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H. HEATH & Digitized CO. C. D. U. GRANDGENT Fbofbssor of Romance Languagss in Harvahd University BOSTON..I)eatb'5 flDot>ern tHanduage Qctics AN INTRODUCTION VULGAR LATIN BY C. A. S. PUBLISHERS 1907 by Microsoft® .

1907. By D.V^-^5 3J( Copyright. Digitized by Microsoft® . Heath & Co. C.

Grandgent. not exhaustively. to treat all portions of the subject. Although it. however. "^^HILE this book is intended primarily for students of it will. others are cited in the appropriate places in the C. that the is Syntax — perhaps unavoidably parts. have tried.— . I Philology. it be of some interest to has been long in the Classical scholars as well. Digitized byiUicrosoft® . PREFACE. furthermore. but with even fulness I fear. graphy. somewhat scanty as compared with the other It will be seen that I have continually furnished abundant references for the guidance of those topics. have endeavored to keep I at every stage. abreast of current scholarship. H. I hope. Romance making. who wish to look further into special My principal authorities are listed in the Bibliotext.

8-9 Synonyms Substitutes.. ^ . Pages MAPS The Roman Empire The Neo-Latin Territory in Europe BIBLIOGRAPHY. . 7-8 Words used in Classic but not in Vulgar Latin . AND Their Meanings. with Abbreviations PHONETIC ALPHABET and Other Symbols X.. Adjectives.. . . Sense Restricted Sense Extended .. ^ ... 6-29 6-12 6 7-8 7 ..... xi x xi xiii-xvi . Words used alike in Classic and in Vulgar Latin Words used differently in Classic and in Vulgar Latin ... 13 13-16 13-14 14-16 16-28 16-17 Prefixes used with Nouns....TABLE OF CONTENTS. .. and Pronouns Prefixes used with Verbs Suffixes Suflixes for Suffixes for Verbs Nouns Adverbs iv Digitized 18-23 Suffixes for Adjectives Suffixes for 23-25 25-26 27-28 Change of Suffix by Microsoft® .. . xvii INTRODUCTION i-S VOCABULARY WoBDS. 9 9-10 10 10-12 Ii>-i2 Particles Words used in Vulgar but not in Classic Latin Native Words Foreign Words I2 Uerivation Post-Verbal Prefixes 13-29 Nauru .

30-59 30-32 32-41 32-34 33 33-34 34-38 Pronouns 34 35-36 36-37 37-38 38 ^^38-39 Verbs Adverbs Prepositions 39-41 ^ Conjunctions 41 Use of Inflections Cases 42-59 42-48 42-43 43 43-44 Locative Vocative Genitive Dative Ablative 44-4S 45-47 48^ Accusative Fall of Declension Verb-Forms Impersonal Parts Supine 48 48 48-51 48—49 '. Gerund Gerundive . Adjectives Pronouns- Verbs Adverbs Fiepositions 28-29 29 20 Conjunctions SYNTAX Order of Words Use of Words Nou»s and Adjectives Comparison Numerals Pronouns Personal and Possessive Pronouns Demonstratives Interrogatives and Relatives Indefinite . .Table of Contents. Future Active Participle Digitized 49 49 49 by Microsoft® . Compounds v Pages 28-29 28 28 28 28 Nouns . .

Greek Paroxytones Greek Proparoxytones Other Foreign Words Secondary Stress Unstressed Words 64 64-65 65-66 66 66-67 67-68 68-77 68-70 71-77 Quantity Position Vowel Quantity Vowels in Hiatus Lengthening before Consonants Disappearance of the Old Quantity Development of a New Quantity 72-73 73-75 75-76 76-77 77-104 78-82 82-gi Vowels Greek Vowels Accented Vowels Single Vowels 82-87 82-83 Digitized o by Microsoft® .vi Table of Contents. Illic Ficatum Numerals Greek Words Greek Oxytones . Pages Present Participle Perfect Participle Infinitive 5° 50 5°~5I 51-52 Voice Mood Imperative Subjunctive 52-54 52 5^-54 54-59 54-5^ Tense The Perfect Tenses Future and Conditional 5^59 60-143 60-61 61-68 61-66 61-62 62-63 63 63 64 64-66 PHONOLOGY Syllabication Accent Primary Stress Vowels in Hiatus Compound Verbs Iliac.

. 104-143 106-137 106-107 107-114 109-112 112 C and G Q.Table of Contents. e vii Pages 83-84 84 . Q. 11 2-1 14 Palatals Dentals Liquids 114-118 118-121 121-124 121-123 123-124 L R Sibilants 124-126 127-132 132-137 Nasals Labials P Digitized 132-133 by Microsoft® . ^ »" I o 84 84-85 85-86 H u 86 86-87 87 a Diphthongs te 88-90 88-89 89-90 au eu ce ui Influence of Labials Clerical Latin 90 90 90 91 91 Unaccented Vowels 91-104 in Unaccented Vowels Initial Syllable Hiatus 93-96 96-98 98-99 99-102 102-104 Intertonic Syllable Penult Final Syllable Consonants Latin Consonants Aspirate Gutturals . ... before Front Vowels and G before Back Vowels and G Final and before Consonants ...

Adjectives Personal Pronouns Possessives Demonstratives Interrogative Indefinite 162-163 163-164 165 165 and Relative Pronouns Pronouns and Adjectives Verbs The Four Conjugations First Conjugation 166-187 166-170 166-167 167 Second Conjugation Third Conjugation Fourth Conjugation Fundamental Changes in 167-170 170 Inflection 170-173 Digitized by Microsoft® . X Liquids. Pages B F V . A 138 138 138-139 140 140-141 K. 133-13S 13s i3S-'37 137 137—141 u Greek Consonants B. n. and Sibilants Z Germanic Consonants 141-143 144-187 144-161 144-147 144 145-146 146-147 MORPHOLOGY NotJNS AND Adjectives Gender Masculine and Feminine Masculine and Neuter Feminine and Neuter Declension of Nouns First Declension 147—156 149-151 Second Declension Third Declension Loss of Declension Declension of Adjectives 151-152 152—156 156 157-158 158-159 159-161 161-165 161-162 Comparison Numerals Pronouns and Pronominai. Nasals. T e.viii Table of Contents. *. r.

Strong Perfects Pluperfect and Future Perfect Perfect Participle 177-180 180-182 183 Personal Mndings 183-185 186-187 189-219 INDEX Digitized by Microsoft® .Table of Contents. Inchoative Venbs ix Pages Present Stems Imperfect Perfect 173-174 174-176 176-177 177-182 » Weak Perfects .

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: Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Ueber Aussprache. i). cellaneous studies issued in honor of A. M. Densusianu. S. New ed. Heraeus. A Latin list of and incorrect spellings. La dlclinaison en Gaule d. Die griechischen Wbrter im Franzosischen. Silviae Peregrinatio. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. (Vol. Dottin: G. Manuel pour servir h Vltude de I'antiquiti celtique. 1863 1893 Claussen T. 774. Digitized b)microsoft® . Bausteine: Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie. 1872. Le latin de saint Cyprien.. Mussafia. ed. Corssen. 1902. Cohn : G. W. G. I. Melanges Renier 301-309. Mohl. D'Arbois: H. -Carnoy: A. Die Suffixwandlungen im Vulgdrlatein und im vorlittera- im NeufranzSsischen. BIBLIOGRAPHY WITH ABBREVIATIONS. Corssen : W. Audollent: A. C. Leipzig. Bechtel: E.. AudoUent. Bonnet. Vocalismus und Betonung der rischen Franzosisch nach ihren Spuren lateinischen Sprache. A volume of mis- Bayard : L. Vol. Bayard. mlrovingienne. 1895. I. : Part — — . Le latin de Grigoire de Tours.Cooper. 1891. 1904. Pr. Carnoy. I. Introduction 1899. 145 ff. Archiv : Archiv filr lateinische Lexicographie und Crammatik mit Einschluss des dlteren Mittellateins. : correct- Die Appendix Probi. Romanische Forschungen VII. Bon.. possibly as early as the third century. in Romor nische Forschungen XV. App. Word Formation in the Roman Sermo Plebeius. Defixionum Tabellae. Per. <J la chronologic du latin vulgaire. Cohn. L. Dottin. Cf. 1899.Pipoque Densusianu: O. Cf.T. Mllanges Boissier 5-9. 1868-70. Quarterly. 2^ ed. d'Arbois de Jubainville. A. Chronologie : F. Wiener Studien XIV. 1890. Le latin d'Espagne d'aprh les inscriptions. 278 ft. 1905. : 1902-03. Bechtel. 1901. Histoire de la langue roumaine. Cooper: F. 1906. Claussen. 1902.

1902. £E. £criture laire. XXII. Made in France in the eighth Reich. in the eighth Cf.. Gl. Dubois A. Grbber. Hetzer. ed. Thielmann. Syntax und Siil des Tertullian. W. Rydberg. Entstehung und Entwickelung des Kirchenlateins. Grammatici Latini. 1894. 157. Korting: G. Facere G. Koschwitz. Zs. 1901. Cassel : II. Rydberg. of Vol. Foerster and E. £don. : Meyer-Liibk'e. Haag. Hoppe: H. : : Hammer in Grundriss I^. Koff mane. Made. 1904 Haag : O. Die lateinisch-romanischen Elemente im Althochdeutschen. Hoppe. Gl.. — 1888- M. Eckinger T. W.. Etude lexicograpkique grammaticale de Kasseler Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. 1857-1880. KofEmane : G. 1898. . Keil: H. 1902. Beiheft Gram. Draeger: A. Die locale Verbreitungfriihester romanischer Lautwandlungen im. 1892. a: Zur Geschichte des franzosischen 3. Edon: G. 1903. W. G. Paris in Rom. Reichenauer Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. : : P.. 569. . 2d ed. Le developpement de facere dans langues romanes. Grammaire des langues romanes. Die Latinitdt Fredegars. ed. 1903. Grundriss der romanischen Philologie. -Grundriss : G. Cf. Foerster and E. W. Historische Syntax der lateinischen Sprache. Franz. Goelzer. alten Italien. in Archiv saint Jlrome. I. Keil. Kbrting. XXVI. : century. Reviewed by G. Eckinger. Kluge. 2 1902. 1884. 2d ed.. et prononciation du latin savant et du latin popu- 1882. Habere mit dem et Infinitiv und die Entstehung des la latiniti de romanischen Futurums. 1893. 3 vols. jd or ninth century. K. Draeger. Hammer. 2d 1878. H. Kluge F.. 1896 — Futurum G. : W. Meyer-Liibke. Romanen und Germanen in ihren Wechselbeziehungen. La latiniti d'Ennodius. Dubois. Lateinisch-romanisches Wdrterbuch. 1901. probably 521 ff. in France. P. XIV BlBIJOGRAPHY. Franz : 1883. Koschwitz.. 641 7. Die Orthographie lateinischer Worter ingriechischen : : Inschriften.. Franz.: 1900. 498. Einf . Die Reichenauer Glossen in Zs. 2d ed. EinfUhrung in das Studium der romanischen les Sprachwissenschaft. 1879Digitized by Microsoft® . Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. 48. 1890vols.

Vokalismus der Tonsilben. Perf Per. 451. Btudes sur le lexique du latin vulgaire. Die lateinische Sfrache in den romanischen : Landern. with special reference to the Latin Sermo Vulgaris. 1888. 1897. Lindsay. 1892. The Latin Language.. G. Pogatscher. 'P. ad 367 ff. 1899. in P. Neumann Franz Neumann. Archiv II. Pass. 259. Olcott. P. Lebreton.Bibliography. R. Pers. Petite phonltique Phon. : LiteraturblattfUrgermanischeundromanischePhilologie. Oliver: A^Oliver. I goo. 1898. Wolfflin in Archiv IV. Lexique F. Lebreton J. 1901. perhaps from Spain. : F. Loth. 372. : : Ltblt. Etudes sur la langue et la grammaire de Ciciron. H. Pirson: J. Hilarii Tractatus de Mysteriis et Hymni et S. lateinischen und romanischen Lehnworte im Altenglischen : II. Perf. A. Studies in the tions. 1905. ed. . Hilarius. Olcott : G. M. auf Aussprache und Recht- schreibung beziiglichen Eigenthiimlickkeiten in den Inschriften aus Gallia Narbonensis. Habere mit dem Part. Cf. Mohl. Meyer-Lubke. : Leipzig. Pr. Itala und Vulgata. ad loca sancta. t^ Verzeichniss der ed. Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. Zur Lautlehre der griechischen. : 1 901. Pirson. Gamurrini. Quomodo lingua latina usus S. S.S. Thielmann. La premiire personne du pluriel en gallo-roman. De latinitate libelli qui inscriptus est Peregrinatio loca sancta. Lindsay: W. 1892-1902. Pogatscher A. Geyer. : P. : Roman Sermo Plebeius. 1869. Regnier. 1887. Monthly. in Itinera hierosolymitana saculi Written probably in the latter part of the fourth century by an ignorant nun. Spr. J. Substantives Word Formation of the Latin Inscrip- and Adjectives. Teil. xv W. Fortsetzung. lat. Ferotin. M. 1894. 1886. Marchot.. du frangais prilittiraire. PI. 509: Peregrinatio iiii-viii. 1888. 1903. 1901. 1898. G. Silvice Aquitanm 1898. Mohl. E. 1900. J. Loth J. : La langue des inscriptions de la Gaule. in Grundriss V. sit Quillacq : : J. Cf. De la latinitl des Sermons de saint Augustin. T. Ronsch. Observations on the Use of Certain Prepositions in to the Petronius with special reference Part. and S. N.XXX). See Bechtel. Neue: Formenlehre der lateinischen Sprache. Regnier: A. Le viritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. Les mots latins dans les langues brittoniques. . Silvia AquitancE Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. Digitized by Microsoft® .'i>(eue. Ang^ade. Quillacq.

Tiktin. 564. Spr. 1900. Schuchardt.. 138. 1 856-68. Substrate : G. Windisch. fr. to Works the text.xvi Richter Elise Richter. Suchier: H. Zs. XII. : Zeitschrift fiir franzosische Sprache und Litteratur. Die Ausprache des Latein nach physiologisch-historischen Grundsdtzen. 276. 371. Urbat. Tours. V. 424.: E. Stolz: F. Four to sLx 1879. 1868. 507. : S. in 204. Sepnlcri : Gregorio A. 234. Vok. Lateinische und romanische Comparaiion. Windisch: E. Beitrdge zu einer Darstellung der romanischen Elemente im Latein der Historia Francorum des Gregor v. Tiktin : : H. E. Romania. Le alterazioni fonetiche e morfologiche nel latino di Magno e del suo tempo. Notices et Extraits de divers manuscrits latins pour servir A fhistoire des doctrines grammaticales au moyen dge. Grammatik der lateinischen Sprache. Stolz. Quarter- ly. Grober. III. Seelmann. VII. Die keltische Sprache. Waters. Sittl: K. Urbat R. 25. II. 371. 1902. ^KvA. Zauner: A. 116. Historische 1894. Waters: W. in Studi Medievali I. 1&&2. 1890. : Wolfflin : E. : Zeitschrift Jur romanische Philologie. Som. Paris. Petronius. in Grundriss P. numbers a year. Sepulcri. 125. 453. 539. und Thurot : Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits de la Biblioth^que nationale et : attires bibliothiques Vol. Suchier. 1903.nn&r. Archiv I. Cena Trimalchionis. Romanische Sprachwissenschaft. 100. H. Wblfflin. Charles Thurot. 264. Die lokalen Verschiedenkeiten der lateinischen SpracAe. Der Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. Chemnitz and Leipzig. I. in Grundriss P. Paris. Quarterly. : Zur Entstehung der romanischen Wortstellung aus der lateinischen. in Grundriss P. Die rumdnische Sprache. XQ. IV. 171. Vulgdrlateinische Substrate romanischer Worter. 3 vols. Halle. 422. which only occasional reference is made are cited in full in Digitized by Microsoft® . Die franzosische und provenzalische Sprache ihre Mundarten. Vol. 1885. 117. VI. 377. Zs. Bibliography.

under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is close. o = rounded the sound of German = the sound of th in English thin. q e. := rounded i. the source standing at the open end of the figure. whichever way it be turned.PHONETIC ALPHABET AND OTHER SYMBOLS. the sound of German «. * (an asterisk) before a word shows that the form attested. (a semicircle) under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is not syllabic. . = the sound of ng in English long. J) ii o. = the sound of e in French me. The other marks and abbreviations employed are so generally accepted as to need no explanation. =r bilabial /S v.c = the sound of ch in German ach. is conjectural. Digitized by Micrqsoft® xvii . . (an acute accent) after a consonant letter shows that the consonant is (a dot) • C '^ / (a hook)' under a palatal. S =z > the sound of in English i/iis. . SMALL CAPITALS mean that the forms so printed occur in inscriptions (but this indication is used only when for some special reason it seems desirable). vowel letter shows that the vowel is open. the sound of Spanish v and i/i *. not >• indicates derivation.

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Empire it has remained. Aquitanians. j.AN INTRODUCTION TO VULGAR I. Africa after Iberians. Latin language never gained a foothold in Greece. for the most part. all Italy was subdued south of the Macra and the Rubicon. northern Cim- Gaul Dacia was colonized in 107 A. and quite cut off from the rest of the Latin-speaking world in the sixth. Chronologie . a little district on the is The Latin tongue was thus extended to many peoples. Throughout this territory the official language Latin. tEe bri fall "oO^thage in 146. beyond the peninsula it spread among Ligurians._Semites._ Germanic and others still. and. also Meyer-Lubke. the in 102-1. IHy- _rians . civilizations. political changes drove it in the rest of the from Great Britain. Illyrians in^sou^hea^emjmd southwestern Italy respectively by and Greeks. pp.. Sicily became a province in 241. tribes. Spain was made a province in 197. and linguistic habits.n central j. c. Sfr. 451-455. in 50. LATIN. 'See Mohl. D. Tiber. representing different races. in adopted by Etruscans and by various n orthern Italy by Ligurians. Raetia in 15. Lat. The Latinization of these peoples was the work of several centuries^: by 272 b. Venetia cast her lot with Rome in 215. The extent of the Roman Empire on p. The and Teutones were destroyed was a province. Sardinia and Corsica in 238. Celts. I Digitized by Microsoft® . X. the Orient.talyjt_was Italic tribes. and Africa. originally the speech of shown by the map was Latium. Illyria was absorbed after 167. southern Gaul in 120. Celts. forsaken in the third century..

and there must have been a variety of accent. The map on p. 464. but especially p^eriods. the alteration being most rapid in the earliest and the latest Furthermore. elex for The Italian word zavorra by Microsoft® . Latin was simply substituted for foreign tongues. Chronologie 98-99. until the 90-89 B. conflict of or less with the native idioms . nevertheless a few native words were kept. piimex. there were at all times. considerable local dive^ences. however. c. [§ 2 until the present day. Latm. Kff. 445. ilex are perhaps Umbrian possibly Etruscan Lat. and Oscan was used in inscriptions until the first century of our era. xi marks the parts of ica.^ When Latin conquered. 2. It should be remembered.'' In the outlying provinces.g2eaking peoples_ were not_ homogeneous. of Latium was adopted by tribes using. but there doubtless were still noticeable differences in pronunciation and even in vocabulary. it blended more languages. that the language carried effect. had a levelling and speech in Italy ^ See Chronologie 133 and I16-120. The Social War. The before the Social War. Europe where Latin in its modern forms is now spoken. Pomex. moreover. Spr. etc. Africa. Digitized may be Oscan. kindred At first there was sturdy resistance. in the main. like every living language. and to some degree in the peninsula. The evidence of inscriptions and of grammarians indicates that from the beginning to the end of Roman history speech was constantly changing. The Latin tongue. and their In Italy the language §peech_reflected_their varied origin. became more uniform. and has been carried thence to Amerand Asia. the resulting geographical dis- crepancies are manifest in early monuments. alL southern Italy was under Oscan influence. Oscan forms are ligud for and k for lege^ pru for pro^ ni for 'The is S. has always been in an unstable condition. jfor : e.2 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and there was little or no mixture. Italian nn : for nd.

. drawing away . and is also between city Injatfi. and from the slang of the lowest quarters of the city. 463-464. We may say in general that the East. was constantly developing away from the archaic standard of elegant parlance. Digitized by Microsoft® . more offtcial speech. Administration and ImiHtary service tended to obliterate distinctions. under the Empire the variations probably came to be no greater than those /the^kter colonies a now to be found in the English of the British Empire. the earlier acquisitions received a more popular. not an independent offshoot of Old Latin: system. from the consciously polite utterance of cultivated society. was completelyTaFinized by the fourth "^ "" of With the beginnings culture and literature there came inevitably a divergence between the language of .. 3. from the brogue of the country.from the everyday language on the other hand. Roman territory. throughout the Republic and the Empire. Republican and early Imperial times educated speech became highly^ artificial. though affected by all of these. not the primitive. provinces was not identicial: it represented different chronological stages and different local dialects of jI^aUc^Latin . the common idiom. XV-XXX.. 3 i\2_ik^_J£X?. 1 . while popular usage tends to quick change. Cf Cooper .t&L. Literary influence conservative and refining. _excegting ^reece andthe £entiiry after Christ. What wecalTVuIit gar Latin is the speech of the middle classes.^ fields: it continues the Classic. Spr. vowel is it Neither the dialect of the slums or of the us of not a few urban and rustic grammarians distinct tell vulgarisms that are not perpetuated in the It is Romance tongues.^ Vulgar Latin naturally developed differently in ^ * Cf Lai. %J3] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.the classes. as It is grew out of early Classic Latin. ugper and that of the lower and^coiintry speech. .

492-497. ^l^ various localities. progressed. We rfote an. Pirson and Carnoy also. some of which can be ascribed to an inclination to discard those parts of words that are not necessary for their identification (as vetulus when viridis. suftseSWe 4. and the diphthong at is reduced to e). inj^e^ixth Jix . ai almost in iCf. for African Latin. become virdis. Furthermore. period lasts. being accelerated and the military organization was broken. . YjJgar Lsatijl.^ The differentiatign.JLQmance languages _begin. then. * For a history of the Latin language. . we observe certain changes in pronunciation. Sittl and Hammer. we shall see was always tending to become more flexible and more explicit.^ any definite date must be arbitrary. until the dialects of distant localities became mutu^ ally unintelligible. some to unknown reasons! WEy~" for instance. roughly The speaking. some to a desire for differentiation (which lowers i to e to make it more remote from i ). c.^ Ctassic and VulgarXatin. If we compare that the latter find also a gre at sim plification of inflections. see Lat.enormous development of modifying and determining is most sharply differentiated from Classic Latin when schools decayed „ . Althou. B. tqa^bout -6oo . due partly to phonetic but mainly to syntactic causes. the universal inclination of language to diverge was reinforced by the original habits of the diverse speakers and by such peculiarities of native accent as hacl survived. Spr. in the last few centuries of this epoch. some to a tendency to assimi^tejmlike adjacent sounds (so ipse is spoken isse._jjid an abundant use of prefixes and. Kiibler Archiv VIII. i6i. from about 200 b. vedus). as far as the levelling inEuence of schot^l and army permitted.seventh century of our era. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. such as articles and prepositions. we may put it. Digitized by Microsoft® .4 .ALjUus--poin-t we ~may_ say that Vulgar XiSi^ stops and the .

Die Appendix Probi in Archiv XI.' spells by A. P. . . 551. W. S. the distinction of learned and popular words. Herseus.. Meyer-Liibke. a few texts w ritten by persons of scanty education. E. Grober. F6rotin. Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. Aussprache des Latein. 5* Our sou rces of information' concerning the„ current spoken La tin are^ the statements of grammarians^. in Archiv I. XXX). Archiv XIV. in inscriptions and early manu- ^scripts'. Die Appendix Probi. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. possib^'as early as the third century'. the A^endix Probi^ z. and VII. Beiheft 7. Heraeus. . while au did not in Latin generally. 455-461. list of spellings. Hetzer in Zs.* All of these are to be used with caution. Of ^speciaTvalue are the Peregrinatiqjidjqtasancta. in the eighth century. Ueber die Latinitat der Peregrinatio ad loca sancta in Archiv IV. ^ Utilized by E. 367. 1902. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the occasional lapses in cultivated authors. Seelmann. Wolfflin. see G. 55-67. Paris in Melanges Renier 301. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. . some .iSgS. 641 K. Zur Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. a considerable iragment of a description of travel in the East. 1866-68. 1885. Fcerster in Wiener Studien XIV. 'See W. 1902 . 25 ff. of the^TConraHcel languages. 4 For the chronology of developments. A. "See 119. and the establishment of unattested Vulgar Latin words. Zur Mulomedicina Chironis in Archiv XII. 1899. Gioixr. early and late. 401. the nonClassic forms. by an uneducated woman (probably a Spanish nun) of the latter good and bad pajt of the. 1904. "See P. and W. 204 if. For a brief account of the Latin grammarians. 259 M.ijecurring. Cf.. fourth century^. Sprachgziellen und Wortquellen des lateiniscken Worierbuchs in Archiv I. 6t. 301 G. Spr. Geyer.glossaries aDi. Itinera hierosolymitana sceculi mi-viii. G.— An become^ o. the so-called Glossary of Reichenau. made in France There is an interesting collection of Defixionum Tabellce.Mili/BaoilSisches Uebungsbuch. Audollent. * Used by H. ^Cf. Lot. 35. Bechtel. Foerster and KDfSiiitbdnll>fr.Jists„jof JacQlxacJtjOTmjs. Schuchardt. . Le veritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. Silvia Peregrinatio. E. andrmosTim- ^portant o f_all. S. see Stolz. 278. a problem as yet unsolved. Zur Sprache der Mulomedicina Chironis in . 5 universally be came is e. the subsequent developments. E. Lommatzsch. Melanges Boissier 5 W.

in. II. {tabanus — ziruiare). 138 {hmdus — iticem). Examples are : 7. viridis. (Jlagrare —gTttta). — icaccubus — curbus). W. Die Sprache der romiscken Kinderstube in Archiv XIII. 453ff. Lateinish-romanisches Worterbuch. For a thorough discussion of reconstructed forms. 422 {pbedire — putidus)-. mater. iiyS. suus)'. Korting. see G. (sabanum — lare)^ 234 VI. ~ technical words not found in literature. ff. WORDS USED ALIKE IN CLASSIC AND VULGAR LATIN. 125 {quadraginta — rascu' {reburrus — runcare). It is natural that the The the senses of words. (eber III. reconstructed out of Romance words. ff. altus.) Worter ff. the nucleus of the language. longus. Grober. For an approximately complete vocabulary. V. A. VOCABULARY. has many poetic figures and many abstract terms unknown to the crowd. 149. {damnum — dui)^ in Arckiv: I. quando. audire.I. filius. ff. amare. Herasus. so cams. to speak. Die romische Soldatensprache in Arckiv XH. 1. 264ff. ii6fif.iooff. ^See Densusianu. vacca . popular use tends to restrict them. ff. too. 1901. 2'/$^. forming. puteus. Digitized b^Wlicrosoft® . bene. pants. 6. ff. polite language. speech of the literary and fashionable classes should differ from that of the common people so Literature inclines to extend it is in all civilized communities. {minacicE — nutrire). [abbreviare buttis). This class includes a great mass of words. 185-203. VulgSrlateinische Substrate romanischer . 539 —Jiiicum)^ 424£f. yj^ (supplement. the vulgar idiom has homely metaphors of its own and numerous specific. 255. bonus. 233 ff. male. {Hie — lamna)^ So?^' {lacusta — mille)\ IV. On the other hand. . si. vendere. dicere. see G. pater. WORDS AND THEIR MEANINGS.

'» Many Pirson 260-262. new meaning in addition ambulare= 'march'.... Per. 351—352. § 10] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. orbus—'hXmd'. Regnier 24. and also 'continue'. Bon. nor 'best b. Digitized by Microsoft® .11. not 'strength'. G. SENSE EXTENDED. : senses. Dubois 220. hcec eestimare non capit. etc. = 'rebJiKe§. non capit utique videri Deus. lectio =^ 'dxoifin' machinari='g[mA. 8. 235-328. WORDS USED DIFFERENTLY AND IN VULGAR LATIN. Bayard 105. non capit prophetam perire. 'text'.'k'. Bon. of the examples can ».ct of taking'. 243. Pirson 257-258 . not 'sophism' nor 'deceit'. SENSE RESTRICTED. 283. Quillacq 54-79.'. Capit a ssumed the meaning of fieri potes t: R. Archiv XII. Very many Classic words are used in Vulgar Latin with a different sense: comparare =^h\xy'. necare = Bon. part'. 1 a.. IN CLASSIC 7 a. Hoppe Most 48. 269-270. 286. focus=^iix&\ paganus= 'pagan'. assume to the old one: Bechtel 137. however. 286). Bon. perhaps Cf. 'authority'. Dubois 185-225. viaticum = ']ox\xntY'. be classified under the heads of restriction or extension of meaning.' to^x^a . nite This happens frequently. mulier='-vi\ie'. i ^ns— 'chM'. ingenium := 'trick'. . Many words kept their literal but lost their metaphorical sense: captio ='a.^ The general use of a word in an extended sense is not common. collocare= 'go to bed'. 272. Bayard 63-202. words. but there are some examples /(7r^j = 'strong' in all 10. ro6ur= 'o^. etc. se piicare=' go'. yUloi:^. tractatus= 'treatise'./22J£Sfe 46. etc. defi' 9. G. a word assuming a more or concrete signification {^se : icognatus\=z ' brother-in-law coUocare^ 'put to bed' dominicus =: divinus .

Per.loco forsitan quattuor milia. quippe. Waters Ch. 391-397. 204. quia. at. they were either borDigitized by Microsoft® . nam. Bechtel 144. etiam.13. Bayard 94. Pirson 255 ^^l^lj^j^^ ^^^^ habuit serpentes). quod. vel. is very rich in abstract nouns (G. 66. Bon. 37. Bechtel 127 {habebat de eo. utrum.25. When lost terms were needed for literary or other purposes. Classic ployed at the vulgar speech or went out of use before the earliest Jubere. Dubois 218. etc. postquam. Latin words either were not em- II. 258 fif.tes moral obligation. 38. facere (time)'. cum.. an. donee. autem. Regnier 20. ita. Poetic aurora.. quomodo) assumed new functions. etc. 328. WORDS USED Numerous all in m CLASSIC BUT NOT IN VULGAR LATIN. to be sure. del>ere 'mdica. tamen must have been sed. de. . ergo. G. etc. quoad. : . 44. quidem. igitur. 418. and quasi. . [§ n 'go'. wW«/« = 'miracles' (in imitation of the Greek). /V/-. satis = 'much'. Ecclesiastical Latin. etc. Regnier 29 {in came paucas habet virgines sanctimoniales). the French ilj> a. ^: moribund. populus «/««^«j= 'common people'. Bon. apud. horrescere. etc.. ^2S= 't^he' and 'he'. terms and some abstract nouns were not needed: frondifer. enim. fascia means a measure of land. diu. 3. Bechtel 144.per. Very many adverbs and conjunctions dis-"~\ I appeared saltern. 58 {bella res). Unde came to mean 'and so'. Waters Ch. but most of them are new formations. hand. monuments of the Romance languages: so funus. 422 (in area Noe .). Bayard 83. res is used of persons. although it is common in the Peregrinatio. hamo has the sense of French on. quin. sive.8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Per.". quoque. replicare= 'reply'. fletus. proles. . ut. = 'pass Regnier 27 {quadraglnta dies fecit). Dubois 301-308). unus = 'a'. Dubois.. So various prepositions and conjunctions (as ad. G.

SYWOHYMS. magnus to grandis.§ 13] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf Zauner 41-42. one often crowded out the other: atrium gave way to cars. Rumanian. Digitized ^^^ by Microsoft® . some nouns by derivative adjectives: avis ^ by aucellus. R. R. 336. edere in the main to manducare.*avica. R. Dubois 212.2. Italian. 313. nunc by hora. . tanti. privignus by 13.338.. . a.Va&T* capum) is preserved by Rumanian. Rjetian. ^ Zauner 41-4. 272. SUBSTITUTES. . French and Provencal mansio and hospitale. mansio ( Roman. casa occurs only in Italian inscriptions. Italian. diminutive of avis). Among the Romance languages.. French. ^capitia (<^caput) by Spanish and . ignis hy focus. i'^o^^ tot hy quanti.\ Dubois 209. humerus by spatula. and by villa. G. Dubois 220. 472 ferre to portare. Indus to jocus. Provengal. 345. vitrUus hypatraster. equus to caballus. os to bucca. R. Raetian. Portuguese prefer casa. crus gave to gamba. 12. cf. to genitores. Spanish. Sometimes the survivor was far from a synonym in Classic Latin: discere was displaced hy apprendere. urbs by civitas. sol According to Olcott XVIII. mansio.. emere by comparare. avus by *aviolus. b. 472. R. For mansio. Provenjal. R. caput to testa''. senex to vetulus. ^-j 2 parentes . clerical 9 rowed from Classic or Latin (as nobilis) or replaced by new constructions (as *carrica for onus). *filiaster. testa by Cf. 324. 'dwelling') only in . Olcott XXV. cur to quare. domus by casa. . Some words were replaced by diminutives. hospitale^. ^ * Caput (or rs. 337. Portuguese. noverca by *matraster. Sometimes a term was replaced by a word not found in Classic Latin at all: anser-wAs driven out by *auca (<. R. When Latin had two words nearly synonymous. Occasionally the substitute aliquis yielded in part to res -vi&y was apparently a slang word: nata. French.. Italian. Bechtel i^o^gena to gabata. omnes by toii. R.

frequent also: R. G. ergo. conjunctions. by subsitution. quando. etiam. Some of these were probably old Digitized by Microsoft® . words were replaced by phrases: diu by longum tempus (Bon. R. Olcott 250-263 {gemelli._ Cis. paucum tempus for haud diu). the by quando and other conjunctions. to propter were displaced southern Gaul. which replaced /^r and pro in Spain and to a considerable extent in northern Gaul. 203. credens.lo in part An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. mammula-:=^^zxiA\aoVs\t. Italy. The place of cum was taken various substitutes. ex gave to de. infemus.). and other phrases. etc. vetus for [§ 15 by *soUculus. ^w^ by diurnus. sed. pra. igitur. dies largely . and adverbs were lost 14. ver by vemum tempus.). became *por. WORDS USED IN VULGAR BUT NOT IN CLASSIC LATIN. Fro. by other words. erga.x\naucella. Cf. Occasionally. Reich. neptilla. d'lJ way pro and per. apud-<n2iS partially supplanted by adj cum. infemus. R. R. 121-130 {cereolus. 4. etsi. 100-107 {arida. too. PARTICLES. 201. Ab was made unnecessary by de and per. 15. Densusianu. 395-396. appear in Classic Vulgar Latin evidently had many words that do not texts.). quoniam were often replaced by quomodo. Autem. etc. cuculla. quod. . 108-121 {brevis.). hiems by hibernum. Many prepositions. doubtless under the influence of per. Gl. ne. 403. 184-185. utrum were assumed by si. tamen. ut were ousted by functions of an. Dubois 147 {novellus'). Adjectives used as nouns were etc. Latin: G. and Dacia preferred /^r. Bon. schedula. most part by vetulus. 472 mane h^ Diminutives were extremely common in late matutinum. in Gaul. c. yielded to apud. etc.

a. . mamma. cf. adj. fuit prode illis. tatus. potis est = potest. etc. Neue II. Digitized by Microsoft® . Bayard 179 (applied . 63. as *miaulare. Likewise words made by ono- matopoea. Vr. § 405). Archiv XII. Archiv XIII. 468-469 (^quid enim prode est homini.). *gentis. Pirson 244. Archiv XIII. Densusianu 196. 237. Onomatopees et Revue des langues romanes XLIV. pa(J>)pa. drappus. tata. Substrate ficatum. 17. adj. R. so not improbably the original of the Romance words mean'find'. although they were doubtless in common use: amma. Ch. fine fino). Korting (found in the 7th century). mots. Grammont. ii native terms that do not happen to occur in the works preserved. ing 'touch'. II. some were late creations. Densusianu 190. cloppus Densusianu'. from the noun finis in such phrases as honorum finis. 106. fin. NATIVE WORDS. between genitus and from prodest (cf. Pr. apparently a cross then m. serutinus. *prodis. *rettna=: 'rein'. Some of the unattested words were obviously late developments: *finis. and f. XVII. Pirson 243. prode. (Fr. bxmca. finis honoris > 484. Herzog in Bausteine e. pappus = 'gra.. 154.. 97. hoc enim prode fit vobis. SubstrateY. and perhaps those of the words meaning 'gape'. (so. 53. 158. gent. pudoris finis. 421. Cyprian to the bishop of Carthage). Some native words are rarely attested. gente). Archiv XIII. battalia. 270-271. 151-153. expressifs in M. etc. Audollent 199.g. (Fr. 156-157. gavia (used by Pliny). detached 176-177). 16. sed non genttlis. Archiv XIII. baro — 'athlete'. Archiv VIII. It. 186. Archiv XIII. atta.. trepalium. E. Archiv XIII. fins onors. . norma.§ 17] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. It.). A few that must have existed are not attested at all: *refusare. etc. 234. circare = 'hnnV . Rom.ndta. 151— 152. 154. Waters Ch. and 'go' (cf. Substrate V. some Were borrowed from other languages.

schema. dulcor. A werra. numerous verbs in -izare. Judaizare. colaphizare. prophetare. More Germanic words (of. 44. Regnier VIII. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . but a few examples Gl. modernus. prophetizare. as allegorizare. Some were introduced by fashionable etc. (cf. Gram. 66. sagma. will be discussed at length in the following may be given here: post-verbal dolus <dolere. vertragus. Bon. According to Olcott XIX. R. folUa. vict(u)alia. evangelizare. Bechtel 95 {cata mansiones. anathematizare. alberca.. a distributive preposition. catechiblasphemare .. and not a few new derivatives. confessor = 'martyr'. dactylus. sabbatizare. §71. scandalizare. which affected familiarity with Greek. This subject chapter. as baptizatio. cf. FOREIGN WORDS. *dulcior = 'sweetness'. carricare. 12 An 18. Reich. verging 247 {cata mane mane). *man{u)aria. baptizare. some of popular creation. More came in through the Christian vocabulary: angelus. diaconissa. 225. cata pascha). Bon. African Latin was freest in word formation. G. *soliculus. some made by Christian writers. We find a large number of Greek words. thesaurizare . [§ 19 Late Latin was rich in derivatives. G. Very many Greek terms used by ecclesiastical writers never became popular. *coraticum. colaphus. Dubois 144. Waters Ch. haunjan. wfltan 19. Waters Ch. *vir{t)dura. haribergum. zare. Cf. *nivicare. Gl. Reich. a few of them on the sense of 'every'. b. apparently borrowed by popular speech: amygdalum. cata. hapja. such as alauda.. * abbellire . Pirson 236). *ausare. Introduction) found their way into Latin: bannus. 226. 211. there are many Greek words in Petronius: hepatia. 224. eunuchizare. society. few Celtic terms were adopted. 205-226: anathema. zelare.

Vulgar Latin is very rich in derivatives and comit has many affectionate diminutives. 98. G.or bi. really living suffixes \ but the lost. 430-693 Densusianu 156-173. such as gaudimonium (Waters Ch. 246-247. bisacutus. substantives taken from the roots of verbs). who were especially addicted to prepositional compounds with con-. 35. 13 DERIVATION. I.e.^ PREFIXES USED WITH NOUNS. AND PRONOUNS. saltus — saltare. POST-VERBAL NOUNS.§ 22] An Introduction to VulgaW Latin. PREFIXES. some of them made with new suffixes (as —icca. Cooper XXXIV. satire). 21. Petronius. then prefixes. as canere. Bon. See Gram. Bis. whereas in reality both come from a primitive verb. a. Regnier etc. Cooper XXX ff. and finally composite words. Vok. B. etc. ADJECTIVES.* We shall consider first postverbal nouns (i. Augustine).was used with some adjectives and appar: ently with a few nouns bisaccium. next suffixes. XL VI.. a fictitious primitive noun was derived from a number of verbs in Vulgar Latin and in the Romance languages so dolus from dolere. which the noun seems to come from the derivative verb. 22. In strictly Classic texts there appear to be no 20. Digitized by Microsoft® . which in- the literary language creased. " Cooper 246-297. After the model of cantus — cantare. sub-. 1. 367. '^ . —itta)} Petronius shows a fondness for long derivatives. ' » bimaritus. 130 . Late writings almost all abound in abstract nouns (Cooper 1-2). " Cooper XXXVI. II. 61). 2. G. pounds . in-. 170 .* popular speech preserved and This freedom of formation was abused by African authors. (pairs in : VII (blamed by St. facility of word formation.


An Introduction
Ad-, con-, de-,

to Vulgar Latin.


dis—, ex-, in-, re:

and some others were
*adaptus ; commixtius,

occasionally used to form adjectives

G. 160 defamatus ; *disfactus; exsucus; inanimatus ; *replenus.
Cf. G.




Ac-, atque-,

ecce-, eccu-,

met- were used as demonstrative

prefixes to



pronominal adjectives and to adverbs. Eccu— is ecce eum; its origin being forgotten, it was used in

Vulgar Latin as a synonym of ecce. Met, primarily a suffix, came to be used as a prefix through such combinations as semet ipsum, understood as se metipsum. In archaic writings
reinforced demonstratives as eccum, eccam,


ecca, eccillum., eccillam, eccillud, eccistam

are not



Vulgar Latin examples are ac Classic texts they are rare. sic; atque ille-; ecce hie; * eccu iste ; * eccu sic. Substrate VI,





Cf. A.

Kohler, Die Partikel

ecce in

Archiv V,

See §§ 65, 66.



25. Ad-, con—, de-, dis—, ex—, in—, re— were freely used, disbeing mainly a Vulgar Latin prefix: abbreviare, G. 179 * a.d;

cap(i)tare ; adgenuculari, R. 181; adpretiare, R. 181, G. 180;
adpropiare, R. 181, G. 180; adunare, R. 182; confortare, R. 185,

* cominitiare ; complacere, R. 184; deaurare, G. 182 * disjejunare; exaltare, G. 183; excoriare, G. 182; impinguare, G. 181


G. 183; *infurcare; recapitulare, G. 185; *requcerere.
con—, de- lost their special significance;

Ad—, ad— was particularly

favored in Spain, con- in Italy.
ally there

Cf. Lat. Spr. 487.

was a change

of prefix


was used with the

sense of expectare, * convitare sometimes took the place of invitare; dis-

was often substituted

for ex-.


Ab-, contra-, per—, sub-, super supra-, tra trans— were

by Microsoft®

§ 3i]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


used occasionally: * aboculare ; *contrafacere; *perdonare ; subG. 185; * subdudere ; subsannare, R. 199, G. 187; superabundare, G. 187; * super—* suprafacere ; *trabucare ; *transaudire,

annare; transplantare, G. 188.
27. Extra- was sometimes used and 2«/ra— in Italy: * extrabuccare ; 28.
in Italy

and Dacia, infra-

* infraponere ; *intratenere.


e-, ob-, prce-,

pre-, pro-, retro— were apparently

not used to form new verbs in the popular spoken language,
although some of them are occasionally so employed by late
writers: opprobare, G. 184; prcedesiinare, G. 184


prolongare, G. 184.



sometimes replaced by ad—:


> addormire.

Foris and minus came to be used as prefixes in some

Foris was confounded Gaul with the Frankish _;?r- (= ver-) verslahen = Old Fr. See G. Baist, Frdnkisches fir— im altesten Franzosiforbatre. schen in Romanische Forschungen XII, 650; cf. Rom. XXX, For this use of minus, compare the phrase minus est^ 633. caritas in quantum adest in quantum deest, Regnier 109


* minuscredere.






autem minus


Cf. § 245.


Some verbs

take a double prefix

adimplere; coexcitare,

R. 207

(cf. Quintilian, coexercitatus); deexacerbare, R. 207

*deexcitare; *exeligere.




the restoration of the


form of

the primitive verb, was a regular process in Vulgar Latin (cf. §139): aspargo for aspergo is blamed by Velius Longus, £don

Cyprian, Bayard 3; commando is, according to Velius Longus, the usual form, rather than commendo,



used by


S. 60, ifidon

131; consacrati


occur in inscriptions,




Bon. 49°;

^^f^'^i ^30^°





An Introduction
Bon. 490.

to Vulgar Latin.



Computo, 58-64, Bon. 486-493. prdsto seem to cdnsto, consuo, erigo, exeo, infio,

have been regarded as simple verbs

S. 64.

primitive form of prefixes; but this

Late writers were in the habit of restoring the full, was doubtless merely a

matter of spelling, and did not indicate the



In TertuUian, Cyprian, and some others there is generally no assimilation of the prefix other writers, such as

Gregory of Tours, apparently used both assimilated and unassimilated forms. Bayard 12-15: adpetere, conpendium, inproius, obfero, subplanto. Bon. 178-188: adtonitus, conmittere,
inlatus, obprimere, subcuvibere.



in —are; occasionally


Nexhsfrom nouns^ generally end
sometimes in

in -iare or —ire;

which was eventually sup-

planted in Italy and in Gaul by —izare (for pronunciation see

§339)- This last ending came from Greek -dfiv through borrowed words, such as baptizare. For a list of Greek verbs in -i^etv adopted by Christian writers, see R. 248-249 (cf. §19 above); some new formations were used, as catechizare. In early Latin this same ending appears as -issare (attidsso, rhetorisso): see A. Funck, Die Verba auf issare und izare in

Archiv III, 398.


— * dom'nizare;

—plagiare —


oculare; pedinare; plantar.e; potionare; * trepaignire ;



follicare ;

* nivicare ;


Cooper 205-245, Dubois 151-162, Quillacq 41-46, Bonnet 471-474.

"Cf. R. 154-162.

by Microsoft®


§ 36]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

in —are,


Verbs from

and perfect participles e.r\A

—iare, —ire; also in' -icare (cf. albicare), —itare (cf. debilitare,
visitare), —escere


—iscere (cf. canescere, mollescere); possibly


angiistare; *ausare; captivare

confortare ; falsare

gravare ; levare ; * oblltare ; rictare ; Usare ; * abbellire ; tiare ; * captiare ; humiliare ;

— * vanitare —


alleviare; * al-

unire ;


Icetiscere ; vilescere ;

— amari— *blan-




verbs from perfect participles (frequentatives, etc.)

replace the original verbs: adjuvare "> adjutare ; audere'^ausare; canere'^cantare ; uti>usare.

lost their frequentative or inchoative sense







156. in -icqre


Verbs from other verbs end


fodere), —itare (cf. clamitare <,clamare')\ also in -escere, -Iscere
(cf. florescere,

* bullicare

< buUere





inchoative force:

apparescere ;

Vulgar Latin has many old frequentive verbs G. 178-179, Cooper 205. There are some late diminutives in —aculare, —tculare, -uculare, through diminutive nouns or adjecWe find also tives (ci. periculari <,periculum'): * saltlculare. some miscellaneous imitative formations * expaventare (and some others) apparently after the analogy of prasentare * misculare perhaps after maculare.


Greek verbs in -av,

-eiv, etc.,

when taken

into Latin, reg-

KvP€pvav>gubemare ; pXa(r<j}rifidv'>b/asphemare. Cf. Claussen 795. But ^aXS.av>psallere, perhaps through the analogy oifallere: Claussen 796. Germanic verbs in -an or -on regularly passed into the first


in —are:

conjugation in Latin





guidare ; roubon




"jR^etcA. ;

in -jan

went into the fourth
It. guamire. Digitized by Microsofi®


> hatire,


warnjan >

used to form adjectives and also nouns. essentia. Pirson 123. Waters Ch. in Italy and Gaul * canalia •< canis. (as viaticum) was extended. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. tives. 74). neuter plural of the gerundive. -enda. 59. taurellus. apparently. 79-102. Latin. Vulgar in deriva- Petronius. iCf. Ch. to form nouns from nouns: g. * calamarium. was extended: breviarium. too. 6\. Bon. volatilia. was extended: coxale. was very fond of diminutives: adules- centulus.8 — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. R. bonatus. 31-37. Cooper 1-91. -affcum * coraticum. -alia. Olcott 238-239. came to be used as a feminine singular: *facienda. 355. -dtus. Dubois 99-136. -dnus: see Adjectives. used to — Haag 41 form f eminines nepta. porcellus. etc. iio-iii). . Olcott 73-78. Quillacq 15-31. as miraUlia. Ch. Bon. G. Some go endings. *ducatus. was extended: clericatus. participles H ia (as benevolentia. -ar. were used to form abstract nouns from verbs: Cf. 39.i in 37.. -ugo were characteristic of rustic speech: —al. 49-52. R. Olcott 187-189. *pollicare. a neuter plural. *sperantia. Cf. socera. the collective plural -ilia. fragraniia . as senatus (common in Petronius. especially names of parts of apparel (as bracchiale). -are. b. Cf. for nouns and adjectives: liminare. made from present significantid). 453-463. Cooper in. 95. -ago. * credeniia . were used The Christian writers are especially rich Waters Ch. -ans. 40. 95. in a collective sense. G. -^a. placentia. Cf. used to designate a place (as gallinarium). as victualia (cf. -entia. Olcott 176-182. -arium. Cf. -igo. Bon. G. -antia. : -anda. 1 [§ 37 SUFFIXES FOR NOUWS. are the following: : Ch. -ens: see Adjectives. as a feminine singular with an augmentative and pejorative signification. e. —aria : see -ia. was used. 366. G. -arius: see Adjectives. —ata : see -ta. The commonest endings -a. -die.

and came to be used as a diminutive suffix in Spanish.' *libraria. For -accus. Olcott 173-176.). unaccented. § 173. avicula. It may have arisen in the first place from a childish pronunciation of -iclus. Pr. Valinca. 19 -cellus. —ceus. XX. -ia. navi- —ceus. Arbonenca. It. abstract extended *fortia fortia n. -uc(c)us. was often used beside -Ulus. -occus. Les substantifs en -ier et le essais de philologie fran- Rom. Olcott 131-134.. Portuguese. Pir- son 123. used to form feminines (as avus. porcellus. hence an ending -fflWa. II. which lost its diminutive force: anulus. -cius: see Adjectives. etc. and Rumanian: Sp. possibly of Ligurian origin (Rom. Thomas. Karica) first appears in Africa in feminine proper names. XXXI. -Mum. XXXV. being used in pet names. -ellus. manica. R. Digitized by Microsoft® solingo. and Nouveaux (aise no. -Tela.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. It was often attached to words in -arius. -ensis: see Adjectives. —eum : -ia. Horn- —iceus. mane 76). Bonica. was mighty deeds of God Koff'. -enda : see —anda.- -culum. and Dacia. unaccented. see —ium. wvicella. XIX. to form pi. 481. diminutive (as castellum). philosophia . animalico . porculus. G. was probably Cf. 591. = ' nouns (as victoria). somewhat extended: Old Fr. —icius: see Adjectives. Rum. navicella. —ans. perhaps also *-ingus and locally -ancus. Cf. etc. cula. 91-92. etc. . See A. cf. Cf. ing in Zs. So calamellus. see A. consirier. diminutive. from Greek -ia through Christian writers and speakers monarchla. etc. Sardinia. -entia : see -antia. 333ff. it was then extended to Spain. -tcca (as Bodicca. —ens: see Adjectives. 283ff. 1-2 1. suffixe -arius. —tea: see Archiv fiir das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Litera: turen CXIV. avid): neptia. vitulus. 335. Cf. 457. anellus . was used beside -cuius: So * domnicellus. ramenc . —eus: see Adjectives. -ia. 31-37. as desiderium. was used for many new words: Pr. Gram. -crum (as miraculum. -incus or -inguus (as propinguus). lavacrum) were occasionally used: *genuculum. vitellus. Einf. -iccus. : used (cf . 170.

Florentinus . etc. Olcott 78-80. Sp. see —tUdo. -issa. Pirson 226: Julianeta^ Nonnita^ N'onniit Its origin is unknown. . Sagitta. Cf. adjectives. Fr. XXVIII. Pirson 228. lausenga. fioretto. -icca. may have arisen from a childish pronun- ciation of -iclus -a: it may Meyer-Liibke. It. following. vestimenium). 56-59. then resemblance. Germanissa. amourette. -ttas : see —tas. used to form nouns from adjectives (as munditia -ies).. -tnus (as caninus. Sp. Zs. etc. Cf. in inscriptions in Italy -ittus first appears during the Empire and Dacia. the i being short in Gaul. masculine Muritta. were both are rare in Rumanian -ities especially in the south . was probably confounded. 22-25. used to form nouns from verbs (as certdmen. § 172. Olcott see -iio. Zimmermann. -dttus as alternative Sardinia: nouns. etc. as a suffix for proper names: feminine tus.20 Sp. -0 {-onem). A. regards -dttus. serpentinus. Cf. Montaninus) originally denoted appurtenance. was by Microsoft® . were extended. Raetia. cf. it was freely used. Nebitta. but sometimes to form new adjectives to form domnina = 'young lady'. (as paffiXurcra. li. calcaneum) : see G. -lius. -iva : see Olcott 224-226. doucet. Cf. and also for adjectives. some new formations: ^dukissa. —itia. Olcott 123-131. An It Introduction to Vulgar Latin. then smallness. Attitta. -men. generally long in the Spanish peninsula and in -Ittus. bacito. grassetto. -laaa. 251. with the -ing. -itUdo : —ium. -io : 134-136. especially -mentum : *gubernamentum. forms of -dtus. -otus.. It came to be very widely used as a diminutive suffix for nouns. (Cooper XLV): *altitia. -monium. from the Greek Cf. Bonitta^ Caritta^ Julitta^ Livitta^ Suavitta. much extended. Einf. *granditia. so pythonissd). R. especially : diminutive nouns. —monia: see Olcott 81-82. -mentum. camerlingo. and central and northern Italy. Olcott 200-204. R. W. in [§ 37 some regions. was used for some nouns and perhaps for adjectives (see -incus above): Pr. sometimes in Spain and Gaul. bonito. -eum (as cafitium. was used for prophetissa. Cusanca. Cooper 251. 343. conjectures that have come from the Germanic ending that now appears as in such names as Heinz. originally used to indicate a characteristic (as Digitized btbo). Fr. -mum. -Uies. a German patronymic ending. like littera beside litera.

—sor (—torem. used to form from verbs nouns denoting place. 88-122. purltas .G. in. *nutritio. nativitas . R. *lucor. started perhaps with such forms as defensa. mensor). as an augmentative or pejorative. someDigitized by Microsoft® . see —torium. origin (cf. —tor. timor. : -or (-orem). —sura: see —ilra. —sio : see -ito. *flavor. trobaire. Olcott amdtor. —tas {-tdtem). 85- Bayard 24-25. -tricem. used to designate the agent -orium . *deUta. Cyprian. -tus and -j«j were preferred in Dacia (Cooper XLV) collecta. C. G. *perdtta.. and were reinforced —ta. Cf. Substrate IV. Olcott 58-69. especially in Gaul: dulcor. was employed for many new formations of the same kind. *reddita. -sorem). sapor). casotta. Cf. —trix. 415. -sorium. G. Bayard 19-22. *flator. venuta. prensio. e. G. ostensor. -tus. R. of see -tor. 83. 223. -or {-oreni). -(orium. Cf. G. etc. -iita. recubitus . beveire. They were considerably used to make abstract nouns from verbs (and —ata was sometimes attached to nouns. *movita. used as nouns. boccone. Gaul often as a 56. are very common in St. used to form abstract nouns from verbs (as mansio. —sa : see —ia. trinitas. aggravatio. revoluUo. 82-83. So deitas from deus. in 21 commonly employed diminutive: g&lo. ostensio. -sus: see —ta. was freely employed :ya/jfi'aj. 45-56. Collin in Archiv XIII. as *annatd). 475. aquilotto. *sentor.. perfect participles by fourth declension nouns in -tus. 222. Jerome. then as a general moderate diminutive It. -ittus). 88. feminine perfect participles with a feminine noun understood. Bayard 19-22 (very -tio. R. -sa.fossato. Cf. was apparently used : first of young animals. andata. and other late writers: abbreviatio. 55-63. 503-504 {dolor. Fr. See Archiv V. G. etc. -sionem). potto). used to form abstract nouns (as candor. 122. —Stus. : extensa. lectio. remissa. 44-45. common in St. 69-82. —sus. It. i.). *vendita. were very freely employed (but show few traces in Ru- manian : Cooper XLV) : necdtor. —sorium: see —torium. Olcott 83-87. later -dta. St. narraius: cf. —sor: see -ior. used to denote the agent (as Cf. 453. Olcott 33-51. It. as collectus. XIII.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 63. Olcott 2-23. Pr. aiglon. Cyprian). -sio i^tionem. used to make abstract nouns from adjectives. viror. In Gaul these nouns came to be feminine: Bon. unknown etc. 102-106. R. -Sttus.

*frig' dura . ornatura. oratorium. ^•vir'dura. in popular words gave a feminine -ma (Claussen 796-797) > f -pos preceded by a consonant became -fr (Claussen : 797): 'AWfai'5po$>- Alexander. sinape . Einf.)u~^ gumma. gave oleum. stricturd). -ta or -us. ossulum. gave : millefolium. reposito- rium. : gummi-s. -11. —a. § 171. -um : Claussen 796. often taking the place of —culum (cubiculum much > accubitorium) (as *C(ssorium. -tura : see —ura. influenced by olere. popular words became -o (Claussen 797) X^wi'> lea. instead of -is (Claussen 798) pausis "^pausa.: : : 22 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. were tended. —tus: see -ta. -is. : became -a. mesSee sura. 40-45. etc. > p6KLT-qs -I in became -a (Claussen 798-799) : Xa/iirds -7)S. : in late Latin often replacing -or {fervor > *fervurd) were extended. etc. Cf. ^pressorium. Kbii. diminutive (as vitulus). 38. Olcott 194-196. R. make abstract nouns servitudo. was used for a few new formations *alaudula. G. cursorium). Olcott 69-73. -Ala. payLda'^ -(an in magida. -tuda (-tiidinem). -e. -as in popular words generally > lampa. nutritura. ^6-gy. -s-iira. '^planura. the -OS. tensura. fell popular words either or became -a. 31-37. later from adjectives also. There are a few exceptions for special reasons (Claussen 795) cXaiop. -ov regularly became respectively -us. boletus. G. -IS often clvain'^ sinapis. -tus (Claussen 798): rpiiKTijs '^ irucia . mensorium. used to form abstract nouns from perfect participles (as censura. kviuj. ixrikiipvWov. 197. Olcott 51-58. R. 88-90. natatorium. by popular etymology. Cf. -pa cima. missorium. -T7)s became -a. *certitudo. or -i (Claussen 799) TT^Trepi'^ piper. -aius. Sometimes the genitive or the accusative was taken as a basis. -ura and -t-ura. pressura. used to fortitudd). from adjectives was extended. instead of the nominative (Claussen 800-802): iXi^avros'^ elepliantus . Bon. When Greek nouns were endings were adapted as follows: — borrowed by Latin. [§ 38 ex- times instrument (as dormitorium. see —ta. Digitized by Microsoft® . -iita: Cf.

a combination of —arius — *capiianus. -arius. -aceus being employed later as an augmentative and pejorative suffix for adjectives and finally for nouns: chartaceus formaceus . Cooper 92-163 (diminutives. K^paffos : "^cerd-sus *cerSsus. were extended (especially in rustic speech: Cooper iii). 164-195). to denote connection.i are the following: 39« The commonest endings : — —abllis see —hilis. »?«i/«a»2«. Cf. spontaneus. Olcott 215-220. Bechtel 83. Tuscanus. used also in the masculine to gentarius. present participles (as amans. -Sris (as singularis) was extended: particularis. geniilis). poiens). was used to form adjectives of place (occasionally time) and nouns of office: biduanus. : see A. etc. and adjectives. c. *leviarius. decanus. attached to nouns Cf. Thomas. tempaccio. pelliceus). 23 The unaccented vowel of the penult was often changed in conformity with Latin habits (Claussen 802-806) Sl&^oKos'^ diabolus diabulus. were used freely to ^ currens . *werrarius. Olcott 226-238. -tlis. Digitized by Microsoft® . -ans. pomarius). 143. 415. iTTroTiiXij "^spatula. denoting appurtenance (as paganus. '^passans^ make adjectives and nouns from verbs: credens.. Olcott 182-187. -entem). was much extended. aKfnriKot'^ scopulus . G. Mapa"^ cithara ciihlra. —artcius. *ducaHs. -iceus -ictus. peculiar in — apothecarius *marinarius. 464-467. -oneus —onius (as extraneus. § 39] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. became and —icius (as sigillaricius). Romanus). episcopalis. -dlis. used to make from nouns adjectives denoting material (as arenaceus. Bechtel 83. arespecially in the latter function: . Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise etc. SUFFIXES FOR ADJECTIVES. Wolfflin. G. regalis. Eon. Olcott 137-173. mixticius. popular in Gaul 62 (Hacherece. Quillacq 32-40. -actus -actus. used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as Cf. * setaceus . -ens {-an/em. and form nouns of occupation (as aquarius. —anus. Die Adjectiva auf -icius in Archiv V. imaginarius . erroneus) were slightly ex- tended: *caroneus. *Sicilianus. See E. —dneus -anius. It. 144. The phonetic development of this suffix was apparently Gaul and some other regions the earliest examples are glan: 'Cf. were extended: *cortilis. Cf.). Dubois 136-151.

-er. Rom. —iero are probably borrowed. E. too. try to derive all the forms from -arius. Staaff. : -eus -ius. 109-116. 137. that -iarius and —carius may have established —iers in French. XXVI. rare in — -{bUis : see —bilis. -ier. -atus. G. Zimmermann. 481 (cf. timo- Olcott 244-250. the Proven9al cannot. G. a perfect participle ending (as sceleraius). 159-160. adjectives in the popular language: Cf. i^t. indicibilis. § 227. the derivative was sometimes used as a noun: panne us . especially in popular speech. e. diligibilis . Cf. -i [§ 39 glandarius . *pagensis.. -ensis. Phon. by the analogy of the plural -ari. I. was much used to : make ratus. Zs. Italian —aro is easily explained and Italian —iere. Cf. -tbilis. Chairibertus repeatedly used for Charibertus by Fredegarius Haag 7. is . used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as/orenwas greatly extended. anaiiarius. Thomas. pronounced —arius. —ceus -cius : see -iceus. and Bausteine 641). G. 296 (cf. A.' exauguratus. P. G. and that this pronunciation spread to the neo-Latin speakers. as -erius or —erus. —iceus —icius: see dcetts. papyrius. however. suggests that the Germans in Gaul associated -arius with their proper names in -areis 01 —ari. denoting material (as aureus). XXXI. fageus. G. or i before the a. XXI. Cf. 34-36). postulates -ar(i)us and -er{i)us. especially in learned words it is Rumanian (Cooper XLV) acceptabilis . Olcott 339-344. I. *faiatus. querceus. turrensis. 591. Marchot. vallensis. showing that while the French forms may perhaps be derived from -arius and -iarius. Zimmermann. — ia (6th century) and sorcerus <C^* sortiarius (8th century) the earliest forms in French and Provenyal are —ers. Olcott 209-213. in an objective suffix used to make adjectives very common in Christian writers in late Latin. was slightly extended (but is Rumanian: Cooper XLV). and when umlaut affected the a of these. Die Geschichte des lateinischen Suffixes — arius in den romaniscken Sprachen^ and E. Olcott 142). Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise 119. real suffix (cf.24 deria <i_ An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -bUis. Digitized by Microsoft® . Le suffixe -arius dans les langues romanes. 135-140. Cf. or -dbilis. On the other hand. Spanish -ero and Italian -aio are perfectly regular.^* markensis . R. *Frankensis. points out that many words have c. : tabilis . Gram. R. 155. 222. sis). —ens : see —ans. *cariierribilis). capabilis. that -iarius was a. then —iers. from verbs (as amabilis. Zs. and was much employed rare. the derivatives being sometimes employed as nouns * cortensis .

punidor. '*Frankiscus. (C. 4810. Ill. 193-197 {angelice. —ce -c (as ne nee. juratoriH. -inus : see Nouns. -inus {as fraxinus) was used for a few adjectives: quercinus. was a favorite with Christian writers. -sorius.) Cf. —Andus (as jocundus) was used in Spanish and Proven9al for a few words Pr. lo) Pirson 252 IX. volon. 467-470. probably a fusion of Greek -ktkos {Syriscus) and Germanic -isk (Thiudiscus). : d. was used especially in words 25 : -icus (as medicus) cus. I. one of them from Gaul. in St. Rum. Bon. new formations : *restivus. 552. 103-106. SUFFIXES FOR ADVERBS. —s-or H ius (as notare notor notorius. § 40] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. were used for some new formations: defensorius In Provengal and Rumanian -torius was extended. 155 (Tertullian)j *npidus. etc. Cf Olcott . G. = + . -ivus (as nativus) occurs in a few 224-226. Tiktin 597. censere censor censorius). 157-158. is Archiv I. G. -oneus : see —dneus. way: -e cf. sapidus. -uius (as canutus) was somewhat extended: *camutus. made up of -t-or. It was 'Cf. etc. Franz. dune The usual endings are as follows: — num nunc. —ilis: see —dlis. very common Jerome: G. Olcott 220-223. Cf. Cooper 196-204. — . 241. -iscus. diminutive (as albulus). —sorius: see —tortus —tortus. 158.). was used for -icus in some late words: *Angliscus. ? I. Digitized by Microsoft® . donique in cites eight examples of dune. G. turn tunc) was apparently used to form dum ce (cf. -ittus: see Nouns. sliglitly -idus (as rapidus) was extended: exsucidus. mansorius. promptulus.. ~ius : see —eus. from the Greek cleri- Cf. Dubois 163-171. Gram. -orius: see -iorius. L.' 40. Possibly *anc is derived from an in the same Substrate II. -ulus. with the or of sense of -Wlis the gerundive: Pr.

G. longe. Ch. *bona mente. but was not kept alive in popular Latin. XXIX. Cyprian (Bayard 34-35) and some other : writers. but rata. Fr. mente. perhaps after the Vulgar Latin period. Later. 339- Repetition was used. 428. etc. [§ 41 preserved in popular speech in bene. -iter: see -ter. * longa mente. Spr. 245. as It. whence such formations as Brittanice. It. etc. male. Cf. Normannice. alto. etc. Gl. Lat. Many such mon speech. obstinata mente. II. XXXIII. § SS- 41. Jerome. pure. Rom. Ch. XXX. This formation is not common. firma mente. and in Rumanian nearly all adjectives may be so used (as greii. forte. being especially common in St. Fr. as sometimes in Classic Latin. caldo. Gram. Ch. 487. however. for emphatic effect. poco. Zs. -ones (in Italy also with- out the preposition) came into use Cf.' ' Waters Ch. a recu230. * ipsa mente. common in other late writers: clanculo. though much used in ecclesiastical Latin (G. Cyprian (Bayard 32-34). -tim was favored by St. -0 and etc. -um generally coincided in pronunciation (multum = multo. and occurs also in Romanice. adverbial phrases on the model : ad . to adverbs: insiememente. multum.). piano. 197-201 infantiliter. 46. are to be found in Petronius 37. : modo modo =^ •only yesterday. . In the Romance languages mente was sometimes added comment. 42.' cf. Then it was employed in a more general sense: pari mente. bocconi. . -ter (as brevUer) was not preserved in common speech. *mala mente. 45 . sola mente. tarde. chiaro. 337. Digitized by Microsoft® . soave). a ginocchioni. in Rumanian. now now so. Reich. Adverbs of manner came to be made with the ablative This noun was first used with an adjective to denote a state of mind. modo sic modo sic^ nee sursum nee deorsum non cresco. jocunda mente. It. noii). 58. Ch. Many examples so.26 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. They are rare in St. basso. Some lons. 689.). as forti mente. adverbs were preserved in comhence other ad- jectives came to be used as adverbs (as W. mente was used with any adjective that could make an adverb of manner.

suadela"^ suadHla. 131. subterraneus ^ subterranus. venenum"^ *veninum. Cohn 219-226.. Cf. 460. 65. Corssen S. lenHc-Ula Cf. loquela'^ loquella. rancor"^* ran- > > cilra. Cohn 30-31." —enus'^-inus: "Byzacenus non Byzacinus. Cf. Cohn = -ix(-icem): Cohn 147-151.§ 42] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -drius: see Suffixes for Adjectives. 96): "querela. lanatus lanutus. -ex(-ecem) -ix(-uem) : vervecem berbicem." App. peduculus. 460. Waters Ch. R. pediculus Cf. cornlciila *cornuula. querela'^ guerilla. Cohn 184. R. Cohn 180-205. Pr. -iculus =z -UcJilus : ossiculum ossMculum. extraneus * extranus . as are: — The principal types (1) Subsitution of a : rare one -alius — new or common suffix for an old or > -callus : see -tllas. Cohn 172-180. avicUla'^ avicllla. —dtuszzz—ttus=:i—utus: barbatus '^barbutus . -^ —iciilus : capUHlus * capttulus . : ericius *eruius. 460. pavoT~^*pavura. Cohn 213I. etc. famtlia */amtlia. Cf. (3) Alteration of a suffix: — Cf. 42. carnatus *carnutus. -drius. 216. loquela per unum /. Cf. etc. Cohn -tius'^-itus : vacuus'^*v(lcitus (cf. R. tus cauditus. sortcem *sortcem. —cuius !> cHlus : see -tllus. Digitized Cohn 274-291. Cf. The popular language sometimes manuplus for another. ~or(—drem)'^-ura: calor'^*calura. § 195). 27 CHANGE OF SUFFIX. by Microsoft® . -tc-aius *lenficiila. 460. -ilius =^ -ilius : 154-160. -iceus -icius 184. —iilus'^—ellus: aniilus'^ anellus . Cf. —tllus^—ellus: axtlla"^ ascella. substitutes one suffix for manipulus. Cohn 1 51-154. Cohn 41-42. -elus"^ -ellus (common in late Latin): camelus'^ camellus. Caper (Keil VII. 227. (2) Indiscriminate use of two suffixes: — Cf. -ix(-icem) consilium * consilium. Cf. Cf. e. 17-28. 321. cauda- Cohn —Ic'eus —icius ^=. etc. Cohn 42— 52. —dnus^—dneus: Cohn 160-172. R.

426 ad mane. Bechtel loi. Bechtel loi. —iculus ? ^^'—Hciilus : genuciclum . in Gl. Bon. . 483. ab intus. But male habitus. 231. 194. 191. flectere. 160-170: magnisonans . Bechtel loi ad horam 'presently'. crucifigere.28 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. . R. — = . avis struthius. omnimodus . 121 : Greek etc. Acer arbor (> Fr. 47. I. etc. COMPOUNDS. 232. mente habere (> Pr. a modo. 'just now'. There were many compounds made up of a preposition and an adverb: ab ante. etc. ij as i: uayijv))'^ 7th century) "^ > Old Fr. 190. Bon. as mortificare: e. G. 484. 231. genu- G. 130-134. ad sero. Bon. . In church writers there are G. Substrate 553-554. Cohn 264-274. ab olim.. cornis. d. etc. Ill. manu So tenere. Cf. a foras. Bechtel loi ad semel. Cohn 226—264. G. a. bene placitum. Digitized by Microsoft® . HOUWS. These compounds generally belonged to the literary G. a contra. ad subito. were popular. etc. Cake pistare. i<)i\ 45. erable) alba spina. ^ranucula. etc. 234. 44. 131. 483. 46. saine. b. G. a semel. . ADVERBS. R. Bechtel loi. Bechtel loi. uniunigenitus . See §§ 24. a longe. -udo i^udtneni)'^ -umen (-iimtnem) : consuetudo *costumen. intra videre. 483. inde fUgere (> Fr. many verbs in -ficare. /oris mittere. 65. Bon. R. Bechtel loi. Reich. Cf. 43. in odio^ loco. a /oris. medio die. antemittere. c. mentaver) minus pretiare. 203. VERBS. Bon. G. 4. PRONOUNS. 483. enfuir). medio ADJECTIVES. late pronunciation of [§ 47 -enus'^-lnus through sagina {Vok. R. style.. bis coctum. incus incudo * inciimtnem.

G. da. d^ ante. in by the ablative or the accusative). in ante. G. 232. Lexique 48. ad — — R. Bechtel 102. 484. Bon. et Per. 487.15. R. in contra^ Petronius (Waters Ch. Spr.13. Bechtel 102. 235. de intus.28. Spr. etc. de semel. Abante. de retro. still different nature : ac Per. 203. E. day-. 433. Bon. Lexique 38-47. de inter. Bechtel 102. and some others similar to them. Raetian dad from the Oscan da. 39. dad may be it is the result of a fusion rather than a combination of de Some have thought it came from found from the 7th century on he would derive It. 235. Bechtel loi. dat and from a southern Latin *dadl. 203. ex tunc. 23S. Per. 437. Bechtel loi. Sardinian dave. 233. e contra. CONJUHCTIONS. de contra.. 232. 232. Bon. Mohl. 484. 38) says: Ubi semel res inclinata amici de medio. Lat. in ante. etc. Haag 75. 85. f. Some compounds two prepositions: * de ad {y. de super. ^ Romance da. Bechtel 102.— 49] — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bechtel 102. 484. Bechtel 102. were used as prepositions: ab ante. 72. Per. R. is de+ab. in is Archiv I. 68. 40. is A compound made up of preposition + noun found in: in giro (followed 102. 29 tunc. usque hodie. following compounds are of a sic. R. R. consist of Bechtel 102. R.3.19. R.).8.17. 426. Slightly different intus in. and ad. 74. 203. g. 487. de post. says da . Per. In any case probably a late product. de sursum. doe. et at ubi. The sic. in contra. G. Bechtel 102. de magis. de intus. and Old Sp. R.. Digitized by Microsoft® . per girum zxiA per giro ^ circa. de forts. de retro. 268. Wolfflin. Lat. etc. * in semel. At ubi and ad ubi.these adverbial Some 40. Bechtel loi. in mane. G. * dabe. of . 49. It. Substrate III. 203. de intra. Bon. de deorsum. 484-486 (cf. G. in hodie. PREPOSITIONS. Bechtel medio. R. compounds. 232. Cf. 75. de sub.

byMicrosoft® . as in Ovid's "In nova fert animus mutatas Neither does it dicere formas /corpora. a crescendo. by this sentence : The ^ ^ old arrangement " Fabius syptax. Romance puts the emphasis at the end of the sentence. Romance more after the word modified. Nevertheless there is really a fundamental difference between the old order and the new: Romance has. or the adjective and the modifies. Zur Eniwicklung der romanischen Wortsiellitng aus dcr lateinischen. Latin in the middle. 1903. for a comprehensive account of Romance See Elise Richter. See Meyer-Liibke. however. The principle. The most irrational features of the Classic Latin construction were surely artifical. 491). from which work most of the matter of Digitized this chapter was taken. is not primarily rhythmic. the difference being due to a diverse conception of the structure of language: Latin places the modifier before. SYNTAX/ A. ORDER OF WORDS. such as the prepand the word it governs. Latin to a certain extent a diminuendo movement {^Lat. is logical. Spr. 50. Gram. Ill.II. so to speak. proceeding from the exemplified The modern order is the known to the unknown. It does not permit the arbitrary- separation of osition noun of it members that belong together. as in the "In multis hoc rebus dicere habemus" of Lucretius. but psychic. and were not characteristic of daily speech." allow the collocation words of the same part of speech that belong logically in different places.^ is The Romance order of simpler and more rational than that Classic Latin.

which independently effected the same transformation." omnia brevia. quod sanctus Moyses ascendit in montem Domini. in inscriptions and popular writers.21-24). Petronius has notably short periods and an approach to the new structure. was always a tendency to put a stressed word followed by an unaccented one. especially in Cicero. not imitated from the Greek. it occurs sporadically also in literary authors. hoc peccatum eorum" {Exodus XXXII. 34). there was a long struggle. angelus meus praecedet te. in qua filii Israhel commorati sunt his diebus. et fuit ibi quadraginta diebus et quadraginta noctibus" i^Per. Spr. Classic Latin may be said to represent an in- termediate stage." The following examples illustrate the later structure: "Mors perfecit tua ut essent et natura montuosa impedita ad rem militarem. et due populum istum quo locutus sum Ego autem in die ultionis tibi. delebo eum de libro meo. 51 • old. from the earliest texts down . 31 sequatus imperio Hannibalern et virtute et fortuna superiorem vidit." "Hasc loca sunt The change constitutes a progress in language . It is indigenous in Latin. Digitized According to Meyer- by Microsoft® . it is to be found in Latin. such as a connective or an atonic pronoun {Lat. from the Peregrinatio : "Hasc est autem vallis ingens et planissima. tu autem vade. The following is a good sample of the style of the Vulgate: "Cui respondit Dominus Qui peccaverit mihi. 37. all cultivated peoples have made it. while the revolution was in progress. 490). with generally increasing frequency. There first. 33. The modern order was not abruptly substituted for the On the contrary. visitabo et : 52. By the fourth century Here is a characteristic passage the new order prevailed.§ 52] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and for centuries the ancient and the modern type were used side by side. But until the fourth century the majority of Latin sentences have the old arrangement.

however. vedolo but le non lo vedo. Digitized by Microsoft® . Use of In- Repetition writers : for intensive effect is not uncommon . precedes its but qui le voit. 280. personal pronouns. 54- USE OF WORDS. : negative and intensive under some circumstances the object may come before the verb. which were naturally of less im- portance. and were attached preferably to the first word in the sentence : . see the 55. indefinite article developed out of ille A definite and an and unus. I. Cf. 53. In dependent clauses. the old order survived longer than in independent. Many uses of prepoconnected with the loss of inflections: these will be discussed under the Use of Inflections. and sometimes the whole predicate precedes in certain constructions the dependent infinitive may stand before the finite verb (as Pr. conjunctions.32 Liibke. were always enclitic in Latin. in late Commodian. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. voit definite article. sitions are There were great changes in the functions of pronouns. B. Wolfflin 4 bene bene. noun in all the The Romance languages except Rumanian and Albanian (Zauner 40). bonis bonis. 313. R. malum malum. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES.For the simplification flections. [§ 55 XXI. of inflections. prepositions. malus malus. it was in the early stages of the Romance languages It. In a few other respects the old arrangement lingered and under certain conditions is still preserved . Zs.. and so cf. Fr. when unstressed. etc. volgra). morir adverbs precede their verb . aiutatemi but or m'aiutate . §40. and adverbs. fortis fortis.

Little by little the old comparative and superlative lost 1 from being employed frequently with merely an intensive force (Wolfiflin 83). a. From early times certain periphrases were used to emphasize the thiravLS. see Morphology. cf. frequently in late and popular writers • For the forms of numerals. plus popularis. in Many use. is likely that this device it existed in late Vulgar Latin. in Sidonius Apollinaris (Wolfflin 29). See Archiv VIII. BOn. R. and the superlative was often really a positive in meaning. Unus was used as an indefinite article. as Ovid's inertioratas (Wolfflin 63-68).. etc. etc. b. 166-170. but no example of has been found. WUMERALS. (Wolfflin 46). . magis . and also for a positive. Sepulcri 232 . toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period. occasionally in : Classic Latin. etc. The comparative came to be used for a superlative. Finally. plus felix. //wj levior.§ 57] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Anplus congruus and maxime congruus (Wolfflin 16. etc. 451. melius sanus (Wolfflin 16). (R. (Wolfflin 47). 415—417). plus dulce. Vitruvius. 33 COMPARISON. old comparative forms remained. the plus and magis constructions were employed more and more to express a distinct comparison plus : miser in Tertullian. this formation came to be popularly regarded as the regular one: magis mirabilem. 56. common Adverbs. magis melior.' lepida 57. prceclarum. etc. as their precise sense in St. as omnium levior (Wolfflin 68-71). Augustine's sancta atque dulcissima (Wolfflin 57-63). . substitute for the superlative In the Romance languages a was made by prefixing the defiit nite article to the comparative. 280). To avoid ambiguity.. maxime pessima. comparative idea. Commodian. and in hie estfilius mens carissimus. as Plautus. Digitized by Microsoft® . Cf. plus formosus in Nemasianus. however.

. Pseud. 403-404. especially ilk. Ordinal numerals. Idem went out of popular use. too. Per. was often replaced by ille and ipse (Bechtel and eventually was preserved in vulgar speech only in 145). 25. en. except a few of the smallest. 425 cf. where it was not recog- 62. were employed as personal pro- nouns of the third person. Petronius. exinde-='¥x. Waters Ch. according as they were accented or unaccented (as suus and sus): see Morphology. PRONOUNS. Spr. a. . 948 accessit unus servus. Dubois 333-336b. [§ 62 una etc. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. . ipse. DEMONSTRATIVES. 48. §158. and 104. especially the possessives. tu are very 60. adeum una sorella. being replaced by ille For the encroachment of ipse on idem. Pronouns were much more used than G. Is. The adverb inde : occasionally as a genitive neuter pronoun came to be used nemo inde dubitat. Many pronouns developed double forms. 489. 61. 408-409. mulier. in Classic Latin : 59. An . . Digitized by Microsoft® . 26. 580. Bon. 58.34 . Regnier 10. much used in popular speech after the fifth 2. There was great irregularity in the use of reflexives. Cf. . Ego and common in Petronius. Hoppe 102-103. suus being generally substituted for ejus. see Hoppe Bayard 133. PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. The personal pronouns came into more and more fre- quent use. the combination eccum {^=ecce eum). The demonstratives. G. . See Lat. R. Plautus. were apparently not century.

is ipse. 25 : " Ubi tu's ? — Eccum. I. especially in Spain and southern Gaul. with the exception of the neuter hoe. Hie and is. Pg. G. of the final stage. is the fusion of the two parts into one word. lat.^- desso). aquesse. too. eeee we find early eeee ego. by atque or ae (as in ac sic). . 3 II. 646): in Plautus. Franz. generally invariable. Hie. R. 424-425. The last three have left no trace. in id ipsam rem. 424. 407. 35 and in the extremely common phrase idipsum (>It. such combinations being until the probably not reached Vulgar Latin period. §24): hie. G. eeee tu. atque is est (^Stiehus 582). II. was perhaps used as a prefix (^Gram. iste ipse. too. Ascoli. in id ipsum monastyriu. ille ipse. 2. iste ille. Catalan aqueix. Mil. 65. and also as a demonstrative adjective. maintains that eceu' was the basis in all the Empire. 303 (discussing Sp. as id ipsum velatn. where likewise the id lost its significance. This last compound was used as a neuter pronoun.§ 65] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. atque ipse illie est {^Epidicus 91). influenced in 1 Cf Plautus. Franz. R. Atque. eeeu" was some regions. At any rate. there are examples of iste for hie in Caesar's time (Densusianu 178). 2. were confused by late writers (Bayard 132). meaning 'it' or 'that. Glor. eeee nunc. R.). Eeee and eeeum (pronounced eceu) were used as demon- strative prefixes (cf.' as id ipsum sapite. ille. also eeee iste. 424 (cf. common The end Plautus. Hoppe 104. aquese. 3 II. nized. hie ipse. use. Quillacq 126). common 64. Toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period hie was apparently going out of 63. eeee ille. etc. however.-- ipse ille. and iste 405-406. came to be used indiscriminately (G. Bayard 130-132)." Digitized by Microsoft® . Intorno ai continuatori neolatini del "ipsu-" in Arehivio glottologieo italiano XV. • A combination of two demonstratives was : common in Christian writers iste hie.

hie.. the masculine qui tooV in inscriptions. as f. 8). 391-396 we find qui used as n. by Microsoft® . hie. is is Cf. . it is Furthermore. R. sg. n. The forms were greatly confused by late writers. as 69. 67. §24. * accesie. * celle. Ille. semet ipsum {Philip. § 60. 423 {in ipsa multitudine). R. 69. Petronius: Waters Ch.. especially ille. 419-420 {cito proferte mihi stolam illam primam). as n. . tions from the fifth century on Digitized cf. and pi. means infrequent: hie. quce as m. 276 {qui. Spr. : the place of the feminine quce it occurs in Christian inscripR. 68. XXX. there was an emphatic form ipsimus (used by This. is. articles. 484). In Bon. II. were used as personal pronouns of the third person. * ceste. ipse. Bon. is. pi. ipse. ' this ' eccHste or eccu'tste. The ipsemet suffix -met was used also as an intensive prefix. INTERROGATIVES AND RELATIVES. 391-392. 22).. with the prefix met-. became * metipsimus. : common Audollent 549. is was probably more literary than popular. for * accuelle.. * eccueste.). pi. Beside ipse. Ego met ipse is blamed by Donatus {Lat. Examples of the others are by no R. sg. 427 (iiirum hujic cujus est zona hcBc). as ace. pi. etc. quod as m. as ace. as n. * cue lie. c. In popular speech qui was apparently used regularly for . people said for ' ' that eccHlle or eccu'ille. Quillacq 126-127. quern for quce. becoming metipse through such combinations as temet ipsum {Ecclus. pi. * accelle.. Cf. Ille. 36 An When iste Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ille lost [§ 69 and their distinctive force. m. * accueste. 66. 423—425. guem quis qua very often as n. f. This use of ipse. were used also as definite Ille in this function very common: R. These compounds developed into * ecceste. * cueste and * eccelle.. * eccuelle.. (395-396).

and alter viere confused in common speech: G. Zs. There may have been a neuter *alid. in such phrases as cata unum Kaf tva. Archiv I. and f. omnis: see totus. in Italy. hdmo was used sometimes like French on: Per. Haag f. This confusion is more frequent in late Latin: St.. 580. 417. Bon. inde came to mean. *caf itnus. Gram. moreover. 'some' or 'any. 390-391. quern Quid. 485. alguem. nee unus. cepit. 51. in Italy. Cf. d. along the Mediterranean. G. G. 55. II. alques. *d'unde. gradually encroached on quod: Bon. cata tres Hence *cata anus. Sardinia. The principal indefinite pronouns 71- and adjectives used G. mDEFHTITE PRONOUNS. § 19.). Some Classic Latin pronouns fell into disuse. alius filius. etc. *nec ente or *ne ente was apparently used as an equivalent for nihil. alguien. 37 quam). and was used as an interrogative and The adverb unde came to have occasionally the meaning of French dont (Bon. ^ne ipse icnus. and some new compounds were made. Plautus. in certain constructions. 237. was employed as a relative pronoun. Spr. 650. d. quid: Archiv I. sg. 394 (^qui f. 415- in late popular speech are as follows : — aliquanti took the place of aliqui and aliquot: aliquanta oppida aliquis flourished especially in the west: Sp. 415-417. chants. by Greek merxard Tfth. nemo judical alterum. Cf. pi. Meyer-Liibke. after the model of id. Omnis and omnia were kept Digitized by Microsoft® . conjectures *ne inde. 53 {^qui for quce in 70. 393. Pg. mUltus.§ 7i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.). Snus *aliqu'ilnus * alicUnus. 416.' > = ^ magis: see plus. and Dacia: Lat. and eventually * de unde. 178). 25. § 84. cata was probably introduced. Jerome. The neuter aliquid was more extended aliqui alius : Pr. *ne^ps^unus. nemo was kept nUllus. Beiheft 7. Qualis was kept. as a relative. 528 a.

too. tantus replaced quot. Jerome. custodire debeant. Cf. 427. quanti justi esuriunt. 345. Claudian. tantis lacri- 413-415 qui. G. Cf. 3. quisque. 204. 488. ADVERBS. Spr. 409-411). 691-693: commonens ut 72. pronounced also tottus (S. Videri. 403). qualis. talis. 402-403 ifota tormenta diaboli in me veniant. 338. Bechtel 143. Quisque was much extended 135). VERBS. also a common pleonastic use of coepi with the in- instead of the perfect: see § 124. (St. was sometimes used for omnis : Plautus. : 4. tot. quique. R. Frequent in late Latin Bon. iinus. ubi being used for quo. . ' : (G. G. Cf. Mil. Propertius: Densusianu 179. G. Compare the old is Italian use of dovere. for eo: Lat. «»w. § 1 1 7. ' anything R. Glor. which" and the ibi 73. 692. § 53. (2). 121) and perhaps *tuttus. Regnier 108-109 {guanto plus quantus. 212. see quantus. 109). persona. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. R. . [§ 73 plus and magis were confused: tenetur tanto plus timetur. 414. is often used pleonastically Bayard 99-100. is .38 faucus. quts. quhquis. 415). a pleonastic use of debeo. 336-337. The words referring to the "place in "place into which" were confused. tantus totus. There are examples as early as Drager 104. There finitive. This use was common in late Latin: Densusianu 178. §§ 163. totis horis. Unde was employed by Microsoft® in the sense of Digitized . being used for quisquis and quicumque (Bayard res and : res nata = ' anyone '.

446-447 {nee is fado est. Wolfflin 5. de utero matris nati sunt sic. . Cases. Hoppe 38 . PREPOSITIONS.§ 78] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. meaning 'no'. Non no. Die amice unde tristis es. semper semper. It apparently has no successors in the Romance languages. Regnier in. Regnier The absolute use of non. G. 395-396. 435. cf. and magis for potius: Bayard no. 38. for ne with the subjunctive common: G. . Repetition was used for in- tensive effect: satis Seneca. . of Inflections. G. R. Terence. nihil. 5. occurs occasionally: Dieit unus ex uno angulo: Eeee hie Alius ex alio angulo: Non. 341 jaspide. Ad for apud occurs Digitized in Plautus. and others by Microsoft® .14. Spr. 37. 487. according to Mohl. . Bechtel 105. etc. Plus and magis were used more and more for comparison. of the Italic dialects except Latin. Beiheft fore': 157). is Ab. multum. any de. is Per.). Lexique 43. usurped the place of which also. Dubois 332. also 'therefore' and 'where84. Plus was often substituted for magis. . egredere de ecelesia. Regnier no. G. sed ecce hie est. aliquid postulare. were employed as intensives more than in Classic Latin. 339. 7. nee de cubiculo . 76. and the old comparative and superlative forms became rarer: see § 56. 342 . from the third century ex {Lat. Hoppe 78. ggressus de area. . Bechtel 105. R. procedit. and many other 75- Double negation frequent: R. Bene. having been replaced by on. 39 'where' (Zj. Totum occurs often as an adverb: places. § 74. muri de lapide de adversario vivo de deeimis. Hoppe 38): de palatio exit. The functions of prepositions were very much extended not found in (Bayard 137-158): see Use 77. 395.

aveCj not from apud + hoc. G. 37. a new word. apud. Bechtel 104. Hoppe 37. G. not from apud. [§ 80 (Oliver 5-6)... and common Fer. 71) Fr. where it was kept with the sense of cum: Haag 74. being. am. est oratio. in authors of the second and third centuries. but was substituted lor'per in other regions (Urbat 34-35)80. ad For the most part apud-^-a. volo pro legentis attendimus locum ilium facilitate abuti sermone vulgato. nos. ad post (p. but from ad hoc from Italic Pr. pro memoria illius. 42. and more frequently by later authors: Lat. According to F. ab he takes from apud. had a great vogue country. 390-392. ' . . Severus. and cum for apud in Gregory of Tours. Bechtel 103. in the Empire. Urbat 27 {tractans apud me metipsum. etc.?. derive the Mohl would Old It. 343. Bechtel 105 juxta drachmcB cording to exemplum. Mohl. and so came cum in that Pro often had the sense of 'for. frequently meant 'concerning': frustrati circa veritatem. Spr. apud is repeatedly found for cum in the Latin writers of Gaul. also ab una manu pallas altaris tenerem.^ 79. ' : Juxta often signified acjuxta consuetudinem.27- in late writers (R. but Pr. Super sometimes replaced de: fallere vos super hanc rem. 343 . replaced by ad. Hoppe Hoppe ' 41. Bechtel 106. but from * (pp. as he says. to supplant a critical period for Gaul. am amb. where ab seems Apud is used for cum by Sulpicius to be used for apud). 75-76). appo. except in Gaul. 40 An Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. La preposition cum et ses successeurs en gallo-roman in Bausteine 61. Bechtel 106 super anima commendatus. G.' and replaced ob and propter : fides pro una muliere perfida. cum probably disappeared from actual use in Gaul by the fourth century. § 14). Pro itself was partially replaced by per (cf. 489. Urbat 10): ad ipsum fontem facta cf. Circa. Digitized by Microsoft® .

quasi: Per. rm\c\\ used in the sense of that ' : Per. R. cf. etc. 8. Quomodo became a great favorite. 424 {unde inquit Dominus). Ac sic recurs continually in the Pere49. often supplanting quando. Regnier often used for ne and num (G. 6. Retro. R. 24. Peregrinatio : Qua. 323. Regnier in. 41 81. quia. G. 403-405. 'when'. Tamen in the grinatio. he. which in late Latin was often reduced to qui or qua (see § 168) frequently took the place of quod: Regnier 111-112. quare sometimes replaced ^«^^and quia: G. 430): videte si Ac si frequently did service for potest did. etc. 46. Cur. meaning 'and so' or 'so': 40. 399. cf. 334): subtus terram. Regnier 11 2-1 13. . 398-400. Bechtel 119-120. 84. Unde sometimes means therefore for but by late writers. encroaches on quando in the 22. : R. et: Per. ' ' ' Digitized by Microsoft® . temporal sense. etc. CONJUNCTIONS. foras were freely used as prepositions (R. subtus. and was . and quoniam : R. merely Magis is much employed to indicate a subordinate clause. 403. and many other places Bon. ^. Quod to for very common AudoUent ' £0 quod cdLiae 27. aut is sometimes equivalent to et . .' § 84] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 399. 13.) seems to be used.. Ut 82. Bayard 161. &'took the place of a« and utrum (R. guoniam {^SMddlt&r Jubere. 431-432. 83. in most cases. Quia. and 'wherefore': G. 73. . Quod. . Aut cf. 48. 445-446. ut : R. in). vade retro me. 39. etc. forts. . de forts. 402. §§ 70. 427—428) are used very often by late writers instead of the accusative and infinitive construction: R. same text (37. Eventually ut was generally discarded. with the infinitive «/ is is : not infrequent 549. Quando displaced cum in the quod.

412-415. USE OF INFLECTIONS. increasingly took the place of pure case distinctions. it generally came to be regarded as an inin Archivio glottologico italiano IX. than in the literary language. however. : > etc. Aquis Acqui Aix. Partsiis > > Parigi Paris. There is confusion even in Petronius. and the use of cases became more and more 103 restricted. 8$. from prepositional the beginning. who occasionally uses the accusative for the dative and the ablative. et sic fit missa ecclesitz. Cf. plural in Andecavis > Flntbus > Fimes. 322). R. of the locative ablative Angers. etc. for confusion after verbs and adjectives. B. Astis Asti. Archiv VIII. larity in the . only in names of places. 1. CASES. LOCATIVE. Florentice^ Firenze. rare in Classic Latin. [§ 86 C. remained eventually missa Anastasi. Hence employment arises in late writers a great irregu- of cases^: G. The locative.. constructions. 378. Arimtnt> Rimini. In popular speech prepositions were more used. ' " Cf. ut Clusil~^ Chiusi. Bianchi With other words. We remnants of the locative geni- tive in Agrigentt> Girgenti. in the Peregrinatio fit : There find are. a.1 42 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. of the locative ablative singular in Ttbiiri^ Tivoli . 302-326. the locative was replaced by in with the ablative (Hoppe 32 in Alexandria) or by ad with the accusative (Urbat 10). 86. Palestina (G. 174-176 . and very often with place names also. the domi or domo of Cicero becomes in domo in Seneca. When the locative of names of localities was kept. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . Quillacq 96- for African Latin. several examples Bechtel no. as time went on. Pirson 169-202.

. R. 43 variable form we find such locatives used as nominatives : from the third century on Lat. 528 a. de oleo. Bechtel 104. Cicero. Bon. de pomis =^som& apples. Archiv I. R. Spr. 1. clerici de ipsa ecclesia. R. quid de scientia. 426. partem de istius impudentia. de nostris bonis.. the nominative in most words in and such words as had a separate vocative form is like it : tended to discard Plautus. generally . The genitive. cf. de coleritieis). curator de sacra via. Hoppe 38. 89. Pirson 194. R. Digitized by Microsoft® . bus gentilibusque multitudo magna (also quidam ex Acts 4. XVII. The vocative Classic Latin. Oliver 14. IV. i. b. Bechtel 104. Urbat 20. . R. Cf. possessor de propria terra. 12. 40. terminus de nostra donatione. occur in mens for mi is very common (Regnier 34). little by constructions. In Vulgar Latin the vocative form probably disappeared entirely. 396. aliquid habet de verecundia discipuli. 396. except perhaps in a few set phrases. Plautus. II. d. 39. 342 numquid Zacchaus de bono habebat. de spiritu Moysi. vocatives in -us. 628 aliquid de . Regnier 54.. Hoppe 38. etc. Spr. VOCATIVE. abound: expers partis Verr. For the partitive genitive we find: nil 53. 481. lumine. as mi 88. 396. 87. instead of -e. and Livy. neminem de prcesentibus. c.' -P^r.§ 89] An . de Deo munus. de aceto plenum. the genitive probably ceased to be really popular. According to Meyer-Liibke. Sepulcri 217. save in set combinations. Pir. Lat. domine. gustabit de meo. 487. was supplanted by other by the ablative with de (which occurs Examples as early as Plautus). 6ioff. GENITIVE. de animalibus. son 197. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. sometimes by the dative. such Horace. de studentibus. little.10. Terence Heaut. cited by Draeger I. de sorore nepus.

Oliver by Microsoft® . in a words that belonged especially to clerical Latin. loquitur ad Jeremiam. . : Zs. Inasmuch as the Plautus. 329. = went to the bishop'. di notte tempore (later di notte tempo). in most of the Empire : ait ad me. 135. ad quern dixit. etc. causa causis. paganorum. however. [§ 90 by the beginning of the third century. Pirson Digitized omne regnum. dicens ad eum. Spr. etc. Dominus ad restituit Moysen dicit. etc. 40. DATIVE. ad me ad Dei officio paratus... ange- lorum.44 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. G. fui ad episcopum etc. IX. mart maribus).. 341—342 in /undo ilia villa. Bon. G. illorum. patiens. 3513. True. Bechtel 103.. alta node silentia.. It. Urbat 12. a. ad quern promissio facta. IV. etc. 487. est ministerit. si pecunia most nouns and in the plural of all. in good many set phrases. Spr. tempore > It. etc. Fieri. in honore . as early as Plautus. Paoli. Livy II. 4. stable than the genitive: 90. g. I. . ad id templum data erit. in the singular of was identical in substitution became very general 64. Capt. muro muris. some pronouns. 194.. ad vestram 'I Bechtel 102-103. Cf. a tendency by the accusative with ad: ad carnuficem dabo. The genitive was retained. and probably in some proper names: lUna dies. in certain . '^^^ hcec affectionem darem. 488. L. Urbat 12. ii. 329.C. find. Bechtel 104. etc. the fear of ambiguity naturally fostered this practice and the dative. etc. ad me magna nuntiavit. ad omnem injuriam im330. D'Arbois 91-93. S. XXV. apparet ad agricolas. inscription of 57 B. illujus. D'Arbois 13 alme Maria. Lat Spr. 1019. Varro. ad propinquos restituit. 13. Per. matre mece. G.. de noctis cHjus. The dative was more Lat. C. We it to replace however. Sepulcri 218. De Re Rustica I. Plautus. form either with the ablative or with the genitive (e. In late Latin a wrong form was often used a deo honorem in an inscription in Gaul.

Regnier 54. The dative remained in Dacia. Bechtel 104. 92. ex infirmitate fatigata. Regnier 51 . Spr. Hoppe 33. 56. 339-342. St. c. de se.. Bechtel 105. de te beati sunt. not ad. Rumanian has kept the dative. and lingered rather late Gaul (Za/. Cyprian. digni de cmlo Castores. de manibus suis. Sepulcri 218. Bechtel 104 (cf. etc. 641. Sometimes super eum.G. is For de= 'than. elsewhere it probably disappeared from really popular speech by the end of the Empire. The analytical tendency of speech. reinforced by the analogy of prepositional substitutes for the genitive and dative. in feminine adjectives (as romine). to distinguish its various functions. De is : Hoppe 14. de vestra rideat CBmulatione. Regnier . Ex R. de singularitate famosum. Regnier 54-56. 392-395. ml. super. 45 3-4. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . 34. in the first declension (as case). ab Ariulfi astutia the most frequent erubescens de infamia sua. occidam de lancea. G. occurs also: ex causa humana salutis. ABLATIVE. 36. Sepulcri 218. de- ceptus. tibi. 426. Hoppe. ab sceleribus parce.). de oculis. 393 patrem de regno privavit. Hoppe Hoppe 34. 35. XXX. 337. de virgine natus est. 335.§ 92] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. G. Hoppe 33. Bechtel 105. nobilior de obsoletiore matrice. Cf. esse. Hoppe 36. Hoppe 33 . in its original function and also as a genitive. favored the use of prepositions with the ablative. 481). R. cited by WolfHin $2. illui tilt. gaudet de victus necessitate causatur.' see Zs. Hoppe 105). Bechtel de contumelia sua. except in pronouns {cici. super was used: imposuerat manus me misericordiam prastare. R. a came superatur. and so in 91. Ab common : ab omni specie idololatrice intactum. ab a prcemio minorem scriptura sancta commemoratos.

396-397. Sepulcri 218 pugnare ad ursos. the accusative being used in J 95- There is evidence of the confusion of accusative and first ablative as early as the century. diem die. Spr. ad diem. epistolam. Spr. of the Empire the ablative plural end form was generally discarded. cum Cf. in most of the Latin territory.46 An In is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. . 347 R. Cum cum it was probably not with the accusative is very frequent: cum suos Lat. R. in fif. because. sodales. in inscriptions. Regnier 58 Hoppe 31 in maxilla asina delevi mille vires. 263. donum dono. quo in tempore. for the ablative: . ad horam sextam aguntur. ad unum gladii ictum 93. 94. 488. G. Ps. Hoppe 31 . D'Arbois footnote 27. K. 344-347. 397 . Cf. late The use of prepositions became really neccessary in the loss spoken language. G. discenies. Bechtel 103-104. 488. but very common before the third. ferventes. etc. Bechtel 103. Regnier 60.. Lat. in aU words. . and that the ablative and accusative singular were pronounced alike. the little ablative differed or not at all from the accusative in the : singular of most words causam causa. caput desecare. per nomen vocavit. after the fall of final m and the of quantitative distinctions in unaccented syllables. in illo die. : [§ 95 often found . Hoppe 33. 5. Bechtel 95 . E. fructum fructu. its stead. etfreno maxillas eorum constringe. Rand in is Modem Philology II. Sometimes ad ov per with the accusative is substituted per hoc. in camo amore Dei 9 in bonis operibus abundetis. XXXI. The accusative form substituted for the ablative after by Microsoft® Digitized . The fusion of the two cases was doubtless helped by the fact that certain prepositions might be combined with either accusative or ablative. patrem It is likely that before the patre. cum res nostras.

. 58. pro nos. ecclesia. . An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. visa loca sancta omnia {Per. . R. . Bechtel 95 contra ipso loco. Bechtel 99 . . medium maris. vendere cento soldi. Bechtel 96 de martyrium. 410. de ipsas . the ablative form very often written for . R. such as hora. Bechtel 100. 406-412. 40. Bechtel loi. et bene- dicens nos episcopusprofectisumus. luce.. is three times as common as the + ace. R. Hoppe 40-41 12 examples of in + ace. in correct use of in etc. 406-412. circa Bechtel 95 . — : pro hoc ipsud. ablative ist' 97. etc. Bechtel loi — propter populo. — Bechtel 96 — . proper names with as Delia Casa. Bechtel 94—101 venit in civitate sua. generally. etc. probably in some expressions. in Per. etc. D'Arbois 152. etc. 47 other prepositions: a monazonies. was kept only in etc. D'Arbois 27 de rigna nostra. sine fructum.. infinem Deus fecit ccelum et terram. that the ablative absolute survived in a few common 1 like It. de. . quomodo. The some fixed expressions... ... R.. videbo te in publicum. Hoppe 40-41 in the Per. cib fatto. Bechtel 97-98 erat in villas. — prope super civitate hac. ante sole. Bechtel xoo\ post morte.. Bechtel 95. 96. . for ace. perhaps in such phrases as It. R. de eo torrentem. anno. Bechtel 99. puteo. ad . in popular speech. de camem.— — — § 97] — —— — . 406-412. D'Arbois 70-71 ex fines R. ilia. per valle and 21 other cases of /ifr+abl. Bechtel 94 ante sole. Bechtel loi .6—412. Bechtel 99 lunca.. Bechtel loi. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc.. + abl. the accusative ante cruce. ecclesia majore. Bechtel 96 de actus. etc. etc. 8). — — — foras in came conversa. Bechtel 96. It is likely. is Conversely. tuos. pari mente. however. -juxta aqua ipsa. its place : Bechtel 09-1 1 o. etc. the nominative absolute took 45. 406-412. Waters Ch. for abl. intro spe- — lectione. etc. — intra civitate sua. too. post .. . . 406-412. R. Bechtel 94. Bechtel 96 de hoc ipsud.

48 An Introduction f. omatus est. FALL OF DECLENSION. 98. 100. Waters Ch. in the rest of the Empire only two —a nominative and an accusativenaturally tried to write in ac- ablative. 2. ^i. consules ad Africam profecti sunt. 99. Only the present active and the present and perfect participles were left intact. sometimes in. Clerics. instead of the simple accusative: eamus in forum. and 101. infinitive 102. Cf. ad isfam Duration of time was expressed by per with the ac- cusative. to Vulgar Latin. In the parts that remained selves. regionem venit. many new tendencies manifested them- IMPERSONAL PARTS. 328. by the infinitive: as cum Digitized by Microsoft® . 103. The supine disappeared from general the first placed. being recentury on. per iotos octo dies etc. (i) Supine. VERB-FORMS. also is by the ablative Bechtel : 1 08-9. ad Babyloniatn duxit. from use. By the end of the Vulgar Latin period there probably remained in really popular use (aside from pronouns and a number of set formulas) in Dacia only three cases. Bechtel 103. G. cordance with their idea of correct Latin. After verbs of motion ad was often used. a. G. these obsolete parts were employed by writers with more or less inaccuracy. tota autem nocte vicibus dicuntur p salmi. fui ad ecdesiam. Many parts of the verb went out of popular use. g. however. Regnier 51-52. [§ 103 ACCUSATIVE. 327. were replaced by other locutions. Regnier 52.

it The future active participle Vulgar Latin.erund infinitive. The ablative form of the gerund substitute for the present participle: ita miserrimus tando. G. 4. and Tacitus. 49 veneris ad bibere. 432—433. G. 57 179. necessitas tacere. took the place of a relative cIzms^: faveant mihi pro Cf. became more and more a fui fugiet Eun. R. assurgens popu- lando. however. Future Active Participle. In Rumanian. in place of the future: with 388. ex- cept in some standing phrases. 490. G. conciendo ad se multitudinem. Hoppe multa vidi sometimes used for a conditional clause cavendo salvi erimus. Eventually. 433-434. Spr. Terence. hanc Marcion captavit errando. for the future (as facturus sum). Lat.§ io6] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 2.. Spr. cites Livy. (4) 106. 363. 433. Cf. however. 386R. the i. The ablative gerund was . (2) 104. Draeger II. Digitized by Microsoft® . V. Sermones 225. Augustine. R. Lat. Cap. qui pertransivit benefaciendo et Cf. : sic legendo. R. Gerund. quomodo potest hie nobis camem dare ad manducare. 490. etc. Jilius hominis tradendus Cf. The gerundive was used est. (3) Gerundive. 389. G. St. R. 847-849. came to be replaced With the exception by the sometimes with a prep- osition: dat manducare. 57. Dubois 275. 8. in a literary 388—389. 430. Densusianu sanando. from the third century on. the gerundive was discarded. Hoppe 105. except when style. of the ablative form. potestatem curare. as a future passive participle. the supine was preserved: Tiktin 596. ejus nomine pugnaturo. esse. it was probably rare in late was used with esse as a substitute Sometimes. 432.

371-373. G. 107. G. de corpore loquor. legitur dixisse Deus. 377.the was replaced sometimes by the passive. but often by a clause in- troduced by quia. 385. by Microsoft® . its use was greatly extended through new methods of forming the passive and the perfect tenses. perspicue exposuit quod ager nesciebat quia Jesus erat. Cf. The perfect participle was kept. nemo mentiens plorat. etc. 375-385. quoniam. ut spiritu valeatnon ignoramus. mundus sit. Sometimes it was employed periphrastically with esse: G. Verbs that had no perfect participle were obliged to make one. 371-375. and was used as an : adjective -ans.). and. is disappeared: see Voice and Tense below. G. etc. The perfect and passive infinitive forms eventually In late writers. G. 371. (6) Perfect Participle. G. : Eva vidisse de- G.50 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The present participle was kept. (5) [§ no Present Participle. sciens quod — libenter haberetis hcec cognoscere. 389. and as a noun see Derivation. 431-432 {malunt credidisse. (7) Infinitive. 659-671. wishing to avoid vulgarisms. credidit ei quia esset vere Jilius Dei.. It more avoided from . it for a relative clause: it Often. Late writers. was replaced by the ablative gerund: see Gerund above. 109. as will presently be seen. Writers occasionally substituted 388. Bon. the perfect instead of the present infinitive very common: R. however. etc. no. Regnier 63. si ipse est ascendens in ccelos. The infinitive + accusative construction was more and third century on: G. 108. Suffixes for Adjectives. Bechtel 112—115. 383 . scribitur. ut. often misused the infinitive + accusative: Digitized G. however. (licent eo quod filii Israhel eas posuerint. quod.

Bechtel 117. amant ignorare. functions: see Supine bonus et dicere et facere. Hoppe 60 mors salva erit cum fuerit devorata. G. Regnier 73. revertitur omnis populus resumere se. Cf. participle The old passive forms extent. Venantius Fortunatus. G. to Under the ' influence of carus '. 368. etc. Regnier 106. 673. cited in Lat. non venit justos vocare. 363-370. It Hoppe malum tions: replaced the subjunctive with ut and similar construcvadent orare. by Microsoft® . 370. Bon. non habent unde reddere tibi. aliter exprimere non est. see Draeger was made up and. G. 177. I. Bon. Regnier 74 mihi prcecepit hac loqui. 490. Regnier 73. Cf. per velle perdidit bonum posse. Thielmann. venit aliquis audire. .. G. Hoppe 42-52: Ninus regnare primus. Hoppe 60. 42. Regnier Digitized 63. est. of the popular formation . permissa est accedere.§ 112] An On Introduction to Vulgar -Latin. Spr. 647. VOICE. b. R. facere. quce legi digna sunt. ' 112. 363. 51 111. Bechtel 117: valeamus assumi. G. ipsum vivere accedere est. timuisti . etc. P. 430. conjectus in carcerem fuerat. 671-675. the infinitive assumed many new and Gerund above. mean he was loved': flection is loved etc. some examples may be culled from late writings: denuo factus filius fui.. to of the perfect participle ern Italy y?^). amatus est came Hence amatus fuit signified he Then a whole passive in2 76ff.. some the — except the perfect gerundive — gradually + esse (in north- disappeared from ordinary speech. Regnier 106. up the classic practice as far as they were Although authors kept able. 366. Facere mit dem Infinitiv in Archiv III. Hoppe 61. It took the place of a relative or indirectly interrogative after certain verbs: clause nesciendo qua petere. male fecisti dare Spiritum sanctum. the other hand. It wias often used as a noun: totum vivere anima carnis est.

se sanare ^= sanari in the 4th century. Gaul. Many deponent course. -At the end of the Vulgar Latin period it in popular speech. by the indicative (found in Pirminius). 55. In the intermediate period the passive was frequently replaced by reflexive and active constructions. etc. scribitur When littera seemed archaic. (2) Subjunctive. In negative commands the imperative was often placed by the subjunctive. MOOD. people said littera se scribit and litteram scribunt or litteram scribit homo: ct. An As Introduction to Vulgar Latin. constructions: cum hi omnes tarn excelsi sunt. The subjunctive was limited to fewer functions.52 113. 490. I'er. XXXII. and also for the first. Spr. as in the case oi frusirare frustrari. the subjunctive being used for the third person. (i) Imperative. homo with the force of French on. etc. and littera scripta est vulgar. etc. being replaced by the indicative in many . Dubois 275 notes that the forms in -0 are very rare in Ennodius. and in Italy. Regnier 69. In late vulgar speech mori. irascere irasci. facit se hora quinta. 117.. deponent verbs became active. 455. followed the same Bonnet 402-413. and Dacia by the infinitive: Zat. for the use of 25. see c. Rom. Even in Classic Latin there is often hesita- tion. who lived in southern Gaul in the fifth century. sequi. Bechtel 115 si scire vultis quid facitis. very Digitized was probably used. 115. verbs are used as active verbs by Petronius. [§ 117 the passive inflection disappeared. Bechtel 126. re- 116. The imperative came to be restricted to the second person singular and plural of the present. Cf. 114. much as it is used by Microsoft® .

489: examples from the 4th century). ecce Pater fecit Filium nasci de fact.§ 119] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Sometimes. R. The perfect subjunctive the future perfect indicative. •a. place was taken by the infinitive: vergine. The in the use of it. G. Cf. 53 in the Romance Late writers. 355-357.&x facio. Digitized It was apparently confused with was thus preserved in Spain by Microsoft® . 431 cites many examtimui ne inter nos bella fuissent orta. cf. Regnier 68-71. exWriters of the third and fourth centuries cept in Sardinia. Spr. were less logical and evidently less spontaneous than Classic authors in their employment of the subjunctive. languages. 428-430. and with perthis use is common in the fect infinitives like tacuisse for tacere {Lat. : cdntdse. § III. imperfect subjunctive ultimately went out of use. § 72. potuisset. as In Rumanian the pluperfect subjunctive has assumed the show uncertainty function of a pluperfect indicative 119. 357-362- (118. its G. the indicative was often substituted for the subjunctive: R. Gregory the Great (Sepulcri 226) and others. ples. Cf. The pluperfect : imperfect subjunctive gradually gave way to the Bellum Africanum {^Lat. Sometimes the subjunctive was replaced by deieo with the infinitive: debeant accipi = accipiantur. Regnier 27-28. etc. late writers often put the subjunctive where Classic authors would have put the indicative: G. while trying to follow the traditional practice.iX. On the other hand. in indirect In conditions not contrary to tive discourse and indirect questions. 489). It apparently began with debuvoluisset. etc. in dependent clauses that are not adversa- nor dubitative. Spr. 418. used freely for the imperfect by isset. Sittl 133-134.

689-691. for the perfect subjunctive. I. 619. ilia omnia missa habeo. perf. Sallust. In the and future perfect indicative great changes took place. § 117. way with Even adjectives: miserum habere. however. collocatas habent. In Classic Latin habeo with the perfect participle was used to express a lasting condition: Hannibal quia fessum It was militem praliis operibusque habebat. 690. construction very common in Cicero in a sense that closely approaches the perfect: satis . in Classic Latin. however. dialects: cf. which led also to thS formation of a new perfect and pluperfect subjunctive. re- Fart. habeo deliberatum. Fart. see § 118. and Rumanian and V. in legal phraseology. junctive. compertum ego habeo. Part. 28. The . the mean- ing of this locution began to shift to the perfect. In late Lastin this compound often had simply a peribi vos meaning: metuo enim ne habeam fatigatos. Part. Tiktin 596. Draeger 295. 535 is . in general. 405. future. 537-538. 376. indicative 120. TENSE. or something akin to it: Cato the elder. For the imperfect and pluperfect subsee. Densusianu 181. The present and imperfect and the present subjunctive remained. cf. perf. § 124. yarf«»2 habeo. Plautus. perf ^11. etc. Fart. quid Athenis exquisitum habeam. perf. Fart. Digitized Bon. Draeger 122. 121. 516. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. [§ 122 and Bausteine Cf. rationes cognitas habeo. 414-415. by Microsoft® . C. omnis res lictas habeo. scriptum habeo. pecunias magnas 294. perfect. De Lollis in Zs. episcopum invitatum habes.. Crescini in d. pluperfect. Regnier Cf. § 119. perf.54 An in Italian i. I. with their old functions. Draeger I. perf. perf 372 . XXIX. 518-521. ff. used in the same Part. fect 294-295. 423. Fart. perf 415. Bon. (i) The Perfect Tenses.

I [ sometimes with its original sense. and in the Italian /ora -Cfueram. Sepulcri 227. pouret. elsewhere . The preterit use occurs in dixerat.. On the model of this new perfect. 70. 543. § 72. 537. and continued to be used. The old pluperfect indicative became rarer. The old perfect form remained in popular use. 620). Some late writers were fond of :\ substituting for Cf. was preserved in Spanish. auret. furet. boltier' in the Old The condiItalian Ritmo Cassinese (^Zs. 489. gener ally with the aorist sense. The old future perfect was apparently confused with the perfect subjunctive. and to some extent in Italy. in the case of neuter verbs. perfect bant. transalaret in etc. si Dominum iratum haberes. tional function. quas in cerario conditas habeDraeger I. but still lingered. with esse. XXIX. sometimes as a conditional. Digitized by Microsoft® . 123. in the Spanish peninsula. perf. with the force of a future indicative or subjunctive. in some southern Italian dialects (notably in the Rosa in the fresca aulentissima). etc. Fart.§ 124] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. which supplanted more and more the original was increasingly confined to its aorist Lat Spr. 541. In the Spanish peninsula. however. : quam semper cognitam habui. it 55 In popular speech function: perfect form. Regnier 28. a compound pluwas constructed Cicero. in Proven9al. 124. the old perfect meaning was not entirely lost. Old French Sainte Eulalie. the sixth: Part.. perf. the Gl. its vogue began in Gaul in the fifth century. 294. which came down from the Classic Latin use in conditional sentences. Eventually an entire perfect inflection was built up with habere or. it cxpi with an infinitive: Waters Ch. etc. Reich. sometimes as a preterit. In the same way a future perfect was made: de Ccesare satis dictum habebo.

for the future forms (such periphrases are particularly fre- quent in African church Latin) : (1) The present indicative for the future is common in Cicero in conditional sentences: Lebreton 188-190. 286 ff. Sepulcri 225. I. and in the other two. Pr. cum volueris et imus tecum ostendimus tibi. quando 64. The substitution si vis ecce ire became frequent in all sorts of constructions: nam modo pedibus duco vos ibi. corrigis. The old audibo. future was not uniform in the four conjuwas used in three of them and prevailed in two. cantdre. the formation in —bo. such as fachabeo dicere. jam crastina non eximus. During the Empire there was a strong tendency to substitute these or other constructions Classic Latin turus sum. which approached the meaning of the future. dormibo forms were kept late {Futurum 161). cantdro. Old Sp. Furthermore. inquis. was native. Pers. and in Dacia: Sp. 98. Sepulcri 225-226. was liable to confusion with the present subjunctive and indicative. Regnier Cf. [§ 126 dialects of Italy. delenda est.— S6 in An some Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Future and Conditional. PL 141-142. errors as respondeam for respondebo (^Futurum 158). Regnier viii. had some circumlocutions. (2) 125. gations. Draeger I. Bechtel 112. These causes or others made the future unpopular. Bechtel 112. only in Rome and the immediate vicinity. and we find such 126. Digitized by Microsoft® . Bechtel 90-91. which The Latin mistakes were made in writing: Vok. the future in the first two conjugations was suggestive of the imperfect. The old pluperfect subjunctive was used as an imperfect: see § 118.. Cf. in late pronunciation. As the tense became rare in speech. according to Mohl. pervidet. qiiando mutarisi eras. § 119.

The form that prevailed. I. qui nasci habent. Futurum 180. as in Sueto- means I. 449 Regnier 28. Hoppe 44-45 . 448 exire habebat.— Servius. videre habetis. + + It was 5) Vadere. 447-449. Regnier century. later. Ovid. cui velle habet. infinitive: In Classic Latin habeo habeo quod dicam. Hoppe 44 it .. Futurum 48 ff. aliter prcedicantur bent. 423. Cf. R. § 129] An The Introduction to Vulgar Latin. This habeo construction dare habet finally took the sense of a simple future: Tertullian. St. . Regnier 29. R. mandare habewas very common in late writers: Hoppe 43 filius Dei mori habuit. . . Cf. (3) Velk and /^w^ + infinitive were frequent: G. . 447 multa habeo dicere. I 127. the oldest Rumanian future is voiujurd or Jurd vom: Tiktin 599. See §§ 105.. I. Rustica 5. i. 447 unde mihi dare habes aquam vivam. frobare non habent. et sicnihil tuis. etc. It had become common by the sixth In the early stages of the Romance languages. or Digitized by Microsoft® . rebus dicere habemus. 370. 123. ire. R. Cf. 57 (2) future participle writers: stc et Bayard 256. bam. Velle in this sense was preserved in Dacia. infinitive was another substitute. 711. habes invenire in manibus — tollere habet. debeo dicere: tibi polliceri. 128. Trist. Varro. . Cicero. venire habet. G. 129. In these senses habes spectare. being so used by Cicero and nius. Ad Famil. however. tantum habeo Lucretius VI. it many others. . De Re ut id mihi habeam curare. 28. was habeo with the dicere ^=:. in multis hoc . quam evenire haDeus corpus. Augustine. nee verba nobis ista did habent. R. — St. Densusianu 181 in Italy . Hoppe 44 nan habent retribuere.. 106. (4) Debere kept in Sardinian. I. etc. Jerome. ( ^w^ was a favorite with late nos futuri sumus resurgere. venire + infinitive were used also. R.

the infinitive came to stand regularly. cantare or he cantar. Herodes principes sacerdotum ubi nasci habebat Christus interrogat. In Classic Latin. ista civitas esterminari haberet quod esset venturus et 130. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. just before the habeo. Bayard 257. On the model of this future. Finally the two words were fused into one. The earliest examples of the Romance future are found in Fredeyet. ready for use. fazel-o-he. in place of amassem the conclusion of a conditional sentence. St. Bayard 256. So it seems to be used by Tertullian. Cyprian and St. Hilary seem to show a simple conditional use of the compound: quod lex nova dari haberet.— 58 . Hoppe 43-45. garius: Justinianus dicebat 'daras'. or conditional. although sometimes with him the meaning borders on a real conditional: non traditus autem traduci habebas. amaturus eram or fui was often used and when amaturus sum was replaced by amare habeo. manifestari habebat. separation is common in Old Provencal. in Classic Latin. and occurs in Old Italian Pg. Haag 54. There are sure examples from the fifth century on: Lat. something like si potuissem venire habebam or habui was called for. 55. amare habedicit quod like dixit si possum venire habet. but this union was not completed until after the beginnings of the Romance literatures. . Furthermore. Digitized by Microsoft® . Spr. there quod was needed a past construction and corresponding to venire habeo. pati haberet. Haag See Morphology. Quillacq 116. The phrase existed. though not immutably. new form. where it was employed with an implication of obligation or necessity. [§ 130 possibly in the latest stage of Vulgar Latin.. it was natural that amaturus eram should give m way to bam. to match such a sentence as venire habebat or habuit. etc. 489. an imperfect of the was constructed. and in Portuguese it is not completed Old Sp. addarabo.

XXVIII. form in the Romance languages see in general.§ 130] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bildung des rumanischen Konditionalis in Zs. see H. for a discussion of the question. cintareasH. not' bvious. Digitized by Microsoft® . 691. The ')ie origin of the full Rumanian conditional. Tiktin. parallel to that of the future: Moris hology. of this 59 The development as.

but to have followed the usage of Greek spelling. In Vulgar Latin this : combination almost invariably attracts the accent cathidra. poets may or may not make tinebrcB. all consonant groups. etc. sic-cus. 466. S. as in ob-liviscor. They add In point of that etymological considerations often disturb the operation of the rule. The Latin grammarians seem to have given no heed to actual speech. mit-to. It is altogether likely. SYLLABICATION. except a mute + a liquid. made position an^ attracted the accent: perfSc-tus. 132. as in Italian. The group mute + liquid makes position in the older dramaafter the first : : tists : Nsevius accents integrant. 132-151. a-mnis. According to these writers. Lat. or in a liquid or nasal followed by another consonantin the next syllable. it In the Classic I. fact.III. was usually divided consonant noc-tem. 131. A. A single consonant between vowels certainly went with the second po-si-tus. PHONOLOGY. the syllable always ended in a vowel. It is likely that in Old Latin the division came before the Digitized by Microsoft® . that a consonant group. phdretra. in the spoken language. Spr. The division of j + consonant they regard as uncertain {a-s- trum)\ doubtless in reality the s was nearly syllabic. in-fans. prop-ter. The principles of syllabic division are rather difficult to establish. supporting it with purely theoretical considerations. or in half of a double consonant: a-ni-ma. then. Cf. and not pirfe-ctus. al-ter. however. position. etc. Quintilian 5 recom- mends vdlucres. pro-pter. no-ctem.

I. Old Fr. PRIMARY STRESS. co-lu-bra. if : word began with a vowel B. The Latin accent was probably from regularly stress accent. 13. There seem to be a few exceptions to the rule palpres < pdlpebras. delicto. through the Classic period even after the distinctions of quantity were lost. ACCENT. We speech a that final have reason to believe that in closely connected consonant was carried over to the next word. 892-906 S. have seen that Vulgar Latin regularly accents according to the Classic quantitative accentuation. The penult vowel before mute + liquid (cf. the accent falling on the e Digitized by Microsoft® . 133. poltre < *pullitra. after the accent on cd- the preceding vowel. In the earliest stage of the language appar- ently fell on the first syllable: Corssen II. computo. co-liib-ra. Franz. Old Fr. and /. ing to which the accent The falls Classic Latin system — accordis on the penult long. § 132) normally has the stress in Vulgar Latin: cathedra. cor exsultat = co r-exsultat. unchanged: bonitatem. VOWELS m HIATUS. both in the literary and in the spoken language. if that syllable as early as and remained. had become fixed : 6i liquid. however. when immediately followed by the 136. § 136] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Accented vowel of the penult. but subsequently. some cases in which the Classic principle fails to operate or the Classic stress has been shifted 135. became y. the beginning a it 134. There are. and perhaps : some othfc. : We — a.. pi. the place of the accent was literature began. otherwise on the antepenult — developed . both consonants were carried over lub-ra. 30-34. colubra. inUgram.

consuere by cdnsuo. . effect diios. that suos. so parietes" L. O. seems to be due to a tendency to shift the stress to the more sonorous of two contiguous vowels: cf. etc. tra- addedi. COMPOUND VERBS. became e but if the preceding consonant was . 137. Accented u. calefacis. presteti. This change X. dedit. S. Jespersen. b. [§ 139 following vowel: put^olis ~:> mul(eris>muljMs. §31): deficit >* disfdcit. Here the shift was apparently due in each case to analogy. 3714 (paretes). displtcet>*displdcet. Aside from these cases. C. adsteti. etc. I. habMrunf^ * hdb^erunt. etc. Verbs compounded with prefixes were generally constructed with the accent and the vowel of the simple verb. when immediately followed by the vowel falling of the penult. reddedit. 51. parjites^paretes^ C. consuere'>*cdns^ere'> cdnsere . etc. re- 139... Digitized by Microsoft® . '/« regularly re-nigat. Lehrbuch der Phonetik. the accent on the preceding syllable: bat{^t)iiere'>* bdtty^ere'> bdttere . it was palatalized: \i&xwt f aretes. reddtdi "^ reddMi.62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. On the same plan new verbs were formed: *de-minat. 1889 (pvte6lis). S. in which the vowel in hiatus is atonic. however. 192. but * muVeres. battuere being influenced by bdttuo. perdedit. Gram. S. L. itios were sometimes pronounced duds. imp Itcaf^* imp Heat. habuerunt by hdbuit. suds. So 54 . /. 468. riquirit "^ * requkrit. tenueram > * tenj^eram. Sepulcri 213-215. VI. paries. 56. > putjdlis. etc. crededi. hiatus seems to have had no on the accent in Latin. It was favored also by the analogy of miilier. 138.pi(teus. became w. Lat Spr. inclausus. II. provided the composite nature of the formation was understood and the parts were recognized (cf. It is possible. Cf. 668-670. Cf § 225. condedit. reiinet > * ret^net. tuds. conteneo. tenueram by tenui. I. p.

Lic. 515 and XXVIII. later. a fusion of ficatum and * sicotum. The adverbs iliac. .' c. by a change of suffix. ficotum. fecitum. It is found in late Latin in the form sycotum. cdlligo and some others not even the composite nature was perceived. XXV. *fdcatum. Paris in Miscellanea linguistica in onore di Graziadio H. Gaul had ficatum and ficatum. it probably became *secotum. illic accented their last syllable through the analogy of hdc^ hlc. central 2jaA. n. 140. all meaning 'liver. and northern Italy. 141. Ficatum. *ficotum */dciium. Ascoli 41 See G. Schuchardt in Zs. for some unknown reason. Through this word there came into use the culinary terms /tedium. came to be used only in the sense of 'read. a . perhaps under the influence of a vulgar *hepdte for hepar. 'liver'. . Sardinia preserved both ficatum and ficatum. 42. Priscian says ^^ illic pro mice": S. d. which should properly have been pronounced sycotum . . for instance. FICATUM. * redpit. There existed in Greek a word 'figlike'. 63 RMpit became being with In felt. a cross between /««/«/« was kept in Sicily and in the Spanish peninsula.simple translation of (tvkwtov.' Ficatum. n-LAc. *ftcatum. 435 L. 235Digitized by Microsoft® . was preferred in and southern Italy. Reetia. (tdicwtoi/ (Pirson 40). Ficatum or prevailed in Dacia. the composite character of the word although the compound was no longer associated capere.§ i4i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Clddat in Revue de philologie fran(aise et de littirature XV. ficatum. which was applied by cooks to a liver. the simple verbs having become rare or having taken a different sense: legere.

(1) Greek Oxytones.. Greek paroxytones were mostly accented according to the quantity of the penult: ypa(j>tov>grdp/iium. may represent popular stress. kTzi<jTo\rj~> epistula —ola. 42 ff.virahersvigintt. mdgida.64 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. Tairav6s>* iapinus. 144. Cf.ix.r/xa-vj'^- were stressed according to the Latin system: ^pa-)QiLT^> drdch{u)ma. etc. borrowed Idmpa^s).poKri'^pardbula. 4-5 Pirson 97. Digitized by Microsoft® . irapa. <f>Ld\rj XoXepa > chdlera) > colira. however. Claussen 809. 143. The shift was probably due to a tendency to differentiate the numerals from one compare the floating accent in English thirteen^ another in Melanges natural : fourteen. apparently the first syllable: (2) 145. 337. Greek oxytones..vr] <f>apiTpa'>p/tdretra ox phar'etra (cf. Somewas preserved.ira. fj. [§ 145 NUMERALS. tisana. Ti. > ( ^purpura. (>pMd/a)> It. terms borrowed by ear from the Greek. sometimes the word was made to conform to the Latin principle.tnginta. as polifpus. The accentuation times the Greek stress GREEK WORDS. a. Keil V. stressed ^vKwrov. Ther\. with the Greek > Occasionally the accent was kept by doubling the consonant. lines quarranta occurs in a late inscription. Vok. voXvTrovs '^ polypus^ irop(f>vpa /jMyiSa. 1 142. 69-70. iraXa/ir/ ^pd/ma. etc. when by Latin.qumqudginta.o^'^ spdstnus. Ihm in Archiv VII. 461. of Greek words was varied. It. irapaT-fi^'^ pirata. Rydberg . fdia. II. G.'i'^ mdc(k)- tna. (nraa-it.. see § 141. \ were sometimes accented on the antepenult: Consentius mentions a faulty pronunciation triginta. Optisdna)':>lt.TKj6. Xa. § 134). Greek Paroxytones. S. 392.guadraginta. Kafxapa^cdmera. See M. e. Wahlund.

the accent remained un- changed phus. Cf. but their statements are too vague to be of use. (3) 147.<j-(^r]fLux. -eum -ium. When : the penult vowel was in position.puj<jo%~^* ciiparissosy. doubtless favored by Cliristian influence. > ec(^c)Usia. Late Latin grammarians mention a pro- nunciation of Greek words with the Greek accent (S. Suffixes for Nouns. Cf. Gram. 65 but it more likely that the Italian forms are book-words with a shifted accent. Cf. -ia 146. Claus- accentuation: Kxnta. -eum: ^a. 149. A few early borrowed words perhaps show the Old Latin Cf. phonia.cupressus. 42). iKKXtjaia the Latin fiipXla^Mblia.'avfi<l>(ovia>sym- Later a fashionable pronunciation -ia.<TTopia> kistdria.) and produced a new Latin ending -ia.'Kav&ov'> balneum.t&o. and sophta. 42£f. § 17. Cf. The ending -2i2. which was used to form new words: see Derivation..§ 149] ^^ Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. A. XXXI. kKo. Claussen 812. 35.. etc. S. 2-3. of proparoxytones is The treatment complicated. sen 809. —aav sometimes became -ea -ia. sometimes —ea. are attested: S. 55-56.>blasp hernia. etc. The endings -aa.. > platea platea. When : the penult was short. raXaxTov > talintum. ylvecTK "^ ginesis. a-riirta>s^pia. S. Claussen 814-821. etc. Claussen 813-814. 42-49.- was at first generally assimilated to p\a. 'i.. 148. (with a KoXa^o^ > cdld- Trpea-ftvrepov > presbyterum new nominative took the prisbyter). Kuiv(im&ov> conopeum -eum —ium. The pronunciations melodia. KaXafiOi > calamus. penetrated popular speech {(ro<l>ia> sopMa. by Microsoft® . Greek Proparoxytones. Claussen 810— 811. it accent afivcraoi > abyssus. I. Digitized jSawTia-fui > baptisma. Thomas in Rom.

As far as SECONDARY STRESS. 152. 49): Umbrian Fr. Some words have both pronunciations et8<i)A. Bayeux.> sinapi sindpi. Spr. 'ldKioPoi>/dcobus. 466). ipr]iuis> eremus eremus : > (Prudentius). xa/xtvos it : caminus.ov tdolum (both in Prudentius: Lat. 153. Some words borrowed from other languages kept e. a-iKlvov^ linum. Dreux. Tricasses'>Yx. 48-49) Ka. etc. ayKvpa>dncora. When the penult vowel was long and not in position. > 150. Germanic words were apparently made to conform to Latin types: H'&go HUgun > Hugo Hugdnem > Fr. Ka. Ne Digitized by Microsoft® .Tri. Celtic Baiocasses > > Z>urdcasses'^'Px.o%> bldsphemus (Prudentius). Ut cdrne carnem liberdns p^rderit quos c6ndidit. Troyes. 151.66 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. apparently took the accent in book-words but not in words learned by ear (S. . Pharo. j3ovTvpov> *se'- biHtyrum (^milius Macer).T]\ai> camelus -ellus. however. of accented and unaccented fifth Thus Sedulius. Dottin 103.ballcena. (T'aia. contrary to Latin rules (S. [§ 153 'EyKava-Tov. of Vulgar and from semi-popular Kluge 500. KpoKohaKoi'^ crocodilus.pv6<^vKKov Occasionally the consonant group was simplified and the accent remained : > * garofulum. judging from phonetic changes late Latin verse. t^aWtava'^. became both encdustum and incaustum. we can determine the rhythm Latin. their original accent.. Hues Hudn. at the beginning of the century. OTHER FOREIGN WORDS. ^\axr<^-i]p. writes: Beatus iuctor skculi Servile c6rpus fnduit. it consisted in a tolerably regular alternation syllables. Fisaurum It.

felidtatem. cdlidHs cdldus. UNSTEESSED WORDS. especially prepositions and conjunctions. it was weak. v€ttovdglia beside vittdria. in Latin as in other lan- guages. the root syllable may have received an irregular stress through the analogy of the primitive: * drboricellus. 154. pldcttiim'^'Pr. 38-39) dma-me. dolorosa. its syllabic value. 155. dd-tibi. Idcrlmosa. syllables to the beginning or had no accent. cave-facias. however. *parduldre *pardbuldre : > > > filiiis "^^/ilius. but probably the vowel bearing it had more force than a wholly unaccented final vowel: sdcer{>'PY. Casdrem. sdzer. In many cases the intervening vowel fell out or lost Then the primary and the secondary ac- lost cent were brought together. so. in Italian. clerc. In late formations e or i in hiatus did not count as a sylla- ble: * cotninitidre. When it followed the tonic. I. and the secondary was shifted or *pdrauldre. B\i6logn{no beside Bologna. amistdt.^plach. colp. non-dmat. fell on the second syllable from the tonic: cuptditosus. but clmPr. and were attached as additional end of other words (S. strong. as well as some adverbs and pronouns. stress. In some derivatives. When the secondary stress preceded the tonic. Many words. cum Pr. unemphatic words. Gdllias. were used only as enclitics or proclitics. circum-Utora (Quintilian s).: § 156] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 67 ' The secondary then. te-videt. 156. F\6rentino beside Fvrenze. clirgue while cUr'cum > > > cdlbe while cdlpum > Pr. cdlapMin Pr. Digitized by Microsoft® . it and the vowel bearing it was was apparently treated as an accented vowel: * amicUdtem~^'?x. Short.

perhaps influenced proclitic hy plus. POSITION. did not prevent the development: pa-trem^Y-ic. the consonant. If. in connected speech. S. became *mais and * mas. the consonant was final and the next word began with a vowel. [§ i6o 157. Words sometimes sa. by Microsoft® . In some of the Romance languages the development of the preceding vowel. pere. and probable that the beginnings of this differentiation go back to Vulgar Latin times : pa-rem > Old Fr. For the syllabication of mute + liquid. 134. 379-390. 1110. position checked it is 160. istu' (but iccum istum > eccu'istu'). stressed tended to develop double forms: sua and Cf. If such particles had more than one syllable. Mute + liquid Neither. per. ecce that vowel: ilium v{det^ hic^ (but ecce hie > ecc'tc) For 158. A syllable was long if it contained ( i ) a long vowel or a diphthong or (2) any vowel + a following consonant. We must distinguish between the quantity of vowels and the quantity of syllables. see §§132. 'lu' A 'c'ic dissyllabic beginning with a vowel seems to have regularly lost vldet. they tended to become monosyllabic: unstressed magis. but we may surmise that in common speech it was more marked in stressed than in unstressed vowels. part. sel. apparently. how great the difference was we do not know. . sUay- C. 56-57. 1. 73-79. par-tern > Fr. however. ' I 159.5"^ illas and sometimes unstressed and * las. was doubtless carried over to the next syllable and did not make position: see §133. eccum istum > 'cu" p II. QUANTITY. did a final consonant Digitized §133): Jffl-/> Fr. (cf. Every 'LaXin vowel was by nature either lon^ prshort. elision.68 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. see Franz.

. Jiipiter Juppiter. especially before the accent: bal{l)cBna. copa. doubtless beone with a long vowel + — + a double consonant: brdchium brdcchium . however. mucus miiccus . Sp. Fr. had two forms. formossus > > > mtsit. 127). mut{t')ire. —Isse —tssem etc. cuppa. this may result merely the case with the doublet czto> S-p. is common in Greek and Latin manu- scripts: S. buc{c)lna. cippus. in— 132.* co-pVit. 162. Stolz 223-224. where we have perhaps only a change of suffix. cuopre <. This did not occur. — fuore <fd-ris. in the contracted endings -dsse -dssem etc. missit (S. diphthongs and long 112-120): cdssus> formosus.§ 163] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. biica bucca . petto pietra<pe-tra. cot{t)idie. 118: mIssit) > causa. cetto. siccus ' '' sicccus.^glut[t)tre. L. glossa glosa. hoc erat hocc S. coppa . cuve. giving Sp. ferro <ifer-rum_. In Latin texts there is much confusion of single and double consonants. I. Digitized by Microsoft® . Fr. corpo <:_cdr-pus. S. cf.. Cf.fiel(^e) Kferl. It. citto {C. S. ii594)>It. Cf. 129. Similarly one / was lost in mallo. Many words certainly longing to different Latin dialects. j < peccol- lum. 163. coUo < <icd-r. § 42 ctpus a single consonant. paullum. Cf. ciepa. gluto glutto . In some words from bad spelling. (S. as seems to be ves(s)ica. Italian fiero <. -esse -essem etc. VIII. perhaps litera littera. §163. c.fe-rus. : The The single antiquity of double t is attested by an old inscription Lexique loi. stupa stuppa. cedo. cupola and erat. the other with a short vowel . Early in the Empire caussa ss after vowels was apparently reduced to casus. which prevailed in Romance. mtllia (but not in mille : Pompeius. coupe. cuor{e) 161. etc. 69 Compare tus. nollo.^ ec{c)lesta. but often it must represent an actual difference in pronunciation. cuba. camelus camellus. Stolz 222—225. tap{p)ete. pupa puppa. It. 125-126 (Velius Longus and Pompeius).

Stella. Lexique 95-98) + Stella (>It. In aqua the double con: sonant. toute). a consonant was doubled 122. tenne. mist * missi 261 {iubimmus iobemmus). In late Latin inscriptions and manuscripts a consonant was sometimes doubled before r or u: acqua. strennuor. tennuis.^ + strenna = * strenna (> It. Stolz 223. G. chdne{<x°-'^) 261. jubemus lltus littus. anguilla). Archiv XIV. conservdmus Vok. reviewed by Meyer-Lubke in Ltblt. For *iiUius see Digitized by Microsoft® . stilla). Gram. iConsentius: " per adjectionem litterje io««»! pioioto. So perhaps Diomedes' Itttera: Fr. Zs. Die Entwicklung des aqua in den romanischen Sprachen. 612. etc. lattrones. Beside the two forms indicated. anguila) Fr.5 547. bascio). dialect stella) = (>It. strena (> Old Fr. 334. cf. having both the long. 339. local ing to F. Mohl. prevalent in Africa or in Italy. * stela (>01d esteile: cf. Cf. seemingly a cross between the other two. Leicique 98-104. tota. XXVI. 164. jubemmus. suppra. XXIV. before / and u in the old Italic dialects compare the Italian doubling infabbro.^)—* tdtta (> Pr. Gaul. messi). Spr. vowel and the double consonant : angutla (> Sp. suppremis. was very widespread and prevailed in Italy. cascio). ^(ji. This doubling indicates in most cases a Accordpronunciation. voile. strinna). [§ 164 may perhaps be added: cdseus * cdsseus bdsium *bassium (>It. 403. (>It. Rsetia. + anguilla—* angutUa (> It. bellua. there was occasionally a third. 485. toiius was used by Pirminius. I. iota estreine) (>Sp. baca bacca. (> It. 1. I.70 An To these Introduction to Vulgar Latin. conservammus. channe. and a large part of lateinischen See Clara Hiirlimann. Sic. § 204(2). attested by inscriptions and by Christian poets." Cf. mattrona. botte). toda) ¥ totta (Keil V. * butts (<j8oi)tis) *buttis (>It. S. ^Stella Vok. I. strenna. Vok.488. frattre. * According to Lat. brdca bracca.

as menus... i. is often used for i in inscriptions. etc. solus sqlet. for instance. In the case of a. II. as minses. 71 VOWEL QUANTITY. I. Writers do not clearly distinguish i and i. the vowels having. 212. and i for e. most of the Empire. III. in Vok. about 350 a. 461. II. . 176. 182). 208. In Vok. However may have been. Originally. but is used for u in inscriptions. secondus. distinguishes two ^-sounds Pompeius. is given the testimony of grammarians. until Consentius. 166. mulus Later. cites Tertullian for an e (S. about 480. distinguishes do other grammarians (S. Spr. That is. 216-217). was often used for e in inscriptions (S. In open syllables. (S. and several fifth century grammarians plainly distinguish e from e (S. for the vowels of brief duration the tongue was not in lifted quite so high as for those held longer. Terentianus from q (S. etc. i and u were allowed to drop still lower. 211). the distinction U was clear by the first century of our era. 193). the evidence of inscriptions. 183-184). in 165. there was no such differentiation. long were close gula. which and became e and see §§201. perhaps. by 250. 175. in iillus and multus. 146. long dis- - tinguished only by duration. similar to i. in debet and mnum \ \ and minus. the same sound in Idtus and Idtus. According to Meyer-Liibke. 174. d.§ i66] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. this nomen and novus. the short vowels being open while the sentio. all : of later date. the quantity of the vowel is ' in general easily ascertained. e. however. from the second century on cs Marius Victorinus.. (S. 200-201). 195. as ocsor. and short vowels were redit. : vendo pinus pi^er. etc. 0. is made with the tongue lying flat in the bottom of the mouth. in the fifth century (S. In Digitized by Microsoft® . and u were eventin ually differentiated. and so Maurus. Za(. 467. 182). None of the grammarians apparently distinguished « and «. i ff. if the word is used in verse. long and short e. 151. 2. 211).

VOWELS Ilf HIATUS. their regular quantity in hiatus. and often shown by subsequent developments in the Romance languages. then. found in inscrip- tions. 99). so cut. after u had become (see §§ 165. by Microsoft® . etc. Vowels in hiatus with the last syllable offer difficulties. Naturally long vowels. Fr. At 208). 105).. proved old inscriptions . 93. others karessimo. 101-102). languages. except Spanish. is The Classic rule that a vowel before another vowel short is not absolute even for verse. at least in part. via— via. and. any a later stage. testimony conflicts: some inscriptions have carIssimo. duo>dui = dui. [§ 167 closed syllables and in words not used is by poets the quantity sometimes conOccasionally the in many cases doubtful . frIgida. (S. S. 105). Romance undecim. others demand u. Aulus Gellius prescribes dictum. cf. nutrire. by S. in Plautus. Classic i Latin o&ers frtgidus (of.72 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 187). plus kept inscriptions (dIes originally long vowel. their Dies. jectured from the etymology. and the practice of poets was not always in accordance with spoken usage. etc. sometimes marked in inscriptions. loir calls for *gltrem h&siA^ gltrem. although we do find the spellings dius and mius (S. and in Ennius close vowel in the Romance (S. but it is sometimes given by gram- marians. a. probably kept their original Naturally short vowels doubtless had development also: deus = deus. 93): these preserved their languages. but an inscription has dIctatori (S. ^T. but the i.2^)>oum (and also ovum. before u was apparently differentiated into 0: dvum> oum (cf. 167. require a short some Romance forms support Classic luridus. siius'>Digitized spus> sous (S. Substrate II. with a restora- tion of the V through the plural ova). ultra (S. attested by pIvs piivs. 98. fut. were apparently pronounced also with short u 81-82).

before a consonant. (S. words were short. point to open vowels in pejor. *pldja. as Cicero approved of Aiiacem. gave {Lat. Horning in Zs. 168. We find in eiius. cuiius. spellings as Aiiax. 170. Franz. Quintilian states that Pirson 74.. way to Cf. major. we should write Troiia also Priscian analyzes pejus. The Romance languages. maiiorem. 352-355). Franz. There may have been other special Cf. §208. 73 varia- 216.(4). Recherches sur Forigine de la conjonction 'que' et des formes romanes iquivalentes. but the / was doubled was a glide from the vowel to the/.: 236. Spr. b. inscriptions such S. as in ejus. For a still. Velius Longus adds that etc. which prolonged the — first syllable: not pejor. d. on the other hand. qua{ni). Maiiam. had a peculiar development from the sixth century on before a vowel it was pronounced qui' and was confused with quid. The apparent contradiction disappears tianus Maurus. Cicero preferred aiio. Troja. Jean- jaquet. under the influence of qua and : . 236). a II. Pirson 16). ei-ius. tions in different countries. 236). which had begun to assume the functions of quod (see §§69. coiiux. etc. mai-ius Digitized (£don by Microsoft® . if we accept the statement of Teren- who says (S. 207). 357-390. with double i (S. Troja. it became qua. hut peijor. 1894. into pei-ius. §217. 468). 169. see Gram. For another see A. different theory. 246-248. 3 II. Cf.. Maiiam. Fluere was supplanted in popular usage by plovere Fluvia.§ i7o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. I. vowels were lengthened before j. 250 in these a. J. 104) that the vowels there that is. 82 cf. According to some grammarians. Troija. 341. LENGTHENING BEFORE CONSONANTS. used for quod in late Latin. XXV. however. Quia.

pugnus. Priscian. for inscriptions. remains. (i) Vowels were apparently lengthened before Cf. lignum. (2) Before gn vowels were lengthened according to Priscian and inscriptions mark length in dtgnus. for the usage of Cicero and others. 400. 89. but insig- It is altogether likely that the n fell through nasalization If so. not f. The Romance is languages. and the fall was permanent. An Introduction When fell to Vulgar Latin. but the length and the close quality of the vowel remained. it and the preceding vowel was cesor. compounds See S. S. Archiv XIV. coxwenire through continere. tions: so pensare. cojugi. and some philologists regard the passage in question as still still an interpola54. tferi. etc. According to Meyer-Liibke {Gram. beside the old popular *pesare. n was followed by a fricative (/.. 86. . 91. 78. regnum./. etc. s. the evidence of the inscriptions I. who wrote in the sixth century. it was usually restored by the analogy of the full forms con-. (S. n occurred in the middle of many words. all trace of the of the vowel: consul consul cosul cosul. Before J. in-: so infantem through indignus. however. But inasmuch as n occurs before /". nasality disappeared. u. /. etc. signum. tjk: quinque. for inscriptions.74 171. sanctus. mesis. Cf §311. but only after H had be- come i. 91). (cf. s: cosul. Romance and late Vulgar Latin words with ns (except in Cf. coventio. however. 467). or v). a very late authority. call for dtgnus. S. [§ 172 regularly early in Latin. tsula. 90. conjungere through conducere. signum sigillum). S. Spr. Lat. t. «. 77-78. benegnvs by Microsoft® . so that the result Digitized was t.- cf. the vowel was lengthened. pignus. u. etc. S. tion of later date. the n being restored only in com- lengthened by compensation: pounds before initial nare. 172. sposus. and v only at the end of prefixes. as above) are either learned terms or new formaS..

through the Latin period and developed further in the Romance languages. On shift the other hand. however. of accent. explanation. Cornu. through a by Microsoft® . 311. XII. remained. unaccented Terentianus Maurus. 75). and we find numerous metrical errors in other late poets: cf.). in the fourth century. resulting from the original quantity. J. in unaccented syllables the distinctions were doubtless weaker. I. XII. 183—184: bence. "miserce dativus est non adverbium. Buck. DISAPPEARAHCE OF THE OLD QUANTITY. D. etc. Latin words borrowed by the Britons. seems to observe quantity in stressed and to neglect it in unstressed syllables. This seems a very plausible C. 226). and were often obliterated. prefers to regard such forms as dlgnus. and a was often used for e in inscriptions (S. in the Classical Review I. about 250. they existed at c. lost. in so far as all. . tells us that au is short in Other grammarians syllables. The old quantity itself was It during the Empire. 174. for the most part seems to have disappeared from unstressed syllables by the third or fourth century but confusion The nominative singular -is set in as early as the second. XV. which is 75 in C. The was probably greater and more constant in accented than in unaccented vowels. difference in quantity 173. warn against quantitative mistakes: so Servius. as in aut (S. L. (S. doubtless equivalent to the benIgnus of C. D. 722. in the third or fourth century. The distinctions in quality. Versbau des Commodian in Bausteine 576. The poetry of Commodian.§ 174] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 2153. (S." etc. as due to a vulgar or local pronunciation. in stressed syllables. L. 66). and the plural —es were confounded by 150 A. show. the preservation of quantity in post-tonic Digitized mostly in the third and fourth centuries.

/ At the end of the Latin period a new system of quangrew up. for. all other vowels 176. dixi plicds. taken over in the fifth and sixth centuries. Latin words in Anglo-Saxon. retain the quantity of vowels that bear the accent: Pogatscher. 178). 175. tity short: sdncto vales. Spr. fructus by Microsoft® . e. In accented syllables there are sporadic examples of confusion by the second century. The Latin words in Old High German. in the Roma (S. Much late poetry disregards quantity altogether. criticizes Servius. Digitized fqrmas fori. DEVELOPMENT OF A HEW QUANTITY. and not complete before the end of the sixth. show the preservation of the quantity of stressed vowels: Loth 64. 467). too. entirely diverse from the old. but probably the disappearance of the old distinction was not general before the fourth and fifth centuries. In most of the Empire accented vowels not in position were pronounced long. Augustine devocalium vel produc- Pompeius and other tione non judicant" (^Lat. and based on th|fe situation of the vowel. On the other hand. [§ 176 Loth 72. vendo vents. It is possible that the quantity of unstressed vowels was better kept in the provinces than in Italy. clares that "Afrae aures de correptione St. e and ?. 107. Latin words borrowed by the Britons from the second to the fifth century. d. distinguish by quantity t and i. i?> e 01 i. and o. 225). are distinguished by quality also. 65.if>« while u and u. Moreover. fourth century. d>ii ox 6 while d>o: Franz. 106). but mostly in the third and fourth. grammarians blame the confusion of cequus and equus (S. as aques for eques in 197 (S. Latin words borrowed by Old High German indicate a retention of long i and u before the accent: Franz.76 syllables: An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

while a was not' affected by q-aawti-ty. Portugal. We and i. close. tre-s. eu. in £at. goule. An isolated u were pronounced open. the groups that e. Latin had the vowels au. says that the development was and independent in the several Romance languages. cuor. i. cb. o. t. porta. XXV. We shall see presently Digitized by Microsoft® . also ui. ca-the-drd te-ni-brds . we find vobit for obiit (S. but as posterior to it the fifth century. e. nepotis (A. dis- appearance of the which it displaced. nounced new long vowels were promost regions with a circuinflex intonation. d. 77 gule. have seen (§ 165) ti. d. and the conditions of diphthongization were very diverse in different localities. 213). particularly in northern Gaul: z'f«f. he describes it as common to all. Zimmermann in Zs. /w>01d Fr. all stressed vowels were appar- ently long: tempus. I. cqr'^lt. In 419 D. Gram. Lombardy. syllables before a labial (as in proommus') a short further- more.q. which in the transition from Latin to the Romance languages re1 77- It is likely that these in sulted in diphthongization in a large part of the Empire. 178. (rets. Meyer-Liibke in different in Einf. he puts in the fourth and fifth centuries. 467. «^j>Fr. vieni. occurs in an inscription made a little before 120 a. beside a.f>It. : Niipos. 103—104. ce. a.§ 178] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cq/r me-l no-s re-m In Spain and in some parts neisf of Gaul. and in unaccented ii. nous. ^^/a > Old Fr. and Sicily apparently did not participate in this early breaking. VOWELS. u. 561-562. southern Gaul. 0. The vowels most affected were e and q. This pronunciation doubtless sprang up with the old. perhaps only a blunder. Spr. 735).

while au. According to Quintilian (£don 64-65). was in Greek originally a long e. (f>dXayi -> phalanx. by Microsoft® . doubtless the ideal of people of fashion. In the Germanic vocabulary there is not much to be noted: at in words adopted early apparently became a. The history of Greek vowels is very complicated: — GREEK VOWELS. long or short. but popular speech substituted for unfamiliar vowels the sounds of the vernacular. A. a-Ktjvrj'^ sctsna scena. was pronounced a: ^axriM^ Phdsis.nd ce>e.78 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The foreign vowels of borrowed words were assimil- In the few Celtic words that were taken over there are no important peculiarities. The inconsistencies in this substitution arise partly from the different dates at which words were borrowed. the Greek This pronunciation was letters were sounded as in Greek. 210) that cB>e a. as In words of more ji\acr<\>r}fi. it H era : eclesia. 181. eu (^cduius. ceu).iro6riKTf)~:>apotheca^ It. but also sepia "^ i: It.La > blasphemia > It. (n)Tria~^ sapia. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin e: a. * skivare. so in some late words. eu (or iu) appears in treuwa (or triuwa). iu is found in skiuha?i> ated in some fashion to the Latin system. but early in our became t. [§ 182 (§§209. bottega. seppia. 179. popular origin it often had the Greek open sound kKKkfitrU > 182. Per. and 180. which became *trewa. partly from the various pronunciations of the vowels in the several Greek dialects. partly from the channel (written or oral) through which they came. as *waidanjan~>*wadaniare. bestemmia. Late words often show Digitized do-Ki/Tiys > ascitis. and ui (as in cut) was lit. eu generallyremained du.

ermo.' It. but sometimes open. Neumann etc. etc. orma. occasion- yXStrira > It. cf. tapis. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . pxirov > blttum'> It.. and occasionally the same word had both pronunciations: a. Claussen 855-857. antiefne. In popular words it. '%Ti<^avo'.^ purpura. apa. Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. mienta. Cf. apTepXa-M It. op<^a. sometimes open: eprjfios'^ er'mus er'mus'^ It. ^^. E was close in some It. Claussen 853-854. Cf. K6ppi>gummi. etc. iKKXriKrCiu "> edisice. even when long.Chrlstus Chrestus. Christianus Chres- tianus. li bietal It.yermo.v6% > orphanus. 1re7rf.ix6py7)>amurca. open in others. dqga. 9.> piper. menta. Tiov Claussen 854-855. Xpla-ro^'^. ^(fila-pa^ chrisma> cresima. rprnKTiji'^ Cf. a. -p-hqra). ixova<TT'^piov'>raora-n-rj- nastirium. was assimilated to Latin e: yevans Agenesis. It. 80x1^ > dqga> It. was probably q. popular words I In book-words later e oz e. but perhaps dialectically q (cf. Pr. O most dialects was kocjuvo's o. chiosa. armeise. 184. /. Claussen 869-870. apparently became I. Old Fr. ropvos > tqrnus > It. opiyavos > became e. 185. in 186.vri^ovo%'>-* antefona'^ Qi\A Fr. 183. cresme.'>- Stephanus Stephanus. tttw^os > It. 79 40. Greek dialects.— § i86] An etc..o'i'> phlmus . pttqcco. tapit.. ^ia>drrp > boletus. t apparently later often e: apOplriKOi > ariAriticus '> It artetico.p1. at least in the principal dialects. regamo. crLvaTn> sinapi^ senape. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: <j><!tKri In popular words it apparently became ^. /iu(rT^ptov> mistirium. I. cedro. <^iKo'i>phtlus. piivOrj^ menta'> It. ally u: tructa. In popular words it was sometimes close. was generally close. "^-phoca. irop^vpo. seems to have had a very open sound. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: > cophinus. > artemtsia > Old Fr. oo-/x'^ >. it was In assimilated to Latin t: ^lp. KiBpo'i'>cedrus'>In book-words it > Fr. Sp.

which may represent a Greek dialect pronunciation between u and ii: yvpo'i> gyrus gmrus . 'OSuo-o-eta > Odissta. Mva-Ca^ Jfysia Mmsia. KviJ. Pr. Pr. y In the App. etc. Spr. Koyxiy <tt/3o<^os [§ 187 chorda. Digitized by Microsoft® .8o torno. AudoUent 536. Olumpus. > It. calotta. According to Cassiodorus." '^ tymum non tumum. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. motto. — > concha. grotta. u is the spelling in some words. v regularly was assimilated to Latin u Ionic it jUijXXos 2ig-22i): Pvpara> bursa . . 'OXvcro-eu? > Ulixes." "myrta non murta. (S. was unrounded into /. /iCSos > It. irv^os mullus. originally pronounced u. Lat." "porphyreticum marmor non purpureticum marmor. Y was > strqppus. in the case of v. Marsuas.yKvKw. etc. Zefurus.. 187. later in Attic and became ii. cultivated people adopted for Greek words the Ionic-Attic pronunciation. 221. The spelling / occurs sometimes before Augustus 6. Cf. In inscriptions we find misteriis. ''tymum non tu- mum. truttna the v storax. buxus. Pirson 39. in which the ^ is a later local development. which is genCicero erally represented.vt)> was shortened. Pr. which subsequently. Livius Andronicus In ayKvpa ancora. yppl-q > Claussen 857-860.. says: "Burrum semper Ennius. > > and a few other words the v for some reason became o. 468. etc. nunquam Pyrrhum" (S. 221).. . perhaps taken mostly from Doric (Claussen 865). etc. KpvTTTrj > It. App. > ancilia . we find: "Marsyas non in others (S. <jTvpai : . by the spelling y. fivpros busta seems to represent a peculiar local development: cf. these probably have nothing to do with KoXvizTpa. Towards the end of the Republic. KpvTrTy)> crupta . murta. Cf. The App. It. Pr." Among the common people the unfamiliar ii was assimilated to i. S.p-q>cumba." App. For some words we find an occasional spelling X. — KoKn^o-i^ cqlaphus cojaphus. In Tp\yTa. > > > buxida {=pyxis) in Theodorus Priscianus and in glosses. in the 9th or loth century. 221). In the older borrowed words.

• ^ ^generally became ^« E3pos > -£'«''«J'. frequently became qui: The modern Greek pronunciation is represented by some Romance words: afi. Cf. <? In Latin. as in AWiovux > Ethiopia Ethiopia. was usually pronounced short. cf. if Pirson 39. tdolum. oi. > It. In -eios -eta —tiov.§ 192] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. > It. e. see § 141.). then. Tu/iTravov > Fr. 191. /. bisante. Cf. which came to be proClaussen nounced 871-872. the penult was often shortened: Khj.rihtui. about the third century. Cf. 192. Digitized as in -Koivr] >poina. AI timbre. Claussen 01 originally "became came (S. however. yrJi/'os — kvkvo%> gesso is e: yvpo% cecino. 189. which to be pronounced as in ^otfio^'^it Phxbus Phebus Sometimes. if Audollent 535. J before consonants. f. giro. This i. § Kd 223. Claussen 872-873. MaTa > Maia.. originally cb 188.> platea. KS/«i>It. as in Atas > Aiax. from the sixth to the fourth century c. etc. j8u^ai'r6s > It. later e. 81 has "gyrus non girus. or z before vowels. later ce (as in poina). etc. Pr. Claussen 873-875. 6r]travp6i> thesaurus. long.TSa. Such forms Clepatra for as " ermeneumata non erminomata" {App. cima. giro. For o-vkcutoj/. . e." giret. i. etc. toreomatum from Topfxpa. 76-77.. £/ was doubtless originally pronounced ei in Greek. Kapa^iuriys'^ paradtsus . /ceXttJcr/xa > ? It. finally. may be merely misspellings: Some Romance forms show u: 875-877. (as in aiyi^'^ tsgis). . cf. etc. KoXoKvuT-q"^ cologuinta. b.. Claussen 860-869. 190. amido. misterii. Cf. M. It. ciurma. by Microsoft® became 0. A V> au. Cleopatra. except before vowels. Bechtel etc.v\ov > It. oTJpt-yya which became It. > scilinga. Cf. 277).'> w€ipaTyi<s'^ — KA£ki>> Medea. became ai. Cf. a became Clio. probably a local development. Frigia. «S(i)Xov> pirata.

It is possible that dlacer (whence alacrem) > *dlecer (whence alecrem). under the influence of l?vis: Beside GREVE. — For vowels in hiatus. C. « : . Beside gravis there was a grevis. <u Claussen 877-878.B. L. a. Claussen 878-879. see § 167. malum « cf. S. etc. 468. VI. Spr. Doric cf. which was used in southern Italy. 0. for cmmeterium < Koi/tjyTiyptov. Substrate (4) I. The o was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . Beside cerasus *clra. In Latin it usually became u: fipovxo's> bruchus. So beside dinia. CKwas then if. then q.slus. A regularly remained dat-e. which was used elsewhere Lat. Olcott 33. doubtless originally pronounced ou in Greek. Spr.. ovpavo's'^ Uranus. manus. a 194. latus. and Sarthere was a clr^slus. tantus. 468 cf. 198. patrem. and agnetus (for agndtusi) in Fredegarius. For nasal vowels. 544. see § 171. Lat. ot. Reich. Cimiterium cymiterium. I. unchanged in the greater part of the Empire: caput. especially in the north. C. Haag 6. 195. -arius. Kipaaoi) there must have been a Latin * cerlsus. [§ 195 "^-foeta. (6) Beside vacuus there was a vHcuus: vocuam. SINGLE VOWELS. I. 468. N. Rome.82 as in An iroirjTtji Introduction to Vulgar Latin. used by Petronius and others: Lat. 1527 d 33. see § 39. crepere. factum. (5) jiSKav) there was a melum (<i)i.T\Kov). perhaps indicates an ignorant confusion of « ce: KOiixMSia'^ and Cf. I. (i) Some words had a peculiar development: — Beside alacrem the Romance languages seem to postulate alecrem and alej:rem. it probably had a forward pronunciation tending somewhat toward e: cf. Like 193. 441. Cf. (2) (3) For the suffix -arius. But in Gaul. I. senetus. ACCENTED VOWELS. vocatio. volumptczte in Gl. Cf. L. Spr. 171. Substrate II. then 'Valuer (whence alicrem alecrem). became comcedia.

became vacdre. however. {Lexique 115). etc. etc. -Ire. In Sicily. no proof of historical con: nection between the phenomena 197. By a change § which was pronounced remained unchanged in Vulgar Latin. e became i in late {Lexique 106). same region. I. There is. 328. as in cinsum. I. vocivus regularly whence by analogy vdcat vScuus became ^vdcitus^ for vocat: Lat.. vendere. Long e {% 165). dulcido. diheto. verus. 189-190. -elius and —llius.. III.. also for colustra. {ficet in the 3d century. which was spoken in nearly the has become i. iox fistus. I. for —esco 26o£f. mercedem. S.. and -tsco. minsam. 466. etc. I. Spr. of suffix original. iox co- gnusco and other verbs in —usco for -osco. Also Vok.§ igS] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. writings: Gregory the Great has crudilitas. Carnoy 15 ff. These spellings are due in the main s -¥ to the identity of /and i in late pronunciation: see § 165. vacivus 83 {^vacuus). 614-615. — in -isco for -esco. —isco for —esco. vindo. T is very often used for e in inscriptions and late —ido for —edo. 468. —esimus. shift of conjugation: see In Gaul this substitution of it i for e was so very com- mon that must signify something. 198. debet. for crisco and other verbs for adimplisti. This would account for bistia (= bestia) found in late Latin. I. 613. to u. and southern Apulia e In old Oscan.). II. Republican times. 196. -isimus for vir. Some of the —esco >-tsco cases are surely due to a §§414-415. probably- at least in most re- gions: debere.: for the confusion of -ere and 6911. Sepulcri. e. Calabria. for vindimia instead of vindemia. etc. 127 287-289. Digitized It probably indicates an by Microsoft® . Studi A. and conversely ver iox etc. cf . for -elis and —His. old vocdre. 359-364. Spr. in Studi Medievali Medievali I. etc.: Sepulcri 193-194. Cf. filix..ficit. Lat. conjectures that consonant may have tended to raise e to i. habetis.

e in nearly all the Empire: btbo. venit. 468.84 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. segolo. later. ferus. this very high Spr. Neumann adoliscens. vaster. Short e. minsis. It. 397. : (3) Beside sicula there was a secula (Lexique Ii9)>-It. festa. minus. : by Microsoft® . seniscit. (4). Lexique 114. veir): Lat. tepiscit. It is interesting to note that Celtic e also became i: Dottin 99. perhaps through association with rtgidus. qulnque (^Substrate (i) 546). etc. quaginsima. Cf. rigna. stiis. (Lexique 119) mentions a rustic speca for spica. vexit. in north- e>ei (verum> Old Fr.ii(i. criscit. tile. remained unchanged: bene. e 199. etc. tris. Archiv (2) Beside ilex there was an elex. tulate (4) stegola Varro seems to pos- something like * steva for For St. which supplanted vester. sidibus. stilla. rigna. Cf. (cf. i pronounced i (§ 165). is to be regarded as a new formation on the model of noster rather than as the old form. vinum. dico. 1 200. riges. According to Lat. Fngidus. Haag 3iiff. Vok. which was pronounced e (see § 165). 8-9: adoliscens. Cf. see § 229. except in Spain. must have become *frtgidus ij^frigdus). viiium. Short i. For the development (i) of diphthongs. quiiscit. [§ 201 extremely close pronunciation of the e ern Gaul. mille. spelling e for ^ is common from Digitized the third century on frecare. pronounced / (§ 165). Lexique 104-105: ficerent. etc. stiva. villa. etc. audtre. Bon. habitur. ferrum. ficit. rictu. ingraviscente. I. exit. Pirson 2-5: lo-ii: requiiscit. minses. § i66. became. i. 0) . quincriscens. doubtless by the third century and sporadically earlier. teneo. circulns. remained unchanged: I. delitus. The 201. fedilis. Spr. see § 177. piscem. 106-113: minse. found in Gregory of Tours fur das Studium der neueren Sprachen CXV. Long i.

. ceteneris. §§ 197. R. 6 202. the change For agnusco. Calabria. etc. etc. see the end of § 197. 468. vea. S. under the influence of dexter: Lat. (Zat. Beside simul there was a *sSmul. sponsus. see § 167.. Apulia of e to /. 106. (3) Sinister was replaced by sinexter. attested also by in- scriptions (S. Haag II. etc. etc. In Sicily. In southern Italy e from i. very common etc..§203] legare. after that they were perhaps isolated: Einf. zV/z///). is The spelling u for etc. 85 menus.. Neumann 23-25. amure. 198): minses. karessemo. accepere. benivolus. «. 541. 195. Long 0. S. sebe. 469. at least in hora. minester. became i: cf. 214. 468. Pirson 8-10. 468): furma. like e from e. etc. remained unchanged most regions: colorem. etc. Spr. trea.. The popular ustium I. > ou. Quintilian and Varro mention 166) a rustic e for I. pronounced in Vulgar Latin. Stu^i Medievali 613) is perhaps to be ex- plained in this way.. Spr. etc. etc. used by Gregory the Great and for ostium others. -^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. trebus. perhaps through the analogy of semel: Lat. i is Bon. corregia. solus. 11 7-1 23. 463. sene.... R. as it (§ 165). 202). 200-201. 463. § 196.. Spr. ^/z<^(= minester. Digitized by Microsoft® . semuL.. in Gaul {^Lat. AudoUent 535. has become § 196. Conversely (S. (i) (2) Beside camtsia there was a camTsia: Substrate I. nomen. Pirson 13. S. often used for e (cf. cognusco. Carnoy 15^-. and southern did in old Oscan: cf. These two islands were taken > from Rome by the Vandals in 458 and added to the African kingdom. For ou 203. In Sardinia and a part of Corsica this change did not take and both t and i i. Spr. etc. viduriiis. place. forma.

tuit. pi. tot. Digitized by Microsoft® . § 187. tottus (§ 163). etc. a large part of northern Rsetia it position. nun. Italy. and western was probably formed a little forward of its normal It was certainly not u. remained unchanged: bonus. tutto. The rustic Latin funics. mueble postulate Cf.86 etc. 126-130. pi. 211—212. Nyrop. solet. the influence of cuncti on toti. tutt3 . No satisfactory explanation has been proposed the most plausible. § 217. see Long u.. in mobilis. namely. meuble. frundes (for fontes. forts. 216. Cf. the analogy of mSveo. perhaps. Grammaire I. una. remained unchanged most of the Empire: cura. App. (2) Beside totus and *tuttus or *tuctus. became ou or u: cortem 204. (i) > Old. Pr.. is that of Mohl. Short 0. court. Italian tutto . The Such a form seems to be attested by the Gl. in north- ern Gaul. probably represents a very close sound.. q before n + dental. S." where tutti is defined as alle. old Fr. uuela alle. etc. some of the Romance forms point to nom. There are a few peculiar cases: and Sp. Cf. cf. Cassel: " aiatutti. — presumably through Fr. pronounced u (§ 165). which Haag 13. K. totto. Pr. the plural. but it doubtless slightly This pronunciation may have been due to the historique de langue francaise approached it. sg. Lexique 102-104. later. sortem.. Fr. § 198. puni. 206. U is occasionally used for o in inscriptions: lucus. ^'formica noxi furmica. cognusco. sg. frondes) are perhaps connected with Italian yb«fe and other words containing o for 205. forum. mortem. [§ 206 It Bon. gluria. or at least to a tutti. Grammarians mention the protrusion of the lips: S. nullus. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Neapolitan sg. folia. *tutti or *tucti: It. For the development of diphthongs. in But in Gaul. may have come through 6 pronounced ^ (§ 165). pi. locus. pi. durus." § 177..

Cf. etc. due to the analogy of sdror and * nSvia (" bride. servos. pomice. couleuvre. culpa. perhaps only orthographic: Lat. App. > : 207. 217." "puella non poella"). corso. (i) (2) The following special cases are to be noted: — Cf. 617-618. Fr. In place of niirus we find ndrus (R." from nSvus). 216). Spr. The spelling is common in late documents: "columna non colomna. Celtic by the second century." from nSvus) Lat. and ndra. see § 167. Beside angHstia there must have been *angSstia. (3) There are other local irregularities. In Sardinia. 134." "formosus noTiformunsus. §§ 169. criidus > criz) Loth 67-68. « > z (cii^a cili. G. NUptia. through the analogy of *nSvius ("bridegroom. u 208. .). Mohl pumex there was XXVI. probably by in most of the Empire: bucca. etc. tomolus. Short the fourth century or earlier. Pr. and Dacia this u : Lat. 464. u. "colubemon colober. which lasted down into the Empire. etc." "turma non iorma" (cf. Spr. Albania. a part of Corsica. Beside luridus there probably was a *l-S.§ 2o8] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. became. tonica. 136. Spr. became nSptim: (3) Beside in Zs. Jleuve. a pomex: Bon. by Microsoft® . fiUvium. jeune call for local q in coliibra. unda. § 217. giila.> mur) but in a few. Substrate IV. Cf. 132-135. For qu (i) (2) > qu. toneca. 469. and both u and . people ssiA plSvere (used by Petronius (4) Instead oi pluere axA pKvia and others) and *pldja: Lat. in Latin words borrowed by the Celts « is generally treated like Celtic (murus ". Pirson 15-17. 467.. 465) and nSra (S.rdus: Substrate III. jUvlnis. The old spelling for u after v {yoltus. covetum (= is Haag 14. F. ruptus. 87 linguistic habits of the Celts: u> t in Great Britain cf. u> Spr.. change did not take place. Bon. Digitized Cf. 468. pronounced u (§ 165). 517. Windisch 396-397.. presumably taken very early. cubtturn).

687 ff. Hence. its and pronounced ai. cen224. in the first S. came into general use: fenum. etc. preda prceda. century: Einf. e.. in stressed syllables in the first century of our era and later. seta. The Pompeius blames the confusion of csquus spelling e for cb was usual in unacfrom the fourth century on. ccelum. especially in Pompeii (presta. century on (Carnoy 78): questus (2d century). [§ 210 DIPHTHOUGS. 225. but two parts it became cb. and equus : S. S. The regular change oi ce to e took place largely in Republican times in unaccented syllables. septum. igo. etc. b. In certain words a vulgar and dialect pronunciation com- and Faliscan (Hammer 7. represents the sound better than ai: E is etc. preda.): found early in Campania. tury. sepes 188. says that cb Terentius Scaurus. by analogy. c. spellings as fcecit.88 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Spr. etc. sepes. Carnoy It was probably general everywhere by the second 69-84. Cf. stressed cb was probably still a diphthong in the city but had become e in rustic Latium. qucero. 'Sox fenum fcenum. quiceti. Neumann 13 (and Fort- mon to Volscian seizung 21-23): famina. £ for a in dative endings occurs early: Corssen I. when Varro cited edus for hadus as a rural form. Cf. such scBpes both forms were preserved. In Spanish inscriptions e occurs from the first S. 8). 225. Cf. fifth it cented syllables (as sancte) before the third century. in stressed syllables (as questor) may be called regular by the century: S. some hundred years later e came into the city and pervaded the middle of the provinces: Lat.. § 78. Bechtel Digitized by Microsoft® . 210. 178. ae 209. 465. ^ was originally written through the mutual attraction of later e: ccecus. About the first century b. S. Carnoy 79-80. 166—168. 178.

in general. In Rumanian and Provengal it was preserved as au. in Portuguese as ou. Umbrian and Faliscan had 4-5. Carnoy 85-86 (clusa. 8. Conversely ce was often erroneouslyused for e (S. — speak of a rustic or archaic o for au: Corssen fif. original q (i) is proved by the treatment and Spanish it did not become of c in ^ until had broken into uo or ue. Cf. Dibmedes. orum. etc. 304. II. II. taurus. etc. etc. plostrum Carnoy App.C. Bayard 5. Hammer : 15-19. The f there S.: § 212] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. century second century Carnoy 85. gaudium. Glacus. in the Probus. is 223 spellings Cladius. are pretty common in various countries Carnoy 86-95. Rome. In Umbrian inscriptions we find Latin. Vok. with a for au when an u in the next syllable. 183-184) and for Greek r) (as scanam. occur inscriptions Carnoy 85. 301 S. R. its existence in 211.. the earli^est stage of French in Italian causa> chose . Cf. 162-164. in place of Latin au: and There are some examples in Pompeii. generally remained in Vulgar*^ Latin: aura. 212. Lexique 104). grece. etc. coda. Cludo for claudo is common. in Oscan territory. ^^ auris non cotes. toru. Hammer central Italy: Chronologie . Festus. Carnoy 100 (cludo in two Sp. Perhaps they represent a provincial pronuncia- tion. or possibly (2) they are only orthographic. Clodius : Ham- and Plotus are common in first mer 4. an Au. the dialects of northern \i^?s~\(>\. 655-663. Pr. orum. oricla". and others The grammarians : — . Scarus. where and second centuries B. ostrum. pronounced du. In C/^j-a. crept was used by the lower classes: Lat. etc. Festus cites 95. coming through derivatives. Priscian. in the first it the city../464. 89 75-76: cedat. orata. and 465-466. Pirson 27.. where au was normally preserved this pronunciation was used also in the country around So. I.: into Spr. inscriptions of the I St and 2d centuries). Digitized by Microsoft® .. such as occludo: Vok.).

Marius Victorinus. Eu. II. stus. Jilodere. 0. sodes. Cf. In the Per. hUic. later e: coepi. 227. Hammer 4)= aut. S. Spr. Lat. fosnum. neuter. I. plaudo. Phebus. 228. ce for ce and e. became popular: coscus. we C. codex. S. oricla. *^^ Cf. * auddere for occtdere. mm227. find amenus. Bechtel 76. Classic fauces. by Microsoft® . Vulgar Latin in a few words : coda. ccementa. Vok. CE was originally written through the mutual attraction of presumably 0. may be that for reflected by the spelling phyeb^ E is attested by inscriptions in the first century ceperint. was preserved: For the development oifui. was not preserved in any popular words. pollulum: si audes. fcemina. 228. of ce and e is mentioned by late grammarians: In late Latin a bad spelling. 1890. foces. Ola. plotus occur also. the intermediate stage Phoebe. Europa. etc.go An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. illHi. oe 215. 293ff. ui pronounced lii. Umbrian suffoco. but two parts it became It pcenitet. eu 214. IV. see § 431. mmrore. postulated by some Romance forms. poena. S. The confusion S. 464. is its and pronounced oi. cepi. ote. explodo. Ui. seu). Carnoy 95. plodo. coles =^ caulis. heu. of our era: Cf. S. " sorex ve\ saurex. etc. Digitized cHi. L. au was occasionally used for 160): Festus. Cf. eui~us. [§ 216 {^Chronologie Conversely." Cf. 216. This rustic and vulgar while the in Romance — which was pronounced — was generally adopted from au was 0. 0. eheu. 227. cxlum. pronounced eu (as in ceu.. lotus. pcenates. (cf. Cicero used loreola. eu. Carnoy 84. auscu/um . neu. 213.

for the In clerical Latin the vowels were probably pronounced most part as ii). — 457. u ^u (or a and ce ^e. in general. by Microsoft® . see §§ N. to Vulgar Latin. became ou: S. Osservazioni al precedence lavoro. q. — vowel by a liquid. p. in vulgar speech. juvenis'^*jovenis. until long after the Vulgar Latin period. After that. d. Ascoli. La vocal tonka alterata dal contatto d'una consonante labiate in Archivio glottologico italiano XV. and then only Digitized in a part of the Empire. § 134. see G. that f. e. dvum~>* ovum. au:=q ox au.. those of the first syllable had most resistance. i = i. UNACCENTED VOWELS. Pieri. 579. — For secondary 153-155. A general influence of this kind can hardly be regarded as proved for any combination except ou. mobilis'^* mqbilis. La vocal tonka alterata da una consonante labiale in Zs. but did not fall. etc. Jluvium'>*flqvium. 476. XXVII. Among unstressed vowels. which 217. qt INFLUENCE OP LABIALS. 218. Although many examples are cited. = 0. I ' According to some philologists. 219. possibly through a lingering the Old Latin accent: cf.§ 219] An Introduction c. until the reforms of Charlemagne. u were lowered one stage labial. q. a = a. CLERICAL LATEff. For a criticism of the theory. e=e. the evidence is not convincing. 2. e. influence of The vowels of the final syllable lost much of their distinct- ness. ibid. pluere'^ ployere. maintains ceding or following even if it by a preq was separated from the to e. except sporadically. The discussion is continued by Pieri. B. see § 167. stress. a following labial tends to open a vowel: colubra>* colqbra.

for o and u. developed two forms. in Classic and Vulgar Latin: cal{i)dus. 21-24. however. According to Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. i was certainly distinct from Digitized In final i: sentis. In early Latin there was an inclination to syncope: ar{i)ddrem. scriptions etc. For the confusion of unaccented e and i. 3 During the Classic period it generally became t: decumus~> decimus. 7. This tendency continued. 203-208. found in place of quasi. forms as infri. In inscriptions we find such frig{i)daria. siimus -and simus. Haag 15-24. (i)." In the vulgar speech simus seems to have Cf. secondary or the primary 47-48. 221. iv. Lindsay 25-26. "in here neque e plane nequi i auditur. in moderation. [§ 221 Grammarians sibe are testify to the confusion of and u: S. Spr. Lat. dc(^u)lus. see Pirson 41—47. 2 1 2. maxumus quodlubet"^ guodlibet. Fredegarius is very uncertain in his use of unstressed vowels: 220. employed only before labials. in unaccented . 199-200.. vetranus: S. The former was the one generally adopted in Classic Latin. 9). see Pirson. 35 Franz. jur(^i)go. "Messala. syllables. 466. Brutus. pontufex "^pontifex." (Weakest were medial vowels immediately following the stress. According to Quintilian I. syllables: I. § 419. by Microsoft® . etc. etc.92 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. U was cf.. being sometimes accented. 196-198. but simus was favored by Augustus and by some purists of his time (Lindsay 29). spelled both with u and with i: Carnoy 65-69. Agrippa pro sumus simus scripserunt. sibi: S. bdl{i)neum. cf. Quase. ID re vailed in Italy and southern Gaul. SUmus. except in initial syllables. av{^i)dere. 30—36. cal[e)fdcere. In Spanish in- we find maximus. In general Latin quantity did not sensibly affect the quality of unstressed vowels. S. > maximus. etc. vtr{i)dis. and even there the difference must have been small. 251.

" "vacui gon 224. as approved is by Cicero: S. senti. Digitized by Microsoft® . however. then. used before Joseph. fluviorutn) are found in Ennius. UNACCENTED VOWELS IN HIATUS. fectf^Vr. After gutturals. a vowel but lost its syllabic value in early Classic times: acua > aqua. abiete. a. feci. 93 stbi. vindemiator'va. the u was ap- parently not reduced to a semivowel until the end of the In some other words the syllabic value of u was kept. App. So it was in qualis. quem. senttt> It. Ovid. Horace. u followed by a vowel was originally itself. In perfects. Plautus.§ 224] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and will be out of consideration in the present chapter. sente. Quintilian says that u and i in uos and iam are not vowels: S. rather late: Velius Longus distinguishes aquam from acuam. These. Lucilius. 223. > distinguere. Juvenal. Bonnet notes that etc. Occasional examples (such as dormio. 234. §187. probably by the century of our and sporadically earlier. 236.. /"and u followed by a vowel and beginning a syllable were apparently pronounced as consonants from the earliest times. will be treated as consonants. alio. sometimes short. e. at least in theory. left a. fis. nocuit. "vacua non vaqua.g. facias. Pr. Quintilian and Velius Longus cite the spellings Aiiax. Otherwise." S. is distinguere qucBro. In tibi the final vowel was sometimes long. abietiItalia counts as three syllables in poets of the ' bus in Virgil. such as Classic period. Maiiam not ab. and u in hiatus with following vowels first lost their syllabic value era. qui. fes. Lucretius. i. e. Horace. and Seneca: deorsum in Lucretius. Virgil.. oKuAas) very common: Eckinger 123-125. placuit. 232. fudxis. In Greek transliterations kv for qui (as in cf. 222. vaqui.

soave in Italian. abias. In the same vi2. four-syllable induruit are barbarisms Caesellius is undecided whether tenuis has three syllables or two: S. as e. S. calciare.94 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. We have. then. solia. with a narrowing of the mouth-passage. was used as a trisyllable by Sedulius in the fifth century. vinia. App. R. the / remaining long enough to palatalize the / (the Romance e was doubtless a later analogical development). in late Latin spelling. eacit {^=jacei). etc. §136). abiat. mulierem (% 1^6) ". tenueram > tenweram (§137). noxeus. cavia.y Jiliolus>Jiljdlus (§136).sapui > saj>ui> sapwi. lancia. Pr. C. 187..dixisse": Carnoy 43). VI. 103. Cf. the semivowels pre- sumably developed into the fricative consonants y and w: S. Lauriatus. 231-232. likewise eccu'kic> *eccwic. in late Latin. Valerius Probus has parietibus: £don 208. valiat. "ares veteres pro anVi." KeilVII. Uniamenta. parieUs {%i2t^)>p aretes. u6 developed differently. i. a new y and a new w. palleum. 234. cf- Carnoy 33-35. exiat. a great confusion of e and i in hiatus: capriolvs (cf. "non iamus sed eamus. II>'43. 3714 (Rome).. 232. Bayard 4. I. it became soef in French. Vok.> mul'erem. century or before by the third century. and // apparently being contracted into e. ee. So alea>alea'^alja. The pronunciation speech by the first u was probably regular in popular ." " sobrius per i non per e scribendum. earn {=jani). 463. aleum. S. it was probably a semi-learned word. L. ie. Consentius declares that trisyllabic soluit and . Suavis. 106. at an early date: arietem (^^\-^6)'> are tern (Varro. however. fasiolus. coclia. faciebam'>*facebam. eccu'istay-* ecwista (§65). But the combinations ei -. [§ 225 early Empire.:> Digitized by Microsoft® . 06 and u6 into o. desto. prehcndere 225. Audollent 535. calcius. lintium. Hence arises. Caper. etc.filius'>ftlius'^Jiljus.. 00. * de-excito~^* dexctto'^ It.

pendere. battuo "^ batto (cf. the Viduus. > ecus {^App. "tin352. abattas. coquus'^ cocus {App.. "equs non ecus ". in quum>cum. Furthermore. before unaccented by the second century: antiquus "> anticus carduus^^cardus. 218) quator — in. vef. Spr. tinguo~^ttngo (Caper. some writers use no u in distinguere. Digitized by Microsoft® . contin{u)ari. then *cdpenre *cdp'rtre through the analogy of co. uncis = unguis. (Pirson 58) quatro (7th century. S. coquo^coco {App.. cf. Jan{u)arius: Vok. common Carnoy 43). Reich. kept its u: Old Fr. quteius'> quetus. sttnguo > guere non tingere. consiln'^ consilt. tdrqueo>*torquo> *tdrco. Gl. S. £ruum'>erum {Lat. quat{t')uor'^quattor (^. § 227] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. '' coqui non cod. .. Bayard 7. Pr. then *prendere through the analogy of reddere and perhaps also of ascendere. equus S. inndcuus>inndcus. unguo'>ungo {ungo. Audollent See §354. cf. unguntur. distinguunf> distingunt (ac- cording to Velius Longus. requebit. 105. . So apparently aruum^* arum. defendere. S. in late inscriptions. 351).oSmsiT\& mortus. tendere. Velius Longus. / after a consonant fell before unaccented i: Velius audit '^ audi. hence *cocma)." " coqus non cocus". Pirson 57 (cf.'K.. . ho-Tievex. fell commoner After gutturals. quoi{f)tdie> stingo . — cdhdrtew^ cortem. 227.'). 472: ero).and perhaps also ol opera. qudmddo> comodo. Carnoy 117. doubtless under the influence of vidua. suus'> sus. 217-218. mortuus'^p- cottidie. ministerW^ ministeri. Audollent 536). "ungue non unge. tuum'^tum. Carnoy 221)." Keil VII. £don 130). 106). 226. Febr{u)arius. " coquens non cocens". Pr. ungi. Pr. U often fell irregularly II. z/ after all consonants fell before unaccented u probably by the middle of the first century. 468-469. 2 1 7 ) . 95 prendere. Caper. u before stressed u and 0: 536. duodecim'^ dodecim (Pirson 58: dodece). cooperire"^ coperlre." Keil VII. Similarly. opus.

'^senatus non sinatus" App. e For the confusion of Carnoy 17-33. Comelii. Spr. Bon. 109. Pr. Some minor peculiarities are to be noted: (i) A after/ apparently tended to become e: Old dialect forms) . agusias. 135—138. golosus gylosus (ior gulosus). /^22: Jejunus after prefixes lost its first syllable: * dis-junare. dvitdtem. Bon. Lat. b. -n and —ns: Dtonysii>lt. i.. 223. Spr. A(u)gustus. I. it [§ 229 Longus found etc. audere. A(u)runci. S. ce. Dionigi. > *jenua > Sardinian genna. one can judge from spellings and subsequent developments. gaudere. INITIAL SYLLABLE.. Bon. Cf. * agurium (cf. lost before also. Farisiis > Parigi. dolere. I. S. Koffmane no. 57. 470): rddicem. Lat.. ridemus. a was pronounced a. d'rectus (^Vok. 223 Pirson 26)." S. subinde. — Latin /(j/»««j > Classic Jejunus (the original a seems to be preserved in Classic Januarius '^ Jenuarius . Bechtel 76. i. au became a if there was an accented u in the next syllable. and u were finally all pronounced 228. but otherwise remained unchanged (cf. Arunci occurs in manuscripts of Virgil. frumentum. E. colorem. Julii. 470): dilevit. dtrectus generally '> drictus)\ quirttare~>*dritare. Caper says "ausculta non asculta. Digitized by Microsoft® . (Lat. etc. plordre. necessary to say that Claudii. 136. Spr. must have existed 229. some Italian (common by i in inscriptions. Vok. naufragium. far as As or u. 0^ remained p. 470) (2) Classic/awKa mimoricB. cetdtem. movetis.96 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. debere. kept It. in Gallic inscriptions cf. Some however. hibernus. valere. tenere. 11. Agustus is frequent from the second century on. videre. ce all came to be sounded e. a{u)sculto. moniti (for muniti). 171-1 72. Keil VII. (Bcclesia. is very often replaced divota. l remained i. i: should be spelled with double late words. In a few words the vowel of the initial syllable was an r: *corrStulare^*^roflare. long or short. and see Audollent 535. fxddre.

nutrire (beside *nqtrire). < e In miraUlia the i ap- parently became (5) U and a.. putator O is changed to e in retundus (Vok. (4) / tended to become e. Great: dirivare. Italian sed on the model of ched: si is preserved in French. fimre'^fenire. e became southern Italy from the fourth to the sixth century RIVOCAVERIT. Vitruvius.. as in 6' before a consonant was doubtless long and sharp. in manuscripts and inscriptions. Rom. 127). (6) O appears as u mfurmica (App. This perhaps indicates a close pronunciation cf. is common : in Gregory the etc. 126. Pirson 27. Spr. Pr. in late Latin. § 198. Lexique 123. Si. Sfr. I. Vr. nise. sdlbatec. possibly through confusion with dis-. II. turrente (Bon. was kept by analogy in many words : dUrare. cf. 3 II. Au 230. 470) and/m?- perus (App. XXXV. silvdticus> salvaticus (Gl. 82). Lexique I2z. (Bon.Jaiant. in fourth century inscriptions. serori. cf. Franz. JUntfSrus'^jeniperus (Lat. in vulgar speech was often replaced by (cf. 3 II. mcinus vecinus. Spr. serorihus. Pr^. §§ 212. 16^. : (3) > *jagante > Old Yr. if i followed. which prevailed in Vulgar Latin. Lexique 105-108. de-. mUrare. Lexique > I04ff. Cf. 225. sometimes became se.for i in 422-424. became instead of Digitized by Microsoft® . Lexique 120. Reich. Bon. in very late texts there is frequent confusion of si and sed (Franz. L. etc. oricla. and Old Rumanian. retundatio. I. attested from the sixth 87. front vowel (until the seventh century nearly always an ' later e Mohl's view. Umbrian ate. II. so that at the modern a syllabic effect — beginning of a word it had s-chola. §§ 69. salvage. salvatico. Rum. 470) > Old Fr. cf. 470). cf. se in Portuguese. attested by Servius. cf. and Spanish. through the influence of the prefix re—. §111. According to Mohl. Lexique \2Z-iz6. analogy of *que quid^ quod (cf. I was occasionally assimilated to a following accented a : ^gdntem It. This led to the prefixing of a 2. mUtare. Lat. century on (Foi. Old Genoese zagante.§ 23o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Pr. Proven9al. 213. Italian. cf. Old French. C. so *ot (for aut: cf. divmus"^ demnus. 470. A form ni for ne is found from early times Pirson 3. 234-235) . the e is perhaps due to the Haag II. Lindsay 40). Italian.jaian. 213): App. if there was an accented i in the next syllable:^ dividSre'^*devTdlre. by dissimilation. z. 205) . 224 ff. also sometimes in serore (Lat.. : 97 Di. Lat. 131).. Carnoy (7) 107). Spr. Einf. is that original Latin ei.

istare. spiratio for inspiratio. is. cdrr(i)care. S. istatuam. 3656-. . — By this term is meant syllable following the secondary and preceding the primary stress. In some regions they began to fall regularly before the close of the Vulgar Latin period. ismaragdus. mirabilia. N. isiudio. Isidore. ispose. S. Slementum 6limintum. not frequently. estatio. cdlK^o^cdre. etc. 467. indistinct towards the erally kept: bdn{i)idtem.. Koffmane 109.thus produced was confounded with ex-. ^w. R.(pronounced w-): expiendido. instruo for struo. Cf. spatii.. spectante for expectante. Vowels so situated probably became more and more end of the Empire. B. and occasionally disappeared. [§ 231 often e) to the s or e when tio vowel preceded first is — in i-schola.. 148. but a was gen231. Dubois 1 71-17 2. scalciare for excalceare. frigiddria frigddria. strumentum. of it iscola. etc. etc. ischola. in the seventh century. hispatii for Bechtel 78. in the third century (Carnoy 114-116). written Barcelona in the second century. Pirson 59-60. cirebellum. isperabi. 445-446. 317. ab sceleribus. S. sp. tlie C. Dubois 171. IHTERTONIC SYLLABLE. The The in Latin example probably it is iscolasticus. Bon. 469-470. cdp[i)idlis. prosthetic vowel earliest occurs in Greek inscriptions. compardre comperdre. Pirson 60. splorator. This i came to be regarded as a regular part of the word. 445. cf. spandere for ex- pandere. fourth and found repeatedly. exs— (pronounced «-) and /«j-.98 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. dil{i)cdtus. II. Estephanus. stantia for instantia. Bon. though iscripta. dub{i)idre. ab scandalo. 316-319. Spania. Vok. in the fifth it is very common: espiritum. Spania. st: ginning with Bon. Spanus. dv{i)idtem. The es-. Grammarians took But in no note late until St. scoriare for excoriare. Latin texts ab rather than a was used before words besc. Digitized by Microsoft® . 317 R.

vetranus. insola. v^recundia. son 52. The penult.. (>Pr. 12. etc. There was probably a conflict between cultivated and popular pronunciation. Koffmane III. was apparently very Vulgar Latin. being next to the accent. both types The treatment inconsistent often being preserved in the Romance languages: thus while the literary and official world said {h)dmines (>It. Bon. comare for coronare. Pir- Franz. Substrate IV. etc. vowel preceded by a consonant and followed by a fell in the earlier part of the Vulgar Digitized 233. Neumann 22. cf. similarly As far as the general phenomena can be we may say that in popular words in penult tended to (i) fall common speech the vowel of the under the following conditions: — Between any Consonant and a Liquid. etc. The fall of the vowel of course disturbed the Vulgar Latin rhythm: see § 153. fall 559. F.§ 233] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 99 sdcramintum.. Cf. Mintsterium apparently became minsterium early enough for the n to before the s: see §171. We find in late Latin much confusion of e and /.. c. dixemus. in Sepulcri 201—202. R. separdre seperdre. Pirson 51. PENULT. Likewise o and u: ambolare. in the second century b. Cf. liquid A weakened and by Microsoft® . principle tended to oblit- 232. 464. : Frigdaria occurs Cf. 118. the uneducated pronounced 'om'nes beside socerum there was sScrum. XIV. The Vulgar Latin rhythmic erate one of the two post-tonic syllables of proparoxytones. 131— 135. however. omne)\ classified. pi. of this vowel. dedcavit. Neumann in Zs. 116.. 467. was weaker and more exposed to syncope. etc. R. d. uomini).• anemis. stablarius. Bon. meretis. and the conditions differed widely in different regions.

Franz. at any rate in some regions: bdjulus. D. e^-16 . Lexique 63. App. Carnoy 12. a. 96.stulum> crustlum (found in 18 Cf. Pr. spec{ii)lum. Pirson 49-50. seperat (about 500 A. In some words we find a weakened to e: socro. were kept distinct vulgar speech: artic{u)lus. mdsc{u)lus. App. aunclus. spatula'. peduclum. 234. 195-196. comp'tus. (2) Between a Labial and any Consonant. I. aspra. In vigilafp-* viglat the vowel fell before (2) below. Die Sprache des Petronius und die Glossen. Waters Ch.. amples are found in inscriptions: AudoUent 538. Pirson 51. dc{ii)lus. ins(u)la. as in saclum. Cceseris. ci. Bon. compera. vemdc(^u)lus. A sonant was inclined to bublus. frdgilis. maniplus. oclos. fecrunt fecru. Many exI. App. dedro for dederunt.^-* spatla. see first consonant -Cvas a palatal.loo An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the vowel seems to have been kept. Later they were confused. [§ 235 Latin period: altra. Pr. masclus. Eseram for Isaram. both -clus in {^<i—tlo). 1 digitum> dicCf. felicla. bdc{u)lus. vowel preceded by a labial and followed by a confall early: 235. ftsiula>*Jiscla.). vitulus>veclus. which must have been slow in entering the common vocabulary. Cf. Juglus. Digitized by Microsoft® . gracilis. vic(u)lus. 3 To -clus was assimilated in popular Latin the ending -talus: capitulus"^* capiclus . (cf. cltera. 1899. escaped this absorption: cni.'). But a few words. frigidus^frigdus. as in auricula. § 259. anglus. § 284. d. both becoming —cuius in Classic Latin.' For a vowel between a labial and a liquid. Lexique 64. Vok. Pirson 51). villus. These by Plautus.). Franz. scaplas. 57. Oclus and some others occur in Petronius: see W. Pr. But if the the ^ began to be palatalized (so apparently in 9 I. tum. hilerus. virginem. Latin originally had the two diminutive endings —clus and -cuius {<i-co-lo). Heraeus. cdm{i)tem. 16-18.

. etc. Horace and Vitruvius. 236. 15 soldus. 44. ioi tri- dib{i)tum. 467. 44. Juvenal. In d6m(i')nus the mn form may be mane domni. : § 238] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. pi. 56. h6m{i')nes jiiv{e)nis . * dvka "^ auca. vdpulo baplo. c6l{a)phus {ci. but often there were double forms the process began very early audus. b{u)la. domnicus. generally became au. gdbata>*gauta *gabta. Martial. merto. the fall When ab or av was brought next to a consonant by it of a following vowel. Plautus). In some words. found in glosses. R. either everywhere or in a large region: drbi^o^rem. offla. Varro. Petronius. per- colopabat. Franz. Ovid. Franz. Cato. Caesar. pardbula>*paraula *parabla. p I. App. Reich. fulica fulca. fdbula>*faula *fabla. tions: In some words the vowel fell under digitum> dictum. 237. however. 467. 238. Digitized different condi§ 233) . tdbula>*taula *tabla. Franz. virdis. * cldvido> claudo (cf. lardum. pi. Franz. 13. 4th century). sablum. 15-16 (cf. pdp{u)lus. Pirson 51. Pliny. Plautus (cf. Waters Ch. (cf. Varro.Jibla. Vegetius. domnus in St. the older: d6m. Franz. Augustine. Pirson 50. . Waters Ch. dvidus avunculus"^ aunculus. Koff109. Ci. Gl. caldus. frigidus by Microsoft® . in R. hdmula. A vowel preceded by a liquid and followed by a consonant was subject to syncope at all periods: ardus. the vowel was kept. Horace. 3 \. (3) Between a Liquid and any Consonant. 13. domnulus. Cf. KofiEmane iii. Pr. Cf. Plautus. valde. Plautus.. poplus.^-* nautat . pi. colpus. i2ff. nibula. virdiaria. p I. (4) Miscellaneous. 12. f{b{u)la. Waters Ch. *navi- > fragus>naufragus).. * ndvitaf. sablum. Franz. tremulat.{i')nus.). occurs in Lamna Petronius has bublum.

Pompeii (fridam). Cato). Digitized by Microsoft® . probably late. Reich. and a number of vowels otherwise placed fell under different conditions in various regions: pdnere'^*ponre." Aus and flaus have left no representatives. Franz. Aquitanian. Gl.: = collocat. semita'^* senta. 239. except a and in Celtic. viaticum. c6llocat'>-*colcat. 2d century. . mdnica'>* manca. Suchier 732. they had not fallen already. Pirson 50. ntHdus>*niiius." "flavus non Jlaus" "rivus non rius. 13-14 (ci. vindico. tdllere > * tolre. e. habitus > * abtus. frdx(i)nus. The vowels regularly remained through the Vulgar Latin period. shortened forms were used in other regions. — were — syncopated with some regularity. App. § Introduction to Vulgar Latin. p I. (2). Some of these In a part of Gaul dmita'^* anta. culicet culcet Cf. cdrrico'^*carco. Pr. they generi. In the transition from Vulgar Latin to the Romance in so far as languages the vowels in classes (i). pi2tidus'^*puttus. All three forms are probably examples of a tri- phonetic reduction that affected certain regions. we find "avus non aus. dominica-^ * dominca. etc. ally fell. posturus. (fricda). posius. and Ligurian territory. carcatus. In the App. about the eighth century. Through a large part of the Empire -avit>-aut: umphaut is found in Pompeii. Lucretius. rapidus > > *rapdus. (3). Later. dic{i)mus. 241. debita~^* depta. FINAL SYLLABLE. See Morphology. pers{i)ca. [§ 241 ^frigdus maxima^ masma. clericus^*clercus. Pr.102 An (cf. sid(^e)cim. but rius is evidently the ancestor of Italian and Spanish rio. medicus. 240. fimina *femna. 233). A vowel preceded by </ or ^ and followed by c seems to have remained longer than most other vowels that fell at all: judico.

Spr. which became u in Sicily. according to the testimony of numerous inscriptions {Lat. were not usually distinguished (cf. etc.Xxa. §210): apte^aptcB. fructu." "masculus non mascel. famul = A. In some localities this and this u were kept distinct. "bibere non biber". inflection. bonds. e. which in Sicily be- came eventually // t remained // was 0." ^^figulus nonfigel. modern must have been often elided or syncopated in the interior of a phrase. Pr. sentls. Carnoy45: Digitized dative. and i came to be used almost indiscriminately. 469). has "barbarus non barbar. iv and I. 3 I. tibe. The changes in pronunciation led to great confusion in spelling. tristes. See Franz. It is likely that final vowels were especially ob- scure in Gaul in the sixth and seventh centuries. tanger in manuscripts.§ 244] An Introduction Final vowels. especially e after liquids: Caper. mihe. etc. etc. haber in an inscription. praber. 469). ablative. which left no trace in the Romance famulus. vii. About the eighth century a probably became ? in northern Gaul. Old 'Lz. were all probably sounded e. feci. autumnal {e). as in to Vulgar Latin. 103 242. Bechtel 75-76. but generally they were confounded {Lat. pradiscer. Lexique 118." These curious forms are probably not the result of a phonetic development. perhaps. E luce. he i. Neumann 7-8 cites ten cases of e for a: Italice. 41. for / is frequent in the dative and ablative. etc. conder. Cf. Quintilian says that Livy wrote sibe and quase. was naturally pronounced a. a. So. sancta. but are rather due to a local change of languages.. morior. tristem. 243. Italian.. tribunal{e). describes the final vowel of here as neither quite e nor quite Cf. facul =facilis. in late Latin. uxore. t. Examples: dmds. tristts. u was u. E and a. corpus. Spr. E I. The App. 244. bom. in I. vii. cotidia. by Microsoft® . long or short. dmdt.

Bon. Carnoy 48. §29) as in minus-pretiare.. 11 1. and us for os. etc. ^and Fwere used both and u and for the consonants/ and v. used as a prefix (cf. etc. D. L. K. 474. Os and us were interchanged from the third century on awi' = annos. CONSONANTS. of om for um. etc. as well as frequent instances of ablative in um. So et it: Bechtel 88-89. siiper'>-*supre. os The confusion of for us.. 43-44. omnes ^ omnis (3d century). and um is very common in Per.. also in Gregory the Great. etc. 'Im. Cf. 61 examples of u for ablative In Vok. K. Neumann 11-13. Carnoy 13. -re. 131 has spoliatur for spoliatot. in etc. = maris./^^. Carnoy 13-15.. for the vowels i were B. was kept in Digitized some formulas . Q.. letters The Latin consonant P.r became Carnoy 221.. M.. Sepulcri 201. I. 916. Bon. Bon. mares etc. II. E. T. Audollent 535.. under the influence of dis-. F. in us was particu128.. I. Lat.. Spr.. Vok. -ro: inter'>*intre. omnes ^^omnis. it need by Microsoft® . V. G. tenit. 115. cf. Z. Minus. Phon. N.4 G. [§ 246 Es and are continually interchanged: 24. there are between 126 and 563 a. -£?. sem- per'^* sempre . Sepulcri 229-230. H. C. very etc. etc. X. etc. common in Per. regis ^reges. monumento ^= monumentum. •quat{u)or'>quatro. of. Bon. larly common 42. Carnoy 48 bonus = bonos. Haag 245. Neumann 11-13. posuet.. movit. and 121. etc. an R. Bon. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin period. Joannis.. : . Sepulcri 203-204. With and u it was the same. Cf. 246. 116. d. In words ofteii used as proclitics final -er.104 An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. accusative plural G|^l|ii Jilius—Jilios. became in Gaul mis-. S. Ill. old letter equivalent to C.

In words borrowed from Greek and German there were several foreign consonants. 247. and n ceased to be sounded before s. Pirson 83-91. In addition to the above. taken up The Latin consonants will be in the following order: aspirate. lastly the Germanic. the Celtic need not be separately studied. sonants The principal developments that affected Latin conmay be summed up as follows: b between vowels was opened into the bilabial fricative /3. first the native Latin. 158.or ss (S. terra. nullus. Double consonants regularly kept after long their long pronun- ciation: annus. Pirson 88. Pirson 85. consonants are often written single in early inscriptions. m and n became silent at the end of a word. gutturals. ^ and g before front vowels were palatalized and were then subject to further alterations. Digitized by Microsoft® . nasals. which will be discussed after the native ones. with The consonants will now be considered in detail. palatals. next the Greek. passus. see §161. h was silent. For Fredegarius see Haag 39-40. Z in Old Latin apparently meant j. e. and thus became identical V. vacca. dentals. fillio. For w>j and For double forms like of single cipus ctppus. 105 in not be separately considered. sibilants. 248. later it represented a different Latin version of Greek t. Bon. or / in hiatus: see § 224. § 223). Double cf. 319-320). //>/ vowels. 163. labials. liquids. The voicing of intervocalic surds began during the Vulgar Latin period. which will be treated below (§§338-339). Vulgar Latin had a new w and y coming from originally syllabic u. see §§ 162.§ 248] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the combination Q was generally used only Jf stands for ks. serra. which also changed to /8.. Q V= kw (cf. In late spelling there is some confusion and double consonants: anos.

250. of "Arrius. Gellius says ahenum. Initial h was surely very feeble and often silent during In Cicero's time and in the early Empire there was an attempt to revive it in polite society. vehemens. 117. mi. 255-256.." In inscriptions we find such forms as reprehensus aduc. 263. in such words as sepu/c/irum. 399. cortis. which led to frequent misuse by the ignorant. the Republic.. Nigidius Figulus fit to the effect that "rusticus sermo i.. very much as happens in Cockney English to-day: for the would-be elegant chommoda. ASPIRATE. as in terga fatigamus hasta. Cf. Quintilian commends the spelling deprendere: S. 267—268. honera : Pompeius notes that k sometimes makes position. 266. 251. Paris in I?om. — aspires perperam". Probus states that traho is pronounced trao: Lindsay 57. App. si speaks of bygone generations as using k very S. comprendit. sometimes does not. Grammarians felt obliged to discuss in detail the spelling of words with' or without h : S. nil. being little or nothing more than a breathed on-glide: S. Quintilian says the ancients used h but little. 266. If -was weak and uncertain at all times in Latin. S. 249. 264-265. Grammarians say that A is not a letter but a mark There is no trace of Latin k in of aspiration: S. vemens: S." see S. hinsidias. 264. Cf.e. a.— io6 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. doubtless the Romance It languages. 262-263. Gellius quotes P. incohare are archaic calls Terentius Scaurus and vehemens incorrect. etc. Pr. 1. [§ 251 LATIN CONSONANTS. "adhuc non aduc. 263-264. and both he and Velius Longus declare there is no h \VLprendo: S. as in quisquis honos tumuli: Keil V. first XI. G. 266. Digitized by Microsoft® . probably disappeared when medial: . but Cicero's contemporaries much. and cites "ados ircosque": S.

cottidie. Mens. as in eastern Italy. and H after the third century it is everywhere more or eres. Before u and first however. But in Dacia. too. etc. choante. etc. C. 345. 82-87. ymnus. etc. omo. dialects: Quintilian VI. 819. C.. k.. S. I. condam. 254. other languages: michi. Q and C: S. ospitiutn. heremum. 345-346. I.. I. ic. 473. ortus..§ 254] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. by Microsoft® . I. 350reduced to k by the or second century. oratia. 252. 264. criminately used: abeo. records a pun of Cicero on cogue and quoque. etc. kw was Before other vowels the regularly kept in most of k. cocus : see §226. Pr. OSTIA. E. L. abitat. ora. Q F was Audollent 536. Cf. less indisetc. Spr. 924. = coperta. in quo ante=^inBechtel 78-79. Cf. Vulgar Latin reduction of que to Digitized qui to ki: Lat. nichil.. 265-266. oe. Bechtel 78. hostium. In Rome are found: e[redes]. S.. R. secuntur. C. L. S. the Empire. quooperta cot. etc. the kw was 340-341.. hegit. 351-352. Sheldon in Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Litera- turel (1892). In Pompeii h is freely omitted. anc. R. § 226. cf. S. etc. 351. probably earlier in local or vulgar iii. There was some confusion. hossa. southand Sicily subsequent developments point to a ke. '^digitus = digitos. unless analogy led to a substitution of cociior coqui throvigh. GUTTURALS. haram. 107 is dropped in a few inscriptions towards the end of the Republic: arrespex (for haruspex).. I. non dicitus". 462-463. Cf. of S. After h had become pronunciation of medial h as Italian pronunciation of there grew up a school which has persisted in the Latin and has affected some words in silent. 253- C and K did not differ in value except that C some- times did service for dicitos G: App. b. 341-344. 455. pronounced kw: 0. S. Bechtel 77-78. I. hodio.L. 1034.

buxus'^* buscus vixit>\iyiC\Ti (i.. Carnoy 159. 353." "poples noT\ poplex. Lindsay 102. destera. ''cah dicendum. 98.: Hence cf. Caper. but not in syllables etc. 353 (cf. cen- inscriptions. mextum for mcestum. gium. There are some examples. xanto. except in mono^prmgnans. Lexique 93). extimare for cestimare. Carnoy 158. migat in inscriptions Digitized by Microsoft® .'' "miles non milex. BissiT BisiT VISIT = vixit. Laqueus seems. merx. /'m«7/« > prixsilla.: see Melanges Wahlund t^^. in late Latin. App. ^ stood for ks: S." "locuples non lucuplex. nasco." Keil VII. "aries non ariex. felis. found in Spain (so cinqv. 351. see § 266. Carnoy 171. but this was only local: alesan[der]. io8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. conjus. The voicing of intervocalic surds doubtless it is early as the fifth century. excutere. etc. dester. as in cresco. 353. e. milex. S. es~ for ex. S. Cinqvaginta. Vok.before vowels. 346. s: sestus is common in inscriptions. subornatris. 274.. of a metathesis of ks into sk: axilla"^ ascella. Carnoy 157. as in * essaexire. etc." In parts of Italy ks between vowels was assimilated into ss by the first century. 341. 221. ubi materia per s. So ex-^es. 145. 352. cinctivs. viscit). began as shown by Anglo-Saxon borrow- ings and by such Latin forms as frigare. first [§ 256 In quinque the w was lost by dissimilation: cinqve. After a consonant ks early tended to become s: Piautus uses mers for est. 353.. exponere. for some reason. On In norththe other hand. ern Gaul apparently sk regularly became ks. pregiiax became s. fifth tury. S. Bechtel 139. sometimes.). By the second reduced to or third century ks before a consonant was 170. to Carnoy have become *laceus: Substrate 255. S. S. cf.. in At about the same time : final ks cojus. Carnoy Eckinger 126 (2eorros). I. III. For ks>-)(S. Cf. 256. Audollent 537. Fr. by analogy.

while c>gz. XXV. in some places perhaps as early as the first century. noghe < nucem. early in the Empire or before. finds in inscriptions some slight evidence of a change of t to d during the Empire. etc. Voicing was not general. A. 474. Rydberg. kima. Vok. (i) Cf. kircare. immudavit. p. etc. / 258. Haag 27—28. sigricius ^= secretins. In Central Sardinia. Digitized by Microsoft® . I. Haag 27. siubri. 731. Zs. Before the front vowels e and the velar stops k and g were drawn forward. Carnoy 123. 32. however. lebra. but reina. occubavit. pagandum. into a mediopalatal position k'. intervocalic c. pontivicatus. * gratis.. in central and southern Italy. and in Sicily. C and G before Front Vowels. etc. 472. kelu. Spr.. and Illyria k' went no further.— — § 258] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. kera. . at least as early as the seventh century. Some above examples show that consonants followed by r shared in the voicing. Carnoy eglesia. 2d century. 257. 7th century. on the evidence of inscriptions and manuscripts. Haag 28-29. etc.. gat. Cf. maintains. ne121.. Initial c and cr. Zimmermann. 3 I.. Franz. t were voiced in Gaul in the second half of the sixth century. i25ff. that t>d'm the fifth century and the beginning of the sixth. Densusianu 111-112. 109 and manuscripts. etc.t least two centuries earlier. of the cataveris ^^ cadaveris. and Dacia the k' stage was apparently kept longer than in most regions: Lat. southern Italy. Dalmatia. in a few words. found in the 4th century. etc. kena. crassus + grossus'^grassus. became g and gr: *gaveola. and Dacia. According to Loth 21-26. Dalmatia. cubidus. there are many examples from the sixth century: Lat.g'. G seems to have been attracted sooner than k : in Sardinian we find k before e or i preserved as a stop whiles is not decern. deghe<. Spr.

"calcostegis Neumann 75.Gi 5.Gi. Pr. "-frigida non fricda"). Pr. 473. a part of southwestern Gaul. D'Arbois 10. Spr. After the accent. Tragani. Lat. 461. recoUiendo. frigidus in most of the Empire had become frigdus {App. 3 I.. iesta. = conjugi. §233.. etc. F. etc. Spr. Troge. colliens. . but is " weak " before other vowels. S. Haag 34 manes 1' . 3. Digitized by Microsoft® .. etc. [§259 259. in through legit. and portions of Sardinia. vigtlat had become *viglat. Genavam. to the effect g has "its own sound " (i.. this Haag 33. 461 . genarivs. Cf. argentum. Diez. Pirson 97 quarranta = qicadraginta. Spain..>maester. neglienda.. Voi. Sicily. and digitus in some places had become dictus {Franz. fmucrrpo. 473. ingens aiebat. the regularly remained. II. 15-16): cf. {g)inti. etc. S. fused. Grammaire des langues ro- I. Thm-ot 77. genvarivs.): it its disap- pearance (as in pldngit. Vok. = Sepulcri 205. Pirson iniens. and southwestern Italy remained at the y stage elsewhere the y developed further in the Romance languages. maestati. G' by the fourth century had become had opened into y. agebat Lat. S. re{g)ina. diriens. Pirson 97 celiens. agebat ^ aiebat. jSctevTt = viginti. 460) trienta. both in popular and in Gerapolis for HierapoHs. leges. But sometimes : fused with a following i proparoxy tones roitus {=irdgitus z= rogdtus). lenubam = Bon. coi^i. Gepte. in nearly all the Empire. Stolz 349.. Cf. so *pa{g)e{n)sis. (cf. similarly perhaps the proclitic ma{g)is. 275. 239. Per.. 250. except colliens when analogy forced *colliente. II. with the following e or i if this vowel was stressed: vi- mag2ster'>*mayister'. 173." geiuna= Jejuna. 61. Agrientum.e. and after a consonant. when it was intervocalic. praepalatal clerical and Latin: App. no An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. that of English g in gem) before e and /. . agere = ^ aiere. Before happened. 349. non cakosieis. Vok. II. This y.1 1 Some light is thrown on the later clerical pronunciation by a statement in a fragment of a tenth century treatise on Latin pronunciation.

163. In the school pronunciation of the seventh and eighth centuries c before e and i In the treatise cited in the preceding note. Guarnerio in Supplementi aWArchivio glottologico italiano IV (1897). 360. developed into or ts: t's'entu or Speakers were apparently unaware of the phenomenon until the assibilation was complete. There is no mention of first it by 340. in Lat. in the t's sixth or seventh century. Cf. 51-53. 1 was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . Schuchardt. Paris in Journal des savants. fascem. 21-51 (cf. 7. Marchot. ka. in the fifth century we find bintcente. duk'ere. duk'yere. XXX. Mohl.§ 26i] An K' Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 617). Fetite phonetique du franfais prelitieraire. century some writers distinguish Rom. Vok. .S^ was palatalized also: crescere. 359. it is stated ts.1 century: F. etc. apparently as and postpalatal. G. Meyer-Liibke in Einf. tury). . k'y had become t'y: t'yentu. 123-126. S. co{g)ndscere. mediopalatal. that c has " its own sound " before c and i. ffautes-^tudes. Thurot 77. consiensia. and in Rom. Zs. 1900. everywhere a The next step was the development of an audible glide. 151. 348. piscem. in 260. By the fifth century the k' had passed a little further forward and the Through a modification tsentu. S. of this glide the group then. and is almost like q before other vowels. as early as the third ce. the earlier grammarians: prsepalatal. XXVI. intcitamento: P.itury must have had nearly front. in the Annuaire de I'^cole pratique des 261. paze (6th or 7th cenFrankish tins (German zins') is from fifth borrowed probably in the 595. a short y. I. For a discussion of the subject. 81. XIV. and Libit. W. G.. Cf. in the Comptes rendus des seances de I'Academie des Inscriptions. 348 cites fes[it]. or praepalatal. dut'yere. 1901. E. between the k' and the following vowel: k'yentu. septrvm. nascere. In the half of the third ce. S. XXXIII. 1893. 322 P. and qu. I. Vok. census. see H. articulation: k'entu. 1893.

* liamen. S. so * ledlis. see Palatals below. pacare. siffatto {<. however. found about the sixth century. S- — — perhaps 349). of a word the guttural seems : to have been regularly preserved in Vulgar Latin fac. hoc. gustus. For a possible indication. frvalitas. sic factum). fammi {<ifac mi). and then developed further: carum>'Fr. however. the proclitic eo for ego. But ligdre. Reich. y^ 264. g'a. sic. dimmi (< die mi).. eccu'hdc. see Zs. (3) C and G Final and before Consonants. § 256. realis in Gl. 349. in the front of the 263. negare. of a local assibilation of c as early as the second century. — mainly. negdre. Franz. 262. Inasmuch as a had in Gaul a front pronunciation (§ 194). jambe. probably by the end of the seventh century. (2) C AND G before Back Vowels. Intervocalic g before the accent fell in many words in all or a part of the Empire. too. 50). by Microsoft® . ecce htc. Vok. ka. avste. For ce. and apparently remained under learned or under analogical influence in others: avstvs from the second century on. Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie [§264 3131!.. I. At the end cf. gamba>'Ex. Carnoy 155-160 (who puts the assibilation in the sixth century and earlier). the c must have been Digitized lost. Carnoy 127 (cf. 146. K and g before vowels not formed mouth usually remained unchanged: canis. see Archiv XV. through alliteration.112 An 472. ci. in Introduction to Vulgar Latin. due. Occasionally. 129 (other examples in manuscripts. pagdnus. 3 II. Italian die. See. ga in most of that country became k'a. *redlis (for XXX. so. Sfir. cher. 242-243).

. — sanctum 268.). fleuma. Old ct Windisch 394. antiqui quasi dumecita appellabant quae nos dumeia. sante. 472.. Cf. Pr. inasmuch as their own rf had as x^ from the become ^f (e. ^^auctor non autor". App. and «'. in the south even in the first century: AVTOR. * exsire . eissir. Zaf. 399). 236-240. The Celts perhaps pronounced the Latin beginning. In late texts nee is often written ne before a consonant. Lat. Before another consonant k and g were for the most part kept through the Vulgar Latin period: actus. and there is a confusion of si and sic: Franz. OTOBRIS (380 A. App. "sagma by Microsoft® .^ Ft. 476. that the y was retained very generally in Gaul and perhaps some other regions. Pr. = qu. For ks of Italy = x. D. § 186. Spr. The resultant phenomena can. 348. 267. *viglat (§233).g. cuntis. Carnoy 172.) . Einf. D.. 398*fC'X^um>Vx. A. Xf some parts was assimilated into U by the beginning of the fourth century. in Pompeii. which seems to have been assimilated first into nt in parts of the Empire. "pegma non peuma" Digitized St. regnancte. frigdus. Spr." 348. Gram. 265.. Spr. Gm Pr.§268] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. through assimilation to a following initial consonant: PA iot fac. subsequently drawn forward to the praepalatal position santus. in see § 254. Zs. There is reason to believe. Lat. > Fr. 735. however. fait. XXV. probably by the century: defuntus. see § 255. 215-224. irqyfua. "dumecta S. S. santo. Festus.). 113 no doubt. S. Nkt became yt. §650.. PR/EFETTO. otogentos. 278. Isidore. saint. etc. however. I. 9 II. For kw 266. sank. 472. ( i. became um: fraumenta. be explained otherwise: Irish ocht-n corresponding to Latin octo. and likewise substituted x^ fo"^ ^^' Suchier 735.e. oclus. LATTVCjE (3OI etc. fata.

rcenante. audiam. t. d. ftlia. of ii was often used: coiiugi. videavi . inte{g)rum. exagium. sometimes entirely absorbed by the in Gaul. Pirson 75. Instead i (=/) the spelling mann. 323) and Zovk^la= Julia (Eckinger 80). pi{g)ntia. pere{g)rtnum. Dy and^. and subjected to further modifications. ZVNIOK = junior (S. similarly the ^ was sometimes etc. renum. and also salma. In cognosco the decomposed — g generally disappeared. 476. podium. Cf. fageus. sauma 269. ni{g)rum. adjuiare. hodie. being preserved in some. Neu- When y more or y. conjux. teneaf. ajutit =adjutet. 115-116.. cujus. in the latter part of the Empire. between in vowels. ZACOiJVS = diaconus. the after the fall of initial g in gnosco —-into lost in cognatus : word being co~ and Vok. Fortsetzung 7. which comes from Koxfrn. gaudium. Cf. Lat. Haag 34. habeam. diumus. that consonant was often less assimilated. no SCO. in popular words apparently became r parts of the Empire: fra{g)rare. eiius. as calma from Soma occurs in Gl. Gn was still variously treated in different regions. etc. 327. Carnoy Digitized by Microsoft® . Gr. soma. 270. y. assimilated into n or n in others. PALATALS.. 364 a. 272. Italian sauma [or salma^ dicitur" (i. venio. Cf. aayixa). Palatalization was commonest probably were reduced to y in vulgar speech: deorsum. 239). odium. followed a consonant. Compare oz^^ hodie (S. 271. Spr. Pirson 76. edmus. [§272 quae corrupte vulgo S. (S.114 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Stolz 275. cunnuscit. 324) and zesv =/esu. madias = maias.. rarest in Dacia. Latin / was pronounced being identical in sound with the consonant that developed out of e and / (§ 224): jam. I. connato.e. Reich.

Z is often used in inscriptions. De. Pr. In most words the vulgar jv prevailed. says. Remidium — Eemigium. Reich. fiios. 461. however.i£=die. Audollent 537 zogenes. Haag 34. Media. II." S. 63.. Condianus. Carnoy 161. most of the Empire: 274. from radius Italian has both raggio — — and razzo. /'. probably dz : podium proferenda est. ridia =! corrigim. by Microsoft® . but it we generally cannot whether t. = dies. writes. The reduced forms cf. probably became veniam. "solent Itali dicere ozie pro hodie. Waters Ch. had poggio. towards the end of the Empire. 321. ny. generally prevailed. 339): z^s cf. Gl. mezzo. appears that the labials were not regularly assimi- sapiam > It. sapcha. cor- aytos. S. It hordeurh > It. 323. But through the analogy of audio"^* auyo. Georg. deggio. 320. folia. represented by the spellings Aureia. aggio. means dy. in Yox plUvia a form *pldja was substituted §§ 169. which was > It. y. teneat. palea. juria = jurgia. This palatal pronunciation may be 327." S. lated in Vulgar Latin beside abbio. 34. : orzo. or dz (cf. between vowels. another — doubtless more elegant — pronunciation. video>*veyo. It. 324.§274] ^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. prandium > It. Carnoy 162. and perhaps through slurring due to constant and careless use. in others especially in Italy the cultivated dz. sacriius—SiaKpiTOi. Corneius. Haag anoget = *inodiaf. di. § . magias ^= maias. The : dz pronunciation was especially favored after a consonant 273. madio S- 349. The S. etc. 216. n' before the end of the Empire: ftlius. *deyo: cf.. licpioi = Sergius. II. tilia.(4). Ly. His- pania. = maio. debbio. sappia. di sine sibilo Isidore letter tell grsecum enim nomen est. melius. etc. St. Congianus =. 208. but medium ^^ > It. 115 162. habeo. pranzo. S. Servius in Virg. Digitized etc. debeo often became *ayo. aios = Carnoy 162. but not everywhere. Vok.

For rv. Lat. D. ocio (389 A. as in etiam. avaricia. pudicicia. silentium. Cf. sty were generally assimilated of sy later: *bassiare. 323. Riquier 131 &nd pitid in popular speech). etc. malicia. Fr.. we are told that ti. quatio. Vok. non c. from oleo. a sound similar to English sh in ship: basium. D. Stolz 51. etc. postea. Densusianu in. 'ApovKiavoi = Aruntianus..d. mansionem. 321) "benedictio et oratio et talia t debent habere in psenultima syllaba. unless preceded by s. and hence were often confused: a. oracionem (601 a. doubtless became during the VulgHRjatin period /. Pg.ii6 Lly." In the treatise published by Thurot (see footnote to § 259). D. collt^t. leticia. S. According to Albinus (S. 475. staacio (601 a. also in nuncius. is pronounced like c. etc. being respectively k'y second and third centuries. Eckinger 99. . In later school pronunciation cy and ty were sounded alike. prophetia.).). fascia. Cy and ty. p. huile. see § 296. malleus. isoff.y«j/i«'a (in an edict of Diocletian). Oleum. see § 277. Pirson 72. termina(an acrostic in Com- ciONES in (2d century). justicia. Bon. ci. caseus. modian). servicium. concupiscencia many examples Gaul in the 5th century. d. / 'i'l^^^y. 171 especially common in Gallic inscriptions of the seventh century. foreign words borrowed from Latin oleum indicate the same irregularity. 78. between vowels. Digitized by Microsoft® . Cf. eAaiov. is confused with the spelling c being prescribed in amicicia. ti. is Pr.). For the confusion 276.). Pirson 71 mendatium. Sp.. somewhat allium. olio. An Introduction ll'g'. scy. I. ocium. Ssy. /' [§276 later: were probably reduced to ex-eligit. were very and t'y (cf. tercius. I'g' to Vulgar Latin. It. in the similar in sound. the an exception-: cf. and ty.. . consiensia. tercia. furthermore. defeniciones (222235 A. duricia. oli. Fr. Spr.

A. 1904. 545. Reich. §260): crescentsian[vs]. 320). Anitius -cius. et plerumque supradictse syllabse in sibilum transeunt. cited by Cassiodorus (S. Digitized by Microsoft® . t. conditio. 320): "/ustitia ex tribus he goes on to state that it is always so when ti is followed by a vowel other than / (as in Tatius. tertia syllaba sic sonat quasi constet z. "si dicas Titius. Latetnisches ti und ki im Ru7ndnischen. (S. so many ^|ftper names. castius). servitium -cium. S. otia. 117 spacium. etc. 68. cum scribitur. This explains such seemingly anomalous developments 324. or vice versa: cf. It. ularly a school pronunciation with etc.: audatia. Vincentl^us. Italienischen und Sardischen. comenzare chminciare. Hence arose numeroimdouble forms: condicio solacium solatium." Papirius. etc." Consentius 'For a different explanation of the Italian and Rumanian developments. by the 140 A. S. regfourth. reviewed in Libit. either whole Empire. gocciare. etc. "lotacismi sunt quotiens post ti. locally or in the This similarity or identity of sound led. etc. MARSIANESSES = J/ar/z'a«^«j'M. Carnoy 151-154.vel di^ syllabam sequitur vocalis. in some cases. see S. 3d ccntury. pinguius sonat et perdit sonum suum et accipit sibilum. into ts (cf..§277] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. A number of words evidently had a popular pronunciation with f and 277. Audollent 537. et i". Vok.. Cf. tercius. sotium. * gutteare "> Horning in Zs.^ k'. *cominitiare -ciare. S. etc. speties. zodorys = Theodoras. 320) says. adding (S. but not in otii. Justitii). 64. ampittfltru. as * exquartiare-^YX. Pompeius says the same thing at con- siderable length. tristicia. to the substitution of suffixes and to other permanent transfers of words from one class to the other: cf. am- bicio. Puscariu. T'y developed sporadically in the second century. squarciare. inicio. Gl. 324. Servius in Don. XXVII. except in foreign proper names or after j litteris. Cf. XXIV. It. . Carnoy 154. 323. later avarttic^-cia.. spacio. (as injustius. D. I.

ratio —sio. after the assibilation completed: Mapa-w. 320-321. But the intermediate stages were similar enough to lead to some confusion. vezzo. 6th century. and not 281. Pirson 71. carried into Brittany in the second half of the fifth century.. Isidore in justitia: S. as 280.. vitiutrf^lt. D regularly remained unchanged: Digitized dare.palagio heside patazzo. 153.l. Cf.s or sixth. so facio. St. Ztd/t. judigsium. assibilated (e. [§281 mentions the assibilation in etiam. say t's'y the At aa intermediate stage between ty and ts grouD. Vok. perdo. 307. " ' by Microsoft® . are Metiacus> Messac). 5th century. 323. cf. 225 a. d. 6th cen- tury. 323. modus.vo'. servitium —slum. The in modern French. and many words have palatium preserved it in various regions. was easily confused with sy. 65 Horn. The resulting sibilant was different from came from t'y: faciam'^-lt. S. Carnoy 154. — — S. 301-302. 480. 278. . XXVII. see Gutturals. JT'y was assibilated sporadically in the third century. Clerical usage for a while doubtless favored sy for ty. faccta. placeam. and -igia beside -ezza from -ztia. dentals were pronounced with the middle of the tongue arched up and the tip touching the gums or teeth. pretium —sium. glacies. sepsies. statio —sio. g'.ii8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. =^ Afardanus. DENTALS. Exai^les are very numerous: observasione.. 279. etc.. hence \X?X\2. Eck- inger 103.g. if the /' was rather weak. and the ultimate products have become identical in that which many For regions. diposisio ^= depositio. fifth but not regularly until the of t'y -wa. etc. etc. especially in suffixes: —slum. not followed by y. as in English : S. but names in -tiacum. Pirson 71. d. Welsh words borrowed from Latin before the fourth century show no assibilation. hocsies. k'.'a. XXXV. tersio.

App. 31 1. ilium corpus. through the analogy of other neuters. etc. INQVID. Raetia. Spr.• Cf. set. S. S... quo and Haag Illud. as we may infer from the treatment of the prefix ad~: people probably said not only at te (cf. . S. . etc. At the end of a word there was hesitation between d and S. part of Sardinia: vt3ere':>*vedere. Carnoy 180. at. fecit feced..» Sittl 37. dacruma'^ lacrima . capud in Gregory the Great. " adif^ non alipes. 282. Carnoy 179-180. etc. Pr. id 29. arVORSVM =r adversum. set. (3). S. 366-367 Some of the confusion was doubtless due to the fall of both d 365 . attendere) but sometimes *ar Romam (cf. Pr.. period. S. and t: see §285.. and possibly at the end of a phrase apvd apvt. Carnoy 180. Intervocalic d. // d may have been . 365 aput. Cf. 283. : (i) Occasionally (/>/. So the final consonant eventually often dis- appeared. 311312 "grundio non grunnio. Digitized by Microsoft® . Gaul. verecvnnvs. arripere). 476." App.. 365-366. Grammarians warn against the Cf. quid quit. Liquids. few words d~^r: medidies by dissimilation ^«^«rf««. a. devocalized before a voiceless : initial consonant. the central and southern Italian nn for nd (as quannu for quando) may go back to ancient times Lat.. § 289. The cases seem to be sporadic and due to different special causes. CO. o\d. 119 Oscan and Umbrian had nn corresponding to Latin nd: There is some indication that this pronunciation was locally adopted in Latin: agennjE. §283] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. became ilium : Haag 29. guoi. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin became 6 in Spain. it. northern Italy. and a Similarly intervocalic dr. ad eos and at ea. 358-359. etc. (2) In a. If this was the case. 31 1 Consentius blames " peres pro pedes" S. confusion of ad and etc. S." Cf. In proclitics assimilation naturally went further. etc.

367. '^ pessulum non pestulum" (hence Italian /ifj'//. Keil VII. ustulare > Pr. Hammer 28-32. Gaul. Rumanian. in Volscian {fasia=fadat). sure examples of the fall in Latin are found in Pompeii tions in Christian relinque. 8. and sclitib. Fredegarius wrote e for cutters — — t et: Haag 29." capidum. Lat. Tl..> *quadro. Italian (except Sardinian). Pr. posui) occur in Gallic inscriptions. partem. 285. Between j and I z. schioppo.?. Ischia. often in Umbrian In Latin. but forms without the possibly due to Italian stoneconsonant (as audivi.). App. and Sardinia kept the t late. T usually stloppus remained unchanged : teneo. . f^habe). . 7. its Final nt perhaps lost before consonants: Lat. Spr. Raetia. 312-313 "Martulus non Marculus" "stlataris sine c littera Caper. northern Italy. 284. S. Spr. etc. It. sclit. 367-368. 8.(from stlis stlitis). §234." For Cf. occasionally in Faliscan: Hammer 5. In early dialects we find such forms as cvpa. seems to have regularly become d: astula> Pr. cf. In quadraginta. So probably insula > * isla > * istla > * isda > Final t fell It. sitis. as ama. dr~> rr: quarranta. peria. 472. facit. usclar. however. Cf. 107.120 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . vixi. > *scloppus > . [§ 285 either at the same time or became drin Spain and Gaul: quadro'.: others appear later in the inscrip- Rome and S. —tulus~^—dus.315. 105. final t disappeared early in the Empire in southern and during the Empire in most of Italy and Dacia." "vitulus non vidus. etc. dede: S. and also Spanish and Portuguese show no trace of final / except in monosyllables. The first ." "vefulus non vedus. later. Italy. valia. Pirson 97. ascla. " capitulum non dicendum. f developed: Caper.

Italy probably in the fifth or sixth century: Inscriptions show a few such forms 309) as amadus. 470. and-^J is found: S. in general. LIQUIDS. § 280): S. Both st and s are represented in the Romance languages.§288] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. is preserved in the same regions as Pisaurum. ^> d in northern Gaul and Spain. Cf. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) or *capum. uses capo: Haag 29. — 368. t 286. it was doubtless often Fredegarius voiced. Intervocalic was voiced to d in Spain. Spr. Lindsay 124. videtur. (I) L. 38 (S. §283. Such a spelling as Later this retere for reddere (S. may have lost its t before consonants as post ilium but pos' me. and northern § 256. tr'p-dr'^dr. triplicem. may indicate un- certainty in the use of d and t. When did not fall. like d and "Z t (cf. ut Plinio sonum habet: quando geminatur secundo loco Digitized by Microsoft® . moreover. in 365. pos. In inscriptions we find : dedro and dedrot. According to Velius Longus. est amatus but es' portatus : Lat. feced. Final st. of final t For the confusion inquid are found. Gaul. In Gaul and Spain. with and without either consonant. /. Lat. 287. Cicero favored posmeridianus .. before a vowel or a voiced consonant. 473-474. 473. S. inside a phrase. d and t. e.The Romance languages show forms with nt. Pos is very common in inscriptions. Priscian I. 324) writes: exilem. Cf. 288. see §282: capud. S. 121 n. cf. 473-474. Raetia. likewise. restituerun. Nt. 306-307. posquam in R. Marius Victorinus preferred posquam : S. posuerun. 309. L had a convex formation. 309. Spr. 368. Cf.

327) blames "coacla pro cloaca" " displicina pro disciplina". geline. (i) Metathesis occurs occasionally: Consentius (S. An ut il-le. intervocalic va." lectum. /. also had the thick is famuXus (but not in similis): thus explained the different fate of a in calere^OXd Fr. etc. ut lectus. tribunal. fiaba. Vok. see §274. During the Latin period altus.122 posita. except before i. chiave. shifted forwards. quando finit nomina vel quando aliquam habet ante se in eadem syllaba sol.): S. It is likely that / before or after another consonant had a Before thick sound caused by lifting the back of the tongue. consonantem. etc. fabula^*flaba'y-\\. After consonants. According to H. Other grammarians blame.. consonants. Have. Eckinger 12. plenum. see §284. mtlle. sporadically by the fourth century but regularly not until the eighth and ninth and later (^Lat. chaloir and gallina~> Old Fr. It remained unseems to have fallen in For //>/. flavus. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Osthoff. / regularly changed: luna. For sl>stl. alga. 325-326. 301 a. XXX. Sfr. Dunkles undhelles 1 im Lateinischen in the Transactions of the American Philological Association / in : > XXIV. 494. (2) There are sporadic examples of the dissimilation of two Ts: Digitized by Microsoft® . ille). 289. It. to the vocalization of / into u: KavKovXaT<o in an edict of Diocletian. zi. ut exilis. this formation led in some regions." Consentius distinguishes the "sonus which he ascribes to initial and double / (as in lana. cauculus in manuscripts. clarus. 326. II. medium in aliis. etc. brought about the palatalization of Spanish and Italian clavem kl'ave > Sp.d. sound — as 50. this elevation. [§ 289 syllabas et Metel-lus.. 476). Greece: S." heard before a consonant (as in albo. ski. silva. see §161. sol. from the "pinguis. For ly. a faulty pronunciation of / particularly prevalent in Africa or 648. in obscure terms. See also Zs.

in most of the Empire in dorsum. 460-461 Cf. so sussum>siisum. carrus. dossum remained unchanged: susum.. was early reduced to ss: Lat. After long vowels the 292. 330): "Dossum per duo s quam per r quidam ut lenius enuntiaverunt. 77. diosum. App. coming from rtt. "terebra non tekbra". Velius to Longus says est (S.s pessica. Reich. IV. App. R : in Classic trill: and Vulgar Latin was probably a gingival S. deorsum. "flagellum non frag-ellum. Pr. The principle seems have been that original rs remained.. ac tota r littera sublata est in eo quod rusum . in inscrip- S. (3) Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. Bechtel 83: susum very common. although Moreover. assimilation versus. or praepalatal change 291. while susosusu susum.. pater. C. MVNTV for multum. however. Corssen I. 8) says: " Gn. being probably somewhat hindered by school inIt took place in the whole territory in deorsum and fluence. {2)Ji. as xcfloralis." Russum rusum. reversus. introsus. 471. 307. susum occur ha. susum. there was a strong tendency to dissimilate it was only sporadically carried out: in Old in inscriptions Digitized Latin.f It generally resisted In many words. 327. Spr. The «>j. we fin(J repeatedly pelegrinus by Microsoft® . Waters Ch. (i). L. Cf. 330. Pompejus Magnus et scribebat et dicebat kadamitatem pro calamitate. 460. Pr.(see § i6r). while old rss. Pr. two r's. . cursus. 1593. —arts after r^-alis. R. et retrosum. retrorsum. ndet. App. rj > J." Cf. etc. has iusu = was Hot consistently carried out everywhere. locally in aliorsum. 309. 328. 290. in early writers tions: dextrosus. S. § 281. § 292] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. sursum. Gl. suso. 123 cf.." "cultellum non cuntellum". I. R. 243. rusus. in about half the Empire in persua.

Cf. albor.>. among the soaru. Falisci Sittl 11 mentions an in and the Marsi. probably before the end of the Vulgar Latin period. uxo. Cf. 330— 331. although may have been reduced and possibly *cqyu SIBILAUTS. perpenna ^ Perferna. etc. 329) / us that in elegant speech per before was pronounced pel. : 294. mehtrix. Crocodilus appears as corcodilus. corium'^ *coryu (cf. 307-308. 329) says: Pompeius (S. So Italian per lo '^pello.) avello. Jlagrare. cf. cocodrilus. Ry was probably preserved through the Vulgar Latin it period. Lat. For quatro. Rum. S. est marmor.124 (Sittl An 74). 477. "Barbarismus. orlo. cuoto). 38." S. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The old voiced having become r (S. early fall of final r mate. seems to have been dental. S.z\vax\. with the upper surface of the tongue convex (cf. cf. dietro drieto. Italian £Occodri//o. perla. Waters Ch. mate. Velius Longus (S. merlo. Consentius mentions "perlum -pro prcslum. to y in parts of Italy.'' propio. Metathesis is not uncommon S. as in pellabor. 329. 330 notes prancati.. S. criblare. [§ 297 also ministorum. *sempre. pellicere. Final r. propio. 314-315). 295. plurigo are attested likewise. etc. Spr. averlo^ (in Old It. corcodrillus. in most of Italy and Dacia: sdror'. etc. § 280) S. suora. : ^ j- Digitized by Microsoft® . except in monosyllables. propietas. This assimilation was probably not widespread in Latin. PELLiGE. tells 293. see § 245.It. 331. An intrusive r is found in culcitra. 330. as frate. S. 302. \X. 304. it has left very few traces in the Romance languages. Italian Carlo. fell.. quando dico mamor pro eo quod Cf. f. 329. coliandrum. It. Classic Latin j was probably ^Iways voiceless and remained so in 297. 296.

the nominative singular without s (as Cornelio. Cf. brian PiSAVRESE. such as resolvit. nepoti. etc. ii Umbrian {kumate). and occasionCf. Thurot T]^ y between vowels is described as " weak. 302-304): this in is 125 Vulgar Latin intervocalic s in (S. ossum." tions -s is freely omitted. 108): "5 littera hanc habet potestatem. filio') predominated in (jpntral Italy until the time of Csesar. Sittl 27. and the developwords as hiemps. Spr. 471. the forms without Terentio. unu. who cites UmLatin final s was very weak after and t. when -j was partially restored. Cicero (^Lat Spr. furnished by such spellings as maximus." Quintilian also (S. 471) "subrusticum. however. j- ^In the previously cited Latin treatise (see footnote to §259). and often was not is says the loss of —s written. pieta. cur- 298. indicated by the fact that is still generally surd in Spanish [casa. 361-362. According to Chronologic 175-186. etc.) . pleps. olim autem politius. ut ubi opus fuerit excludatur de metro. tste. but became common by 150 to 200 A. This evidently indicates a voicing in late school pronunciation.§298] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. rexi. but later it is In the older inscripin the main correctly used until the second century of our era: Lat. Pompeius (Keil V.. mtsi. Cornelio. At the very end of the Vulgar Latin period. Ennius and his followers down to Catullus did S. etc.) and most popular words it Tuscan is [naso.. S. etc. Digitized by~Microsoft® . as far as goes. corroborative evidence. 361) notes the omission of -s by the ancients. The omission is commonest in nominative -os or —us. § 256): was generally preserved: causa. rarely in -as: bonu. intervocalic s may have nupsi. etc. not count -j before a consonant in verse: 355-356. D. but occurs also in -ts and -as. in Classic Latin s some regions (cf." except in compounds. sumpsi.^ sex. also ment of a / in such become voiced sus. and matrona for matronas. 8. urps. Final s often fell in ally in Faliscan: Hammer In early 5.

/SvTcpos. see § 246 and Greek by Microsoft® Consonants. tra{ns)posuit . and some other regions. see § 161.. but das^lt. liberio. but notes that happens at the end of a doubt- only a conventional abbreviation. the In presbyter. Hammer 19-28.«. 1938. transtulit.traduxit. 539. In Gaul. It. 316). tra{ns')veho. For z.126 again. final J disappeared for good from the common pronunciation in the second and third centuries.became and sometimes before m and/.(but traduire. I. Italy generally favored tra. see § 275. -s. jecit. tra. C.. (later tre^. cept in monosyllables {^Lat. 301. Spain. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. see § 230. however. preveire {<. For sy. trans. [§302 and prevailed in central Italy in the third century («<7 Cf. tra{ns)misit. L. IX. filio^filios. 302. trei amate. For assibilaand Palatals.coming from the prefix ex-.. It. a new nominative constructed from irpeers fell in Italy and elsewhere through the substituva. prete. etc. and probably in Dacia. examdtis "> dai. Spr. 300. Cf.j. tempus>lt.). tion. For prosthetic i or e before s + consonant. tres^OXA. In Old French pasmer (from spasmus) the ^ was lost probably through confusion with es. 471): sentts'^YX. 299. 540.before d. Audollent In most of Italy. see Gutturals For ss>s. Vx. tion of the prefix /r. usually preferred tras. pronounced and therefore preserved.(but trasporre). probably owing to the previous linguistic habits of the natives. transduco and We sometimes Both forms occur Gaul and Spain before / and v : tra (^ns) luce 0. tratransjicio.(as prabitor) for the unusual initial pres-: hence It. Densusianu 122—123. etc. tempo. senti. According to Velius Longus (S. for ejus. find.*prcebyterum'). Digitized . morbu ^ morbus. cords the omission of -s in as this nearly always less was strongly Carnoy 185-206 reline it is many inscriptions. traducir).

initial and intervocalic. 127 NASALS. 270. described by Nigidius (in Gellius). anguis. final or followed by a consonant. — or "« adulterinum"— and also nvncqvam. innocens. changed: meus.§ 305] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. §§ 171. ut templum. 276. probably tives first the pronunciation of these fricabefore changed from bilabial to dentilabial (cf. S. 311). noster. 275): "iVvero sub convexo palati lingua inhaerente gemino naris et oris The same author describes (S.: cf." Terentianus Maurus (S. like d and t (§ 280). by Microsoft® . by 270. contineo. iVNCXi. comvenio convenio. mediocre in mediis. etc. Bologna. Priscian. conduco. 275) a spiritu explicabitur. ut magnus. The y Cf. remained unFor the reduction of There was a dissimilation of two M and n. before m. were the preceding vowel obscure and weak in Classic Latin. n. 272. 279-280. S. In Classic Latin the nasal naturally took before labials the form of m. regularly venit. must have been partly nasalized." 305. N. y: combura. According to Priscian (S. and the mouth closure incomplete. S. § 320) gutterals. was dental or gingival. with an arched tongue: S. and v.). n. immitto. 275). before dentals. Cf. «'s in Bononia > It. 275) Before liquids the nasal was assimilated cf. as between n and ^ (S. 269- {colligo. M and 304. amat. 275) says that for n the air comes through both nose and mouth. comfluo confluo. So Marius Victorinus (S. see § 245. uncus (cf. as / . etc. 303. then n. cor- before s it was Digitized silent [cosul. "m obscurum in extremitate dictionum sonat. ut umbra. g. 269-270. apertum in mis-. inquit. is 278). S." sound between m and n: "Omnes fere aiunt inter m eX n litteras mediam vocem quae non abhorreat ab utraque littera sed neutram proprie exprimat. . imperio. rigo. minus.

286) says: littera "Columnam et consules legimus. and even before dentals not always clear (S.. little trace of confusion in the Romance lan- guages. cur regibus. secudo. santo. Spr. cun duce. cun navibus : Lat. plu. ut nomen. Digitized by Microsoft® . find cun." Cf. nom or non fecit. quamta. quen. etc. nol lego.128 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Carnoy 220).. but in great measure also to the mistaken efforts of later writers to restore a real or hypothetical earlier orthography: compare the treatment of prefixes. pricipis. For the change of rjkt to yt. de- fuctce. nomem. iferos. 278. 276—277. i senatu. decemter. 306. quan floridos. Mn seems at one time to have been pronounced m: Quintilian (S. Bechtel 81 {forsitam. 272): this is indicated by such spellings as senper. S. etc. etc. etc. we ci. etc. In inscriptions S.. nom paret. locun sanctum. occubas. nunquam. S. Servius. 273. 476. 307. tan mulieribus. Pirson 92. iy carne. Carnoy 220. n. before/ and v there was great uncertainty (cf. conplere. [§307 to a following consonant: Final nasals seem to have been adapted. 271-272). largely to mere careless- ness in cutting. Cf. The due hesitation and inconsistency in spelling are certainly in part to imperfect articulation. Cicero advocated cun nobis. S. reliquat.. see § 267: santa. forsitam mille. Carnoy 176. Carnoy 176-177. In both old and late inscriptions the nasal is often omitted altogether before a consonant: Decebris. nynfis. 364. 311). In late Vulgar Latin m. and there was apparently some labials doubt before ^« and qu (S. frequent. In the vulgar speech of the Empire the sound before seems to have been indistinct. exeetc. §§171.. 281-285. Priscian (S. like medial nasals. then to nt. laterna.. 275): exempta n "iV quoque plenior in primis sonat et in ultimis partibus syllabarum. innoceti. r/ must have been reinforced. as there is § 32.

septe. mense. . to say. 308. 462. was probably assimilated into nn in central and southern Italy before the Empire was over {Lat. etc. pride. Spr. S. Bon. by Microsoft® . ut amnis. mecu. in the last first two centuries of the Empire the traditional spelling is carefully observed: early and late such forms as dece. from the first century. ide.. : que ad mo- century of the Republic and the dum. etc. m Final m often fell in Umbrian 5. unu are very common. Carnoy 166. Bechtel 107. occa- sionally in Faliscan: Hammer 8. numqua. S. sum(J>)tus. In Old Latin it was to weak: 130 B. Audollent 539-540. the wrong use of it are very frequent in the Per. etc. eoru. The Romance languages it point to the preservation of mn. the latter part of the . and dampnum (cf. umpnia. jacente. accedere. So R. oli. on the other hand. mpn is common in 189. 356. Late inscriptions. dormito for dormitum. It is often omitted in inscriptions down c. App. S. exilior in mediis.). abundant examples. It is likely that this orthography and painful effort to articulate clearly. The omission of -m and Pr. Bechtel •]()•. 129 stamen. (as in puplu). passi. Bechtel 80. terra. cf. dampnare. — that 309. counteracting a previous ten- dency to although slur the group. and again in late plebeian inscriptions. and conversely forms with a superfluous m. 476): Interanniensis.. Between is m and j or / a / generally developed in Latin was unvoiced and denasalized before the surd that followed this / was not always written: sum(J))si. Bechtel 91 Digitized cf." Carnoy 166 has Interamico.. 363-364. damnum. Cf. etc. Toward the end of the Empire fashion evidently prescribed cates a conscious a distinct pronunciation of mn. show a fondness for such spellings as calumpnia. cal- the early indi- Romance languages. for -amn~.§309] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 298.

coicere: S. vowels. pdssu{ni). 310. 356-358. (S. 274). Caper (Keil VII. too. etc. 361). of -n in Latin (S.tenea{m')\ cum. 360. but it seems preco- to have been reinforced in Classic speech (S. cognosco. scarcely any m audible quantum erat. Final n must have been indistinct (S. jam. Cato said dice hanc. n of prefixes 274. only a weak nasal glide: in circueo it disappears (S. etc. audiendu' st. S. 110-112. Hammer 32-41. from early times. 106). as in coactum. fix The con— became co— before vowels. ing vowel was nasalized. Cf. S. S. 286). 282. fell Before^. Vok. In the opinion of Schuchardt. cf. Before consonants S. 361): see §305. of its assimilation to a § following labial (im bello. For further assimilation. non is Siciliam": see § 311. As the fall of m seems to have been due primarily to a failure to close the lips completely between two it is likely that the nasalization was slight. 364Lat. 473. Spr.130 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. he adds that there in tantum ille. it was assimilated (cf. the precedThe contrary view is maintained by Seelmann. the final S. cf. According to Quintilian is 362). very early. reaches the conclusion that silent at the it became end of polysyllables by the first century. 274. The Romance languages point to a loss of -m in all words but monosyllables: damnu{m).. [§ 310 ardente lucemam. etc.. next before spirants and at the end of a phrase. then (by assimilation) before other consonants. who notes the omission of -m in many inscriptions under all possible conditions. in poetry it may be disregarded (cf. tan dvrvm. quern (^quen. etc.. as in cognatus. ignotus: is Other- wise there no sure proof of the fall but there is abundant evidence 365). I. coharere. "/« Siciliam dicendum. having disappeared very early before vowels. Carnoy 206-221. Digitized by Microsoft® . Final m before vowels seems to have been. hors. Cf. 358). 288-292. 361): see 305. AudoUent 537).

"Hercules non Herculens. cojugi. 311. infas. Charisius (S. (on a (Capua." Cf. 113-115." "occasio non occansio. 459. v. 281-285. letter inscriptions: Kki]ix. 274. Spr. locuplens. etc. iferi.§ 31 1] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 286) records that "men- sam sine n littera dictam Varro fall ait. remasit. Digitized by Microsoft® . except in monosyllables: ndtne{Ti). libes. 131 The Romance languages indicate the disappearance of -n.. Pirson 94. coin of Vespasian's reign). etc. toties. 461Conversely.. d. ifimo. occansio. 274. It probably fell late. For final nt. cojux. iferi. coventionid. "ansa non asa" . etc. Quintilian (S." Eunuchus 728. App." In popular speech the times: S. 287). 273). Pr. Stolz 243. formosus (S. 281-285.ifs. was kept in participles. R. 473. prcBgnas repeatedly. 387 a. etc. -onsus>-dsus. etc. cosol. inscriptions: cofecisse. the n was generally restored by analogy (see 171). trare. etc./. seme{n) in. resurges S. —iens'^-ies. 274. § App. covenimus. ^^ i'^ Greek- ko^ous. as videns. Stolz 243fT. 286). if eras. Cf. 462. quiensces. R. Cicero preferred foresia. mansus..). ifer cojectis. non. ifra. thensaurus. Carnoy 177. Eckinger 80. AudoUent 538. S.. Plautus repeatedly uses mosTerence seems to intend a rhyme in "neque Stolz 243. ns. mesis. iventa. convenio'&ie really new formaThe only sure Romance traces of the loss oin tions: S. Pr. S. cesor. thensaurus. pes neque mens. 274. This phenomenon was only thority: partially recognized by Classic au—ensimus -^ -esimus.. such words as conjux. hortesia. as in vicesimus.. Such forms are frequent in cojugi (very common). 285. ." Before/. see § 285. "consules exempta n littera legimus. both forms were used in -e{n)sis (according to Velius Longus. probably through nasalization of the preceding vowel: see § 171. was probably constant from early in/as. mesor messor = mensor. Before fricatives or spirants n regularly fell.. with a superfluous n: fidens =-fides. however. after the Vulgar Latin period: Lat..

Windisch 394). under the influence of Celtic *cactos (Welsh caetJi) = Latin captus (Loth 35). There was some sporadic confusion of/ and b: uvBLlCyE. It. etc. sposus. although at a later date nf became / much of southern France. Spr. 7th century. cf. Digitized became Haag862. the fall of n was permanent. and the only Romance words containing ns are learned terms or new formations: mesa. Intervocalic / probably became b in the fifth and sixth centuries in Spain. Pirson 60-61: labidem. Before s. (I) P. scultor. Raetia. etc. etc. canapa. In a part of Gaul capfivus seems to have been pronounced *cayttvus: it may be that in Gallic speech the pt oi this word became yt. Old Irish secht-n = septem. In a part of Italy /j became ss as early as the isse for ipse is first century: found in Pompeii. App. settembres. and is attested by Martial and possibly by the icse for ipse mentioned by Suetonius.. hut pensare. LABIALS. corpus. pesat. opus.. § 256. h. 476. scripit. "plasta non blasta" " ziziber non ziziper" cannabis and . 299. [§ 314 before these consonants in Latin are Italian /a«/^ and French in Raetia and convent. (i) F regularly remained unchanged: pater.. Gaul. Pirson 61. 314. lebrm. stubrum. Bon. S. by Microsoft® . /V likewise br: Abrilis. 312. and northern Italy: see Cf. 299. Lat. In central and southern Italy// became the Empire: scritus. mesis. S. Pr. or perhaps captivus became first *cactivus. 160. Pirson 93. etc. as was the case with Celtic// (Dottin 100. // probably early in 299. to drop In Italy and perhaps elsewhere there was a tendency / between a consonant and an j- or /. tosus.132 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Car- noy 165. 313. S..• redemti.

§ 3i6]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


In northern Gaul intervocalic/ and/r, even in clerical Latin, /8 and ^r by the seventh century: rivaticus, 629 a. d., Vok. I, 128; cavanna, Gl. Reich.
developed through b and br into
'Soxpe,pi, see § 273.
(2) B.


as in


was not



usually ifemained un-


bene, blitum, oblitus.


Oscan and Umbrian, became vim

in Sicily


southern and central Italy, the
as far north as


being found in inscriptions
Cf. nd, § 281.


Lat. Spr. 476.

Before s or tit

likely that b regularly

became /

in Latin,



was often written

b: absens apsens, ab— apsolvere,

plebs pleps, scribsi scripsi, scribtum scriptum, trabs traps, urbs

urps; App. Pr., "celebs non celeps," "labsus non lapsus."

Final b must have been often assimilated to a following

consonant: sud



a. d.,



In the Empire, especially in the second century,
in inscriptions (cf.

and v were much confused


bixit, botu,

vene, etc., S. 240; Baleria, Balerius, Beneria,


Betrubius, Bictor, bos, valneas, Audollent 536; African birtus, bita, boluntas, Vok. I, 98 bivere, very common, Carnoy

140; baluis, Bechteh"78;

vibit, etc.,

R. 456; bobis in Consenany, traces of

Vok. Ill, 68.

In the

Romance languages

there are few,


such an early interchange.

Probably the confusion was mainly

or wholly graphic, being due to the identity in sound of b and v between vowels (§ 318): Lat. Spr. 473; cf. Einf., § 120. The Spanish levelling of initial b and v does not go back to Vulgar Latin (Carnoy 139— 141); the confusion is far commoner in Italian inscriptions than in Spanish or Gallic (Carnoy 142-146). We find also a change of initial v to b va. north Portuguese, Gascon, south Italian, and Old Rumanian.

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Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


After liquids, too, there was a confusion of b and v in inscriptions, b being substituted for v much oftener than v for
b: Nerba, salbum, serbus, solbit, etc.,

240; berbex, Waters

Ch. 57; solbere, repeatedly, Carnoy 140; solbere, etc., R. 455; App. Pr., "alveus non albeus." In all probability v really changed to b after liquids: see V.


remained unchanged.
Intervocalic b opened into

the development apparin the second,

ently began in the


was well along

Oitovin = and was devitvm, provata, etc., Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95; devere, As V also was pronounced j8, a confusion in spelling S. 240. cvrabit, resulted, b and v being used indiscriminately:

completed, at least in Italy, in the third:

ivbentvtis, nobe,

etc., S.

240; i-vwE.nTE.=jubente, 2d century,

£inf. 127, § 120; cabia
vovis, etc.,

— cavea,

Danuvium, Dibona,


Audollent S3^~537j devitum (6th century), lebis, vibi, Carnoy 134-135; annotavimus, lebat, Bechtel 78;


habe:=ave, rogavo, suabitati,

R. 455— 456;



51, Pirson 61-62,



Carnoy 134-136. became contiguous

Cf. V.

to a following consonant,
Cf. V.

was vocalized

into u: *faula, *paraula, *taula, etc.

became /3r and Dacia.

perhaps not until the end of our period, in northern Gaul, Raetia, part of northern Italy,


as in popular speech: *fa§ula, * tabula, etc.

In the early stages of clerical Latin intervocalic b was pronounced Later, perhaps by the

seventh century,

was sounded


In App. Pr. we find " sibilus non


tions " sifilum pro sibilum" ;


comes from some non-Latin Italic dialect few other words. *a^ea, see § 421. (3) For habebam


(S. 300) menPerhaps the form with/ bubulcus =^ It. bifolco, and a

and Priscian



Be, bi probably remained unchanged, at least in most

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§ 322]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


of the Empire: rabies, rubeus, etc.

For the analogical change

of habeo to *ayo, debeo to *deyo, see § 273.

(3) F-


F was

originally bilabial (S. 294-295), but
of the



by the middle


(S, 295): cf. § 305.

It is the old /, apparently, that is described

by Quintilian

296-297) a plain description of the dentilabial y is given by Terentianus Maurus and Marius Victorinus (S. 296).

Grammarians speak

of an alternation of h


fasena^ harena, fircum'^ hircum, habam'^fabam,
Varro, Ling. Lat.

etc., S.

f: fcedus'^hadus, The /"and 300.

the h doubtless belonged to different dialects in early Latin
§ 97, the

according to

This phenomenon can have no connection with the change of initial/to h in Spanish and Gascon.

/for h was Sabine.

of the

It is

probable that intervocalic

y became

v at the end

Vulgar Latin period

256): alevanii

^ elephanti,

paceveci ^pacifici, pontevecem =. poniificem,




was doubtless originally pronounced w; but, losing its velar element, the sound was reduced, probably During the early in the Empire, to the bilabial fricative /8. Empire Greek-letter inscriptions have ov or ^ for v (Ncpoua or Nep/3a) Ov\av!a = Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95 yS for » is common from the first century on, Eckinger 85-91. Velius Longus, in the middle of the second century, says that the u in ualente is pronounced "cum aliqua aspiratione": S. 232. Hence arises a complete confusion of intervocalic b and v








By. CVRABIT, ivbentvtis, etc, Gregory the Great. This leads


240; jubari iox juvari

to a graphic confusion of

initial b

and v

in inscriptions: biginti, bixit, botv, etc. (so



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An Introduction

to Vulgar Latin.
dentilabial v in


Later the bilabial

p became


of the


cf. §


For the substitution Germanic Consonants.
323. After liquids




or w in a few words, see

this state

/3 seems to have closed regularly into b; was preserved in Rumanian (Densusianu 97, 103105), but elsewhere the p ox v was partially restored by school

influence: cerbvs, corbi, cvrbati, ferbeo,
A. D.),
§ 317.

nerba (about 100

serbat, solbit, E. G. Parodi in Horn.




So vervex became *verbex, then berbex: Waters Ch. 57 BERBECES, 2d Century, Einf. 127, § 120 (also in Gl. ReichJ).

Hence came

hesitation in spelling (^ferveo, ferbui, etc.)


inconsistent results in the


languages: corvus^

corbo corvo, Fr. corbeau; curl/US'^

Ft., Pr. corp, Sp. corvo;



nerbo, Fr. neff; servare, servire'^ It. serbare, servire.

Intervocalic w ox fi had a tendency in older Latin, as Umbrian, to disappear between two like vowels: divtnus'^ dinus (cf. Umbrian deivina> deina, Sittl 26), obHviscor> obliscor, si vis'i> sis. Cf. Lindsay 52. Also, at all times, before or after 0: bovis'^bos; devorsum>dedrsum; faor, Pirson 63; moere, AudoUent 539; Noe/u/Spios, Vok. II, 479; noem[bris], S. 241; '^pavor xiOXL paor," App. Pr.; cf. late noembris, noicius, Lindsay 52. "Favilla xion failla" in App. Pr. seems to be




In the above cases the


apparently was only sporadic.

But before an accented o or u, the w ox p fell regularly in most of the Empire: aunculus, Vok. II, 471 (cf. auncli, Pirson 63); FLAONivs, S. 241; *padnem; *padrem.
Furthermore, intervocalic
popular speech before any


ox p regularly disappeared in probably towards the end of the
vIvs, S. 241 {zLJlaus in



-vos>-vus): flavs,

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and Greek double consonants sometimes became single: vd/xos >nummus. GREEK CONSONANTS. Audollent 539 (cf."^ ec{c)lesia. Keil IV. gnaus. Vulgar aucella. the original Latin w (spelled v) had become |8: § 2. 137 App.:>*eccwic. the sonants were perhaps not fully voiced. etc. by Microsoft® . triumphaut. and sibilants less sharply differentiated been usually remained unchanged in transmission. aus. L. (S) u. and the surds doubtless had a weak. Pirson 63. Before 322. 113) nous. after the analogy of a feminine or a plural form ovum (beside oum) through ova. rius. Carnoy 128. rivus (beside rius) through rivi. 1. stored. Pr. Digitized Cf. 472 (cf. oum. (i) In inscriptions -vs is common in place of -vvs. App. 327- In Greek the surd and the sonant stops must have than in Latin. is 325. the v was re. vius in Pirson 63). primitius. ndcui^ nocwi. eccu' ista'>*eccwista. iKKKyfTia. /3 became contiguous to a folwas vocalized into u (cf. period: eccu' ktc'. : Cf. B): Classic . Pirson 63). The ^Vm of C. When intervocalic a/ or it lowing consonant. noum. Claussen 847-851. Vva. hiatus which had not already become w {%% 223224) probably took that sound by the end of the Vulgar Latin 326. II. Vok. etc. oum in Probus. voiced explosion: so they were not always distinguished by the Latin ear. Often. Lindsay 52. I. 471) and others as aum. The Greek liquids. 328. etc. this. placuit> placwit.§ 328] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 1220. naufragus. Fr. Single consonants sometimes became double in Latin. is evidently intended for csvum. cited by Schuchardt (Vok. in most cases this probably only graphic: Carnoy 128-131. however.. datius. nasals. § 167. II. claudo.

A. gamba. y. explosives 6. cf. cf. etc. [§ 332 (i) B. T generally remained c. S. t regularly came to be pronounced //in Greek: a. t: blcesus. S. Ka.. TTuppos burrus. T. r. k. 8 regularly ydpov>garum. 2S9-26a 332. keSjoos > citrus. advCf. B. S. — 329.papo^ cammarus gammarus. yoyypoi Cf. t: xoAa^os > colaphus. n. 833-838. progne. K. It. w. 330. ch: Claussen 823-833. After nasals. toKomtov > talentum.. c (S. K6p. bustiola in Gl. 259. Teodor. Claussen 838-841. tt. <t>. we find the People of fashion by Microsoft® . TfL'^um (j-a. etc. 138 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.yKri> andngi.fu > > gumtni. KaiPw%>gobius .p. S. cecino. avrpov^ dndron. > > . Ta\oi'>rr. The From the middle of the second century spellings th. K.KO)0(K delta. 268): (cf. p. Pr.p. cin in kvki/os > > cicinus > Old. nimpa. ^iXra^ unvoiced into /. > conger ganger. b. *. became in Old Latin t. Claussen c. § a-iriijXvyya > spelunca. later inscriptions. the conis mentioned by Terentius Scaurus and others. Pilipus. 347 buxus.yfjia> sagma sauma. although KavZiTo? for candidus (Eckinger 98) seems to point in that direction: 'Aicpayas > Acragas Agragas.v>gubemare. v sometimes became b. (2) K. c. App. remained b. often became g. however. — fusion 346. Reich. rvp. d: l3XauT6i Sometimes. old inscriptions. (3) ®. however. sandal. X. egloge. 7rop<j)vpa. of a change oi r to d there is no This late such cases as Kafiinj Greek pronunciation perhaps accounts for > Lat. timbre. theywere *Jdcopus (also */dcomus) 'la.iravov > Fr. g. "> purpura. Crista.. KvPipva. Digitized b. 'Kixpmp6<i'>- lambros. TTvio'i > Kr > 331' g. ph. x 252-253): vop^-ipa^ purpura .. "calatus non galatus" {^ KoXadoi).

Thiestes. 256) speaks of using the old. for new words as well as for old: <TvaOri>spatka— spata. p. Digitized by Microsoft® . Fitones in Gl. ut ather. and some other early adopperhaps the reason is to be sought in a Greek dialect pronunciation: Claussen 829-831. . S-p. "amfora /came non ampora. c. The etc. 218. 4. In <l>aXKaiva> ballcBna. Certainly as early to be the standard as the fourth century (Lindsay 58) pronunciation: App. '^Theophilus non izofilus": (i) Evidence of a late school pronunciation of 6 as ts is to be found in Thurot 78. ut c enuntiatur.Xay^ It. <f> > b. . etc. In ^£ros>It. Theos. Thescelus. cathedra. Matheus ''. iriumpos) in order to be better understood. <jia. etc. pantaisar. 257-258. of.. zio we have a late development of Claussen 833. Parthi. : letter h is occasionally misused. etc. caikoluus. By the first century a. Reich.<^ao-i.avTac7La> > Pr." "strofa non stropa". Thestius. Fitonis. si aspiretur. 139 undoubtedly tried to imitate the aspirates (Lindsay 54). nothus.. etheus. 79 (cf.^o'i^ colaphus = colapus. but popular speech kept the old t. Cicero (S. x^P^ > chorda = corda.§ 334] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. It is transposed in Fhitonis. Claussen 828.. phitonissm. f is common later in southern Italy. The proper spelling is discussed by gram- marians: S. Fr. ^ had developed into / in some places (S. Bonnet 141. Eckinger 97.\os> phaselus faselus . 260. S. Ki^oXoi > It. 261): dafne occurs in Pompeii. neofiti. 256) says there were no aspirate consonants in older Latin. unaspirated pronunciation (as pulcros.. KoKa. S. ut thiara. footnote to § 259): " T quoque.. palanca. 0.. cefalo. " In principio inquam dictionis nulla prescripta causa variari compellitur. In late words ^ regularly appears as/. as in phosit. so o^-1\kiov for qfficium. X ><?"• Claussen 831. cf. cru/x<^o)V4a>It." 334. Bechtel 79. In hoxri>doga. 261. Fr. zampogna. App. d. 333" tions. pache. Quintilian (S.

v>psallere spallere. Quintilian refers only to the on the Latin pronunciation. /8oj«. 308. massa.po'i'^ prebiter. bobansa. > nome.. > exodus. : t. it was pronounced in Vulgar Latin dy. Judging from inscriptions. some indica: tions that they were weak before consonants > Pr.. In it was represented by jj or s: pAtfl. and subsequent developments confirm this view: baptizare Digitized was equivalent to bapti{d)yare. priTmp> Rh in remained unchanged: \a/x7ras> common speech was doubtless pronounced In trkXivov like > It. lampas. as a simple sound. The nasals. by Microsoft® . early Latin . (Tivain Of the sibilants. by s. see below. later j' (cf. The liquids regularly rhetor. have to do with a late Greek change of \ to 336. and ^ were regularly > sinapis.I40 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. too.8os /talpos > maurus. e^oSos r. we probably 8. 338. t. ss. Cf. and a few other words. r. sedano.^ ? > It. etc. — 339. but was often replaced. Medentius. There however. [§ 339 (4) Liquids. unchanged: <j has probably become For npvj^vre. i/f In ocr/u. among 36) says that the ancients.'^massa. (S) z- Z doubtless had several pronunciations in Greek. cr 337. and Sibilants. is sounded sd. see § 300. The For unfamiliar combination lent itself readily to meta- thesis: i^6X\v. Nasals. Priscian (Keil II. Greek letter and the lack of a corresponding Latin one Velius Longus discusses z at length. From Sulla's time on it was written z in The grammarians throw no light Latin: Claussen 841-843. orma. § 272).-^ remained unchanged: are. ^dvr] "^ sona (Plautus). but seems to be referring only to Greek speech S. Claussen 845. regularly vop. 335. or d as in Saguntum.

zanuari. Carnoy 163. is often used for di: . Spr. corresponding Latin sounds had undergone some modification. GERMANIC CONSONANTS. 3. p. A few. garba > K It. Digitized by Microsoft® . zabulus. etc. Kotflv^ zvnior. Carnoy 163). cf. I. 141 zelosus to {d)yelosus. 68 . can scarcely have come in time to share in the early palatalization of Latin g before front vowels (§§ 25811. and w. Eckinger 80..). etc. estribar. rubare. The ending -i{d)yare became very is common: see § The spelling di for z occurs repeatedly: baptidiare found several times in Per..ta. geisla Fr. 239. riqueza. zdcones. Franko seems to have been an early acquisition. *giga>'Pr. Ladiis. zosum z= deorsum. giscle. 22. being had no Latin equivaFurthermore. skernon > schernire. I. although have participated also in the later Gallic palatalization of g > before a (§ 263): gilda>lt. however. 69. B between vowels. Pr. re- mained a stop : roubdn it > It. ZABVLLVS. D. garto Old Fr. so *rik-itia > Pr. etc. Zov\e. seems to have followed a similar course. = conjux. gerbe. Cf. 457-458- In late inscriptions z for/ is common: zerax = Upa^ (202 S. occurring apparently only in words adopted after Latin intervocalic b had become ^ (§ 318). Vok.• frank-iscus>lX. 473. geldra. 340. 33. and is common in inscriptions (cf. septuazinta. of the consonants offer Most treated as in Latin. z zabulus. jart. and to G. It. b and k came in after the lents: 8. 341.= Julia. Lat. oridium for opvtfi. esquena. baptidiatus. resisted front vowels : skena > > Sp. Vok. h. Bechtel 79). Francesco. A. giga. ZESv..). and its derivatives palatalized In the their k before e and /. zaconus. zebus. no peculiarities. Conversely. *striban > Pr. (90.. zeta = Koffmane 38 Lazis — dixta.§ 34i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. R.

schietto. tasso. ardire. — > \X. etc. different time. 344.. Old Sp. Old Fr. jehir. It. — slahta'^-OXA esclet. d and widarlon were replaced in Latin by the It. cf. honte.gaita. Pr. espiar. skiuhan'^'Fx. Intervocalic h disappeared in most words. Sp. Pr. hanche. schiatta. anca. pahso > It. perhaps borrowed at a different date feu. —jehan > Old It. gequir. blanche (but It. helme. before a (§ 263). Pr. Fr. Hs. Pr. guiderdone. Pr. Yr.— 142 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. hau- > > > Pr. It. 343. Fr. regions where Latin eschine. hache. rather than a. at Germanic w was a strong velar and labial fricative. a time when original Latin fricative w (spelled v) It the purely labial ^ (§ 322). In the Gl. hardir. so blank-a'^Yx. Kluge 500. But wahta. parrjan > Cf. eschernir. is used before > > initial ch: ab Chilperico. espier. like Latin ss. hapja'^Yz. silent in Fr. W. doubtless adopted at a Tr. richesse. esguiver. [§ 344 c was palatalized. It. It. in the seventh century and later. esclate. Fr. prescan Germanic h appeared when Latin h had long been popular speech. fio . tt: pahso > It. ht were generally treated tasso. esclata. spehon~>0\6. helm elmo. had become was nearer in it sound to Latin u: see § 326. 342. we find Digitized by Microsoft® . sleht > Pr. of a At the beginning word it kept its sound in northern Gaul. bianca^. became Old guatare. hardjan Old Fr. 445 notes that ab. trescar. Germanic k was modified in the same way before all front vowels (including a): cf. but apparently was neglected in the rest of the Empire: hanca~^Yx. gaite. Fr. Fr. schivare. tarir. gecchire. but in a few it seems to have been sounded kk in the greater part of the Empire: fehu Fr. Reich. apcha. Bon. It.. jaquir. nipa The spirants 8 and p t: corresponding stops.

1885. through a reinforceit ment of its velar element. 143 re- represented by uu. 1899. Die frdnkischen Elemente W. See E. Wandali. 1884. Charakteristik der germanischen Elemente im Italienischen. Digitized by Microsoft® . W. wa (the interjection). Bon. and in the in Rsetia this w apparently remained unchanged Vulgar Latin period. Waddo. reuuardent. became gw: warjan>*warire wisa guarire. Waltemath. werra > werra guerra. > *wisa guisa. in der franzSsischen Sprache. Through association with Germanic words. In extreme northern and eastern Gaul.:>*wadum. Die germanischen Elemente in der franzSsischen und provenzalischen Sprache. walde. etc. Mackel.§ 344] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. vastare + wost— > *wasiare. 167 cords Euua. etc. in uuadius. elsewhere. in northwestern Italy. Bruckner. the /3 of some Latin words was changed to w: vadum +watan'. but Wintrio is spelled Quintrio: Haag 38. It is generally written w in Fredegarius. etc.

II. (4) There were some sporadic changes: duos arbores. Pirion 157. 293. had a proparoxytonic accusative in -erem. n. dependent on sex or lack of distinctions. honor. -inem. iomus. ficus. They were grammatical whose observance was a matter of outward form. A.IV. but there were ( I ) Between masculine and feminine there was not much some important shifts: Feminines of the second declension nearly all became — masculine: fraxinus. 194. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. sex. Nouns that -icem. confusion of gender ensued.. G. The three genders of Latin were not. manus. —orem. If words lost their differentiating terminations. turturem. ~" confusion. Spr. I. cucullus and cuculla. 346. leporem. or [I. Hmor. fans feminine in late Latin. —urem were of uncertain gender ( Gram. through the analogy of the great majority of abstract terms. 504. Lat. in the main. GENDER. 483. MORPHOLOGY. grex became feminine. castaneus for castanea. pulicem. Bon. Lat. 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . 483 . dolor. (5) See also § 351. 461): (2) In Gaul. etc. marginem. MASCULINE AND FEMININE. Bon. Spr. 464-467): carcerem. 345. became feminine (Bon. abstract nouns in -or. 503-504): (3) color. Feminines of the fourth declension varied (^Gram. cf.

etc. Plautus. MARIS. Conversely we find cinus. and f. calus. VA. MAREM. balneus. piper \h&x& must have been *liiminem. 270—272. 348. (Za/. thesaurum. Waters Ch. n. pectorem. m. 4.Y.. Cf. 39. 57.. incipit judicius. *ndminem. Varro. vasus -um. R. ra. lactem {Bacch. *ptperem. lactem. roborem. beside pulvis. caseum -us. Audol- lent 545. signus. sg. R. 266. frigorem. Bon. D'Arbois 135. 173. b. fcenus. collus. 345-349.. Waters Ch.§ 348] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. For the confusion of masculine Cf. . puteum. fatus. see Archiv VIII. gladium. verbus. ledus —um. collus —um. Densusianu 129. murmur. etc. laqueum.. Beside lUmen. lignus. marmorem.. for ctnis. and also by the fall of final s in that phenomenon occurred (§ 298). II. 483). Glor. n. The transition from masculine to neuter was facilitated by the fall of final the regions where changes reduced considerably the distinguishing marks of the (§ 309). vinus. In Classic Latin a number of neuters became masculine balteum -us. do^sus (^Mil. castellus. Petronius. papaver . templus. maris nom.guttur. nomen. sulphurem. me\_nt]us. ciner. frenum -i. 41. etc. 507-509. m. 46. 132. 2. Spr. cf. cornu —um —us. Densusianu 132. In popular and late Latin this tendency was strong: anteClassic. tergum —us. Bon. 348. and neuter in Africa. nasuni : —us. 42. vadum —us... etc. 293. 347. Petronius has thesaurum. 16). 145 MASCULINE aIiD NEUTER. there must have been a *pulvus. m. G.. vinus. 44). etc. These m two genders: filiu{s) — .

R. Petronius writes nervia Waters Ch.. 266. Zs. Cf. complete until early Romance times. the characteristic neuter plural inflections came to be -a being regarded as an alternative masculine plural ending: for nervi. Nearly all neuters became masculine: os locutus R. Thus the masculine and neuter fused.. 386. 161. generally Haag became feminine maris. miles. murus. locus. popular. Mare. 45 . luoghi luogora. mare. Bon. etc. but also the collective plural for the singular Digitized by Microsoft® . muro. by terra. hunc vulnere. hunc stagnum. etc. the early stages of the Neuter adjective forms were used for a similar purpose: in Romance languages we find phrases veniat. illud or ilium. donum hunc scBCulum.146 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and 48. sagma. m. 351 Classic Latin often used not only the singular for the cf. id ipsum. / muri mura. Among pronouns. 4). etc. quid. XXX. pointing to such Vulgar Latin constructions as *mihi est grave quod ille non c. 348. § 351. generally L. cf. give in Italian: sg. [§ 351 In the second declension the only difference is in the nominative singular and the nominative and accusative plural. 635. in Livy: Draeger I. 349. luogo. perhaps calestem. est. 277. Archiv III. : if The loss of the neuter became feminine: cyma. gender for nouns was probably not Cf. rivus rivora. FEMININE AND NEUTER. however. tive h In the third declension the genders are distinguished only in the accusative singular and the nomina- and accusative plural. influenced f. hunc verbum. quod. and in Italy and Dacia the distinction disappears even in the nominative singular. Greek neuters in -ma. 350. for instance. plural in a collective sense (as eques.. the : neuter forms were kept to express an indefinite idea hoc. Densusianu 132. So pi.

Reich. 270. Sardinian. For the use of cases. hie est iesia. marmor.. fusa. Archiv XIV. of an to pectora maXch qua pectora : Chronologie \()().. which a new plural was created: brachias. *folia. ligna . ne forte et mihi hcec eve- R. Digitized by Microsoft® . Spr. . *pulvus = pulvis. fructa. Old Fr. ardet (cf. see §§ 85-100. Draeger I. Reich.§ 354] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the Vulgar Latin period the cases were generally reduced. but many were and southern Italy and Rumania. armentas. 5-9. 147 marmora. Cassel. sg. This formation in -a was extended to many masculine (cf. By the end of 354. Spr. Gl. Apulian. few neuter nouns became feminine: For mare and f. Gl. in Greek neuters -ma. rama). occurs in late Latin. 2. D'Arbois 10. see § 347. The feminine character of such words was *illcB doubtless reinforced by the use. simulaehras. cf. in Rumanian y>-««2a < ? *frondia ^frondes. crigne < ? *cnnea = crines. Convtrstly.% frigora. 353. 435. 351.. grada occur in late Latin. rura: cf. ligna. Cf. 483. 269. membras. for singular forms as *brachia. etc. gesta. see § 349. palpebrum iox palpebra occurs. etc. dita. For cinus — cinis. gaudia niat. for instance. {z. . 63). DECLENSION OF NOUNS. etc. Aside from these... 352. R. Gl. Audollent 548. In late Latin and early Romance this collective plural —a came to be taken for a feminine singular: tribula sg. Bon. § 349) and even to some feminine nouns: digita. R. ingenias. frutta. Lat.. It. So the neuter plural forms in -a were preserved in their collective use after the neuter singular forms had disappeared. . 482. In most of the in central Romance territory the -a forms were kept preserved as plurals only as feminine singulars. Hence arose such feminine gaudia. Lat.

in southern Italy and Sardinia. but -ies was kept in the Spanish peninsula. lacus.. 282-283. gustus in Petronius . Ada. glatz. jusso.. transfer of nouns in -ies from the fifth to the first declension began also in Classic Latin: effigies— ia. Dies maintained itself. 152. [§ 356 except in Dacia. Bon. jusso.. speni): W. Pr.g/ada. and occasionally in southern Gaul. etc. Bechtel 86. Classic Latin and continued in vulgar and late speech: ftcus. luxuries —ia. etc. but there were a few shifts: — (i) For an inflection mama mamdne(^m). fructo fructos. manos. Heraeus in Archiv XIII. (2) The susianu 133. All passed over in the greater part of the Empire. Sp. haz. spes spent. —a nominative and an accusative- plural following the analogy of the singular. lucto. Spr. The transfer from the fourth to the second began in domus./ada. went into the third res There was also an inflection spes : spene{m). One result of the intermediate confusion was an accusative plural spelling -us which was very common in Gaul: Bon. K. etc. In Dacia the dative singular was to some extent preserved also: '' § 91. sendti. spiritus. cornum. scaiiazre attested Inter: Denfor -OS. passes. 355(i) The number fifth of declensions was reduced to three. as a third declension noun. ablative. etc. 482. 135. — the Cf.148 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 544. 260—262. G. £ai. 270. The other declensions generally held their own. whence Italian spene (cf. Fifth declension nouns not in -ies rem. so friicti. gelus. senatus. R. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. beside dia. 550. 356. gradus. fourth declension eventually went over. the fourth and being absorbed by the others. 337-338. materies -ia. Audollent genum. being assimilated to the third declension: cf. to two. see § 359. All the mercatus. Sittl in Archiv II.

(3) On the other hand. the nominative plural was' by Microsoft® . It probably was not common until late Vulgar Latin or early Romance times. vas>va- sum vasus (Waters Ch. femps. under the influence of stercus. a. Reich.. beside coclear fiitre: was codearium. Fr. by Audollent 416. This use was due in the main to the analogy of the singular. Corpo for corpore occurs in the Per. 280. pyxis '^*buxida. fall of In Italy and Dacia. : Bechtel 86. Spr. the accusative plural form came to be used as a nominative plural. and of feminine nouns of the third declension. J where there was only one form. the first: 367. siren '^ sirena. 258Dubois 258. lent 546.). of the third declension sometimes passed into lampas~^lampada. there was a termen terminis. 483. G. fons.In countries which did not lose final s {% 298). h&nc& filias filias. Fr. FIRST DECLENSION. Old Fr. but the old forms were retained also. It. Pr. cf. etc. R. likewise tempesta {Gl. apparently became femus {Gl. Greek nouns 259. Reich.) *femdris: cf. So a few Latin nouns: juventus or ~tas > Juventa. matres matres. 280.§ 357] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Audolfilia{m). so apparently ros'. 259-260). Fundus fundi perhaps became fundus *funddris: Old Fr. etc. Beside terminus ~i. where the kept instead. Puulva for pulvis is recorded adsis '> aisida. G. which had only one form in the plural: flia So linguas. fiens. 149 (2) For an inflection Bellus Bellone^m). Digitized -s made the accusative plural identical with the singular. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) and *capum -i: XXVII. fonz. effondrer. / 357. rugiada. ds>dssum (R. see § 362.) and probably *potesta. arroser. Libit.>*rdsum (cf. Beside ervum ervi. G. there was an ervus ervoris: Lat. Pr. 57). Fimus ftmi. 280.

Salvioni in Rom. Br^al. 136. sa* sacristanis (cf. See G. etc. No foreign or dialect influences are needed to explain the practice. Herseus in Archiv XIII. nom. sacristano). This feminine inflection left some traces in Gaul. It. cf. 264). and Digitized by Microsoft® . pupillabus. Some masculine person-names in —a had crisia the same declension {Einf. feminabus. G. 171. c. Feminine proper names and words denoting persons etc. but they may have helped its the second century . Philipon. Feb.. 483. 359. an inflection in —dnis. Raetia. ahimabus. Pirson 115-116. This form left no traces in the Romance languages.. the nominative plural in some parts of Italy SCALAS. etc. diffusion. scriba *scribanis (cf. Celtic. scrivano). century: feminine -a -ants In Lat. Hic qvescvnt dvs mres dvas filias. cf. rather late. Dante's Semele.. XXV. filiabus. It.2 01. deabus. Meyer-Liibke expresses doubt whether the is connected with masculine tatani. Rom. 358. Nice Nicenis. or probably under the influence of the consonantal declension of Greek names that was in vogue in schools. Spr. § 153): barba barbani. 150. 70. villabus. W. Dalmatia. [§359 According to Mohl. An ablative in -abus is occasionally found: Cassiabus. —enis. Les accusatifs en -ain. etc. Bon. Paris. Journal des savants igoo. etc. liberti LIBERTASQVE. fr.. Both mamani and tatani are found in the third W. D'Arbois 21-24 assumes Celtic influence: hic sunt cartas.ISO (i) An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. mamma mammdnis. 198. ii. MeyerLiibke in Ltblt. Africa. W. and also in Latin down to -as was probably old in : B. filiabus. Chronologie 205-209. often developed. filiabus. too..: hence arose Anna Anndnis or -inis. 331. M. amita *amitdnis (so Juliana Julianenis in Pirson 143). XXXI. Les accusatifs en -on et en -ain. etc. Her^us in Zs. E. XXIII. p. 206. Spr. Pupils were taught to inflect Glance Glaucenis. Rom. XXXV. affirms that there was a feminine in -a with a plural in -as in Oscan. had a similar plural. (R. Archiv N\\\. 57 B. famulabus. XXV. etc. 152-153. c. 321..

was retained to a considerable and central Italy and Dacia. XXXV. Dubois 250. also Joannentis. According to Salvioni. SECOND DECLENSION. 264. 2l6. As neuter nouns became masculine. -o -6ne. the starting-point of all this inflection was bdrba barbdnis. (2) A. 343. at the beginning of the Romance period. XXXV. Lombard madrane. from which it was extended to other nouns of relationship and to proper names. Cf. 361. -e ^ne -me. 216. from 750 on: amitane. barbane still exist at both ends of Italy.. Rom. by the analogy of bracchia. this -a. 250. however. me -ene. §§ 347-349. Zimmermann. fructa. the first declension was reduced to this pattern: 360. 250. Ger- From the seventh century on. Zs. bdrba barbdnis influence of the itself he would ascribe to the synonymous *bdrbo *barb6nis. — perhaps under manic influence combined with the analogy of the Latin type Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. Rom. the masculine where the masculine and neuter partly in Vulgar Latin but mostly in inflection in those countries differed: vinus. *botula. b. XXXV. 214-215. Joanneni. Romance. Cf. Eugeneti inflection in -dtis. in ig8. and -Stis: Aureliati. -His. nonnain. Andreate. putain. XXVIII. R. Andreani. extent. 218. *botella. 219. (i) 207. §§349. etc. Rom.. Attane. etc. etc.: § 362] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. Agneti. barbane. rama. etc. etc. shows that there was also an Cf. In general. Salvioni. G. etc. shows that these forms of declenall sion were very common the mediasval Latin documents of parts of Italy. digita. — luna facia *folia luna lune lunas luna{s) facia folia f^i^ facias f'^^i^ folias facia(s) folia{s) In Dacia the dative singular {lune. The plural in -a. Italy: Fr.) was kept also. domnani. Rom. 151 etc. -i La declinazione imparisillaba in -a -dne. 351-352. XXXV. from Eugenes. especially in southern Some masculines took 362. they assumed.

-« crowded out the rarer which left no sure Digitized by Microsoft® . attested in Lucca in 776 {Rom. cf. XXXV. Bellus Belloni. XXXV.- ending was often Bon. § 152). Philipon in Rom. 363. In the ablative there was considerable confusion of -z and -e in Classic LatiiK OTan mare. c. [§ 365 gulo guldnis. etc. etc. 198. (1). and possibly Corsican baboni. 337-338.f. some pari. proper names: 201.152 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. §355. This was 364. but there are of -l: It. 85. The traces ablative in —e finally triumphed. and possibly Spain. etc. So perhaps Italian Donaioni. — there developed in Gaul. hence Pitrus or Pitro Petrdne^m). etc. In the accusative plural there was still greater confusion of -is and -es {nubes nubls. In general. Salvioni in Rom. See E. spelled In Gaul the accusative -«. 87.. cf. XXXV. Rsetia. at the beginning of the Romance period. Paulus or Paulo Pauldne{ni). a declension -us (or —o) —dnis for masculine Hugo Hugon was Latinized into Hugo Hugdne{m) (cf. Vok. the second declension followed this pattern: annu(s) — annu ~o anni anno{s) fa^e(f) fabru —o vinu{s) bracciu *—us fructu(s) vinu -0 vini bracciu —o braccia fructu fructi fructo{s) —o fabri fabro(s) —i —o{s) vmo(s) braccia —a -a The letters enclosed in parentheses were silent in Italy and plural Dacia.). Firmus Firmonis. Italy. G. I. Giovannoni. both in Classic and in Vulgar Latin: -Is. 365. 247-249. suceroni: Rom. etc. carried further in common speech: cf. II. Traces of this inflection are to be seen especially in French and Provengal proper names: Foucon. Vok. 212-213. XXXI. turri turre. etc. 204). Apparently traces. THIRD DECLENSION. Huon. Cf. avus avi>avo avonis.. Pirson 133:.

heredes. 38).. Petronius (Waters Ch. As ~es and ~is came to be pronounced alike before the end to of the Vulgar Latin period (cf. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc.famis. lentis in Priscian. lade in Ennius.. heredes. D'Arbois 85-88. 481. folli tor folks in GL Reich. etc. divite. bovis in Varro. Ci. papilionis (cf. Nouns which added a syllable in the genitive. I. Ill. 62). Spr. "nubes non nubis". 263. . Vok. calcis in Venantius Fortunatus. Plautus. camis in Livy. Rumanian pint.principis). travis (three times). Varro. -es. GL Reich. In the nominative singular the common -^s largely placed the less f requent 244-247. 47). castore. Sepulcri 220. 263. urbis. R. audace. "fames non famis. Prudentius. etc. aculionis for aculeus). 116. stips^ stipes. Waters a Ch. cf. Chronolo- gie 203. perhaps in late popular Latin. 105. 66. voluntate. nom. 9.. it is futile trace the Romance forms phonetically to one source rather than the other. Aulus Gellius. victore. or -e fashioned on the model of the oblique cases: so seeps "> sapes. in Ennius. are best explained. Jovis. Caper. In Vulgar Latin this formation was extended to words with shift of accent: excellente for excellens in Petronius. Audollent 545-547.§ 367] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. "grus non gruis. pedis. slirpis in Livy. etc. (^=z.. tended in popular speech to use for the nominative a form in -is. mdis. Audollent 545-547.. 243). suis in Prudentius (F. latrone. These forms prevailed in Romance. principens antestetis.. through the analogy of the second declension: see §368. 45. Apuleius. 367. III. R.. superstitis. Petronius (Waters Ch.. famis. 263. etc. etc. R. §§ 174. nubis." App. etc. Haag 45. Pr. D'Ovidio in critici Raccolta di studii dedicata ad Alessandro JD'Ancona 627).. Lat.." Keil VII.• -« Vok. Pr. Petronius (Waters Ch. without a change of accent.. cardonis. 153 Italian pani.. as by Tiktin 565-566. App. GL Reich. dis- 366.

see § 347. prevailed in Romance. servitor. timpuri). (also * damantis. as nomeiji). Neuters in —n and -s regularly kept their nominative- accusative singular. lupi. etc. etc. which was regarded as the normal masculine type: fllii. 367 parentorum is frequent in charters in the Gl. etc. too. D'Arbois 85-88. except for persons. hence *cani. for *lumine{m). both the second and -r. 154 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cassel.). probably in late Vulgar Latin or early Romance. new forms on the masculine pattern. *ndmine{ni). being used mainly in the nominative vocative. masculine nouns made over their nominative plural on the model of the second declension. we find sapienti. to Bon. declensions: Neuters in which apparently became by Microsoft® masculine or Digitized . (also presentis. according . soror. The process may have begun in the Vulgar Latin period. doubt. Rumanian Tiktin 566.. first in cf. etc. retained names of and and generally preferred the old nominative But names of persons in -ans and -ens usually made over the nominative: parentis. timp. Spr. anni. but in Italy and Rumania the old ones. Rum. *cdrpes *cdrpe{s). beside the old forms. hence *patri. carpi corpora. In these countries —ora was used as a plural ending (It. elifanti is common. but there is virtually no evidence that it started so early: in late Latin. no form: homo.). especially those in —ora. as *ndmes *ndme(s). [§ 369 These forms. they constructed. however. but infans (also 368. 482). hence *me(n')si. were kept also {Lat. 369. etc. cantdtor. corpo. etc. so. made in Italy in the eighth or ninth century. corpus cdrpu(^s). prcBgnans). however. which. In most of the Romance languages (but not Spanish). *amantis. For the nominative-accusative plural.. and was extended to in Old Italian to the second.

§356. Plautus. In general. and so probably goes back to an Old Latin *cdr Classic cor. *cdris = Krjp lajpo's. the word shows no trace of d in any of the Romance lan- guages. sangutne(m) also sanguei^m). Incus. NO CHANGE OF STEM. *pulvus.0. (3). sulphurem. Old Yt. 113. 293. etc. PERSONS. 155 feminine earlier than the others. the third declension must have gone about as follows {-is and -es having coincided in the pronunciation -w) : — (i) No Change of Accent. pals {It. A few feminines in -is apparently became neuters in —us. Fxn. except Spanish cuerdo. Spr. incudtnis : Lat. 371. 370. Sanguis. papaverem. cf. polve may come irorapulver). and passed into the second declension: cf. But marmor. *piperem. . 348. Cor apparently made its plural * cores instead of * cordes : according to Mohl. G. iticudis > incudo. but the original forms were kept also: cinis ctnus.§ 37i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. § 347. marmorem. pulvis whence S-p.. Lexique 21-38. the open o would possi- bly be explained as due to a cross between this *cor and the Caput became *capu{ni) or capus (Pirson 238). at the beginning of the Romance period. often developed an accusative singular in -e{m) as well as a nominative-accusative plural in -es: I. Zauner 2. 2. were kept also. Bon. polvo. 483.

156 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. . [§373 change of stem.

157 DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. however. 375" The principal types are: — So ager. .§375] An 3. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 350). 374- Adjectives were declined after the same model as nouns. the neuter adjective forms were less and less used. § was kept to represent a whole idea (cf. and the neuter plural (as omnia) was doubtless emr ployed from time to time as an indefinite collective. As neuter nouns assumed masculine endings (§ 347). the neuter singular.

46). jac^r passed into the -us ~a —um class. App. R. not completely evolved in Vulgar Latin. firmis. Pauper early developed a feminine paupera and later a neuter pauperum: paupera. Prcecox developed a feminine pracoca: Neue II. Pr. doussa. gracilus. miser. The type. Cf. 274. prcestus. pauperum. Decllvis. and f. Romance was: For the new method of comparison. In the the —us —a Romance languages more adjectives went over -um type Pr. and conversely benignis. effrenis. prude(s) prude(s) *prudente(s) feUce fellce(s) prudente prudente{s) prudente{s) prudentia prudentia fellceis) fellcla (4) Comparatives apparently did not reconstruct the Nominative Singular: melloif) mellu{s) millu(s) mellore mellore(s) mellora mellSra melidre(s) There was a good deal of confusion of types in Latin times: beside alacer. pauperorum. (plus L 1 J ^plus llle-{'^"~. sublimus. Waters Ch. : to 4. l_ \ !-. COMPARISON. imbecillis also assumed the -us -a —um inflection in the Latin period so trtstis^tristus. App. and there was probably also a feminine * alacra and * alecra. so teeter'^ tetrus. etc. there was alacris. m. magis magls f J Digitized by Microsoft® . . Macer. pauperorum. 377. in376.. and f. Pr. etc.— 158 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. comuna.. [§377 (3) Originally *feUce(s) One Gender filis fills fellcla in the Nominative Singular. 275 (^ci. 162. Densusianu 142. R.. see § 56. celerus.. m. etc.

Archiv VII. 107).i 378. see § 225. 285). melius. Tredece * See M. minor. Six. as intensives: altissimus. Quattuor became quattor {Archiv VII. pejus. sordidius. *Stto). became cinque {Archiv VII.§379] '^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. II. by dissimilation. 68. Scto ( and Cf. melior. an Unus was probably declined like bonus. carissimus. major. levior. 65). vivacius. Vulgdrformen lateinischer Zahlworter auf Inschriften in Archiv VII. nSve. It was used indefinite article (§S7) and an indefinite pronoun to be replaced §71). Cf. is regular. 221). sanctissimus. "i^. The old superlatives remained to a considerable extent. For dodece. pessimus. magis. (G. also as (cf. etc. 5. septe (and *sette). DHo came by dui. grossior So the adverbs: longius. on the model of dui. Digitized by Microsoft® . gravior grevior. in the clerical language. attested in the third cen- tury: Archiv IX. pejor. also ijuatro ^guaitro. 159 However. §254. longior. 66) ginta (Archiv Nil. dice offer so cinqua- no peculiarities. Ihm. minus. the Classic Latin comparatives of many common adjectives remained in use: altior. of the Vulgar Latin period dui dot {duoT) duo(s) Its inflection at the was probably: doa{s) — end due doe duas doas d'ua{s) dua doa dua doa In early Romance there was doubtless much confusion of the forms. lows : — The numbers between two and twenty were as fol- Tres probably developed a nominative *irei. 379. Beside Undece there seems to have been * iindece. Quinque. (Camoy . NUMERALS. proximus. 65. 558 (cf.

Ryd- berg in Milanges Wahlund 337. etc. But beside these we Vigtntl. *dece et (or ac) nHve. cf. triginta is. became * quattordece (cf. For ducenti. 136. trinta: Archiv VII. * sexdinta. trigtnta must assume for Spanish something like * viinti. with an opening of the first i and an early shift of accent. beginning with 20. § 225). Centu was regular. G. The tens. such as * dui centu. f^ok. became viinti. Cf.. regularly [§ 381 also Quattuordecim *quatti!rdece. there were probably new formations. went out of use. which account in general for the Italian. Mille was regular. are irregular: regularly § 142. Priscian (Keil III. * octdinta * ottdinta. Beside sedece there was *dece SeftendScim. Digitized by Microsoft® . Keil An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and French words. XXV. * triinta. ii. also unus de viginti. etc. Archiv VII. 381. Archiv VII. etc. trecenti. mentioned as a by Consentius. perhaps of the fifth century (Pirson 97. 412) mentions decern et septem. 461.and the octo. etc. These forms easily contracted into vinti. triinta (§ 259): ISatvTi occurs in a sixth century document of Ravenna. trinta {yinti. 69. Provengal. Beside this dice et septe ac") there was *dece ac septe . 400. the septucu. Zs.of 70 and 80 were to the type of the others. et (or ac) sex. * cinqudinta. made to conform Outside of the Spanish peninsula is -dinta apparently became -dnta. For its plural it had *dui mille or *dui mtl{l)ia. 380. II. *septdinta * settdinta.: G. * quadrdinta became rr: quarranta Furthermore the dr of found in an inscription. This change of accent apparently occurred everywhere for the subsequent tens: * guadrdinta. in fact. so ^dece et (or dcto. etc. 69). Rumanian has new formations. probably anterior to the fall of faulty pronunciation the g. trienta. but Qulndlce is regular. 392. *nondinta *novdinta. 69). Spr..

384. eo occurs in manuscripts of the See §263.^ ' Meyer-Liibke. inflected like quartus. relative. but the end of the Vulgar Latin period.§ 385] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. demonstrative. were probably not very commonly used: the Romance languages show many new formations. the distributive Septimus. 484. Examples occur as early as the second century: Franz. 242 is incorrect Digitized by Microsoft® . B. tile and also hic. nemo inde Regnier no. and so was the genitive singular and plural of ille. until Ego lost its g in all the territory. But his reference to Vok. remained. and interrogative pronouns. 262. PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. as an indefinite neuter. accusative SSs. and the dative was preserved in personal. I. probably not 385. after 5th. §§6o. The ablative gave way . ? II. Lat. ipse. Provengal. As the pronouns came to be expressed more and more. — For the use of personal pronouns. secundus. quintus were generally bonus. The nominative and. 161 382. kept. The ordinal numerals. I. see § 60. but some languages have new formations even for these. to the dative and accusative. According to sixth century. The genitive was usually lost but ciijus was kept. 67. in northern Italian. Primus. B. N. ipse. PERSONAL PRONOUNS.). etc. and Catalan ending -enus was employed {septenus ion tertius. The ordinals were best preserved in Italy. and is were used to supply the lacking pronoun of the third person: cf. definite genitive: Hoc served in- Inde assumed the function of an dubitat. and iste. Spr.

1 62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. acof. inflection The was probably reduced to: — . vobis. from the sixth century on. found. [§ 388 In the last syllable of ttbt. •was carried into nobis.ording ti. ^ )86. these are and mt<mihi. II. Spr. si beside to Lat. the pattern of stbt. there were formed •. i" 243-244. On tibi. Franz. stbi the short i prevailed. 484.

. nom. Franz. The former. but it disappeared from late Latin. others (Neue Digitized by Microsoft® . qui: Bon. Franz. Ipse and isfe followed a similar course ipse however. see §§ 60. illms gave way to iliajus. Franz. also §392. used by Apu- and others (Neue II. cf. When Ule and ute had a really demonstrative force. Audollent 302). 3 II. There was another dative form. and ipsud for ipsum. 275. used by 427. illo. sg. B. Ille. the m. however. popular speech. illi^ille. tilt. 277-279. R. madre- DEMONSTRATIVES. isti). we find. and the Spanish Illius {ipsins. f. eccu': see § 65. in II. The inflection of tile developed considerably in popu- lar speech. 246-260. II. m. 274. The Old Latin genitive illi {ipsi. 9 II. 427. Through the analogy of cu^us. the special forms ipsus for R. was partially replaced. Romance: Old \X. 3. 67-68. 9 beside II. Sicily. there was tllce (or ille). they came to be compounded usually with the prefix ecc' or Cf. subsequently went out of use. definite N. 244. being confused with the ablative and the accusative. — For the use of demonstratives. cut. 283-304. articles For their function as and personal pronouns. was from that. istius). 390.. Quillacq 83). ipsi=^ ipse. g II. These forms survived ma. 275. Sardinia. is 163 g The full inflection found in the sixth century: Franz. sg. sg. R. and the dat. Franz. framed on the model of cf. fratelmo.§ 390] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 276. by illi. probably in the sec- ond half of the sixth century. 9 II. having become archaic in peninsula. tilt was replaced in part by illHi. 114. leius was abandoned: In the dat. see §§ 61-68. 389. 275. etc. 273. and Cato and on the model of illui (and perhaps of quei). sometimes occurred as a dative: Franz. m. and the latter is not found in Calabria. .

[§ 392 which was used beside ilU and Ulm. Majorca. R. In the on the same pattern (influenced perhaps by guejus). illei are found from the sixth century made genitive. did not entirely disappear. 600. When unaccented. 276. are found after the seventh century: Franz. 619. in Romance. for the dat. m. on: Zs. illdrum. and illis. nice. Illorum displaced the f. these words tended to lose their first syllable (see § 157): tu illam vzdes>*tu 9 II. In parts of northern Spain and southwestern France illorum seems to have become *illurum. 'la' vede(s). ipseus. Lat. to f. Ille prevailed. however. The popular : inflection. was constructed illcejus (illejus). 271-272. to Vulgar Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . furthermore. illui. Illujus. ille. through the analogy of illUjus.s replaced by tllum: Neue II.164 An Introduction illcei (illei). ipsujus. which. period. illejus. Cf. 484: illujus. It came. vides lei ta ipsam clavem'>-*vede(^s) iu 'sa' clave'] Lui and 281-283. which crowded out illtus. 9 II. Franz. Spr. Ille and ipse were used freely as definite articles from the fourth century on: Densusianu in Sardinia. Cf. a part of Catalonia and Gascony. illui. illejus. except 177. illui. 426. at the end of the Vulgar Latin forms not was something like kept in Romance) elle elli — this (brackets indicating Ma ellejus elli elle ellei ellu [ellujus] elli \ello\ ellui elli ellu ello elli ella elle ? ellu ello ella ? ellqru elluru elli(s) \ellaru\ ellqru elluru ellqru ^im/) ellais) ello(s) ella 392. and some dialects on the south shore of France. The 391. be used. neuter Uludvia. XXVI.

619. and also of the feminine qum. N. was probably reduced. XXVI. by the end of the : Vulgar Latin period. and the substitution of qui for feminine see §§69-70. 165 4. to something like this qui — . — For the use of these pronouns. in common speech. The combined inflection of qui and quis. see cm is found a corresponding feminine quejus. In Christian inscriptions from the fifth century on. B. quel: Mohl in Zs. Beside ctijus. INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS. quis.§ 395] -^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. qui takes the place of quts. 393.

with Umbrian dia." Lexique 47.1 66 An Introduction C. to Vulgar Latin. daun. *vait date. I. " The first conjugation generally held partial. *vais. Lexique 47 and Pr. 30. There was some confusion of conjugations. a. own. Lexique 47-54. Cf. "adno non adnao. 398. the Eventually Spanish and Portuguese discarded New formations went into the and Sardinian the second.nd *stao. dau. Mohl. dao. sto. It is entirely possible. first and fourth. *daunta. etc. The Italian present subjunctive dia from dare is associated by Mohl. on the analogy of {*vao). the third. In the Peregrinatio the second decidedly preponderates over the third (Bechtel 87). dant and stant there came Old It. being few and Beside do. the third in Italy. defections into use * dao. dou. In northern Gaul there may have developed with * stao a * stats and a * stait. 396. Sicilian in Spain. estaun. estau. Probus. [§ 398 VERBS. Lexique 47. For new formations. *staunt: Rum. Italian development due to the analogy of sia: see §419. (see §405): cf. Pg. but it seems more likely that they were late Latin formations due to an effort to keep the root vowel distinct from the ending. however. werrizare. FIRST CONJUGATION. The second gained most fourth in Gaul. Pers. in Germanic verbs -on and in by Microsoft® . PI. state. that the form is a later. in other texts the third gains at the expense of the second. THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. Digitized — such as abbreviare. its 397. Pr. — see §§33-35. (2). the first and fourth were least affected. follicare. estou. would connect these forms with Umbrian stahu..

Crestomazia italiana dei primi secoli I. 167 —an (but not -jan) went in the first conjugation: Cf. Luke VI. * hat. at least in Italy. I. habes. respondere (Bechtel 88: responduntur). 401. beginning with those that had a perfect in -ui. *ridere. V. * has. guidare. luctsco. third conjugation gave a few verbs to the second. many become i. b. rubare.§402] An Introduction regularly to Vulgar Latin. Italian dialects in which e does not phonetically and even in early Tuscan (cf. The inchoa284). SECOND CONJUGATION. the verb habere. by habere.. t. *putrtre. adopted the forms *ho or *hao. Lexique 108-109. §36. *torcere (for torquere). such perhaps 402. Some verbs went into the fourth. became —iscere: *florisco. *impllre. 8. sometimes became habtre: Vok. lugire (R. * luctre. L. Latin there was some confusion between the second conjugation and the third fervere. *nocere. fiorlre (R. capere may easily have imitated sapere. especially in Italy. THIRD CONJUGATION. 10. According to Mohl. tondere. Bechtel 88. 284). E. in Classic : Even miscere (R. lugere (R. p. ^^^^ i^ a peculiarity of ancient Umbrian. While retaining habeo. roubo?i'>lt. 283). In Vulgar Latin the second lost some verbs to the third in most of the territory: * ardere. probably through the pronunciation of —eo as —io (see §224): * complire. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc). capere * caput. I. 284). habibai. 1636. wttan'^lt. 400. habent. Itala. *mordere. sapere sapui: sapere was influ- enced. 1. *hant or * haunt. tive —escere \. avire in havite. C. 20. Habere. 399.\i^x\. under the influence of dare and stare. habet. Other verbs passed over locally or occasionally: sediiur. Monaci. 266 ff. tergere. * lucere. and cadere may have followed capere. *putrisco. The as cadere *cadui.

and conformed Velte. however. PL 25). facere 404. {Pr. {Pr. 'Bt&ide. The anomalous posse potui.poteo is attested ( 1) Potere. [§ 404 In Spain the third conjugation verbs eventually passed into the second. their inflection more or less to the regular type.1 68 An Introduction all to Vulgar Latin. 478). was discarded in Spain and potebam occur repeatedly in the sixth century 24). Sardinia.A facere were associated in old formulas: Lexique 53. framed on the pattern of potestis. The present like this: have been inflected something passu posso foteo *posseo poieis) *pote(i) — indicative must ^poiemu{s) poteste(s) *potete(s) pqssunif) *poten(t) The present subjunctive must have had corresponding forms. is volemus in the seventh {Pr.. The present indicative forms must have been something like this: ^vojeo voje^s) — volimu{s) volemu(s) voleste(s) *volete(s) *vole(i) *vqlen(t) The present subjunctive must have been similarly inflected. assumed the infinitive forms potere. is twice used by Fredegarius {Pr. strongly influenced by dare and stare. PL 21). Pers. Reich. PL in 745 A. Pers. velle volui naturally went over to the second conjugation. D. there doubtless existed *fare {Facere 48). Pers. potebo is found in the Gl. a sug- gestion of shortening existed in the monosyllabic imperative Digitized by Microsoft® . This transition was probably helped by a partial fusion of esse and sedere. potebas Posso for possum is used by in Fredegarius (Haag 60). PL 2^). Furthermore. Gregory and Fredegarius {Pr. Pers. *volere. Pers. GL found in the sixth century (^Lat Spr. PL 21). (2) the Volimus Reich. voles is found in Volestis. Dare Z. 403.-R.

169 fac (also /a. series The one 735). 121. facio XVIII. Zs. sets of forms. 434): — its old inflection *fao . beside factte.§405] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. but the present subjunctive retained (see Facere 72. XXV. Zs. which must have led to *fate present indicative certainly had several being on the pattern of the first con- jugation.

forbire . It. Augustine {Lat. Reich. occurire. Bechtel 90. guarnire. Spr. ignire. Some others went over. An The vado Introduction. [§408 facere fare : — present indicative. and gained some verbs from the others. 477). (j^^r^i". see § 34. mortri. warnjan'> tion. §404) and helped by the analogy of audire. 407. cf. and *monre. St. 285). parrjan^Yv. developed a form * dire. Germanic verbs in -Jan regularly went into the fourth conjugation in Latin (Kluge 500): furbjan~>\X.. . Carnoy 112). deferet. Of the personal forms of the verb there remained general use in the following tenses of the active voice. ite(s) etc. R. Bon. see § 415. Spr. Densusianu 148. doubtless suggested by die ( cf fac and *fare. For new formations. at least locally: * Vulgar Latin. in 408. 427. *soffertre. C2X0 fugtre. Pirson 148. moreover. first half of the 7th century. such as * abbellire.lyo present. §416): *caplre. Lexique 62 ). Sepulcri 229. * sequlre. Bon. hesiAe. beside * sequere. tarir. by the analogy of aperire {sufferit. the entire passive inflection having been discarded: the by Microsoft® . Dicere. 477). Verbs in -to tended to pass into the fourth conjugation (see. d. * capere . The fourth conjugation usually held — — marrir. Gl. Plautus. FOURTH CONJUGATION.into this conjuga- FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES Romance only Digitized IN INFLECTION. cuptre. * offertre. however. marrJan>'Fr. vadunif) *vaunt *vant 406. Pirson 148. ^. common in the Vulgate (R. ^26. For the intrusion of the inchoative -sc. Cf. Lucretius {Lat. 286. probably in the Vulgar Latin period (cf. gemire. §36. Haag 60. fodiri. its own. . offeret. was influenced by *vao viidimu(s) vddite(s) *vo *vas vadeif) *vait *vat vadeis) *vais imu(s) etc.

. audiram) was kept. cf. 302-304. in the Vulgar Latin period. 298 Conversely. pluperfect. Of the impersonal forms of the verb there remained: the present active infinitive. perfect. R. . and probably in some standing phrases the gerundive. In the subjunctive the pluperfect was used instead of the Digitized by Microsoft® . towards the end the Vulgar Latin period. amans. For amo. See 410.. The Latin it its perfect sense — §§121-124. In was replaced. R. etc. 289. 297-302. amem. The entire passive inflection -of came to be replaced. fell into disuse from the first century on. some regions the future perfect . The old pluperfect indicative (^amaram. amassem. operare. some writers substituted R. esse and the perfect participle: feci"^ habeo factum. R. 388-389. imperfect. partly by active and reflexive constructions but perfect participle with esse' mainly by a compound of the (m northern Italy fieri): littera ' scriMtur -flittera scripta est (or fit). amabam. (amaro).. See Syntax. {amandusi). and in instance: some regions the perfect the imperative present. Cf. : Deponent verbs became active cf. and in 171 indicative present. the perfect participle. etc. amavi. perfect was kept in its preterit sense. the present participle. 304. amaram. as a preterit or a conditional. rideri. See Syntax. § 4io] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the deponent for the active inflection of a few verbs: Petronius. The supine 409. {amarini)\ ama. reverti"^ reversus sum. in various regions: see §124. §§ 112-114. For instance: amare. amando. . R. Similar compounds replaced the pluperfect and the future perfect. amatus. the subjunctive present. the gerund (especially the ablative case). pluperfect. in the by a compound of habere and the "perfect participle case of neuter verbs. mentire.

as in the In these formations the unaccented {Ji)ab— first and second persons plural of the future: * amar' -^{b)a. habemus and habetis eventually. —do.): see Spanish and Portuguese. a form in -ii {amerii). *amar' dben(t). -ds.-dben(t) and -d. *amar' —e'te(s). It is best preserved in is found also in Old Rumanian There are traces of it in Old Italian. as they came to be regarded as mere endold future. cf. etc. amd{ve)ro fused with the perThe old future perfect ama. §118. -ete(s). audtrem'^audissem. —aunt. -dnt. infinitive the perfect of habere (see §130): combined with the imperfect or *amar' ~dbe{b')a{ni) or disappeared. &tc. etc. as a future indicative or subjunctive. cridere. —dbe{t). etc. from the *amar' -abut. -dnt: *amar' —dmu(s). In the first and second persons plural. * amar" -dbe(s'). [§411 imperfect.): amdrem'^amdssem. . -dyo. Crescini in Zs. were reduced to -emu{s). with the exception of ero. -dt. to correspond to the dissyllabic or monosyllabic -dyo. —at. XXIX. 619. in regions except Gaul and Raetia. De 411. -ds. especially by the infinitive combined with the present indicative of habere {amdbo > amar' habeo): see §§125-129. in Vulgar Latin and Romance. In this compound all the various forms of the present indicative of habere were used (see §§273. C. Digitized In Italian we by Microsoft® . which has prevailed in the find. but and Macedonian. which disappeared everywhere but in Sardinia {facheret. or conditional. *amar' -isti.(ye')rim and apparently remained subjunctive fect — — — — more or all less in use. sometimes confused with the pluperfect indicative and later sometimes with the infinitive {dpriro. The ings. -dbe(s). an imperfect of the late future. —d. V. pdteri. but * amar' abut.172 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. beside -ia from habebam and -dbbi —ibbi from habui. came to be made. was crowded out by the present and by new formations. *amar' -dbe(t). 401): *amar' —dbeo. On the model of this new future. Lollis in Bausteine i .

412. to the Romance languages. INCHOATIVE VERBS. hence crederdt). 294. the Landes. Clarisco. except the present. 294.. in Vok. In some verbs the present subjunctive was used instead of all imperative forms. and Spain Digitized — Sp. Cf. Virgilius Grammaticus (Sepulcri 194) mentions double forms of inchoative verbs. 413. erubisco. In Veglia. such as caleseo ealisco.face: R. 3596. second dmd. writers sometimes emploved diee. crede. the Abruzzi. The first and third persons were supplied from the present subjunctive. duce.of avere : it is probably due to the analogy of the first person singular of the weak preterit (credit. are common in Gregory the Great: Sepulcri 193. 414. Dauphin^. person singular and plural: credite. criseere. while in Old Italian the ei was sometimes detached and used as a preterit. t—. the second person plural of the present indicative came to be used: adferte> adferitis. There is some evidence of a confusion of -esco and —uco in Latin. cf. irdisser <irdseere. fae. vived in the Tyrol. tenete. For the monosyllabic die. Sardinia. etc. French Switzerland. The Latin The inchoative ending -sco was preceded by a-. etc. paresco. See § 115. R. §426. by Microsoft® . types —dsco and —osco were sparingly repre- sented and were not extended in late and popular Latin have bequeathed but few verbs con<Sisser<ico(g)ndseere types —esco and —tseo in the third century — — as — such as and . 3. Beam. e—. pareeer. due. the Grisons. tene.. 173 modern language. and a part of Lorraine Only -eseo surneither of these two endings left any trace. audite. lost their inchoative sense. The imperative disappeared. Savoy.§414] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. audi. Instead of the plural form. I. amdte. Lyons. they Pr. or o—. etc. dormisco — were extended The and later.

and Rumania we find a type *finisco *finisce(s) ^Jinisce{i) *Jiniscun{t) The ~sc. XXX. there are traces of -esco. / sentieniem > were introduced more less into the indicative and subjunctive: audio * audo. northern and central _fimmii(s) finite{s) Italy. 478. finis sant. despereissir. XXIV. the -sc- was carried throughit out the present indicative (Yx. or southern Italian. although fleurit. finis sais ) I. 465. [§416 florecer. -tsco prevailed fiorisce. partiunt *partunt. Portuguese. Rastia. Rom. Hence forms without the or > > *partente. PRESENT STEMS.. Elsewhere. Spr. etc. Digitized On the other hand. trated the present subjunctive {Yr. il in Pr. There is no direct evidence of this in Latin. facientem *facente. sentiam * sentam. Herzog Bausteine 481. in — It. -esco also in Rumanian. partientem * sentente. See Archiv Lat. fiorire. tricts also pene- eventually the present participle ( and in some disand the imperfect indicative Fr. \\.. nor are there any traces of it 415.then generally disappeared from the infinitive Later. eventually entered into the formation stem of fourth conjugation verbs.Jinisse). 81.. 291-294. * dormo. the e was occasionally lost in the second conjugation: v^deo *vtdo. finissez). / 416. 4. by the by Microsoft® . The ending -tsco of the present in Spanish. 174 An Introduction was preferred For to Vulgar Latin. but in the earliest texts of France. see E. — Fr. By the analogy of these. Sardinian. some regions. finissons. etc. Many verbs in -io dropped the whenever it was fol- lowed by another vowel. In the present participle this was a regular phonetic development (see §225): audientem^* audente. Zs.

For the sedere for The s. vegere {tragere and used by 34) and a whole present and imperfect inflection with —g—. *trdcere. The verbs vadere. * vtdeunt. present indicative shows some signs of a tendency its to normalize erratic inflection by making all the forms be- gin with The use. tango tactus. Italian while there of on the model and Raetian siede. j'ungo Cf. structus. *fragam. Jigo fixi. etc. to bring it into conformity with the usual third conjugation type. rego rexi rectus.. 416. posse. 412. Prpvengal ses for Digitized by Microsoft® . vehere developed infinitive vegere are forms *striigere. old esum cited by Varro {Fr. duco duxi ductus. as *trago. Haag was derived from the ciple — struxi and perfect indicative traxi iractus. facere. 401. Substrate VI. the second conjugation admitted such f oriris as * habeunt. 403-406. Pers. There may have been also *striicere. see § 409. based on the analogy of dico dixi dictus. habere. underwent considerable changes in the present: see §§273. 397. 418. *vkere. trdgere. velle dare. lego lectus. The verbs struere. etc. debere. faciunt. actus. 131. Italian sei siete is PL 128) went out of for estis. vtdent. stare. tego and probably junxi junctus. Old Italian se for e.. pango panxi panctus. also Jingo finxi fictus. trahere. cingo cinxi cinctus.§419] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. The guttural Fredegarius. etc. Considerable alterations use of fieri for esse is (I ) were made in the present indicative and subjunctive. etc. beside the regular habent. and the perfect partivexi vectus on the — analogy of ago tectus. esse. 175 analogy of capiunt. dtcere. plango planxi planctus. ungo unxi unctus. indicate a * setts some evidence of an alternative * siitis sicmus. and Raetian ses point to a * ses beside es. *tragebam. The Spanish use of probably later than our period. Esse was made into *essere.. 417. 419.

It is likely. (cf. 135. too. 478. 347. which existed with esum. occurs in Italian documents of the eighth century. may go back to *sei and *sesf for est In the first person plural sumus became sumus and simus (see §220). sumus. —ibam. see 420. Pirson Yt^o. PI. Old It. Rom. Pr. 479. The present indicative inflection was doubtless something like this sqm fs est : — sqmu(s) *ses *set} *sest? i^ie(s) semu{s) *esmu{s) *sete(s) *sciie(s)! sqnt (2) In the present subjunctive the analogy of other third conjugation verbs tended to introduce the characteristic vowel a. that cal influence oifiam. etc. § iiS. Pers. would derive it from old esimus. Hence comes an etc. Pr. PL 130. Siamus. etc. Provengal esmes<. somas. -icbam. —ebam. In the third conjugatiqjyg^-jyj^^ Ajgaj^g^ developed into -ebam. iox fit. sem. Italy.. — sem *sea sis simu{s) sidmu(s) site{s) *jfa(j) sea(t) *sidie[s) set sent *sean{i) For Stat. which ultimately prevailed: Lexique ^x): fiet is common places sim in northern Italy alternative inflection * siam. II. Portugal. see sead in Vok. according to Suetonius. and the Tyrol (Sp. fiam reand Dacia. simus. semo. which -was used. 42. — For the loss of the imperfect subjunctive. Dalmatia. according to Lat. northern Gaul. sons.. N. B. Old Fr. etc. the usual Classic form.176 es. IMPERFECT. etc. [§420 usually understood as reflexive forms. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The endings were -dbam. Pers. prevailed in southern Gaul. 5.). Lat. Spr. XXI.): cf. *esmus seems to be a new formation on the analogy of esHs. and Dacia (Pr. was preferred in Spain. . Spr. by Augustus. and by various purists of the Augustan age (Stolz 58). from early times there was a reciproand the Old Latin optative siem. Mohl.

those of the second and third had mostly all of the second conjugation and Only six verbs strong. a. PERFECT. vieo. • salui>salivi. credia. *afiea. §318). R. 421. For further encroachment of the weak type on thb strong. -pleo. which in Romance was widely extended. 287. probably through dissimilation. —Ibam as in munibam — in early Latin and recurring at later periods (Lindsay 491). which stressed the characteristic vowel of the fourth conjugation. most of them rare 422. 177 22t„ /^i6): faciebam'>-*facebam. and —iebam disappeared: vestibat. 423. —oleo. — being common In the fourth conjugation -iebam and -ibam existed side byside from early times (Neue II. see §426. prevailed in popular speech. WEAK PERFECTS. A vowel. Habebam. silevit for siluit occurs also. and fourth conjugation verbs with strong perfects developed a weak one in Vulgar Latin: pr(sstiti> probably All first j>rcBstavi. -tvi). 2?>q. -evi. 479. Dubois 277-278. Hence came an alternative ending —ea for -e/ia. led early. affecting all the conjugations but the It is ved^a. developed another form. —Ibam. in the fourth conjugation. 6. to a reduction tendency to keep the stress on the characteristic Digitized by Microsoft® . sentia.fleo. regularly had a perfect in -evi: deleo.. pronounced a^e^a (cf. and also a general inclination to omit v between two i's (see § 324).perfects in which the v is added to a verb-stem (-dvi. 445). the strong includes all Verbs of the first and fourth conjugations generally others.§423] just as An Introduction -ientem> -entem (see §§ to Vulgar Latin.'Bi. Spr. We — — neo. the weak and the strong: the weak comprises the v. territory except common to nearly all the Romance Rumania: Lat. etc. first: It. must distinguish two types. had weak perfects.

to fall of v. 587).d. -ivistis to —istis. for —imus. see Servius ad Aen.— 178 An Introduction and to Vulgar Latin.. 451. Then a contraction of the two vowels gave. perit. II. Fredegarius (Haag 55). petit. "cupit pro cupivit. The third person singular found in Old Sardinian: Lat. The loss of V.Lexique 46. (Haag 55). Spr. laborait. II. in the third person singular.m»'W^ol%tm^ and amdo. 424. carried into the first conjugation. for —ierunt. 440. —dverunt to Much later -dvt>-di. contraction without the gave rise. etc.). redit. etc. gave —dsti. —dvif^dit and -at. 449. as in lenUt. The A contraction without the . in the first and third persons singular *—lrunt: audi. 476. 152. and. 476. to -aut. Bayard 60. probably to *-aumus: triumphaut in Pompeii. 440). 17 (Keil II. Fredegarius in -ait is 152. Densusianu I. For -nt. etc. C. -dvtmus>-dmus and probably *-dmmus: calcai (Probus). F^/J. 434 (cf. 17 (Keil II.'X. 216. vocitamus. 241: 65-121 a. to a desire to distinguish the perfect from the present). mus. 587). — probai {'Prdhns). see Neue III. 446-448.. rise early to a reduction of —avisti. denumerat. ccelebrasperamus. S.I. as in repetimus. Densusianu I. Neue III. Neue III. and. -dvistis.. in the first person plural. Bon. Vok. see Neue III.L. memoramus. Gregory of Tours (Bon. edificai. etc. fall of v gave rise. *-iut: It. —iverunt to —ierunt. in the third person singan alternative form.. [§424 of —tvtsit to -tstt still early. later. A ular. —ivit to —iit and *-itt. locally. perit. etc. —tt. This -aut prevailed '^'^'^. -/. the further reduction of —ivt to which brought about. I. petit. the reduction of —ivimus to —Imus and probably *—immus (the lengthening of the m being due to compensation and also." Priscian XII. and the third person plural. "fumdt -pro fumavit. o-cyvoi. —dstis. speclarait. 452-454.judicat. dedicait. -u and *-u." Priscian XII. —drunt. perhaps. servio. 479.

this -dedi Through the analogy of -di. silevit. etc.. etc. 184. *-desti. the forms with v were not preserved in Romance. R. in the first XXX. from which there came a responding to the —ai first endings *-«'. 287. *-dem(^m)u{s). were : 425. ~ivi —isti there- -dvi —dsii -dve{t) —df *~ti —ii -i -dut -dit -dt -weif) *-jut *-{it -lit -it -dvimu(s) -dmu{s) *-dmmu(s) *~dumus -dste(s) -immu{s) -4mu(s) *-jmmu(s) -iste(s) -drunit) *-irun{t) With the exception of -ivi in Old Italian.s ex(see §139): perdedit. in Provengal they invaded the also In Dacia. vendidl. helped by dissimilabecame *-deJ. 480. on the other hand. odedere. The forms — and fourth conjugations.. Gl. *-n. 479. 288. of the Romance languages cazif). —asfi. Spr.§426] An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin.). pandiderunt. Some other second conjugation verbs apparentlyadopted this perfect: 426. prendiderunt. Lat. respondidi. descendidi. tended to many other verbs in -d-: prandidi. videderunt (cf. Hence arose eventually an inflecset of tion *-^«. edediderit with an extra -de-). (am'ei). these endings were carried into other verbs of the third and even the second conjugation first baMi. incendederit. ascendiderat. In some (It. Verbs in —evl doubtless had a similar inflection: *delei. etc. fore. Audollent 544. *-det. *-ei. cor-ii. 179 *~aumus Jiom. Reich. Keil IV. *-ejti.. tion. *—desie(s). -isti. delesti. R. etc. they apparently did Digitized by Microsoft® . -derun(f). preserved in some Old French dialects near Douai: 607. etc. etc. which in Vulgar Latin became —dedi This -dedi ^a. Pr.. : and the of the and fourth conjugations so caderunt. perdidt. Compounds of dare had a perfect in -dtdi {credidt. descendidit.

etc.. In -ui and —si types were qucesivi'^^ A few weak verbs adopted strong inflections: * quasi. sapivi~^ sapui. II. all. this ending being pronounced wui. At any rate. -dei. necui> necavi. wwi. crevi. b. etc. conqbbi. (cf. 357. * stetui. . etc it In the second and crevi. The -ui type. movi. and those that have nothing between the root and the personal endings plac-u-i. but written vi to avoid the doubling of the V. and -ei. aperui y^ * aperii *apersi. STRONG PERFECTS.. pdvi. according to Meyer-Liibke. Reich.. dare had (beside diedi^dedi) a perfect arose an inflection side -dei -detti.. Gram. — — it was sounded wui. prendesti. salui^ salivi salii *salsi. [§ 428 not develop at In Italy. There are three types those that add s. In the first class the u lost its syllabic value and became w • — : (cf. etc. In Italy all strong verbs except esse introduced weak endings in the second person singular and the first and second persons plural: It. under the influence of dejti. etc. 428. plaudisti for plausisti. included from the start not only perfects of the placui but also all perfects in -vi not made from the verb-stem such as cognovi.. presi. Pr. etc. R. third conjugations maintained Digitized itself very well: cognovi. crebbi. the development of the vi indicates that sort. Gl. stetti<. §422). etc. etc. 427. whence and a set of endings -etti. bib-i. or fiwi in Vulgar Latin: cf. the Rumania.i8o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. by Microsoft® . also vincisti. those that add u to the root. tions: This perfect disappeared from the first and fourth conjugacrepui>*crepavi. where there was no extended. moc. dlc-s-i = dixi. 286. Through these endings the weak type encroached somewhat on the strong. §326): placwi. cf. It.

*fusi. *prensi. *vinsi. molui. — — : clausi. mansi. *acce{n)si. Lat. *attinxi.'). *franxi. Keil VII. cMdi 479 > (so *rectpui). *offersi. struxi. silui {^silevi). i8i It lost gemui{^. coxi. Zs. however. dixi. pinxi. s in the perfect participle. risi. 479. § 165. vixi ". *imptnxi. pressi. with the exception of dedi and steti (also *j/i?/«2). 94. *tanxi. *fusi. tersi. 130. planxi. *siirsi. veni '^aXso *venui. cinxi. luxi.> slso *vtscui. texui.§ 43o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. peperci^-parcui. posui {>posi). *pe{n)si. *mdrsi. *tdlsi. text sedi>* sedui . 288. posi. * defe(ji)si. R. etc. Spr. —ssi. — assumed the s. vldi'^zlso *vtdui *vtdui. ertgo. became * sentii. Zimmermann in Archiv XIII. * cadui *cadedi. On the other hand it received many additions: Mbi>*Mbui. *respd{ti)si. sustuli>*tolui * tolsi. *rdsi. *taxi. texui. pavi. persi. traxi. *punxi. z/J« also *vtncui *vinsi. *salsi. Spr. divisi. scripsi 163). Among the -i perfects. frixi. unxi. 480. Some of these — * *responsi. defensi. * volsi. XXVIII. *pensi. and possibly a few others. which comprised perfects in -si. messui(J). *ersi from *lexi. steti>^\so* stetui. torsi. * morsi. sparsi. *cursi. Spr. Lat. § perhaps on the model of mtssus. *occlsi. some thirty-five were preserved arsi. whose reduplicative character was no longer Digitized by Microsoft® . A. *redempsi. * tensi *te{n)si. 97. rasi. Lat. fixi. 288. Lat. natus sum'^*nacui. rosi. duxi. finxi. 479. Spr. Of the -si class. movi'. junxi. 429. cepi^ caput. *copersi. R. the reduplicative formations were discarded in Vulgar Latin. mulsi. *qucBsi. strinxi. Sensi. vixi. legi'>-* legui *lexi. * occisi. In Vulgar Latin there were perhaps some thirty or more new formations: *apersi. *rosi. —stinxi. mlsi (also *mzssi. sapivi'^ sapui. cf. 430. Einf. > > Cf. expavi'> expabui. and —xi. excussi. Haag 56. *pre{n)si. abscd{n)si. tenui. rexi. *sdlsi.perfect through having an Cf. tinxi.

R. fregi accendi *franxi. solvi'^* solsi. In fui the u was originally long. fudi > ) si. [§ 431 of dare usually formed their perfect like §426. a form *fdrunt. fuistis > *fustis. pependiy. vtci > no additions. or *cadedi. then futm us was often shortened to also. and two more were kept beside new formations feci. sedi"^* sedui. some went over fUgi^ > > *fusi.*pe{^n)si.). bibi'^*bibui. -i perfects were greatly reduced in to the -a/ or the -si type: number in Some simply disappeared. pupHgi "> *punxi. fuerunt became *furunt. but circumdavit in Gl. cepi'^capui. The other reduplicative perfects either disappeared the or passed into si class: cucurri "> * cHrsi . * acce(^ n ) si. some became weak. egi. was probably foi *fom{m)u(s) *foste(s) foe(t) fue(t) *fgt *fut *forun{t) */urun(t) *f^un{t)} foerun{t)> Digitized by Microsoft® . legi'^* legui. In an ( cf . while compounds of stare tended to follow the regular first Cecidi beconjugation model (Jtrcestili > pnestavi. inflection. 288.i82 An Introduction . vidi * vtdui. to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout §§423-424). There were : *fugii. apparent compounds (cf. the simple verb came * cadui R. Two of the old perfects maintained themselves intact. effort it was shortened Vulgar Latin seems to show both H and H. tetegi'^* taxi * tanxi. Reich. legi > * Kxi. generally became *fum(m)us. 289). *te{n)si. fuisti zxi-di. prendi > *pre{ n * vinsi. volvi > * volsi. : There may have been through dissimilation. veni * venui. The prevailing something fui *fosti like this — with some variations. momordi'> tetendi'>- *mdrsi. to Vulgar Latin. 431. verti. fui. peperci"^ parcui. The other Vulgar Latin. but in Classic Latin. fefelli'>*falii. > *fusti. fuit *fut. defendi >• * defe{ n ) si.

*-dssitis. 1S3 PLUPERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT. When these tenses followed the old types: pldcueram (cf. so the new alatus. cf. by the analogy of apertus. habldsemos habldseis. Reich. vetitus Nevertheless there were some new formations in —ttus: *levitus. tonitus'^*tonatus. etc. ortaret in Gl. 8. amdssimo amdste. > vocUus. — before Cyprien employed only the shortened forms ss. ficeram. necius "> necatus . — 433. generally fell into disuse: crepitus^ *crepatus. : In the third conjugation -dtus disappeared oblatus offertus (^Gl. dixero . secextended to tus'^secatus. alarei. pldcuero. amaro. tus"^* sonatus. fkero. deleram. In formations from weak perfects only the contracted forms were used: amdram. but Pr. dixeram. etc. sonivetatus. audt(^e)ro . 435. The ending —ttus. 295. petisset. In some regions a tendency to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout the pluperfect subjunctive led to a change of —assemus. -assetis.). prdvttus. 480. Sp.). Fr. delessem. preserved at all. 296. notes that St. Lat. placutssem. Gl. sublatus (from tollo')'>-tdllttus (^Gl..: It. audi{e)ram. delero. 432. etc. rogitus. sublatus>* suffertus. R. 434. cf. fecissem. plicitus"^ plicatus . domitus'> domatus. Verbs which had no perfect participle were obliged to form one in order to make their passive and their perfect tenses: ferio. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Spr. amessim amessitz. In the all first conjugation -dtus was preserved and was verbs: /rictus "> fricatus . PERFECT PARTICIPLE. ^ i^"]). Reich. audlsBayard 60-61 sem. copertus. in the first conjugation. Reich. to *—dssimus. *feritus. amdssem. Reich. > Digitized by Microsoft® . dixhsem.§ 435] ^^ 7. R. aimassions aimassiiz.

*volvitus (or *vdltus) beside volutus. On 439. Eventually -atus was carried further. *mdvitus and *mdssus were formed beside *m. and there were some new formations * solvttus (or *soltus). Digitized by Microsoft® . In the second conjugation the rare -etus disappeared as a participial ending: completus. jectives. vocitus. submonitus > *submo{n)sus. Reich. were kept. tollitus. — and — as *credutus. * solvttus (or *sdltus) beside solutus. etc. bibitus^* bibutus . A few of these particihowever.184 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. old and found in Gl. 437. but status. all periods. pds{i)tus. were kept only as ad- 438. solutus.ovutus. The ending -itus tended to disappear (cf. * levitus. Apertus and copertus. fugitus tus > *fugitus. [§ 439 436. *parutus. statutus. and ventus generally became * venutus. rogitus. sensus'>*sentitus. offered a convenient accented form. however. In the third conjugation qumsttus>*gucestus.. minutus. *vdlvitus (or *vdllus). molitus > * molutus. In the fourth conjugation -Itus was preserved and was extended to nearly all verbs: saltus'>*salltus. §435): absconditus'>absco{n)sus . consutus. etc. perditus *parsus. *tenutus. sepultus^sepelitus. volutus). belonging to verbs in —uere and tri- —vere {argutus. paritus > *paru> *perdutus *persus. * habutus. solitus. ples. however. *vidutus. * venutus. secutus. buius. creditus'>*credutus. It did not al- ways. corres- ponding to -atus and -itus. the other hand.. *vendutus. in -itus: gemitus'!. * movitus. dutus. venditus>*vendutus. provitus. entirely displace the old perfect participle: natus was kept beside * nascHtus. Pirson 152. *per- in Sicily encroached largely on -itus. The ending —ictus. remained. It was extended to nearly all the verbs that had an -ui perfect: * bibutus.

tersus. expansus sensus few verbs replaced the old form by one in -itus or -ietus: * expandutus . ma{n)sus. tractus. nectus>necdtus. oc- casionally with a change of stem: ductus . wjwj.*mdssus. *vidutus.' maintained itself beside salitus. sparsus. *submo{n)sus. Reich. gavisus>*gaudutus . sectusy^ * tenutus. *persus. A > > > * sentttus . pe{Ti)sus. *vistus. Digitized by Microsoft® . farsus. morsus. Gl. lectus. fartus'. pastus'>-*pavutus'i.. generally kept: acce{n')sus . frictus "^fricdtus. risus. ex- factus. new formations in -sus: On the other hand. 94. saltus'^-* salitus and *salsus. Bechtel 91. ventus'^*venutus and venttus.§ 441] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 'salted. pre(n)sus . Keil VII. *parsus. falsus *fallitus. Dubois 282. fixus. rosus. The ending —sus was defe{n')sus. 295. 295 (very common). tus. stinctus. there were some absco{n)sus. scriptus. victus'>*vin- cutus and *vinctus. also perhaps *misus by the analogy of mist. *gucestus. There were a few new for- mations in —tus: offertus. missus. vtctus~>* vixutus. pressus. 480. fusus "^fundutus. sepultus >• sepelitus.viA. Spr. sus. *pendutus. *strinctus. also probably * wwclausus. mdtus'>*movutus'> &. Several of these developed also a participle in -utus: etc. §439). *vdltus About fifteen verbs (cf. *salsus. mistus. Spr. Spr. structus. cretus> *crevutus'>. /ric* surtus for surrectus. Lat. rectus. or -utus: captus *capttus. fusus. punctus. fractus *franctus. pictus *pinctus. 480. te{n)sus. divisus. *mossus. dictus. ductus. tortus. to{n)sus. sessus > * sedutus. R. cogndtus>*conovutus'i. probably replaced -tus by -atus. 441. The ending -tus was kept for some twenty verbs. 185 440. Lat. and perhaps *sdltus. sirictus *tanctus'!. Hr- excussus. fictus finctus. texus * texiisecdtus. 480. * suffertus. Salsus. tactus'i tus. -itus.>*farcitus axiAfarsus. tinctus. R. tentus > > tus. Lat. messus'^ metitus.

as t was of the third (cf. Pers. 445. 447. not found acceptance. and i came to be pronounced alike (§243). etc. This is not a phonetic phe- nomenon. Meyer-Liibke. Grundriss V. Italian lodi and Rumanian lauzi. colliget. and -Isti. vezim. whence came the French -ons. This confusion is very frequent in the Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-89.. analogical formations. first person plural lost perhaps in the Vulgar Latin period: videmus'>-'St. see §416. historically considered. its — tended. PEESONAL ENDINGS. [§ 447 9. were used in northern Gaul instead of canimus. PL.1 86 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. by Microsoft® . For the reduction of -to to 443. assumes that in Italy -as and -es became -i. to stress this in ^smiVi: fecimiis>'Pr. —et and -U. — through the analogy perfects as well. There are traces of 47. -imus. — This theory has In strong perfects the of -tstis first person plural. however. inscriptions and elsewhere: Digitized The shift. perhaps S. etc. In southern and to some extent in northern Gaul the its final s. 670. Pers. Pr. e. great confusion ensued between -es and —is. and doubtless of weak after our period. then the accent was shifted to the penult *canomus. 53. It may be that -s was dropped because it was regarded as a characteristic of the second person. -0. as -s did not fall in this region. As unaccented e. The evidence. According to Mohl. fez^m. forms due to Celtic influence. 442. Pr. does not support this view. PL 73-80): — dmo dmaa dmat 446. *amdmu amdtes dmant like * cdnomus. from laudas. are correctly explained by Tiktin 565-566 as 444.

Cf. The Classic distinction was best kept in Gaul and northern Italy. -/»z«(j').). —^te. In the perfect. respon- duntur. accipient. vindem. in Classic Latin. -ite -dmu(s'). due to the analogy of -iunt. 187 was not universal. -dte(s). 30. and Dacia. -ttis. as there are in Italian and French remains of the original accentuation. Rastia. etc. in the For the reduction of —iunt to -unt. *vidunt. Furthermore. PI.§ 45°] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in southeastern facitis There are some traces of its preservation French dialects also. etc. viderunt. §416. and a part of southern Italy. 112.j—th& penult assuming the accent. vindett. -imus. etc. absolvent. kept the old accent (Tiktin 596): iingem. Rumanian. Pers. being attracted by mittimus: Pr. sometimes had a short e (e is common in the comic poets. there was an ending *-eunt which was (^habeunt. —die and -^mu(s). tral and the rest of southern Italy.J^kuJ-i n^g^^xd^so^'^i^-i -^--^/^^ . their interchange Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-90. —ite generally —Ste(^s). to match —^te(^s). -unt was preferred. ways /3 short: debuerunt. PI. -ent prevailed in cen. dixerunt. 64. etc. . was perhaps viitttmus.). in the sixth or seventh century. in Vulgar Latin this vowel was apparently al450. Sardinia. lingeti. Pers. became. According to Mohl. 448. in Spain and Portugal. the con- fusion goes back to early Italic. exient. Beside second conjugation. Dalmatia. however. helped by the analogy of the future — The shift and -{mu{s). see §416. ite(s). The endings -ent and -unt came to be very is much confused frequent in the (* credent. — — particularly common in Italy: cf. ite in the other conjugations. for instance. -ent. dicUis kept their old forms in many regions. 449. facimus. In the present indicative and imperative. §137. and dicimus. discarded. Virgil wrote tulerunt. Pr.). the third person plural ending -ere was The ending -erunt. etc.

Digitized by Microsoft® .

24. 25 recomposition 139 verbs 423-4. 355(1) adparescere 34 adpetere 32 Digitized by Microsoft® .28 absconsus 439. 383 abl. 92 beJEore j 222 Accent 134-58 primary 135-52 Greek words 143-50 other foreign words 15 1-2 acer arbor 43 -aceus 37 acia 355 (2) -acius ^y a contra 47 a(c)qua 164 Acqui Z^ Acragas 330 ac si 83 ac sic 24. 450 Towels in hiatus addedi 139 136-8 addormire 25 secondary 153-5 adferitis (imper. 228. 47. 231. 229 231. 93. N. 230 = 0*78 ab-25 ab-]> au. 34 abbio 273 abbreviare 25 abbreviatio yj shift 136-8. absolute 97 abl. 84 acua aqua 223 -aculare 35 before s + cons. 86. 48 abbellire 18. 78. italics to Words printed in Roman type belong to ancient.) 412 unstressed words 156-8 adgenuculari 25 Accented Vowels see ad horam 47 Vowels adimplere 30 accepere 201 Adjectives acceptabilis 39 comparison 56. ad = at 282 ad. a 194-5. 240. adaptus 23 adcap(i)tare 25 433> 447-8. 82.B. 377 accipient 449 declension 374-9 accubitorium ^'j numerals 378-82 -accus ^y unus (article) 57 Accusative. 98-9. 90. 383 adnao 397 ace.1 INDEX. 94-6 nouns 367 numerals 142 : ace. abyssus 149 ac. 194-5 absida 356 (3) absolvent 449 -anus 39 ja-> je. -I. 82 ace. 244 (i). 229 (i). 441 ad 14.infin.— Arabic numerals refer to Paragraphs. = abl. 65 accedere(m) 309 accensus 441 -a 37 0181 ab 14.=accus. 94-6 aboculare 26 ab olim 47 abs.23. adjutare 34 ad mane 47 373.229 (i) unaccented 228. 243. 240. 96.236 ab ante 47. 77. 243. words in modern languages. in -us 244. 94-6. pi. 431. 244 accented 39. 140 iicatum r4i aculionis 367 abeo = habeo 251 224 abias 224 abiat 224 abiete -abilis 39 ab intus 47 abitat 25 1 Ablative 92-7.

£6 2> e 209 at 188 altissimus 377 altitia 37 Aiax 188. 244 aecclesia 228 Eedis 366 ffigis -ale y] alecer 195 (i) Alesander 255 alevanti eleph.243. 435 allegorizare ig alleviare 34 Agneti 359 (2) agnetus -na. 359 (i) amitane 359 (i) amitanis 359 amma 16 243. alumnu (nom. 178. 435 ad ubi 47 aduc 250 adulescentulus 37 adunare 25 alauda 19 alaudula yj alba spina 43 alberca 19 albeus 317 228. 209-10. 83 -an 36 -aj* a f oris 47 agennae -nd. 209-10 unaccented 174.I go aiio 2. 405 amei 424 amenus 215 amfora 334 amicicia 276 amadus amido 187 amistat 154 amita 239. 232. 359.22 Index.) 40 aiglon yj (-0) altra 233 altrui Aiiax 222 395 ancora 150. 244 -EE = -e 174.286 amantis (nom. 244 accented 1 74. 210 EEteneris = itineris 201 sequus alid alicunus 71 aliud 71 alio(r)sum 291 = .281 = aliquot 71 -alis agere ajere 259 aggio 273 aggravatio 37 = 39 alium 224 alius 71 allare 405. 42 Digitized by Microsoft® . 255 188 seliens = eligens 259 =8-175 alicer 195 (i) agques = e.) 372 adpretiare 25 adpropiare 25 ad semel 47 —aio 39 (-arius) aios =: BjyiQS 272 am 78 ad sero 47 adsteti 139 Aix ajutit = adjutet 272 ad subito 47 adtonitus 32 ad tunc 47 -al37 alacer 195 (i) alare 405.Ethiopia 188 alipes (i) = ad. 222 alto (adv.) 367 amho 424 amaricare 34 ama(t) 285 ambitare 405 ambolare 232 ambulare 10.194 = -ago 2>7 Agragas 330 Agrientum 259 agurium 228 agustas 228 36 anangi 331 anathema 19 anathematizare 19 anc 40 anc hanc 251 = allium 274 a longe 47 alques 71 alter 71. albor = arbor 292 . altiare 34 altior yj'] anca 343 ancilia 187 395 Agustus 228 ahenum 250 ai >. 178. Adverbs 73-5 as 174. 71 amnavit 405 amh 424 a mode 47 amourette yj (-ittus) ampitzatru 277 ampora 334 amurca 186 amure 203 amygdalum 19 an II. 1 78. 14. 187 -ancus 37 (-incus) -anda 37 andare 405 andata 37 (-ta) Andreani 359 (i) Andreate 359 (2) andron 331 anellus 37.175.281 (i) Eeum = cBvum 324 ^a foras 47 aliquant! 71 aliqui 71 aliquis 13.321 = Alexander alguein 71 alguien 71 -alia 37 38. = -t. 233.

68. 211-3.24. 293. 429 apertus 436 arsus 441 artemisia 184 arietico 184 apotheca 182 apothecarius 39 apparescere 35 arthriticus 184 Article 57. 264. 36. 65 at = anta 239 ante 96 antemittere 46 antestetis (nom. 423 audiendu'st 309 = ascella =r axilla 42.^y anticus 226 antiefne 184 antiphona 184 ariex = -s 255 -aris 39 -aris -alis 292 ^ -arius 39 atque ille 24 atque ipse 65 atque is 65 atrium 12 atta 16. 269. 42 angelice 40 angelus 19 191 ascendiderat 426 ascetes 182 ascla apud aqua 14. 78. 359 (i) anus = annos 244 -anus 39. 236 (7) apersi 428. 310. 307. 255 Digitized by Microsoft® . 42 participle 435. 282. 42 Aorist 124 armeise 184 armentas 352 -aro 39 (-arlus) Aroncianos 276 arrespex r= haruspex 251 Arrius 251 arroser 356 (3) arsi Attane 359 atticissare (i) t^^ attinxi 429 Attitta 37 (-ittus) -attus yj at ubi 48 apcha 343 aperii 428 429 -atus 37 (-ta).) 367 -antia .) 367 audi audivi 227.) -assem 161 -^ssemus 433 33.318 annulare 405 anos = annos 247 ardire 343 -are (infin. 260-1 Assimilation 229 (3). 392 artic(u)lus 234 > (7) appo 78 apprendere 12 arvorsum (2) = adversum 281 ApHro 410 apsens 315 apsolvere 315 apte =: -se 244 arvum > aram 2z6 aucellus 13.Index. anemis 232 -aneus 39. 267. 223 284 aquilotto 37 (-ottus) asculta 228 Angers 86 angliscus 39 angostia 208 (i) anguil(l)a 163 ang(u)Ius 233 angustiare 34 Anicius 276 -ar37 Arbonenca yj (-incus) a semel 47 aspargo 31 aspectare 25 arbor (masc. 255. 229 au o 229 (7) OK 189 auca 13. 229 accented 178. 315 Asti 86 astula 284 at II = ar(i)dorem 219 ar(i)dus 237 aries 225. 440 au 178. 282 aput 282 164. 325 aucidere 212 -OS 38 -as -i 443 > audace (nom. 265. -dssetis 433 397-8 -are (nouns) y] ares = aries 225 aretem 225 argentum 259 -aria 37 -aricius 39 arida (noun) 13 Assibilation 277-8.) 346 (4) arb(o)rem 235 arboricellus 153 Aspirates 249-52. 255 -ans39 anser 13 ad 282 -ata 37 (-ta) -aticum yj atque. 34. 39. 265 aspra 233 -asse 161 ardente(m) 309 ardere 399 animabus 358 animalico yj (-icca) Anitius 276 Annanis 359 annare 405 annata yj (-ta) Annenis 359 annitare 405 annotavimus -bi. 228. 211 -3 unaccented 228.

212 39 bimaritus 22 bintcente vincente 260 bis.316. 439 Bictor 316 biduanus 39 bieta 184 botu vo. 322 -bilis = balteum -us 347 bannus 19 baplo 235 baptidiare 339 baptisma 149 Aureliati 359 (2) aurora 11 aus avus 241. 322 botula 361 bovis (nom. 333 balneum 146: balneus 347 = bifolco biginti ti 318 (2) = vi.316 Bodicca 37 (-icca) boletus 38. 324 Aureia -elia 274 Index. 36 blasphemia 146.316 boccone 37 (-0) bocconi 40 avec 78 avello = -avi ^ = averlo 293 -ai 424 avica 13. 219 balneus 347 ballaena 150. .22 bisaccium 22 bisacutus 22 bisante 187 = = bis Austus 263 aut 174 aut aut 84 -aut -avit 424 . = autem 11. 236 avicella 37. 184 Bologna 303 bonatus 37 (-atus) Bonica 37 (-icca) bon(i)tatem 231 bonito y] (-ittus) = avire 400 -avit -ait -at -aut 241. 226 Bayeux 151 bel(I)ua 164 blasphemus 150 blasta 312 (i) blitum 184 bob ansa 336 bobis vo. 324 ausare 18. 241 avaricia 276 ^ bas(s)ium 163 basso 40 battaUa 16 battel 426 ba(t)t(u)ere 137.192 aud(i)entem 416 aud(i)o 272-3. 325 av(i)dere 219 avidus 236 aviolus 13 avis 13 avis struthius 43 Bellus -onis 362 bene 40.316 bal(i)neum 146. 33.) 367 brae (c) a 163 bracchiale 37 = brac(c)hium 163 brachia 352 Digitized by Microsoft® . 236. 182 autumnal (e) 242 auyo 272-3 avau. 339 baptizatio 19 barba -anis 359.236. 14 5 Authorities autor 266 baptizare 19.22 Bononia 303 bonu 298 bonus = -OS 244 bonus bonus 55 bos =:i vos 316.3171323 bestemmia 182 Betrubius 316 beveire y^ (-tor) bi.3165 322 bis(s)it coctum 43 bivere blaesus 329 blanche 341 blanka 341 blankizare 34 blaspheraare ig.316. 74 bene bene 55 benegnus 172 (2) bene placitum 43 Beneria Ve.316 bixit = vi. . Balerius Va. 42. 162. 359(1) barbane 359(1) barbar 242 barbo -onis 359(1) barbutus 42 baro 16 bassiare 275 = vixit 255 = vi.316 bianca 341 biber 242 biblia 146 bibui 428 bibutus 438. 416 audivi(t) 2S5 audus 236 -aumus := -avimus 424 aunc(u)lus 234. 324 botella 361 bottega 182 b see Labials : baboni 362 bac(c)a 163 bacito yj (-ittus) bac(u)lus 234 Baiocasses 151 bajulus 233 Baleria = Va. ^ benignis 376 benivolus 201 berbeces 323 Bonitta 37 (-ittus) 424 avo avus 362 avus 13 ayo = habeo 273 = berbex (-ix) 42. 34 ausculum := osc.

347 calumpnia 307 calura 42 camel(l)us 42. 231.) 367 224 calcoste(g)is 259 caldo 40 cal(e)facere 219 calefacis 139 calere 288 bruchus 193 pu.330 (-ium) cerasus 38. 356 (3). cf . 356 (3). pi. 330 Byzacinus 42 c : castius 277 castore (nom. 239 cartas (nom. 163 buUicare 35 buplicae = carum 263 casa 12 cal(i)dusi55. 282. 383 cf. 33.256 catechizare 19. 150. 42 caroneus 39 carrica 11 car(ri)care 18.) 367 camutus 39. 195 (3) cerbus 323 cerebellum 231 cereolus 13 cereseus 195 (3) ceresus 38. 219.) 367 cardu(u)s 226 ce(n)sor 311 census 260 centu 381 ceperint 215 cepi 215 = -avi 424 •^•j = ga. Buolognino 154 burrus 330 Burrus 187 bursa 187 buscus 255 iusta 187 but(t)is 163 cals 255 casotta 37 (-ottus) cas(s)eus 163 . 33 cat' cantare 34 unus 71 see Gutturals c for capabilis 39 g 253 cy 276. 234 capitus 440 = cedo 162 cadedi 428 cadere 402 caderunt 426 cadui 428 cselebramus (perf . 369 caput 13.354.Indkx. 356 buxus 187. 369 capus 285. 330 cedat caedat 210 cabia =: cavea 318 cactivus 313 cactos 313 capitanus 39 capitium 37 (-ium) capitulus 42.) 367 cammarus 330 canalia yj cani (pi. 402 -C40 caballus 12 capiclus 234. 195 (3) calcaneum carissimus 377 caritabilis calce pistare 46 calciare 224 39 Caritta 37 (-ittus) Digitized by Microsoft® . branca i6 calcis 193 camis (nom. 356 (3). 372. 163 Cassiabus358 cas(s)us 161 castaneus 346 (i) castellus camera 145 camerlingo 37 (-ing) caminus 150 camisla 201 (i) (3) 347 butyrum 150 buxida 187.) 368 cata 19. 285. 278 capere 8.) 424 cedrus 182 cefalo 334 celeps 315 capriolus 224 captiare 34 cslus 347 Cjeseris 233 caesorium 37 caetk 313 captio 9 captivare 34 captivus 313 celerus 376 -cellus 37 Celtic Words 19 capud 282 capui 428 calamarium 37 calamellus 37 calamus 150 calatus calcai capum 285. 284 capire 406 cap(i)talis 231 cauculus 288 cauditus 42 caus(s)a 161 cavia 224 -ce 40 cecino 187.312 (i) bublus 235 bubukus 318 (2) buc(c)a 12.) 357 (i) Breaking 177 breviarium 37 brevis 13 Brittanice 40 calcius (nom. 237 calisco 414 calma 268 calotfa 187 caseum -us 347 Cases85-ioo. 71 cata unus 71 cataveris rr -d. 163 . 369 cardonis (nom.

380 cinque 254. 379. 64 comprendit 250 computare 31 circare 16 circueo 309 circumdavit 430 cis 14 cit(h)era. 139. 276 comitem 235 cima 38. 330.411 Digitized by Microsoft® . 239 collo Clerical 218. 332 Chrestus 184 chrisma 184 C(h)ristus 184.) 40 chiave 288 Chilperico 343 ckiosa 185 clergue 154 305. 379 cocodrilus 294 cinsum = ce- 196 cocus 226 coda 212. 130. 217 Chiusi 86 cholera 145 chommoda 25 c(h)orda 186. -ara 38. 269. 197. 269 co(g)nosco 43. coexercitatus 30 cofecisse 311 96 Compound Words 43-9. 160 coUus -um 347 239 colober 208 Clio 190 colobra 208 (2). 259*. 233 cito 162 citrus cognatus 9. 325 clausi 429 clausus 441 clavem 288 clavido 236. 31. of. 153. 124 coexcitare 30 comedo = quo. 260^. 187 cimiterium 192 cinctius coclearium 356 (3) coclia commando 31 comment 41 commixtius 23 224 254 cinctus 440 cinqua(gi)nta 254. 311 condam 254 condedit 139 conder(e) 242 condicio 276 conditio 276 civ(i)tas 12. 25 concha 186 concupiscencia 276 cohors 12.) 346 (2) colp 154 colustra 197 = coacla 289 (i) 206 cicinus 330 -cillus ]> -cellus 42 coactum 310 coccodrillo 294 cocens 226 comenzare 276 coininciare 276 cominiciare 276 cominitiare 25. 277. 259. claudo 236. 150. 233 complacere 25 complire 400 cinus 347. 276. 231 clamantis (nom.444 Pronunciation coUiget 444 col(lo)care 9. 310 coicere 310 coiiugi 271 cojectis 311 . 272. 237. 231. 325 colhe 154 coles 213 i6z -ceus 39 Chairibertus 39 (-anus) chaloir 288 Change of Meaning 8-10 coliandrum 292 coUecta 37 (-ta) collectus yj (-ta) colli(g)ens 259 col(li)gere 31. 329 191 ciurma -cius 39 of.1 194 certitude cetto 'r^j Index. X54. 12. 332 cib Clodius 212 cloppus 16 closa 212 Cludo 211 (2) -clus 234 CO quod 282 colomna 208 coloquinta 187 color (fern. Clepatra 191 clerc 154 Change of Suffix 42 chan(n)e 163 chartaceus 39 cher 263 chiaro (adv.) 367 clarisco 414 Cla(u)dius 211 (i) cojugi 311. 297\ 318(1). 233 Comparison 56 comperare 231. 154. 186. 271 colaphizare 19 col(a)p(h)us 19. 310 cognovi 428 cognusco 197 cohaerere 310 computus 235 comuna 376 con. 231.23. 370 cinxi 429 cip(p)us 163 circa 80. 213 codex 213 coemiterium 192 coepi 72.226 comoedia 192 comparare 8. 332 Conditional 124. 333(1) clericatus 37 cler(i)cus 39.

26 contrafacere 26 co(n)ventio 171 convltare 25 coperire 225 copersi 429 Gutturals 253-70 Labials 312-26 Latin 246-8 Letters 246 Liquids 2S7-96 Hasals 303-11 Palatals 271-8 Sibilants 297-302 cortera 203. 244. 226. 37 crebbi 428 credea 421 crededi 31. 34 19s corpo r6o corregia 201 corridije conger 329 Congianus 272 congigi 259 Conjugation 101-30. 3ro corso 208 Groups 131-2.) 298 cornicula 42 cornu -um-us 347. 139 credens (noun) 13. confessor 18 confortare 25. 311 Weak 422-6 conteneo 139 Perfect Participle 434. 275 227 consilium 42 consili corbeau 323 corbi 323 corbo 323 corcodilus 294 corcodrillus 294 cores = corda 369 corium 294 Comeius =-elius 274 Cornelio (nom. 439 crepatus 435 crepavi 428 Crescentsiarius 277 cresco 255 cresima 184 cresme 184 crevi (i) 428 292 crevutus 440 criblare crigTie 35 c'ritare 229 consirier yj (-erium) Consonants Aspirate 249-52 Dentals 280-6 = criz 206 = crocitare 35 Digitized by Microsoft® .continari 226 contra 96 contra. 255. 396450 Four Conjugations 396407 First 397-8 Second 399-401 Third 402-6 Double: see Double Consonants Germanic : see Germanic Consonants Greek : see Greek Consonants 272 corrigo 305 corrotulare 229 cors 12.1 Index. 254 41 Personal Endings 44250 Pluperfect and Future Perfect 432-3 Present Stems 416-9 Use of Forms 101-30 Conjunctions 82-4 co(n)jus 25. 137 Perfect 422-31 consuetudo 42 Strong 427-31 co(n)sul 171. co(n)jux 171. 311 conmittere 32 couleuvre 208 (2) court 203 couvent 311 covenimus 311 coventionid 3x1 covetum coxale coxi 429 = cubitum 208 -^j^j copertus 436 cophinus 186 coque 254 coraticimi 18. 355 cor(o)nare 231 corp 323 corpora 369 corpes corpi -ora 369 coi"pore 356 (3) corpo credere 410 credutus 438. 39 credentia 37 (-antia) " connato 269 conobbi 428 conoisser 413 conopeum 146 conovutus 440 conpendium 32 conplere 306 consacrati 31 conservam(m)us 163 consiensia 260. 225 cortensis 39 cortilis cortis 39 250 corvo 323 corvus 323 cosol 311 costumen 42 cosul 305 cot 254 cotes 212 cotidiae 244 cot(t)idie 162. 160 Fourth 407 Fundamental Changes • 408-12 Imperfect 420-1 constare 31 Inchoative Verbs 413-5 consuere 31.

25 debbio 273 debeo 273 debere 10. 324 deorsum 224 Cusanca 37 (-^ncus) Wouns 354-73 Shift of Decl. 72. 81 defuntus 267.229 (2) deabus 358 de ad 48 de ante 48 deaurare 23. 355-6. 226 cum (prep. 281-3 dy 272 nd nn 281 Final 282.289 (2) cuoio 296 cuofre 160 cuore 160. 286 nd > nn 281 429 cursorium 37 curvus 323 nt 285 St 285 t 284-6 denumer^t 424 deo(r)sum 291. 187. 92. 117. (fem. 48. 392 de foris 47.) 349 cymba 187 cymiterium 192 cypressus 150 Second 361-3 Third 364-71 Use of Cases 85-100 376 de contra 47 decumus 220 dede = dedit 285 de deorsum 47 Digitized declLvis Deponent Verbs 113. 48 deltas 27 del(i)catus 227 delitus 198 delta 329 de magis 47 de medio 47 deminat 139 Dentals d 272. 239 decanus 39 dece(m) 309 decern et (or ac) septem 379 dece(m)bris 306 decemter 306 dec(i)mus 239 Declension 85-100. 177 cnpa(t) 285 cupire 406 cupit 423 cup(p)a 163 cupressus 150 cur 12. -culum -cuius > 37. 48. 82 curabit cursi de-^ di. 25 305 77.) 82. cumba 187 cun = cum 305 cunnuscit 269 cimtellum =r cul. 100. 292 Derivation 20-49 descendidi 426 de semel 47 despereifser 414 by Microsoft® .o. Definite Article 68. 95.23. 306 -cellus 42 95 -c(u)lus 42. 126 (4) debita 37 deb(i)tum 235. 383 cuerdo 369 culcitra 294 dau 397 daun 397 234 dave 48 de 14. de. cf. 330 cyma38.) 14. 322 currens 39 = Intervocalic 283. 346 (4) cucullus -a 346 (4) defensus 441 deferet 406 Dative 90-1. 285 > -avit 318. 354-76 Adjectives 374-6 Fall of Decl. 78. 372-3 de^£-io 273 defna 324 de inter 48 de intro 47 de intus 47.196 crocodilus i. 88. 409 d : see Dentals dy 272 de post 48 deprendere 250 de retro 47. 376 First 357-60 cy 276-8 cy ty277 = cycnus 187. 234 cum (conj. 294 Index. da 48 dedi 430 (i) 229 crucifigere 46 c'rot'lare dacruma 281 dactylus 19 dedicait 424 ded(i)cavit 231 crudilitas 197 -crum 37 (-culum) crupta 187 crus 13 dad 48 Dafne 334 dai 2<)% dampnum 307 crust(u)lum 234 crypta 187 cubidus cupidus 256 Danuvlum 318 dao397 dare 397 datfus 324 dedro dedrot 285 deexacerbare 30 deexcitare 30 defeniciones 276 defensa 37 (-ta) defensi 429 defensorlus 39 = cuculla 13.

328 Single >Double 164. 259 -didi ducatus 37 (-ta) duce due 412 ductus 440 dui 167. 328 devidere 229 (4) devinus 229 (4) dis. 393 duo 378 duos 138 durare 229 (5) Duration 99 duricia 276 Durocasses 151 duxi 429 (masc. 259 dignus 172 (2) dilevit domatus 435 domin(i)ca 239 dominicus 9. 253. 426. 254. 37 dies 13. 21 dolus dictus := digitus 233.253 dictus 166. 355 (2) dietro 292 digita35i. 209-16 209-10 de sub 48 de super 48 de sursum 47 detti 426 de unde 70.23. and fem. 333 dolor (fem. 43> distinguere 223. 303. 289 (2). 229 displacet 139 displicina Doable >Single i6i. 30 .) 346(1). 361 digitus 233.) e 165. 196-9 (I) . 393 deus 167 devere 318 devetis 318 au 21 1-3 eu 214 oe 215 ui 216 diposisio 277 dire 406 directus 229 diri(g)ens 259 dirivare 229 (2) dou 397 Double Consonants 161-4. Digitized by Microsoft® . 195 (6). 406. (2ddecl. dextro(r)sus 291 deyo 273 dia = dies355 (2). 229 (4). dibeto 196 Dibona 318 die 264. 292. 226 dita 351 diu II. 238. devitum 318 dexcito 225 cf . 421. 440 dicere divisus 441 divite (nom.) 346 (2) dolor 18. 177. 247. 239 domnani 359 (i) domnicellus 37 domnicus 235 229 (2) diligibilis 39 domnina 37 domnizare 33 domnulus 235 dint-mi 264 divinus 324 dinus = Dionigi 227 Dionysii 227 diosum = deorsum 291 Diphthongization 177 domnus 235 domus 12 355 dume(c)ta 266 dune 40 d'unde 70.3 Index. desso 62 dester 255 desto 225 197 donee 11 dont 70 donum (masc. 238. 196-9. 328 289 (i) Dissimilation 167. 397 dia 397 diabulus 38 diaconissa 19 Dialects 2. 25 discere 12 disfacit 139 Double 247 = Single 162-3. accented 165. 412 dice = die 412 dice(m) 309 disfactus 23 dis(je)junare 25.) 349 dormio 224 dormito 309 dormitorium 37 dormo 416 dorsus 347 dossum 291 Diphthongs 36 177.) 367 dub(i)tare 231 ducalis 39 divota 229 (2) dixemus 232 dbd429 dodecim 225 doga 186. 13 Double Forms 158 Double Negation 75 Double Prefixes 30 doucet 37 (-ittus) doussa 376 drachma 144 drappus 16 d'rectus 229 diurnus 13 divisi Dreux 151 429 drieto 292 406 dicimus 448 dicitis 448 dicitus = -g. etc. 167. 378 dukissa yj dulcior (noun) 18 — > -dei 426 = dulcor 18.

230.538 Esaram 233 -escere 34. 229 effrenis 376 eglesia 256 (2). 182. 243. 73. s 177. 385 eo quod 82. 255 es-7.) 368 -Irunt 450 eccam 24 eccas 24 ecce. 65 ecce nunc 65 ecce tu 65 eccillam 24 eccillud elimentum 231 -elis >• -ills 197 Elision 157. 65 eccu' 'ic 326 eccu' ille 24.> -ido 197 edus haedus 210 e6 >. 199 n 182 eccu' sic 24 e contra -entia 37 (-antia) -inns 42 -enus > 47 C183 ecus 226 edediderit 426 i eo=:ego 73. eccum 24. > = = 444 = ex. 424 230 e6 > e 225 -edo .228. 429 -erium 37 erminomata 191 ero 411 -ero 39 (-arius) ersi ericius = jacet 224 earn = jam 224 eacit ejus 170.exs.) 356 (2) -i 443 -es -es -is 174. > e > y 224 e i 229 s (2) edere 13 edificai e prefixed to + cons. 35. no eoru 309 episcopalis 39 epistula 144 > 196-8 e unacc. 65 ecce ego 65 ecce hie 24.198 e 196-8 Index. 244. 62. 449 -ent >. 326 espiar 343 "pier 343 Digitized by Microsoft® . 298 elementum 231 elephantus 38 elex -ebam : see -ea 429 eiii 411 ecca 24 = ilex 200 (2) erubisco 414 elifanti (pi. 244 egloge 330 e e 165 > > e > e 165 V 182' ei83 e(g)o 60. 242 -elius >• -ilius 197 -ellus 37. 263. 197. 364 -V3S -ea 421 -etv 36 ejus 298 eio = -etbv 146 42 erigere 31. 65 ecce iste 24. 328 Endings Personal 442-50 -esco ]> -isco 197 414 enim 11 escupare 255 -ens 39 (-ans) -e(n)simus 311 -e(n)sis39. > 65 > eccu' iste 24. 365-6.) 450 -ere -ire 197 erodes 251 > effigia 355 (2) eu 214 effondrer 356 (2) i6 >• e 225 unaccented 219. 311 -ent -eunt 416. 162. 6. 65.e 225 = equus 12 equus = sequus 210 -re 245 -er -er 39 (-arius) erable 43 -ere (perf . 65 ecce ille 24. 385 ego-met-ipse 66 et -erem 346 (3) eremus 150 eres 251 190 e-28 -640 -e>-ffi I74>244 -e -ei 411 -eta 146 eiius 271 erga 14 ergo II. 232.24. 42 elmo 343 illud 201 elud -elus >• -ellus 42 ervum > erum 226 ervus (3d decl. -unt 449 es(i)mus 419 (i) -isimus 197 -esimus esmes 419 (l) eccos 24 eccu. 413-4 eschernir 341 emere 12 encaustum 149 Enclitics 156 -enda 37 (-anda) : 24 eschine 341 esclate 343 eccillum 24 ecclstam 24 ec(c)lesia 146. 14 > -i 244.24.

444 49 . 255 -ex -ix 42 = fac 412 facentem 416 facere 10.Index. 14. 126 (2). 420 face feced feci = fecit 282 fec(e)ru(nt) 233 430 fehu 343 felicla 234 felis25.230. 440 fascia 10. 77. 275 faselus 334 fasena 320 (i) f asia = faciat 285 224 fasiolus -etus 437 see Labials (i) fata 266 eu 214 cu 190 fa 264.= as. et 84 Ethiopia 188 etiam 11. 92. 266 = = fait 324 266 fallii -esse 161 -essem 161 essere = esse 419 es(t) 285 estatio 230 estau 397 estaun 397 Estephanus 230 estou 397 estribar 341 esum 419 -et et et at ubi . 277 etsi I \ et sic 47 exodus 337 expabui 42S expandutus 441 expaventare 35 explendido 230 exquartiaxe 276 exs. 419 (i) esse essere 419 esse sedere 402 274 exe(m)plu 306 exiat 224 exient 449 347 fageus 39 failla exinde 60 exire 31.) 356 (2) fenire 229 (4) factus 440 fenum 209 ferbeo 323 feritus 242 fascit 209 faedus 320 (i) fcemina 209 f acul 434 ferre 12 ferro 160 Digitized by Microsoft® . 404 faccia 278 fatus 347 taula 236. 318 febrarius 226 Eurus 191 -eus39 Euua 344 evangelizare 19 -evi -ei 424 > Evidence 5 ex 14.= es. 25 ex.) 367 excoriare 25 excussi 429 excussus 441 exeligere 30. (i) = -it 244. espiritum 230 exeligit 199 fffinum 209 fffinus esquena 341 esguiver 343 essagium 255 esse 112-4.23. 404 fatatus 39 fate fabam 320 404 Eugeneti 359 (2) -eum 37 eunuchizare 19 fab(u)la 236 f ac 264.230 exstinctus 440 exstinxi 429 exsucidus 39 exsucus 23 extensa 37 extimare 255 extra. 274 facimus 448 404 facitis 448 factum 266 facire Feminine femps 356 femus (3d : see Gender (2) decl. facienda 37 fem(i)na 239 feminabus 358 > exaltare 25 exaugiu^tus 39 excellente (nom. 95 ex.27 extrabuccare 27 extranus 42 ex tunc 47 ezza 277 f : fallire 430 406 441 34 37 familia 42 famis 366 famTfii 264 famul 242 famulabus 358 fante 311 falsare falsitas fallitus faor 324 farcitus 440 fare 404 farsus 440. 404 facheret 410 faciam 278 fadas 224 fac(i)ebam 225. .

406 folia 352 follia (noun) 18 follicare (i) = 259 f rictus 440 frigare 256. 12 419 (2) figel 242 fiios — filios 274 358 (nom. see frondifer 11 fnialitas Germanic Words Greek Words foresia 311 foris 81 and finiscere 35 finxi 429 fructa35i. fragrantia 37 fra(g)rare 270 flavor 37 fletus II Francesco 341 franctus 440 fieuma 268 fleurit 414 ' fictus 197 440 fleuve 208 (2) fioralis Frankensis 39 Frankiscus 39. 141 ficit 2. (mc. 231 fons (fem.) 356 fundutus 441 funtes 205 (2) fortia 37 fortis 10 fortis fortis 55 429 fixus 441 fossato 2^1 (-ta) funus II fuore 160 Digitized by Microsoft® . 238. 256 frenum -us 347 fricatus 435. 200 (i).) 17 429 263 Foreign Words 19. and fern.)346(i) fraumenta 268 frecare 201 . 341 Franko 341 franxi 429 ficus (I) (masc. 233.419 (2) 400 florisco 400 flovium 208 (2). filix 298 274 = filios T97 fiUio 247 fonte 205 244 fonz 356 (2) foras 81.409. cf . 259 frigora 351 filius 155. fervere 399 fervura 37 fesit flaba 289 (i) flagrare 292 flaonis flator fractus 440 fragellum 289 (2) fragilis 260 324 324 233 >« 343 fezem 44 fiaba 289 (i) fiam 419 (2) fib(u)la 235 ficatum 16.Index.) 346 florecer 292 414 frate 295 Florentinus 37 ficus (2d decl. 440 fricda frigida 238. 96 forbatre 2.f:^ forbire 407 frigorem 347 frixl Fimes 86 Final Syllable 240-5 finctus 440 finis (adj.7 flaus 240. 217 fluviorum 224 feces 213 florire fratelmo 38S frat(t)re 164 frax(i)nus 239.) 346 (4) filiaster filio(s) fans 356 frigdura 37 Frigia 187 frig(i)dus 166. fiero 160 fiet focus fodiri 8. 201 filiabus filias 33 (2) frigdaria 219. 361 fructus (2d decl.) 357 13 .) 355 (i) fnindes 205 /^343 fiorentino 154 fioretto yj (-ittus) fiorisce \\^ foris- 29 frunza 351 frutta 351 fugii 430 f ugire 406 fugitus 439 fui 431 forisfacere 29 f orismittere 29 fircum 320 (i) Firenze 86 Firmus -onis 362 fir- 46 formaceus 39 formosus 161 formunsus 208 forsitan 305 forte 40 f ortescere ful(i)ca237 fiscla 234 fistula 234 fistus 197 fix! 34 fumAt 424 fundus (3d decl. cf.) 355 (i) fidens 311 fiele 160 Jiens 356 (2) fieri 112.

furbjan 407 furma 203 furmica 229
genesis 148, 183 Genitive 88-9, 383 genitores 12 genitus 17
gIut(t)o 163




fusa 3; I

gocciare 276 gcerus 187
golosus 228 gonger 329 goule 177


genna 229
gentilis 17


fusus 441

Future 125-9,411
127-9,411 Periphrastic Put. 126 Pres. for Put. 126 (i) Future Perfect 119, 123-4,
410, 423 g: see Gutturals

gentis (adj.) 17

Hew Put.


= jan- 259
37, (i)



genuflectere 46

genum 355
Gepte 259 geguir 343

233 gradlus 376 grada 35.1 gradus 355 (i)
grandis 12
granditia 37 graphium 145 grassetto 37 (-ittus)

= Hier- 259

gabata 13, 236 gabta 236 gaita 343
gaite 343 galatus 330
gallina 288

gerbe 341

Germanic Consonants
b, c,

grassus 257

= Gratis 257

g 341

gravare 34
gravior 377 grece 210

^,^342 h343 W344
Germanic Endings 36 Germanic Words 19,
340-4 Germanissa 37 Gerund 104

gamba 13, 263, 331 gammanis 330
garba 341 garofulum 149 garum 329 gaudia (sg.) 352 gaudimoniuin 20 gaudutus 44 X gauta 236 gaveola 257 gavia 16
gecchire 343 geisla 341 geiuna je- 259 geline 288

Greek Accent 143-50 Ozytones 144
Paroxytones 145-6 Proparoxytones 147-50 Greek Consonants 327-39
ft 7, S 329
K, V,

Gerundive 103
gesso 187 gesta (sg.) 352 gJga 341 gig'i 341

T 330-1

X 332-4 Liquids 335 Hasals 336

I 337


gigantem 229 (3) ginocchioni 40 Giovannoni 362 giret 187
girus 187
giscle 341 glacia 355 (2)

f 338-9
Greek Endings 36, 38, 146 Greek Vowels 180-93 Diphthongs 188-93 Single Vowels 180-7 Greek Words 19, 36, 38,
gre-U 40 grevior 377
grevis 195 (4)

gelus (2d decl.) 355 (i) gemellus 13

gemire 406 gemitus 439

Glacus 211 (i) gladium 347
glanderia 39 glaiz 355 (2) Glauc6 -^nis 359 Glaucu (nom.) 372 glirem 166
glos(s)a 161, 185

gemui 428
gena 13

Gender 345-53 Fem. and Heat. 351-3 Masc. and Pern. 346 Masc. and Heut. 347-50 Heut.Pl.>Fero.Sg.352 Heut.Pron.and Adj. 350

grex (fem.) 346 (4) grossior 377 gratia 187 gruls (nom.) 367 gninnio 281-

gluria 203
glut(t)ire 162

guarire 344 guarnire 36, 407


by Microsoft®

guaiare 343
hab(i)tus 239 h^buerat 137
hocsies 277

gubernamentum 37
gubernare 36, 330
gtterra 344

guidare 36, 398 guiderdone 342 guisa 344
gul0 37
-i -1338, 186, 330 gustus (2d decl.) 355 (i) guttur (masc.) 347


Gutturals 253-70 c c' 258, 260-1 c g 256-7

> >

habutus 438 hache 343 hackerece 39 hffidus 320 (i) hamula 235 hanca 343 handle 343 hant 401 hao 401 hapja 19, 343

hodie 272 hodio 251


hom(i)nes 232, 235 (pi.) 36S
10, 71


honera 251 honor 346 (2) honte 342 hora 12, 185 hordemn 272
horrescere 11
hortesia 311 hospitale 12

haram 251
hardir 343
harena 320 (i) haribergum 19 has 401 hat 401 hatire 36 hatjan 36


g before back vowels hardjan 343

263 c, g before cons. 265-70 c, g final 264 ct 266

hossa 251 hostium 251 Hugo Hflgon

= Hdgo


huile 274

152, 362


> g' 258-9. z6i

humerus r2
humiliare 34

g intervocalic 263

gm 268
gn 172
gr intervocalic 270




152, 362


net 267
Falateilization 258-62

haunitha 342 haunjan 19 haunt 401 havite 400

165, 200-1, etc.

accented 200-1 I 200

haz 355


hegit 251

260 X 255, 266 gylosus 228 gyrus 187


helm 343
keltne 343

h 249-52

hepatia 19 here 219, 244 heredes (sg.) 367 heremum 251 Hiatus 136-8, 222-7

> e 201 e ^ 201 > 165, 200 i>e2oi > > e 165, 201 (cons.) 222 > y 224 -i > -e 224







habam = fabam 320

hlbemus 13
hie 63-4, 67-8 hie ipse 64

habe = ave 318 habe(b)am 421 hiem(p)s 13, 297 habeo 273 hiens = iens 251 habere 10, 121-4, 127-30, hilerus 233
239, 273, 285, 400, 401, 421, 438, 449

(Greek) 184 (Greek) 38 i^ e 225 ii i 227 prefixed to s cons. 230 unaccented 219, 221,228,


> >


hinsidias 251

hireum 320


haber 242 habe(t) 285 habeunt 416, 449 habibat 400
habire 400

= is- ins- 230 hispatii = spatii 230
historia 146

229(3X4), 240, 243, 244 in hiatus 222, 224-5,


> e 229 (4) > a 229 (3)

ho 40 hoc 63,



-ia 37, 146 -(a 37, 146


by Microsoft®

-iamus 224 -are 33, 34
ille 10,

Future Future
125-9, 411

61-8, 389-92

ipse 64





123-4, 410

-ibo 125
-ic 251



-ica 37 -icare 33, 34, 35 -icca 37


390 ille 390 140


(dat.) 390


-iccus 37

> ilium 282, 350
390 390

= suus


Imperfect 120, 420-1 Perfect 121-4, 422-31 Pluperfect 123-4, 410, 432 Present 120, 273, 397, 401, 403-5, 415, 416-9

-icem 42, 346



-iceus 37, 39, 42
-icius 37, 39, 42


induruit 224


ilium illud 282, 350 illurum 390


-inem 346

-iculare 35 -iculus 42

> -ellus 42

infa(n)s 10, 311 i(n)fans 171
inf antiliter
i(n)feri 171,

im = in 310
imaginarius 39

-icus 39

40 219

idem 61, 3C39 id ipsum 62, 350 idolum 150, 190
-idus 39 -i(d)yare 339 i6 e 225


376 immudavit 256 Imperative 115-6, 412 impinguare 25 impinxi 429


infernus 13 Infinitive

-iebam -ebam 225 -ibam 420
-ie(n)s 311



implicat 139 implire 400


> -fmus 447-8 >

in 86, 92, 95, 96, 97
is 310 inanimatus 23 in ante 47, 48 incendiderit 426

lenubam 259
-ier 39 -iere 39

in- 23, 25 in -t- s

as Noun iii Conjugations 396-407 dicere 406 esse 419 facere 404 for Clause for Imperative 116 for Subjunctive iii, 117 for Supine and Gerund




= gesta 259, 352

311 iferi 311
iferos 306, 311

Inchoative Verbs
inclausus 139 incohare 250
in contra 47, 48 incudo 42, 370


103, 104 habere 400 Passive 109 Perfect 109 with habere 125-9, 4^^ posse 403

ifimo 311 if ra 311

Present Active

102, 109


-4gia 2^^
igitur II, 14

with Accusative
inflare 31


incuminem 42
incus 42 -incus 37 inde 60, 71, 384 inde fugere 46

ignire 33 ignis 12


ignotus 310 -igo 37

Forms 345-450 Use 85-130
infra- 27



227, 423


39 -ilius 42 iliac 140

Indefinite Article 57 Indefinite Pronouns: see

infraponere 27


Indicative Conditional 130, 411
for Imperative 116, 412
for Subjunctive 117

infurcare 25

-ing 37

(dat.) 390

390 illsejus 390

ingenium 9 ingens 259 in giro 48


by Microsoft®

-ingus 37 (-incus) in hodie 47
Initial Syllable

62-4, 67-8 ins- liis- 230


— -is = -es 244, 365-6, 444

-iva 37 iventa 311

inlatus 32 in mane 47

-iscere 34, 35


> > -i 423 > -iut > -it 423

-ivum yj
-ivus 39 -ix 42
-izare 33, 34, 339

medio 48

Ischia 284

innoce(n)ti 306 innocus 226
in odio


ischolasticus 230


inprobus 32 inquid 282 in quo ante 254 -inquus 37 (-incus) ins13-230 in semel 47

-isco for -esco 197, iscripta 230


-'{«" 33
izophilus 333
j 271 jacente(m) 309 jacis 244 Jacobus 150, 329

-iscus 39 is ipse 64


ismaragdus 230 isperabi 230 ispose 230
-issa 37 -issare 33

insiemcmenie 41 insola 232 instruo — struo 230 ins(u)la 171, 233, 284 intcitamento 260 inte(g)rum 270 Interamico 307

Jacomus 329
jagante 229 (3)


-isse 161

-issem 161 -issimus 166

jaiant 229 (3) jajunus 229 (i) jambe 263
-jan 36
janarius 226

230 Interanniensis 307 istatuam 230 Interrogatlves see Pro- iste 63-8, 390-2 nouns iste hie 64 Intertonlc Vowel 231 iste ille 64 intra g6 iste ipse 64 intra- 27 istudio 230 intra tenere 27 it id 282 intravidere 46 -it -et 244, 444 intre 245 ita II intro(r)sus 291 Italia 224 intus in 49 Iteilic Tribes i, 2 -inus 37, 42 -itare 34, 35

jaquir 343
jauzei 426 jehan 343 jehir 343
jejunus 229, 229 (i) jeniperus 229 (5)

= =

jenua 229


jenuarius 229 (i) jeuTie 208 (2)
jinipenis 229 (5)

-Inus 39

> -o 416

-itas 37 -ite -Ite


Joanneni 359 (i) Joannentis 359 (2) Joannis 244
jocus 12


ipsa mente 41 ipse 61-8, 390-2



jovenis 208 (2), 217
jovis 367

64 ipsejus 390 ipsimus 66 ipsud 390
ipsujus 390 ipsus 390
iraisser 413 irascere 413

-itia 37, -ities 37


jubari 322



-ittus 37

-itudo 37 -itus 42 (2), 436, 438, 441 -Itus 435, 438-9


jubem(m)us 163 jubenis 318 jubentutis 318, 322 jubere 11
Judaizare 19
judicat 424

-ium 37
-ius 39

126 (5), 405

> -unt 416
by Microsoft®

-ire 33,


judidus 347 judico 239 judigsium 278


juglus 233 Julianenis 359 Julianeta 37 (-ittus)
Julitta 37 (-ittus)

429 Liaison 133, 159 liamen 263
lexi 428,

intervocalic 324

Voicing 314
laborait =:-avit 424

laceus 254
lacte 367

libe(n)s 311

juncxi 305 juniperus 229 (5) junxi 429
Jup(p)iter 163

jurHtortu 39 juria 272 jur(i)go 219
jusso 355 (i)

lactem 347 lacus (2d decl.) 355 (i) ladro yji ladrone 372


298 (nom. pi.) 357


libraria 37 ligare 201,

ligna (sg.) 352


justitia 276,

justius 277

juv(e)nis 235

juventa 356 (3) juvente 318
juxta 81, 96


246, 253

kadamitatem 289

= candidus 330 karessemo 201 Karica 37 (-icca) kaukoulato cal- 288 kleme(n)s 311 kozous = conjux 311, 339


34 lambros 331 lamna 235 lampada 356 (3) lampa(s) 38, 144, 335 lancia 224 la(n)tema 306 lanutus 42 lapsus 315 laqueum 347 ; cf, 254 lardum 237 Latinization i, 2 latrone (nom.) 367 lat(t)rones 164 lattucae 266 Lauriatus 224 lausenga 37 (-ing)
lauzi 443 Lazis Ladiis 339


lignum -us 172
liminare 37


Unguas (nom.) 357
liniamenta 224


133, 159

lintium 224

Liquids Assimilation 293 Dissimilation 292
Fall Fall



Liquid 237

Vowel before

Liquid 233-4 1 287-9 ly274 Metathesis 294 r 290-6
rs 291 ry 296 lit (t) era 163


kumate 298 ky = qui 187, 223



lebat 318

lit(t)us 163

see Liquids

318 lebra 256

Livitta 37 (-ittus) U 1 161


la ilia 392 Labials Assimilation 313 b 315-9 initial 316 intervocalic 318 by, py, vy 273, 319 f 320-1 Fall of Vowel after Labial 235-6 Influence on Vowels 217



Have 2 88



Locative 86
locun 305 locuplens 311 locuplex 255
lodi 443
loir 166

lectus (p.p.) 440 legare 201

leges 259

(nom.) 367

legui 428

lenticula 42

longa mente 41 longe 40
longior 377


longius 377


longum tempus 13
loquella 42 loreola 213

P 3"-4 U326
V 322-s
after liquid 323

levare 34 leviarius 39


Lost Words 11-4
lotus 213

levitus 435,


by Microsoft®

359 by Microsoft® . 201.) 368 me(n)sis 171. 233 lucor 37 lucto 355 (i) maximus 56. 220. 347. 353 me(n)sor 311 56. 347. cf . 66 mal(l)o i6i malus malus 55 mam(m)a 16. 369 marrir 407 marrjan 407 Marsianesses 277 magnisonans 44 magnus 12 Maia 188.) 244 lucSre 399 lucire Index.) 349 machina 144 machinari 9 macra 376 madias = majas 272 madio majo 272 madrema 388 maestati 259 maester 259 magias majas 272 marem 347 mares = -is 244 marl -e 364 marinarius 39 maris (masc. 198.) = and markensls 39 me(n)sa 311 mense(m) 309 mensi (pi.) 355 (i) meretis 232 meridjes 281 (2) mer(i)to 237 Masculine : see Gender masc(u)las 234 masma = maxima 238 massa 338 mate(r) 295 materia 355 (2) matrona(s) 298 mat(t)rona 164 Digitized mersi=merx 255 Messac 277 messui 428 messura 37 met. and 346 (I) fern. 297 maxumiis 220 lucus locus 205 ludus 12 lugere 399 lugire 400 = Meanings Change 10 of of Words 7-10 Meaning 8- manos 355 mansi 429 mansio 12 (i) luminem 347 lunae dies S9 mecu 309 Medea 190 Medentius 338 media 272 medianus 39 medicus 239 medio die 43 medio loco 43 medius 272 meletrix 292 melior 377 melius 56. 259 major 170. 84. 377 mala mente 41 male 40 male habitus 44 malicia 276 malleus 274 mensorium 37 menta 184 -mente 41 mente habere 46 mentire 409 Marsuas 187 Marsyas 187 mas = magis 157 mascel 242 -mentum 37 mentus 347 menus 201 mercatus (2d decl. 145 ma(r)mor 292 cf . mam(m)anis 359 matutinus 13 maurus 336 maxime 56 mammula mane 13 13 400 manducare 13 man(i)ca 239 manicd 37 (-icca) maniplus 42. manner (fern. 238. ma(g)is 353 .2o6 luce (dat. 377 luoghi -ora 349 liirdus 207 (i) luridus 166. 207 (i) luxi 4V 9 luxuria 355 (2) mansorius 39 mansus 441 manuaria iS manuplus 42 manus (masc. 349 melum 195 (5) membras 352 memoramus (perf. 369 3" . 71. 157.24. X. 259 ma(g)ister 259 marmora 351 marmorem 347. xi Marcianus 278 Marculus 284 mare (fern. 222 Maiiam 222 mais = magis 157.) 17274 m: see Nasals ma = mea -Ma 38 388 manu tenere 46 Slaps : pp. 74.) = magida = 38. 347.) 424 -men 37 mendatium 276 fern.

439 movitus438. 429 = mullus 187 mulsi 429 multum 74 multus 71 muntu = multum 289 (2) necatus 435. 229 (2) Nebitta 37 (-ittus) nebula 235 necare 9 necator 37 mirabilia 37.Index. 441 motto 187 movi 428 movit 244 movita37-.29.324 Moesia 187 molui 428 molutus 439 255 myrta 187 Mysia 187 mysterium 182.245 miscere 399 misculare 35 misera 376 mis(s)i x6i. cf.228 narratus 37 (-ta) -monium 37 mo(n)strare 311 Nasals 303-11 Final or = monumento = -um 244 Mood 1 1 5-9 morbu(s). 245 mis.Liquid mut(t)ire 162 132. 187 meuble 204 (i) meus = mi 87 n: see Nasals mextum — m2estuin mezzo 272 mi r= meus -a 87. 201 minus 201.245 minus credere 29 minus est 29 minus pretiare 46 minutus 10 > mortu(u)s 226 mossus 438. 227 mi(ni)sterium 231 minist(r)onun 292 minor 377 minsis 198. 160 mode modo 40 moere = mov. 217 334 mutare 229 Digitized (5) nepoti(s) 298 ne'ps'unus 71 by Microsoft® . 439. 438 naucella 13 naufragus 325 nautat 236 navicella 37 navitat 236 ne 14. 66 metipsimus 66 metltus 441 207 Mute -t. 304-6 171. 289 moc 428 (i). 377 minus. 75. 229 (4).311 11 ny 274 nacui 428 nam — mu. 387 mi = mihi25o. 311 -m -n falls 309 falls 310 mihe 244 milex 255 mille 161. 83. 385 miauiare 17 michi 252 mienia 1S4 migat micat 256 monarchia 37 monasterium 182 -monia 37 monibam 420 moniti n + fricative 171. 255. 37 raovutus 438. 440 muc(c)us 163 muebie 204 (i) mul'erem 225 mulier 9. 438. 440. 231 mis meis 388 mis. 294 modernus 18 Metiacus 277 metipse 24. 298 + Cons. cf. 440 necavi 428 nee ente 71 nee unus 71 ne ente 71 negare 263 negat 256 mur 206 murare 229 (5) muri -a 349 muritta 37 (-ittus) murta 187 Negation 75 negliencia 259 nemo 71 neofiti missorium 37 mis (s) us 441 mistus 440 mixticius 39 mobilis 204 (i). Metathesis 245. 163. 381 mn 307 millefolium 38 mil(l)ia 161 mordSre 399 morire 406 moriri 406 n -h fricative ny 274 nasco 255 nascutus 438 nasum -us 347 natatorium 37 nati vitas 37 Morphology 345-45° morsi 429 morsus 441 mortificare 46 mimoriEe 229 (2) minester 201 ministeri(i) 89. 136 mulieris 136 natus 13.

234 306. 251 nil 250 nimpae 332 nise 229 (4) nitidus 238 nittus 238 Numerals 57-8. 215 offertus 435. 395 num 83 u ob (Greek) i?5 14. Absolute 97 non 203 nona(i)nta 380 75. 383 305 accented 202-5 o 202-4 o 197. 311 nubis 366 nulli (gen. 40 (Greek) 186 Digitized nora 208 (3) Normannice 40 norus 208 (3) notrire 229 (5) noli 40 -on 36 -ov 38 -iav 38 -ones 40 -oneus 39 by Microsoft® . 274 > ola 213 oleo 373. 309 nivicare 18. 177. etc. o 165. 250. 71 o for au 212-3 >oe ]>e 06 > o 225 > omo 251 -omus 446 on 71 ou>. 378-82 occu(m)bas 306 occurire 406 Accent 142 nummus 328 nun = non 203 nunc 12 nuncius 276 -occus 37 ocio 276 ocium 276 octa(gi)nta 380 oc(u)lus 219. Nouns 345-73 see Declension and Gender nous 177.324 nova(i)nta 380 novellus 13 novius 207 (2) noxeus 224 ns 171. nupsi 297 nobe 318 nobilis 11 nobis 318. 243. 33 nuncquam 305 nunqua(m) 305. 385 nocere 399 nutrire 166. 197. 167. 328 noembrios 324 noembris 324 noicius 324 nolo 161 ny274 nynfis 306 406 406 429 440 192. 215 omnes = —is 244 onmimodus 44 omnis 12. 229 (5) nutritio 37 odedere 426 Odissia 187 oe 215 oefor xand e 215 offeret offerire offers! nutritura 37 nocui 223. 244 u6 o 225 -o 37. 323 nerbo 323 Neroua 322 nervia 349 Neuter nervus 323. 349 see Gender ne 229 (2) ni : = nichil 251 niepos 177 observasione 277 oc 251 occansio 311 occidere 212 occubavit 256 ni(g)rum 270 nihil 71. 202-5. 229 (6). 79 ob-28 obdormire 28 obferre 32 obliscor 324 oblitare 34 obprimere 32 Nerba3i7.) 395 nullus 71.ou 167 unaccented 219. 203 o (Greek) 192 274 38. > > 6 165. 100.208 nepta 37 neptia 37 neptilla 13 Index. 205 5 > 9 205 9>uo oi ou|>-gu 167 o u 202 o ou 203 oleum oli 274 274 oli(m) 309 olio nonna 16 nonnita 37 (-ittus) nonnitus 37 (-ittus) nonnus 16 noptiae 207 (2) 177 192. 22S. offla 235 oi>oe>-e ot nome 336 nomem nomes = nomina 369 Nominative 97.

Active 106 Put. 439 pasmer 300 passans 39 passi(m) 309 sy 275 ty 276-7 ossulum 37 ossum 356 (3) ostensio 37 ostensor 37 vy273 palatium 277 palleum 224 Passive 112-4. 229 (7) oridium 339 -orlum 37 -orius 39 orma 186.) 349 Present 102. 229 (7) ot ote = aut 213. palpebrum 352 pal/ires 134 = hos-25i = ostium 202 ostrum aus. 278 parsus 439. 107. 104.) 367 parentorum 368 p : see Labials paceveci = oratia = Hor-25i Order of Words 50-3. 322 > = oum 167. 441 part 160 partentem 416 Participle dy 272 g': omatura 37 orphanus 186 ortaret 432 hor-25i ortus see Gutturals gyz72 J271 ly274 ny 274 Put. 409 passos 355 paucum tempus 13 ostentare 34 ostia palma 14.Index.212 orata ou (Greek) 193 ou 167 9u Ouiouia Vibia 318. parecer 414 parens 10. 42 feminine 346 (2) -re 245 -or -ura 42 -or hora25i ora oracionem 276 aur. 296 Palatals 271-8. 369 papilipnis (nom.) 367 pap(p)a -us 16 papyrius 39 parabula 144. 318 parcui 428 onus II o 225 operare 409 0(5 > otogentos 266 -ottus 37 ophekion = ofBcium 334 opprobare 28 -or 37. Pans 86 Parisiis 272-8. py 273 ry 296 scy 275 40S Particles 156-8 particularis 39 -OS (Greek) 38 Oscan 2 -usco 197. 296 parsi 429 by 273 c': see Gutturals cy 276. Ordinal Numerals 382 -orem 346 (3) oricla2i2. 324 ovum 167. 202-3 -osco ossiculum 42 ossuculum 43 > ssy 275 sty 275 partunt 416 parutus 438.) 347. 227 pari mente 41 227 Palatalization 258-62. 408 Perfect 102. 108. 259 pari 364 par(i)etes 136. 337 pagandum 256 paganus 263 pa(g)e(n)sis 39.212 aut 213. 12 parentis (nom. 434-41 = orum = aurum 212 orzo 272 OS (masc. Passive 105. 217. 236 parabulare 155 paradisus 190 paraula 236. -omus 39 -o«J446 -o(n)sus 311 otia 277 otobris 266 209 paor 324 papaver (masc. 225 parietibus 224 oratorium 37 orbus 9 palanca 332 palasium 277 Parigi 86. oze ozie 324 = > > = hodie 272 = hodie 272 = pacific! 321 8. 229 (7) pandiderunt 426 paucus 71 paul(l)um 161 Paulus -onis 362 paupera 376 pani 364 panneus 39 pantaisar 332 Digitized = pauperorum 376 pausa 38 pavi 428 by Microsoft® .

441 Pesaro 151 pessica 291 pessimus y]"] pestio 2S4 pectorem 347 pediculus 42 pedis (nom. 99 per pel 293 per 160 per. 435 plicatus 435 293 293 pello 293 pendutus 441 pellige pellicere peuma 368 ph: see Greek Consonants phalanx 181 pharetra 145 phaselus 334 Phasis 181 pe(n)sare 171. igo plaudisti 426 pestulum 284 petft 423 Petrus -onis 362 peito 160 pleps 297. 217 pluere 169. 439 pere 160 pere(g)rinus 270 peres pedes 281 (2) Perfect 121-4. 190 Periphrastic Future 126 perit 423 perlum = prse. pinl 365 123-4 pinxi 429 per giro 48 piper 38.26 percolopabat 237 > Phebus 192 phiala 145 philosophia yj philus 184 phimus 184 Phitonis 332 phitonissas 332 Subjunctive 433 "8. 347. 208 (4). 273 poco 40 perdedit 139. 377 pejus 377 pelegrinus 292 pellabor 293 planura yj planxi 429 platea 146. pa(v)onem 324 pa(v)orem 324 pavura 42 pavutus 440 paze 260 pectinare 33 perpenna 292 persi 429 pe(r)s(i)ca 239 persona 71 Personal Pronouns: pius 167 placentia 37 plach 154 see placuit 223.) 367 plangit 259 plantare 33 peduclum 234 peduculus 42 pejor 170. 410. 422-31 = phoca 185 Phoebus 192 Phonology 131-344 Phyebae = Phoebe 215 piano 40 pictus 440 pietas 298 pietra 160 pignus 172 (2) pi(g)ritia podium 272 poella 20S Strong 427-31 Weak 422-6 Perfect Participle Participle : 270 see Pilipus 332 pinctus 440 Perfect Subjunctive 119. 93.Index. 326 plagiare 33 Pronouns persus 439.294 Pisaurese 297 Pisaurum 151 pitocco T85 Digitized pon(e)re 239 pontevecem 321 pontivicatus 256 pontufex 220 poplex 255 pop(u)lus 10. 183. 208 (4). 410 432> 433 Pluperfect Penult 232-9 per 14. 74 pluvia 169. pIurigo 123. 315 plicare 10. 235 by Microsoft® . 79. 273 plostrum 212 plotus 212. 96. = pr-292 plus 56. 208 (4). 369 per girum 48 piperem 347. 123-4. 217 Pluperfect 118. 426 perdita 37 (-ta) perdqnare 26 perdutus 438. 369 peria(t) 285 poena 192 poeta 192 poggio 272 polippus 145 poUicare yj pollulum 213 pols 370 poltre 134 polve 370 polvo 370 polypus 145 pomex 207 (2) pirata 144. 208 (4). 213 plovere 169. 311 pensi 429 pensus 441 plodere2i3 ploja 169.

439 = 311 prendere 225. 95 pro. 71. 397. -^yj pos(t) 96.229 (6) puteolis 136 • potebam 403 (i) potebo 403 (i) poteo 403 (i) potere 403 (i) pdteri 410 potestas 356 (3) potionare 33 potis 17 pretium 277 preveire 300 pride (m) 309 primitius 324 principens 367 pri(n)cipis 306 Prixsilla 255 puteum 347 putrire 400 potius 74 pr:e 14 pr£E-28 prjeber(e) 24? prsecoca 376 praeda 209 prsedestinare 28 prsEdiscer(e) 242 pro 14.28 prebiter 300 Interrogative 7o> 69- quadraginta 142. 186. 85-g presbyter 148. 393-4 quaKs 70. 300 presbyterum 148 provitus435. 67. etc. 226. 395 prandium 272 pranzo 272 pre. 330. qu 223. 440 cf. 285 posturus 238 postus 238 Post-Verbal Nouns 21 posueram 285 posuet 244 posui(t) 285 403-5.Index. 311 prEEStare 31 prffistavi 422. 383-95 Demonstrative 61-8 Indefinite 71. 429 quiestus 436. 285 Present 120 for Future 126 ptisana 145 pudicicia 276 (i) Stems 273. 254 qua 82 > promptulus 39 430 prsstus 376 Pronouns 59-71.) 367 pugnus 172 (2) pulvus 347. 332 purpureticum 1S7 putator = po. por 14 porcellus yj pregnax cf. 380.439 proximus 377 psallere 36. 403 (i) Possessives: see Pronouns posso 403 postea 275 (i) prensus 441 Prepositions 76-81. prolongare 28 q 246. 394 quamta 306 quan 305 Digitized by Microsoft® . 254 qu k. 226. 387-8 Relative 69-70. 96 provata 318 porphyreticum 187 portare 12 posi posui 428.28 probai 424 Proclitics 156-8 prodis 17 putrisco 400 puulva 356 (3) Pyrrhus 187 pyxis 187 Progne 330 proles II preefetto 266 prffigna(n)s 255. 250 prendiderunt 426 prendo 250 prensi 429 prensio 37 posmeridianus 285 posse 126 (3). 79. 429 Position 160-4 positus 238. 79. = pr<Egnans 255 Pronunciation 131-344 prophetissa 37 prophetizare 19 propietas 292 propio 292 propter 14. preda 209 Prefixes 21-32 393-4 Personal 60. 370 punctus 440 puni poni 203 = presium 277 pressi 429 pressorium 37 pressura 37 pressus 441 presta 210 presteti 139 frete 300 punidor 39 punxi 429 pupillabus 358 puplu 309 pup(p)a 163 pure 40 puritas 37 purpura 145. 401. 384-6 Possessive 60. pos(t)quam 11. 252. 259 quadra(l)nta 380 qua(9'ro 283 quKSi 426. 41 5> 416-9 presentis (nom.

223 quia 82. 71 = quod 282 quum r : > cum 226 repositorium 37 reprehensus 250 requeerere 25. 82 quarranta 142. 380 quase 244 quasi 83. 200 redft 423 redivit quannu 281 = Win. 71. 380 reculons 40 reddedi 31. 429 rhetor 335 rhetorissare 33 richesse 341 rictu quiaeti 209 quicumque 71 quid 350 quidem 11 recubitus yj (-ta) quiensces 311 quietus 225 quin II quinqua(gi)nta 142. quando 14.quoniam 14. 379 quel 393 quejus 393 quoque quot quot n Repetition 40. 82. 71. 82 comodo 226 Vowel Length 165-77 Words from Other Lan. 449 responduntur 449 responsi 429 raggio 272 que(m) 309 quen 305. no quooperta = co. 82.) 361 ramenc 37 (-incus) rancura 42 ranucula 42 rap(i)dus 239 rasl restitueram 285 restivus 39 resurge(n)s 311 retenere 31. 221 Development of New Quantity 176-7 Disappearance of Old Quantity 173-5 Doubtful Quantity 166 Length before Consonants 170-2 Position 160-4 refusare 17 re(g)alis quiritare 229 quis 69.1 Index. 82. no. 139 requEerit 139 rs see Liquids >• ss 291 requebit 225 res 10. 379 quattordecim 379 quat(t)ro 226. 355 (2) res nata 13. 259. 139 retenet 139 retere questor 210 questus 210 quetus 225 qui 69. 309 querceus 39 quercinus 39 querel(l)a 42 rama (pi. 281 quinque 172 Quintrio quippe 1 quique 71 (i). 244 quat(t)or 226. replenus 23 55.344 = -bit 318 263 Quantity 159-77. 245. 350 = -it 285 remasit 311 Remidium 272 remissa 37 (-ta) ren^gat 139 renum reg. 393 re(g)ina 259 regis -es 244 = quisque 71 quisquis 71 Unaccented Vowels 221 174. quo 73 quo = quod 282 quoad 11 quod 14. 71. 168 429 = reddere 286 rasio = ratio 277 ratio 277 retina 17 retro 81 razzo 272 re.269 respondere 399. 71 rabies 319 radius 272 rainante = reg. no. 393 qui quia 82 qui ky 187. 25 recapitulare 25 retro.28 retro (r) sum 291 = = redpit 139 recolli(g)endo 259 Recomposition 31. 71 quare 12. 139 redempsi 429 redemti 313 Digitized = rectum igS by Microsoft® . 74 12. 350.23. rectus 440 32.269 Vowels in Hiatus 167-9 quomodo 14. retundus 229 (6) reuuardent 344 139 reve(r)sus 291 reversus sumrz reverti 410 revolutio 37 rexi 297.254 guages 1 74-5 > = quantu(m) 309 quantus 12. quodlubet 220 regnancte 267 regnum 172 (2) Relatives : see Pronouns reli (n) quat 306 relinque 282. 219.

268. xi Roman Empire p.igS 399 409 sacritus rigna 198 rikitia 341 Jiimini 86 SidxpiTos 272 sseculum (masc. Saguntum 338 saine 42 saini 267 sltlbaiec (fern.314 rivocaverit 229 (2) sagma 19. salivi 428 440 J^= sead sebe salma 268 salsi 428. 210 scalciare excalceare 230 scandalizare 19 445 initial s + cons. 398 398 ss 291 36. (3) = 229 salbum3i7 salii scrivano 359 scultor 313 se 422. 230 sy 275 scy. = sa = ipsa 392 semper semper 74 sempre 245 semul 201. ssy. 367 SiEpia 182 saginae 42 = 284 Sagitta 37 (-ittus) ripidus 39 scloppus 284 scopulus 38 scorlare excor. 14 sed-= se 229 (4) 429 rosum = ros 356 rosus 441 (3) sanctissimus 377 san(c)tus 172 (i). ridSre rideri 213 schioppo 284 sclitib. : 429 Romance Territory p.) 349 sffipes sepes saeps 209.) 372 salvage 229 (3) salvatico 229 (3) salvaticus 229 (3) secu(n)do 306 secuntur 254 sed II.) 368 419 (i) sel 160 selinum 150 sappia 272 sapui 426. 347 rogavo = -bo 318 ro(g)itus 259.) 355 (i) sine 201 sene -sa 37 (-ta) sabbatizare 19 scaplas 234 sablum 233 sacra 376 Sca(u)rus 211 scena 182 (i) = sacramentum 231 359 sacristano 359 sacrista -anis- schema 19 schernire 341 schiatta 343 schietto 343 senex 12 senper 306 semita 239 senta sentam 416 sententem 416 = Digitized by Microsoft® . rubare nibeus 319 sandal 330 sanguem 370 sanh 267 sapcha 272 sapere 402 sedui 428 sedutus 441 signavi 424 segnai = rugiada 356 nira35r ru(r)sum 291 russum 291 rutare 34 s (3) segolo 200 (3) sei sapiam 272 sapidus 39 sapienti (pi. sauma 26S scabia 355 (2) scsena 182. 428 satis 74 sem 419 (i) Semele 359 semita 239 semo 419 (i) : see Sibilants final s in ist pers. 324 rivaticus rip. 435 salitus 436. 441 saltern 11 salticulare 35 secatus 435.) 349 scripit 312 (i) scrips! 315. 419 roubSn rs > 36. 341. pi. 429 440 scriptum 315 scri(p)tus 313. 201 (2) senape 184 senatus (2d decl. 428 = si 229 (4) = sit 419 (2) = sibi 201 ^ 419 (i) roborem 347 robur 9. (stlis) riges = re. sty. 34r. x : salsus 440.Index. 267 sedano 335 sed(e)cim 239 sedere seditur 399 = esse 402.230 scriba -anis 359 = rigueza 341 risi 429 risus 441 rius 241. 440 secula 200 (3) Romanice 40 Romanu -pos 38 rosi (nom.

214 senii 298 Index. 184. 18 sol(i)dus 237 230 separare seperare 231. 38.) 395 solsi s 161 429 440 224 sepes 209 sepia 146. 429 sentitus 436. 233 sepelitus 436. (2). scy. 219. sibi 219. solbit sentia 421 sentii 42S. 244 solacium 276 sola mente 41 solatium 276 solbere 317 spene^SS (2) speni from spes 355 (2) speramus = -avimus 424 sperantia 37 Digitized by Microsoft® .ig8 439 siede 419 (1) soma 268 somas 419 (i) sona 2ona 338 septrum 260 septuazinta 339 septum 209 sepulchrum 251 sequere 406 sequire 406 serbare 323 siem 419 (2) siete 419 (i) siffatto 264 siffler 318 (2) sifilus 318 (2) = signum-us 172 sigricius silevit 422.230 = 406 si 14. 385 385 Sibilants 297-302. 201 sinexter 201 (3) -sic 37 sirena 356 (3) sis si vis 324 -sorium ^y -sorius 39 soro(r) 295 sous = suus 167.229 (7) serpentinus 37 = = 428 simus 220. 441 solia 323 224 sentor .cons. 182 seppia 182 sepsies 277 z : see Greek Conso- soltus 438. 387 sozer 154 servicium 276 323 servisium 277 servitium 276.230 Spania 230 = Spanus 230 sparsi 429 J« 419 sest = est 419 (i) set = est 419 (i) set = sed 282 seta 209 setaceus 39 setis = estis 419 (i) 229 385 (4) settembres 313 seus suus 387 soaru 295 soave 224 sobreus 224 socera 37 soc(e)rum 232. = secretins 256 347 sonatus 435 sons 419 (i) Sophia 146 -sor 37 sorcerus = sortiarius 39 s^bat 323 serbus 317 Serios Sergius 272 serore so. 277 servitude 37 ses servire = spacium 276 spallere 337 sive II = es 419 (i) (i) skena 341 skern6n 341 skiuhan 343 slahta 343 sleht 343 spandere exp. 150. soluit sic nants 264 Sicilianus 39 solus 395 solutus 438 solvitus 438. 213 soricem 42. soliculus 13.z\ sofferire sparsus 441 spasmus 144 spat (h) a 332 spat(u)la 12. 213 serra = sera 247 serutinus 16 servare 323 sine 95. 337 sinatus 228 (-arius) sordidius 377 sorex 42. sy. etc. 440 ss > 275 solingo 37 (-incus) solo (dat. septa (gi)nta 380 septe(m) 309 sidibus = se. sty. ssy. 244.419 (1) sinapis -e -i 38. 221. 234 speca spica 200 (3) = speclarait spectante = -avit 424 = exp. 439. 244. 83. 445 initial s 4. sibl 201. 233 soef 2. si sol 13 = sibi spehon 343 spelunca 329 siam 419 (2) siamus 419 (2) sibe 219.^'j final s 298.

428. 231-g Synonyms 12 Syntax 50-130 t : (nom.) 367 stlataris 284 stlis 284 stloppus 284 storax 187 stren(n)a 163 stren(n)uor 164 Stress : see Accent stirpis see Dentals ty 276-7 sud=sub3i5 sufferit 406 -ta37 tab(u)la 236 tactus 440 suffertus 435. 229. 96 super.) 355 (i) splorator stnicere 417 215 sumus 220. 430 steva 200 (3) stilla 419 (i) suus 60. 419 (i) suora 295 sues 138 super 80. 84 440 440 strinxi 429 strofa 334 stropa 334 stroppus 186 strinctus strictus for Verbs 33-6 Greek Endings 36.26 superabundare 26 superfacere 26 superstitis (nom. 117 > 277 status 438 397 staunt 397 stegola zoo stel(l)a 163 siaii (3) Imperfect 118 Perfect 119. 405. 369 sumpsi 29S sumptus 308 tan 306 tanctus 440 tanger(e) 242 tantu(m) 309 tantus 71 tanxl 429 tapinus 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . 419 (2) sublimus 376 429 su(r)sum 291 surtus 440 sus = suus 226.Index.) 349 stahu 397 397 stait 397 stantia= inst. 410 Plup. 330 talis 71 strlban 341 for Adj. 41 for Nouns 37.230 spoliatur = -or 244 structus 440 straere 417 strugere 417 spo(n)sus 171 spontaneus 39 squarciare 276 ss s 161 strumentum = inst. = Iniperf.230 stais stup(p)a 163 suabitati 318 5uadel(l)a 42 suavis 224 Suavitta 37 (-ittus) sub. 38 tamen 11. 428. 415. 440 Suffixes 33-42 Cbange of Suffix 42 talentum 149. 387-8 submonsus 439. 40. 38 suis (nom. 441 subornatris 255 subplantare 32 sy=ty277 sycotum 141 Syllabication 131-3 = Stella = 198 stingo 226 -stinxi 429 stipes stips 367 subsannare 26 Substitution of subterranus 42 subtus 81 suc(c)us 163 suceroni 362 Words 13 symphonia 146. 14.) 367 Supine 103 sup(p)ra 164 sup(p)remis 164 supra. 430 sietti 426 stetul 426. 39 for Adv.26 suprafacere 26 supra 245 -sura 37 Surd Sonant: see Voicing = exp.26 subaudire 26 subcludere 26 stao 397 stare 397 stasio 277 static subcumbere 32 Subjunctive 117-g for Imper. 332 Syncope 219. 116 for Indie. spes 355 (2) spiritus (2d decl.230 struxi 429 stupescere 35 > staacio 276 stablarius 231 stagnum (masc. 441 sus(s)um 291 sutis sursi Stephanus 183 steti 426. 388 -sus 37. 403. 397. 90.) 367 sulphurem 347. 118 Pres.

208 tonsus 441 toll(e)re 429 trebus 201 trei = tres 379 298 trei Teodor 332 -ter 40 tardus 276 Terentio = treis 177 tremulat 235 trepaliare 33 = -us 298 tergSre 399 -tor 37 torcere 399 torco 226.259 tragere 417 trahere 417 = tempaccio 39 tempesta 356 (3) templus 347 timpuri 369 tinctus 440 tinge 226 tinguere 226 tins -^^ census trans. 380 trinitas 429 tarsus 441 -Tt\% 38 testa 13 tetrus 376 428 tortus 440 tot 71 tot trinta tris 37 380 taxui 428 204 (2) texutus 440 thahso 342.) 395 tot(t)uS 12.208 tonatus 435 tondere 399 tonica tu. 352 tribuna(l) 242. 198 376 triumphaut 241. 259. 424 tristus = tres 395 -trix 37 trobaire 37 (-tor) totum (adv. 318 taurellus 37 taxi 429 telebra ter. 299 transannare 26 tra(ns)duco 299 tra(ns)jicio 299 260 tra(ns)luceo 299 tra(ns)mitto 299 tempo 298 tempus 13 tenit 244 tinxi 429 -tic n transplantare 26 tra(ns)pono 299 tra(ns)tulo 299 ten(n)uis 164 Titius 277 Tivoli 86 tra(ns)veho 299 traps 315 trasporre 299 travis (nom.292 -tim 40 timbre 187.163.208 tomus 186 torqu(e)o 226. 299 trabucare 26 tracere 417 tap(p)ete 162 tarde 40 tarir 342.) 346 timoratus 39 Tragani (2) = Traj. 325. Theophilus 333 thesaurizare 19 thesaurus -um 189. 399 trapalium 16 tres 379 tergum -us 347 termen 356 (3) terminaciones 2 76 terra (m) 309 tersi toreomatum 191 -torium 37 -tonus 39 torma = tu. 71. 385 traducir 299 traduire 299 Tatius 277 tatus 16 taula 236. 289 Tricassas 151 trienta 259 tri(g)inta 142.) 367 traxi Tense 120-30 tensi 429 tensura 13 tensus 441 t^nueram 137 tenui 42S tenutus 438. 343 tharrjan 342. 244.2l6 tapis 182 tapit 182 Index. 440 239 tollitus 435. -anis 359 = tibi 385 -tiacum 277 tibe 244 ti tractatus 9 tractus 440 tradedit 31. 343 tata 16 . 429 tolui 428 tomolus =: tumu. 347 threscan 342 tra.) 74 tous thensaurus 311 — tuus 387 Trogar=-jae 259 Troja 170 Digitized by Microsoft® . 439 tolsi 428. 407 theios 333 toto (dat.26. 399 torsi trescar 342 trib(u)la 235. 407 -tas 37 tasso 342.26. 331 timor (fern.204(2). 139 tibi 221.

206-8. 101-30 Verbs : see Verb Forma verbus 347.) 367 vendutus 438 vene bene 316 = urbs 12. 393 undecim 166.Index.) 429 -unt -ent 449 unus 10.298. 378. 284 vedea 421 = ve^ere 283 vef 226 vegere = veh-4i7 uobit = obiit > ve(he)inens 250 vehere 417 vel II velle 126 (3). 192. 42. Troyes 151 tructa 38. 14. 440 venui 428. 206. 223 : vernac(u)lus 234 vemum tempus 13 ve(r)sus 291 vertragus 19 Digitized by Microsoft® . 2c6 u 208 u ii o 165. 222.316 -tulus turn = tuum 226. 83 ubi 73 -uc(c)us 37 (-icca) -uculare 35 -uculus 42 -utus 39. 438. 217 vadere 126 204 (2) -tudo 37 iuii 204 (2) tul£runt 450 tucti > -ellus 42 40 -um vallensis 39 : Unaccented Vowels see valneas = ba.395 unu(s) 29S unxi 429 U(5 >• o 225 uo unacc. 220 ui 216 unaccented 219.315 usare 34 Use Use Use of of Cases 85-100 of Inflections 85-130 Words 54-84 venuta 37 (-ta) venutus 436. 356 (3) vea via 201 = vecere = veh-4i7 -e 364 -tus 37 (-ta). etc. -ura 37. 14. 403 vendita 37 (-ta) 177 u 165. 440. 367 veni 428. 441 uu unacc. 285 Valinca 37 (-Incus) . 70. 228. 42 accented 206-8 u 206-7 ii>-u 165. 405 vadum 344 -us 347 valde 237 vaUa(t) 224. u 226 uuadius 344 > -uus > -itus 42 -udo ii > -umen 42 uxo(r) 295 uxore (abl. 229 (5). 349 * verecundia 231 verecunnus 281 Inflection: > > > utrum II. 57. 379 -undus 39 ungo 226 unguere 226 unicornis 44 unigenitus 44 vaqua = vacua 223 vaqui vacui 223 vastare 344 vanitare 34 = 187 tuos 138 -tura 37 turrensis 39 turri tumum vasus -um 347. 440 unire 34 Tuscanus 39 iuito 204 (2) tuttus 204 (2) tuus 226. 84. 73. 243. 187. 438. 387-8 ty 276-7 ty ty > cy 277 > sy 277 uno (dat. 82. 39 (5). 326 u 178. 206. 208 u cons. 440 ver 13 usque hodie 47 ustium 202 Ut II. III -uta 37 (-ta) verbex = vervex 323 Verb Forms see Conjugation Use 72.) 244 178. > -clus 234 388 Vowels unde 10. 220 -ugo 37 (-ago) ui 216 V see Labials vacuus 42 195 (6). 315. 430 urps 297. 185 trutina 187 tu 60 -ula 37 (-ulus) Ulixes 187 ultra 166 -ulus 37. o 226 vecinus 229 (4) vedus 234. 187. 297. 71. 438. 192. 244 in hiatus 222-6 uo >• o 226 uu u 226 o 225 u(5 uu u 226 Uranus 193 urbis (nom. 430 > > -urem 346 (3) veninum 42 venire 126 (5) venitus 436.

439 voster 199 (i). 430 vido vidutus 438. 37 victurias 203 vic(u)lus'234. 429 = vixit 255 cf.195 = video 416 vidui = vidi 428. vinus 347 Clerical Pronun. 441 vixutus 440 vobis 385 cf. 12.) 367 victualia 18. 428. 358' villabus 358 Vincentzus 277 426 vinctus 440 vincui 428 vincutus 440 vindemiator 224 vindico 239 vindimia 197 vindo = v6. 195 vocitus Final Syl. 321 volatilia 37 volemus 403 (2) w (Ger. 284 videderunt 426 video 272-3. 37 viror 37 virtus 10 vlscui visit Influence of Labials 217 Single Vowels 194208 before gn 172 (2) before j 170 before n fricative 171 before nk 172 (i) = = vixi 428. 218 Diphthongs 209-16 420 vetatus 435 vet(e)ranus 219. 239 vibi = bibi 318 iiibit 316 vibit victore (nom. 19 vulnus (masc. 416. vivacius 377 vixcit = vixit 255 cf. Vulgar Words 15. 380 vilescere villa 10. 231 vettovaglia 154 vetulus 12. 416 vistus 441 visus 441 vitellus Breaking 177 = 37 vitium 278 vitricus 13 Vowels 179 Close and Open 165 Differentiation 165 Celtic = vit(u)lus 234 vivus 324 vius = German Vowels 179 Greek Vowels 180. 165-245 watan werra = . 285. Syl. 272-3. 407 volutus 438 wastare 344 = ^ = = volvitus 438.201 viaticum 8. 441 viduus 226 vieni 177 vig(i)lat 430 Vocative 87 vocitus = vacuus 42. 13. 440 warjan 344 voluntate (nom. 228-30 259 34 vi(gi)nti 142.285.195 (6) vocuus Quantity 221 Voice 1 12-4 Vulgar Latin 3. 19. 428 . 259. 167-9 . 439 Penult 232-9 vac. 255. cf. 284 vetus 13 video 272-3 veyo virginem 233 vir(i)diaria 237 vir(i)dis 237 vir(i)dura 18. 428. 240-5 in hiatus 222-7 Init. Syl. = vac.) 344 volere velle 403 (2) w (Latin) 224 voles 403 (2) Waddo 344 volestis 403 (2) wadum 344 volimus 403 (2) wahta 343 volon 39 (-undus) walde 344 volsi 429 Wandali 344 voltus 438. 221 Unaccented 219-45 (6) Vocabulary 6-49 vocatio videunt 416 vidi 428.197 -ea 224 vinia vinsi 428. 385 Vowels 136-8. 285. 387 vovis vobis 318 cf . 297. + vezem 445 vezzo 278 -vui 428 -vi via 167. Accented 194-218 Digitized 344 344 werrarius 39 werrizare 33 wi^arlon 342 19.93 in hiatus 136-8.) 349 314. 283. 4 Voicing 256-7. 428 in words borrowed by other languages 1 74-5 Latin Vowels 178 Position 160-4 videre 72. 429 vixi(t) 285 .2l8 vervex 323 ves(s)ica 162 vestibat Index. 234. 439. 318 . Quantity 165-77. 428 vixi 255. 430. 286. 231 (6) vocatus 435.) 367 warnjan 36. by Microsoft® . 438. 429 vinti 380 vincisti Intert.

344 z 246 zabul(l)us zes 219 zacones zaconus ~ dia.339 zebus = die.339 = dies 272 = Jesu 272. 339 Digitized by Microsoft® . Wintrio 344 wlsa 344 witan 36. 255. 339 zeta = diseta 339 zie = die 272 Zesu zins 260 ziziper 312 (i) X 246.339 = dia. 398 Word Order 50-3 wost.277 Zogenes = Dio. 266 y (Greek) 187 y (Latin) 224 zagante 229 (3) zampogna 332 zanuari = ja. 339 = dia.272 ymnus 251 zerax = liierax 339 zosuin=deorsum 339 Zouleia= Julia 272.Index.339 Zefurus 187 zelosus 339 2» 333 Zodorus = Theo.272.

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