc. somewhat allium. ocio (389 A. Pirson 71 mendatium. oracionem (601 a.

by the 140 A. (S. 68. reviewed in Libit.: audatia. etc. or vice versa: cf. XXVII. 1904. * gutteare "> Horning in Zs. see S. etc. 3d ccntury. A number of words evidently had a popular pronunciation with f and 277. It. 320) says. Carnoy 154. Reich. conditio. to the substitution of suffixes and to other permanent transfers of words from one class to the other: cf. later avarttic^-cia. castius). as * exquartiare-^YX.. Pompeius says the same thing at con- siderable length. otia.. Cf. etc. 320).. T'y developed sporadically in the second century. Anitius -cius. 64. etc. adding (S. 117 spacium. pinguius sonat et perdit sonum suum et accipit sibilum. MARSIANESSES = J/ar/z'a«^«j'M. et i". sotium. XXIV.vel di^ syllabam sequitur vocalis. A. This explains such seemingly anomalous developments 324. Vok. inicio. 320): "/ustitia ex tribus he goes on to state that it is always so when ti is followed by a vowel other than / (as in Tatius. Latetnisches ti und ki im Ru7ndnischen. speties. squarciare. tertia syllaba sic sonat quasi constet z. Hence arose numeroimdouble forms: condicio solacium solatium. 324. et plerumque supradictse syllabse in sibilum transeunt." Consentius 'For a different explanation of the Italian and Rumanian developments. D. 323. Justitii). ampittfltru. but not in otii. S. .§277] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in some cases. ularly a school pronunciation with etc." Papirius. except in foreign proper names or after j litteris. either whole Empire. Carnoy 151-154. Cf. Servius in Don. so many ^|ftper names. It. Gl. (as injustius. Italienischen und Sardischen. cited by Cassiodorus (S. tristicia.. locally or in the This similarity or identity of sound led. "si dicas Titius. regfourth. S. am- bicio. t. Puscariu. gocciare. cum scribitur.^ k'. zodorys = Theodoras. spacio. tercius. I. §260): crescentsian[vs]. Vincentl^us. Audollent 537. etc. *cominitiare -ciare. 545. into ts (cf. S. servitium -cium. "lotacismi sunt quotiens post ti. Digitized by Microsoft® . comenzare chminciare.

Pirson 71. 307. 323. D regularly remained unchanged: Digitized dare. Ztd/t. Cf.palagio heside patazzo. glacies. cf. pretium —sium. The in modern French.vo'.s or sixth.. are Metiacus> Messac). Welsh words borrowed from Latin before the fourth century show no assibilation. but names in -tiacum.l. as 280. Isidore in justitia: S. . vitiutrf^lt. servitium —slum. carried into Brittany in the second half of the fifth century. [§281 mentions the assibilation in etiam. assibilated (e. 65 Horn. etc.g. so facio.. " ' by Microsoft® . JT'y was assibilated sporadically in the third century. 6th century.. and the ultimate products have become identical in that which many For regions. Clerical usage for a while doubtless favored sy for ty. statio —sio. Exai^les are very numerous: observasione. etc. perdo. St. 323. k'.'a. DENTALS. 279. placeam. Vok. g'. 480. S. 278. dentals were pronounced with the middle of the tongue arched up and the tip touching the gums or teeth. 5th century. fifth but not regularly until the of t'y -wa. XXXV. if the /' was rather weak. diposisio ^= depositio. and many words have palatium preserved it in various regions. Pirson 71. But the intermediate stages were similar enough to lead to some confusion. tersio. modus. was easily confused with sy. d. ratio —sio. judigsium.ii8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. vezzo. 153. 6th cen- tury. see Gutturals. as in English : S. d. 225 a. =^ Afardanus. especially in suffixes: —slum. hocsies. The resulting sibilant was different from came from t'y: faciam'^-lt. Carnoy 154. 320-321. hence \X?X\2. and -igia beside -ezza from -ztia. etc. 301-302. — — S. after the assibilation completed: Mapa-w. XXVII. not followed by y. say t's'y the At aa intermediate stage between ty and ts grouD. sepsies. Eck- inger 103. and not 281.. faccta.

282. The cases seem to be sporadic and due to different special causes. S. ." App.» Sittl 37. // d may have been . as we may infer from the treatment of the prefix ad~: people probably said not only at te (cf.. 311312 "grundio non grunnio. Gaul. verecvnnvs. quid quit. If this was the case. 31 1 Consentius blames " peres pro pedes" S. S. 365 aput. etc. Liquids. " adif^ non alipes. 365-366. Digitized by Microsoft® . 283. : (i) Occasionally (/>/. etc. Pr.. period. S. northern Italy. App. (2) In a. 366-367 Some of the confusion was doubtless due to the fall of both d 365 . .. id 29. 358-359. Pr. Cf. Grammarians warn against the Cf. set. confusion of ad and etc. arVORSVM =r adversum. ad eos and at ea. guoi. etc. devocalized before a voiceless : initial consonant. Carnoy 180. few words d~^r: medidies by dissimilation ^«^«rf««. etc. quo and Haag Illud. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin became 6 in Spain. fecit feced. Raetia. capud in Gregory the Great. ilium corpus. etc. part of Sardinia: vt3ere':>*vedere. a. attendere) but sometimes *ar Romam (cf.. CO. arripere). 119 Oscan and Umbrian had nn corresponding to Latin nd: There is some indication that this pronunciation was locally adopted in Latin: agennjE. o\d.. In proclitics assimilation naturally went further.. INQVID. At the end of a word there was hesitation between d and S. So the final consonant eventually often dis- appeared. set. and a Similarly intervocalic dr. and possibly at the end of a phrase apvd apvt." Cf.. S. at. the central and southern Italian nn for nd (as quannu for quando) may go back to ancient times Lat. S. dacruma'^ lacrima . it. became ilium : Haag 29. Carnoy 180.• Cf. 476. § 289. (3). Intervocalic d. 31 1. Carnoy 179-180. Spr. §283] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. through the analogy of other neuters. and t: see §285. S.

partem. dede: S. sclit. T usually stloppus remained unchanged : teneo." "vitulus non vidus. 7. '^ pessulum non pestulum" (hence Italian /ifj'//. Hammer 28-32. 367. later. but forms without the possibly due to Italian stoneconsonant (as audivi. [§ 285 either at the same time or became drin Spain and Gaul: quadro'. Spr. The first . 107. Pirson 97. Ischia. valia. often in Umbrian In Latin. occasionally in Faliscan: Hammer 5. etc." For Cf. 472. etc. " capitulum non dicendum. and also Spanish and Portuguese show no trace of final / except in monosyllables. 312-313 "Martulus non Marculus" "stlataris sine c littera Caper." "vefulus non vedus. . Spr. App. Fredegarius wrote e for cutters — — t et: Haag 29. 105. and sclitib. cf. seems to have regularly become d: astula> Pr. as ama. northern Italy. ascla. In early dialects we find such forms as cvpa. usclar. 8. Italy. schioppo. S. f developed: Caper. its Final nt perhaps lost before consonants: Lat. §234.> *quadro. > *scloppus > . Italian (except Sardinian).?.315. 284. Keil VII. Digitized by Microsoft® . Rumanian. ustulare > Pr. and Sardinia kept the t late. Gaul. —tulus~^—dus. Cf. It." capidum. sitis. in Volscian {fasia=fadat).(from stlis stlitis). peria. 367-368. 285. however. vixi. Raetia.120 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Tl.. . Between j and I z. Lat.: others appear later in the inscrip- Rome and S. sure examples of the fall in Latin are found in Pompeii tions in Christian relinque. f^habe).). facit. 8. posui) occur in Gallic inscriptions. Pr. So probably insula > * isla > * istla > * isda > Final t fell It. dr~> rr: quarranta. In quadraginta. final t disappeared early in the Empire in southern and during the Empire in most of Italy and Dacia.

in 365. triplicem. 288. 473-474. 306-307. Nt. it was doubtless often Fredegarius voiced. Priscian I. ^> d in northern Gaul and Spain. When did not fall. 287. restituerun. posquam in R. 38 (S. In inscriptions we find : dedro and dedrot. S. 470. t 286. ut Plinio sonum habet: quando geminatur secundo loco Digitized by Microsoft® . feced. 324) writes: exilem. Lindsay 124. Cf. uses capo: Haag 29. — 368. Both st and s are represented in the Romance languages. see §282: capud. Intervocalic was voiced to d in Spain. §283. L had a convex formation. likewise. 309. S. moreover. may have lost its t before consonants as post ilium but pos' me. Gaul. in general.The Romance languages show forms with nt.§288] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. (I) L.. 473. Cf. with and without either consonant. est amatus but es' portatus : Lat. d and t. 121 n. Raetia. In Gaul and Spain. Spr. 368. and-^J is found: S. cf. is preserved in the same regions as Pisaurum. posuerun. Spr. Marius Victorinus preferred posquam : S. Cicero favored posmeridianus . like d and "Z t (cf. before a vowel or a voiced consonant. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) or *capum. may indicate un- certainty in the use of d and t. and northern § 256. tr'p-dr'^dr. e. videtur. Final st. 473-474. Pos is very common in inscriptions. Italy probably in the fifth or sixth century: Inscriptions show a few such forms 309) as amadus. Such a spelling as Later this retere for reddere (S. According to Velius Longus. of final t For the confusion inquid are found. § 280): S. inside a phrase. 309. Lat. LIQUIDS. /. pos.

sound — as 50. zi. geline.d. 301 a. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 476). Dunkles undhelles 1 im Lateinischen in the Transactions of the American Philological Association / in : > XXIV. tribunal. chiave. 327) blames "coacla pro cloaca" " displicina pro disciplina". consonantem. quando finit nomina vel quando aliquam habet ante se in eadem syllaba sol. Sfr. fiaba. After consonants. See also Zs. 326. this elevation. shifted forwards. (2) There are sporadic examples of the dissimilation of two Ts: Digitized by Microsoft® . /. It remained unseems to have fallen in For //>/. see §161." heard before a consonant (as in albo. cauculus in manuscripts. Vok. chaloir and gallina~> Old Fr. etc. 289. etc.. Other grammarians blame. During the Latin period altus. intervocalic va. sol. [§ 289 syllabas et Metel-lus. mtlle. / regularly changed: luna. silva. Greece: S. etc. brought about the palatalization of Spanish and Italian clavem kl'ave > Sp. also had the thick is famuXus (but not in similis): thus explained the different fate of a in calere^OXd Fr. II. see §274. alga. 494.. consonants. 325-326. ski. fabula^*flaba'y-\\. An ut il-le.122 posita. except before i. It. to the vocalization of / into u: KavKovXaT<o in an edict of Diocletian. Eckinger 12. a faulty pronunciation of / particularly prevalent in Africa or 648. XXX." lectum. Osthoff. this formation led in some regions. see §284. plenum. ille).): S. in obscure terms. sporadically by the fourth century but regularly not until the eighth and ninth and later (^Lat. medium in aliis. ut lectus. (i) Metathesis occurs occasionally: Consentius (S. According to H. For ly. from the "pinguis. ut exilis. flavus." Consentius distinguishes the "sonus which he ascribes to initial and double / (as in lana. clarus. For sl>stl. It is likely that / before or after another consonant had a Before thick sound caused by lifting the back of the tongue. Have.

123 cf. et retrosum. 243. two r's. Reich. sursum. Pr. After long vowels the 292. deorsum. Pompejus Magnus et scribebat et dicebat kadamitatem pro calamitate. App. in inscrip- S. Cf. —arts after r^-alis. 460. Spr. however. while susosusu susum. Velius to Longus says est (S. (i)." "cultellum non cuntellum"." Russum rusum. 8) says: " Gn. in about half the Empire in persua. has iusu = was Hot consistently carried out everywhere. L.f It generally resisted In many words. carrus. 330): "Dossum per duo s quam per r quidam ut lenius enuntiaverunt.. . Waters Ch. in early writers tions: dextrosus. 77. 327. R. App. App. diosum. § 281. was early reduced to ss: Lat.. susum occur ha. § 292] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ndet. The «>j. assimilation versus. Corssen I. introsus. we fin(J repeatedly pelegrinus by Microsoft® . in most of the Empire in dorsum. Pr. so sussum>siisum. (3) Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. "terebra non tekbra". while old rss.s pessica. 330. rusus. C. Gl.. etc. "flagellum non frag-ellum. 328.(see § i6r). rj > J. Bechtel 83: susum very common." Cf. I. 307. Pr. 309. coming from rtt. R. being probably somewhat hindered by school inIt took place in the whole territory in deorsum and fluence. locally in aliorsum. ac tota r littera sublata est in eo quod rusum . although Moreover. cursus. MVNTV for multum. susum. 290. as xcfloralis. there was a strong tendency to dissimilate it was only sporadically carried out: in Old in inscriptions Digitized Latin. {2)Ji. pater. retrorsum. dossum remained unchanged: susum. 471. 1593. IV. reversus.. The principle seems have been that original rs remained. 460-461 Cf. S. suso. R : in Classic trill: and Vulgar Latin was probably a gingival S. or praepalatal change 291.

Consentius mentions "perlum -pro prcslum. This assimilation was probably not widespread in Latin. 477. 38. Cf." S. 304.'' propio. S. 329. Falisci Sittl 11 mentions an in and the Marsi. Classic Latin j was probably ^Iways voiceless and remained so in 297.. Italian Carlo. 302. etc. pellicere.124 (Sittl An 74). Waters Ch.. among the soaru. coliandrum. S. \X.) avello. see § 245. with the upper surface of the tongue convex (cf. in most of Italy and Dacia: sdror'. So Italian per lo '^pello. 330 notes prancati. Crocodilus appears as corcodilus. 296. tells 293. corcodrillus. : 294. *sempre. orlo. est marmor.It. cf. fell. etc. Cf. Spr. For quatro. cf. 330— 331. PELLiGE. propietas. It. : ^ j- Digitized by Microsoft® . uxo. quando dico mamor pro eo quod Cf. f. propio. although may have been reduced and possibly *cqyu SIBILAUTS. corium'^ *coryu (cf. cuoto). 329) / us that in elegant speech per before was pronounced pel. Metathesis is not uncommon S. as in pellabor. probably before the end of the Vulgar Latin period. as frate. suora. Italian £Occodri//o. Velius Longus (S. it has left very few traces in the Romance languages. 329) says: Pompeius (S. § 280) S. seems to have been dental. "Barbarismus. albor. merlo. An intrusive r is found in culcitra. plurigo are attested likewise. Final r. to y in parts of Italy. perla. Rum. etc. perpenna ^ Perferna. Ry was probably preserved through the Vulgar Latin it period. cocodrilus. averlo^ (in Old It. S. except in monosyllables. Lat. criblare. 307-308. 330. dietro drieto.z\vax\. S. 329. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 314-315). Jlagrare. [§ 297 also ministorum. 331. mehtrix. early fall of final r mate. mate. The old voiced having become r (S. 295.>.

sumpsi. 361-362. 471. mtsi. furnished by such spellings as maximus.) and most popular words it Tuscan is [naso. According to Chronologic 175-186. who cites UmLatin final s was very weak after and t." Quintilian also (S.§298] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in Classic Latin s some regions (cf. j- ^In the previously cited Latin treatise (see footnote to §259). Sittl 27. Spr.. also ment of a / in such become voiced sus. S. rexi. but became common by 150 to 200 A. pieta. Cf. Thurot T]^ y between vowels is described as " weak. however. ut ubi opus fuerit excludatur de metro. D. ossum. etc.) . 471) "subrusticum. corroborative evidence. the nominative singular without s (as Cornelio. unu. This evidently indicates a voicing in late school pronunciation. Cornelio. when -j was partially restored. olim autem politius. § 256): was generally preserved: causa. and the developwords as hiemps. rarely in -as: bonu. tste. and matrona for matronas. 8. urps. etc. as far as goes. Digitized by~Microsoft® . 361) notes the omission of -s by the ancients. but later it is In the older inscripin the main correctly used until the second century of our era: Lat. 108): "5 littera hanc habet potestatem. indicated by the fact that is still generally surd in Spanish [casa. filio') predominated in (jpntral Italy until the time of Csesar. but occurs also in -ts and -as. 302-304): this in is 125 Vulgar Latin intervocalic s in (S. pleps. Final s often fell in ally in Faliscan: Hammer In early 5. brian PiSAVRESE.^ sex. Ennius and his followers down to Catullus did S. such as resolvit. The omission is commonest in nominative -os or —us. Pompeius (Keil V. nepoti. etc. At the very end of the Vulgar Latin period. etc. cur- 298. not count -j before a consonant in verse: 355-356. intervocalic s may have nupsi. and occasionCf. ii Umbrian {kumate). and often was not is says the loss of —s written." except in compounds.. Cicero (^Lat Spr. etc." tions -s is freely omitted. the forms without Terentio.

became and sometimes before m and/. 302.. 540. IX. morbu ^ morbus. tra. tempus>lt. tres^OXA. see § 230. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. It. For sy. prete. tra{ns)posuit . Vx. 471): sentts'^YX. 299. see § 275.126 again. the In presbyter. tra{ns')veho. a new nominative constructed from irpeers fell in Italy and elsewhere through the substituva. however. For prosthetic i or e before s + consonant. (later tre^. 539. Digitized . In Gaul. tratransjicio. cords the omission of -s in as this nearly always less was strongly Carnoy 185-206 reline it is many inscriptions. L.(but trasporre). /SvTcpos.before d. jecit.traduxit. but notes that happens at the end of a doubt- only a conventional abbreviation. see § 246 and Greek by Microsoft® Consonants. 301. C. [§302 and prevailed in central Italy in the third century («<7 Cf. 316). for ejus. For z. and some other regions. Hammer 19-28. I. final J disappeared for good from the common pronunciation in the second and third centuries. usually preferred tras. see § 161. Spr.coming from the prefix ex-.j.(but traduire. but das^lt. tion. probably owing to the previous linguistic habits of the natives.. 1938. transduco and We sometimes Both forms occur Gaul and Spain before / and v : tra (^ns) luce 0. transtulit.(as prabitor) for the unusual initial pres-: hence It. see Gutturals For ss>s. -s. examdtis "> dai. etc.«. According to Velius Longus (S. cept in monosyllables {^Lat. tion of the prefix /r.. trei amate. traducir). etc. Audollent In most of Italy. Densusianu 122—123. tra{ns)misit. preveire {<. Italy generally favored tra. It. tempo. Spain. liberio. find. pronounced and therefore preserved. trans.).*prcebyterum'). and probably in Dacia. In Old French pasmer (from spasmus) the ^ was lost probably through confusion with es. senti. Cf. 300. filio^filios. For assibilaand Palatals.

immitto. anguis. inquit. M and 304. before dentals.: cf. «'s in Bononia > It. is 278). and v. by 270. ut magnus. must have been partly nasalized. ut templum. ut umbra. "m obscurum in extremitate dictionum sonat. probably tives first the pronunciation of these fricabefore changed from bilabial to dentilabial (cf. 275).§ 305] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. n. etc. regularly venit. Priscian. 275) a spiritu explicabitur. by Microsoft® . S. S. with an arched tongue: S. 311). like d and t (§ 280). and the mouth closure incomplete. 303. then n. n. minus. 279-280. So Marius Victorinus (S. imperio. mediocre in mediis. In Classic Latin the nasal naturally took before labials the form of m. §§ 171." sound between m and n: "Omnes fere aiunt inter m eX n litteras mediam vocem quae non abhorreat ab utraque littera sed neutram proprie exprimat. noster. apertum in principio. The y Cf." Terentianus Maurus (S. S. 275): "iVvero sub convexo palati lingua inhaerente gemino naris et oris The same author describes (S. before m. 270. innocens. remained unFor the reduction of There was a dissimilation of two M and n. § 320) gutterals. rigo. were the preceding vowel obscure and weak in Classic Latin. as / . 275) Before liquids the nasal was assimilated cf. S. as between n and ^ (S. According to Priscian (S. comfluo confluo. comvenio convenio. iVNCXi. 269- {colligo. 276. conduco. uncus (cf. Cf. was dental or gingival. — or "« adulterinum"— and also nvncqvam. y: combura. 127 NASALS. N. etc. cor- before s it was Digitized silent [ mis-. contineo. changed: meus. see § 245. Bologna. . 275) says that for n the air comes through both nose and mouth." 305. amat. initial and intervocalic. 269-270. described by Nigidius (in Gellius). g. 272. final or followed by a consonant.).

§§171. In both old and late inscriptions the nasal is often omitted altogether before a consonant: Decebris." Cf. Carnoy 220). Digitized by Microsoft® . see § 267: santa.. 286) says: littera "Columnam et consules legimus. cur regibus. we ci. but in great measure also to the mistaken efforts of later writers to restore a real or hypothetical earlier orthography: compare the treatment of prefixes. locun sanctum. nom or non fecit. 272): this is indicated by such spellings as senper. as there is § 32. Servius. conplere. tan mulieribus. Bechtel 81 {forsitam. innoceti. like medial nasals. nynfis. before/ and v there was great uncertainty (cf. Pirson 92. etc. 281-285. Cicero advocated cun nobis. i senatu. ut nomen. r/ must have been reinforced. 364.. 307.. find cun. quan floridos. santo. Cf. Priscian (S. S. etc. Mn seems at one time to have been pronounced m: Quintilian (S. Carnoy 220. nol lego. S. exeetc. nunquam. and even before dentals not always clear (S. In inscriptions S. frequent. Carnoy 176-177.128 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. n. 306. secudo. [§307 to a following consonant: Final nasals seem to have been adapted. Carnoy 176. de- fuctce. occubas. decemter. 278. cun navibus : Lat. In the vulgar speech of the Empire the sound before seems to have been indistinct. S. nom paret. For the change of rjkt to yt. quen. 276—277.. then to nt. iy carne. iferos. 311). and there was apparently some labials doubt before ^« and qu (S. cun duce. nomem. The due hesitation and inconsistency in spelling are certainly in part to imperfect articulation. 273. reliquat. In late Vulgar Latin m. 275): exempta n "iV quoque plenior in primis sonat et in ultimis partibus syllabarum.. 271-272). laterna. 476. etc. plu. largely to mere careless- ness in cutting. Spr. etc. quamta. forsitam mille. etc. little trace of confusion in the Romance lan- guages. pricipis.

§309] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. on the other hand. in the last first two centuries of the Empire the traditional spelling is carefully observed: early and late such forms as dece. etc. Toward the end of the Empire fashion evidently prescribed cates a conscious a distinct pronunciation of mn. dormito for dormitum. S. mense. dampnare. ide. — that 309.. 462.). exilior in mediis. m Final m often fell in Umbrian 5. Bechtel 107. unu are very common. Spr. Bechtel •]()•. abundant examples. oli. to say. for -amn~. ut amnis. Bon. (as in puplu). 308. eoru. was probably assimilated into nn in central and southern Italy before the Empire was over {Lat. It is often omitted in inscriptions down c. from the first century. sum(J>)tus. 476): Interanniensis. Between is m and j or / a / generally developed in Latin was unvoiced and denasalized before the surd that followed this / was not always written: sum(J))si. terra. the latter part of the . damnum. mpn is common in 189. pride. Bechtel 80. jacente. Audollent 539-540. 129 stamen. In Old Latin it was to weak: 130 B. etc. S. and dampnum (cf. S. occa- sionally in Faliscan: Hammer 8. the wrong use of it are very frequent in the Per. and conversely forms with a superfluous m.. So R. septe. accedere. 363-364. etc. : que ad mo- century of the Republic and the dum. The omission of -m and Pr. Bechtel 91 Digitized cf. mecu. by Microsoft® . App. 356." Carnoy 166 has Interamico. cal- the early indi- Romance languages. show a fondness for such spellings as calumpnia. and again in late plebeian inscriptions. Carnoy 166. umpnia. cf.. etc. Late inscriptions. 298. passi. It is likely that this orthography and painful effort to articulate clearly. counteracting a previous ten- dency to although slur the group. Cf. numqua. . The Romance languages it point to the preservation of mn.

. 364Lat. the final S. fell Before^. 356-358. scarcely any m audible quantum erat. For further assimilation. cf. [§ 310 ardente lucemam. S. cf. etc. As the fall of m seems to have been due primarily to a failure to close the lips completely between two it is likely that the nasalization was slight. 358).. vowels. Final m before vowels seems to have been. S. Cato said dice hanc. having disappeared very early before vowels. in poetry it may be disregarded (cf. then (by assimilation) before other consonants. reaches the conclusion that silent at the it became end of polysyllables by the first century. AudoUent 537). 282. 361): see 305. (S. 288-292. cognosco. Hammer 32-41. audiendu' st. etc. Spr. hors. etc.130 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ignotus: is Other- wise there no sure proof of the fall but there is abundant evidence 365). next before spirants and at the end of a phrase.tenea{m')\ cum. Cf. as in cognatus. 274). Before consonants S. of its assimilation to a § following labial (im bello. Digitized by Microsoft® . very early. coicere: S. of -n in Latin (S. the precedThe contrary view is maintained by Seelmann. The Romance languages point to a loss of -m in all words but monosyllables: damnu{m). 106). 473. 274. who notes the omission of -m in many inscriptions under all possible conditions. 361): see §305. 286). it was assimilated (cf. n of prefixes 274. ing vowel was nasalized. "/« Siciliam dicendum. According to Quintilian is 362). from early times. S.. Carnoy 206-221. In the opinion of Schuchardt. 361). Cf. 110-112. 360. tan dvrvm. non is Siciliam": see § 311. pdssu{ni). fix The con— became co— before vowels. but it seems preco- to have been reinforced in Classic speech (S. 310. too. Caper (Keil VII. etc. as in coactum. only a weak nasal glide: in circueo it disappears (S. jam. he adds that there in tantum ille. coharere. I. quern (^quen. Final n must have been indistinct (S. Vok.

thensaurus. . inscriptions: cofecisse. locuplens. 287). mesis. as videns. Cf. Such forms are frequent in cojugi (very common). if eras. Pr. both forms were used in -e{n)sis (according to Velius Longus. was kept in participles. Quintilian (S. occansio.. AudoUent 538.. etc. -onsus>-dsus. S. It probably fell late. such words as conjux. 274. covenimus. 462. coin of Vespasian's reign). ^^ i'^ Greek- ko^ous. etc. non.). Charisius (S. seme{n) in. cojux. This phenomenon was only thority: partially recognized by Classic au—ensimus -^ -esimus. quiensces. Pirson 94. 311. § App. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . however. v. probably through nasalization of the preceding vowel: see § 171. R. R. libes. "Hercules non Herculens. etc. 274. toties. Spr. pes neque mens. Eckinger 80. Stolz 243. Pr. infas." "occasio non occansio.. 131 The Romance languages indicate the disappearance of -n. S. 113-115. thensaurus. 274. trare. the n was generally restored by analogy (see 171). ifra. etc. resurges S. as in vicesimus. coventionid. Carnoy 177." Cf. iferi. (on a (Capua. prcBgnas repeatedly. 473. 461Conversely... 286) records that "men- sam sine n littera dictam Varro fall ait. etc. iferi." Before/. cesor. For final nt. after the Vulgar Latin period: Lat. mansus. App. Before fricatives or spirants n regularly fell.. 387 a. 281-285. ifimo. 286). formosus (S. see § 285. 273). hortesia./.ifs. letter inscriptions: Kki]ix.§ 31 1] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. remasit. Stolz 243fT. convenio'&ie really new formaThe only sure Romance traces of the loss oin tions: S. d. 274. "ansa non asa" . 285. cojugi. Cicero preferred foresia. —iens'^-ies. iventa. Plautus repeatedly uses mosTerence seems to intend a rhyme in "neque Stolz 243." In popular speech the times: S. ifer cojectis." Eunuchus 728. with a superfluous n: fidens =-fides. "consules exempta n littera legimus.. 281-285. ns. cosol. mesor messor = mensor. was probably constant from early in/as. except in monosyllables: ndtne{Ti).. 459.

or perhaps captivus became first *cactivus. Pirson 93.• redemti. etc. Raetia. by Microsoft® . (I) P. S. Before s. scripit. In central and southern Italy// became the Empire: scritus. etc. stubrum.. sposus. Lat. It. 312. hut pensare. settembres. Bon. to drop In Italy and perhaps elsewhere there was a tendency / between a consonant and an j- or /. under the influence of Celtic *cactos (Welsh caetJi) = Latin captus (Loth 35). the fall of n was permanent. tosus. etc. and the only Romance words containing ns are learned terms or new formations: mesa. lebrm. Pirson 60-61: labidem. Intervocalic / probably became b in the fifth and sixth centuries in Spain. App. Old Irish secht-n = septem. corpus. § 256. (i) F regularly remained unchanged: pater. S. Car- noy 165. In a part of Gaul capfivus seems to have been pronounced *cayttvus: it may be that in Gallic speech the pt oi this word became yt. mesis. LABIALS. etc. There was some sporadic confusion of/ and b: uvBLlCyE.. as was the case with Celtic// (Dottin 100.. scultor. although at a later date nf became / much of southern France. "plasta non blasta" " ziziber non ziziper" cannabis and . 299. Gaul. cf.. h. [§ 314 before these consonants in Latin are Italian /a«/^ and French in Raetia and convent. 7th century. Pr. 313.132 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Spr. and is attested by Martial and possibly by the icse for ipse mentioned by Suetonius. Windisch 394). In a part of Italy /j became ss as early as the isse for ipse is first century: found in Pompeii. Digitized became Haag862. 160. pesat. canapa. opus. 314. 476. 299. Pirson 61. S. and northern Italy: see Cf. /V likewise br: Abrilis. // probably early in 299.

§ 3i6]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


In northern Gaul intervocalic/ and/r, even in clerical Latin, /8 and ^r by the seventh century: rivaticus, 629 a. d., Vok. I, 128; cavanna, Gl. Reich.
developed through b and br into
'Soxpe,pi, see § 273.
(2) B.


as in


was not



usually ifemained un-


bene, blitum, oblitus.


Oscan and Umbrian, became vim

in Sicily


southern and central Italy, the
as far north as


being found in inscriptions
Cf. nd, § 281.


Lat. Spr. 476.

Before s or tit

likely that b regularly

became /

in Latin,



was often written

b: absens apsens, ab— apsolvere,

plebs pleps, scribsi scripsi, scribtum scriptum, trabs traps, urbs

urps; App. Pr., "celebs non celeps," "labsus non lapsus."

Final b must have been often assimilated to a following

consonant: sud



a. d.,



In the Empire, especially in the second century,
in inscriptions (cf.

and v were much confused


bixit, botu,

vene, etc., S. 240; Baleria, Balerius, Beneria,


Betrubius, Bictor, bos, valneas, Audollent 536; African birtus, bita, boluntas, Vok. I, 98 bivere, very common, Carnoy

140; baluis, Bechteh"78;

vibit, etc.,

R. 456; bobis in Consenany, traces of

Vok. Ill, 68.

In the

Romance languages

there are few,


such an early interchange.

Probably the confusion was mainly

or wholly graphic, being due to the identity in sound of b and v between vowels (§ 318): Lat. Spr. 473; cf. Einf., § 120. The Spanish levelling of initial b and v does not go back to Vulgar Latin (Carnoy 139— 141); the confusion is far commoner in Italian inscriptions than in Spanish or Gallic (Carnoy 142-146). We find also a change of initial v to b va. north Portuguese, Gascon, south Italian, and Old Rumanian.

by Microsoft®



Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


After liquids, too, there was a confusion of b and v in inscriptions, b being substituted for v much oftener than v for
b: Nerba, salbum, serbus, solbit, etc.,

240; berbex, Waters

Ch. 57; solbere, repeatedly, Carnoy 140; solbere, etc., R. 455; App. Pr., "alveus non albeus." In all probability v really changed to b after liquids: see V.


remained unchanged.
Intervocalic b opened into

the development apparin the second,

ently began in the


was well along

Oitovin = and was devitvm, provata, etc., Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95; devere, As V also was pronounced j8, a confusion in spelling S. 240. cvrabit, resulted, b and v being used indiscriminately:

completed, at least in Italy, in the third:

ivbentvtis, nobe,

etc., S.

240; i-vwE.nTE.=jubente, 2d century,

£inf. 127, § 120; cabia
vovis, etc.,

— cavea,

Danuvium, Dibona,


Audollent S3^~537j devitum (6th century), lebis, vibi, Carnoy 134-135; annotavimus, lebat, Bechtel 78;


habe:=ave, rogavo, suabitati,

R. 455— 456;



51, Pirson 61-62,



Carnoy 134-136. became contiguous

Cf. V.

to a following consonant,
Cf. V.

was vocalized

into u: *faula, *paraula, *taula, etc.

became /3r and Dacia.

perhaps not until the end of our period, in northern Gaul, Raetia, part of northern Italy,


as in popular speech: *fa§ula, * tabula, etc.

In the early stages of clerical Latin intervocalic b was pronounced Later, perhaps by the

seventh century,

was sounded


In App. Pr. we find " sibilus non


tions " sifilum pro sibilum" ;


comes from some non-Latin Italic dialect few other words. *a^ea, see § 421. (3) For habebam


(S. 300) menPerhaps the form with/ bubulcus =^ It. bifolco, and a

and Priscian



Be, bi probably remained unchanged, at least in most

by Microsoft®

§ 322]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


of the Empire: rabies, rubeus, etc.

For the analogical change

of habeo to *ayo, debeo to *deyo, see § 273.

(3) F-


F was

originally bilabial (S. 294-295), but
of the



by the middle


(S, 295): cf. § 305.

It is the old /, apparently, that is described

by Quintilian

296-297) a plain description of the dentilabial y is given by Terentianus Maurus and Marius Victorinus (S. 296).

Grammarians speak

of an alternation of h


fasena^ harena, fircum'^ hircum, habam'^fabam,
Varro, Ling. Lat.

etc., S.

f: fcedus'^hadus, The /"and 300.

the h doubtless belonged to different dialects in early Latin
§ 97, the

according to

This phenomenon can have no connection with the change of initial/to h in Spanish and Gascon.

/for h was Sabine.

of the

It is

probable that intervocalic

y became

v at the end

Vulgar Latin period

256): alevanii

^ elephanti,

paceveci ^pacifici, pontevecem =. poniificem,




was doubtless originally pronounced w; but, losing its velar element, the sound was reduced, probably During the early in the Empire, to the bilabial fricative /8. Empire Greek-letter inscriptions have ov or ^ for v (Ncpoua or Nep/3a) Ov\av!a = Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95 yS for » is common from the first century on, Eckinger 85-91. Velius Longus, in the middle of the second century, says that the u in ualente is pronounced "cum aliqua aspiratione": S. 232. Hence arises a complete confusion of intervocalic b and v








By. CVRABIT, ivbentvtis, etc, Gregory the Great. This leads


240; jubari iox juvari

to a graphic confusion of

initial b

and v

in inscriptions: biginti, bixit, botv, etc. (so



by Microsoft®




An Introduction

to Vulgar Latin.
dentilabial v in


Later the bilabial

p became


of the


cf. §


For the substitution Germanic Consonants.
323. After liquids




or w in a few words, see

this state

/3 seems to have closed regularly into b; was preserved in Rumanian (Densusianu 97, 103105), but elsewhere the p ox v was partially restored by school

influence: cerbvs, corbi, cvrbati, ferbeo,
A. D.),
§ 317.

nerba (about 100

serbat, solbit, E. G. Parodi in Horn.




So vervex became *verbex, then berbex: Waters Ch. 57 BERBECES, 2d Century, Einf. 127, § 120 (also in Gl. ReichJ).

Hence came

hesitation in spelling (^ferveo, ferbui, etc.)


inconsistent results in the


languages: corvus^

corbo corvo, Fr. corbeau; curl/US'^

Ft., Pr. corp, Sp. corvo;



nerbo, Fr. neff; servare, servire'^ It. serbare, servire.

Intervocalic w ox fi had a tendency in older Latin, as Umbrian, to disappear between two like vowels: divtnus'^ dinus (cf. Umbrian deivina> deina, Sittl 26), obHviscor> obliscor, si vis'i> sis. Cf. Lindsay 52. Also, at all times, before or after 0: bovis'^bos; devorsum>dedrsum; faor, Pirson 63; moere, AudoUent 539; Noe/u/Spios, Vok. II, 479; noem[bris], S. 241; '^pavor xiOXL paor," App. Pr.; cf. late noembris, noicius, Lindsay 52. "Favilla xion failla" in App. Pr. seems to be




In the above cases the


apparently was only sporadic.

But before an accented o or u, the w ox p fell regularly in most of the Empire: aunculus, Vok. II, 471 (cf. auncli, Pirson 63); FLAONivs, S. 241; *padnem; *padrem.
Furthermore, intervocalic
popular speech before any


ox p regularly disappeared in probably towards the end of the
vIvs, S. 241 {zLJlaus in



-vos>-vus): flavs,

by Microsoft®

B): Classic . by Microsoft® . 1220. The Greek liquids. in most cases this probably only graphic: Carnoy 128-131. Fr. oum. II. Vva. 472 (cf.:>*eccwic. 327- In Greek the surd and the sonant stops must have than in Latin. Vok. aus.. I. placuit> placwit. the sonants were perhaps not fully voiced. nasals. rivus (beside rius) through rivi. Often. period: eccu' ktc'. is evidently intended for csvum. gnaus. § 167. etc. after the analogy of a feminine or a plural form ovum (beside oum) through ova. 328. App. stored. L. : Cf. 1. triumphaut. is 325. Audollent 539 (cf. Pirson 63). Lindsay 52. primitius. Vulgar aucella. cited by Schuchardt (Vok. Pr. When intervocalic a/ or it lowing consonant. The ^Vm of C. and Greek double consonants sometimes became single: vd/xos >nummus. II. (i) In inscriptions -vs is common in place of -vvs. /3 became contiguous to a folwas vocalized into u (cf. the v was re. Pirson 63. Claussen 847-851. Carnoy 128. 137 App. however. Single consonants sometimes became double in Latin. vius in Pirson 63). and sibilants less sharply differentiated been usually remained unchanged in transmission. (S) u. Digitized Cf. naufragus. and the surds doubtless had a weak. 471) and others as aum. 113) nous. oum in Probus. noum. eccu' ista'>*eccwista. rius. datius. etc. iKKKyfTia. GREEK CONSONANTS. ndcui^ nocwi.§ 328] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. voiced explosion: so they were not always distinguished by the Latin ear. the original Latin w (spelled v) had become |8: § 2. this. hiatus which had not already become w {%% 223224) probably took that sound by the end of the Vulgar Latin 326. Before 322. Keil IV."^ ec{c)lesia. claudo. etc.

TTuppos burrus.KO)0(K delta.. cf. [§ 332 (i) B.. S. often became g. old inscriptions. > > . 138 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. nimpa. Pilipus. explosives 6. 330. S. d: l3XauT6i Sometimes. <t>. Claussen 838-841. advCf. egloge. later inscriptions.yfjia> sagma sauma. although KavZiTo? for candidus (Eckinger 98) seems to point in that direction: 'Aicpayas > Acragas Agragas. This late such cases as Kafiinj Greek pronunciation perhaps accounts for > Lat. 833-838. Digitized b. Reich. 7rop<j)vpa.papo^ cammarus gammarus. theywere *Jdcopus (also */dcomus) 'la. ch: Claussen 823-833. v sometimes became b. > conger ganger. A. 268): (cf. K6p. n. avrpov^ dndron. cf. cecino. 'Kixpmp6<i'>- lambros. It. TTvio'i > Kr > 331' g. k.iravov > Fr. y. Ka. however. sandal. progne.p. etc.yKri> andngi. c (S. however.p. w. t: xoAa^os > colaphus. became in Old Latin t. X. Claussen c. S. toKomtov > talentum. c. p.v>gubemare. *. K. TfL'^um (j-a. The From the middle of the second century spellings th. bustiola in Gl. (3) ®. t: blcesus. ^iXra^ unvoiced into /. S. rvp. cin in kvki/os > > cicinus > Old. remained b. 2S9-26a 332. 347 buxus. we find the People of fashion by Microsoft® .. Teodor. (2) K. x 252-253): vop^-ipa^ purpura . App. KaiPw%>gobius .va. KvPipva..fu > > gumtni. — fusion 346. ph. the conis mentioned by Terentius Scaurus and others. Ta\oi'>rr. b. T. of a change oi r to d there is no example. tt. Pr. — 329. K. After nasals. gamba. t regularly came to be pronounced //in Greek: a. yoyypoi Cf. "> purpura. 8 regularly ydpov>garum. T generally remained c. Crista. etc. timbre. keSjoos > citrus. B. 259. § a-iriijXvyya > spelunca. r. g. "calatus non galatus" {^ KoXadoi).

so o^-1\kiov for qfficium. 260. 256) speaks of using the old. iriumpos) in order to be better understood. Fr. caikoluus. In hoxri>doga. Parthi. In ^£ros>It.Xay^ It. etc. S. App. Thiestes. Claussen 828. It is transposed in Fhitonis. Digitized by Microsoft® . neofiti.. but popular speech kept the old t. <jia. zampogna. cf. The etc. cru/x<^o)V4a>It. Fitonis. 261. nothus.^o'i^ colaphus = colapus." 334. "amfora /came non ampora.. x^P^ > chorda = corda. palanca. Reich. phitonissm. Thescelus. etheus. etc. 256) says there were no aspirate consonants in older Latin. Thestius. ut thiara. and some other early adopperhaps the reason is to be sought in a Greek dialect pronunciation: Claussen 829-831... Fitones in Gl. : letter h is occasionally misused. Eckinger 97. ut ather. d. The proper spelling is discussed by gram- marians: S. cathedra. Theos. 257-258. c.avTac7La> > Pr. Matheus ''. In <l>aXKaiva> ballcBna. p. 0. 218. for new words as well as for old: <TvaOri>spatka— spata. . 261): dafne occurs in Pompeii. of. f is common later in southern Italy. Fr.\os> phaselus faselus . S. X ><?"• Claussen 831. ^ had developed into / in some places (S.. cefalo. KoKa. etc. Bonnet 141.§ 334] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. '^Theophilus non izofilus": (i) Evidence of a late school pronunciation of 6 as ts is to be found in Thurot 78. unaspirated pronunciation (as pulcros. 139 undoubtedly tried to imitate the aspirates (Lindsay 54). Cicero (S. S-p. 79 (cf. zio we have a late development of Claussen 833. . pantaisar." "strofa non stropa". Quintilian (S.. " In principio inquam dictionis nulla prescripta causa variari compellitur.<^ao-i. si aspiretur. Bechtel 79. ut c enuntiatur. <f> > b. 333" tions. as in phosit. In late words ^ regularly appears as/. By the first century a. footnote to § 259): " T quoque. Ki^oXoi > It. Certainly as early to be the standard as the fourth century (Lindsay 58) pronunciation: App. 4. pache.

and Sibilants. lampas. some indica: tions that they were weak before consonants > Pr. The nasals. later j' (cf.^ ? > It. Claussen 845. r. ss. e^oSos r. 335. — 339. by s. (S) z- Z doubtless had several pronunciations in Greek. but seems to be referring only to Greek speech S. as a simple sound. massa. and ^ were regularly > sinapis. have to do with a late Greek change of \ to 336.-^ remained unchanged: are. Cf. early Latin . Priscian (Keil II. There however. priTmp> Rh in remained unchanged: \a/x7ras> common speech was doubtless pronounced In trkXivov like > It. and subsequent developments confirm this view: baptizare Digitized was equivalent to bapti{d)yare. but was often replaced. see below. bobansa. The liquids regularly rhetor. ^dvr] "^ sona (Plautus). : t. or d as in Saguntum.po'i'^ prebiter.8os /talpos > maurus. Medentius. 338. by Microsoft® . (Tivain Of the sibilants. it was pronounced in Vulgar Latin dy.v>psallere spallere.I40 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. is sounded sd. From Sulla's time on it was written z in The grammarians throw no light Latin: Claussen 841-843. cr 337. t. sedano. etc. unchanged: <j has probably become For npvj^vre. orma. Nasals. /8oj«. The For unfamiliar combination lent itself readily to meta- thesis: i^6X\v. too. i/f In ocr/u. Quintilian refers only to the on the Latin pronunciation. [§ 339 (4) Liquids.. In it was represented by jj or s: pAtfl. > nome. see § 300. > exodus. Greek letter and the lack of a corresponding Latin one Velius Longus discusses z at length. and a few other words. we probably 8. among 36) says that the ancients.'^massa.. Judging from inscriptions. § 272). 308. regularly vop.

oridium for opvtfi. etc. 33. zdcones. 68 . Zov\e. Lat. h. esquena. and its derivatives palatalized In the their k before e and /. 239. 473. b and k came in after the lents: 8. garto Old Fr. 341. garba > K It. zabulus. zeta = Koffmane 38 Lazis — dixta. etc. B between vowels. Eckinger 80. no peculiarities. *giga>'Pr. A few.).ta. baptidiatus. septuazinta. Vok. being had no Latin equivaFurthermore. of the consonants offer Most treated as in Latin. Spr. z zabulus. so *rik-itia > Pr. and to G. cf.. I.= Julia. Francesco. and is common in inscriptions (cf.§ 34i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. rubare. Cf. zaconus. although have participated also in the later Gallic palatalization of g > before a (§ 263): gilda>lt. giscle. *striban > Pr. 22. corresponding Latin sounds had undergone some modification. zanuari. zebus.). 340. Pr. seems to have followed a similar course. Carnoy 163. estribar. and w. Kotflv^ zvnior. (90. D. R. p.• frank-iscus>lX. It. Bechtel 79). Conversely. re- mained a stop : roubdn it > It. resisted front vowels : skena > > Sp. The ending -i{d)yare became very is common: see § The spelling di for z occurs repeatedly: baptidiare found several times in Per. jart. Vok. however. occurring apparently only in words adopted after Latin intervocalic b had become ^ (§ 318). skernon > schernire. I. = conjux. giga. geisla Fr. Carnoy 163). 141 zelosus to {d)yelosus. GERMANIC CONSONANTS. Franko seems to have been an early acquisition. 3. gerbe. riqueza. Ladiis. etc. 69. 457-458- In late inscriptions z for/ is common: zerax = Upa^ (202 S. ZABVLLVS... ZESv. Digitized by Microsoft® .. zosum z= deorsum. A. geldra. is often used for di: . can scarcely have come in time to share in the early palatalization of Latin g before front vowels (§§ 25811.

perhaps borrowed at a different date feu. It.. Intervocalic h disappeared in most words. hanche. eschernir. It. anca. Fr. Pr. skiuhan'^'Fx. esguiver. 344. esclata. — > \X. Kluge 500. helm elmo. But wahta. parrjan > Cf. hapja'^Yz. so blank-a'^Yx. had become was nearer in it sound to Latin u: see § 326. doubtless adopted at a Tr. Old Fr. Bon. Pr. of a At the beginning word it kept its sound in northern Gaul. Fr. [§ 344 c was palatalized. espiar. Fr. sleht > Pr. jehir. but apparently was neglected in the rest of the Empire: hanca~^Yx. schivare. gequir. gecchire. spehon~>0\6. at Germanic w was a strong velar and labial fricative. In the Gl. etc. Yr. before a (§ 263). is used before > > initial ch: ab Chilperico. blanche (but It. like Latin ss. 343. — slahta'^-OXA esclet. Hs. ardire. trescar.— 142 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Sp. Fr. It. honte. Pr. It. It. W. hache. schietto. guiderdone. different time. rather than a. but in a few it seems to have been sounded kk in the greater part of the Empire: fehu Fr. d and widarlon were replaced in Latin by the It. 445 notes that ab. tasso. nipa The spirants 8 and p t: corresponding stops. 342. Reich. in the seventh century and later. Old Sp. helme. esclate. hardjan Old Fr.gaita. we find Digitized by Microsoft® . Fr. richesse. cf. —jehan > Old It. tt: pahso > It. ht were generally treated tasso. became Old guatare. regions where Latin eschine. fio . espier. Pr. Pr. apcha. a time when original Latin fricative w (spelled v) It the purely labial ^ (§ 322).. tarir. prescan Germanic h appeared when Latin h had long been popular speech. hau- > > > Pr. pahso > It. hardir. silent in Fr. schiatta. jaquir. gaite. bianca^. Germanic k was modified in the same way before all front vowels (including a): cf.

1899. 1884. in uuadius. It is generally written w in Fredegarius. in der franzSsischen Sprache. Waddo. Charakteristik der germanischen Elemente im Italienischen. etc.:>*wadum. etc. Through association with Germanic words. and in the in Rsetia this w apparently remained unchanged Vulgar Latin period. In extreme northern and eastern Gaul. Die frdnkischen Elemente W. elsewhere. through a reinforceit ment of its velar element. W. > *wisa guisa. walde. wa (the interjection). reuuardent. Bruckner. the /3 of some Latin words was changed to w: vadum +watan'.§ 344] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. Waltemath. Mackel. See E. Bon. 1885. vastare + wost— > *wasiare. 143 re- represented by uu. 167 cords Euua. in northwestern Italy. became gw: warjan>*warire wisa guarire. Digitized by Microsoft® . Die germanischen Elemente in der franzSsischen und provenzalischen Sprache. but Wintrio is spelled Quintrio: Haag 38. Wandali. werra > werra guerra.

castaneus for castanea.IV. GENDER. 483. (4) There were some sporadic changes: duos arbores. had a proparoxytonic accusative in -erem. 464-467): carcerem. Pirion 157. 504. became feminine (Bon. They were grammatical whose observance was a matter of outward form. Feminines of the fourth declension varied (^Gram. in the main. but there were ( I ) Between masculine and feminine there was not much some important shifts: Feminines of the second declension nearly all became — masculine: fraxinus. Lat. 483 . sex. Hmor. 503-504): (3) color. etc. or [I. 293. ~" confusion. marginem. If words lost their differentiating terminations. cucullus and cuculla. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. Spr. 346. Spr. -inem. II. (5) See also § 351. 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . dependent on sex or lack of distinctions. A. leporem. manus. —orem. Nouns that -icem. G. cf.. 345. honor. abstract nouns in -or. iomus. 194. MORPHOLOGY. —urem were of uncertain gender ( Gram. pulicem. Bon. grex became feminine. dolor. I. 461): (2) In Gaul. fans feminine in late Latin. Bon. Lat. turturem. through the analogy of the great majority of abstract terms. The three genders of Latin were not. confusion of gender ensued. MASCULINE AND FEMININE. ficus. n.

collus. Densusianu 132. sg. 46. 270—272. see Archiv VIII. . Spr. 4. 347. The transition from masculine to neuter was facilitated by the fall of final the regions where changes reduced considerably the distinguishing marks of the (§ 309). G. and also by the fall of final s in that phenomenon occurred (§ 298). verbus. lactem. caseum -us. and neuter in Africa. templus. fcenus. VA. 293. 42. Conversely we find cinus. Waters Ch. Glor. Bon. nomen. puteum. fatus.. frenum -i. n. murmur. Bon.. beside pulvis. ledus —um.. ra. for ctnis. m. 266. 57. II. there must have been a *pulvus. These m two genders: filiu{s) — . balneus. castellus. 173. n. 44). lignus. marmorem.guttur. vasus -um. signus. roborem. lactem {Bacch. piper \h&x& must have been *liiminem. 348. b. and f. papaver . cornu —um —us.. me\_nt]us. vinus. etc. cf. MAREM.. 507-509. Audol- lent 545. 41. nasuni : —us. sulphurem. Varro. thesaurum. R. D'Arbois 135. m. 16). Densusianu 129. (Za/. Beside lUmen. vadum —us. etc. Plautus. For the confusion of masculine Cf.Y. 483). *ndminem. gladium... m. 345-349. Cf. tergum —us. vinus.. etc. 2. ciner. etc. incipit judicius. 145 MASCULINE aIiD NEUTER. MARIS. frigorem. pectorem. maris nom. R. calus. In popular and late Latin this tendency was strong: anteClassic. Petronius has thesaurum. laqueum. etc. In Classic Latin a number of neuters became masculine balteum -us.§ 348] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Petronius. 132. 348. *ptperem. do^sus (^Mil. 39. Waters Ch. collus —um.

m. etc. 349. the characteristic neuter plural inflections came to be -a being regarded as an alternative masculine plural ending: for nervi. FEMININE AND NEUTER. luoghi luogora.146 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Mare. Thus the masculine and neuter fused. however. § 351. etc. 45 . 277. / muri mura. : if The loss of the neuter became feminine: cyma. etc. perhaps calestem. in Livy: Draeger I. cf. 161. muro. XXX. give in Italian: sg. by terra. Cf.. generally Haag became feminine maris. hunc verbum. R. 4). donum hunc scBCulum. Greek neuters in -ma.. quid. mare. illud or ilium. est. generally L. rivus rivora. influenced f. hunc vulnere. plural in a collective sense (as eques. Archiv III. [§ 351 In the second declension the only difference is in the nominative singular and the nominative and accusative plural. Nearly all neuters became masculine: os locutus R. murus. gender for nouns was probably not Cf. but also the collective plural for the singular Digitized by Microsoft® . luogo. the early stages of the Neuter adjective forms were used for a similar purpose: in Romance languages we find phrases veniat. locus. id ipsum. and in Italy and Dacia the distinction disappears even in the nominative singular. So pi. 266. 635. tive h In the third declension the genders are distinguished only in the accusative singular and the nomina- and accusative plural. quod. Densusianu 132. Zs. complete until early Romance times. the : neuter forms were kept to express an indefinite idea hoc. miles.. and 48. pointing to such Vulgar Latin constructions as *mihi est grave quod ille non c. 386. Among pronouns. Bon. Petronius writes nervia Waters Ch. popular. 351 Classic Latin often used not only the singular for the cf. 350. 348. sagma. for instance. hunc stagnum.

*folia.. Bon. 483. 5-9. for instance. in Rumanian y>-««2a < ? *frondia ^frondes. occurs in late Latin. which a new plural was created: brachias. but many were and southern Italy and Rumania. Hence arose such feminine gaudia. Sardinian. R. Gl. few neuter nouns became feminine: For mare and f. . 351. of an to pectora maXch qua pectora : Chronologie \()(). The feminine character of such words was *illcB doubtless reinforced by the use. 63).. In late Latin and early Romance this collective plural —a came to be taken for a feminine singular: tribula sg. So the neuter plural forms in -a were preserved in their collective use after the neuter singular forms had disappeared. *pulvus = pulvis. Spr. gesta. rama). Reich. palpebrum iox palpebra occurs. dita. the Vulgar Latin period the cases were generally reduced. ligna. DECLENSION OF NOUNS. In most of the in central Romance territory the -a forms were kept preserved as plurals only as feminine singulars. 270. For the use of cases. Old Fr.. sg. ligna . see §§ 85-100.. {z. fructa. see § 347. This formation in -a was extended to many masculine (cf. 482. Spr. . membras. for singular forms as *brachia. By the end of 354. Lat. Gl. simulaehras. etc. 435. armentas. Archiv XIV. see § 349. For cinus — cinis. Gl. Apulian. marmor. crigne < ? *cnnea = crines. rura: cf. fusa. Cassel. ingenias. Cf. It. 269. ne forte et mihi hcec eve- R. Convtrstly. hie est iesia. Digitized by Microsoft® . D'Arbois 10. etc. Reich. 2. 147 marmora. ardet (cf. grada occur in late Latin. Aside from these. . Lat. § 349) and even to some feminine nouns: digita. in Greek neuters -ma. cf. frutta. Draeger I.% frigora. gaudia niat. Audollent 548. R.§ 354] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 352... 353. etc.

beside dia./ada. fourth declension eventually went over. jusso. 482. so friicti. ablative. fructo fructos. Bon. Sittl in Archiv II. (2) The susianu 133. All the mercatus. 356. glatz. In Dacia the dative singular was to some extent preserved also: '' § 91.. haz. being assimilated to the third declension: cf. Fifth declension nouns not in -ies rem. senatus. but there were a few shifts: — (i) For an inflection mama mamdne(^m).. transfer of nouns in -ies from the fifth to the first declension began also in Classic Latin: effigies— ia. £ai. 152. 544. luxuries —ia. 135. as a third declension noun. [§ 356 except in Dacia.g/ada. Classic Latin and continued in vulgar and late speech: ftcus. etc. materies -ia. Pr. in southern Italy and Sardinia. Digitized by Microsoft® . sendti. 337-338. etc. passes. etc. Audollent genum. spiritus. Dies maintained itself. — the Cf. Spr. see § 359. Bechtel 86. spes spent. speni): W. All passed over in the greater part of the Empire. K. went into the third res There was also an inflection spes : spene{m). and occasionally in southern Gaul. gustus in Petronius . gradus. etc. 355(i) The number fifth of declensions was reduced to three. Sp. scaiiazre attested Inter: Denfor -OS. The transfer from the fourth to the second began in domus. etc. the fourth and being absorbed by the others. jusso. Ada. 260—262. 550. to two. Heraeus in Archiv XIII. whence Italian spene (cf. The other declensions generally held their own. cornum. but -ies was kept in the Spanish peninsula. lucto.. R. —a nominative and an accusative- plural following the analogy of the singular. G. 270. manos.148 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. gelus. 282-283. One result of the intermediate confusion was an accusative plural spelling -us which was very common in Gaul: Bon. lacus.

lent 546. the accusative plural form came to be used as a nominative plural. 483. where the kept instead. matres matres.). arroser. there was an ervus ervoris: Lat. of the third declension sometimes passed into lampas~^lampada. 258Dubois 258.) *femdris: cf. the nominative plural was' by Microsoft® . Fundus fundi perhaps became fundus *funddris: Old Fr. So a few Latin nouns: juventus or ~tas > Juventa. but the old forms were retained also. Fr. fiens. pyxis '^*buxida. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) and *capum -i: XXVII. It. Beside ervum ervi. G. vas>va- sum vasus (Waters Ch. rugiada.. 280. there was a termen terminis. Audolfilia{m). beside coclear fiitre: was codearium. fonz. FIRST DECLENSION. This use was due in the main to the analogy of the singular. siren '^ sirena. Old Fr. Libit. by Audollent 416. Pr. Beside terminus ~i. Spr. likewise tempesta {Gl. under the influence of stercus. 280. see § 362. effondrer. fons.) and probably *potesta.§ 357] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. h&nc& filias filias.>*rdsum (cf. J where there was only one form. cf. : Bechtel 86. ds>dssum (R. Pr. Corpo for corpore occurs in the Per. Reich. Digitized -s made the accusative plural identical with the singular. It probably was not common until late Vulgar Latin or early Romance times. etc. 149 (2) For an inflection Bellus Bellone^m). apparently became femus {Gl. the first: 367. Reich. R.In countries which did not lose final s {% 298). and of feminine nouns of the third declension. G. femps. G. Puulva for pulvis is recorded adsis '> aisida. fall of In Italy and Dacia. (3) On the other hand. / 357. 259-260). Fimus ftmi. a. so apparently ros'. etc. Fr. 280. which had only one form in the plural: flia So linguas. 57). Greek nouns 259.

had a similar plural. § 153): barba barbani. Her^us in Zs. (R. Africa. sa* sacristanis (cf. See G. 331. villabus. deabus. pupillabus. Nice Nicenis. [§359 According to Mohl. This form left no traces in the Romance languages. W. Some masculine person-names in —a had crisia the same declension {Einf. Chronologie 205-209. but they may have helped its the second century . Philipon. 57 B. ii. Les accusatifs en -on et en -ain..: hence arose Anna Anndnis or -inis. Celtic. an inflection in —dnis. Journal des savants igoo. XXV. No foreign or dialect influences are needed to explain the practice. or probably under the influence of the consonantal declension of Greek names that was in vogue in schools. Spr. 321. M. 70.2 01. 136. scriba *scribanis (cf. century: feminine -a -ants In Lat. This feminine inflection left some traces in Gaul. filiabus. often developed. 483. 150. 152-153. etc. 171. Hic qvescvnt dvs mres dvas filias. Meyer-Liibke expresses doubt whether the is connected with masculine tatani. cf. sacristano). Dante's Semele. 198. etc. etc. too.. etc. filiabus. D'Arbois 21-24 assumes Celtic influence: hic sunt cartas. Archiv N\\\. 359. liberti LIBERTASQVE. It. 206. nom. Raetia.. XXXV. 358. Bon. Spr. Pupils were taught to inflect Glance Glaucenis. ahimabus. It. etc. cf. c. affirms that there was a feminine in -a with a plural in -as in Oscan. E. Rom. Les accusatifs en -ain. XXV.. G. Feminine proper names and words denoting persons etc. fr. and also in Latin down to -as was probably old in : B. —enis. and Digitized by Microsoft® . mamma mammdnis. Pirson 115-116. 264). p. c.ISO (i) An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Paris. Rom. scrivano).. Br^al. famulabus. W. Both mamani and tatani are found in the third W. An ablative in -abus is occasionally found: Cassiabus. Herseus in Archiv XIII. Salvioni in Rom. feminabus. filiabus. MeyerLiibke in Ltblt. XXXI. XXIII. amita *amitdnis (so Juliana Julianenis in Pirson 143).. Dalmatia. the nominative plural in some parts of Italy SCALAS. rather late. Feb. diffusion. etc.

Ger- From the seventh century on. -e ^ne -me. Andreani. Agneti. fructa. extent. Cf. XXVIII. Rom.. -i La declinazione imparisillaba in -a -dne.: § 362] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. domnani. Dubois 250. According to Salvioni.. XXXV. b. SECOND DECLENSION. barbane still exist at both ends of Italy. As neuter nouns became masculine. putain. 219. 343. by the analogy of bracchia. etc. Cf. etc. 250. from Eugenes. Romance. also Joannentis. from 750 on: amitane. 218. 351-352. nonnain. the first declension was reduced to this pattern: 360. Rom. Lombard madrane. *botella. Joanneni. etc. Attane. G. The plural in -a. XXXV. 264. me -ene. §§ 347-349. in ig8. Eugeneti inflection in -dtis. 2l6. they assumed. bdrba barbdnis influence of the itself he would ascribe to the synonymous *bdrbo *barb6nis. the starting-point of all this inflection was bdrba barbdnis. (i) 207. Italy: Fr. Andreate. XXXV. etc. XXXV. etc. Zimmermann. — luna facia *folia luna lune lunas luna{s) facia folia f^i^ facias f'^^i^ folias facia(s) folia{s) In Dacia the dative singular {lune. however. shows that there was also an Cf. digita. and -Stis: Aureliati. Rom. etc. Rom. 151 etc. (2) A. R. this -a. -o -6ne. the masculine where the masculine and neuter partly in Vulgar Latin but mostly in inflection in those countries differed: vinus. 216. -His. from which it was extended to other nouns of relationship and to proper names. 361. shows that these forms of declenall sion were very common the mediasval Latin documents of parts of Italy. In general. Zs. was retained to a considerable and central Italy and Dacia.. etc. *botula.) was kept also. — perhaps under manic influence combined with the analogy of the Latin type Digitized by Microsoft® . barbane. 250. §§349. especially in southern Some masculines took 362. Salvioni. 214-215. rama. at the beginning of the Romance period.

365.152 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. carried further in common speech: cf. 198. 363. The traces ablative in —e finally triumphed. 247-249.f. the second declension followed this pattern: annu(s) — annu ~o anni anno{s) fa^e(f) fabru —o vinu{s) bracciu *—us fructu(s) vinu -0 vini bracciu —o braccia fructu fructi fructo{s) —o fabri fabro(s) —i —o{s) vmo(s) braccia —a -a The letters enclosed in parentheses were silent in Italy and plural Dacia. but there are of -l: It.. proper names: 201.- ending was often Bon. So perhaps Italian Donaioni. 85. etc. -« crowded out the rarer which left no sure Digitized by Microsoft® . 204). XXXV. and possibly Spain. XXXI. attested in Lucca in 776 {Rom. §355. I. In the accusative plural there was still greater confusion of -is and -es {nubes nubls. etc. Salvioni in Rom. Vok. avus avi>avo avonis. Vok. cf. Philipon in Rom.). — there developed in Gaul. In the ablative there was considerable confusion of -z and -e in Classic LatiiK OTan mare. etc. etc. Paulus or Paulo Pauldne{ni).. (1). Traces of this inflection are to be seen especially in French and Provengal proper names: Foucon. Rsetia. etc. and possibly Corsican baboni. 337-338. Pirson 133:. Huon. both in Classic and in Vulgar Latin: -Is. See E. at the beginning of the Romance period. THIRD DECLENSION. [§ 365 gulo guldnis. § 152). a declension -us (or —o) —dnis for masculine Hugo Hugon was Latinized into Hugo Hugdne{m) (cf. XXXV. Firmus Firmonis. some pari. Apparently traces. Bellus Belloni. Cf. Giovannoni. In general. XXXV. hence Pitrus or Pitro Petrdne^m). cf. II. 87. Italy. etc. This was 364. suceroni: Rom. turri turre. G. etc. 212-213. spelled In Gaul the accusative -«. c.

. §§ 174. These forms prevailed in Romance. cardonis. As ~es and ~is came to be pronounced alike before the end to of the Vulgar Latin period (cf. Nouns which added a syllable in the genitive. mdis. through the analogy of the second declension: see §368. or -e fashioned on the model of the oblique cases: so seeps "> sapes." Keil VII.. 263. travis (three times). D'Ovidio in critici Raccolta di studii dedicata ad Alessandro JD'Ancona 627). III. Ci. papilionis (cf. in Ennius.principis). perhaps in late popular Latin. . 45. Pr. cf. aculionis for aculeus). etc.. 153 Italian pani. camis in Livy. Varro. 243). Petronius (Waters Ch. folli tor folks in GL Reich. Apuleius." App. Jovis. R. 263. lentis in Priscian. Caper. I. Vok. 263. famis. nom. nubis. Rumanian pint. calcis in Venantius Fortunatus. Aulus Gellius. etc. Spr. R. victore. Audollent 545-547. castore. Chronolo- gie 203. R.. App. divite. Petronius (Waters Ch. D'Arbois 85-88. In the nominative singular the common -^s largely placed the less f requent 244-247. Plautus.. audace.. dis- 366.. lade in Ennius. 66. are best explained. principens antestetis. Ill. Haag 45.• -« Vok. 367. it is futile trace the Romance forms phonetically to one source rather than the other. slirpis in Livy. 481. etc. bovis in Varro. tended in popular speech to use for the nominative a form in -is. 38). GL Reich. Digitized by Microsoft® . Lat. Pr. Sepulcri 220. -es. 9. voluntate. (^=z. "grus non gruis. etc. etc.. without a change of accent.... 62). Waters a Ch. heredes. heredes. latrone. "nubes non nubis". 116.. superstitis. pedis. Audollent 545-547. etc.famis. etc.§ 367] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. GL Reich. urbis. as by Tiktin 565-566. Petronius (Waters Ch. 47). 105. stips^ stipes. Prudentius. suis in Prudentius (F. In Vulgar Latin this formation was extended to words with shift of accent: excellente for excellens in Petronius. "fames non famis.

new forms on the masculine pattern. for *lumine{m). timp. but there is virtually no evidence that it started so early: in late Latin. however. except for persons. For the nominative-accusative plural. etc. masculine nouns made over their nominative plural on the model of the second declension.). they constructed. elifanti is common. corpo. In these countries —ora was used as a plural ending (It. see § 347. soror. which. D'Arbois 85-88. Spr. Cassel.). *ndmine{ni). etc. etc. especially those in —ora. 154 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. (also presentis. both the second and -r. but in Italy and Rumania the old ones. hence *patri. lupi. we find sapienti. doubt. etc. etc. cantdtor. being used mainly in the nominative vocative. Neuters in —n and -s regularly kept their nominative- accusative singular. as nomeiji). 482). probably in late Vulgar Latin or early Romance. as *ndmes *ndme(s). anni. [§ 369 These forms. 367 parentorum is frequent in charters in the Gl. The process may have begun in the Vulgar Latin period. servitor. made in Italy in the eighth or ninth century. 369. Rum. but infans (also 368. retained names of and and generally preferred the old nominative But names of persons in -ans and -ens usually made over the nominative: parentis. too. timpuri). and was extended to in Old Italian to the second. no form: homo. hence *me(n')si. *amantis. *cdrpes *cdrpe{s). to Bon. however. prevailed in Romance. carpi corpora. according . prcBgnans). etc. beside the old forms.. declensions: Neuters in which apparently became by Microsoft® masculine or Digitized . so. Rumanian Tiktin 566. hence *cani. In most of the Romance languages (but not Spanish). were kept also {Lat.. corpus cdrpu(^s). which was regarded as the normal masculine type: fllii. (also * damantis. first in cf.

Cor apparently made its plural * cores instead of * cordes : according to Mohl. the open o would possi- bly be explained as due to a cross between this *cor and the Caput became *capu{ni) or capus (Pirson 238). at the beginning of the Romance period. papaverem. iticudis > incudo. 293. Spr. A few feminines in -is apparently became neuters in —us.. Bon. Old Yt. In general. Zauner 2. but the original forms were kept also: cinis ctnus. 348. Plautus. and passed into the second declension: cf. PERSONS. polvo. 155 feminine earlier than the others. 371. 113. § 347.0. 370.§ 37i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and so probably goes back to an Old Latin *cdr Classic cor. often developed an accusative singular in -e{m) as well as a nominative-accusative plural in -es: I. were kept also. Sanguis. the word shows no trace of d in any of the Romance lan- guages. §356. polve may come irorapulver). 483. the third declension must have gone about as follows {-is and -es having coincided in the pronunciation -w) : — (i) No Change of Accent. pulvis whence S-p. sulphurem. . sangutne(m) also sanguei^m). incudtnis : Lat. etc. 2. Incus. cf. except Spanish cuerdo. Fxn. *piperem. (3). *cdris = Krjp lajpo's. marmorem. But marmor. G. *pulvus. Lexique 21-38. pals {It. NO CHANGE OF STEM.

156 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. . [§373 change of stem.

375" The principal types are: — So ager. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the neuter adjective forms were less and less used. and the neuter plural (as omnia) was doubtless emr ployed from time to time as an indefinite collective. 374- Adjectives were declined after the same model as nouns. however. . 350).§375] An 3. § was kept to represent a whole idea (cf. 157 DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. As neuter nouns assumed masculine endings (§ 347). the neuter singular.

.. R. 46). in376. and conversely benignis. etc. . In the the —us —a Romance languages more adjectives went over -um type Pr. 274. effrenis. Densusianu 142. firmis. Romance was: For the new method of comparison. [§377 (3) Originally *feUce(s) One Gender filis fills fellcla in the Nominative Singular. and f. prcestus. Prcecox developed a feminine pracoca: Neue II. 275 (^ci. COMPARISON.. (plus L 1 J ^plus llle-{'^"~. l_ \ !-. and there was probably also a feminine * alacra and * alecra. see § 56. Pr. m. pauperorum. imbecillis also assumed the -us -a —um inflection in the Latin period so trtstis^tristus. gracilus. celerus. pauperum. App. etc. R. m. there was alacris. etc. The type. : to 4.— 158 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. App. not completely evolved in Vulgar Latin. Pr.. Waters Ch. prude(s) prude(s) *prudente(s) feUce fellce(s) prudente prudente{s) prudente{s) prudentia prudentia fellceis) fellcla (4) Comparatives apparently did not reconstruct the Nominative Singular: melloif) mellu{s) millu(s) mellore mellore(s) mellora mellSra melidre(s) There was a good deal of confusion of types in Latin times: beside alacer. sublimus. magis magls f J Digitized by Microsoft® . Macer. jac^r passed into the -us ~a —um class. Pauper early developed a feminine paupera and later a neuter pauperum: paupera. pauperorum. and f. doussa. so teeter'^ tetrus. Cf. 162. comuna. Decllvis. miser. 377.

65). 66) ginta (Archiv Nil. NUMERALS. pejus. sanctissimus. *Stto). etc. grossior So the adverbs: longius. pejor. §254. as intensives: altissimus. 379. see § 225. It was used indefinite article (§S7) and an indefinite pronoun to be replaced §71). also ijuatro ^guaitro. 107). became cinque {Archiv VII. gravior grevior. lows : — The numbers between two and twenty were as fol- Tres probably developed a nominative *irei. 558 (cf. Scto ( and Cf. The old superlatives remained to a considerable extent. DHo came by dui. Archiv VII. nSve. (Camoy . proximus. 65. minor. Tredece * See M. is regular. 221). on the model of dui. melius. (G. minus. For dodece. magis. an Unus was probably declined like bonus. attested in the third cen- tury: Archiv IX. Quattuor became quattor {Archiv VII. sordidius. carissimus. Quinque. Digitized by Microsoft® . vivacius.§379] '^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. also as (cf. major.i 378. 159 However. II. pessimus. longior. Six. melior. Beside Undece there seems to have been * iindece. 5. Ihm. the Classic Latin comparatives of many common adjectives remained in use: altior. Vulgdrformen lateinischer Zahlworter auf Inschriften in Archiv VII. 285). Cf. of the Vulgar Latin period dui dot {duoT) duo(s) Its inflection at the was probably: doa{s) — end due doe duas doas d'ua{s) dua doa dua doa In early Romance there was doubtless much confusion of the forms. "i^. by dissimilation. dice offer so cinqua- no peculiarities. septe (and *sette). 68. in the clerical language. levior.

etc. mentioned as a by Consentius.of 70 and 80 were to the type of the others. in regularly [§ 381 also Quattuordecim *quatti!rdece. *septdinta * settdinta.: G. trinta: Archiv VII. Priscian (Keil III. trecenti. Centu was regular. etc. also unus de viginti. which account in general for the Italian. Archiv VII. * octdinta * ottdinta. made to conform Outside of the Spanish peninsula is -dinta apparently became -dnta.. * sexdinta. * cinqudinta. trigtnta must assume for Spanish something like * viinti. II. § 225). 461. G. Digitized by Microsoft® . *nondinta *novdinta. and French words. Provengal. Archiv VII. f^ok. ii.and the octo. 136. etc. with an opening of the first i and an early shift of accent. probably anterior to the fall of faulty pronunciation the g. For its plural it had *dui mille or *dui mtl{l)ia. trinta {yinti. 69). trienta. Cf. * quadrdinta became rr: quarranta Furthermore the dr of found in an inscription. et (or ac) sex. there were probably new formations. *dece et (or ac) nHve. Zs. became viinti. cf. so ^dece et (or dcto. 69. 412) mentions decern et septem. perhaps of the fifth century (Pirson 97. etc. * triinta. 69). etc. For ducenti. 400. beginning with 20.i6o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. triinta (§ 259): ISatvTi occurs in a sixth century document of Ravenna. Beside this dice et septe ac") there was *dece ac septe . These forms easily contracted into vinti. such as * dui centu. Mille was regular. became * quattordece (cf. 392. Spr. Keil V.. This change of accent apparently occurred everywhere for the subsequent tens: * guadrdinta. Rumanian has new formations. Ryd- berg in Milanges Wahlund 337. XXV. are irregular: regularly § 142. But beside these we Vigtntl. 380. triginta is. The tens. Beside sedece there was *dece SeftendScim. went out of use. but Qulndlce is regular. the septucu. 381.

As the pronouns came to be expressed more and more. until Ego lost its g in all the territory. nemo inde Regnier no. The nominative and. Examples occur as early as the second century: Franz. to the dative and accusative. and the dative was preserved in personal. probably not 385. 67. and so was the genitive singular and plural of ille. and interrogative pronouns. PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. The genitive was usually lost but ciijus was kept. and Catalan ending -enus was employed {septenus ion tertius. eo occurs in manuscripts of the See §263. 262. inflected like quartus.^ ' Meyer-Liibke. I. the distributive Septimus. The ordinal numerals. but some languages have new formations even for these. The ablative gave way . after 5th. N. Lat. relative. — For the use of personal pronouns. ipse. in northern Italian. were probably not very commonly used: the Romance languages show many new formations. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. B. Spr. ? II. secundus. Primus. B. 242 is incorrect Digitized by Microsoft® . see § 60. remained. According to sixth century.). 484. The ordinals were best preserved in Italy. quintus were generally bonus. §§6o.§ 385] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ipse. But his reference to Vok. demonstrative. 384. tile and also hic. but the end of the Vulgar Latin period. I. Provengal. 161 382. etc. and iste. accusative SSs. kept. as an indefinite neuter. and is were used to supply the lacking pronoun of the third person: cf. definite genitive: Hoc served in- Inde assumed the function of an dubitat.

si beside to Lat. 484. On tibi. the pattern of stbt. these are and mt<mihi. [§ 388 In the last syllable of ttbt. Franz.1 62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. acof. inflection The was probably reduced to: — . found.ording ti. vobis. II. i" 243-244. stbi the short i prevailed. Spr. ^ )86. •was carried into nobis. from the sixth century on. there were formed •.

389. by illi. g II. however.. definite N. The inflection of tile developed considerably in popu- lar speech. 244. 275. 9 II. illms gave way to iliajus. R. illi^ille. sg. The former. 273. used by Apu- and others (Neue II. Ipse and isfe followed a similar course ipse however. Quillacq 83). the m. they came to be compounded usually with the prefix ecc' or Cf. 9 beside II. used by 427. Ille. also §392.. 9 II. 274. etc. Audollent 302). 3 II. 3. Franz. cf. R. was from that. and the dat. II. tilt was replaced in part by illHi. and the latter is not found in Calabria. leius was abandoned: In the dat. illo. Franz. see §§ 60. others (Neue Digitized by Microsoft® . sg. 275. ipsi=^ ipse. eccu': see § 65. sg. was partially replaced. and the Spanish Illius {ipsins. Sardinia. cut. 276. Franz. the special forms ipsus for R. istius). f. and ipsud for ipsum. fratelmo. but it disappeared from late Latin. When Ule and ute had a really demonstrative force. see §§ 61-68. we find. 67-68. 390. m. sometimes occurred as a dative: Franz. Romance: Old \X. isti). nom. — For the use of demonstratives. 427. Sicily. 275.§ 390] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. being confused with the ablative and the accusative. is 163 g The full inflection found in the sixth century: Franz. 246-260. 114. popular speech. . there was tllce (or ille). articles For their function as and personal pronouns. framed on the model of cf. qui: Bon. There was another dative form. Through the analogy of cu^us. in II. and Cato and on the model of illui (and perhaps of quei). tilt. 283-304. The Old Latin genitive illi {ipsi. m. 277-279. These forms survived ma. B. Franz. probably in the sec- ond half of the sixth century. subsequently went out of use. madre- DEMONSTRATIVES. having become archaic in peninsula.

XXVI. 9 II. In parts of northern Spain and southwestern France illorum seems to have become *illurum. a part of Catalonia and Gascony. 276. Ille prevailed. which crowded out illtus. illui. vides lei ta ipsam clavem'>-*vede(^s) iu 'sa' clave'] Lui and 281-283. When unaccented. Majorca. except 177.s replaced by tllum: Neue II.164 An Introduction illcei (illei). illei are found from the sixth century made genitive. 600. Illujus. [§ 392 which was used beside ilU and Ulm. to Vulgar Latin. ille. The popular : inflection. which. Lat. ipsujus. be used. ipseus. period. in Romance. furthermore. Cf. 619. did not entirely disappear. to f. Illorum displaced the f. illui. The 391. It came. and some dialects on the south shore of France. 484: illujus. nice. on: Zs. was constructed illcejus (illejus). are found after the seventh century: Franz. however. R. at the end of the Vulgar Latin forms not was something like kept in Romance) elle elli — this (brackets indicating Ma ellejus elli elle ellei ellu [ellujus] elli \ello\ ellui elli ellu ello elli ella elle ? ellu ello ella ? ellqru elluru elli(s) \ellaru\ ellqru elluru ellqru ^im/) ellais) ello(s) ella 392. Franz. for the dat. illui. Digitized by Microsoft® . Ille and ipse were used freely as definite articles from the fourth century on: Densusianu in Sardinia. 271-272. illejus. m. 'la' vede(s). In the on the same pattern (influenced perhaps by guejus). these words tended to lose their first syllable (see § 157): tu illam vzdes>*tu 9 II. through the analogy of illUjus. illejus. neuter Uludvia. Cf. illdrum. and illis. 426. Spr.

N. 165 4. in common speech. — For the use of these pronouns. and also of the feminine qum. and the substitution of qui for feminine see §§69-70. quis. see cm is found a corresponding feminine quejus. 619.§ 395] -^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. quel: Mohl in Zs. The combined inflection of qui and quis. by the end of the : Vulgar Latin period. INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS. In Christian inscriptions from the fifth century on. 393. XXVI. B. was probably reduced. to something like this qui — . Beside ctijus. qui takes the place of quts.

dant and stant there came Old It. state. the Eventually Spanish and Portuguese discarded New formations went into the and Sardinian the second. estaun. defections into use * dao. to Vulgar Latin. the first and fourth were least affected. the third. Sicilian in Spain. Cf. sto. PI. *daunta. In northern Gaul there may have developed with * stao a * stats and a * stait. Probus. its 397.nd *stao. 396. first and fourth. "adno non adnao.. dau. Pg. Mohl." Lexique 47. Italian development due to the analogy of sia: see §419. [§ 398 VERBS. In the Peregrinatio the second decidedly preponderates over the third (Bechtel 87). (see §405): cf. 30. It is entirely possible. dao. Pers. follicare. the third in Italy. *vait date. (2). daun. estou. own. There was some confusion of conjugations. werrizare. Lexique 47 and Pr. in other texts the third gains at the expense of the second. Lexique 47-54. on the analogy of {*vao). For new formations. The Italian present subjunctive dia from dare is associated by Mohl. — see §§33-35. I. in Germanic verbs -on and in by Microsoft® . THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. FIRST CONJUGATION. Digitized — such as abbreviare. but it seems more likely that they were late Latin formations due to an effort to keep the root vowel distinct from the ending. with Umbrian dia. dou. a.1 66 An Introduction C. Pr. however. would connect these forms with Umbrian stahu. *staunt: Rum. that the form is a later. Lexique 47. *vais. being few and Beside do. " The first conjugation generally held partial. The second gained most fourth in Gaul. 398. estau. etc.

§402] An Introduction regularly to Vulgar Latin.\i^x\. The inchoa284). Some verbs went into the fourth. third conjugation gave a few verbs to the second. adopted the forms *ho or *hao. *putrisco. Crestomazia italiana dei primi secoli I. especially in Italy. beginning with those that had a perfect in -ui. Luke VI. tive —escere \. 399. 266 ff. sapere sapui: sapere was influ- enced. habes. The as cadere *cadui. 20. and cadere may have followed capere. such perhaps 402. Italian dialects in which e does not phonetically and even in early Tuscan (cf. 1636. tergere. by habere. *mordere. roubo?i'>lt. I. *hant or * haunt. fiorlre (R. b. * has. *impllre. respondere (Bechtel 88: responduntur). many become i. Latin there was some confusion between the second conjugation and the third fervere. sometimes became habtre: Vok. * luctre. 1. C. habet. 284).. V. *ridere. Monaci. became —iscere: *florisco. Lexique 108-109. Bechtel 88. 400. t. avire in havite. According to Mohl. lugere (R. 401. habibai. p. 167 —an (but not -jan) went in the first conjugation: Cf. E. THIRD CONJUGATION. at least in Italy. capere may easily have imitated sapere. Habere. under the influence of dare and stare. capere * caput. habent. *putrtre. L. etc). Itala. I. luctsco. *torcere (for torquere). 284). ^^^^ i^ a peculiarity of ancient Umbrian. 8. *nocere. probably through the pronunciation of —eo as —io (see §224): * complire. 283). guidare. Digitized by Microsoft® . rubare. in Classic : Even miscere (R. * lucere. Other verbs passed over locally or occasionally: sediiur. wttan'^lt. tondere. the verb habere. * hat. 10. In Vulgar Latin the second lost some verbs to the third in most of the territory: * ardere. While retaining habeo. lugire (R. §36. SECOND CONJUGATION.

Dare Z. Gregory and Fredegarius {Pr. however. {Pr.. velle volui naturally went over to the second conjugation. *volere. D. potebo is found in the Gl. Pers. Sardinia. The present indicative forms must have been something like this: ^vojeo voje^s) — volimu{s) volemu(s) voleste(s) *volete(s) *vole(i) *vqlen(t) The present subjunctive must have been similarly inflected. was discarded in Spain and potebam occur repeatedly in the sixth century 24). a sug- gestion of shortening existed in the monosyllabic imperative Digitized by Microsoft® . This transition was probably helped by a partial fusion of esse and sedere. The anomalous posse potui. PL 21). and conformed Velte. PL 21). GL found in the sixth century (^Lat Spr. Pers. The present like this: have been inflected something passu posso foteo *posseo poieis) *pote(i) — indicative must ^poiemu{s) poteste(s) *potete(s) pqssunif) *poten(t) The present subjunctive must have had corresponding forms. there doubtless existed *fare {Facere 48). framed on the pattern of potestis. PL 2^). strongly influenced by dare and stare.-R. voles is found in Volestis. their inflection more or less to the regular type.A facere were associated in old formulas: Lexique 53. Pers. 403. (2) the Volimus Reich. Reich. Pers. PL 25). [§ 404 In Spain the third conjugation verbs eventually passed into the second.poteo is attested ( 1) Potere. {Pr.1 68 An Introduction all to Vulgar Latin. is twice used by Fredegarius {Pr. is volemus in the seventh {Pr. facere 404. potebas Posso for possum is used by in Fredegarius (Haag 60). Furthermore. assumed the infinitive forms potere. 'Bt&ide. 478). Pers. PL in 745 A.

which must have led to *fate present indicative certainly had several being on the pattern of the first con- jugation. XXV. Zs. 169 fac (also /a. sets of forms. facio XVIII. 121. series The one 735). beside factte. 434): — its old inflection *fao . Zs.§405] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. but the present subjunctive retained (see Facere 72.

Reich. Spr. guarnire. cf. developed a form * dire. 477). parrjan^Yv. was influenced by *vao viidimu(s) vddite(s) *vo *vas vadeif) *vait *vat vadeis) *vais imu(s) etc. The fourth conjugation usually held — — marrir. (j^^r^i". It. probably in the Vulgar Latin period (cf. Pirson 148. Verbs in -to tended to pass into the fourth conjugation (see. beside * sequere. mortri. §404) and helped by the analogy of audire. Lexique 62 ). Cf. common in the Vulgate (R. its own. ite(s) etc. ignire. * capere . 407. Dicere. moreover. tarir. offeret. and gained some verbs from the others. Bon. An The vado Introduction. in 408. first half of the 7th century. Plautus. Spr. St. warnjan'> tion. For the intrusion of the inchoative -sc. d. Densusianu 148. however. §36. and *monre. . marrJan>'Fr. 477). fodiri. gemire. doubtless suggested by die ( cf fac and * Vulgar Latin. FOURTH CONJUGATION. Germanic verbs in -Jan regularly went into the fourth conjugation in Latin (Kluge 500): furbjan~>\X. cuptre. Carnoy 112). Pirson 148.into this conjuga- FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES Romance only Digitized IN INFLECTION. [§408 facere fare : — present indicative. * sequlre. Of the personal forms of the verb there remained general use in the following tenses of the active voice. C2X0 fugtre. R. Bon. such as * abbellire. * offertre. Gl. see § 415.lyo present. Some others went over. by the analogy of aperire {sufferit. vadunif) *vaunt *vant 406. §416): *caplre. deferet.. Haag 60. Lucretius {Lat. forbire . Augustine {Lat. For new formations. . 286. *soffertre. 427. Sepulcri 229. hesiAe. ^26. see § 34. the entire passive inflection having been discarded: the by Microsoft® . Bechtel 90. occurire. 285). ^. at least locally: *falllre.

the perfect participle. amando. perfect was kept in its preterit sense. amassem. amans. . in various regions: see §124. §§ 112-114. See 410. amatus. audiram) was kept. § 4io] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. {amandusi). R. See Syntax. 302-304. See Syntax. amavi. amaram. R. {amarini)\ ama. For amo. 298 Conversely. In was replaced. rideri. 304. : Deponent verbs became active cf. fell into disuse from the first century on. etc. some regions the future perfect . The old pluperfect indicative (^amaram. the deponent for the active inflection of a few verbs: Petronius. The supine 409. reverti"^ reversus sum. perfect. in the Vulgar Latin period. some writers substituted R. esse and the perfect participle: feci"^ habeo factum. the subjunctive present. operare. and in instance: some regions the perfect the imperative present. 388-389. in the by a compound of habere and the "perfect participle case of neuter verbs. The Latin it its perfect sense — §§121-124. 297-302. Of the impersonal forms of the verb there remained: the present active infinitive. In the subjunctive the pluperfect was used instead of the Digitized by Microsoft® . amem. For instance: amare. R. partly by active and reflexive constructions but perfect participle with esse' mainly by a compound of the (m northern Italy fieri): littera ' scriMtur -flittera scripta est (or fit). amabam. etc. pluperfect. and in 171 indicative present. pluperfect. 289. cf. . (amaro). as a preterit or a conditional. imperfect. the present participle.. and probably in some standing phrases the gerundive. Similar compounds replaced the pluperfect and the future perfect. The entire passive inflection -of came to be replaced. Cf. R. towards the end the Vulgar Latin period.. the gerund (especially the ablative case). mentire.

-dben(t) and -d. amd{ve)ro fused with the perThe old future perfect ama. Lollis in Bausteine i .172 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. to correspond to the dissyllabic or monosyllabic -dyo. was crowded out by the present and by new formations. -dyo. On the model of this new future. -dt. which disappeared everywhere but in Sardinia {facheret.(ye')rim and apparently remained subjunctive fect — — — — more or all less in use. -dnt: *amar' —dmu(s). with the exception of ero. etc. -ete(s). or conditional. *amar' -dbe(t). etc. —aunt. *amar' -isti. Crescini in Zs. which has prevailed in the find. In this compound all the various forms of the present indicative of habere were used (see §§273. —d. *amar' —e'te(s). Digitized In Italian we by Microsoft® . etc. but and Macedonian. &tc. sometimes confused with the pluperfect indicative and later sometimes with the infinitive {dpriro. habemus and habetis eventually. It is best preserved in is found also in Old Rumanian There are traces of it in Old Italian. came to be made. De 411. XXIX. cf. beside -ia from habebam and -dbbi —ibbi from habui. from the *amar' -abut. -dnt. V.): see Spanish and Portuguese. *amar' dben(t). * amar" -dbe(s'). -ds. in regions except Gaul and Raetia. [§411 imperfect. a form in -ii {amerii). —dbe{t). in Vulgar Latin and Romance.): amdrem'^amdssem. as a future indicative or subjunctive. cridere. as they came to be regarded as mere endold future. but * amar' abut. -dbe(s). pdteri. were reduced to -emu{s). infinitive the perfect of habere (see §130): combined with the imperfect or *amar' ~dbe{b')a{ni) or disappeared. —at. §118. as in the In these formations the unaccented {Ji)ab— first and second persons plural of the future: * amar' -^{b)a. . In the first and second persons plural. audtrem'^audissem. 619. -ds. The ings. C. especially by the infinitive combined with the present indicative of habere {amdbo > amar' habeo): see §§125-129. —do. 401): *amar' —dbeo. an imperfect of the late future.

414.. types —dsco and —osco were sparingly repre- sented and were not extended in late and popular Latin have bequeathed but few verbs con<Sisser<ico(g)ndseere types —esco and —tseo in the third century — — as — such as and . See § 115. except the present.of avere : it is probably due to the analogy of the first person singular of the weak preterit (credit. Savoy. The first and third persons were supplied from the present subjunctive. crede. audi. such as caleseo ealisco. in Vok. they Pr. In Veglia. erubisco. There is some evidence of a confusion of -esco and —uco in Latin. Instead of the plural form.. e—. the Abruzzi. Cf. writers sometimes emploved diee. while in Old Italian the ei was sometimes detached and used as a preterit. French Switzerland. the second person plural of the present indicative came to be used: adferte> adferitis. etc. Clarisco. hence crederdt). 413. 412. audite. and a part of Lorraine Only -eseo surneither of these two endings left any trace. the Grisons. 3596. paresco. tene. I. 173 modern language.§414] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. R. irdisser <irdseere. 294. due. INCHOATIVE VERBS. and Spain Digitized — Sp. to the Romance languages. In some verbs the present subjunctive was used instead of all imperative forms. The Latin The inchoative ending -sco was preceded by a-. Sardinia. §426. criseere.face: R. Lyons. person singular and plural: credite. duce. vived in the Tyrol. fae. tenete. or o—. Dauphin^. Virgilius Grammaticus (Sepulcri 194) mentions double forms of inchoative verbs. second dmd. pareeer. are common in Gregory the Great: Sepulcri 193. etc. cf. lost their inchoative sense. 294. the Landes. The imperative disappeared. dormisco — were extended The and later. by Microsoft® . For the monosyllabic die. t—. 3. amdte. Beam.

4. Sardinian. the e was occasionally lost in the second conjugation: v^deo *vtdo.. The ending -tsco of the present in Spanish. By the analogy of these. Herzog Bausteine 481. finissez). fiorire. trated the present subjunctive {Yr.. 291-294. etc. / 416. 81. -esco also in Rumanian. some regions. Rastia. sentiam * sentam.. in — It. — Fr. 478. Zs. XXIV. il in Pr. although fleurit. PRESENT STEMS. Spr. the -sc- was carried throughit out the present indicative (Yx. partiunt *partunt. northern and central _fimmii(s) finite{s) Italy. \\.then generally disappeared from the infinitive Later. there are traces of -esco. [§416 florecer. 465. by the by Microsoft® . etc. Digitized On the other hand. Elsewhere. 174 An Introduction was preferred For to Vulgar Latin. Rom.Jinisse). * dormo. tricts also pene- eventually the present participle ( and in some disand the imperfect indicative Fr. finissons. despereissir. finis sais ) I. XXX. or southern Italian. Many verbs in -io dropped the whenever it was fol- lowed by another vowel. Hence forms without the or > > *partente. Portuguese. and Rumania we find a type *finisco *finisce(s) ^Jinisce{i) *Jiniscun{t) The ~sc. There is no direct evidence of this in Latin. / sentieniem > were introduced more less into the indicative and subjunctive: audio * audo. facientem *facente. See Archiv Lat. eventually entered into the formation stem of fourth conjugation verbs. but in the earliest texts of France. -tsco prevailed fiorisce. see E. In the present participle this was a regular phonetic development (see §225): audientem^* audente. finis sant. nor are there any traces of it 415. partientem * sentente.

etc. facere. Haag was derived from the ciple — struxi and perfect indicative traxi iractus. etc. pango panxi panctus... 131.. beside the regular habent. rego rexi rectus. etc. *fragam. and the perfect partivexi vectus on the — analogy of ago tectus.§419] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. see § 409. Italian sei siete is PL 128) went out of for estis. tango tactus. posse. faciunt. underwent considerable changes in the present: see §§273. the second conjugation admitted such f oriris as * habeunt. Substrate VI. Pers. Old Italian se for e. 419. vehere developed infinitive vegere are forms *striigere. velle dare. Italian while there of on the model and Raetian siede. *vkere. j'ungo Cf. The Spanish use of probably later than our period. 416. actus. cingo cinxi cinctus. also Jingo finxi fictus. and Raetian ses point to a * ses beside es. dtcere. The verbs vadere. duco duxi ductus. *trdcere. trdgere. habere. 418. trahere. Jigo fixi. old esum cited by Varro {Fr. tego and probably junxi junctus. * vtdeunt. as *trago. etc. 403-406. 401. vegere {tragere and used by 34) and a whole present and imperfect inflection with —g—. 397. 417. 412. indicate a * setts some evidence of an alternative * siitis sicmus. Considerable alterations use of fieri for esse is (I ) were made in the present indicative and subjunctive. structus. to bring it into conformity with the usual third conjugation type. 175 analogy of capiunt. plango planxi planctus. For the sedere for The s. ungo unxi unctus. vtdent. There may have been also *striicere. present indicative shows some signs of a tendency its to normalize erratic inflection by making all the forms be- gin with The use. Prpvengal ses for Digitized by Microsoft® . The verbs struere. etc. based on the analogy of dico dixi dictus. stare. Esse was made into *essere. The guttural Fredegarius. debere. lego lectus. esse. *tragebam.

§ iiS. (cf. sem. 135. Mohl. B. prevailed in southern Gaul.. and by various purists of the Augustan age (Stolz 58). It is likely. 479. simus. Old It. occurs in Italian documents of the eighth century. which -was used. fiam reand Dacia. Spr. and Dacia (Pr. see sead in Vok. according to Lat. the usual Classic form.): cf. which existed with esum. Dalmatia. — sem *sea sis simu{s) sidmu(s) site{s) *jfa(j) sea(t) *sidie[s) set sent *sean{i) For Stat. by Augustus. PL 130. .. sons. 5. 478. Provengal esmes<. Pers. Pirson Yt^o. PI. etc. Italy. see 420. Old Fr. was preferred in Spain. Siamus. etc. II. In the third conjugatiqjyg^-jyj^^ Ajgaj^g^ developed into -ebam. —ibam. etc.). iox fit. 42. The endings were -dbam. N. and the Tyrol (Sp. XXI. 347. Hence comes an etc. Spr. may go back to *sei and *sesf for est In the first person plural sumus became sumus and simus (see §220). IMPERFECT. Pr. -icbam. Lat. that cal influence oifiam.176 es. [§420 usually understood as reflexive forms. etc. sumus. Pers. Pr. — For the loss of the imperfect subjunctive. The present indicative inflection was doubtless something like this sqm fs est : — sqmu(s) *ses *set} *sest? i^ie(s) semu{s) *esmu{s) *sete(s) *sciie(s)! sqnt (2) In the present subjunctive the analogy of other third conjugation verbs tended to introduce the characteristic vowel a. which ultimately prevailed: Lexique ^x): fiet is common places sim in northern Italy alternative inflection * siam. Rom. —ebam. semo. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. from early times there was a reciproand the Old Latin optative siem. too. Portugal. *esmus seems to be a new formation on the analogy of esHs. somas. according to Suetonius. would derive it from old esimus. northern Gaul.

-tvi). R. 479. 421. 2?>q.§423] just as An Introduction -ientem> -entem (see §§ to Vulgar Latin. had weak perfects. 6. A vowel. silevit for siluit occurs also. probably through dissimilation. —oleo. territory except common to nearly all the Romance Rumania: Lat. sentia. the strong includes all Verbs of the first and fourth conjugations generally others. which stressed the characteristic vowel of the fourth conjugation. PERFECT. *afiea. -evi. Hence came an alternative ending —ea for -e/ia. the weak and the strong: the weak comprises the v. credia. Dubois 277-278. vieo. which in Romance was widely extended. pronounced a^e^a (cf.perfects in which the v is added to a verb-stem (-dvi. a. and fourth conjugation verbs with strong perfects developed a weak one in Vulgar Latin: pr(sstiti> probably All first j>rcBstavi. For further encroachment of the weak type on thb strong. and also a general inclination to omit v between two i's (see § 324).'Bi. — being common In the fourth conjugation -iebam and -ibam existed side byside from early times (Neue II. We — — neo. most of them rare 422. those of the second and third had mostly all of the second conjugation and Only six verbs strong. etc. prevailed in popular speech. Spr. WEAK PERFECTS. §318). affecting all the conjugations but the It is ved^a. —Ibam. to a reduction tendency to keep the stress on the characteristic Digitized by Microsoft® . in the fourth conjugation. 177 22t„ /^i6): faciebam'>-*facebam. 423.. first: It. • salui>salivi. see §426. and —iebam disappeared: vestibat.fleo. 445). developed another form. must distinguish two types. -pleo. —Ibam as in munibam — in early Latin and recurring at later periods (Lindsay 491). regularly had a perfect in -evi: deleo. 287. Habebam. led early.

Then a contraction of the two vowels gave. as in repetimus. the further reduction of —ivt to which brought about. and. (Haag 55).. Bon. contraction without the gave rise. later. petit. The A contraction without the .). 216. "fumdt -pro fumavit. Fredegarius in -ait is 152. in the first and third persons singular *—lrunt: audi. perit. 451. II. for —ierunt. perit. to a desire to distinguish the perfect from the present). A ular. -/. -u and *-u.. ccelebrasperamus. 452-454. perhaps. see Servius ad Aen. —drunt. II. Neue III. probably to *-aumus: triumphaut in Pompeii. 587). Densusianu I. in the first person plural. This -aut prevailed '^'^'^. etc. o-cyvoi. —iverunt to —ierunt. laborait. etc.m»'W^ol%tm^ and amdo. and the third person plural. [§424 of —tvtsit to -tstt still early.. etc. F^/J. Neue III. in the third person singular. —dvif^dit and -at.Lexique 46. 449. gave —dsti. carried into the first conjugation. for —imus. I." Priscian XII. Bayard 60. dedicait. 17 (Keil II. and. 424. 440.— 178 An Introduction and to Vulgar Latin. 152. 440). The third person singular found in Old Sardinian: Lat. petit. Gregory of Tours (Bon. 479.I. Densusianu I. etc. -dvistis. rise early to a reduction of —avisti. —ivit to —iit and *-itt. -dvtmus>-dmus and probably *-dmmus: calcai (Probus). mus.judicat. *-iut: It.L. vocitamus. to -aut. memoramus. redit. etc. 17 (Keil II. see Neue III. speclarait. edificai.. 587). denumerat. the reduction of —ivimus to —Imus and probably *—immus (the lengthening of the m being due to compensation and also. fall of v gave rise. 434 (cf. —dverunt to Much later -dvt>-di." Priscian XII. Spr. 446-448. -ivistis to —istis. "cupit pro cupivit. see Neue III. For -nt. Fredegarius (Haag 55). 241: 65-121 a. The loss of V. S.'X. servio. 476. in the third person singan alternative form. to fall of v. 476. C. — probai {'Prdhns). Vok.d. as in lenUt. —tt. locally. —dstis.

odedere. these endings were carried into other verbs of the third and even the second conjugation first baMi. of the Romance languages cazif). : and the of the and fourth conjugations so caderunt. etc. preserved in some Old French dialects near Douai: 607. *-det. the forms with v were not preserved in Romance. were : 425... on the other hand. this -dedi Through the analogy of -di. Some other second conjugation verbs apparentlyadopted this perfect: 426. (am'ei). in Provengal they invaded the also In Dacia. Audollent 544. videderunt (cf. which in Vulgar Latin became —dedi This -dedi ^a. tion. *-ejti. etc. R. In some (It. Spr. in the first XXX. Hence arose eventually an inflecset of tion *-^«. fore. tended to many other verbs in -d-: prandidi. cor-ii. 179 *~aumus Jiom. The forms — and fourth conjugations. —asfi. Reich. perdidt.). -isti. 184. etc. *-ei.. they apparently did Digitized by Microsoft® . incendederit. Verbs in —evl doubtless had a similar inflection: *delei. 287.s ex(see §139): perdedit. 480. etc. Compounds of dare had a perfect in -dtdi {credidt.§426] An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. respondidi. *-n. Lat. -derun(f). *-dem(^m)u{s). ~ivi —isti there- -dvi —dsii -dve{t) —df *~ti —ii -i -dut -dit -dt -weif) *-jut *-{it -lit -it -dvimu(s) -dmu{s) *-dmmu(s) *~dumus -dste(s) -immu{s) -4mu(s) *-jmmu(s) -iste(s) -drunit) *-irun{t) With the exception of -ivi in Old Italian.. delesti. Pr. *—desie(s). edediderit with an extra -de-). 288. etc. Gl. descendidit. 479. vendidl. etc. ascendiderat. R. *-desti. from which there came a responding to the —ai first endings *-«'. silevit. Keil IV. prendiderunt. pandiderunt. helped by dissimilabecame *-deJ. descendidi.

b. where there was no extended. the Rumania. etc it In the second and crevi. conqbbi. -dei.. dlc-s-i = dixi. Gl. 286. In the first class the u lost its syllabic value and became w • — : (cf. R. under the influence of dejti.. etc. pdvi. STRONG PERFECTS.. included from the start not only perfects of the placui but also all perfects in -vi not made from the verb-stem such as cognovi. wwi. etc.. sapivi~^ sapui. prendesti. salui^ salivi salii *salsi. movi. The -ui type. according to Meyer-Liibke. In Italy all strong verbs except esse introduced weak endings in the second person singular and the first and second persons plural: It. presi. and those that have nothing between the root and the personal endings plac-u-i. Pr. etc. Reich. crebbi. all. tions: This perfect disappeared from the first and fourth conjugacrepui>*crepavi. Through these endings the weak type encroached somewhat on the strong. crevi. aperui y^ * aperii *apersi.. plaudisti for plausisti. §326): placwi. etc. It. but written vi to avoid the doubling of the V. Gram. third conjugations maintained Digitized itself very well: cognovi. etc. * stetui. also vincisti. etc. the development of the vi indicates that sort. 428. this ending being pronounced wui. There are three types those that add s. bib-i. II. those that add u to the root. 357. . In -ui and —si types were qucesivi'^^ A few weak verbs adopted strong inflections: * quasi. At any rate. — — it was sounded wui. by Microsoft® . dare had (beside diedi^dedi) a perfect arose an inflection side -dei -detti. [§ 428 not develop at In Italy. stetti<. and -ei. etc. moc. whence and a set of endings -etti. cf. necui> necavi. §422).i8o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 427. or fiwi in Vulgar Latin: cf. (cf.

*acce{n)si. became * sentii. Of the -si class.> slso *vtscui. tinxi. rasi. *taxi. frixi. *pensi. molui. *rosi. *fusi. i8i It lost gemui{^. *sdlsi. 479. coxi. 430. vixi ". 97. duxi. R. which comprised perfects in -si. * volsi. * morsi. —ssi. abscd{n)si. *vinsi. junxi. 130. * defe(ji)si. divisi. *cursi. etc. torsi. strinxi. cf. Lat. Lat. legi'>-* legui *lexi. R. *redempsi. finxi. *copersi. *occlsi. Zs. messui(J). Among the -i perfects. — — : clausi. unxi. expavi'> expabui. sapivi'^ sapui. the reduplicative formations were discarded in Vulgar Latin. In Vulgar Latin there were perhaps some thirty or more new formations: *apersi. 429. *rdsi. excussi. pressi. *siirsi. scripsi 163). > > Cf. *offersi. Keil VII. mansi. Zimmermann in Archiv XIII. pinxi. veni '^aXso *venui. Lat. dixi.perfect through having an Cf. —stinxi. mlsi (also *mzssi. and —xi. *qucBsi. * tensi *te{n)si. rosi. *salsi. *tanxi. text sedi>* sedui . *prensi. — assumed the s. movi'. pavi. sustuli>*tolui * tolsi. Spr. * occisi. § 165. texui. silui {^silevi). *punxi. XXVIII. Lat. 479. *pe{n)si. *franxi. * cadui *cadedi. however. some thirty-five were preserved arsi. Sensi. tenui. *fusi. luxi. cepi^ caput. struxi. Spr. Spr. sparsi. *imptnxi. with the exception of dedi and steti (also *j/i?/«2). *attinxi. defensi. A. posui {>posi). *tdlsi. vixi. Einf. whose reduplicative character was no longer Digitized by Microsoft® . traxi. steti>^\so* stetui. natus sum'^*nacui. ertgo. Haag 56. z/J« also *vtncui *vinsi. s in the perfect participle. and possibly a few others. *respd{ti)si. 288. texui. *mdrsi. fixi. mulsi. tersi. § perhaps on the model of mtssus. peperci^-parcui. Spr. On the other hand it received many additions: Mbi>*Mbui. *pre{n)si.§ 43o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cMdi 479 > (so *rectpui).'). 94. rexi. Some of these — * *responsi. risi. posi. 288. 480. persi. vldi'^zlso *vtdui *vtdui. cinxi. *ersi from *lexi. planxi.

fefelli'>*falii. The prevailing something fui *fosti like this — with some variations. a form *fdrunt. but circumdavit in Gl. defendi >• * defe{ n ) si. then futm us was often shortened to also. veni * venui. to Vulgar Latin. [§ 431 of dare usually formed their perfect like §426. pupHgi "> *punxi. but in Classic Latin. * acce(^ n ) si. Reich. 289). fuisti zxi-di. > *fusti. The other Vulgar Latin. The other reduplicative perfects either disappeared the or passed into si class: cucurri "> * cHrsi . vidi * vtdui. volvi > * volsi. was probably foi *fom{m)u(s) *foste(s) foe(t) fue(t) *fgt *fut *forun{t) */urun(t) *f^un{t)} foerun{t)> Digitized by Microsoft® . verti. cepi'^capui. legi > * Kxi. fui. *te{n)si. Two of the old perfects maintained themselves intact.). sedi"^* sedui. pependiy. and two more were kept beside new formations feci. some went over fUgi^ > > *fusi. vtci > no additions. prendi > *pre{ n * vinsi. tetegi'^* taxi * tanxi. In an ( cf . fudi > ) si. 431. fuerunt became *furunt. egi. inflection. fuistis > *fustis. peperci"^ parcui. apparent compounds (cf. R. or *cadedi. : There may have been through dissimilation. There were : *fugii. -i perfects were greatly reduced in to the -a/ or the -si type: number in Some simply disappeared. solvi'^* solsi. fuit *fut. the simple verb came * cadui R. generally became *fum(m)us.*pe{^n)si. while compounds of stare tended to follow the regular first Cecidi beconjugation model (Jtrcestili > pnestavi. 288. effort it was shortened Vulgar Latin seems to show both H and H. In fui the u was originally long. bibi'^*bibui. legi'^* legui. to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout §§423-424). momordi'> tetendi'>- *mdrsi. fregi accendi *franxi. some became weak.i82 An Introduction .

Reich. dixhsem. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. amessim amessitz. habldsemos habldseis.). -assetis. vetitus Nevertheless there were some new formations in —ttus: *levitus. Lat. secextended to tus'^secatus. Verbs which had no perfect participle were obliged to form one in order to make their passive and their perfect tenses: ferio. to *—dssimus. : In the third conjugation -dtus disappeared oblatus offertus (^Gl. etc. sublatus (from tollo')'>-tdllttus (^Gl. tus"^* sonatus. 480. amdssimo amdste. etc. Fr. In some regions a tendency to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout the pluperfect subjunctive led to a change of —assemus. > Digitized by Microsoft® . The ending —ttus. — before Cyprien employed only the shortened forms ss. placutssem. necius "> necatus . > vocUus. delessem. prdvttus. cf. R. domitus'> domatus.). delero. ortaret in Gl. audi{e)ram. notes that St. 1S3 PLUPERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT. dixeram.§ 435] ^^ 7.: It. When these tenses followed the old types: pldcueram (cf. petisset. 432. *feritus. audlsBayard 60-61 sem. 296. In formations from weak perfects only the contracted forms were used: amdram. Sp. fecissem. R. fkero. Gl. In the all first conjugation -dtus was preserved and was verbs: /rictus "> fricatus . generally fell into disuse: crepitus^ *crepatus. amdssem. Spr. aimassions aimassiiz. Reich. — 433. deleram. copertus. 435. cf. sublatus>* suffertus. 8. in the first conjugation. etc. by the analogy of apertus. PERFECT PARTICIPLE. sonivetatus. audt(^e)ro . ficeram. 295. alarei. *-dssitis. dixero . but Pr. tonitus'^*tonatus. amaro. rogitus. so the new alatus. pldcuero. preserved at all. Reich. 434. ^ i^"]).. plicitus"^ plicatus . Reich.

consutus. venditus>*vendutus.184 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. solitus. paritus > *paru> *perdutus *persus. corres- ponding to -atus and -itus. Pirson 152. tollitus. fugitus tus > *fugitus. *parutus. [§ 439 436.. A few of these particihowever. however. submonitus > *submo{n)sus. etc. statutus. *volvitus (or *vdltus) beside volutus. pds{i)tus. Eventually -atus was carried further.. solutus. *vidutus. On 439. provitus. * solvttus (or *sdltus) beside solutus. It was extended to nearly all the verbs that had an -ui perfect: * bibutus. ples. Apertus and copertus. sensus'>*sentitus. rogitus. — and — as *credutus. §435): absconditus'>absco{n)sus . *per- in Sicily encroached largely on -itus. creditus'>*credutus. volutus). * levitus. *mdvitus and *mdssus were formed beside *m. *vendutus. In the fourth conjugation -Itus was preserved and was extended to nearly all verbs: saltus'>*salltus. perditus *parsus. all periods. * movitus. *vdlvitus (or *vdllus). remained. and there were some new formations * solvttus (or *soltus). etc. and ventus generally became * venutus. Reich.ovutus. old and found in Gl. It did not al- ways. *tenutus. Digitized by Microsoft® . were kept only as ad- 438. molitus > * molutus. jectives. buius. were kept. In the second conjugation the rare -etus disappeared as a participial ending: completus. belonging to verbs in —uere and tri- —vere {argutus. The ending -itus tended to disappear (cf. in -itus: gemitus'!. vocitus. In the third conjugation qumsttus>*gucestus. bibitus^* bibutus . dutus. however. The ending —ictus. but status. * habutus. entirely displace the old perfect participle: natus was kept beside * nascHtus. the other hand. minutus. * venutus. sepultus^sepelitus. offered a convenient accented form. 437. secutus.

/ric* surtus for surrectus.. scriptus.viA. Several of these developed also a participle in -utus: etc. -itus. tractus. mistus. 480. *strinctus. divisus. Reich. ma{n)sus. 480. tortus. sirictus *tanctus'!. vtctus~>* vixutus. *parsus. falsus *fallitus. saltus'^-* salitus and *salsus. dictus. pictus *pinctus. Keil VII. *submo{n)sus.*mdssus. 295. farsus. 185 440. *mossus. rosus. fusus "^fundutus. A > > > * sentttus . ductus. tinctus. ex- factus. 94. §439). expansus sensus few verbs replaced the old form by one in -itus or -ietus: * expandutus . victus'>*vin- cutus and *vinctus. cretus> *crevutus'>. messus'^ metitus. *vidutus. *salsus. Hr- excussus. pe{Ti)sus. 'salted. te{n)sus. rectus. stinctus. Digitized by Microsoft® . R. morsus. *vdltus About fifteen verbs (cf. or -utus: captus *capttus. sessus > * sedutus.' maintained itself beside salitus. texus * texiisecdtus. probably replaced -tus by -atus. missus. *vistus. 441. ventus'^*venutus and venttus. sus. mdtus'>*movutus'> &. also probably * wwclausus. risus. also perhaps *misus by the analogy of mist. 480. oc- casionally with a change of stem: ductus . to{n)sus. punctus. *persus. sepultus >• sepelitus. tentus > > tus. Lat. *gucestus. There were a few new for- mations in —tus: offertus. tersus. gavisus>*gaudutus . cogndtus>*conovutus'i. Spr. fartus'. fractus *franctus. 295 (very common). there were some absco{n)sus. The ending —sus was defe{n')sus. Salsus. fusus. Lat. new formations in -sus: On the other hand. R. tactus'i tus. *pendutus. frictus "^fricdtus. fixus. structus. Spr. generally kept: acce{n')sus . pastus'>-*pavutus'i. and perhaps *sdltus. Spr. * suffertus.>*farcitus axiAfarsus. lectus. fictus finctus.§ 441] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. pre(n)sus . pressus. wjwj. Dubois 282. tus. Gl. Bechtel 91. sectusy^ * tenutus. sparsus. nectus>necdtus. The ending -tus was kept for some twenty verbs. Lat.

*amdmu amdtes dmant like * cdnomus. etc. colliget. however. — This theory has In strong perfects the of -tstis first person plural. PEESONAL ENDINGS. Meyer-Liibke. perhaps S. first person plural lost perhaps in the Vulgar Latin period: videmus'>-'St. as -s did not fall in this region. -0. 445. There are traces of 47. its — tended. from laudas. 447. Grundriss V. by Microsoft® . As unaccented e. analogical formations. see §416. does not support this view. historically considered. 670. etc. forms due to Celtic influence. —et and -U. vezim. and doubtless of weak after our period. then the accent was shifted to the penult *canomus. Pr. fez^m. 53. to stress this in ^smiVi: fecimiis>'Pr. and i came to be pronounced alike (§243). The evidence. This confusion is very frequent in the Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-89. Pers. It may be that -s was dropped because it was regarded as a characteristic of the second person. PL. — through the analogy perfects as well. Pr. This is not a phonetic phe- nomenon. Pers. -imus. not found acceptance. and -Isti. According to Mohl. e. are correctly explained by Tiktin 565-566 as 444. For the reduction of -to to 443. assumes that in Italy -as and -es became -i. PL 73-80): — dmo dmaa dmat 446. inscriptions and elsewhere: Digitized The shift. [§ 447 9. great confusion ensued between -es and —is. as t was of the third (cf.1 86 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 442. whence came the French -ons. were used in northern Gaul instead of canimus. Italian lodi and Rumanian lauzi.. In southern and to some extent in northern Gaul the its final s.

In the present indicative and imperative. exient. and Dacia.). kept the old accent (Tiktin 596): iingem. . PI.§ 45°] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 448. PI. lingeti. — — particularly common in Italy: cf. dixerunt. due to the analogy of -iunt. Rumanian. §416. ite(s). etc. etc. the con- fusion goes back to early Italic. 30. According to Mohl. sometimes had a short e (e is common in the comic poets. vindett. their interchange Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-90. 112. discarded. -dte(s). -ent. -unt was preferred. tral and the rest of southern Italy. was perhaps viitttmus. §137. however. in the sixth or seventh century. in the For the reduction of —iunt to -unt. ite in the other conjugations. The endings -ent and -unt came to be very is much confused frequent in the (* credent. accipient. Rastia. —ite generally —Ste(^s). Cf. in Vulgar Latin this vowel was apparently al450. Beside second conjugation. -ttis. etc. vindem. see §416. Sardinia. —^te.J^kuJ-i n^g^^xd^so^'^i^-i -^--^/^^ . 64. became. Pr. ways /3 short: debuerunt. etc. to match —^te(^s). being attracted by mittimus: Pr. —die and -^mu(s). -imus. -/»z«(j'). Pers. In the perfect. dicUis kept their old forms in many regions. as there are in Italian and French remains of the original accentuation. the third person plural ending -ere was The ending -erunt. The Classic distinction was best kept in Gaul and northern Italy. Virgil wrote tulerunt. *vidunt. for instance. -ent prevailed in cen. respon- duntur.). there was an ending *-eunt which was (^habeunt. viderunt. in southeastern facitis There are some traces of its preservation French dialects also. 449. Pers. in Classic Latin. and a part of southern Italy. facimus. -ite -dmu(s'). absolvent.j—th& penult assuming the accent. helped by the analogy of the future — The shift and -{mu{s). 187 was not universal. etc. and dicimus. in Spain and Portugal. Furthermore.). Dalmatia.

Digitized by Microsoft® .

140 iicatum r4i aculionis 367 abeo = habeo 251 224 abias 224 abiat 224 abiete -abilis 39 ab intus 47 abitat 25 1 Ablative 92-7. 441 ad 14. 82 ace. 65 accedere(m) 309 accensus 441 -a 37 0181 ab 14.28 absconsus 439. 229 231. 86. 93. 355(1) adparescere 34 adpetere 32 Digitized by Microsoft® . 47.1 INDEX. 77. 377 accipient 449 declension 374-9 accubitorium ^'j numerals 378-82 -accus ^y unus (article) 57 Accusative.) 412 unstressed words 156-8 adgenuculari 25 Accented Vowels see ad horam 47 Vowels adimplere 30 accepere 201 Adjectives acceptabilis 39 comparison 56. 98-9. 84 acua aqua 223 -aculare 35 before s + cons. N. 240. adjutare 34 ad mane 47 373.23. 228.B. 231. 92 beJEore j 222 Accent 134-58 primary 135-52 Greek words 143-50 other foreign words 15 1-2 acer arbor 43 -aceus 37 acia 355 (2) -acius ^y a contra 47 a(c)qua 164 Acqui Z^ Acragas 330 ac si 83 ac sic 24. 230 = 0*78 ab-25 ab-]> au. pi. 90. 94-6. abyssus 149 ac. 96. = abl. 450 Towels in hiatus addedi 139 136-8 addormire 25 secondary 153-5 adferitis (imper. absolute 97 abl.24. 243. italics to Words printed in Roman type belong to ancient. 244 (i). 78. adaptus 23 adcap(i)tare 25 433> 447-8.— Arabic numerals refer to Paragraphs. 82. 94-6 nouns 367 numerals 142 : ace. in -us 244.236 ab ante 47. 94-6 aboculare 26 ab olim 47 abs. 34 abbio 273 abbreviare 25 abbreviatio yj shift 136-8. 48 abbellire 18. 431. 243. 229 (i). 383 adnao 397 ace.infin. words in modern languages. -I. ad = at 282 ad. 194-5 absida 356 (3) absolvent 449 -anus 39 ja-> je. 25 recomposition 139 verbs 423-4.229 (i) unaccented 228.=accus. 383 abl. a 194-5. 240. 244 accented 39.

209-10 unaccented 174.194 = -ago 2>7 Agragas 330 Agrientum 259 agurium 228 agustas 228 36 anangi 331 anathema 19 anathematizare 19 anc 40 anc hanc 251 = allium 274 a longe 47 alques 71 alter 71. 244 aecclesia 228 Eedis 366 ffigis -ale y] alecer 195 (i) Alesander 255 alevanti eleph.281 (i) Eeum = cBvum 324 ^a foras 47 aliquant! 71 aliqui 71 aliquis 13. 435 ad ubi 47 aduc 250 adulescentulus 37 adunare 25 alauda 19 alaudula yj alba spina 43 alberca 19 albeus 317 228. 210 EEteneris = itineris 201 sequus alid alicunus 71 aliud 71 alio(r)sum 291 = . 255 188 seliens = eligens 259 =8-175 alicer 195 (i) agques = e. = -t. 405 amei 424 amenus 215 amfora 334 amicicia 276 amadus amido 187 amistat 154 amita 239.243. altiare 34 altior yj'] anca 343 ancilia 187 395 Agustus 228 ahenum 250 ai >. 359 (i) amitane 359 (i) amitanis 359 amma 16 243. albor = arbor 292 . 178. 233. Adverbs 73-5 as 174.175.) 372 adpretiare 25 adpropiare 25 ad semel 47 —aio 39 (-arius) aios =: BjyiQS 272 am 78 ad sero 47 adsteti 139 Aix ajutit = adjutet 272 ad subito 47 adtonitus 32 ad tunc 47 -al37 alacer 195 (i) alare 405.Ethiopia 188 alipes (i) = ad. 83 -an 36 -aj* a f oris 47 agennae -nd.) 367 amho 424 amaricare 34 ama(t) 285 ambitare 405 ambolare 232 ambulare 10.281 = aliquot 71 -alis agere ajere 259 aggio 273 aggravatio 37 = 39 alium 224 alius 71 allare 405.) 40 aiglon yj (-0) altra 233 altrui Aiiax 222 395 ancora 150. 359.£6 2> e 209 at 188 altissimus 377 altitia 37 Aiax 188.321 = Alexander alguein 71 alguien 71 -alia 37 38. 244 -EE = -e 174. 187 -ancus 37 (-incus) -anda 37 andare 405 andata 37 (-ta) Andreani 359 (i) Andreate 359 (2) andron 331 anellus 37. 209-10. 71 amnavit 405 amh 424 a mode 47 amourette yj (-ittus) ampitzatru 277 ampora 334 amurca 186 amure 203 amygdalum 19 an II. 178.22 Index. 222 alto (adv. alumnu (nom. 244 accented 1 74. 42 Digitized by Microsoft® . 1 78.I go aiio 2. 14. 435 allegorizare ig alleviare 34 Agneti 359 (2) agnetus -na. 232.286 amantis (nom.

42 participle 435. 78. 429 apertus 436 arsus 441 artemisia 184 arietico 184 apotheca 182 apothecarius 39 apparescere 35 arthriticus 184 Article 57. 42 Aorist 124 armeise 184 armentas 352 -aro 39 (-arlus) Aroncianos 276 arrespex r= haruspex 251 Arrius 251 arroser 356 (3) arsi Attane 359 atticissare (i) t^^ attinxi 429 Attitta 37 (-ittus) -attus yj at ubi 48 apcha 343 aperii 428 429 -atus 37 (-ta). 223 284 aquilotto 37 (-ottus) asculta 228 Angers 86 angliscus 39 angostia 208 (i) anguil(l)a 163 ang(u)Ius 233 angustiare 34 Anicius 276 -ar37 Arbonenca yj (-incus) a semel 47 aspargo 31 aspectare 25 arbor (masc. 255.) 367 audi audivi 227.Index. 269. 42 angelice 40 angelus 19 191 ascendiderat 426 ascetes 182 ascla apud aqua 14. 260-1 Assimilation 229 (3). 34. 211-3. 282. 440 au 178. 293. 236 (7) apersi 428. 39. 265 aspra 233 -asse 161 ardente(m) 309 ardere 399 animabus 358 animalico yj (-icca) Anitius 276 Annanis 359 annare 405 annata yj (-ta) Annenis 359 annitare 405 annotavimus -bi. 310.) -assem 161 -^ssemus 433 33. 65 at = anta 239 ante 96 antemittere 46 antestetis (nom. 392 artic(u)lus 234 > (7) appo 78 apprendere 12 arvorsum (2) = adversum 281 ApHro 410 apsens 315 apsolvere 315 apte =: -se 244 arvum > aram 2z6 aucellus 13. 229 accented 178.^y anticus 226 antiefne 184 antiphona 184 ariex = -s 255 -aris 39 -aris -alis 292 ^ -arius 39 atque ille 24 atque ipse 65 atque is 65 atrium 12 atta 16. 267. -dssetis 433 397-8 -are (nouns) y] ares = aries 225 aretem 225 argentum 259 -aria 37 -aricius 39 arida (noun) 13 Assibilation 277-8.24. 228. 255 -ans39 anser 13 ad 282 -ata 37 (-ta) -aticum yj atque. 211 -3 unaccented 228. 255 Digitized by Microsoft® . 265. 264. 282 aput 282 164.318 annulare 405 anos = annos 247 ardire 343 -are (infin. anemis 232 -aneus 39. 307. 359 (i) anus = annos 244 -anus 39. 68. 229 au o 229 (7) OK 189 auca 13.) 346 (4) arb(o)rem 235 arboricellus 153 Aspirates 249-52. 325 aucidere 212 -OS 38 -as -i 443 > audace (nom. 36.) 367 -antia . 423 audiendu'st 309 = ascella =r axilla 42. 315 Asti 86 astula 284 at II = ar(i)dorem 219 ar(i)dus 237 aries 225.

) 367 brae (c) a 163 bracchiale 37 = brac(c)hium 163 brachia 352 Digitized by Microsoft® . 74 bene bene 55 benegnus 172 (2) bene placitum 43 Beneria Ve.22 bisaccium 22 bisacutus 22 bisante 187 = = bis Austus 263 aut 174 aut aut 84 -aut -avit 424 . 42. 416 audivi(t) 2S5 audus 236 -aumus := -avimus 424 aunc(u)lus 234. .316 bal(i)neum 146. 236 avicella 37.316 Bodicca 37 (-icca) boletus 38. 182 autumnal (e) 242 auyo 272-3 avau.212 39 bimaritus 22 bintcente vincente 260 bis. Balerius Va. 34 ausculum := osc.316 bianca 341 biber 242 biblia 146 bibui 428 bibutus 438. 324 Aureia -elia 274 Index. 324 botella 361 bottega 182 b see Labials : baboni 362 bac(c)a 163 bacito yj (-ittus) bac(u)lus 234 Baiocasses 151 bajulus 233 Baleria = Va.316 boccone 37 (-0) bocconi 40 avec 78 avello = -avi ^ = averlo 293 -ai 424 avica 13.236. 325 av(i)dere 219 avidus 236 aviolus 13 avis 13 avis struthius 43 Bellus -onis 362 bene 40. 359(1) barbane 359(1) barbar 242 barbo -onis 359(1) barbutus 42 baro 16 bassiare 275 = vixit 255 = vi. . 236. 322 -bilis = balteum -us 347 bannus 19 baplo 235 baptidiare 339 baptisma 149 Aureliati 359 (2) aurora 11 aus avus 241.22 Bononia 303 bonu 298 bonus = -OS 244 bonus bonus 55 bos =:i vos 316. 162. 333 balneum 146: balneus 347 = bifolco biginti ti 318 (2) = vi. 184 Bologna 303 bonatus 37 (-atus) Bonica 37 (-icca) bon(i)tatem 231 bonito y] (-ittus) = avire 400 -avit -ait -at -aut 241.192 aud(i)entem 416 aud(i)o 272-3. 339 baptizatio 19 barba -anis 359. 219 balneus 347 ballaena 150.316. 241 avaricia 276 ^ bas(s)ium 163 basso 40 battaUa 16 battel 426 ba(t)t(u)ere 137. 36 blasphemia 146. ^ benignis 376 benivolus 201 berbeces 323 Bonitta 37 (-ittus) 424 avo avus 362 avus 13 ayo = habeo 273 = berbex (-ix) 42. 226 Bayeux 151 bel(I)ua 164 blasphemus 150 blasta 312 (i) blitum 184 bob ansa 336 bobis vo. 439 Bictor 316 biduanus 39 bieta 184 botu vo. 33.316. = autem 11.316 bixit = vi. 322 botula 361 bovis (nom. 14 5 Authorities autor 266 baptizare 19.3165 322 bis(s)it coctum 43 bivere blaesus 329 blanche 341 blanka 341 blankizare 34 blaspheraare ig. 324 ausare 18.3171323 bestemmia 182 Betrubius 316 beveire y^ (-tor) bi.

330 (-ium) cerasus 38.) 367 camutus 39. 356 (3). 284 capire 406 cap(i)talis 231 cauculus 288 cauditus 42 caus(s)a 161 cavia 224 -ce 40 cecino 187. 383 cf. 195 (3) cerbus 323 cerebellum 231 cereolus 13 cereseus 195 (3) ceresus 38. 231. 285.) 367 cammarus 330 canalia yj cani (pi. 402 -C40 caballus 12 capiclus 234. branca i6 calcis 193 camis (nom. 234 capitus 440 = cedo 162 cadedi 428 cadere 402 caderunt 426 cadui 428 cselebramus (perf . 71 cata unus 71 cataveris rr -d.) 424 cedrus 182 cefalo 334 celeps 315 capriolus 224 captiare 34 cslus 347 Cjeseris 233 caesorium 37 caetk 313 captio 9 captivare 34 captivus 313 celerus 376 -cellus 37 Celtic Words 19 capud 282 capui 428 calamarium 37 calamellus 37 calamus 150 calatus calcai capum 285. Buolognino 154 burrus 330 Burrus 187 bursa 187 buscus 255 iusta 187 but(t)is 163 cals 255 casotta 37 (-ottus) cas(s)eus 163 . 163 buUicare 35 buplicae = carum 263 casa 12 cal(i)dusi55.354. 330 cedat caedat 210 cabia =: cavea 318 cactivus 313 cactos 313 capitanus 39 capitium 37 (-ium) capitulus 42.) 357 (i) Breaking 177 breviarium 37 brevis 13 Brittanice 40 calcius (nom. 163 Cassiabus358 cas(s)us 161 castaneus 346 (i) castellus camera 145 camerlingo 37 (-ing) caminus 150 camisla 201 (i) (3) 347 butyrum 150 buxida 187. 282. 42 caroneus 39 carrica 11 car(ri)care 18.) 367 224 calcoste(g)is 259 caldo 40 cal(e)facere 219 calefacis 139 calere 288 bruchus 193 pu. pi. 369 caput 13. 356 buxus 187. 219. 150. 356 (3).) 368 cata 19. 356 (3). 330 Byzacinus 42 c : castius 277 castore (nom.) 367 cardu(u)s 226 ce(n)sor 311 census 260 centu 381 ceperint 215 cepi 215 = -avi 424 •^•j = ga. 369 cardonis (nom.256 catechizare 19.Indkx. 163 .312 (i) bublus 235 bubukus 318 (2) buc(c)a 12. 33. 195 (3) calcaneum carissimus 377 caritabilis calce pistare 46 calciare 224 39 Caritta 37 (-ittus) Digitized by Microsoft® . 237 calisco 414 calma 268 calotfa 187 caseum -us 347 Cases85-ioo. cf . 278 capere 8. 33 cat' cantare 34 unus 71 see Gutturals c for capabilis 39 g 253 cy 276. 239 cartas (nom. 347 calumpnia 307 calura 42 camel(l)us 42. 372. 369 capus 285.

310 coicere 310 coiiugi 271 cojectis 311 . 379. 25 concha 186 concupiscencia 276 cohors 12. 213 codex 213 coemiterium 192 coepi 72. 271 colaphizare 19 col(a)p(h)us 19.23. 231 clamantis (nom. 124 coexcitare 30 comedo = quo. 231. 269 co(g)nosco 43. 277. 237. 187 cimiterium 192 cinctius coclearium 356 (3) coclia commando 31 comment 41 commixtius 23 224 254 cinctus 440 cinqua(gi)nta 254. 325 clausi 429 clausus 441 clavem 288 clavido 236. Clepatra 191 clerc 154 Change of Suffix 42 chan(n)e 163 chartaceus 39 cher 263 chiaro (adv. of.411 Digitized by Microsoft® . 130. 276. 160 coUus -um 347 239 colober 208 Clio 190 colobra 208 (2).) 40 chiave 288 Chilperico 343 ckiosa 185 clergue 154 305. 259. 233 Comparison 56 comperare 231. 297\ 318(1).) 367 clarisco 414 Cla(u)dius 211 (i) cojugi 311. 239 collo Clerical 218. 380 cinque 254. 233 complacere 25 complire 400 cinus 347. 276 comitem 235 cima 38. 311 condam 254 condedit 139 conder(e) 242 condicio 276 conditio 276 civ(i)tas 12.1 194 certitude cetto 'r^j Index.444 Pronunciation coUiget 444 col(lo)care 9. 217 Chiusi 86 cholera 145 chommoda 25 c(h)orda 186. 233 cito 162 citrus cognatus 9. 269. -ara 38. 379 cocodrilus 294 cinsum = ce- 196 cocus 226 coda 212. 64 comprendit 250 computare 31 circare 16 circueo 309 circumdavit 430 cis 14 cit(h)era. 153. X54. 329 191 ciurma -cius 39 of. 260^. 154. 310 cognovi 428 cognusco 197 cohaerere 310 computus 235 comuna 376 con.) 346 (2) colp 154 colustra 197 = coacla 289 (i) 206 cicinus 330 -cillus ]> -cellus 42 coactum 310 coccodrillo 294 cocens 226 comenzare 276 coininciare 276 cominiciare 276 cominitiare 25. 332 cib Clodius 212 cloppus 16 closa 212 Cludo 211 (2) -clus 234 CO quod 282 colomna 208 coloquinta 187 color (fern. claudo 236. 370 cinxi 429 cip(p)us 163 circa 80. coexercitatus 30 cofecisse 311 96 Compound Words 43-9. 231. 197.226 comoedia 192 comparare 8. 139. 12. 325 colhe 154 coles 213 i6z -ceus 39 Chairibertus 39 (-anus) chaloir 288 Change of Meaning 8-10 coliandrum 292 coUecta 37 (-ta) collectus yj (-ta) colli(g)ens 259 col(li)gere 31. 330. 333(1) clericatus 37 cler(i)cus 39. 150. 332 Chrestus 184 chrisma 184 C(h)ristus 184. 31. 259*. 332 Conditional 124. 186. 272.

439 crepatus 435 crepavi 428 Crescentsiarius 277 cresco 255 cresima 184 cresme 184 crevi (i) 428 292 crevutus 440 criblare crigTie 35 c'ritare 229 consirier yj (-erium) Consonants Aspirate 249-52 Dentals 280-6 = criz 206 = crocitare 35 Digitized by Microsoft® . confessor 18 confortare 25. 139 credens (noun) 13. 37 crebbi 428 credea 421 crededi 31. 396450 Four Conjugations 396407 First 397-8 Second 399-401 Third 402-6 Double: see Double Consonants Germanic : see Germanic Consonants Greek : see Greek Consonants 272 corrigo 305 corrotulare 229 cors 12. 39 credentia 37 (-antia) " connato 269 conobbi 428 conoisser 413 conopeum 146 conovutus 440 conpendium 32 conplere 306 consacrati 31 conservam(m)us 163 consiensia 260. 160 Fourth 407 Fundamental Changes • 408-12 Imperfect 420-1 constare 31 Inchoative Verbs 413-5 consuere 31. 226.26 contrafacere 26 co(n)ventio 171 convltare 25 coperire 225 copersi 429 Gutturals 253-70 Labials 312-26 Latin 246-8 Letters 246 Liquids 2S7-96 Hasals 303-11 Palatals 271-8 Sibilants 297-302 cortera 203. 137 Perfect 422-31 consuetudo 42 Strong 427-31 co(n)sul 171. 225 cortensis 39 cortilis cortis 39 250 corvo 323 corvus 323 cosol 311 costumen 42 cosul 305 cot 254 cotes 212 cotidiae 244 cot(t)idie 162.) 298 cornicula 42 cornu -um-us 347. 275 227 consilium 42 consili corbeau 323 corbi 323 corbo 323 corcodilus 294 corcodrillus 294 cores = corda 369 corium 294 Comeius =-elius 274 Cornelio (nom. 254 41 Personal Endings 44250 Pluperfect and Future Perfect 432-3 Present Stems 416-9 Use of Forms 101-30 Conjunctions 82-4 co(n)jus 25. 355 cor(o)nare 231 corp 323 corpora 369 corpes corpi -ora 369 coi"pore 356 (3) corpo credere 410 credutus 438. co(n)jux 171.1 Index. 311 conmittere 32 couleuvre 208 (2) court 203 couvent 311 covenimus 311 coventionid 3x1 covetum coxale coxi 429 = cubitum 208 -^j^j copertus 436 cophinus 186 coque 254 coraticimi 18. 244. 255. 34 19s corpo r6o corregia 201 corridije conger 329 Congianus 272 congigi 259 Conjugation 101-30. 3ro corso 208 Groups 131-2. 311 Weak 422-6 conteneo 139 Perfect Participle 434.continari 226 contra 96 contra.

82 curabit cursi de-^ di. 48 deltas 27 del(i)catus 227 delitus 198 delta 329 de magis 47 de medio 47 deminat 139 Dentals d 272. (fem. 392 de foris 47. de. 376 First 357-60 cy 276-8 cy ty277 = cycnus 187. 322 currens 39 = Intervocalic 283. 355-6. 25 debbio 273 debeo 273 debere 10. 48. da 48 dedi 430 (i) 229 crucifigere 46 c'rot'lare dacruma 281 dactylus 19 dedicait 424 ded(i)cavit 231 crudilitas 197 -crum 37 (-culum) crupta 187 crus 13 dad 48 Dafne 334 dai 2<)% dampnum 307 crust(u)lum 234 crypta 187 cubidus cupidus 256 Danuvlum 318 dao397 dare 397 datfus 324 dedro dedrot 285 deexacerbare 30 deexcitare 30 defeniciones 276 defensa 37 (-ta) defensi 429 defensorlus 39 = cuculla 13. 100. 72.) 349 cymba 187 cymiterium 192 cypressus 150 Second 361-3 Third 364-71 Use of Cases 85-100 376 de contra 47 decumus 220 dede = dedit 285 de deorsum 47 Digitized declLvis Deponent Verbs 113. cumba 187 cun = cum 305 cunnuscit 269 cimtellum =r cul. 126 (4) debita 37 deb(i)tum 235.) 82. 330 cyma38. 281-3 dy 272 nd nn 281 Final 282. 81 defuntus 267.o. Definite Article 68.23. 92.196 crocodilus i. 409 d : see Dentals dy 272 de post 48 deprendere 250 de retro 47. 354-76 Adjectives 374-6 Fall of Decl. 48.289 (2) cuoio 296 cuofre 160 cuore 160. 187. 234 cum (conj. 324 deorsum 224 Cusanca 37 (-^ncus) Wouns 354-73 Shift of Decl. 383 cuerdo 369 culcitra 294 dau 397 daun 397 234 dave 48 de 14. 239 decanus 39 dece(m) 309 decern et (or ac) septem 379 dece(m)bris 306 decemter 306 dec(i)mus 239 Declension 85-100. -culum -cuius > 37. 117. 294 Index. 292 Derivation 20-49 descendidi 426 de semel 47 despereifser 414 by Microsoft® . 78. 226 cum (prep. 372-3 de^£-io 273 defna 324 de inter 48 de intro 47 de intus 47. cf.) 14. 285 > -avit 318. 346 (4) cucullus -a 346 (4) defensus 441 deferet 406 Dative 90-1. 88.229 (2) deabus 358 de ad 48 de ante 48 deaurare 23. 25 305 77. 286 nd > nn 281 429 cursorium 37 curvus 323 nt 285 St 285 t 284-6 denumer^t 424 deo(r)sum 291. 177 cnpa(t) 285 cupire 406 cupit 423 cup(p)a 163 cupressus 150 cur 12. 306 -cellus 42 95 -c(u)lus 42. 95.

209-16 209-10 de sub 48 de super 48 de sursum 47 detti 426 de unde 70.23. 30 . 238. 426.3 Index. 253. (2ddecl. 361 digitus 233. 229 displacet 139 displicina Doable >Single i6i.) 346(1). 239 domnani 359 (i) domnicellus 37 domnicus 235 229 (2) diligibilis 39 domnina 37 domnizare 33 domnulus 235 dint-mi 264 divinus 324 dinus = Dionigi 227 Dionysii 227 diosum = deorsum 291 Diphthongization 177 domnus 235 domus 12 355 dume(c)ta 266 dune 40 d'unde 70. 412 dice = die 412 dice(m) 309 disfactus 23 dis(je)junare 25. etc. 303. Digitized by Microsoft® . 226 dita 351 diu II. dibeto 196 Dibona 318 die 264.253 dictus 166.) 346 (2) dolor 18. 406. 333 dolor (fem. 13 Double Forms 158 Double Negation 75 Double Prefixes 30 doucet 37 (-ittus) doussa 376 drachma 144 drappus 16 d'rectus 229 diurnus 13 divisi Dreux 151 429 drieto 292 406 dicimus 448 dicitis 448 dicitus = -g. dextro(r)sus 291 deyo 273 dia = dies355 (2). 289 (2). 37 dies 13. 440 dicere divisus 441 divite (nom. 196-9 (I) . 355 (2) dietro 292 digita35i. 238. 25 discere 12 disfacit 139 Double 247 = Single 162-3. 229 (4). 167. 393 duo 378 duos 138 durare 229 (5) Duration 99 duricia 276 Durocasses 151 duxi 429 (masc. 393 deus 167 devere 318 devetis 318 au 21 1-3 eu 214 oe 215 ui 216 diposisio 277 dire 406 directus 229 diri(g)ens 259 dirivare 229 (2) dou 397 Double Consonants 161-4. devitum 318 dexcito 225 cf . 378 dukissa yj dulcior (noun) 18 — > -dei 426 = dulcor 18. 43> distinguere 223. 397 dia 397 diabulus 38 diaconissa 19 Dialects 2.) 367 dub(i)tare 231 ducalis 39 divota 229 (2) dixemus 232 dbd429 dodecim 225 doga 186. 328 devidere 229 (4) devinus 229 (4) dis.) 349 dormio 224 dormito 309 dormitorium 37 dormo 416 dorsus 347 dossum 291 Diphthongs 36 177. 421. 247. and fem. desso 62 dester 255 desto 225 197 donee 11 dont 70 donum (masc. 292. 259 -didi ducatus 37 (-ta) duce due 412 ductus 440 dui 167. 21 dolus dictus := digitus 233. 254. 328 289 (i) Dissimilation 167.) e 165. 196-9. 195 (6). 328 Single >Double 164. 177. accented 165. 259 dignus 172 (2) dilevit domatus 435 domin(i)ca 239 dominicus 9.

424 230 e6 > e 225 -edo .198 e 196-8 Index.538 Esaram 233 -escere 34. 6. eccum 24.e 225 = equus 12 equus = sequus 210 -re 245 -er -er 39 (-arius) erable 43 -ere (perf . 62. 65 ecce nunc 65 ecce tu 65 eccillam 24 eccillud elimentum 231 -elis >• -ills 197 Elision 157. 199 n 182 eccu' sic 24 e contra -entia 37 (-antia) -inns 42 -enus > 47 C183 ecus 226 edediderit 426 i eo=:ego 73. 65 eccu' 'ic 326 eccu' ille 24. 385 ego-met-ipse 66 et -erem 346 (3) eremus 150 eres 251 190 e-28 -640 -e>-ffi I74>244 -e -ei 411 -eta 146 eiius 271 erga 14 ergo II. 242 -elius >• -ilius 197 -ellus 37. 413-4 eschernir 341 emere 12 encaustum 149 Enclitics 156 -enda 37 (-anda) : 24 eschine 341 esclate 343 eccillum 24 ecclstam 24 ec(c)lesia 146. 311 -ent -eunt 416. 65. 232. 197. 326 espiar 343 "pier 343 Digitized by Microsoft® .) 450 -ere -ire 197 erodes 251 > effigia 355 (2) eu 214 effondrer 356 (2) i6 >• e 225 unaccented 219. 42 elmo 343 illud 201 elud -elus >• -ellus 42 ervum > erum 226 ervus (3d decl. 429 -erium 37 erminomata 191 ero 411 -ero 39 (-arius) ersi ericius = jacet 224 earn = jam 224 eacit ejus 170. -unt 449 es(i)mus 419 (i) -isimus 197 -esimus esmes 419 (l) eccos 24 eccu.) 368 -Irunt 450 eccam 24 eccas 24 ecce. > = = 444 = ex. 328 Endings Personal 442-50 -esco ]> -isco 197 414 enim 11 escupare 255 -ens 39 (-ans) -e(n)simus 311 -e(n)sis39. 35.) 356 (2) -i 443 -es -es -is 174. 73. 162. 263. 244 egloge 330 e e 165 > > e > e 165 V 182' ei83 e(g)o 60. > e > y 224 e i 229 s (2) edere 13 edificai e prefixed to + cons.228. 65 ecce ille 24. 244. 65 ecce iste 24. 365-6. 364 -V3S -ea 421 -etv 36 ejus 298 eio = -etbv 146 42 erigere 31. > 65 > eccu' iste 24. 298 elementum 231 elephantus 38 elex -ebam : see -ea 429 eiii 411 ecca 24 = ilex 200 (2) erubisco 414 elifanti (pi. 243. s 177. 14 > -i 244. 255 es-7.> -ido 197 edus haedus 210 e6 >.24. 65 ecce ego 65 ecce hie 24. 182. 449 -ent >. no eoru 309 episcopalis 39 epistula 144 > 196-8 e unacc. 385 eo quod 82.24.230. 229 effrenis 376 eglesia 256 (2).exs.

440 fascia 10.) 367 excoriare 25 excussi 429 excussus 441 exeligere 30.23. 77. 266 = = fait 324 266 fallii -esse 161 -essem 161 essere = esse 419 es(t) 285 estatio 230 estau 397 estaun 397 Estephanus 230 estou 397 estribar 341 esum 419 -et et et at ubi . 255 -ex -ix 42 = fac 412 facentem 416 facere 10. 318 febrarius 226 Eurus 191 -eus39 Euua 344 evangelizare 19 -evi -ei 424 > Evidence 5 ex 14. 126 (2). 274 facimus 448 404 facitis 448 factum 266 facire Feminine femps 356 femus (3d : see Gender (2) decl. 277 etsi I \ et sic 47 exodus 337 expabui 42S expandutus 441 expaventare 35 explendido 230 exquartiaxe 276 exs.230 exstinctus 440 exstinxi 429 exsucidus 39 exsucus 23 extensa 37 extimare 255 extra.) 356 (2) fenire 229 (4) factus 440 fenum 209 ferbeo 323 feritus 242 fascit 209 faedus 320 (i) fcemina 209 f acul 434 ferre 12 ferro 160 Digitized by Microsoft® . 404 fatatus 39 fate fabam 320 404 Eugeneti 359 (2) -eum 37 eunuchizare 19 fab(u)la 236 f ac 264. 404 faccia 278 fatus 347 taula 236. 95 ex. (i) = -it 244. facienda 37 fem(i)na 239 feminabus 358 > exaltare 25 exaugiu^tus 39 excellente (nom. et 84 Ethiopia 188 etiam 11.= as. 14. 420 face feced feci = fecit 282 fec(e)ru(nt) 233 430 fehu 343 felicla 234 felis25. 92. 404 facheret 410 faciam 278 fadas 224 fac(i)ebam 225. espiritum 230 exeligit 199 fffinum 209 fffinus esquena 341 esguiver 343 essagium 255 esse 112-4.= es. 25 ex.27 extrabuccare 27 extranus 42 ex tunc 47 ezza 277 f : fallire 430 406 441 34 37 familia 42 famis 366 famTfii 264 famul 242 famulabus 358 fante 311 falsare falsitas fallitus faor 324 farcitus 440 fare 404 farsus 440. 419 (i) esse essere 419 esse sedere 402 274 exe(m)plu 306 exiat 224 exient 449 347 fageus 39 failla exinde 60 exire 31.230. 275 faselus 334 fasena 320 (i) f asia = faciat 285 224 fasiolus -etus 437 see Labials (i) fata 266 eu 214 cu 190 fa 264. 444 49 . .Index.

(mc.) 346 (4) filiaster filio(s) fans 356 frigdura 37 Frigia 187 frig(i)dus 166.) 355 (i) fidens 311 fiele 160 Jiens 356 (2) fieri 112.) 356 fundutus 441 funtes 205 (2) fortia 37 fortis 10 fortis fortis 55 429 fixus 441 fossato 2^1 (-ta) funus II fuore 160 Digitized by Microsoft® . 217 fluviorum 224 feces 213 florire fratelmo 38S frat(t)re 164 frax(i)nus 239. 141 ficit 2. 238. 440 fricda frigida 238. 256 frenum -us 347 fricatus 435.)346(i) fraumenta 268 frecare 201 . cf .419 (2) 400 florisco 400 flovium 208 (2). 200 (i).7 flaus 240.) 346 florecer 292 414 frate 295 Florentinus 37 ficus (2d decl. 361 fructus (2d decl. cf. 231 fons (fem. and fern. 96 forbatre 2. see frondifer 11 fnialitas Germanic Words Greek Words foresia 311 foris 81 and finiscere 35 finxi 429 fructa35i. fiero 160 fiet focus fodiri 8. 259 frigora 351 filius 155.409. 233.) 355 (i) fnindes 205 /^343 fiorentino 154 fioretto yj (-ittus) fiorisce \\^ foris- 29 frunza 351 frutta 351 fugii 430 f ugire 406 fugitus 439 fui 431 forisfacere 29 f orismittere 29 fircum 320 (i) Firenze 86 Firmus -onis 362 fir- 46 formaceus 39 formosus 161 formunsus 208 forsitan 305 forte 40 f ortescere ful(i)ca237 fiscla 234 fistula 234 fistus 197 fix! 34 fumAt 424 fundus (3d decl.Index.) 357 13 . filix 298 274 = filios T97 fiUio 247 fonte 205 244 fonz 356 (2) foras 81. 12 419 (2) figel 242 fiios — filios 274 358 (nom. 341 Franko 341 franxi 429 ficus (I) (masc. fragrantia 37 fra(g)rare 270 flavor 37 fletus II Francesco 341 franctus 440 fieuma 268 fleurit 414 ' fictus 197 440 fleuve 208 (2) fioralis Frankensis 39 Frankiscus 39. 406 folia 352 follia (noun) 18 follicare (i) = 259 f rictus 440 frigare 256.) 17 429 263 Foreign Words 19. fervere 399 fervura 37 fesit flaba 289 (i) flagrare 292 flaonis flator fractus 440 fragellum 289 (2) fragilis 260 324 324 233 >« 343 fezem 44 fiaba 289 (i) fiam 419 (2) fib(u)la 235 ficatum 16. 201 filiabus filias 33 (2) frigdaria 219.f:^ forbire 407 frigorem 347 frixl Fimes 86 Final Syllable 240-5 finctus 440 finis (adj.

furbjan 407 furma 203 furmica 229
genesis 148, 183 Genitive 88-9, 383 genitores 12 genitus 17
gIut(t)o 163




fusa 3; I

gocciare 276 gcerus 187
golosus 228 gonger 329 goule 177


genna 229
gentilis 17


fusus 441

Future 125-9,411
127-9,411 Periphrastic Put. 126 Pres. for Put. 126 (i) Future Perfect 119, 123-4,
410, 423 g: see Gutturals

gentis (adj.) 17

Hew Put.


= jan- 259
37, (i)



genuflectere 46

genum 355
Gepte 259 geguir 343

233 gradlus 376 grada 35.1 gradus 355 (i)
grandis 12
granditia 37 graphium 145 grassetto 37 (-ittus)

= Hier- 259

gabata 13, 236 gabta 236 gaita 343
gaite 343 galatus 330
gallina 288

gerbe 341

Germanic Consonants
b, c,

grassus 257

= Gratis 257

g 341

gravare 34
gravior 377 grece 210

^,^342 h343 W344
Germanic Endings 36 Germanic Words 19,
340-4 Germanissa 37 Gerund 104

gamba 13, 263, 331 gammanis 330
garba 341 garofulum 149 garum 329 gaudia (sg.) 352 gaudimoniuin 20 gaudutus 44 X gauta 236 gaveola 257 gavia 16
gecchire 343 geisla 341 geiuna je- 259 geline 288

Greek Accent 143-50 Ozytones 144
Paroxytones 145-6 Proparoxytones 147-50 Greek Consonants 327-39
ft 7, S 329
K, V,

Gerundive 103
gesso 187 gesta (sg.) 352 gJga 341 gig'i 341

T 330-1

X 332-4 Liquids 335 Hasals 336

I 337


gigantem 229 (3) ginocchioni 40 Giovannoni 362 giret 187
girus 187
giscle 341 glacia 355 (2)

f 338-9
Greek Endings 36, 38, 146 Greek Vowels 180-93 Diphthongs 188-93 Single Vowels 180-7 Greek Words 19, 36, 38,
gre-U 40 grevior 377
grevis 195 (4)

gelus (2d decl.) 355 (i) gemellus 13

gemire 406 gemitus 439

Glacus 211 (i) gladium 347
glanderia 39 glaiz 355 (2) Glauc6 -^nis 359 Glaucu (nom.) 372 glirem 166
glos(s)a 161, 185

gemui 428
gena 13

Gender 345-53 Fem. and Heat. 351-3 Masc. and Pern. 346 Masc. and Heut. 347-50 Heut.Pl.>Fero.Sg.352 Heut.Pron.and Adj. 350

grex (fem.) 346 (4) grossior 377 gratia 187 gruls (nom.) 367 gninnio 281-

gluria 203
glut(t)ire 162

guarire 344 guarnire 36, 407


by Microsoft®

guaiare 343
hab(i)tus 239 h^buerat 137
hocsies 277

gubernamentum 37
gubernare 36, 330
gtterra 344

guidare 36, 398 guiderdone 342 guisa 344
gul0 37
-i -1338, 186, 330 gustus (2d decl.) 355 (i) guttur (masc.) 347


Gutturals 253-70 c c' 258, 260-1 c g 256-7

> >

habutus 438 hache 343 hackerece 39 hffidus 320 (i) hamula 235 hanca 343 handle 343 hant 401 hao 401 hapja 19, 343

hodie 272 hodio 251


hom(i)nes 232, 235 (pi.) 36S
10, 71


honera 251 honor 346 (2) honte 342 hora 12, 185 hordemn 272
horrescere 11
hortesia 311 hospitale 12

haram 251
hardir 343
harena 320 (i) haribergum 19 has 401 hat 401 hatire 36 hatjan 36


g before back vowels hardjan 343

263 c, g before cons. 265-70 c, g final 264 ct 266

hossa 251 hostium 251 Hugo Hflgon

= Hdgo


huile 274

152, 362


> g' 258-9. z6i

humerus r2
humiliare 34

g intervocalic 263

gm 268
gn 172
gr intervocalic 270




152, 362


net 267
Falateilization 258-62

haunitha 342 haunjan 19 haunt 401 havite 400

165, 200-1, etc.

accented 200-1 I 200

haz 355


hegit 251

260 X 255, 266 gylosus 228 gyrus 187


helm 343
keltne 343

h 249-52

hepatia 19 here 219, 244 heredes (sg.) 367 heremum 251 Hiatus 136-8, 222-7

> e 201 e ^ 201 > 165, 200 i>e2oi > > e 165, 201 (cons.) 222 > y 224 -i > -e 224







habam = fabam 320

hlbemus 13
hie 63-4, 67-8 hie ipse 64

habe = ave 318 habe(b)am 421 hiem(p)s 13, 297 habeo 273 hiens = iens 251 habere 10, 121-4, 127-30, hilerus 233
239, 273, 285, 400, 401, 421, 438, 449

(Greek) 184 (Greek) 38 i^ e 225 ii i 227 prefixed to s cons. 230 unaccented 219, 221,228,


> >


hinsidias 251

hireum 320


haber 242 habe(t) 285 habeunt 416, 449 habibat 400
habire 400

= is- ins- 230 hispatii = spatii 230
historia 146

229(3X4), 240, 243, 244 in hiatus 222, 224-5,


> e 229 (4) > a 229 (3)

ho 40 hoc 63,



-ia 37, 146 -(a 37, 146


by Microsoft®

-iamus 224 -are 33, 34
ille 10,

Future Future
125-9, 411

61-8, 389-92

ipse 64





123-4, 410

-ibo 125
-ic 251



-ica 37 -icare 33, 34, 35 -icca 37


390 ille 390 140


(dat.) 390


-iccus 37

> ilium 282, 350
390 390

= suus


Imperfect 120, 420-1 Perfect 121-4, 422-31 Pluperfect 123-4, 410, 432 Present 120, 273, 397, 401, 403-5, 415, 416-9

-icem 42, 346



-iceus 37, 39, 42
-icius 37, 39, 42


induruit 224


ilium illud 282, 350 illurum 390


-inem 346

-iculare 35 -iculus 42

> -ellus 42

infa(n)s 10, 311 i(n)fans 171
inf antiliter
i(n)feri 171,

im = in 310
imaginarius 39

-icus 39

40 219

idem 61, 3C39 id ipsum 62, 350 idolum 150, 190
-idus 39 -i(d)yare 339 i6 e 225


376 immudavit 256 Imperative 115-6, 412 impinguare 25 impinxi 429


infernus 13 Infinitive

-iebam -ebam 225 -ibam 420
-ie(n)s 311



implicat 139 implire 400


> -fmus 447-8 >

in 86, 92, 95, 96, 97
is 310 inanimatus 23 in ante 47, 48 incendiderit 426

lenubam 259
-ier 39 -iere 39

in- 23, 25 in -t- s

as Noun iii Conjugations 396-407 dicere 406 esse 419 facere 404 for Clause for Imperative 116 for Subjunctive iii, 117 for Supine and Gerund




= gesta 259, 352

311 iferi 311
iferos 306, 311

Inchoative Verbs
inclausus 139 incohare 250
in contra 47, 48 incudo 42, 370


103, 104 habere 400 Passive 109 Perfect 109 with habere 125-9, 4^^ posse 403

ifimo 311 if ra 311

Present Active

102, 109


-4gia 2^^
igitur II, 14

with Accusative
inflare 31


incuminem 42
incus 42 -incus 37 inde 60, 71, 384 inde fugere 46

ignire 33 ignis 12


ignotus 310 -igo 37

Forms 345-450 Use 85-130
infra- 27



227, 423


39 -ilius 42 iliac 140

Indefinite Article 57 Indefinite Pronouns: see

infraponere 27


Indicative Conditional 130, 411
for Imperative 116, 412
for Subjunctive 117

infurcare 25

-ing 37

(dat.) 390

390 illsejus 390

ingenium 9 ingens 259 in giro 48


by Microsoft®

-ingus 37 (-incus) in hodie 47
Initial Syllable

62-4, 67-8 ins- liis- 230


— -is = -es 244, 365-6, 444

-iva 37 iventa 311

inlatus 32 in mane 47

-iscere 34, 35


> > -i 423 > -iut > -it 423

-ivum yj
-ivus 39 -ix 42
-izare 33, 34, 339

medio 48

Ischia 284

innoce(n)ti 306 innocus 226
in odio


ischolasticus 230


inprobus 32 inquid 282 in quo ante 254 -inquus 37 (-incus) ins13-230 in semel 47

-isco for -esco 197, iscripta 230


-'{«" 33
izophilus 333
j 271 jacente(m) 309 jacis 244 Jacobus 150, 329

-iscus 39 is ipse 64


ismaragdus 230 isperabi 230 ispose 230
-issa 37 -issare 33

insiemcmenie 41 insola 232 instruo — struo 230 ins(u)la 171, 233, 284 intcitamento 260 inte(g)rum 270 Interamico 307

Jacomus 329
jagante 229 (3)


-isse 161

-issem 161 -issimus 166

jaiant 229 (3) jajunus 229 (i) jambe 263
-jan 36
janarius 226

230 Interanniensis 307 istatuam 230 Interrogatlves see Pro- iste 63-8, 390-2 nouns iste hie 64 Intertonlc Vowel 231 iste ille 64 intra g6 iste ipse 64 intra- 27 istudio 230 intra tenere 27 it id 282 intravidere 46 -it -et 244, 444 intre 245 ita II intro(r)sus 291 Italia 224 intus in 49 Iteilic Tribes i, 2 -inus 37, 42 -itare 34, 35

jaquir 343
jauzei 426 jehan 343 jehir 343
jejunus 229, 229 (i) jeniperus 229 (5)

= =

jenua 229


jenuarius 229 (i) jeuTie 208 (2)
jinipenis 229 (5)

-Inus 39

> -o 416

-itas 37 -ite -Ite


Joanneni 359 (i) Joannentis 359 (2) Joannis 244
jocus 12


ipsa mente 41 ipse 61-8, 390-2



jovenis 208 (2), 217
jovis 367

64 ipsejus 390 ipsimus 66 ipsud 390
ipsujus 390 ipsus 390
iraisser 413 irascere 413

-itia 37, -ities 37


jubari 322



-ittus 37

-itudo 37 -itus 42 (2), 436, 438, 441 -Itus 435, 438-9


jubem(m)us 163 jubenis 318 jubentutis 318, 322 jubere 11
Judaizare 19
judicat 424

-ium 37
-ius 39

126 (5), 405

> -unt 416
by Microsoft®

-ire 33,


judidus 347 judico 239 judigsium 278


juglus 233 Julianenis 359 Julianeta 37 (-ittus)
Julitta 37 (-ittus)

429 Liaison 133, 159 liamen 263
lexi 428,

intervocalic 324

Voicing 314
laborait =:-avit 424

laceus 254
lacte 367

libe(n)s 311

juncxi 305 juniperus 229 (5) junxi 429
Jup(p)iter 163

jurHtortu 39 juria 272 jur(i)go 219
jusso 355 (i)

lactem 347 lacus (2d decl.) 355 (i) ladro yji ladrone 372


298 (nom. pi.) 357


libraria 37 ligare 201,

ligna (sg.) 352


justitia 276,

justius 277

juv(e)nis 235

juventa 356 (3) juvente 318
juxta 81, 96


246, 253

kadamitatem 289

= candidus 330 karessemo 201 Karica 37 (-icca) kaukoulato cal- 288 kleme(n)s 311 kozous = conjux 311, 339


34 lambros 331 lamna 235 lampada 356 (3) lampa(s) 38, 144, 335 lancia 224 la(n)tema 306 lanutus 42 lapsus 315 laqueum 347 ; cf, 254 lardum 237 Latinization i, 2 latrone (nom.) 367 lat(t)rones 164 lattucae 266 Lauriatus 224 lausenga 37 (-ing)
lauzi 443 Lazis Ladiis 339


lignum -us 172
liminare 37


Unguas (nom.) 357
liniamenta 224


133, 159

lintium 224

Liquids Assimilation 293 Dissimilation 292
Fall Fall



Liquid 237

Vowel before

Liquid 233-4 1 287-9 ly274 Metathesis 294 r 290-6
rs 291 ry 296 lit (t) era 163


kumate 298 ky = qui 187, 223



lebat 318

lit(t)us 163

see Liquids

318 lebra 256

Livitta 37 (-ittus) U 1 161


la ilia 392 Labials Assimilation 313 b 315-9 initial 316 intervocalic 318 by, py, vy 273, 319 f 320-1 Fall of Vowel after Labial 235-6 Influence on Vowels 217



Have 2 88



Locative 86
locun 305 locuplens 311 locuplex 255
lodi 443
loir 166

lectus (p.p.) 440 legare 201

leges 259

(nom.) 367

legui 428

lenticula 42

longa mente 41 longe 40
longior 377


longius 377


longum tempus 13
loquella 42 loreola 213

P 3"-4 U326
V 322-s
after liquid 323

levare 34 leviarius 39


Lost Words 11-4
lotus 213

levitus 435,


by Microsoft®

207 (i) luxi 4V 9 luxuria 355 (2) mansorius 39 mansus 441 manuaria iS manuplus 42 manus (masc. 259 ma(g)ister 259 marmora 351 marmorem 347. 157.) = magida = 38. 198. 222 Maiiam 222 mais = magis 157. 347. 145 ma(r)mor 292 cf .) 244 lucSre 399 lucire Index.) 17274 m: see Nasals ma = mea -Ma 38 388 manu tenere 46 Slaps : pp. 220.24. 353 me(n)sor 311 56.) = and markensls 39 me(n)sa 311 mense(m) 309 mensi (pi.2o6 luce (dat. mam(m)anis 359 matutinus 13 maurus 336 maxime 56 mammula mane 13 13 400 manducare 13 man(i)ca 239 manicd 37 (-icca) maniplus 42.) 349 machina 144 machinari 9 macra 376 madias = majas 272 madio majo 272 madrema 388 maestati 259 maester 259 magias majas 272 marem 347 mares = -is 244 marl -e 364 marinarius 39 maris (masc. manner (fern.) 355 (i) meretis 232 meridjes 281 (2) mer(i)to 237 Masculine : see Gender masc(u)las 234 masma = maxima 238 massa 338 mate(r) 295 materia 355 (2) matrona(s) 298 mat(t)rona 164 Digitized mersi=merx 255 Messac 277 messui 428 messura 37 met. 369 3" . 84. and 346 (I) fern. 347.) 424 -men 37 mendatium 276 fern. 377 mala mente 41 male 40 male habitus 44 malicia 276 malleus 274 mensorium 37 menta 184 -mente 41 mente habere 46 mentire 409 Marsuas 187 Marsyas 187 mas = magis 157 mascel 242 -mentum 37 mentus 347 menus 201 mercatus (2d decl. cf . 297 maxumiis 220 lucus locus 205 ludus 12 lugere 399 lugire 400 = Meanings Change 10 of of Words 7-10 Meaning 8- manos 355 mansi 429 mansio 12 (i) luminem 347 lunae dies S9 mecu 309 Medea 190 Medentius 338 media 272 medianus 39 medicus 239 medio die 43 medio loco 43 medius 272 meletrix 292 melior 377 melius 56. 259 major 170. 359 by Microsoft® . 71. 347. ma(g)is 353 . 369 marrir 407 marrjan 407 Marsianesses 277 magnisonans 44 magnus 12 Maia 188. 349 melum 195 (5) membras 352 memoramus (perf. 238. 66 mal(l)o i6i malus malus 55 mam(m)a 16. 377 luoghi -ora 349 liirdus 207 (i) luridus 166. 201. xi Marcianus 278 Marculus 284 mare (fern. X.) 368 me(n)sis 171. 233 lucor 37 lucto 355 (i) maximus 56. 74.

294 modernus 18 Metiacus 277 metipse 24. 289 moc 428 (i). 440 muc(c)us 163 muebie 204 (i) mul'erem 225 mulier 9.228 narratus 37 (-ta) -monium 37 mo(n)strare 311 Nasals 303-11 Final or = monumento = -um 244 Mood 1 1 5-9 morbu(s). 304-6 171. cf. 311 -m -n falls 309 falls 310 mihe 244 milex 255 mille 161. 255. 217 334 mutare 229 Digitized (5) nepoti(s) 298 ne'ps'unus 71 by Microsoft® . 136 mulieris 136 natus 13.Liquid mut(t)ire 162 132.439 movitus438. 438 naucella 13 naufragus 325 nautat 236 navicella 37 navitat 236 ne 14. 438. 245 mis. 381 mn 307 millefolium 38 mil(l)ia 161 mordSre 399 morire 406 moriri 406 n -h fricative ny 274 nasco 255 nascutus 438 nasum -us 347 natatorium 37 nati vitas 37 Morphology 345-45° morsi 429 morsus 441 mortificare 46 mimoriEe 229 (2) minester 201 ministeri(i) 89. 440. 37 raovutus 438. 83.245 minus credere 29 minus est 29 minus pretiare 46 minutus 10 > mortu(u)s 226 mossus 438. 387 mi = mihi25o. 440 necavi 428 nee ente 71 nee unus 71 ne ente 71 negare 263 negat 256 mur 206 murare 229 (5) muri -a 349 muritta 37 (-ittus) murta 187 Negation 75 negliencia 259 nemo 71 neofiti missorium 37 mis (s) us 441 mistus 440 mixticius 39 mobilis 204 (i). Metathesis 245.Index. 227 mi(ni)sterium 231 minist(r)onun 292 minor 377 minsis 198.324 Moesia 187 molui 428 molutus 439 255 myrta 187 Mysia 187 mysterium 182. 187 meuble 204 (i) meus = mi 87 n: see Nasals mextum — m2estuin mezzo 272 mi r= meus -a 87. 429 = mullus 187 mulsi 429 multum 74 multus 71 muntu = multum 289 (2) necatus 435. 298 + Cons. cf. 66 metipsimus 66 metltus 441 207 Mute -t. 439. 231 mis meis 388 mis. 201 minus 201. 160 mode modo 40 moere = mov. 377 minus. 441 motto 187 movi 428 movit 244 movita37-.29. 229 (4).245 miscere 399 misculare 35 misera 376 mis(s)i x6i.311 11 ny 274 nacui 428 nam — mu. 163. 385 miauiare 17 michi 252 mienia 1S4 migat micat 256 monarchia 37 monasterium 182 -monia 37 monibam 420 moniti n + fricative 171. 75. 229 (2) Nebitta 37 (-ittus) nebula 235 necare 9 necator 37 mirabilia 37.

ou 167 unaccented 219. 234 306. 229 (6). 100. 40 (Greek) 186 Digitized nora 208 (3) Normannice 40 norus 208 (3) notrire 229 (5) noli 40 -on 36 -ov 38 -iav 38 -ones 40 -oneus 39 by Microsoft® . 202-5. 229 (5) nutritio 37 odedere 426 Odissia 187 oe 215 oefor xand e 215 offeret offerire offers! nutritura 37 nocui 223.208 nepta 37 neptia 37 neptilla 13 Index. 378-82 occu(m)bas 306 occurire 406 Accent 142 nummus 328 nun = non 203 nunc 12 nuncius 276 -occus 37 ocio 276 ocium 276 octa(gi)nta 380 oc(u)lus 219. 79 ob-28 obdormire 28 obferre 32 obliscor 324 oblitare 34 obprimere 32 Nerba3i7. 395 num 83 u ob (Greek) i?5 14. 244 u6 o 225 -o 37. 71 o for au 212-3 >oe ]>e 06 > o 225 > omo 251 -omus 446 on 71 ou>. 197. 328 noembrios 324 noembris 324 noicius 324 nolo 161 ny274 nynfis 306 406 406 429 440 192. 385 nocere 399 nutrire 166. 323 nerbo 323 Neroua 322 nervia 349 Neuter nervus 323. 205 5 > 9 205 9>uo oi ou|>-gu 167 o u 202 o ou 203 oleum oli 274 274 oli(m) 309 olio nonna 16 nonnita 37 (-ittus) nonnitus 37 (-ittus) nonnus 16 noptiae 207 (2) 177 192. > > 6 165. 167. 349 see Gender ne 229 (2) ni : = nichil 251 niepos 177 observasione 277 oc 251 occansio 311 occidere 212 occubavit 256 ni(g)rum 270 nihil 71. 243. Nouns 345-73 see Declension and Gender nous 177. 250. o 165. 309 nivicare 18. 311 nubis 366 nulli (gen. 215 omnes = —is 244 onmimodus 44 omnis 12.) 395 nullus 71. 251 nil 250 nimpae 332 nise 229 (4) nitidus 238 nittus 238 Numerals 57-8. 33 nuncquam 305 nunqua(m) 305. 177. 274 > ola 213 oleo 373. Absolute 97 non 203 nona(i)nta 380 75. 22S. 383 305 accented 202-5 o 202-4 o 197. 215 offertus 435. etc.324 nova(i)nta 380 novellus 13 novius 207 (2) noxeus 224 ns 171. 203 o (Greek) 192 274 38. nupsi 297 nobe 318 nobilis 11 nobis 318. offla 235 oi>oe>-e ot nome 336 nomem nomes = nomina 369 Nominative 97.

236 parabulare 155 paradisus 190 paraula 236. 296 Palatals 271-8.) 349 Present 102.) 367 parentorum 368 p : see Labials paceveci = oratia = Hor-25i Order of Words 50-3. 108. Passive 105. 434-41 = orum = aurum 212 orzo 272 OS (masc. Active 106 Put.212 orata ou (Greek) 193 ou 167 9u Ouiouia Vibia 318. 441 part 160 partentem 416 Participle dy 272 g': omatura 37 orphanus 186 ortaret 432 hor-25i ortus see Gutturals gyz72 J271 ly274 ny 274 Put. Pans 86 Parisiis 272-8. 337 pagandum 256 paganus 263 pa(g)e(n)sis 39. 324 ovum 167. 104. 322 > = oum 167. 229 (7) oridium 339 -orlum 37 -orius 39 orma 186. 369 papilipnis (nom. py 273 ry 296 scy 275 40S Particles 156-8 particularis 39 -OS (Greek) 38 Oscan 2 -usco 197. Ordinal Numerals 382 -orem 346 (3) oricla2i2. 227 pari mente 41 227 Palatalization 258-62. palpebrum 352 pal/ires 134 = hos-25i = ostium 202 ostrum aus. 12 parentis (nom. 439 pasmer 300 passans 39 passi(m) 309 sy 275 ty 276-7 ossulum 37 ossum 356 (3) ostensio 37 ostensor 37 vy273 palatium 277 palleum 224 Passive 112-4.212 aut 213.Index. 318 parcui 428 onus II o 225 operare 409 0(5 > otogentos 266 -ottus 37 ophekion = ofBcium 334 opprobare 28 -or 37. 225 parietibus 224 oratorium 37 orbus 9 palanca 332 palasium 277 Parigi 86. 217. 409 passos 355 paucum tempus 13 ostentare 34 ostia palma 14. parecer 414 parens 10.) 367 pap(p)a -us 16 papyrius 39 parabula 144. 408 Perfect 102. 229 (7) ot ote = aut 213. -omus 39 -o«J446 -o(n)sus 311 otia 277 otobris 266 209 paor 324 papaver (masc. 229 (7) pandiderunt 426 paucus 71 paul(l)um 161 Paulus -onis 362 paupera 376 pani 364 panneus 39 pantaisar 332 Digitized = pauperorum 376 pausa 38 pavi 428 by Microsoft® .) 347. 278 parsus 439. 296 parsi 429 by 273 c': see Gutturals cy 276. oze ozie 324 = > > = hodie 272 = hodie 272 = pacific! 321 8. 259 pari 364 par(i)etes 136. 107. 42 feminine 346 (2) -re 245 -or -ura 42 -or hora25i ora oracionem 276 aur. 202-3 -osco ossiculum 42 ossuculum 43 > ssy 275 sty 275 partunt 416 parutus 438.

igo plaudisti 426 pestulum 284 petft 423 Petrus -onis 362 peito 160 pleps 297. 369 per girum 48 piperem 347. 79. 311 pensi 429 pensus 441 plodere2i3 ploja 169. 439 pere 160 pere(g)rinus 270 peres pedes 281 (2) Perfect 121-4. 426 perdita 37 (-ta) perdqnare 26 perdutus 438. = pr-292 plus 56. 347.Index. 441 Pesaro 151 pessica 291 pessimus y]"] pestio 2S4 pectorem 347 pediculus 42 pedis (nom. 273 plostrum 212 plotus 212. 422-31 = phoca 185 Phoebus 192 Phonology 131-344 Phyebae = Phoebe 215 piano 40 pictus 440 pietas 298 pietra 160 pignus 172 (2) pi(g)ritia podium 272 poella 20S Strong 427-31 Weak 422-6 Perfect Participle Participle : 270 see Pilipus 332 pinctus 440 Perfect Subjunctive 119.294 Pisaurese 297 Pisaurum 151 pitocco T85 Digitized pon(e)re 239 pontevecem 321 pontivicatus 256 pontufex 220 poplex 255 pop(u)lus 10. 93. 410.) 367 plangit 259 plantare 33 peduclum 234 peduculus 42 pejor 170. 377 pejus 377 pelegrinus 292 pellabor 293 planura yj planxi 429 platea 146. 74 pluvia 169. 208 (4).26 percolopabat 237 > Phebus 192 phiala 145 philosophia yj philus 184 phimus 184 Phitonis 332 phitonissas 332 Subjunctive 433 "8. 208 (4). 435 plicatus 435 293 293 pello 293 pendutus 441 pellige pellicere peuma 368 ph: see Greek Consonants phalanx 181 pharetra 145 phaselus 334 Phasis 181 pe(n)sare 171. 235 by Microsoft® . 217 Pluperfect 118. 326 plagiare 33 Pronouns persus 439. pinl 365 123-4 pinxi 429 per giro 48 piper 38. 183. pa(v)onem 324 pa(v)orem 324 pavura 42 pavutus 440 paze 260 pectinare 33 perpenna 292 persi 429 pe(r)s(i)ca 239 persona 71 Personal Pronouns: pius 167 placentia 37 plach 154 see placuit 223. pIurigo 123. 315 plicare 10. 99 per pel 293 per 160 per. 208 (4). 208 (4). 190 Periphrastic Future 126 perit 423 perlum = prse. 217 pluere 169. 273 poco 40 perdedit 139. 123-4. 369 peria(t) 285 poena 192 poeta 192 poggio 272 polippus 145 poUicare yj pollulum 213 pols 370 poltre 134 polve 370 polvo 370 polypus 145 pomex 207 (2) pirata 144. 410 432> 433 Pluperfect Penult 232-9 per 14. 96. 213 plovere 169.

330. pos(t)quam 11. prolongare 28 q 246. 332 purpureticum 1S7 putator = po. 440 cf.28 prebiter 300 Interrogative 7o> 69- quadraginta 142. qu 223. 79. 311 prEEStare 31 prffistavi 422. 394 quamta 306 quan 305 Digitized by Microsoft® . 380. = pr<Egnans 255 Pronunciation 131-344 prophetissa 37 prophetizare 19 propietas 292 propio 292 propter 14. 429 Position 160-4 positus 238. 95 pro. 300 presbyterum 148 provitus435. 401. 429 quiestus 436. 439 = 311 prendere 225. 186. 285 Present 120 for Future 126 ptisana 145 pudicicia 276 (i) Stems 273. 67. 370 punctus 440 puni poni 203 = presium 277 pressi 429 pressorium 37 pressura 37 pressus 441 presta 210 presteti 139 frete 300 punidor 39 punxi 429 pupillabus 358 puplu 309 pup(p)a 163 pure 40 puritas 37 purpura 145.Index.229 (6) puteolis 136 • potebam 403 (i) potebo 403 (i) poteo 403 (i) potere 403 (i) pdteri 410 potestas 356 (3) potionare 33 potis 17 pretium 277 preveire 300 pride (m) 309 primitius 324 principens 367 pri(n)cipis 306 Prixsilla 255 puteum 347 putrire 400 potius 74 pr:e 14 pr£E-28 prjeber(e) 24? prsecoca 376 praeda 209 prsedestinare 28 prsEdiscer(e) 242 pro 14. 96 provata 318 porphyreticum 187 portare 12 posi posui 428. 285 posturus 238 postus 238 Post-Verbal Nouns 21 posueram 285 posuet 244 posui(t) 285 403-5. 254 qu k. preda 209 Prefixes 21-32 393-4 Personal 60. por 14 porcellus yj pregnax cf. 403 (i) Possessives: see Pronouns posso 403 postea 275 (i) prensus 441 Prepositions 76-81. -^yj pos(t) 96. 387-8 Relative 69-70. 226. 250 prendiderunt 426 prendo 250 prensi 429 prensio 37 posmeridianus 285 posse 126 (3). 79. 259 quadra(l)nta 380 qua(9'ro 283 quKSi 426. 71.28 probai 424 Proclitics 156-8 prodis 17 putrisco 400 puulva 356 (3) Pyrrhus 187 pyxis 187 Progne 330 proles II preefetto 266 prffigna(n)s 255.) 367 pugnus 172 (2) pulvus 347. 226. 252. 395 prandium 272 pranzo 272 pre. 384-6 Possessive 60. 85-g presbyter 148. 397. 383-95 Demonstrative 61-8 Indefinite 71. 41 5> 416-9 presentis (nom. 393-4 quaKs 70. etc.439 proximus 377 psallere 36. 254 qua 82 > promptulus 39 430 prsstus 376 Pronouns 59-71.

244 quat(t)or 226. quo 73 quo = quod 282 quoad 11 quod 14. 74 12. 82. 139 redempsi 429 redemti 313 Digitized = rectum igS by Microsoft® . 379 quel 393 quejus 393 quoque quot quot n Repetition 40.1 Index.28 retro (r) sum 291 = = redpit 139 recolli(g)endo 259 Recomposition 31. 82. 350. quando 14. 139 requEerit 139 rs see Liquids >• ss 291 requebit 225 res 10. 350 = -it 285 remasit 311 Remidium 272 remissa 37 (-ta) ren^gat 139 renum reg. no. 71. 259. 168 429 = reddere 286 rasio = ratio 277 ratio 277 retina 17 retro 81 razzo 272 re. 245. retundus 229 (6) reuuardent 344 139 reve(r)sus 291 reversus sumrz reverti 410 revolutio 37 rexi 297.) 361 ramenc 37 (-incus) rancura 42 ranucula 42 rap(i)dus 239 rasl restitueram 285 restivus 39 resurge(n)s 311 retenere 31.269 respondere 399.269 Vowels in Hiatus 167-9 quomodo 14. quodlubet 220 regnancte 267 regnum 172 (2) Relatives : see Pronouns reli (n) quat 306 relinque 282. 380 quase 244 quasi 83. replenus 23 55. 309 querceus 39 quercinus 39 querel(l)a 42 rama (pi. 71. 393 qui quia 82 qui ky 187. 71 rabies 319 radius 272 rainante = reg. 71.23. 380 reculons 40 reddedi 31. 82 comodo 226 Vowel Length 165-77 Words from Other Lan. 82 quarranta 142.254 guages 1 74-5 > = quantu(m) 309 quantus 12. 71 quare 12. 379 quattordecim 379 quat(t)ro 226. no. 25 recapitulare 25 retro. 449 responduntur 449 responsi 429 raggio 272 que(m) 309 quen 305. no quooperta = co.344 = -bit 318 263 Quantity 159-77. 281 quinque 172 Quintrio quippe 1 quique 71 (i).quoniam 14. 355 (2) res nata 13. 429 rhetor 335 rhetorissare 33 richesse 341 rictu quiaeti 209 quicumque 71 quid 350 quidem 11 recubitus yj (-ta) quiensces 311 quietus 225 quin II quinqua(gi)nta 142. 219. 221 Development of New Quantity 176-7 Disappearance of Old Quantity 173-5 Doubtful Quantity 166 Length before Consonants 170-2 Position 160-4 refusare 17 re(g)alis quiritare 229 quis 69. 71 = quod 282 quum r : > cum 226 repositorium 37 reprehensus 250 requeerere 25. 393 re(g)ina 259 regis -es 244 = quisque 71 quisquis 71 Unaccented Vowels 221 174. rectus 440 32. 139 retenet 139 retere questor 210 questus 210 quetus 225 qui 69. 223 quia 82. 82. 200 redft 423 redivit quannu 281 = Win.

rubare nibeus 319 sandal 330 sanguem 370 sanh 267 sapcha 272 sapere 402 sedui 428 sedutus 441 signavi 424 segnai = rugiada 356 nira35r ru(r)sum 291 russum 291 rutare 34 s (3) segolo 200 (3) sei sapiam 272 sapidus 39 sapienti (pi.268. 428 satis 74 sem 419 (i) Semele 359 semita 239 semo 419 (i) : see Sibilants final s in ist pers. 419 roubSn rs > 36. 440 secula 200 (3) Romanice 40 Romanu -pos 38 rosi (nom. ridSre rideri 213 schioppo 284 sclitib. (stlis) riges = re. salivi 428 440 J^= sead sebe salma 268 salsi 428. : 429 Romance Territory p. ssy.) 372 salvage 229 (3) salvatico 229 (3) salvaticus 229 (3) secu(n)do 306 secuntur 254 sed II. = sa = ipsa 392 semper semper 74 sempre 245 semul 201. 324 rivaticus rip.314 rivocaverit 229 (2) sagma 19. 367 SiEpia 182 saginae 42 = 284 Sagitta 37 (-ittus) ripidus 39 scloppus 284 scopulus 38 scorlare excor. sty. sauma 26S scabia 355 (2) scsena 182.igS 399 409 sacritus rigna 198 rikitia 341 Jiimini 86 SidxpiTos 272 sseculum (masc. 267 sedano 335 sed(e)cim 239 sedere seditur 399 = esse 402. pi.230 scriba -anis 359 = rigueza 341 risi 429 risus 441 rius 241. 347 rogavo = -bo 318 ro(g)itus 259. 14 sed-= se 229 (4) 429 rosum = ros 356 rosus 441 (3) sanctissimus 377 san(c)tus 172 (i).) 355 (i) sine 201 sene -sa 37 (-ta) sabbatizare 19 scaplas 234 sablum 233 sacra 376 Sca(u)rus 211 scena 182 (i) = sacramentum 231 359 sacristano 359 sacrista -anis- schema 19 schernire 341 schiatta 343 schietto 343 senex 12 senper 306 semita 239 senta sentam 416 sententem 416 = Digitized by Microsoft® . xi Roman Empire p. 230 sy 275 scy.Index. 435 salitus 436. 398 398 ss 291 36. 210 scalciare excalceare 230 scandalizare 19 445 initial s + cons. 428 = si 229 (4) = sit 419 (2) = sibi 201 ^ 419 (i) roborem 347 robur 9. 34r. x : salsus 440.) 349 scripit 312 (i) scrips! 315. 201 (2) senape 184 senatus (2d decl.) 349 sffipes sepes saeps 209. 429 440 scriptum 315 scri(p)tus 313. 441 saltern 11 salticulare 35 secatus 435.) 368 419 (i) sel 160 selinum 150 sappia 272 sapui 426. Saguntum 338 saine 42 saini 267 sltlbaiec (fern. (3) = 229 salbum3i7 salii scrivano 359 scultor 313 se 422. 341.

441 solia 323 224 sentor . soluit sic nants 264 Sicilianus 39 solus 395 solutus 438 solvitus 438.214 senii 298 Index.230 = 406 si 14.cons. 38. sibl 201. 219. 184.229 (7) serpentinus 37 = = 428 simus 220. 277 servitude 37 ses servire = spacium 276 spallere 337 sive II = es 419 (i) (i) skena 341 skern6n 341 skiuhan 343 slahta 343 sleht 343 spandere exp.^'j final s 298.230 Spania 230 = Spanus 230 sparsi 429 J« 419 sest = est 419 (i) set = est 419 (i) set = sed 282 seta 209 setaceus 39 setis = estis 419 (i) 229 385 (4) settembres 313 seus suus 387 soaru 295 soave 224 sobreus 224 socera 37 soc(e)rum 232. 221. 429 sentitus 436. 83. septa (gi)nta 380 septe(m) 309 sidibus = se. 445 initial s 4. 18 sol(i)dus 237 230 separare seperare 231.) 395 solsi s 161 429 440 224 sepes 209 sepia 146. 213 serra = sera 247 serutinus 16 servare 323 sine 95. sty. 244 solacium 276 sola mente 41 solatium 276 solbere 317 spene^SS (2) speni from spes 355 (2) speramus = -avimus 424 sperantia 37 Digitized by Microsoft® . si sol 13 = sibi spehon 343 spelunca 329 siam 419 (2) siamus 419 (2) sibe 219. 387 sozer 154 servicium 276 323 servisium 277 servitium 276. 385 385 Sibilants 297-302.ig8 439 siede 419 (1) soma 268 somas 419 (i) sona 2ona 338 septrum 260 septuazinta 339 septum 209 sepulchrum 251 sequere 406 sequire 406 serbare 323 siem 419 (2) siete 419 (i) siffatto 264 siffler 318 (2) sifilus 318 (2) = signum-us 172 sigricius silevit 422. 439. 233 soef 2.z\ sofferire sparsus 441 spasmus 144 spat (h) a 332 spat(u)la 12. 234 speca spica 200 (3) = speclarait spectante = -avit 424 = exp. ssy. scy. 233 sepelitus 436. sibi 219. 440 ss > 275 solingo 37 (-incus) solo (dat. 201 sinexter 201 (3) -sic 37 sirena 356 (3) sis si vis 324 -sorium ^y -sorius 39 soro(r) 295 sous = suus 167. 244. solbit sentia 421 sentii 42S. 213 soricem 42. 337 sinatus 228 (-arius) sordidius 377 sorex 42. 150. etc. (2). sy. 182 seppia 182 sepsies 277 z : see Greek Conso- soltus 438. 244.419 (1) sinapis -e -i 38. = secretins 256 347 sonatus 435 sons 419 (i) Sophia 146 -sor 37 sorcerus = sortiarius 39 s^bat 323 serbus 317 Serios Sergius 272 serore so. soliculus 13.

) 349 stahu 397 397 stait 397 stantia= inst.Index. 441 sus(s)um 291 sutis sursi Stephanus 183 steti 426. 440 Suffixes 33-42 Cbange of Suffix 42 talentum 149.) 367 Supine 103 sup(p)ra 164 sup(p)remis 164 supra. 441 subornatris 255 subplantare 32 sy=ty277 sycotum 141 Syllabication 131-3 = Stella = 198 stingo 226 -stinxi 429 stipes stips 367 subsannare 26 Substitution of subterranus 42 subtus 81 suc(c)us 163 suceroni 362 Words 13 symphonia 146. 369 sumpsi 29S sumptus 308 tan 306 tanctus 440 tanger(e) 242 tantu(m) 309 tantus 71 tanxl 429 tapinus 144 Digitized by Microsoft® .26 superabundare 26 superfacere 26 superstitis (nom. 38 suis (nom. 410 Plup. 388 -sus 37.) 367 sulphurem 347.230 spoliatur = -or 244 structus 440 straere 417 strugere 417 spo(n)sus 171 spontaneus 39 squarciare 276 ss s 161 strumentum = inst. 40. 117 > 277 status 438 397 staunt 397 stegola zoo stel(l)a 163 siaii (3) Imperfect 118 Perfect 119. 116 for Indie. 229. 330 talis 71 strlban 341 for Adj.26 subaudire 26 subcludere 26 stao 397 stare 397 stasio 277 static subcumbere 32 Subjunctive 117-g for Imper.) 367 stlataris 284 stlis 284 stloppus 284 storax 187 stren(n)a 163 stren(n)uor 164 Stress : see Accent stirpis see Dentals ty 276-7 sud=sub3i5 sufferit 406 -ta37 tab(u)la 236 tactus 440 suffertus 435. 415. 430 steva 200 (3) stilla 419 (i) suus 60. 14. 403. = Iniperf. 428. 118 Pres.26 suprafacere 26 supra 245 -sura 37 Surd Sonant: see Voicing = exp. 332 Syncope 219.230 struxi 429 stupescere 35 > staacio 276 stablarius 231 stagnum (masc. 428. 405. 430 sietti 426 stetul 426. 84 440 440 strinxi 429 strofa 334 stropa 334 stroppus 186 strinctus strictus for Verbs 33-6 Greek Endings 36. 419 (2) sublimus 376 429 su(r)sum 291 surtus 440 sus = suus 226. 96 super. 90.230 stais stup(p)a 163 suabitati 318 5uadel(l)a 42 suavis 224 Suavitta 37 (-ittus) sub. spes 355 (2) spiritus (2d decl. 231-g Synonyms 12 Syntax 50-130 t : (nom. 387-8 submonsus 439. 419 (i) suora 295 sues 138 super 80. 39 for Adv. 41 for Nouns 37. 38 tamen 11.) 355 (i) splorator stnicere 417 215 sumus 220. 397.

424 tristus = tres 395 -trix 37 trobaire 37 (-tor) totum (adv. 399 trapalium 16 tres 379 tergum -us 347 termen 356 (3) terminaciones 2 76 terra (m) 309 tersi toreomatum 191 -torium 37 -tonus 39 torma = tu. 325. 289 Tricassas 151 trienta 259 tri(g)inta 142.2l6 tapis 182 tapit 182 Index.) 367 traxi Tense 120-30 tensi 429 tensura 13 tensus 441 t^nueram 137 tenui 42S tenutus 438. 244. 352 tribuna(l) 242. 440 239 tollitus 435. 331 timor (fern. 380 trinitas 429 tarsus 441 -Tt\% 38 testa 13 tetrus 376 428 tortus 440 tot 71 tot trinta tris 37 380 taxui 428 204 (2) texutus 440 thahso 342. 71. Theophilus 333 thesaurizare 19 thesaurus -um 189. 343 tharrjan 342.208 tomus 186 torqu(e)o 226. -anis 359 = tibi 385 -tiacum 277 tibe 244 ti tractatus 9 tractus 440 tradedit 31.292 -tim 40 timbre 187. 407 theios 333 toto (dat.) 74 tous thensaurus 311 — tuus 387 Trogar=-jae 259 Troja 170 Digitized by Microsoft® . 343 tata 16 .26. 347 threscan 342 tra.) 395 tot(t)uS 12. 198 376 triumphaut 241.208 tonsus 441 toll(e)re 429 trebus 201 trei = tres 379 298 trei Teodor 332 -ter 40 tardus 276 Terentio = treis 177 tremulat 235 trepaliare 33 = -us 298 tergSre 399 -tor 37 torcere 399 torco 226.259 tragere 417 trahere 417 = tempaccio 39 tempesta 356 (3) templus 347 timpuri 369 tinctus 440 tinge 226 tinguere 226 tins -^^ census trans. 299 transannare 26 tra(ns)duco 299 tra(ns)jicio 299 260 tra(ns)luceo 299 tra(ns)mitto 299 tempo 298 tempus 13 tenit 244 tinxi 429 -tic n transplantare 26 tra(ns)pono 299 tra(ns)tulo 299 ten(n)uis 164 Titius 277 Tivoli 86 tra(ns)veho 299 traps 315 trasporre 299 travis (nom. 259.) 346 timoratus 39 Tragani (2) = Traj. 429 tolui 428 tomolus =: tumu. 407 -tas 37 tasso 342. 299 trabucare 26 tracere 417 tap(p)ete 162 tarde 40 tarir 342. 399 torsi trescar 342 trib(u)la 235.26.204(2).208 tonatus 435 tondere 399 tonica tu. 439 tolsi 428. 318 taurellus 37 taxi 429 telebra ter. 139 tibi 221. 385 traducir 299 traduire 299 Tatius 277 tatus 16 taula 236.163.

440 ver 13 usque hodie 47 ustium 202 Ut II. 228. 220 ui 216 unaccented 219. 315. 440. 2c6 u 208 u ii o 165. 14. o 226 vecinus 229 (4) vedus 234. 222. 192.) 429 -unt -ent 449 unus 10. 367 veni 428. 223 : vernac(u)lus 234 vemum tempus 13 ve(r)sus 291 vertragus 19 Digitized by Microsoft® . 440 venui 428. 441 uu unacc. 206. 356 (3) vea via 201 = vecere = veh-4i7 -e 364 -tus 37 (-ta). 430 urps 297. 326 u 178.Index. 220 -ugo 37 (-ago) ui 216 V see Labials vacuus 42 195 (6). 430 > > -urem 346 (3) veninum 42 venire 126 (5) venitus 436. 438. 403 vendita 37 (-ta) 177 u 165. 243. > -clus 234 388 Vowels unde 10. III -uta 37 (-ta) verbex = vervex 323 Verb Forms see Conjugation Use 72. 285 Valinca 37 (-Incus) . 57. 244 in hiatus 222-6 uo >• o 226 uu u 226 o 225 u(5 uu u 226 Uranus 193 urbis (nom.395 unu(s) 29S unxi 429 U(5 >• o 225 uo unacc. 217 vadere 126 204 (2) -tudo 37 iuii 204 (2) tul£runt 450 tucti > -ellus 42 40 -um vallensis 39 : Unaccented Vowels see valneas = ba. 379 -undus 39 ungo 226 unguere 226 unicornis 44 unigenitus 44 vaqua = vacua 223 vaqui vacui 223 vastare 344 vanitare 34 = 187 tuos 138 -tura 37 turrensis 39 turri tumum vasus -um 347. 84. 83 ubi 73 -uc(c)us 37 (-icca) -uculare 35 -uculus 42 -utus 39. 70. 208 u cons. 349 * verecundia 231 verecunnus 281 Inflection: > > > utrum II. -ura 37. 39 (5).316 -tulus turn = tuum 226. 206-8. 71. 42. 185 trutina 187 tu 60 -ula 37 (-ulus) Ulixes 187 ultra 166 -ulus 37. 405 vadum 344 -us 347 valde 237 vaUa(t) 224. 297. 229 (5). 101-30 Verbs : see Verb Forma verbus 347. 206. 192. u 226 uuadius 344 > -uus > -itus 42 -udo ii > -umen 42 uxo(r) 295 uxore (abl. 284 vedea 421 = ve^ere 283 vef 226 vegere = veh-4i7 uobit = obiit > ve(he)inens 250 vehere 417 vel II velle 126 (3). 82. 14.315 usare 34 Use Use Use of of Cases 85-100 of Inflections 85-130 Words 54-84 venuta 37 (-ta) venutus 436. 42 accented 206-8 u 206-7 ii>-u 165. etc.298.) 367 vendutus 438 vene bene 316 = urbs 12. 393 undecim 166. 438. 440 unire 34 Tuscanus 39 iuito 204 (2) tuttus 204 (2) tuus 226.) 244 178. 378. 73. 187. 387-8 ty 276-7 ty ty > cy 277 > sy 277 uno (dat. 438. Troyes 151 tructa 38. 187.

) 349 314. 4 Voicing 256-7. 19.2l8 vervex 323 ves(s)ica 162 vestibat Index.) 344 volere velle 403 (2) w (Latin) 224 voles 403 (2) Waddo 344 volestis 403 (2) wadum 344 volimus 403 (2) wahta 343 volon 39 (-undus) walde 344 volsi 429 Wandali 344 voltus 438. Quantity 165-77. 231 (6) vocatus 435. 195 vocitus Final Syl. 221 Unaccented 219-45 (6) Vocabulary 6-49 vocatio videunt 416 vidi 428. 439 Penult 232-9 vac. 318 . 13. 438. cf. 387 vovis vobis 318 cf .93 in hiatus 136-8. 284 vetus 13 video 272-3 veyo virginem 233 vir(i)diaria 237 vir(i)dis 237 vir(i)dura 18. 165-245 watan werra = . by Microsoft® . 12. 430. 358' villabus 358 Vincentzus 277 426 vinctus 440 vincui 428 vincutus 440 vindemiator 224 vindico 239 vindimia 197 vindo = v6. 283. 416 vistus 441 visus 441 vitellus Breaking 177 = 37 vitium 278 vitricus 13 Vowels 179 Close and Open 165 Differentiation 165 Celtic = vit(u)lus 234 vivus 324 vius = German Vowels 179 Greek Vowels 180. 272-3. 430 vido vidutus 438. 429 = vixit 255 cf.) 367 victualia 18. 37 viror 37 virtus 10 vlscui visit Influence of Labials 217 Single Vowels 194208 before gn 172 (2) before j 170 before n fricative 171 before nk 172 (i) = = vixi 428.195 = video 416 vidui = vidi 428. 429 vinti 380 vincisti Intert.195 (6) vocuus Quantity 221 Voice 1 12-4 Vulgar Latin 3. 239 vibi = bibi 318 iiibit 316 vibit victore (nom. 407 volutus 438 wastare 344 = ^ = = volvitus 438.201 viaticum 8. 231 vettovaglia 154 vetulus 12.285. 240-5 in hiatus 222-7 Init. 255. 19 vulnus (masc. 321 volatilia 37 volemus 403 (2) w (Ger. 441 vixutus 440 vobis 385 cf. 297. = vac. 428 in words borrowed by other languages 1 74-5 Latin Vowels 178 Position 160-4 videre 72. vivacius 377 vixcit = vixit 255 cf. 428 . 218 Diphthongs 209-16 420 vetatus 435 vet(e)ranus 219. 428 vixi 255. 285. 385 Vowels 136-8. 259. 428. 234. + vezem 445 vezzo 278 -vui 428 -vi via 167. 429 vixi(t) 285 . 428. Vulgar Words 15. 440 warjan 344 voluntate (nom. 416. vinus 347 Clerical Pronun. 228-30 259 34 vi(gi)nti 142.197 -ea 224 vinia vinsi 428. 380 vilescere villa 10. 439 voster 199 (i). 439. 285. 441 viduus 226 vieni 177 vig(i)lat 430 Vocative 87 vocitus = vacuus 42. Syl. 286. Syl. 167-9 . Accented 194-218 Digitized 344 344 werrarius 39 werrizare 33 wi^arlon 342 19. 37 victurias 203 vic(u)lus'234. 284 videderunt 426 video 272-3.) 367 warnjan 36.

339 = dia.272.Index.272 ymnus 251 zerax = liierax 339 zosuin=deorsum 339 Zouleia= Julia 272.339 zebus = die. 398 Word Order 50-3 wost.339 = dies 272 = Jesu 272.339 Zefurus 187 zelosus 339 2» 333 Zodorus = Theo.277 Zogenes = Dio. 339 zeta = diseta 339 zie = die 272 Zesu zins 260 ziziper 312 (i) X 246. 266 y (Greek) 187 y (Latin) 224 zagante 229 (3) zampogna 332 zanuari = ja.339 = dia. 255. 339 Digitized by Microsoft® .344 z 246 zabul(l)us zes 219 zacones zaconus ~ dia. Wintrio 344 wlsa 344 witan 36.

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .