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D. S.I)eatb'5 flDot>ern tHanduage Qctics AN INTRODUCTION VULGAR LATIN BY C. GRANDGENT Fbofbssor of Romance Languagss in Harvahd University BOSTON. PUBLISHERS 1907 by Microsoft® . HEATH & Digitized CO. A. H.. U. C.

C. Digitized by Microsoft® . By D. 1907.V^-^5 3J( Copyright. Heath & Co.

Digitized byiUicrosoft® . Grandgent. who wish to look further into special My principal authorities are listed in the Bibliotext. however. but with even fulness I fear. abreast of current scholarship. have tried. H. I hope. to treat all portions of the subject.— . Although it. PREFACE. Romance making. I Philology. furthermore. somewhat scanty as compared with the other It will be seen that I have continually furnished abundant references for the guidance of those topics. have endeavored to keep I at every stage. others are cited in the appropriate places in the C. it be of some interest to has been long in the Classical scholars as well. not exhaustively. graphy. that the is Syntax — perhaps unavoidably parts. "^^HILE this book is intended primarily for students of it will.

7-8 Words used in Classic but not in Vulgar Latin . and Pronouns Prefixes used with Verbs Suffixes Suflixes for Suffixes for Verbs Nouns Adverbs iv Digitized 18-23 Suffixes for Adjectives Suffixes for 23-25 25-26 27-28 Change of Suffix by Microsoft® .. ^ . . Sense Restricted Sense Extended .TABLE OF CONTENTS. AND Their Meanings. Adjectives. 13 13-16 13-14 14-16 16-28 16-17 Prefixes used with Nouns. with Abbreviations PHONETIC ALPHABET and Other Symbols X... .. 8-9 Synonyms Substitutes. 9 9-10 10 10-12 Ii>-i2 Particles Words used in Vulgar but not in Classic Latin Native Words Foreign Words I2 Uerivation Post-Verbal Prefixes 13-29 Nauru ... Pages MAPS The Roman Empire The Neo-Latin Territory in Europe BIBLIOGRAPHY.. .. 6-29 6-12 6 7-8 7 ... . .... Words used alike in Classic and in Vulgar Latin Words used differently in Classic and in Vulgar Latin ..... xvii INTRODUCTION i-S VOCABULARY WoBDS. xi x xi xiii-xvi . ^ .

30-59 30-32 32-41 32-34 33 33-34 34-38 Pronouns 34 35-36 36-37 37-38 38 ^^38-39 Verbs Adverbs Prepositions 39-41 ^ Conjunctions 41 Use of Inflections Cases 42-59 42-48 42-43 43 43-44 Locative Vocative Genitive Dative Ablative 44-4S 45-47 48^ Accusative Fall of Declension Verb-Forms Impersonal Parts Supine 48 48 48-51 48—49 '. Gerund Gerundive . Adjectives Pronouns- Verbs Adverbs Fiepositions 28-29 29 20 Conjunctions SYNTAX Order of Words Use of Words Nou»s and Adjectives Comparison Numerals Pronouns Personal and Possessive Pronouns Demonstratives Interrogatives and Relatives Indefinite . . Compounds v Pages 28-29 28 28 28 28 Nouns . . Future Active Participle Digitized 49 49 49 by Microsoft® .Table of Contents.

Greek Paroxytones Greek Proparoxytones Other Foreign Words Secondary Stress Unstressed Words 64 64-65 65-66 66 66-67 67-68 68-77 68-70 71-77 Quantity Position Vowel Quantity Vowels in Hiatus Lengthening before Consonants Disappearance of the Old Quantity Development of a New Quantity 72-73 73-75 75-76 76-77 77-104 78-82 82-gi Vowels Greek Vowels Accented Vowels Single Vowels 82-87 82-83 Digitized o by Microsoft® . Illic Ficatum Numerals Greek Words Greek Oxytones .vi Table of Contents. Pages Present Participle Perfect Participle Infinitive 5° 50 5°~5I 51-52 Voice Mood Imperative Subjunctive 52-54 52 5^-54 54-59 54-5^ Tense The Perfect Tenses Future and Conditional 5^59 60-143 60-61 61-68 61-66 61-62 62-63 63 63 64 64-66 PHONOLOGY Syllabication Accent Primary Stress Vowels in Hiatus Compound Verbs Iliac.

^ »" I o 84 84-85 85-86 H u 86 86-87 87 a Diphthongs te 88-90 88-89 89-90 au eu ce ui Influence of Labials Clerical Latin 90 90 90 91 91 Unaccented Vowels 91-104 in Unaccented Vowels Initial Syllable Hiatus 93-96 96-98 98-99 99-102 102-104 Intertonic Syllable Penult Final Syllable Consonants Latin Consonants Aspirate Gutturals . before Front Vowels and G before Back Vowels and G Final and before Consonants . 104-143 106-137 106-107 107-114 109-112 112 C and G Q.. e vii Pages 83-84 84 . 11 2-1 14 Palatals Dentals Liquids 114-118 118-121 121-124 121-123 123-124 L R Sibilants 124-126 127-132 132-137 Nasals Labials P Digitized 132-133 by Microsoft® . ...Table of Contents... Q.

Adjectives Personal Pronouns Possessives Demonstratives Interrogative Indefinite 162-163 163-164 165 165 and Relative Pronouns Pronouns and Adjectives Verbs The Four Conjugations First Conjugation 166-187 166-170 166-167 167 Second Conjugation Third Conjugation Fourth Conjugation Fundamental Changes in 167-170 170 Inflection 170-173 Digitized by Microsoft® . n. 133-13S 13s i3S-'37 137 137—141 u Greek Consonants B.viii Table of Contents. r. and Sibilants Z Germanic Consonants 141-143 144-187 144-161 144-147 144 145-146 146-147 MORPHOLOGY NotJNS AND Adjectives Gender Masculine and Feminine Masculine and Neuter Feminine and Neuter Declension of Nouns First Declension 147—156 149-151 Second Declension Third Declension Loss of Declension Declension of Adjectives 151-152 152—156 156 157-158 158-159 159-161 161-165 161-162 Comparison Numerals Pronouns and Pronominai. X Liquids. A 138 138 138-139 140 140-141 K. Pages B F V . Nasals. T e. *.

Strong Perfects Pluperfect and Future Perfect Perfect Participle 177-180 180-182 183 Personal Mndings 183-185 186-187 189-219 INDEX Digitized by Microsoft® . Inchoative Venbs ix Pages Present Stems Imperfect Perfect 173-174 174-176 176-177 177-182 » Weak Perfects .Table of Contents.

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Pipoque Densusianu: O. Mllanges Boissier 5-9. : Part — — . mlrovingienne. : correct- Die Appendix Probi. in Romor nische Forschungen XV. Cohn. New ed. Wiener Studien XIV. S. Per. Vocalismus und Betonung der rischen Franzosisch nach ihren Spuren lateinischen Sprache. M. Cf. 1895. Le latin de saint Cyprien. Chronologie : F. Le latin d'Espagne d'aprh les inscriptions. Word Formation in the Roman Sermo Plebeius. Bayard. : Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. La dlclinaison en Gaule d. Manuel pour servir h Vltude de I'antiquiti celtique. Bonnet. Romanische Forschungen VII. Quarterly. Cooper: F. Melanges Renier 301-309. 1872. Cohn : G. Bechtel. L. Mohl. Defixionum Tabellae. 1905. Bausteine: Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie.Cooper. A volume of mis- Bayard : L. Introduction 1899.. A Latin list of and incorrect spellings. d'Arbois de Jubainville. ed.. 1906. : 1902-03. Audollent: A. possibly as early as the third century. 1863 1893 Claussen T. BIBLIOGRAPHY WITH ABBREVIATIONS. Pr. 1902. A. 278 ft. Histoire de la langue roumaine. Ueber Aussprache. Heraeus. Corssen : W. AudoUent. 1899. 1901. W.. I. I. D'Arbois: H. Vol. 774. C. Die griechischen Wbrter im Franzosischen. 1891. G.T. <J la chronologic du latin vulgaire. 145 ff. App. Le latin de Grigoire de Tours. Bechtel: E. I. Densusianu. cellaneous studies issued in honor of A. 1902. (Vol. Carnoy. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. Claussen. Silviae Peregrinatio. Digitized b)microsoft® . i). Dottin: G. Bon. Die Suffixwandlungen im Vulgdrlatein und im vorlittera- im NeufranzSsischen. -Carnoy: A. 1904. Leipzig. Dottin. 2^ ed. 1890. Archiv : Archiv filr lateinische Lexicographie und Crammatik mit Einschluss des dlteren Mittellateins. Cf. 1868-70. Mussafia. Corssen.

Reichenauer Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. £E. Dubois. Thielmann. Draeger: A. 1896 — Futurum G. Hoppe: H. Gl. ed. of Vol. Gl. in the eighth Cf. G. et prononciation du latin savant et du latin popu- 1882. 498. 1904 Haag : O. K. jd or ninth century. Korting: G.. Entstehung und Entwickelung des Kirchenlateins.. 2d ed. Syntax und Siil des Tertullian. 1902.. Die locale Verbreitungfriihester romanischer Lautwandlungen im. 1903. 1879Digitized by Microsoft® . Le developpement de facere dans langues romanes. Hetzer. Die lateinisch-romanischen Elemente im Althochdeutschen. Goelzer. 1902. Einf . Franz : 1883. 2d ed. 1892. in Archiv saint Jlrome. EinfUhrung in das Studium der romanischen les Sprachwissenschaft. 2d ed. Cf. : century. Grundriss der romanischen Philologie. : Meyer-Liibk'e. Draeger. Eckinger T. 1884. Die Orthographie lateinischer Worter ingriechischen : : Inschriften. 1898. Rydberg. Hammer. Edon: G. Hoppe. La latiniti d'Ennodius. Grammatici Latini. in France. 3 vols. Romanen und Germanen in ihren Wechselbeziehungen. 1901. Eckinger. KofEmane : G. Franz. 569. Foerster and E. Kbrting. Beiheft Gram. Reviewed by G. 1903. Koff mane. Paris in Rom. Foerster and E. Rydberg. : : P. 1857-1880. -Grundriss : G. a: Zur Geschichte des franzosischen 3. Grbber. W.: 1900. Made. H.. Kluge. XXVI.. Koschwitz. £criture laire. Made in France in the eighth Reich. XXII.. £don. : W. — 1888- M. Historische Syntax der lateinischen Sprache. Keil: H. ed. W. Koschwitz. Dubois A. alten Italien. Die Latinitdt Fredegars. P. Kluge F. Meyer-Liibke. 2 1902. Haag. 1894. 48. 1901. 1893. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. Etude lexicograpkique grammaticale de Kasseler Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. Franz. Lateinisch-romanisches Wdrterbuch. W. XIV BlBIJOGRAPHY. Habere mit dem et Infinitiv und die Entstehung des la latiniti de romanischen Futurums. 1890vols. Grammaire des langues romanes. : : Hammer in Grundriss I^. . 641 7. . Facere G. 2d 1878. probably 521 ff... Cassel : II. Keil. 157. Die Reichenauer Glossen in Zs. I. W. Zs.

Meyer-Lubke. Teil. 1905. 509: Peregrinatio iiii-viii. Pers. 1887. I goo. N. Quillacq. Studies in the tions. M. Les mots latins dans les langues brittoniques. E. Hilarius. R.'i>(eue. La premiire personne du pluriel en gallo-roman. auf Aussprache und Recht- schreibung beziiglichen Eigenthiimlickkeiten in den Inschriften aus Gallia Narbonensis. : Roman Sermo Plebeius. Neumann Franz Neumann. ad loca sancta. in Grundriss V. 1901. M. 1869.Bibliography. Regnier. P. Vokalismus der Tonsilben. Olcott. xv W. Btudes sur le lexique du latin vulgaire. du frangais prilittiraire. G. Mohl. Pogatscher A. 'P.. Hilarii Tractatus de Mysteriis et Hymni et S. De la latinitl des Sermons de saint Augustin.XXX). Ferotin. 1903. Wolfflin in Archiv IV. Perf Per. lateinischen und romanischen Lehnworte im Altenglischen : II. J. Silvice Aquitanm 1898. Pr. Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. Olcott : G. : Leipzig. Thielmann. Gamurrini. Mohl. 372. Petite phonltique Phon. J. 1899. PI. 1892. 1888. Pogatscher. : F. Spr. Habere mit dem Part. Loth J. G. Observations on the Use of Certain Prepositions in to the Petronius with special reference Part. ed. Substantives Word Formation of the Latin Inscrip- and Adjectives. Ronsch. 1897. Lebreton J. The Latin Language. and S. De latinitate libelli qui inscriptus est Peregrinatio loca sancta. 1894. : LiteraturblattfUrgermanischeundromanischePhilologie. Pirson: J. Le viritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. . : P. Perf. Lebreton. : La langue des inscriptions de la Gaule. with special reference to the Latin Sermo Vulgaris. in Itinera hierosolymitana saculi Written probably in the latter part of the fourth century by an ignorant nun. ad 367 ff. Fortsetzung. Archiv II. 1898. H. 1898. Loth. Ang^ade. S. 451. Cf. Lindsay: W. 1900. T. perhaps from Spain. Pass. lat. Regnier: A. Lindsay. Neue: Formenlehre der lateinischen Sprache. A. Geyer.S. Monthly.. Etudes sur la langue et la grammaire de Ciciron. Itala und Vulgata. in P. : : Ltblt. sit Quillacq : : J. Marchot. Silvia AquitancE Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. Die lateinische Sfrache in den romanischen : Landern. Lexique F. : 1 901. 1888. Digitized by Microsoft® . Zur Lautlehre der griechischen. 1901. Cf. 1892-1902. See Bechtel. 1886. Quomodo lingua latina usus S. Oliver: A^Oliver. . 259. t^ Verzeichniss der ed. Pirson.

Spr. Die Ausprache des Latein nach physiologisch-historischen Grundsdtzen. 276. : Wolfflin : E. Tiktin. Windisch: E.: E. Four to sLx 1879. Bibliography. numbers a year. Le alterazioni fonetiche e morfologiche nel latino di Magno e del suo tempo. Petronius. ^KvA. 453. Windisch. VI. Halle. I.nn&r. Stolz: F. Substrate : G. Vol. Historische 1894. 564. 171. III. IV. to Works the text. Archiv I. 1&&2. in Studi Medievali I. 1890. und Thurot : Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits de la Biblioth^que nationale et : attires bibliothiques Vol. Romanische Sprachwissenschaft. Tiktin : : H. Paris. 3 vols. Tours. VII. Urbat R. Sepulcri. Suchier. Chemnitz and Leipzig. 539. 1903. 264. Cena Trimalchionis. Die lokalen Verschiedenkeiten der lateinischen SpracAe. in 204. Seelmann. Quarterly. in Grundriss P. Grammatik der lateinischen Sprache. II. Som. V. Charles Thurot. E. 422. Der Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. H. in Grundriss P. 116. 125. 1885. Beitrdge zu einer Darstellung der romanischen Elemente im Latein der Historia Francorum des Gregor v. Waters. Lateinische und romanische Comparaiion. Vok. Grober. Zs. 507. : S. Waters: W. which only occasional reference is made are cited in full in Digitized by Microsoft® . in Grundriss P. Sittl: K.xvi Richter Elise Richter. 424. fr. Sepnlcri : Gregorio A. Die franzosische und provenzalische Sprache ihre Mundarten. 1900. 1 856-68. Zauner: A.. Suchier: H. Notices et Extraits de divers manuscrits latins pour servir A fhistoire des doctrines grammaticales au moyen dge. Romania. : Zur Entstehung der romanischen Wortstellung aus der lateinischen. 371. Vulgdrlateinische Substrate romanischer Worter. : Zeitschrift fiir franzosische Sprache und Litteratur. Stolz. 1868. 371. Urbat. 234. XQ. Quarter- ly. Wblfflin. 1902. Die keltische Sprache. 25. XII. 100. Die rumdnische Sprache. : Zeitschrift Jur romanische Philologie. Zs. 377. Schuchardt. 117. 138. Paris.

.c = the sound of ch in German ach. . whichever way it be turned. = the sound of e in French me. = the sound of ng in English long. J) ii o. vowel letter shows that the vowel is open. SMALL CAPITALS mean that the forms so printed occur in inscriptions (but this indication is used only when for some special reason it seems desirable). under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is close. not >• indicates derivation. =r bilabial /S v. o = rounded the sound of German = the sound of th in English thin. Digitized by Micrqsoft® xvii . The other marks and abbreviations employed are so generally accepted as to need no explanation. q e. the source standing at the open end of the figure. * (an asterisk) before a word shows that the form attested. is conjectural. the sound of Spanish v and i/i *. S =z > the sound of in English i/iis. (an acute accent) after a consonant letter shows that the consonant is (a dot) • C '^ / (a hook)' under a palatal. := rounded i. (a semicircle) under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is not syllabic. the sound of German «. .PHONETIC ALPHABET AND OTHER SYMBOLS.

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Venetia cast her lot with Rome in 215.AN INTRODUCTION TO VULGAR I. Tiber. Sfr. I Digitized by Microsoft® . j. pp. Raetia in 15. Africa after Iberians. Celts. and Africa. in adopted by Etruscans and by various n orthern Italy by Ligurians. 451-455. southern Gaul in 120. Empire it has remained. D._ Germanic and others still. in 50. IHy- _rians . Celts. The Latinization of these peoples was the work of several centuries^: by 272 b. Sicily became a province in 241. LATIN. Illyria was absorbed after 167. originally the speech of shown by the map was Latium. civilizations.. northern Cim- Gaul Dacia was colonized in 107 A. Throughout this territory the official language Latin._Semites. the Orient. also Meyer-Lubke. 'See Mohl. political changes drove it in the rest of the from Great Britain. c. The extent of the Roman Empire on p. all Italy was subdued south of the Macra and the Rubicon. Latin language never gained a foothold in Greece. a little district on the is The Latin tongue was thus extended to many peoples. Lat. the in 102-1. Spain was made a province in 197.n central j. for the most part. representing different races. tEe bri fall "oO^thage in 146. and quite cut off from the rest of the Latin-speaking world in the sixth. tribes. and linguistic habits. Illyrians in^sou^hea^emjmd southwestern Italy respectively by and Greeks. beyond the peninsula it spread among Ligurians. The and Teutones were destroyed was a province. Chronologie . and. X.. forsaken in the third century.talyjt_was Italic tribes. Sardinia and Corsica in 238. Aquitanians.

[§ 2 until the present day. became more uniform. Latm. jfor : e. Spr. c. there were at all times. xi marks the parts of ica. of Latium was adopted by tribes using.'' In the outlying provinces. and there must have been a variety of accent. 445. that the language carried effect. until the 90-89 B. ilex are perhaps Umbrian possibly Etruscan Lat.g2eaking peoples_ were not_ homogeneous. Digitized may be Oscan. and their In Italy the language §peech_reflected_their varied origin. considerable local dive^ences. Kff. but especially p^eriods. 2. Pomex. The map on p. Chronologie 98-99. Africa. The Latin tongue. Europe where Latin in its modern forms is now spoken. etc. but there doubtless were still noticeable differences in pronunciation and even in vocabulary. The before the Social War. Italian nn : for nd. and has been carried thence to Amerand Asia. elex for The Italian word zavorra by Microsoft® . piimex. nevertheless a few native words were kept.^ When Latin conquered. moreover. Oscan forms are ligud for and k for lege^ pru for pro^ ni for 'The is S. alL southern Italy was under Oscan influence. however. It should be remembered. the alteration being most rapid in the earliest and the latest Furthermore. Latin was simply substituted for foreign tongues. had a levelling and speech in Italy ^ See Chronologie 133 and I16-120. and to some degree in the peninsula. conflict of or less with the native idioms .2 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. has always been in an unstable condition. The evidence of inscriptions and of grammarians indicates that from the beginning to the end of Roman history speech was constantly changing. and Oscan was used in inscriptions until the first century of our era. and there was little or no mixture. like every living language. The Social War. 464. kindred At first there was sturdy resistance. the resulting geographical dis- crepancies are manifest in early monuments. in the main. it blended more languages.

1 . . 3. Republican and early Imperial times educated speech became highly^ artificial. provinces was not identicial: it represented different chronological stages and different local dialects of jI^aUc^Latin . not the primitive.the classes. and is also between city Injatfi. the earlier acquisitions received a more popular. Administration and ImiHtary service tended to obliterate distinctions. not an independent offshoot of Old Latin: system. 3 i\2_ik^_J£X?. drawing away . . from the consciously polite utterance of cultivated society. ugper and that of the lower and^coiintry speech.. Digitized by Microsoft® .^ fields: it continues the Classic. though affected by all of these. vowel is it Neither the dialect of the slums or of the us of not a few urban and rustic grammarians distinct tell vulgarisms that are not perpetuated in the It is Romance tongues. _excegting ^reece andthe £entiiry after Christ. as It is grew out of early Classic Latin. was completelyTaFinized by the fourth "^ "" of With the beginnings culture and literature there came inevitably a divergence between the language of . Cf Cooper . the common idiom. while popular usage tends to quick change.t&L. was constantly developing away from the archaic standard of elegant parlance.. What wecalTVuIit gar Latin is the speech of the middle classes. and from the slang of the lowest quarters of the city. We may say in general that the East. 463-464. Spr. Literary influence conservative and refining. XV-XXX. throughout the Republic and the Empire. more offtcial speech.from the everyday language on the other hand. %J3] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.^ Vulgar Latin naturally developed differently in ^ * Cf Lai. under the Empire the variations probably came to be no greater than those /the^kter colonies a now to be found in the English of the British Empire. from the brogue of the country. Roman territory.

become virdis. then. period lasts. * For a history of the Latin language. tqa^bout -6oo . until the dialects of distant localities became mutu^ ally unintelligible. and the diphthong at is reduced to e). ^l^ various localities. We rfote an. for African Latin. some to a tendency to assimi^tejmlike adjacent sounds (so ipse is spoken isse. from about 200 b. due partly to phonetic but mainly to syntactic causes. . see Lat. If we compare that the latter find also a gre at sim plification of inflections. Pirson and Carnoy also. we observe certain changes in pronunciation. vedus). we shall see was always tending to become more flexible and more explicit. in the last few centuries of this epoch. . some to a desire for differentiation (which lowers i to e to make it more remote from i ). roughly The speaking. i6i. ai almost in iCf. progressed. the universal inclination of language to diverge was reinforced by the original habits of the diverse speakers and by such peculiarities of native accent as hacl survived. Digitized by Microsoft® . Spr. such as articles and prepositions. c.seventh century of our era. 492-497. Kiibler Archiv VIII.^ any definite date must be arbitrary.4 .JLQmance languages _begin.enormous development of modifying and determining words. Althou. some of which can be ascribed to an inclination to discard those parts of words that are not necessary for their identification (as vetulus when viridis. being accelerated and the military organization was is most sharply differentiated from Classic Latin when schools decayed „ . as far as the levelling inEuence of schot^l and army permitted. we may put it.^ The differentiatign. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.ALjUus--poin-t we ~may_ say that Vulgar XiSi^ stops and the . inj^e^ixth Jix .^ Ctassic and VulgarXatin. suftseSWe 4. Furthermore._jjid an abundant use of prefixes and. B. Sittl and Hammer. some to unknown reasons! WEy~" for instance.A-P. YjJgar Lsatijl.

' spells by A. A. in Archiv I. list of spellings. the so-called Glossary of Reichenau. . E. a problem as yet unsolved. "See P. 1899. Spr. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. Die Appendix Probi. made in France There is an interesting collection of Defixionum Tabellce. . Melanges Boissier 5 W. . Lommatzsch. "See 119. Foerster and KDfSiiitbdnll>fr. 455-461. 4 For the chronology of developments. 204 if. Hetzer in Zs. P. S. Beiheft 7. Grober.Jists„jof JacQlxacJtjOTmjs.Mili/BaoilSisches Uebungsbuch. Zur Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. the subsequent developments. and VII. early and late. 278. E.. 35. Schuchardt.iSgS. 55-67..* All of these are to be used with caution. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. Silvia Peregrinatio. 301 G. Wolfflin.ijecurring. XXX). 1902 . Archiv XIV. 641 K. E.— An become^ o. 401. ^ Utilized by E. Aussprache des Latein.glossaries aDi. 1885. 1866-68. Meyer-Liibke. G. 259 M. Zur Mulomedicina Chironis in Archiv XII. 551. Fcerster in Wiener Studien XIV. the occasional lapses in cultivated authors. . the distinction of learned and popular words. Die Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. Audollent. Ueber die Latinitat der Peregrinatio ad loca sancta in Archiv IV. S. while au did not in Latin generally. W. and the establishment of unattested Vulgar Latin words. 'See W. 6t. Lot. Cf. some . Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. Geyer. possib^'as early as the third century'. . For a brief account of the Latin grammarians. Seelmann. Heraeus. the nonClassic forms. in the eighth century. 1902. Of ^speciaTvalue are the Peregrinatiqjidjqtasancta. fourth century^. 367. 1904. and W. 5 universally be came is e. andrmosTim- ^portant o f_all. in inscriptions and early manu- ^scripts'. a few texts w ritten by persons of scanty education. a considerable iragment of a description of travel in the East. F6rotin. Paris in Melanges Renier 301. by an uneducated woman (probably a Spanish nun) of the latter good and bad pajt of the. see G. 25 ff. the A^endix Probi^ z. Bechtel. see Stolz. of the^TConraHcel languages. 5* Our sou rces of information' concerning the„ current spoken La tin are^ the statements of grammarians^. Itinera hierosolymitana sceculi mi-viii. Zur Sprache der Mulomedicina Chironis in . Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Le veritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. Sprachgziellen und Wortquellen des lateiniscken Worierbuchs in Archiv I. Herseus. * Used by H. ^Cf. Gioixr.

VulgSrlateinische Substrate romanischer . A. 264ff. polite language. V. For an approximately complete vocabulary. bene. 422 {pbedire — putidus)-. 539 —Jiiicum)^ 424£f. WORDS USED ALIKE IN CLASSIC AND VULGAR LATIN. 453ff. This class includes a great mass of words. amare. ff. pants. {tabanus — ziruiare). vendere. filius. 125 {quadraginta — rascu' {reburrus — runcare). ff. ff. II. W. vacca . 138 {hmdus — iticem). 185-203. forming. Die romische Soldatensprache in Arckiv XH. Die Sprache der romiscken Kinderstube in Archiv XIII. {Hie — lamna)^ So?^' {lacusta — mille)\ IV. the vulgar idiom has homely metaphors of its own and numerous specific. bonus. [abbreviare buttis). (eber III. {damnum — dui)^ in Arckiv: I. ii6fif. has many poetic figures and many abstract terms unknown to the crowd. ~ technical words not found in literature. WORDS AND THEIR MEANINGS. 1. yj^ (supplement. Grober. dicere. iiyS. On the other hand. Lateinish-romanisches Worterbuch. suus)'.) Worter ff. Digitized b^Wlicrosoft® . Examples are : 7.iooff. viridis. ff. audire. 255. to speak. so cams. Herasus. For a thorough discussion of reconstructed forms. si. (Jlagrare —gTttta). 233 ff. (sabanum — lare)^ 234 VI. 1901. 149. longus. male. ff. ^See Densusianu. reconstructed out of Romance words.I. — icaccubus — curbus). 2'/$^. speech of the literary and fashionable classes should differ from that of the common people so Literature inclines to extend it is in all civilized communities. popular use tends to restrict them. 6. VOCABULARY. see G. too. altus. pater. the nucleus of the language. quando. {minacicE — nutrire). mater. . It is natural that the The the senses of words. Korting. see G. puteus. in.

/22J£Sfe 46. etc. IN CLASSIC 7 a. Pirson 257-258 . orbus—'hXmd'.. collocare= 'go to bed'. ro6ur= 'o^.. Digitized by Microsoft® . not 'sophism' nor 'deceit'. and also 'continue'. 'text'. part'. 272. new meaning in addition ambulare= 'march'. assume to the old one: Bechtel 137. necare = Bon. nor 'best b. 283. Quillacq 54-79. hcec eestimare non capit.'.'» Many Pirson 260-262. Bon. 286. 286). but there are some examples /(7r^j = 'strong' in all 10. of the examples can ». a word assuming a more or concrete signification {^se : icognatus\=z ' brother-in-law coUocare^ 'put to bed' dominicus =: divinus . : senses. not 'strength'. Bon. 235-328. Bon. viaticum = ']ox\xntY'. etc. lectio =^ 'dxoifin' machinari='g[mA. WORDS USED DIFFERENTLY AND IN VULGAR LATIN. G. Bayard 105. § 10] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.' to^x^a . Bayard 63-202. Per. be classified under the heads of restriction or extension of meaning.. se piicare=' go'. defi' 9. perhaps Cf. Many words kept their literal but lost their metaphorical sense: captio ='a. tractatus= 'treatise'. Dubois 185-225. 1 a. 8.^ The general use of a word in an extended sense is not common.'k'. . nite This happens frequently. Archiv XII. 351—352. 269-270. SENSE RESTRICTED. Capit a ssumed the meaning of fieri potes t: R. i ^ns— 'chM'. yUloi:^. focus=^iix&\ paganus= 'pagan'. Hoppe Most 48. 243. SENSE EXTENDED.. mulier='-vi\ie'.ct of taking'. 'authority'. ingenium := 'trick'. Dubois 220. Regnier 24. Very many Classic words are used in Vulgar Latin with a different sense: comparare =^h\xy'. = 'rebJiKe§. non capit prophetam perire. words. G. non capit utique videri Deus.11. etc. however.

hand. igitur. G. res is used of persons. : . cum. 204. So various prepositions and conjunctions (as ad. an. 66. is very rich in abstract nouns (G. When lost terms were needed for literary or other purposes. G. Classic ployed at the vulgar speech or went out of use before the earliest Jubere. quia. satis = 'much'. wW«/« = 'miracles' (in imitation of the Greek). but most of them are new formations. Bayard 94. WORDS USED Numerous all in m CLASSIC BUT NOT IN VULGAR LATIN. enim.25. = 'pass Regnier 27 {quadraglnta dies fecit). monuments of the Romance languages: so funus. populus «/««^«j= 'common people'. the French ilj> a. Regnier 29 {in came paucas habet virgines sanctimoniales). ^2S= 't^he' and 'he'. ut. del>ere 'mdica. 391-397. 418. /V/-. facere (time)'. .13. ita. quoque. diu. quoad. etc. Bayard 83. to be sure.tes moral obligation. 3. quidem.loco forsitan quattuor milia. Dubois 301-308). . . 37. 422 (in area Noe . 58 {bella res). 258 fif. Pirson 255 ^^l^lj^j^^ ^^^^ habuit serpentes). Bechtel 144. Waters Ch. quod. fascia means a measure of land.per. unus = 'a'. horrescere. although it is common in the Peregrinatio. 38. postquam. terms and some abstract nouns were not needed: frondifer.8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bechtel 127 {habebat de eo. 328. and quasi. utrum. Very many adverbs and conjunctions dis-"~\ I appeared saltern. autem. 44. etc. nam. Unde came to mean 'and so'. Waters Ch. fletus. Per. quin. [§ n 'go'. Bon. Latin words either were not em- II.. ergo.". hamo has the sense of French on..). donee. apud. Ecclesiastical Latin. replicare= 'reply'. Dubois 218. they were either borDigitized by Microsoft® . etc. quomodo) assumed new functions. Per. etc. etc. tamen must have been sed. vel. quippe. at. etiam. Poetic aurora. Bechtel 144. de.. Bon. Regnier 20. proles.. ^: moribund. Dubois. sive.

. Dubois 220. and by villa. crus gave to gamba. b.Va&T* capum) is preserved by Rumanian. SYWOHYMS. R. SUBSTITUTES. cur to quare. ^capitia (<^caput) by Spanish and . omnes by toii. a. Indus to jocus.\ Dubois 209. ^ Zauner 41-4. nunc by hora. i'^o^^ tot hy quanti. R. French and Provencal mansio and hospitale. R. Italian. French. cf. R. Rumanian. noverca by *matraster. Portuguese. hospitale^. mansio ( Roman.§ 13] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. testa by Cf. When Latin had two words nearly synonymous. ^-j 2 parentes . clerical 9 rowed from Classic or Latin (as nobilis) or replaced by new constructions (as *carrica for onus). mansio.. some nouns by derivative adjectives: avis ^ by aucellus. Digitized ^^^ by Microsoft® . magnus to grandis.2. Rjetian. Cf Zauner 41-42. *filiaster. . vitrUus hypatraster. 336. Olcott XXV. Italian. Some words were replaced by diminutives. Bechtel i^o^gena to gabata. emere by comparare.*avica. R. Spanish. 12. privignus by 13. R. ignis hy focus. Provengal. domus by casa.. Raetian. For mansio. . 'dwelling') only in . French. os to bucca. casa occurs only in Italian inscriptions. Occasionally the substitute aliquis yielded in part to res -vi&y was apparently a slang word: nata. caput to testa''. tanti. 337. senex to vetulus. Sometimes a term was replaced by a word not found in Classic Latin at all: anser-wAs driven out by *auca (<. equus to caballus.. 313. 472. to genitores. Among the Romance languages. Italian. R. avus by *aviolus. Portuguese prefer casa. R. .338. 345. humerus by spatula. G. Dubois 212. 272. urbs by civitas. one often crowded out the other: atrium gave way to cars. 472 ferre to portare. Sometimes the survivor was far from a synonym in Classic Latin: discere was displaced hy apprendere. Provenjal. . sol According to Olcott XVIII. 324. edere in the main to manducare. diminutive of avis). ^ * Caput (or rs.

R. ut were ousted by functions of an. The place of cum was taken various substitutes. Autem. tamen. and Dacia preferred /^r. Latin: G. infemus.). 472 mane h^ Diminutives were extremely common in late matutinum. dies largely . frequent also: R. Reich. etsi. Some of these were probably old Digitized by Microsoft® . doubtless under the influence of per. Many prepositions. PARTICLES. the by quando and other conjunctions. quoniam were often replaced by quomodo. quod. ^w^ by diurnus. words were replaced by phrases: diu by longum tempus (Bon. ex gave to de. 108-121 {brevis. 100-107 {arida. etiam. WORDS USED IN VULGAR BUT NOT IN CLASSIC LATIN. G.). too. Italy. ergo. ne. neptilla. erga. Gl. sed. apud-<n2iS partially supplanted by adj cum. Occasionally. 15. c. in Gaul. etc. Adjectives used as nouns were etc. 201. became *por. quando. Dubois 147 {novellus'). Olcott 250-263 {gemelli. schedula. utrum were assumed by si. Densusianu. Cf. Fro._ Cis. etc. by other words. conjunctions. 184-185. 403. Bon. and adverbs were lost 14. d'lJ way pro and per. igitur. pra.lo in part An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 121-130 {cereolus. 203. appear in Classic Vulgar Latin evidently had many words that do not texts. mammula-:=^^zxiA\aoVs\t. 395-396. most part by vetulus. vetus for [§ 15 by *soUculus. credens. etc. to propter were displaced southern Gaul. . which replaced /^r and pro in Spain and to a considerable extent in northern Gaul.). and other phrases. by subsitution. hiems by hibernum. infemus. paucum tempus for haud diu). yielded to apud. 4.x\naucella. Ab was made unnecessary by de and per. cuculla. ver by vemum tempus. R. R.).

Densusianu 196. pudoris finis. fins onors. Substrate ficatum. some were late'. serutinus. R. although they were doubtless in common use: amma. and f. Archiv XIII. ing 'touch'.. etc. etc. and 'go' (cf. some Were borrowed from other languages. a. Grammont. trepalium. as *miaulare. adj. Ch. nonnus. NATIVE WORDS. prode. between genitus and from prodest (cf.. mamma. Neue II. E. SubstrateY. It. 270-271. Archiv XII. 154. (so. so not improbably the original of the Romance words mean'find'. Audollent 199. mots. Some of the unattested words were obviously late developments: *finis. pa(J>)pa. Archiv VIII. potis est = potest. Archiv XIII..). tatus. battalia. Herzog in Bausteine e. Some native words are rarely attested. cloppus Densusianu 196. 16. 154. 234. fuit prode illis. Korting (found in the 7th century). drappus. 106. Substrate V. detached 176-177). 17. expressifs in M. cf. Bayard 179 (applied . from the noun finis in such phrases as honorum finis. It.). . bxmca. 156-157. Archiv XIII. hoc enim prode fit vobis. Digitized by Microsoft® . Likewise words made by ono- matopoea. 63. St. Archiv XIII. 421. norma. XVII. Pirson 243. tata. gent. 53. Archiv XIII. 151— 152. A few that must have existed are not attested at all: *refusare. 97. (Fr. baro — 'athlete'.adj. Densusianu 190. *prodis. Rom. 468-469 (^quid enim prode est homini. Onomatopees et Revue des langues romanes XLIV. Archiv XIII. circare = 'hnnV . . § 405). fine fino). II. finis honoris > 484.g. 237. Waters Ch. Cyprian to the bishop of Carthage). gavia (used by Pliny). sed non genttlis. gente). 158. *gentis. atta.§ 17] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. 151-153. fin. ii native terms that do not happen to occur in the works preserved. apparently a cross then m. (Fr. and perhaps those of the words meaning 'gape'.. *rettna=: 'rein'. pappus = 'gra. adj. Pirson 244. Pr.

wfltan 19. which affected familiarity with Greek. [§ 19 Late Latin was rich in derivatives. numerous verbs in -izare. haribergum. Bechtel 95 {cata mansiones. Waters Ch. there are many Greek words in Petronius: hepatia. zare. vict(u)alia. Digitized by Microsoft® . colaphizare. few Celtic terms were adopted. and not a few new derivatives. Waters Ch. anathematizare. evangelizare. sagma. diaconissa. This subject chapter. carricare. Reich. eunuchizare. (cf. vertragus. b. 205-226: anathema. thesaurizare . Some were introduced by fashionable etc. Judaizare. a distributive preposition. We find a large number of Greek words.. Reich. *man{u)aria. modernus. haunjan. Introduction) found their way into Latin: bannus. 12 An 18. such as alauda. society. Gram. *ausare. §71. More came in through the Christian vocabulary: angelus. scandalizare. *coraticum. Bon. catechiblasphemare . Cf. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. A werra. cf. some of popular creation. *vir{t)dura. but a few examples Gl. prophetare.. prophetizare. G. sabbatizare. Gl. Regnier VIII. cata pascha). R. dulcor. 225. apparently borrowed by popular speech: amygdalum. FOREIGN WORDS. *dulcior = 'sweetness'. African Latin was freest in word formation. alberca. baptizare.. Pirson 236). colaphus. 224. Very many Greek terms used by ecclesiastical writers never became popular. 44. cata. schema. Bon. *soliculus. According to Olcott XIX. zelare. hapja. confessor = 'martyr'. dactylus. as baptizatio. some made by Christian writers. folUa. will be discussed at length in the following may be given here: post-verbal dolus <dolere. More Germanic words (of. a few of them on the sense of 'every'. *nivicare. verging 247 {cata mane mane). 211. 226. G. 66. Dubois 144. as allegorizare. * abbellire .

1.e. 22. B. 61). 430-693 Densusianu 156-173.§ 22] An Introduction to VulgaW Latin. See Gram. satire). G.* We shall consider first postverbal nouns (i. I. sub-. ADJECTIVES. XL VI. 130 . facility of word formation. '^ .^ PREFIXES USED WITH NOUNS. G. 2. Vulgar Latin is very rich in derivatives and comit has many affectionate diminutives.or bi. and finally composite words. In strictly Classic texts there appear to be no 20. POST-VERBAL NOUNS. II. in-. " Cooper 246-297. 98. Vok. really living suffixes \ but the lost. then prefixes. a fictitious primitive noun was derived from a number of verbs in Vulgar Latin and in the Romance languages so dolus from dolere. whereas in reality both come from a primitive verb. which the noun seems to come from the derivative verb. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. ' » bimaritus. PREFIXES. bisacutus. After the model of cantus — cantare. (pairs in : VII (blamed by St. substantives taken from the roots of verbs).was used with some adjectives and appar: ently with a few nouns bisaccium. some of them made with new suffixes (as —icca. " Cooper XXXVI. 246-247. a. saltus — saltare. 13 DERIVATION. 35. Petronius. as canere.* popular speech preserved and This freedom of formation was abused by African authors. Bon. pounds . which in- the literary language creased.. 170 . next suffixes. AND PRONOUNS. Augustine). such as gaudimonium (Waters Ch. Cooper XXXIV. Cooper XXX ff. Late writings almost all abound in abstract nouns (Cooper 1-2). 367. Bis. —itta)} Petronius shows a fondness for long derivatives. Regnier etc. who were especially addicted to prepositional compounds with con-. 21.


An Introduction
Ad-, con-, de-,

to Vulgar Latin.


dis—, ex-, in-, re:

and some others were
*adaptus ; commixtius,

occasionally used to form adjectives

G. 160 defamatus ; *disfactus; exsucus; inanimatus ; *replenus.
Cf. G.




Ac-, atque-,

ecce-, eccu-,

met- were used as demonstrative

prefixes to



pronominal adjectives and to adverbs. Eccu— is ecce eum; its origin being forgotten, it was used in

Vulgar Latin as a synonym of ecce. Met, primarily a suffix, came to be used as a prefix through such combinations as semet ipsum, understood as se metipsum. In archaic writings
reinforced demonstratives as eccum, eccam,


ecca, eccillum., eccillam, eccillud, eccistam

are not



Vulgar Latin examples are ac Classic texts they are rare. sic; atque ille-; ecce hie; * eccu iste ; * eccu sic. Substrate VI,





Cf. A.

Kohler, Die Partikel

ecce in

Archiv V,

See §§ 65, 66.



25. Ad-, con—, de-, dis—, ex—, in—, re— were freely used, disbeing mainly a Vulgar Latin prefix: abbreviare, G. 179 * a.d;

cap(i)tare ; adgenuculari, R. 181; adpretiare, R. 181, G. 180;
adpropiare, R. 181, G. 180; adunare, R. 182; confortare, R. 185,

* cominitiare ; complacere, R. 184; deaurare, G. 182 * disjejunare; exaltare, G. 183; excoriare, G. 182; impinguare, G. 181


G. 183; *infurcare; recapitulare, G. 185; *requcerere.
con—, de- lost their special significance;

Ad—, ad— was particularly

favored in Spain, con- in Italy.
ally there

Cf. Lat. Spr. 487.

was a change

of prefix


was used with the

sense of expectare, * convitare sometimes took the place of invitare; dis-

was often substituted

for ex-.


Ab-, contra-, per—, sub-, super supra-, tra trans— were

by Microsoft®

§ 3i]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


used occasionally: * aboculare ; *contrafacere; *perdonare ; subG. 185; * subdudere ; subsannare, R. 199, G. 187; superabundare, G. 187; * super—* suprafacere ; *trabucare ; *transaudire,

annare; transplantare, G. 188.
27. Extra- was sometimes used and 2«/ra— in Italy: * extrabuccare ; 28.
in Italy

and Dacia, infra-

* infraponere ; *intratenere.


e-, ob-, prce-,

pre-, pro-, retro— were apparently

not used to form new verbs in the popular spoken language,
although some of them are occasionally so employed by late
writers: opprobare, G. 184; prcedesiinare, G. 184


prolongare, G. 184.



sometimes replaced by ad—:


> addormire.

Foris and minus came to be used as prefixes in some

Foris was confounded Gaul with the Frankish _;?r- (= ver-) verslahen = Old Fr. See G. Baist, Frdnkisches fir— im altesten Franzosiforbatre. schen in Romanische Forschungen XII, 650; cf. Rom. XXX, For this use of minus, compare the phrase minus est^ 633. caritas in quantum adest in quantum deest, Regnier 109


* minuscredere.






autem minus


Cf. § 245.


Some verbs

take a double prefix

adimplere; coexcitare,

R. 207

(cf. Quintilian, coexercitatus); deexacerbare, R. 207

*deexcitare; *exeligere.




the restoration of the


form of

the primitive verb, was a regular process in Vulgar Latin (cf. §139): aspargo for aspergo is blamed by Velius Longus, £don

Cyprian, Bayard 3; commando is, according to Velius Longus, the usual form, rather than commendo,



used by


S. 60, ifidon

131; consacrati


occur in inscriptions,




Bon. 49°;

^^f^'^i ^30^°





An Introduction
Bon. 490.

to Vulgar Latin.



Computo, 58-64, Bon. 486-493. prdsto seem to cdnsto, consuo, erigo, exeo, infio,

have been regarded as simple verbs

S. 64.

primitive form of prefixes; but this

Late writers were in the habit of restoring the full, was doubtless merely a

matter of spelling, and did not indicate the



In TertuUian, Cyprian, and some others there is generally no assimilation of the prefix other writers, such as

Gregory of Tours, apparently used both assimilated and unassimilated forms. Bayard 12-15: adpetere, conpendium, inproius, obfero, subplanto. Bon. 178-188: adtonitus, conmittere,
inlatus, obprimere, subcuvibere.



in —are; occasionally


Nexhsfrom nouns^ generally end
sometimes in

in -iare or —ire;

which was eventually sup-

planted in Italy and in Gaul by —izare (for pronunciation see

§339)- This last ending came from Greek -dfiv through borrowed words, such as baptizare. For a list of Greek verbs in -i^etv adopted by Christian writers, see R. 248-249 (cf. §19 above); some new formations were used, as catechizare. In early Latin this same ending appears as -issare (attidsso, rhetorisso): see A. Funck, Die Verba auf issare und izare in

Archiv III, 398.


— * dom'nizare;

—plagiare —


oculare; pedinare; plantar.e; potionare; * trepaignire ;



follicare ;

* nivicare ;


Cooper 205-245, Dubois 151-162, Quillacq 41-46, Bonnet 471-474.

"Cf. R. 154-162.

by Microsoft®


§ 36]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

in —are,


Verbs from

and perfect participles e.r\A

—iare, —ire; also in' -icare (cf. albicare), —itare (cf. debilitare,
visitare), —escere


—iscere (cf. canescere, mollescere); possibly


angiistare; *ausare; captivare

confortare ; falsare

gravare ; levare ; * oblltare ; rictare ; Usare ; * abbellire ; tiare ; * captiare ; humiliare ;

— * vanitare —


alleviare; * al-

unire ;


Icetiscere ; vilescere ;

— amari— *blan-




verbs from perfect participles (frequentatives, etc.)

replace the original verbs: adjuvare "> adjutare ; audere'^ausare; canere'^cantare ; uti>usare.

lost their frequentative or inchoative sense







156. in -icqre


Verbs from other verbs end


fodere), —itare (cf. clamitare <,clamare')\ also in -escere, -Iscere
(cf. florescere,

* bullicare

< buUere





inchoative force:

apparescere ;

Vulgar Latin has many old frequentive verbs G. 178-179, Cooper 205. There are some late diminutives in —aculare, —tculare, -uculare, through diminutive nouns or adjecWe find also tives (ci. periculari <,periculum'): * saltlculare. some miscellaneous imitative formations * expaventare (and some others) apparently after the analogy of prasentare * misculare perhaps after maculare.


Greek verbs in -av,

-eiv, etc.,

when taken

into Latin, reg-

KvP€pvav>gubemare ; pXa(r<j}rifidv'>b/asphemare. Cf. Claussen 795. But ^aXS.av>psallere, perhaps through the analogy oifallere: Claussen 796. Germanic verbs in -an or -on regularly passed into the first


in —are:

conjugation in Latin





guidare ; roubon




"jR^etcA. ;

in -jan

went into the fourth
It. guamire. Digitized by Microsofi®


> hatire,


warnjan >

Ch. * credeniia . 40. 95. Some go endings. *ducatus. neuter plural of the gerundive. apparently. Cooper 1-91. was very fond of diminutives: adules- centulus. Olcott 176-182. * calamarium. -dnus: see Adjectives. in a collective sense. iCf. Digitized by Microsoft® . -enda. -antia. Pirson 123. 74). -dtus. socera. used to form adjectives and also nouns.i in 37. used to — Haag 41 form f eminines nepta. was extended: clericatus. -die. 6\. Cf. bonatus.8 — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. *pollicare. -ar. Olcott 187-189. was extended: coxale. -ens: see Adjectives.. a neuter plural. participles H ia (as benevolentia. . 59. Waters Ch. 1 [§ 37 SUFFIXES FOR NOUWS. Dubois 99-136. came to be used as a feminine singular: *facienda. -arius: see Adjectives. essentia. -alia. Quillacq 15-31. Olcott 238-239. Cooper in. tives. : -anda. —aria : see -ia. —ata : see -ta. 453-463. the collective plural -ilia. Ch. -ans. were used The Christian writers are especially rich Waters Ch. etc. as victualia (cf. (as viaticum) was extended. especially names of parts of apparel (as bracchiale). G. Cf. R. porcellus. 355. G. used to designate a place (as gallinarium). too. R. Vulgar in deriva- Petronius. b. are the following: : Ch. etc. 79-102. 366. 49-52. -ugo were characteristic of rustic speech: —al. to form nouns from nouns: g. in Italy and Gaul * canalia •< canis. as senatus (common in Petronius. 31-37. as a feminine singular with an augmentative and pejorative signification. Bon. -^a. -arium. made from present significantid). Latin. -igo. fragraniia . -entia. for nouns and adjectives: liminare. -ago. Cf. was extended: breviarium. The commonest endings -a. Bon. was used. G. placentia. were used to form abstract nouns from verbs: Cf. iio-iii). Bon. as miraUlia. Olcott 73-78. -are. e. -affcum * coraticum. *sperantia. Cf. 39. volatilia. 95. G. taurellus.

Gram. For -accus. : used (cf . Pir- son 123. . Cf.. -entia : see -antia. hence an ending -fflWa. Rum. unaccented. was often used beside -Ulus. -crum (as miraculum. Bonica. II. and Dacia. -enda : see —anda. and Rumanian: Sp. § 173. etc. —eum : -ia.. navi- —ceus. etc. wvicella. see —ium. Pr. being used in pet names. -uc(c)us. as desiderium. was mighty deeds of God Koff'. suffixe -arius. Digitized by Microsoft® solingo. Olcott 173-176. Cf. -ensis: see Adjectives. was probably Cf. animalico . avid): neptia.- -culum. -ia. —ens: see Adjectives. ramenc . Cf. -tcca (as Bodicca. manica. -ellus. -occus. cf. XXXI. -Mum. ing in Zs. 1-2 1. —tea: see Archiv fiir das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Litera: turen CXIV. was used beside -cuius: So * domnicellus. used to form feminines (as avus. Horn- —iceus. Einf. —ceus. -cius: see Adjectives. So calamellus. —icius: see Adjectives. anellus . 170. porculus. possibly of Ligurian origin (Rom. avicula. consirier. somewhat extended: Old Fr. perhaps also *-ingus and locally -ancus. abstract extended *fortia fortia n. 283ff. It was often attached to words in -arius. -iccus. G. which lost its diminutive force: anulus. Les substantifs en -ier et le essais de philologie fran- Rom. —ans. 91-92. Portuguese. XIX. R. diminutive (as castellum). etc.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 333ff. lavacrum) were occasionally used: *genuculum. porcellus. cula. = ' nouns (as victoria). see A. to form pi. -incus or -inguus (as propinguus). was used for many new words: Pr. XX. See A. vitulus.' *libraria. it was then extended to Spain. Karica) first appears in Africa in feminine proper names. mane 76). from Greek -ia through Christian writers and speakers monarchla. philosophia . 335. 457. navicella. —eus: see Adjectives. diminutive. Valinca. Sardinia. -ia. 481. -Tela. Olcott 131-134. XXXV. etc. and Nouveaux (aise no. It. and came to be used as a diminutive suffix in Spanish. unaccented. It may have arisen in the first place from a childish pronunciation of -iclus. Thomas. 31-37. Arbonenca. 591.). 19 -cellus. vitellus.

An It Introduction to Vulgar Latin. originally used to indicate a characteristic (as Digitized btbo). Olcott 123-131. were extended. -mum. may have arisen from a childish pronun- ciation of -iclus -a: it may Meyer-Liibke. Bonitta^ Caritta^ Julitta^ Livitta^ Suavitta. the i being short in Gaul. It came to be very widely used as a diminutive suffix for nouns. Sagitta. Fr. regards -dttus. was by Microsoft® . Cusanca. from the Greek Cf. so pythonissd). Olcott 78-80. and central and northern Italy. —monia: see Olcott 81-82. -monium. It. bonito. -mentum. and also for adjectives. was probably confounded. doucet. § 172. in [§ 37 some regions. R. . -men. -tnus (as caninus. (Cooper XLV): *altitia. masculine Muritta. conjectures that have come from the Germanic ending that now appears as in such names as Heinz. cf. amourette. -otus. fioretto. serpentinus. a German patronymic ending. Sp. like littera beside litera. much extended. bacito. A. as a suffix for proper names: feminine tus. 343. generally long in the Spanish peninsula and in -Ittus. sometimes in Spain and Gaul. but sometimes to form new adjectives to form domnina = 'young lady'. following. Fr. Nebitta. Olcott 200-204. -dttus as alternative Sardinia: nouns. Attitta. camerlingo. XXVIII. Raetia.20 Sp. were both are rare in Rumanian -ities especially in the south . used to form nouns from adjectives (as munditia -ies). lausenga. Montaninus) originally denoted appurtenance. *granditia. -eum (as cafitium. Olcott see -iio. etc. Zimmermann. -issa. Pirson 228. some new formations: ^dukissa. grassetto. Einf. -lius. then resemblance. especially -mentum : *gubernamentum. especially : diminutive nouns. -icca. 251. 56-59.. —itia. etc. Cf. Cf.. Pirson 226: Julianeta^ Nonnita^ N'onniit Its origin is unknown. W. vestimenium). used to form nouns from verbs (as certdmen. forms of -dtus. was used for prophetissa. with the -ing. it was freely used. -io : 134-136. 22-25. then smallness. -ttas : see —tas. Cf. Zs. (as paffiXurcra. -0 {-onem). -laaa. was used for some nouns and perhaps for adjectives (see -incus above): Pr. -itUdo : —ium. Cooper 251. adjectives. etc. Cf. see —tUdo. -iva : see Olcott 224-226. Germanissa. R. in inscriptions in Italy -ittus first appears during the Empire and Dacia. li. Florentinus . Sp. calcaneum) : see G. -Uies.

-iita. *movita. -sionem). i. casotta. 88-122. XIII. are very common in St. Olcott 83-87. 415. beveire. venuta. -ittus). 222. 102-106. etc. and were reinforced —ta. unknown etc. aquilotto. See Archiv V. So deitas from deus. Jerome. Gaul often as a 56. *flavor.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ostensor. They were considerably used to make abstract nouns from verbs (and —ata was sometimes attached to nouns. Cf. -sus: see —ta. 122. as *annatd). see —torium. -tus. : extensa. trobaire. was apparently used : first of young animals. used to make abstract nouns from adjectives. Fr. G. : -or (-orem). Cyprian). later -dta. R.G. -or {-oreni). etc. G. 453. Olcott 2-23. -sorem). -sorium. and other late writers: abbreviatio. started perhaps with such forms as defensa. 83. of see -tor. viror. Bayard 19-22 (very -tio. prensio. feminine perfect participles with a feminine noun understood. narraius: cf. *perdtta. -tricem. common in St. then as a general moderate diminutive It. 223. Cf. revoluUo. *sentor. Bayard 19-22. trinitas. 88. e. 45-56. aggravatio. St.). G. Cf. —tas {-tdtem). andata. Cf. used to form abstract nouns (as candor. —sus.fossato. C. —sio : see -ito. Pr. *flator. R. *deUta. purltas . aiglon. in 21 commonly employed diminutive: g&lo. —Stus. Substrate IV. -sa. boccone. —sor (—torem. —trix. Olcott 58-69. as collectus. *nutritio. —sor: see -ior. used to denote the agent (as Cf. -sio i^tionem. ostensio. In Gaul these nouns came to be feminine: Bon. Cyprian. *vendita.. in. used as nouns. *reddita. 475. R. potto). was employed for many new formations of the same kind. Olcott amdtor. used to form abstract nouns from verbs (as mansio. —sa : see —ia. G. 69-82. used to designate the agent -orium . used to form from verbs nouns denoting place. Olcott 33-51. lectio. was freely employed :ya/jfi'aj. 503-504 {dolor. 85- Bayard 24-25. It. It. R. sapor). origin (cf. Collin in Archiv XIII. as an augmentative or pejorative. 82-83. -(orium. nativitas . were very freely employed (but show few traces in Ru- manian : Cooper XLV) : necdtor. *lucor. 63. -tus and -j«j were preferred in Dacia (Cooper XLV) collecta. -Sttus. mensor). G. 44-45. —sura: see —ilra. 55-63.. remissa. timor. perfect participles by fourth declension nouns in -tus. recubitus . someDigitized by Microsoft® . —tor. especially in Gaul: dulcor. —sorium: see —torium.

-ov regularly became respectively -us. fell popular words either or became -a. see —ta. 40-45. influenced by olere. -um : Claussen 796. Einf. *frig' dura . -tus (Claussen 798): rpiiKTijs '^ irucia . instead of the nominative (Claussen 800-802): iXi^avros'^ elepliantus . ossulum. payLda'^ -(an in magida. —tus: see -ta. When Greek nouns were endings were adapted as follows: — borrowed by Latin. -ta or -us. tensura. -ura and -t-ura. Olcott 51-58. by popular etymology. G. '^planura. -aius. There are a few exceptions for special reasons (Claussen 795) cXaiop. mesSee sura. missorium. oratorium. -e. natatorium.)u~^ gumma. -T7)s became -a. > p6KLT-qs -I in became -a (Claussen 798-799) : Xa/iirds -7)S. used to fortitudd). the -OS. used to form abstract nouns from perfect participles (as censura. mensorium. : became -a. in popular words gave a feminine -ma (Claussen 796-797) > f -pos preceded by a consonant became -fr (Claussen : 797): 'AWfai'5po$>- Alexander. etc. -tura : see —ura. were tended. instead of -is (Claussen 798) pausis "^pausa. Sometimes the genitive or the accusative was taken as a basis. Cf. -as in popular words generally > lampa. later from adjectives also. gave oleum. often taking the place of —culum (cubiculum much > accubitorium) (as *C(ssorium. ixrikiipvWov. Olcott 69-73. ^•vir'dura. R.: : : 22 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 38. Kbii. -pa cima. -11. 31-37. -s-iira. cursorium). nutritura. popular words became -o (Claussen 797) X^wi'> lea. -IS often clvain'^ sinapis. ^6-gy. or -i (Claussen 799) TT^Trepi'^ piper. boletus. make abstract nouns servitudo. was used for a few new formations *alaudula. R. -Ala. pressura. diminutive (as vitulus). -is. 197. § 171. : in late Latin often replacing -or {fervor > *fervurd) were extended. reposito- rium. ornatura. —a. Olcott 194-196. ^pressorium. -tuda (-tiidinem). stricturd). Digitized by Microsoft® . *certitudo. Bon. G. Cf. etc. sinape . kviuj. 88-90. [§ 38 ex- times instrument (as dormitorium. gave : millefolium. : gummi-s. -iita: Cf. from adjectives was extended.

and adjectives. used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as Cf. —dneus -anius. etc. 143. -actus -actus. Olcott 215-220. iTTroTiiXij "^spatula. -oneus —onius (as extraneus. erroneus) were slightly ex- tended: *caroneus. used to make from nouns adjectives denoting material (as arenaceus. and form nouns of occupation (as aquarius. Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise etc.i are the following: 39« The commonest endings : — —abllis see —hilis. Romanus). -ans. Cooper 92-163 (diminutives. 415. See E. Olcott 182-187. -arius. was much extended. -ens {-an/em. »?«i/«a»2«. -aceus being employed later as an augmentative and pejorative suffix for adjectives and finally for nouns: chartaceus formaceus . 464-467. -entem). pelliceus). Mapa"^ cithara ciihlra. Bechtel 83. a combination of —arius — *capiianus. The phonetic development of this suffix was apparently Gaul and some other regions the earliest examples are glan: 'Cf. attached to nouns Cf. episcopalis. *ducaHs. was used to form adjectives of place (occasionally time) and nouns of office: biduanus. to denote connection. aKfnriKot'^ scopulus . present participles (as amans. mixticius.. Eon. G. Olcott 137-173. Wolfflin. *werrarius. G. Cf. It. became and —icius (as sigillaricius). denoting appurtenance (as paganus. arespecially in the latter function: . geniilis). Thomas. regalis. decanus. *Sicilianus. were used freely to ^ currens . Olcott 226-238. peculiar in — apothecarius *marinarius. * setaceus . Die Adjectiva auf -icius in Archiv V. popular in Gaul 62 (Hacherece. 164-195). Quillacq 32-40. c. 144. -Sris (as singularis) was extended: particularis. § 39] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. —artcius. SUFFIXES FOR ADJECTIVES. -dlis. Tuscanus. imaginarius . were extended (especially in rustic speech: Cooper iii). tempaccio. were extended: *cortilis. spontaneus. Bechtel 83. : see A. poiens). used also in the masculine to gentarius. *leviarius. Dubois 136-151. Digitized by Microsoft® . Cf. -tlis. K^paffos : "^cerd-sus *cerSsus. -iceus -ictus. —anus. 23 The unaccented vowel of the penult was often changed in conformity with Latin habits (Claussen 802-806) Sl&^oKos'^ diabolus diabulus. pomarius). '^passans^ make adjectives and nouns from verbs: credens.).

and that this pronunciation spread to the neo-Latin speakers. XXI. pronounced —arius. rare in — -{bUis : see —bilis. *cariierribilis). vallensis. especially in learned words it is Rumanian (Cooper XLV) acceptabilis . Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise 119. 591. Phon. was much used to : make ratus. 296 (cf. -bUis. and Bausteine 641). 155. Olcott 142). -i [§ 39 glandarius . e. querceus. from verbs (as amabilis. A. XXXI. Marchot. Olcott 209-213. adjectives in the popular language: Cf. or i before the a. -atus.. Cf. Cf.^* markensis . E. 109-116. turrensis. —ens : see —ans. G. i^t. —iero are probably borrowed. 159-160. Spanish -ero and Italian -aio are perfectly regular. that -iarius was a. capabilis. G. points out that many words have c. G. *Frankensis. On the other hand. -tbilis. and was much employed rare. Zs. sis). papyrius. I. : tabilis . too. Cf. Thomas. suggests that the Germans in Gaul associated -arius with their proper names in -areis 01 —ari.24 deria <i_ An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. then —iers. -ensis. as -erius or —erus. is . the Proven9al cannot. —ceus -cius : see -iceus. real suffix (cf. showing that while the French forms may perhaps be derived from -arius and -iarius. Zs. Zimmermann. fageus. : -eus -ius. diligibilis . Staaff. 481 (cf. anaiiarius. indicibilis. -er. that -iarius and —carius may have established —iers in French. XXVI. Le suffixe -arius dans les langues romanes. Zimmermann. R. *faiatus. P.' exauguratus. however. a perfect participle ending (as sceleraius). try to derive all the forms from -arius. I. G. -ier. *pagensis. the derivatives being sometimes employed as nouns * cortensis . Italian —aro is easily explained and Italian —iere. 222. —iceus —icius: see dcetts. — ia (6th century) and sorcerus <C^* sortiarius (8th century) the earliest forms in French and Provenyal are —ers. especially in popular speech. the derivative was sometimes used as a noun: panne us . denoting material (as aureus). Die Geschichte des lateinischen Suffixes — arius in den romaniscken Sprachen^ and E. used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as/orenwas greatly extended. was slightly extended (but is Rumanian: Cooper XLV). G. 137. 34-36). Gram. by the analogy of the plural -ari. R. § 227. postulates -ar(i)us and -er{i)us. and when umlaut affected the a of these. timo- Olcott 244-250. in an objective suffix used to make adjectives very common in Christian writers in late Latin. Rom. Cf. or -dbilis. Olcott 339-344. Digitized by Microsoft® . Chairibertus repeatedly used for Charibertus by Fredegarius Haag 7. 135-140.

donique in cites eight examples of dune. : d. G. made up of -t-or. 193-197 {angelice. SUFFIXES FOR ADVERBS. § 40] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -ittus: see Nouns. mansorius. was used for -icus in some late words: *Angliscus. new formations : *restivus. —ilis: see —dlis. 467-470. one of them from Gaul. sapidus. —sorius: see —tortus —tortus. -inus : see Nouns. -iscus. 241. Dubois 163-171. was a favorite with Christian writers. etc. juratoriH. promptulus. with the or of sense of -Wlis the gerundive: Pr. Cooper 196-204. 4810. Possibly *anc is derived from an in the same Substrate II. sliglitly -idus (as rapidus) was extended: exsucidus. diminutive (as albulus). lo) Pirson 252 IX. were used for some new formations: defensorius In Provengal and Rumanian -torius was extended. was used especially in words 25 : -icus (as medicus) cus. Franz.). Tiktin 597. volon. turn tunc) was apparently used to form dum ce (cf. -ivus (as nativus) occurs in a few 224-226. censere censor censorius). G. -uius (as canutus) was somewhat extended: *camutus. dune The usual endings are as follows: — num nunc. Gram. G. It was 'Cf. ~ius : see —eus. in St. -inus {as fraxinus) was used for a few adjectives: quercinus. from the Greek cleri- Cf. = + . Digitized by Microsoft® . Ill. -ulus. etc.' 40. —ce -c (as ne nee. Cf. is Archiv I. 552. '*Frankiscus. Rum.) Cf. Cf Olcott . -orius: see -iorius. I. —Andus (as jocundus) was used in Spanish and Proven9al for a few words Pr. —s-or H ius (as notare notor notorius. Bon. (C. Olcott 220-223. 157-158. probably a fusion of Greek -ktkos {Syriscus) and Germanic -isk (Thiudiscus). — . -oneus : see —dneus. punidor. 103-106.. ? I. way: -e cf. -sorius. 158. very common Jerome: G. 155 (Tertullian)j *npidus. L.

-iter: see -ter. Ch. *mala mente. modo sic modo sic^ nee sursum nee deorsum non cresco. -um generally coincided in pronunciation (multum = multo. 245. . -ones (in Italy also with- out the preposition) came into use Cf. soave). *bona mente. bocconi. adverbs were preserved in comhence other ad- jectives came to be used as adverbs (as W. alto. in Rumanian. Jerome. a recu230. Some lons. This formation is not common. Cyprian (Bayard 34-35) and some other : writers. forte. piano. sola mente. 689. poco. Later. Adverbs of manner came to be made with the ablative This noun was first used with an adjective to denote a state of mind. -ter (as brevUer) was not preserved in common speech. Gram. Lat. 337. 58. jocunda mente. etc. to adverbs: insiememente. are to be found in Petronius 37. noii). now now so. 428. G. adverbial phrases on the model : ad . In the Romance languages mente was sometimes added comment. Rom. mente. male. Many examples so.26 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -0 and etc. -tim was favored by St. § SS- 41. obstinata mente. etc. . and occurs also in Romanice. chiaro. It. etc. multum. 45 .' ' Waters Ch. XXX. 339- Repetition was used. as It. whence such formations as Brittanice. * ipsa mente. Cyprian (Bayard 32-34). Gl. They are rare in St. : modo modo =^ •only yesterday. Digitized by Microsoft® . Many such mon speech. 42. however. but was not kept alive in popular Latin. being especially common in St. Fr. [§ 41 preserved in popular speech in bene. common in other late writers: clanculo. Reich.' cf. Zs.). tarde. for emphatic effect. 197-201 infantiliter. Normannice. II. Spr. XXXIII. Ch. and in Rumanian nearly all adjectives may be so used (as greii. Ch. pure. as sometimes in Classic Latin. as forti mente. though much used in ecclesiastical Latin (G. Then it was employed in a more general sense: pari mente. * longa mente. 46. firma mente. XXIX. Ch. longe. caldo. basso. 487. It. Cf. perhaps after the Vulgar Latin period. mente was used with any adjective that could make an adverb of manner.). Fr. a ginocchioni. but rata.

R. -drius. loquela per unum /. extraneus * extranus . etc. venenum"^ *veninum. —dnus^—dneus: Cohn 160-172. Cohn 1 51-154. Cohn 30-31. etc. Cohn 213I. famtlia */amtlia. Cf. : ericius *eruius. Corssen S.. Cf. 27 CHANGE OF SUFFIX. 227. sortcem *sortcem. Waters Ch. R. querela'^ guerilla. cornlciila *cornuula. Cf. -ix(-icem) consilium * consilium. Cohn 42— 52. as are: — The principal types (1) Subsitution of a : rare one -alius — new or common suffix for an old or > -callus : see -tllas. Cohn 219-226. -drius: see Suffixes for Adjectives. Cohn 184. pediculus Cf. 460. Cf. Cf. 460. tus cauditus.§ 42] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin." —enus'^-inus: "Byzacenus non Byzacinus. -tc-aius *lenficiila. R. subterraneus ^ subterranus. cauda- Cohn —Ic'eus —icius ^=. —dtuszzz—ttus=:i—utus: barbatus '^barbutus . rancor"^* ran- > > cilra. 460. avicUla'^ avicllla. —cuius !> cHlus : see -tllus. Pr. pavoT~^*pavura. Cf. -iculus =z -UcJilus : ossiculum ossMculum. (3) Alteration of a suffix: — Cf. § 195). 42. e. The popular language sometimes manuplus for another. 17-28. Digitized Cohn 274-291. 65. 460. Cohn 180-205. Cohn 41-42. Cf. loquela'^ loquella. Caper (Keil VII. 131. -ilius =^ -ilius : 154-160. peduculus. -^ —iciilus : capUHlus * capttulus . Cohn 172-180. ~or(—drem)'^-ura: calor'^*calura. lanatus lanutus. -iceus -icius 184. etc. 321. lenHc-Ula Cf. (2) Indiscriminate use of two suffixes: — Cf. —iilus'^—ellus: aniilus'^ anellus . 96): "querela. Cohn -tius'^-itus : vacuus'^*v(lcitus (cf. —tllus^—ellus: axtlla"^ ascella. 216. Cohn = -ix(-icem): Cohn 147-151." App. substitutes one suffix for manipulus. Cf. -elus"^ -ellus (common in late Latin): camelus'^ camellus. R. carnatus *carnutus. suadela"^ suadHla. by Microsoft® . -ex(-ecem) -ix(-uem) : vervecem berbicem.

. Substrate 553-554. 43. 232. 131. R. . Acer arbor (> Fr. a contra. VERBS. HOUWS.. crucifigere. Bechtel loi. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. 190. c. G. — = . Cohn 226—264. Cf. Cake pistare. a foras. in odio^ loco. 'just now'. inde fUgere (> Fr. Bechtel loi ad semel. 231. Bon. ab intus. 426 ad mane. intra videre. There were many compounds made up of a preposition and an adverb: ab ante. enfuir). a semel. Bechtel loi. Bon. These compounds generally belonged to the literary G. Bon. a modo. d. 203. 234. Cohn 264-274. 483. 4. etc. etc. Cf. See §§ 24. 130-134. saine. R. bene placitum. ADVERBS. etc. 44. medio die. etc. 483. in Gl. medio ADJECTIVES. bis coctum. antemittere. /oris mittere. 160-170: magnisonans . mentaver) minus pretiare. flectere. But male habitus. G. b. Bechtel loi. 194. G. Bon. mente habere (> Pr. Reich. Bechtel loi ad horam 'presently'. a /oris. PRONOUNS. R. 483. erable) alba spina. COMPOUNDS. many verbs in -ficare. —iculus ? ^^'—Hciilus : genuciclum . 231. Ill. Bechtel loi. 65. incus incudo * inciimtnem. manu So tenere. Bon. avis struthius. . In church writers there are G. style. I. genu- G. uniunigenitus . cornis. 191. 121 : Greek etc. a longe. ad subito. were popular.28 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. i<)i\ 45. a. 46. . 47. ^ranucula. ad sero. 483.. ij as i: uayijv))'^ 7th century) "^ > Old Fr. omnimodus . late pronunciation of [§ 47 -enus'^-lnus through sagina {Vok. R. G. Bechtel loi. 484. -udo i^udtneni)'^ -umen (-iimtnem) : consuetudo *costumen. ab olim. as mortificare: e.

in mane. G. PREPOSITIONS. Bon. R. R. in contra. 49. 68. following compounds are of a sic. and Old Sp. and some others similar to them. 235. 233. 232. de sursum. Spr. R. 268. usque hodie. de super. Per. de deorsum. Wolfflin. 437. Haag 75. e contra. and ad. R. Bechtel 102. 203. etc. Lexique 38-47. says da . 484. Bechtel medio. Bon.13.17. de intra. R. de intus. Digitized by Microsoft® . ^ Romance da. compounds. E. 487. in hodie. 484-486 (cf. etc. 75. R. 85. still different nature : ac Per. G. day-.these adverbial Some 40. Substrate III. f. 203. were used as prepositions: ab ante. Cf. Per. 38) says: Ubi semel res inclinata amici de medio. CONJUHCTIONS. dat and from a southern Latin *dadl. Bon. de retro. The sic. de intus. * in semel. de post. in is Archiv I. 433.15. Sardinian dave. G. 484. etc. Bechtel 102. Bechtel 102. It. Bechtel 102. 232. Lat. Per. Lat. Bechtel loi. 426. Bechtel 102. d^ ante. 487. R. * dabe. et at ubi. 40. 39.). 232. et Per. Lexique 48. In any case probably a late product.28. is de+ab. de forts. de sub. de semel. ad — — R. is A compound made up of preposition + noun found in: in giro (followed 102. in by the ablative or the accusative). de inter.. consist of Bechtel 102.8. de contra. Raetian dad from the Oscan da. Spr. G. 203. G.— 49] — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. R. Mohl. dad may be it is the result of a fusion rather than a combination of de Some have thought it came from found from the 7th century on he would derive It. 484. da. Abante. 29 tunc.. doe.19. in ante. Bechtel 102. de retro. in ante. ex tunc. g. 74. Bechtel loi. 23S. 235. of . in contra^ Petronius (Waters Ch. 203. per girum zxiA per giro ^ circa. 72. Slightly different intus in. At ubi and ad ubi. Bechtel 102. Bechtel loi. 232.3. Bon. de magis. Some compounds two prepositions: * de ad {y.

See Meyer-Liibke. Romance puts the emphasis at the end of the sentence. is logical. such as the prepand the word it governs. but psychic. Nevertheless there is really a fundamental difference between the old order and the new: Romance has. as in the "In multis hoc rebus dicere habemus" of Lucretius.II. Spr. Zur Eniwicklung der romanischen Wortsiellitng aus dcr lateinischen. byMicrosoft® . as in Ovid's "In nova fert animus mutatas Neither does it dicere formas /corpora. by this sentence : The ^ ^ old arrangement " Fabius syptax. however. Gram. 1903. or the adjective and the modifies. proceeding from the exemplified The modern order is the known to the unknown." allow the collocation words of the same part of speech that belong logically in different places. from which work most of the matter of Digitized this chapter was taken. for a comprehensive account of Romance See Elise Richter. the difference being due to a diverse conception of the structure of language: Latin places the modifier before. 491). It does not permit the arbitrary- separation of osition noun of it members that belong together. so to speak. a crescendo. and were not characteristic of daily speech. is not primarily rhythmic. Latin in the middle. Latin to a certain extent a diminuendo movement {^Lat. The most irrational features of the Classic Latin construction were surely artifical. SYNTAX/ A. ORDER OF WORDS. Romance more after the word modified. 50. The principle.^ is The Romance order of simpler and more rational than that Classic Latin. Ill.

from the earliest texts down . visitabo et : 52. not imitated from the Greek. 33." "Hasc loca sunt The change constitutes a progress in language . There first.21-24). et fuit ibi quadraginta diebus et quadraginta noctibus" i^Per. angelus meus praecedet te. especially in Cicero. it is to be found in Latin. and for centuries the ancient and the modern type were used side by side. such as a connective or an atonic pronoun {Lat. The following is a good sample of the style of the Vulgate: "Cui respondit Dominus Qui peccaverit mihi. which independently effected the same transformation. Classic Latin may be said to represent an in- termediate stage. Petronius has notably short periods and an approach to the new structure. By the fourth century Here is a characteristic passage the new order prevailed. But until the fourth century the majority of Latin sentences have the old arrangement. 51 • old. 37. delebo eum de libro meo. while the revolution was in progress. in qua filii Israhel commorati sunt his diebus. from the Peregrinatio : "Hasc est autem vallis ingens et planissima. The modern order was not abruptly substituted for the On the contrary." omnia brevia. 490).§ 52] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. It is indigenous in Latin." The following examples illustrate the later structure: "Mors perfecit tua ut essent et natura montuosa impedita ad rem militarem. 34). was always a tendency to put a stressed word followed by an unaccented one. 31 sequatus imperio Hannibalern et virtute et fortuna superiorem vidit. there was a long struggle. all cultivated peoples have made it. quod sanctus Moyses ascendit in montem Domini. it occurs sporadically also in literary authors. hoc peccatum eorum" {Exodus XXXII. in inscriptions and popular writers. Digitized According to Meyer- by Microsoft® . Spr. et due populum istum quo locutus sum Ego autem in die ultionis tibi. tu autem vade. with generally increasing frequency.

I. aiutatemi but or m'aiutate . when unstressed. and adverbs. and sometimes the whole predicate precedes in certain constructions the dependent infinitive may stand before the finite verb (as Pr. B. In a few other respects the old arrangement lingered and under certain conditions is still preserved . it was in the early stages of the Romance languages It. were always enclitic in Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . Cf. precedes its but qui le voit. bonis bonis. Wolfflin 4 bene bene. however. 54- USE OF WORDS. malus malus. and so cf. voit definite article. in late Commodian. Zs. the old order survived longer than in independent. R. and were attached preferably to the first word in the sentence : . of inflections. Fr. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. conjunctions. morir adverbs precede their verb . : negative and intensive under some circumstances the object may come before the verb. §40. personal pronouns.32 Liibke. etc. noun in all the The Romance languages except Rumanian and Albanian (Zauner 40). sitions are There were great changes in the functions of pronouns. volgra). Many uses of prepoconnected with the loss of inflections: these will be discussed under the Use of Inflections. which were naturally of less im- portance. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 53.. 313. In dependent clauses. vedolo but le non lo vedo.For the simplification flections. prepositions. 280. Use of In- Repetition writers : for intensive effect is not uncommon . see the 55. [§ 55 XXI. malum malum. indefinite article developed out of ille A definite and an and unus. fortis fortis.

33 COMPARISON. prceclarum. maxime pessima. plus formosus in Nemasianus. comparative idea. the plus and magis constructions were employed more and more to express a distinct comparison plus : miser in Tertullian. Vitruvius. as omnium levior (Wolfflin 68-71). etc. 280). magis melior. frequently in late and popular writers • For the forms of numerals. etc. Unus was used as an indefinite article. See Archiv VIII. occasionally in : Classic Latin. in Sidonius Apollinaris (Wolfflin 29). etc. plus popularis. Digitized by Microsoft® .. a. 166-170. and the superlative was often really a positive in meaning. b. Commodian. WUMERALS. as Plautus. substitute for the superlative In the Romance languages a was made by prefixing the defiit nite article to the comparative. //wj levior. see Morphology. Finally. 56.. toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period. and also for a positive. Anplus congruus and maxime congruus (Wolfflin 16. BOn.§ 57] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.' lepida 57. old comparative forms remained. 415—417). etc. common Adverbs. magis . . as their precise sense in St. this formation came to be popularly regarded as the regular one: magis mirabilem. To avoid ambiguity. Little by little the old comparative and superlative lost 1 from being employed frequently with merely an intensive force (Wolfiflin 83). as Ovid's inertioratas (Wolfflin 63-68). . (Wolfflin 47). but no example of has been found. plus felix. (Wolfflin 46). 451. melius sanus (Wolfflin 16). plus dulce. From early times certain periphrases were used to emphasize the thiravLS. R. is likely that this device it existed in late Vulgar Latin. etc. Augustine's sancta atque dulcissima (Wolfflin 57-63). Sepulcri 232 . cf. however. in Many use. The comparative came to be used for a superlative. Cf. (R. and in hie estfilius mens carissimus.

Many pronouns developed double forms. Regnier 10. except a few of the smallest. Hoppe 102-103. 48. were apparently not century. ipse. 425 cf. DEMONSTRATIVES. Pronouns were much more used than G. The adverb inde : occasionally as a genitive neuter pronoun came to be used nemo inde dubitat. in Classic Latin : 59. Ordinal numerals. Waters Ch. R. exinde-='¥x. 408-409. were employed as personal pro- nouns of the third person. Bon. 489. Dubois 333-336b. was often replaced by ille and ipse (Bechtel and eventually was preserved in vulgar speech only in 145). Plautus. being replaced by ille For the encroachment of ipse on idem. . Digitized by Microsoft® . the combination eccum {^=ecce eum). . 26. [§ 62 una etc. en. Petronius. Ego and common in Petronius. The personal pronouns came into more and more fre- quent use. too. mulier. PRONOUNS. 403-404.34 . 580. . tu are very 60. suus being generally substituted for ejus. especially ilk. much used in popular speech after the fifth 2. Pseud. . 61. PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. a. An . according as they were accented or unaccented (as suus and sus): see Morphology. Idem went out of popular use. There was great irregularity in the use of reflexives. Cf. Is. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 25. and 104. . Per. adeum una sorella. see Hoppe Bayard 133. 948 accessit unus servus. Spr. . §158. The demonstratives. G. where it was not recog- 62. 58. especially the possessives. See Lat.

Franz. lat. • A combination of two demonstratives was : common in Christian writers iste hie. aquese. R. generally invariable. 646): in Plautus. Hoppe 104. aquesse. came to be used indiscriminately (G. nized. maintains that eceu' was the basis in all the Empire.). atque ipse illie est {^Epidicus 91). Hie. Pg. hie ipse. This last compound was used as a neuter pronoun.^- desso). eeee tu. R. 3 II. eeee nunc. too. 424 (cf. 407.-- ipse ille. Franz. as id ipsum velatn. 424-425. eeee ille. was perhaps used as a prefix (^Gram. G. 35 and in the extremely common phrase idipsum (>It. use. Hie and is. there are examples of iste for hie in Caesar's time (Densusianu 178). At any rate.§ 65] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. with the exception of the neuter hoe. R. Catalan aqueix. ille ipse. Glor. Toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period hie was apparently going out of 63. etc. common 64. Mil. 2. 424. The last three have left no trace. meaning 'it' or 'that. Quillacq 126). §24): hie. were confused by late writers (Bayard 132). ille. however. atque is est (^Stiehus 582). is ipse. too. especially in Spain and southern Gaul. also eeee iste. of the final stage. Atque. eeeu" was some regions. 3 II. II. 25 : " Ubi tu's ? — Eccum. Intorno ai continuatori neolatini del "ipsu-" in Arehivio glottologieo italiano XV. eeee we find early eeee ego." Digitized by Microsoft® . and iste 405-406.' as id ipsum sapite. in id ipsam rem. in id ipsum monastyriu. influenced in 1 Cf Plautus. iste ille. Bayard 130-132). Eeee and eeeum (pronounced eceu) were used as demon- strative prefixes (cf. 2. I. where likewise the id lost its significance. and also as a demonstrative adjective. 65. . is the fusion of the two parts into one word. G. Ascoli. 303 (discussing Sp. common The end Plautus. iste ipse. by atque or ae (as in ac sic). such combinations being until the probably not reached Vulgar Latin period.

quern for quce. 423 {in ipsa multitudine). and pi. became * metipsimus. 8). means infrequent: hie. * ceste. ille lost [§ 69 and their distinctive force. (395-396). 68. . c. it is Furthermore. 427 (iiirum hujic cujus est zona hcBc). Beside ipse. R. 66. pi. * accelle.. for * accuelle. : common Audollent 549.. Bon. with the prefix met-. as n. pi. R. sg. * accueste. sg. ' this ' eccHste or eccu'tste. §24. The ipsemet suffix -met was used also as an intensive prefix. Ille. ipse. 391-396 we find qui used as n. especially ille.. The forms were greatly confused by late writers. 423—425. pi. Petronius: Waters Ch.. tions from the fifth century on Digitized cf. 391-392. becoming metipse through such combinations as temet ipsum {Ecclus. people said for ' ' that eccHlle or eccu'ille. quce as m. 69. were used as personal pronouns of the third person. is was probably more literary than popular. etc. there was an emphatic form ipsimus (used by This. 67. were used also as definite Ille in this function very common: R. This use of ipse.. Quillacq 126-127. the masculine qui tooV in inscriptions. m.. In Bon. XXX. f. * cue lie. Examples of the others are by no R. 419-420 {cito proferte mihi stolam illam primam). as f. 484). is. 276 {qui. guem quis qua very often as n. : the place of the feminine quce it occurs in Christian inscripR. Ille. 36 An When iste Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 22). Spr. as 69. semet ipsum {Philip. n. is. pi. as ace. § 60. * eccuelle. * eccueste. quod as m. is is Cf. hie. Cf. * accesie. In popular speech qui was apparently used regularly for . These compounds developed into * ecceste. II. . * celle.). * cueste and * eccelle. articles. as n.. Ego met ipse is blamed by Donatus {Lat. as ace. ipse. INTERROGATIVES AND RELATIVES. by Microsoft® . hie.

§ 19. 'some' or 'any. Bon. Cf. alques. Cf. G. nemo judical alterum. etc. and alter viere confused in common speech: G. mDEFHTITE PRONOUNS. conjectures *ne inde. gradually encroached on quod: Bon. hdmo was used sometimes like French on: Per. Sardinia. in such phrases as cata unum Kaf tva. Omnis and omnia were kept Digitized by Microsoft® . 394 (^qui f. Zs. alius filius. Archiv I.§ 7i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and Dacia: Lat. and eventually * de unde. alguien. mUltus. Spr. Some Classic Latin pronouns fell into disuse. 55. in Italy. There may have been a neuter *alid. ^ne ipse icnus. *nec ente or *ne ente was apparently used as an equivalent for nihil. moreover. The neuter aliquid was more extended aliqui alius : Pr. cata tres Hence *cata anus. 417. quern Quid. was employed as a relative pronoun. § 84. by Greek merxard Tfth.). 528 a. d. after the model of id. 580. inde came to mean. Beiheft 7. 416. alguem. 393.' > = ^ magis: see plus. *caf itnus. 650. 415-417. cata was probably introduced. chants. 53 {^qui for quce in 70. in Italy. nee unus. 51. Gram. 37 quam). Haag f. 178). 237. 25.). d. omnis: see totus.. 415- in late popular speech are as follows : — aliquanti took the place of aliqui and aliquot: aliquanta oppida aliquis flourished especially in the west: Sp. and f. as a relative. sg. Qualis was kept. cepit. 390-391. Meyer-Liibke. Pg. and some new compounds were made. 485. This confusion is more frequent in late Latin: St. The principal indefinite pronouns 71- and adjectives used G. quid: Archiv I. and was used as an interrogative and The adverb unde came to have occasionally the meaning of French dont (Bon. Plautus. Snus *aliqu'ilnus * alicUnus. *ne^ps^unus. nemo was kept nUllus. II. in certain constructions. G. Jerome. along the Mediterranean. pi. *d'unde.

quts. too. see quantus. also a common pleonastic use of coepi with the in- instead of the perfect: see § 124. There finitive. R. . 109).38 faucus. quique. Unde was employed by Microsoft® in the sense of Digitized . 692. Spr. 415). 345. § 53. Frequent in late Latin Bon. The words referring to the "place in "place into which" were confused. ' anything R. totis horis. Compare the old is Italian use of dovere. pronounced also tottus (S. 488. for eo: Lat. «»w. 414. talis. Cf. tantus replaced quot. was sometimes used for omnis : Plautus. Mil. Cf. iinus. (2). ubi being used for quo. being used for quisquis and quicumque (Bayard res and : res nata = ' anyone '. qualis. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. persona. is often used pleonastically Bayard 99-100. 121) and perhaps *tuttus. ADVERBS. 409-411). . which" and the ibi 73. This use was common in late Latin: Densusianu 178. quanti justi esuriunt. G. tot. 212. custodire debeant. quisque. (St. G. is . Regnier 108-109 {guanto plus quantus. Jerome. 3. quhquis. Quisque was much extended 135). Cf. : 4. § 1 1 7. 691-693: commonens ut 72. There are examples as early as Drager 104. R. tantis lacri- 413-415 qui. ' : (G. 403). tantus totus. 427. G. [§ 73 plus and magis were confused: tenetur tanto plus timetur. a pleonastic use of debeo. 336-337. Videri. 204. Glor. Propertius: Densusianu 179. 338. §§ 163. VERBS. Bechtel 143. Claudian. 402-403 ifota tormenta diaboli in me veniant.

nihil. Regnier The absolute use of non. Hoppe 38): de palatio exit. egredere de ecelesia. multum. R. from the third century ex {Lat.§ 78] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. .). Repetition was used for in- tensive effect: satis Seneca. Plus and magis were used more and more for comparison. 395. 7. 487. semper semper. according to Mohl. for ne with the subjunctive common: G. is Per. cf. 395-396. were employed as intensives more than in Classic Latin. Ad for apud occurs Digitized in Plautus. having been replaced by on. any de. Plus was often substituted for magis. and many other 75- Double negation frequent: R. meaning 'no'. 5. Totum occurs often as an adverb: places. 39 'where' (Zj. Terence. 76. occurs occasionally: Dieit unus ex uno angulo: Eeee hie Alius ex alio angulo: Non. Bechtel 105. . Dubois 332. . 38. and others by Microsoft® . aliquid postulare. and the old comparative and superlative forms became rarer: see § 56. de utero matris nati sunt sic. also 'therefore' and 'where84. Bene. Hoppe 38 . 339. ggressus de area. § 74. The functions of prepositions were very much extended not found in (Bayard 137-158): see Use 77. G. nee de cubiculo . 341 jaspide. 435. Wolfflin 5. . . Non no. and magis for potius: Bayard no. Regnier no. Bechtel 105. . Regnier in. procedit. usurped the place of which also. of Inflections. G. 446-447 {nee is fado est. It apparently has no successors in the Romance languages. Die amice unde tristis es. Beiheft fore': 157). 342 . Cases. Hoppe 78. 37. PREPOSITIONS. sed ecce hie est. R.14. etc. of the Italic dialects except Latin. Lexique 43. Spr. is Ab. muri de lapide de adversario vivo de deeimis. G.

est oratio. Hoppe Hoppe ' 41. [§ 80 (Oliver 5-6). aveCj not from apud + hoc. La preposition cum et ses successeurs en gallo-roman in Bausteine 61. Severus. but Pr. Bechtel 104. Digitized by Microsoft® .?. being. Circa. and cum for apud in Gregory of Tours. 75-76). derive the Mohl would Old It. and more frequently by later authors: Lat. ab he takes from apud. 343 .. cum probably disappeared from actual use in Gaul by the fourth century. § 14). where ab seems Apud is used for cum by Sulpicius to be used for apud).' and replaced ob and propter : fides pro una muliere perfida. 489. Bechtel 106 super anima commendatus. but was substituted lor'per in other regions (Urbat 34-35)80. pro memoria illius. apud is repeatedly found for cum in the Latin writers of Gaul. G. 343. had a great vogue country. but from ad hoc from Italic Pr. ' : Juxta often signified acjuxta consuetudinem. as he says. appo. Spr. am. to supplant a critical period for Gaul. apud. Hoppe 37. ad post (p. Bechtel 103. ' . 40 An Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. Urbat 10): ad ipsum fontem facta cf. in authors of the second and third centuries. G. .^ 79. a new word. Mohl. Bechtel 106. 71) Fr. etc. 390-392. and so came cum in that Pro often had the sense of 'for. except in Gaul. replaced by ad. volo pro legentis attendimus locum ilium facilitate abuti sermone vulgato. Urbat 27 {tractans apud me metipsum.27- in late writers (R. G. in the Empire. and common Fer. Pro itself was partially replaced by per (cf. also ab una manu pallas altaris tenerem. but from * (pp. not from apud. Bechtel 105 juxta drachmcB cording to exemplum. According to F. frequently meant 'concerning': frustrati circa veritatem. Super sometimes replaced de: fallere vos super hanc rem. 37. ad For the most part apud-^-a. 42.. am amb. where it was kept with the sense of cum: Haag 74. nos.

24. often supplanting quando. and was . . 8. and 'wherefore': G. 'when'. aut is sometimes equivalent to et . . foras were freely used as prepositions (R. 46. Bechtel 119-120. 399. 403-405. Bayard 161. cf.' § 84] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. G. vade retro me. 431-432. etc. 84. quia. and quoniam : R. Quod. subtus. Cur. R. Ut 82. meaning 'and so' or 'so': 40. 13. rm\c\\ used in the sense of that ' : Per. CONJUNCTIONS. &'took the place of a« and utrum (R. he. de forts. and many other places Bon. in most cases. Peregrinatio : Qua. ^. quare sometimes replaced ^«^^and quia: G. 334): subtus terram.. etc. . : R. Tamen in the grinatio. 39. 399. which in late Latin was often reduced to qui or qua (see § 168) frequently took the place of quod: Regnier 111-112. in). quasi: Per. 424 {unde inquit Dominus). .) seems to be used. . 445-446. merely Magis is much employed to indicate a subordinate clause. ' ' ' Digitized by Microsoft® . 403. Quia. 430): videte si Ac si frequently did service for potest did. temporal sense. same text (37. 398-400. forts. encroaches on quando in the 22. Regnier 11 2-1 13. 73. Unde sometimes means therefore for but by late writers. 48. ut : R. with the infinitive «/ is is : not infrequent 549. Ac sic recurs continually in the Pere49. Aut cf. Regnier in. etc. Quod to for very common AudoUent ' £0 quod cdLiae 27. cf. Regnier often used for ne and num (G. §§ 70. 402. Quomodo became a great favorite. 323. et: Per. etc. 41 81. Quando displaced cum in the quod. 6. 83. guoniam {^SMddlt&r Jubere. R. Retro. Eventually ut was generally discarded. 427—428) are used very often by late writers instead of the accusative and infinitive construction: R.

Arimtnt> Rimini. plural in Andecavis > Flntbus > Fimes. 8$. the locative was replaced by in with the ablative (Hoppe 32 in Alexandria) or by ad with the accusative (Urbat 10). ut Clusil~^ Chiusi. ' " Cf. USE OF INFLECTIONS. In popular speech prepositions were more used. The locative. 1. larity in the . and very often with place names also. the domi or domo of Cicero becomes in domo in Seneca. R. remained eventually missa Anastasi. Quillacq 96- for African Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . however. who occasionally uses the accusative for the dative and the ablative. of the locative ablative singular in Ttbiiri^ Tivoli . constructions. several examples Bechtel no. There is confusion even in Petronius. Florentice^ Firenze. only in names of places. 174-176 . and the use of cases became more and more 103 restricted.. Palestina (G. 412-415.1 42 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Archiv VIII. of the locative ablative Angers. Pirson 169-202. Aquis Acqui Aix. Hence employment arises in late writers a great irregu- of cases^: G. LOCATIVE. rare in Classic Latin. Cf. 86. than in the literary language. Bianchi With other words. Partsiis > > Parigi Paris. etc. in the Peregrinatio fit : There find are. [§ 86 C. B. for confusion after verbs and adjectives. et sic fit missa ecclesitz. CASES. from prepositional the beginning. 322). 302-326. it generally came to be regarded as an inin Archivio glottologico italiano IX. : > etc. as time went on. We remnants of the locative geni- tive in Agrigentt> Girgenti. Astis Asti. 378. When the locative of names of localities was kept. a. increasingly took the place of pure case distinctions. etc.

Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and Livy. de studentibus. partem de istius impudentia. For the partitive genitive we find: nil 53. R. VOCATIVE. neminem de prcesentibus. In Vulgar Latin the vocative form probably disappeared entirely. vocatives in -us. domine. the genitive probably ceased to be really popular. de aceto plenum. . Lat. etc. save in set combinations. Plautus. possessor de propria terra. quid de scientia. c. Spr. Hoppe 38. except perhaps in a few set phrases. Terence Heaut. II. R. the nominative in most words in and such words as had a separate vocative form is like it : tended to discard Plautus. 89. gustabit de meo.' -P^r. Pirson 194. sometimes by the dative. 342 numquid Zacchaus de bono habebat. 12. 426. generally . lumine. R. According to Meyer-Liibke. Bon. occur in mens for mi is very common (Regnier 34). de nostris bonis. Sepulcri 217. bus gentilibusque multitudo magna (also quidam ex Acts 4. 528 a. IV.. 40. abound: expers partis Verr. XVII.. curator de sacra via. such Horace. 396. R. little by constructions. i. 1. 396. terminus de nostra donatione. de oleo. aliquid habet de verecundia discipuli.10. Regnier 54. Pir. de coleritieis). cf. de spiritu Moysi. 87. Oliver 14. The vocative Classic Latin.§ 89] An . R. Cicero. as mi 88. 39. clerici de ipsa ecclesia. . Bechtel 104. de Deo munus. Bechtel 104. instead of -e. was supplanted by other by the ablative with de (which occurs Examples as early as Plautus). 43 variable form we find such locatives used as nominatives : from the third century on Lat. Archiv I. de sorore nepus. son 197. The genitive. de pomis =^som& apples. Spr. 396. d. little. GENITIVE. 487. 481. Digitized by Microsoft® . b. 6ioff. Cf. Urbat 20. Hoppe 38. 628 aliquid de . cited by Draeger I. de animalibus.

ad me ad Dei officio paratus. ad me magna nuntiavit. in a words that belonged especially to clerical Latin. however. Lat Spr. It.44 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Dominus ad restituit Moysen dicit. 1. ad id templum data erit.. g. Bon. 135. Fieri. mart maribus). G. D'Arbois 91-93. de noctis cHjus. etc. form either with the ablative or with the genitive (e. some pronouns. and probably in some proper names: lUna dies. ad omnem injuriam im330.. in honore . Varro. in good many set phrases. : Zs. dicens ad eum. matre mece. DATIVE. a tendency by the accusative with ad: ad carnuficem dabo. IX. inscription of 57 B. a. Spr. De Re Rustica I. est ministerit. apparet ad agricolas. causa causis. Plautus. 329. D'Arbois 13 alme Maria. Bechtel 104. si pecunia most nouns and in the plural of all. Pirson Digitized omne regnum. G. Sepulcri 218. The dative was more Lat. In late Latin a wrong form was often used a deo honorem in an inscription in Gaul. alta node silentia.. 194. in most of the Empire : ait ad me. loquitur ad Jeremiam. . muro muris. True. 487. the fear of ambiguity naturally fostered this practice and the dative. etc. Bechtel 103. 13. . 329. XXV. Spr. ange- lorum. '^^^ hcec affectionem darem. 4. Per. ad quern dixit. as early as Plautus. tempore > It. in the singular of was identical in substitution became very general 64. Capt. 488. Paoli. = went to the bishop'. find. 40. in certain . illujus. IV. etc. [§ 90 by the beginning of the third century. stable than the genitive: 90.. etc.. G. patiens. di notte tempore (later di notte tempo). C. fui ad episcopum etc. etc. ad propinquos restituit. I.C. ii. illorum. Cf. etc. ad quern promissio facta. Livy II. The genitive was retained. 341—342 in /undo ilia villa. 3513. paganorum. Urbat 12. Inasmuch as the Plautus. Urbat 12. 1019. S. We it to replace however.. ad vestram 'I Bechtel 102-103. Oliver by Microsoft® . L..

tibi. Hoppe. Bechtel de contumelia sua. G. 337.). de manibus suis. de te beati sunt. to distinguish its various functions. 92. cited by WolfHin $2. illui tilt. The dative remained in Dacia. 641. super was used: imposuerat manus me misericordiam prastare. Hoppe 33. Regnier . Sometimes super eum.§ 92] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Regnier 54. Ex R. Regnier 51 . in its original function and also as a genitive. ab sceleribus parce. digni de cmlo Castores. Bechtel 104 (cf. Spr. ex infirmitate fatigata. elsewhere it probably disappeared from really popular speech by the end of the Empire. Cyprian. Hoppe 105). Hoppe 33 . c. Hoppe 33. and so in 91. de vestra rideat CBmulatione. Digitized by Microsoft® . Bechtel 104. Rumanian has kept the dative. De is : Hoppe 14. 56. favored the use of prepositions with the ablative. esse. nobilior de obsoletiore matrice. reinforced by the analogy of prepositional substitutes for the genitive and dative. Bechtel 105. R.. ab a prcemio minorem scriptura sancta commemoratos.' see Zs. de- ceptus. occurs also: ex causa humana salutis.G. in the first declension (as case). 339-342. ab Ariulfi astutia the most frequent erubescens de infamia sua. XXX. etc. 426. Regnier 54-56. St. not ad. 36. Sepulcri 218. 392-395. de se. and lingered rather late Gaul (Za/. etc. occidam de lancea. 335. Ab common : ab omni specie idololatrice intactum. 45 3-4. Hoppe Hoppe 34. de singularitate famosum. 34. Hoppe 36. Cf. 35. 393 patrem de regno privavit. except in pronouns {cici. 481). super. in feminine adjectives (as romine). G. gaudet de victus necessitate causatur. de oculis. a came superatur. de virgine natus est. The analytical tendency of speech. is For de= 'than. ABLATIVE. R. ml. Sepulcri 218. Bechtel 105.

Regnier 60. and that the ablative and accusative singular were pronounced alike. caput desecare. the accusative being used in J 95- There is evidence of the confusion of accusative and first ablative as early as the century. after the fall of final m and the of quantitative distinctions in unaccented syllables. Sepulcri 218 pugnare ad ursos. in most of the Latin territory. epistolam. K. in illo die. : [§ 95 often found . donum dono. Hoppe 33. 488. The accusative form substituted for the ablative after by Microsoft® Digitized .46 An In is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 5. but very common before the third. in camo amore Dei 9 in bonis operibus abundetis. per nomen vocavit. diem die. ferventes. discenies. quo in tempore. ad horam sextam aguntur. fructum fructu. 488. Cf. its stead. G. etc. 344-347. Bechtel 103. 347 R. 397 . for the ablative: . Bechtel 95 . the little ablative differed or not at all from the accusative in the : singular of most words causam causa. Spr. Spr. 263. etfreno maxillas eorum constringe. E. Hoppe 31 . The fusion of the two cases was doubtless helped by the fact that certain prepositions might be combined with either accusative or ablative. G. patrem It is likely that before the patre. .. ad diem. XXXI. cum res nostras. cum Cf. 94. Cum cum it was probably not with the accusative is very frequent: cum suos Lat. in inscriptions. Ps. Regnier 58 Hoppe 31 in maxilla asina delevi mille vires. Sometimes ad ov per with the accusative is substituted per hoc. ad unum gladii ictum 93. sodales. R. . Lat. late The use of prepositions became really neccessary in the loss spoken language. in fif. D'Arbois footnote 27.396-397. Bechtel 103-104. in aU words. of the Empire the ablative plural end form was generally discarded. Rand in is Modem Philology II. because.

etc.6—412. however. Bechtel 99 lunca. probably in some expressions. Bechtel 100. is Conversely. the ablative form very often written for . in correct use of in etc.. de.. The some fixed expressions. cib fatto. — Bechtel 96 — . — — — foras in came conversa. ante sole. D'Arbois 27 de rigna nostra. Bechtel 94—101 venit in civitate sua. ad . etc. per valle and 21 other cases of /ifr+abl. perhaps in such phrases as It. Bechtel 96 de martyrium. . R. intro spe- — lectione. . Bechtel 95.. generally. 406-412... 96. etc. 8). D'Arbois 70-71 ex fines R. puteo. post . pari mente. etc. 47 other prepositions: a monazonies. 410. such as hora. was kept only in etc. . 58.. etc. et bene- dicens nos episcopusprofectisumus. Bechtel xoo\ post morte. Hoppe 40-41 12 examples of in + ace. ecclesia majore. that the ablative absolute survived in a few common 1 like It. for ace. Bechtel 99 . its place : Bechtel 09-1 1 o. de eo torrentem. circa Bechtel 95 . anno. Bechtel 99. Bechtel loi.. Bechtel 94. Waters Ch. . etc. 406-412. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ilia. pro nos. R. Bechtel 95 contra ipso loco. R. sine fructum. . -juxta aqua ipsa. It is likely. . de ipsas . videbo te in publicum. R. etc. is three times as common as the + ace. in Per. Bechtel 96. R. + abl. ablative ist' 97. Bechtel loi — propter populo. proper names with as Delia Casa. D'Arbois 152. vendere cento soldi.. Bechtel loi. Bechtel 94 ante sole. infinem Deus fecit ccelum et terram. medium maris.. — prope super civitate hac.— — — § 97] — —— — . the accusative ante cruce. etc. Bechtel 96 de hoc ipsud. Digitized by Microsoft® . 406-412. — intra civitate sua. . visa loca sancta omnia {Per. Bechtel 96 de actus. R. Bechtel loi . . etc. .. 406-412... for abl. luce. quomodo. the nominative absolute took 45. Bechtel 97-98 erat in villas. too. ecclesia. — : pro hoc ipsud. 406-412. in popular speech. de camem. Hoppe 40-41 in the Per. 40. tuos.

cordance with their idea of correct Latin. FALL OF DECLENSION. 327. 103. by the infinitive: as cum Digitized by Microsoft® . Many parts of the verb went out of popular use. from use. VERB-FORMS. 100. sometimes in. in the rest of the Empire only two —a nominative and an accusativenaturally tried to write in ac- ablative. fui ad ecdesiam. ad Babyloniatn duxit. Bechtel 103. omatus est. Regnier 52. (i) Supine. were replaced by other locutions. Cf. Waters Ch. ad isfam Duration of time was expressed by per with the ac- cusative. many new tendencies manifested them- IMPERSONAL PARTS. per iotos octo dies etc. ^i. After verbs of motion ad was often used. however. these obsolete parts were employed by writers with more or less inaccuracy. 98. infinitive 102. Regnier 51-52. 2. a. Clerics. also is by the ablative Bechtel : 1 08-9. regionem venit. g. [§ 103 ACCUSATIVE. consules ad Africam profecti sunt. In the parts that remained selves. 99. 328. G. being recentury on.48 An Introduction f. tota autem nocte vicibus dicuntur p salmi. The supine disappeared from general the first placed. instead of the simple accusative: eamus in forum. By the end of the Vulgar Latin period there probably remained in really popular use (aside from pronouns and a number of set formulas) in Dacia only three cases. G. and 101. Only the present active and the present and perfect participles were left intact. to Vulgar Latin.

and Tacitus. etc. 432—433. 8. came to be replaced With the exception by the sometimes with a prep- osition: dat manducare. : sic legendo. Future Active Participle. qui pertransivit benefaciendo et Cf. Cf. 4.. 363. 386R. Spr. quomodo potest hie nobis camem dare ad manducare. took the place of a relative cIzms^: faveant mihi pro Cf. Terence. Lat. Digitized by Microsoft® . R. it was probably rare in late was used with esse as a substitute Sometimes. Sermones 225. 490. however. hanc Marcion captavit errando. Spr. from the third century on. St. (4) 106. 57. the i. G. assurgens popu- lando. 389. ex- cept in some standing phrases. of the ablative form. potestatem curare. the gerundive was discarded. in a literary 388—389. conciendo ad se multitudinem. for the future (as facturus sum). In Rumanian. it The future active participle Vulgar Latin. Augustine. 432. 430. R. V. cites Livy.§ io6] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 847-849. 490. Dubois 275. (2) 104. in place of the future: with 388. Lat. 2. as a future passive participle. G. 433. the supine was preserved: Tiktin 596. however. 433-434. except when style. Densusianu sanando. The gerundive was used est. R. R. Hoppe multa vidi sometimes used for a conditional clause cavendo salvi erimus. esse. G. ejus nomine pugnaturo. Gerund. G.erund infinitive. Draeger II. Hoppe 105. The ablative form of the gerund substitute for the present participle: ita miserrimus tando. became more and more a fui fugiet Eun. necessitas tacere. 57 179. Jilius hominis tradendus Cf. Eventually. Cap. The ablative gerund was . 49 veneris ad bibere. (3) Gerundive.

Sometimes it was employed periphrastically with esse: G. legitur dixisse Deus. 431-432 {malunt credidisse. but often by a clause in- troduced by quia. 383 . however. quod. Verbs that had no perfect participle were obliged to make one. G. 371-375. Late writers. The present participle was kept.. de corpore loquor. G.the was replaced sometimes by the passive. no. however. 108. (licent eo quod filii Israhel eas posuerint. G.50 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. perspicue exposuit quod ager nesciebat quia Jesus erat. (5) [§ no Present Participle. mundus sit. and was used as an : adjective -ans. 389. etc.). (6) Perfect Participle. quoniam. si ipse est ascendens in ccelos. The perfect participle was kept. credidit ei quia esset vere Jilius Dei. its use was greatly extended through new methods of forming the passive and the perfect tenses. sciens quod — libenter haberetis hcec cognoscere. 109. it for a relative clause: it Often. by Microsoft® . as will presently be seen. nemo mentiens plorat. and as a noun see Derivation. 371. Bon. It more avoided from . is disappeared: see Voice and Tense below. 659-671. Writers occasionally substituted 388. 377. often misused the infinitive + accusative: Digitized G. G. wishing to avoid vulgarisms. The perfect and passive infinitive forms eventually In late writers. ut spiritu valeatnon ignoramus. scribitur. etc. 107. 385. ut. and. the perfect instead of the present infinitive very common: R. (7) Infinitive. etc. G. was replaced by the ablative gerund: see Gerund above. 371-373. The infinitive + accusative construction was more and third century on: G. : Eva vidisse de- G. 375-385. Suffixes for Adjectives. Cf. Bechtel 112—115. Regnier 63.

Regnier 73. ipsum vivere accedere est. Hoppe 60 mors salva erit cum fuerit devorata. 42. the other hand. Bon. of the popular formation . G. Hoppe 60. G. Regnier 73. I. revertitur omnis populus resumere se. Regnier 106. some examples may be culled from late writings: denuo factus filius fui. G. per velle perdidit bonum posse. quce legi digna sunt. etc. venit aliquis audire. VOICE. facere. b. 51 111. ' 112. conjectus in carcerem fuerat. 490. Bechtel 117. non habent unde reddere tibi.§ 112] An On Introduction to Vulgar -Latin. Regnier 74 mihi prcecepit hac loqui. amant ignorare. Regnier 106.. cited in Lat.. 430. 647. G. see Draeger was made up and. 366. to Under the ' influence of carus '. . to of the perfect participle ern Italy y?^). Thielmann. Bon. Hoppe 61. some the — except the perfect gerundive — gradually + esse (in north- disappeared from ordinary speech. It Hoppe malum tions: replaced the subjunctive with ut and similar construcvadent orare. Cf. Spr. 673. 177. G. 368. est. aliter exprimere non est. functions: see Supine bonus et dicere et facere. etc. It took the place of a relative or indirectly interrogative after certain verbs: clause nesciendo qua petere. amatus est came Hence amatus fuit signified he Then a whole passive in2 76ff. Facere mit dem Infinitiv in Archiv III. Regnier Digitized 63. 671-675. mean he was loved': flection is loved etc. Hoppe 42-52: Ninus regnare primus. the infinitive assumed many new and Gerund above. It wias often used as a noun: totum vivere anima carnis est. up the classic practice as far as they were Although authors kept able.. male fecisti dare Spiritum sanctum. Bechtel 117: valeamus assumi. participle The old passive forms extent. Cf. P. R. Venantius Fortunatus. 363. 363-370. non venit justos vocare. 370. timuisti . permissa est accedere. by Microsoft® .

see c. for the use of 25. Even in Classic Latin there is often hesita- tion. I'er. se sanare ^= sanari in the 4th century. In the intermediate period the passive was frequently replaced by reflexive and active constructions. etc.. In negative commands the imperative was often placed by the subjunctive. 490. 117. by the indicative (found in Pirminius). and also for the first.52 113. Gaul. 455. Dubois 275 notes that the forms in -0 are very rare in Ennodius. homo with the force of French on. etc. Bechtel 126. [§ 117 the passive inflection disappeared. as in the case oi frusirare frustrari. The subjunctive was limited to fewer functions. Many deponent course. the subjunctive being used for the third person. and in Italy. sequi. Regnier 69. XXXII. scribitur When littera seemed archaic. and Dacia by the infinitive: Zat. who lived in southern Gaul in the fifth century. and littera scripta est vulgar. 115. (2) Subjunctive. -At the end of the Vulgar Latin period it in popular speech. Bechtel 115 si scire vultis quid facitis. Cf. MOOD. In late vulgar speech mori. etc. 55. Spr. (i) Imperative. irascere irasci. being replaced by the indicative in many . much as it is used by Microsoft® . Rom. 114. verbs are used as active verbs by Petronius. An As Introduction to Vulgar Latin. very Digitized was probably used. people said littera se scribit and litteram scribunt or litteram scribit homo: ct. re- 116. constructions: cum hi omnes tarn excelsi sunt. The imperative came to be restricted to the second person singular and plural of the present. deponent verbs became active. followed the same Bonnet 402-413. facit se hora quinta.

ples. used freely for the imperfect by isset. 418. Regnier 68-71. 428-430. cf. 489). in indirect In conditions not contrary to tive discourse and indirect questions. Cf. Spr. 431 cites many examtimui ne inter nos bella fuissent orta. It apparently began with debuvoluisset. The pluperfect : imperfect subjunctive gradually gave way to the Bellum Africanum {^Lat. 489: examples from the 4th century). late writers often put the subjunctive where Classic authors would have put the indicative: G. 53 in the Romance Late writers. its G. R. etc. and with perthis use is common in the fect infinitives like tacuisse for tacere {Lat. 355-357. imperfect subjunctive ultimately went out of use. as In Rumanian the pluperfect subjunctive has assumed the show uncertainty function of a pluperfect indicative 119. exWriters of the third and fourth centuries cept in Sardinia. : cdntdse. •a. Sometimes. Regnier 27-28. potuisset.§ 119] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin.iX. were less logical and evidently less spontaneous than Classic authors in their employment of the subjunctive. § III. while trying to follow the traditional practice. 357-362- (118. Sittl 133-134. § 72. Gregory the Great (Sepulcri 226) and others. G. the indicative was often substituted for the subjunctive: R. in dependent clauses that are not adversa- nor dubitative. The in the use of it. On the other hand. Cf. etc. languages. ecce Pater fecit Filium nasci de fact. Sometimes the subjunctive was replaced by deieo with the infinitive: debeant accipi = accipiantur. Digitized It was apparently confused with was thus preserved in Spain by Microsoft® . The perfect subjunctive the future perfect indicative. place was taken by the infinitive: vergine.&x facio. Spr.

Digitized Bon. 537-538. 619. 414-415. Crescini in d. ff. habeo deliberatum.54 An in Italian i. junctive. collocatas habent. yarf«»2 habeo. Draeger 295. rationes cognitas habeo. In Classic Latin habeo with the perfect participle was used to express a lasting condition: Hannibal quia fessum It was militem praliis operibusque habebat. For the imperfect and pluperfect subsee. episcopum invitatum habes. Part. 376. Plautus. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 535 is . perf. Fart. 28. XXIX. Fart. however. pecunias magnas 294. perf. perf. see § 118. 405. In late Lastin this compound often had simply a peribi vos meaning: metuo enim ne habeam fatigatos. however. Part. [§ 122 and Bausteine Cf. for the perfect subjunctive. Regnier Cf. fect 294-295. quid Athenis exquisitum habeam. by Microsoft® . I. indicative 120. perf 415. perfect. scriptum habeo. I. perf 372 . used in the same Part. way with Even adjectives: miserum habere. 423. 690. etc. in legal phraseology. re- Fart. perf. in general. which led also to thS formation of a new perfect and pluperfect subjunctive. TENSE. De Lollis in Zs. 689-691. Draeger 122. ilia omnia missa habeo. In the and future perfect indicative great changes took place. (i) The Perfect Tenses. 121. dialects: cf. The present and imperfect and the present subjunctive remained. § 119. perf ^11. Densusianu 181. The . Sallust. or something akin to it: Cato the elder. 516. construction very common in Cicero in a sense that closely approaches the perfect: satis . perf. cf.. Draeger I. the mean- ing of this locution began to shift to the perfect. with their old functions. 518-521. Fart. C. § 117. Tiktin 596. and Rumanian and V. pluperfect. Fart. future. compertum ego habeo. § 124. omnis res lictas habeo. Bon. in Classic Latin.

perfect bant. Some late writers were fond of :\ substituting for Cf. with the force of a future indicative or subjunctive. and continued to be used. Old French Sainte Eulalie. Digitized by Microsoft® . its vogue began in Gaul in the fifth century.. tional function. XXIX. etc. 543. Sepulcri 227. 620). si Dominum iratum haberes. and in the Italian /ora -Cfueram. etc. the old perfect meaning was not entirely lost. 489. pouret. gener ally with the aorist sense. The old perfect form remained in popular use. however. § 72. 70. 123. with esse. The old future perfect was apparently confused with the perfect subjunctive. in the Spanish peninsula. but still lingered. auret. in some southern Italian dialects (notably in the Rosa in the fresca aulentissima). transalaret in etc. boltier' in the Old The condiItalian Ritmo Cassinese (^Zs. : quam semper cognitam habui. I [ sometimes with its original sense. 124. 537. The old pluperfect indicative became rarer. it cxpi with an infinitive: Waters Ch. In the Spanish peninsula. Regnier the sixth: Part.. The preterit use occurs in dixerat. and to some extent in Italy. in the case of neuter verbs. Fart. a compound pluwas constructed Cicero. On the model of this new perfect. Eventually an entire perfect inflection was built up with habere or. quas in cerario conditas habeDraeger I. which supplanted more and more the original was increasingly confined to its aorist Lat Spr. sometimes as a preterit.§ 124] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. In the same way a future perfect was made: de Ccesare satis dictum habebo. 294. sometimes as a conditional. perf. was preserved in Spanish. the Gl. which came down from the Classic Latin use in conditional sentences. furet. Reich. it 55 In popular speech function: perfect form. perf. ortaret. elsewhere . in Proven9al. 541.

in late pronunciation. These causes or others made the future unpopular. [§ 126 dialects of Italy. (2) 125. dormibo forms were kept late {Futurum 161). Bechtel 90-91. gations. Furthermore.— S6 in An some Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Old Sp. the formation in —bo. PL 141-142. The substitution si vis ecce ire became frequent in all sorts of constructions: nam modo pedibus duco vos ibi. errors as respondeam for respondebo (^Futurum 158). only in Rome and the immediate vicinity. the future in the first two conjugations was suggestive of the imperfect. The old pluperfect subjunctive was used as an imperfect: see § 118. corrigis. Pr. delenda est. cum volueris et imus tecum ostendimus tibi. was native. quando 64. Bechtel 112. Regnier Cf. which The Latin mistakes were made in writing: Vok. Cf. which approached the meaning of the future. § 119. Future and Conditional. Bechtel 112. As the tense became rare in speech. and in Dacia: Sp. 286 ff. During the Empire there was a strong tendency to substitute these or other constructions Classic Latin turus sum. inquis. was liable to confusion with the present subjunctive and indicative. Sepulcri 225-226. qiiando mutarisi eras. pervidet. Regnier viii. 98. and in the other two. I. jam crastina non eximus. Draeger I. had some circumlocutions. such as fachabeo dicere. Pers. Sepulcri 225. for the future forms (such periphrases are particularly fre- quent in African church Latin) : (1) The present indicative for the future is common in Cicero in conditional sentences: Lebreton 188-190.. according to Mohl. cantdre. and we find such 126. The old audibo. cantdro. Digitized by Microsoft® . future was not uniform in the four conjuwas used in three of them and prevailed in two.

106. R. mandare habewas very common in late writers: Hoppe 43 filius Dei mori habuit. venire habet. G. . venire + infinitive were used also. it many others. i.. This habeo construction dare habet finally took the sense of a simple future: Tertullian.. Regnier 29. or Digitized by Microsoft® . . 449 Regnier 28. 129. Hoppe 44 it . R. in multis hoc . See §§ 105. Cf. I 127. nee verba nobis ista did habent. I. Densusianu 181 in Italy . 423. etc. Augustine. Rustica 5. ( ^w^ was a favorite with late nos futuri sumus resurgere. Cicero. . 447 multa habeo dicere. Futurum 180. R. Cf. the oldest Rumanian future is voiujurd or Jurd vom: Tiktin 599. ire.— Servius. Hoppe 44 nan habent retribuere. tantum habeo Lucretius VI. The form that prevailed. 448 exire habebat. etc. debeo dicere: tibi polliceri. 447-449. It had become common by the sixth In the early stages of the Romance languages. later. bam. (4) Debere kept in Sardinian. St. + + It was 5) Vadere. 370. infinitive: In Classic Latin habeo habeo quod dicam. In these senses habes spectare. Varro. qui nasci habent. was habeo with the dicere ^=:. I. as in Sueto- means I. 128. Velle in this sense was preserved in Dacia. Ovid. Jerome. quam evenire haDeus corpus. however. Futurum 48 ff. aliter prcedicantur bent. Ad Famil.. 28. frobare non habent. 123. being so used by Cicero and nius. rebus dicere habemus. . et sicnihil tuis. § 129] An The Introduction to Vulgar Latin. R. 447 unde mihi dare habes aquam vivam. Cf. 57 (2) future participle writers: stc et Bayard 256. . . cui velle habet. Hoppe 44-45 . I. videre habetis. — St. De Re ut id mihi habeam curare. Regnier century. infinitive was another substitute. 711. R. (3) Velk and /^w^ + infinitive were frequent: G. habes invenire in manibus — tollere habet. Trist.

Haag See Morphology. So it seems to be used by Tertullian. something like si potuissem venire habebam or habui was called for. an imperfect of the was constructed. in place of amassem the conclusion of a conditional sentence. garius: Justinianus dicebat 'daras'. Finally the two words were fused into one. to match such a sentence as venire habebat or habuit. The earliest examples of the Romance future are found in Fredeyet. Bayard 256. 489. or conditional. In Classic Latin. Quillacq 116. it was natural that amaturus eram should give m way to bam. just before the habeo. Hilary seem to show a simple conditional use of the compound: quod lex nova dari haberet. though not immutably. Digitized by Microsoft® . Hoppe 43-45. amare habedicit quod like dixit si possum venire habet. [§ 130 possibly in the latest stage of Vulgar Latin. new form. etc. Furthermore. Haag 54. where it was employed with an implication of obligation or necessity. ista civitas esterminari haberet quod esset venturus et 130. amaturus eram or fui was often used and when amaturus sum was replaced by amare habeo. St.. Bayard 257. but this union was not completed until after the beginnings of the Romance literatures. ready for use. fazel-o-he. there quod was needed a past construction and corresponding to venire habeo. in Classic Latin.— 58 . addarabo. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. separation is common in Old Provencal. Herodes principes sacerdotum ubi nasci habebat Christus interrogat. manifestari habebat. On the model of this future. and in Portuguese it is not completed Old Sp. although sometimes with him the meaning borders on a real conditional: non traditus autem traduci habebas. the infinitive came to stand regularly. The phrase existed. Cyprian and St. 55. and occurs in Old Italian Pg. pati haberet. . There are sure examples from the fifth century on: Lat. cantare or he cantar. Spr.

§ 130] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cintareasH. form in the Romance languages see in general. for a discussion of the question. The ')ie origin of the full Rumanian conditional. see H. of this 59 The development as. not' bvious. XXVIII. Tiktin. 691. Digitized by Microsoft® . parallel to that of the future: Moris hology. Bildung des rumanischen Konditionalis in Zs.

pro-pter. Spr. poets may or may not make tinebrcB. supporting it with purely theoretical considerations. 132-151. in-fans. as in Italian. it In the Classic I. PHONOLOGY. a-mnis. made position an^ attracted the accent: perfSc-tus. that a consonant group.III. Quintilian 5 recom- mends vdlucres. except a mute + a liquid. or in half of a double consonant: a-ni-ma. or in a liquid or nasal followed by another consonantin the next syllable. al-ter. however. It is altogether likely. position. The Latin grammarians seem to have given no heed to actual speech. but to have followed the usage of Greek spelling. fact. SYLLABICATION. S. According to these writers. In Vulgar Latin this : combination almost invariably attracts the accent cathidra. and not pirfe-ctus. 131. in the spoken language. etc. A. prop-ter. Cf. 466. no-ctem. It is likely that in Old Latin the division came before the Digitized by Microsoft® . The principles of syllabic division are rather difficult to establish. The division of j + consonant they regard as uncertain {a-s- trum)\ doubtless in reality the s was nearly syllabic. 132. They add In point of that etymological considerations often disturb the operation of the rule. The group mute + liquid makes position in the older dramaafter the first : : tists : Nsevius accents integrant. as in ob-liviscor. all consonant groups. mit-to. then. Lat. sic-cus. was usually divided consonant noc-tem. etc. A single consonant between vowels certainly went with the second po-si-tus. the syllable always ended in a vowel. phdretra.

Old Fr. PRIMARY STRESS. have seen that Vulgar Latin regularly accents according to the Classic quantitative accentuation. 30-34. Old Fr. cor exsultat = co r-exsultat. inUgram. computo. We speech a that final have reason to believe that in closely connected consonant was carried over to the next word. : We — a. through the Classic period even after the distinctions of quantity were lost.. In the earliest stage of the language appar- ently fell on the first syllable: Corssen II. § 136] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. unchanged: bonitatem. if that syllable as early as and remained. 133. the accent falling on the e Digitized by Microsoft® . ACCENT. Franz. pi. § 132) normally has the stress in Vulgar Latin: cathedra. when immediately followed by the 136. ing to which the accent The falls Classic Latin system — accordis on the penult long. both consonants were carried over lub-ra. co-lu-bra. Accented vowel of the penult. and perhaps : some othfc. 13. however. co-liib-ra. The penult vowel before mute + liquid (cf. 892-906 S. both in the literary and in the spoken language. if : word began with a vowel B. and /. had become fixed : 6i liquid. There seem to be a few exceptions to the rule palpres < pdlpebras. after the accent on cd- the preceding vowel. but subsequently. I. poltre < *pullitra. the beginning a it 134. VOWELS m HIATUS. colubra. otherwise on the antepenult — developed . some cases in which the Classic principle fails to operate or the Classic stress has been shifted 135. delicto. There are. The Latin accent was probably from regularly stress accent. the place of the accent was literature began. became y.

paries. crededi. So 54 . displtcet>*displdcet. Cf. Here the shift was apparently due in each case to analogy. 137. presteti. habuerunt by hdbuit. On the same plan new verbs were formed: *de-minat. the accent on the preceding syllable: bat{^t)iiere'>* bdtty^ere'> bdttere . tuds. O. II. habMrunf^ * hdb^erunt. This change X. p. S. effect diios. inclausus. reddtdi "^ reddMi. suds. tenueram by tenui. consuere by cdnsuo. L. became w. so parietes" L. but * muVeres. 192. provided the composite nature of the formation was understood and the parts were recognized (cf. became e but if the preceding consonant was . consuere'>*cdns^ere'> cdnsere . hiatus seems to have had no on the accent in Latin. etc. It was favored also by the analogy of miilier. VI. Sepulcri 213-215. battuere being influenced by bdttuo. parjites^paretes^ C. conteneo. etc. 51. 56. Gram. §31): deficit >* disfdcit. adsteti. etc.. Lehrbuch der Phonetik. /. 468. S. COMPOUND VERBS.62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. '/« regularly re-nigat. itios were sometimes pronounced duds. condedit. however. imp Itcaf^* imp Heat. etc. perdedit. dedit. 138. Verbs compounded with prefixes were generally constructed with the accent and the vowel of the simple verb. when immediately followed by the vowel falling of the penult. 3714 (paretes). seems to be due to a tendency to shift the stress to the more sonorous of two contiguous vowels: cf. [§ 139 following vowel: put^olis ~:> mul(eris>muljMs. Accented u. S. . tra- addedi. that suos. > putjdlis. Jespersen. it was palatalized: \i&xwt f aretes. b. calefacis. Aside from these cases. 1889 (pvte6lis). re- 139. 668-670. C.pi(teus. reiinet > * ret^net. etc. It is possible. Lat Spr. riquirit "^ * requkrit. I.. I. tenueram > * tenj^eram. Digitized by Microsoft® . Cf § 225. reddedit. in which the vowel in hiatus is atonic.

. XXV. There existed in Greek a word 'figlike'. and northern Italy. a cross between /««/«/« was kept in Sicily and in the Spanish peninsula. n. perhaps under the influence of a vulgar *hepdte for hepar. by a change of suffix. 140. for instance. d. The adverbs iliac. *ftcatum. the simple verbs having become rare or having taken a different sense: legere.' Ficatum. (tdicwtoi/ (Pirson 40). was preferred in and southern Italy. for some unknown reason. Through this word there came into use the culinary terms /tedium. Paris in Miscellanea linguistica in onore di Graziadio H. . FICATUM. 515 and XXVIII. * redpit. 141. Clddat in Revue de philologie fran(aise et de littirature XV. a . cdlligo and some others not even the composite nature was perceived. a fusion of ficatum and * sicotum. 435 L. the composite character of the word although the compound was no longer associated capere. Sardinia preserved both ficatum and ficatum. *fdcatum. which was applied by cooks to a liver.' c. Priscian says ^^ illic pro mice": S. 42. illic accented their last syllable through the analogy of hdc^ hlc. fecitum.§ i4i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. It is found in late Latin in the form sycotum.simple translation of (tvkwtov. Ficatum or prevailed in Dacia. Ficatum. n-LAc. Schuchardt in Zs. central 2jaA. it probably became *secotum. ficotum. 235Digitized by Microsoft® . all meaning 'liver.Lic. 63 RMpit became being with In felt. came to be used only in the sense of 'read. which should properly have been pronounced sycotum . . Ascoli 41 See G. ficatum. later. Gaul had ficatum and ficatum. *ficotum */dciium. 'liver'. Reetia.

The accentuation times the Greek stress GREEK WORDS. 1 142. G. Keil V. Vok. etc.vr] <f>apiTpa'>p/tdretra ox phar'etra (cf. \ were sometimes accented on the antepenult: Consentius mentions a faulty pronunciation triginta.o^'^ spdstnus. iraXa/ir/ ^pd/ma. fdia. etc.. <f>Ld\rj XoXepa > chdlera) > colira. apparently the first syllable: (2) 145.ira. See M. 144. terms borrowed by ear from the Greek.guadraginta. Ti. Rydberg . (>pMd/a)> It. when by Latin. irapaT-fi^'^ pirata.64 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. II. 4-5 Pirson 97.r/xa-vj'^- were stressed according to the Latin system: ^pa-)QiLT^> drdch{u)ma. Kafxapa^cdmera. [§ 145 NUMERALS. Ther\. (nraa-it. 461. Digitized by Microsoft® .. S. e. tisana. however. with the Greek > Occasionally the accent was kept by doubling the consonant. Ihm in Archiv VII. (1) Greek Oxytones. § 134).TKj6. It. mdgida. 392. Greek paroxytones were mostly accented according to the quantity of the penult: ypa(j>tov>grdp/iium. 69-70. lines quarranta occurs in a late inscription. Tairav6s>* iapinus. fj. > ( ^purpura. etc.tnginta. voXvTrovs '^ polypus^ irop(f>vpa /jMyiSa.poKri'^pardbula. see § 141. Cf. 42 ff. Greek oxytones.virahersvigintt. kTzi<jTo\rj~> epistula —ola. stressed ^vKwrov. may represent popular stress. 337. Greek Paroxytones. Wahlund.qumqudginta. sometimes the word was made to conform to the Latin principle.ix. 143. Xa. as polifpus. Optisdna)':>lt. The shift was probably due to a tendency to differentiate the numerals from one compare the floating accent in English thirteen^ another in Melanges natural : fourteen.. a. Claussen 809. Somewas preserved.'i'^ mdc(k)- tna. of Greek words was varied. borrowed Idmpa^s). irapa.

ylvecTK "^ ginesis.<TTopia> kistdria. 148. etc. Greek Proparoxytones. Late Latin grammarians mention a pro- nunciation of Greek words with the Greek accent (S.puj<jo%~^* ciiparissosy. (with a KoXa^o^ > cdld- Trpea-ftvrepov > presbyterum new nominative took the prisbyter). -ia 146. 55-56. XXXI. The pronunciations melodia.'Kav&ov'> balneum. 35.>blasp hernia. etc.cupressus. 'i. -eum -ium. 42). kKo. of proparoxytones is The treatment complicated. Cf. Claussen 814-821. Gram. 65 but it more likely that the Italian forms are book-words with a shifted accent. it accent afivcraoi > abyssus. § 17..'avfi<l>(ovia>sym- Later a fashionable pronunciation -ia. Suffixes for Nouns. I. by Microsoft® . 42-49. the accent remained un- changed phus. Claussen 813-814. Cf. Thomas in Rom. > ec(^c)Usia. Claus- accentuation: Kxnta. 2-3. 42£f. Kuiv(im&ov> conopeum -eum —ium. iKKXtjaia the Latin fiipXla^Mblia.- was at first generally assimilated to p\a. A. phonia. a-riirta>s^pia. —aav sometimes became -ea -ia. Cf. but their statements are too vague to be of use. The ending -2i2.<j-(^r]fLux. sometimes —ea.. S. > platea platea. are attested: S. and sophta. S. penetrated popular speech {(ro<l>ia> sopMa. When : the penult was short. A few early borrowed words perhaps show the Old Latin Cf. which was used to form new words: see Derivation. sen 809. KaXafiOi > calamus. Digitized jSawTia-fui > baptisma. The endings -aa. raXaxTov > talintum. When : the penult vowel was in position. -eum: ^a.§ 149] ^^ Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. 149.t&o.) and produced a new Latin ending -ia. doubtless favored by Cliristian influence.. etc. Claussen 812. Cf. (3) 147. Claussen 810— 811..

Tri. Celtic Baiocasses > > Z>urdcasses'^'Px. etc. judging from phonetic changes late Latin verse. . 151. Troyes. we can determine the rhythm Latin. Pharo. Hues Hudn. Ut cdrne carnem liberdns p^rderit quos c6ndidit. of accented and unaccented fifth Thus Sedulius. 49): Umbrian Fr. 466). writes: Beatus iuctor skculi Servile c6rpus fnduit. 48-49) Ka. > 150. ayKvpa>dncora. [§ 153 'EyKava-Tov.> sinapi sindpi. at the beginning of the century. Spr. When the penult vowel was long and not in position. KpoKohaKoi'^ crocodilus. Some words have both pronunciations et8<i)A. Fisaurum It. (T'aia. of Vulgar and from semi-popular Kluge 500. Germanic words were apparently made to conform to Latin types: H'&go HUgun > Hugo Hugdnem > Fr. Bayeux. OTHER FOREIGN As far as SECONDARY STRESS. etc. ^\axr<^-i]p. contrary to Latin rules (S.pv6<^vKKov Occasionally the consonant group was simplified and the accent remained : > * garofulum. Tricasses'>Yx. Some words borrowed from other languages kept e. however. ipr]iuis> eremus eremus : > (Prudentius). became both encdustum and incaustum. j3ovTvpov> *se'- biHtyrum (^milius Macer).T]\ai> camelus -ellus. their original accent. xa/xtvos it : caminus. 2.ballcena. 152. a-iKlvov^ linum. Dottin 103.66 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. it consisted in a tolerably regular alternation syllables. apparently took the accent in book-words but not in words learned by ear (S.o%> bldsphemus (Prudentius). 153.ov tdolum (both in Prudentius: Lat. t^aWtava'^.. Ka. Ne Digitized by Microsoft® . 'ldKioPoi>/dcobus. Dreux.

^plach. in Latin as in other lan- guages. were used only as enclitics or proclitics. sdzer. 154. and the secondary was shifted or *pdrauldre. especially prepositions and conjunctions. circum-Utora (Quintilian s). it and the vowel bearing it was was apparently treated as an accented vowel: * amicUdtem~^'?x. Gdllias. v€ttovdglia beside vittdria. the root syllable may have received an irregular stress through the analogy of the primitive: * drboricellus. B\i6logn{no beside Bologna. it was weak. colp. fell on the second syllable from the tonic: cuptditosus. strong. clerc. In some derivatives. its syllabic value. non-dmat. cdlidHs cdldus. *parduldre *pardbuldre : > > > filiiis "^^/ilius. In late formations e or i in hiatus did not count as a sylla- ble: * cotninitidre. clirgue while cUr'cum > > > cdlbe while cdlpum > Pr. In many cases the intervening vowel fell out or lost Then the primary and the secondary ac- lost cent were brought together. 156. and were attached as additional end of other words (S. Idcrlmosa. 155. dolorosa. unemphatic words. stress. I. but probably the vowel bearing it had more force than a wholly unaccented final vowel: sdcer{>'PY. cum Pr. cdlapMin Pr. Digitized by Microsoft® . UNSTEESSED WORDS. F\6rentino beside Fvrenze. te-videt. When it followed the tonic.: § 156] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. syllables to the beginning or had no accent. cave-facias. pldcttiim'^'Pr. felidtatem. Short. 38-39) dma-me. When the secondary stress preceded the tonic. so. Casdrem. however. amistdt. dd-tibi. but clmPr. in Italian. as well as some adverbs and pronouns. 67 ' The secondary then. Many words.

see Franz. . position checked it is 160. 'lu' A 'c'ic dissyllabic beginning with a vowel seems to have regularly lost vldet. QUANTITY. sel. If such particles had more than one syllable. they tended to become monosyllabic: unstressed magis. If. part. however. istu' (but iccum istum > eccu'istu'). par-tern > Fr. For the syllabication of mute + liquid. 1110. 1. stressed tended to develop double forms: sua and Cf. perhaps influenced proclitic hy plus. eccum istum > 'cu" p II. how great the difference was we do not know. see §§132. ecce that vowel: ilium v{det^ hic^ (but ecce hie > ecc'tc) For 158. became *mais and * mas.5"^ illas and sometimes unstressed and * las. We must distinguish between the quantity of vowels and the quantity of syllables. pere. 379-390. elision. in connected speech. but we may surmise that in common speech it was more marked in stressed than in unstressed vowels. the consonant was final and the next word began with a vowel. 73-79. and probable that the beginnings of this differentiation go back to Vulgar Latin times : pa-rem > Old Fr. S. apparently. the consonant. sUay- C. In some of the Romance languages the development of the preceding vowel. was doubtless carried over to the next syllable and did not make position: see §133. ' I 159. (cf. did not prevent the development: pa-trem^Y-ic. 56-57. A syllable was long if it contained ( i ) a long vowel or a diphthong or (2) any vowel + a following consonant.68 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. by Microsoft® . did a final consonant Digitized §133): Jffl-/> Fr. Mute + liquid Neither. Words sometimes sa. [§ i6o 157. Every 'LaXin vowel was by nature either lon^ prshort. per. 134. POSITION.

Early in the Empire caussa ss after vowels was apparently reduced to casus. 69 Compare tus. hoc erat hocc S. 127). pupa puppa. In Latin texts there is much confusion of single and double consonants. ciepa. cuopre <. Stolz 223-224. This did not occur. 129. c. nollo. is common in Greek and Latin manu- scripts: S. Fr. Jiipiter Juppiter. especially before the accent: bal{l)cBna. gluto glutto . Stolz 222—225. It. It. glossa glosa. citto {C. siccus ' '' sicccus. cuppa. 163. cuor{e) 161. coppa . however. mtllia (but not in mille : Pompeius. missit (S. In some words from bad spelling. S. had two forms.^ ec{c)lesta. corpo <:_cdr-pus. etc. : The The single antiquity of double t is attested by an old inscription Lexique loi. paullum.^glut[t)tre. cuba. Cf.. giving Sp. mut{t')ire. — fuore <fd-ris. j < peccol- lum. Italian fiero <. copa. formossus > > > mtsit. in the contracted endings -dsse -dssem etc. 162. but often it must represent an actual difference in pronunciation. (S. where we have perhaps only a change of suffix.§ 163] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cedo. cuve. in— 132. coupe. Similarly one / was lost in mallo. coUo < <icd-r. doubtless beone with a long vowel + — + a double consonant: brdchium brdcchium . cippus. perhaps litera littera. camelus camellus. the other with a short vowel . Digitized by Microsoft® . S. cot{t)idie. 125-126 (Velius Longus and Pompeius). which prevailed in Romance. Cf. §163. Fr. mucus miiccus . 118: mIssit) > causa. Cf. as seems to be ves(s)ica. ferro <ifer-rum_. buc{c)lna. VIII. —Isse —tssem etc. cupola and erat. cetto. Sp. stupa stuppa. § 42 ctpus a single consonant. petto pietra<pe-tra. tap{p)ete. diphthongs and long 112-120): cdssus> formosus.fiel(^e) Kferl. biica bucca . L. -esse -essem etc. Many words certainly longing to different Latin dialects.* co-pVit. cf.fe-rus. ii594)>It. I.. this may result merely the case with the doublet czto> S-p.

messi). botte). S. 164. 1. tennuis. Vok. cf. channe. So perhaps Diomedes' Itttera: Fr. vowel and the double consonant : angutla (> Sp. Archiv XIV. strena (> Old Fr. jubemus lltus littus. toda) ¥ totta (Keil V. + anguilla—* angutUa (> It. toute). and a large part of lateinischen See Clara Hiirlimann.488. there was occasionally a third. before / and u in the old Italic dialects compare the Italian doubling infabbro. I. prevalent in Africa or in Italy. bascio). strennuor. 339. I. Stella. Gaul. reviewed by Meyer-Lubke in Ltblt. Zs. Die Entwicklung des aqua in den romanischen Sprachen. Leicique 98-104. G. I. strinna). Beside the two forms indicated." Cf. Mohl. Gram. conservdmus Vok. was very widespread and prevailed in Italy. toiius was used by Pirminius. suppra. anguilla). mattrona. In late Latin inscriptions and manuscripts a consonant was sometimes doubled before r or u: acqua. 485. 612. having both the long. frattre. Cf. * stela (>01d esteile: cf. conservammus. suppremis. anguila) Fr. XXVI. voile. mist * missi 261 {iubimmus iobemmus). Spr.^ + strenna = * strenna (> It. bellua. lattrones. dialect stella) = (>It. cascio). baca bacca. attested by inscriptions and by Christian poets. brdca bracca. For *iiUius see Digitized by Microsoft® . iota estreine) (>Sp. 403. jubemmus.^)—* tdtta (> Pr. Rsetia. iConsentius: " per adjectionem litterje io««»! pioioto. (>It. chdne{<x°-'^) 261. local ing to F. ^(ji. tenne. a consonant was doubled 122. In aqua the double con: sonant. ^Stella Vok. Sic. This doubling indicates in most cases a Accordpronunciation. tota. Lexique 95-98) + Stella (>It.5 547. 334. (> It. Stolz 223. strenna. etc. * According to Lat.70 An To these Introduction to Vulgar Latin. § 204(2). [§ 164 may perhaps be added: cdseus * cdsseus bdsium *bassium (>It. stilla). seemingly a cross between the other two. * butts (<j8oi)tis) *buttis (>It. XXIV.

from the second century on cs Marius Victorinus. by 250. 175. the distinction U was clear by the first century of our era.. etc.. if the word is used in verse. as minses. in iillus and multus. similar to i. I. 211). 71 VOWEL QUANTITY. II. 195. That is. and several fifth century grammarians plainly distinguish e from e (S. is made with the tongue lying flat in the bottom of the mouth. 166. In Digitized by Microsoft® . the evidence of inscriptions. which and became e and see §§201. for instance. but is used for u in inscriptions. the short vowels being open while the sentio. the quantity of the vowel is ' in general easily ascertained. is often used for i in inscriptions. was often used for e in inscriptions (S. i ff. there was no such differentiation. 183-184). this nomen and novus. long were close gula. 193). mulus Later. i. However may have been. in the fifth century (S. Spr. 461. in Vok. most of the Empire. (S. about 480. the same sound in Idtus and Idtus. distinguishes do other grammarians (S. : vendo pinus pi^er. e. in debet and mnum \ \ and minus. 467. etc. Terentianus from q (S. 216-217). d. etc. 212. 208. 176. cites Tertullian for an e (S. 151. II. and so Maurus. as ocsor. and short vowels were redit. and i for e. secondus. about 350 a. None of the grammarians apparently distinguished « and «. is given the testimony of grammarians. as menus. long and short e. and u were eventin ually differentiated. until Consentius. In open syllables. Writers do not clearly distinguish i and i. According to Meyer-Liibke. Originally. 200-201).§ i66] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. . In the case of a. 0. all : of later date. 182). 146. 182).. 2. solus sqlet. in 165. 211). i and u were allowed to drop still lower. distinguishes two ^-sounds Pompeius. III. (S. the vowels having. for the vowels of brief duration the tongue was not in lifted quite so high as for those held longer. In Vok. perhaps. 174. however. long dis- - tinguished only by duration. Za(.

is The Classic rule that a vowel before another vowel short is not absolute even for verse. by S. Aulus Gellius prescribes dictum.. but it is sometimes given by gram- marians. jectured from the etymology. probably kept their original Naturally short vowels doubtless had development also: deus = deus. at least in part. any a later stage. except Spanish. but an inscription has dIctatori (S. 99). 93. attested by pIvs piivs. 167. their regular quantity in hiatus. and in Ennius close vowel in the Romance (S. At 208). etc. although we do find the spellings dius and mius (S.2^)>oum (and also ovum. frIgida. cf. loir calls for *gltrem h&siA^ gltrem. ^T. with a restora- tion of the V through the plural ova). 105). Substrate II. after u had become (see §§ 165. by Microsoft® . a. 187).72 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Romance undecim. found in inscrip- tions. Fr. and. were apparently pronounced also with short u 81-82). 93): these preserved their languages. Vowels in hiatus with the last syllable offer difficulties. others demand u. duo>dui = dui. via— via. 101-102). proved old inscriptions . 105). (S. and the practice of poets was not always in accordance with spoken usage. VOWELS Ilf HIATUS. fut. before u was apparently differentiated into 0: dvum> oum (cf. so cut. but the i. and often shown by subsequent developments in the Romance languages. Naturally long vowels. etc. nutrire. S. others karessimo. sometimes marked in inscriptions. ultra (S. plus kept inscriptions (dIes originally long vowel. in Plautus. then. Classic i Latin o&ers frtgidus (of. siius'>Digitized spus> sous (S. languages. 98. testimony conflicts: some inscriptions have carIssimo. require a short some Romance forms support Classic luridus. [§ 167 closed syllables and in words not used is by poets the quantity sometimes conOccasionally the in many cases doubtful . their Dies.

. We find in eiius.(4). Recherches sur Forigine de la conjonction 'que' et des formes romanes iquivalentes. with double i (S. 236). which prolonged the — first syllable: not pejor. used for quod in late Latin. on the other hand. XXV. 341. coiiux.§ i7o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. There may have been other special Cf. as in ejus. gave {Lat. major. The Romance languages. 250 in these a. Jean- jaquet. under the influence of qua and : . Troija. *pldja. mai-ius Digitized (£don by Microsoft® . a II. it became qua. d. maiiorem. Velius Longus adds that etc. Spr. 246-248. LENGTHENING BEFORE CONSONANTS. According to some grammarians. which had begun to assume the functions of quod (see §§69. For another see A. vowels were lengthened before j. 82 cf. but the / was doubled was a glide from the vowel to the/. qua{ni). 169. 468). 236). inscriptions such S. if we accept the statement of Teren- who says (S. Maiiam. Quia. tions in different countries.. b. The apparent contradiction disappears tianus Maurus. Pirson 16). 207). For a still. spellings as Aiiax. Franz. hut peijor. Fluere was supplanted in popular usage by plovere Fluvia. before a consonant. 357-390. as Cicero approved of Aiiacem. etc. point to open vowels in pejor. §217. Quintilian states that Pirson 74. into pei-ius. Troja. J. Franz. 170. see Gram. ei-ius. way to Cf. Cicero preferred aiio. different theory. 352-355). 1894. cuiius. however. 168. Horning in Zs. 104) that the vowels there that is. §208. (S. Troja. 73 varia- 216. we should write Troiia also Priscian analyzes pejus. Maiiam. words were short. I. Cf.: 236. had a peculiar development from the sixth century on before a vowel it was pronounced qui' and was confused with quid. 3 II.

coxwenire through continere. According to Meyer-Liibke {Gram. but only after H had be- come i. for inscriptions. . pugnus. call for dtgnus. /. and some philologists regard the passage in question as still still an interpola54. sposus. 172. beside the old popular *pesare. (S. benegnvs by Microsoft® . 86. sanctus. and the fall was permanent. etc. 89. lignum. the n being restored only in com- lengthened by compensation: pounds before initial nare. in-: so infantem through indignus. 78. Lat. 77-78.. tjk: quinque. But inasmuch as n occurs before /". S. (2) Before gn vowels were lengthened according to Priscian and inscriptions mark length in dtgnus. however. who wrote in the sixth century./. Archiv XIV. or v).- cf. S. signum. pignus. nasality disappeared. however. s: cosul. and v only at the end of prefixes. regnum. u. it and the preceding vowel was cesor. cojugi. conjungere through conducere. as above) are either learned terms or new formaS.. n was followed by a fricative (/. The Romance is languages. it was usually restored by the analogy of the full forms con-. for the usage of Cicero and others. t. for inscriptions. etc. S. Romance and late Vulgar Latin words with ns (except in Cf. but the length and the close quality of the vowel remained. Cf §311. tions: so pensare. not f. «. tferi. compounds See S. a very late authority. [§ 172 regularly early in Latin. 400. coventio. signum sigillum). all trace of the of the vowel: consul consul cosul cosul. An Introduction When fell to Vulgar Latin. but insig- It is altogether likely that the n fell through nasalization If so. n occurred in the middle of many words. the vowel was lengthened. the evidence of the inscriptions I. etc. 91). (i) Vowels were apparently lengthened before Cf. (cf. 91. tsula. remains. 467). tion of later date. etc. so that the result Digitized was t.74 171. S. mesis. u. Spr. Before J. s. Priscian. 90.

in the fourth century. through a by Microsoft® . unaccented Terentianus Maurus. etc. Cornu. Versbau des Commodian in Bausteine 576. XV. however. I. The distinctions in quality. seems to observe quantity in stressed and to neglect it in unstressed syllables. 75). in unaccented syllables the distinctions were doubtless weaker. as in aut (S. 226). resulting from the original quantity." etc. This seems a very plausible C. XII. the preservation of quantity in post-tonic Digitized mostly in the third and fourth centuries. doubtless equivalent to the benIgnus of C. of accent. in the Classical Review I. 174.). 311. tells us that au is short in Other grammarians syllables. and a was often used for e in inscriptions (S. lost. The old quantity itself was It during the Empire. and we find numerous metrical errors in other late poets: cf. . (S. 66). DISAPPEARAHCE OF THE OLD QUANTITY. prefers to regard such forms as dlgnus. 722. as due to a vulgar or local pronunciation. and were often obliterated. The was probably greater and more constant in accented than in unaccented vowels. and the plural —es were confounded by 150 A. show. L. through the Latin period and developed further in the Romance languages. 183—184: bence. which is 75 in C. about 250. difference in quantity 173. The poetry of Commodian. "miserce dativus est non adverbium. in the third or fourth century. D. explanation. XII. they existed at c. Buck. Latin words borrowed by the Britons. warn against quantitative mistakes: so Servius. (S. J. D.§ 174] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. remained. L. 2153. in stressed syllables. for the most part seems to have disappeared from unstressed syllables by the third or fourth century but confusion The nominative singular -is set in as early as the second. in so far as all. On shift the other hand.

175. tity short: sdncto vales. [§ 176 Loth 72.if>« while u and u. show the preservation of the quantity of stressed vowels: Loth 64. fructus by Microsoft® . Moreover. are distinguished by quality also.76 syllables: An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. all other vowels 176. and based on th|fe situation of the vowel. On the other hand. Spr. vendo vents. 467). DEVELOPMENT OF A HEW QUANTITY. It is possible that the quantity of unstressed vowels was better kept in the provinces than in Italy. i?> e 01 i. criticizes Servius. In accented syllables there are sporadic examples of confusion by the second century. and o. Digitized fqrmas fori. entirely diverse from the old. fourth century. but mostly in the third and fourth. but probably the disappearance of the old distinction was not general before the fourth and fifth centuries. / At the end of the Latin period a new system of quangrew up. In most of the Empire accented vowels not in position were pronounced long. 178). e and ?. 225). grammarians blame the confusion of cequus and equus (S. d>ii ox 6 while d>o: Franz. taken over in the fifth and sixth centuries. Latin words borrowed by the Britons from the second to the fifth century. too. in the Roma (S. 106). and not complete before the end of the sixth. The Latin words in Old High German. 107. distinguish by quantity t and i. d. 65. Much late poetry disregards quantity altogether. Augustine devocalium vel produc- Pompeius and other tione non judicant" (^Lat. Latin words borrowed by Old High German indicate a retention of long i and u before the accent: Franz. for. clares that "Afrae aures de correptione St. retain the quantity of vowels that bear the accent: Pogatscher. dixi plicds. e. Latin words in Anglo-Saxon. as aques for eques in 197 (S.

porta. we find vobit for obiit (S. t. and Sicily apparently did not participate in this early breaking. syllables before a labial (as in proommus') a short further- more. Portugal. The vowels most affected were e and q. /w>01d Fr. southern Gaul. 213). tre-s. This pronunciation doubtless sprang up with the old. 467. in £at. Latin had the vowels au. XXV. Meyer-Liibke in different in Einf. We and i. particularly in northern Gaul: z'f«f. and the conditions of diphthongization were very diverse in different localities. «^j>Fr. while a was not' affected by q-aawti-ty. d. have seen (§ 165) ti. ^^/a > Old Fr. 561-562. and in unaccented ii. nounced new long vowels were promost regions with a circuinflex intonation. beside a. 77 gule. u. also ui. which in the transition from Latin to the Romance languages re1 77- It is likely that these in sulted in diphthongization in a large part of the Empire. he describes it as common to all. the groups that e. 178. he puts in the fourth and fifth centuries. vieni.f>It. all stressed vowels were appar- ently long: tempus. goule. says that the development was and independent in the several Romance languages.§ 178] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ce. : Niipos. Zimmermann in Zs. An isolated example. o. Gram. occurs in an inscription made a little before 120 a. u were pronounced open. e. 103—104. Lombardy. but as posterior to it the fifth century. nous. perhaps only a blunder. nepotis (A. 0. dis- appearance of the which it displaced. a. i.q. cuor. 735). In 419 D. ca-the-drd te-ni-brds . cqr'^lt. Spr. (rets. I. eu. d. close. cb. We shall see presently Digitized by Microsoft® . cq/r me-l no-s re-m In Spain and in some parts neisf of Gaul.

partly from the channel (written or oral) through which they came. was pronounced a: ^axriM^ Phdsis. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin e: a. Late words often show Digitized do-Ki/Tiys > ascitis. [§ 182 (§§209. and 180. The history of Greek vowels is very complicated: — GREEK VOWELS. eu generallyremained du. seppia. 210) that cB>e a. the Greek This pronunciation was letters were sounded as in Greek. was in Greek originally a long e. * skivare. popular origin it often had the Greek open sound kKKkfitrU > 182. bestemmia. as *waidanjan~>*wadaniare.iro6riKTf)~:>apotheca^ It. but early in our became t. (f>dXayi -> phalanx. According to Quintilian (£don 64-65). Per. A. it H era : eclesia. long or short. doubtless the ideal of people of fashion. which became *trewa. eu (^cduius.La > blasphemia > It. eu (or iu) appears in treuwa (or triuwa). The inconsistencies in this substitution arise partly from the different dates at which words were borrowed. and ui (as in cut) was lit. while au. 181. as In words of more ji\acr<\>r}fi. (n)Tria~^ sapia. In the Germanic vocabulary there is not much to be noted: at in words adopted early apparently became a. ceu). so in some late words. by Microsoft® .78 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The foreign vowels of borrowed words were assimil- In the few Celtic words that were taken over there are no important peculiarities. but also sepia "^ i: It. 179. a-Ktjvrj'^ sctsna scena.nd ce>e. iu is found in skiuha?i> ated in some fashion to the Latin system. partly from the various pronunciations of the vowels in the several Greek dialects. bottega. but popular speech substituted for unfamiliar vowels the sounds of the vernacular.

Pr.— § i86] An etc. apTepXa-M It. but perhaps dialectically q (cf. at least in the principal dialects. t apparently later often e: apOplriKOi > ariAriticus '> It artetico. E was close in some It. was generally close. popular words I In book-words later e oz e. op<^a. antiefne. ^^. open in others. cf. /iu(rT^ptov> mistirium. /. Claussen 853-854. orma. it was In assimilated to Latin t: ^lp. apparently became I. occasion- yXStrira > It. etc. mienta. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: <j><!tKri In popular words it apparently became ^. irop^vpo.' It. was assimilated to Latin e: yevans Agenesis. pxirov > blttum'> It. ropvos > tqrnus > It. rprnKTiji'^ Cf. dqga. ally u: tructa. in 186. O most dialects was kocjuvo's o. crLvaTn> sinapi^ senape. Claussen 855-857. chiosa. In popular words it was sometimes close. > artemtsia > Old Fr. Cf. 184. <^iKo'i>phtlus.vri^ovo%'>-* antefona'^ Qi\A Fr. -p-hqra). ^ia>drrp > boletus. Cf.yermo. piivOrj^ menta'> It.p1. 79 40. regamo. Tiov Claussen 854-855.. opiyavos > became e. ^(fila-pa^ chrisma> cresima. iKKXriKrCiu "> edisice. Sp. tapit.ix6py7)>amurca. Greek dialects. ermo. 80x1^ > dqga> It. li bietal It. and occasionally the same word had both pronunciations: a.Chrlstus Chrestus. tapis. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. I.> piper. Old Fr. 9. 183. Neumann etc. seems to have had a very open sound.o'i'> phlmus . pttqcco. but sometimes open. oo-/x'^ >. cedro. 185. tttw^os > It. K6ppi>gummi. In popular words it. It. was probably q. apa. Christianus Chres- tianus. a. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: > cophinus. '%Ti<^avo'. menta..'>- Stephanus Stephanus.v6% > orphanus.^ purpura. 1re7rf. Xpla-ro^'^. etc. sometimes open: eprjfios'^ er'mus er'mus'^ It. etc. armeise. KiBpo'i'>cedrus'>In book-words it > Fr. even when long. "^-phoca. cresme... Claussen 869-870. Digitized by Microsoft® . ixova<TT'^piov'>raora-n-rj- nastirium.

u is the spelling in some words. Pr. nunquam Pyrrhum" (S. fivpros busta seems to represent a peculiar local development: cf. Olumpus. etc. In the older borrowed words.8o torno. in the case of v." "myrta non murta. murta. Digitized by Microsoft® . these probably have nothing to do with KoXvizTpa. which may represent a Greek dialect pronunciation between u and ii: yvpo'i> gyrus gmrus . etc. > > and a few other words the v for some reason became o. AudoUent 536. Marsuas. — > concha. KviJ. perhaps taken mostly from Doric (Claussen 865). originally pronounced u. > ancilia . S. Pr. 'OXvcro-eu? > Ulixes. Cf. Y was > strqppus." Among the common people the unfamiliar ii was assimilated to i. 'OSuo-o-eta > Odissta. Lat.yKvKw. 221). The spelling / occurs sometimes before Augustus 6. In inscriptions we find misteriis. /iCSos > It. The App. > It. According to Cassiodorus. truttna the v storax. — KoKn^o-i^ cqlaphus cojaphus. in the 9th or loth century. grotta. . Cf. Mva-Ca^ Jfysia Mmsia. by the spelling y. says: "Burrum semper Ennius. etc. buxus. (S. Koyxiy <tt/3o<^os [§ 187 chorda. y In the App. <jTvpai : . KpvTrTy)> crupta . calotta..." "porphyreticum marmor non purpureticum marmor. 221. ''tymum non tu- mum. In Tp\yTa." App.vt)> was shortened. 468. motto. > > > buxida {=pyxis) in Theodorus Priscianus and in glosses. yppl-q > Claussen 857-860. For some words we find an occasional spelling X.. 187. KpvTTTrj > It. later in Attic and became ii.p-q>cumba. Pr. Livius Andronicus In ayKvpa ancora. . irv^os mullus. cultivated people adopted for Greek words the Ionic-Attic pronunciation. Pirson 39. Pr. in which the ^ is a later local development. etc. we find: "Marsyas non in others (S. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. v regularly was assimilated to Latin u Ionic it jUijXXos 2ig-22i): Pvpara> bursa . Spr. which is genCicero erally represented. 221). It. Zefurus. Towards the end of the Republic. App. was unrounded into /. which subsequently." '^ tymum non tumum.

rihtui. a became Clio.'> w€ipaTyi<s'^ — KA£ki>> Medea. finally. J before consonants. probably a local development. originally cb 188. Claussen 860-869. cf. 76-77. /. see § 141.. M. AI timbre. (as in aiyi^'^ tsgis).). was usually pronounced short. later ce (as in poina). Cleopatra. Claussen 872-873. 189. or z before vowels. KS/«i>It.. later e. by Microsoft® became 0. 190.• ^ ^generally became ^« E3pos > -£'«''«J'. etc. ciurma. . > It. Frigia. Pr. For o-vkcutoj/. the penult was often shortened: Khj. «S(i)Xov> pirata. which to be pronounced as in ^otfio^'^it Phxbus Phebus Sometimes. A V> au. b. Cf. In -eios -eta —tiov. then. cf. which came to be proClaussen nounced 871-872. <? In Latin. Cf. This i. Cf. etc. MaTa > Maia. yrJi/'os — kvkvo%> gesso is e: yvpo% cecino. etc. . 191. It. tdolum. Claussen 01 originally "became came (S. Digitized as in -Koivr] >poina. Kapa^iuriys'^ paradtsus . Cf. i. cima. § Kd 223. as in AWiovux > Ethiopia Ethiopia. > scilinga. > It. 192. 81 has "gyrus non girus. as in Atas > Aiax. about the third century. Bechtel etc. giro. long. £/ was doubtless originally pronounced ei in Greek. e.> platea. etc." giret. frequently became qui: The modern Greek pronunciation is represented by some Romance words: afi.TSa. j8u^ai'r6s > It. KoXoKvuT-q"^ cologuinta. became ai. Such forms Clepatra for as " ermeneumata non erminomata" {App. f. e. misterii. 6r]travp6i> thesaurus. Cf. oTJpt-yya which became It. bisante. Cf.§ 192] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. toreomatum from Topfxpa. from the sixth to the fourth century c. Claussen 873-875. oi. giro.v\ov > It.. however. except before vowels. if Pirson 39. /ceXttJcr/xa > ? It. 277). if Audollent 535. Tu/iTravov > Fr. may be merely misspellings: Some Romance forms show u: 875-877. amido.

ACCENTED VOWELS. Claussen 878-879. C. A regularly remained dat-e. especially in the north. for cmmeterium < Koi/tjyTiyptov.slus. Like 193. <u Claussen 877-878. I. vocatio. Olcott 33. factum. Rome. VI. Kipaaoi) there must have been a Latin * cerlsus. then q. C. 171. (2) (3) For the suffix -arius. Cf. it probably had a forward pronunciation tending somewhat toward e: cf. I. 468. But in Gaul. latus. 1527 d 33. unchanged in the greater part of the Empire: caput. 468 cf. 0. Cimiterium cymiterium. which was used in southern Italy. which was used elsewhere Lat. and agnetus (for agndtusi) in Fredegarius. ovpavo's'^ Uranus. -arius. L. S. patrem. doubtless originally pronounced ou in Greek. volumptczte in Gl.T\Kov). So beside dinia. tantus. 468. malum « cf. « : . For nasal vowels. (5) jiSKav) there was a melum (<i)i. Reich. I. ot.B. under the influence of l?vis: Beside GREVE. see § 39. then 'Valuer (whence alicrem alecrem). 544. Spr. senetus. Beside gravis there was a grevis. perhaps indicates an ignorant confusion of « ce: KOiixMSia'^ and Cf. a 194. 441. a. crepere. see § 167. N. etc. The o was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . (6) Beside vacuus there was a vHcuus: vocuam.. became comcedia. manus. 198. used by Petronius and others: Lat. Haag 6. Substrate (4) I. Substrate II. Beside cerasus *clra. Lat. (i) Some words had a peculiar development: — Beside alacrem the Romance languages seem to postulate alecrem and alej:rem. 195. CKwas then if. [§ 195 "^-foeta. Cf. and Sarthere was a clr^slus. In Latin it usually became u: fipovxo's> bruchus. Spr. I. — For vowels in hiatus. L.82 as in An iroirjTtji Introduction to Vulgar Latin. see § 171. It is possible that dlacer (whence alacrem) > *dlecer (whence alecrem). Spr. Doric cf. SINGLE VOWELS.

189-190. — in -isco for -esco.. II. I. for —esco 26o£f. Long e {% 165). habetis. e became i in late {Lexique 106). S. e. I.). vocivus regularly whence by analogy vdcat vScuus became ^vdcitus^ for vocat: Lat. I. probably- at least in most re- gions: debere. Cf. 359-364. vacivus 83 {^vacuus). as in cinsum.: Sepulcri 193-194. etc. became vacdre. vendere. 198. diheto. Also Vok. vindo. By a change § which was pronounced remained unchanged in Vulgar Latin. Some of the —esco >-tsco cases are surely due to a §§414-415. filix. verus. {Lexique 115). {ficet in the 3d century. -isimus for vir. and -tsco. shift of conjugation: see In Gaul this substitution of it i for e was so very com- mon that must signify something. Calabria. I. cf . T is very often used for e in inscriptions and late —ido for —edo. Sepulcri. 466. Republican times. Studi A. for -elis and —His. —esimus. iox fistus. 614-615. 127 287-289. etc. Spr. old vocdre. etc. -elius and —llius. of suffix original.. for vindimia instead of vindemia. no proof of historical con: nection between the phenomena 197. III. mercedem. conjectures that consonant may have tended to raise e to i. in Studi Medievali Medievali I. —isco for —esco. Carnoy 15 ff.. -Ire. I. minsam. writings: Gregory the Great has crudilitas. This would account for bistia (= bestia) found in late Latin. These spellings are due in the main s -¥ to the identity of /and i in late pronunciation: see § 165. iox co- gnusco and other verbs in —usco for -osco. etc..§ igS] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. same region. 613.ficit. 196. Lat. which was spoken in nearly the has become i.: for the confusion of -ere and 6911. 468. also for colustra. etc.. Spr. 328. however. for crisco and other verbs for adimplisti. to u. In Sicily. and southern Apulia e In old Oscan. Digitized It probably indicates an by Microsoft® . dulcido. debet. There is. and conversely ver iox etc.

ferus. circulns. dico. Short e. doubtless by the third century and sporadically earlier. sidibus. Cf. criscit. 106-113: minse. Long i. veir): Lat. etc. ficit. (Lexique 119) mentions a rustic speca for spica. became. teneo. see § 177. stiis. : (3) Beside sicula there was a secula (Lexique Ii9)>-It. riges. quaginsima. rictu. Neumann adoliscens. which supplanted vester. Spr. 468. [§ 201 extremely close pronunciation of the e ern Gaul. seniscit. etc. rigna. stilla. For the development (i) of diphthongs. Cf. villa. Archiv (2) Beside ilex there was an elex. Bon. ingraviscente. tepiscit. remained unchanged: bene. It. It is interesting to note that Celtic e also became i: Dottin 99. etc. which was pronounced e (see § 165). 0) . etc. see § 229. According to Lat. Short i. e in nearly all the Empire: btbo.84 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in north- e>ei (verum> Old Fr. The 201. spelling e for ^ is common from Digitized the third century on frecare. tulate (4) stegola Varro seems to pos- something like * steva for For St. Cf. tris. minsis. quincriscens. remained unchanged: I. habitur. I. 1 200. delitus. vaster. vexit. piscem. perhaps through association with rtgidus. § i66. this very high Spr. Lexique 104-105: ficerent. stiva. 397. except in Spain. rigna. tile. (cf. pronounced / (§ 165). fedilis. mille. must have become *frtgidus ij^frigdus). minus. segolo. Vok. Fngidus. Lexique 114. qulnque (^Substrate (i) 546).ii(i. Haag 3iiff. : by Microsoft® . is to be regarded as a new formation on the model of noster rather than as the old form. i. i pronounced i (§ 165). audtre. quiiscit. ferrum. found in Gregory of Tours fur das Studium der neueren Sprachen CXV. minses. Pirson 2-5: lo-ii: requiiscit. venit. later. viiium. festa. e 199. vinum. (4). 8-9: adoliscens. exit.

. The popular ustium I. nomen. Neumann 23-25. Spr. Spr. 469. accepere. Stu^i Medievali 613) is perhaps to be ex- plained in this way. trebus. 468. > ou. etc. Spr. (3) Sinister was replaced by sinexter. §§ 197. trea. vea. 6 202. etc. In Sicily. S. For ou 203. perhaps through the analogy of semel: Lat. as it (§ 165). R. etc. see the end of § 197. semuL. etc. Calabria..§203] legare. sene.. pronounced in Vulgar Latin. (i) (2) Beside camtsia there was a camTsia: Substrate I. the change For agnusco. Quintilian and Varro mention 166) a rustic e for I. see § 167. 200-201. like e from e. viduriiis. These two islands were taken > from Rome by the Vandals in 458 and added to the African kingdom.. Apulia of e to /. 106. 202). AudoUent 535.. 468. zV/z///). Beside simul there was a *sSmul. place... remained unchanged most regions: colorem. 541. at least in hora. Pirson 13. Spr. solus.. 214. etc. became i: cf. Digitized by Microsoft® . 85 menus. karessemo. amure. often used for e (cf. and southern did in old Oscan: cf. 11 7-1 23. ceteneris. attested also by in- scriptions (S. Long 0.. Carnoy 15^-. forma. 463. etc. sebe. (Zat.. minester. S. 195. benivolus. S. -^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Pirson 8-10. used by Gregory the Great and for ostium others. is The spelling u for etc. in Gaul {^Lat. i is Bon. ^/z<^(= minester. § 196. In Sardinia and a part of Corsica this change did not take and both t and i i. sponsus. etc. under the influence of dexter: Lat. etc. 468): furma. cognusco. R. etc. «. Haag II. Conversely (S. has become § 196. 463. very common etc. In southern Italy e from i. 198): minses.. corregia. after that they were perhaps isolated: Einf.

pi.86 etc. Grammaire I. Pr. old Fr. in But in Gaul. (i) > Old. Cassel: " aiatutti. Fr. nun. perhaps. tot. some of the Romance forms point to nom. Cf. remained unchanged: bonus. Pr. The rustic Latin funics. is that of Mohl. tottus (§ 163). etc. sg. Neapolitan sg. uuela alle. probably represents a very close sound. frundes (for fontes. etc. later. *tutti or *tucti: It. mueble postulate Cf. App. 211—212. gluria. namely. frondes) are perhaps connected with Italian yb«fe and other words containing o for 205. and western was probably formed a little forward of its normal It was certainly not u. S. 126-130. the plural. 216. the analogy of mSveo. durus. (2) Beside totus and *tuttus or *tuctus. remained unchanged most of the Empire: cura. tutto. § 198. [§ 206 It Bon. pi.. The Such a form seems to be attested by the Gl. may have come through 6 pronounced ^ (§ 165). 206. puni. but it doubtless slightly This pronunciation may have been due to the historique de langue francaise approached it. Italian tutto . U is occasionally used for o in inscriptions: lucus. forum. K. see Long u. — presumably through Fr. meuble. pi.. locus. became ou or u: cortem 204. totto. sg. § 187. For the development of diphthongs. There are a few peculiar cases: and Sp. solet. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Grammarians mention the protrusion of the lips: S. or at least to a tutti. ^'formica noxi furmica. § 217." where tutti is defined as alle. Cf. tuit. Lexique 102-104. Italy. tutt3 . Short 0." § 177. a large part of northern Rsetia it position. cf... court. cognusco. forts.. folia. nullus. pronounced u (§ 165). pi. Nyrop. No satisfactory explanation has been proposed the most plausible. mortem. una. sortem. Digitized by Microsoft® . which Haag 13. in north- ern Gaul. q before n + dental. in mobilis. the influence of cuncti on toti.

132-135.> mur) but in a few. presumably taken very early. Pirson 15-17. a pomex: Bon. couleuvre. u 208. Beside angHstia there must have been *angSstia.). Celtic by the second century. u. ruptus. culpa. Spr." "puella non poella"). (i) (2) The following special cases are to be noted: — Cf. Jleuve. Short the fourth century or earlier. Spr. in Latin words borrowed by the Celts « is generally treated like Celtic (murus ". and ndra. unda. . see § 167. NUptia..rdus: Substrate III. 217. probably by in most of the Empire: bucca. The old spelling for u after v {yoltus." from nSvus) Lat. 617-618.§ 2o8] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. covetum (= is Haag 14. servos. etc. cubtturn)." "formosus noTiformunsus. fiUvium. Pr. tonica.. and Dacia this u : Lat. u> Spr. pronounced u (§ 165). Fr. Cf. 136. Mohl pumex there was XXVI. Digitized Cf." from nSvus). Windisch 396-397. perhaps only orthographic: Lat. 468. corso. Beside luridus there probably was a *l-S." "turma non iorma" (cf. 464. The spelling is common in late documents: "columna non colomna. Substrate IV. toneca. became nSptim: (3) Beside in Zs. tomolus. App. 216). through the analogy of *nSvius ("bridegroom. people ssiA plSvere (used by Petronius (4) Instead oi pluere axA pKvia and others) and *pldja: Lat. which lasted down into the Empire. § 217. In place of niirus we find ndrus (R. 134. In Sardinia. (3) There are other local irregularities. and both u and . Albania. giila. pomice. due to the analogy of sdror and * nSvia (" bride. G. etc. change did not take place. 469.. Cf. became. F. 87 linguistic habits of the Celts: u> t in Great Britain cf. 465) and nSra (S. « > z (cii^a cili. etc. Bon. §§ 169. For qu (i) (2) > qu. 467. jeune call for local q in coliibra. criidus > criz) Loth 67-68. "colubemon colober. a part of Corsica. Spr. > : 207. 517. by Microsoft® . jUvlnis.

preda prceda. came into general use: fenum. 225. Bechtel Digitized by Microsoft® . In certain words a vulgar and dialect pronunciation com- and Faliscan (Hammer 7. century on (Carnoy 78): questus (2d century). Neumann 13 (and Fort- mon to Volscian seizung 21-23): famina. preda. quiceti. represents the sound better than ai: E is etc. etc. in the first S. in stressed syllables in the first century of our era and later. septum. seta. stressed cb was probably still a diphthong in the city but had become e in rustic Latium. Cf. sepes 188. spellings as fcecit. some hundred years later e came into the city and pervaded the middle of the provinces: Lat. its and pronounced ai. e. and equus : S. § 78. qucero. sepes. 210.88 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. says that cb Terentius Scaurus. by analogy. cen224. Carnoy It was probably general everywhere by the second 69-84. etc. In Spanish inscriptions e occurs from the first S. igo. 465. fifth it cented syllables (as sancte) before the third century. About the first century b. Hence. 178. c. £ for a in dative endings occurs early: Corssen I. Cf. ^ was originally written through the mutual attraction of later e: ccecus. 687 ff.. Cf.. ae 209. Spr. especially in Pompeii (presta. 8). in stressed syllables (as questor) may be called regular by the century: S. 'Sox fenum fcenum. when Varro cited edus for hadus as a rural form. century: Einf. such scBpes both forms were preserved. The regular change oi ce to e took place largely in Republican times in unaccented syllables. etc. 178. 225. b. ccelum. [§ 210 DIPHTHOUGS. 166—168. Carnoy 79-80.): found early in Campania. S. The Pompeius blames the confusion of csquus spelling e for cb was usual in unacfrom the fourth century on. tury. but two parts it became cb. S.

coda. plostrum Carnoy App. II. pronounced du. Carnoy 85-86 (clusa. is 223 spellings Cladius.. Vok. The f there S. the earli^est stage of French in Italian causa> chose . Dibmedes.C. orum. R. are pretty common in various countries Carnoy 86-95. Pr. Conversely ce was often erroneouslyused for e (S. coming through derivatives. etc. Hammer central Italy: Chronologie . inscriptions of the I St and 2d centuries). taurus. its existence in 211. Carnoy 100 (cludo in two Sp. Festus cites 95. Umbrian and Faliscan had 4-5. in Portuguese as ou. etc. or possibly (2) they are only orthographic. In C/^j-a. century second century Carnoy 85. in place of Latin au: and There are some examples in Pompeii. in the first it the city.. — speak of a rustic or archaic o for au: Corssen fif. toru. 162-164. grece. oricla". In Umbrian inscriptions we find Latin. in general. where and second centuries B. II. In Rumanian and Provengal it was preserved as au. Hammer : 15-19. Rome. Cludo for claudo is common. 8. 655-663. 301 S. 212. occur inscriptions Carnoy 85.. Perhaps they represent a provincial pronuncia- tion.). 304. Lexique 104). with a for au when an u in the next syllable. Bayard 5. generally remained in Vulgar*^ Latin: aura. ^^ auris non cotes.. 183-184) and for Greek r) (as scanam. where au was normally preserved this pronunciation was used also in the country around So. crept was used by the lower classes: Lat. in the Probus. and others The grammarians : — . Clodius : Ham- and Plotus are common in first mer 4. etc. original q (i) is proved by the treatment and Spanish it did not become of c in ^ until had broken into uo or ue. Priscian. such as occludo: Vok. in Oscan territory. 89 75-76: cedat.: into Spr. Pirson 27. ostrum. Glacus. Digitized by Microsoft® . gaudium. orum. Cf. etc. the dialects of northern \i^?s~\(>\. I. etc. orata. Festus. Scarus. Cf. and 465-466. an Au./464.: § 212] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

is its and pronounced oi. Phebus. Vok.go An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. illHi. 227. coles =^ caulis. In the Per. plotus occur also. the intermediate stage Phoebe. seu). Carnoy 84. CE was originally written through the mutual attraction of presumably 0. This rustic and vulgar while the in Romance — which was pronounced — was generally adopted from au was 0. ui pronounced lii. IV. fosnum. Umbrian suffoco. neu. lotus. Spr. 228. S. of ce and e is mentioned by late grammarians: In late Latin a bad spelling. Ui. Marius Victorinus. Carnoy 95. 1890. was not preserved in any popular words. 464. see § 431. but two parts it became It pcenitet. ce for ce and e. oricla. II. Cf. Jilodere. ccementa. S. find amenus. eui~us. Cicero used loreola. oe 215. eu 214. I. (cf. * auddere for occtdere. postulated by some Romance forms. S. 0. fcemina. 216. auscu/um . pronounced eu (as in ceu. Lat. we C. was preserved: For the development oifui. The confusion S. *^^ Cf. sodes. [§ 216 {^Chronologie Conversely. ote. mm227. 213. 0. pollulum: si audes. au was occasionally used for 160): Festus. by Microsoft® . cxlum." Cf. L. neuter. 293ff. 228. Classic fauces. plodo. Ola. of our era: Cf. Hammer 4)= aut. 227. may be that for reflected by the spelling phyeb^ E is attested by inscriptions in the first century ceperint. plaudo. foces. pcenates. poena. Bechtel 76. Vulgar Latin in a few words : coda. stus. Cf. Eu. eu. cepi.. became popular: coscus. codex. hUic. S. heu. mmrore. eheu. " sorex ve\ saurex. Digitized cHi. etc. Europa. later e: coepi. explodo.

— 457. ibid.§ 219] An Introduction c. e=e. UNACCENTED VOWELS. 476. and then only Digitized in a part of the Empire. which 217. for the In clerical Latin the vowels were probably pronounced most part as ii). p. until the reforms of Charlemagne. q. e. B. but did not fall. CLERICAL LATEff. possibly through a lingering the Old Latin accent: cf. i = i. by Microsoft® . 219. in general. see § 167. u were lowered one stage labial. mobilis'^* mqbilis. Jluvium'>*flqvium. the evidence is not convincing. Ascoli. q. After that. qt INFLUENCE OP LABIALS. see §§ N. = 0. dvum~>* ovum. 579. A general influence of this kind can hardly be regarded as proved for any combination except ou. see G. For a criticism of the theory. The discussion is continued by Pieri. 218. that f. Pieri. juvenis'^*jovenis. Although many examples are cited. La vocal tonka alterata da una consonante labiale in Zs. au:=q ox au. XXVII. — For secondary 153-155. those of the first syllable had most resistance. became ou: S. § 134. until long after the Vulgar Latin period. etc. to Vulgar Latin. maintains ceding or following even if it by a preq was separated from the to e. Among unstressed vowels. I ' According to some philologists. Osservazioni al precedence lavoro. influence of The vowels of the final syllable lost much of their distinct- ness. d. a following labial tends to open a vowel: colubra>* colqbra. u ^u (or a and ce ^e. — vowel by a liquid. except sporadically.. a = a. stress. e. 2. La vocal tonka alterata dal contatto d'una consonante labiate in Archivio glottologico italiano XV. in vulgar speech. pluere'^ ployere.

jur(^i)go. The former was the one generally adopted in Classic Latin. 7. SUmus. 21-24. syllables: I. but simus was favored by Augustus and by some purists of his time (Lindsay 29). (i). [§ 221 Grammarians sibe are testify to the confusion of and u: S. In general Latin quantity did not sensibly affect the quality of unstressed vowels. in Classic and Vulgar Latin: cal{i)dus. 30—36. 3 During the Classic period it generally became t: decumus~> decimus. etc. sibi: S. secondary or the primary 47-48. pontufex "^pontifex. For the confusion of unaccented e and i. however. see Pirson. vtr{i)dis. iv. scriptions etc. cal[e)fdcere. i was certainly distinct from Digitized In final i: sentis. § 419. 196-198. 203-208. siimus -and simus. According to Quintilian I. and even there the difference must have been small. In inscriptions we find such frig{i)daria. av{^i)dere. Lat. maxumus quodlubet"^ guodlibet. U was cf. 35 Franz. forms as infri. 199-200. In early Latin there was an inclination to syncope: ar{i)ddrem. being sometimes accented. for o and u. Lindsay 25-26. in unaccented . Quase. found in place of quasi. According to Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. employed only before labials..92 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 466. bdl{i)neum. except in initial syllables. syllables. by Microsoft® . In Spanish in- we find maximus." (Weakest were medial vowels immediately following the stress.. > maximus. 251. etc. 2 1 2. Haag 15-24. spelled both with u and with i: Carnoy 65-69. see Pirson 41—47. This tendency continued. cf. 9). in moderation. Spr. 221. Agrippa pro sumus simus scripserunt. dc(^u)lus. developed two forms." In the vulgar speech simus seems to have Cf. "in here neque e plane nequi i auditur. Brutus. Fredegarius is very uncertain in his use of unstressed vowels: 220. "Messala. S. etc. vetranus: S. ID re vailed in Italy and southern Gaul.

feci. abiete. and u in hiatus with following vowels first lost their syllabic value era. and Seneca: deorsum in Lucretius. u followed by a vowel was originally itself. /"and u followed by a vowel and beginning a syllable were apparently pronounced as consonants from the earliest times. App. as approved is by Cicero: S. senttt> It. In perfects. §187. facias. So it was in qualis. vaqui. fis. Pr. 232. Bonnet notes that etc. 236. 93 stbi. such as Classic period. the u was ap- parently not reduced to a semivowel until the end of the In some other words the syllabic value of u was kept. however. Maiiam not ab. Virgil. probably by the century of our and sporadically earlier. sometimes short. left a. After gutturals. sente. In tibi the final vowel was sometimes long. fes. abietiItalia counts as three syllables in poets of the ' bus in Virgil. Lucretius. fudxis. rather late: Velius Longus distinguishes aquam from acuam. Quintilian says that u and i in uos and iam are not vowels: S. e. and will be out of consideration in the present chapter. Quintilian and Velius Longus cite the spellings Aiiax. quem. > distinguere. Plautus. Digitized by Microsoft® . fluviorutn) are found in Ennius. oKuAas) very common: Eckinger 123-125. a. Otherwise. qui. vindemiator'va. nocuit. placuit. 234.g.§ 224] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 222. These. fectf^Vr. Horace." S. In Greek transliterations kv for qui (as in cf. i. Horace. UNACCENTED VOWELS IN HIATUS." "vacui gon 224. alio. a vowel but lost its syllabic value in early Classic times: acua > aqua. is distinguere qucBro. "vacua non vaqua. senti.. used before Joseph.. at least in theory. will be treated as consonants. e. 223. Lucilius. then. Juvenal. Ovid. Occasional examples (such as dormio.

in late Latin spelling. 00. lintium. 106. abias. the / remaining long enough to palatalize the / (the Romance e was doubtless a later analogical development). But the combinations ei -. 187. coclia. Pr. 103. earn {=jani). R. Caper. faciebam'>*facebam. cf- Carnoy 33-35. parieUs {%i2t^)>p aretes. S. Bayard 4. desto. and // apparently being contracted into e." " sobrius per i non per e scribendum. the semivowels pre- sumably developed into the fricative consonants y and w: S. was used as a trisyllable by Sedulius in the fifth century. I. i. abiat. prehcndere 225. Audollent 535. Valerius Probus has parietibus: £don 208. vinia.> mul'erem. Hence arises. century or before by the third century. eccu'istay-* ecwista (§65). 3714 (Rome). it became soef in French. In the same vi2. fasiolus. L. Vok. u6 developed differently.:> Digitized by Microsoft® .94 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. App.filius'>ftlius'^Jiljus. II>'43. 234. Suavis. exiat. * de-excito~^* dexctto'^ It. 463. C. cavia.sapui > saj>ui> sapwi. So alea>alea'^alja. Lauriatus. 232. We have. Cf.. with a narrowing of the mouth-passage. aleum. etc. soave in Italian. The pronunciation speech by the first u was probably regular in popular . as e. calciare. 06 and u6 into o. then. tenueram > tenweram (§137). 231-232.. ee. "non iamus sed eamus. at an early date: arietem (^^\-^6)'> are tern (Varro. four-syllable induruit are barbarisms Caesellius is undecided whether tenuis has three syllables or two: S. "ares veteres pro anVi. VI. calcius. likewise eccu'kic> *eccwic. valiat. ie. it was probably a semi-learned word. lancia. a new y and a new w. solia. Uniamenta.y Jiliolus>Jiljdlus (§136). §136)." KeilVII.dixisse": Carnoy 43). etc. noxeus. in late Latin. Consentius declares that trisyllabic soluit and . eacit {^=jacei). mulierem (% 1^6) ".. S. [§ 225 early Empire. a great confusion of e and i in hiatus: capriolvs (cf. however. palleum.

" " coqus non cocus". 95 prendere. sttnguo > guere non tingere. quteius'> quetus. coquus'^ cocus {App.'K. So apparently aruum^* arum. / after a consonant fell before unaccented i: Velius audit '^ audi. quoi{f)tdie> stingo . requebit. fell commoner After gutturals. Audollent See §354. 472: ero). "equs non ecus ". . Furthermore. equus S. suus'> sus. cf. pendere. £don 130). > ecus {^App. Pr.. consiln'^ consilt. Gl. Velius Longus. 217-218. Pr. 106). 468-469.. vef. "tin352. 218) quator — in. Bayard 7. ho-Tievex. coquo^coco {App. unguo'>ungo {ungo. abattas. doubtless under the influence of vidua. .oSmsiT\& mortus. in late inscriptions. quat{t')uor'^quattor (^. contin{u)ari. Carnoy 221)." Keil VII. '' coqui non cod. Spr. S. Pr. — cdhdrtew^ cortem. unguntur. then *prendere through the analogy of reddere and perhaps also of ascendere. 2 1 7 ) . u before stressed u and 0: 536. ungi. tdrqueo>*torquo> *tdrco. battuo "^ batto (cf. 227. 351). tendere. then *cdpenre *cdp'rtre through the analogy of co. in quum>cum.. (Pirson 58) quatro (7th century. tinguo~^ttngo (Caper. "ungue non unge. " coquens non cocens". § 227] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . some writers use no u in distinguere. mortuus'^p- cottidie.. . distinguunf> distingunt (ac- cording to Velius Longus. ministerW^ ministeri. common Carnoy 43). hence *cocma). cf. 226. 105. before unaccented by the second century: antiquus "> anticus carduus^^cardus. S.'). opus. £ruum'>erum {Lat. defendere. qudmddo> comodo. Jan{u)arius: Vok. Caper. S. tuum'^tum. inndcuus>inndcus. duodecim'^ dodecim (Pirson 58: dodece). cooperire"^ coperlre. U often fell irregularly II." Keil VII. Febr{u)arius. the Viduus. Audollent 536). Similarly. z/ after all consonants fell before unaccented u probably by the middle of the first century. Reich.and perhaps also ol opera. kept its u: Old Fr. uncis = unguis. Carnoy 117. Pirson 57 (cf.

Bon. tenere. one can judge from spellings and subsequent developments. '^senatus non sinatus" App. colorem. INITIAL SYLLABLE. i. Bechtel 76. 470): rddicem. moniti (for muniti). dolere. A(u)runci. Some however. (Bcclesia. valere. Pr. videre.96 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 223. plordre. hibernus. Bon. etc. e For the confusion of Carnoy 17-33. S. a{u)sculto. (Lat. Koffmane no. gaudere. /^22: Jejunus after prefixes lost its first syllable: * dis-junare. dvitdtem. I. must have existed 229. Dionigi. 109. Cf. golosus gylosus (ior gulosus). d'rectus (^Vok. agusias. but otherwise remained unchanged (cf. Some minor peculiarities are to be noted: (i) A after/ apparently tended to become e: Old dialect forms) . is very often replaced divota. a was pronounced a. and see Audollent 535. E. lost before also. it [§ 229 Longus found etc. I. 135—138. long or short. Lat. * agurium (cf. 136. i. Agustus is frequent from the second century on. frumentum. In a few words the vowel of the initial syllable was an r: *corrStulare^*^roflare. S. 223 Pirson 26). 470) (2) Classic/awKa mimoricB. naufragium. some Italian (common by i in inscriptions. -n and —ns: Dtonysii>lt. subinde. Lat. Spr. Caper says "ausculta non asculta. Comelii. Vok. b. kept It. ridemus. — Latin /(j/»««j > Classic Jejunus (the original a seems to be preserved in Classic Januarius '^ Jenuarius . Digitized by Microsoft® . necessary to say that Claudii. 57. au became a if there was an accented u in the next syllable. movetis. fxddre. ce all came to be sounded e. and u were finally all pronounced 228. debere. 470): dilevit. cetdtem. 171-1 72. ce. A(u)gustus. Farisiis > Parigi. 0^ remained p. audere.. > *jenua > Sardinian genna. dtrectus generally '> drictus)\ quirttare~>*dritare. far as As or u. Keil VII. Arunci occurs in manuscripts of Virgil. l remained i. i: should be spelled with double late words." S.. Julii. Spr.. Bon. in Gallic inscriptions cf. Spr. 11.

470) > Old Fr. divmus"^ demnus. II. in fourth century inscriptions. fimre'^fenire. 470) and/m?- perus (App. < e In miraUlia the i ap- parently became (5) U and a. §§ 69. mUtare. 234-235) . salvage. Einf. §§ 212. analogy of *que quid^ quod (cf. so that at the modern a syllabic effect — beginning of a word it had s-chola. cf.Jaiant. (Bon. Bon. Si. mcinus vecinus. Carnoy (7) 107). mUrare. 225. front vowel (until the seventh century nearly always an ' later e Mohl's view. nise. so *ot (for aut: cf. putator O is changed to e in retundus (Vok. XXXV. etc. cf. oricla. Pirson 27.§ 23o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Rom.. the e is perhaps due to the Haag II. Lexique 120. 205) . is that original Latin ei. and Spanish. Pr. I was occasionally assimilated to a following accented a : ^gdntem It. Spr.. Lat. Rum. in manuscripts and inscriptions. Lexique \2Z-iz6. turrente (Bon. sometimes became se. Lat. Umbrian ate. Italian. Franz. became instead of Digitized by Microsoft® . is common : in Gregory the etc. Au 230. 3 II. Lexique 123. which prevailed in Vulgar Latin. attested from the sixth 87. 213): App. nutrire (beside *nqtrire). According to Mohl.. § 198. A form ni for ne is found from early times Pirson 3.jaian. This led to the prefixing of a 2. silvdticus> salvaticus (Gl. if there was an accented i in the next syllable:^ dividSre'^*devTdlre. Spr. Old Genoese zagante. cf. by dissimilation. in vulgar speech was often replaced by (cf. Proven9al. Italian. as in 6' before a consonant was doubtless long and sharp. Sfr. serorihus. (6) O appears as u mfurmica (App. Lexique I2z. 126. Great: dirivare. salvatico. Spr. and Old Rumanian. possibly through confusion with dis-. cf. Lexique > I04ff. Vr. Old French. 127). Italian sed on the model of ched: si is preserved in French. Lindsay 40). serori. through the influence of the prefix re—. This perhaps indicates a close pronunciation cf. 470. : 97 Di. 131). in late Latin. Pr. II. 470). attested by Servius. 16^. se in Portuguese. Pr^. §111. de-. 213. e became southern Italy from the fourth to the sixth century RIVOCAVERIT. century on (Foi. in very late texts there is frequent confusion of si and sed (Franz. 224 ff. retundatio. : (3) > *jagante > Old Yr.for i in 422-424. C. Cf. 82). also sometimes in serore (Lat. (4) / tended to become e. cf. if i followed. I. sdlbatec. L. Reich. z. I. 3 II. JUntfSrus'^jeniperus (Lat. was kept by analogy in many words : dUrare. cf. Lexique 105-108. Vitruvius..

instruo for struo. Estephanus. stantia for instantia. of it iscola. Dubois 171. strumentum. etc. cf. written Barcelona in the second century. Bon. Vowels so situated probably became more and more end of the Empire. etc. spatii. fourth and found repeatedly. in the seventh century. istatuam. The The in Latin example probably it is iscolasticus. and occasionally disappeared. 3656-.(pronounced w-): expiendido. This i came to be regarded as a regular part of the word. Spanus. estatio. 317 R. prosthetic vowel earliest occurs in Greek inscriptions. tlie C. exs— (pronounced «-) and /«j-. ab sceleribus. spectante for expectante. Dubois 1 71-17 2. ab scandalo. 316-319. Pirson 60. 317. The es-. compardre comperdre. though iscripta.. IHTERTONIC SYLLABLE. ^w. 445-446. cdlK^o^cdre. Grammarians took But in no note late until St. — By this term is meant syllable following the secondary and preceding the primary stress. isiudio. isperabi.98 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. spandere for ex- pandere.. in the fifth it is very common: espiritum. Slementum 6limintum. but a was gen231. Koffmane 109. mirabilia. II. istare. 445. Latin texts ab rather than a was used before words besc. dub{i)idre. S. cdrr(i)care. Digitized by Microsoft® . ismaragdus. indistinct towards the erally kept: bdn{i)idtem. sp. etc. in the third century (Carnoy 114-116). Vok. Cf. 148. scalciare for excalceare. splorator. dil{i)cdtus. Spania. cdp[i)idlis. st: ginning with Bon. . frigiddria frigddria. Isidore. N.thus produced was confounded with ex-. R. dv{i)idtem. spiratio for inspiratio. scoriare for excoriare. S.. ischola. Bon. is. 467. cirebellum. [§ 231 often e) to the s or e when tio vowel preceded first is — in i-schola. ispose. 469-470. Pirson 59-60. Spania. S. In some regions they began to fall regularly before the close of the Vulgar Latin period. not frequently. hispatii for Bechtel 78. B.

d.. vetranus. etc. Koffmane III. The fall of the vowel of course disturbed the Vulgar Latin rhythm: see § 153. however. Substrate IV. meretis. insola. Bon. 12. omne)\ classified. 116. was apparently very Vulgar Latin. The penult. the uneducated pronounced 'om'nes beside socerum there was sScrum. R. cf. R. : Frigdaria occurs Cf. uomini). both types The treatment inconsistent often being preserved in the Romance languages: thus while the literary and official world said {h)dmines (>It. There was probably a conflict between cultivated and popular pronunciation.§ 233] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. XIV. 467. Mintsterium apparently became minsterium early enough for the n to before the s: see §171.. We find in late Latin much confusion of e and /. 131— 135. of this vowel. Pir- Franz. Neumann 22. etc. in the second century b. 464. vowel preceded by a consonant and followed by a fell in the earlier part of the Vulgar Digitized 233. was weaker and more exposed to syncope. Pirson 51.• anemis. comare for coronare. v^recundia. 118. and the conditions differed widely in different regions. Likewise o and u: ambolare. dedcavit. liquid A weakened and by Microsoft® . PENULT. c. Neumann in Zs. F. being next to the accent.. Bon. Cf. pi.. stablarius. dixemus. etc. (>Pr. The Vulgar Latin rhythmic erate one of the two post-tonic syllables of proparoxytones. similarly As far as the general phenomena can be we may say that in popular words in penult tended to (i) fall common speech the vowel of the under the following conditions: — Between any Consonant and a Liquid. son 52. 99 sdcramintum. principle tended to oblit- 232. separdre seperdre. etc. in Sepulcri 201—202. Cf. fall 559.

anglus. Carnoy 12. 1 digitum> dicCf. peduclum. Lexique 63. oclos. Eseram for Isaram. both -clus in {^<i—tlo). compera. which must have been slow in entering the common vocabulary. A sonant was inclined to bublus. bdc{u)lus. frdgilis.'). (2) Between a Labial and any Consonant. Pirson 49-50. Pr. 234. But if the the ^ began to be palatalized (so apparently in 9 I. Die Sprache des Petronius und die Glossen.). hilerus. Franz. I. In some words we find a weakened to e: socro. dedro for dederunt. were kept distinct vulgar speech: artic{u)lus. 1899.^-* spatla. Oclus and some others occur in Petronius: see W. vowel preceded by a labial and followed by a confall early: 235. App. gracilis.stulum> crustlum (found in 18 Cf. App. e^-16 . (cf. ftsiula>*Jiscla. cdm{i)tem. Franz. maniplus. tum. seperat (about 500 A. both becoming —cuius in Classic Latin. Juglus. see first consonant -Cvas a palatal. a. virginem. d. spatula'. vemdc(^u)lus. Waters Ch. Cceseris. § 259.. Vok. [§ 235 Latin period: altra. Many exI. at any rate in some regions: bdjulus. vic(u)lus. Pr. villus. the vowel seems to have been kept. vitulus>veclus. ci. amples are found in inscriptions: AudoUent 538. Lexique 64. Latin originally had the two diminutive endings —clus and -cuius {<i-co-lo). Heraeus. D. spec{ii)lum. 16-18. as in saclum. masclus. mdsc{u)lus. frigidus^frigdus. But a few words. Later they were confused. ins(u)la. 96. Digitized by Microsoft® . Cf. as in auricula. In vigilafp-* viglat the vowel fell before (2) below.). 3 To -clus was assimilated in popular Latin the ending -talus: capitulus"^* capiclus . comp'tus. 195-196. § 284. dc{ii)lus. escaped this absorption: cni. These by Plautus. Bon. App.loo An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Pirson 51). 57.' For a vowel between a labial and a liquid. Pr. cltera. aunclus. aspra. fecrunt fecru. Pirson 51. felicla. scaplas.

fulica fulca. Petronius. Franz. the vowel was kept. virdiaria. Varro. valde. Ovid. sablum. colpus. (cf. poplus. pi. etc. pi. frigidus by Microsoft® . Digitized different condi§ 233) . Waters Ch. Vegetius. R. domnulus. 467. generally became au.. tremulat. virdis. the older: d6m. Koff109. Horace and Vitruvius. (4) Miscellaneous. 15 soldus. 4th century). Juvenal. f{b{u)la. * dvka "^ auca. Reich. Augustine. . hdmula. 13. dvidus avunculus"^ aunculus. Plautus. Pirson 50. Plautus). * cldvido> claudo (cf. (3) Between a Liquid and any Consonant. 15-16 (cf. pdp{u)lus. : § 238] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. pi. 44. Varro. 467. p I.^-* nautat .). App. In some words. domnus in St. Cato. tdbula>*taula *tabla. occurs in Lamna Petronius has bublum. KofiEmane iii. i2ff. lardum. Martial. either everywhere or in a large region: drbi^o^rem. c6l{a)phus {ci. . per- colopabat. in R. Waters Ch. Pliny. 236. fdbula>*faula *fabla. Franz. domnicus. Ci. Franz. Pr. Plautus. Pirson 51. nibula. 56. Cf. found in glosses. Franz. Franz. 44. 238. 237. ioi tri- dib{i)tum. but often there were double forms the process began very early audus. In d6m(i')nus the mn form may be mane domni.{i')nus. b{u)la. merto. Cf. p I. the fall When ab or av was brought next to a consonant by it of a following vowel. Horace. vdpulo baplo. offla. tions: In some words the vowel fell under digitum> dictum. caldus. 13. 12. Gl.Jibla. Franz. *navi- > fragus>naufragus). sablum. 3 \. * ndvitaf. pardbula>*paraula *parabla. gdbata>*gauta *gabta. A vowel preceded by a liquid and followed by a consonant was subject to syncope at all periods: ardus. Waters Ch. Caesar. h6m{i')nes jiiv{e)nis .. however. Plautus (cf.

2d century. they had not fallen already. habitus > * abtus. Gl. ally fell. viaticum. (2). shortened forms were used in other regions. See Morphology. e. and Ligurian territory. (fricda). they generi. § Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. Pompeii (fridam). but rius is evidently the ancestor of Italian and Spanish rio. cdrrico'^*carco. culicet culcet Cf. about the eighth century. probably late. pi2tidus'^*puttus. c6llocat'>-*colcat. Digitized by Microsoft® . Reich.: = collocat. clericus^*clercus. . p I. tdllere > * tolre. 233). carcatus. we find "avus non aus. semita'^* senta. rapidus > > *rapdus. Later. frdx(i)nus. mdnica'>* manca. The vowels regularly remained through the Vulgar Latin period.102 An (cf. Lucretius. Suchier 732." Aus and flaus have left no representatives. In the App. App. Pr. fimina *femna. Pr. 241. [§ 241 ^frigdus maxima^ masma. 239. posturus. Aquitanian. Pirson 50. 13-14 (ci." "flavus non Jlaus" "rivus non rius. ntHdus>*niiius. sid(^e)cim. Cato). Some of these In a part of Gaul dmita'^* anta. dic{i)mus. dominica-^ * dominca. medicus. Franz. debita~^* depta. — were — syncopated with some regularity. In the transition from Vulgar Latin to the Romance in so far as languages the vowels in classes (i). A vowel preceded by </ or ^ and followed by c seems to have remained longer than most other vowels that fell at all: judico. All three forms are probably examples of a tri- phonetic reduction that affected certain regions. and a number of vowels otherwise placed fell under different conditions in various regions: pdnere'^*ponre. pers{i)ca. except a and in Celtic. (3). posius. 240. vindico. Through a large part of the Empire -avit>-aut: umphaut is found in Pompeii. FINAL SYLLABLE.

tanger in manuscripts. It is likely that final vowels were especially ob- scure in Gaul in the sixth and seventh centuries. were not usually distinguished (cf. which became u in Sicily. 103 242.Xxa. etc. ablative. tristem. sentls. tribunal{e). long or short. The changes in pronunciation led to great confusion in spelling. 243. 41. and i came to be used almost indiscriminately. inflection. for / is frequent in the dative and ablative. E I. 469). In some localities this and this u were kept distinct." These curious forms are probably not the result of a phonetic development. perhaps. t. but are rather due to a local change of languages. u was u. dmdt. etc. E and a. fructu. as in to Vulgar Latin. uxore. iv and I. by Microsoft® . he i. according to the testimony of numerous inscriptions {Lat. 469). tristes. were all probably sounded e. a." ^^figulus nonfigel. Italian. The App.§ 244] An Introduction Final vowels. morior. Quintilian says that Livy wrote sibe and quase. sancta. bonds. Lexique 118. Bechtel 75-76. e. autumnal {e). Spr. which in Sicily be- came eventually // t remained // was 0. See Franz. facul =facilis. which left no trace in the Romance famulus.. 3 I. Carnoy45: Digitized dative. So. feci. pradiscer. About the eighth century a probably became ? in northern Gaul. describes the final vowel of here as neither quite e nor quite Cf. but generally they were confounded {Lat. 244.. haber in an inscription. in I." "masculus non mascel. vii. etc. vii. modern must have been often elided or syncopated in the interior of a phrase. conder. was naturally pronounced a. §210): apte^aptcB. cotidia. bom. tibe. etc. has "barbarus non barbar. Old 'Lz. mihe. tristts. praber. Cf. in late Latin. "bibere non biber". Spr. famul = A. Examples: dmds. Neumann 7-8 cites ten cases of e for a: Italice. Pr. especially e after liquids: Caper. E luce. corpus.

F. common in Per. -£?. old letter equivalent to C. omnes ^ omnis (3d century). accusative plural G|^l|ii Jilius—Jilios. Minus. cf. under the influence of dis-. posuet. ^and Fwere used both and u and for the consonants/ and v. N. used as a prefix (cf.. Audollent 535. Carnoy 13. Phon. I. D. sem- per'^* sempre . etc. Lat. K. II. Joannis. very etc. etc. larly common 42. os The confusion of for us. Sepulcri 229-230.. and us for os. 246. -re. 11 1.. E. siiper'>-*supre. With and u it was the same. 115. [§ 246 Es and are continually interchanged: 24. Carnoy 48 bonus = bonos. Z. §29) as in minus-pretiare. tenit. Bon. M. etc. etc. became in Gaul mis-. an R. Bon. I. mares etc. C. in etc. regis ^reges.. also in Gregory the Great. Bon. V. Bon. etc. 43-44. in us was particu128. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin period.. Bon. •quat{u)or'>quatro. omnes ^^omnis. Haag 245.. 916. CONSONANTS. = maris. of. of om for um. monumento ^= monumentum.. H. there are between 126 and 563 a.r became Carnoy 221. letters The Latin consonant P.. Cf. Neumann 11-13... movit. Sepulcri 203-204. In words ofteii used as proclitics final -er. Cf. Neumann 11-13. was kept in Digitized some formulas . 'Im. Carnoy 48. T. Q. L... 474. it need by Microsoft® . 131 has spoliatur for spoliatot.4 G.104 An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. d. 61 examples of u for ablative In Vok. So et it: Bechtel 88-89. Vok. Spr. as well as frequent instances of ablative in um. 116../^^. and 121. for the vowels i were B. Carnoy 13-15. and um is very common in Per. S. X. Sepulcri 201. Os and us were interchanged from the third century on awi' = annos. : . G. etc. -ro: inter'>*intre. etc. Ill. K..

nullus. Q V= kw (cf. later it represented a different Latin version of Greek t. ^ and g before front vowels were palatalized and were then subject to further alterations.or ss (S. Pirson 88. For Fredegarius see Haag 39-40. Digitized by Microsoft® . serra. consonants are often written single in early inscriptions. and n ceased to be sounded before s. and thus became identical V. 158. 247. lastly the Germanic. fillio. In addition to the above. Double consonants regularly kept after long their long pronun- ciation: annus. next the Greek.. first the native Latin. with The consonants will now be considered in detail. Bon. Pirson 83-91. For w>j and For double forms like of single cipus ctppus. which also changed to /8. terra. Z in Old Latin apparently meant j. § 223).§ 248] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 319-320). nasals. see §161. liquids. e. 105 in not be separately considered. 248. palatals. Pirson 85. The voicing of intervocalic surds began during the Vulgar Latin period. Vulgar Latin had a new w and y coming from originally syllabic u. the Celtic need not be separately studied. Double cf. dentals. //>/ vowels. gutturals. h was silent. m and n became silent at the end of a word. taken up The Latin consonants will be in the following order: aspirate. the combination Q was generally used only Jf stands for ks. In late spelling there is some confusion and double consonants: anos. which will be discussed after the native ones. 163. sonants The principal developments that affected Latin conmay be summed up as follows: b between vowels was opened into the bilabial fricative /3. sibilants. passus. In words borrowed from Greek and German there were several foreign consonants. vacca. labials. which will be treated below (§§338-339). see §§ 162. or / in hiatus: see § 224.

1. 266. Initial h was surely very feeble and often silent during In Cicero's time and in the early Empire there was an attempt to revive it in polite society. 262-263. App.. 251. Quintilian says the ancients used h but little. — aspires perperam". incohare are archaic calls Terentius Scaurus and vehemens incorrect. as in quisquis honos tumuli: Keil V. and cites "ados ircosque": S." In inscriptions we find such forms as reprehensus aduc.. etc. and both he and Velius Longus declare there is no h \VLprendo: S. 264. vemens: S. as in terga fatigamus hasta. Pr. first XI. hinsidias. Cf. Grammarians say that A is not a letter but a mark There is no trace of Latin k in of aspiration: S. being little or nothing more than a breathed on-glide: S. 249. 250. probably disappeared when medial: . a. vehemens." see S. 263. 255-256. the Republic. 264-265. Gellius says ahenum. si speaks of bygone generations as using k very S. mi. "adhuc non aduc. comprendit. Digitized by Microsoft® . 263-264.e. cortis. ASPIRATE. 399. G. [§ 251 LATIN CONSONANTS. Quintilian commends the spelling deprendere: S. Cf. sometimes does not. very much as happens in Cockney English to-day: for the would-be elegant chommoda. Grammarians felt obliged to discuss in detail the spelling of words with' or without h : S. Nigidius Figulus fit to the effect that "rusticus sermo i. Paris in I?om. 117. of "Arrius. If -was weak and uncertain at all times in Latin. S. Gellius quotes P. Probus states that traho is pronounced trao: Lindsay 57. 266. nil. in such words as sepu/c/irum. but Cicero's contemporaries much. honera : Pompeius notes that k sometimes makes position.. 266. doubtless the Romance It languages.— io6 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. which led to frequent misuse by the ignorant. 267—268.

819. criminately used: abeo. Spr. S. OSTIA. oe. I. I. 107 is dropped in a few inscriptions towards the end of the Republic: arrespex (for haruspex). 341-344. k. GUTTURALS.. C. 254. Mens. 345-346. dialects: Quintilian VI. ortus. in quo ante=^inBechtel 78-79.. other languages: michi. I. 264. C. In Rome are found: e[redes]. the Empire. Sheldon in Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Litera- turel (1892). secuntur. etc. Vulgar Latin reduction of que to Digitized qui to ki: Lat. I. Cf. probably earlier in local or vulgar iii. the kw was 340-341. Cf. I. b. 350reduced to k by the or second century. pronounced kw: 0. too. S. '^digitus = digitos. § 226. of S. choante. records a pun of Cicero on cogue and quoque. etc. 345. 252. R. by Microsoft® . = coperta. 351-352.§ 254] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. Before u and first however. 253- C and K did not differ in value except that C some- times did service for dicitos G: App. etc. kw was Before other vowels the regularly kept in most of k. 924. L.. 473. After h had become pronunciation of medial h as Italian pronunciation of there grew up a school which has persisted in the Latin and has affected some words in silent. E.. hodio. southand Sicily subsequent developments point to a ke. Bechtel 78. Bechtel 77-78. unless analogy led to a substitution of cociior coqui throvigh. condam. cottidie. hegit.. and H after the third century it is everywhere more or eres. S. anc. hostium. haram. cf. ora. S. S... nichil. etc.. as in eastern Italy. hossa. I. R. Q and C: S. 351. quooperta cot. ymnus. ic. There was some confusion. etc. 1034. Pr. C.L. Cf. ospitiutn. In Pompeii h is freely omitted. 265-266. But in Dacia. less indisetc. omo. cocus : see §226. 462-463. Q F was Audollent 536. heremum. abitat. L. 82-87. non dicitus". oratia. 455.

353 (cf. began as shown by Anglo-Saxon borrow- ings and by such Latin forms as frigare. /'m«7/« > prixsilla. S. cinctivs. I. etc. Fr. in At about the same time : final ks cojus.. nasco. By the second reduced to or third century ks before a consonant was 170. by analogy. see § 266.. ''cah dicendum." "poples noT\ poplex.: see Melanges Wahlund t^^. as in * essaexire. for some reason. as in cresco. gium. 353. migat in inscriptions Digitized by Microsoft® . mextum for mcestum. extimare for cestimare. 256. cf. Cinqvaginta." "locuples non lucuplex. of a metathesis of ks into sk: axilla"^ ascella. Carnoy 158. subornatris. first [§ 256 In quinque the w was lost by dissimilation: cinqve. Cf. xanto. 352. pregiiax became s. cen- inscriptions. 274. On In norththe other hand. found in Spain (so cinqv. ern Gaul apparently sk regularly became ks. S. s: sestus is common in inscriptions. There are some examples. etc. 341. 145. e.). excutere.. Carnoy 157. except in mono^prmgnans. The voicing of intervocalic surds doubtless it is early as the fifth century. App. felis. conjus. Carnoy Eckinger 126 (2eorros). For ks>-)(S. ubi materia per s. Carnoy 171. Bechtel 139. Lindsay 102. dester. S. buxus'^* buscus vixit>\iyiC\Ti (i. Vok. S. destera. 346. So ex-^es. but not in syllables etc. 353.: Hence cf. 221. fifth tury. to Carnoy have become *laceus: Substrate 255.before vowels. viscit). III. in late Latin. exponere. Laqueus seems. but this was only local: alesan[der]. etc." In parts of Italy ks between vowels was assimilated into ss by the first century. Audollent 537. Caper. 98. merx. Lexique 93). io8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin." Keil VII.'' "miles non milex. "aries non ariex. 353. BissiT BisiT VISIT = vixit. es~ for ex.. Carnoy 159. After a consonant ks early tended to become s: Piautus uses mers for est. ^ stood for ks: S. 351. milex. S.

7th century. . A. in some places perhaps as early as the first century. kircare. 731. Haag 27—28. Initial c and cr. gat. 3 I. finds in inscriptions some slight evidence of a change of t to d during the Empire. and in Sicily. C and G before Front Vowels. occubavit.— — § 258] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. kelu. at least as early as the seventh century. of the cataveris ^^ cadaveris. but reina. Dalmatia. Carnoy 123. Spr. I. t were voiced in Gaul in the second half of the sixth century. and Illyria k' went no further. Haag 27. lebra. According to Loth 21-26. i25ff. however. Zimmermann. Densusianu 111-112. deghe<..g'.. immudavit. etc. pagandum. 472. ne121. / 258. Voicing was not general. Haag 28-29. in a few words. and Dacia. 32. 2d century. and Dacia the k' stage was apparently kept longer than in most regions: Lat. 257. Spr. Before the front vowels e and the velar stops k and g were drawn forward. noghe < nucem. crassus + grossus'^grassus. * gratis. pontivicatus.. on the evidence of inscriptions and manuscripts. Dalmatia. kena. In Central Sardinia. became g and gr: *gaveola.t least two centuries earlier. Rydberg. early in the Empire or before. found in the 4th century. Zs. Digitized by Microsoft® . Cf. southern Italy. etc. Carnoy eglesia. into a mediopalatal position k'. kera. 474. Vok. 109 and manuscripts. p. while c>gz. etc. (i) Cf. kima. etc. there are many examples from the sixth century: Lat. siubri. XXV. etc. sigricius ^= secretins. intervocalic c. that t>d'm the fifth century and the beginning of the sixth. Some above examples show that consonants followed by r shared in the voicing... etc. Franz. G seems to have been attracted sooner than k : in Sardinian we find k before e or i preserved as a stop whiles is not decern. in central and southern Italy. maintains. cubidus.

etc. 473. colliens. Cf. re{g)ina.. 349. "calcostegis Neumann 75. ingens aiebat..): it its disap- pearance (as in pldngit. 461. Thm-ot 77. frigidus in most of the Empire had become frigdus {App. Cf. etc. vigtlat had become *viglat. 3 I. Spain. S. jSctevTt = viginti. Pr. Agrientum. Vok. but is " weak " before other vowels. Diez. Spr. = Sepulcri 205. Sicily. Grammaire des langues ro- I. Vok. D'Arbois 10. except colliens when analogy forced *colliente. 61. Tragani. agere = ^ aiere." geiuna= Jejuna. and digitus in some places had become dictus {Franz.. Spr. Pirson 97 celiens. fmucrrpo.>maester.Gi. similarly perhaps the proclitic ma{g)is. This y. 460) trienta. iesta. coi^i.Gi 5. 3. maestati. diriens. that of English g in gem) before e and /. . 250. neglienda. agebat ^ aiebat.e. After the accent. S. 173. Before happened. II. "-frigida non fricda"). Pirson iniens. Digitized by Microsoft® . 275. II. Stolz 349. 473. and portions of Sardinia. non cakosieis. 15-16): cf. Gepte. Per. 461 . in through legit.. argentum. agebat Lat. §233. Lat. etc. with the following e or i if this vowel was stressed: vi- mag2ster'>*mayister'. [§259 259. . S. G' by the fourth century had become had opened into y. Voi.. genarivs. so *pa{g)e{n)sis. praepalatal clerical and Latin: App. genvarivs. 239. a part of southwestern Gaul. Pirson 97 quarranta = qicadraginta. etc. and after a consonant. leges. (cf. both in popular and in Gerapolis for HierapoHs. But sometimes : fused with a following i proparoxy tones roitus {=irdgitus z= rogdtus). fused. recoUiendo.. II. this Haag 33. in nearly all the Empire. no An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. F. to the effect g has "its own sound " (i. Haag 34 manes 1' . when it was intervocalic. = conjugi.. lenubam = Bon. the regularly remained. Genavam. and southwestern Italy remained at the y stage elsewhere the y developed further in the Romance languages. Troge.1 1 Some light is thrown on the later clerical pronunciation by a statement in a fragment of a tenth century treatise on Latin pronunciation. {g)inti. Pr..

I. 21-51 (cf. 1901. dut'yere. as early as the third ce. fascem.§ 26i] An K' Introduction to Vulgar Latin. co{g)ndscere. and Libit. W. apparently as and postpalatal. the earlier grammarians: prsepalatal. in Lat.1 century: F. septrvm. intcitamento: P. duk'ere. Guarnerio in Supplementi aWArchivio glottologico italiano IV (1897). 617). In the school pronunciation of the seventh and eighth centuries c before e and i In the treatise cited in the preceding note. G. see H. articulation: k'entu. Paris in Journal des savants. ka. In the half of the third ce. nascere.itury must have had nearly front. everywhere a The next step was the development of an audible glide. and qu. S.. 151. k'y had become t'y: t'yentu. 1893. developed into or ts: t's'entu or Speakers were apparently unaware of the phenomenon until the assibilation was complete. in the Annuaire de I'^cole pratique des 261. Cf. paze (6th or 7th cenFrankish tins (German zins') is from fifth borrowed probably in the 595. Thurot 77.S^ was palatalized also: crescere. 51-53. 322 P. Marchot. Vok. Vok. By the fifth century the k' had passed a little further forward and the Through a modification tsentu. XXVI. 163. and in Rom. between the k' and the following vowel: k'yentu. . Mohl. in the Comptes rendus des seances de I'Academie des Inscriptions. 1893. S. 359. etc. Cf. Fetite phonetique du franfais prelitieraire. G. and is almost like q before other vowels. For a discussion of the subject. 360. I. in 260. . There is no mention of first it by 340. Zs. 1 was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . S. 348. XXX. duk'yere. it is stated ts. XXXIII. E. century some writers distinguish Rom. mediopalatal. Schuchardt. consiensia. that c has " its own sound " before c and i. 1900. in the t's sixth or seventh century. piscem. 348 cites fes[it]. of this glide the group then. 123-126. a short y. Meyer-Liibke in Einf. ffautes-^tudes. XIV. tury). 81. 7. or praepalatal. census. in the fifth century we find bintcente.

. realis in Gl. 3 II. y^ 264. dimmi (< die mi). see Archiv XV. siffatto {<. 242-243).112 An 472. K and g before vowels not formed mouth usually remained unchanged: canis. negare. Italian die. through alliteration. ecce htc. avste. 146. (3) C and G Final and before Consonants. cher. g'a. in the front of the 263. See. Carnoy 155-160 (who puts the assibilation in the sixth century and earlier). and then developed further: carum>'Fr. 50). hoc. of a word the guttural seems : to have been regularly preserved in Vulgar Latin fac. however. sic. the c must have been Digitized lost. Occasionally. Franz. 349. see Palatals below. gamba>'Ex. Reich. ka. I. But ligdre. the proclitic eo for ego. however. gustus. in Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 129 (other examples in manuscripts. due. At the end cf. fammi {<ifac mi). Intervocalic g before the accent fell in many words in all or a part of the Empire. and apparently remained under learned or under analogical influence in others: avstvs from the second century on. S. Inasmuch as a had in Gaul a front pronunciation (§ 194). of a local assibilation of c as early as the second century. pacare. 262. so * ledlis. (2) C AND G before Back Vowels.. ci. pagdnus. so. * liamen. *redlis (for XXX. For ce. eccu'hdc. For a possible indication. Sfir. Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie [§264 3131!. too. negdre. § 256. — mainly. probably by the end of the seventh century. found about the sixth century. by Microsoft® . see Zs. S- — — perhaps 349). frvalitas. ga in most of that country became k'a. sic factum). jambe. Carnoy 127 (cf. Vok.

. Pr. D. Isidore.). Lat. Lat. Zaf.^ Ft.g. 265. Festus. I. D. §650. LATTVCjE (3OI etc. 215-224. 9 II. probably by the century: defuntus. in Pompeii. Before another consonant k and g were for the most part kept through the Vulgar Latin period: actus. PR/EFETTO. and likewise substituted x^ fo"^ ^^' Suchier 735." 348. "sagma by Microsoft® . 267. which seems to have been assimilated first into nt in parts of the Empire. Gm Pr. cuntis. = qu.. santo. OTOBRIS (380 A. Carnoy 172. A. and «'. § 186. be explained otherwise: Irish ocht-n corresponding to Latin octo. through assimilation to a following initial consonant: PA iot fac. > Fr. antiqui quasi dumecita appellabant quae nos dumeia. In late texts nee is often written ne before a consonant. and there is a confusion of si and sic: Franz. App. ^^auctor non autor". sank. became um: fraumenta. ( i. S. Nkt became yt. For kw 266. Xf some parts was assimilated into U by the beginning of the fourth century. Spr. oclus..).e. however. 399). Zs. sante. saint. The Celts perhaps pronounced the Latin beginning. Cf. fata.. The resultant phenomena can. fleuma.) . in see § 254. For ks of Italy = x.. in the south even in the first century: AVTOR. 472. irqyfua. see § 255. Spr. inasmuch as their own rf had as x^ from the become ^f (e. "dumecta S. There is reason to believe. eissir. S. that the y was retained very generally in Gaul and perhaps some other regions. regnancte. 476. etc. 236-240. Gram. App. fait. 278. Spr. Pr. 348. *viglat (§233). XXV. frigdus. "pegma non peuma" Digitized St. 735. 472. * exsire . otogentos.§268] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. however. Old ct Windisch 394. subsequently drawn forward to the praepalatal position santus. — sanctum 268. 113 no doubt. 398*fC'X^um>Vx. Einf.

habeam. ni{g)rum. 271. rcenante. exagium. Cf. Latin / was pronounced being identical in sound with the consonant that developed out of e and / (§ 224): jam.. cujus. eiius. similarly the ^ was sometimes etc. pi{g)ntia. I. In cognosco the decomposed — g generally disappeared. 324) and zesv =/esu. t. soma. d. Instead i (=/) the spelling mann. ftlia..114 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. of ii was often used: coiiugi. Palatalization was commonest probably were reduced to y in vulgar speech: deorsum. videavi . rarest in Dacia. 239). Pirson 75. ZVNIOK = junior (S. 364 a. and also salma. that consonant was often less assimilated. odium. [§272 quae corrupte vulgo S. inte{g)rum. renum. Spr. madias = maias. Lat. ZACOiJVS = diaconus. audiam. sauma 269. 270. and subjected to further modifications. (S. sometimes entirely absorbed by the in Gaul. gaudium. aayixa). Reich. the after the fall of initial g in gnosco —-into lost in cognatus : word being co~ and Vok. Fortsetzung 7. diumus. ajutit =adjutet. Compare oz^^ hodie (S. etc. no SCO. between in vowels. 272. Haag 34. which comes from Koxfrn. fageus. podium. 476. adjuiare. Carnoy Digitized by Microsoft® . 327. connato. Italian sauma [or salma^ dicitur" (i. Cf. Pirson 76. Neu- When y more or y. 323) and Zovk^la= Julia (Eckinger 80). cunnuscit. being preserved in some. Cf. conjux. Stolz 275. Gn was still variously treated in different regions.e. in popular words apparently became r parts of the Empire: fra{g)rare. in the latter part of the Empire. edmus. 115-116. as calma from Soma occurs in Gl. y. assimilated into n or n in others. pere{g)rtnum. followed a consonant.. PALATALS. Gr. venio. teneaf. Dy and^. hodie.

His- pania. or dz (cf. In most words the vulgar jv prevailed. The S. Servius in Virg. Haag 34. licpioi = Sergius. Ly. but it we generally cannot whether t. Georg. Reich. di. magias ^= maias. 339): z^s cf. Audollent 537 zogenes. mezzo. and perhaps through slurring due to constant and careless use. prandium > It. in others especially in Italy the cultivated dz. pranzo. § . 461. Corneius. cor- aytos. *deyo: cf. in Yox plUvia a form *pldja was substituted §§ 169. Pr. 320. folia. aggio. Condianus. but medium ^^ > It. /'. writes. 323. ny. habeo. etc. says. debbio. sapcha. Haag anoget = *inodiaf. had poggio.(4). S. towards the end of the Empire. It.. Z is often used in inscriptions. another — doubtless more elegant — pronunciation. 63. II. generally prevailed. Remidium — Eemigium. = maio. teneat. The : dz pronunciation was especially favored after a consonant 273. y. This palatal pronunciation may be 327. deggio. which was > It. The reduced forms cf.. Congianus =. Waters Ch. Gl.§274] ^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. probably became veniam. 321. 324. etc. video>*veyo. = dies." S. madio S- 349. fiios. II. however. but not everywhere. sappia. De. means dy. n' before the end of the Empire: ftlius. S. by Microsoft® . between vowels. melius. di sine sibilo Isidore letter tell grsecum enim nomen est. "solent Itali dicere ozie pro hodie. 216. tilia. Carnoy 162." S. from radius Italian has both raggio — — and razzo.i£=die. lated in Vulgar Latin beside abbio. appears that the labials were not regularly assimi- sapiam > It. St. Carnoy 161. juria = jurgia. Digitized etc. represented by the spellings Aureia. : orzo. Vok. ridia =! corrigim. 34. palea. It hordeurh > It. probably dz : podium proferenda est. aios = Carnoy 162. 115 162. But through the analogy of audio"^* auyo. sacriius—SiaKpiTOi. debeo often became *ayo. most of the Empire: 274. 208. Media.

also in nuncius. avaricia. consiensia. servicium. Cy and ty. I'g' to Vulgar Latin. tercia. see § 277. Lat. from oleo. Ssy. malleus.). between vowels.. pudicicia. /' [§276 later: were probably reduced to ex-eligit. see § 296. fascia. scy. Stolz 51. termina(an acrostic in Com- ciONES in (2d century). we are told that ti. ti.). / 'i'l^^^y. Pg. Cf.y«j/i«'a (in an edict of Diocletian). An Introduction ll'g'. p. . mansionem. It. Cf. 'ApovKiavoi = Aruntianus. collt^t. 78. Riquier 131 &nd pitid in popular speech). ocio (389 A. oracionem (601 a. as in etiam.. Oleum. . quatio. caseus. ocium. ci. etc. unless preceded by s.d. is Pr. huile. Bon. and ty. 321) "benedictio et oratio et talia t debent habere in psenultima syllaba. non c. tercius. Vok. In later school pronunciation cy and ty were sounded alike. modian). prophetia. olio. S. etc.ii6 Lly. Digitized by Microsoft® ..)." In the treatise published by Thurot (see footnote to § 259). somewhat allium. justicia. For rv. being respectively k'y second and third centuries. Sp. the an exception-: cf. I. D. foreign words borrowed from Latin oleum indicate the same irregularity. Fr. According to Albinus (S. Fr. Pirson 71 mendatium.). For the confusion 276. and hence were often confused: a. furthermore. oli. were very and t'y (cf. D. concupiscencia many examples Gaul in the 5th century. staacio (601 a. sty were generally assimilated of sy later: *bassiare. defeniciones (222235 A. leticia. isoff. Eckinger 99.. 323. is pronounced like c. eAaiov. D. Pirson 72. 475. Spr. Densusianu in. postea. 171 especially common in Gallic inscriptions of the seventh century. d. doubtless became during the VulgHRjatin period /. etc. a sound similar to English sh in ship: basium. in the similar in sound. duricia. is confused with the spelling c being prescribed in amicicia. malicia. silentium.

Cf. later avarttic^-cia. Latetnisches ti und ki im Ru7ndnischen. in some cases.^ k'. .vel di^ syllabam sequitur vocalis. Puscariu. inicio. Audollent 537. 320): "/ustitia ex tribus he goes on to state that it is always so when ti is followed by a vowel other than / (as in Tatius. 1904. (as injustius. Hence arose numeroimdouble forms: condicio solacium solatium. Reich. etc.: audatia. either whole Empire. (S. reviewed in Libit. except in foreign proper names or after j litteris. "lotacismi sunt quotiens post ti. Vincentl^us. cited by Cassiodorus (S. t. MARSIANESSES = J/ar/z'a«^«j'M. by the 140 A. pinguius sonat et perdit sonum suum et accipit sibilum. This explains such seemingly anomalous developments 324. 545. Pompeius says the same thing at con- siderable length." Papirius. I." Consentius 'For a different explanation of the Italian and Rumanian developments. see S. Gl. castius). et plerumque supradictse syllabse in sibilum transeunt. S. 64. otia. Cf. am- bicio. Carnoy 151-154. regfourth. 3d ccntury. speties. ularly a school pronunciation with etc. zodorys = Theodoras.§277] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. comenzare chminciare. etc. Vok. *cominitiare -ciare. etc. sotium. conditio. Anitius -cius. or vice versa: cf. S. 324.. It. * gutteare "> Horning in Zs.. Justitii). locally or in the This similarity or identity of sound led. cum scribitur. "si dicas Titius. et i". etc. XXIV. 68. ampittfltru. adding (S. §260): crescentsian[vs]. 323. tertia syllaba sic sonat quasi constet z. A number of words evidently had a popular pronunciation with f and 277. 320). Digitized by Microsoft® . Italienischen und Sardischen. into ts (cf. but not in otii. so many ^|ftper names. S. Carnoy 154. D. A. gocciare. tercius. XXVII. Servius in Don.. etc. to the substitution of suffixes and to other permanent transfers of words from one class to the other: cf.. It. spacio. as * exquartiare-^YX. squarciare. 320) says. 117 spacium. tristicia. T'y developed sporadically in the second century. servitium -cium.

assibilated (e. perdo. 5th century. k'. Pirson 71. sepsies. was easily confused with sy. 6th cen- tury. especially in suffixes: —slum. 323.palagio heside patazzo. Ztd/t. after the assibilation completed: Mapa-w. DENTALS. carried into Brittany in the second half of the fifth century. St.. not followed by y. so facio.l. hence \X?X\2. dentals were pronounced with the middle of the tongue arched up and the tip touching the gums or teeth. Exai^les are very numerous: observasione. XXXV. ratio —sio. [§281 mentions the assibilation in etiam. and many words have palatium preserved it in various regions.. etc. if the /' was rather weak. and not 281. fifth but not regularly until the of t'y -wa. 480. servitium —slum.g. pretium —sium.s or sixth. XXVII. Welsh words borrowed from Latin before the fourth century show no assibilation. diposisio ^= depositio. glacies. judigsium. 153.vo'. S. modus. statio —sio. =^ Afardanus. etc. and -igia beside -ezza from -ztia.. cf. D regularly remained unchanged: Digitized dare. . The in modern French. 279. 301-302. 323. d. 278. tersio. but names in -tiacum. Carnoy 154. But the intermediate stages were similar enough to lead to some confusion. d. " ' by Microsoft® .'a. as 280. — — S. and the ultimate products have become identical in that which many For regions. Pirson 71. are Metiacus> Messac). vitiutrf^lt. The resulting sibilant was different from came from t'y: faciam'^-lt. JT'y was assibilated sporadically in the third century. vezzo. Vok. hocsies. Clerical usage for a while doubtless favored sy for ty. see Gutturals. Eck- inger 103.. 307. 225 a. as in English : S. placeam. Isidore in justitia: S. g'. Cf.ii8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 6th century. faccta. 65 Horn. 320-321. say t's'y the At aa intermediate stage between ty and ts grouD. etc.

In proclitics assimilation naturally went further. 282. // d may have been . INQVID. 31 1 Consentius blames " peres pro pedes" S. quo and Haag Illud. guoi. became ilium : Haag 29. id 29. capud in Gregory the Great.» Sittl 37. 119 Oscan and Umbrian had nn corresponding to Latin nd: There is some indication that this pronunciation was locally adopted in Latin: agennjE.• Cf.. fecit feced. 476." App. o\d. arVORSVM =r adversum. ad eos and at ea. §283] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. northern Italy. 365-366. If this was the case." Cf. So the final consonant eventually often dis- appeared. (3). Spr. dacruma'^ lacrima . The cases seem to be sporadic and due to different special causes. as we may infer from the treatment of the prefix ad~: people probably said not only at te (cf. " adif^ non alipes. . part of Sardinia: vt3ere':>*vedere. CO. ilium corpus.. S. attendere) but sometimes *ar Romam (cf. set. : (i) Occasionally (/>/. 366-367 Some of the confusion was doubtless due to the fall of both d 365 . 358-359. 365 aput. Pr. S. S. Intervocalic d. verecvnnvs. Grammarians warn against the Cf. 31 1. At the end of a word there was hesitation between d and S. and a Similarly intervocalic dr. set. through the analogy of other neuters. Cf. etc.. S.. Carnoy 179-180. and t: see §285. devocalized before a voiceless : initial consonant. Pr. etc. confusion of ad and etc. 311312 "grundio non grunnio. Raetia.. 283. arripere). Gaul. Digitized by Microsoft® . a. § 289. etc.. and possibly at the end of a phrase apvd apvt. S. period. (2) In a. S. few words d~^r: medidies by dissimilation ^«^«rf««. etc. Liquids. Carnoy 180. the central and southern Italian nn for nd (as quannu for quando) may go back to ancient times Lat. . it. Carnoy 180. App. quid quit.. at. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin became 6 in Spain. etc.

f^habe). Ischia. Italy. etc. . Digitized by Microsoft® . often in Umbrian In Latin. cf. In early dialects we find such forms as cvpa. In quadraginta. schioppo.?." capidum. Tl. sitis. Italian (except Sardinian). dede: S. as ama. 105. in Volscian {fasia=fadat). ascla. posui) occur in Gallic inscriptions. and sclitib. Lat. Rumanian. —tulus~^—dus. however.315. sure examples of the fall in Latin are found in Pompeii tions in Christian relinque. final t disappeared early in the Empire in southern and during the Empire in most of Italy and Dacia. seems to have regularly become d: astula> Pr. 8. Pirson 97. peria. Keil VII. valia. Raetia. its Final nt perhaps lost before consonants: Lat. facit. partem. [§ 285 either at the same time or became drin Spain and Gaul: quadro'. Cf." For Cf. 7. 367. occasionally in Faliscan: Hammer 5. usclar. dr~> rr: quarranta. It. App. §234. Spr. Pr. ustulare > Pr. 107. 367-368. 472." "vitulus non vidus. Fredegarius wrote e for cutters — — t et: Haag 29. 285. So probably insula > * isla > * istla > * isda > Final t fell It. but forms without the possibly due to Italian stoneconsonant (as audivi.: others appear later in the inscrip- Rome and S. '^ pessulum non pestulum" (hence Italian /ifj'//. later. 284. f developed: Caper. The first . > *scloppus > .> *quadro.). Hammer 28-32. 8.(from stlis stlitis). S. northern Italy. Gaul." "vefulus non vedus. and also Spanish and Portuguese show no trace of final / except in monosyllables. vixi. and Sardinia kept the t late..120 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. sclit. Between j and I z. Spr. . " capitulum non dicendum. etc. 312-313 "Martulus non Marculus" "stlataris sine c littera Caper. T usually stloppus remained unchanged : teneo.

may indicate un- certainty in the use of d and t. before a vowel or a voiced consonant. S. Lat. posuerun. 306-307. S. 473-474. 38 (S. 121 n. Intervocalic was voiced to d in Spain. L had a convex formation. Raetia. Marius Victorinus preferred posquam : S. Spr. Spr. Final st.§288] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Both st and s are represented in the Romance languages. d and t. — 368. 309. 473-474. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) or *capum. 287. e. restituerun. 470. §283. ut Plinio sonum habet: quando geminatur secundo loco Digitized by Microsoft® . see §282: capud. 473. 368. triplicem. Nt. § 280): S.. and-^J is found: S. Such a spelling as Later this retere for reddere (S. is preserved in the same regions as Pisaurum. with and without either consonant. ^> d in northern Gaul and Spain. (I) L. Priscian I. it was doubtless often Fredegarius voiced. likewise. in 365. 324) writes: exilem. LIQUIDS. and northern § 256.The Romance languages show forms with nt. cf. When did not fall. Lindsay 124. est amatus but es' portatus : Lat. uses capo: Haag 29. t 286. pos. inside a phrase. feced. In Gaul and Spain. videtur. According to Velius Longus. of final t For the confusion inquid are found. 309. In inscriptions we find : dedro and dedrot. posquam in R. /. 288. in general. Pos is very common in inscriptions. Cf. moreover. Cf. Cicero favored posmeridianus . Italy probably in the fifth or sixth century: Inscriptions show a few such forms 309) as amadus. like d and "Z t (cf. Cf. tr'p-dr'^dr. Gaul. may have lost its t before consonants as post ilium but pos' me.

tribunal. XXX. medium in aliis. 326. silva. fabula^*flaba'y-\\. mtlle. intervocalic va. to the vocalization of / into u: KavKovXaT<o in an edict of Diocletian. sound — as 50. Have. consonants. sporadically by the fourth century but regularly not until the eighth and ninth and later (^Lat. For ly. cauculus in manuscripts. geline. flavus. zi. (2) There are sporadic examples of the dissimilation of two Ts: Digitized by Microsoft® . According to H. ski. in obscure terms. It is likely that / before or after another consonant had a Before thick sound caused by lifting the back of the tongue. clarus. /. this elevation. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 327) blames "coacla pro cloaca" " displicina pro disciplina". 325-326. Other grammarians blame. 301 a. During the Latin period altus. Dunkles undhelles 1 im Lateinischen in the Transactions of the American Philological Association / in : > XXIV. a faulty pronunciation of / particularly prevalent in Africa or 648. After consonants. chaloir and gallina~> Old Fr. see §284. quando finit nomina vel quando aliquam habet ante se in eadem syllaba sol. etc. ut exilis. See also Zs." heard before a consonant (as in albo. from the "pinguis.. It. [§ 289 syllabas et Metel-lus. etc. An ut il-le. sol. 476). ut lectus.d. shifted forwards. this formation led in some regions. consonantem. etc. ille). chiave." Consentius distinguishes the "sonus which he ascribes to initial and double / (as in lana." lectum. It remained unseems to have fallen in For //>/. alga. (i) Metathesis occurs occasionally: Consentius (S. II. 289. Vok. also had the thick is famuXus (but not in similis): thus explained the different fate of a in calere^OXd Fr.122 posita. 494. plenum. Eckinger 12.): S.. Sfr. see §274. brought about the palatalization of Spanish and Italian clavem kl'ave > Sp. For sl>stl. fiaba. see §161. / regularly changed: luna. Greece: S. except before i. Osthoff.

cursus. in early writers tions: dextrosus. The principle seems have been that original rs remained. L. in inscrip- S. . rusus. R. The «>j. locally in aliorsum. "terebra non tekbra". deorsum. assimilation versus. etc. "flagellum non frag-ellum. 327." "cultellum non cuntellum". introsus. 471. App. rj > J. in most of the Empire in dorsum. C. S.. Bechtel 83: susum very common. § 292] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. IV. pater. susum occur ha. 123 cf. Reich. I. et retrosum. 330): "Dossum per duo s quam per r quidam ut lenius enuntiaverunt. although Moreover. Velius to Longus says est (S. Pr. susum. Corssen I. while susosusu susum.. App. reversus. R. two r's. {2)Ji. 307. in about half the Empire in persua. ndet. —arts after r^-alis. Pompejus Magnus et scribebat et dicebat kadamitatem pro calamitate.s pessica. 290." Cf. Gl. dossum remained unchanged: susum. we fin(J repeatedly pelegrinus by Microsoft® ." Russum rusum. 460. ac tota r littera sublata est in eo quod rusum . R : in Classic trill: and Vulgar Latin was probably a gingival S. diosum. Pr. was early reduced to ss: Lat. 309. while old rss. (3) Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. being probably somewhat hindered by school inIt took place in the whole territory in deorsum and fluence. coming from rtt. sursum. or praepalatal change 291. carrus.. Pr. retrorsum.(see § i6r). After long vowels the 292. 460-461 Cf. Spr. 8) says: " Gn. 328.f It generally resisted In many words. as xcfloralis. MVNTV for multum. 243. has iusu = was Hot consistently carried out everywhere. 77. Waters Ch. however. 330. Cf. App. 1593. (i). there was a strong tendency to dissimilate it was only sporadically carried out: in Old in inscriptions Digitized Latin. so sussum>siisum. suso.. § 281.

Ry was probably preserved through the Vulgar Latin it period. fell. 330— 331. uxo. Waters Ch. early fall of final r mate. it has left very few traces in the Romance languages. Italian £Occodri//o. Falisci Sittl 11 mentions an in and the Marsi. So Italian per lo '^pello. Cf. seems to have been dental. 304. dietro drieto. est marmor. 330 notes prancati. Classic Latin j was probably ^Iways voiceless and remained so in 297. etc. to y in parts of Italy. S. Velius Longus (S. cuoto). orlo. probably before the end of the Vulgar Latin period. 329) / us that in elegant speech per before was pronounced pel. merlo. perpenna ^ Perferna. It. 314-315). tells 293. Consentius mentions "perlum -pro prcslum.z\vax\.'' propio. Jlagrare. etc. An intrusive r is found in culcitra. f.It.. Crocodilus appears as corcodilus. among the soaru. as in pellabor. mehtrix.124 (Sittl An 74). S. coliandrum. \X. [§ 297 also ministorum." S. 38. The old voiced having become r (S. Metathesis is not uncommon S. with the upper surface of the tongue convex (cf. *sempre. perla. averlo^ (in Old It. quando dico mamor pro eo quod Cf. see § 245. 302. 329. 307-308. cocodrilus. in most of Italy and Dacia: sdror'. 296. Spr. 331.) avello. propio. Final r. 295. corium'^ *coryu (cf. PELLiGE. Rum. 329) says: Pompeius (S. albor. "Barbarismus. S. pellicere. although may have been reduced and possibly *cqyu SIBILAUTS. etc. S. corcodrillus.>. : ^ j- Digitized by Microsoft® . For quatro. cf. Cf. § 280) S. : 294. 477. mate. as frate.. plurigo are attested likewise. cf. Lat. 330. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Italian Carlo. criblare. except in monosyllables. suora. This assimilation was probably not widespread in Latin. 329. propietas.

j- ^In the previously cited Latin treatise (see footnote to §259). etc. sumpsi. olim autem politius. The omission is commonest in nominative -os or —us. brian PiSAVRESE. Thurot T]^ y between vowels is described as " weak. rarely in -as: bonu. and occasionCf. D. 8. According to Chronologic 175-186. and the developwords as hiemps. This evidently indicates a voicing in late school pronunciation.. the nominative singular without s (as Cornelio. but occurs also in -ts and -as. etc. nepoti. cur- 298. as far as goes.§298] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. also ment of a / in such become voiced sus. tste. 361) notes the omission of -s by the ancients." Quintilian also (S. At the very end of the Vulgar Latin period. etc. Cicero (^Lat Spr. unu.) and most popular words it Tuscan is [naso. etc. Spr. filio') predominated in (jpntral Italy until the time of Csesar. Cornelio. and often was not is says the loss of —s written. but later it is In the older inscripin the main correctly used until the second century of our era: Lat. 361-362. 302-304): this in is 125 Vulgar Latin intervocalic s in (S.) . Pompeius (Keil V. Sittl 27. 471) "subrusticum. but became common by 150 to 200 A. Digitized by~Microsoft® . etc. corroborative evidence. in Classic Latin s some regions (cf. furnished by such spellings as maximus. when -j was partially restored. such as resolvit.^ sex.. 108): "5 littera hanc habet potestatem. and matrona for matronas." tions -s is freely omitted. however. rexi. indicated by the fact that is still generally surd in Spanish [casa. Ennius and his followers down to Catullus did S. ii Umbrian {kumate). Cf. intervocalic s may have nupsi. 471. urps. pleps. pieta. Final s often fell in ally in Faliscan: Hammer In early 5. not count -j before a consonant in verse: 355-356. § 256): was generally preserved: causa. ossum. ut ubi opus fuerit excludatur de metro. S." except in compounds. the forms without Terentio. mtsi. who cites UmLatin final s was very weak after and t.

C. tra{ns')veho. usually preferred tras. tempo.. transduco and We sometimes Both forms occur Gaul and Spain before / and v : tra (^ns) luce 0. Digitized . Hammer 19-28. (later tre^. 1938. the In presbyter. for ejus. Cf.(but trasporre). Italy generally favored tra. and probably in Dacia. In Old French pasmer (from spasmus) the ^ was lost probably through confusion with es. see § 275. but notes that happens at the end of a doubt- only a conventional abbreviation. Vx. jecit. trans. etc. Spr. According to Velius Longus (S.(but traduire. tempus>lt. It. and some other regions. probably owing to the previous linguistic habits of the natives. -s. 316). liberio. It.j. In Gaul. [§302 and prevailed in central Italy in the third century («<7 Cf. Audollent In most of Italy.126 again. tres^OXA. see Gutturals For ss>s. L. traducir).before d. For z. find. tra{ns)misit. however. trei amate. tion. pronounced and therefore preserved.coming from the prefix ex-. For prosthetic i or e before s + consonant.. senti. preveire {<. tion of the prefix /r.became and sometimes before m and/. For assibilaand Palatals.traduxit. 471): sentts'^YX. final J disappeared for good from the common pronunciation in the second and third centuries. prete. I. tra. Densusianu 122—123. filio^filios. 299. IX. a new nominative constructed from irpeers fell in Italy and elsewhere through the substituva. 539. morbu ^ morbus. transtulit. etc. For sy. 540. /SvTcpos. tra{ns)posuit .). examdtis "> dai.«. see § 230.(as prabitor) for the unusual initial pres-: hence It. but das^lt. 300. Spain.. 302. see § 161.*prcebyterum'). cords the omission of -s in as this nearly always less was strongly Carnoy 185-206 reline it is many inscriptions. see § 246 and Greek by Microsoft® Consonants. tratransjicio. cept in monosyllables {^Lat. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 301.

regularly venit. § 320) gutterals. described by Nigidius (in Gellius). anguis. y: combura. minus. with an arched tongue: S. comvenio convenio. before m.§ 305] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. According to Priscian (S. probably tives first the pronunciation of these fricabefore changed from bilabial to dentilabial (cf. n. immitto. changed: meus. as between n and ^ (S. must have been partly nasalized. noster. by Microsoft® . innocens. inquit." mis-. imperio. §§ 171. ut umbra. 269- {colligo. see § 245. In Classic Latin the nasal naturally took before labials the form of m. «'s in Bononia > It. Bologna. 127 NASALS. apertum in principio. — or "« adulterinum"— and also nvncqvam. contineo. "m obscurum in extremitate dictionum sonat. remained unFor the reduction of There was a dissimilation of two M and n. 272. amat. g. ut templum. S. 303.: cf. M and 304.). N. 269-270. S. Priscian. then n. and the mouth closure incomplete. mediocre in mediis. The y Cf. ut magnus." sound between m and n: "Omnes fere aiunt inter m eX n litteras mediam vocem quae non abhorreat ab utraque littera sed neutram proprie exprimat. S. and v. rigo. as / . n. 275) Before liquids the nasal was assimilated cf. . 275). 279-280. 275): "iVvero sub convexo palati lingua inhaerente gemino naris et oris The same author describes (S. comfluo confluo. conduco. 275) says that for n the air comes through both nose and mouth. etc." Terentianus Maurus (S. 270. initial and intervocalic. uncus (cf. cor- before s it was Digitized silent [cosul. 311). 276. Cf. like d and t (§ 280). is 278). final or followed by a consonant. etc. 275) a spiritu explicabitur. So Marius Victorinus (S. was dental or gingival. iVNCXi. before dentals. were the preceding vowel obscure and weak in Classic Latin. by 270. S.

In inscriptions S. Carnoy 176. reliquat. santo. r/ must have been reinforced. locun sanctum. S. 307. [§307 to a following consonant: Final nasals seem to have been adapted. 275): exempta n "iV quoque plenior in primis sonat et in ultimis partibus syllabarum. quen. For the change of rjkt to yt. then to nt. nynfis. conplere. frequent. 273. Priscian (S. etc. decemter. 364. 271-272). see § 267: santa.. tan mulieribus. etc. before/ and v there was great uncertainty (cf.. 278. little trace of confusion in the Romance lan- guages. iferos. Digitized by Microsoft® . quan floridos. cun navibus : Lat. 286) says: littera "Columnam et consules legimus. Carnoy 176-177. plu. find cun. ut nomen.. The due hesitation and inconsistency in spelling are certainly in part to imperfect articulation. like medial nasals. Cf. 306. n. nom paret. forsitam mille. de- fuctce. 476. innoceti. i senatu. but in great measure also to the mistaken efforts of later writers to restore a real or hypothetical earlier orthography: compare the treatment of prefixes. In both old and late inscriptions the nasal is often omitted altogether before a consonant: Decebris. 276—277. Pirson 92. In the vulgar speech of the Empire the sound before seems to have been indistinct. Cicero advocated cun nobis. Carnoy 220. iy carne. nunquam. we ci. In late Vulgar Latin m. etc. S.128 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. as there is § 32. etc. Carnoy 220). Mn seems at one time to have been pronounced m: Quintilian (S. 272): this is indicated by such spellings as senper. §§171. 281-285. S. laterna. Spr. exeetc. and even before dentals not always clear (S. etc. nom or non fecit. Servius. 311). Bechtel 81 {forsitam. pricipis. largely to mere careless- ness in cutting. nol lego. occubas. nomem. cur regibus. cun duce.... secudo. and there was apparently some labials doubt before ^« and qu (S." Cf. quamta.

passi. umpnia. It is often omitted in inscriptions down c. So R. App. cal- the early indi- Romance languages." Carnoy 166 has Interamico.. S. etc.. Bechtel 80. etc. S. by Microsoft® . (as in puplu). the latter part of the . 298.). Toward the end of the Empire fashion evidently prescribed cates a conscious a distinct pronunciation of mn. the wrong use of it are very frequent in the Per. mecu. In Old Latin it was to weak: 130 B.§309] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 363-364. abundant examples. mense. and again in late plebeian inscriptions. : que ad mo- century of the Republic and the dum. terra. m Final m often fell in Umbrian 5. Spr. sum(J>)tus. exilior in mediis. occa- sionally in Faliscan: Hammer 8. 356. counteracting a previous ten- dency to although slur the group. jacente. numqua. accedere. dampnare. unu are very common. and dampnum (cf. Carnoy 166. It is likely that this orthography and painful effort to articulate clearly. The omission of -m and Pr. 476): Interanniensis. . — that 309. Between is m and j or / a / generally developed in Latin was unvoiced and denasalized before the surd that followed this / was not always written: sum(J))si. ut amnis. and conversely forms with a superfluous m. mpn is common in 189. show a fondness for such spellings as calumpnia. 462. eoru. Bechtel 91 Digitized cf. damnum. 308. 129 stamen. Cf. Bon. etc. S. was probably assimilated into nn in central and southern Italy before the Empire was over {Lat. Audollent 539-540. Bechtel •]()•. for -amn~. from the first century. dormito for dormitum. Bechtel 107. pride. on the other hand. Late inscriptions. cf. The Romance languages it point to the preservation of mn. to say.. etc. ide. in the last first two centuries of the Empire the traditional spelling is carefully observed: early and late such forms as dece. oli. septe.

it was assimilated (cf. For further assimilation. of -n in Latin (S. 110-112. the final S. According to Quintilian is 362). tan dvrvm. Carnoy 206-221. coharere. vowels. cognosco. from early times. but it seems preco- to have been reinforced in Classic speech (S. Vok. 364Lat. etc. ing vowel was nasalized. etc. non is Siciliam": see § 311. the precedThe contrary view is maintained by Seelmann. I. Cf. fix The con— became co— before vowels. pdssu{ni). S. etc. Caper (Keil VII. he adds that there in tantum ille. [§ 310 ardente lucemam. etc. Final m before vowels seems to have been. 360. who notes the omission of -m in many inscriptions under all possible conditions. 358). S. as in coactum. 286). 310. (S. "/« Siciliam dicendum. In the opinion of Schuchardt.130 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. as in cognatus.. of its assimilation to a § following labial (im bello. Hammer 32-41. 282. Final n must have been indistinct (S. cf. scarcely any m audible quantum erat. S. 473. 274). audiendu' st. fell Before^. then (by assimilation) before other consonants. having disappeared very early before vowels. in poetry it may be disregarded (cf. quern (^quen. 356-358. Before consonants S. 361). 106). Spr. ignotus: is Other- wise there no sure proof of the fall but there is abundant evidence 365). n of prefixes 274.tenea{m')\ cum. very early. AudoUent 537). As the fall of m seems to have been due primarily to a failure to close the lips completely between two it is likely that the nasalization was slight. hors. coicere: S. cf. too.. 288-292. next before spirants and at the end of a phrase. only a weak nasal glide: in circueo it disappears (S.. reaches the conclusion that silent at the it became end of polysyllables by the first century. Cf. Digitized by Microsoft® . 361): see §305. Cato said dice hanc. jam. The Romance languages point to a loss of -m in all words but monosyllables: damnu{m). 274. 361): see 305.

ifs./." Cf. d. 274. cojux.). after the Vulgar Latin period: Lat. infas. thensaurus. resurges S. 274. Quintilian (S. It probably fell late. "ansa non asa" . . etc. however. mesor messor = mensor. 286). 113-115. AudoUent 538. pes neque mens. For final nt. quiensces. hortesia. 274.. —iens'^-ies.§ 31 1] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the n was generally restored by analogy (see 171). convenio'&ie really new formaThe only sure Romance traces of the loss oin tions: S. 281-285. with a superfluous n: fidens =-fides. This phenomenon was only thority: partially recognized by Classic au—ensimus -^ -esimus. 274. Pirson 94. ifer cojectis. etc. 462. Such forms are frequent in cojugi (very common). iventa. R. thensaurus. etc.. 459.. Carnoy 177. prcBgnas repeatedly. inscriptions: cofecisse. ns. such words as conjux.. Charisius (S. cojugi. as videns. coin of Vespasian's reign). -onsus>-dsus. S. letter inscriptions: Kki]ix. iferi. seme{n) in. 286) records that "men- sam sine n littera dictam Varro fall ait. except in monosyllables: ndtne{Ti). trare. App. Before fricatives or spirants n regularly fell. see § 285." In popular speech the times: S." Eunuchus 728. ifimo." "occasio non occansio. cesor. toties. Pr.. Stolz 243fT. § App. covenimus. etc. R. was kept in participles. ^^ i'^ Greek- ko^ous. 311. 473.. etc. "Hercules non Herculens. locuplens. if eras. 273). Plautus repeatedly uses mosTerence seems to intend a rhyme in "neque Stolz 243. S. coventionid. was probably constant from early in/as. probably through nasalization of the preceding vowel: see § 171. Cicero preferred foresia. 281-285. v. mesis. both forms were used in -e{n)sis (according to Velius Longus. 387 a. Spr.. 461Conversely. ifra. iferi.. libes. formosus (S. Stolz 243. non. Pr. cosol. 131 The Romance languages indicate the disappearance of -n. "consules exempta n littera legimus. Digitized by Microsoft® . 287). Cf. Eckinger 80. remasit. occansio. as in vicesimus." Before/. etc. (on a (Capua. 285. mansus.

cf. Car- noy 165. (i) F regularly remained unchanged: pater. [§ 314 before these consonants in Latin are Italian /a«/^ and French in Raetia and convent. mesis. Pirson 61. 299. scultor. Gaul. 476. § 256. and northern Italy: see Cf. Windisch 394). Pirson 60-61: labidem. sposus. /V likewise br: Abrilis. 299. 7th century. S. and is attested by Martial and possibly by the icse for ipse mentioned by Suetonius. hut pensare. corpus.132 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. S. 314.. under the influence of Celtic *cactos (Welsh caetJi) = Latin captus (Loth 35).. LABIALS. Old Irish secht-n = septem. etc. or perhaps captivus became first *cactivus. although at a later date nf became / much of southern France. "plasta non blasta" " ziziber non ziziper" cannabis and . It. App. Before s. Pr. tosus. In a part of Gaul capfivus seems to have been pronounced *cayttvus: it may be that in Gallic speech the pt oi this word became yt. lebrm. Digitized became Haag862.. etc. S. In central and southern Italy// became the Empire: scritus. // probably early in 299. (I) P. stubrum.. Pirson 93. to drop In Italy and perhaps elsewhere there was a tendency / between a consonant and an j- or /. etc. Raetia. canapa. pesat. In a part of Italy /j became ss as early as the isse for ipse is first century: found in Pompeii. 160. settembres. There was some sporadic confusion of/ and b: uvBLlCyE. Bon. 312. scripit. h. Spr. 313. and the only Romance words containing ns are learned terms or new formations: mesa. Lat. opus.• redemti. as was the case with Celtic// (Dottin 100. etc. Intervocalic / probably became b in the fifth and sixth centuries in Spain. by Microsoft® . the fall of n was permanent.

§ 3i6]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


In northern Gaul intervocalic/ and/r, even in clerical Latin, /8 and ^r by the seventh century: rivaticus, 629 a. d., Vok. I, 128; cavanna, Gl. Reich.
developed through b and br into
'Soxpe,pi, see § 273.
(2) B.


as in


was not



usually ifemained un-


bene, blitum, oblitus.


Oscan and Umbrian, became vim

in Sicily


southern and central Italy, the
as far north as


being found in inscriptions
Cf. nd, § 281.


Lat. Spr. 476.

Before s or tit

likely that b regularly

became /

in Latin,



was often written

b: absens apsens, ab— apsolvere,

plebs pleps, scribsi scripsi, scribtum scriptum, trabs traps, urbs

urps; App. Pr., "celebs non celeps," "labsus non lapsus."

Final b must have been often assimilated to a following

consonant: sud



a. d.,



In the Empire, especially in the second century,
in inscriptions (cf.

and v were much confused


bixit, botu,

vene, etc., S. 240; Baleria, Balerius, Beneria,


Betrubius, Bictor, bos, valneas, Audollent 536; African birtus, bita, boluntas, Vok. I, 98 bivere, very common, Carnoy

140; baluis, Bechteh"78;

vibit, etc.,

R. 456; bobis in Consenany, traces of

Vok. Ill, 68.

In the

Romance languages

there are few,


such an early interchange.

Probably the confusion was mainly

or wholly graphic, being due to the identity in sound of b and v between vowels (§ 318): Lat. Spr. 473; cf. Einf., § 120. The Spanish levelling of initial b and v does not go back to Vulgar Latin (Carnoy 139— 141); the confusion is far commoner in Italian inscriptions than in Spanish or Gallic (Carnoy 142-146). We find also a change of initial v to b va. north Portuguese, Gascon, south Italian, and Old Rumanian.

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Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


After liquids, too, there was a confusion of b and v in inscriptions, b being substituted for v much oftener than v for
b: Nerba, salbum, serbus, solbit, etc.,

240; berbex, Waters

Ch. 57; solbere, repeatedly, Carnoy 140; solbere, etc., R. 455; App. Pr., "alveus non albeus." In all probability v really changed to b after liquids: see V.


remained unchanged.
Intervocalic b opened into

the development apparin the second,

ently began in the


was well along

Oitovin = and was devitvm, provata, etc., Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95; devere, As V also was pronounced j8, a confusion in spelling S. 240. cvrabit, resulted, b and v being used indiscriminately:

completed, at least in Italy, in the third:

ivbentvtis, nobe,

etc., S.

240; i-vwE.nTE.=jubente, 2d century,

£inf. 127, § 120; cabia
vovis, etc.,

— cavea,

Danuvium, Dibona,


Audollent S3^~537j devitum (6th century), lebis, vibi, Carnoy 134-135; annotavimus, lebat, Bechtel 78;


habe:=ave, rogavo, suabitati,

R. 455— 456;



51, Pirson 61-62,



Carnoy 134-136. became contiguous

Cf. V.

to a following consonant,
Cf. V.

was vocalized

into u: *faula, *paraula, *taula, etc.

became /3r and Dacia.

perhaps not until the end of our period, in northern Gaul, Raetia, part of northern Italy,


as in popular speech: *fa§ula, * tabula, etc.

In the early stages of clerical Latin intervocalic b was pronounced Later, perhaps by the

seventh century,

was sounded


In App. Pr. we find " sibilus non


tions " sifilum pro sibilum" ;


comes from some non-Latin Italic dialect few other words. *a^ea, see § 421. (3) For habebam


(S. 300) menPerhaps the form with/ bubulcus =^ It. bifolco, and a

and Priscian



Be, bi probably remained unchanged, at least in most

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§ 322]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


of the Empire: rabies, rubeus, etc.

For the analogical change

of habeo to *ayo, debeo to *deyo, see § 273.

(3) F-


F was

originally bilabial (S. 294-295), but
of the



by the middle


(S, 295): cf. § 305.

It is the old /, apparently, that is described

by Quintilian

296-297) a plain description of the dentilabial y is given by Terentianus Maurus and Marius Victorinus (S. 296).

Grammarians speak

of an alternation of h


fasena^ harena, fircum'^ hircum, habam'^fabam,
Varro, Ling. Lat.

etc., S.

f: fcedus'^hadus, The /"and 300.

the h doubtless belonged to different dialects in early Latin
§ 97, the

according to

This phenomenon can have no connection with the change of initial/to h in Spanish and Gascon.

/for h was Sabine.

of the

It is

probable that intervocalic

y became

v at the end

Vulgar Latin period

256): alevanii

^ elephanti,

paceveci ^pacifici, pontevecem =. poniificem,




was doubtless originally pronounced w; but, losing its velar element, the sound was reduced, probably During the early in the Empire, to the bilabial fricative /8. Empire Greek-letter inscriptions have ov or ^ for v (Ncpoua or Nep/3a) Ov\av!a = Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95 yS for » is common from the first century on, Eckinger 85-91. Velius Longus, in the middle of the second century, says that the u in ualente is pronounced "cum aliqua aspiratione": S. 232. Hence arises a complete confusion of intervocalic b and v








By. CVRABIT, ivbentvtis, etc, Gregory the Great. This leads


240; jubari iox juvari

to a graphic confusion of

initial b

and v

in inscriptions: biginti, bixit, botv, etc. (so



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An Introduction

to Vulgar Latin.
dentilabial v in


Later the bilabial

p became


of the


cf. §


For the substitution Germanic Consonants.
323. After liquids




or w in a few words, see

this state

/3 seems to have closed regularly into b; was preserved in Rumanian (Densusianu 97, 103105), but elsewhere the p ox v was partially restored by school

influence: cerbvs, corbi, cvrbati, ferbeo,
A. D.),
§ 317.

nerba (about 100

serbat, solbit, E. G. Parodi in Horn.




So vervex became *verbex, then berbex: Waters Ch. 57 BERBECES, 2d Century, Einf. 127, § 120 (also in Gl. ReichJ).

Hence came

hesitation in spelling (^ferveo, ferbui, etc.)


inconsistent results in the


languages: corvus^

corbo corvo, Fr. corbeau; curl/US'^

Ft., Pr. corp, Sp. corvo;



nerbo, Fr. neff; servare, servire'^ It. serbare, servire.

Intervocalic w ox fi had a tendency in older Latin, as Umbrian, to disappear between two like vowels: divtnus'^ dinus (cf. Umbrian deivina> deina, Sittl 26), obHviscor> obliscor, si vis'i> sis. Cf. Lindsay 52. Also, at all times, before or after 0: bovis'^bos; devorsum>dedrsum; faor, Pirson 63; moere, AudoUent 539; Noe/u/Spios, Vok. II, 479; noem[bris], S. 241; '^pavor xiOXL paor," App. Pr.; cf. late noembris, noicius, Lindsay 52. "Favilla xion failla" in App. Pr. seems to be




In the above cases the


apparently was only sporadic.

But before an accented o or u, the w ox p fell regularly in most of the Empire: aunculus, Vok. II, 471 (cf. auncli, Pirson 63); FLAONivs, S. 241; *padnem; *padrem.
Furthermore, intervocalic
popular speech before any


ox p regularly disappeared in probably towards the end of the
vIvs, S. 241 {zLJlaus in



-vos>-vus): flavs,

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"^ ec{c)lesia. App. hiatus which had not already become w {%% 223224) probably took that sound by the end of the Vulgar Latin 326. voiced explosion: so they were not always distinguished by the Latin ear. gnaus. this. Pirson 63). § 167. Vva. ndcui^ nocwi. 137 App. and sibilants less sharply differentiated been usually remained unchanged in transmission. the original Latin w (spelled v) had become |8: § 2. Vok. datius. Claussen 847-851. The ^Vm of C. is evidently intended for csvum. and the surds doubtless had a weak. the sonants were perhaps not fully voiced. the v was re. etc. by Microsoft® . When intervocalic a/ or it lowing consonant. rivus (beside rius) through rivi. triumphaut. Keil IV. B): Classic . The Greek liquids. 1. 328. etc. L. stored.. Single consonants sometimes became double in Latin.§ 328] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. eccu' ista'>*eccwista. I. aus. Before 322. period: eccu' ktc'. etc. Lindsay 52. primitius. placuit> placwit. claudo. Pr. naufragus. is 325. noum. 113) nous. (S) u. GREEK CONSONANTS. II. Audollent 539 (cf. 327- In Greek the surd and the sonant stops must have than in Latin. 471) and others as aum. (i) In inscriptions -vs is common in place of -vvs. nasals.:>*eccwic. cited by Schuchardt (Vok. in most cases this probably only graphic: Carnoy 128-131. after the analogy of a feminine or a plural form ovum (beside oum) through ova. Vulgar aucella. vius in Pirson 63). Fr. 472 (cf. II. Often. and Greek double consonants sometimes became single: vd/xos >nummus. Carnoy 128. Pirson 63. 1220. Digitized Cf. however. /3 became contiguous to a folwas vocalized into u (cf. rius. oum in Probus. iKKKyfTia. oum. : Cf.

iravov > Fr.. The From the middle of the second century spellings th. although KavZiTo? for candidus (Eckinger 98) seems to point in that direction: 'Aicpayas > Acragas Agragas. however. w. Pr. sandal. Claussen c. 330. Digitized b. avrpov^ dndron. (3) ®. 833-838. etc. 347 buxus. [§ 332 (i) B. k. Ka. tt. etc. S. Claussen 838-841. egloge. "> purpura. t regularly came to be pronounced //in Greek: a. A. x 252-253): vop^-ipa^ purpura . 268): (cf. Teodor. Ta\oi'>rr. — fusion 346. timbre. ^iXra^ unvoiced into /. bustiola in Gl. explosives 6. 259.p. theywere *Jdcopus (also */dcomus) 'la. KvPipva. keSjoos > citrus. K6p. (2) K. This late such cases as Kafiinj Greek pronunciation perhaps accounts for > Lat. cf. b. nimpa. cf. T generally remained c.fu > > gumtni. X.. S.papo^ cammarus gammarus. 7rop<j)vpa. became in Old Latin t. K. of a change oi r to d there is no example. v sometimes became b. TTvio'i > Kr > 331' g. g. § a-iriijXvyya > spelunca. S. > conger ganger. T.p. gamba. often became g.yKri> andngi. c. K. Reich.. 'Kixpmp6<i'>- lambros.KO)0(K delta. ch: Claussen 823-833. KaiPw%>gobius . S. r. TTuppos burrus. progne. yoyypoi Cf. > > . TfL'^um (j-a. later inscriptions. rvp.v>gubemare. toKomtov > talentum. old inscriptions. y. remained b. B. c (S. 8 regularly ydpov>garum. — 329. 138 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. t: xoAa^os > colaphus. *. n.. d: l3XauT6i Sometimes. It. we find the People of fashion by Microsoft® . "calatus non galatus" {^ KoXadoi). App. advCf. Crista. cecino. <t>. ph. t: blcesus. After nasals. p. cin in kvki/os > > cicinus > Old.yfjia> sagma sauma. the conis mentioned by Terentius Scaurus and others. however. 2S9-26a 332.

X ><?"• Claussen 831. caikoluus. In late words ^ regularly appears as/. "amfora /came non ampora. f is common later in southern Italy. Fitones in Gl. Matheus ''. etc. " In principio inquam dictionis nulla prescripta causa variari compellitur. iriumpos) in order to be better understood. Fitonis. Thescelus. Fr. <jia. ut ather. Eckinger 97. and some other early adopperhaps the reason is to be sought in a Greek dialect pronunciation: Claussen 829-831. zampogna. Reich. pache. Parthi. Certainly as early to be the standard as the fourth century (Lindsay 58) pronunciation: App. unaspirated pronunciation (as pulcros. ut c enuntiatur. Claussen 828. cru/x<^o)V4a>It. neofiti.^o'i^ colaphus = colapus." "strofa non stropa".avTac7La> > Pr. Bonnet 141. . Quintilian (S. 4. pantaisar. but popular speech kept the old t.. 256) says there were no aspirate consonants in older Latin. zio we have a late development of Claussen 833.. 261): dafne occurs in Pompeii.<^ao-i. 79 (cf. x^P^ > chorda = corda. so o^-1\kiov for qfficium. phitonissm. 218. App. <f> > b. S.§ 334] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. . It is transposed in Fhitonis. Fr.. p. In <l>aXKaiva> ballcBna. palanca. S-p. d. The etc. Bechtel 79. By the first century a. KoKa. ut thiara. c. etc. footnote to § 259): " T quoque. cefalo. si aspiretur. 256) speaks of using the old. ^ had developed into / in some places (S. The proper spelling is discussed by gram- marians: S. etc. 261. 257-258. Thestius. Thiestes." 334.Xay^ It. 333" tions. S. 139 undoubtedly tried to imitate the aspirates (Lindsay 54). cathedra. Theos. 260. as in phosit. nothus.\os> phaselus faselus . etheus. '^Theophilus non izofilus": (i) Evidence of a late school pronunciation of 6 as ts is to be found in Thurot 78. : letter h is occasionally misused. of.. Cicero (S. for new words as well as for old: <TvaOri>spatka— spata. In hoxri>doga. In ^£ros>It.. cf. Digitized by Microsoft® . 0. Ki^oXoi > It..

too. it was pronounced in Vulgar Latin dy. as a simple sound. early Latin . unchanged: <j has probably become For npvj^vre.I40 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.'^massa. later j' (cf. see below. From Sulla's time on it was written z in The grammarians throw no light Latin: Claussen 841-843. 335.v>psallere spallere.-^ remained unchanged: are. (Tivain Of the sibilants. bobansa. t.8os /talpos > maurus. see § 300. (S) z- Z doubtless had several pronunciations in Greek. 308. cr 337. and ^ were regularly > sinapis. e^oSos r. : t.. by s. /8oj«. The nasals. Priscian (Keil II. Quintilian refers only to the on the Latin pronunciation. among 36) says that the ancients. Greek letter and the lack of a corresponding Latin one Velius Longus discusses z at length. and Sibilants.po'i'^ prebiter.. priTmp> Rh in remained unchanged: \a/x7ras> common speech was doubtless pronounced In trkXivov like > It. — 339. r. etc. Judging from inscriptions. § 272). > nome. Claussen 845. by Microsoft® . In it was represented by jj or s: pAtfl. i/f In ocr/u. Cf. The liquids regularly rhetor. regularly vop. or d as in Saguntum. but seems to be referring only to Greek speech S. lampas. ss.^ ? > It. ^dvr] "^ sona (Plautus). Nasals. and subsequent developments confirm this view: baptizare Digitized was equivalent to bapti{d)yare. 338. massa. sedano. orma. [§ 339 (4) Liquids. have to do with a late Greek change of \ to 336. There however. and a few other words. The For unfamiliar combination lent itself readily to meta- thesis: i^6X\v. but was often replaced. > exodus. some indica: tions that they were weak before consonants > Pr. is sounded sd. we probably 8. Medentius.

). and is common in inscriptions (cf. no peculiarities. zeta = Koffmane 38 Lazis — dixta. corresponding Latin sounds had undergone some modification. although have participated also in the later Gallic palatalization of g > before a (§ 263): gilda>lt. Carnoy 163). septuazinta. rubare. Cf. garba > K It. = conjux. (90. 69. etc. gerbe. occurring apparently only in words adopted after Latin intervocalic b had become ^ (§ 318). giscle. cf.ta. Pr. Carnoy 163. geisla Fr. b and k came in after the lents: 8. Vok. GERMANIC CONSONANTS. however. baptidiatus. Lat.§ 34i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. A. 341. Bechtel 79). and its derivatives palatalized In the their k before e and /. I. p. jart. 239. of the consonants offer Most treated as in Latin.. zdcones. giga. 3. The ending -i{d)yare became very is common: see § The spelling di for z occurs repeatedly: baptidiare found several times in Per. 22. z zabulus. and to G. Zov\e. Eckinger 80. *giga>'Pr. Digitized by Microsoft® . Ladiis. R. and w. It. zosum z= deorsum.. Kotflv^ zvnior. skernon > schernire. B between vowels. D. 340. Spr. so *rik-itia > Pr. resisted front vowels : skena > > Sp. can scarcely have come in time to share in the early palatalization of Latin g before front vowels (§§ 25811. Conversely. geldra. 457-458- In late inscriptions z for/ is common: zerax = Upa^ (202 S. zebus. *striban > Pr.. 473. re- mained a stop : roubdn it > It. 68 . 141 zelosus to {d)yelosus.). h. ZESv. etc. being had no Latin equivaFurthermore.. zaconus. esquena. etc. I. garto Old Fr. seems to have followed a similar course.= Julia. Franko seems to have been an early acquisition. A few. is often used for di: . estribar. oridium for opvtfi. zanuari. zabulus. riqueza. ZABVLLVS. Vok. 33. Francesco.• frank-iscus>lX.

anca. honte. perhaps borrowed at a different date feu. in the seventh century and later. skiuhan'^'Fx. — > \X. but in a few it seems to have been sounded kk in the greater part of the Empire: fehu Fr. prescan Germanic h appeared when Latin h had long been popular speech. of a At the beginning word it kept its sound in northern Gaul. espiar. so blank-a'^Yx. 343. esclate. [§ 344 c was palatalized. But wahta. esclata. Reich. silent in Fr. richesse.gaita. —jehan > Old It. It. hanche. ardire. gecchire. cf. 344. Yr. we find Digitized by Microsoft® . Pr. Pr. but apparently was neglected in the rest of the Empire: hanca~^Yx. nipa The spirants 8 and p t: corresponding stops. tasso. It. a time when original Latin fricative w (spelled v) It the purely labial ^ (§ 322). guiderdone. doubtless adopted at a Tr. had become was nearer in it sound to Latin u: see § 326. bianca^. spehon~>0\6. Kluge 500. etc. Fr. schivare. It. Germanic k was modified in the same way before all front vowels (including a): cf. It. helme. esguiver. apcha. Bon. hapja'^Yz. different time. jehir. — slahta'^-OXA esclet. Fr. like Latin ss. gequir. is used before > > initial ch: ab Chilperico.. at Germanic w was a strong velar and labial fricative.. ht were generally treated tasso. W. hardir. Hs. fio . eschernir. Old Fr. espier. d and widarlon were replaced in Latin by the It. trescar. became Old guatare. blanche (but It. sleht > Pr. 342. helm elmo. rather than a. Pr. hache. Pr. hardjan Old Fr. Sp. Fr. gaite. 445 notes that ab. It. tarir. jaquir. parrjan > Cf. Fr. schiatta. hau- > > > Pr. Pr. Old Sp. tt: pahso > It.— 142 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Intervocalic h disappeared in most words. In the Gl. Fr. regions where Latin eschine. schietto. before a (§ 263). pahso > It.

walde. became gw: warjan>*warire wisa guarire. Bon. etc. etc. It is generally written w in Fredegarius. In extreme northern and eastern Gaul. Die germanischen Elemente in der franzSsischen und provenzalischen Sprache. and in the in Rsetia this w apparently remained unchanged Vulgar Latin period. 1884. the /3 of some Latin words was changed to w: vadum +watan'. 143 re- represented by uu. Digitized by Microsoft® . elsewhere. in uuadius. W. 167 cords Euua. Die frdnkischen Elemente W. but Wintrio is spelled Quintrio: Haag 38. 1899. Mackel. 1885. wa (the interjection). in der franzSsischen Sprache. See E. Bruckner. Through association with Germanic words.§ 344] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Waddo. > *wisa guisa. Wandali.:>*wadum. through a reinforceit ment of its velar element. Charakteristik der germanischen Elemente im Italienischen. Waltemath. in northwestern Italy. vastare + wost— > *wasiare. werra > werra guerra. reuuardent. etc.

Spr. in the main. fans feminine in late Latin. (5) See also § 351. —orem. Lat. manus. II. ficus. 293. 503-504): (3) color. honor. but there were ( I ) Between masculine and feminine there was not much some important shifts: Feminines of the second declension nearly all became — masculine: fraxinus. confusion of gender ensued. became feminine (Bon. 483 . leporem. They were grammatical whose observance was a matter of outward form.. (4) There were some sporadic changes: duos arbores. 464-467): carcerem. dependent on sex or lack of distinctions. If words lost their differentiating terminations. Pirion 157. iomus. Bon. G. 345. Hmor. 483. cf. sex. 346. Nouns that -icem. etc. 461): (2) In Gaul. n. MORPHOLOGY. turturem. A. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. had a proparoxytonic accusative in -erem. ~" confusion. marginem. -inem. 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . through the analogy of the great majority of abstract terms. Feminines of the fourth declension varied (^Gram. cucullus and cuculla. 194. Bon. GENDER. abstract nouns in -or. The three genders of Latin were not.IV. 504. I. Spr. pulicem. grex became feminine. castaneus for castanea. MASCULINE AND FEMININE. or [I. —urem were of uncertain gender ( Gram. Lat. dolor.

frigorem. see Archiv VIII. These m two genders: filiu{s) — . 44). D'Arbois 135. tergum —us. fcenus. lignus. . and f. murmur. 16). ledus —um. ra. maris nom. verbus. fatus.§ 348] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. thesaurum. there must have been a *pulvus. and also by the fall of final s in that phenomenon occurred (§ 298). R. Audol- lent 545. 2. calus. 266. (Za/. 173. castellus. Varro. b. II. roborem. Petronius. gladium.. marmorem. 293. etc. vinus. n. *ptperem.... 270—272. 39. incipit judicius. 132. laqueum. For the confusion of masculine Cf. G. caseum -us. MAREM. m. vadum —us. sulphurem. collus. 348. Bon. piper \h&x& must have been *liiminem. etc. Petronius has thesaurum. R. puteum. vinus. frenum -i. The transition from masculine to neuter was facilitated by the fall of final the regions where changes reduced considerably the distinguishing marks of the (§ 309). nasuni : —us. signus.. In Classic Latin a number of neuters became masculine balteum -us. m.. lactem.Y. Glor. sg... do^sus (^Mil. etc. 41. for ctnis. and neuter in Africa. MARIS. etc. 483). 42. balneus. Bon. 57. pectorem. Densusianu 132. lactem {Bacch. 507-509.guttur. In popular and late Latin this tendency was strong: anteClassic. *ndminem. Cf. 347. Waters Ch. vasus -um. VA. Conversely we find cinus. collus —um. templus. etc. ciner. Spr. 145 MASCULINE aIiD NEUTER. cf. m. beside pulvis. Plautus. Waters Ch. cornu —um —us. Densusianu 129. 345-349. 46. me\_nt]us. Beside lUmen. n. nomen. 4. 348. papaver .

R. generally Haag became feminine maris. Greek neuters in -ma. [§ 351 In the second declension the only difference is in the nominative singular and the nominative and accusative plural. for instance. influenced f. Petronius writes nervia Waters Ch. in Livy: Draeger I. luoghi luogora. 349.146 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the : neuter forms were kept to express an indefinite idea hoc. the characteristic neuter plural inflections came to be -a being regarded as an alternative masculine plural ending: for nervi. gender for nouns was probably not Cf. sagma. 386. Among pronouns. 635. § 351. 350.. illud or ilium. hunc vulnere. hunc stagnum. 266. Nearly all neuters became masculine: os locutus R. quod. by terra. Cf. Bon. 45 . cf. Zs. Thus the masculine and neuter fused. but also the collective plural for the singular Digitized by Microsoft® . miles. rivus rivora. : if The loss of the neuter became feminine: cyma. 348. etc. Mare. hunc verbum. the early stages of the Neuter adjective forms were used for a similar purpose: in Romance languages we find phrases veniat. 277. Archiv III. popular. id ipsum. etc. and in Italy and Dacia the distinction disappears even in the nominative singular. etc. locus. complete until early Romance times. give in Italian: sg. donum hunc scBCulum.. m.. Densusianu 132. and 48. 161. quid. mare. perhaps calestem. / muri mura. XXX. 351 Classic Latin often used not only the singular for the cf. 4). murus. pointing to such Vulgar Latin constructions as *mihi est grave quod ille non c. FEMININE AND NEUTER. muro. luogo. So pi. tive h In the third declension the genders are distinguished only in the accusative singular and the nomina- and accusative plural. est. however. plural in a collective sense (as eques. generally L.

*pulvus = pulvis. etc. Cf. etc. 2. Gl. For cinus — cinis.. which a new plural was created: brachias. {z. Bon. crigne < ? *cnnea = crines. So the neuter plural forms in -a were preserved in their collective use after the neuter singular forms had disappeared. Sardinian. few neuter nouns became feminine: For mare and f. Draeger I. 483. but many were and southern Italy and Rumania. ligna. frutta. 5-9. Old Fr. By the end of 354. For the use of cases. DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 270. § 349) and even to some feminine nouns: digita. palpebrum iox palpebra occurs. gesta.. In most of the in central Romance territory the -a forms were kept preserved as plurals only as feminine singulars. sg. of an to pectora maXch qua pectora : Chronologie \()(). simulaehras. . gaudia niat. Digitized by Microsoft® . . D'Arbois 10.% frigora. The feminine character of such words was *illcB doubtless reinforced by the use. Gl. 482. Aside from these. ligna . 353. see §§ 85-100. Apulian. ingenias. Gl.. in Rumanian y>-««2a < ? *frondia ^frondes. the Vulgar Latin period the cases were generally reduced. Convtrstly. *folia. Reich. etc.. rama). Archiv XIV. Reich. 352. cf. 63). see § 349. Spr. R. membras. grada occur in late Latin. Lat. Hence arose such feminine gaudia. for singular forms as *brachia. hie est iesia. rura: cf. see § 347. Spr. fructa. R. 351.§ 354] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. armentas. . ne forte et mihi hcec eve- R. Audollent 548. fusa. ardet (cf. In late Latin and early Romance this collective plural —a came to be taken for a feminine singular: tribula sg.. marmor. It. 147 marmora.. dita. for instance. This formation in -a was extended to many masculine (cf. occurs in late Latin. 435. 269. Lat. in Greek neuters -ma. Cassel.

Audollent genum. jusso. in southern Italy and Sardinia.. 135. manos. R.g/ada. All the mercatus. spes spent. but there were a few shifts: — (i) For an inflection mama mamdne(^m). £ai. beside dia. Heraeus in Archiv XIII. 152. the fourth and being absorbed by the others. passes.. — the Cf. gelus. lucto. One result of the intermediate confusion was an accusative plural spelling -us which was very common in Gaul: Bon. 550. Bechtel 86. so friicti. senatus. cornum. Pr. (2) The susianu 133. Spr. 337-338. haz. fructo fructos. as a third declension noun. The transfer from the fourth to the second began in domus. etc. The other declensions generally held their own. K. to two. glatz. 356. luxuries —ia. 282-283. speni): W. Dies maintained itself. 544. spiritus. being assimilated to the third declension: cf. 260—262. Bon. G. gradus. but -ies was kept in the Spanish peninsula. ablative. etc. went into the third res There was also an inflection spes : spene{m). 355(i) The number fifth of declensions was reduced to three. All passed over in the greater part of the Empire. transfer of nouns in -ies from the fifth to the first declension began also in Classic Latin: effigies— ia. 270.. jusso. see § 359. and occasionally in southern Gaul. whence Italian spene (cf. lacus. etc. Classic Latin and continued in vulgar and late speech: ftcus. etc. materies -ia. —a nominative and an accusative- plural following the analogy of the singular. 482. In Dacia the dative singular was to some extent preserved also: '' § 91. Fifth declension nouns not in -ies rem. scaiiazre attested Inter: Denfor -OS. gustus in Petronius . Ada. Sp. [§ 356 except in Dacia. Digitized by Microsoft® .148 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Sittl in Archiv II. etc./ada. sendti. fourth declension eventually went over.

femps. fall of In Italy and Dacia. there was a termen terminis. G. Puulva for pulvis is recorded adsis '> aisida.). Pr. likewise tempesta {Gl. Corpo for corpore occurs in the Per. It probably was not common until late Vulgar Latin or early Romance times. a. 149 (2) For an inflection Bellus Bellone^m). the first: 367. the nominative plural was' by Microsoft® . So a few Latin nouns: juventus or ~tas > Juventa. 258Dubois 258. (3) On the other hand. but the old forms were retained also. and of feminine nouns of the third declension. G. arroser.§ 357] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Fundus fundi perhaps became fundus *funddris: Old Fr. Old Fr. Reich. fonz.In countries which did not lose final s {% 298). there was an ervus ervoris: Lat. 57). J where there was only one form. under the influence of stercus. 280. 259-260). R. ds>dssum (R. see § 362. h&nc& filias filias. Greek nouns 259. siren '^ sirena.) and probably *potesta. beside coclear fiitre: was codearium. etc. Beside terminus ~i. which had only one form in the plural: flia So linguas. rugiada. the accusative plural form came to be used as a nominative plural. G. where the kept instead. by Audollent 416.>*rdsum (cf. Pr. matres matres.) *femdris: cf. Libit. FIRST DECLENSION. Beside ervum ervi. etc. Spr. This use was due in the main to the analogy of the singular. lent 546. pyxis '^*buxida. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) and *capum -i: XXVII. Fr. fiens. vas>va- sum vasus (Waters Ch. : Bechtel 86. 280. 483.. cf. of the third declension sometimes passed into lampas~^lampada. Fr. It. so apparently ros'. Audolfilia{m). Reich. fons. Digitized -s made the accusative plural identical with the singular. apparently became femus {Gl. 280. effondrer. Fimus ftmi. / 357.

etc. too. Dalmatia. This form left no traces in the Romance languages. Africa. MeyerLiibke in Ltblt. century: feminine -a -ants In Lat. nom. filiabus. or probably under the influence of the consonantal declension of Greek names that was in vogue in schools. Paris. Rom. 483. famulabus. Bon. often developed. liberti LIBERTASQVE. Spr. Her^us in Zs. 321. Journal des savants igoo. deabus. etc.. filiabus. Both mamani and tatani are found in the third W. 206. diffusion. and Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. ahimabus. 150.. scriba *scribanis (cf. Some masculine person-names in —a had crisia the same declension {Einf. 359. 264). 358. Meyer-Liibke expresses doubt whether the is connected with masculine tatani. W. An ablative in -abus is occasionally found: Cassiabus. Dante's Semele. and also in Latin down to -as was probably old in : B.. —enis. villabus.. etc. G. It. XXV. 152-153.ISO (i) An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Br^al. 331. 136. ii. Feminine proper names and words denoting persons etc. This feminine inflection left some traces in Gaul. an inflection in —dnis. E. scrivano).. XXXV. § 153): barba barbani. Rom. W. M. Nice Nicenis. had a similar plural. Salvioni in Rom. sa* sacristanis (cf. Feb. but they may have helped its the second century . p. rather late. Raetia. feminabus. Chronologie 205-209. etc.2 01. c. Philipon. mamma mammdnis. See G. 70. pupillabus. (R. c. Pupils were taught to inflect Glance Glaucenis. No foreign or dialect influences are needed to explain the practice. cf. Hic qvescvnt dvs mres dvas filias. Celtic. etc. XXXI. cf. the nominative plural in some parts of Italy SCALAS. Spr. 171. Herseus in Archiv XIII. Les accusatifs en -on et en -ain. It. sacristano). 198. amita *amitdnis (so Juliana Julianenis in Pirson 143). D'Arbois 21-24 assumes Celtic influence: hic sunt cartas. filiabus. 57 B. Les accusatifs en -ain. fr..: hence arose Anna Anndnis or -inis. XXIII. XXV. Pirson 115-116. Archiv N\\\. [§359 According to Mohl. affirms that there was a feminine in -a with a plural in -as in Oscan.

putain. 250. 264. they assumed. bdrba barbdnis influence of the itself he would ascribe to the synonymous *bdrbo *barb6nis. the masculine where the masculine and neuter partly in Vulgar Latin but mostly in inflection in those countries differed: vinus. XXXV. 343. 214-215. was retained to a considerable and central Italy and Dacia. shows that these forms of declenall sion were very common the mediasval Latin documents of parts of Italy. digita.. — luna facia *folia luna lune lunas luna{s) facia folia f^i^ facias f'^^i^ folias facia(s) folia{s) In Dacia the dative singular {lune. SECOND DECLENSION. XXXV. XXXV. Zimmermann. in ig8. domnani. Rom. also Joannentis. *botula. extent. from which it was extended to other nouns of relationship and to proper names. barbane. etc. Rom. Andreate. -His.: § 362] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -e ^ne -me. Cf. nonnain. 361. 219. Agneti. etc. 151 etc. §§349. *botella. by the analogy of bracchia.. etc. the first declension was reduced to this pattern: 360. As neuter nouns became masculine. etc. — perhaps under manic influence combined with the analogy of the Latin type Digitized by Microsoft® . 351-352. Dubois 250. -i La declinazione imparisillaba in -a -dne. especially in southern Some masculines took 362. R. b. Romance. Lombard madrane. -o -6ne. and -Stis: Aureliati. 2l6.) was kept also. G. the starting-point of all this inflection was bdrba barbdnis. Eugeneti inflection in -dtis. rama. me -ene. shows that there was also an Cf. etc. XXXV. Attane. 250. Rom. at the beginning of the Romance period. 216. fructa. According to Salvioni. this -a. The plural in -a. etc. Joanneni. Andreani. §§ 347-349. barbane still exist at both ends of Italy. Italy: Fr. however. from 750 on: amitane.. (2) A. Zs. Cf. Ger- From the seventh century on. 218. Salvioni. from Eugenes. In general. (i) 207. XXVIII. Rom. etc.

carried further in common speech: cf. THIRD DECLENSION. XXXI.152 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. at the beginning of the Romance period. and possibly Corsican baboni. The traces ablative in —e finally triumphed. 363. 85. Pirson 133:. etc.. XXXV. etc. a declension -us (or —o) —dnis for masculine Hugo Hugon was Latinized into Hugo Hugdne{m) (cf. etc. (1). turri turre. both in Classic and in Vulgar Latin: -Is. Philipon in Rom. Traces of this inflection are to be seen especially in French and Provengal proper names: Foucon. Italy. and possibly Spain.. etc. proper names: 201. etc. I. some pari. XXXV. [§ 365 gulo guldnis. but there are of -l: It.- ending was often Bon. cf. Salvioni in Rom. the second declension followed this pattern: annu(s) — annu ~o anni anno{s) fa^e(f) fabru —o vinu{s) bracciu *—us fructu(s) vinu -0 vini bracciu —o braccia fructu fructi fructo{s) —o fabri fabro(s) —i —o{s) vmo(s) braccia —a -a The letters enclosed in parentheses were silent in Italy and plural Dacia. etc. attested in Lucca in 776 {Rom. Bellus Belloni. Vok. See E. 337-338. Firmus Firmonis. 198. suceroni: Rom. Giovannoni. 87. — there developed in Gaul. XXXV. etc. 212-213. This was 364. G. 204). § 152). Apparently traces. c.f. spelled In Gaul the accusative -«. Vok. Paulus or Paulo Pauldne{ni). Rsetia. hence Pitrus or Pitro Petrdne^m). Huon. In general. §355. 247-249. II. In the ablative there was considerable confusion of -z and -e in Classic LatiiK OTan mare. avus avi>avo avonis. cf.). So perhaps Italian Donaioni. -« crowded out the rarer which left no sure Digitized by Microsoft® . Cf. 365. In the accusative plural there was still greater confusion of -is and -es {nubes nubls.

Petronius (Waters Ch. calcis in Venantius Fortunatus. Pr. Sepulcri 220. heredes. 47). bovis in Varro. 263. Prudentius. Jovis. R. 367.principis).§ 367] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . travis (three times). Plautus. GL Reich.. -es. Nouns which added a syllable in the genitive. Waters a Ch. as by Tiktin 565-566. Caper. mdis. perhaps in late popular Latin. etc. "fames non famis. 263.. voluntate. etc. etc. R. etc. I. folli tor folks in GL Reich. suis in Prudentius (F. "nubes non nubis". 153 Italian pani.famis. 45. 66. Vok.. in Ennius. through the analogy of the second declension: see §368. Petronius (Waters Ch.. III. without a change of accent.." Keil VII. GL Reich. camis in Livy. Spr.. divite. or -e fashioned on the model of the oblique cases: so seeps "> sapes. Lat. App. cf. "grus non gruis. 62). victore... etc. aculionis for aculeus).." App. 9. 243). are best explained. Ci. Chronolo- gie 203.• -« Vok.. Pr. R. 481. Aulus Gellius. it is futile trace the Romance forms phonetically to one source rather than the other. famis. . Ill. Rumanian pint. lentis in Priscian. heredes. D'Arbois 85-88. castore. urbis. §§ 174. etc. dis- 366.. stips^ stipes. principens antestetis. pedis. Audollent 545-547. nubis. Apuleius. Haag 45. 116. 105. Varro. papilionis (cf. Audollent 545-547. etc.. nom. (^=z. As ~es and ~is came to be pronounced alike before the end to of the Vulgar Latin period (cf. tended in popular speech to use for the nominative a form in -is. In Vulgar Latin this formation was extended to words with shift of accent: excellente for excellens in Petronius. cardonis. 38). Petronius (Waters Ch. These forms prevailed in Romance. slirpis in Livy. 263. In the nominative singular the common -^s largely placed the less f requent 244-247. lade in Ennius. superstitis. audace. latrone. D'Ovidio in critici Raccolta di studii dedicata ad Alessandro JD'Ancona 627).

hence *patri. servitor. lupi. hence *me(n')si.). etc.. corpo. so. carpi corpora. *cdrpes *cdrpe{s). 367 parentorum is frequent in charters in the Gl. 482). corpus cdrpu(^s). however. etc. Rumanian Tiktin 566. especially those in —ora. elifanti is common. no form: homo. Neuters in —n and -s regularly kept their nominative- accusative singular. (also * damantis. masculine nouns made over their nominative plural on the model of the second declension. were kept also {Lat. but there is virtually no evidence that it started so early: in late Latin. first in cf.. as *ndmes *ndme(s). Cassel. too. In these countries —ora was used as a plural ending (It. 154 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. doubt.). which was regarded as the normal masculine type: fllii. soror. (also presentis. The process may have begun in the Vulgar Latin period. cantdtor. except for persons. declensions: Neuters in which apparently became by Microsoft® masculine or Digitized . as nomeiji). *amantis. being used mainly in the nominative vocative. beside the old forms. prevailed in Romance. retained names of and and generally preferred the old nominative But names of persons in -ans and -ens usually made over the nominative: parentis. we find sapienti. but infans (also 368. anni. timpuri). probably in late Vulgar Latin or early Romance. Rum. Spr. For the nominative-accusative plural. which. hence *cani. *ndmine{ni). to Bon. 369. etc. new forms on the masculine pattern. etc. D'Arbois 85-88. In most of the Romance languages (but not Spanish). according . both the second and -r. and was extended to in Old Italian to the second. see § 347. however. for *lumine{m). made in Italy in the eighth or ninth century. timp. etc. etc. but in Italy and Rumania the old ones. they constructed. [§ 369 These forms. prcBgnans).

iticudis > incudo. *piperem. *cdris = Krjp lajpo's. 155 feminine earlier than the others. Incus. Spr. Cor apparently made its plural * cores instead of * cordes : according to Mohl. the open o would possi- bly be explained as due to a cross between this *cor and the Caput became *capu{ni) or capus (Pirson 238). sulphurem. In general. polve may come irorapulver). Old Yt. etc. 2. pulvis whence S-p. (3). sangutne(m) also sanguei^m).. §356. the word shows no trace of d in any of the Romance lan- guages. at the beginning of the Romance period. 483. were kept also.§ 37i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. *pulvus. 370. cf. G. polvo. PERSONS. Bon. NO CHANGE OF STEM. Fxn. marmorem. A few feminines in -is apparently became neuters in —us. papaverem. pals {It. 348. Lexique 21-38. and passed into the second declension: cf. Zauner 2. § 347. 113. and so probably goes back to an Old Latin *cdr Classic cor. 293. incudtnis : Lat. . Plautus. But marmor. the third declension must have gone about as follows {-is and -es having coincided in the pronunciation -w) : — (i) No Change of Accent. 371. often developed an accusative singular in -e{m) as well as a nominative-accusative plural in -es: I.0. Sanguis. except Spanish cuerdo. but the original forms were kept also: cinis ctnus.

[§373 change of stem.156 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. .

the neuter singular. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 375" The principal types are: — So ager. the neuter adjective forms were less and less used. 374- Adjectives were declined after the same model as nouns. and the neuter plural (as omnia) was doubtless emr ployed from time to time as an indefinite collective. .§375] An 3. however. § was kept to represent a whole idea (cf. As neuter nouns assumed masculine endings (§ 347). 157 DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. 350).

Prcecox developed a feminine pracoca: Neue II. magis magls f J Digitized by Microsoft® . Decllvis. and f. 46). prude(s) prude(s) *prudente(s) feUce fellce(s) prudente prudente{s) prudente{s) prudentia prudentia fellceis) fellcla (4) Comparatives apparently did not reconstruct the Nominative Singular: melloif) mellu{s) millu(s) mellore mellore(s) mellora mellSra melidre(s) There was a good deal of confusion of types in Latin times: beside alacer. Waters Ch. (plus L 1 J ^plus llle-{'^"~. comuna. effrenis. doussa. Macer. prcestus. celerus. pauperum. jac^r passed into the -us ~a —um class. and there was probably also a feminine * alacra and * alecra. Romance was: For the new method of comparison. imbecillis also assumed the -us -a —um inflection in the Latin period so trtstis^tristus. and f. The type. COMPARISON...— 158 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. l_ \ !-. 275 (^ci. in376. gracilus.. Cf. App. etc. 162. m. : to 4.. miser. 274. not completely evolved in Vulgar Latin. 377. so teeter'^ tetrus. . firmis. R. Pr. and conversely benignis. see § 56. etc. Pauper early developed a feminine paupera and later a neuter pauperum: paupera. App. Densusianu 142. [§377 (3) Originally *feUce(s) One Gender filis fills fellcla in the Nominative Singular. In the the —us —a Romance languages more adjectives went over -um type Pr. sublimus. m. etc. pauperorum. R. there was alacris. pauperorum. Pr.

etc. Cf.§379] '^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 159 However. gravior grevior. septe (and *sette). pejus. levior. II. attested in the third cen- tury: Archiv IX. 68. Quattuor became quattor {Archiv VII. Quinque. §254. an Unus was probably declined like bonus. minus. longior. is regular. vivacius. also ijuatro ^guaitro. Vulgdrformen lateinischer Zahlworter auf Inschriften in Archiv VII. carissimus. 107). in the clerical language. *Stto). 285). It was used indefinite article (§S7) and an indefinite pronoun to be replaced §71). 558 (cf. Archiv VII. lows : — The numbers between two and twenty were as fol- Tres probably developed a nominative *irei. Scto ( and Cf.i 378. Beside Undece there seems to have been * iindece. as intensives: altissimus. 66) ginta (Archiv Nil. NUMERALS. 65. pessimus. see § 225. Digitized by Microsoft® . DHo came by dui. "i^. pejor. also as (cf. of the Vulgar Latin period dui dot {duoT) duo(s) Its inflection at the was probably: doa{s) — end due doe duas doas d'ua{s) dua doa dua doa In early Romance there was doubtless much confusion of the forms. nSve. The old superlatives remained to a considerable extent. melior. 221). sordidius. 379. minor. For dodece. melius. Ihm. by dissimilation. sanctissimus. Six. 5. Tredece * See M. major. (Camoy . grossior So the adverbs: longius. became cinque {Archiv VII. magis. dice offer so cinqua- no peculiarities. 65). (G. proximus. the Classic Latin comparatives of many common adjectives remained in use: altior. on the model of dui.

Zs. such as * dui centu. 461. perhaps of the fifth century (Pirson * triinta. 400. became * quattordece (cf. For ducenti. 69). Ryd- berg in Milanges Wahlund 337. Rumanian has new formations.: G. made to conform Outside of the Spanish peninsula is -dinta apparently became -dnta. 412) mentions decern et septem. 69.of 70 and 80 were to the type of the others.. also unus de viginti. Archiv VII. Spr. These forms easily contracted into vinti.. triinta (§ 259): ISatvTi occurs in a sixth century document of Ravenna. Provengal. G. but Qulndlce is regular. For its plural it had *dui mille or *dui mtl{l)ia. 380. et (or ac) sex. etc. and French words. which account in general for the Italian. so ^dece et (or dcto. II. 392. Archiv VII. f^ok. XXV. 136. Mille was regular. went out of use. trinta {yinti. etc. *septdinta * settdinta. are irregular: regularly § 142. there were probably new formations. etc. regularly [§ 381 also Quattuordecim *quatti!rdece. trigtnta must assume for Spanish something like * viinti. trienta. Beside sedece there was *dece SeftendScim. Digitized by Microsoft® . Beside this dice et septe ac") there was *dece ac septe . * quadrdinta became rr: quarranta Furthermore the dr of found in an inscription. Centu was regular. Keil V. with an opening of the first i and an early shift of accent. trecenti. 69). the septucu. triginta is. *dece et (or ac) nHve. * sexdinta. etc. beginning with 20. * octdinta * ottdinta. Priscian (Keil III. probably anterior to the fall of faulty pronunciation the g. became viinti. This change of accent apparently occurred everywhere for the subsequent tens: * guadrdinta. etc. mentioned as a by Consentius. § 225). Cf. cf. ii. The tens.i6o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. trinta: Archiv VII.and the octo. in fact. 381. * cinqudinta. *nondinta *novdinta. But beside these we Vigtntl.

etc. and Catalan ending -enus was employed {septenus ion tertius. 67. I. probably not 385. and is were used to supply the lacking pronoun of the third person: cf. after 5th. 161 382. The ordinal numerals. nemo inde Regnier no. ipse. secundus. but some languages have new formations even for these. PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. inflected like quartus. Primus. tile and also hic. remained. B. as an indefinite neuter. The ordinals were best preserved in Italy. until Ego lost its g in all the territory. I. Lat. But his reference to Vok. B. 384. eo occurs in manuscripts of the See §263. in northern Italian. Examples occur as early as the second century: Franz. and interrogative pronouns. ipse. N. and the dative was preserved in personal. The nominative and. to the dative and accusative. see § 60. definite genitive: Hoc served in- Inde assumed the function of an dubitat. but the end of the Vulgar Latin period.^ ' Meyer-Liibke. demonstrative.§ 385] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. relative. accusative SSs. the distributive Septimus. and iste. As the pronouns came to be expressed more and more. were probably not very commonly used: the Romance languages show many new formations. Spr. — For the use of personal pronouns.). PERSONAL PRONOUNS. The ablative gave way . ? II. According to sixth century. quintus were generally bonus. §§6o. and so was the genitive singular and plural of ille. 484. 242 is incorrect Digitized by Microsoft® . 262. The genitive was usually lost but ciijus was kept. kept. Provengal.

vobis. there were formed •. these are and mt<mihi. [§ 388 In the last syllable of ttbt. Franz. the pattern of stbt.ording ti. stbi the short i prevailed. •was carried into nobis. found. i" 243-244. Spr. On tibi. si beside to Lat. II. acof. 484. ^ )86. from the sixth century on. inflection The was probably reduced to: — .1 62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

however. Ille. framed on the model of cf. there was tllce (or ille). R. Franz. tilt was replaced in part by illHi. Through the analogy of cu^us. others (Neue Digitized by Microsoft® . is 163 g The full inflection found in the sixth century: Franz. and the latter is not found in Calabria. Sardinia. There was another dative form. — For the use of demonstratives. Audollent 302).. m. sg. they came to be compounded usually with the prefix ecc' or Cf. Franz. Romance: Old \X. Franz. the special forms ipsus for R. The Old Latin genitive illi {ipsi. These forms survived ma. The inflection of tile developed considerably in popu- lar speech. 427. g II. The former. sg. the m. tilt. B. definite N. sometimes occurred as a dative: Franz. and Cato and on the model of illui (and perhaps of quei). and ipsud for ipsum. istius). Sicily. 277-279. by illi. 9 II. illi^ille.§ 390] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. also §392. Franz.. illo. cf. II. illms gave way to iliajus. leius was abandoned: In the dat. was from that. and the dat. used by Apu- and others (Neue II. and the Spanish Illius {ipsins. 246-260. R. see §§ 61-68. isti). f. 9 II. 3 II. 275. cut. . sg. 276. probably in the sec- ond half of the sixth century. 67-68. eccu': see § 65. 9 beside II. When Ule and ute had a really demonstrative force. articles For their function as and personal pronouns. 275. ipsi=^ ipse. popular speech. we find. see §§ 60. 389. being confused with the ablative and the accusative. 273. 3. having become archaic in peninsula. etc. 274. 283-304. 114. nom. 390. used by 427. qui: Bon. Quillacq 83). madre- DEMONSTRATIVES. m. 244. fratelmo. was partially replaced. subsequently went out of use. 275. in II. Ipse and isfe followed a similar course ipse however. but it disappeared from late Latin.

a part of Catalonia and Gascony. R. illdrum. vides lei ta ipsam clavem'>-*vede(^s) iu 'sa' clave'] Lui and 281-283. XXVI. be used. When unaccented. 276. In parts of northern Spain and southwestern France illorum seems to have become *illurum. Cf. 484: illujus. 'la' vede(s). on: Zs.s replaced by tllum: Neue II. Illujus. these words tended to lose their first syllable (see § 157): tu illam vzdes>*tu 9 II. was constructed illcejus (illejus). 426. which crowded out illtus. The popular : inflection. illejus.164 An Introduction illcei (illei). are found after the seventh century: Franz. illejus. to f. neuter Uludvia. did not entirely disappear. Ille and ipse were used freely as definite articles from the fourth century on: Densusianu in Sardinia. to Vulgar Latin. Majorca. period. except 177. which. ille. m. 9 II. Digitized by Microsoft® . for the dat. illui. Franz. and illis. ipsujus. It came. however. Illorum displaced the f. through the analogy of illUjus. furthermore. nice. and some dialects on the south shore of France. Spr. at the end of the Vulgar Latin forms not was something like kept in Romance) elle elli — this (brackets indicating Ma ellejus elli elle ellei ellu [ellujus] elli \ello\ ellui elli ellu ello elli ella elle ? ellu ello ella ? ellqru elluru elli(s) \ellaru\ ellqru elluru ellqru ^im/) ellais) ello(s) ella 392. The 391. Cf. In the on the same pattern (influenced perhaps by guejus). Lat. [§ 392 which was used beside ilU and Ulm. in Romance. 619. illui. illui. ipseus. 600. illei are found from the sixth century made genitive. Ille prevailed. 271-272.

to something like this qui — . B. INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 165 4.§ 395] -^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. quel: Mohl in Zs. in common speech. 393. by the end of the : Vulgar Latin period. 619. see cm is found a corresponding feminine quejus. quis. and the substitution of qui for feminine see §§69-70. XXVI. was probably reduced. The combined inflection of qui and quis. In Christian inscriptions from the fifth century on. qui takes the place of quts. Beside ctijus. N. and also of the feminine qum. — For the use of these pronouns.

the first and fourth were least affected. the third in Italy. THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. the Eventually Spanish and Portuguese discarded New formations went into the and Sardinian the second. however. PI. Pers. Pr. *staunt: Rum. with Umbrian dia.nd *stao. state. Lexique 47. daun. would connect these forms with Umbrian stahu. dau.1 66 An Introduction C. sto. Mohl. in other texts the third gains at the expense of the second. etc. [§ 398 VERBS." Lexique 47. It is entirely possible. a. Probus. in Germanic verbs -on and in by Microsoft® . (2). "adno non adnao. Italian development due to the analogy of sia: see §419. its 397. dao. 396. Pg.. that the form is a later. — see §§33-35. The second gained most fourth in Gaul. estau. Cf. Sicilian in Spain. own. Digitized — such as abbreviare. but it seems more likely that they were late Latin formations due to an effort to keep the root vowel distinct from the ending. to Vulgar Latin. 30. " The first conjugation generally held partial. Lexique 47 and Pr. *vait date. defections into use * dao. on the analogy of {*vao). *vais. In northern Gaul there may have developed with * stao a * stats and a * stait. In the Peregrinatio the second decidedly preponderates over the third (Bechtel 87). werrizare. The Italian present subjunctive dia from dare is associated by Mohl. Lexique 47-54. (see §405): cf. *daunta. being few and Beside do. For new formations. dou. There was some confusion of conjugations. 398. estaun. first and fourth. estou. dant and stant there came Old It. the third. I. FIRST CONJUGATION. follicare.

lugire (R. roubo?i'>lt. * lucere. habet. The inchoa284). habibai. * has. especially in Italy. The as cadere *cadui. adopted the forms *ho or *hao. such perhaps 402. 284). guidare. *torcere (for torquere). Digitized by Microsoft® . Other verbs passed over locally or occasionally: sediiur. *mordere. 20. *putrisco. *nocere. 401. many become i. 10. t. tondere. probably through the pronunciation of —eo as —io (see §224): * complire.§402] An Introduction regularly to Vulgar Latin. by habere. rubare. third conjugation gave a few verbs to the second. 283). 1636. 1. ^^^^ i^ a peculiarity of ancient Umbrian. *putrtre. the verb habere. under the influence of dare and stare. * luctre. While retaining habeo. 400. Latin there was some confusion between the second conjugation and the third fervere. Italian dialects in which e does not phonetically and even in early Tuscan (cf. 284). *ridere. THIRD CONJUGATION. I. Lexique 108-109. Monaci. lugere (R. 266 ff. etc). Some verbs went into the fourth. Luke VI. sapere sapui: sapere was influ- enced. *impllre. tive —escere \. respondere (Bechtel 88: responduntur). Itala. luctsco.\i^x\. Crestomazia italiana dei primi secoli I. p. became —iscere: *florisco. b. SECOND CONJUGATION. E. avire in havite. In Vulgar Latin the second lost some verbs to the third in most of the territory: * ardere. Habere. at least in Italy. capere may easily have imitated sapere. capere * caput. * hat. According to Mohl. and cadere may have followed capere. beginning with those that had a perfect in -ui. in Classic : Even miscere (R. I. §36. fiorlre (R. wttan'^lt. tergere. sometimes became habtre: Vok. habent. 8. V.. *hant or * haunt. habes. Bechtel 88. 399. L. 167 —an (but not -jan) went in the first conjugation: Cf. C.

is twice used by Fredegarius {Pr. Pers. {Pr. framed on the pattern of potestis. The present like this: have been inflected something passu posso foteo *posseo poieis) *pote(i) — indicative must ^poiemu{s) poteste(s) *potete(s) pqssunif) *poten(t) The present subjunctive must have had corresponding forms. strongly influenced by dare and stare.A facere were associated in old formulas: Lexique 53. [§ 404 In Spain the third conjugation verbs eventually passed into the second. a sug- gestion of shortening existed in the monosyllabic imperative Digitized by Microsoft® . PL in 745 A. 'Bt&ide. PL 21).1 68 An Introduction all to Vulgar Latin. {Pr. (2) the Volimus Reich. potebas Posso for possum is used by in Fredegarius (Haag 60). their inflection more or less to the regular type. Pers. *volere. Sardinia. 403. voles is found in Volestis. potebo is found in the Gl.poteo is attested ( 1) Potere. PL 25). This transition was probably helped by a partial fusion of esse and sedere. Pers. PL 2^). 478). PL 21). Pers. is volemus in the seventh {Pr. Pers. Gregory and Fredegarius {Pr. there doubtless existed *fare {Facere 48). velle volui naturally went over to the second conjugation. D. Reich. GL found in the sixth century (^Lat Spr. Furthermore. was discarded in Spain and potebam occur repeatedly in the sixth century 24). facere 404. however. Dare Z.. The anomalous posse potui. The present indicative forms must have been something like this: ^vojeo voje^s) — volimu{s) volemu(s) voleste(s) *volete(s) *vole(i) *vqlen(t) The present subjunctive must have been similarly inflected. and conformed Velte. assumed the infinitive forms potere.-R.

§405] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 169 fac (also /a. which must have led to *fate present indicative certainly had several being on the pattern of the first con- jugation. 434): — its old inflection *fao . but the present subjunctive retained (see Facere 72. Zs. 121. beside factte. series The one 735). Zs. sets of forms. facio XVIII. XXV.

Carnoy 112). §404) and helped by the analogy of audire. Pirson 148.. (j^^r^i". §416): *caplre. cuptre. hesiAe. doubtless suggested by die ( cf fac and *fare. and gained some verbs from the others. fodiri. ^. 477). and *monre. Haag 60. was influenced by *vao viidimu(s) vddite(s) *vo *vas vadeif) *vait *vat vadeis) *vais imu(s) etc. *soffertre. tarir. [§408 facere fare : — present indicative. probably in the Vulgar Latin period (cf. see § 415. mortri. gemire. occurire. . 477). offeret. in 408. Augustine {Lat. The fourth conjugation usually held — — marrir. guarnire. Gl. * sequlre. ^26. deferet. C2X0 fugtre. forbire . Densusianu 148. 427. d. For new formations. common in the Vulgate (R. moreover. Of the personal forms of the verb there remained general use in the following tenses of the active voice. §36. 286. first half of the 7th century. Pirson 148. its own. cf. Lucretius {Lat. Bechtel 90. * capere . Some others went over. FOURTH CONJUGATION. the entire passive inflection having been discarded: the by Microsoft® .to Vulgar Latin. 407. Bon. Verbs in -to tended to pass into the fourth conjugation (see.lyo present. such as * abbellire. Plautus. Germanic verbs in -Jan regularly went into the fourth conjugation in Latin (Kluge 500): furbjan~>\X. 285). For the intrusion of the inchoative -sc. warnjan'> tion. at least locally: *falllre. marrJan>'Fr. Spr. .into this conjuga- FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES Romance only Digitized IN INFLECTION. ignire. vadunif) *vaunt *vant 406. Bon. Reich. An The vado Introduction. Lexique 62 ). * offertre. however. Dicere. by the analogy of aperire {sufferit. ite(s) etc. beside * sequere. Sepulcri 229. St. It. developed a form * dire. see § 34. Cf. R. parrjan^Yv. Spr.

. The entire passive inflection -of came to be replaced. (amaro). in the Vulgar Latin period. and probably in some standing phrases the gerundive. etc. The supine 409. R. audiram) was kept.. as a preterit or a conditional. amaram. § 4io] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. amassem. amando. cf. amans. See 410. rideri. amavi. {amandusi). amem. mentire. See Syntax. the subjunctive present.. See Syntax. some writers substituted R. . reverti"^ reversus sum. For instance: amare. In was replaced. the perfect participle. the gerund (especially the ablative case). and in 171 indicative present. fell into disuse from the first century on. 302-304. partly by active and reflexive constructions but perfect participle with esse' mainly by a compound of the (m northern Italy fieri): littera ' scriMtur -flittera scripta est (or fit). the present participle. pluperfect. R. towards the end the Vulgar Latin period. 289. some regions the future perfect . In the subjunctive the pluperfect was used instead of the Digitized by Microsoft® . amabam. §§ 112-114. Similar compounds replaced the pluperfect and the future perfect. perfect. operare. esse and the perfect participle: feci"^ habeo factum. 298 Conversely. : Deponent verbs became active cf. Of the impersonal forms of the verb there remained: the present active infinitive. in various regions: see §124. R. perfect was kept in its preterit sense. amatus. {amarini)\ ama. etc. 388-389. 297-302. and in instance: some regions the perfect the imperative present. The old pluperfect indicative (^amaram. R. For amo. the deponent for the active inflection of a few verbs: Petronius. in the by a compound of habere and the "perfect participle case of neuter verbs. Cf.. 304. pluperfect. imperfect. The Latin it its perfect sense — §§121-124.

(ye')rim and apparently remained subjunctive fect — — — — more or all less in use. *amar' -dbe(t). -ds. §118. which disappeared everywhere but in Sardinia {facheret. * amar" -dbe(s'). Lollis in Bausteine i . -dbe(s). *amar' —e'te(s).-dben(t) and -d. were reduced to -emu{s).172 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. or conditional. —dbe{t). as they came to be regarded as mere endold future. etc. XXIX. In this compound all the various forms of the present indicative of habere were used (see §§273. as in the In these formations the unaccented {Ji)ab— first and second persons plural of the future: * amar' -^{b)a. 401): *amar' —dbeo. etc. C. beside -ia from habebam and -dbbi —ibbi from habui. -ete(s). with the exception of ero. amd{ve)ro fused with the perThe old future perfect ama.): amdrem'^amdssem. &tc. -dnt. In the first and second persons plural. -dnt: *amar' —dmu(s). was crowded out by the present and by new formations. an imperfect of the late future. —aunt. De 411. to correspond to the dissyllabic or monosyllabic -dyo. -ds. audtrem'^audissem. -dyo. habemus and habetis eventually. Crescini in Zs. Digitized In Italian we by Microsoft® . -dt. but * amar' abut. 619. cridere. came to be made. sometimes confused with the pluperfect indicative and later sometimes with the infinitive {dpriro. especially by the infinitive combined with the present indicative of habere {amdbo > amar' habeo): see §§125-129. in Vulgar Latin and Romance. V. —at. infinitive the perfect of habere (see §130): combined with the imperfect or *amar' ~dbe{b')a{ni) or disappeared. —do. On the model of this new future. It is best preserved in is found also in Old Rumanian There are traces of it in Old Italian. . [§411 imperfect. in regions except Gaul and Raetia. The ings. *amar' dben(t). a form in -ii {amerii). which has prevailed in the find. from the *amar' -abut. *amar' -isti. but and Macedonian.): see Spanish and Portuguese. pdteri. —d. etc. as a future indicative or subjunctive. cf.

erubisco. the Landes. 3596. fae. pareeer. the Abruzzi. 173 modern language. See § 115. the Grisons. they Pr. French Switzerland. audi. The imperative disappeared. are common in Gregory the Great: Sepulcri 193. tene. Beam. etc. Lyons. such as caleseo ealisco.. In Veglia. 294. or o—. due. Virgilius Grammaticus (Sepulcri 194) mentions double forms of inchoative verbs. and Spain Digitized — Sp. Dauphin^. crede. duce. Clarisco. I. cf. to the Romance languages. 413.§414] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. by Microsoft® . In some verbs the present subjunctive was used instead of all imperative forms. except the present. audite. There is some evidence of a confusion of -esco and —uco in Latin. tenete.. etc. 412. lost their inchoative sense. second dmd. amdte. writers sometimes emploved diee. criseere. Cf. vived in the Tyrol. person singular and plural: credite. t—. For the monosyllabic die. while in Old Italian the ei was sometimes detached and used as a preterit. irdisser <irdseere. R. Instead of the plural form. 414. etc. Savoy. hence crederdt). paresco. Sardinia. The Latin The inchoative ending -sco was preceded by a-. in Vok. the second person plural of the present indicative came to be used: adferte> adferitis. INCHOATIVE VERBS. types —dsco and —osco were sparingly repre- sented and were not extended in late and popular Latin have bequeathed but few verbs con<Sisser<ico(g)ndseere types —esco and —tseo in the third century — — as — such as and . The first and third persons were supplied from the present subjunctive. e—.face: R. 3. dormisco — were extended The and later.of avere : it is probably due to the analogy of the first person singular of the weak preterit (credit. §426. 294. and a part of Lorraine Only -eseo surneither of these two endings left any trace.

Many verbs in -io dropped the whenever it was fol- lowed by another vowel. [§416 florecer. By the analogy of these. There is no direct evidence of this in Latin. \\. fiorire. finis sais ) I. nor are there any traces of it 415. 465. Rastia. partiunt *partunt. 81. il in Pr. / sentieniem > were introduced more less into the indicative and subjunctive: audio * audo. some regions. see E. See Archiv Lat. Herzog Bausteine 481. 478. finis sant. and Rumania we find a type *finisco *finisce(s) ^Jinisce{i) *Jiniscun{t) The ~sc. etc.. 174 An Introduction was preferred For to Vulgar Latin. Digitized On the other hand. 291-294. — Fr. finissons. although fleurit. PRESENT STEMS. -esco also in Rumanian. / 416. * dormo. partientem * sentente. Zs. there are traces of -esco. the -sc- was carried throughit out the present indicative (Yx. XXX. sentiam * sentam. facientem *facente. etc. but in the earliest texts of France. The ending -tsco of the present in Spanish. tricts also pene- eventually the present participle ( and in some disand the imperfect indicative Fr.then generally disappeared from the infinitive Later.. Portuguese.Jinisse). XXIV. trated the present subjunctive {Yr.. or southern Italian. in — It. Spr. Sardinian. northern and central _fimmii(s) finite{s) Italy. In the present participle this was a regular phonetic development (see §225): audientem^* audente. 4. Rom. eventually entered into the formation stem of fourth conjugation verbs. -tsco prevailed fiorisce. the e was occasionally lost in the second conjugation: v^deo *vtdo. Elsewhere. finissez). by the by Microsoft® . Hence forms without the or > > *partente. despereissir.

actus. 412.§419] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and the perfect partivexi vectus on the — analogy of ago tectus. also Jingo finxi fictus. duco duxi ductus. etc. 397. pango panxi panctus. Substrate VI. as *trago. The verbs struere. to bring it into conformity with the usual third conjugation type. ungo unxi unctus. etc.. etc. 417. vegere {tragere and used by 34) and a whole present and imperfect inflection with —g—. lego lectus. rego rexi rectus. *tragebam. faciunt. Italian sei siete is PL 128) went out of for estis. There may have been also *striicere. beside the regular habent. The verbs vadere. the second conjugation admitted such f oriris as * habeunt. j'ungo Cf. etc. cingo cinxi cinctus. esse. * vtdeunt. For the sedere for The s. *vkere. 175 analogy of capiunt. vtdent. facere. 418. vehere developed infinitive vegere are forms *striigere. 403-406. present indicative shows some signs of a tendency its to normalize erratic inflection by making all the forms be- gin with The use. Italian while there of on the model and Raetian siede. The guttural Fredegarius. see § 409. Jigo fixi. habere.. dtcere. tego and probably junxi junctus. Haag was derived from the ciple — struxi and perfect indicative traxi iractus. *fragam. based on the analogy of dico dixi dictus. Considerable alterations use of fieri for esse is (I ) were made in the present indicative and subjunctive. tango tactus. Prpvengal ses for Digitized by Microsoft® . indicate a * setts some evidence of an alternative * siitis sicmus. velle dare. 131. trahere. etc. and Raetian ses point to a * ses beside es. posse. trdgere. 401. plango planxi planctus. underwent considerable changes in the present: see §§273. The Spanish use of probably later than our period. Esse was made into *essere. 416. old esum cited by Varro {Fr. debere. structus. *trdcere.. Pers. stare. Old Italian se for e. 419.

prevailed in southern Gaul. too. fiam reand Dacia. Siamus. —ibam. see sead in Vok. somas. that cal influence oifiam. according to Lat. PL 130. It is likely. — For the loss of the imperfect subjunctive. by Augustus. Spr. which ultimately prevailed: Lexique ^x): fiet is common places sim in northern Italy alternative inflection * siam. .. sumus. etc. N. 5. -icbam. may go back to *sei and *sesf for est In the first person plural sumus became sumus and simus (see §220). 42. 347. 479. The present indicative inflection was doubtless something like this sqm fs est : — sqmu(s) *ses *set} *sest? i^ie(s) semu{s) *esmu{s) *sete(s) *sciie(s)! sqnt (2) In the present subjunctive the analogy of other third conjugation verbs tended to introduce the characteristic vowel a. and Dacia (Pr. and the Tyrol (Sp. and by various purists of the Augustan age (Stolz 58). etc. Pers. Lat. Old It. etc.. Pers. 135. Old Fr. [§420 usually understood as reflexive forms. sons. simus. the usual Classic form. —ebam. according to Suetonius. iox fit. IMPERFECT.). Portugal. The endings were -dbam. etc. Pr. § iiS.176 es. 478. which -was used. Dalmatia. Pr. Rom. PI. which existed with esum. sem. XXI. from early times there was a reciproand the Old Latin optative siem. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. occurs in Italian documents of the eighth century. In the third conjugatiqjyg^-jyj^^ Ajgaj^g^ developed into -ebam. (cf. — sem *sea sis simu{s) sidmu(s) site{s) *jfa(j) sea(t) *sidie[s) set sent *sean{i) For Stat. would derive it from old esimus. Spr. semo. Pirson Yt^o.): cf. northern Gaul. see 420. B. *esmus seems to be a new formation on the analogy of esHs. Italy. was preferred in Spain. Mohl. Hence comes an etc. Provengal esmes<. II.

Hence came an alternative ending —ea for -e/ia. first: It. which in Romance was widely extended. —Ibam as in munibam — in early Latin and recurring at later periods (Lindsay 491).perfects in which the v is added to a verb-stem (-dvi. silevit for siluit occurs also. led early. 2?>q. developed another form. must distinguish two types. R. a. We — — neo. Dubois 277-278. the weak and the strong: the weak comprises the v. §318). • salui>salivi. probably through dissimilation. see §426. most of them rare 422. -tvi). affecting all the conjugations but the It is ved^a. 423. pronounced a^e^a (cf. 421. and —iebam disappeared: vestibat. WEAK PERFECTS. in the fourth conjugation. — being common In the fourth conjugation -iebam and -ibam existed side byside from early times (Neue II. Habebam. and also a general inclination to omit v between two i's (see § 324). A vowel. *afiea.. -pleo. PERFECT. 445). sentia.'Bi. 6. regularly had a perfect in -evi: deleo. For further encroachment of the weak type on thb strong. -evi. etc. vieo. which stressed the characteristic vowel of the fourth conjugation. those of the second and third had mostly all of the second conjugation and Only six verbs strong. Spr. the strong includes all Verbs of the first and fourth conjugations generally others. to a reduction tendency to keep the stress on the characteristic Digitized by Microsoft® . 479. 177 22t„ /^i6): faciebam'>-*facebam. prevailed in popular speech. 287.fleo. credia. had weak perfects. —oleo.§423] just as An Introduction -ientem> -entem (see §§ to Vulgar Latin. —Ibam. territory except common to nearly all the Romance Rumania: Lat. and fourth conjugation verbs with strong perfects developed a weak one in Vulgar Latin: pr(sstiti> probably All first j>rcBstavi.

—iverunt to —ierunt. speclarait. locally. see Servius ad Aen. denumerat.. I. petit. see Neue III. F^/J. ccelebrasperamus. Bon. rise early to a reduction of —avisti. Densusianu I. dedicait.. Gregory of Tours (Bon. Then a contraction of the two vowels gave. Vok. II. vocitamus. and. o-cyvoi. Fredegarius (Haag 55).d. II. -dvtmus>-dmus and probably *-dmmus: calcai (Probus). This -aut prevailed '^'^'^. "cupit pro cupivit. mus. 17 (Keil II. probably to *-aumus: triumphaut in Pompeii. carried into the first conjugation. The third person singular found in Old Sardinian: Lat. perhaps. laborait.judicat. as in repetimus. etc. —dverunt to Much later -dvt>-di. -u and *-u.L. edificai.I. fall of v gave rise. in the third person singular. to a desire to distinguish the perfect from the present). Spr. Bayard 60.). etc. —dstis. -dvistis. petit. and. as in lenUt. in the first person plural. 449.Lexique 46. for —ierunt. 216. to -aut. A ular. servio. redit. "fumdt -pro fumavit. S. 446-448. see Neue III. (Haag 55). 476.. —tt. -ivistis to —istis. perit. 479." Priscian XII. 440. gave —dsti. -/. the reduction of —ivimus to —Imus and probably *—immus (the lengthening of the m being due to compensation and also. 440). 152.. The A contraction without the . to fall of v. 587). 434 (cf. contraction without the gave rise. C. —ivit to —iit and *-itt. perit. The loss of V. For -nt.m»'W^ol%tm^ and amdo. in the first and third persons singular *—lrunt: audi. 451. 241: 65-121 a. Fredegarius in -ait is 152.— 178 An Introduction and to Vulgar Latin. —drunt. Neue III. Neue III. in the third person singan alternative form. for —imus. later. [§424 of —tvtsit to -tstt still early. —dvif^dit and -at. and the third person plural. memoramus. — probai {'Prdhns). etc. etc. the further reduction of —ivt to which brought about. Densusianu I. 476. 424. 452-454.'X. 17 (Keil II. etc. *-iut: It." Priscian XII. 587).

. descendidit. in Provengal they invaded the also In Dacia. etc. delesti. fore. Reich. etc. odedere. 179 *~aumus Jiom. Lat. *-ei. which in Vulgar Latin became —dedi This -dedi ^a. helped by dissimilabecame *-deJ. vendidl. *-n. In some (It. (am'ei). etc.s ex(see §139): perdedit. this -dedi Through the analogy of -di. 288. *-det. *—desie(s). descendidi. Hence arose eventually an inflecset of tion *-^«. incendederit. silevit. prendiderunt. of the Romance languages cazif). etc. -derun(f). ~ivi —isti there- -dvi —dsii -dve{t) —df *~ti —ii -i -dut -dit -dt -weif) *-jut *-{it -lit -it -dvimu(s) -dmu{s) *-dmmu(s) *~dumus -dste(s) -immu{s) -4mu(s) *-jmmu(s) -iste(s) -drunit) *-irun{t) With the exception of -ivi in Old Italian. the forms with v were not preserved in Romance... from which there came a responding to the —ai first endings *-«'. pandiderunt. —asfi. 287. : and the of the and fourth conjugations so caderunt. tion. 184. -isti. they apparently did Digitized by Microsoft® . preserved in some Old French dialects near Douai: 607.). The forms — and fourth conjugations. 479. Pr. Some other second conjugation verbs apparentlyadopted this perfect: 426.. edediderit with an extra -de-). Compounds of dare had a perfect in -dtdi {credidt.§426] An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Verbs in —evl doubtless had a similar inflection: *delei. etc. Gl. *-desti. were : 425. Keil IV. *-ejti. cor-ii. Spr. videderunt (cf. Audollent 544. etc. in the first XXX. R. ascendiderat. *-dem(^m)u{s). perdidt. these endings were carried into other verbs of the third and even the second conjugation first baMi. respondidi. on the other hand. tended to many other verbs in -d-: prandidi. R. 480.

II. §326): placwi. conqbbi. moc. and those that have nothing between the root and the personal endings plac-u-i.. 428. Reich. dlc-s-i = dixi. Gl. cf. At any rate.. whence and a set of endings -etti. where there was no extended.. -dei. tions: This perfect disappeared from the first and fourth conjugacrepui>*crepavi. crevi. STRONG PERFECTS. the Rumania. 357. third conjugations maintained Digitized itself very well: cognovi. 427. R. aperui y^ * aperii *apersi. — — it was sounded wui. under the influence of dejti. b. In the first class the u lost its syllabic value and became w • — : (cf. those that add u to the root. [§ 428 not develop at In Italy. also vincisti. dare had (beside diedi^dedi) a perfect arose an inflection side -dei -detti. * stetui. . and -ei. There are three types those that add s.. according to Meyer-Liibke. prendesti. etc. etc. plaudisti for plausisti. the development of the vi indicates that sort.. sapivi~^ sapui. etc. etc. presi. salui^ salivi salii *salsi. etc. bib-i. etc. In -ui and —si types were qucesivi'^^ A few weak verbs adopted strong inflections: * quasi. etc. The -ui type. 286. but written vi to avoid the doubling of the V. Pr. all. crebbi. etc it In the second and crevi. or fiwi in Vulgar Latin: cf. wwi. Gram. stetti<. included from the start not only perfects of the placui but also all perfects in -vi not made from the verb-stem such as cognovi. pdvi. (cf. necui> necavi. by Microsoft® . this ending being pronounced wui. Through these endings the weak type encroached somewhat on the strong. It. In Italy all strong verbs except esse introduced weak endings in the second person singular and the first and second persons plural: It. §422). movi.i8o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

130. text sedi>* sedui . s in the perfect participle. tinxi. sustuli>*tolui * tolsi. 479. scripsi 163). *cursi.> slso *vtscui. Lat. tenui. *acce{n)si. Sensi. peperci^-parcui. *pre{n)si. 430. z/J« also *vtncui *vinsi. *fusi. * defe(ji)si. *respd{ti)si. legi'>-* legui *lexi. Spr. planxi. *franxi. rasi. molui. Spr. frixi. which comprised perfects in -si. In Vulgar Latin there were perhaps some thirty or more new formations: *apersi. *fusi. *mdrsi. Spr. silui {^silevi). junxi. *tdlsi.'). * morsi. R. luxi. veni '^aXso *venui. strinxi. Spr. 94. texui. Lat. fixi. messui(J). *occlsi. —stinxi. *copersi. 479. however. — — : clausi. pressi. Of the -si class. *taxi. Keil VII. 288. natus sum'^*nacui. tersi. and possibly a few others. > > Cf.perfect through having an Cf. posi. persi. unxi. etc. *redempsi. — assumed the s. cinxi. rosi. 480. struxi. *offersi. *siirsi. * occisi. *punxi. duxi. pinxi. divisi. *qucBsi. * volsi. abscd{n)si. mansi. defensi. Einf. expavi'> expabui. R. Zimmermann in Archiv XIII. vldi'^zlso *vtdui *vtdui. *imptnxi. *rdsi. Lat. —ssi. § 165. *rosi. became * sentii. with the exception of dedi and steti (also *j/i?/«2). § perhaps on the model of mtssus. and —xi. Among the -i perfects. ertgo. *pe{n)si. excussi. risi. * tensi *te{n)si. dixi. cMdi 479 > (so *rectpui). Some of these — * *responsi. XXVIII. texui. *sdlsi. the reduplicative formations were discarded in Vulgar Latin. some thirty-five were preserved arsi.§ 43o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 288. Haag 56. cf. vixi ". *vinsi. A. cepi^ caput. *ersi from *lexi. i8i It lost gemui{^. *attinxi. * cadui *cadedi. movi'. torsi. 97. sapivi'^ sapui. On the other hand it received many additions: Mbi>*Mbui. mulsi. steti>^\so* stetui. Zs. mlsi (also *mzssi. *tanxi. posui {>posi). coxi. vixi. *prensi. Lat. traxi. *pensi. pavi. finxi. whose reduplicative character was no longer Digitized by Microsoft® . *salsi. 429. sparsi. rexi.

431. was probably foi *fom{m)u(s) *foste(s) foe(t) fue(t) *fgt *fut *forun{t) */urun(t) *f^un{t)} foerun{t)> Digitized by Microsoft® . 289). veni * venui. fui. legi > * Kxi. but circumdavit in Gl. or *cadedi. apparent compounds (cf. defendi >• * defe{ n ) si. fuisti zxi-di. In an ( cf . : There may have been through dissimilation. vidi * vtdui. There were : *fugii. verti.*pe{^n)si. but in Classic Latin. effort it was shortened Vulgar Latin seems to show both H and H. * acce(^ n ) si. volvi > * volsi. some went over fUgi^ > > *fusi. sedi"^* sedui. *te{n)si. 288. pependiy. legi'^* legui. to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout §§423-424). fuistis > *fustis. fefelli'>*falii. the simple verb came * cadui R. -i perfects were greatly reduced in to the -a/ or the -si type: number in Some simply disappeared. then futm us was often shortened to also. fuit *fut.i82 An Introduction . cepi'^capui. pupHgi "> *punxi. The other Vulgar Latin. vtci > no additions. and two more were kept beside new formations feci. fregi accendi *franxi. to Vulgar Latin. some became weak. Two of the old perfects maintained themselves intact. prendi > *pre{ n * vinsi. fudi > ) si. while compounds of stare tended to follow the regular first Cecidi beconjugation model (Jtrcestili > pnestavi. R. solvi'^* solsi.). Reich. > *fusti. The prevailing something fui *fosti like this — with some variations. inflection. egi. tetegi'^* taxi * tanxi. In fui the u was originally long. The other reduplicative perfects either disappeared the or passed into si class: cucurri "> * cHrsi . generally became *fum(m)us. fuerunt became *furunt. a form *fdrunt. momordi'> tetendi'>- *mdrsi. bibi'^*bibui. [§ 431 of dare usually formed their perfect like §426. peperci"^ parcui.

432. prdvttus. necius "> necatus . audlsBayard 60-61 sem. etc.). secextended to tus'^secatus. *feritus. audi{e)ram. ortaret in Gl. by the analogy of apertus. rogitus. amaro. etc. aimassions aimassiiz. R. — 433. Reich. : In the third conjugation -dtus disappeared oblatus offertus (^Gl. fkero. Lat. amdssem. sublatus>* suffertus. In formations from weak perfects only the contracted forms were used: amdram. to *—dssimus. Verbs which had no perfect participle were obliged to form one in order to make their passive and their perfect tenses: ferio. amdssimo amdste. vetitus Nevertheless there were some new formations in —ttus: *levitus. generally fell into disuse: crepitus^ *crepatus. notes that St. > Digitized by Microsoft® . The ending —ttus. 296. — before Cyprien employed only the shortened forms ss. sublatus (from tollo')'>-tdllttus (^Gl. ^ i^"]). sonivetatus. When these tenses followed the old types: pldcueram (cf. *-dssitis. delessem. placutssem. alarei. deleram. > vocUus. but Pr. Reich. 1S3 PLUPERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT. Reich. cf. In some regions a tendency to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout the pluperfect subjunctive led to a change of —assemus. Fr. ficeram. In the all first conjugation -dtus was preserved and was verbs: /rictus "> fricatus . amessim amessitz.). etc. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. tus"^* sonatus.§ 435] ^^ 7. domitus'> domatus. cf. in the first conjugation. 434. Reich. -assetis. Gl.. copertus. habldsemos habldseis. dixero . Spr.: It. PERFECT PARTICIPLE. 295. preserved at all. tonitus'^*tonatus. dixhsem. pldcuero. R. 435. so the new alatus. audt(^e)ro . delero. 480. 8. dixeram. petisset. fecissem. plicitus"^ plicatus . Sp.

*parutus. *volvitus (or *vdltus) beside volutus. * movitus.ovutus. sepultus^sepelitus. remained. — and — as *credutus. venditus>*vendutus. The ending -itus tended to disappear (cf. volutus). etc. all periods. Eventually -atus was carried further. provitus. consutus. pds{i)tus. entirely displace the old perfect participle: natus was kept beside * nascHtus. *per- in Sicily encroached largely on -itus. fugitus tus > *fugitus. *vdlvitus (or *vdllus). corres- ponding to -atus and -itus. secutus. etc. * levitus. paritus > *paru> *perdutus *persus. and ventus generally became * venutus. * venutus. in -itus: gemitus'!. vocitus. It did not al- ways. molitus > * molutus. but status. *vidutus. *vendutus. *mdvitus and *mdssus were formed beside *m. the other hand.. tollitus.. were kept only as ad- 438. Pirson 152. belonging to verbs in —uere and tri- —vere {argutus. submonitus > *submo{n)sus. §435): absconditus'>absco{n)sus . A few of these particihowever. creditus'>*credutus. [§ 439 436. and there were some new formations * solvttus (or *soltus). buius. 437. The ending —ictus. offered a convenient accented form. * habutus. In the second conjugation the rare -etus disappeared as a participial ending: completus. dutus. Apertus and copertus. rogitus. statutus. jectives. Digitized by Microsoft® . were kept. *tenutus. In the fourth conjugation -Itus was preserved and was extended to nearly all verbs: saltus'>*salltus. In the third conjugation qumsttus>*gucestus. minutus. sensus'>*sentitus. solitus. Reich. bibitus^* bibutus . old and found in Gl. solutus.184 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. * solvttus (or *sdltus) beside solutus. however. It was extended to nearly all the verbs that had an -ui perfect: * bibutus. ples. however. On 439. perditus *parsus.

tractus. Keil VII. *vistus. fusus. there were some absco{n)sus. sessus > * sedutus.viA. *pendutus. §439). Digitized by Microsoft® . /ric* surtus for surrectus. *submo{n)sus. ex- factus. divisus. ductus. pastus'>-*pavutus'i. sus. Lat. rectus. pressus. pre(n)sus . A > > > * sentttus . R. *mossus. missus. stinctus. and perhaps *sdltus. *salsus. te{n)sus. The ending -tus was kept for some twenty verbs. *persus. texus * texiisecdtus. new formations in -sus: On the other hand. tersus. tortus. * suffertus. victus'>*vin- cutus and *vinctus. nectus>necdtus. fartus'. sepultus >• sepelitus. tinctus. Gl. Bechtel 91. Spr. ventus'^*venutus and venttus. or -utus: captus *capttus. cretus> *crevutus'>. sparsus. sectusy^ * tenutus. tactus'i tus. fixus. tentus > > tus. structus. Spr. 'salted. Lat. expansus sensus few verbs replaced the old form by one in -itus or -ietus: * expandutus . fictus finctus. Salsus. 295 (very common). scriptus. *vdltus About fifteen verbs (cf. -itus. messus'^ metitus. morsus. rosus.>*farcitus axiAfarsus. 94. also perhaps *misus by the analogy of mist. dictus. cogndtus>*conovutus'i. pictus *pinctus. fractus *franctus. fusus "^fundutus. *vidutus. 185 440.*mdssus. Dubois 282. gavisus>*gaudutus . Hr- excussus. mistus. 480. *gucestus. 295. generally kept: acce{n')sus . frictus "^fricdtus. oc- casionally with a change of stem: ductus . sirictus *tanctus'!. Spr. pe{Ti)sus. probably replaced -tus by -atus. Reich. saltus'^-* salitus and *salsus. vtctus~>* vixutus. tus. ma{n)sus. 480. Lat. There were a few new for- mations in —tus: offertus. farsus. 441. lectus. 480. *parsus. to{n)sus. falsus *fallitus. wjwj. also probably * wwclausus.§ 441] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Several of these developed also a participle in -utus: etc. mdtus'>*movutus'> &. The ending —sus was defe{n')sus. R.' maintained itself beside salitus. *strinctus. risus.. punctus.

and -Isti.. as t was of the third (cf. to stress this in ^smiVi: fecimiis>'Pr. etc. historically considered. Italian lodi and Rumanian lauzi. [§ 447 9. The evidence. analogical formations. whence came the French -ons. not found acceptance. For the reduction of -to to 443. see §416. There are traces of 47. then the accent was shifted to the penult *canomus. as -s did not fall in this region. -imus. As unaccented e.1 86 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. great confusion ensued between -es and —is. 445. Pr. 670. e. forms due to Celtic influence. In southern and to some extent in northern Gaul the its final s. This confusion is very frequent in the Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-89. does not support this view. inscriptions and elsewhere: Digitized The shift. first person plural lost perhaps in the Vulgar Latin period: videmus'>-'St. Grundriss V. PL 73-80): — dmo dmaa dmat 446. Pr. assumes that in Italy -as and -es became -i. 447. its — tended. 53. PEESONAL ENDINGS. etc. by Microsoft® . It may be that -s was dropped because it was regarded as a characteristic of the second person. are correctly explained by Tiktin 565-566 as 444. and doubtless of weak after our period. *amdmu amdtes dmant like * cdnomus. fez^m. PL. — This theory has In strong perfects the of -tstis first person plural. Pers. perhaps S. Pers. 442. and i came to be pronounced alike (§243). This is not a phonetic phe- nomenon. -0. vezim. — through the analogy perfects as well. colliget. however. Meyer-Liibke. According to Mohl. from laudas. —et and -U. were used in northern Gaul instead of canimus.

due to the analogy of -iunt. absolvent. Beside second conjugation. -ite -dmu(s'). Pers. ways /3 short: debuerunt. however. dixerunt. the con- fusion goes back to early Italic. to match —^te(^s). Furthermore. ite(s).). discarded. PI.§ 45°] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -imus. — — particularly common in Italy: cf. sometimes had a short e (e is common in the comic poets. in southeastern facitis There are some traces of its preservation French dialects also. —^te. helped by the analogy of the future — The shift and -{mu{s). Sardinia. Dalmatia. vindett. -unt was preferred. Pr. and dicimus. in the For the reduction of —iunt to -unt. 449. kept the old accent (Tiktin 596): iingem. and Dacia. -dte(s). etc. for instance. etc.). PI.j—th& penult assuming the accent. as there are in Italian and French remains of the original accentuation. lingeti. etc. vindem.J^kuJ-i n^g^^xd^so^'^i^-i -^--^/^^ . etc. Rastia. 64. tral and the rest of southern Italy. The endings -ent and -unt came to be very is much confused frequent in the (* credent. respon- duntur. Cf. In the present indicative and imperative.). According to Mohl. in the sixth or seventh century. Pers. and a part of southern Italy. ite in the other conjugations. 448. Rumanian. -ent prevailed in cen. 112. their interchange Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-90. §137. *vidunt. 187 was not universal. . in Spain and Portugal. there was an ending *-eunt which was (^habeunt. 30. in Classic Latin. -ttis. -/»z«(j'). was perhaps viitttmus. accipient. Virgil wrote tulerunt. facimus. —die and -^mu(s). became. exient. being attracted by mittimus: Pr. dicUis kept their old forms in many regions. The Classic distinction was best kept in Gaul and northern Italy. etc. -ent. §416. see §416. the third person plural ending -ere was The ending -erunt. In the perfect. in Vulgar Latin this vowel was apparently al450. —ite generally —Ste(^s). viderunt.

Digitized by Microsoft® .

240. = abl. 431.B.229 (i) unaccented 228.236 ab ante 47. ad = at 282 ad. 228.=accus.24. 140 iicatum r4i aculionis 367 abeo = habeo 251 224 abias 224 abiat 224 abiete -abilis 39 ab intus 47 abitat 25 1 Ablative 92-7.23. 93. abyssus 149 ac. 450 Towels in hiatus addedi 139 136-8 addormire 25 secondary 153-5 adferitis (imper.infin.— Arabic numerals refer to Paragraphs. 94-6. adjutare 34 ad mane 47 373. 383 adnao 397 ace.28 absconsus 439. 229 231. N. 86. 441 ad 14. 231. adaptus 23 adcap(i)tare 25 433> 447-8. in -us 244. 77. 47. absolute 97 abl. 96. 240.) 412 unstressed words 156-8 adgenuculari 25 Accented Vowels see ad horam 47 Vowels adimplere 30 accepere 201 Adjectives acceptabilis 39 comparison 56. 194-5 absida 356 (3) absolvent 449 -anus 39 ja-> je. 243. pi. 92 beJEore j 222 Accent 134-58 primary 135-52 Greek words 143-50 other foreign words 15 1-2 acer arbor 43 -aceus 37 acia 355 (2) -acius ^y a contra 47 a(c)qua 164 Acqui Z^ Acragas 330 ac si 83 ac sic 24.1 INDEX. italics to Words printed in Roman type belong to ancient. words in modern languages. 355(1) adparescere 34 adpetere 32 Digitized by Microsoft® . 98-9. 82 ace. 34 abbio 273 abbreviare 25 abbreviatio yj shift 136-8. 94-6 aboculare 26 ab olim 47 abs. 48 abbellire 18. 229 (i). 230 = 0*78 ab-25 ab-]> au. 383 abl. 82. 78. -I. 244 (i). 94-6 nouns 367 numerals 142 : ace. 377 accipient 449 declension 374-9 accubitorium ^'j numerals 378-82 -accus ^y unus (article) 57 Accusative. 90. 244 accented 39. 65 accedere(m) 309 accensus 441 -a 37 0181 ab 14. a 194-5. 84 acua aqua 223 -aculare 35 before s + cons. 243. 25 recomposition 139 verbs 423-4.

194 = -ago 2>7 Agragas 330 Agrientum 259 agurium 228 agustas 228 36 anangi 331 anathema 19 anathematizare 19 anc 40 anc hanc 251 = allium 274 a longe 47 alques 71 alter 71. 187 -ancus 37 (-incus) -anda 37 andare 405 andata 37 (-ta) Andreani 359 (i) Andreate 359 (2) andron 331 anellus 37. 435 ad ubi 47 aduc 250 adulescentulus 37 adunare 25 alauda 19 alaudula yj alba spina 43 alberca 19 albeus 317 228.286 amantis (nom. alumnu (nom.22 Index.I go aiio 2. 14. Adverbs 73-5 as 174.281 = aliquot 71 -alis agere ajere 259 aggio 273 aggravatio 37 = 39 alium 224 alius 71 allare 405. albor = arbor 292 . 233.281 (i) Eeum = cBvum 324 ^a foras 47 aliquant! 71 aliqui 71 aliquis 13. 232. 42 Digitized by Microsoft® . 209-10 unaccented 174. 222 alto (adv. 359.Ethiopia 188 alipes (i) = ad. = -t. 405 amei 424 amenus 215 amfora 334 amicicia 276 amadus amido 187 amistat 154 amita 239. 1 78. 178. 359 (i) amitane 359 (i) amitanis 359 amma 16 243.) 40 aiglon yj (-0) altra 233 altrui Aiiax 222 395 ancora 150. 71 amnavit 405 amh 424 a mode 47 amourette yj (-ittus) ampitzatru 277 ampora 334 amurca 186 amure 203 amygdalum 19 an II. 83 -an 36 -aj* a f oris 47 agennae -nd. 244 aecclesia 228 Eedis 366 ffigis -ale y] alecer 195 (i) Alesander 255 alevanti eleph. 210 EEteneris = itineris 201 sequus alid alicunus 71 aliud 71 alio(r)sum 291 = . 435 allegorizare ig alleviare 34 Agneti 359 (2) agnetus -na.321 = Alexander alguein 71 alguien 71 -alia 37 38. 209-10. 244 -EE = -e 174. altiare 34 altior yj'] anca 343 ancilia 187 395 Agustus 228 ahenum 250 ai >. 244 accented 1 74.) 367 amho 424 amaricare 34 ama(t) 285 ambitare 405 ambolare 232 ambulare 10. 255 188 seliens = eligens 259 =8-175 alicer 195 (i) agques = e. 178.243.) 372 adpretiare 25 adpropiare 25 ad semel 47 —aio 39 (-arius) aios =: BjyiQS 272 am 78 ad sero 47 adsteti 139 Aix ajutit = adjutet 272 ad subito 47 adtonitus 32 ad tunc 47 -al37 alacer 195 (i) alare 405.175.£6 2> e 209 at 188 altissimus 377 altitia 37 Aiax 188.

39. 293. 36. 429 apertus 436 arsus 441 artemisia 184 arietico 184 apotheca 182 apothecarius 39 apparescere 35 arthriticus 184 Article 57. 42 participle 435. 282. 228. 392 artic(u)lus 234 > (7) appo 78 apprendere 12 arvorsum (2) = adversum 281 ApHro 410 apsens 315 apsolvere 315 apte =: -se 244 arvum > aram 2z6 aucellus 13. 260-1 Assimilation 229 (3). 255 Digitized by Microsoft® . 223 284 aquilotto 37 (-ottus) asculta 228 Angers 86 angliscus 39 angostia 208 (i) anguil(l)a 163 ang(u)Ius 233 angustiare 34 Anicius 276 -ar37 Arbonenca yj (-incus) a semel 47 aspargo 31 aspectare 25 arbor (masc. 282 aput 282 164.) 367 -antia . 265. 359 (i) anus = annos 244 -anus 39. 255. 315 Asti 86 astula 284 at II = ar(i)dorem 219 ar(i)dus 237 aries 225. 229 au o 229 (7) OK 189 auca 13. 211 -3 unaccented 228.24. 307.^y anticus 226 antiefne 184 antiphona 184 ariex = -s 255 -aris 39 -aris -alis 292 ^ -arius 39 atque ille 24 atque ipse 65 atque is 65 atrium 12 atta 16. 267. 34. 236 (7) apersi 428. -dssetis 433 397-8 -are (nouns) y] ares = aries 225 aretem 225 argentum 259 -aria 37 -aricius 39 arida (noun) 13 Assibilation 277-8. 325 aucidere 212 -OS 38 -as -i 443 > audace (nom. 68. 42 Aorist 124 armeise 184 armentas 352 -aro 39 (-arlus) Aroncianos 276 arrespex r= haruspex 251 Arrius 251 arroser 356 (3) arsi Attane 359 atticissare (i) t^^ attinxi 429 Attitta 37 (-ittus) -attus yj at ubi 48 apcha 343 aperii 428 429 -atus 37 (-ta). 440 au 178.) -assem 161 -^ssemus 433 33.) 346 (4) arb(o)rem 235 arboricellus 153 Aspirates 249-52. 265 aspra 233 -asse 161 ardente(m) 309 ardere 399 animabus 358 animalico yj (-icca) Anitius 276 Annanis 359 annare 405 annata yj (-ta) Annenis 359 annitare 405 annotavimus -bi. 269. 255 -ans39 anser 13 ad 282 -ata 37 (-ta) -aticum yj atque. anemis 232 -aneus 39. 65 at = anta 239 ante 96 antemittere 46 antestetis (nom.Index.) 367 audi audivi 227. 310. 264. 423 audiendu'st 309 = ascella =r axilla 42. 229 accented 178.318 annulare 405 anos = annos 247 ardire 343 -are (infin. 211-3. 78. 42 angelice 40 angelus 19 191 ascendiderat 426 ascetes 182 ascla apud aqua 14.

316.192 aud(i)entem 416 aud(i)o 272-3.316 Bodicca 37 (-icca) boletus 38. 324 ausare 18.3171323 bestemmia 182 Betrubius 316 beveire y^ (-tor) bi. 34 ausculum := osc. 359(1) barbane 359(1) barbar 242 barbo -onis 359(1) barbutus 42 baro 16 bassiare 275 = vixit 255 = vi. 74 bene bene 55 benegnus 172 (2) bene placitum 43 Beneria Ve. 339 baptizatio 19 barba -anis 359. 219 balneus 347 ballaena 150. 324 botella 361 bottega 182 b see Labials : baboni 362 bac(c)a 163 bacito yj (-ittus) bac(u)lus 234 Baiocasses 151 bajulus 233 Baleria = Va. 33.22 Bononia 303 bonu 298 bonus = -OS 244 bonus bonus 55 bos =:i vos 316. Balerius Va. 236. 322 botula 361 bovis (nom. ^ benignis 376 benivolus 201 berbeces 323 Bonitta 37 (-ittus) 424 avo avus 362 avus 13 ayo = habeo 273 = berbex (-ix) 42. 162. 325 av(i)dere 219 avidus 236 aviolus 13 avis 13 avis struthius 43 Bellus -onis 362 bene 40. 14 5 Authorities autor 266 baptizare 19. 182 autumnal (e) 242 auyo 272-3 avau.316. 333 balneum 146: balneus 347 = bifolco biginti ti 318 (2) = vi. 241 avaricia 276 ^ bas(s)ium 163 basso 40 battaUa 16 battel 426 ba(t)t(u)ere 137. 236 avicella 37.316 boccone 37 (-0) bocconi 40 avec 78 avello = -avi ^ = averlo 293 -ai 424 avica 13. 322 -bilis = balteum -us 347 bannus 19 baplo 235 baptidiare 339 baptisma 149 Aureliati 359 (2) aurora 11 aus avus 241.212 39 bimaritus 22 bintcente vincente 260 bis. 324 Aureia -elia 274 Index. 36 blasphemia 146.236. .) 367 brae (c) a 163 bracchiale 37 = brac(c)hium 163 brachia 352 Digitized by Microsoft® . 226 Bayeux 151 bel(I)ua 164 blasphemus 150 blasta 312 (i) blitum 184 bob ansa 336 bobis vo. 42.316 bixit = vi. = autem 11.316 bal(i)neum 146.316 bianca 341 biber 242 biblia 146 bibui 428 bibutus 438. 439 Bictor 316 biduanus 39 bieta 184 botu vo.22 bisaccium 22 bisacutus 22 bisante 187 = = bis Austus 263 aut 174 aut aut 84 -aut -avit 424 . .3165 322 bis(s)it coctum 43 bivere blaesus 329 blanche 341 blanka 341 blankizare 34 blaspheraare ig. 416 audivi(t) 2S5 audus 236 -aumus := -avimus 424 aunc(u)lus 234. 184 Bologna 303 bonatus 37 (-atus) Bonica 37 (-icca) bon(i)tatem 231 bonito y] (-ittus) = avire 400 -avit -ait -at -aut 241.

195 (3) cerbus 323 cerebellum 231 cereolus 13 cereseus 195 (3) ceresus 38. 330 cedat caedat 210 cabia =: cavea 318 cactivus 313 cactos 313 capitanus 39 capitium 37 (-ium) capitulus 42.354. 330 Byzacinus 42 c : castius 277 castore (nom. 71 cata unus 71 cataveris rr -d. 231. 237 calisco 414 calma 268 calotfa 187 caseum -us 347 Cases85-ioo.) 367 cammarus 330 canalia yj cani (pi. 284 capire 406 cap(i)talis 231 cauculus 288 cauditus 42 caus(s)a 161 cavia 224 -ce 40 cecino 187. 42 caroneus 39 carrica 11 car(ri)care 18. 402 -C40 caballus 12 capiclus 234. 163 Cassiabus358 cas(s)us 161 castaneus 346 (i) castellus camera 145 camerlingo 37 (-ing) caminus 150 camisla 201 (i) (3) 347 butyrum 150 buxida 187. 369 caput 13.) 357 (i) Breaking 177 breviarium 37 brevis 13 Brittanice 40 calcius (nom. 234 capitus 440 = cedo 162 cadedi 428 cadere 402 caderunt 426 cadui 428 cselebramus (perf . 347 calumpnia 307 calura 42 camel(l)us 42. 150. branca i6 calcis 193 camis (nom. 239 cartas (nom.) 424 cedrus 182 cefalo 334 celeps 315 capriolus 224 captiare 34 cslus 347 Cjeseris 233 caesorium 37 caetk 313 captio 9 captivare 34 captivus 313 celerus 376 -cellus 37 Celtic Words 19 capud 282 capui 428 calamarium 37 calamellus 37 calamus 150 calatus calcai capum 285.) 367 cardu(u)s 226 ce(n)sor 311 census 260 centu 381 ceperint 215 cepi 215 = -avi 424 •^•j = ga. 372. 356 (3). 282. 33. 369 capus 285. 163 buUicare 35 buplicae = carum 263 casa 12 cal(i)dusi55.330 (-ium) cerasus 38. cf . 285. 356 (3). 369 cardonis (nom.) 367 224 calcoste(g)is 259 caldo 40 cal(e)facere 219 calefacis 139 calere 288 bruchus 193 pu. 356 (3).256 catechizare 19. 278 capere 8.Indkx. 219.) 368 cata 19. 383 cf. pi. Buolognino 154 burrus 330 Burrus 187 bursa 187 buscus 255 iusta 187 but(t)is 163 cals 255 casotta 37 (-ottus) cas(s)eus 163 .) 367 camutus 39.312 (i) bublus 235 bubukus 318 (2) buc(c)a 12. 195 (3) calcaneum carissimus 377 caritabilis calce pistare 46 calciare 224 39 Caritta 37 (-ittus) Digitized by Microsoft® . 356 buxus 187. 163 . 33 cat' cantare 34 unus 71 see Gutturals c for capabilis 39 g 253 cy 276.

310 coicere 310 coiiugi 271 cojectis 311 . 186. 231. 231 clamantis (nom. 276. 259*. -ara 38. 233 Comparison 56 comperare 231. 260^. 231. Clepatra 191 clerc 154 Change of Suffix 42 chan(n)e 163 chartaceus 39 cher 263 chiaro (adv. 269. 12. of.411 Digitized by Microsoft® . 330.23. 370 cinxi 429 cip(p)us 163 circa 80. 277. 310 cognovi 428 cognusco 197 cohaerere 310 computus 235 comuna 376 con. 325 colhe 154 coles 213 i6z -ceus 39 Chairibertus 39 (-anus) chaloir 288 Change of Meaning 8-10 coliandrum 292 coUecta 37 (-ta) collectus yj (-ta) colli(g)ens 259 col(li)gere 31. 380 cinque 254. 332 cib Clodius 212 cloppus 16 closa 212 Cludo 211 (2) -clus 234 CO quod 282 colomna 208 coloquinta 187 color (fern.444 Pronunciation coUiget 444 col(lo)care 9. claudo 236. 130. 124 coexcitare 30 comedo = quo.1 194 certitude cetto 'r^j Index.) 346 (2) colp 154 colustra 197 = coacla 289 (i) 206 cicinus 330 -cillus ]> -cellus 42 coactum 310 coccodrillo 294 cocens 226 comenzare 276 coininciare 276 cominiciare 276 cominitiare 25. 233 cito 162 citrus cognatus 9. 237. 187 cimiterium 192 cinctius coclearium 356 (3) coclia commando 31 comment 41 commixtius 23 224 254 cinctus 440 cinqua(gi)nta 254. 329 191 ciurma -cius 39 of. 272. 332 Chrestus 184 chrisma 184 C(h)ristus 184. 197. 325 clausi 429 clausus 441 clavem 288 clavido 236.) 40 chiave 288 Chilperico 343 ckiosa 185 clergue 154 305. 311 condam 254 condedit 139 conder(e) 242 condicio 276 conditio 276 civ(i)tas 12. 160 coUus -um 347 239 colober 208 Clio 190 colobra 208 (2). 269 co(g)nosco 43. X54. 259. 297\ 318(1). 153. 25 concha 186 concupiscencia 276 cohors 12. 217 Chiusi 86 cholera 145 chommoda 25 c(h)orda 186. 31. 271 colaphizare 19 col(a)p(h)us 19. 213 codex 213 coemiterium 192 coepi 72. 332 Conditional 124. 233 complacere 25 complire 400 cinus 347. 379. 139. 379 cocodrilus 294 cinsum = ce- 196 cocus 226 coda 212. 333(1) clericatus 37 cler(i)cus 39. 150. 154. 276 comitem 235 cima 38. coexercitatus 30 cofecisse 311 96 Compound Words 43-9.) 367 clarisco 414 Cla(u)dius 211 (i) cojugi 311.226 comoedia 192 comparare 8. 239 collo Clerical 218. 64 comprendit 250 computare 31 circare 16 circueo 309 circumdavit 430 cis 14 cit(h)era.

34 19s corpo r6o corregia 201 corridije conger 329 Congianus 272 congigi 259 Conjugation 101-30. co(n)jux 171. confessor 18 confortare 25.) 298 cornicula 42 cornu -um-us 347. 244. 226. 39 credentia 37 (-antia) " connato 269 conobbi 428 conoisser 413 conopeum 146 conovutus 440 conpendium 32 conplere 306 consacrati 31 conservam(m)us 163 consiensia 260. 139 credens (noun) 13.continari 226 contra 96 contra. 137 Perfect 422-31 consuetudo 42 Strong 427-31 co(n)sul 171. 254 41 Personal Endings 44250 Pluperfect and Future Perfect 432-3 Present Stems 416-9 Use of Forms 101-30 Conjunctions 82-4 co(n)jus 25. 160 Fourth 407 Fundamental Changes • 408-12 Imperfect 420-1 constare 31 Inchoative Verbs 413-5 consuere 31. 275 227 consilium 42 consili corbeau 323 corbi 323 corbo 323 corcodilus 294 corcodrillus 294 cores = corda 369 corium 294 Comeius =-elius 274 Cornelio (nom. 439 crepatus 435 crepavi 428 Crescentsiarius 277 cresco 255 cresima 184 cresme 184 crevi (i) 428 292 crevutus 440 criblare crigTie 35 c'ritare 229 consirier yj (-erium) Consonants Aspirate 249-52 Dentals 280-6 = criz 206 = crocitare 35 Digitized by Microsoft® . 255. 225 cortensis 39 cortilis cortis 39 250 corvo 323 corvus 323 cosol 311 costumen 42 cosul 305 cot 254 cotes 212 cotidiae 244 cot(t)idie 162.1 Index. 37 crebbi 428 credea 421 crededi 31. 355 cor(o)nare 231 corp 323 corpora 369 corpes corpi -ora 369 coi"pore 356 (3) corpo credere 410 credutus 438. 311 conmittere 32 couleuvre 208 (2) court 203 couvent 311 covenimus 311 coventionid 3x1 covetum coxale coxi 429 = cubitum 208 -^j^j copertus 436 cophinus 186 coque 254 coraticimi 18. 3ro corso 208 Groups 131-2. 311 Weak 422-6 conteneo 139 Perfect Participle 434. 396450 Four Conjugations 396407 First 397-8 Second 399-401 Third 402-6 Double: see Double Consonants Germanic : see Germanic Consonants Greek : see Greek Consonants 272 corrigo 305 corrotulare 229 cors 12.26 contrafacere 26 co(n)ventio 171 convltare 25 coperire 225 copersi 429 Gutturals 253-70 Labials 312-26 Latin 246-8 Letters 246 Liquids 2S7-96 Hasals 303-11 Palatals 271-8 Sibilants 297-302 cortera 203.

289 (2) cuoio 296 cuofre 160 cuore 160. (fem.) 349 cymba 187 cymiterium 192 cypressus 150 Second 361-3 Third 364-71 Use of Cases 85-100 376 de contra 47 decumus 220 dede = dedit 285 de deorsum 47 Digitized declLvis Deponent Verbs 113. 346 (4) cucullus -a 346 (4) defensus 441 deferet 406 Dative 90-1. 88. 354-76 Adjectives 374-6 Fall of Decl. -culum -cuius > 37. 92. 234 cum (conj. 306 -cellus 42 95 -c(u)lus 42. 322 currens 39 = Intervocalic 283. 409 d : see Dentals dy 272 de post 48 deprendere 250 de retro 47. 82 curabit cursi de-^ di. 48 deltas 27 del(i)catus 227 delitus 198 delta 329 de magis 47 de medio 47 deminat 139 Dentals d 272. 292 Derivation 20-49 descendidi 426 de semel 47 despereifser 414 by Microsoft® . 294 Index. 100. 286 nd > nn 281 429 cursorium 37 curvus 323 nt 285 St 285 t 284-6 denumer^t 424 deo(r)sum 291. 78. da 48 dedi 430 (i) 229 crucifigere 46 c'rot'lare dacruma 281 dactylus 19 dedicait 424 ded(i)cavit 231 crudilitas 197 -crum 37 (-culum) crupta 187 crus 13 dad 48 Dafne 334 dai 2<)% dampnum 307 crust(u)lum 234 crypta 187 cubidus cupidus 256 Danuvlum 318 dao397 dare 397 datfus 324 dedro dedrot 285 deexacerbare 30 deexcitare 30 defeniciones 276 defensa 37 (-ta) defensi 429 defensorlus 39 = cuculla 13. 177 cnpa(t) 285 cupire 406 cupit 423 cup(p)a 163 cupressus 150 cur 12. 117. 48. 187. 226 cum (prep. 48. de. 372-3 de^£-io 273 defna 324 de inter 48 de intro 47 de intus 47.) 82. 95. 72.o. 81 defuntus 267. 330 cyma38. cf. 25 debbio 273 debeo 273 debere 10. 281-3 dy 272 nd nn 281 Final 282.196 crocodilus i. 355-6. 324 deorsum 224 Cusanca 37 (-^ncus) Wouns 354-73 Shift of Decl. 25 305 77. cumba 187 cun = cum 305 cunnuscit 269 cimtellum =r cul.23. Definite Article 68. 239 decanus 39 dece(m) 309 decern et (or ac) septem 379 dece(m)bris 306 decemter 306 dec(i)mus 239 Declension 85-100. 392 de foris 47. 383 cuerdo 369 culcitra 294 dau 397 daun 397 234 dave 48 de 14. 285 > -avit 318. 126 (4) debita 37 deb(i)tum 235.229 (2) deabus 358 de ad 48 de ante 48 deaurare 23. 376 First 357-60 cy 276-8 cy ty277 = cycnus 187.) 14.

378 dukissa yj dulcior (noun) 18 — > -dei 426 = dulcor 18. 209-16 209-10 de sub 48 de super 48 de sursum 47 detti 426 de unde 70. 259 -didi ducatus 37 (-ta) duce due 412 ductus 440 dui 167. 238. 253. 37 dies 13. 328 289 (i) Dissimilation 167. 412 dice = die 412 dice(m) 309 disfactus 23 dis(je)junare 25. 328 Single >Double 164. 292. 226 dita 351 diu II. 177. 30 . 393 deus 167 devere 318 devetis 318 au 21 1-3 eu 214 oe 215 ui 216 diposisio 277 dire 406 directus 229 diri(g)ens 259 dirivare 229 (2) dou 397 Double Consonants 161-4. 406. 397 dia 397 diabulus 38 diaconissa 19 Dialects 2.) 367 dub(i)tare 231 ducalis 39 divota 229 (2) dixemus 232 dbd429 dodecim 225 doga 186. etc. 13 Double Forms 158 Double Negation 75 Double Prefixes 30 doucet 37 (-ittus) doussa 376 drachma 144 drappus 16 d'rectus 229 diurnus 13 divisi Dreux 151 429 drieto 292 406 dicimus 448 dicitis 448 dicitus = -g. 43> distinguere 223. 426.) 349 dormio 224 dormito 309 dormitorium 37 dormo 416 dorsus 347 dossum 291 Diphthongs 36 177. dibeto 196 Dibona 318 die 264. 361 digitus 233. 254.253 dictus 166. 21 dolus dictus := digitus 233. 167. 25 discere 12 disfacit 139 Double 247 = Single 162-3. 229 displacet 139 displicina Doable >Single i6i. 333 dolor (fem. 355 (2) dietro 292 digita35i. 440 dicere divisus 441 divite (nom. 196-9 (I) . 247. and fem. desso 62 dester 255 desto 225 197 donee 11 dont 70 donum (masc. dextro(r)sus 291 deyo 273 dia = dies355 (2). devitum 318 dexcito 225 cf . 196-9. 328 devidere 229 (4) devinus 229 (4) dis. 229 (4). accented 165. 238.) 346 (2) dolor 18.3 Index. 421. 259 dignus 172 (2) dilevit domatus 435 domin(i)ca 239 dominicus 9.) e 165. Digitized by Microsoft® . 303. (2ddecl. 195 (6). 239 domnani 359 (i) domnicellus 37 domnicus 235 229 (2) diligibilis 39 domnina 37 domnizare 33 domnulus 235 dint-mi 264 divinus 324 dinus = Dionigi 227 Dionysii 227 diosum = deorsum 291 Diphthongization 177 domnus 235 domus 12 355 dume(c)ta 266 dune 40 d'unde 70. 393 duo 378 duos 138 durare 229 (5) Duration 99 duricia 276 Durocasses 151 duxi 429 (masc. 289 (2).) 346(1).23.

230. > e > y 224 e i 229 s (2) edere 13 edificai e prefixed to + cons.228. 14 > -i 244. 263. 65 ecce iste 24. 328 Endings Personal 442-50 -esco ]> -isco 197 414 enim 11 escupare 255 -ens 39 (-ans) -e(n)simus 311 -e(n)sis39. 364 -V3S -ea 421 -etv 36 ejus 298 eio = -etbv 146 42 erigere 31. 182. > 65 > eccu' iste 24. 385 eo quod 82. 229 effrenis 376 eglesia 256 (2). 365-6. 65 ecce ille 24. 6. 65 eccu' 'ic 326 eccu' ille 24.) 368 -Irunt 450 eccam 24 eccas 24 ecce. 385 ego-met-ipse 66 et -erem 346 (3) eremus 150 eres 251 190 e-28 -640 -e>-ffi I74>244 -e -ei 411 -eta 146 eiius 271 erga 14 ergo II. 298 elementum 231 elephantus 38 elex -ebam : see -ea 429 eiii 411 ecca 24 = ilex 200 (2) erubisco 414 elifanti (pi. s 177. 311 -ent -eunt 416. 197. 42 elmo 343 illud 201 elud -elus >• -ellus 42 ervum > erum 226 ervus (3d decl. 429 -erium 37 erminomata 191 ero 411 -ero 39 (-arius) ersi ericius = jacet 224 earn = jam 224 eacit ejus 170. eccum 24. 326 espiar 343 "pier 343 Digitized by Microsoft® . 244 egloge 330 e e 165 > > e > e 165 V 182' ei83 e(g)o 60.198 e 196-8 Index. 73.> -ido 197 edus haedus 210 e6 >. 242 -elius >• -ilius 197 -ellus 37. 199 n 182 eccu' sic 24 e contra -entia 37 (-antia) -inns 42 -enus > 47 C183 ecus 226 edediderit 426 i eo=:ego 73.) 356 (2) -i 443 -es -es -is 174. 255 es-7. -unt 449 es(i)mus 419 (i) -isimus 197 -esimus esmes 419 (l) eccos 24 eccu.) 450 -ere -ire 197 erodes 251 > effigia 355 (2) eu 214 effondrer 356 (2) i6 >• e 225 unaccented 219. 449 -ent >. 65 ecce ego 65 ecce hie 24.538 Esaram 233 -escere 34.24. 62.e 225 = equus 12 equus = sequus 210 -re 245 -er -er 39 (-arius) erable 43 -ere (perf . 424 230 e6 > e 225 -edo . 243.exs. 162. no eoru 309 episcopalis 39 epistula 144 > 196-8 e unacc. 35. 65. 413-4 eschernir 341 emere 12 encaustum 149 Enclitics 156 -enda 37 (-anda) : 24 eschine 341 esclate 343 eccillum 24 ecclstam 24 ec(c)lesia 146. > = = 444 = ex. 65 ecce nunc 65 ecce tu 65 eccillam 24 eccillud elimentum 231 -elis >• -ills 197 Elision 157. 244. 232.24.

440 fascia 10. 419 (i) esse essere 419 esse sedere 402 274 exe(m)plu 306 exiat 224 exient 449 347 fageus 39 failla exinde 60 exire 31.230 exstinctus 440 exstinxi 429 exsucidus 39 exsucus 23 extensa 37 extimare 255 extra. 275 faselus 334 fasena 320 (i) f asia = faciat 285 224 fasiolus -etus 437 see Labials (i) fata 266 eu 214 cu 190 fa 264. facienda 37 fem(i)na 239 feminabus 358 > exaltare 25 exaugiu^tus 39 excellente (nom. 277 etsi I \ et sic 47 exodus 337 expabui 42S expandutus 441 expaventare 35 explendido 230 exquartiaxe 276 exs.Index. 77. (i) = -it 244. 404 facheret 410 faciam 278 fadas 224 fac(i)ebam 225.= as. .= es. 404 faccia 278 fatus 347 taula 236.) 367 excoriare 25 excussi 429 excussus 441 exeligere 30. espiritum 230 exeligit 199 fffinum 209 fffinus esquena 341 esguiver 343 essagium 255 esse 112-4. 420 face feced feci = fecit 282 fec(e)ru(nt) 233 430 fehu 343 felicla 234 felis25. 404 fatatus 39 fate fabam 320 404 Eugeneti 359 (2) -eum 37 eunuchizare 19 fab(u)la 236 f ac 264. 25 ex. 274 facimus 448 404 facitis 448 factum 266 facire Feminine femps 356 femus (3d : see Gender (2) decl.230. 318 febrarius 226 Eurus 191 -eus39 Euua 344 evangelizare 19 -evi -ei 424 > Evidence 5 ex 14. 126 (2). 444 49 .23. 92. 95 ex. 266 = = fait 324 266 fallii -esse 161 -essem 161 essere = esse 419 es(t) 285 estatio 230 estau 397 estaun 397 Estephanus 230 estou 397 estribar 341 esum 419 -et et et at ubi .) 356 (2) fenire 229 (4) factus 440 fenum 209 ferbeo 323 feritus 242 fascit 209 faedus 320 (i) fcemina 209 f acul 434 ferre 12 ferro 160 Digitized by Microsoft® . 255 -ex -ix 42 = fac 412 facentem 416 facere 10. 14.27 extrabuccare 27 extranus 42 ex tunc 47 ezza 277 f : fallire 430 406 441 34 37 familia 42 famis 366 famTfii 264 famul 242 famulabus 358 fante 311 falsare falsitas fallitus faor 324 farcitus 440 fare 404 farsus 440. et 84 Ethiopia 188 etiam 11.

341 Franko 341 franxi 429 ficus (I) (masc.f:^ forbire 407 frigorem 347 frixl Fimes 86 Final Syllable 240-5 finctus 440 finis (adj. 231 fons (fem.) 17 429 263 Foreign Words 19. 217 fluviorum 224 feces 213 florire fratelmo 38S frat(t)re 164 frax(i)nus 239. see frondifer 11 fnialitas Germanic Words Greek Words foresia 311 foris 81 and finiscere 35 finxi 429 fructa35i.Index. 259 frigora 351 filius 155. 141 ficit 2. filix 298 274 = filios T97 fiUio 247 fonte 205 244 fonz 356 (2) foras 81.)346(i) fraumenta 268 frecare 201 .419 (2) 400 florisco 400 flovium 208 (2). 96 forbatre 2.) 346 florecer 292 414 frate 295 Florentinus 37 ficus (2d decl.) 356 fundutus 441 funtes 205 (2) fortia 37 fortis 10 fortis fortis 55 429 fixus 441 fossato 2^1 (-ta) funus II fuore 160 Digitized by Microsoft® .) 355 (i) fidens 311 fiele 160 Jiens 356 (2) fieri 112. 12 419 (2) figel 242 fiios — filios 274 358 (nom. 201 filiabus filias 33 (2) frigdaria 219. fervere 399 fervura 37 fesit flaba 289 (i) flagrare 292 flaonis flator fractus 440 fragellum 289 (2) fragilis 260 324 324 233 >« 343 fezem 44 fiaba 289 (i) fiam 419 (2) fib(u)la 235 ficatum 16.) 346 (4) filiaster filio(s) fans 356 frigdura 37 Frigia 187 frig(i)dus 166. 256 frenum -us 347 fricatus 435.) 355 (i) fnindes 205 /^343 fiorentino 154 fioretto yj (-ittus) fiorisce \\^ foris- 29 frunza 351 frutta 351 fugii 430 f ugire 406 fugitus 439 fui 431 forisfacere 29 f orismittere 29 fircum 320 (i) Firenze 86 Firmus -onis 362 fir- 46 formaceus 39 formosus 161 formunsus 208 forsitan 305 forte 40 f ortescere ful(i)ca237 fiscla 234 fistula 234 fistus 197 fix! 34 fumAt 424 fundus (3d decl.) 357 13 . 233. and fern. 238. cf .7 flaus 240. 200 (i). cf. (mc. fragrantia 37 fra(g)rare 270 flavor 37 fletus II Francesco 341 franctus 440 fieuma 268 fleurit 414 ' fictus 197 440 fleuve 208 (2) fioralis Frankensis 39 Frankiscus 39. 361 fructus (2d decl.409. fiero 160 fiet focus fodiri 8. 406 folia 352 follia (noun) 18 follicare (i) = 259 f rictus 440 frigare 256. 440 fricda frigida 238.

furbjan 407 furma 203 furmica 229
genesis 148, 183 Genitive 88-9, 383 genitores 12 genitus 17
gIut(t)o 163




fusa 3; I

gocciare 276 gcerus 187
golosus 228 gonger 329 goule 177


genna 229
gentilis 17


fusus 441

Future 125-9,411
127-9,411 Periphrastic Put. 126 Pres. for Put. 126 (i) Future Perfect 119, 123-4,
410, 423 g: see Gutturals

gentis (adj.) 17

Hew Put.


= jan- 259
37, (i)



genuflectere 46

genum 355
Gepte 259 geguir 343

233 gradlus 376 grada 35.1 gradus 355 (i)
grandis 12
granditia 37 graphium 145 grassetto 37 (-ittus)

= Hier- 259

gabata 13, 236 gabta 236 gaita 343
gaite 343 galatus 330
gallina 288

gerbe 341

Germanic Consonants
b, c,

grassus 257

= Gratis 257

g 341

gravare 34
gravior 377 grece 210

^,^342 h343 W344
Germanic Endings 36 Germanic Words 19,
340-4 Germanissa 37 Gerund 104

gamba 13, 263, 331 gammanis 330
garba 341 garofulum 149 garum 329 gaudia (sg.) 352 gaudimoniuin 20 gaudutus 44 X gauta 236 gaveola 257 gavia 16
gecchire 343 geisla 341 geiuna je- 259 geline 288

Greek Accent 143-50 Ozytones 144
Paroxytones 145-6 Proparoxytones 147-50 Greek Consonants 327-39
ft 7, S 329
K, V,

Gerundive 103
gesso 187 gesta (sg.) 352 gJga 341 gig'i 341

T 330-1

X 332-4 Liquids 335 Hasals 336

I 337


gigantem 229 (3) ginocchioni 40 Giovannoni 362 giret 187
girus 187
giscle 341 glacia 355 (2)

f 338-9
Greek Endings 36, 38, 146 Greek Vowels 180-93 Diphthongs 188-93 Single Vowels 180-7 Greek Words 19, 36, 38,
gre-U 40 grevior 377
grevis 195 (4)

gelus (2d decl.) 355 (i) gemellus 13

gemire 406 gemitus 439

Glacus 211 (i) gladium 347
glanderia 39 glaiz 355 (2) Glauc6 -^nis 359 Glaucu (nom.) 372 glirem 166
glos(s)a 161, 185

gemui 428
gena 13

Gender 345-53 Fem. and Heat. 351-3 Masc. and Pern. 346 Masc. and Heut. 347-50 Heut.Pl.>Fero.Sg.352 Heut.Pron.and Adj. 350

grex (fem.) 346 (4) grossior 377 gratia 187 gruls (nom.) 367 gninnio 281-

gluria 203
glut(t)ire 162

guarire 344 guarnire 36, 407


by Microsoft®

guaiare 343
hab(i)tus 239 h^buerat 137
hocsies 277

gubernamentum 37
gubernare 36, 330
gtterra 344

guidare 36, 398 guiderdone 342 guisa 344
gul0 37
-i -1338, 186, 330 gustus (2d decl.) 355 (i) guttur (masc.) 347


Gutturals 253-70 c c' 258, 260-1 c g 256-7

> >

habutus 438 hache 343 hackerece 39 hffidus 320 (i) hamula 235 hanca 343 handle 343 hant 401 hao 401 hapja 19, 343

hodie 272 hodio 251


hom(i)nes 232, 235 (pi.) 36S
10, 71


honera 251 honor 346 (2) honte 342 hora 12, 185 hordemn 272
horrescere 11
hortesia 311 hospitale 12

haram 251
hardir 343
harena 320 (i) haribergum 19 has 401 hat 401 hatire 36 hatjan 36


g before back vowels hardjan 343

263 c, g before cons. 265-70 c, g final 264 ct 266

hossa 251 hostium 251 Hugo Hflgon

= Hdgo


huile 274

152, 362


> g' 258-9. z6i

humerus r2
humiliare 34

g intervocalic 263

gm 268
gn 172
gr intervocalic 270




152, 362


net 267
Falateilization 258-62

haunitha 342 haunjan 19 haunt 401 havite 400

165, 200-1, etc.

accented 200-1 I 200

haz 355


hegit 251

260 X 255, 266 gylosus 228 gyrus 187


helm 343
keltne 343

h 249-52

hepatia 19 here 219, 244 heredes (sg.) 367 heremum 251 Hiatus 136-8, 222-7

> e 201 e ^ 201 > 165, 200 i>e2oi > > e 165, 201 (cons.) 222 > y 224 -i > -e 224







habam = fabam 320

hlbemus 13
hie 63-4, 67-8 hie ipse 64

habe = ave 318 habe(b)am 421 hiem(p)s 13, 297 habeo 273 hiens = iens 251 habere 10, 121-4, 127-30, hilerus 233
239, 273, 285, 400, 401, 421, 438, 449

(Greek) 184 (Greek) 38 i^ e 225 ii i 227 prefixed to s cons. 230 unaccented 219, 221,228,


> >


hinsidias 251

hireum 320


haber 242 habe(t) 285 habeunt 416, 449 habibat 400
habire 400

= is- ins- 230 hispatii = spatii 230
historia 146

229(3X4), 240, 243, 244 in hiatus 222, 224-5,


> e 229 (4) > a 229 (3)

ho 40 hoc 63,



-ia 37, 146 -(a 37, 146


by Microsoft®

-iamus 224 -are 33, 34
ille 10,

Future Future
125-9, 411

61-8, 389-92

ipse 64





123-4, 410

-ibo 125
-ic 251



-ica 37 -icare 33, 34, 35 -icca 37


390 ille 390 140


(dat.) 390


-iccus 37

> ilium 282, 350
390 390

= suus


Imperfect 120, 420-1 Perfect 121-4, 422-31 Pluperfect 123-4, 410, 432 Present 120, 273, 397, 401, 403-5, 415, 416-9

-icem 42, 346



-iceus 37, 39, 42
-icius 37, 39, 42


induruit 224


ilium illud 282, 350 illurum 390


-inem 346

-iculare 35 -iculus 42

> -ellus 42

infa(n)s 10, 311 i(n)fans 171
inf antiliter
i(n)feri 171,

im = in 310
imaginarius 39

-icus 39

40 219

idem 61, 3C39 id ipsum 62, 350 idolum 150, 190
-idus 39 -i(d)yare 339 i6 e 225


376 immudavit 256 Imperative 115-6, 412 impinguare 25 impinxi 429


infernus 13 Infinitive

-iebam -ebam 225 -ibam 420
-ie(n)s 311



implicat 139 implire 400


> -fmus 447-8 >

in 86, 92, 95, 96, 97
is 310 inanimatus 23 in ante 47, 48 incendiderit 426

lenubam 259
-ier 39 -iere 39

in- 23, 25 in -t- s

as Noun iii Conjugations 396-407 dicere 406 esse 419 facere 404 for Clause for Imperative 116 for Subjunctive iii, 117 for Supine and Gerund




= gesta 259, 352

311 iferi 311
iferos 306, 311

Inchoative Verbs
inclausus 139 incohare 250
in contra 47, 48 incudo 42, 370


103, 104 habere 400 Passive 109 Perfect 109 with habere 125-9, 4^^ posse 403

ifimo 311 if ra 311

Present Active

102, 109


-4gia 2^^
igitur II, 14

with Accusative
inflare 31


incuminem 42
incus 42 -incus 37 inde 60, 71, 384 inde fugere 46

ignire 33 ignis 12


ignotus 310 -igo 37

Forms 345-450 Use 85-130
infra- 27



227, 423


39 -ilius 42 iliac 140

Indefinite Article 57 Indefinite Pronouns: see

infraponere 27


Indicative Conditional 130, 411
for Imperative 116, 412
for Subjunctive 117

infurcare 25

-ing 37

(dat.) 390

390 illsejus 390

ingenium 9 ingens 259 in giro 48


by Microsoft®

-ingus 37 (-incus) in hodie 47
Initial Syllable

62-4, 67-8 ins- liis- 230


— -is = -es 244, 365-6, 444

-iva 37 iventa 311

inlatus 32 in mane 47

-iscere 34, 35


> > -i 423 > -iut > -it 423

-ivum yj
-ivus 39 -ix 42
-izare 33, 34, 339

medio 48

Ischia 284

innoce(n)ti 306 innocus 226
in odio


ischolasticus 230


inprobus 32 inquid 282 in quo ante 254 -inquus 37 (-incus) ins13-230 in semel 47

-isco for -esco 197, iscripta 230


-'{«" 33
izophilus 333
j 271 jacente(m) 309 jacis 244 Jacobus 150, 329

-iscus 39 is ipse 64


ismaragdus 230 isperabi 230 ispose 230
-issa 37 -issare 33

insiemcmenie 41 insola 232 instruo — struo 230 ins(u)la 171, 233, 284 intcitamento 260 inte(g)rum 270 Interamico 307

Jacomus 329
jagante 229 (3)


-isse 161

-issem 161 -issimus 166

jaiant 229 (3) jajunus 229 (i) jambe 263
-jan 36
janarius 226

230 Interanniensis 307 istatuam 230 Interrogatlves see Pro- iste 63-8, 390-2 nouns iste hie 64 Intertonlc Vowel 231 iste ille 64 intra g6 iste ipse 64 intra- 27 istudio 230 intra tenere 27 it id 282 intravidere 46 -it -et 244, 444 intre 245 ita II intro(r)sus 291 Italia 224 intus in 49 Iteilic Tribes i, 2 -inus 37, 42 -itare 34, 35

jaquir 343
jauzei 426 jehan 343 jehir 343
jejunus 229, 229 (i) jeniperus 229 (5)

= =

jenua 229


jenuarius 229 (i) jeuTie 208 (2)
jinipenis 229 (5)

-Inus 39

> -o 416

-itas 37 -ite -Ite


Joanneni 359 (i) Joannentis 359 (2) Joannis 244
jocus 12


ipsa mente 41 ipse 61-8, 390-2



jovenis 208 (2), 217
jovis 367

64 ipsejus 390 ipsimus 66 ipsud 390
ipsujus 390 ipsus 390
iraisser 413 irascere 413

-itia 37, -ities 37


jubari 322



-ittus 37

-itudo 37 -itus 42 (2), 436, 438, 441 -Itus 435, 438-9


jubem(m)us 163 jubenis 318 jubentutis 318, 322 jubere 11
Judaizare 19
judicat 424

-ium 37
-ius 39

126 (5), 405

> -unt 416
by Microsoft®

-ire 33,


judidus 347 judico 239 judigsium 278


juglus 233 Julianenis 359 Julianeta 37 (-ittus)
Julitta 37 (-ittus)

429 Liaison 133, 159 liamen 263
lexi 428,

intervocalic 324

Voicing 314
laborait =:-avit 424

laceus 254
lacte 367

libe(n)s 311

juncxi 305 juniperus 229 (5) junxi 429
Jup(p)iter 163

jurHtortu 39 juria 272 jur(i)go 219
jusso 355 (i)

lactem 347 lacus (2d decl.) 355 (i) ladro yji ladrone 372


298 (nom. pi.) 357


libraria 37 ligare 201,

ligna (sg.) 352


justitia 276,

justius 277

juv(e)nis 235

juventa 356 (3) juvente 318
juxta 81, 96


246, 253

kadamitatem 289

= candidus 330 karessemo 201 Karica 37 (-icca) kaukoulato cal- 288 kleme(n)s 311 kozous = conjux 311, 339


34 lambros 331 lamna 235 lampada 356 (3) lampa(s) 38, 144, 335 lancia 224 la(n)tema 306 lanutus 42 lapsus 315 laqueum 347 ; cf, 254 lardum 237 Latinization i, 2 latrone (nom.) 367 lat(t)rones 164 lattucae 266 Lauriatus 224 lausenga 37 (-ing)
lauzi 443 Lazis Ladiis 339


lignum -us 172
liminare 37


Unguas (nom.) 357
liniamenta 224


133, 159

lintium 224

Liquids Assimilation 293 Dissimilation 292
Fall Fall



Liquid 237

Vowel before

Liquid 233-4 1 287-9 ly274 Metathesis 294 r 290-6
rs 291 ry 296 lit (t) era 163


kumate 298 ky = qui 187, 223



lebat 318

lit(t)us 163

see Liquids

318 lebra 256

Livitta 37 (-ittus) U 1 161


la ilia 392 Labials Assimilation 313 b 315-9 initial 316 intervocalic 318 by, py, vy 273, 319 f 320-1 Fall of Vowel after Labial 235-6 Influence on Vowels 217



Have 2 88



Locative 86
locun 305 locuplens 311 locuplex 255
lodi 443
loir 166

lectus (p.p.) 440 legare 201

leges 259

(nom.) 367

legui 428

lenticula 42

longa mente 41 longe 40
longior 377


longius 377


longum tempus 13
loquella 42 loreola 213

P 3"-4 U326
V 322-s
after liquid 323

levare 34 leviarius 39


Lost Words 11-4
lotus 213

levitus 435,


by Microsoft®

259 ma(g)ister 259 marmora 351 marmorem 347. 71. and 346 (I) fern. cf . 222 Maiiam 222 mais = magis 157.) 244 lucSre 399 lucire Index. 347. 259 major 170. 220. 369 marrir 407 marrjan 407 Marsianesses 277 magnisonans 44 magnus 12 Maia 188. manner (fern.24.) = and markensls 39 me(n)sa 311 mense(m) 309 mensi (pi.) 17274 m: see Nasals ma = mea -Ma 38 388 manu tenere 46 Slaps : pp. 297 maxumiis 220 lucus locus 205 ludus 12 lugere 399 lugire 400 = Meanings Change 10 of of Words 7-10 Meaning 8- manos 355 mansi 429 mansio 12 (i) luminem 347 lunae dies S9 mecu 309 Medea 190 Medentius 338 media 272 medianus 39 medicus 239 medio die 43 medio loco 43 medius 272 meletrix 292 melior 377 melius 56. 84. 353 me(n)sor 311 56. 157. xi Marcianus 278 Marculus 284 mare (fern.) 349 machina 144 machinari 9 macra 376 madias = majas 272 madio majo 272 madrema 388 maestati 259 maester 259 magias majas 272 marem 347 mares = -is 244 marl -e 364 marinarius 39 maris (masc. 233 lucor 37 lucto 355 (i) maximus 56.) 424 -men 37 mendatium 276 fern. 347. 201. 377 mala mente 41 male 40 male habitus 44 malicia 276 malleus 274 mensorium 37 menta 184 -mente 41 mente habere 46 mentire 409 Marsuas 187 Marsyas 187 mas = magis 157 mascel 242 -mentum 37 mentus 347 menus 201 mercatus (2d decl. 207 (i) luxi 4V 9 luxuria 355 (2) mansorius 39 mansus 441 manuaria iS manuplus 42 manus (masc. 198. 369 3" . 238. 145 ma(r)mor 292 cf .) 355 (i) meretis 232 meridjes 281 (2) mer(i)to 237 Masculine : see Gender masc(u)las 234 masma = maxima 238 massa 338 mate(r) 295 materia 355 (2) matrona(s) 298 mat(t)rona 164 Digitized mersi=merx 255 Messac 277 messui 428 messura 37 met. 347. 66 mal(l)o i6i malus malus 55 mam(m)a 16. X. 349 melum 195 (5) membras 352 memoramus (perf. ma(g)is 353 . 74. mam(m)anis 359 matutinus 13 maurus 336 maxime 56 mammula mane 13 13 400 manducare 13 man(i)ca 239 manicd 37 (-icca) maniplus 42. 359 by Microsoft® .) 368 me(n)sis 171.2o6 luce (dat.) = magida = 38. 377 luoghi -ora 349 liirdus 207 (i) luridus 166.

217 334 mutare 229 Digitized (5) nepoti(s) 298 ne'ps'unus 71 by Microsoft® . 294 modernus 18 Metiacus 277 metipse 24. 385 miauiare 17 michi 252 mienia 1S4 migat micat 256 monarchia 37 monasterium 182 -monia 37 monibam 420 moniti n + fricative 171. 440 muc(c)us 163 muebie 204 (i) mul'erem 225 mulier 9. 289 moc 428 (i). 160 mode modo 40 moere = mov. 387 mi = mihi25o. 75.245 miscere 399 misculare 35 misera 376 mis(s)i x6i.Index. 163.29. cf.245 minus credere 29 minus est 29 minus pretiare 46 minutus 10 > mortu(u)s 226 mossus 438. Metathesis 245. 377 minus. 304-6 171. 229 (4). cf. 187 meuble 204 (i) meus = mi 87 n: see Nasals mextum — m2estuin mezzo 272 mi r= meus -a 87. 201 minus 201. 440 necavi 428 nee ente 71 nee unus 71 ne ente 71 negare 263 negat 256 mur 206 murare 229 (5) muri -a 349 muritta 37 (-ittus) murta 187 Negation 75 negliencia 259 nemo 71 neofiti missorium 37 mis (s) us 441 mistus 440 mixticius 39 mobilis 204 (i).324 Moesia 187 molui 428 molutus 439 255 myrta 187 Mysia 187 mysterium 182.439 movitus438. 66 metipsimus 66 metltus 441 207 Mute -t. 255. 229 (2) Nebitta 37 (-ittus) nebula 235 necare 9 necator 37 mirabilia 37.311 11 ny 274 nacui 428 nam — mu. 438 naucella 13 naufragus 325 nautat 236 navicella 37 navitat 236 ne 14.Liquid mut(t)ire 162 132. 136 mulieris 136 natus 13. 37 raovutus 438. 439. 231 mis meis 388 mis. 381 mn 307 millefolium 38 mil(l)ia 161 mordSre 399 morire 406 moriri 406 n -h fricative ny 274 nasco 255 nascutus 438 nasum -us 347 natatorium 37 nati vitas 37 Morphology 345-45° morsi 429 morsus 441 mortificare 46 mimoriEe 229 (2) minester 201 ministeri(i) 89.228 narratus 37 (-ta) -monium 37 mo(n)strare 311 Nasals 303-11 Final or = monumento = -um 244 Mood 1 1 5-9 morbu(s). 245 mis. 441 motto 187 movi 428 movit 244 movita37-. 227 mi(ni)sterium 231 minist(r)onun 292 minor 377 minsis 198. 311 -m -n falls 309 falls 310 mihe 244 milex 255 mille 161. 438. 440. 298 + Cons. 83. 429 = mullus 187 mulsi 429 multum 74 multus 71 muntu = multum 289 (2) necatus 435.

378-82 occu(m)bas 306 occurire 406 Accent 142 nummus 328 nun = non 203 nunc 12 nuncius 276 -occus 37 ocio 276 ocium 276 octa(gi)nta 380 oc(u)lus 219. 79 ob-28 obdormire 28 obferre 32 obliscor 324 oblitare 34 obprimere 32 Nerba3i7. 243. 383 305 accented 202-5 o 202-4 o 197. 202-5. 385 nocere 399 nutrire 166.) 395 nullus 71. 167. 309 nivicare 18. 33 nuncquam 305 nunqua(m) 305. 203 o (Greek) 192 274 38. 215 offertus 435. 251 nil 250 nimpae 332 nise 229 (4) nitidus 238 nittus 238 Numerals 57-8. 244 u6 o 225 -o 37. 250. 311 nubis 366 nulli (gen. 323 nerbo 323 Neroua 322 nervia 349 Neuter nervus 323. > > 6 165. 177. 100. etc. Absolute 97 non 203 nona(i)nta 380 75. 328 noembrios 324 noembris 324 noicius 324 nolo 161 ny274 nynfis 306 406 406 429 440 192. 71 o for au 212-3 >oe ]>e 06 > o 225 > omo 251 -omus 446 on 71 ou>. 22S. 274 > ola 213 oleo 373.ou 167 unaccented 219. 395 num 83 u ob (Greek) i?5 14. 234 306. 197. nupsi 297 nobe 318 nobilis 11 nobis 318. 205 5 > 9 205 9>uo oi ou|>-gu 167 o u 202 o ou 203 oleum oli 274 274 oli(m) 309 olio nonna 16 nonnita 37 (-ittus) nonnitus 37 (-ittus) nonnus 16 noptiae 207 (2) 177 192.324 nova(i)nta 380 novellus 13 novius 207 (2) noxeus 224 ns 171. 229 (6). offla 235 oi>oe>-e ot nome 336 nomem nomes = nomina 369 Nominative 97. 349 see Gender ne 229 (2) ni : = nichil 251 niepos 177 observasione 277 oc 251 occansio 311 occidere 212 occubavit 256 ni(g)rum 270 nihil 71.208 nepta 37 neptia 37 neptilla 13 Index. Nouns 345-73 see Declension and Gender nous 177. o 165. 40 (Greek) 186 Digitized nora 208 (3) Normannice 40 norus 208 (3) notrire 229 (5) noli 40 -on 36 -ov 38 -iav 38 -ones 40 -oneus 39 by Microsoft® . 215 omnes = —is 244 onmimodus 44 omnis 12. 229 (5) nutritio 37 odedere 426 Odissia 187 oe 215 oefor xand e 215 offeret offerire offers! nutritura 37 nocui 223.

palpebrum 352 pal/ires 134 = hos-25i = ostium 202 ostrum aus. 434-41 = orum = aurum 212 orzo 272 OS (masc. 107. 217. 236 parabulare 155 paradisus 190 paraula 236. oze ozie 324 = > > = hodie 272 = hodie 272 = pacific! 321 8.) 349 Present 102. py 273 ry 296 scy 275 40S Particles 156-8 particularis 39 -OS (Greek) 38 Oscan 2 -usco 197. 229 (7) oridium 339 -orlum 37 -orius 39 orma 186. 409 passos 355 paucum tempus 13 ostentare 34 ostia palma 14. 408 Perfect 102. 104. 337 pagandum 256 paganus 263 pa(g)e(n)sis 39. parecer 414 parens 10. Pans 86 Parisiis 272-8.) 367 pap(p)a -us 16 papyrius 39 parabula 144. 12 parentis (nom. 42 feminine 346 (2) -re 245 -or -ura 42 -or hora25i ora oracionem 276 aur. Active 106 Put. 441 part 160 partentem 416 Participle dy 272 g': omatura 37 orphanus 186 ortaret 432 hor-25i ortus see Gutturals gyz72 J271 ly274 ny 274 Put. 369 papilipnis (nom. -omus 39 -o«J446 -o(n)sus 311 otia 277 otobris 266 209 paor 324 papaver (masc. Ordinal Numerals 382 -orem 346 (3) oricla2i2.212 aut 213. 259 pari 364 par(i)etes 136. 202-3 -osco ossiculum 42 ossuculum 43 > ssy 275 sty 275 partunt 416 parutus 438.Index.) 347.) 367 parentorum 368 p : see Labials paceveci = oratia = Hor-25i Order of Words 50-3. 225 parietibus 224 oratorium 37 orbus 9 palanca 332 palasium 277 Parigi 86.212 orata ou (Greek) 193 ou 167 9u Ouiouia Vibia 318. 229 (7) ot ote = aut 213. 278 parsus 439. Passive 105. 227 pari mente 41 227 Palatalization 258-62. 322 > = oum 167. 229 (7) pandiderunt 426 paucus 71 paul(l)um 161 Paulus -onis 362 paupera 376 pani 364 panneus 39 pantaisar 332 Digitized = pauperorum 376 pausa 38 pavi 428 by Microsoft® . 108. 296 Palatals 271-8. 296 parsi 429 by 273 c': see Gutturals cy 276. 439 pasmer 300 passans 39 passi(m) 309 sy 275 ty 276-7 ossulum 37 ossum 356 (3) ostensio 37 ostensor 37 vy273 palatium 277 palleum 224 Passive 112-4. 318 parcui 428 onus II o 225 operare 409 0(5 > otogentos 266 -ottus 37 ophekion = ofBcium 334 opprobare 28 -or 37. 324 ovum 167.

93. pinl 365 123-4 pinxi 429 per giro 48 piper 38. 79. 422-31 = phoca 185 Phoebus 192 Phonology 131-344 Phyebae = Phoebe 215 piano 40 pictus 440 pietas 298 pietra 160 pignus 172 (2) pi(g)ritia podium 272 poella 20S Strong 427-31 Weak 422-6 Perfect Participle Participle : 270 see Pilipus 332 pinctus 440 Perfect Subjunctive 119. 96.Index. 347. 315 plicare 10. 235 by Microsoft® .26 percolopabat 237 > Phebus 192 phiala 145 philosophia yj philus 184 phimus 184 Phitonis 332 phitonissas 332 Subjunctive 433 "8. 183. 410 432> 433 Pluperfect Penult 232-9 per 14. 369 per girum 48 piperem 347. = pr-292 plus 56. 439 pere 160 pere(g)rinus 270 peres pedes 281 (2) Perfect 121-4. 217 Pluperfect 118. 273 poco 40 perdedit 139. 217 pluere 169. 208 (4). 273 plostrum 212 plotus 212. 190 Periphrastic Future 126 perit 423 perlum = prse. pa(v)onem 324 pa(v)orem 324 pavura 42 pavutus 440 paze 260 pectinare 33 perpenna 292 persi 429 pe(r)s(i)ca 239 persona 71 Personal Pronouns: pius 167 placentia 37 plach 154 see placuit 223. 208 (4). 377 pejus 377 pelegrinus 292 pellabor 293 planura yj planxi 429 platea 146. 435 plicatus 435 293 293 pello 293 pendutus 441 pellige pellicere peuma 368 ph: see Greek Consonants phalanx 181 pharetra 145 phaselus 334 Phasis 181 pe(n)sare 171. 441 Pesaro 151 pessica 291 pessimus y]"] pestio 2S4 pectorem 347 pediculus 42 pedis (nom. 208 (4). pIurigo 123. 326 plagiare 33 Pronouns persus 439. 369 peria(t) 285 poena 192 poeta 192 poggio 272 polippus 145 poUicare yj pollulum 213 pols 370 poltre 134 polve 370 polvo 370 polypus 145 pomex 207 (2) pirata 144. igo plaudisti 426 pestulum 284 petft 423 Petrus -onis 362 peito 160 pleps 297. 410. 208 (4).) 367 plangit 259 plantare 33 peduclum 234 peduculus 42 pejor 170.294 Pisaurese 297 Pisaurum 151 pitocco T85 Digitized pon(e)re 239 pontevecem 321 pontivicatus 256 pontufex 220 poplex 255 pop(u)lus 10. 311 pensi 429 pensus 441 plodere2i3 ploja 169. 74 pluvia 169. 426 perdita 37 (-ta) perdqnare 26 perdutus 438. 213 plovere 169. 123-4. 99 per pel 293 per 160 per.

332 purpureticum 1S7 putator = po. 394 quamta 306 quan 305 Digitized by Microsoft® . 300 presbyterum 148 provitus435.28 probai 424 Proclitics 156-8 prodis 17 putrisco 400 puulva 356 (3) Pyrrhus 187 pyxis 187 Progne 330 proles II preefetto 266 prffigna(n)s 255. qu 223.Index. = pr<Egnans 255 Pronunciation 131-344 prophetissa 37 prophetizare 19 propietas 292 propio 292 propter 14. 254 qua 82 > promptulus 39 430 prsstus 376 Pronouns 59-71. 186. 439 = 311 prendere 225. 393-4 quaKs 70. 403 (i) Possessives: see Pronouns posso 403 postea 275 (i) prensus 441 Prepositions 76-81. etc. prolongare 28 q 246. 370 punctus 440 puni poni 203 = presium 277 pressi 429 pressorium 37 pressura 37 pressus 441 presta 210 presteti 139 frete 300 punidor 39 punxi 429 pupillabus 358 puplu 309 pup(p)a 163 pure 40 puritas 37 purpura 145.) 367 pugnus 172 (2) pulvus 347. 96 provata 318 porphyreticum 187 portare 12 posi posui 428. 285 posturus 238 postus 238 Post-Verbal Nouns 21 posueram 285 posuet 244 posui(t) 285 403-5. 41 5> 416-9 presentis (nom. 226. 79. 285 Present 120 for Future 126 ptisana 145 pudicicia 276 (i) Stems 273.439 proximus 377 psallere 36. 252. 397. 387-8 Relative 69-70. 95 pro. 71. por 14 porcellus yj pregnax cf. 429 Position 160-4 positus 238. 395 prandium 272 pranzo 272 pre. 330. 85-g presbyter 148. pos(t)quam 11.229 (6) puteolis 136 • potebam 403 (i) potebo 403 (i) poteo 403 (i) potere 403 (i) pdteri 410 potestas 356 (3) potionare 33 potis 17 pretium 277 preveire 300 pride (m) 309 primitius 324 principens 367 pri(n)cipis 306 Prixsilla 255 puteum 347 putrire 400 potius 74 pr:e 14 pr£E-28 prjeber(e) 24? prsecoca 376 praeda 209 prsedestinare 28 prsEdiscer(e) 242 pro 14. 429 quiestus 436. 380. 79. -^yj pos(t) 96.28 prebiter 300 Interrogative 7o> 69- quadraginta 142. 250 prendiderunt 426 prendo 250 prensi 429 prensio 37 posmeridianus 285 posse 126 (3). 311 prEEStare 31 prffistavi 422. 67. 440 cf. 383-95 Demonstrative 61-8 Indefinite 71. 226. 401. 259 quadra(l)nta 380 qua(9'ro 283 quKSi 426. 254 qu k. preda 209 Prefixes 21-32 393-4 Personal 60. 384-6 Possessive 60.

449 responduntur 449 responsi 429 raggio 272 que(m) 309 quen 305. 281 quinque 172 Quintrio quippe 1 quique 71 (i). 82. 82 quarranta 142. 309 querceus 39 quercinus 39 querel(l)a 42 rama (pi. quo 73 quo = quod 282 quoad 11 quod 14. quodlubet 220 regnancte 267 regnum 172 (2) Relatives : see Pronouns reli (n) quat 306 relinque 282. no. replenus 23 55. 200 redft 423 redivit quannu 281 = Win. 380 reculons 40 reddedi 31.quoniam 14. 379 quel 393 quejus 393 quoque quot quot n Repetition 40. 355 (2) res nata 13.344 = -bit 318 263 Quantity 159-77. 71 quare 12. 82.28 retro (r) sum 291 = = redpit 139 recolli(g)endo 259 Recomposition 31.269 respondere 399. 139 redempsi 429 redemti 313 Digitized = rectum igS by Microsoft® . 380 quase 244 quasi 83. 259.) 361 ramenc 37 (-incus) rancura 42 ranucula 42 rap(i)dus 239 rasl restitueram 285 restivus 39 resurge(n)s 311 retenere 31. 82. quando 14.23. 82 comodo 226 Vowel Length 165-77 Words from Other Lan. retundus 229 (6) reuuardent 344 139 reve(r)sus 291 reversus sumrz reverti 410 revolutio 37 rexi 297. 393 qui quia 82 qui ky 187. 71 = quod 282 quum r : > cum 226 repositorium 37 reprehensus 250 requeerere 25. 71. 71. 223 quia 82. 139 requEerit 139 rs see Liquids >• ss 291 requebit 225 res 10. 244 quat(t)or 226. 71 rabies 319 radius 272 rainante = reg. rectus 440 32.1 Index. no quooperta = co. 350 = -it 285 remasit 311 Remidium 272 remissa 37 (-ta) ren^gat 139 renum reg. 429 rhetor 335 rhetorissare 33 richesse 341 rictu quiaeti 209 quicumque 71 quid 350 quidem 11 recubitus yj (-ta) quiensces 311 quietus 225 quin II quinqua(gi)nta 142. 350.269 Vowels in Hiatus 167-9 quomodo 14. 139 retenet 139 retere questor 210 questus 210 quetus 225 qui 69. 219. 393 re(g)ina 259 regis -es 244 = quisque 71 quisquis 71 Unaccented Vowels 221 174. 168 429 = reddere 286 rasio = ratio 277 ratio 277 retina 17 retro 81 razzo 272 re. 245. 379 quattordecim 379 quat(t)ro 226. 221 Development of New Quantity 176-7 Disappearance of Old Quantity 173-5 Doubtful Quantity 166 Length before Consonants 170-2 Position 160-4 refusare 17 re(g)alis quiritare 229 quis 69.254 guages 1 74-5 > = quantu(m) 309 quantus 12. 71. 74 12. no. 25 recapitulare 25 retro.

) 355 (i) sine 201 sene -sa 37 (-ta) sabbatizare 19 scaplas 234 sablum 233 sacra 376 Sca(u)rus 211 scena 182 (i) = sacramentum 231 359 sacristano 359 sacrista -anis- schema 19 schernire 341 schiatta 343 schietto 343 senex 12 senper 306 semita 239 senta sentam 416 sententem 416 = Digitized by Microsoft® .230 scriba -anis 359 = rigueza 341 risi 429 risus 441 rius 241. (stlis) riges = re. 34r. 428 satis 74 sem 419 (i) Semele 359 semita 239 semo 419 (i) : see Sibilants final s in ist pers.) 368 419 (i) sel 160 selinum 150 sappia 272 sapui 426. 347 rogavo = -bo 318 ro(g)itus 259. 210 scalciare excalceare 230 scandalizare 19 445 initial s + cons. 429 440 scriptum 315 scri(p)tus 313. 435 salitus 436. 419 roubSn rs > 36.) 349 scripit 312 (i) scrips! 315. salivi 428 440 J^= sead sebe salma 268 salsi 428. sty. ssy.314 rivocaverit 229 (2) sagma 19. 367 SiEpia 182 saginae 42 = 284 Sagitta 37 (-ittus) ripidus 39 scloppus 284 scopulus 38 scorlare excor. 230 sy 275 scy. 428 = si 229 (4) = sit 419 (2) = sibi 201 ^ 419 (i) roborem 347 robur 9. rubare nibeus 319 sandal 330 sanguem 370 sanh 267 sapcha 272 sapere 402 sedui 428 sedutus 441 signavi 424 segnai = rugiada 356 nira35r ru(r)sum 291 russum 291 rutare 34 s (3) segolo 200 (3) sei sapiam 272 sapidus 39 sapienti (pi. sauma 26S scabia 355 (2) scsena 182. 14 sed-= se 229 (4) 429 rosum = ros 356 rosus 441 (3) sanctissimus 377 san(c)tus 172 (i). = sa = ipsa 392 semper semper 74 sempre 245 semul 201. (3) = 229 salbum3i7 salii scrivano 359 scultor 313 se 422. 441 saltern 11 salticulare 35 secatus 435.) 349 sffipes sepes saeps 209.) 372 salvage 229 (3) salvatico 229 (3) salvaticus 229 (3) secu(n)do 306 secuntur 254 sed II. x : salsus 440. xi Roman Empire p. : 429 Romance Territory p. 324 rivaticus rip. 267 sedano 335 sed(e)cim 239 sedere seditur 399 = esse 402. 341.Index. Saguntum 338 saine 42 saini 267 sltlbaiec (fern.igS 399 409 sacritus rigna 198 rikitia 341 Jiimini 86 SidxpiTos 272 sseculum (masc.268. 201 (2) senape 184 senatus (2d decl. pi. 440 secula 200 (3) Romanice 40 Romanu -pos 38 rosi (nom. 398 398 ss 291 36. ridSre rideri 213 schioppo 284 sclitib.

440 ss > 275 solingo 37 (-incus) solo (dat. sibl 201. 445 initial s 4.cons.419 (1) sinapis -e -i 38. 234 speca spica 200 (3) = speclarait spectante = -avit 424 = exp. 38. 221. 219. etc. septa (gi)nta 380 septe(m) 309 sidibus = se. sty. = secretins 256 347 sonatus 435 sons 419 (i) Sophia 146 -sor 37 sorcerus = sortiarius 39 s^bat 323 serbus 317 Serios Sergius 272 serore so. sibi 219. soluit sic nants 264 Sicilianus 39 solus 395 solutus 438 solvitus 438. soliculus 13. 184. 233 soef 2. 244. (2). scy. 83. 337 sinatus 228 (-arius) sordidius 377 sorex 42. 385 385 Sibilants 297-302.z\ sofferire sparsus 441 spasmus 144 spat (h) a 332 spat(u)la 12. 429 sentitus 436. ssy.) 395 solsi s 161 429 440 224 sepes 209 sepia 146. 18 sol(i)dus 237 230 separare seperare 231. 213 serra = sera 247 serutinus 16 servare 323 sine 95.^'j final s 298. 150. si sol 13 = sibi spehon 343 spelunca 329 siam 419 (2) siamus 419 (2) sibe 219.229 (7) serpentinus 37 = = 428 simus 220. solbit sentia 421 sentii 42S. 213 soricem 42. 387 sozer 154 servicium 276 323 servisium 277 servitium 276. 244 solacium 276 sola mente 41 solatium 276 solbere 317 spene^SS (2) speni from spes 355 (2) speramus = -avimus 424 sperantia 37 Digitized by Microsoft® .230 Spania 230 = Spanus 230 sparsi 429 J« 419 sest = est 419 (i) set = est 419 (i) set = sed 282 seta 209 setaceus 39 setis = estis 419 (i) 229 385 (4) settembres 313 seus suus 387 soaru 295 soave 224 sobreus 224 socera 37 soc(e)rum 232.230 = 406 si 14. 182 seppia 182 sepsies 277 z : see Greek Conso- soltus 438. 439. 277 servitude 37 ses servire = spacium 276 spallere 337 sive II = es 419 (i) (i) skena 341 skern6n 341 skiuhan 343 slahta 343 sleht 343 spandere exp. sy.ig8 439 siede 419 (1) soma 268 somas 419 (i) sona 2ona 338 septrum 260 septuazinta 339 septum 209 sepulchrum 251 sequere 406 sequire 406 serbare 323 siem 419 (2) siete 419 (i) siffatto 264 siffler 318 (2) sifilus 318 (2) = signum-us 172 sigricius silevit 422. 244. 201 sinexter 201 (3) -sic 37 sirena 356 (3) sis si vis 324 -sorium ^y -sorius 39 soro(r) 295 sous = suus 167. 233 sepelitus 436.214 senii 298 Index. 441 solia 323 224 sentor .

41 for Nouns 37. 387-8 submonsus 439.) 355 (i) splorator stnicere 417 215 sumus 220.26 subaudire 26 subcludere 26 stao 397 stare 397 stasio 277 static subcumbere 32 Subjunctive 117-g for Imper. spes 355 (2) spiritus (2d decl. 229. 430 steva 200 (3) stilla 419 (i) suus 60. 397. 430 sietti 426 stetul 426. 428.) 367 stlataris 284 stlis 284 stloppus 284 storax 187 stren(n)a 163 stren(n)uor 164 Stress : see Accent stirpis see Dentals ty 276-7 sud=sub3i5 sufferit 406 -ta37 tab(u)la 236 tactus 440 suffertus 435. 403. 405. 90. 96 super. 410 Plup. 415. 419 (2) sublimus 376 429 su(r)sum 291 surtus 440 sus = suus 226.26 suprafacere 26 supra 245 -sura 37 Surd Sonant: see Voicing = exp. 231-g Synonyms 12 Syntax 50-130 t : (nom. 116 for Indie. 14. 332 Syncope 219. 330 talis 71 strlban 341 for Adj.230 struxi 429 stupescere 35 > staacio 276 stablarius 231 stagnum (masc. 40. 388 -sus 37.) 367 sulphurem 347. 419 (i) suora 295 sues 138 super 80.) 367 Supine 103 sup(p)ra 164 sup(p)remis 164 supra.) 349 stahu 397 397 stait 397 stantia= inst. 84 440 440 strinxi 429 strofa 334 stropa 334 stroppus 186 strinctus strictus for Verbs 33-6 Greek Endings 36. = Iniperf. 38 suis (nom. 39 for Adv. 441 subornatris 255 subplantare 32 sy=ty277 sycotum 141 Syllabication 131-3 = Stella = 198 stingo 226 -stinxi 429 stipes stips 367 subsannare 26 Substitution of subterranus 42 subtus 81 suc(c)us 163 suceroni 362 Words 13 symphonia 146.Index. 38 tamen 11. 428. 369 sumpsi 29S sumptus 308 tan 306 tanctus 440 tanger(e) 242 tantu(m) 309 tantus 71 tanxl 429 tapinus 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . 118 Pres.26 superabundare 26 superfacere 26 superstitis (nom. 117 > 277 status 438 397 staunt 397 stegola zoo stel(l)a 163 siaii (3) Imperfect 118 Perfect 119.230 stais stup(p)a 163 suabitati 318 5uadel(l)a 42 suavis 224 Suavitta 37 (-ittus) sub.230 spoliatur = -or 244 structus 440 straere 417 strugere 417 spo(n)sus 171 spontaneus 39 squarciare 276 ss s 161 strumentum = inst. 441 sus(s)um 291 sutis sursi Stephanus 183 steti 426. 440 Suffixes 33-42 Cbange of Suffix 42 talentum 149.

) 346 timoratus 39 Tragani (2) = Traj. 439 tolsi 428. 325. 407 -tas 37 tasso 342. 343 tharrjan 342.26.204(2). 343 tata 16 .259 tragere 417 trahere 417 = tempaccio 39 tempesta 356 (3) templus 347 timpuri 369 tinctus 440 tinge 226 tinguere 226 tins -^^ census trans. 139 tibi 221. 424 tristus = tres 395 -trix 37 trobaire 37 (-tor) totum (adv. 331 timor (fern.163. 429 tolui 428 tomolus =: tumu. 318 taurellus 37 taxi 429 telebra ter. 399 trapalium 16 tres 379 tergum -us 347 termen 356 (3) terminaciones 2 76 terra (m) 309 tersi toreomatum 191 -torium 37 -tonus 39 torma = tu.208 tomus 186 torqu(e)o 226. 289 Tricassas 151 trienta 259 tri(g)inta 142. 385 traducir 299 traduire 299 Tatius 277 tatus 16 taula 236. 244.) 395 tot(t)uS 12. 198 376 triumphaut 241. 380 trinitas 429 tarsus 441 -Tt\% 38 testa 13 tetrus 376 428 tortus 440 tot 71 tot trinta tris 37 380 taxui 428 204 (2) texutus 440 thahso 342. 440 239 tollitus 435. 299 trabucare 26 tracere 417 tap(p)ete 162 tarde 40 tarir 342.) 367 traxi Tense 120-30 tensi 429 tensura 13 tensus 441 t^nueram 137 tenui 42S tenutus 438.2l6 tapis 182 tapit 182 Index. 259. 299 transannare 26 tra(ns)duco 299 tra(ns)jicio 299 260 tra(ns)luceo 299 tra(ns)mitto 299 tempo 298 tempus 13 tenit 244 tinxi 429 -tic n transplantare 26 tra(ns)pono 299 tra(ns)tulo 299 ten(n)uis 164 Titius 277 Tivoli 86 tra(ns)veho 299 traps 315 trasporre 299 travis (nom. 71. Theophilus 333 thesaurizare 19 thesaurus -um 189.292 -tim 40 timbre 187.) 74 tous thensaurus 311 — tuus 387 Trogar=-jae 259 Troja 170 Digitized by Microsoft® . 352 tribuna(l) 242.208 tonsus 441 toll(e)re 429 trebus 201 trei = tres 379 298 trei Teodor 332 -ter 40 tardus 276 Terentio = treis 177 tremulat 235 trepaliare 33 = -us 298 tergSre 399 -tor 37 torcere 399 torco 226.208 tonatus 435 tondere 399 tonica tu.26. -anis 359 = tibi 385 -tiacum 277 tibe 244 ti tractatus 9 tractus 440 tradedit 31. 399 torsi trescar 342 trib(u)la 235. 347 threscan 342 tra. 407 theios 333 toto (dat.

297. etc.395 unu(s) 29S unxi 429 U(5 >• o 225 uo unacc. 192. 223 : vernac(u)lus 234 vemum tempus 13 ve(r)sus 291 vertragus 19 Digitized by Microsoft® . 192. 187.Index. 228. 440 ver 13 usque hodie 47 ustium 202 Ut II. 393 undecim 166. 440. 440 unire 34 Tuscanus 39 iuito 204 (2) tuttus 204 (2) tuus 226. 14. 430 > > -urem 346 (3) veninum 42 venire 126 (5) venitus 436. 220 ui 216 unaccented 219. 73. 438. 208 u cons. 39 (5). 187. 222. 2c6 u 208 u ii o 165. 42 accented 206-8 u 206-7 ii>-u 165. 315. 349 * verecundia 231 verecunnus 281 Inflection: > > > utrum II.316 -tulus turn = tuum 226.) 244 178. 70. 285 Valinca 37 (-Incus) . 387-8 ty 276-7 ty ty > cy 277 > sy 277 uno (dat. 440 venui 428. 438.) 367 vendutus 438 vene bene 316 = urbs 12. u 226 uuadius 344 > -uus > -itus 42 -udo ii > -umen 42 uxo(r) 295 uxore (abl. 229 (5). 206. III -uta 37 (-ta) verbex = vervex 323 Verb Forms see Conjugation Use 72. 379 -undus 39 ungo 226 unguere 226 unicornis 44 unigenitus 44 vaqua = vacua 223 vaqui vacui 223 vastare 344 vanitare 34 = 187 tuos 138 -tura 37 turrensis 39 turri tumum vasus -um 347. 441 uu unacc. 244 in hiatus 222-6 uo >• o 226 uu u 226 o 225 u(5 uu u 226 Uranus 193 urbis (nom. 206-8. 71. -ura 37. 185 trutina 187 tu 60 -ula 37 (-ulus) Ulixes 187 ultra 166 -ulus 37. 220 -ugo 37 (-ago) ui 216 V see Labials vacuus 42 195 (6). 206. > -clus 234 388 Vowels unde 10.315 usare 34 Use Use Use of of Cases 85-100 of Inflections 85-130 Words 54-84 venuta 37 (-ta) venutus 436. 217 vadere 126 204 (2) -tudo 37 iuii 204 (2) tul£runt 450 tucti > -ellus 42 40 -um vallensis 39 : Unaccented Vowels see valneas = ba. 42. 82. 405 vadum 344 -us 347 valde 237 vaUa(t) 224. 84. 83 ubi 73 -uc(c)us 37 (-icca) -uculare 35 -uculus 42 -utus 39. 284 vedea 421 = ve^ere 283 vef 226 vegere = veh-4i7 uobit = obiit > ve(he)inens 250 vehere 417 vel II velle 126 (3). 403 vendita 37 (-ta) 177 u 165. 356 (3) vea via 201 = vecere = veh-4i7 -e 364 -tus 37 (-ta). 326 u 178. 367 veni 428.) 429 -unt -ent 449 unus 10. 14. 438. 101-30 Verbs : see Verb Forma verbus 347. 243. 430 urps 297. Troyes 151 tructa 38. o 226 vecinus 229 (4) vedus 234. 378. 57.298.

37 viror 37 virtus 10 vlscui visit Influence of Labials 217 Single Vowels 194208 before gn 172 (2) before j 170 before n fricative 171 before nk 172 (i) = = vixi 428.2l8 vervex 323 ves(s)ica 162 vestibat Index. 284 videderunt 426 video 272-3. 167-9 .285. 428 vixi 255.) 367 victualia 18. 19. 358' villabus 358 Vincentzus 277 426 vinctus 440 vincui 428 vincutus 440 vindemiator 224 vindico 239 vindimia 197 vindo = v6. by Microsoft® . 240-5 in hiatus 222-7 Init.) 367 warnjan 36.93 in hiatus 136-8. 13.197 -ea 224 vinia vinsi 428. 428 in words borrowed by other languages 1 74-5 Latin Vowels 178 Position 160-4 videre 72. 297. 195 vocitus Final Syl. 321 volatilia 37 volemus 403 (2) w (Ger. vivacius 377 vixcit = vixit 255 cf. 430 vido vidutus 438. cf. Vulgar Words 15. 4 Voicing 256-7. 255. 37 victurias 203 vic(u)lus'234. + vezem 445 vezzo 278 -vui 428 -vi via 167. 387 vovis vobis 318 cf . Accented 194-218 Digitized 344 344 werrarius 39 werrizare 33 wi^arlon 342 19. 285. 283. 438. 429 vixi(t) 285 . 221 Unaccented 219-45 (6) Vocabulary 6-49 vocatio videunt 416 vidi 428.) 344 volere velle 403 (2) w (Latin) 224 voles 403 (2) Waddo 344 volestis 403 (2) wadum 344 volimus 403 (2) wahta 343 volon 39 (-undus) walde 344 volsi 429 Wandali 344 voltus 438. 416. 286. 272-3. 428. 218 Diphthongs 209-16 420 vetatus 435 vet(e)ranus 219. 259. 19 vulnus (masc.195 (6) vocuus Quantity 221 Voice 1 12-4 Vulgar Latin 3.) 349 314. Syl. 440 warjan 344 voluntate (nom. 239 vibi = bibi 318 iiibit 316 vibit victore (nom. 439 Penult 232-9 vac. 12. 318 . 441 vixutus 440 vobis 385 cf. vinus 347 Clerical Pronun. 284 vetus 13 video 272-3 veyo virginem 233 vir(i)diaria 237 vir(i)dis 237 vir(i)dura 18. 428 . = vac. 429 vinti 380 vincisti Intert. 439. 441 viduus 226 vieni 177 vig(i)lat 430 Vocative 87 vocitus = vacuus 42. Syl. 234.201 viaticum 8. 380 vilescere villa 10.195 = video 416 vidui = vidi 428. 428. 228-30 259 34 vi(gi)nti 142. 407 volutus 438 wastare 344 = ^ = = volvitus 438. 231 vettovaglia 154 vetulus 12. 285. 439 voster 199 (i). 231 (6) vocatus 435. 430. 385 Vowels 136-8. Quantity 165-77. 416 vistus 441 visus 441 vitellus Breaking 177 = 37 vitium 278 vitricus 13 Vowels 179 Close and Open 165 Differentiation 165 Celtic = vit(u)lus 234 vivus 324 vius = German Vowels 179 Greek Vowels 180. 165-245 watan werra = . 429 = vixit 255 cf.

339 Zefurus 187 zelosus 339 2» 333 Zodorus = Theo. 266 y (Greek) 187 y (Latin) 224 zagante 229 (3) zampogna 332 zanuari = ja.339 = dies 272 = Jesu 272.339 = dia.272 ymnus 251 zerax = liierax 339 zosuin=deorsum 339 Zouleia= Julia 272. 255. 339 Digitized by Microsoft® .339 zebus = die. 339 = dia.277 Zogenes = Dio. 398 Word Order 50-3 wost.344 z 246 zabul(l)us zes 219 zacones zaconus ~ dia. Wintrio 344 wlsa 344 witan 36.272.Index. 339 zeta = diseta 339 zie = die 272 Zesu zins 260 ziziper 312 (i) X 246.

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