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H. S. HEATH & Digitized CO.. U.I)eatb'5 flDot>ern tHanduage Qctics AN INTRODUCTION VULGAR LATIN BY C. A. GRANDGENT Fbofbssor of Romance Languagss in Harvahd University BOSTON. C. PUBLISHERS 1907 by Microsoft® . D.

C.V^-^5 3J( Copyright. Heath & Co. Digitized by Microsoft® . 1907. By D.

that the is Syntax — perhaps unavoidably parts. "^^HILE this book is intended primarily for students of it will. H. I hope. however. I Philology. Grandgent. who wish to look further into special My principal authorities are listed in the Bibliotext. graphy. others are cited in the appropriate places in the C.— . but with even fulness I fear. abreast of current scholarship. have tried. it be of some interest to has been long in the Classical scholars as well. somewhat scanty as compared with the other It will be seen that I have continually furnished abundant references for the guidance of those topics. to treat all portions of the subject. furthermore. have endeavored to keep I at every stage. not exhaustively. Romance making. Although it. Digitized byiUicrosoft® . PREFACE.

..TABLE OF CONTENTS. Pages MAPS The Roman Empire The Neo-Latin Territory in Europe BIBLIOGRAPHY. xi x xi xiii-xvi . 6-29 6-12 6 7-8 7 . 7-8 Words used in Classic but not in Vulgar Latin .. 8-9 Synonyms Substitutes. AND Their Meanings. . ^ . . 9 9-10 10 10-12 Ii>-i2 Particles Words used in Vulgar but not in Classic Latin Native Words Foreign Words I2 Uerivation Post-Verbal Prefixes 13-29 Nauru . and Pronouns Prefixes used with Verbs Suffixes Suflixes for Suffixes for Verbs Nouns Adverbs iv Digitized 18-23 Suffixes for Adjectives Suffixes for 23-25 25-26 27-28 Change of Suffix by Microsoft® . . Words used alike in Classic and in Vulgar Latin Words used differently in Classic and in Vulgar Latin .. Sense Restricted Sense Extended .. ^ .... Adjectives. xvii INTRODUCTION i-S VOCABULARY WoBDS.. ....... with Abbreviations PHONETIC ALPHABET and Other Symbols X.. . 13 13-16 13-14 14-16 16-28 16-17 Prefixes used with Nouns..

Table of Contents. Future Active Participle Digitized 49 49 49 by Microsoft® . Compounds v Pages 28-29 28 28 28 28 Nouns . Gerund Gerundive . . . 30-59 30-32 32-41 32-34 33 33-34 34-38 Pronouns 34 35-36 36-37 37-38 38 ^^38-39 Verbs Adverbs Prepositions 39-41 ^ Conjunctions 41 Use of Inflections Cases 42-59 42-48 42-43 43 43-44 Locative Vocative Genitive Dative Ablative 44-4S 45-47 48^ Accusative Fall of Declension Verb-Forms Impersonal Parts Supine 48 48 48-51 48—49 '. Adjectives Pronouns- Verbs Adverbs Fiepositions 28-29 29 20 Conjunctions SYNTAX Order of Words Use of Words Nou»s and Adjectives Comparison Numerals Pronouns Personal and Possessive Pronouns Demonstratives Interrogatives and Relatives Indefinite .

vi Table of Contents. Illic Ficatum Numerals Greek Words Greek Oxytones . Greek Paroxytones Greek Proparoxytones Other Foreign Words Secondary Stress Unstressed Words 64 64-65 65-66 66 66-67 67-68 68-77 68-70 71-77 Quantity Position Vowel Quantity Vowels in Hiatus Lengthening before Consonants Disappearance of the Old Quantity Development of a New Quantity 72-73 73-75 75-76 76-77 77-104 78-82 82-gi Vowels Greek Vowels Accented Vowels Single Vowels 82-87 82-83 Digitized o by Microsoft® . Pages Present Participle Perfect Participle Infinitive 5° 50 5°~5I 51-52 Voice Mood Imperative Subjunctive 52-54 52 5^-54 54-59 54-5^ Tense The Perfect Tenses Future and Conditional 5^59 60-143 60-61 61-68 61-66 61-62 62-63 63 63 64 64-66 PHONOLOGY Syllabication Accent Primary Stress Vowels in Hiatus Compound Verbs Iliac.

Q. 104-143 106-137 106-107 107-114 109-112 112 C and G Q. e vii Pages 83-84 84 . before Front Vowels and G before Back Vowels and G Final and before Consonants ....Table of Contents. 11 2-1 14 Palatals Dentals Liquids 114-118 118-121 121-124 121-123 123-124 L R Sibilants 124-126 127-132 132-137 Nasals Labials P Digitized 132-133 by Microsoft® ... . ^ »" I o 84 84-85 85-86 H u 86 86-87 87 a Diphthongs te 88-90 88-89 89-90 au eu ce ui Influence of Labials Clerical Latin 90 90 90 91 91 Unaccented Vowels 91-104 in Unaccented Vowels Initial Syllable Hiatus 93-96 96-98 98-99 99-102 102-104 Intertonic Syllable Penult Final Syllable Consonants Latin Consonants Aspirate Gutturals .

T e. 133-13S 13s i3S-'37 137 137—141 u Greek Consonants B. *. n. Pages B F V .viii Table of Contents. A 138 138 138-139 140 140-141 K. Adjectives Personal Pronouns Possessives Demonstratives Interrogative Indefinite 162-163 163-164 165 165 and Relative Pronouns Pronouns and Adjectives Verbs The Four Conjugations First Conjugation 166-187 166-170 166-167 167 Second Conjugation Third Conjugation Fourth Conjugation Fundamental Changes in 167-170 170 Inflection 170-173 Digitized by Microsoft® . Nasals. X Liquids. r. and Sibilants Z Germanic Consonants 141-143 144-187 144-161 144-147 144 145-146 146-147 MORPHOLOGY NotJNS AND Adjectives Gender Masculine and Feminine Masculine and Neuter Feminine and Neuter Declension of Nouns First Declension 147—156 149-151 Second Declension Third Declension Loss of Declension Declension of Adjectives 151-152 152—156 156 157-158 158-159 159-161 161-165 161-162 Comparison Numerals Pronouns and Pronominai.

Strong Perfects Pluperfect and Future Perfect Perfect Participle 177-180 180-182 183 Personal Mndings 183-185 186-187 189-219 INDEX Digitized by Microsoft® .Table of Contents. Inchoative Venbs ix Pages Present Stems Imperfect Perfect 173-174 174-176 176-177 177-182 » Weak Perfects .

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1905. App. Digitized b)microsoft® . Cf. (Vol. mlrovingienne. Le latin d'Espagne d'aprh les inscriptions. Corssen. Ueber Aussprache. <J la chronologic du latin vulgaire. 2^ ed. S. Heraeus. : Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Claussen. Dottin: G. Le latin de Grigoire de Tours. ed. La dlclinaison en Gaule d. : correct- Die Appendix Probi.Cooper. 1901. BIBLIOGRAPHY WITH ABBREVIATIONS. Wiener Studien XIV. Bonnet. D'Arbois: H. AudoUent. Densusianu. Per. 1891. : 1902-03. Bausteine: Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie. : Part — — . 1902. Mohl. Bayard. d'Arbois de Jubainville. 1902. 1872. Manuel pour servir h Vltude de I'antiquiti celtique. possibly as early as the third century. New ed. Vocalismus und Betonung der rischen Franzosisch nach ihren Spuren lateinischen Sprache.. Bon. Archiv : Archiv filr lateinische Lexicographie und Crammatik mit Einschluss des dlteren Mittellateins. 145 ff. A. G. Cohn : G. Bechtel. A volume of mis- Bayard : L. 774. Vol. Corssen : W. Cohn. C. Chronologie : F.. Bechtel: E. I. 1899. Quarterly. Mllanges Boissier 5-9. Romanische Forschungen VII. I. 1868-70. Audollent: A. Carnoy. Dottin. Introduction 1899. Die griechischen Wbrter im Franzosischen. -Carnoy: A. Cf. in Romor nische Forschungen XV. 1906.Pipoque Densusianu: O. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. 1895. Le latin de saint Cyprien. Silviae Peregrinatio. Pr. L. A Latin list of and incorrect spellings. Die Suffixwandlungen im Vulgdrlatein und im vorlittera- im NeufranzSsischen. 278 ft. W.T. Leipzig. I. 1890. Defixionum Tabellae. Histoire de la langue roumaine. Cooper: F. 1863 1893 Claussen T. M. Mussafia. cellaneous studies issued in honor of A. Melanges Renier 301-309. Word Formation in the Roman Sermo Plebeius.. i). 1904.

: : P. 1896 — Futurum G. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. a: Zur Geschichte des franzosischen 3.: 1900. Die Orthographie lateinischer Worter ingriechischen : : Inschriften. jd or ninth century. Keil. — 1888- M. Facere G. Cf. of Vol. probably 521 ff. Die lateinisch-romanischen Elemente im Althochdeutschen. -Grundriss : G. Beiheft Gram. 1904 Haag : O. £E. Die locale Verbreitungfriihester romanischer Lautwandlungen im. 2d ed. Franz : 1883. : : Hammer in Grundriss I^. Reviewed by G. 1902. 1890vols. ed. W. Historische Syntax der lateinischen Sprache. Grbber. Hoppe. : W.. Entstehung und Entwickelung des Kirchenlateins. Franz. alten Italien. Foerster and E. Lateinisch-romanisches Wdrterbuch. : century. 48. Syntax und Siil des Tertullian. Grammaire des langues romanes. 2 1902. Kbrting. Keil: H. I. La latiniti d'Ennodius.. W. 1894. 157. Gl. 1892.. 1903. Made. Grundriss der romanischen Philologie. Koschwitz. Dubois. 2d ed. . XXII. 569. Cassel : II. 1898. Franz. Dubois A. 3 vols. 1857-1880. Draeger. Made in France in the eighth Reich. £criture laire. et prononciation du latin savant et du latin popu- 1882. £don. Koschwitz. Koff mane. 1902. Kluge F. Eckinger T. 1879Digitized by Microsoft® . Foerster and E. Die Latinitdt Fredegars.. Goelzer. H. in Archiv saint Jlrome.. 1901. 1884. Gl. G. XIV BlBIJOGRAPHY.. 1903. Draeger: A. Kluge. 1893. Rydberg. Rydberg. in France. P.. Die Reichenauer Glossen in Zs.. XXVI. KofEmane : G. in the eighth Cf. EinfUhrung in das Studium der romanischen les Sprachwissenschaft. ed. 2d ed. Hetzer. 2d 1878. W. Zs. Reichenauer Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. 641 7. Romanen und Germanen in ihren Wechselbeziehungen. Meyer-Liibke. K. 1901. W. Eckinger. Korting: G. Einf . Etude lexicograpkique grammaticale de Kasseler Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. 498. Edon: G. : Meyer-Liibk'e. Hoppe: H. Le developpement de facere dans langues romanes. Hammer. Grammatici Latini. . Habere mit dem et Infinitiv und die Entstehung des la latiniti de romanischen Futurums. Thielmann. Paris in Rom. Haag.

Studies in the tions. 1901. De latinitate libelli qui inscriptus est Peregrinatio loca sancta. 1903.Bibliography. Die lateinische Sfrache in den romanischen : Landern. Regnier. : P. Btudes sur le lexique du latin vulgaire. Oliver: A^Oliver. Pers. ad loca sancta. 1901. Substantives Word Formation of the Latin Inscrip- and Adjectives. in P. Ferotin. T. La premiire personne du pluriel en gallo-roman. 1869.S. : 1 901. ad 367 ff. auf Aussprache und Recht- schreibung beziiglichen Eigenthiimlickkeiten in den Inschriften aus Gallia Narbonensis. P. Lexique F. Loth J. in Grundriss V. Meyer-Lubke. Thielmann. 1899. Les mots latins dans les langues brittoniques. Olcott. 'P. ed. Lindsay. 372. A. G. Silvia AquitancE Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. 259. Loth. Fortsetzung. 1898. Ronsch.XXX).. Pogatscher A. : F. Pr. The Latin Language. Hilarii Tractatus de Mysteriis et Hymni et S. Lindsay: W. : LiteraturblattfUrgermanischeundromanischePhilologie. t^ Verzeichniss der ed. perhaps from Spain. : La langue des inscriptions de la Gaule. 1897. Mohl. Observations on the Use of Certain Prepositions in to the Petronius with special reference Part. Ang^ade. 451. Perf Per. xv W. du frangais prilittiraire. : Leipzig. lateinischen und romanischen Lehnworte im Altenglischen : II. 1888. Olcott : G. Geyer. Neue: Formenlehre der lateinischen Sprache. Habere mit dem Part. Perf. 1900. J. 1892-1902. Itala und Vulgata. N. Teil. Pirson: J. M. Neumann Franz Neumann. Cf. M. 1892. Digitized by Microsoft® . Cf. 1894. 1886. Vokalismus der Tonsilben. 509: Peregrinatio iiii-viii. in Itinera hierosolymitana saculi Written probably in the latter part of the fourth century by an ignorant nun. Monthly. 1888. sit Quillacq : : J. 1898. Quomodo lingua latina usus S.. . Le viritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. Wolfflin in Archiv IV. lat. : : Ltblt. R. and S. Lebreton J. Etudes sur la langue et la grammaire de Ciciron. Marchot. with special reference to the Latin Sermo Vulgaris. De la latinitl des Sermons de saint Augustin. Pass.'i>(eue. Hilarius. G. I goo. Quillacq. 1887. See Bechtel. Lebreton. Petite phonltique Phon. Regnier: A. Gamurrini. Pirson. Spr. Archiv II. S. : Roman Sermo Plebeius. Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. Zur Lautlehre der griechischen. . Silvice Aquitanm 1898. E. J. PI. H. 1905. Mohl. Pogatscher.

H. 1&&2. Die Ausprache des Latein nach physiologisch-historischen Grundsdtzen. in Grundriss P.: E. V. 138. Grammatik der lateinischen Sprache. numbers a year. 117. Paris. Bibliography. 264. 1890. Tiktin. Urbat R. Tours. E. Windisch: E. Lateinische und romanische Comparaiion. 3 vols. 1 856-68. VI. Urbat. Notices et Extraits de divers manuscrits latins pour servir A fhistoire des doctrines grammaticales au moyen dge. Romania. in Grundriss P. Die rumdnische Sprache. Cena Trimalchionis. : S. 125. VII.xvi Richter Elise Richter. Four to sLx 1879. fr. Substrate : G. II. 1903. Vulgdrlateinische Substrate romanischer Worter. Seelmann. Schuchardt. ^KvA. to Works the text. Suchier: H. Romanische Sprachwissenschaft. 171. 371. Petronius. 422. Die lokalen Verschiedenkeiten der lateinischen SpracAe. Quarterly. Windisch. 424. Waters: W. 377. I. und Thurot : Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits de la Biblioth^que nationale et : attires bibliothiques Vol. Chemnitz and Leipzig. III. Quarter- ly. 116. Le alterazioni fonetiche e morfologiche nel latino di Magno e del suo tempo. Suchier. Zs. Tiktin : : H. IV. 25. Stolz: F. Charles Thurot. Zs. 1868. Die keltische Sprache. 1885. Die franzosische und provenzalische Sprache ihre Mundarten. Archiv I. 564. Beitrdge zu einer Darstellung der romanischen Elemente im Latein der Historia Francorum des Gregor v.nn&r. Der Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. in Studi Medievali I. 507. Vol. 1902. 276. : Zeitschrift Jur romanische Philologie. 453. 1900. : Zur Entstehung der romanischen Wortstellung aus der lateinischen. Grober. Historische 1894. Sepulcri. Stolz. Wblfflin. 539. : Wolfflin : E. in 204. 234. which only occasional reference is made are cited in full in Digitized by Microsoft® . in Grundriss P. Som. Halle. 100. Sepnlcri : Gregorio A. XQ. Zauner: A. Sittl: K. Spr. Paris. 371. Vok.. : Zeitschrift fiir franzosische Sprache und Litteratur. Waters. XII.

PHONETIC ALPHABET AND OTHER SYMBOLS. not >• indicates derivation. whichever way it be turned. the sound of Spanish v and i/i *. vowel letter shows that the vowel is open. S =z > the sound of in English i/iis. = the sound of e in French me. SMALL CAPITALS mean that the forms so printed occur in inscriptions (but this indication is used only when for some special reason it seems desirable). the source standing at the open end of the figure. . (a semicircle) under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is not syllabic. =r bilabial /S v. . := rounded i. under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is close. = the sound of ng in English long. q e. o = rounded the sound of German = the sound of th in English thin. The other marks and abbreviations employed are so generally accepted as to need no explanation. .c = the sound of ch in German ach. is conjectural. J) ii o. the sound of German «. * (an asterisk) before a word shows that the form attested. (an acute accent) after a consonant letter shows that the consonant is (a dot) • C '^ / (a hook)' under a palatal. Digitized by Micrqsoft® xvii .

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LATIN. northern Cim- Gaul Dacia was colonized in 107 A. and. X. Lat. 451-455. Sfr. The extent of the Roman Empire on p. all Italy was subdued south of the Macra and the Rubicon. pp. Celts. I Digitized by Microsoft® . representing different races. civilizations. tribes. and Africa. originally the speech of shown by the map was Latium. Sicily became a province in 241. The and Teutones were destroyed was a province. also Meyer-Lubke. Venetia cast her lot with Rome in 215. in adopted by Etruscans and by various n orthern Italy by Ligurians. political changes drove it in the rest of the from Great Britain. IHy- _rians ._Semites. the Orient. Sardinia and Corsica in 238. 'See Mohl. j. Throughout this territory the official language Latin. forsaken in the third century.talyjt_was Italic tribes. Illyrians in^sou^hea^emjmd southwestern Italy respectively by and Greeks. The Latinization of these peoples was the work of several centuries^: by 272 b.. Celts. Latin language never gained a foothold in Greece. and quite cut off from the rest of the Latin-speaking world in the sixth. Chronologie . Spain was made a province in 197. in 50. Illyria was absorbed after 167.. Raetia in 15._ Germanic and others still. tEe bri fall "oO^thage in 146. Aquitanians. Africa after Iberians. beyond the peninsula it spread among Ligurians. for the most part.n central j. the in 102-1. and linguistic habits. D. a little district on the is The Latin tongue was thus extended to many peoples. c. southern Gaul in 120. Tiber. Empire it has remained.AN INTRODUCTION TO VULGAR I.

piimex. Africa. Digitized may be Oscan. and their In Italy the language §peech_reflected_their varied origin. had a levelling and speech in Italy ^ See Chronologie 133 and I16-120. until the 90-89 B. [§ 2 until the present day. and to some degree in the peninsula. but there doubtless were still noticeable differences in pronunciation and even in vocabulary. Latm. became more uniform. Italian nn : for nd. there were at all times. moreover. Chronologie 98-99. Spr. of Latium was adopted by tribes using. like every living language. The Social War. The Latin tongue. has always been in an unstable condition. Latin was simply substituted for foreign tongues. the resulting geographical dis- crepancies are manifest in early monuments. and has been carried thence to Amerand Asia. in the main.'' In the outlying provinces. alL southern Italy was under Oscan influence. Europe where Latin in its modern forms is now spoken.^ When Latin conquered. The before the Social War.2 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Kff. that the language carried effect. xi marks the parts of ica. considerable local dive^ences. conflict of or less with the native idioms . elex for The Italian word zavorra by Microsoft® . etc. and Oscan was used in inscriptions until the first century of our era. it blended more languages. and there must have been a variety of accent. The map on p. 464. and there was little or no mixture. The evidence of inscriptions and of grammarians indicates that from the beginning to the end of Roman history speech was constantly changing. jfor : e. Pomex. 2.g2eaking peoples_ were not_ homogeneous. however. Oscan forms are ligud for and k for lege^ pru for pro^ ni for 'The is S. kindred At first there was sturdy resistance. nevertheless a few native words were kept. ilex are perhaps Umbrian possibly Etruscan Lat. but especially p^eriods. 445. It should be remembered. c. the alteration being most rapid in the earliest and the latest Furthermore.

as It is grew out of early Classic Latin. though affected by all of these. %J3] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.^ Vulgar Latin naturally developed differently in ^ * Cf Lai. XV-XXX. What wecalTVuIit gar Latin is the speech of the middle classes. was completelyTaFinized by the fourth "^ "" of With the beginnings culture and literature there came inevitably a divergence between the language of . ugper and that of the lower and^coiintry speech. 1 .the classes. Roman territory. not an independent offshoot of Old Latin: system. under the Empire the variations probably came to be no greater than those /the^kter colonies a now to be found in the English of the British Empire. Republican and early Imperial times educated speech became highly^ artificial. We may say in general that the East. the earlier acquisitions received a more popular. . and is also between city Injatfi. Cf Cooper . provinces was not identicial: it represented different chronological stages and different local dialects of jI^aUc^Latin .t&L. _excegting ^reece andthe £entiiry after Christ. vowel is it Neither the dialect of the slums or of the us of not a few urban and rustic grammarians distinct tell vulgarisms that are not perpetuated in the It is Romance tongues. more offtcial speech. from the brogue of the country. Spr. 3 i\2_ik^_J£X?.. 3. and from the slang of the lowest quarters of the city.^ fields: it continues the Classic. Literary influence conservative and refining. . throughout the Republic and the Empire.from the everyday language on the other hand. not the primitive. the common idiom. 463-464. Digitized by Microsoft® . from the consciously polite utterance of cultivated society.. while popular usage tends to quick change. Administration and ImiHtary service tended to obliterate distinctions. drawing away . was constantly developing away from the archaic standard of elegant parlance.

period lasts._jjid an abundant use of prefixes and. for African Latin. Althou.^ Ctassic and VulgarXatin. suftseSWe 4. progressed. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. until the dialects of distant localities became mutu^ ally unintelligible. and the diphthong at is reduced to e). some of which can be ascribed to an inclination to discard those parts of words that are not necessary for their identification (as vetulus when viridis. see Lat. then. If we compare that the latter find also a gre at sim plification of inflections. as far as the levelling inEuence of schot^l and army permitted. Pirson and Carnoy also. some to a tendency to assimi^tejmlike adjacent sounds (so ipse is spoken isse. . become virdis.JLQmance languages _begin. Kiibler Archiv VIII. i6i. 492-497. we shall see was always tending to become more flexible and more explicit. due partly to phonetic but mainly to syntactic causes. some to a desire for differentiation (which lowers i to e to make it more remote from i ). ai almost in iCf.enormous development of modifying and determining words.A-P.4 . some to unknown reasons! WEy~" for instance.ALjUus--poin-t we ~may_ say that Vulgar XiSi^ stops and the . . in the last few centuries of this epoch. We rfote an. roughly The speaking. Digitized by Microsoft® .seventh century of our era. * For a history of the Latin language. tqa^bout -6oo . Furthermore.^ The differentiatign. YjJgar Lsatijl. B. we observe certain changes in pronunciation. being accelerated and the military organization was is most sharply differentiated from Classic Latin when schools decayed „ .^ any definite date must be arbitrary. Sittl and Hammer. the universal inclination of language to diverge was reinforced by the original habits of the diverse speakers and by such peculiarities of native accent as hacl survived. ^l^ various localities. we may put it. c. such as articles and prepositions. inj^e^ixth Jix . Spr. from about 200 b. vedus).

Geyer. S.Mili/BaoilSisches Uebungsbuch. some . 455-461. For a brief account of the Latin grammarians. . Of ^speciaTvalue are the Peregrinatiqjidjqtasancta. Archiv XIV. the A^endix Probi^ z. a considerable iragment of a description of travel in the East. . 278. "See P. Beiheft 7. in inscriptions and early manu- ^scripts'. E. Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. 1899.— An become^ o. 5 universally be came is e. possib^'as early as the third century'. Wolfflin. and the establishment of unattested Vulgar Latin words. The Text and a Study of the Latinity.' spells by A. of the^TConraHcel languages. Schuchardt. the occasional lapses in cultivated authors. 301 G. Lommatzsch. 1902 . * Used by H. made in France There is an interesting collection of Defixionum Tabellce. S. 1902. Gioixr.Jists„jof JacQlxacJtjOTmjs. andrmosTim- ^portant o f_all.ijecurring. Ueber die Latinitat der Peregrinatio ad loca sancta in Archiv IV. the subsequent developments. Cf. and VII.. 1885. 5* Our sou rces of information' concerning the„ current spoken La tin are^ the statements of grammarians^.* All of these are to be used with caution. Meyer-Liibke. the nonClassic forms. E. Aussprache des Latein. 'See W. Foerster and KDfSiiitbdnll>fr. Melanges Boissier 5 W. 204 if. early and late. 641 K. XXX). Paris in Melanges Renier 301. "See 119. 401. 1904. while au did not in Latin generally. . Silvia Peregrinatio. Zur Sprache der Mulomedicina Chironis in . . Die Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. ^Cf. Audollent. Zur Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. G. W. Heraeus. E. the distinction of learned and popular words. fourth century^. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII.. . Sprachgziellen und Wortquellen des lateiniscken Worierbuchs in Archiv I.glossaries aDi. list of spellings. see Stolz. Itinera hierosolymitana sceculi mi-viii. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bechtel. A. 55-67. Hetzer in Zs. a few texts w ritten by persons of scanty education. Seelmann. 551. P. a problem as yet unsolved. Zur Mulomedicina Chironis in Archiv XII. Lot. ^ Utilized by E. Fcerster in Wiener Studien XIV. Spr.iSgS. the so-called Glossary of Reichenau. in the eighth century. 35. F6rotin. Herseus. 25 ff. Le veritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. 4 For the chronology of developments. in Archiv I. Die Appendix Probi. by an uneducated woman (probably a Spanish nun) of the latter good and bad pajt of the. 1866-68. and W. see G. 367. 259 M. Grober. 6t.

V. ff. pants.) Worter ff. . Herasus. Die romische Soldatensprache in Arckiv XH. ~ technical words not found in literature. in. II. On the other hand. si. ff. 422 {pbedire — putidus)-. 2'/$^. see G. vacca . the vulgar idiom has homely metaphors of its own and numerous specific. [abbreviare buttis). ^See Densusianu. forming. It is natural that the The the senses of words. 264ff. vendere. 138 {hmdus — iticem). reconstructed out of Romance words. suus)'. audire. dicere. VulgSrlateinische Substrate romanischer . (sabanum — lare)^ 234 VI. has many poetic figures and many abstract terms unknown to the crowd. {tabanus — ziruiare). 1. VOCABULARY.I. A. to speak. 233 ff. (eber III. (Jlagrare —gTttta). Lateinish-romanisches Worterbuch. WORDS AND THEIR MEANINGS. {Hie — lamna)^ So?^' {lacusta — mille)\ IV. bene. 453ff. Grober. WORDS USED ALIKE IN CLASSIC AND VULGAR LATIN. ff. so cams. Die Sprache der romiscken Kinderstube in Archiv XIII. filius. 255. viridis. W. pater. 149. polite language. 6. mater. quando. longus.iooff. — icaccubus — curbus). This class includes a great mass of words. 1901. iiyS. {damnum — dui)^ in Arckiv: I. 125 {quadraginta — rascu' {reburrus — runcare). For a thorough discussion of reconstructed forms. Korting. Examples are : 7. male. bonus. amare. ii6fif. see G. speech of the literary and fashionable classes should differ from that of the common people so Literature inclines to extend it is in all civilized communities. ff. popular use tends to restrict them. altus. puteus. Digitized b^Wlicrosoft® . ff. yj^ (supplement. too. 185-203. the nucleus of the language. For an approximately complete vocabulary. {minacicE — nutrire). 539 —Jiiicum)^ 424£f.

§ 10] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Quillacq 54-79. lectio =^ 'dxoifin' machinari='g[mA. ingenium := 'trick'. non capit prophetam perire. part'. : senses.'k'. 286. nite This happens frequently. perhaps Cf.' to^x^a . 243./22J£Sfe 46. necare = Bon.. non capit utique videri Deus. Regnier 24. and also 'continue'. Bon. SENSE EXTENDED. Per. ro6ur= 'o^. of the examples can ». orbus—'hXmd'. not 'sophism' nor 'deceit'. Capit a ssumed the meaning of fieri potes t: R. new meaning in addition ambulare= 'march'. Many words kept their literal but lost their metaphorical sense: captio ='a. words. focus=^iix&\ paganus= 'pagan'.11. nor 'best b. 8. a word assuming a more or concrete signification {^se : icognatus\=z ' brother-in-law coUocare^ 'put to bed' dominicus =: divinus . Digitized by Microsoft® . i ^ns— 'chM'. etc. defi' 9.^ The general use of a word in an extended sense is not common. tractatus= 'treatise'. 272. viaticum = ']ox\xntY'. be classified under the heads of restriction or extension of meaning. Bayard 105. hcec eestimare non capit. G. G. Archiv XII. Bayard 63-202.'» Many Pirson 260-262. 'authority'. SENSE RESTRICTED. Pirson 257-258 . Bon. 1 a.'. but there are some examples /(7r^j = 'strong' in all 10. collocare= 'go to bed'. not 'strength'. = 'rebJiKe§. WORDS USED DIFFERENTLY AND IN VULGAR LATIN. Very many Classic words are used in Vulgar Latin with a different sense: comparare =^h\xy'. 286). 283. Dubois 220.. Dubois 185-225.. however. 235-328. 269-270. etc. se piicare=' go'. 'text'. 351—352.. etc. yUloi:^. Bon.ct of taking'. assume to the old one: Bechtel 137. IN CLASSIC 7 a. mulier='-vi\ie'. . Hoppe Most 48.

del>ere 'mdica. wW«/« = 'miracles' (in imitation of the Greek). quod. vel. Pirson 255 ^^l^lj^j^^ ^^^^ habuit serpentes). etc. ergo. Bayard 94. 422 (in area Noe . autem. replicare= 'reply'. quomodo) assumed new functions. 418. proles. etc. = 'pass Regnier 27 {quadraglnta dies fecit). WORDS USED Numerous all in m CLASSIC BUT NOT IN VULGAR LATIN. cum. Bon. Dubois 301-308). Bon. to be sure. enim. . 66. monuments of the Romance languages: so funus. [§ n 'go'. quippe. When lost terms were needed for literary or other purposes. G. 38. de. hamo has the sense of French on. tamen must have been sed. /V/-. 258 fif. postquam. fascia means a measure of land. Bayard 83. ita. : . 37. diu.. and quasi. Classic ployed at the vulgar speech or went out of use before the earliest Jubere. terms and some abstract nouns were not needed: frondifer.tes moral obligation. 3. res is used of persons. Bechtel 144. hand. they were either borDigitized by Microsoft® . Waters Ch.. igitur. . So various prepositions and conjunctions (as ad. Regnier 29 {in came paucas habet virgines sanctimoniales). 58 {bella res). Waters Ch. is very rich in abstract nouns (G.loco forsitan quattuor milia. Per. Bechtel 144. fletus. quoad. ut. an. horrescere. 391-397. Unde came to mean 'and so'. but most of them are new formations. ^2S= 't^he' and 'he'. Dubois 218.13. satis = 'much'.". apud. quoque.per. etc. populus «/««^«j= 'common people'.25. 44. the French ilj> a. Poetic aurora. Very many adverbs and conjunctions dis-"~\ I appeared saltern. Bechtel 127 {habebat de eo. etc. Latin words either were not em- II. facere (time)'. quia. donee. although it is common in the Peregrinatio.). Per. quidem. 204.8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. utrum. at. etiam.. G. . Dubois. quin. Regnier 20.. 328. nam. unus = 'a'. Ecclesiastical Latin. sive. ^: moribund.

313. clerical 9 rowed from Classic or Latin (as nobilis) or replaced by new constructions (as *carrica for onus). R. equus to caballus. G. R. humerus by spatula. vitrUus hypatraster. diminutive of avis). Sometimes the survivor was far from a synonym in Classic Latin: discere was displaced hy apprendere. Dubois 212. 272. French. Bechtel i^o^gena to gabata. 336. Provenjal. cur to quare. casa occurs only in Italian inscriptions. senex to vetulus. one often crowded out the other: atrium gave way to cars.. Digitized ^^^ by Microsoft® .Va&T* capum) is preserved by Rumanian. R. Some words were replaced by diminutives. Italian. Among the Romance languages.. to genitores. Provengal. *filiaster. crus gave to gamba. noverca by *matraster. 324. sol According to Olcott XVIII. Sometimes a term was replaced by a word not found in Classic Latin at all: anser-wAs driven out by *auca (<. testa by Cf. French and Provencal mansio and hospitale. Raetian. When Latin had two words nearly synonymous.. ignis hy focus. . nunc by hora. For mansio. i'^o^^ tot hy quanti. cf. caput to testa''. R. ^ Zauner 41-4. Italian.2. .. urbs by civitas. 472. Portuguese. R. b. 'dwelling') only in . . R. 12. Portuguese prefer casa. ^-j 2 parentes . omnes by toii.§ 13] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. SYWOHYMS. mansio. avus by *aviolus. Occasionally the substitute aliquis yielded in part to res -vi&y was apparently a slang word: nata. Indus to jocus. Cf Zauner 41-42. edere in the main to manducare. . Italian.\ Dubois 209. domus by casa. privignus by 13. Spanish. Olcott XXV. Rumanian. some nouns by derivative adjectives: avis ^ by aucellus. SUBSTITUTES. Dubois 220. mansio ( Roman. os to bucca. ^ * Caput (or rs. tanti. emere by comparare. Rjetian.338. ^capitia (<^caput) by Spanish and . 337. R. a.*avica. 345. French. hospitale^. and by villa. R. 472 ferre to portare. magnus to grandis.

Fro. which replaced /^r and pro in Spain and to a considerable extent in northern Gaul. Gl. schedula. vetus for [§ 15 by *soUculus. the by quando and other conjunctions. quando. by subsitution. by other words. d'lJ way pro and per. Some of these were probably old Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. Dubois 147 {novellus'). yielded to apud. PARTICLES. paucum tempus for haud diu). dies largely . tamen. Bon. ne. The place of cum was taken various substitutes. R. WORDS USED IN VULGAR BUT NOT IN CLASSIC LATIN. in Gaul. etc. and other phrases. infemus. c. etiam. erga. 403. 100-107 {arida. Olcott 250-263 {gemelli. R. ut were ousted by functions of an.x\naucella. ^w^ by diurnus. G. Densusianu. 201. etc. conjunctions. Adjectives used as nouns were etc. infemus. sed. 108-121 {brevis. to propter were displaced southern Gaul.). and Dacia preferred /^r. frequent also: R. ergo. Autem. pra. and adverbs were lost 14. became *por. 395-396. quod. neptilla. credens. quoniam were often replaced by quomodo. 184-185. Ab was made unnecessary by de and per. Many prepositions. 4. appear in Classic Vulgar Latin evidently had many words that do not texts. apud-<n2iS partially supplanted by adj cum. ex gave to de. doubtless under the influence of per.lo in part An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Italy. . etsi. Occasionally. 472 mane h^ Diminutives were extremely common in late matutinum. Cf.). R. too. most part by vetulus.). ver by vemum tempus._ Cis. 121-130 {cereolus. Latin: G. cuculla.). 203. words were replaced by phrases: diu by longum tempus (Bon. igitur. mammula-:=^^zxiA\aoVs\t. hiems by hibernum. 15. utrum were assumed by si. Reich.

g.). Likewise words made by ono- matopoea. Rom. cf. Archiv XIII. Korting (found in the 7th century).. fins onors. and 'go' (cf. 97. serutinus. pa(J>)pa. 421. ii native terms that do not happen to occur in the works preserved. Archiv XIII. Substrate ficatum. 106. and perhaps those of the words meaning 'gape'. mamma. etc. Grammont. 158. a. Pirson 244. drappus. circare = 'hnnV . Archiv XIII. 63. Archiv XIII. Digitized by Microsoft® . (Fr. 17. Onomatopees et Revue des langues romanes XLIV. bxmca. *rettna=: 'rein'.. Vr.'. Archiv XIII. (so. Substrate V. although they were doubtless in common use: amma. fin. (Fr. tatus. Archiv VIII. pudoris finis. *gentis. 468-469 (^quid enim prode est homini. Archiv XII. as *miaulare. from the noun finis in such phrases as honorum finis. fine fino). 154. so not improbably the original of the Romance words mean'find'. 151— 152.ndta. fuit prode illis. St. and f. 151-153. sed non genttlis. 156-157. E. Bayard 179 (applied . etc.adj. Archiv XIII. 53. Neue II. R. atta. Cyprian to the bishop of Carthage). hoc enim prode fit vobis. battalia. etc. It. 237. some were late creations. Waters Ch. *prodis. Some of the unattested words were obviously late developments: *finis. Pirson 243. Audollent 199. pappus = 'gra. expressifs in M. nonnus. 270-271. II. Some native words are rarely attested. § 405).). gavia (used by Pliny). cloppus Densusianu 196. 234. some Were borrowed from other languages. 154.§ 17] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Densusianu 196. XVII. . trepalium. adj. mots. adj. tata. SubstrateY. finis honoris > 484. A few that must have existed are not attested at all: *refusare. baro — 'athlete'. norma. NATIVE WORDS. prode. gent. ing 'touch'. Densusianu 190. It. gente). Ch. . between genitus and from prodest (cf. apparently a cross then m. detached 176-177). potis est = potest. Herzog in Bausteine e.

Gl. [§ 19 Late Latin was rich in derivatives. 225. More Germanic words (of. G. schema. confessor = 'martyr'. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. FOREIGN WORDS. cata. Reich.. *coraticum. Regnier VIII. evangelizare. (cf. b. baptizare. 44. numerous verbs in -izare. Gram. modernus. cf. prophetare. hapja. but a few examples Gl. 205-226: anathema. Pirson 236). *ausare. diaconissa. there are many Greek words in Petronius: hepatia. Dubois 144. as allegorizare. vict(u)alia. zelare. 211. *dulcior = 'sweetness'. folUa. dactylus. which affected familiarity with Greek. Bechtel 95 {cata mansiones. R. eunuchizare. *soliculus. Reich. This subject chapter. carricare. According to Olcott XIX. some of popular creation. scandalizare. thesaurizare .. More came in through the Christian vocabulary: angelus. Very many Greek terms used by ecclesiastical writers never became popular. Bon. * abbellire . apparently borrowed by popular speech: amygdalum. zare. catechiblasphemare . We find a large number of Greek words. Some were introduced by fashionable etc. Introduction) found their way into Latin: bannus. a few of them on the sense of 'every'. as baptizatio. Digitized by Microsoft® . sagma. §71. 12 An 18. Bon. Judaizare. colaphizare.. 224. few Celtic terms were adopted. a distributive preposition. society. Waters Ch. cata pascha). African Latin was freest in word formation. Cf. vertragus. Waters Ch. alberca. *man{u)aria. will be discussed at length in the following may be given here: post-verbal dolus <dolere. 226. sabbatizare. and not a few new derivatives. G. A werra. verging 247 {cata mane mane). haribergum. colaphus. *vir{t)dura. such as alauda. prophetizare. anathematizare. haunjan. wfltan 19. some made by Christian writers. dulcor. *nivicare. 66.

^ PREFIXES USED WITH NOUNS. " Cooper XXXVI. Bis.. 21. and finally composite words. really living suffixes \ but the lost. a. 170 . etc. satire). See Gram. 367. Cooper XXXIV. XL VI. 246-247. saltus — saltare. '^ . 1. I. PREFIXES. which in- the literary language creased. Digitized by Microsoft® . B. facility of word formation. In strictly Classic texts there appear to be no 20. 35. 2. (pairs in : VII (blamed by St. After the model of cantus — cantare. which the noun seems to come from the derivative verb. Vulgar Latin is very rich in derivatives and comit has many affectionate diminutives. 22. ADJECTIVES. G. 13 DERIVATION. Regnier etc. AND PRONOUNS. Late writings almost all abound in abstract nouns (Cooper 1-2). whereas in reality both come from a primitive verb.e.* popular speech preserved and This freedom of formation was abused by African authors. who were especially addicted to prepositional compounds with con-. some of them made with new suffixes (as —icca. Cooper XXX ff. POST-VERBAL NOUNS. pounds .was used with some adjectives and appar: ently with a few nouns bisaccium. bisacutus. 98. 130 . Vok. 430-693 Densusianu 156-173. II.§ 22] An Introduction to VulgaW Latin. as canere.or bi. Bon. next suffixes. such as gaudimonium (Waters Ch. then prefixes. substantives taken from the roots of verbs). a fictitious primitive noun was derived from a number of verbs in Vulgar Latin and in the Romance languages so dolus from dolere. 61). ' » bimaritus. Petronius. sub-. Augustine). " Cooper 246-297.* We shall consider first postverbal nouns (i. —itta)} Petronius shows a fondness for long derivatives. G. in-.


An Introduction
Ad-, con-, de-,

to Vulgar Latin.


dis—, ex-, in-, re:

and some others were
*adaptus ; commixtius,

occasionally used to form adjectives

G. 160 defamatus ; *disfactus; exsucus; inanimatus ; *replenus.
Cf. G.




Ac-, atque-,

ecce-, eccu-,

met- were used as demonstrative

prefixes to



pronominal adjectives and to adverbs. Eccu— is ecce eum; its origin being forgotten, it was used in

Vulgar Latin as a synonym of ecce. Met, primarily a suffix, came to be used as a prefix through such combinations as semet ipsum, understood as se metipsum. In archaic writings
reinforced demonstratives as eccum, eccam,


ecca, eccillum., eccillam, eccillud, eccistam

are not



Vulgar Latin examples are ac Classic texts they are rare. sic; atque ille-; ecce hie; * eccu iste ; * eccu sic. Substrate VI,





Cf. A.

Kohler, Die Partikel

ecce in

Archiv V,

See §§ 65, 66.



25. Ad-, con—, de-, dis—, ex—, in—, re— were freely used, disbeing mainly a Vulgar Latin prefix: abbreviare, G. 179 * a.d;

cap(i)tare ; adgenuculari, R. 181; adpretiare, R. 181, G. 180;
adpropiare, R. 181, G. 180; adunare, R. 182; confortare, R. 185,

* cominitiare ; complacere, R. 184; deaurare, G. 182 * disjejunare; exaltare, G. 183; excoriare, G. 182; impinguare, G. 181


G. 183; *infurcare; recapitulare, G. 185; *requcerere.
con—, de- lost their special significance;

Ad—, ad— was particularly

favored in Spain, con- in Italy.
ally there

Cf. Lat. Spr. 487.

was a change

of prefix


was used with the

sense of expectare, * convitare sometimes took the place of invitare; dis-

was often substituted

for ex-.


Ab-, contra-, per—, sub-, super supra-, tra trans— were

by Microsoft®

§ 3i]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


used occasionally: * aboculare ; *contrafacere; *perdonare ; subG. 185; * subdudere ; subsannare, R. 199, G. 187; superabundare, G. 187; * super—* suprafacere ; *trabucare ; *transaudire,

annare; transplantare, G. 188.
27. Extra- was sometimes used and 2«/ra— in Italy: * extrabuccare ; 28.
in Italy

and Dacia, infra-

* infraponere ; *intratenere.


e-, ob-, prce-,

pre-, pro-, retro— were apparently

not used to form new verbs in the popular spoken language,
although some of them are occasionally so employed by late
writers: opprobare, G. 184; prcedesiinare, G. 184


prolongare, G. 184.



sometimes replaced by ad—:


> addormire.

Foris and minus came to be used as prefixes in some

Foris was confounded Gaul with the Frankish _;?r- (= ver-) verslahen = Old Fr. See G. Baist, Frdnkisches fir— im altesten Franzosiforbatre. schen in Romanische Forschungen XII, 650; cf. Rom. XXX, For this use of minus, compare the phrase minus est^ 633. caritas in quantum adest in quantum deest, Regnier 109


* minuscredere.






autem minus


Cf. § 245.


Some verbs

take a double prefix

adimplere; coexcitare,

R. 207

(cf. Quintilian, coexercitatus); deexacerbare, R. 207

*deexcitare; *exeligere.




the restoration of the


form of

the primitive verb, was a regular process in Vulgar Latin (cf. §139): aspargo for aspergo is blamed by Velius Longus, £don

Cyprian, Bayard 3; commando is, according to Velius Longus, the usual form, rather than commendo,



used by


S. 60, ifidon

131; consacrati


occur in inscriptions,




Bon. 49°;

^^f^'^i ^30^°





An Introduction
Bon. 490.

to Vulgar Latin.



Computo, 58-64, Bon. 486-493. prdsto seem to cdnsto, consuo, erigo, exeo, infio,

have been regarded as simple verbs

S. 64.

primitive form of prefixes; but this

Late writers were in the habit of restoring the full, was doubtless merely a

matter of spelling, and did not indicate the



In TertuUian, Cyprian, and some others there is generally no assimilation of the prefix other writers, such as

Gregory of Tours, apparently used both assimilated and unassimilated forms. Bayard 12-15: adpetere, conpendium, inproius, obfero, subplanto. Bon. 178-188: adtonitus, conmittere,
inlatus, obprimere, subcuvibere.



in —are; occasionally


Nexhsfrom nouns^ generally end
sometimes in

in -iare or —ire;

which was eventually sup-

planted in Italy and in Gaul by —izare (for pronunciation see

§339)- This last ending came from Greek -dfiv through borrowed words, such as baptizare. For a list of Greek verbs in -i^etv adopted by Christian writers, see R. 248-249 (cf. §19 above); some new formations were used, as catechizare. In early Latin this same ending appears as -issare (attidsso, rhetorisso): see A. Funck, Die Verba auf issare und izare in

Archiv III, 398.


— * dom'nizare;

—plagiare —


oculare; pedinare; plantar.e; potionare; * trepaignire ;



follicare ;

* nivicare ;


Cooper 205-245, Dubois 151-162, Quillacq 41-46, Bonnet 471-474.

"Cf. R. 154-162.

by Microsoft®


§ 36]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

in —are,


Verbs from

and perfect participles e.r\A

—iare, —ire; also in' -icare (cf. albicare), —itare (cf. debilitare,
visitare), —escere


—iscere (cf. canescere, mollescere); possibly


angiistare; *ausare; captivare

confortare ; falsare

gravare ; levare ; * oblltare ; rictare ; Usare ; * abbellire ; tiare ; * captiare ; humiliare ;

— * vanitare —


alleviare; * al-

unire ;


Icetiscere ; vilescere ;

— amari— *blan-




verbs from perfect participles (frequentatives, etc.)

replace the original verbs: adjuvare "> adjutare ; audere'^ausare; canere'^cantare ; uti>usare.

lost their frequentative or inchoative sense







156. in -icqre


Verbs from other verbs end


fodere), —itare (cf. clamitare <,clamare')\ also in -escere, -Iscere
(cf. florescere,

* bullicare

< buUere





inchoative force:

apparescere ;

Vulgar Latin has many old frequentive verbs G. 178-179, Cooper 205. There are some late diminutives in —aculare, —tculare, -uculare, through diminutive nouns or adjecWe find also tives (ci. periculari <,periculum'): * saltlculare. some miscellaneous imitative formations * expaventare (and some others) apparently after the analogy of prasentare * misculare perhaps after maculare.


Greek verbs in -av,

-eiv, etc.,

when taken

into Latin, reg-

KvP€pvav>gubemare ; pXa(r<j}rifidv'>b/asphemare. Cf. Claussen 795. But ^aXS.av>psallere, perhaps through the analogy oifallere: Claussen 796. Germanic verbs in -an or -on regularly passed into the first


in —are:

conjugation in Latin





guidare ; roubon




"jR^etcA. ;

in -jan

went into the fourth
It. guamire. Digitized by Microsofi®


> hatire,


warnjan >

* calamarium. Dubois 99-136. Olcott 73-78. G. used to designate a place (as gallinarium). placentia. .. 59. Cf. -dtus. Bon. 31-37. fragraniia . as a feminine singular with an augmentative and pejorative signification. R. Waters Ch. Cooper 1-91. 1 [§ 37 SUFFIXES FOR NOUWS. b. iCf. 355. The commonest endings -a.i in 37. were used The Christian writers are especially rich Waters Ch. 40. Olcott 238-239. Quillacq 15-31. was very fond of diminutives: adules- centulus. -ar. 366. -arius: see Adjectives. was extended: coxale. : -anda. etc. -igo.8 — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Ch. the collective plural -ilia. bonatus. Cf. apparently. participles H ia (as benevolentia. to form nouns from nouns: g. 39. was extended: clericatus. -ans. -enda. was extended: breviarium. 95. e. -ugo were characteristic of rustic speech: —al. Olcott 187-189. (as viaticum) was extended. 49-52. -^a. Cf. essentia. Pirson 123. *sperantia. -ago. tives. -entia. as senatus (common in Petronius. —aria : see -ia. 6\. R. Bon. socera. -alia. -affcum * coraticum. 453-463. Olcott 176-182. G. taurellus. -ens: see Adjectives. -are. neuter plural of the gerundive. Latin. volatilia. especially names of parts of apparel (as bracchiale). —ata : see -ta. used to form adjectives and also nouns. G. * credeniia . are the following: : Ch. Bon. in a collective sense. Cooper in. etc. too. Vulgar in deriva- Petronius. -arium. a neuter plural. as victualia (cf. -die. made from present significantid). were used to form abstract nouns from verbs: Cf. came to be used as a feminine singular: *facienda. Cf. 95. *pollicare. Ch. used to — Haag 41 form f eminines nepta. G. porcellus. 79-102. 74). -dnus: see Adjectives. in Italy and Gaul * canalia •< canis. -antia. was used. Some go endings. as miraUlia. for nouns and adjectives: liminare. *ducatus. iio-iii). Digitized by Microsoft® .

—ens: see Adjectives. vitellus. and Dacia. Olcott 131-134. unaccented. was often used beside -Ulus. was probably Cf. philosophia . Portuguese. § 173. Cf. -iccus. -occus. animalico . . 591. somewhat extended: Old Fr. Bonica. -enda : see —anda. as desiderium. -ensis: see Adjectives. porculus. Les substantifs en -ier et le essais de philologie fran- Rom. porcellus. Olcott 173-176. —ceus. 91-92. cf. 457. G. etc. Gram. Thomas. which lost its diminutive force: anulus. XXXI. R. -Tela. possibly of Ligurian origin (Rom. avicula. etc. -uc(c)us. Rum. and came to be used as a diminutive suffix in Spanish. XX. diminutive (as castellum). : used (cf . XXXV. was used for many new words: Pr. -ia. see A.. Pr. —eus: see Adjectives. ing in Zs. 19 -cellus. perhaps also *-ingus and locally -ancus. unaccented. being used in pet names. consirier. wvicella. —icius: see Adjectives. XIX. avid): neptia. II. to form pi. Cf. was mighty deeds of God Koff'. and Rumanian: Sp. So calamellus.- -culum. 283ff. —ans. ramenc . 335. 333ff. Valinca. -Mum. -incus or -inguus (as propinguus). It was often attached to words in -arius.. navicella. Karica) first appears in Africa in feminine proper names. 31-37. lavacrum) were occasionally used: *genuculum. it was then extended to Spain.). Arbonenca. suffixe -arius. vitulus.' *libraria. manica. Einf. abstract extended *fortia fortia n. used to form feminines (as avus. Cf. -tcca (as Bodicca. Digitized by Microsoft® solingo. mane 76). cula. -ia. = ' nouns (as victoria). diminutive. navi- —ceus. 1-2 1. was used beside -cuius: So * domnicellus. For -accus. 481. Sardinia. Horn- —iceus. See A. -crum (as miraculum. —tea: see Archiv fiir das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Litera: turen CXIV. It. It may have arisen in the first place from a childish pronunciation of -iclus. etc. and Nouveaux (aise no. —eum : -ia. -entia : see -antia. -ellus. -cius: see Adjectives. see —ium. anellus . etc. 170. Pir- son 123. from Greek -ia through Christian writers and speakers monarchla.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. hence an ending -fflWa.

forms of -dtus. R. Olcott 200-204. following. adjectives. then resemblance. -tnus (as caninus. some new formations: ^dukissa. from the Greek Cf. Sagitta. It came to be very widely used as a diminutive suffix for nouns. *granditia. etc. may have arisen from a childish pronun- ciation of -iclus -a: it may Meyer-Liibke. so pythonissd). Pirson 226: Julianeta^ Nonnita^ N'onniit Its origin is unknown. -itUdo : —ium. as a suffix for proper names: feminine tus. Zimmermann. amourette. -otus. with the -ing. -monium. see —tUdo. and also for adjectives. -0 {-onem). -ttas : see —tas. calcaneum) : see G. were extended. Sp. -Uies. Cf. (as paffiXurcra. camerlingo. Olcott 123-131. etc.. Cf. -laaa. especially : diminutive nouns. bacito. vestimenium). much extended. It. in inscriptions in Italy -ittus first appears during the Empire and Dacia. sometimes in Spain and Gaul. Attitta. and central and northern Italy. 56-59. 22-25. Raetia. li. was used for prophetissa. —monia: see Olcott 81-82. -issa. XXVIII. then smallness. -dttus as alternative Sardinia: nouns. bonito. An It Introduction to Vulgar Latin. like littera beside litera. a German patronymic ending. was probably confounded. Olcott see -iio. -lius. originally used to indicate a characteristic (as Digitized btbo). Fr.20 Sp. used to form nouns from adjectives (as munditia -ies). -iva : see Olcott 224-226. A. W. regards -dttus. etc. fioretto.. (Cooper XLV): *altitia. grassetto. Florentinus . was used for some nouns and perhaps for adjectives (see -incus above): Pr. Zs. masculine Muritta. was by Microsoft® . Pirson 228. doucet. -mentum. Cooper 251. 251. Cf. Fr. Sp. Bonitta^ Caritta^ Julitta^ Livitta^ Suavitta. -eum (as cafitium. -men. generally long in the Spanish peninsula and in -Ittus. conjectures that have come from the Germanic ending that now appears as in such names as Heinz. § 172. Einf. were both are rare in Rumanian -ities especially in the south . serpentinus. -io : 134-136. Cusanca. . Montaninus) originally denoted appurtenance. used to form nouns from verbs (as certdmen. cf. R. the i being short in Gaul. especially -mentum : *gubernamentum. —itia. Cf. it was freely used. Germanissa. in [§ 37 some regions. lausenga. -icca. Olcott 78-80. 343. -mum. Nebitta. but sometimes to form new adjectives to form domnina = 'young lady'.

Collin in Archiv XIII. 69-82. 55-63. used as nouns. *deUta. was apparently used : first of young animals. *reddita. see —torium. prensio. i. beveire. unknown etc. ostensor. It. St. *flator. aquilotto. 45-56. remissa. 63. *lucor. Bayard 19-22 (very -tio. Fr.. used to form abstract nouns from verbs (as mansio. later -dta. R. *flavor. aiglon. especially in Gaul: dulcor. 83. Cyprian. Jerome. andata. trobaire. then as a general moderate diminutive It. G. —sor: see -ior. feminine perfect participles with a feminine noun understood. boccone. *vendita. 415. 85- Bayard 24-25. -tus. It. —tor. used to form abstract nouns (as candor. —sus. etc. in 21 commonly employed diminutive: g&lo. in. 44-45.).fossato. *perdtta. -tus and -j«j were preferred in Dacia (Cooper XLV) collecta. Olcott 58-69. and were reinforced —ta. and other late writers: abbreviatio. R. as collectus. nativitas . -sorium. Cf. -tricem. Olcott 2-23. lectio. -Sttus. as an augmentative or pejorative. potto). 475. was employed for many new formations of the same kind. -sus: see —ta. —trix. was freely employed :ya/jfi'aj. G. : extensa. origin (cf. aggravatio. 88-122. e. Substrate IV. See Archiv V. *sentor. —sa : see —ia. They were considerably used to make abstract nouns from verbs (and —ata was sometimes attached to nouns. ostensio.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. —Stus. Pr. Cf. used to form from verbs nouns denoting place. Cyprian). used to designate the agent -orium . perfect participles by fourth declension nouns in -tus. mensor). -iita. R. recubitus . as *annatd). 453. G. used to denote the agent (as Cf. In Gaul these nouns came to be feminine: Bon. trinitas. of see -tor. Olcott 33-51. *nutritio. 222. G. purltas . someDigitized by Microsoft® . C. Olcott amdtor. -sionem). —tas {-tdtem). R. 503-504 {dolor. 122. narraius: cf. were very freely employed (but show few traces in Ru- manian : Cooper XLV) : necdtor. Olcott 83-87. started perhaps with such forms as defensa. So deitas from deus. —sio : see -ito.. *movita. -sio i^tionem. -or {-oreni). used to make abstract nouns from adjectives. viror. -sa. Bayard 19-22. revoluUo. 102-106. are very common in St. XIII. —sor (—torem.G. 88. Cf. etc. Gaul often as a 56. -ittus). Cf. —sura: see —ilra. venuta. : -or (-orem). 223. sapor). casotta. —sorium: see —torium. 82-83. -(orium. -sorem). common in St. timor. G.

oratorium. -tus (Claussen 798): rpiiKTijs '^ irucia . later from adjectives also. -Ala. natatorium. reposito- rium. -tuda (-tiidinem). nutritura. -e. Olcott 51-58. Kbii. see —ta. often taking the place of —culum (cubiculum much > accubitorium) (as *C(ssorium. R. : gummi-s. -as in popular words generally > lampa. Olcott 69-73. -tura : see —ura. -iita: Cf. 31-37. G. When Greek nouns were endings were adapted as follows: — borrowed by Latin. by popular etymology. gave oleum. popular words became -o (Claussen 797) X^wi'> lea. § 171. stricturd). used to form abstract nouns from perfect participles (as censura. ^6-gy. kviuj. -um : Claussen 796. '^planura. fell popular words either or became -a. 197. -is. Cf. R. ornatura. were tended. instead of -is (Claussen 798) pausis "^pausa. ^pressorium. used to fortitudd). etc. Sometimes the genitive or the accusative was taken as a basis. -pa cima. ^•vir'dura. in popular words gave a feminine -ma (Claussen 796-797) > f -pos preceded by a consonant became -fr (Claussen : 797): 'AWfai'5po$>- Alexander. missorium. : became -a. pressura. 40-45. -aius. influenced by olere. gave : millefolium.: : : 22 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. from adjectives was extended. -11. *frig' dura . payLda'^ -(an in magida. was used for a few new formations *alaudula. —a. Cf. : in late Latin often replacing -or {fervor > *fervurd) were extended. -ura and -t-ura. ixrikiipvWov. 38. boletus. Digitized by Microsoft® . Olcott 194-196.)u~^ gumma. —tus: see -ta. or -i (Claussen 799) TT^Trepi'^ piper. mesSee sura. 88-90. -ov regularly became respectively -us. mensorium. ossulum. -T7)s became -a. Einf. [§ 38 ex- times instrument (as dormitorium. -IS often clvain'^ sinapis. make abstract nouns servitudo. etc. G. instead of the nominative (Claussen 800-802): iXi^avros'^ elepliantus . Bon. cursorium). There are a few exceptions for special reasons (Claussen 795) cXaiop. > p6KLT-qs -I in became -a (Claussen 798-799) : Xa/iirds -7)S. tensura. diminutive (as vitulus). *certitudo. the -OS. -s-iira. sinape . -ta or -us.

—dneus -anius. 23 The unaccented vowel of the penult was often changed in conformity with Latin habits (Claussen 802-806) Sl&^oKos'^ diabolus diabulus. 144. erroneus) were slightly ex- tended: *caroneus. used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as Cf.i are the following: 39« The commonest endings : — —abllis see —hilis. episcopalis. »?«i/«a»2«. pomarius). a combination of —arius — *capiianus. regalis. attached to nouns Cf. § 39] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. tempaccio. to denote connection. -entem). SUFFIXES FOR ADJECTIVES. 143. present participles (as amans. Eon. popular in Gaul 62 (Hacherece. were extended: *cortilis. 464-467. mixticius. G. -iceus -ictus. Tuscanus. *werrarius. See E. —anus. 415. Dubois 136-151. Olcott 182-187. '^passans^ make adjectives and nouns from verbs: credens. were used freely to ^ currens . Cooper 92-163 (diminutives. and form nouns of occupation (as aquarius. peculiar in — apothecarius *marinarius. 164-195). -dlis. iTTroTiiXij "^spatula. became and —icius (as sigillaricius). arespecially in the latter function: . Olcott 137-173. denoting appurtenance (as paganus. * setaceus . It.). Quillacq 32-40. Digitized by Microsoft® . : see A. spontaneus. Die Adjectiva auf -icius in Archiv V. *Sicilianus. Cf. geniilis). poiens). Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise etc. -aceus being employed later as an augmentative and pejorative suffix for adjectives and finally for nouns: chartaceus formaceus . -ans.. K^paffos : "^cerd-sus *cerSsus. Romanus). Mapa"^ cithara ciihlra. -actus -actus. decanus. -Sris (as singularis) was extended: particularis. —artcius. Bechtel 83. was much extended. -tlis. were extended (especially in rustic speech: Cooper iii). Bechtel 83. etc. imaginarius . c. aKfnriKot'^ scopulus . *leviarius. Wolfflin. *ducaHs. The phonetic development of this suffix was apparently Gaul and some other regions the earliest examples are glan: 'Cf. and adjectives. was used to form adjectives of place (occasionally time) and nouns of office: biduanus. -arius. -oneus —onius (as extraneus. used also in the masculine to gentarius. Olcott 215-220. Olcott 226-238. Cf. Thomas. used to make from nouns adjectives denoting material (as arenaceus. G. -ens {-an/em. pelliceus).

Gram. too. that -iarius was a. anaiiarius. *pagensis. e. -tbilis. —iero are probably borrowed. diligibilis . Marchot. Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise 119. Zimmermann. adjectives in the popular language: Cf. querceus. was slightly extended (but is Rumanian: Cooper XLV). -ier. Cf. —iceus —icius: see dcetts.24 deria <i_ An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. however. sis). 296 (cf. suggests that the Germans in Gaul associated -arius with their proper names in -areis 01 —ari. Le suffixe -arius dans les langues romanes. i^t. capabilis.. — ia (6th century) and sorcerus <C^* sortiarius (8th century) the earliest forms in French and Provenyal are —ers. as -erius or —erus. Italian —aro is easily explained and Italian —iere. R. especially in learned words it is Rumanian (Cooper XLV) acceptabilis . Thomas. G. I. P. was much used to : make ratus. Spanish -ero and Italian -aio are perfectly regular. Olcott 209-213. especially in popular speech. § 227. showing that while the French forms may perhaps be derived from -arius and -iarius. 481 (cf. points out that many words have c. *faiatus. papyrius. —ceus -cius : see -iceus. Zimmermann. try to derive all the forms from -arius. : -eus -ius. —ens : see —ans. and was much employed rare. 109-116. the derivative was sometimes used as a noun: panne us . the derivatives being sometimes employed as nouns * cortensis . by the analogy of the plural -ari. Digitized by Microsoft® . 137. Zs. 34-36). in an objective suffix used to make adjectives very common in Christian writers in late Latin. Olcott 339-344. -i [§ 39 glandarius . Cf. used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as/orenwas greatly extended. *Frankensis. rare in — -{bUis : see —bilis. G. denoting material (as aureus). or i before the a. from verbs (as amabilis. R. -bUis. Olcott 142). turrensis. Chairibertus repeatedly used for Charibertus by Fredegarius Haag 7. E. postulates -ar(i)us and -er{i)us. and when umlaut affected the a of these. is . or -dbilis. Rom. 135-140. 222. On the other hand. vallensis. -atus. real suffix (cf. I. fageus. Cf. 591. Die Geschichte des lateinischen Suffixes — arius in den romaniscken Sprachen^ and E. a perfect participle ending (as sceleraius). G. A. the Proven9al cannot. XXXI. Cf. that -iarius and —carius may have established —iers in French. then —iers. Zs. and Bausteine 641). -ensis. 155. indicibilis. Phon.^* markensis . timo- Olcott 244-250. and that this pronunciation spread to the neo-Latin speakers. : tabilis . *cariierribilis). -er. G. XXI. XXVI. Staaff. G.' exauguratus. pronounced —arius. 159-160.

were used for some new formations: defensorius In Provengal and Rumanian -torius was extended. -inus : see Nouns.). Bon. diminutive (as albulus). sapidus. 467-470. § 40] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. censere censor censorius). punidor. Cf Olcott . 158. in St. was used for -icus in some late words: *Angliscus. (C. -orius: see -iorius. Rum. Gram. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . 4810. G. 157-158. —s-or H ius (as notare notor notorius. G.. -iscus. lo) Pirson 252 IX. -ulus. 155 (Tertullian)j *npidus. juratoriH. made up of -t-or. was a favorite with Christian writers. Cooper 196-204. dune The usual endings are as follows: — num nunc. Ill. I. donique in cites eight examples of dune. Tiktin 597. —sorius: see —tortus —tortus. one of them from Gaul. from the Greek cleri- Cf.' 40. -sorius. It was 'Cf. G. way: -e cf. 241. mansorius. Olcott 220-223. Cf. is Archiv I. = + . ~ius : see —eus. promptulus.) Cf. -uius (as canutus) was somewhat extended: *camutus. new formations : *restivus. turn tunc) was apparently used to form dum ce (cf. SUFFIXES FOR ADVERBS. etc. Dubois 163-171. volon. ? I. L. —Andus (as jocundus) was used in Spanish and Proven9al for a few words Pr. 193-197 {angelice. was used especially in words 25 : -icus (as medicus) cus. —ce -c (as ne nee. -ittus: see Nouns. Franz. Possibly *anc is derived from an in the same Substrate II. -ivus (as nativus) occurs in a few 224-226. 103-106. sliglitly -idus (as rapidus) was extended: exsucidus. very common Jerome: G. — . -oneus : see —dneus. -inus {as fraxinus) was used for a few adjectives: quercinus. 552. with the or of sense of -Wlis the gerundive: Pr. : d. probably a fusion of Greek -ktkos {Syriscus) and Germanic -isk (Thiudiscus). —ilis: see —dlis. '*Frankiscus.

XXXIII. Digitized by Microsoft® . Ch. 58. G. and in Rumanian nearly all adjectives may be so used (as greii. in Rumanian. Jerome. II. alto. Ch. Cyprian (Bayard 32-34). XXIX. for emphatic effect. forte. chiaro. It. -tim was favored by St. -iter: see -ter. however. * longa mente. mente was used with any adjective that could make an adverb of manner. Ch.' cf. Gl. Later. longe. sola mente. but was not kept alive in popular Latin. firma mente. 245. Zs. XXX. etc. -ones (in Italy also with- out the preposition) came into use Cf. -0 and etc. etc. *bona mente. 339- Repetition was used. 42. piano. Cyprian (Bayard 34-35) and some other : writers. * ipsa mente. adverbial phrases on the model : ad . Normannice. being especially common in St. are to be found in Petronius 37. common in other late writers: clanculo. Cf. Gram. 45 . noii). tarde. as forti mente. pure. mente. caldo. Some lons. 46.). Adverbs of manner came to be made with the ablative This noun was first used with an adjective to denote a state of mind. jocunda mente. but rata. soave). though much used in ecclesiastical Latin (G. modo sic modo sic^ nee sursum nee deorsum non cresco. 487. [§ 41 preserved in popular speech in bene. . a recu230. Many examples so. . It. Fr. : modo modo =^ •only yesterday.). 197-201 infantiliter. *mala mente. Lat. 689. perhaps after the Vulgar Latin period. basso. In the Romance languages mente was sometimes added comment. Rom. adverbs were preserved in comhence other ad- jectives came to be used as adverbs (as W. multum. 428. This formation is not common. and occurs also in Romanice. Many such mon speech. -ter (as brevUer) was not preserved in common speech. to adverbs: insiememente. -um generally coincided in pronunciation (multum = multo. a ginocchioni. 337. male. § SS- 41. They are rare in St.26 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Fr. as sometimes in Classic Latin. poco. Ch. whence such formations as Brittanice. Then it was employed in a more general sense: pari mente. Reich. etc. obstinata mente. as It.' ' Waters Ch. now now so. bocconi. Spr.

-^ —iciilus : capUHlus * capttulus . pediculus Cf. Cohn 184. e. 42. extraneus * extranus . R. § 195). Cf. Cohn 42— 52. Cohn 41-42. 227. loquela'^ loquella. —dnus^—dneus: Cohn 160-172. 131. lanatus lanutus. (3) Alteration of a suffix: — Cf. Cohn -tius'^-itus : vacuus'^*v(lcitus (cf. R. -drius: see Suffixes for Adjectives. : ericius *eruius. by Microsoft® . R. Cohn = -ix(-icem): Cohn 147-151. Digitized Cohn 274-291. tus cauditus. 216. 460. —tllus^—ellus: axtlla"^ ascella. etc. pavoT~^*pavura. peduculus. Pr. R. Cf. etc. famtlia */amtlia. avicUla'^ avicllla.. Cf. sortcem *sortcem. -ilius =^ -ilius : 154-160. 460. Cohn 30-31. -tc-aius *lenficiila. -iculus =z -UcJilus : ossiculum ossMculum. -iceus -icius 184. cauda- Cohn —Ic'eus —icius ^=. Cohn 172-180. carnatus *carnutus. Caper (Keil VII. Waters Ch. Cf. —dtuszzz—ttus=:i—utus: barbatus '^barbutus . 96): "querela. Cf. querela'^ guerilla. substitutes one suffix for manipulus. (2) Indiscriminate use of two suffixes: — Cf. loquela per unum /. 460. 460. suadela"^ suadHla. -ix(-icem) consilium * consilium. Cohn 1 51-154. Corssen S. Cf." App. Cohn 180-205. Cf. 27 CHANGE OF SUFFIX. ~or(—drem)'^-ura: calor'^*calura. Cohn 219-226. The popular language sometimes manuplus for another.§ 42] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -drius. lenHc-Ula Cf. -elus"^ -ellus (common in late Latin): camelus'^ camellus. as are: — The principal types (1) Subsitution of a : rare one -alius — new or common suffix for an old or > -callus : see -tllas. etc. cornlciila *cornuula. 65. -ex(-ecem) -ix(-uem) : vervecem berbicem." —enus'^-inus: "Byzacenus non Byzacinus. venenum"^ *veninum. subterraneus ^ subterranus. —iilus'^—ellus: aniilus'^ anellus . —cuius !> cHlus : see -tllus. rancor"^* ran- > > cilra. 321. 17-28. Cf. Cohn 213I.

In church writers there are G.28 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 46. Bechtel loi. in Gl. 65. PRONOUNS. etc. Bon. were popular. a. flectere. style. G. i<)i\ 45. ad subito. c. I. Cake pistare. many verbs in -ficare. a modo. See §§ 24. enfuir). bene placitum. 426 ad mane. mentaver) minus pretiare. Reich. 231. avis struthius. . 483. etc. incus incudo * inciimtnem. 483. a foras. as mortificare: e. crucifigere. d. 'just now'. Bechtel loi. ADVERBS. mente habere (> Pr. etc. G. Cf. 203. These compounds generally belonged to the literary G. omnimodus . erable) alba spina. G. 234. 131. R. Cf. 4. 194. Bon. 232. HOUWS. 44. COMPOUNDS. Bechtel loi ad horam 'presently'. . inde fUgere (> Fr. Bechtel loi. Bon. Bon. in odio^ loco. G. . /oris mittere.. saine. There were many compounds made up of a preposition and an adverb: ab ante. Cohn 226—264. 484. Bechtel loi. R.. bis coctum. 47. 483. uniunigenitus . 231. a contra. Substrate 553-554. 190. a semel. 160-170: magnisonans . manu So tenere. Bechtel loi ad semel. medio ADJECTIVES. VERBS. ab intus. a /oris. —iculus ? ^^'—Hciilus : genuciclum . a longe. ^ranucula. -udo i^udtneni)'^ -umen (-iimtnem) : consuetudo *costumen. genu- G. But male habitus. ad sero. ij as i: uayijv))'^ 7th century) "^ > Old Fr. intra videre. late pronunciation of [§ 47 -enus'^-lnus through sagina {Vok. antemittere. 130-134. Cohn 264-274. 483. cornis. Digitized by Microsoft® . R. Ill. 43. medio die. Bon. 121 : Greek etc. . Acer arbor (> Fr. etc. b. R. Bechtel loi. — = . ab olim. etc. 191.

484. R. Spr. per girum zxiA per giro ^ circa. PREPOSITIONS. G.these adverbial Some 40. is de+ab. Lexique 48. 49. in by the ablative or the accusative).— 49] — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Substrate III. Per. Abante. Bechtel 102. de semel. da. Bechtel loi. 233. and Old Sp. Cf. Bechtel medio. Per. 487. 268. consist of Bechtel 102. etc.. Lat. d^ ante. 23S.. ad — — R. is A compound made up of preposition + noun found in: in giro (followed 102. 487. Mohl. R. in contra^ Petronius (Waters Ch. 74. compounds. Some compounds two prepositions: * de ad {y. Digitized by Microsoft® . G. de forts. in hodie. 203. Wolfflin. Bon. et at ubi. 433. E.13.17. of . R. says da . Bechtel 102. 235. 75. Raetian dad from the Oscan da. in contra. doe. Bechtel loi. 232. Bechtel loi.19. 484. in mane. and some others similar to them. 39. still different nature : ac Per. 40. G. de sursum. dad may be it is the result of a fusion rather than a combination of de Some have thought it came from found from the 7th century on he would derive It.3. Sardinian dave. et Per. It. in is Archiv I. etc. 85. CONJUHCTIONS. Lat. 203. de intra. 232.8. day-. de magis. de post. R. de retro. in ante. usque hodie. * in semel. 29 tunc. were used as prepositions: ab ante. g. de sub. de retro. In any case probably a late product. 426. Bechtel 102. de super. 437. de intus. Spr. dat and from a southern Latin *dadl. 72. de inter. Bon. de contra. Bon. 203. de deorsum. ^ Romance da. Bechtel 102. in ante. 68. Slightly different intus in. Per. f. etc.15. R. R. de intus. Bechtel 102. Bechtel 102. and ad. 484. 38) says: Ubi semel res inclinata amici de medio. Lexique 38-47. R. The sic. ex tunc. Bechtel 102. * dabe. R. Bon. 232.28. 235. At ubi and ad ubi. G. e contra. G. following compounds are of a sic. 232.). 203. Haag 75. 484-486 (cf.

II. Latin to a certain extent a diminuendo movement {^Lat. but psychic. Ill. by this sentence : The ^ ^ old arrangement " Fabius syptax. Romance more after the word modified.^ is The Romance order of simpler and more rational than that Classic Latin. a crescendo. is not primarily rhythmic. Nevertheless there is really a fundamental difference between the old order and the new: Romance has. See Meyer-Liibke. Spr. proceeding from the exemplified The modern order is the known to the unknown. the difference being due to a diverse conception of the structure of language: Latin places the modifier before. The principle. Latin in the middle. from which work most of the matter of Digitized this chapter was taken. Romance puts the emphasis at the end of the sentence. It does not permit the arbitrary- separation of osition noun of it members that belong together. 491). however." allow the collocation words of the same part of speech that belong logically in different places. such as the prepand the word it governs. SYNTAX/ A. is logical. byMicrosoft® . 50. 1903. Gram. Zur Eniwicklung der romanischen Wortsiellitng aus dcr lateinischen. The most irrational features of the Classic Latin construction were surely artifical. and were not characteristic of daily speech. for a comprehensive account of Romance See Elise Richter. or the adjective and the modifies. as in Ovid's "In nova fert animus mutatas Neither does it dicere formas /corpora. ORDER OF WORDS. so to speak. as in the "In multis hoc rebus dicere habemus" of Lucretius.

It is indigenous in Latin. tu autem vade. angelus meus praecedet te. in inscriptions and popular writers. By the fourth century Here is a characteristic passage the new order prevailed. Spr. 31 sequatus imperio Hannibalern et virtute et fortuna superiorem vidit." omnia brevia. while the revolution was in progress. such as a connective or an atonic pronoun {Lat. it is to be found in Latin.21-24). there was a long struggle. et fuit ibi quadraginta diebus et quadraginta noctibus" i^Per. and for centuries the ancient and the modern type were used side by side. especially in Cicero. 490). which independently effected the same transformation.§ 52] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 51 • old. it occurs sporadically also in literary authors. all cultivated peoples have made it. Classic Latin may be said to represent an in- termediate stage. not imitated from the Greek. hoc peccatum eorum" {Exodus XXXII. There first. 34). 37. from the Peregrinatio : "Hasc est autem vallis ingens et planissima. quod sanctus Moyses ascendit in montem Domini. The following is a good sample of the style of the Vulgate: "Cui respondit Dominus Qui peccaverit mihi. But until the fourth century the majority of Latin sentences have the old arrangement. in qua filii Israhel commorati sunt his diebus. from the earliest texts down ." "Hasc loca sunt The change constitutes a progress in language . visitabo et : 52. et due populum istum quo locutus sum Ego autem in die ultionis tibi. 33. The modern order was not abruptly substituted for the On the contrary. Digitized According to Meyer- by Microsoft® . was always a tendency to put a stressed word followed by an unaccented one." The following examples illustrate the later structure: "Mors perfecit tua ut essent et natura montuosa impedita ad rem militarem. with generally increasing frequency. Petronius has notably short periods and an approach to the new structure. delebo eum de libro meo.

morir adverbs precede their verb . and so cf.32 Liibke. Wolfflin 4 bene bene. it was in the early stages of the Romance languages It. B. 313. : negative and intensive under some circumstances the object may come before the verb. prepositions. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. §40. aiutatemi but or m'aiutate . were always enclitic in Latin. of inflections. volgra). fortis fortis. Use of In- Repetition writers : for intensive effect is not uncommon . voit definite article. and sometimes the whole predicate precedes in certain constructions the dependent infinitive may stand before the finite verb (as Pr. vedolo but le non lo vedo. precedes its but qui le voit. 53. and were attached preferably to the first word in the sentence : . Many uses of prepoconnected with the loss of inflections: these will be discussed under the Use of Inflections.. indefinite article developed out of ille A definite and an and unus. Zs. when unstressed. In a few other respects the old arrangement lingered and under certain conditions is still preserved . see the 55. which were naturally of less im- portance. R. 280. bonis bonis. Fr. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. however. personal pronouns. and adverbs. Digitized by Microsoft® . malus malus. Cf. noun in all the The Romance languages except Rumanian and Albanian (Zauner 40). the old order survived longer than in independent. etc. malum malum. conjunctions. [§ 55 XXI. in late Commodian. 54- USE OF WORDS. In dependent clauses.For the simplification flections. sitions are There were great changes in the functions of pronouns. I.

in Sidonius Apollinaris (Wolfflin 29). The comparative came to be used for a superlative. //wj levior. as omnium levior (Wolfflin 68-71). etc. Unus was used as an indefinite article. (Wolfflin 46). 280).. See Archiv VIII. plus popularis. (R. . From early times certain periphrases were used to emphasize the thiravLS. Digitized by Microsoft® . old comparative forms remained. substitute for the superlative In the Romance languages a was made by prefixing the defiit nite article to the comparative. and in hie estfilius mens carissimus. prceclarum.' lepida 57. 33 COMPARISON. etc. 451. . as Ovid's inertioratas (Wolfflin 63-68). plus formosus in Nemasianus. etc. occasionally in : Classic Latin. this formation came to be popularly regarded as the regular one: magis mirabilem. Little by little the old comparative and superlative lost 1 from being employed frequently with merely an intensive force (Wolfiflin 83). is likely that this device it existed in late Vulgar Latin. however. Augustine's sancta atque dulcissima (Wolfflin 57-63). frequently in late and popular writers • For the forms of numerals. (Wolfflin 47). etc. see Morphology. plus felix. and the superlative was often really a positive in meaning. 166-170. Vitruvius. and also for a positive. Anplus congruus and maxime congruus (Wolfflin 16. a. cf. toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period. magis . the plus and magis constructions were employed more and more to express a distinct comparison plus : miser in Tertullian. 56. b. common Adverbs. melius sanus (Wolfflin 16). magis melior. plus dulce. in Many use. Sepulcri 232 . R. Finally.§ 57] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. as Plautus. etc. WUMERALS. 415—417). Commodian. comparative idea. but no example of has been found. Cf. as their precise sense in St. BOn.. maxime pessima. To avoid ambiguity.

An . much used in popular speech after the fifth 2. 403-404. Ego and common in Petronius. adeum una sorella. 25. Petronius. Digitized by Microsoft® . PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. Per. see Hoppe Bayard 133. The personal pronouns came into more and more fre- quent use. 48. except a few of the smallest. Pronouns were much more used than G. . 58. . PRONOUNS. according as they were accented or unaccented (as suus and sus): see Morphology. Idem went out of popular use. in Classic Latin : 59. Dubois 333-336b. The adverb inde : occasionally as a genitive neuter pronoun came to be used nemo inde dubitat. . too. See Lat. 948 accessit unus servus. Pseud. Cf. 61. 580. a. Many pronouns developed double forms. and 104. Hoppe 102-103. were employed as personal pro- nouns of the third person. Bon. Waters Ch. There was great irregularity in the use of reflexives. R. 26. 408-409. was often replaced by ille and ipse (Bechtel and eventually was preserved in vulgar speech only in 145). were apparently not century. being replaced by ille For the encroachment of ipse on idem. Plautus.34 . Is. tu are very 60. The demonstratives. Spr. ipse. G. DEMONSTRATIVES. 425 cf. Ordinal numerals. Regnier 10. especially the possessives. . 489. [§ 62 una etc. the combination eccum {^=ecce eum). §158. . exinde-='¥x. suus being generally substituted for ejus. . en. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. mulier. especially ilk. where it was not recog- 62.

^- desso). atque ipse illie est {^Epidicus 91). 2. of the final stage. ille ipse. maintains that eceu' was the basis in all the Empire. nized. At any rate. with the exception of the neuter hoe. 25 : " Ubi tu's ? — Eccum. where likewise the id lost its significance. 407. Glor. Mil. common The end Plautus.). R. The last three have left no trace. 3 II. as id ipsum velatn. Intorno ai continuatori neolatini del "ipsu-" in Arehivio glottologieo italiano XV. 424 (cf. Franz. lat. and iste 405-406. 424. eeee we find early eeee ego. however. Toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period hie was apparently going out of 63. meaning 'it' or 'that. common 64. by atque or ae (as in ac sic). Catalan aqueix. use. 646): in Plautus. were confused by late writers (Bayard 132). 2. generally invariable. in id ipsum monastyriu. iste ille. 65. eeee nunc. too. and also as a demonstrative adjective. ille. . especially in Spain and southern Gaul. 424-425. R. G. eeee tu. eeee ille. is ipse.§ 65] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. This last compound was used as a neuter pronoun. II. Franz. hie ipse. 303 (discussing Sp. R. Pg. Quillacq 126). §24): hie. there are examples of iste for hie in Caesar's time (Densusianu 178). etc. Eeee and eeeum (pronounced eceu) were used as demon- strative prefixes (cf.-- ipse ille. aquese. was perhaps used as a prefix (^Gram. Bayard 130-132). iste ipse. also eeee iste. aquesse. such combinations being until the probably not reached Vulgar Latin period. in id ipsam rem. atque is est (^Stiehus 582). Atque." Digitized by Microsoft® . Hie. G. eeeu" was some regions. too. Hie and is. I. Hoppe 104.' as id ipsum sapite. • A combination of two demonstratives was : common in Christian writers iste hie. 35 and in the extremely common phrase idipsum (>It. is the fusion of the two parts into one word. 3 II. Ascoli. came to be used indiscriminately (G. influenced in 1 Cf Plautus.

R. 391-392. Ille.. 8). as ace.. became * metipsimus. 484). Ego met ipse is blamed by Donatus {Lat. These compounds developed into * ecceste. * eccuelle.). f. ipse. by Microsoft® . 419-420 {cito proferte mihi stolam illam primam). Quillacq 126-127. is. * cueste and * eccelle. were used also as definite Ille in this function very common: R. is was probably more literary than popular. hie. hie. XXX. etc. 276 {qui. In popular speech qui was apparently used regularly for . pi. In Bon. 66. 391-396 we find qui used as n. Ille. §24. 36 An When iste Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 69. * ceste. quern for quce. and pi. pi. II. : the place of the feminine quce it occurs in Christian inscripR. sg. the masculine qui tooV in inscriptions. * cue lie. Bon. * celle. Spr. it is Furthermore.. were used as personal pronouns of the third person. * accueste. * eccueste. with the prefix met-. quod as m. is is Cf. INTERROGATIVES AND RELATIVES. Beside ipse. . 68. Petronius: Waters Ch. sg. pi. guem quis qua very often as n. for * accuelle. 427 (iiirum hujic cujus est zona hcBc). n. ipse. ille lost [§ 69 and their distinctive force. The forms were greatly confused by late writers. (395-396). This use of ipse. 423—425. c. people said for ' ' that eccHlle or eccu'ille. 423 {in ipsa multitudine). . * accelle. means infrequent: hie. m. quce as m. * accesie. 67. especially ille. as f. The ipsemet suffix -met was used also as an intensive prefix. R. tions from the fifth century on Digitized cf... as n. articles. Cf. is. as 69.. ' this ' eccHste or eccu'tste. § 60. semet ipsum {Philip. becoming metipse through such combinations as temet ipsum {Ecclus.. Examples of the others are by no R. : common Audollent 549. 22). as n. there was an emphatic form ipsimus (used by This. pi. as ace.

The principal indefinite pronouns 71- and adjectives used G. Sardinia. Zs. sg. Meyer-Liibke. and f.). Plautus. and Dacia: Lat. in Italy. d. § 84. There may have been a neuter *alid. Bon. *nec ente or *ne ente was apparently used as an equivalent for nihil. 53 {^qui for quce in 70. Some Classic Latin pronouns fell into disuse. and alter viere confused in common speech: G. cata tres Hence *cata anus. Snus *aliqu'ilnus * alicUnus. alius filius. mDEFHTITE PRONOUNS. omnis: see totus. G. was employed as a relative pronoun. II. in certain constructions. moreover. 394 (^qui f. Jerome. 25. *d'unde. quid: Archiv I. Haag f. The neuter aliquid was more extended aliqui alius : Pr. along the Mediterranean. gradually encroached on quod: Bon. conjectures *ne inde. in Italy. nemo judical alterum.). as a relative. and some new compounds were made. 390-391. Spr. alguien. after the model of id. mUltus. 51. Gram. 415-417. and eventually * de unde. d. Omnis and omnia were kept Digitized by Microsoft® . § 19. Pg. 415- in late popular speech are as follows : — aliquanti took the place of aliqui and aliquot: aliquanta oppida aliquis flourished especially in the west: Sp. inde came to mean. in such phrases as cata unum Kaf tva. 178). 237. pi. chants. 650. 393. G. 485. alques. by Greek merxard Tfth. cata was probably introduced.. nemo was kept nUllus. nee unus. etc. *caf itnus. cepit. 37 quam). 'some' or 'any.' > = ^ magis: see plus. 528 a. Archiv I. 55. 416. quern Quid. Beiheft 7. Cf. alguem. This confusion is more frequent in late Latin: St. hdmo was used sometimes like French on: Per. Cf. and was used as an interrogative and The adverb unde came to have occasionally the meaning of French dont (Bon.§ 7i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ^ne ipse icnus. *ne^ps^unus. 417. Qualis was kept. 580.

which" and the ibi 73. ubi being used for quo. 402-403 ifota tormenta diaboli in me veniant. § 1 1 7. Propertius: Densusianu 179. being used for quisquis and quicumque (Bayard res and : res nata = ' anyone '. persona. 488. Spr. . Cf. (2). G. 3. Frequent in late Latin Bon. too. tot. Quisque was much extended 135). iinus. quanti justi esuriunt. 338. Bechtel 143. Videri. R. custodire debeant. G. quts. is . talis. «»w. Compare the old is Italian use of dovere. 403). There finitive. totis horis. Jerome. : 4. ' : (G. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. R. tantis lacri- 413-415 qui. quique. Unde was employed by Microsoft® in the sense of Digitized . ' anything R. for eo: Lat. quisque. Regnier 108-109 {guanto plus quantus. The words referring to the "place in "place into which" were confused. (St. 109). §§ 163. see quantus. qualis. was sometimes used for omnis : Plautus. 692. . tantus totus. also a common pleonastic use of coepi with the in- instead of the perfect: see § 124. 336-337. Cf. Glor. tantus replaced quot. 409-411). quhquis. 414. Claudian. 204. 345. 212.38 faucus. Mil. 691-693: commonens ut 72. 427. Cf. a pleonastic use of debeo. 121) and perhaps *tuttus. G. VERBS. § 53. ADVERBS. There are examples as early as Drager 104. pronounced also tottus (S. [§ 73 plus and magis were confused: tenetur tanto plus timetur. 415). is often used pleonastically Bayard 99-100. This use was common in late Latin: Densusianu 178.

Lexique 43. R. were employed as intensives more than in Classic Latin. having been replaced by on. also 'therefore' and 'where84. Bene. of Inflections. and others by Microsoft® . multum. Beiheft fore': 157). aliquid postulare. PREPOSITIONS. The functions of prepositions were very much extended not found in (Bayard 137-158): see Use 77. Cases. according to Mohl. ggressus de area. Hoppe 38): de palatio exit. 7. 446-447 {nee is fado est. . nihil. . . 39 'where' (Zj. Ad for apud occurs Digitized in Plautus. occurs occasionally: Dieit unus ex uno angulo: Eeee hie Alius ex alio angulo: Non. Wolfflin 5.§ 78] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 435. Dubois 332. G. 339. is Ab. etc. cf. It apparently has no successors in the Romance languages. Regnier The absolute use of non. 5. is Per. Non no. Regnier no. . meaning 'no'. Die amice unde tristis es. 37. R. semper semper. Bechtel 105. Plus was often substituted for magis. Terence. Regnier in. for ne with the subjunctive common: G. of the Italic dialects except Latin. § 74. egredere de ecelesia. muri de lapide de adversario vivo de deeimis. usurped the place of which also. Bechtel 105. . G. procedit. de utero matris nati sunt sic. Totum occurs often as an adverb: places. G. . and the old comparative and superlative forms became rarer: see § 56. 342 . Plus and magis were used more and more for comparison. Hoppe 78. nee de cubiculo . 395.). 341 jaspide. Repetition was used for in- tensive effect: satis Seneca. 76.14. 487. from the third century ex {Lat. any de. Hoppe 38 . Spr. and magis for potius: Bayard no. sed ecce hie est. 395-396. and many other 75- Double negation frequent: R. 38.

volo pro legentis attendimus locum ilium facilitate abuti sermone vulgato. La preposition cum et ses successeurs en gallo-roman in Bausteine 61. but was substituted lor'per in other regions (Urbat 34-35)80. am amb. 343. According to F. Spr. ' : Juxta often signified acjuxta consuetudinem. 489. 343 . ad post (p. Hoppe Hoppe ' 41. est oratio. Circa. Pro itself was partially replaced by per (cf. Urbat 27 {tractans apud me metipsum. in authors of the second and third centuries. and so came cum in that Pro often had the sense of 'for.. apud is repeatedly found for cum in the Latin writers of Gaul. and common Fer. as he says. being. Bechtel 106 super anima commendatus. not from apud. but from * (pp. Bechtel 105 juxta drachmcB cording to exemplum. G. where it was kept with the sense of cum: Haag 74. ab he takes from apud. G. 71) Fr. except in Gaul. aveCj not from apud + hoc. and cum for apud in Gregory of Tours. 40 An Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. but Pr. ' . etc. Mohl. [§ 80 (Oliver 5-6). pro memoria illius. am. 37. Severus. Urbat 10): ad ipsum fontem facta cf. Bechtel 103. Bechtel 104. in the Empire. frequently meant 'concerning': frustrati circa veritatem.' and replaced ob and propter : fides pro una muliere perfida. Digitized by Microsoft® . nos. appo. where ab seems Apud is used for cum by Sulpicius to be used for apud).. replaced by ad. Hoppe 37. Super sometimes replaced de: fallere vos super hanc rem. . 390-392. derive the Mohl would Old It.^ 79. also ab una manu pallas altaris tenerem. 42. Bechtel 106.?. 75-76). cum probably disappeared from actual use in Gaul by the fourth century. § 14). ad For the most part apud-^-a.27- in late writers (R. to supplant a critical period for Gaul. had a great vogue country. G. and more frequently by later authors: Lat. but from ad hoc from Italic Pr. a new word. apud.

etc. Bayard 161. Regnier often used for ne and num (G. Ac sic recurs continually in the Pere49. quia. 41 81. 24. cf. Ut 82. encroaches on quando in the 22. 73. often supplanting quando. Tamen in the grinatio. guoniam {^SMddlt&r Jubere. merely Magis is much employed to indicate a subordinate clause. aut is sometimes equivalent to et . vade retro me. Bechtel 119-120. 84. 48. Regnier 11 2-1 13. &'took the place of a« and utrum (R. ^. forts. Retro. R. quasi: Per. meaning 'and so' or 'so': 40. 334): subtus terram. foras were freely used as prepositions (R. in most cases. Eventually ut was generally discarded. 13. which in late Latin was often reduced to qui or qua (see § 168) frequently took the place of quod: Regnier 111-112. quare sometimes replaced ^«^^and quia: G. . 'when'. §§ 70. 445-446. 424 {unde inquit Dominus). Peregrinatio : Qua. etc. 402. ' ' ' Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. ut : R. : R. G. same text (37. 399. et: Per. 398-400. he. 403-405.' § 84] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Quia. 430): videte si Ac si frequently did service for potest did. 399. and was . R. 6.) seems to be used. . Aut cf. 403. and many other places Bon. 83. . Quomodo became a great favorite. temporal sense. etc. 8. . with the infinitive «/ is is : not infrequent 549. and quoniam : R. 46. CONJUNCTIONS. Unde sometimes means therefore for but by late writers. Cur. 431-432. 39. Quando displaced cum in the quod. rm\c\\ used in the sense of that ' : Per. Quod to for very common AudoUent ' £0 quod cdLiae 27. 427—428) are used very often by late writers instead of the accusative and infinitive construction: R. . de forts. Quod.. cf. 323. Regnier in. and 'wherefore': G. in). subtus.

increasingly took the place of pure case distinctions. constructions. 302-326. 174-176 . Hence employment arises in late writers a great irregu- of cases^: G. Bianchi With other words. than in the literary language. Aquis Acqui Aix. et sic fit missa ecclesitz. who occasionally uses the accusative for the dative and the ablative. 8$. of the locative ablative singular in Ttbiiri^ Tivoli . [§ 86 C. the domi or domo of Cicero becomes in domo in Seneca. : > etc. rare in Classic Latin. plural in Andecavis > Flntbus > Fimes. as time went on. ' " Cf. ut Clusil~^ Chiusi. Quillacq 96- for African Latin. from prepositional the beginning. in the Peregrinatio fit : There find are. and very often with place names also. 322). remained eventually missa Anastasi. USE OF INFLECTIONS. etc. The locative. and the use of cases became more and more 103 restricted. There is confusion even in Petronius. 1. Cf. 412-415. We remnants of the locative geni- tive in Agrigentt> Girgenti. Archiv VIII. larity in the . several examples Bechtel no. a. etc. Palestina (G. only in names of places. When the locative of names of localities was kept. Pirson 169-202. Florentice^ Firenze. 86. Digitized by Microsoft® . LOCATIVE. for confusion after verbs and adjectives. the locative was replaced by in with the ablative (Hoppe 32 in Alexandria) or by ad with the accusative (Urbat 10).1 42 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Arimtnt> Rimini. it generally came to be regarded as an inin Archivio glottologico italiano IX. of the locative ablative Angers. Astis Asti. B. CASES. R. 378. Partsiis > > Parigi Paris. In popular speech prepositions were more used.. however.

Urbat 20. instead of -e. curator de sacra via. 87. Pirson 194. R. de spiritu Moysi. 487.. Hoppe 38. The vocative Classic Latin. sometimes by the dative. lumine. 396. R. 39. 426. In Vulgar Latin the vocative form probably disappeared entirely. c. 528 a. Bechtel 104. de oleo. According to Meyer-Liibke. cf.' -P^r. Cf. . vocatives in -us. domine. bus gentilibusque multitudo magna (also quidam ex Acts 4. 43 variable form we find such locatives used as nominatives : from the third century on Lat. For the partitive genitive we find: nil 53. Oliver 14. de Deo munus. gustabit de meo. 481. de aceto plenum. save in set combinations. the genitive probably ceased to be really popular.. Cicero. 342 numquid Zacchaus de bono habebat. d. as mi 88. neminem de prcesentibus. . occur in mens for mi is very common (Regnier 34). The genitive. 1. quid de scientia. the nominative in most words in and such words as had a separate vocative form is like it : tended to discard Plautus. Spr. VOCATIVE. 396. de coleritieis). Bechtel 104. 628 aliquid de . Hoppe 38. abound: expers partis Verr. de studentibus. 40. R. XVII. 12. Bon. 89. de nostris bonis. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. partem de istius impudentia. 396. aliquid habet de verecundia discipuli. etc. Pir. clerici de ipsa ecclesia.§ 89] An . little. Digitized by Microsoft® . such Horace. R. II. 6ioff. Spr. little by constructions. IV. possessor de propria terra. de pomis =^som& apples. was supplanted by other by the ablative with de (which occurs Examples as early as Plautus). i. Terence Heaut.10. cited by Draeger I. terminus de nostra donatione. R. Archiv I. and Livy. Regnier 54. generally . de animalibus. Lat. Sepulcri 217. GENITIVE. b. Plautus. except perhaps in a few set phrases. son 197. de sorore nepus.

329. patiens. D'Arbois 91-93. matre mece. some pronouns.. causa causis. 341—342 in /undo ilia villa. 1. I. dicens ad eum. Bon. ad propinquos restituit. S. C. Cf. Capt. We it to replace however. Pirson Digitized omne regnum. In late Latin a wrong form was often used a deo honorem in an inscription in Gaul. ad id templum data erit.. g. est ministerit. = went to the bishop'. 4. as early as Plautus. 194.C. in the singular of was identical in substitution became very general 64. find. in most of the Empire : ait ad me. however. etc. a tendency by the accusative with ad: ad carnuficem dabo. 1019. [§ 90 by the beginning of the third century. Lat Spr. etc. XXV. Bechtel 104. inscription of 57 B. a. Urbat 12. etc. de noctis cHjus. Plautus. Varro.. L. mart maribus). ad vestram 'I Bechtel 102-103. etc. IV. in good many set phrases. illorum. Sepulcri 218. Fieri. etc. ange- lorum. illujus. . ad me ad Dei officio paratus. . muro muris.44 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Livy II. '^^^ hcec affectionem darem. form either with the ablative or with the genitive (e. 487. Paoli. fui ad episcopum etc. De Re Rustica I. ad omnem injuriam im330. the fear of ambiguity naturally fostered this practice and the dative. Oliver by Microsoft® . di notte tempore (later di notte tempo). stable than the genitive: 90. 488. Spr. in honore . G. 329. ii. DATIVE. Inasmuch as the Plautus. alta node silentia. 13. Urbat 12. The genitive was retained. IX. ad quern dixit. D'Arbois 13 alme Maria. G. 40. G. Spr. and probably in some proper names: lUna dies.. loquitur ad Jeremiam. It. The dative was more Lat. etc.. si pecunia most nouns and in the plural of all. Bechtel 103. etc. paganorum. tempore > True. 135. Per. in a words that belonged especially to clerical Latin. apparet ad agricolas. ad quern promissio facta.. : Zs.. in certain . Dominus ad restituit Moysen dicit. ad me magna nuntiavit. 3513.

super. R. tibi. G. gaudet de victus necessitate causatur. is For de= 'than. 35. Ab common : ab omni specie idololatrice intactum. esse. reinforced by the analogy of prepositional substitutes for the genitive and dative. ABLATIVE. de se. Sepulcri 218. elsewhere it probably disappeared from really popular speech by the end of the Empire. a came superatur. in feminine adjectives (as romine). and lingered rather late Gaul (Za/. 337. G. 92.. 335. De is : Hoppe 14. 56. 393 patrem de regno privavit. in the first declension (as case). de- ceptus. not ad. nobilior de obsoletiore matrice. occidam de lancea. 45 3-4. ab a prcemio minorem scriptura sancta commemoratos. 36. favored the use of prepositions with the ablative. de manibus suis.G. Bechtel de contumelia sua. Sometimes super eum. Digitized by Microsoft® . Hoppe 33 . digni de cmlo Castores. Bechtel 104.). Bechtel 104 (cf. The analytical tendency of speech. 481). Regnier 54. Regnier 51 . 34. Hoppe Hoppe 34. XXX. illui tilt. 426. etc. etc. Ex R. and so in 91. de vestra rideat CBmulatione. 392-395. except in pronouns {cici. 641. ex infirmitate fatigata. St. super was used: imposuerat manus me misericordiam prastare.§ 92] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Sepulcri 218. 339-342. Bechtel 105. Regnier 54-56. Hoppe. Bechtel 105. Rumanian has kept the dative. Hoppe 105). Cyprian. Hoppe 33. occurs also: ex causa humana salutis. ml. ab Ariulfi astutia the most frequent erubescens de infamia sua. R. de virgine natus est. c. de oculis. Spr. ab sceleribus parce. Hoppe 33. The dative remained in Dacia. in its original function and also as a genitive. Hoppe 36. to distinguish its various functions. Regnier .' see Zs. cited by WolfHin $2. de singularitate famosum. Cf. de te beati sunt.

Sometimes ad ov per with the accusative is substituted per hoc.. K. ferventes. because. ad horam sextam aguntur. Ps. Spr. patrem It is likely that before the patre. Hoppe 31 . R. Regnier 60. XXXI. of the Empire the ablative plural end form was generally discarded. Regnier 58 Hoppe 31 in maxilla asina delevi mille vires. in most of the Latin territory. for the ablative: . Bechtel 95 . fructum fructu. cum res nostras. in fif. epistolam. in illo die. etfreno maxillas eorum constringe. in camo amore Dei 9 in bonis operibus abundetis. cum Cf. 347 R. etc. Rand in is Modem Philology II. Bechtel 103-104. 263. D'Arbois footnote 27. Hoppe 33. sodales. Cf. 94. 488. Spr. per nomen vocavit. G. its stead. Cum cum it was probably not with the accusative is very frequent: cum suos Lat. The accusative form substituted for the ablative after by Microsoft® Digitized .46 An In is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. donum dono. the little ablative differed or not at all from the accusative in the : singular of most words causam causa. . the accusative being used in J 95- There is evidence of the confusion of accusative and first ablative as early as the century. 5. late The use of prepositions became really neccessary in the loss spoken language. in inscriptions. but very common before the third. Lat. caput desecare. 397 . and that the ablative and accusative singular were pronounced alike. G. : [§ 95 often found . E.396-397. 344-347. The fusion of the two cases was doubtless helped by the fact that certain prepositions might be combined with either accusative or ablative. in aU words. diem die. Bechtel 103. Sepulcri 218 pugnare ad ursos. ad unum gladii ictum 93. 488. discenies. after the fall of final m and the of quantitative distinctions in unaccented syllables. quo in tempore. ad diem. .

. post . R. ecclesia majore. luce. cib fatto. per valle and 21 other cases of /ifr+abl. ante sole. . sine fructum.. 406-412. in Per. etc. The some fixed expressions. 47 other prepositions: a monazonies. proper names with as Delia Casa. etc. Bechtel 99 . vendere cento soldi. 406-412. ablative ist' 97. de camem. — prope super civitate hac. . ecclesia. R. Bechtel loi — propter populo. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bechtel 94—101 venit in civitate sua.. . D'Arbois 27 de rigna nostra. puteo. 410.. 406-412. Bechtel 97-98 erat in villas. de. Bechtel loi . etc. medium maris. however.— — — § 97] — —— — . the ablative form very often written for . 40. de eo torrentem.. Bechtel 94.6—412. Bechtel 95.... etc. such as hora. in correct use of in etc. generally. Bechtel xoo\ post morte. circa Bechtel 95 . 406-412. ilia. 58.. in popular speech. Hoppe 40-41 in the Per.. that the ablative absolute survived in a few common 1 like It. Bechtel loi. Bechtel 96 de hoc ipsud. Waters Ch. for ace. its place : Bechtel 09-1 1 o. quomodo. 96. Bechtel 99 lunca. R. pari mente. de ipsas . — : pro hoc ipsud. visa loca sancta omnia {Per. R. etc. . Bechtel 99. — Bechtel 96 — . is Conversely. Bechtel loi. is three times as common as the + ace. et bene- dicens nos episcopusprofectisumus. infinem Deus fecit ccelum et terram. Bechtel 96 de actus. etc. . — intra civitate sua. videbo te in publicum. etc. Bechtel 96. -juxta aqua ipsa.. It is likely. was kept only in etc. Hoppe 40-41 12 examples of in + ace. . intro spe- — lectione. anno. . 406-412. tuos. Bechtel 100. the accusative ante cruce. + abl. . Bechtel 96 de martyrium. ad . for abl. probably in some expressions. Bechtel 95 contra ipso loco. too. — — — foras in came conversa. perhaps in such phrases as It. . R.. etc. pro nos. etc. D'Arbois 70-71 ex fines R. Bechtel 94 ante sole. R. D'Arbois 152. 8). Digitized by Microsoft® . the nominative absolute took 45.

FALL OF DECLENSION. (i) Supine. ^i. 99. 2. Bechtel 103. 100. by the infinitive: as cum Digitized by Microsoft® . infinitive 102. Regnier 52. [§ 103 ACCUSATIVE. were replaced by other locutions. cordance with their idea of correct Latin. g. and 101. Cf. a. many new tendencies manifested them- IMPERSONAL PARTS. 98. fui ad ecdesiam. in the rest of the Empire only two —a nominative and an accusativenaturally tried to write in ac- ablative. Many parts of the verb went out of popular use. instead of the simple accusative: eamus in forum. 327. By the end of the Vulgar Latin period there probably remained in really popular use (aside from pronouns and a number of set formulas) in Dacia only three cases. The supine disappeared from general the first placed.48 An Introduction f. ad Babyloniatn duxit. Waters Ch. sometimes in. tota autem nocte vicibus dicuntur p salmi. also is by the ablative Bechtel : 1 08-9. however. from use. G. 103. In the parts that remained selves. to Vulgar Latin. G. regionem venit. Regnier 51-52. being recentury on. per iotos octo dies etc. Only the present active and the present and perfect participles were left intact. omatus est. these obsolete parts were employed by writers with more or less inaccuracy. After verbs of motion ad was often used. 328. consules ad Africam profecti sunt. ad isfam Duration of time was expressed by per with the ac- cusative. Clerics. VERB-FORMS.

however. 847-849. from the third century on. : sic legendo. esse. R. 363. Draeger II. took the place of a relative cIzms^: faveant mihi pro Cf. it was probably rare in late was used with esse as a substitute Sometimes. 432—433. in place of the future: with 388. R. the gerundive was discarded. Lat. 8. V. 430. The ablative gerund was . etc.erund infinitive. Jilius hominis tradendus Cf. G. 386R. The ablative form of the gerund substitute for the present participle: ita miserrimus tando. the i. (2) 104. Cap. 4. St. Cf. Hoppe 105. R. 490. and Tacitus. Augustine. The gerundive was used est. Spr. Spr. Hoppe multa vidi sometimes used for a conditional clause cavendo salvi erimus. 433-434. 57. came to be replaced With the exception by the sometimes with a prep- osition: dat manducare. (3) Gerundive. except when style. Digitized by Microsoft® . 2. qui pertransivit benefaciendo et Cf. G. Gerund. conciendo ad se multitudinem. ejus nomine pugnaturo. 432. Sermones 225. Terence. ex- cept in some standing phrases. the supine was preserved: Tiktin 596. Future Active Participle. In Rumanian. Lat. 57 179. quomodo potest hie nobis camem dare ad manducare. Eventually. potestatem curare. became more and more a fui fugiet Eun. 389.. G. Densusianu sanando. however. as a future passive participle. Dubois 275. assurgens popu- lando. 49 veneris ad bibere. R. 490. it The future active participle Vulgar Latin. in a literary 388—389. of the ablative form. hanc Marcion captavit errando. necessitas tacere. 433. G.§ io6] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. for the future (as facturus sum). (4) 106. cites Livy.

the perfect instead of the present infinitive very common: R. Late writers. ut spiritu valeatnon ignoramus. quoniam. The perfect participle was kept. It more avoided from . G. and as a noun see Derivation. Verbs that had no perfect participle were obliged to make one. 431-432 {malunt credidisse. 389. mundus sit.the was replaced sometimes by the passive. 371-373. its use was greatly extended through new methods of forming the passive and the perfect tenses. 383 . 371. The perfect and passive infinitive forms eventually In late writers. (5) [§ no Present Participle. and was used as an : adjective -ans. legitur dixisse Deus. nemo mentiens plorat.). 385.50 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. credidit ei quia esset vere Jilius Dei. G. and. wishing to avoid vulgarisms. quod. si ipse est ascendens in ccelos. Bon. it for a relative clause: it Often. de corpore loquor. Regnier 63.. no. 371-375. G. Suffixes for Adjectives. however. 107. is disappeared: see Voice and Tense below. Bechtel 112—115. G. but often by a clause in- troduced by quia. Writers occasionally substituted 388. (6) Perfect Participle. 377. (7) Infinitive. 109. by Microsoft® . sciens quod — libenter haberetis hcec cognoscere. : Eva vidisse de- G. 659-671. The present participle was kept. however. G. ut. as will presently be seen. Cf. (licent eo quod filii Israhel eas posuerint. 108. Sometimes it was employed periphrastically with esse: G. perspicue exposuit quod ager nesciebat quia Jesus erat. etc. etc. The infinitive + accusative construction was more and third century on: G. etc. 375-385. scribitur. was replaced by the ablative gerund: see Gerund above. often misused the infinitive + accusative: Digitized G.

b. 647. 673. Regnier 74 mihi prcecepit hac loqui. per velle perdidit bonum posse. facere. Bon. amant ignorare.. male fecisti dare Spiritum sanctum. Regnier 106. Spr. Hoppe 61. Thielmann. G. venit aliquis audire. of the popular formation . some the — except the perfect gerundive — gradually + esse (in north- disappeared from ordinary speech. P. 490. 363-370. timuisti . It Hoppe malum tions: replaced the subjunctive with ut and similar construcvadent orare. Bechtel 117: valeamus assumi. 430. by Microsoft® .. Hoppe 60. 51 111. to Under the ' influence of carus '. G. 366. Regnier 73. R.. etc. Venantius Fortunatus. Regnier 106. 363. 177. G. 368. functions: see Supine bonus et dicere et facere. participle The old passive forms extent.§ 112] An On Introduction to Vulgar -Latin. Bon. 370. Facere mit dem Infinitiv in Archiv III. aliter exprimere non est. VOICE. It wias often used as a noun: totum vivere anima carnis est. G. see Draeger was made up and. mean he was loved': flection is loved etc. Regnier Digitized 63. permissa est accedere. Cf. up the classic practice as far as they were Although authors kept able. . conjectus in carcerem fuerat. cited in Lat. non habent unde reddere tibi. G. Hoppe 60 mors salva erit cum fuerit devorata. Cf. ipsum vivere accedere est. revertitur omnis populus resumere se. Hoppe 42-52: Ninus regnare primus. Bechtel 117. It took the place of a relative or indirectly interrogative after certain verbs: clause nesciendo qua petere. ' 112. est. non venit justos vocare. the infinitive assumed many new and Gerund above. Regnier 73. I. quce legi digna sunt. amatus est came Hence amatus fuit signified he Then a whole passive in2 76ff. 42. etc. the other hand. to of the perfect participle ern Italy y?^). 671-675. some examples may be culled from late writings: denuo factus filius fui.

Spr. scribitur When littera seemed archaic. Dubois 275 notes that the forms in -0 are very rare in Ennodius. and in Italy. Bechtel 126.52 113. 490. being replaced by the indicative in many . Bechtel 115 si scire vultis quid facitis. (i) Imperative. who lived in southern Gaul in the fifth century. Rom. etc. 117. The imperative came to be restricted to the second person singular and plural of the present. verbs are used as active verbs by Petronius. much as it is used by Microsoft® . very Digitized was probably used. deponent verbs became active. people said littera se scribit and litteram scribunt or litteram scribit homo: ct. In negative commands the imperative was often placed by the subjunctive. and littera scripta est vulgar. homo with the force of French on. for the use of 25. The subjunctive was limited to fewer functions. by the indicative (found in Pirminius). An As Introduction to Vulgar Latin. I'er. XXXII. In late vulgar speech mori. 115. MOOD. facit se hora quinta. and also for the first. as in the case oi frusirare frustrari. -At the end of the Vulgar Latin period it in popular speech. followed the same Bonnet 402-413. se sanare ^= sanari in the 4th century. 55. constructions: cum hi omnes tarn excelsi sunt. (2) Subjunctive. In the intermediate period the passive was frequently replaced by reflexive and active constructions. re- 116. Cf. Even in Classic Latin there is often hesita- tion. and Dacia by the infinitive: Zat. Many deponent course. Gaul. 114. [§ 117 the passive inflection disappeared. Regnier 69. irascere irasci. etc.. sequi. see c. etc. 455. the subjunctive being used for the third person.

•a. and with perthis use is common in the fect infinitives like tacuisse for tacere {Lat.§ 119] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 428-430. were less logical and evidently less spontaneous than Classic authors in their employment of the subjunctive. § 72.&x facio. used freely for the imperfect by isset. potuisset. ples. in dependent clauses that are not adversa- nor dubitative. place was taken by the infinitive: vergine. the indicative was often substituted for the subjunctive: R. Regnier 68-71. languages. exWriters of the third and fourth centuries cept in Sardinia. its G. as In Rumanian the pluperfect subjunctive has assumed the show uncertainty function of a pluperfect indicative 119. 489: examples from the 4th century). § III. Cf. It apparently began with debuvoluisset. 357-362- (118. in indirect In conditions not contrary to tive discourse and indirect questions. ecce Pater fecit Filium nasci de fact. G. The in the use of it.iX. The pluperfect : imperfect subjunctive gradually gave way to the Bellum Africanum {^Lat. On the other hand. Spr. 431 cites many examtimui ne inter nos bella fuissent orta. : cdntdse. Regnier 27-28. Digitized It was apparently confused with was thus preserved in Spain by Microsoft® . cf. while trying to follow the traditional practice. R. 355-357. etc. Sittl 133-134. Spr. etc. 489). late writers often put the subjunctive where Classic authors would have put the indicative: G. 53 in the Romance Late writers. imperfect subjunctive ultimately went out of use. 418. Gregory the Great (Sepulcri 226) and others. The perfect subjunctive the future perfect indicative. Cf. Sometimes. Sometimes the subjunctive was replaced by deieo with the infinitive: debeant accipi = accipiantur.

Plautus. Part. In late Lastin this compound often had simply a peribi vos meaning: metuo enim ne habeam fatigatos. indicative 120. perf 372 . (i) The Perfect Tenses. in Classic Latin. pecunias magnas 294. Draeger I. in general. see § 118. The present and imperfect and the present subjunctive remained. for the perfect subjunctive. perf. 516. rationes cognitas habeo. cf. Tiktin 596. Densusianu 181. Fart. Fart. 121. however. The . quid Athenis exquisitum habeam. etc. and Rumanian and V. perf. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. yarf«»2 habeo. used in the same Part. 414-415. future. compertum ego habeo. De Lollis in Zs. Draeger 122. way with Even adjectives: miserum habere. ff. 535 is . Crescini in d. [§ 122 and Bausteine Cf. perf ^11. I. § 117. Regnier Cf. 537-538. junctive. 690. dialects: cf. Sallust. scriptum habeo. 405. ilia omnia missa habeo. episcopum invitatum habes. 518-521. In the and future perfect indicative great changes took place. habeo deliberatum. perf 415. Fart. pluperfect. Bon.54 An in Italian i. C. construction very common in Cicero in a sense that closely approaches the perfect: satis . Draeger 295. Part. XXIX. the mean- ing of this locution began to shift to the perfect. in legal phraseology. however. fect 294-295. or something akin to it: Cato the elder. 689-691. collocatas habent. perfect. perf.. re- Fart. omnis res lictas habeo. Fart. with their old functions. 376. 619. 423. For the imperfect and pluperfect subsee. perf. by Microsoft® . I. TENSE. Digitized Bon. § 119. 28. In Classic Latin habeo with the perfect participle was used to express a lasting condition: Hannibal quia fessum It was militem praliis operibusque habebat. which led also to thS formation of a new perfect and pluperfect subjunctive. § 124. perf.

The old perfect form remained in popular use. Old French Sainte Eulalie. with the force of a future indicative or subjunctive. Fart. perf. and to some extent in Italy. On the model of this new the sixth: Part. tional function. 124. gener ally with the aorist sense. ortaret. and continued to be used. the Gl. perfect bant. pouret. The old pluperfect indicative became rarer. 543. it 55 In popular speech function: perfect form.. In the Spanish peninsula. Digitized by Microsoft® . however. The old future perfect was apparently confused with the perfect subjunctive. boltier' in the Old The condiItalian Ritmo Cassinese (^Zs. in some southern Italian dialects (notably in the Rosa in the fresca aulentissima). which supplanted more and more the original was increasingly confined to its aorist Lat Spr. Sepulcri 227. was preserved in Spanish. Some late writers were fond of :\ substituting for Cf. in the Spanish peninsula. 537. 70. sometimes as a preterit. transalaret in etc. si Dominum iratum haberes.. the old perfect meaning was not entirely lost. : quam semper cognitam habui. sometimes as a conditional. etc. with esse. In the same way a future perfect was made: de Ccesare satis dictum habebo. Eventually an entire perfect inflection was built up with habere or. its vogue began in Gaul in the fifth century. but still lingered. and in the Italian /ora -Cfueram. 489. § 72. Regnier 28. in the case of neuter verbs. XXIX. auret. 123. etc. it cxpi with an infinitive: Waters Ch. quas in cerario conditas habeDraeger I. elsewhere . a compound pluwas constructed Cicero. I [ sometimes with its original sense. perf. Reich. The preterit use occurs in dixerat. in Proven9al. 620). which came down from the Classic Latin use in conditional sentences.§ 124] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 541. 294. furet.

according to Mohl. gations. had some circumlocutions. The old pluperfect subjunctive was used as an imperfect: see § 118. errors as respondeam for respondebo (^Futurum 158). dormibo forms were kept late {Futurum 161). Digitized by Microsoft® . and we find such 126. Sepulcri 225. inquis. Regnier viii. qiiando mutarisi eras.— S6 in An some Introduction to Vulgar Latin. quando 64. As the tense became rare in speech. Old Sp. cum volueris et imus tecum ostendimus tibi. and in the other two. jam crastina non eximus. (2) 125. Furthermore. Regnier Cf. Future and Conditional. Pr. such as fachabeo dicere. [§ 126 dialects of Italy. Cf. cantdro. future was not uniform in the four conjuwas used in three of them and prevailed in two. was native. which The Latin mistakes were made in writing: Vok. in late pronunciation. These causes or others made the future unpopular. the future in the first two conjugations was suggestive of the imperfect. Draeger I. Bechtel 90-91. for the future forms (such periphrases are particularly fre- quent in African church Latin) : (1) The present indicative for the future is common in Cicero in conditional sentences: Lebreton 188-190. § 119.. The old audibo. was liable to confusion with the present subjunctive and indicative. delenda est. and in Dacia: Sp. which approached the meaning of the future. 98. The substitution si vis ecce ire became frequent in all sorts of constructions: nam modo pedibus duco vos ibi. corrigis. only in Rome and the immediate vicinity. cantdre. Pers. During the Empire there was a strong tendency to substitute these or other constructions Classic Latin turus sum. Bechtel 112. the formation in —bo. PL 141-142. Sepulcri 225-226. 286 ff. I. pervidet. Bechtel 112.

R. St. quam evenire haDeus corpus. Regnier century. Jerome. debeo dicere: tibi polliceri. . 123. It had become common by the sixth In the early stages of the Romance languages. Regnier 29. qui nasci habent. . 129. being so used by Cicero and nius. infinitive: In Classic Latin habeo habeo quod dicam. 106. ( ^w^ was a favorite with late nos futuri sumus resurgere. videre habetis. Cf. Cicero. Rustica 5. it many others. R. bam. . the oldest Rumanian future is voiujurd or Jurd vom: Tiktin 599. as in Sueto- means I. R. The form that prevailed. tantum habeo Lucretius VI.. rebus dicere habemus. This habeo construction dare habet finally took the sense of a simple future: Tertullian. — St. Hoppe 44 it . etc. I. 370. frobare non habent. 57 (2) future participle writers: stc et Bayard 256. I 127. § 129] An The Introduction to Vulgar Latin. (3) Velk and /^w^ + infinitive were frequent: G. + + It was 5) Vadere. or Digitized by Microsoft® . Futurum 180. Trist. et sicnihil tuis. aliter prcedicantur bent. infinitive was another substitute. R. See §§ 105. Ad Famil. 128. 447-449.— Servius. was habeo with the dicere ^=:. Futurum 48 ff. Augustine. habes invenire in manibus — tollere habet. venire + infinitive were used also.. nee verba nobis ista did habent. Hoppe 44-45 . 423. (4) Debere kept in Sardinian. Varro. I. De Re ut id mihi habeam curare. in multis hoc . Hoppe 44 nan habent retribuere. later. I. 449 Regnier 28. . R.. cui velle habet. Velle in this sense was preserved in Dacia. . ire. In these senses habes spectare. G. however. mandare habewas very common in late writers: Hoppe 43 filius Dei mori habuit. Ovid. Cf. etc. 28. Cf. 447 multa habeo dicere. 448 exire habebat. 711. Densusianu 181 in Italy . i. venire habet. . 447 unde mihi dare habes aquam vivam.

addarabo. Bayard 256. There are sure examples from the fifth century on: Lat. In Classic Latin. 55. in place of amassem the conclusion of a conditional sentence. and in Portuguese it is not completed Old Sp. ready for use. just before the habeo. or conditional. Haag See Morphology.. etc. . pati haberet. On the model of this future. The earliest examples of the Romance future are found in Fredeyet. The phrase existed.— 58 . Bayard 257. it was natural that amaturus eram should give m way to bam. cantare or he cantar. [§ 130 possibly in the latest stage of Vulgar Latin. Spr. Herodes principes sacerdotum ubi nasci habebat Christus interrogat. although sometimes with him the meaning borders on a real conditional: non traditus autem traduci habebas. Furthermore. new form. Hilary seem to show a simple conditional use of the compound: quod lex nova dari haberet. in Classic Latin. and occurs in Old Italian Pg. where it was employed with an implication of obligation or necessity. Digitized by Microsoft® . an imperfect of the was constructed. Cyprian and St. something like si potuissem venire habebam or habui was called for. but this union was not completed until after the beginnings of the Romance literatures. Finally the two words were fused into one. though not immutably. So it seems to be used by Tertullian. garius: Justinianus dicebat 'daras'. 489. amaturus eram or fui was often used and when amaturus sum was replaced by amare habeo. Hoppe 43-45. to match such a sentence as venire habebat or habuit. fazel-o-he. there quod was needed a past construction and corresponding to venire habeo. separation is common in Old Provencal. St. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Haag 54. manifestari habebat. the infinitive came to stand regularly. ista civitas esterminari haberet quod esset venturus et 130. Quillacq 116. amare habedicit quod like dixit si possum venire habet.

Tiktin. Digitized by Microsoft® . XXVIII. of this 59 The development as. not' bvious. form in the Romance languages see in general. 691. The ')ie origin of the full Rumanian conditional. cintareasH. see H. Bildung des rumanischen Konditionalis in Zs. for a discussion of the question. parallel to that of the future: Moris hology.§ 130] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

Lat. 131. the syllable always ended in a vowel. According to these writers. pro-pter. 466. PHONOLOGY. position. prop-ter. no-ctem. etc. supporting it with purely theoretical considerations. except a mute + a liquid. A single consonant between vowels certainly went with the second po-si-tus. and not pirfe-ctus. as in ob-liviscor. that a consonant group. or in a liquid or nasal followed by another consonantin the next syllable. or in half of a double consonant: a-ni-ma. S. sic-cus. They add In point of that etymological considerations often disturb the operation of the rule. it In the Classic I. It is likely that in Old Latin the division came before the Digitized by Microsoft® . The division of j + consonant they regard as uncertain {a-s- trum)\ doubtless in reality the s was nearly syllabic. The group mute + liquid makes position in the older dramaafter the first : : tists : Nsevius accents integrant. 132. Cf. The principles of syllabic division are rather difficult to establish.III. SYLLABICATION. A. a-mnis. poets may or may not make tinebrcB. 132-151. in-fans. all consonant groups. fact. mit-to. etc. made position an^ attracted the accent: perfSc-tus. however. The Latin grammarians seem to have given no heed to actual speech. phdretra. al-ter. as in Italian. then. In Vulgar Latin this : combination almost invariably attracts the accent cathidra. but to have followed the usage of Greek spelling. was usually divided consonant noc-tem. in the spoken language. Quintilian 5 recom- mends vdlucres. It is altogether likely. Spr.

delicto. Old Fr. We speech a that final have reason to believe that in closely connected consonant was carried over to the next word. inUgram. have seen that Vulgar Latin regularly accents according to the Classic quantitative accentuation. PRIMARY STRESS. 892-906 S. In the earliest stage of the language appar- ently fell on the first syllable: Corssen II. I. There are. both consonants were carried over lub-ra. § 132) normally has the stress in Vulgar Latin: cathedra. § 136] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 30-34. ing to which the accent The falls Classic Latin system — accordis on the penult long. some cases in which the Classic principle fails to operate or the Classic stress has been shifted 135. Old Fr. VOWELS m HIATUS. 13. The penult vowel before mute + liquid (cf. computo. became y. the accent falling on the e Digitized by Microsoft® . cor exsultat = co r-exsultat. had become fixed : 6i liquid. co-lu-bra. ACCENT. however.. The Latin accent was probably from regularly stress accent. through the Classic period even after the distinctions of quantity were lost. Franz. and perhaps : some othfc. but subsequently. if that syllable as early as and remained. Accented vowel of the penult. There seem to be a few exceptions to the rule palpres < pdlpebras. unchanged: bonitatem. the beginning a it 134. co-liib-ra. and /. when immediately followed by the 136. : We — a. otherwise on the antepenult — developed . 133. if : word began with a vowel B. pi. both in the literary and in the spoken language. colubra. after the accent on cd- the preceding vowel. poltre < *pullitra. the place of the accent was literature began.

Cf. 468. It was favored also by the analogy of miilier. etc. imp Itcaf^* imp Heat. tra- addedi. battuere being influenced by bdttuo. Aside from these cases. Lat Spr. 1889 (pvte6lis). etc. Sepulcri 213-215. habuerunt by hdbuit. Accented u. 192. perdedit. Lehrbuch der Phonetik. itios were sometimes pronounced duds.pi(teus. Gram. crededi. tenueram by tenui. 138. VI. p. habMrunf^ * hdb^erunt. b. in which the vowel in hiatus is atonic. So 54 . presteti. COMPOUND VERBS. [§ 139 following vowel: put^olis ~:> mul(eris>muljMs. riquirit "^ * requkrit. hiatus seems to have had no on the accent in Latin. L. 51. effect diios. etc. paries. when immediately followed by the vowel falling of the penult. This change X. parjites^paretes^ C. 137.62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. S. Here the shift was apparently due in each case to analogy. Digitized by Microsoft® . 56. re- 139. Jespersen. I. Cf § 225. §31): deficit >* disfdcit... reddtdi "^ reddMi. reiinet > * ret^net. 668-670. C. but * muVeres. tuds. that suos. On the same plan new verbs were formed: *de-minat. I. adsteti. 3714 (paretes). S. It is possible. dedit. reddedit. /. etc. conteneo. suds. O. condedit. however. . inclausus. '/« regularly re-nigat. etc. seems to be due to a tendency to shift the stress to the more sonorous of two contiguous vowels: cf. Verbs compounded with prefixes were generally constructed with the accent and the vowel of the simple verb. it was palatalized: \i&xwt f aretes. became e but if the preceding consonant was . displtcet>*displdcet. provided the composite nature of the formation was understood and the parts were recognized (cf. S. calefacis. consuere by cdnsuo. tenueram > * tenj^eram. II. became w. consuere'>*cdns^ere'> cdnsere . so parietes" L. the accent on the preceding syllable: bat{^t)iiere'>* bdtty^ere'> bdttere . > putjdlis.

ficatum. ficotum. . 235Digitized by Microsoft® .' c. by a change of suffix. 141. it probably became *secotum. . illic accented their last syllable through the analogy of hdc^ hlc. perhaps under the influence of a vulgar *hepdte for hepar. 63 RMpit became being with In felt. n. fecitum. central 2jaA. a cross between /««/«/« was kept in Sicily and in the Spanish peninsula. Ficatum or prevailed in Dacia. The adverbs iliac. 42. the simple verbs having become rare or having taken a different sense: legere. Reetia. There existed in Greek a word 'figlike'. and northern Italy. *ftcatum. cdlligo and some others not even the composite nature was perceived. a . * redpit.' Ficatum. Gaul had ficatum and ficatum. was preferred in and southern Italy. . for instance. Ficatum. which was applied by cooks to a liver.simple translation of (tvkwtov. 435 L. Through this word there came into use the culinary terms /tedium. which should properly have been pronounced sycotum .Lic. all meaning 'liver. 515 and XXVIII. a fusion of ficatum and * sicotum. came to be used only in the sense of 'read. later. Ascoli 41 See G. *fdcatum. It is found in late Latin in the form sycotum. the composite character of the word although the compound was no longer associated capere. Sardinia preserved both ficatum and ficatum. 'liver'. *ficotum */dciium. FICATUM. Clddat in Revue de philologie fran(aise et de littirature XV. Priscian says ^^ illic pro mice": S. d.§ i4i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. (tdicwtoi/ (Pirson 40). for some unknown reason. n-LAc. 140. XXV. Paris in Miscellanea linguistica in onore di Graziadio H. Schuchardt in Zs.

virahersvigintt. may represent popular stress. Tairav6s>* iapinus.'i'^ mdc(k)- tna. 461. tisana. borrowed Idmpa^s). Claussen 809. (1) Greek Oxytones. 392. Cf. fj. 42 ff. Kafxapa^cdmera. when by Latin.r/xa-vj'^- were stressed according to the Latin system: ^pa-)QiLT^> drdch{u)ma.64 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. fdia. > ( ^purpura. [§ 145 NUMERALS. Ther\. however. iraXa/ir/ ^pd/ma. of Greek words was varied. See M. § 134). mdgida. 144. apparently the first syllable: (2) 145. sometimes the word was made to conform to the Latin principle. 337. Xa. It. stressed ^vKwrov.TKj6. (nraa-it.. Wahlund.qumqudginta. 69-70.vr] <f>apiTpa'>p/tdretra ox phar'etra (cf. <f>Ld\rj XoXepa > chdlera) > colira. e.ix. Optisdna)':>lt.ira. etc. irapa. S. Greek paroxytones were mostly accented according to the quantity of the penult: ypa(j>tov>grdp/iium. kTzi<jTo\rj~> epistula —ola. Digitized by Microsoft® . lines quarranta occurs in a late inscription. Greek Paroxytones. a. Greek oxytones. irapaT-fi^'^ pirata. \ were sometimes accented on the antepenult: Consentius mentions a faulty pronunciation triginta. The accentuation times the Greek stress GREEK WORDS. etc. The shift was probably due to a tendency to differentiate the numerals from one compare the floating accent in English thirteen^ another in Melanges natural : fourteen. 143.o^'^ spdstnus. G. terms borrowed by ear from the Greek. as polifpus.poKri'^pardbula.. Ti. Ihm in Archiv VII. Rydberg . Vok. see § 141. with the Greek > Occasionally the accent was kept by doubling the consonant. 4-5 Pirson 97. II. voXvTrovs '^ polypus^ irop(f>vpa /jMyiSa. Somewas preserved. (>pMd/a)> It. Keil V.tnginta. 1 142. etc..guadraginta.

sen 809. doubtless favored by Cliristian influence.. but their statements are too vague to be of use. A few early borrowed words perhaps show the Old Latin Cf. Claussen 812. of proparoxytones is The treatment complicated. -eum -ium. 42). the accent remained un- changed phus. S. (3) 147. The pronunciations melodia. by Microsoft® . Greek Proparoxytones.cupressus. are attested: S. When : the penult was short. S. XXXI. (with a KoXa^o^ > cdld- Trpea-ftvrepov > presbyterum new nominative took the prisbyter). 55-56. it accent afivcraoi > abyssus. iKKXtjaia the Latin fiipXla^Mblia. 149. 148. ylvecTK "^ ginesis. Claussen 813-814. > ec(^c)Usia. Cf. raXaxTov > talintum. Thomas in Rom. 35.'avfi<l>(ovia>sym- Later a fashionable pronunciation -ia.- was at first generally assimilated to p\a. sometimes —ea. 42£f. I. 2-3. -eum: ^a. phonia. etc.t&o. Claus- accentuation: Kxnta. Cf.. 42-49. Late Latin grammarians mention a pro- nunciation of Greek words with the Greek accent (S.<j-(^r]fLux. The endings -aa.. Gram. A. KaXafiOi > calamus. When : the penult vowel was in position. etc.. The ending -2i2. Kuiv(im&ov> conopeum -eum —ium. Claussen 810— 811. Claussen 814-821. penetrated popular speech {(ro<l>ia> sopMa. —aav sometimes became -ea -ia.<TTopia> kistdria. 'i. > platea platea.) and produced a new Latin ending -ia. 65 but it more likely that the Italian forms are book-words with a shifted accent. § 17. kKo. Digitized jSawTia-fui > baptisma.§ 149] ^^ Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. etc. Cf. Cf.>blasp hernia. and sophta. Suffixes for Nouns.'Kav&ov'> balneum. which was used to form new words: see Derivation.puj<jo%~^* ciiparissosy. -ia 146. a-riirta>s^pia. we can determine the rhythm Latin. (T'aia. ipr]iuis> eremus eremus : > (Prudentius). Spr. ayKvpa>dncora. however. xa/xtvos it : caminus. it consisted in a tolerably regular alternation syllables. t^aWtava'^. Fisaurum It. writes: Beatus iuctor skculi Servile c6rpus fnduit. [§ 153 'EyKava-Tov. Celtic Baiocasses > > Z>urdcasses'^'Px.> sinapi sindpi. judging from phonetic changes late Latin verse. Some words borrowed from other languages kept e.o%> bldsphemus (Prudentius). Troyes. of Vulgar and from semi-popular Kluge 500. > 150. ^\axr<^-i]p. When the penult vowel was long and not in position.ballcena. 151. etc. a-iKlvov^ linum. As far as SECONDARY STRESS. KpoKohaKoi'^ crocodilus. OTHER FOREIGN WORDS. Ka. became both encdustum and incaustum. Ne Digitized by Microsoft® .66 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Germanic words were apparently made to conform to Latin types: H'&go HUgun > Hugo Hugdnem > Fr. contrary to Latin rules (S. 466).ov tdolum (both in Prudentius: Lat.pv6<^vKKov Occasionally the consonant group was simplified and the accent remained : > * garofulum. Hues Hudn. 49): Umbrian Fr. etc. Dreux. 48-49) Ka. apparently took the accent in book-words but not in words learned by ear (S. 2. Tricasses'>Yx.T]\ai> camelus -ellus. their original accent. Dottin 103. 'ldKioPoi>/dcobus. Some words have both pronunciations et8<i)A. 153. . of accented and unaccented fifth Thus Sedulius. Ut cdrne carnem liberdns p^rderit quos c6ndidit. Bayeux. Pharo. 152. j3ovTvpov> *se'- biHtyrum (^milius Macer). at the beginning of the century.

cdlapMin Pr. UNSTEESSED WORDS. amistdt. Digitized by Microsoft® . In many cases the intervening vowel fell out or lost Then the primary and the secondary ac- lost cent were brought together. however. circum-Utora (Quintilian s). te-videt. and the secondary was shifted or *pdrauldre. pldcttiim'^'Pr. Many words.^plach. strong. it was weak. v€ttovdglia beside vittdria. 155. non-dmat. dolorosa. but clmPr. Idcrlmosa. Short. I. sdzer. the root syllable may have received an irregular stress through the analogy of the primitive: * drboricellus. When the secondary stress preceded the tonic. F\6rentino beside Fvrenze. so. cave-facias. unemphatic words. B\i6logn{no beside Bologna. Casdrem. colp. 156. clerc. were used only as enclitics or proclitics. syllables to the beginning or had no accent. cum Pr. dd-tibi. Gdllias. felidtatem. fell on the second syllable from the tonic: cuptditosus. its syllabic value. as well as some adverbs and pronouns. In late formations e or i in hiatus did not count as a sylla- ble: * cotninitidre.: § 156] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. In some derivatives. especially prepositions and conjunctions. in Italian. When it followed the tonic. in Latin as in other lan- guages. clirgue while cUr'cum > > > cdlbe while cdlpum > Pr. 67 ' The secondary then. cdlidHs cdldus. and were attached as additional end of other words (S. *parduldre *pardbuldre : > > > filiiis "^^/ilius. 154. 38-39) dma-me. but probably the vowel bearing it had more force than a wholly unaccented final vowel: sdcer{>'PY. stress. it and the vowel bearing it was was apparently treated as an accented vowel: * amicUdtem~^'?x.

Words sometimes sa. position checked it is 160. however. eccum istum > 'cu" p II. and probable that the beginnings of this differentiation go back to Vulgar Latin times : pa-rem > Old Fr. they tended to become monosyllabic: unstressed magis.68 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. sel. how great the difference was we do not know. QUANTITY. For the syllabication of mute + liquid. per. 134. par-tern > Fr. A syllable was long if it contained ( i ) a long vowel or a diphthong or (2) any vowel + a following consonant. by Microsoft® . the consonant was final and the next word began with a vowel.5"^ illas and sometimes unstressed and * las. 'lu' A 'c'ic dissyllabic beginning with a vowel seems to have regularly lost vldet. ecce that vowel: ilium v{det^ hic^ (but ecce hie > ecc'tc) For 158. Every 'LaXin vowel was by nature either lon^ prshort. perhaps influenced proclitic hy plus. the consonant. sUay- C. . see Franz. If. [§ i6o 157. became *mais and * mas. did not prevent the development: pa-trem^Y-ic. part. If such particles had more than one syllable. S. in connected speech. pere. 1110. We must distinguish between the quantity of vowels and the quantity of syllables. ' I 159. elision. see §§132. 1. POSITION. Mute + liquid Neither. did a final consonant Digitized §133): Jffl-/> Fr. (cf. In some of the Romance languages the development of the preceding vowel. 73-79. stressed tended to develop double forms: sua and Cf. was doubtless carried over to the next syllable and did not make position: see §133. 56-57. apparently. but we may surmise that in common speech it was more marked in stressed than in unstressed vowels. 379-390. istu' (but iccum istum > eccu'istu').

especially before the accent: bal{l)cBna. petto pietra<pe-tra. Many words certainly longing to different Latin dialects. 118: mIssit) > causa. buc{c)lna. but often it must represent an actual difference in pronunciation. 163. gluto glutto . coupe. -esse -essem etc. Early in the Empire caussa ss after vowels was apparently reduced to casus. (S. hoc erat hocc S. S. glossa glosa. is common in Greek and Latin manu- scripts: S. diphthongs and long 112-120): cdssus> formosus. cuor{e) 161. cedo. citto {C. biica bucca . coUo < <icd-r. cippus. L. Stolz 222—225. stupa stuppa. copa. however. which prevailed in Romance. cuopre <. mtllia (but not in mille : Pompeius. cot{t)idie. as seems to be ves(s)ica.§ 163] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. formossus > > > mtsit. I. 129. cuba. Jiipiter Juppiter. 125-126 (Velius Longus and Pompeius). —Isse —tssem etc. VIII. corpo <:_cdr-pus. missit (S. In Latin texts there is much confusion of single and double consonants. 69 Compare tus. doubtless beone with a long vowel + — + a double consonant: brdchium brdcchium . Sp. mut{t')ire. cuppa. S. ii594)>It. ferro <ifer-rum_. cuve. nollo. 127). cupola and erat. mucus miiccus . Italian fiero <. — fuore <fd-ris.fe-rus. Fr. where we have perhaps only a change of suffix. § 42 ctpus a single consonant. Stolz 223-224. §163. This did not occur. Cf. etc. 162. j < peccol- lum. It. Cf. this may result merely the case with the doublet czto> S-p. tap{p)ete. camelus camellus. c. had two forms. cf. coppa . Cf. pupa puppa. In some words from bad spelling.fiel(^e) Kferl. ciepa.^ ec{c)lesta. the other with a short vowel . It. in the contracted endings -dsse -dssem etc. : The The single antiquity of double t is attested by an old inscription Lexique loi.. Fr.. in— 132. cetto. Similarly one / was lost in mallo. siccus ' '' sicccus.^glut[t)tre. giving Sp. perhaps litera littera. Digitized by Microsoft® . paullum.* co-pVit.

Die Entwicklung des aqua in den romanischen Sprachen. strinna). lattrones.70 An To these Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ^Stella Vok. a consonant was doubled 122. 164. 339. strenna. Spr. * According to Lat. toda) ¥ totta (Keil V.^)—* tdtta (> Pr. (>It. * stela (>01d esteile: cf. ^(ji. suppra. In aqua the double con: sonant. Gaul. 612. jubemus lltus littus. baca bacca. 1." Cf. prevalent in Africa or in Italy. seemingly a cross between the other two. stilla). Rsetia. Zs. brdca bracca. I. before / and u in the old Italic dialects compare the Italian doubling infabbro. bascio). anguilla). Leicique 98-104. + anguilla—* angutUa (> It. Lexique 95-98) + Stella (>It. This doubling indicates in most cases a Accordpronunciation. Vok. 485. strena (> Old Fr. Sic. XXVI. Cf. cascio). Archiv XIV. chdne{<x°-'^) 261. there was occasionally a third. XXIV. Stolz 223. cf. § 204(2). channe. Gram. local ing to F. reviewed by Meyer-Lubke in Ltblt. jubemmus. toiius was used by Pirminius. frattre.488. mattrona. attested by inscriptions and by Christian poets. dialect stella) = (>It. etc. voile. conservdmus Vok. Beside the two forms indicated. conservammus. strennuor. * butts (<j8oi)tis) *buttis (>It. I. was very widespread and prevailed in Italy. (> It. tota. iota estreine) (>Sp. Mohl. 334. G. toute). vowel and the double consonant : angutla (> Sp. [§ 164 may perhaps be added: cdseus * cdsseus bdsium *bassium (>It. For *iiUius see Digitized by Microsoft® . I. anguila) Fr. messi). S. tennuis. tenne. So perhaps Diomedes' Itttera: Fr. In late Latin inscriptions and manuscripts a consonant was sometimes doubled before r or u: acqua. botte). having both the long. and a large part of lateinischen See Clara Hiirlimann. Stella. bellua. mist * missi 261 {iubimmus iobemmus). suppremis. iConsentius: " per adjectionem litterje io««»! pioioto. 403.^ + strenna = * strenna (> It.5 547.

as ocsor. for instance. 461. and so Maurus. 183-184). That is. the vowels having. long and short e. According to Meyer-Liibke. was often used for e in inscriptions (S. 467. and i for e. as menus. i and u were allowed to drop still lower. and short vowels were redit. Za(. but is used for u in inscriptions. is given the testimony of grammarians. (S. similar to i. 211). long were close gula. In Vok. is often used for i in inscriptions. the same sound in Idtus and Idtus. cites Tertullian for an e (S. mulus Later. distinguishes do other grammarians (S. II. secondus. 193). d. 0. 2. : vendo pinus pi^er. by 250. In Digitized by Microsoft® . Originally. is made with the tongue lying flat in the bottom of the mouth. 195. and several fifth century grammarians plainly distinguish e from e (S. Spr. i. this nomen and novus. Terentianus from q (S. for the vowels of brief duration the tongue was not in lifted quite so high as for those held longer. if the word is used in verse. I.§ i66] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in iillus and multus. 212.. II. etc. most of the Empire. the quantity of the vowel is ' in general easily ascertained.. about 350 a. long dis- - tinguished only by duration. as minses. from the second century on cs Marius Victorinus. which and became e and see §§201. all : of later date. and u were eventin ually differentiated. 176. however. 211). 166. 200-201). None of the grammarians apparently distinguished « and «. .. 208. in 165. distinguishes two ^-sounds Pompeius. (S. III. 216-217). etc. about 480. etc. in the fifth century (S. the evidence of inscriptions. 182). 151. i ff. 175. solus sqlet. e. the distinction U was clear by the first century of our era. Writers do not clearly distinguish i and i. However may have been. In open syllables. 71 VOWEL QUANTITY. In the case of a. the short vowels being open while the sentio. 174. perhaps. 146. 182). in Vok. in debet and mnum \ \ and minus. there was no such differentiation. until Consentius.

Vowels in hiatus with the last syllable offer difficulties. via— via. (S. loir calls for *gltrem h&siA^ gltrem. although we do find the spellings dius and mius (S. Substrate II. testimony conflicts: some inscriptions have carIssimo. any a later stage. others karessimo. by S. then. is The Classic rule that a vowel before another vowel short is not absolute even for verse. etc. 93. so cut. before u was apparently differentiated into 0: dvum> oum (cf. except Spanish. ^T. and. 93): these preserved their languages. jectured from the etymology. but the i. 167. 99). [§ 167 closed syllables and in words not used is by poets the quantity sometimes conOccasionally the in many cases doubtful . sometimes marked in inscriptions. Romance undecim. 105). their regular quantity in hiatus. S. Aulus Gellius prescribes dictum.72 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. but it is sometimes given by gram- marians. etc.. 101-102). plus kept inscriptions (dIes originally long vowel. were apparently pronounced also with short u 81-82). At 208). fut. 98. with a restora- tion of the V through the plural ova). Fr. attested by pIvs piivs. probably kept their original Naturally short vowels doubtless had development also: deus = deus. and in Ennius close vowel in the Romance (S. cf. 187). in Plautus. and often shown by subsequent developments in the Romance languages. require a short some Romance forms support Classic luridus. siius'>Digitized spus> sous (S. Naturally long vowels. ultra (S. at least in part. proved old inscriptions . 105). VOWELS Ilf HIATUS. their Dies. a. and the practice of poets was not always in accordance with spoken usage. languages. nutrire. frIgida. by Microsoft® .2^)>oum (and also ovum. Classic i Latin o&ers frtgidus (of. found in inscrip- tions. others demand u. duo>dui = dui. after u had become (see §§ 165. but an inscription has dIctatori (S.

however. ei-ius.: 236. Troija. For another see A. Cicero preferred aiio. on the other hand. maiiorem. spellings as Aiiax. qua{ni). major. etc.(4). had a peculiar development from the sixth century on before a vowel it was pronounced qui' and was confused with quid. Quintilian states that Pirson 74. it became qua. Troja. *pldja. mai-ius Digitized (£don by Microsoft® . used for quod in late Latin. 357-390. For a still. 73 varia- 216. 468). Jean- jaquet. Maiiam. XXV. The apparent contradiction disappears tianus Maurus. before a consonant. 168. 352-355). coiiux. Fluere was supplanted in popular usage by plovere Fluvia. 246-248. Franz.. point to open vowels in pejor. 236). if we accept the statement of Teren- who says (S. 3 II. Franz. 207). 236). J. (S. Troja. hut peijor. inscriptions such S. According to some grammarians. vowels were lengthened before j. as in ejus. 1894. into pei-ius. way to Cf. 250 in these a. I. Pirson 16). 82 cf. Recherches sur Forigine de la conjonction 'que' et des formes romanes iquivalentes. Quia. under the influence of qua and : . 170. which had begun to assume the functions of quod (see §§69. 169. Cf.. tions in different countries. which prolonged the — first syllable: not pejor. Velius Longus adds that etc. Horning in Zs.§ i7o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. with double i (S. §208. LENGTHENING BEFORE CONSONANTS. 104) that the vowels there that is. we should write Troiia also Priscian analyzes pejus. b. a II. Maiiam. We find in eiius. different theory. §217. but the / was doubled was a glide from the vowel to the/. d. 341. gave {Lat. see Gram. words were short. Spr. There may have been other special Cf. as Cicero approved of Aiiacem. The Romance languages. cuiius.

nasality disappeared. for inscriptions. (i) Vowels were apparently lengthened before Cf. S. 86. beside the old popular *pesare. (cf. s. But inasmuch as n occurs before /". etc.74 171. lignum. the n being restored only in com- lengthened by compensation: pounds before initial nare. for inscriptions. S.. S.- cf. compounds See S. sposus. it and the preceding vowel was cesor. 172. /. Archiv XIV. so that the result Digitized was t. s: cosul. but insig- It is altogether likely that the n fell through nasalization If so. who wrote in the sixth century. conjungere through conducere. The Romance is languages. benegnvs by Microsoft® . (S. Spr. it was usually restored by the analogy of the full forms con-. and some philologists regard the passage in question as still still an interpola54. all trace of the of the vowel: consul consul cosul cosul. tferi. or v). 400. 78. tsula. S. the vowel was lengthened. Cf §311. 91. 90. u. etc. 77-78. Lat. cojugi. coventio. signum. and v only at the end of prefixes. tion of later date. etc. Priscian. An Introduction When fell to Vulgar Latin. n was followed by a fricative (/. as above) are either learned terms or new formaS.. 467). regnum. for the usage of Cicero and others. tions: so pensare. call for dtgnus. According to Meyer-Liibke {Gram. t. signum sigillum). but the length and the close quality of the vowel remained. in-: so infantem through indignus. remains. however. not f. pignus. and the fall was permanent. mesis. the evidence of the inscriptions I. 89. n occurred in the middle of many words. sanctus. however. «. (2) Before gn vowels were lengthened according to Priscian and inscriptions mark length in dtgnus. but only after H had be- come i. 91). pugnus. . u. Romance and late Vulgar Latin words with ns (except in Cf. a very late authority. coxwenire through continere./. [§ 172 regularly early in Latin. etc. tjk: quinque. Before J.

difference in quantity 173. XV. tells us that au is short in Other grammarians syllables. XII. Latin words borrowed by the Britons. D. 66). in the third or fourth century. however. in unaccented syllables the distinctions were doubtless weaker. 2153. The poetry of Commodian. 174. "miserce dativus est non adverbium. 722. Cornu. and the plural —es were confounded by 150 A. L.§ 174] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. through the Latin period and developed further in the Romance languages. The was probably greater and more constant in accented than in unaccented vowels. of accent. Versbau des Commodian in Bausteine 576. in stressed syllables. XII. D. (S. 311. prefers to regard such forms as dlgnus. warn against quantitative mistakes: so Servius. I. unaccented Terentianus Maurus.). in so far as all. 75). The old quantity itself was It during the Empire. . the preservation of quantity in post-tonic Digitized mostly in the third and fourth centuries. L. which is 75 in C. and were often obliterated. in the fourth century. etc. This seems a very plausible C. about 250. J. and a was often used for e in inscriptions (S. resulting from the original quantity. lost. show. remained. for the most part seems to have disappeared from unstressed syllables by the third or fourth century but confusion The nominative singular -is set in as early as the second. seems to observe quantity in stressed and to neglect it in unstressed syllables. they existed at c." etc. and we find numerous metrical errors in other late poets: cf. 226). through a by Microsoft® . Buck. (S. 183—184: bence. as due to a vulgar or local pronunciation. The distinctions in quality. DISAPPEARAHCE OF THE OLD QUANTITY. On shift the other hand. explanation. as in aut (S. doubtless equivalent to the benIgnus of C. in the Classical Review I.

and o. DEVELOPMENT OF A HEW QUANTITY.if>« while u and u. d. are distinguished by quality also. clares that "Afrae aures de correptione St. 175. as aques for eques in 197 (S. 178). 106). On the other hand. vendo vents. 107. criticizes Servius. retain the quantity of vowels that bear the accent: Pogatscher. In accented syllables there are sporadic examples of confusion by the second century. Latin words in Anglo-Saxon. It is possible that the quantity of unstressed vowels was better kept in the provinces than in Italy. e. Much late poetry disregards quantity altogether. 467). i?> e 01 i. Latin words borrowed by the Britons from the second to the fifth century. dixi plicds. 65. all other vowels 176. fructus by Microsoft® . Latin words borrowed by Old High German indicate a retention of long i and u before the accent: Franz. distinguish by quantity t and i. in the Roma (S. fourth century. too. Digitized fqrmas fori. but mostly in the third and fourth. Moreover. / At the end of the Latin period a new system of quangrew up. d>ii ox 6 while d>o: Franz. show the preservation of the quantity of stressed vowels: Loth 64. but probably the disappearance of the old distinction was not general before the fourth and fifth centuries. and not complete before the end of the sixth.76 syllables: An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. [§ 176 Loth 72. taken over in the fifth and sixth centuries. grammarians blame the confusion of cequus and equus (S. In most of the Empire accented vowels not in position were pronounced long. tity short: sdncto vales. for. The Latin words in Old High German. Spr. e and ?. entirely diverse from the old. Augustine devocalium vel produc- Pompeius and other tione non judicant" (^Lat. and based on th|fe situation of the vowel. 225).

Spr. while a was not' affected by q-aawti-ty. cb. nous. In 419 D. e. Latin had the vowels au. we find vobit for obiit (S. (rets. southern Gaul.§ 178] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and Sicily apparently did not participate in this early breaking. 213). porta. nepotis (A. 467. which in the transition from Latin to the Romance languages re1 77- It is likely that these in sulted in diphthongization in a large part of the Empire. 0. ca-the-drd te-ni-brds .f>It. vieni. a. We and i. ^^/a > Old Fr. XXV. Lombardy. perhaps only a blunder. 735). says that the development was and independent in the several Romance languages. Zimmermann in Zs. I. 561-562. eu. VOWELS. 178. in £at. /w>01d Fr. d. syllables before a labial (as in proommus') a short further- more. he describes it as common to all. The vowels most affected were e and q. i. cuor. beside a. Meyer-Liibke in different in Einf. he puts in the fourth and fifth centuries. but as posterior to it the fifth century. nounced new long vowels were promost regions with a circuinflex intonation. 77 gule. all stressed vowels were appar- ently long: tempus. We shall see presently Digitized by Microsoft® . close. Portugal. goule. and the conditions of diphthongization were very diverse in different localities.q. also ui. : Niipos. dis- appearance of the which it displaced. and in unaccented ii. occurs in an inscription made a little before 120 a. cqr'^lt. This pronunciation doubtless sprang up with the old. d. cq/r me-l no-s re-m In Spain and in some parts neisf of Gaul. tre-s. ce. «^j>Fr. t. the groups that e. o. An isolated example. have seen (§ 165) ti. Gram. 103—104. particularly in northern Gaul: z'f«f. u were pronounced open.

and ui (as in cut) was lit. eu generallyremained du. was in Greek originally a long e. (f>dXayi -> phalanx. seppia. 210) that cB>e a. long or short. while au. The inconsistencies in this substitution arise partly from the different dates at which words were borrowed.iro6riKTf)~:>apotheca^ It. by Microsoft® . 179. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin e: a. so in some late words. but also sepia "^ i: It. 181. partly from the various pronunciations of the vowels in the several Greek dialects. the Greek This pronunciation was letters were sounded as in Greek. popular origin it often had the Greek open sound kKKkfitrU > 182. * skivare. The foreign vowels of borrowed words were assimil- In the few Celtic words that were taken over there are no important peculiarities. bestemmia. A. In the Germanic vocabulary there is not much to be noted: at in words adopted early apparently became a. (n)Tria~^ sapia. [§ 182 (§§209. iu is found in skiuha?i> ated in some fashion to the Latin system. as *waidanjan~>*wadaniare. eu (or iu) appears in treuwa (or triuwa). The history of Greek vowels is very complicated: — GREEK VOWELS.78 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. According to Quintilian (£don 64-65).nd ce>e. doubtless the ideal of people of fashion. Late words often show Digitized do-Ki/Tiys > ascitis. which became *trewa. Per. but popular speech substituted for unfamiliar vowels the sounds of the vernacular. ceu).La > blasphemia > It. a-Ktjvrj'^ sctsna scena. was pronounced a: ^axriM^ Phdsis. eu (^cduius. bottega. and 180. but early in our became t. partly from the channel (written or oral) through which they came. as In words of more ji\acr<\>r}fi. it H era : eclesia.

^ purpura. tapit. > artemtsia > Old Fr.'>- Stephanus Stephanus.Chrlstus Chrestus. 9. /iu(rT^ptov> mistirium. piivOrj^ menta'> It. In popular words it. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. chiosa. Old Fr. orma. cf. it was In assimilated to Latin t: ^lp. '%Ti<^avo'. iKKXriKrCiu "> edisice. even when long. was assimilated to Latin e: yevans Agenesis. op<^a. opiyavos > became e. KiBpo'i'>cedrus'>In book-words it > Fr. K6ppi>gummi. cedro. 185. seems to have had a very open sound. sometimes open: eprjfios'^ er'mus er'mus'^ It. Xpla-ro^'^. In popular words it was sometimes close. li bietal It. in 186.— § i86] An etc. apparently became I. Claussen 853-854. ermo. Claussen 855-857.yermo. apTepXa-M It. occasion- yXStrira > It. Tiov Claussen 854-855.vri^ovo%'>-* antefona'^ Qi\A Fr.o'i'> phlmus .p1. E was close in some It. popular words I In book-words later e oz e. Claussen 869-870.ix6py7)>amurca.. <^iKo'i>phtlus. ixova<TT'^piov'>raora-n-rj- nastirium. 80x1^ > dqga> It.. tapis. but perhaps dialectically q (cf. ^^.v6% > orphanus.' It. armeise. pttqcco. It. ropvos > tqrnus > It. etc. "^-phoca. mienta. open in others. at least in the principal dialects. ^(fila-pa^ chrisma> cresima.. 1re7rf. I.. ^ia>drrp > boletus. 183. Pr. pxirov > blttum'> It. was generally close. Digitized by Microsoft® . tttw^os > It. -p-hqra). but sometimes open. 79 40.> piper. Sp. Greek dialects. crLvaTn> sinapi^ senape. oo-/x'^ >. menta. regamo. was probably q. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: > cophinus. rprnKTiji'^ Cf. etc. a. /. cresme. etc. Neumann etc. t apparently later often e: apOplriKOi > ariAriticus '> It artetico. 184. irop^vpo. ally u: tructa. antiefne. Cf. dqga. O most dialects was kocjuvo's o. and occasionally the same word had both pronunciations: a. Christianus Chres- tianus. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: <j><!tKri In popular words it apparently became ^. apa. Cf.

vt)> was shortened. by the spelling y. which is genCicero erally represented. Pirson 39. /iCSos > It. KviJ. 221). In inscriptions we find misteriis. <jTvpai : . Cf. 221. Digitized by Microsoft® . Marsuas. According to Cassiodorus. 221). ." "myrta non murta. yppl-q > Claussen 857-860. originally pronounced u.. For some words we find an occasional spelling X.. Koyxiy <tt/3o<^os [§ 187 chorda. nunquam Pyrrhum" (S. in which the ^ is a later local development.8o torno. cultivated people adopted for Greek words the Ionic-Attic pronunciation. Pr. y In the App. etc. Lat. > > > buxida {=pyxis) in Theodorus Priscianus and in glosses. S." App. > > and a few other words the v for some reason became o. u is the spelling in some words. KpvTrTy)> crupta . — KoKn^o-i^ cqlaphus cojaphus." Among the common people the unfamiliar ii was assimilated to i. in the case of v. ''tymum non tu- mum. In Tp\yTa. we find: "Marsyas non in others (S. 'OXvcro-eu? > Ulixes. calotta.yKvKw. buxus. Pr. 187. . > It. (S. says: "Burrum semper Ennius. Mva-Ca^ Jfysia Mmsia. — > concha. Livius Andronicus In ayKvpa ancora. perhaps taken mostly from Doric (Claussen 865). irv^os mullus. > ancilia ." "porphyreticum marmor non purpureticum marmor. grotta. Cf. motto. these probably have nothing to do with KoXvizTpa. etc. Olumpus. 468. KpvTTTrj > It. Pr. Pr. etc. v regularly was assimilated to Latin u Ionic it jUijXXos 2ig-22i): Pvpara> bursa . which subsequently. Zefurus. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Y was > strqppus. etc. AudoUent 536. was unrounded into /. In the older borrowed words. App. fivpros busta seems to represent a peculiar local development: cf. murta.. truttna the v storax. which may represent a Greek dialect pronunciation between u and ii: yvpo'i> gyrus gmrus . The App. 'OSuo-o-eta > Odissta. It. The spelling / occurs sometimes before Augustus 6. Towards the end of the Republic. Spr." '^ tymum non tumum. in the 9th or loth century.p-q>cumba. later in Attic and became ii.

from the sixth to the fourth century c. became ai. AI timbre. originally cb 188. if Audollent 535.v\ov > It. A V> au. probably a local development. later ce (as in poina). a became Clio. f. Cf. cf. Digitized as in -Koivr] >poina.> platea. except before vowels. Claussen 872-873. > It. see § 141. b. § Kd 223. or z before vowels. Claussen 860-869. as in AWiovux > Ethiopia Ethiopia. j8u^ai'r6s > It. which came to be proClaussen nounced 871-872. /. cf. giro. then. 190.rihtui.). oi. long. 277). <? In Latin. > scilinga. 189. .TSa.. was usually pronounced short. Cleopatra. 192. by Microsoft® became 0. Frigia. For o-vkcutoj/. M. It.'> w€ipaTyi<s'^ — KA£ki>> Medea. etc. may be merely misspellings: Some Romance forms show u: 875-877. Cf." giret. Bechtel etc. if Pirson 39.• ^ ^generally became ^« E3pos > -£'«''«J'.. as in Atas > Aiax. £/ was doubtless originally pronounced ei in Greek. > It. frequently became qui: The modern Greek pronunciation is represented by some Romance words: afi. toreomatum from Topfxpa. 81 has "gyrus non girus. Cf. misterii.. ciurma. KS/«i>It. finally. about the third century. e. 191. bisante. J before consonants. tdolum. which to be pronounced as in ^otfio^'^it Phxbus Phebus Sometimes. Kapa^iuriys'^ paradtsus . the penult was often shortened: Khj. This i. Cf. In -eios -eta —tiov. cima. giro. (as in aiyi^'^ tsgis). . etc. later e. «S(i)Xov> pirata. etc. however. Claussen 873-875. etc. Claussen 01 originally "became came (S.§ 192] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. oTJpt-yya which became It. Cf. i. Cf. yrJi/'os — kvkvo%> gesso is e: yvpo% cecino. e. MaTa > Maia. 76-77. Tu/iTravov > Fr. Such forms Clepatra for as " ermeneumata non erminomata" {App. Pr. KoXoKvuT-q"^ cologuinta. /ceXttJcr/xa > ? It. 6r]travp6i> thesaurus. amido.

L. which was used in southern Italy. CKwas then if. Cf. But in Gaul. It is possible that dlacer (whence alacrem) > *dlecer (whence alecrem). <u Claussen 877-878. Reich. Like 193. then q. which was used elsewhere Lat. C. crepere. became comcedia. 1527 d 33. Beside gravis there was a grevis. Beside cerasus *clra. S. L. Spr. see § 167. I. 195.. then 'Valuer (whence alicrem alecrem). vocatio. patrem. Substrate II.82 as in An iroirjTtji Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Haag 6. see § 39. 544. A regularly remained dat-e. unchanged in the greater part of the Empire: caput. So beside dinia. etc. I. malum « cf. Cimiterium cymiterium. I. ovpavo's'^ Uranus. 441. 171. Doric cf. under the influence of l?vis: Beside GREVE. For nasal vowels. see § 171. N. ACCENTED VOWELS. (2) (3) For the suffix -arius. doubtless originally pronounced ou in Greek. tantus. [§ 195 "^-foeta. ot. factum.slus. latus. Olcott 33. (5) jiSKav) there was a melum (<i)i. especially in the north. Lat. « : . I. Cf. VI. 0. The o was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . perhaps indicates an ignorant confusion of « ce: KOiixMSia'^ and Cf. a. for cmmeterium < Koi/tjyTiyptov. (6) Beside vacuus there was a vHcuus: vocuam. and Sarthere was a clr^slus. (i) Some words had a peculiar development: — Beside alacrem the Romance languages seem to postulate alecrem and alej:rem. volumptczte in Gl. -arius.B. it probably had a forward pronunciation tending somewhat toward e: cf. 468. Spr. — For vowels in hiatus. In Latin it usually became u: fipovxo's> bruchus. senetus. Kipaaoi) there must have been a Latin * cerlsus. a 194. Substrate (4) I. Claussen 878-879. and agnetus (for agndtusi) in Fredegarius. SINGLE VOWELS. C.T\Kov). 468. 198. Rome. Spr. used by Petronius and others: Lat. 468 cf. manus.

Spr. debet. old vocdre. {Lexique 115). cf . 468. and -tsco. 198. This would account for bistia (= bestia) found in late Latin. for —esco 26o£f. vendere. etc. etc. Digitized It probably indicates an by Microsoft® . e. 189-190. Spr.. Long e {% 165). for -elis and —His. etc.: for the confusion of -ere and 6911. These spellings are due in the main s -¥ to the identity of /and i in late pronunciation: see § 165. probably- at least in most re- gions: debere. same region.. In Sicily. I. 328. e became i in late {Lexique 106). iox co- gnusco and other verbs in —usco for -osco. no proof of historical con: nection between the phenomena 197. III. 359-364. Calabria.. minsam. I. iox fistus. shift of conjugation: see In Gaul this substitution of it i for e was so very com- mon that must signify something. — in -isco for -esco. —isco for —esco. Cf. and southern Apulia e In old Oscan. S. 614-615. for crisco and other verbs for adimplisti. mercedem. as in cinsum. By a change § which was pronounced remained unchanged in Vulgar Latin. 127 287-289. I. habetis. Studi A. I. Carnoy 15 ff. however. dulcido. in Studi Medievali Medievali I.). II. vacivus 83 {^vacuus). of suffix original. conjectures that consonant may have tended to raise e to i. Republican times. There is. vindo.ficit. 466. I. writings: Gregory the Great has crudilitas. vocivus regularly whence by analogy vdcat vScuus became ^vdcitus^ for vocat: Lat.. 613. Sepulcri. etc. etc. verus. which was spoken in nearly the has become i. and conversely ver iox etc.. T is very often used for e in inscriptions and late —ido for —edo. to u.: Sepulcri 193-194. Also Vok. also for colustra. for vindimia instead of vindemia. —esimus. diheto. became vacdre. filix. Lat. 196. -Ire.§ igS] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -elius and —llius. Some of the —esco >-tsco cases are surely due to a §§414-415. -isimus for vir. {ficet in the 3d century.

segolo. rictu. It is interesting to note that Celtic e also became i: Dottin 99. Cf. spelling e for ^ is common from Digitized the third century on frecare. seniscit.84 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. pronounced / (§ 165). this very high Spr. i pronounced i (§ 165). audtre. tile. which was pronounced e (see § 165). Cf. Fngidus. I. 397. rigna. remained unchanged: I. vaster. (Lexique 119) mentions a rustic speca for spica. minsis. 468. According to Lat. Vok. ferus. etc. piscem. Neumann adoliscens. minses. It. [§ 201 extremely close pronunciation of the e ern Gaul. etc. remained unchanged: bene. e in nearly all the Empire: btbo. venit. ficit. Haag 3iiff. 8-9: adoliscens. ingraviscente. fedilis. habitur. i. see § 177. dico. 1 200. quincriscens. For the development (i) of diphthongs. etc. mille. exit. circulns. Archiv (2) Beside ilex there was an elex. Cf. sidibus. : by Microsoft® . criscit. stiis. must have become *frtgidus ij^frigdus). doubtless by the third century and sporadically earlier. vinum. etc. delitus. quiiscit. (4). is to be regarded as a new formation on the model of noster rather than as the old form. tulate (4) stegola Varro seems to pos- something like * steva for For St. except in Spain. rigna. which supplanted vester. tepiscit. see § 229. Spr. qulnque (^Substrate (i) 546). 0) . tris. became. minus. villa.ii(i. stiva. The 201. teneo. vexit. perhaps through association with rtgidus. § i66. riges. Lexique 104-105: ficerent. festa. Short i. Bon. viiium. 106-113: minse. Long i. (cf. found in Gregory of Tours fur das Studium der neueren Sprachen CXV. Pirson 2-5: lo-ii: requiiscit. veir): Lat. : (3) Beside sicula there was a secula (Lexique Ii9)>-It. stilla. quaginsima. Lexique 114. Short e. e 199. in north- e>ei (verum> Old Fr. later. ferrum.

in Gaul {^Lat. Neumann 23-25. etc. ceteneris. the change For agnusco. These two islands were taken > from Rome by the Vandals in 458 and added to the African kingdom. 106.. 468. Pirson 13. «. became i: cf.. viduriiis. 468): furma. etc. trebus. see the end of § 197. etc. Carnoy 15^-. S. 195. corregia. (i) (2) Beside camtsia there was a camTsia: Substrate I. Quintilian and Varro mention 166) a rustic e for I. R. 11 7-1 23. In southern Italy e from i. 541. etc. 469. In Sardinia and a part of Corsica this change did not take and both t and i i. i is Bon. forma. sene. etc. §§ 197. Apulia of e to /. In Sicily. Calabria. under the influence of dexter: Lat. minester. Spr. 198): minses. vea. and southern did in old Oscan: cf. 214. Pirson 8-10. 468. R. like e from e. nomen. very common etc. benivolus. 202). S. Long 0.... karessemo. etc.. sponsus. AudoUent 535. trea. etc. accepere. at least in hora. after that they were perhaps isolated: Einf. 463. Beside simul there was a *sSmul. ^/z<^(= minester. (Zat. 85 menus. pronounced in Vulgar Latin. Spr. The popular ustium I.. zV/z///). is The spelling u for etc.. Spr. often used for e (cf. remained unchanged most regions: colorem. as it (§ 165).. -^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. amure. see § 167. 6 202. Conversely (S. sebe.. Digitized by Microsoft® . S. perhaps through the analogy of semel: Lat.. Stu^i Medievali 613) is perhaps to be ex- plained in this way. place. semuL. > ou. cognusco. § 196. used by Gregory the Great and for ostium others. For ou 203. Haag II. (3) Sinister was replaced by sinexter. attested also by in- scriptions (S. 200-201. Spr. etc. 463.§203] legare. has become § 196. solus. etc.

— presumably through Fr. Nyrop. Italy. totto. Cf. Short 0. or at least to a tutti. meuble. some of the Romance forms point to nom.86 etc. in north- ern Gaul. pronounced u (§ 165). sortem. sg. 206. (i) > Old. § 217. U is occasionally used for o in inscriptions: lucus. *tutti or *tucti: It. § 187. tuit. (2) Beside totus and *tuttus or *tuctus. For the development of diphthongs. cognusco. in But in Gaul. 126-130. nullus. folia. tutto. The rustic Latin funics. No satisfactory explanation has been proposed the most plausible. which Haag 13. pi. tottus (§ 163).. uuela alle. The Such a form seems to be attested by the Gl. [§ 206 It Bon. 211—212. Digitized by Microsoft® . may have come through 6 pronounced ^ (§ 165). An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Lexique 102-104. Neapolitan sg. una. App. mueble postulate Cf. the influence of cuncti on toti. cf. puni. frundes (for fontes. a large part of northern Rsetia it position. perhaps. pi. pi. old Fr. namely. the plural. 216. Italian tutto . gluria. Cf.. Pr. forum. sg. became ou or u: cortem 204. court.. mortem. in mobilis. etc. There are a few peculiar cases: and Sp. remained unchanged: bonus. and western was probably formed a little forward of its normal It was certainly not u. but it doubtless slightly This pronunciation may have been due to the historique de langue francaise approached it. remained unchanged most of the Empire: cura. § 198. etc. Fr. the analogy of mSveo. tot. see Long u. later. frondes) are perhaps connected with Italian yb«fe and other words containing o for 205." where tutti is defined as alle. Grammaire I. K. tutt3 . q before n + dental. Grammarians mention the protrusion of the lips: S. forts. ^'formica noxi furmica." § 177. Cassel: " aiatutti. solet. durus. nun.. probably represents a very close sound. locus. Pr. is that of Mohl. S.. pi.

Spr. Spr. in Latin words borrowed by the Celts « is generally treated like Celtic (murus ". presumably taken very early. The spelling is common in late documents: "columna non colomna. NUptia. etc. "colubemon colober. 467. Substrate IV. Short the fourth century or earlier." "turma non iorma" (cf. For qu (i) (2) > qu. cubtturn). which lasted down into the Empire. perhaps only orthographic: Lat. Fr. Digitized Cf. (3) There are other local irregularities. 134. 517. Spr. Beside luridus there probably was a *l-S. App." "puella non poella"). covetum (= is Haag 14.. jeune call for local q in coliibra.> mur) but in a few. pronounced u (§ 165). by Microsoft® . and Dacia this u : Lat. and ndra. Pirson 15-17. tonica. §§ 169. u 208. 465) and nSra (S. 469. 468. due to the analogy of sdror and * nSvia (" bride. Mohl pumex there was XXVI.§ 2o8] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Celtic by the second century. § 217. « > z (cii^a cili." "formosus noTiformunsus. (i) (2) The following special cases are to be noted: — Cf. Jleuve. etc. criidus > criz) Loth 67-68. became nSptim: (3) Beside in Zs. see § 167." from nSvus). In Sardinia. Pr. 87 linguistic habits of the Celts: u> t in Great Britain cf. fiUvium. unda. G. probably by in most of the Empire: bucca. 217. u> Spr. ruptus. etc. Bon.. change did not take place. jUvlnis.). Beside angHstia there must have been *angSstia.rdus: Substrate III. corso. 136. Windisch 396-397. became. 617-618. > : 207. toneca. F. a pomex: Bon. 132-135. In place of niirus we find ndrus (R. Cf." from nSvus) Lat.. pomice. and both u and . 464. culpa. a part of Corsica. 216). giila. tomolus. . people ssiA plSvere (used by Petronius (4) Instead oi pluere axA pKvia and others) and *pldja: Lat. Cf. couleuvre. servos. through the analogy of *nSvius ("bridegroom. The old spelling for u after v {yoltus. u. Albania.

etc. etc. in the first S. [§ 210 DIPHTHOUGS. Cf. in stressed syllables (as questor) may be called regular by the century: S. Carnoy It was probably general everywhere by the second 69-84. quiceti. igo. Hence.): found early in Campania. seta. The regular change oi ce to e took place largely in Republican times in unaccented syllables. ccelum. fifth it cented syllables (as sancte) before the third century. Cf. cen224. £ for a in dative endings occurs early: Corssen I. sepes 188. preda. In Spanish inscriptions e occurs from the first S. spellings as fcecit. 8). century: Einf. but two parts it became cb. 687 ff. 166—168. § 78. The Pompeius blames the confusion of csquus spelling e for cb was usual in unacfrom the fourth century on. b. especially in Pompeii (presta. c. and equus : S. represents the sound better than ai: E is etc. such scBpes both forms were preserved. tury. Neumann 13 (and Fort- mon to Volscian seizung 21-23): famina. 'Sox fenum fcenum. 178. its and pronounced ai.. says that cb Terentius Scaurus. About the first century b. when Varro cited edus for hadus as a rural form. in stressed syllables in the first century of our era and later. e. 465. 225. ^ was originally written through the mutual attraction of later e: ccecus.88 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. stressed cb was probably still a diphthong in the city but had become e in rustic Latium.. preda prceda. sepes. came into general use: fenum. In certain words a vulgar and dialect pronunciation com- and Faliscan (Hammer 7. Carnoy 79-80. qucero. Bechtel Digitized by Microsoft® . century on (Carnoy 78): questus (2d century). septum. etc. Spr. 225. 210. S. some hundred years later e came into the city and pervaded the middle of the provinces: Lat. by analogy. S. 178. ae 209.

Scarus. and 465-466. Pr. in Portuguese as ou. 162-164. II. crept was used by the lower classes: Lat. etc.: into Spr.: § 212] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in the Probus. 655-663. Hammer : 15-19. grece. 89 75-76: cedat. Cludo for claudo is common. etc. or possibly (2) they are only orthographic. plostrum Carnoy App. coda. and others The grammarians : — . ostrum. an Au. Festus cites 95. inscriptions of the I St and 2d centuries).. In Rumanian and Provengal it was preserved as au. the dialects of northern \i^?s~\(>\. century second century Carnoy 85. 304. the earli^est stage of French in Italian causa> chose . generally remained in Vulgar*^ Latin: aura. original q (i) is proved by the treatment and Spanish it did not become of c in ^ until had broken into uo or ue. its existence in 211. Perhaps they represent a provincial pronuncia- tion. Carnoy 85-86 (clusa. Cf. etc. — speak of a rustic or archaic o for au: Corssen fif. toru. is 223 spellings Cladius. coming through derivatives. Pirson 27. etc. ^^ auris non cotes. Glacus. Carnoy 100 (cludo in two Sp. in the first it the city. in general. Clodius : Ham- and Plotus are common in first mer 4. II.. Festus. gaudium. Hammer central Italy: Chronologie . 301 S. Vok. with a for au when an u in the next syllable. Priscian. Digitized by Microsoft® .. oricla". The f there S. Bayard 5. 183-184) and for Greek r) (as scanam.). where au was normally preserved this pronunciation was used also in the country around So. 8. Cf. R. Umbrian and Faliscan had 4-5. orum. etc. in place of Latin au: and There are some examples in Pompeii. such as occludo: Vok. occur inscriptions Carnoy 85. where and second centuries B.C. Lexique 104). orum. orata. In C/^j-a. in Oscan territory. Dibmedes. are pretty common in various countries Carnoy 86-95. 212. Rome.. In Umbrian inscriptions we find Latin. I. taurus. pronounced du./464. Conversely ce was often erroneouslyused for e (S.

mmrore. eheu. etc. *^^ Cf. Hammer 4)= aut. see § 431. heu. pollulum: si audes. (cf. 227. but two parts it became It pcenitet. plotus occur also. 1890. Eu. by Microsoft® . Ola. find amenus. Europa. In the Per. " sorex ve\ saurex. ccementa. Cf. Cicero used loreola. eu. poena. 464. fosnum. oricla. II. ce for ce and e. fcemina. Carnoy 84. Digitized cHi. The confusion S. CE was originally written through the mutual attraction of presumably 0. pronounced eu (as in ceu. S. cepi. Lat. This rustic and vulgar while the in Romance — which was pronounced — was generally adopted from au was 0. the intermediate stage Phoebe. 216. we C. hUic. was preserved: For the development oifui. mm227. 293ff. Ui. of our era: Cf. Cf. pcenates. cxlum. 213. auscu/um .. Carnoy 95. plodo.go An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Phebus. coles =^ caulis. etc. illHi. Vulgar Latin in a few words : coda. Jilodere. neu. postulated by some Romance forms. 228. sodes. I. may be that for reflected by the spelling phyeb^ E is attested by inscriptions in the first century ceperint. Umbrian suffoco. later e: coepi. was not preserved in any popular words. Spr. S. oe 215. ui pronounced lii. stus." Cf. codex. of ce and e is mentioned by late grammarians: In late Latin a bad spelling. Bechtel 76. 228. au was occasionally used for 160): Festus. eui~us. eu 214. [§ 216 {^Chronologie Conversely. neuter. Marius Victorinus. Vok. * auddere for occtdere. IV. 0. is its and pronounced oi. explodo. foces. plaudo. S. lotus. seu). became popular: coscus. 0. S. Classic fauces. L. ote. 227.

ibid. au:=q ox au.§ 219] An Introduction c. q. by Microsoft® . dvum~>* ovum. see G. 219. — 457. that f. = 0. until long after the Vulgar Latin period. until the reforms of Charlemagne. 476. Although many examples are cited. A general influence of this kind can hardly be regarded as proved for any combination except ou. in vulgar speech. maintains ceding or following even if it by a preq was separated from the to e. see §§ N. etc. Pieri. For a criticism of the theory. mobilis'^* mqbilis. u were lowered one stage labial. XXVII. 2. possibly through a lingering the Old Latin accent: cf. but did not fall. La vocal tonka alterata da una consonante labiale in Zs. for the In clerical Latin the vowels were probably pronounced most part as ii). except sporadically. those of the first syllable had most resistance. stress. juvenis'^*jovenis. § 134. Osservazioni al precedence lavoro. p. Jluvium'>*flqvium. e=e. which 217. in general.. pluere'^ ployere. Among unstressed vowels. B. a = a. q. La vocal tonka alterata dal contatto d'una consonante labiate in Archivio glottologico italiano XV. i = i. — For secondary 153-155. e. influence of The vowels of the final syllable lost much of their distinct- ness. CLERICAL LATEff. Ascoli. see § 167. and then only Digitized in a part of the Empire. a following labial tends to open a vowel: colubra>* colqbra. 218. e. u ^u (or a and ce ^e. to Vulgar Latin. qt INFLUENCE OP LABIALS. The discussion is continued by Pieri. I ' According to some philologists. became ou: S. the evidence is not convincing. After that. d. — vowel by a liquid. UNACCENTED VOWELS. 579.

Quase. 21-24. scriptions etc. 251. pontufex "^pontifex. secondary or the primary 47-48. Haag 15-24. cal[e)fdcere. The former was the one generally adopted in Classic Latin. According to Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. but simus was favored by Augustus and by some purists of his time (Lindsay 29). In Spanish in- we find maximus. syllables. 30—36. 196-198. maxumus quodlubet"^ guodlibet. S. in moderation. ID re vailed in Italy and southern Gaul. Lat. etc. 9). in unaccented . 35 Franz. 221. i was certainly distinct from Digitized In final i: sentis. In inscriptions we find such frig{i)daria. vtr{i)dis. Spr. "in here neque e plane nequi i auditur. 199-200. vetranus: S. 7. employed only before labials. § 419. For the confusion of unaccented e and i. SUmus. Agrippa pro sumus simus scripserunt. Brutus.92 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin." (Weakest were medial vowels immediately following the stress. In general Latin quantity did not sensibly affect the quality of unstressed vowels. dc(^u)lus. see Pirson. [§ 221 Grammarians sibe are testify to the confusion of and u: S. developed two forms. 3 During the Classic period it generally became t: decumus~> decimus. Lindsay 25-26. syllables: I. This tendency continued. siimus -and simus. (i). 203-208. "Messala. found in place of quasi. however. U was cf. being sometimes accented. by Microsoft® . forms as infri. and even there the difference must have been small. > maximus. Fredegarius is very uncertain in his use of unstressed vowels: 220. spelled both with u and with i: Carnoy 65-69. In early Latin there was an inclination to syncope: ar{i)ddrem. 466. According to Quintilian I. for o and u. 2 1 2. jur(^i)go. see Pirson 41—47. iv.. etc." In the vulgar speech simus seems to have Cf. cf. in Classic and Vulgar Latin: cal{i)dus. bdl{i)neum.. av{^i)dere. sibi: S. except in initial syllables. etc.

fis. alio. i. > distinguere. UNACCENTED VOWELS IN HIATUS. Lucilius. Plautus. sometimes short. placuit. Lucretius. left a. 223.§ 224] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. is distinguere qucBro. In tibi the final vowel was sometimes long. qui. "vacua non vaqua. Ovid. facias. probably by the century of our and sporadically earlier. Horace. fes. feci. So it was in qualis. Juvenal. 93 stbi. After gutturals. /"and u followed by a vowel and beginning a syllable were apparently pronounced as consonants from the earliest times. at least in theory." S. fluviorutn) are found in Ennius. rather late: Velius Longus distinguishes aquam from acuam. Quintilian says that u and i in uos and iam are not vowels: S. quem. oKuAas) very common: Eckinger 123-125. used before Joseph. senti. however. Otherwise. abietiItalia counts as three syllables in poets of the ' bus in Virgil. These. and will be out of consideration in the present chapter. Quintilian and Velius Longus cite the spellings Aiiax. 234. fectf^Vr. Pr. then. Digitized by Microsoft® . vaqui. u followed by a vowel was originally itself. vindemiator'va. e. the u was ap- parently not reduced to a semivowel until the end of the In some other words the syllabic value of u was kept.. In Greek transliterations kv for qui (as in cf. senttt> It. e. Occasional examples (such as dormio. App. such as Classic period. Bonnet notes that etc. as approved is by Cicero: S. 232.. nocuit. a vowel but lost its syllabic value in early Classic times: acua > aqua." "vacui gon 224. fudxis. and Seneca: deorsum in Lucretius. sente.g. 222. a. abiete. will be treated as consonants. In perfects. Virgil. Horace. §187. and u in hiatus with following vowels first lost their syllabic value era. 236. Maiiam not ab.

Consentius declares that trisyllabic soluit and . cf- Carnoy 33-35. fasiolus. 231-232. and // apparently being contracted into e.. R. was used as a trisyllable by Sedulius in the fifth century. eccu'istay-* ecwista (§65). But the combinations ei -. App. We have. century or before by the third century. exiat." KeilVII. earn {=jani). §136). likewise eccu'kic> *eccwic. I. 234. 103. prehcndere 225. lintium. In the same vi2. u6 developed differently. 106. "ares veteres pro anVi. tenueram > tenweram (§137). Cf. C. Bayard 4. however. [§ 225 early Empire. Lauriatus. solia. the / remaining long enough to palatalize the / (the Romance e was doubtless a later analogical development). lancia. Hence arises. * de-excito~^* dexctto'^ It. abiat. L. valiat.94 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.sapui > saj>ui> sapwi. noxeus. Valerius Probus has parietibus: £don 208.filius'>ftlius'^Jiljus. ee. 463. 3714 (Rome). in late Latin spelling.dixisse": Carnoy 43). as e. parieUs {%i2t^)>p aretes. Caper. VI.y Jiliolus>Jiljdlus (§136). a great confusion of e and i in hiatus: capriolvs (cf. S. aleum. So alea>alea'^alja. "non iamus sed eamus.. etc. it was probably a semi-learned word. Pr. i. Audollent 535. soave in Italian. II>'43. coclia. etc. calcius. ie. a new y and a new w. 232. at an early date: arietem (^^\-^6)'> are tern (Varro. palleum. four-syllable induruit are barbarisms Caesellius is undecided whether tenuis has three syllables or two: S. with a narrowing of the mouth-passage. in late Latin. S. Uniamenta. calciare. vinia. faciebam'>*facebam. it became soef in French. 187.> mul'erem. Suavis. mulierem (% 1^6) ". The pronunciation speech by the first u was probably regular in popular . Vok. the semivowels pre- sumably developed into the fricative consonants y and w: S. eacit {^=jacei).:> Digitized by Microsoft® . abias. 06 and u6 into o." " sobrius per i non per e scribendum. cavia. then.. desto. 00.

(Pirson 58) quatro (7th century. consiln'^ consilt. Audollent See §354. opus. uncis = unguis. '' coqui non cod. then *cdpenre *cdp'rtre through the analogy of co. 468-469. 105. Digitized by Microsoft® . £don 130). . > ecus {^App. 2 1 7 ) . coquus'^ cocus {App. Gl. Carnoy 221). vef. tendere. hence *cocma). kept its u: Old Fr. § 227] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. unguntur. then *prendere through the analogy of reddere and perhaps also of ascendere. Febr{u)arius. Reich. the Viduus.. sttnguo > guere non tingere. battuo "^ batto (cf. S. Pr.. quteius'> quetus. U often fell irregularly II. "ungue non unge. qudmddo> comodo. doubtless under the influence of vidua. pendere. requebit. equus S. ministerW^ ministeri. distinguunf> distingunt (ac- cording to Velius Longus. suus'> sus. 218) quator — in. 351). " coquens non cocens". Audollent 536). contin{u)ari. Furthermore. 227. quat{t')uor'^quattor (^. before unaccented by the second century: antiquus "> anticus carduus^^cardus. £ruum'>erum {Lat." Keil VII.and perhaps also ol opera. S. tuum'^tum." Keil VII. 106)." " coqus non cocus". — cdhdrtew^ cortem. u before stressed u and 0: 536. Pr. Pirson 57 (cf. duodecim'^ dodecim (Pirson 58: dodece).'). "tin352. 472: ero). mortuus'^p- cottidie. abattas. Velius Longus. cf. Similarly. 95 prendere. ungi. ho-Tievex. Bayard 7. in late inscriptions. coquo^coco {App. / after a consonant fell before unaccented i: Velius audit '^ audi. So apparently aruum^* arum. 226. quoi{f)tdie> stingo . . "equs non ecus ". Caper. 217-218. Spr.. Jan{u)arius: Vok. z/ after all consonants fell before unaccented u probably by the middle of the first century. common Carnoy 43).. S. cf.oSmsiT\& mortus. inndcuus>inndcus. Pr. tdrqueo>*torquo> *tdrco. unguo'>ungo {ungo. some writers use no u in distinguere. defendere. Carnoy 117. . tinguo~^ttngo (Caper. in quum>cum. cooperire"^ coperlre. fell commoner After gutturals.'K.

fxddre. Lat. golosus gylosus (ior gulosus). but otherwise remained unchanged (cf. Julii. colorem. dtrectus generally '> drictus)\ quirttare~>*dritare. Agustus is frequent from the second century on. (Bcclesia. 0^ remained p. must have existed 229. naufragium. a{u)sculto. 470): dilevit. In a few words the vowel of the initial syllable was an r: *corrStulare^*^roflare." S. i: should be spelled with double late words. gaudere. au became a if there was an accented u in the next syllable. Cf. 57. INITIAL SYLLABLE. far as As or u. some Italian (common by i in inscriptions. Spr. 136. i. a was pronounced a. 171-1 72.. ce all came to be sounded e. 470) (2) Classic/awKa mimoricB. kept It. 135—138. ridemus. '^senatus non sinatus" App. Bon. etc. l remained i. 109. cetdtem. Digitized by Microsoft® . hibernus. i. Some however. E. valere.. e For the confusion of Carnoy 17-33. A(u)runci. Bon.. > *jenua > Sardinian genna. Pr. ce. Spr. Arunci occurs in manuscripts of Virgil. lost before also. it [§ 229 Longus found etc. S. Caper says "ausculta non asculta. and u were finally all pronounced 228. 223 Pirson 26). audere. plordre. Some minor peculiarities are to be noted: (i) A after/ apparently tended to become e: Old dialect forms) . I. videre. movetis. d'rectus (^Vok. A(u)gustus. 223. — Latin /(j/»««j > Classic Jejunus (the original a seems to be preserved in Classic Januarius '^ Jenuarius . (Lat. 11. debere. subinde. b. Koffmane no. long or short. Keil VII. dvitdtem. S. Dionigi. Comelii. Farisiis > Parigi. moniti (for muniti). agusias.96 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Spr. -n and —ns: Dtonysii>lt. in Gallic inscriptions cf. is very often replaced divota. and see Audollent 535. frumentum. 470): rddicem. dolere. Vok. Bon. /^22: Jejunus after prefixes lost its first syllable: * dis-junare. necessary to say that Claudii. * agurium (cf. one can judge from spellings and subsequent developments. Lat. Bechtel 76. I. tenere.

Vr. Proven9al. 224 ff. cf. also sometimes in serore (Lat. 213. possibly through confusion with dis-. : 97 Di. 16^. 470) > Old Fr. This perhaps indicates a close pronunciation cf. Pr^. XXXV. According to Mohl. is that original Latin ei. Einf. II. 234-235) . Reich. Lat. Rum. 131). is common : in Gregory the etc. (Bon. 82). JUntfSrus'^jeniperus (Lat. Pr. by dissimilation. century on (Foi. Italian. Cf. 3 II. Lat. cf. Au 230. was kept by analogy in many words : dUrare. attested by Servius. putator O is changed to e in retundus (Vok.. front vowel (until the seventh century nearly always an ' later e Mohl's view. attested from the sixth 87.§ 23o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Pirson 27. Italian sed on the model of ched: si is preserved in French.for i in 422-424. Lexique > I04ff.. if i followed. Lexique I2z. (4) / tended to become e. nise. salvage. mUtare. cf. the e is perhaps due to the Haag II. Lexique 123. retundatio. turrente (Bon. 470. Lindsay 40). Franz. Lexique \2Z-iz6. Rom. This led to the prefixing of a 2. z. mcinus vecinus. as in 6' before a consonant was doubtless long and sharp. through the influence of the prefix re—. 127).. C. mUrare. (6) O appears as u mfurmica (App. de-. Sfr. became instead of Digitized by Microsoft® . 470) and/m?- perus (App. if there was an accented i in the next syllable:^ dividSre'^*devTdlre. Spr. §111. A form ni for ne is found from early times Pirson 3. Old French. serori. 470). I. Italian. and Old Rumanian. Old Genoese zagante. : (3) > *jagante > Old Yr. Pr.Jaiant. cf. so *ot (for aut: cf. Spr. Umbrian ate. cf. Vitruvius. Spr. cf. II. § 198. in vulgar speech was often replaced by (cf. sometimes became se. nutrire (beside *nqtrire). salvatico. se in Portuguese. < e In miraUlia the i ap- parently became (5) U and a. Lexique 105-108. I was occasionally assimilated to a following accented a : ^gdntem It. sdlbatec.jaian. divmus"^ demnus. Great: dirivare. in manuscripts and inscriptions. in fourth century inscriptions. so that at the modern a syllabic effect — beginning of a word it had s-chola. §§ 69. I. L. Si. which prevailed in Vulgar Latin. serorihus. Carnoy (7) 107).. and Spanish. in late Latin. analogy of *que quid^ quod (cf. Lexique 120. oricla. 213): App. 225. 3 II. 205) . Bon. 126. §§ 212. silvdticus> salvaticus (Gl. fimre'^fenire. in very late texts there is frequent confusion of si and sed (Franz. etc. e became southern Italy from the fourth to the sixth century RIVOCAVERIT.

Bon. 3656-.(pronounced w-): expiendido. The The in Latin example probably it is iscolasticus. Dubois 171. isiudio. dv{i)idtem. spectante for expectante. ismaragdus. exs— (pronounced «-) and /«j-. not frequently. 445. isperabi. S. ischola. splorator. of it iscola. cf. spiratio for inspiratio.. B. In some regions they began to fall regularly before the close of the Vulgar Latin period. ispose. N. ab scandalo. etc.98 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. compardre comperdre. stantia for instantia. in the seventh century. Spania. cirebellum. This i came to be regarded as a regular part of the word. dub{i)idre. but a was gen231. Spanus. Estephanus. Koffmane 109. mirabilia. Cf. 467. istare. — By this term is meant syllable following the secondary and preceding the primary stress. Isidore. though iscripta. ^w. frigiddria frigddria. 317.thus produced was confounded with ex-. ab sceleribus. scoriare for excoriare. Latin texts ab rather than a was used before words besc. written Barcelona in the second century. R. The es-. Spania. Pirson 59-60. cdlK^o^cdre. indistinct towards the erally kept: bdn{i)idtem. sp. Dubois 1 71-17 2. tlie C. in the third century (Carnoy 114-116). Pirson 60. and occasionally disappeared. in the fifth it is very common: espiritum. is. spandere for ex- pandere. IHTERTONIC SYLLABLE. instruo for struo. Slementum 6limintum. prosthetic vowel earliest occurs in Greek inscriptions. Vok. etc. st: ginning with Bon. hispatii for Bechtel 78.. . S. spatii. II.. istatuam. fourth and found repeatedly. Vowels so situated probably became more and more end of the Empire. 317 R. Digitized by Microsoft® . cdp[i)idlis. 316-319. 469-470. S. cdrr(i)care. strumentum. scalciare for excalceare. 148. etc. 445-446. estatio. Bon. dil{i)cdtus. [§ 231 often e) to the s or e when tio vowel preceded first is — in i-schola. Grammarians took But in no note late until St.

Mintsterium apparently became minsterium early enough for the n to before the s: see §171. of this vowel. c. and the conditions differed widely in different regions. stablarius. Substrate IV. Likewise o and u: ambolare. liquid A weakened and by Microsoft® . separdre seperdre. in the second century b. etc. Pirson 51. Neumann 22. F. etc. dixemus. Cf. however. dedcavit. meretis. The Vulgar Latin rhythmic erate one of the two post-tonic syllables of proparoxytones. The fall of the vowel of course disturbed the Vulgar Latin rhythm: see § 153.§ 233] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 467. PENULT. omne)\ classified. was apparently very Vulgar Latin. vetranus. The penult. Neumann in Zs. 118. We find in late Latin much confusion of e and /.• anemis.. 12. (>Pr. insola. There was probably a conflict between cultivated and popular pronunciation. being next to the accent. XIV. principle tended to oblit- 232. Cf. Bon. 131— 135. R. in Sepulcri 201—202. fall 559.. 464. Koffmane III. pi. son 52. 99 sdcramintum. the uneducated pronounced 'om'nes beside socerum there was sScrum. was weaker and more exposed to syncope. : Frigdaria occurs Cf. R. d. Pir- Franz. cf. Bon. vowel preceded by a consonant and followed by a fell in the earlier part of the Vulgar Digitized 233. etc. comare for coronare. etc. v^recundia. uomini)... both types The treatment inconsistent often being preserved in the Romance languages: thus while the literary and official world said {h)dmines (>It. similarly As far as the general phenomena can be we may say that in popular words in penult tended to (i) fall common speech the vowel of the under the following conditions: — Between any Consonant and a Liquid. 116.

Later they were confused. hilerus. e^-16 . 234. were kept distinct vulgar speech: artic{u)lus. comp'tus. 195-196. Many exI. In some words we find a weakened to e: socro. spec{ii)lum. a. spatula'. amples are found in inscriptions: AudoUent 538. 1899. Latin originally had the two diminutive endings —clus and -cuius {<i-co-lo). Die Sprache des Petronius und die Glossen. I. Cceseris. 57. cltera. ins(u)la. D. masclus. vitulus>veclus. bdc{u)lus. Franz. Eseram for Isaram. aspra. Pr. § 284. dedro for dederunt. Vok. vic(u)lus. both becoming —cuius in Classic Latin. mdsc{u)lus. Carnoy 12. the vowel seems to have been kept. 1 digitum> dicCf. ftsiula>*Jiscla. (2) Between a Labial and any Consonant.).). Lexique 63. oclos. Digitized by Microsoft® . Waters Ch. seperat (about 500 A. Oclus and some others occur in Petronius: see W. escaped this absorption: cni. cdm{i)tem. Lexique 64. Franz. felicla. A sonant was inclined to bublus. which must have been slow in entering the common vocabulary. But if the the ^ began to be palatalized (so apparently in 9 I. Pr. In vigilafp-* viglat the vowel fell before (2) below. Pr. These by Plautus. (cf. App. Juglus. as in saclum. d. maniplus. tum.' For a vowel between a labial and a liquid. dc{ii)lus. Pirson 51. Pirson 51). vowel preceded by a labial and followed by a confall early: 235. § 259. 96. frdgilis.loo An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. peduclum. compera. vemdc(^u)lus. scaplas.'). 16-18. Pirson 49-50. both -clus in {^<i—tlo).^-* spatla. 3 To -clus was assimilated in popular Latin the ending -talus: capitulus"^* capiclus . App. But a few words. villus. Bon. Heraeus. App. as in auricula. fecrunt fecru. ci. gracilis. Cf. virginem. at any rate in some regions: bdjulus. aunclus.. frigidus^frigdus. [§ 235 Latin period: altra. anglus.stulum> crustlum (found in 18 Cf. see first consonant -Cvas a palatal.

ioi tri- dib{i)tum. 467. fulica fulca. Plautus. Digitized different condi§ 233) . the fall When ab or av was brought next to a consonant by it of a following vowel. frigidus by Microsoft® . virdis. the vowel was kept. Franz. Waters Ch. Pliny. pdp{u)lus. caldus. but often there were double forms the process began very early audus. Horace.). Reich. in R. * dvka "^ auca. Pr. Plautus (cf. found in glosses. domnus in St. sablum. generally became au. 13. Ci. etc. b{u)la. 238. h6m{i')nes jiiv{e)nis . poplus. Vegetius. Gl. however. per- colopabat. 4th century). Plautus). : § 238] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 15 soldus. nibula. 3 \. KofiEmane iii. Cf. f{b{u)la. Franz.Jibla. 467. 56. * cldvido> claudo (cf.. (cf. Ovid. c6l{a)phus {ci. sablum. dvidus avunculus"^ aunculus. the older: d6m. Cato. . tdbula>*taula *tabla. Waters Ch. Waters Ch. * ndvitaf. A vowel preceded by a liquid and followed by a consonant was subject to syncope at all periods: ardus. Juvenal. Franz. vdpulo baplo. hdmula. Varro. Petronius. Caesar. 44. tremulat. pi. merto. (3) Between a Liquid and any Consonant. tions: In some words the vowel fell under digitum> dictum. either everywhere or in a large region: drbi^o^rem.^-* nautat . p I. Koff109. . Varro.. fdbula>*faula *fabla. 12. valde. 44. gdbata>*gauta *gabta. In some words. virdiaria. Franz. 13. colpus. 237. 236. i2ff. Horace and Vitruvius. domnicus. domnulus. Cf. 15-16 (cf. In d6m(i')nus the mn form may be mane domni. pardbula>*paraula *parabla. Franz. pi. lardum. (4) Miscellaneous. occurs in Lamna Petronius has bublum. App. Franz.{i')nus. Pirson 50. Augustine. R. *navi- > fragus>naufragus). Plautus. offla. Martial. pi. p I. Pirson 51.

(3). e. shortened forms were used in other regions. tdllere > * tolre. Reich. 240. but rius is evidently the ancestor of Italian and Spanish rio. 239. medicus. frdx(i)nus. § Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Pirson 50. debita~^* depta. ntHdus>*niiius. rapidus > > *rapdus. 13-14 (ci. and a number of vowels otherwise placed fell under different conditions in various regions: pdnere'^*ponre. A vowel preceded by </ or ^ and followed by c seems to have remained longer than most other vowels that fell at all: judico. dominica-^ * dominca." Aus and flaus have left no representatives. Pompeii (fridam). Lucretius. (fricda). Some of these In a part of Gaul dmita'^* anta. Pr. pi2tidus'^*puttus. The vowels regularly remained through the Vulgar Latin period. sid(^e)cim. probably late. Later. . 233). etc. cdrrico'^*carco. Pr. — were — syncopated with some regularity. viaticum. Cato). except a and in Celtic. 241.102 An (cf." "flavus non Jlaus" "rivus non rius. 2d century. carcatus. In the transition from Vulgar Latin to the Romance in so far as languages the vowels in classes (i). semita'^* senta. App. vindico. Through a large part of the Empire -avit>-aut: umphaut is found in Pompeii. mdnica'>* manca. [§ 241 ^frigdus maxima^ masma. culicet culcet Cf. FINAL SYLLABLE. posturus. Franz. we find "avus non aus. See Morphology. and Ligurian territory. c6llocat'>-*colcat. about the eighth century. fimina *femna. pers{i)ca. In the App. clericus^*clercus. they had not fallen already. Digitized by Microsoft® . Suchier 732.: = collocat. habitus > * abtus. Gl. All three forms are probably examples of a tri- phonetic reduction that affected certain regions. dic{i)mus. p I. they generi. (2). posius. ally fell. Aquitanian.

etc. See Franz. E I. perhaps. Pr. It is likely that final vowels were especially ob- scure in Gaul in the sixth and seventh centuries. tristts. by Microsoft® . tibe. "bibere non biber". and i came to be used almost indiscriminately. Cf. fructu. tanger in manuscripts. So. pradiscer. Italian. 244. u was u. in I. Lexique 118. in late Latin. famul = A. tristes. §210): apte^aptcB. morior. tribunal{e). Quintilian says that Livy wrote sibe and quase.§ 244] An Introduction Final vowels. etc. Old 'Lz. were all probably sounded e.." "masculus non mascel. bom. a. 103 242. which left no trace in the Romance famulus. E luce. uxore. long or short. conder. bonds. E and a. cotidia. haber in an inscription. 41. The App. vii." ^^figulus nonfigel. In some localities this and this u were kept distinct. but generally they were confounded {Lat.Xxa. feci. he i. Examples: dmds. etc. The changes in pronunciation led to great confusion in spelling. mihe. as in to Vulgar Latin. corpus. but are rather due to a local change of languages. especially e after liquids: Caper. t. tristem. 469). modern must have been often elided or syncopated in the interior of a phrase. which became u in Sicily. 469). sancta. were not usually distinguished (cf. etc. Neumann 7-8 cites ten cases of e for a: Italice. 3 I. inflection. dmdt. Spr. vii. according to the testimony of numerous inscriptions {Lat. praber. sentls.. Spr. Carnoy45: Digitized dative." These curious forms are probably not the result of a phonetic development. About the eighth century a probably became ? in northern Gaul. for / is frequent in the dative and ablative. ablative. Bechtel 75-76. has "barbarus non barbar. facul =facilis. 243. iv and I. describes the final vowel of here as neither quite e nor quite Cf. which in Sicily be- came eventually // t remained // was 0. e. was naturally pronounced a. autumnal {e).

. 474. and 121. So et it: Bechtel 88-89. etc.. very etc. of. Neumann 11-13. etc.4 G./^^. Ill. Joannis. etc. Z. With and u it was the same.. Os and us were interchanged from the third century on awi' = annos. etc. D. there are between 126 and 563 a. C.. etc. N... Phon. V. Bon. 11 1. was kept in Digitized some formulas . I. Sepulcri 203-204. S. Carnoy 48 bonus = bonos. Cf. 246. 43-44.. ^and Fwere used both and u and for the consonants/ and v. Carnoy 48. etc. G. F. of om for um.. 116. became in Gaul mis-. Bon. an R. d. and um is very common in Per.104 An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. Haag 245. 131 has spoliatur for spoliatot. •quat{u)or'>quatro. -re. Neumann 11-13.r became Carnoy 221. 'Im. it need by Microsoft® . siiper'>-*supre. Q. Bon. accusative plural G|^l|ii Jilius—Jilios. Minus. larly common 42. used as a prefix (cf. for the vowels i were B.. 115. in etc. E. -ro: inter'>*intre. movit. [§ 246 Es and are continually interchanged: 24. in us was particu128. 61 examples of u for ablative In Vok. mares etc.. 916. sem- per'^* sempre . H. as well as frequent instances of ablative in um. os The confusion of for us. tenit. Cf. K. also in Gregory the Great.. Audollent 535. Lat. K. = maris. letters The Latin consonant P. Bon. regis ^reges. Spr.. X. cf. Bon. II.. Sepulcri 201. under the influence of dis-. Sepulcri 229-230. omnes ^ omnis (3d century). old letter equivalent to C. posuet. and us for os. Carnoy 13-15. In words ofteii used as proclitics final -er. Carnoy 13. Vok. §29) as in minus-pretiare. monumento ^= monumentum. CONSONANTS. : . I. M. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin period. common in Per. etc. T. L. -£?. omnes ^^omnis.

247. Pirson 85. For w>j and For double forms like of single cipus ctppus. sonants The principal developments that affected Latin conmay be summed up as follows: b between vowels was opened into the bilabial fricative /3. The voicing of intervocalic surds began during the Vulgar Latin period. ^ and g before front vowels were palatalized and were then subject to further alterations. taken up The Latin consonants will be in the following order: aspirate. serra. Double consonants regularly kept after long their long pronun- ciation: annus. palatals. //>/ vowels. 319-320). nasals. fillio. the combination Q was generally used only Jf stands for ks. 163. Vulgar Latin had a new w and y coming from originally syllabic u. Pirson 88.§ 248] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.or ss (S. lastly the Germanic. Pirson 83-91. with The consonants will now be considered in detail. labials. which also changed to /8. § 223). Bon. In addition to the above. Double cf. 248. dentals. In late spelling there is some confusion and double consonants: anos.. e. liquids. the Celtic need not be separately studied. vacca. 105 in not be separately considered. In words borrowed from Greek and German there were several foreign consonants. sibilants. see §161. Q V= kw (cf. 158. m and n became silent at the end of a word. gutturals. which will be discussed after the native ones. Z in Old Latin apparently meant j. see §§ 162. or / in hiatus: see § 224. For Fredegarius see Haag 39-40. later it represented a different Latin version of Greek t. h was silent. passus. next the Greek. nullus. and n ceased to be sounded before s. consonants are often written single in early inscriptions. which will be treated below (§§338-339). first the native Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . terra. and thus became identical V.

399. doubtless the Romance It languages. hinsidias. Grammarians felt obliged to discuss in detail the spelling of words with' or without h : S. a.. as in quisquis honos tumuli: Keil V.e. nil. 249. 264. 266. Quintilian says the ancients used h but little. 263. probably disappeared when medial: . vehemens." see S.. Quintilian commends the spelling deprendere: S. 266. Cf. 263-264. Grammarians say that A is not a letter but a mark There is no trace of Latin k in of aspiration: S. 262-263." In inscriptions we find such forms as reprehensus aduc. honera : Pompeius notes that k sometimes makes position.— io6 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 266. being little or nothing more than a breathed on-glide: S. 267—268. which led to frequent misuse by the ignorant. Gellius quotes P. S.. and both he and Velius Longus declare there is no h \VLprendo: S. G. mi. Initial h was surely very feeble and often silent during In Cicero's time and in the early Empire there was an attempt to revive it in polite society. 255-256. Cf. Probus states that traho is pronounced trao: Lindsay 57. the Republic. first XI. Pr. 251. 1. Paris in I?om. — aspires perperam". Digitized by Microsoft® . si speaks of bygone generations as using k very S. 117. If -was weak and uncertain at all times in Latin. "adhuc non aduc. vemens: S. comprendit. 250. very much as happens in Cockney English to-day: for the would-be elegant chommoda. but Cicero's contemporaries much. sometimes does not. etc. as in terga fatigamus hasta. of "Arrius. Nigidius Figulus fit to the effect that "rusticus sermo i. incohare are archaic calls Terentius Scaurus and vehemens incorrect. cortis. and cites "ados ircosque": S. [§ 251 LATIN CONSONANTS. App. Gellius says ahenum. in such words as sepu/c/irum. 264-265. ASPIRATE.

Cf. § 226. cf. Q F was Audollent 536. condam. I. choante. Q and C: S. 350reduced to k by the or second century. less indisetc. records a pun of Cicero on cogue and quoque. ic. S. In Pompeii h is freely omitted. '^digitus = digitos. oe.. OSTIA.§ 254] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. But in Dacia. by Microsoft® . heremum. abitat. the Empire. There was some confusion. Bechtel 77-78. non dicitus". 924. Before u and first however. S. omo. 473. etc. L. cocus : see §226. I. 462-463.. southand Sicily subsequent developments point to a ke. GUTTURALS. anc. secuntur. the kw was 340-341. Pr.. etc. Mens. and H after the third century it is everywhere more or eres. 351. of S. too.. In Rome are found: e[redes].. E. 341-344. I. Cf. Bechtel 78. hossa. I. Spr. 265-266. b. Sheldon in Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Litera- turel (1892). C. 82-87. 1034. L. etc. S. etc. S. etc. ora. k. 253- C and K did not differ in value except that C some- times did service for dicitos G: App. = coperta. 455. ymnus. kw was Before other vowels the regularly kept in most of k. 345-346. 252. hegit. hodio.L. I. haram. quooperta cot. ospitiutn. cottidie. C. unless analogy led to a substitution of cociior coqui throvigh. ortus. S. dialects: Quintilian VI. R. etc. After h had become pronunciation of medial h as Italian pronunciation of there grew up a school which has persisted in the Latin and has affected some words in silent. I. probably earlier in local or vulgar iii. as in eastern Italy. in quo ante=^inBechtel 78-79. 351-352. 345. 107 is dropped in a few inscriptions towards the end of the Republic: arrespex (for haruspex). nichil.. criminately used: abeo.. 264. pronounced kw: 0. 254. other languages: michi. hostium. Cf. 819. C.. R. Vulgar Latin reduction of que to Digitized qui to ki: Lat. oratia.

to Carnoy have become *laceus: Substrate 255. "aries non ariex. Carnoy Eckinger 126 (2eorros). Lindsay 102. cen- inscriptions. viscit). Carnoy 159. felis. s: sestus is common in inscriptions. The voicing of intervocalic surds doubtless it is early as the fifth century. S. for some reason. App. except in mono^prmgnans. nasco. began as shown by Anglo-Saxon borrow- ings and by such Latin forms as frigare. pregiiax became s. Lexique 93). excutere. in late Latin. Vok. merx. There are some examples." "locuples non lucuplex. ^ stood for ks: S. by analogy. 221. Caper. extimare for cestimare. exponere. 145.before vowels. 353. 98. After a consonant ks early tended to become s: Piautus uses mers for est. migat in inscriptions Digitized by Microsoft® . first [§ 256 In quinque the w was lost by dissimilation: cinqve.: Hence cf. destera. 346. mextum for mcestum. but not in syllables etc.. sometimes. S. etc. ubi materia per s. of a metathesis of ks into sk: axilla"^ ascella. I. in At about the same time : final ks cojus. io8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bechtel 139.. S. By the second reduced to or third century ks before a consonant was 170. gium. e. Laqueus seems. ern Gaul apparently sk regularly became ks. Fr. but this was only local: alesan[der]. as in * essaexire. fifth tury. found in Spain (so cinqv. see § 266. S. For ks>-)(S. /'m«7/« > prixsilla. 353. So ex-^es. 353. dester. Carnoy 171.. 353 (cf. etc.: see Melanges Wahlund t^^. xanto. as in cresco. ''cah dicendum. 274. es~ for ex. 352. 351.). Carnoy 157." Keil VII." "poples noT\ poplex. cinctivs. Audollent 537. BissiT BisiT VISIT = vixit. III. etc. cf.'' "miles non milex." In parts of Italy ks between vowels was assimilated into ss by the first century. conjus. milex.. On In norththe other hand. S. Cinqvaginta. subornatris. Carnoy 158. buxus'^* buscus vixit>\iyiC\Ti (i. 341. Cf.

gat. 474. Densusianu 111-112. I. Vok. however. XXV. that t>d'm the fifth century and the beginning of the sixth. and in Sicily. Haag 27—28. cubidus. i25ff. but reina. early in the Empire or before. Carnoy 123. kima. t were voiced in Gaul in the second half of the sixth century. on the evidence of inscriptions and manuscripts.. Voicing was not general. (i) Cf. 731. In Central Sardinia. deghe<. kircare. Dalmatia. kelu. found in the 4th century.. C and G before Front Vowels. kera. Zs.t least two centuries earlier. siubri. According to Loth 21-26. 2d century. became g and gr: *gaveola. Zimmermann. / 258. there are many examples from the sixth century: Lat. . p. Franz. pontivicatus. occubavit. ne121. etc.— — § 258] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. maintains. in a few words. Some above examples show that consonants followed by r shared in the voicing. of the cataveris ^^ cadaveris. lebra.. Initial c and cr. etc. etc. into a mediopalatal position k'. intervocalic c. in central and southern Italy. Before the front vowels e and the velar stops k and g were drawn forward. Digitized by Microsoft® . kena. Cf. 109 and manuscripts. 3 I. noghe < nucem. Haag 28-29. etc. 472. immudavit.. Spr.. 257. etc. 7th century. Spr. and Dacia. Dalmatia. Haag 27. Rydberg. G seems to have been attracted sooner than k : in Sardinian we find k before e or i preserved as a stop whiles is not decern. 32. at least as early as the seventh century. pagandum. etc. Carnoy eglesia. A. finds in inscriptions some slight evidence of a change of t to d during the Empire. and Illyria k' went no further. in some places perhaps as early as the first century. and Dacia the k' stage was apparently kept longer than in most regions: Lat. sigricius ^= secretins. * gratis. while c>gz. southern Italy. crassus + grossus'^grassus.g'.

"calcostegis Neumann 75. Stolz 349. II. 460) trienta. Pr. .>maester. Haag 34 manes 1' . After the accent. and southwestern Italy remained at the y stage elsewhere the y developed further in the Romance languages. and portions of Sardinia. agebat ^ aiebat. Spr. [§259 259. S. that of English g in gem) before e and /. fused. Lat. the regularly remained. both in popular and in Gerapolis for HierapoHs. Per. This y.. Troge. a part of southwestern Gaul. Genavam. . 461. Sicily. II." geiuna= Jejuna. Vok. = Sepulcri 205. Pirson 97 quarranta = qicadraginta. D'Arbois 10.. {g)inti. §233. 3.1 1 Some light is thrown on the later clerical pronunciation by a statement in a fragment of a tenth century treatise on Latin pronunciation. Spain. neglienda. 3 I. etc. But sometimes : fused with a following i proparoxy tones roitus {=irdgitus z= rogdtus).. and digitus in some places had become dictus {Franz. Diez. re{g)ina. F. maestati. S. 15-16): cf. lenubam = Bon. coi^i. and after a consonant. Agrientum. 473. colliens... Before happened. recoUiendo. Voi. 275. Vok. etc. Pr.Gi. non cakosieis. Pirson 97 celiens. 461 . genvarivs. vigtlat had become *viglat. ingens aiebat. to the effect g has "its own sound " (i. 250. diriens. G' by the fourth century had become had opened into y. frigidus in most of the Empire had become frigdus {App. except colliens when analogy forced *colliente. Cf. 349. with the following e or i if this vowel was stressed: vi- mag2ster'>*mayister'. iesta. 61. leges. but is " weak " before other vowels. agere = ^ aiere. Gepte.. fmucrrpo. 473. Cf.. Pirson iniens.): it its disap- pearance (as in pldngit. Tragani. Digitized by Microsoft® . = conjugi.. genarivs. "-frigida non fricda"). jSctevTt = viginti. this Haag 33. praepalatal clerical and Latin: App. etc. agebat Lat. in nearly all the Empire. so *pa{g)e{n)sis. Grammaire des langues ro- I. in through legit. II. no An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 239.e. (cf. 173. similarly perhaps the proclitic ma{g)is. Thm-ot 77. Spr. when it was intervocalic.Gi 5. etc. S. argentum.

Vok. In the half of the third ce. in the fifth century we find bintcente. etc. S. k'y had become t'y: t'yentu. ka. Marchot. in Lat. the earlier grammarians: prsepalatal. consiensia. In the school pronunciation of the seventh and eighth centuries c before e and i In the treatise cited in the preceding note. 1900. 348. and qu. W. a short y. Fetite phonetique du franfais prelitieraire. census. and is almost like q before other vowels. and Libit. For a discussion of the subject. century some writers distinguish Rom. paze (6th or 7th cenFrankish tins (German zins') is from fifth borrowed probably in the 595. everywhere a The next step was the development of an audible glide. I. between the k' and the following vowel: k'yentu. in 260. XXVI. ffautes-^tudes. mediopalatal.1 century: F. S. E.§ 26i] An K' Introduction to Vulgar Latin. apparently as and postpalatal. Paris in Journal des savants. XXXIII. 51-53. in the Annuaire de I'^cole pratique des 261. G. it is stated ts. Guarnerio in Supplementi aWArchivio glottologico italiano IV (1897). S. Mohl.itury must have had nearly front. of this glide the group then. 1893. By the fifth century the k' had passed a little further forward and the Through a modification tsentu. articulation: k'entu. tury). . 1901. nascere.S^ was palatalized also: crescere. see H. Zs. 617).. XIV. Meyer-Liibke in Einf. fascem. Vok. 163. duk'ere. 360. 359. or praepalatal. 1 was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . . I. co{g)ndscere. that c has " its own sound " before c and i. 21-51 (cf. in the Comptes rendus des seances de I'Academie des Inscriptions. duk'yere. in the t's sixth or seventh century. 1893. Cf. There is no mention of first it by 340. G. piscem. 151. Schuchardt. XXX. as early as the third ce. septrvm. and in Rom. 81. developed into or ts: t's'entu or Speakers were apparently unaware of the phenomenon until the assibilation was complete. intcitamento: P. 348 cites fes[it]. Thurot 77. 123-126. dut'yere. Cf. 322 P. 7.

For ce. pacare. by Microsoft® . see Palatals below. Occasionally. * liamen. sic factum). in the front of the 263. (3) C and G Final and before Consonants. see Archiv XV. g'a. Inasmuch as a had in Gaul a front pronunciation (§ 194). and then developed further: carum>'Fr. 262. see Zs. found about the sixth century. siffatto {<. negare. frvalitas. gustus. negdre. the proclitic eo for ego. — mainly. fammi {<ifac mi). § 256. probably by the end of the seventh century. of a local assibilation of c as early as the second century. the c must have been Digitized lost. See. At the end cf. due. ci. so. and apparently remained under learned or under analogical influence in others: avstvs from the second century on. Carnoy 127 (cf. Italian die. of a word the guttural seems : to have been regularly preserved in Vulgar Latin fac. *redlis (for XXX. ka. 349. through alliteration. jambe. S. eccu'hdc. hoc. ecce htc. y^ 264. Intervocalic g before the accent fell in many words in all or a part of the Empire. too. 146. pagdnus. realis in Gl. however. I. Reich. 129 (other examples in manuscripts. dimmi (< die mi). Vok. K and g before vowels not formed mouth usually remained unchanged: canis. (2) C AND G before Back Vowels. so * ledlis. S- — — perhaps 349). avste. cher.112 An 472. ga in most of that country became k'a. however. 242-243). sic. Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie [§264 3131!. 50). But ligdre. Sfir. in Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. 3 II. Franz. gamba>'Ex. Carnoy 155-160 (who puts the assibilation in the sixth century and earlier). For a possible indication..

cuntis. App. Zaf. §650. became um: fraumenta. 9 II. probably by the century: defuntus. Gram. Zs. Isidore.^ Ft.e. sank. in the south even in the first century: AVTOR. subsequently drawn forward to the praepalatal position santus. 267. Lat. Nkt became yt. and there is a confusion of si and sic: Franz. S. Cf. ( i. *viglat (§233).§268] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. however. The resultant phenomena can. inasmuch as their own rf had as x^ from the become ^f (e. Carnoy 172. irqyfua.. In late texts nee is often written ne before a consonant.g. 278. that the y was retained very generally in Gaul and perhaps some other regions. fata. 348. S. in see § 254. eissir. A. 398*fC'X^um>Vx. in Pompeii.. however. Xf some parts was assimilated into U by the beginning of the fourth century. Old ct Windisch 394. 215-224. "dumecta S. and «'. be explained otherwise: Irish ocht-n corresponding to Latin octo.. fleuma. Spr. through assimilation to a following initial consonant: PA iot fac. which seems to have been assimilated first into nt in parts of the Empire." 348. sante. saint. = qu. Spr. 113 no doubt. see § 255. 236-240. Gm Pr. "sagma by Microsoft® . PR/EFETTO. Before another consonant k and g were for the most part kept through the Vulgar Latin period: actus. and likewise substituted x^ fo"^ ^^' Suchier 735. The Celts perhaps pronounced the Latin beginning. I. Spr. 399). ^^auctor non autor".). App. santo. § 186. There is reason to believe. Pr. — sanctum 268. 472. * exsire . fait. regnancte. Einf. otogentos.).) . etc. For kw 266. D. For ks of Italy = x. Lat. Festus. XXV. D. 476. "pegma non peuma" Digitized St. 735. Pr.. oclus.. 472. frigdus. antiqui quasi dumecita appellabant quae nos dumeia. 265. OTOBRIS (380 A. LATTVCjE (3OI etc. > Fr.

edmus. which comes from Koxfrn. diumus. exagium. videavi . gaudium. aayixa). Gr. Cf. Dy and^. 272. sometimes entirely absorbed by the in Gaul. connato. I. Cf. podium. d. sauma 269. similarly the ^ was sometimes etc. as calma from Soma occurs in Gl. of ii was often used: coiiugi. Cf. eiius. madias = maias. conjux. Reich. hodie.e. 324) and zesv =/esu. pere{g)rtnum. and subjected to further modifications. in popular words apparently became r parts of the Empire: fra{g)rare. 327. fageus. renum. Pirson 76. being preserved in some. [§272 quae corrupte vulgo S. rarest in Dacia. adjuiare. the after the fall of initial g in gnosco —-into lost in cognatus : word being co~ and Vok. followed a consonant. Spr. Haag 34. Italian sauma [or salma^ dicitur" (i. between in vowels. that consonant was often less assimilated. soma. ZACOiJVS = diaconus. venio. cunnuscit. 239). ajutit =adjutet. and also salma. in the latter part of the Empire. Pirson 75. PALATALS. inte{g)rum. ftlia. Carnoy Digitized by Microsoft® . y. t. audiam. Lat. assimilated into n or n in others. cujus. Instead i (=/) the spelling mann. odium. In cognosco the decomposed — g generally disappeared. Latin / was pronounced being identical in sound with the consonant that developed out of e and / (§ 224): jam. Compare oz^^ hodie (S.114 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 476. 364 a. (S. no SCO.. 323) and Zovk^la= Julia (Eckinger 80). 115-116. etc. Neu- When y more or y. Gn was still variously treated in different regions. teneaf. Stolz 275. Palatalization was commonest probably were reduced to y in vulgar speech: deorsum. 271. habeam. pi{g)ntia. ZVNIOK = junior (S.. rcenante. ni{g)rum. Fortsetzung 7.. 270.

teneat.. § . madio S- 349. in Yox plUvia a form *pldja was substituted §§ 169. sapcha. etc. This palatal pronunciation may be 327. cor- aytos. appears that the labials were not regularly assimi- sapiam > It. says. di sine sibilo Isidore letter tell grsecum enim nomen est. Carnoy 162. di. mezzo. De. II. 115 162. ridia =! corrigim. y. another — doubtless more elegant — pronunciation. represented by the spellings Aureia. The : dz pronunciation was especially favored after a consonant 273. or dz (cf. 324. *deyo: cf. His- pania. lated in Vulgar Latin beside abbio. S. Vok.i£=die.(4). by Microsoft® . But through the analogy of audio"^* auyo. n' before the end of the Empire: ftlius. Remidium — Eemigium. Digitized etc. juria = jurgia. in others especially in Italy the cultivated dz. II. "solent Itali dicere ozie pro hodie. towards the end of the Empire. 323. Media. 321. sappia.. 34.§274] ^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. = maio. Servius in Virg." S. debbio. fiios. folia. but not everywhere. = dies. debeo often became *ayo. pranzo. and perhaps through slurring due to constant and careless use. It. 63. Waters Ch. deggio. writes. etc. 216. but it we generally cannot whether t. Reich. magias ^= maias. Carnoy 161. Condianus. prandium > It. had poggio. most of the Empire: 274. Gl. however. Corneius. probably became veniam. /'. Congianus =. Georg. 320. Haag 34. licpioi = Sergius. aggio. In most words the vulgar jv prevailed. but medium ^^ > It. St. sacriius—SiaKpiTOi. 339): z^s cf. means dy. ny. The reduced forms cf. aios = Carnoy 162. tilia. Z is often used in inscriptions. from radius Italian has both raggio — — and razzo. The S. S. 208. Pr. probably dz : podium proferenda est. habeo. 461. Ly. It hordeurh > It. : orzo. generally prevailed. video>*veyo." S. palea. which was > It. melius. between vowels. Audollent 537 zogenes. Haag anoget = *inodiaf.

isoff. somewhat allium. etc. Spr. fascia.y«j/i«'a (in an edict of Diocletian). For rv. ci. Oleum. 475. a sound similar to English sh in ship: basium. Cy and ty. Ssy. etc. and ty. S. Cf. /' [§276 later: were probably reduced to ex-eligit. malleus. I'g' to Vulgar Latin. I.d. the an exception-: cf. concupiscencia many examples Gaul in the 5th century.). 321) "benedictio et oratio et talia t debent habere in psenultima syllaba. eAaiov. oracionem (601 a. Lat. also in nuncius. For the confusion 276. caseus. d. furthermore. In later school pronunciation cy and ty were sounded alike. oli. quatio. prophetia. justicia. foreign words borrowed from Latin oleum indicate the same irregularity. . collt^t. pudicicia. ocio (389 A. D. scy. Bon. 78. / 'i'l^^^y. doubtless became during the VulgHRjatin period /. Fr. between vowels. Eckinger 99. as in etiam. duricia. we are told that ti.ii6 Lly.). etc. An Introduction ll'g'. in the similar in sound. and hence were often confused: a. defeniciones (222235 A.. Sp. were very and t'y (cf. is confused with the spelling c being prescribed in amicicia. silentium.. huile. is pronounced like c. 'ApovKiavoi = Aruntianus. unless preceded by s. ocium. avaricia. see § 296. p. from oleo. consiensia. . non c.. tercia. Pirson 71 mendatium. staacio (601 a. leticia. olio.). Riquier 131 &nd pitid in popular speech). It. Vok. D. 171 especially common in Gallic inscriptions of the seventh century. see § 277. 323. Densusianu in. Pg. being respectively k'y second and third centuries. mansionem. sty were generally assimilated of sy later: *bassiare. malicia. Stolz 51." In the treatise published by Thurot (see footnote to § 259). is Pr.. Fr. According to Albinus (S. servicium. D. postea. modian). ti. Digitized by Microsoft® . tercius. Pirson 72. Cf.). termina(an acrostic in Com- ciONES in (2d century).

et plerumque supradictse syllabse in sibilum transeunt. Cf. either whole Empire." Papirius. 64. servitium -cium. am- bicio. S. Cf. or vice versa: cf. A. I. It. cited by Cassiodorus (S. 117 spacium. gocciare. This explains such seemingly anomalous developments 324. MARSIANESSES = J/ar/z'a«^«j'M. conditio. squarciare.. except in foreign proper names or after j litteris. Vincentl^us. zodorys = Theodoras. 1904. so many ^|ftper names.: audatia. XXIV. in some cases. but not in otii. locally or in the This similarity or identity of sound led. etc.. t. comenzare chminciare. 545. Reich. as * exquartiare-^YX. etc. 320): "/ustitia ex tribus he goes on to state that it is always so when ti is followed by a vowel other than / (as in Tatius. "lotacismi sunt quotiens post ti. (S. etc. castius). Servius in Don. Digitized by Microsoft® . * gutteare "> Horning in Zs. Latetnisches ti und ki im Ru7ndnischen. inicio. Audollent 537. 323.. Pompeius says the same thing at con- siderable length. 324. §260): crescentsian[vs]. XXVII. . et i". Anitius -cius. otia. D. 320) says. Carnoy 154. S. tristicia. later avarttic^-cia.. A number of words evidently had a popular pronunciation with f and 277. adding (S." Consentius 'For a different explanation of the Italian and Rumanian developments.§277] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin.vel di^ syllabam sequitur vocalis. S. Gl. T'y developed sporadically in the second century. 3d ccntury. Hence arose numeroimdouble forms: condicio solacium solatium. Vok. into ts (cf. Puscariu. see S. Justitii). ularly a school pronunciation with etc. spacio. by the 140 A.^ k'. Carnoy 151-154. sotium. 320). (as injustius. It. tertia syllaba sic sonat quasi constet z. etc. *cominitiare -ciare. speties. reviewed in Libit. Italienischen und Sardischen. etc. pinguius sonat et perdit sonum suum et accipit sibilum. "si dicas Titius. tercius. to the substitution of suffixes and to other permanent transfers of words from one class to the other: cf. cum scribitur. ampittfltru. regfourth. 68.

Clerical usage for a while doubtless favored sy for ty. pretium —sium. St. The resulting sibilant was different from came from t'y: faciam'^-lt. faccta. " ' by Microsoft® . 6th cen- tury. 301-302. etc.'a. D regularly remained unchanged: Digitized dare. so facio. carried into Brittany in the second half of the fifth century. servitium —slum. etc. d. — — S. statio —sio. Exai^les are very numerous: observasione. hence \X?X\2. was easily confused with sy. ratio —sio. The in modern French. as in English : S. S. d. . glacies. and -igia beside -ezza from -ztia. not followed by y. 225 a.g. 65 Horn. 279.ii8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. modus. diposisio ^= depositio. Ztd/t. especially in suffixes: —slum.s or sixth. as 280. 6th century. vezzo. and not 281. and many words have palatium preserved it in various regions. 153. judigsium. Welsh words borrowed from Latin before the fourth century show no assibilation. Pirson 71.l.. Cf. g'. Isidore in justitia: S. Vok. sepsies. 278. hocsies. and the ultimate products have become identical in that which many For regions. 307. =^ Afardanus. placeam. see Gutturals. 320-321. perdo. 323.vo'. But the intermediate stages were similar enough to lead to some confusion. k'.palagio heside patazzo. vitiutrf^lt. Carnoy 154. tersio. dentals were pronounced with the middle of the tongue arched up and the tip touching the gums or teeth. but names in -tiacum. Eck- inger 103. JT'y was assibilated sporadically in the third century. say t's'y the At aa intermediate stage between ty and ts grouD. fifth but not regularly until the of t'y -wa. etc. 5th century. are Metiacus> Messac). DENTALS. XXVII. if the /' was rather weak.. [§281 mentions the assibilation in etiam. XXXV.. 480. Pirson 71. assibilated (e. cf.. 323. after the assibilation completed: Mapa-w.

as we may infer from the treatment of the prefix ad~: people probably said not only at te (cf." App. (3). at. 119 Oscan and Umbrian had nn corresponding to Latin nd: There is some indication that this pronunciation was locally adopted in Latin: agennjE. ad eos and at ea. In proclitics assimilation naturally went further. If this was the case. § 289. S. S.. id 29. Cf." Cf.. 31 1. dacruma'^ lacrima . Digitized by Microsoft® . .• Cf. 366-367 Some of the confusion was doubtless due to the fall of both d 365 . set. the central and southern Italian nn for nd (as quannu for quando) may go back to ancient times Lat. 282. etc. 358-359. Pr. confusion of ad and etc. S. 365 aput. S. Grammarians warn against the Cf. 365-366. 476. Carnoy 180.. a. arripere). etc. etc. Carnoy 179-180. attendere) but sometimes *ar Romam (cf. S. INQVID. and possibly at the end of a phrase apvd apvt. quid quit. 283. Liquids. it. capud in Gregory the Great. Intervocalic d. Spr. So the final consonant eventually often dis- appeared. S. devocalized before a voiceless : initial consonant. Raetia. 311312 "grundio non grunnio.. At the end of a word there was hesitation between d and S. The cases seem to be sporadic and due to different special causes. guoi. CO. etc. . part of Sardinia: vt3ere':>*vedere. northern Italy. (2) In a.» Sittl 37. Pr. Gaul. ilium corpus. 31 1 Consentius blames " peres pro pedes" S. fecit feced. through the analogy of other neuters. became ilium : Haag 29. period. App. verecvnnvs. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin became 6 in Spain. and t: see §285. o\d. " adif^ non alipes.. etc. §283] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. // d may have been . quo and Haag Illud. few words d~^r: medidies by dissimilation ^«^«rf««... Carnoy 180. set. arVORSVM =r adversum. and a Similarly intervocalic dr. : (i) Occasionally (/>/.

as ama. ascla. etc. > *scloppus > . 107. 105. Italy. usclar. occasionally in Faliscan: Hammer 5. [§ 285 either at the same time or became drin Spain and Gaul: quadro'. —tulus~^—dus. '^ pessulum non pestulum" (hence Italian /ifj'//. 8. So probably insula > * isla > * istla > * isda > Final t fell It. Lat. 285. 472. Gaul. and Sardinia kept the t late. sclit. schioppo. . The first . f^habe). Tl. often in Umbrian In Latin. northern Italy.?. dr~> rr: quarranta.)." "vitulus non vidus. Cf." For Cf.315. sure examples of the fall in Latin are found in Pompeii tions in Christian relinque. ustulare > Pr. and sclitib. Ischia. §234. posui) occur in Gallic inscriptions.> *quadro. etc. Hammer 28-32. but forms without the possibly due to Italian stoneconsonant (as audivi.. 8. In early dialects we find such forms as cvpa. Rumanian. Between j and I z. Digitized by Microsoft® . S. Italian (except Sardinian). 367. 284. seems to have regularly become d: astula> Pr. f developed: Caper. later. valia. 7. in Volscian {fasia=fadat)." capidum.(from stlis stlitis). however. peria. dede: S. Fredegarius wrote e for cutters — — t et: Haag 29. Spr. Raetia. 312-313 "Martulus non Marculus" "stlataris sine c littera Caper. sitis. its Final nt perhaps lost before consonants: Lat. In quadraginta.120 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. . facit." "vefulus non vedus. partem. final t disappeared early in the Empire in southern and during the Empire in most of Italy and Dacia. vixi. cf. 367-368. and also Spanish and Portuguese show no trace of final / except in monosyllables. Pr.: others appear later in the inscrip- Rome and S. T usually stloppus remained unchanged : teneo. It. Spr. Keil VII. " capitulum non dicendum. App. Pirson 97.

videtur. §283. triplicem. S. tr'p-dr'^dr. LIQUIDS. of final t For the confusion inquid are found.. — 368. S. with and without either consonant. restituerun. and-^J is found: S. L had a convex formation. t 286. Cicero favored posmeridianus . see §282: capud. it was doubtless often Fredegarius voiced. Raetia. likewise. Priscian I. like d and "Z t (cf.§288] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. posuerun. 324) writes: exilem. may indicate un- certainty in the use of d and t. Lat. In inscriptions we find : dedro and dedrot. posquam in R. ^> d in northern Gaul and Spain. may have lost its t before consonants as post ilium but pos' me. When did not fall. is preserved in the same regions as Pisaurum. 287. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) or *capum. Spr. e. Spr. Both st and s are represented in the Romance languages. 473. Lindsay 124. Gaul. § 280): S. 368. Pos is very common in inscriptions. In Gaul and Spain. Such a spelling as Later this retere for reddere (S. d and t. before a vowel or a voiced consonant. moreover. 473-474. Cf. 309. est amatus but es' portatus : Lat. ut Plinio sonum habet: quando geminatur secundo loco Digitized by Microsoft® . 473-474. According to Velius Longus. cf. inside a phrase. 470. (I) L. Nt. in general. uses capo: Haag 29. 38 (S. Marius Victorinus preferred posquam : S. Cf. pos. /. Cf. 306-307. Final st. 309. Italy probably in the fifth or sixth century: Inscriptions show a few such forms 309) as amadus. in 365. Intervocalic was voiced to d in Spain. and northern § 256.The Romance languages show forms with nt. 288. 121 n. feced.

plenum. shifted forwards. alga. chaloir and gallina~> Old Fr. etc. medium in aliis. etc. fabula^*flaba'y-\\. Osthoff. 301 a. sporadically by the fourth century but regularly not until the eighth and ninth and later (^Lat. see §274. silva. clarus. XXX. See also Zs. / regularly changed: luna. An ut il-le. 325-326. a faulty pronunciation of / particularly prevalent in Africa or 648. sol. Sfr. Greece: S. It.d. ski. Other grammarians blame. quando finit nomina vel quando aliquam habet ante se in eadem syllaba sol. in obscure terms. 326. 476). II.. except before i. sound — as 50. 327) blames "coacla pro cloaca" " displicina pro disciplina". from the "pinguis. flavus. to the vocalization of / into u: KavKovXaT<o in an edict of Diocletian. (2) There are sporadic examples of the dissimilation of two Ts: Digitized by Microsoft® . geline. fiaba. 494. It is likely that / before or after another consonant had a Before thick sound caused by lifting the back of the tongue. 289. etc. chiave. /. also had the thick is famuXus (but not in similis): thus explained the different fate of a in calere^OXd Fr. this elevation. zi. For sl>stl. ille). brought about the palatalization of Spanish and Italian clavem kl'ave > Sp. ut exilis.. consonantem. mtlle. Have. this formation led in some regions. Dunkles undhelles 1 im Lateinischen in the Transactions of the American Philological Association / in : > XXIV. see §284. intervocalic va. ut lectus. [§ 289 syllabas et Metel-lus. After consonants." lectum. During the Latin period altus. According to H. For ly. Vok." heard before a consonant (as in albo. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Eckinger 12. consonants." Consentius distinguishes the "sonus which he ascribes to initial and double / (as in lana.): S. cauculus in manuscripts. tribunal. see §161. It remained unseems to have fallen in For //>/.122 posita. (i) Metathesis occurs occasionally: Consentius (S.

"flagellum non frag-ellum. Velius to Longus says est (S. while old rss. locally in aliorsum. while susosusu susum. in most of the Empire in dorsum. Cf. 330): "Dossum per duo s quam per r quidam ut lenius enuntiaverunt. 330. C." Russum rusum. (3) Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. two r's. diosum. L. Gl.s pessica.f It generally resisted In many words. although Moreover. 243. etc. Bechtel 83: susum very common. rusus. Pr.. ac tota r littera sublata est in eo quod rusum . Pompejus Magnus et scribebat et dicebat kadamitatem pro calamitate. MVNTV for multum. reversus. R : in Classic trill: and Vulgar Latin was probably a gingival S. Waters Ch. R. App. pater. I. 290. § 281. IV. however. (i). introsus. The principle seems have been that original rs remained. App. suso. as xcfloralis. there was a strong tendency to dissimilate it was only sporadically carried out: in Old in inscriptions Digitized Latin. being probably somewhat hindered by school inIt took place in the whole territory in deorsum and fluence. we fin(J repeatedly pelegrinus by Microsoft® . 1593. so sussum>siisum. —arts after r^-alis. "terebra non tekbra".(see § i6r). Pr. 309. deorsum. carrus. in early writers tions: dextrosus. retrorsum. has iusu = was Hot consistently carried out everywhere. 327. Reich. 77." "cultellum non cuntellum".. 460. App. 460-461 Cf. in about half the Empire in persua. The «>j.. R. 471. Corssen I. dossum remained unchanged: susum. After long vowels the 292. coming from rtt. § 292] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. et retrosum. . in inscrip- S. ndet. was early reduced to ss: Lat. rj > J. 307. cursus. susum. Spr. {2)Ji. 123 cf. 328. assimilation versus." Cf. susum occur ha. Pr. or praepalatal change 291. S. 8) says: " Gn. sursum..

S. orlo. coliandrum. 314-315). 302. It. 38. mehtrix. it has left very few traces in the Romance languages. cf. Final r. *sempre. albor. S.) avello. dietro drieto. 329) / us that in elegant speech per before was pronounced pel. although may have been reduced and possibly *cqyu SIBILAUTS. [§ 297 also ministorum. Classic Latin j was probably ^Iways voiceless and remained so in 297. The old voiced having become r (S. 296. propietas. Ry was probably preserved through the Vulgar Latin it period. cocodrilus.. to y in parts of Italy. Waters Ch. 329.z\vax\. S. see § 245. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. \X. Cf. f.124 (Sittl An 74).'' propio.>. perla. except in monosyllables. 304. probably before the end of the Vulgar Latin period. Spr. Italian £Occodri//o. 330— 331. plurigo are attested likewise. perpenna ^ Perferna. Falisci Sittl 11 mentions an in and the Marsi. 330. "Barbarismus. S. 307-308. with the upper surface of the tongue convex (cf. Crocodilus appears as corcodilus. So Italian per lo '^pello. corcodrillus. pellicere. quando dico mamor pro eo quod Cf. For quatro. 331. seems to have been dental.It. Consentius mentions "perlum -pro prcslum. est marmor. as frate. in most of Italy and Dacia: sdror'. suora. mate. cuoto). : ^ j- Digitized by Microsoft® . 477. criblare. This assimilation was probably not widespread in Latin. 329) says: Pompeius (S. averlo^ (in Old It. propio. Metathesis is not uncommon S. etc. Cf." S. Lat. Italian Carlo. cf. Rum. corium'^ *coryu (cf. etc. 329. tells 293. etc. fell. uxo. among the soaru. 295. An intrusive r is found in culcitra. Jlagrare. Velius Longus (S.. 330 notes prancati. early fall of final r mate. PELLiGE. : 294. as in pellabor. merlo. § 280) S.

Cornelio. in Classic Latin s some regions (cf. brian PiSAVRESE. urps. Ennius and his followers down to Catullus did S. sumpsi. filio') predominated in (jpntral Italy until the time of Csesar. etc. rexi. At the very end of the Vulgar Latin period. indicated by the fact that is still generally surd in Spanish [casa. etc. Sittl 27. etc. ut ubi opus fuerit excludatur de metro. olim autem politius. and often was not is says the loss of —s written. § 256): was generally preserved: causa. pleps.) and most popular words it Tuscan is [naso. rarely in -as: bonu. and the developwords as hiemps. 471. j- ^In the previously cited Latin treatise (see footnote to §259). This evidently indicates a voicing in late school pronunciation. nepoti. Spr. According to Chronologic 175-186. and matrona for matronas. but later it is In the older inscripin the main correctly used until the second century of our era: Lat. the nominative singular without s (as Cornelio. etc." tions -s is freely omitted. but occurs also in -ts and -as. but became common by 150 to 200 A.^ sex. when -j was partially restored. ossum. Cf. 471) "subrusticum. mtsi. Thurot T]^ y between vowels is described as " weak. ii Umbrian {kumate). corroborative evidence.§298] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. as far as goes.. and occasionCf. 361) notes the omission of -s by the ancients. Cicero (^Lat Spr. furnished by such spellings as maximus. intervocalic s may have nupsi. Pompeius (Keil V. pieta. 8. also ment of a / in such become voiced sus. tste. 108): "5 littera hanc habet potestatem. D.) . 361-362. however. the forms without Terentio. who cites UmLatin final s was very weak after and t. such as resolvit. 302-304): this in is 125 Vulgar Latin intervocalic s in (S.." Quintilian also (S. etc. The omission is commonest in nominative -os or —us. S." except in compounds. cur- 298. not count -j before a consonant in verse: 355-356. Final s often fell in ally in Faliscan: Hammer In early 5. unu. Digitized by~Microsoft® .

299. It. however. filio^filios. 301. 1938. trei amate. tempus>lt. morbu ^ morbus. but notes that happens at the end of a doubt- only a conventional abbreviation. for ejus.. 540. Italy generally favored tra. cept in monosyllables {^Lat. tra{ns)posuit . see § 161.. For z. For prosthetic i or e before s + consonant. transtulit. tra. usually preferred tras. (later tre^. see § 230. Vx. tra{ns')veho. tion of the prefix /r. cords the omission of -s in as this nearly always less was strongly Carnoy 185-206 reline it is many inscriptions. I.before d.traduxit. C. probably owing to the previous linguistic habits of the natives. L.(but traduire.. find. jecit. According to Velius Longus (S. For sy. tres^OXA. 471): sentts'^YX. tratransjicio. 539. preveire {<. -s. 300. [§302 and prevailed in central Italy in the third century («<7 Cf.became and sometimes before m and/.). but das^lt. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the In presbyter.j.(as prabitor) for the unusual initial pres-: hence It. a new nominative constructed from irpeers fell in Italy and elsewhere through the substituva. Spr. Digitized . prete. examdtis "> dai. For assibilaand Palatals. final J disappeared for good from the common pronunciation in the second and third centuries. transduco and We sometimes Both forms occur Gaul and Spain before / and v : tra (^ns) luce 0.coming from the prefix ex-. It. tion. traducir). etc. IX. In Gaul. Hammer 19-28. etc. Densusianu 122—123. Spain. and probably in Dacia. /SvTcpos. trans. tra{ns)misit. Audollent In most of Italy.«. and some other regions. see § 246 and Greek by Microsoft® Consonants. pronounced and therefore preserved. Cf. 302. senti. liberio.126 again. 316). tempo. see § 275. In Old French pasmer (from spasmus) the ^ was lost probably through confusion with es. see Gutturals For ss>s.*prcebyterum').(but trasporre).

described by Nigidius (in Gellius). immitto. mediocre in mediis. Bologna. initial and intervocalic. Cf. «'s in Bononia > It. innocens. 270. by 270. N. ut magnus. ut templum." Terentianus Maurus (S. comvenio convenio. 275) says that for n the air comes through both nose and mouth. In Classic Latin the nasal naturally took before labials the form of m. — or "« adulterinum"— and also nvncqvam. n.). ut umbra. and the mouth closure incomplete. §§ 171. 127 NASALS. regularly venit. like d and t (§ 280). uncus (cf. by Microsoft® . 275). comfluo confluo. M and 304. etc. with an arched tongue: S. S. and v." 305. must have been partly nasalized. 311).: cf. final or followed by a consonant. before dentals. S. mis-. minus. 269- {colligo. 275) a spiritu explicabitur. amat. S. as / . etc. were the preceding vowel obscure and weak in Classic Latin. conduco. iVNCXi. see § 245. remained unFor the reduction of There was a dissimilation of two M and n. rigo. § 320) gutterals.§ 305] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 276. According to Priscian (S. cor- before s it was Digitized silent [cosul. n. inquit. 269-270. Priscian. . So Marius Victorinus (S. S. changed: meus. apertum in principio." sound between m and n: "Omnes fere aiunt inter m eX n litteras mediam vocem quae non abhorreat ab utraque littera sed neutram proprie exprimat. 275): "iVvero sub convexo palati lingua inhaerente gemino naris et oris The same author describes (S. was dental or gingival. The y Cf. 279-280. 272. y: combura. probably tives first the pronunciation of these fricabefore changed from bilabial to dentilabial (cf. is 278). g. noster. "m obscurum in extremitate dictionum sonat. 303. then n. 275) Before liquids the nasal was assimilated cf. anguis. as between n and ^ (S. imperio. before m.

exeetc. cun duce. reliquat. For the change of rjkt to yt. Pirson 92. [§307 to a following consonant: Final nasals seem to have been adapted. decemter. r/ must have been reinforced. secudo. S. etc. Priscian (S. like medial nasals. tan mulieribus. 278. 281-285. 311). nynfis. Carnoy 220). The due hesitation and inconsistency in spelling are certainly in part to imperfect articulation.. forsitam mille. etc. 476. Mn seems at one time to have been pronounced m: Quintilian (S. then to nt. de- fuctce. santo. Carnoy 176-177. see § 267: santa.. nom paret. quamta. iy carne. etc.. 276—277. Servius. etc. cur regibus. S. as there is § 32. Bechtel 81 {forsitam. we ci. and even before dentals not always clear (S. In late Vulgar Latin m. In both old and late inscriptions the nasal is often omitted altogether before a consonant: Decebris. pricipis.. Spr. before/ and v there was great uncertainty (cf. Carnoy 176.. 272): this is indicated by such spellings as senper. In inscriptions S. little trace of confusion in the Romance lan- guages. 271-272). occubas. Cicero advocated cun nobis. i senatu. laterna. 273. Cf. n. 275): exempta n "iV quoque plenior in primis sonat et in ultimis partibus syllabarum. plu. 307. nomem. and there was apparently some labials doubt before ^« and qu (S. §§171. 306. cun navibus : Lat. Digitized by Microsoft® . In the vulgar speech of the Empire the sound before seems to have been indistinct. conplere. 286) says: littera "Columnam et consules legimus. locun sanctum. nol lego. iferos. etc.. nom or non fecit. largely to mere careless- ness in cutting. nunquam. 364. frequent. innoceti. Carnoy 220.128 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. S. find cun. quen. ut nomen." Cf. but in great measure also to the mistaken efforts of later writers to restore a real or hypothetical earlier orthography: compare the treatment of prefixes. quan floridos.

cf. etc. Bechtel 107. It is often omitted in inscriptions down c. and again in late plebeian inscriptions. from the first century. etc. Bon. pride.). mecu. 298. by Microsoft® . sum(J>)tus. jacente. the latter part of the . (as in puplu). S. on the other hand. 462. 363-364. S. dormito for dormitum. In Old Latin it was to weak: 130 B. The omission of -m and Pr. Late inscriptions. cal- the early indi- Romance languages. Cf. abundant examples. eoru. to say. exilior in mediis. umpnia. ide. Bechtel •]()•. mense. etc. for -amn~. Carnoy 166. 129 stamen. passi. oli. the wrong use of it are very frequent in the Per. Between is m and j or / a / generally developed in Latin was unvoiced and denasalized before the surd that followed this / was not always written: sum(J))si. — that 309. . m Final m often fell in Umbrian 5. So R. 308. and conversely forms with a superfluous m. Toward the end of the Empire fashion evidently prescribed cates a conscious a distinct pronunciation of mn. etc. show a fondness for such spellings as calumpnia. damnum. dampnare. Spr. The Romance languages it point to the preservation of mn. numqua. App. counteracting a previous ten- dency to although slur the group. : que ad mo- century of the Republic and the dum... accedere. 356. mpn is common in 189. Bechtel 91 Digitized cf.§309] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in the last first two centuries of the Empire the traditional spelling is carefully observed: early and late such forms as dece. septe. S.." Carnoy 166 has Interamico. occa- sionally in Faliscan: Hammer 8. terra. 476): Interanniensis. was probably assimilated into nn in central and southern Italy before the Empire was over {Lat. Audollent 539-540. It is likely that this orthography and painful effort to articulate clearly. and dampnum (cf. Bechtel 80. unu are very common. ut amnis.

360. only a weak nasal glide: in circueo it disappears (S.. ing vowel was nasalized. of -n in Latin (S. Cf. 473. cf. ignotus: is Other- wise there no sure proof of the fall but there is abundant evidence 365). jam. fell Before^. next before spirants and at the end of a phrase. hors. the final S. Carnoy 206-221. as in cognatus. n of prefixes 274. the precedThe contrary view is maintained by Seelmann. reaches the conclusion that silent at the it became end of polysyllables by the first century. coharere. too. quern (^quen. AudoUent 537). vowels. audiendu' st. 288-292. cognosco. etc. but it seems preco- to have been reinforced in Classic speech (S. tan dvrvm. "/« Siciliam dicendum.. [§ 310 ardente lucemam. 106). The Romance languages point to a loss of -m in all words but monosyllables: damnu{m). 358). 282. 364Lat. Cf. Vok. I. Caper (Keil VII. 110-112. 361). etc. as in coactum. Cato said dice hanc. cf. scarcely any m audible quantum erat. 274). 356-358. Hammer 32-41. 361): see §305. S. Before consonants S. According to Quintilian is 362). etc. 361): see 305. fix The con— became co— before vowels. it was assimilated (cf. 310.130 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. having disappeared very early before vowels.. coicere: S. from early times. 274. Spr. non is Siciliam": see § 311.tenea{m')\ cum. S. etc. then (by assimilation) before other consonants. of its assimilation to a § following labial (im bello. S. In the opinion of Schuchardt. For further assimilation. As the fall of m seems to have been due primarily to a failure to close the lips completely between two it is likely that the nasalization was slight. Final n must have been indistinct (S. pdssu{ni). who notes the omission of -m in many inscriptions under all possible conditions. in poetry it may be disregarded (cf. Final m before vowels seems to have been. Digitized by Microsoft® . (S. he adds that there in tantum ille. 286). very early.

however. Carnoy 177. after the Vulgar Latin period: Lat. thensaurus. Spr. except in monosyllables: ndtne{Ti). 274. S. R. convenio'&ie really new formaThe only sure Romance traces of the loss oin tions: S. 286). etc. seme{n) in.. S. . Stolz 243fT. ^^ i'^ Greek- ko^ous. coventionid. Pirson 94. Pr. see § 285. was kept in participles. locuplens. This phenomenon was only thority: partially recognized by Classic au—ensimus -^ -esimus. toties. infas.). —iens'^-ies. etc. iferi. as videns. 287). Stolz 243. It probably fell late. § App. iferi. inscriptions: cofecisse. ifer cojectis.. 473. 285. 281-285. (on a (Capua. prcBgnas repeatedly. "ansa non asa" . 462. with a superfluous n: fidens =-fides. remasit. 273). occansio. 286) records that "men- sam sine n littera dictam Varro fall ait. 461Conversely. both forms were used in -e{n)sis (according to Velius Longus. probably through nasalization of the preceding vowel: see § 171. Before fricatives or spirants n regularly fell. v. Pr.§ 31 1] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ns. libes." Cf. Plautus repeatedly uses mosTerence seems to intend a rhyme in "neque Stolz 243. if eras. covenimus. quiensces. etc. such words as conjux. 113-115. iventa. ifimo. "Hercules non Herculens. 311.ifs. Such forms are frequent in cojugi (very common)." Before/. 387 a. cesor. "consules exempta n littera legimus." "occasio non occansio. coin of Vespasian's reign). mansus. App. AudoUent 538. formosus (S. mesis. was probably constant from early in/as. Charisius (S. letter inscriptions: Kki]ix. d. For final nt. R. etc. Quintilian (S.." In popular speech the times: S. pes neque mens. non. 274. mesor messor = mensor. 281-285./. Eckinger 80. as in vicesimus." Eunuchus 728. Cf. 131 The Romance languages indicate the disappearance of -n. 274.. etc.. ifra.. cojux. Digitized by Microsoft® . trare. Cicero preferred foresia. 274. -onsus>-dsus. cojugi. thensaurus.. the n was generally restored by analogy (see 171).. 459. hortesia. cosol. etc. resurges S.

. LABIALS. Intervocalic / probably became b in the fifth and sixth centuries in Spain. lebrm. scripit. In a part of Gaul capfivus seems to have been pronounced *cayttvus: it may be that in Gallic speech the pt oi this word became yt. tosus. etc. mesis. 299. etc. or perhaps captivus became first *cactivus. and is attested by Martial and possibly by the icse for ipse mentioned by Suetonius.• redemti. Car- noy 165. cf. hut pensare. Before s. (I) P. "plasta non blasta" " ziziber non ziziper" cannabis and . canapa... to drop In Italy and perhaps elsewhere there was a tendency / between a consonant and an j- or /. S. and the only Romance words containing ns are learned terms or new formations: mesa. as was the case with Celtic// (Dottin 100. stubrum. under the influence of Celtic *cactos (Welsh caetJi) = Latin captus (Loth 35). In a part of Italy /j became ss as early as the isse for ipse is first century: found in Pompeii. Pirson 60-61: labidem. Old Irish secht-n = septem. Digitized became Haag862. and northern Italy: see Cf.. etc. // probably early in 299. Pirson 93. § 256. by Microsoft® . opus. 312. Pr. Windisch 394).132 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. pesat. Spr. 476. Lat. scultor. settembres. although at a later date nf became / much of southern France. In central and southern Italy// became the Empire: scritus. sposus. Gaul. etc. S. /V likewise br: Abrilis. 314. corpus. [§ 314 before these consonants in Latin are Italian /a«/^ and French in Raetia and convent. 299. 313. App. Raetia. Bon. There was some sporadic confusion of/ and b: uvBLlCyE. It. 160. 7th century. Pirson 61. S. the fall of n was permanent. (i) F regularly remained unchanged: pater. h.

§ 3i6]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


In northern Gaul intervocalic/ and/r, even in clerical Latin, /8 and ^r by the seventh century: rivaticus, 629 a. d., Vok. I, 128; cavanna, Gl. Reich.
developed through b and br into
'Soxpe,pi, see § 273.
(2) B.


as in


was not



usually ifemained un-


bene, blitum, oblitus.


Oscan and Umbrian, became vim

in Sicily


southern and central Italy, the
as far north as


being found in inscriptions
Cf. nd, § 281.


Lat. Spr. 476.

Before s or tit

likely that b regularly

became /

in Latin,



was often written

b: absens apsens, ab— apsolvere,

plebs pleps, scribsi scripsi, scribtum scriptum, trabs traps, urbs

urps; App. Pr., "celebs non celeps," "labsus non lapsus."

Final b must have been often assimilated to a following

consonant: sud



a. d.,



In the Empire, especially in the second century,
in inscriptions (cf.

and v were much confused


bixit, botu,

vene, etc., S. 240; Baleria, Balerius, Beneria,


Betrubius, Bictor, bos, valneas, Audollent 536; African birtus, bita, boluntas, Vok. I, 98 bivere, very common, Carnoy

140; baluis, Bechteh"78;

vibit, etc.,

R. 456; bobis in Consenany, traces of

Vok. Ill, 68.

In the

Romance languages

there are few,


such an early interchange.

Probably the confusion was mainly

or wholly graphic, being due to the identity in sound of b and v between vowels (§ 318): Lat. Spr. 473; cf. Einf., § 120. The Spanish levelling of initial b and v does not go back to Vulgar Latin (Carnoy 139— 141); the confusion is far commoner in Italian inscriptions than in Spanish or Gallic (Carnoy 142-146). We find also a change of initial v to b va. north Portuguese, Gascon, south Italian, and Old Rumanian.

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Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


After liquids, too, there was a confusion of b and v in inscriptions, b being substituted for v much oftener than v for
b: Nerba, salbum, serbus, solbit, etc.,

240; berbex, Waters

Ch. 57; solbere, repeatedly, Carnoy 140; solbere, etc., R. 455; App. Pr., "alveus non albeus." In all probability v really changed to b after liquids: see V.


remained unchanged.
Intervocalic b opened into

the development apparin the second,

ently began in the


was well along

Oitovin = and was devitvm, provata, etc., Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95; devere, As V also was pronounced j8, a confusion in spelling S. 240. cvrabit, resulted, b and v being used indiscriminately:

completed, at least in Italy, in the third:

ivbentvtis, nobe,

etc., S.

240; i-vwE.nTE.=jubente, 2d century,

£inf. 127, § 120; cabia
vovis, etc.,

— cavea,

Danuvium, Dibona,


Audollent S3^~537j devitum (6th century), lebis, vibi, Carnoy 134-135; annotavimus, lebat, Bechtel 78;


habe:=ave, rogavo, suabitati,

R. 455— 456;



51, Pirson 61-62,



Carnoy 134-136. became contiguous

Cf. V.

to a following consonant,
Cf. V.

was vocalized

into u: *faula, *paraula, *taula, etc.

became /3r and Dacia.

perhaps not until the end of our period, in northern Gaul, Raetia, part of northern Italy,


as in popular speech: *fa§ula, * tabula, etc.

In the early stages of clerical Latin intervocalic b was pronounced Later, perhaps by the

seventh century,

was sounded


In App. Pr. we find " sibilus non


tions " sifilum pro sibilum" ;


comes from some non-Latin Italic dialect few other words. *a^ea, see § 421. (3) For habebam


(S. 300) menPerhaps the form with/ bubulcus =^ It. bifolco, and a

and Priscian



Be, bi probably remained unchanged, at least in most

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§ 322]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


of the Empire: rabies, rubeus, etc.

For the analogical change

of habeo to *ayo, debeo to *deyo, see § 273.

(3) F-


F was

originally bilabial (S. 294-295), but
of the



by the middle


(S, 295): cf. § 305.

It is the old /, apparently, that is described

by Quintilian

296-297) a plain description of the dentilabial y is given by Terentianus Maurus and Marius Victorinus (S. 296).

Grammarians speak

of an alternation of h


fasena^ harena, fircum'^ hircum, habam'^fabam,
Varro, Ling. Lat.

etc., S.

f: fcedus'^hadus, The /"and 300.

the h doubtless belonged to different dialects in early Latin
§ 97, the

according to

This phenomenon can have no connection with the change of initial/to h in Spanish and Gascon.

/for h was Sabine.

of the

It is

probable that intervocalic

y became

v at the end

Vulgar Latin period

256): alevanii

^ elephanti,

paceveci ^pacifici, pontevecem =. poniificem,




was doubtless originally pronounced w; but, losing its velar element, the sound was reduced, probably During the early in the Empire, to the bilabial fricative /8. Empire Greek-letter inscriptions have ov or ^ for v (Ncpoua or Nep/3a) Ov\av!a = Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95 yS for » is common from the first century on, Eckinger 85-91. Velius Longus, in the middle of the second century, says that the u in ualente is pronounced "cum aliqua aspiratione": S. 232. Hence arises a complete confusion of intervocalic b and v








By. CVRABIT, ivbentvtis, etc, Gregory the Great. This leads


240; jubari iox juvari

to a graphic confusion of

initial b

and v

in inscriptions: biginti, bixit, botv, etc. (so



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An Introduction

to Vulgar Latin.
dentilabial v in


Later the bilabial

p became


of the


cf. §


For the substitution Germanic Consonants.
323. After liquids




or w in a few words, see

this state

/3 seems to have closed regularly into b; was preserved in Rumanian (Densusianu 97, 103105), but elsewhere the p ox v was partially restored by school

influence: cerbvs, corbi, cvrbati, ferbeo,
A. D.),
§ 317.

nerba (about 100

serbat, solbit, E. G. Parodi in Horn.




So vervex became *verbex, then berbex: Waters Ch. 57 BERBECES, 2d Century, Einf. 127, § 120 (also in Gl. ReichJ).

Hence came

hesitation in spelling (^ferveo, ferbui, etc.)


inconsistent results in the


languages: corvus^

corbo corvo, Fr. corbeau; curl/US'^

Ft., Pr. corp, Sp. corvo;



nerbo, Fr. neff; servare, servire'^ It. serbare, servire.

Intervocalic w ox fi had a tendency in older Latin, as Umbrian, to disappear between two like vowels: divtnus'^ dinus (cf. Umbrian deivina> deina, Sittl 26), obHviscor> obliscor, si vis'i> sis. Cf. Lindsay 52. Also, at all times, before or after 0: bovis'^bos; devorsum>dedrsum; faor, Pirson 63; moere, AudoUent 539; Noe/u/Spios, Vok. II, 479; noem[bris], S. 241; '^pavor xiOXL paor," App. Pr.; cf. late noembris, noicius, Lindsay 52. "Favilla xion failla" in App. Pr. seems to be




In the above cases the


apparently was only sporadic.

But before an accented o or u, the w ox p fell regularly in most of the Empire: aunculus, Vok. II, 471 (cf. auncli, Pirson 63); FLAONivs, S. 241; *padnem; *padrem.
Furthermore, intervocalic
popular speech before any


ox p regularly disappeared in probably towards the end of the
vIvs, S. 241 {zLJlaus in



-vos>-vus): flavs,

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this. and the surds doubtless had a weak. Vulgar aucella. Fr. Before 322. triumphaut. noum. the original Latin w (spelled v) had become |8: § 2. Pirson 63). Carnoy 128. /3 became contiguous to a folwas vocalized into u (cf. (i) In inscriptions -vs is common in place of -vvs. : Cf. stored. Vok. § 167. Lindsay 52.§ 328] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 1. 113) nous. I. by Microsoft® . eccu' ista'>*eccwista. 471) and others as aum. is 325. period: eccu' ktc'. etc. The ^Vm of C. cited by Schuchardt (Vok. rius. datius. oum. Keil IV. The Greek liquids. Pr."^ ec{c)lesia. ndcui^ nocwi. 1220. Claussen 847-851. the v was re. hiatus which had not already become w {%% 223224) probably took that sound by the end of the Vulgar Latin 326. B): Classic . aus. is evidently intended for csvum. and sibilants less sharply differentiated been usually remained unchanged in transmission. in most cases this probably only graphic: Carnoy 128-131. etc. vius in Pirson 63). gnaus. (S) u. II. after the analogy of a feminine or a plural form ovum (beside oum) through ova. 328. voiced explosion: so they were not always distinguished by the Latin ear. naufragus.. Often. iKKKyfTia. and Greek double consonants sometimes became single: vd/xos >nummus. primitius. placuit> placwit. 472 (cf. When intervocalic a/ or it lowing consonant. the sonants were perhaps not fully voiced. claudo. etc. rivus (beside rius) through rivi. App. 137 App. oum in Probus. nasals. II. Pirson 63. Audollent 539 (cf. L. 327- In Greek the surd and the sonant stops must have than in Latin. however. Single consonants sometimes became double in Latin. GREEK CONSONANTS.:>*eccwic. Digitized Cf. Vva.

n. gamba. b. d: l3XauT6i Sometimes. nimpa. t: blcesus. etc. Claussen 838-841. keSjoos > citrus. cecino. advCf. X. 'Kixpmp6<i'>- lambros. cf.yKri> andngi. "> purpura. Claussen c. TTvio'i > Kr > 331' g.papo^ cammarus gammarus. B. App. later inscriptions. <t>. — 329. timbre. we find the People of fashion by Microsoft® . It. became in Old Latin t. avrpov^ dndron. S. theywere *Jdcopus (also */dcomus) 'la. *. t: xoAa^os > colaphus. Ka.yfjia> sagma sauma. ^iXra^ unvoiced into /. 138 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. t regularly came to be pronounced //in Greek: a.. T. often became g. cin in kvki/os > > cicinus > Old. Pr. After nasals. "calatus non galatus" {^ KoXadoi). S. egloge. ph. of a change oi r to d there is no example. K. > conger ganger. however.iravov > Fr. yoyypoi Cf.p. § a-iriijXvyya > spelunca. y.. K6p. TfL'^um (j-a.. ch: Claussen 823-833. S. Crista.. bustiola in Gl.p. etc. (2) 2S9-26a 332. progne. toKomtov > talentum.fu > > gumtni. 833-838. KvPipva. 259. tt. The From the middle of the second century spellings th. — fusion 346. x 252-253): vop^-ipa^ purpura . the conis mentioned by Terentius Scaurus and others. remained b. (3) ®. c. Pilipus. 268): (cf. 7rop<j)vpa. A. K. Digitized b. 330. KaiPw%>gobius . old inscriptions. c (S. TTuppos burrus. p. S. 8 regularly ydpov>garum. sandal. T generally remained c. 347 buxus. cf. although KavZiTo? for candidus (Eckinger 98) seems to point in that direction: 'Aicpayas > Acragas Agragas. This late such cases as Kafiinj Greek pronunciation perhaps accounts for > Lat. Reich.KO)0(K delta. however. Ta\oi'>rr. explosives 6. Teodor. w. r. > > .v>gubemare. rvp. v sometimes became b. k. [§ 332 (i) B. g.

. In hoxri>doga. caikoluus. 333" tions. "amfora /came non ampora. In <l>aXKaiva> ballcBna. Thescelus. 139 undoubtedly tried to imitate the aspirates (Lindsay 54). ut ather. for new words as well as for old: <TvaOri>spatka— spata. <jia. p.§ 334] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. In ^£ros>It. KoKa. Bonnet 141. as in phosit. Certainly as early to be the standard as the fourth century (Lindsay 58) pronunciation: App. Fr. Digitized by Microsoft® . It is transposed in Fhitonis. ut c enuntiatur. x^P^ > chorda = corda. cefalo. neofiti. The etc. Reich. 4. etc. 260. nothus.. zampogna. " In principio inquam dictionis nulla prescripta causa variari compellitur. Eckinger 97.^o'i^ colaphus = colapus." 334. Cicero (S. Fitonis. Ki^oXoi > It.. Fr. S. 256) speaks of using the old. cf. footnote to § 259): " T quoque. phitonissm." "strofa non stropa". S.. ut thiara. and some other early adopperhaps the reason is to be sought in a Greek dialect pronunciation: Claussen 829-831. cathedra. but popular speech kept the old t. unaspirated pronunciation (as pulcros. cru/x<^o)V4a>It. Fitones in Gl.Xay^ It. d. S-p.avTac7La> > Pr. etc. 0. iriumpos) in order to be better understood.. palanca..<^ao-i.\os> phaselus faselus . f is common later in southern Italy.. By the first century a. c. etc. of. 218. Thestius. ^ had developed into / in some places (S. 79 (cf. 257-258. Theos. so o^-1\kiov for qfficium. App. Claussen 828. '^Theophilus non izofilus": (i) Evidence of a late school pronunciation of 6 as ts is to be found in Thurot 78. 256) says there were no aspirate consonants in older Latin. . X ><?"• Claussen 831. <f> > b. 261): dafne occurs in Pompeii. 261. Thiestes. pache. pantaisar. zio we have a late development of Claussen 833. Quintilian (S. Parthi. The proper spelling is discussed by gram- marians: S. si aspiretur. : letter h is occasionally misused. Bechtel 79. etheus. In late words ^ regularly appears as/. Matheus ''.

priTmp> Rh in remained unchanged: \a/x7ras> common speech was doubtless pronounced In trkXivov like > It. as a simple sound. it was pronounced in Vulgar Latin dy. but seems to be referring only to Greek speech S.I40 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and Sibilants. Cf. regularly vop. sedano. later j' (cf. (Tivain Of the sibilants. we probably 8. but was often replaced. cr 337. Nasals. early Latin . Greek letter and the lack of a corresponding Latin one Velius Longus discusses z at length. From Sulla's time on it was written z in The grammarians throw no light Latin: Claussen 841-843. 308. > nome. The For unfamiliar combination lent itself readily to meta- thesis: i^6X\v. : t. Priscian (Keil II. r.8os /talpos > maurus. The liquids regularly rhetor.. bobansa. have to do with a late Greek change of \ to 336. The nasals. Medentius. 338. ^dvr] "^ sona (Plautus). is sounded sd. lampas. [§ 339 (4) Liquids. by s.'^massa. There however. see below. too. some indica: tions that they were weak before consonants > Pr. or d as in Saguntum. Claussen 845. e^oSos r.-^ remained unchanged: are. Judging from inscriptions.. (S) z- Z doubtless had several pronunciations in Greek. unchanged: <j has probably become For npvj^vre. Quintilian refers only to the on the Latin pronunciation. and subsequent developments confirm this view: baptizare Digitized was equivalent to bapti{d)yare. 335.po'i'^ prebiter. ss. and ^ were regularly > sinapis.v>psallere spallere. by Microsoft® . etc. and a few other words. i/f In ocr/u.^ ? > It. see § 300. — 339. orma. § 272). /8oj«. > exodus. among 36) says that the ancients. t. In it was represented by jj or s: pAtfl. massa.

can scarcely have come in time to share in the early palatalization of Latin g before front vowels (§§ 25811. is often used for di: . Zov\e. 69. however. Vok. 239. *giga>'Pr. I. rubare. giga. giscle. ZABVLLVS.. jart. although have participated also in the later Gallic palatalization of g > before a (§ 263): gilda>lt.ta. b and k came in after the lents: 8. 33. and is common in inscriptions (cf. cf. Eckinger 80. septuazinta. GERMANIC CONSONANTS. and w. 68 .. baptidiatus. 457-458- In late inscriptions z for/ is common: zerax = Upa^ (202 S. A few. zaconus. z zabulus. R. ZESv.). It. Vok. and to G. garba > K It. oridium for opvtfi. Digitized by Microsoft® . Carnoy 163. of the consonants offer Most treated as in Latin. no peculiarities. geldra. zanuari. 341. 340. zeta = Koffmane 38 Lazis — dixta. Kotflv^ zvnior.• frank-iscus>lX. (90. Ladiis. skernon > schernire. 141 zelosus to {d)yelosus. Bechtel 79). 22. etc. B between vowels. garto Old Fr. etc.= Julia. Lat. zdcones. Franko seems to have been an early acquisition. p. occurring apparently only in words adopted after Latin intervocalic b had become ^ (§ 318). I. and its derivatives palatalized In the their k before e and /. Francesco.. seems to have followed a similar course. 3. zosum z= deorsum.. Conversely. 473. gerbe. *striban > Pr. Carnoy 163).§ 34i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. A. esquena. etc.). Cf. re- mained a stop : roubdn it > It. geisla Fr. zebus. h. Spr. Pr. corresponding Latin sounds had undergone some modification. D. riqueza. The ending -i{d)yare became very is common: see § The spelling di for z occurs repeatedly: baptidiare found several times in Per. = conjux. estribar. so *rik-itia > Pr. zabulus. resisted front vowels : skena > > Sp. being had no Latin equivaFurthermore.

so blank-a'^Yx. had become was nearer in it sound to Latin u: see § 326.gaita. Fr. blanche (but It. but in a few it seems to have been sounded kk in the greater part of the Empire: fehu Fr. d and widarlon were replaced in Latin by the It. schiatta. doubtless adopted at a Tr. It. hau- > > > Pr. but apparently was neglected in the rest of the Empire: hanca~^Yx. perhaps borrowed at a different date feu. we find Digitized by Microsoft® . [§ 344 c was palatalized. It.— 142 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. different time. helm elmo. trescar. 445 notes that ab. 344. In the Gl. Germanic k was modified in the same way before all front vowels (including a): cf. Kluge 500. etc. schietto. apcha. It. regions where Latin eschine. ardire. schivare. of a At the beginning word it kept its sound in northern Gaul. Reich. Pr. rather than a. skiuhan'^'Fx. prescan Germanic h appeared when Latin h had long been popular speech. Old Fr. Yr. Bon. bianca^. gecchire. espiar. sleht > Pr. Intervocalic h disappeared in most words. It. honte. guiderdone. spehon~>0\6. Pr. 342. at Germanic w was a strong velar and labial fricative. a time when original Latin fricative w (spelled v) It the purely labial ^ (§ 322). is used before > > initial ch: ab Chilperico. hardir. espier.. became Old guatare. cf. before a (§ 263). silent in Fr. It. hache. gequir. parrjan > Cf. Pr. in the seventh century and later. Fr. esclate. jaquir. esclata. Fr. tasso. gaite. ht were generally treated tasso. —jehan > Old It. Old Sp. tarir. hapja'^Yz. pahso > It.. hardjan Old Fr. Fr. — slahta'^-OXA esclet. Sp. like Latin ss. esguiver. hanche. anca. — > \X. nipa The spirants 8 and p t: corresponding stops. But wahta. Pr. Pr. Fr. eschernir. richesse. jehir. tt: pahso > It. W. 343. Hs. fio . helme.

etc. Bruckner. in uuadius. Mackel. 1885. wa (the interjection). etc. 167 cords Euua. but Wintrio is spelled Quintrio: Haag 38.§ 344] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. walde. 1884. the /3 of some Latin words was changed to w: vadum +watan'. vastare + wost— > *wasiare. 1899. elsewhere. werra > werra guerra. In extreme northern and eastern Gaul. through a reinforceit ment of its velar element. Waddo. etc. It is generally written w in Fredegarius. Charakteristik der germanischen Elemente im Italienischen. reuuardent. Die frdnkischen Elemente W. became gw: warjan>*warire wisa guarire. Waltemath. Through association with Germanic words. Digitized by Microsoft® . Die germanischen Elemente in der franzSsischen und provenzalischen Sprache. in der franzSsischen Sprache.:>*wadum. Bon. > *wisa guisa. W. 143 re- represented by uu. and in the in Rsetia this w apparently remained unchanged Vulgar Latin period. Wandali. in northwestern Italy. See E.

turturem. marginem. 504. MASCULINE AND FEMININE. abstract nouns in -or. (5) See also § 351. manus. became feminine (Bon. (4) There were some sporadic changes: duos arbores. grex became feminine. MORPHOLOGY. 503-504): (3) color. Lat. confusion of gender ensued. Nouns that -icem. 464-467): carcerem. Bon. GENDER. 346. pulicem. castaneus for castanea. 194. 483 . had a proparoxytonic accusative in -erem. Spr. cucullus and cuculla. dolor.. —orem. 293. They were grammatical whose observance was a matter of outward form. Spr. ~" confusion. honor. 461): (2) In Gaul.IV. II. iomus. cf. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. —urem were of uncertain gender ( Gram. leporem. Bon. Feminines of the fourth declension varied (^Gram. fans feminine in late Latin. etc. 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . I. dependent on sex or lack of distinctions. 483. n. through the analogy of the great majority of abstract terms. 345. or [I. The three genders of Latin were not. G. Hmor. ficus. A. -inem. If words lost their differentiating terminations. sex. but there were ( I ) Between masculine and feminine there was not much some important shifts: Feminines of the second declension nearly all became — masculine: fraxinus. in the main. Pirion 157. Lat.

In Classic Latin a number of neuters became masculine balteum -us. there must have been a *pulvus. Bon. Audol- lent 545. cornu —um —us. n. me\_nt]us.guttur. 483). and f.§ 348] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. G. piper \h&x& must have been *liiminem. 2. nasuni : —us. m. 293. Varro. vasus -um. sg.. vadum —us. II. ledus —um. etc. Cf. 4. and also by the fall of final s in that phenomenon occurred (§ 298). m. papaver . 345-349. *ndminem. sulphurem. R. signus. roborem. 16). ciner. 42. calus.. balneus. 145 MASCULINE aIiD NEUTER. Densusianu 129. Glor. MAREM. 46. 270—272. 348. incipit judicius. beside pulvis. These m two genders: filiu{s) — . fatus. tergum —us. Bon... . MARIS. nomen. 173. b. n. etc. Conversely we find cinus. marmorem.. collus. templus. m. laqueum. vinus. Petronius has thesaurum. Plautus. 266. castellus. thesaurum. Petronius. 57. collus —um. *ptperem. lactem. do^sus (^Mil. Densusianu 132. Waters Ch. 348. 44). gladium. ra. puteum. etc. lactem {Bacch. For the confusion of masculine Cf. fcenus. 39. VA. In popular and late Latin this tendency was strong: anteClassic. 132. frigorem. cf.. see Archiv VIII. etc. Waters Ch. 41. lignus.Y. verbus. and neuter in Africa. vinus. maris nom. 347. pectorem. D'Arbois 135.. frenum -i. Spr. The transition from masculine to neuter was facilitated by the fall of final the regions where changes reduced considerably the distinguishing marks of the (§ 309). 507-509. (Za/. for ctnis.. Beside lUmen. R. murmur. caseum -us.

386.. 348. perhaps calestem. mare. gender for nouns was probably not Cf. pointing to such Vulgar Latin constructions as *mihi est grave quod ille non c. Zs. tive h In the third declension the genders are distinguished only in the accusative singular and the nomina- and accusative plural. Greek neuters in -ma. donum hunc scBCulum. R. m. / muri mura. give in Italian: sg. 45 . complete until early Romance times. influenced f. 349. 350. Nearly all neuters became masculine: os locutus R. quid.. cf. the : neuter forms were kept to express an indefinite idea hoc. XXX. [§ 351 In the second declension the only difference is in the nominative singular and the nominative and accusative plural. by terra.. est. Mare. murus. the early stages of the Neuter adjective forms were used for a similar purpose: in Romance languages we find phrases veniat. etc. and in Italy and Dacia the distinction disappears even in the nominative singular. id ipsum. for instance. 161. Cf. So pi. popular. miles. FEMININE AND NEUTER. hunc verbum. etc. quod. generally Haag became feminine maris. etc. Petronius writes nervia Waters Ch. 4). in Livy: Draeger I. 635. locus. Thus the masculine and neuter fused. Archiv III. but also the collective plural for the singular Digitized by Microsoft® . Among pronouns. Bon. luogo. hunc stagnum. sagma. luoghi luogora.146 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. : if The loss of the neuter became feminine: cyma. plural in a collective sense (as eques. the characteristic neuter plural inflections came to be -a being regarded as an alternative masculine plural ending: for nervi. generally L. 351 Classic Latin often used not only the singular for the cf. rivus rivora. and 48. Densusianu 132. illud or ilium. § 351. 277. hunc vulnere. however. muro. 266.

Audollent 548. the Vulgar Latin period the cases were generally reduced. rama). ligna. for instance. marmor. ligna . few neuter nouns became feminine: For mare and f. 435. Archiv XIV. 63). For the use of cases. Lat. By the end of 354. Convtrstly. occurs in late Latin. etc. for singular forms as *brachia. cf. see § 349. R. see § 347. fusa. 352. So the neuter plural forms in -a were preserved in their collective use after the neuter singular forms had disappeared. Bon. This formation in -a was extended to many masculine (cf.. . Digitized by Microsoft® . Sardinian.% frigora. crigne < ? *cnnea = crines. Reich. in Greek neuters -ma. *pulvus = pulvis. gaudia niat... Cassel. Apulian. 270.. 147 marmora. Gl. For cinus — cinis. hie est iesia. Aside from these. 269. but many were and southern Italy and Rumania. In late Latin and early Romance this collective plural —a came to be taken for a feminine singular: tribula sg. palpebrum iox palpebra occurs. which a new plural was created: brachias. etc. etc. § 349) and even to some feminine nouns: digita.. frutta. Reich. Cf. ingenias. Draeger I. D'Arbois 10. It. of an to pectora maXch qua pectora : Chronologie \()(). ne forte et mihi hcec eve- R. DECLENSION OF NOUNS. simulaehras. armentas. grada occur in late Latin. Spr. see §§ 85-100. Spr. fructa.. . sg. {z. Gl. 5-9. . rura: cf. Old Fr. 353. In most of the in central Romance territory the -a forms were kept preserved as plurals only as feminine singulars. 351. Hence arose such feminine gaudia. gesta. The feminine character of such words was *illcB doubtless reinforced by the use. 2. dita. Lat. ardet (cf. Gl.§ 354] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in Rumanian y>-««2a < ? *frondia ^frondes. membras. R. *folia. 483. 482.

but -ies was kept in the Spanish peninsula. — the Cf. see § 359. Heraeus in Archiv XIII. transfer of nouns in -ies from the fifth to the first declension began also in Classic Latin: effigies— ia. All the mercatus. the fourth and being absorbed by the others. 260—262. £ai. but there were a few shifts: — (i) For an inflection mama mamdne(^m). passes. spiritus. 482. R. to two. gustus in Petronius . glatz. sendti. gradus. lacus. Classic Latin and continued in vulgar and late speech: ftcus. went into the third res There was also an inflection spes : spene{m). as a third declension noun. 135.148 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. haz. 152. beside dia. 550. 282-283. so friicti. etc. Pr./ada. gelus... Spr. fourth declension eventually went over. All passed over in the greater part of the Empire. Fifth declension nouns not in -ies rem. (2) The susianu 133. Ada. scaiiazre attested Inter: Denfor -OS. being assimilated to the third declension: cf..g/ada. jusso. In Dacia the dative singular was to some extent preserved also: '' § 91. etc. 544. jusso. G. luxuries —ia. etc. etc. K. senatus. whence Italian spene (cf. cornum. ablative. materies -ia. Digitized by Microsoft® . and occasionally in southern Gaul. One result of the intermediate confusion was an accusative plural spelling -us which was very common in Gaul: Bon. The transfer from the fourth to the second began in domus. Sittl in Archiv II. Bon. lucto. —a nominative and an accusative- plural following the analogy of the singular. 355(i) The number fifth of declensions was reduced to three. spes spent. Bechtel 86. speni): W. [§ 356 except in Dacia. fructo fructos. 337-338. in southern Italy and Sardinia. The other declensions generally held their own. manos. Audollent genum. 270. Sp. Dies maintained itself. 356.

Audolfilia{m). R. fonz. G. Greek nouns 259. Puulva for pulvis is recorded adsis '> aisida. the first: 367. Beside terminus ~i. of the third declension sometimes passed into lampas~^lampada. 280. Beside ervum ervi. siren '^ sirena. : Bechtel 86. 258Dubois 258. This use was due in the main to the analogy of the singular. which had only one form in the plural: flia So linguas. It.>*rdsum (cf. the nominative plural was' by Microsoft® . 259-260). vas>va- sum vasus (Waters Ch. 57). so apparently ros'.. lent 546. Fr. matres matres. by Audollent 416. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) and *capum -i: XXVII. pyxis '^*buxida. etc. Reich. Libit. and of feminine nouns of the third declension. Fimus ftmi. Corpo for corpore occurs in the Per. 149 (2) For an inflection Bellus Bellone^m). fiens. ds>dssum (R.In countries which did not lose final s {% 298). Digitized -s made the accusative plural identical with the singular. 483. Pr. J where there was only one form. / 357. So a few Latin nouns: juventus or ~tas > Juventa. Fundus fundi perhaps became fundus *funddris: Old Fr. It probably was not common until late Vulgar Latin or early Romance times. Reich.) *femdris: cf. Old Fr. Fr. the accusative plural form came to be used as a nominative plural. etc. effondrer. fall of In Italy and Dacia. cf. 280.). see § 362. G. FIRST DECLENSION. G. where the kept instead. 280. a. rugiada. there was an ervus ervoris: Lat. fons. Pr. likewise tempesta {Gl. Spr.§ 357] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. under the influence of stercus. (3) On the other hand. arroser. h&nc& filias filias. there was a termen terminis. femps. beside coclear fiitre: was codearium.) and probably *potesta. but the old forms were retained also. apparently became femus {Gl.

mamma mammdnis. Her^us in Zs. (R. Br^al. century: feminine -a -ants In Lat. 358. the nominative plural in some parts of Italy SCALAS. often developed. This form left no traces in the Romance languages. E. affirms that there was a feminine in -a with a plural in -as in Oscan. Celtic.ISO (i) An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 70. etc. sacristano). 152-153. Hic qvescvnt dvs mres dvas filias. Chronologie 205-209. XXXI. XXXV. Herseus in Archiv XIII. 136. 483. XXV. G. Feb. 171.. 150. See G. liberti LIBERTASQVE.: hence arose Anna Anndnis or -inis. nom. No foreign or dialect influences are needed to explain the practice. It. diffusion. It. an inflection in —dnis. had a similar plural. 321. rather late. Africa. XXV. filiabus. c. c. ii. scrivano). etc. fr.2 01. famulabus. p. Rom. Archiv N\\\. and also in Latin down to -as was probably old in : B. W.. § 153): barba barbani. Feminine proper names and words denoting persons etc. too. filiabus. sa* sacristanis (cf. cf. etc. Salvioni in Rom. 264). etc. etc. Les accusatifs en -ain. An ablative in -abus is occasionally found: Cassiabus. Journal des savants igoo. etc. This feminine inflection left some traces in Gaul. Some masculine person-names in —a had crisia the same declension {Einf. villabus. —enis... Spr. W. [§359 According to Mohl. and Digitized by Microsoft® . scriba *scribanis (cf. Raetia. pupillabus. Meyer-Liibke expresses doubt whether the is connected with masculine tatani. 359.. Les accusatifs en -on et en -ain. M.. Bon. 206. 331. D'Arbois 21-24 assumes Celtic influence: hic sunt cartas. Rom. Philipon. cf. Both mamani and tatani are found in the third W. 198. amita *amitdnis (so Juliana Julianenis in Pirson 143). Dalmatia. Paris. Spr. Pirson 115-116. Dante's Semele. ahimabus. or probably under the influence of the consonantal declension of Greek names that was in vogue in schools. deabus. feminabus. but they may have helped its the second century . filiabus. MeyerLiibke in Ltblt. Nice Nicenis. XXIII. 57 B. Pupils were taught to inflect Glance Glaucenis.

rama. -e ^ne -me. 250. The plural in -a. Zs. they assumed. from Eugenes. (2) A. 343. R. Attane. the masculine where the masculine and neuter partly in Vulgar Latin but mostly in inflection in those countries differed: vinus. b. 151 etc. fructa. putain. §§ 347-349. from which it was extended to other nouns of relationship and to proper names. In general. XXXV. Cf. Andreani. bdrba barbdnis influence of the itself he would ascribe to the synonymous *bdrbo *barb6nis. Zimmermann. etc. §§349. XXXV. — perhaps under manic influence combined with the analogy of the Latin type Digitized by Microsoft® . 361. etc. As neuter nouns became masculine. Agneti. Joanneni. digita. Andreate. 219. 216. extent. by the analogy of bracchia. the first declension was reduced to this pattern: 360. nonnain. XXVIII. however. this -a. Lombard madrane. etc. Italy: Fr. me -ene. -i La declinazione imparisillaba in -a -dne. domnani. shows that there was also an Cf. Cf. Salvioni. etc. 214-215. 218. G. According to Salvioni. -His.. 351-352. etc.. Rom. Rom. especially in southern Some masculines took 362. Rom. *botula. shows that these forms of declenall sion were very common the mediasval Latin documents of parts of Italy.. 2l6.: § 362] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. at the beginning of the Romance period. Rom. barbane. from 750 on: amitane. etc. (i) 207. Romance. was retained to a considerable and central Italy and Dacia. XXXV. XXXV. — luna facia *folia luna lune lunas luna{s) facia folia f^i^ facias f'^^i^ folias facia(s) folia{s) In Dacia the dative singular {lune. Dubois 250. the starting-point of all this inflection was bdrba barbdnis. in ig8. 250. SECOND DECLENSION. barbane still exist at both ends of Italy. Eugeneti inflection in -dtis. and -Stis: Aureliati. 264. -o -6ne.) was kept also. *botella. also Joannentis. Ger- From the seventh century on. etc.

Vok. carried further in common speech: cf. Firmus Firmonis.. Apparently traces. — there developed in Gaul. 85. In the accusative plural there was still greater confusion of -is and -es {nubes nubls.152 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The traces ablative in —e finally triumphed. cf. etc. and possibly Spain. etc. 337-338. etc. 363. Huon. a declension -us (or —o) —dnis for masculine Hugo Hugon was Latinized into Hugo Hugdne{m) (cf. -« crowded out the rarer which left no sure Digitized by Microsoft® . Salvioni in Rom. 247-249. spelled In Gaul the accusative -«. § 152). XXXV. See E. Giovannoni. XXXV. etc. avus avi>avo avonis. [§ 365 gulo guldnis. suceroni: Rom. G. turri turre.- ending was often Bon. II. 198. This was 364. some pari. 87. In the ablative there was considerable confusion of -z and -e in Classic LatiiK OTan mare. In general. Pirson 133:. etc. Cf. I. Vok. Rsetia. cf..f. Paulus or Paulo Pauldne{ni). both in Classic and in Vulgar Latin: -Is. Bellus Belloni. Philipon in Rom. 365. hence Pitrus or Pitro Petrdne^m). and possibly Corsican baboni. XXXI. etc. (1). 212-213. So perhaps Italian Donaioni. Italy. 204). at the beginning of the Romance period. XXXV.). proper names: 201. c. etc. attested in Lucca in 776 {Rom. THIRD DECLENSION. Traces of this inflection are to be seen especially in French and Provengal proper names: Foucon. the second declension followed this pattern: annu(s) — annu ~o anni anno{s) fa^e(f) fabru —o vinu{s) bracciu *—us fructu(s) vinu -0 vini bracciu —o braccia fructu fructi fructo{s) —o fabri fabro(s) —i —o{s) vmo(s) braccia —a -a The letters enclosed in parentheses were silent in Italy and plural Dacia. §355. but there are of -l: It.

etc. Petronius (Waters Ch. divite. latrone. Apuleius. lade in Ennius... principens antestetis. camis in Livy. Caper. Pr. 367. Plautus. audace. as by Tiktin 565-566. nom. 62). Lat. suis in Prudentius (F. Aulus Gellius. Petronius (Waters Ch. App.. Digitized by Microsoft® . §§ 174. without a change of accent. calcis in Venantius Fortunatus. I. GL Reich. famis. cardonis. it is futile trace the Romance forms phonetically to one source rather than the other..• -« Vok. In Vulgar Latin this formation was extended to words with shift of accent: excellente for excellens in Petronius. Sepulcri 220.principis). 45. Audollent 545-547. Ill. in Ennius. Petronius (Waters Ch. lentis in Priscian. As ~es and ~is came to be pronounced alike before the end to of the Vulgar Latin period (cf. etc.. 263. 153 Italian pani. D'Arbois 85-88. bovis in Varro.§ 367] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. R. papilionis (cf. are best explained. Haag 45. (^=z. etc. R. etc. 263. victore. 38).. castore. D'Ovidio in critici Raccolta di studii dedicata ad Alessandro JD'Ancona 627). etc. "grus non gruis. through the analogy of the second declension: see §368. Nouns which added a syllable in the genitive. voluntate. perhaps in late popular Latin. aculionis for aculeus). 47). Vok. dis- 366. nubis. pedis. Audollent 545-547. R. etc. -es. Waters a Ch. mdis. or -e fashioned on the model of the oblique cases: so seeps "> sapes.. Varro.famis." Keil VII.. Spr. superstitis.. travis (three times). 481. cf.. "fames non famis. etc. 9. Pr. heredes. In the nominative singular the common -^s largely placed the less f requent 244-247. slirpis in Livy. These forms prevailed in Romance. urbis. GL Reich. 105. stips^ stipes.. "nubes non nubis". 116. Jovis. III. 243). Rumanian pint. . Prudentius. Ci." App. heredes. Chronolo- gie 203. tended in popular speech to use for the nominative a form in -is. 263. folli tor folks in GL Reich.. 66.

(also presentis. For the nominative-accusative plural. etc. for *lumine{m). masculine nouns made over their nominative plural on the model of the second declension. etc. etc. no form: homo. prevailed in Romance. which. especially those in —ora. retained names of and and generally preferred the old nominative But names of persons in -ans and -ens usually made over the nominative: parentis. and was extended to in Old Italian to the second. lupi. Rum. Rumanian Tiktin 566. they constructed. as *ndmes *ndme(s). according . [§ 369 These forms. so. hence *cani. Cassel. soror. were kept also {Lat. declensions: Neuters in which apparently became by Microsoft® masculine or Digitized . timpuri). (also * damantis.). 367 parentorum is frequent in charters in the Gl. etc. hence *me(n')si. In most of the Romance languages (but not Spanish). we find sapienti. 369.. beside the old forms. *ndmine{ni). both the second and -r. corpus cdrpu(^s).). however. etc. 482). but infans (also 368. to Bon. probably in late Vulgar Latin or early Romance. timp. new forms on the masculine pattern. 154 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. however. which was regarded as the normal masculine type: fllii. The process may have begun in the Vulgar Latin period. In these countries —ora was used as a plural ending (It. as nomeiji). elifanti is common. Neuters in —n and -s regularly kept their nominative- accusative singular. servitor. Spr. doubt. made in Italy in the eighth or ninth century. anni. but in Italy and Rumania the old ones. corpo. hence *patri. except for persons. etc. but there is virtually no evidence that it started so early: in late Latin. being used mainly in the nominative vocative. too.. *cdrpes *cdrpe{s). D'Arbois 85-88. see § 347. first in cf. *amantis. prcBgnans). cantdtor. carpi corpora.

*piperem. 483. pals {It. Fxn. cf. 370. pulvis whence S-p. sulphurem. § 347. the third declension must have gone about as follows {-is and -es having coincided in the pronunciation -w) : — (i) No Change of Accent. *cdris = Krjp lajpo's. . 348. sangutne(m) also sanguei^m). Plautus. but the original forms were kept also: cinis ctnus. the word shows no trace of d in any of the Romance lan- guages. Old Yt. and passed into the second declension: cf. incudtnis : Lat. at the beginning of the Romance period. 2. But marmor. Spr.§ 37i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Incus. marmorem. Sanguis. papaverem. (3). and so probably goes back to an Old Latin *cdr Classic cor. NO CHANGE OF STEM. except Spanish cuerdo.0. iticudis > incudo. A few feminines in -is apparently became neuters in —us. Bon. etc. Cor apparently made its plural * cores instead of * cordes : according to Mohl. In general. polve may come irorapulver). 371. 155 feminine earlier than the others. *pulvus. the open o would possi- bly be explained as due to a cross between this *cor and the Caput became *capu{ni) or capus (Pirson 238). §356. G. often developed an accusative singular in -e{m) as well as a nominative-accusative plural in -es: I. were kept also. 293. Lexique 21-38.. 113. Zauner 2. polvo. PERSONS.

[§373 change of stem.156 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. .

. and the neuter plural (as omnia) was doubtless emr ployed from time to time as an indefinite collective. the neuter singular. 374- Adjectives were declined after the same model as nouns. § was kept to represent a whole idea (cf. As neuter nouns assumed masculine endings (§ 347). 157 DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES.§375] An 3. 375" The principal types are: — So ager. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. however. the neuter adjective forms were less and less used. 350).

275 (^ci. gracilus. pauperorum. doussa. [§377 (3) Originally *feUce(s) One Gender filis fills fellcla in the Nominative Singular. magis magls f J Digitized by Microsoft® . so teeter'^ tetrus.. App. Pauper early developed a feminine paupera and later a neuter pauperum: paupera. Densusianu 142. miser. and there was probably also a feminine * alacra and * alecra. there was alacris. celerus.. 162. not completely evolved in Vulgar Latin. jac^r passed into the -us ~a —um class. Waters Ch. Pr. sublimus. prude(s) prude(s) *prudente(s) feUce fellce(s) prudente prudente{s) prudente{s) prudentia prudentia fellceis) fellcla (4) Comparatives apparently did not reconstruct the Nominative Singular: melloif) mellu{s) millu(s) mellore mellore(s) mellora mellSra melidre(s) There was a good deal of confusion of types in Latin times: beside alacer. l_ \ !-. comuna.. Pr. and conversely benignis. m. Romance was: For the new method of comparison. The type. pauperum. Cf. 377. R. App.— 158 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and f. see § 56. Decllvis. Macer. COMPARISON. R. (plus L 1 J ^plus llle-{'^"~. etc. 46). . imbecillis also assumed the -us -a —um inflection in the Latin period so trtstis^tristus. pauperorum. m. In the the —us —a Romance languages more adjectives went over -um type Pr. : to 4. etc. 274.. in376. effrenis. etc. and f. Prcecox developed a feminine pracoca: Neue II. prcestus. firmis.

proximus. levior. Cf. pessimus. Ihm. 65. DHo came by dui. §254. 285). Six. minor. septe (and *sette). melius. the Classic Latin comparatives of many common adjectives remained in use: altior. pejor. carissimus. in the clerical language. Digitized by Microsoft® . It was used indefinite article (§S7) and an indefinite pronoun to be replaced §71). 221). of the Vulgar Latin period dui dot {duoT) duo(s) Its inflection at the was probably: doa{s) — end due doe duas doas d'ua{s) dua doa dua doa In early Romance there was doubtless much confusion of the forms. vivacius. see § 225. by dissimilation. II. 558 (cf. sordidius. became cinque {Archiv VII. grossior So the adverbs: longius. Vulgdrformen lateinischer Zahlworter auf Inschriften in Archiv VII. 65). 159 However.§379] '^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. also ijuatro ^guaitro. attested in the third cen- tury: Archiv IX. major. NUMERALS. Quinque. (Camoy . 107). Beside Undece there seems to have been * iindece. Tredece * See M. pejus. 379. 5. The old superlatives remained to a considerable extent. also as (cf. For dodece. sanctissimus. an Unus was probably declined like bonus. on the model of dui. "i^. (G. Scto ( and Cf. longior. 68. magis. nSve.i 378. gravior grevior. as intensives: altissimus. dice offer so cinqua- no peculiarities. *Stto). is regular. Quattuor became quattor {Archiv VII. 66) ginta (Archiv Nil. melior. lows : — The numbers between two and twenty were as fol- Tres probably developed a nominative *irei. etc. Archiv VII. minus.

Digitized by Microsoft® . G. * sexdinta. so ^dece et (or dcto. triginta is. 69). Mille was regular. Archiv VII. probably anterior to the fall of faulty pronunciation the g. cf. et (or ac) sex. XXV. * quadrdinta became rr: quarranta Furthermore the dr of found in an inscription. Keil V. 392. Centu was trinta: Archiv VII. Ryd- berg in Milanges Wahlund 337. etc.: G. 400. § 225). such as * dui centu. are irregular: regularly § 142. went out of use. 381. The tens. made to conform Outside of the Spanish peninsula is -dinta apparently became -dnta. Beside sedece there was *dece SeftendScim. This change of accent apparently occurred everywhere for the subsequent tens: * guadrdinta. * triinta. For ducenti. f^ok.. there were probably new formations. which account in general for the Italian. etc. mentioned as a by Consentius. regularly [§ 381 also Quattuordecim *quatti!rdece. These forms easily contracted into vinti. * cinqudinta. 69. Cf. perhaps of the fifth century (Pirson 97. also unus de viginti.i6o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 380. Spr. *nondinta *novdinta. etc. Beside this dice et septe ac") there was *dece ac septe . Zs. the septucu. etc. II. 69). Provengal. 136.and the octo. trecenti. *dece et (or ac) nHve. etc. trienta. became viinti. * octdinta * ottdinta. 412) mentions decern et septem. trinta {yinti. For its plural it had *dui mille or *dui mtl{l)ia. beginning with 20.. but Qulndlce is regular. 461. Rumanian has new formations. *septdinta * settdinta. ii. Priscian (Keil III.of 70 and 80 were to the type of the others. in fact. trigtnta must assume for Spanish something like * viinti. with an opening of the first i and an early shift of accent. and French words. But beside these we Vigtntl. triinta (§ 259): ISatvTi occurs in a sixth century document of Ravenna. became * quattordece (cf. Archiv VII.

after 5th.^ ' Meyer-Liibke. definite genitive: Hoc served in- Inde assumed the function of an dubitat. probably not 385. ? II. B. According to sixth century. relative.§ 385] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. remained. As the pronouns came to be expressed more and more. Primus. accusative SSs. The ordinal numerals. 262. and is were used to supply the lacking pronoun of the third person: cf. Provengal. to the dative and accusative. But his reference to Vok. The nominative and. the distributive Septimus. tile and also hic. kept. and interrogative pronouns. inflected like quartus. B. 484. The ordinals were best preserved in Italy. — For the use of personal pronouns. until Ego lost its g in all the territory. demonstrative. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. ipse. N. in northern Italian. secundus. The genitive was usually lost but ciijus was kept. as an indefinite neuter. I. see § 60. Spr. and so was the genitive singular and plural of ille. 161 382. The ablative gave way . 67. §§6o. etc. eo occurs in manuscripts of the See §263. were probably not very commonly used: the Romance languages show many new formations. but the end of the Vulgar Latin period. but some languages have new formations even for these. and iste. Lat.). nemo inde Regnier no. Examples occur as early as the second century: Franz. and the dative was preserved in personal. 242 is incorrect Digitized by Microsoft® . 384. ipse. quintus were generally bonus. I. and Catalan ending -enus was employed {septenus ion tertius.

[§ 388 In the last syllable of ttbt. i" 243-244. found. stbi the short i prevailed.ording ti. acof. 484. inflection The was probably reduced to: — .1 62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Spr. these are and mt<mihi. •was carried into nobis. there were formed •. si beside to Lat. the pattern of stbt. vobis. Franz. ^ )86. II. from the sixth century on. On tibi.

definite N. but it disappeared from late Latin. the m. and Cato and on the model of illui (and perhaps of quei). 389. sg. and the Spanish Illius {ipsins. used by Apu- and others (Neue II. 9 beside II. The former. 277-279. There was another dative form. sometimes occurred as a dative: Franz. sg. there was tllce (or ille). 276. Sardinia. 275. etc. These forms survived ma. sg. nom. 3. was from that.. is 163 g The full inflection found in the sixth century: Franz. . we find. and the dat. Romance: Old \X. was partially replaced. Ipse and isfe followed a similar course ipse however. 274. Quillacq 83). however. Franz. 9 II. by illi. The Old Latin genitive illi {ipsi. tilt. Franz. fratelmo. qui: Bon. illi^ille. B. madre- DEMONSTRATIVES. 114. articles For their function as and personal pronouns. probably in the sec- ond half of the sixth century. m. Franz. Ille. framed on the model of cf. Franz. m. used by 427. — For the use of demonstratives. cut. also §392. ipsi=^ ipse. popular speech. 244. 246-260. 283-304. 275. Sicily. The inflection of tile developed considerably in popu- lar speech. and ipsud for ipsum. Audollent 302). and the latter is not found in Calabria. the special forms ipsus for R. Through the analogy of cu^us. being confused with the ablative and the accusative. 67-68. II. illo. R. g II. 9 II. illms gave way to iliajus. R. having become archaic in peninsula. isti). 427. f.. istius). tilt was replaced in part by illHi. see §§ 61-68. they came to be compounded usually with the prefix ecc' or Cf. 275. subsequently went out of use. When Ule and ute had a really demonstrative force. in II. leius was abandoned: In the dat. 273. 390. eccu': see § 65. others (Neue Digitized by Microsoft® . see §§ 60. 3 II.§ 390] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cf.

illdrum. In the on the same pattern (influenced perhaps by guejus). The popular : inflection. nice. [§ 392 which was used beside ilU and Ulm. illejus. a part of Catalonia and Gascony. XXVI. Illorum displaced the f. which crowded out illtus. Majorca. Digitized by Microsoft® . Cf. illui. R. 271-272. 9 II. however.164 An Introduction illcei (illei). illui. It came. in Romance. m. and illis. 'la' vede(s). Spr. vides lei ta ipsam clavem'>-*vede(^s) iu 'sa' clave'] Lui and 281-283. ipsujus.s replaced by tllum: Neue II. The 391. neuter Uludvia. through the analogy of illUjus. illei are found from the sixth century made genitive. and some dialects on the south shore of France. for the dat. furthermore. ipseus. at the end of the Vulgar Latin forms not was something like kept in Romance) elle elli — this (brackets indicating Ma ellejus elli elle ellei ellu [ellujus] elli \ello\ ellui elli ellu ello elli ella elle ? ellu ello ella ? ellqru elluru elli(s) \ellaru\ ellqru elluru ellqru ^im/) ellais) ello(s) ella 392. illui. be used. ille. period. 619. these words tended to lose their first syllable (see § 157): tu illam vzdes>*tu 9 II. Franz. did not entirely disappear. illejus. to f. In parts of northern Spain and southwestern France illorum seems to have become *illurum. 276. was constructed illcejus (illejus). 484: illujus. which. Ille prevailed. Ille and ipse were used freely as definite articles from the fourth century on: Densusianu in Sardinia. Cf. 600. to Vulgar Latin. Illujus. are found after the seventh century: Franz. When unaccented. on: Zs. 426. except 177. Lat.

619. 393. The combined inflection of qui and quis. INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS. XXVI.§ 395] -^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. quis. N. quel: Mohl in Zs. and also of the feminine qum. was probably reduced. Beside ctijus. and the substitution of qui for feminine see §§69-70. 165 4. by the end of the : Vulgar Latin period. to something like this qui — . In Christian inscriptions from the fifth century on. B. in common speech. see cm is found a corresponding feminine quejus. qui takes the place of quts. — For the use of these pronouns.

first and fourth. that the form is a later. state. werrizare. In the Peregrinatio the second decidedly preponderates over the third (Bechtel 87). dou. the first and fourth were least affected. dau. estou. *staunt: Rum. dao.1 66 An Introduction C. would connect these forms with Umbrian stahu.. — see §§33-35. "adno non adnao. own. on the analogy of {*vao). the Eventually Spanish and Portuguese discarded New formations went into the and Sardinian the second. PI." Lexique 47.nd *stao. Lexique 47 and Pr. in Germanic verbs -on and in by Microsoft® . (2). Digitized — such as abbreviare. In northern Gaul there may have developed with * stao a * stats and a * stait. the third. sto. Pr. THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. FIRST CONJUGATION. 398. *vait date. Italian development due to the analogy of sia: see §419. with Umbrian dia. The Italian present subjunctive dia from dare is associated by Mohl. estaun. a. defections into use * dao. (see §405): cf. being few and Beside do. For new formations. Sicilian in Spain. dant and stant there came Old It. Cf. daun. Pg. estau. [§ 398 VERBS. etc. Pers. 396. the third in Italy. The second gained most fourth in Gaul. Lexique 47-54. 30. to Vulgar Latin. Probus. Mohl. I. follicare. Lexique 47. *daunta. There was some confusion of conjugations. its 397. It is entirely possible. *vais. however. in other texts the third gains at the expense of the second. " The first conjugation generally held partial. but it seems more likely that they were late Latin formations due to an effort to keep the root vowel distinct from the ending.

167 —an (but not -jan) went in the first conjugation: Cf. rubare. I. habet. Other verbs passed over locally or occasionally: sediiur. sometimes became habtre: Vok. Monaci. in Classic : Even miscere (R. beginning with those that had a perfect in -ui. 401. *impllre. avire in havite. * luctre.. SECOND CONJUGATION. *torcere (for torquere). luctsco. at least in Italy. L. The inchoa284). I. habent. third conjugation gave a few verbs to the second. and cadere may have followed capere. tive —escere \. Crestomazia italiana dei primi secoli I. 266 ff. 1636. 10. b. respondere (Bechtel 88: responduntur). 399. ^^^^ i^ a peculiarity of ancient Umbrian. 284). capere may easily have imitated sapere. * has. adopted the forms *ho or *hao. especially in Italy. Digitized by Microsoft® . * lucere. fiorlre (R. habibai. lugere (R. the verb habere. 284). under the influence of dare and stare. guidare. 400. etc). In Vulgar Latin the second lost some verbs to the third in most of the territory: * ardere. The as cadere *cadui. such perhaps 402. According to Mohl. *hant or * haunt. t. C. wttan'^lt. tergere.§402] An Introduction regularly to Vulgar Latin. THIRD CONJUGATION. lugire (R. 1. habes. E. 8. §36. 283). Lexique 108-109.\i^x\. *nocere. roubo?i'>lt. *putrtre. * hat. *mordere. many become i. *ridere. *putrisco. Italian dialects in which e does not phonetically and even in early Tuscan (cf. became —iscere: *florisco. by habere. probably through the pronunciation of —eo as —io (see §224): * complire. Itala. While retaining habeo. Some verbs went into the fourth. 20. V. capere * caput. Luke VI. tondere. Bechtel 88. Habere. sapere sapui: sapere was influ- enced. Latin there was some confusion between the second conjugation and the third fervere. p.

'Bt&ide. [§ 404 In Spain the third conjugation verbs eventually passed into the second. their inflection more or less to the regular type.poteo is attested ( 1) Potere. PL in 745 A. strongly influenced by dare and stare. potebas Posso for possum is used by in Fredegarius (Haag 60). velle volui naturally went over to the second conjugation. a sug- gestion of shortening existed in the monosyllabic imperative Digitized by Microsoft® . The present indicative forms must have been something like this: ^vojeo voje^s) — volimu{s) volemu(s) voleste(s) *volete(s) *vole(i) *vqlen(t) The present subjunctive must have been similarly inflected. D. potebo is found in the Gl. The anomalous posse potui. 478).1 68 An Introduction all to Vulgar Latin. This transition was probably helped by a partial fusion of esse and sedere. Sardinia. PL 25). GL found in the sixth century (^Lat Spr. Pers. however.-R. Furthermore.A facere were associated in old formulas: Lexique 53. (2) the Volimus Reich. 403. *volere. PL 2^). Pers. is volemus in the seventh {Pr. {Pr. voles is found in Volestis. is twice used by Fredegarius {Pr. PL 21). Reich. Pers.. and conformed Velte. there doubtless existed *fare {Facere 48). Pers. was discarded in Spain and potebam occur repeatedly in the sixth century 24). Pers. Gregory and Fredegarius {Pr. Dare Z. The present like this: have been inflected something passu posso foteo *posseo poieis) *pote(i) — indicative must ^poiemu{s) poteste(s) *potete(s) pqssunif) *poten(t) The present subjunctive must have had corresponding forms. PL 21). {Pr. facere 404. framed on the pattern of potestis. assumed the infinitive forms potere.

sets of forms.§405] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. which must have led to *fate present indicative certainly had several being on the pattern of the first con- jugation. but the present subjunctive retained (see Facere 72. series The one 735). Zs. Zs. XXV. beside factte. facio XVIII. 121. 169 fac (also /a. 434): — its old inflection *fao .

warnjan'> tion. [§408 facere fare : — present indicative. gemire. moreover. see § 415. occurire. Lucretius {Lat. Spr. It. beside * sequere.into this conjuga- FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES Romance only Digitized IN INFLECTION. Sepulcri 229. parrjan^Yv. see § 34. and *monre. Reich. ^26. * capere . ignire. . the entire passive inflection having been discarded: the by Microsoft® . by the analogy of aperire {sufferit. at least locally: *falllre. its own. Dicere. Bechtel 90. vadunif) *vaunt *vant 406. Gl. Bon. developed a form * dire. however. and gained some verbs from the others. Spr. such as * abbellire. §416): *caplre. Densusianu 148. Lexique 62 ). doubtless suggested by die ( cf fac and *fare. (j^^r^i". tarir. For new formations. *soffertre. was influenced by *vao viidimu(s) vddite(s) *vo *vas vadeif) *vait *vat vadeis) *vais imu(s) etc. 286. Verbs in -to tended to pass into the fourth conjugation (see. R. . Augustine {Lat. §36. Germanic verbs in -Jan regularly went into the fourth conjugation in Latin (Kluge 500): furbjan~>\X. * sequlre. Carnoy 112). 477). Some others went over. forbire . ^. 477). Cf. d. cf. 285). Pirson 148. ite(s) etc. mortri. common in the Vulgate (R. probably in the Vulgar Latin period (cf. cuptre. 407. 427..lyo Vulgar Latin. Bon. guarnire. in 408. For the intrusion of the inchoative -sc. C2X0 fugtre. offeret. Plautus. An The vado Introduction. FOURTH CONJUGATION. hesiAe. Haag 60. St. The fourth conjugation usually held — — marrir. first half of the 7th century. * offertre. marrJan>'Fr. fodiri. §404) and helped by the analogy of audire. Of the personal forms of the verb there remained general use in the following tenses of the active voice. Pirson 148. deferet.

as a preterit or a conditional. and in instance: some regions the perfect the imperative present. amando. fell into disuse from the first century on. the perfect participle. in various regions: see §124. the gerund (especially the ablative case). the deponent for the active inflection of a few verbs: Petronius. etc. {amarini)\ ama. and in 171 indicative present. 298 Conversely. partly by active and reflexive constructions but perfect participle with esse' mainly by a compound of the (m northern Italy fieri): littera ' scriMtur -flittera scripta est (or fit). mentire. 297-302. : Deponent verbs became active cf. etc. operare. amassem. R.. some regions the future perfect . cf. The entire passive inflection -of came to be replaced. R. Of the impersonal forms of the verb there remained: the present active infinitive. Similar compounds replaced the pluperfect and the future perfect. amavi. amaram. The old pluperfect indicative (^amaram. reverti"^ reversus sum. perfect. imperfect. For instance: amare. pluperfect. See Syntax. §§ 112-114. . 302-304. amem. rideri. Cf. and probably in some standing phrases the gerundive. the present participle. in the by a compound of habere and the "perfect participle case of neuter verbs. (amaro). In the subjunctive the pluperfect was used instead of the Digitized by Microsoft® .. The Latin it its perfect sense — §§121-124. R. . amatus. amabam. perfect was kept in its preterit sense. pluperfect. § 4io] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. esse and the perfect participle: feci"^ habeo factum. 304. See 410. towards the end the Vulgar Latin period. The supine 409. 289. {amandusi). amans. In was replaced. audiram) was kept. in the Vulgar Latin period. the subjunctive present. some writers substituted R. See Syntax. 388-389. For amo. R.

*amar' dben(t). 401): *amar' —dbeo. an imperfect of the late future. especially by the infinitive combined with the present indicative of habere {amdbo > amar' habeo): see §§125-129. etc. Lollis in Bausteine i . -dnt: *amar' —dmu(s). XXIX. pdteri.): see Spanish and Portuguese. -dyo. [§411 imperfect. was crowded out by the present and by new formations. It is best preserved in is found also in Old Rumanian There are traces of it in Old Italian. . with the exception of ero. Crescini in Zs. as in the In these formations the unaccented {Ji)ab— first and second persons plural of the future: * amar' -^{b)a. -ete(s). —aunt. came to be made. —do. infinitive the perfect of habere (see §130): combined with the imperfect or *amar' ~dbe{b')a{ni) or disappeared. cridere. The ings. *amar' -isti. *amar' —e'te(s). as they came to be regarded as mere endold future. On the model of this new future. In this compound all the various forms of the present indicative of habere were used (see §§273. but * amar' abut. -dbe(s). * amar" -dbe(s'). which has prevailed in the find. audtrem'^audissem. amd{ve)ro fused with the perThe old future perfect ama. —at. -dnt.): amdrem'^amdssem. habemus and habetis eventually. -dt. in Vulgar Latin and Romance. as a future indicative or subjunctive. -ds. etc. C. —d. sometimes confused with the pluperfect indicative and later sometimes with the infinitive {dpriro.(ye')rim and apparently remained subjunctive fect — — — — more or all less in use. were reduced to -emu{s). &tc. §118.172 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cf. but and Macedonian. a form in -ii {amerii). to correspond to the dissyllabic or monosyllabic -dyo. In the first and second persons plural. Digitized In Italian we by Microsoft® . 619. -ds. which disappeared everywhere but in Sardinia {facheret. beside -ia from habebam and -dbbi —ibbi from habui. De 411. *amar' -dbe(t). V. in regions except Gaul and Raetia. or conditional. —dbe{t). etc.-dben(t) and -d. from the *amar' -abut.

hence crederdt). In some verbs the present subjunctive was used instead of all imperative forms. For the monosyllabic die. 294. and a part of Lorraine Only -eseo surneither of these two endings left any trace. in Vok. the Landes. I. 173 modern language. due. e—. except the present. French Switzerland. etc. dormisco — were extended The and later. are common in Gregory the Great: Sepulcri 193. Virgilius Grammaticus (Sepulcri 194) mentions double forms of inchoative verbs. etc. amdte. or o—. pareeer.. the second person plural of the present indicative came to be used: adferte> adferitis. R. 3596. person singular and plural: credite. t—. second dmd. §426. criseere. erubisco. they Pr. audite. crede. Clarisco. duce. The imperative disappeared. and Spain Digitized — Sp. 412. while in Old Italian the ei was sometimes detached and used as a preterit. to the Romance languages. Lyons.of avere : it is probably due to the analogy of the first person singular of the weak preterit (credit. writers sometimes emploved diee.. tene. irdisser <irdseere. Beam. tenete. Savoy. such as caleseo ealisco. fae. 413. 294.face: R. Cf. vived in the Tyrol.§414] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Dauphin^. The Latin The inchoative ending -sco was preceded by a-. The first and third persons were supplied from the present subjunctive. cf. INCHOATIVE VERBS. lost their inchoative sense. etc. See § 115. types —dsco and —osco were sparingly repre- sented and were not extended in late and popular Latin have bequeathed but few verbs con<Sisser<ico(g)ndseere types —esco and —tseo in the third century — — as — such as and . 3. paresco. There is some evidence of a confusion of -esco and —uco in Latin. by Microsoft® . the Grisons. Sardinia. Instead of the plural form. 414. the Abruzzi. audi. In Veglia.

Rastia. and Rumania we find a type *finisco *finisce(s) ^Jinisce{i) *Jiniscun{t) The ~sc. PRESENT STEMS. although fleurit. facientem *facente. \\. 4. finissons. some regions. 291-294. In the present participle this was a regular phonetic development (see §225): audientem^* audente. There is no direct evidence of this in Latin. nor are there any traces of it 415. [§416 florecer. XXX. XXIV. despereissir. fiorire. * dormo. 81. but in the earliest texts of France. partiunt *partunt. / sentieniem > were introduced more less into the indicative and subjunctive: audio * audo. finissez).. finis sant.then generally disappeared from the infinitive Later. etc. Rom. there are traces of -esco. See Archiv Lat.Jinisse). il in Pr. finis sais ) I. by the by Microsoft® . -esco also in Rumanian. Sardinian. eventually entered into the formation stem of fourth conjugation verbs. By the analogy of these. Spr. 174 An Introduction was preferred For to Vulgar Latin. 478. Elsewhere.. Many verbs in -io dropped the whenever it was fol- lowed by another vowel. etc.. trated the present subjunctive {Yr. see E. sentiam * sentam. northern and central _fimmii(s) finite{s) Italy. Digitized On the other hand. The ending -tsco of the present in Spanish. the -sc- was carried throughit out the present indicative (Yx. partientem * sentente. tricts also pene- eventually the present participle ( and in some disand the imperfect indicative Fr. in — It. 465. Zs. / 416. Herzog Bausteine 481. -tsco prevailed fiorisce. Portuguese. the e was occasionally lost in the second conjugation: v^deo *vtdo. Hence forms without the or > > *partente. or southern Italian. — Fr.

Pers. 417. The verbs vadere. dtcere. etc. cingo cinxi cinctus.§419] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Considerable alterations use of fieri for esse is (I ) were made in the present indicative and subjunctive. vtdent. posse. The guttural Fredegarius.. faciunt. trdgere. 397. tango tactus. For the sedere for The s. to bring it into conformity with the usual third conjugation type.. 412. vehere developed infinitive vegere are forms *striigere. indicate a * setts some evidence of an alternative * siitis sicmus.. etc. Esse was made into *essere. Prpvengal ses for Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. Substrate VI. j'ungo Cf. There may have been also *striicere. habere. velle dare. based on the analogy of dico dixi dictus. etc. *tragebam. 416. underwent considerable changes in the present: see §§273. pango panxi panctus. the second conjugation admitted such f oriris as * habeunt. stare. and Raetian ses point to a * ses beside es. *trdcere. Italian while there of on the model and Raetian siede. old esum cited by Varro {Fr. 403-406. *fragam. facere. 175 analogy of capiunt. *vkere. plango planxi planctus. structus. * vtdeunt. as *trago. vegere {tragere and used by 34) and a whole present and imperfect inflection with —g—. 419. beside the regular habent. tego and probably junxi junctus. 131. Italian sei siete is PL 128) went out of for estis. esse. The Spanish use of probably later than our period. Old Italian se for e. Jigo fixi. also Jingo finxi fictus. present indicative shows some signs of a tendency its to normalize erratic inflection by making all the forms be- gin with The use. rego rexi rectus. 401. 418. trahere. and the perfect partivexi vectus on the — analogy of ago tectus. see § 409. ungo unxi unctus. actus. Haag was derived from the ciple — struxi and perfect indicative traxi iractus. lego lectus. duco duxi ductus. The verbs struere. debere. etc.

sumus. see 420. § iiS. which ultimately prevailed: Lexique ^x): fiet is common places sim in northern Italy alternative inflection * siam. II. Siamus. Pirson Yt^o. Provengal esmes<. simus. would derive it from old esimus. The present indicative inflection was doubtless something like this sqm fs est : — sqmu(s) *ses *set} *sest? i^ie(s) semu{s) *esmu{s) *sete(s) *sciie(s)! sqnt (2) In the present subjunctive the analogy of other third conjugation verbs tended to introduce the characteristic vowel a. B. 347. see sead in Vok. 478. which -was used. according to Suetonius. from early times there was a reciproand the Old Latin optative siem. — sem *sea sis simu{s) sidmu(s) site{s) *jfa(j) sea(t) *sidie[s) set sent *sean{i) For Stat. and the Tyrol (Sp. Old It. Old Fr. PI.). 135.. Rom. prevailed in southern Gaul. Spr. fiam reand Dacia. which existed with esum. iox fit. etc. -icbam. was preferred in Spain. that cal influence oifiam. etc. semo. 42. Dalmatia. Pr. and Dacia (Pr. The endings were -dbam. In the third conjugatiqjyg^-jyj^^ Ajgaj^g^ developed into -ebam. Pr. *esmus seems to be a new formation on the analogy of esHs. Hence comes an etc.. 5. (cf. somas. occurs in Italian documents of the eighth century. sem. the usual Classic form. N. PL 130. It is likely. Lat. —ibam. — For the loss of the imperfect subjunctive. Mohl. northern Gaul. too.): cf. according to Lat. —ebam. [§420 usually understood as reflexive forms. Italy. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and by various purists of the Augustan age (Stolz 58). by Augustus. Pers. Spr. 479. XXI. Portugal. may go back to *sei and *sesf for est In the first person plural sumus became sumus and simus (see §220). IMPERFECT. Pers. sons. . etc.176 es. etc.

287. and fourth conjugation verbs with strong perfects developed a weak one in Vulgar Latin: pr(sstiti> probably All first j>rcBstavi. which in Romance was widely extended. 177 22t„ /^i6): faciebam'>-*facebam.'Bi. must distinguish two types. *afiea.§423] just as An Introduction -ientem> -entem (see §§ to Vulgar Latin. the strong includes all Verbs of the first and fourth conjugations generally others. led early.perfects in which the v is added to a verb-stem (-dvi. Dubois 277-278. —oleo. 423. -pleo. PERFECT. 445).fleo. affecting all the conjugations but the It is ved^a. the weak and the strong: the weak comprises the v.. 2?>q. in the fourth conjugation. to a reduction tendency to keep the stress on the characteristic Digitized by Microsoft® . prevailed in popular speech. most of them rare 422. • salui>salivi. territory except common to nearly all the Romance Rumania: Lat. developed another form. silevit for siluit occurs also. — being common In the fourth conjugation -iebam and -ibam existed side byside from early times (Neue II. 479. a. regularly had a perfect in -evi: deleo. 6. —Ibam as in munibam — in early Latin and recurring at later periods (Lindsay 491). We — — neo. A vowel. vieo. and —iebam disappeared: vestibat. probably through dissimilation. and also a general inclination to omit v between two i's (see § 324). Habebam. sentia. see §426. Spr. credia. -evi. those of the second and third had mostly all of the second conjugation and Only six verbs strong. —Ibam. etc. R. WEAK PERFECTS. Hence came an alternative ending —ea for -e/ia. pronounced a^e^a (cf. had weak perfects. first: It. For further encroachment of the weak type on thb strong. -tvi). 421. which stressed the characteristic vowel of the fourth conjugation. §318).

d. — probai {'Prdhns). mus. "cupit pro cupivit. Neue III. Neue III.). fall of v gave rise. —ivit to —iit and *-itt.m»'W^ol%tm^ and amdo. rise early to a reduction of —avisti. Fredegarius in -ait is 152.. etc. Bayard 60. 479. —iverunt to —ierunt. —drunt. 440. 449. and. —dstis. —tt. This -aut prevailed '^'^'^. later. for —imus. laborait. (Haag 55).judicat. locally. perhaps. S.. perit. edificai. for —ierunt. memoramus. and the third person plural. see Neue III. petit. redit." Priscian XII. [§424 of —tvtsit to -tstt still early. Gregory of Tours (Bon. -dvtmus>-dmus and probably *-dmmus: calcai (Probus). Spr. ccelebrasperamus. Fredegarius (Haag 55). etc. 152. see Servius ad Aen. in the third person singan alternative form.L. etc. The loss of V. see Neue III. 587). —dvif^dit and -at.'X. Densusianu I.. dedicait. 587). etc. -dvistis. -ivistis to —istis. I. and. F^/J. Densusianu I. speclarait. 451. "fumdt -pro fumavit. as in repetimus. the further reduction of —ivt to which brought about. o-cyvoi. gave —dsti. 446-448.. etc. vocitamus. The third person singular found in Old Sardinian: Lat. C. denumerat. —dverunt to Much later -dvt>-di. perit. II. in the first and third persons singular *—lrunt: audi. 434 (cf. carried into the first conjugation. II. contraction without the gave rise.I. to a desire to distinguish the perfect from the present). A ular." Priscian XII. Bon. *-iut: It. 424. 17 (Keil II. Then a contraction of the two vowels gave. to -aut. 452-454. The A contraction without the . in the third person singular. -/. 216. 17 (Keil II. to fall of v. 241: 65-121 a. -u and *-u. the reduction of —ivimus to —Imus and probably *—immus (the lengthening of the m being due to compensation and also. For -nt. as in lenUt. 476.— 178 An Introduction and to Vulgar Latin. Vok. 476.Lexique 46. 440). probably to *-aumus: triumphaut in Pompeii. in the first person plural. servio. petit.

R. the forms with v were not preserved in Romance. helped by dissimilabecame *-deJ. *-ejti. on the other hand. -isti. Compounds of dare had a perfect in -dtdi {credidt. Spr. Some other second conjugation verbs apparentlyadopted this perfect: 426. In some (It. Lat. etc. 179 *~aumus Jiom. odedere. of the Romance languages cazif). *-desti. tion. 287. in the first XXX. respondidi. descendidit. *—desie(s). Audollent 544. etc. preserved in some Old French dialects near Douai: 607. ~ivi —isti there- -dvi —dsii -dve{t) —df *~ti —ii -i -dut -dit -dt -weif) *-jut *-{it -lit -it -dvimu(s) -dmu{s) *-dmmu(s) *~dumus -dste(s) -immu{s) -4mu(s) *-jmmu(s) -iste(s) -drunit) *-irun{t) With the exception of -ivi in Old Italian. *-det. incendederit. delesti. etc. edediderit with an extra -de-). prendiderunt. The forms — and fourth conjugations. —asfi. : and the of the and fourth conjugations so caderunt. (am'ei). from which there came a responding to the —ai first endings *-«'. this -dedi Through the analogy of -di. silevit. Gl. perdidt. videderunt (cf. cor-ii. they apparently did Digitized by Microsoft® .s ex(see §139): perdedit. 480. descendidi. etc. Verbs in —evl doubtless had a similar inflection: *delei. tended to many other verbs in -d-: prandidi. 184. fore. *-dem(^m)u{s). -derun(f). 479. Keil IV. etc. ascendiderat. 288. were : 425.). *-n. these endings were carried into other verbs of the third and even the second conjugation first baMi.§426] An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in Provengal they invaded the also In Dacia. *-ei. pandiderunt. Hence arose eventually an inflecset of tion *-^«. vendidl.. Pr. which in Vulgar Latin became —dedi This -dedi ^a. Reich.. etc... R.

II.. crevi. R. the development of the vi indicates that sort. or fiwi in Vulgar Latin: cf.. STRONG PERFECTS. pdvi. moc. b. and -ei. dare had (beside diedi^dedi) a perfect arose an inflection side -dei -detti. In Italy all strong verbs except esse introduced weak endings in the second person singular and the first and second persons plural: It. cf. by Microsoft® . * stetui. conqbbi. aperui y^ * aperii *apersi. sapivi~^ sapui. prendesti. Pr. presi. movi. crebbi. bib-i. The -ui type. 357. etc. — — it was sounded wui. [§ 428 not develop at In Italy. etc. stetti<. the Rumania. etc. Gl. necui> necavi. §326): placwi. 427. but written vi to avoid the doubling of the V. etc. and those that have nothing between the root and the personal endings plac-u-i. 428. tions: This perfect disappeared from the first and fourth conjugacrepui>*crepavi. included from the start not only perfects of the placui but also all perfects in -vi not made from the verb-stem such as cognovi. whence and a set of endings -etti. It. §422). .i8o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. this ending being pronounced wui. also vincisti. In -ui and —si types were qucesivi'^^ A few weak verbs adopted strong inflections: * quasi. plaudisti for plausisti.. etc it In the second and crevi. those that add u to the root. Through these endings the weak type encroached somewhat on the strong. third conjugations maintained Digitized itself very well: cognovi. Reich. all. wwi. according to Meyer-Liibke. under the influence of dejti. Gram.. etc. etc. In the first class the u lost its syllabic value and became w • — : (cf. 286. etc. salui^ salivi salii *salsi. -dei. There are three types those that add s. (cf. dlc-s-i = dixi.. where there was no extended. At any rate.

tersi. legi'>-* legui *lexi. excussi. *franxi. dixi. R. * defe(ji)si. *prensi. *cursi. Lat. whose reduplicative character was no longer Digitized by Microsoft® . cf. *pe{n)si. *acce{n)si. Zs. duxi. however. some thirty-five were preserved arsi. Haag 56. *fusi. *fusi. rasi. posi. R. persi. *redempsi. sustuli>*tolui * tolsi. *offersi. 130. Sensi. fixi. § 165. Among the -i perfects. *respd{ti)si. text sedi>* sedui . 430. scripsi 163). abscd{n)si. etc. — — : clausi. defensi. steti>^\so* stetui. XXVIII. Spr. Spr. pressi. * volsi. molui. and possibly a few others. Spr. A. natus sum'^*nacui. *taxi. rosi. 97. § perhaps on the model of mtssus. 288. strinxi. *attinxi. *vinsi. tinxi. Lat. tenui.> slso *vtscui. *tanxi. > > Cf.§ 43o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 479. — assumed the s. mulsi. cMdi 479 > (so *rectpui). On the other hand it received many additions: Mbi>*Mbui. ertgo.'). traxi. sapivi'^ sapui. —ssi. *mdrsi. *rosi. *occlsi. vixi ". messui(J). 288. Einf. s in the perfect participle. rexi. pavi. vixi. *punxi. torsi. z/J« also *vtncui *vinsi. * cadui *cadedi. *qucBsi. 479. *ersi from *lexi. 429. pinxi. Keil VII. expavi'> expabui.perfect through having an Cf. divisi. Zimmermann in Archiv XIII. Lat. planxi. * tensi *te{n)si. cinxi. *salsi. *rdsi. movi'. junxi. Spr. texui. In Vulgar Latin there were perhaps some thirty or more new formations: *apersi. risi. texui. i8i It lost gemui{^. finxi. 94. Of the -si class. sparsi. *sdlsi. *copersi. struxi. *tdlsi. the reduplicative formations were discarded in Vulgar Latin. luxi. posui {>posi). coxi. Lat. cepi^ caput. frixi. peperci^-parcui. became * sentii. —stinxi. *siirsi. vldi'^zlso *vtdui *vtdui. which comprised perfects in -si. mansi. * morsi. mlsi (also *mzssi. and —xi. *pensi. *imptnxi. *pre{n)si. veni '^aXso *venui. 480. silui {^silevi). unxi. Some of these — * *responsi. with the exception of dedi and steti (also *j/i?/«2). * occisi.

egi. fui. then futm us was often shortened to also. Two of the old perfects maintained themselves intact. veni * venui. vidi * vtdui. * acce(^ n ) si. fudi > ) si. effort it was shortened Vulgar Latin seems to show both H and H. the simple verb came * cadui R. tetegi'^* taxi * tanxi. apparent compounds (cf. but circumdavit in Gl. to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout §§423-424). sedi"^* sedui. In fui the u was originally long. 289). a form *fdrunt. legi > * Kxi. but in Classic Latin. In an ( cf . : There may have been through dissimilation.). -i perfects were greatly reduced in to the -a/ or the -si type: number in Some simply disappeared. fuisti zxi-di. > *fusti. volvi > * volsi. pupHgi "> *punxi. defendi >• * defe{ n ) si. fuit *fut. vtci > no additions. fefelli'>*falii. some became weak. Reich. solvi'^* solsi. The other Vulgar Latin. fregi accendi *franxi. R. generally became *fum(m)us. cepi'^capui.i82 An Introduction . some went over fUgi^ > > *fusi. or *cadedi. pependiy. and two more were kept beside new formations feci. 288. peperci"^ parcui. inflection. prendi > *pre{ n * vinsi. legi'^* legui. to Vulgar Latin. verti. [§ 431 of dare usually formed their perfect like §426. while compounds of stare tended to follow the regular first Cecidi beconjugation model (Jtrcestili > pnestavi. momordi'> tetendi'>- *mdrsi. The prevailing something fui *fosti like this — with some variations. bibi'^*bibui. 431.*pe{^n)si. fuerunt became *furunt. The other reduplicative perfects either disappeared the or passed into si class: cucurri "> * cHrsi . fuistis > *fustis. *te{n)si. There were : *fugii. was probably foi *fom{m)u(s) *foste(s) foe(t) fue(t) *fgt *fut *forun{t) */urun(t) *f^un{t)} foerun{t)> Digitized by Microsoft® .

delero. In formations from weak perfects only the contracted forms were used: amdram.§ 435] ^^ 7. to *—dssimus. by the analogy of apertus. Fr. amdssimo amdste. necius "> necatus . amaro. prdvttus. vetitus Nevertheless there were some new formations in —ttus: *levitus. — 433. secextended to tus'^secatus. etc. fecissem. delessem. deleram.: It. 8. 1S3 PLUPERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT. domitus'> domatus. 432. amessim amessitz. R. alarei. tonitus'^*tonatus. etc.). : In the third conjugation -dtus disappeared oblatus offertus (^Gl. Reich. dixeram. but Pr. tus"^* sonatus. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -assetis. PERFECT PARTICIPLE. *feritus.. 296. amdssem.). Spr. In some regions a tendency to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout the pluperfect subjunctive led to a change of —assemus. 480. audi{e)ram. audlsBayard 60-61 sem. preserved at all. *-dssitis. notes that St. etc. cf. sublatus>* suffertus. sonivetatus. audt(^e)ro . > Digitized by Microsoft® . Sp. placutssem. generally fell into disuse: crepitus^ *crepatus. When these tenses followed the old types: pldcueram (cf. R. fkero. ortaret in Gl. rogitus. plicitus"^ plicatus . The ending —ttus. Reich. ^ i^"]). ficeram. petisset. 435. copertus. habldsemos habldseis. In the all first conjugation -dtus was preserved and was verbs: /rictus "> fricatus . > vocUus. so the new alatus. — before Cyprien employed only the shortened forms ss. dixero . Gl. 434. in the first conjugation. pldcuero. Lat. Verbs which had no perfect participle were obliged to form one in order to make their passive and their perfect tenses: ferio. Reich. 295. aimassions aimassiiz. sublatus (from tollo')'>-tdllttus (^Gl. Reich. dixhsem. cf.

A few of these particihowever. In the fourth conjugation -Itus was preserved and was extended to nearly all verbs: saltus'>*salltus. submonitus > *submo{n)sus. Pirson 152. jectives. On 439. provitus. * levitus. rogitus. In the third conjugation qumsttus>*gucestus. bibitus^* bibutus . entirely displace the old perfect participle: natus was kept beside * nascHtus. offered a convenient accented form. were kept. *vdlvitus (or *vdllus). *vidutus. creditus'>*credutus. *mdvitus and *mdssus were formed beside *m. statutus. vocitus. and ventus generally became * venutus. Apertus and copertus. secutus. sepultus^sepelitus. Digitized by Microsoft® . belonging to verbs in —uere and tri- —vere {argutus. perditus *parsus. however. in -itus: gemitus'!. all periods. The ending —ictus. dutus. *tenutus. *vendutus. venditus>*vendutus. * habutus. 437. buius. minutus. consutus. ples. molitus > * molutus. §435): absconditus'>absco{n)sus . solitus.. however. The ending -itus tended to disappear (cf. corres- ponding to -atus and -itus. Reich. sensus'>*sentitus. etc. volutus). old and found in Gl. * solvttus (or *sdltus) beside solutus. were kept only as ad- 438. etc. [§ 439 436. tollitus. * venutus. the other hand. — and — as *credutus. It did not al- ways. Eventually -atus was carried further. solutus. In the second conjugation the rare -etus disappeared as a participial ending: completus. *per- in Sicily encroached largely on -itus. *volvitus (or *vdltus) beside volutus..ovutus. remained. paritus > *paru> *perdutus *persus. and there were some new formations * solvttus (or *soltus). pds{i)tus. but status. * movitus.184 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. *parutus. It was extended to nearly all the verbs that had an -ui perfect: * bibutus. fugitus tus > *fugitus.

295. tactus'i tus. *persus. 'salted.>*farcitus axiAfarsus. ductus. nectus>necdtus. fractus *franctus. punctus. texus * texiisecdtus.' maintained itself beside salitus. Salsus. * suffertus. cretus> *crevutus'>. R. fictus finctus. gavisus>*gaudutus . or -utus: captus *capttus. A > > > * sentttus . sectusy^ * tenutus. Spr. rosus. divisus. ventus'^*venutus and venttus. victus'>*vin- cutus and *vinctus. Lat. *vdltus About fifteen verbs (cf. Reich. pe{Ti)sus. pictus *pinctus. sirictus *tanctus'!. new formations in -sus: On the other hand. messus'^ metitus.§ 441] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. *salsus. tentus > > tus. tus. rectus. structus. 480. Keil VII. The ending —sus was defe{n')sus. Spr. lectus. sus. and perhaps *sdltus. sparsus. cogndtus>*conovutus'i. *submo{n)sus. Several of these developed also a participle in -utus: etc. Lat. fartus'. mistus. te{n)sus. tractus. 480. also probably * wwclausus. *mossus. 441. Spr.. *parsus. ma{n)sus. pastus'>-*pavutus'i. Gl. *strinctus. tinctus. tersus. 94. morsus. missus. The ending -tus was kept for some twenty verbs. Dubois 282. Lat. risus. ex- factus. Digitized by Microsoft® .*mdssus. there were some absco{n)sus. 185 440. oc- casionally with a change of stem: ductus . wjwj. *vistus. tortus. /ric* surtus for surrectus. also perhaps *misus by the analogy of mist. dictus. Hr- excussus. expansus sensus few verbs replaced the old form by one in -itus or -ietus: * expandutus . scriptus. pressus. *pendutus. falsus *fallitus. fusus "^fundutus. R. stinctus. §439). 480. Bechtel 91. fixus. 295 (very common). mdtus'>*movutus'> &.viA. sepultus >• sepelitus. fusus. pre(n)sus . probably replaced -tus by -atus. *gucestus. *vidutus. frictus "^fricdtus. sessus > * sedutus. saltus'^-* salitus and *salsus. -itus. There were a few new for- mations in —tus: offertus. to{n)sus. generally kept: acce{n')sus . vtctus~>* vixutus. farsus.

does not support this view. historically considered. PEESONAL ENDINGS. and i came to be pronounced alike (§243). Pr. as t was of the third (cf. analogical formations. not found acceptance. are correctly explained by Tiktin 565-566 as 444. and doubtless of weak after our period. 53. -imus. [§ 447 9. — This theory has In strong perfects the of -tstis first person plural. Grundriss V. —et and -U. vezim. from laudas. Italian lodi and Rumanian lauzi. its — tended. 442. -0. assumes that in Italy -as and -es became -i. Meyer-Liibke.. *amdmu amdtes dmant like * cdnomus. This is not a phonetic phe- nomenon. colliget. perhaps S. — through the analogy perfects as well. For the reduction of -to to 443. forms due to Celtic influence. This confusion is very frequent in the Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-89. It may be that -s was dropped because it was regarded as a characteristic of the second person. 670. then the accent was shifted to the penult *canomus. first person plural lost perhaps in the Vulgar Latin period: videmus'>-'St. fez^m. PL 73-80): — dmo dmaa dmat 446. As unaccented e. however. and -Isti. In southern and to some extent in northern Gaul the its final s. Pers. great confusion ensued between -es and —is. as -s did not fall in this region. whence came the French -ons. There are traces of 47. see §416. Pr. inscriptions and elsewhere: Digitized The shift. 447. by Microsoft® . PL. According to Mohl. The evidence. Pers. etc. to stress this in ^smiVi: fecimiis>'Pr. were used in northern Gaul instead of canimus. 445. e. etc.1 86 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

in the sixth or seventh century. and dicimus. -ite -dmu(s').). ite in the other conjugations. etc. lingeti. the third person plural ending -ere was The ending -erunt. in Classic Latin. 449.). §137. -/»z«(j'). 64. and a part of southern Italy. helped by the analogy of the future — The shift and -{mu{s). —die and -^mu(s). -unt was preferred. 448. —ite generally —Ste(^s). etc. as there are in Italian and French remains of the original accentuation. -ttis. *vidunt. The Classic distinction was best kept in Gaul and northern Italy. sometimes had a short e (e is common in the comic poets. . -dte(s). Pers. -ent prevailed in cen. respon- duntur. dicUis kept their old forms in many regions. §416. facimus. kept the old accent (Tiktin 596): iingem. ite(s). Pers. etc. According to Mohl. absolvent. accipient. in southeastern facitis There are some traces of its preservation French dialects also. there was an ending *-eunt which was (^habeunt. became. in Spain and Portugal. and Dacia. —^te. In the perfect. -ent. 30. Rumanian. etc.J^kuJ-i n^g^^xd^so^'^i^-i -^--^/^^ . dixerunt. exient. Dalmatia. — — particularly common in Italy: cf. due to the analogy of -iunt. -imus. however. being attracted by mittimus: Pr. the con- fusion goes back to early Italic. vindett. ways /3 short: debuerunt.j—th& penult assuming the accent. tral and the rest of southern Italy. their interchange Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-90. 187 was not universal. see §416. Cf. etc. Rastia. Furthermore. viderunt. Beside second conjugation. Sardinia. in Vulgar Latin this vowel was apparently al450.§ 45°] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The endings -ent and -unt came to be very is much confused frequent in the (* credent. Pr. to match —^te(^s). In the present indicative and imperative. in the For the reduction of —iunt to -unt. PI. for instance. discarded. 112. vindem. Virgil wrote tulerunt. was perhaps viitttmus.). PI.

Digitized by Microsoft® .

28 absconsus 439. 377 accipient 449 declension 374-9 accubitorium ^'j numerals 378-82 -accus ^y unus (article) 57 Accusative.23. italics to Words printed in Roman type belong to ancient. 82. adaptus 23 adcap(i)tare 25 433> 447-8. 90.— Arabic numerals refer to Paragraphs. 86. 48 abbellire 18. 244 accented 39. 441 ad 14. 231. 229 231. 34 abbio 273 abbreviare 25 abbreviatio yj shift 136-8. 140 iicatum r4i aculionis 367 abeo = habeo 251 224 abias 224 abiat 224 abiete -abilis 39 ab intus 47 abitat 25 1 Ablative 92-7. words in modern languages. 77. 355(1) adparescere 34 adpetere 32 Digitized by Microsoft® . 94-6 nouns 367 numerals 142 : ace. 47. 228.infin. pi.) 412 unstressed words 156-8 adgenuculari 25 Accented Vowels see ad horam 47 Vowels adimplere 30 accepere 201 Adjectives acceptabilis 39 comparison 56. 243. 431. = abl.=accus. 25 recomposition 139 verbs 423-4.236 ab ante 47. 194-5 absida 356 (3) absolvent 449 -anus 39 ja-> je. 229 (i). N. 240.229 (i) unaccented 228.B. in -us 244.24. 450 Towels in hiatus addedi 139 136-8 addormire 25 secondary 153-5 adferitis (imper. 92 beJEore j 222 Accent 134-58 primary 135-52 Greek words 143-50 other foreign words 15 1-2 acer arbor 43 -aceus 37 acia 355 (2) -acius ^y a contra 47 a(c)qua 164 Acqui Z^ Acragas 330 ac si 83 ac sic 24. absolute 97 abl. 82 ace. 230 = 0*78 ab-25 ab-]> au. abyssus 149 ac. 94-6 aboculare 26 ab olim 47 abs. ad = at 282 ad. adjutare 34 ad mane 47 373. 84 acua aqua 223 -aculare 35 before s + cons. 65 accedere(m) 309 accensus 441 -a 37 0181 ab 14. 78. 244 (i). 240. 243. a 194-5. 94-6. -I. 93. 98-9.1 INDEX. 96. 383 abl. 383 adnao 397 ace.

175.I go aiio 2. 210 EEteneris = itineris 201 sequus alid alicunus 71 aliud 71 alio(r)sum 291 = . 244 -EE = -e 174. altiare 34 altior yj'] anca 343 ancilia 187 395 Agustus 228 ahenum 250 ai >.243. = -t. 209-10. Adverbs 73-5 as 174.22 Index. 435 allegorizare ig alleviare 34 Agneti 359 (2) agnetus -na.286 amantis (nom. 232. 71 amnavit 405 amh 424 a mode 47 amourette yj (-ittus) ampitzatru 277 ampora 334 amurca 186 amure 203 amygdalum 19 an II. 244 accented 1 74. 83 -an 36 -aj* a f oris 47 agennae -nd.£6 2> e 209 at 188 altissimus 377 altitia 37 Aiax 188.) 367 amho 424 amaricare 34 ama(t) 285 ambitare 405 ambolare 232 ambulare 10.321 = Alexander alguein 71 alguien 71 -alia 37 38. 14. 405 amei 424 amenus 215 amfora 334 amicicia 276 amadus amido 187 amistat 154 amita 239. 178. 435 ad ubi 47 aduc 250 adulescentulus 37 adunare 25 alauda 19 alaudula yj alba spina 43 alberca 19 albeus 317 228. 233. 255 188 seliens = eligens 259 =8-175 alicer 195 (i) agques = e. 42 Digitized by Microsoft® .Ethiopia 188 alipes (i) = ad. 359. 244 aecclesia 228 Eedis 366 ffigis -ale y] alecer 195 (i) Alesander 255 alevanti eleph. 222 alto (adv.) 372 adpretiare 25 adpropiare 25 ad semel 47 —aio 39 (-arius) aios =: BjyiQS 272 am 78 ad sero 47 adsteti 139 Aix ajutit = adjutet 272 ad subito 47 adtonitus 32 ad tunc 47 -al37 alacer 195 (i) alare 405.281 = aliquot 71 -alis agere ajere 259 aggio 273 aggravatio 37 = 39 alium 224 alius 71 allare 405. 1 78.194 = -ago 2>7 Agragas 330 Agrientum 259 agurium 228 agustas 228 36 anangi 331 anathema 19 anathematizare 19 anc 40 anc hanc 251 = allium 274 a longe 47 alques 71 alter 71.) 40 aiglon yj (-0) altra 233 altrui Aiiax 222 395 ancora 150.281 (i) Eeum = cBvum 324 ^a foras 47 aliquant! 71 aliqui 71 aliquis 13. 187 -ancus 37 (-incus) -anda 37 andare 405 andata 37 (-ta) Andreani 359 (i) Andreate 359 (2) andron 331 anellus 37. alumnu (nom. 209-10 unaccented 174. albor = arbor 292 . 359 (i) amitane 359 (i) amitanis 359 amma 16 243. 178.

211 -3 unaccented 228. 68. 211-3. 265.318 annulare 405 anos = annos 247 ardire 343 -are (infin. 236 (7) apersi 428. 255 Digitized by Microsoft® . 310. 392 artic(u)lus 234 > (7) appo 78 apprendere 12 arvorsum (2) = adversum 281 ApHro 410 apsens 315 apsolvere 315 apte =: -se 244 arvum > aram 2z6 aucellus 13. anemis 232 -aneus 39. 229 accented 178. 265 aspra 233 -asse 161 ardente(m) 309 ardere 399 animabus 358 animalico yj (-icca) Anitius 276 Annanis 359 annare 405 annata yj (-ta) Annenis 359 annitare 405 annotavimus -bi. 293. 260-1 Assimilation 229 (3). 42 participle 435. 282 aput 282 164. 423 audiendu'st 309 = ascella =r axilla 42. 78. -dssetis 433 397-8 -are (nouns) y] ares = aries 225 aretem 225 argentum 259 -aria 37 -aricius 39 arida (noun) 13 Assibilation 277-8. 255 -ans39 anser 13 ad 282 -ata 37 (-ta) -aticum yj atque. 325 aucidere 212 -OS 38 -as -i 443 > audace (nom. 429 apertus 436 arsus 441 artemisia 184 arietico 184 apotheca 182 apothecarius 39 apparescere 35 arthriticus 184 Article 57. 42 angelice 40 angelus 19 191 ascendiderat 426 ascetes 182 ascla apud aqua 14.) 346 (4) arb(o)rem 235 arboricellus 153 Aspirates 249-52. 228. 359 (i) anus = annos 244 -anus 39. 315 Asti 86 astula 284 at II = ar(i)dorem 219 ar(i)dus 237 aries 225. 65 at = anta 239 ante 96 antemittere 46 antestetis (nom.Index. 282. 255.) 367 audi audivi 227. 307.^y anticus 226 antiefne 184 antiphona 184 ariex = -s 255 -aris 39 -aris -alis 292 ^ -arius 39 atque ille 24 atque ipse 65 atque is 65 atrium 12 atta 16. 39. 229 au o 229 (7) OK 189 auca 13. 440 au 178. 269.) 367 -antia . 267. 34.24. 264. 223 284 aquilotto 37 (-ottus) asculta 228 Angers 86 angliscus 39 angostia 208 (i) anguil(l)a 163 ang(u)Ius 233 angustiare 34 Anicius 276 -ar37 Arbonenca yj (-incus) a semel 47 aspargo 31 aspectare 25 arbor (masc. 36. 42 Aorist 124 armeise 184 armentas 352 -aro 39 (-arlus) Aroncianos 276 arrespex r= haruspex 251 Arrius 251 arroser 356 (3) arsi Attane 359 atticissare (i) t^^ attinxi 429 Attitta 37 (-ittus) -attus yj at ubi 48 apcha 343 aperii 428 429 -atus 37 (-ta).) -assem 161 -^ssemus 433 33.

241 avaricia 276 ^ bas(s)ium 163 basso 40 battaUa 16 battel 426 ba(t)t(u)ere 137. 236 avicella 37. . 339 baptizatio 19 barba -anis 359. 74 bene bene 55 benegnus 172 (2) bene placitum 43 Beneria Ve. 42.22 bisaccium 22 bisacutus 22 bisante 187 = = bis Austus 263 aut 174 aut aut 84 -aut -avit 424 . 184 Bologna 303 bonatus 37 (-atus) Bonica 37 (-icca) bon(i)tatem 231 bonito y] (-ittus) = avire 400 -avit -ait -at -aut 241. 33. 324 Aureia -elia 274 Index. 14 5 Authorities autor 266 baptizare 19. 333 balneum 146: balneus 347 = bifolco biginti ti 318 (2) = vi. 416 audivi(t) 2S5 audus 236 -aumus := -avimus 424 aunc(u)lus 234. 34 ausculum := osc. 236.316.3165 322 bis(s)it coctum 43 bivere blaesus 329 blanche 341 blanka 341 blankizare 34 blaspheraare ig. 36 blasphemia 146. ^ benignis 376 benivolus 201 berbeces 323 Bonitta 37 (-ittus) 424 avo avus 362 avus 13 ayo = habeo 273 = berbex (-ix) 42. 182 autumnal (e) 242 auyo 272-3 avau. 359(1) barbane 359(1) barbar 242 barbo -onis 359(1) barbutus 42 baro 16 bassiare 275 = vixit 255 = vi. 324 botella 361 bottega 182 b see Labials : baboni 362 bac(c)a 163 bacito yj (-ittus) bac(u)lus 234 Baiocasses 151 bajulus 233 Baleria = Va. 322 botula 361 bovis (nom.236.316 bixit = vi.316 bianca 341 biber 242 biblia 146 bibui 428 bibutus 438.316 boccone 37 (-0) bocconi 40 avec 78 avello = -avi ^ = averlo 293 -ai 424 avica 13. . 324 ausare 18. Balerius Va. 162.192 aud(i)entem 416 aud(i)o 272-3. 219 balneus 347 ballaena 150. 322 -bilis = balteum -us 347 bannus 19 baplo 235 baptidiare 339 baptisma 149 Aureliati 359 (2) aurora 11 aus avus 241.3171323 bestemmia 182 Betrubius 316 beveire y^ (-tor) bi.316 bal(i)neum 146.) 367 brae (c) a 163 bracchiale 37 = brac(c)hium 163 brachia 352 Digitized by Microsoft® .212 39 bimaritus 22 bintcente vincente 260 bis. 325 av(i)dere 219 avidus 236 aviolus 13 avis 13 avis struthius 43 Bellus -onis 362 bene 40.316 Bodicca 37 (-icca) boletus 38.22 Bononia 303 bonu 298 bonus = -OS 244 bonus bonus 55 bos =:i vos 316. = autem 11.316. 439 Bictor 316 biduanus 39 bieta 184 botu vo. 226 Bayeux 151 bel(I)ua 164 blasphemus 150 blasta 312 (i) blitum 184 bob ansa 336 bobis vo.

219. 33 cat' cantare 34 unus 71 see Gutturals c for capabilis 39 g 253 cy 276. 356 (3). 231.312 (i) bublus 235 bubukus 318 (2) buc(c)a 12. 42 caroneus 39 carrica 11 car(ri)care 18. 383 cf. 369 cardonis (nom. 330 Byzacinus 42 c : castius 277 castore (nom. 71 cata unus 71 cataveris rr -d. 237 calisco 414 calma 268 calotfa 187 caseum -us 347 Cases85-ioo. branca i6 calcis 193 camis (nom. 234 capitus 440 = cedo 162 cadedi 428 cadere 402 caderunt 426 cadui 428 cselebramus (perf .) 357 (i) Breaking 177 breviarium 37 brevis 13 Brittanice 40 calcius (nom. 356 (3).) 367 camutus 39. 284 capire 406 cap(i)talis 231 cauculus 288 cauditus 42 caus(s)a 161 cavia 224 -ce 40 cecino 187. 347 calumpnia 307 calura 42 camel(l)us 42. 282. 33. 195 (3) calcaneum carissimus 377 caritabilis calce pistare 46 calciare 224 39 Caritta 37 (-ittus) Digitized by Microsoft® . 195 (3) cerbus 323 cerebellum 231 cereolus 13 cereseus 195 (3) ceresus 38.330 (-ium) cerasus 38.) 367 cammarus 330 canalia yj cani (pi. 163 Cassiabus358 cas(s)us 161 castaneus 346 (i) castellus camera 145 camerlingo 37 (-ing) caminus 150 camisla 201 (i) (3) 347 butyrum 150 buxida 187. cf . 163 .) 367 cardu(u)s 226 ce(n)sor 311 census 260 centu 381 ceperint 215 cepi 215 = -avi 424 •^•j = ga. 150. 330 cedat caedat 210 cabia =: cavea 318 cactivus 313 cactos 313 capitanus 39 capitium 37 (-ium) capitulus 42. 369 caput 13. 356 buxus 187.354. 285. 372. 369 capus 285. 239 cartas (nom. 278 capere 8.) 424 cedrus 182 cefalo 334 celeps 315 capriolus 224 captiare 34 cslus 347 Cjeseris 233 caesorium 37 caetk 313 captio 9 captivare 34 captivus 313 celerus 376 -cellus 37 Celtic Words 19 capud 282 capui 428 calamarium 37 calamellus 37 calamus 150 calatus calcai capum 285.Indkx.) 368 cata 19.) 367 224 calcoste(g)is 259 caldo 40 cal(e)facere 219 calefacis 139 calere 288 bruchus 193 pu.256 catechizare 19. 402 -C40 caballus 12 capiclus 234. Buolognino 154 burrus 330 Burrus 187 bursa 187 buscus 255 iusta 187 but(t)is 163 cals 255 casotta 37 (-ottus) cas(s)eus 163 . 356 (3). pi. 163 buUicare 35 buplicae = carum 263 casa 12 cal(i)dusi55.

259. 231. 297\ 318(1). 233 complacere 25 complire 400 cinus 347. X54. 269. 150. 237. 370 cinxi 429 cip(p)us 163 circa 80. 25 concha 186 concupiscencia 276 cohors 12. 31. 139. -ara 38.) 40 chiave 288 Chilperico 343 ckiosa 185 clergue 154 305. 379. 311 condam 254 condedit 139 conder(e) 242 condicio 276 conditio 276 civ(i)tas 12. 231 clamantis (nom. 233 Comparison 56 comperare 231. 186. 310 coicere 310 coiiugi 271 cojectis 311 . 379 cocodrilus 294 cinsum = ce- 196 cocus 226 coda 212. 154. 130. 310 cognovi 428 cognusco 197 cohaerere 310 computus 235 comuna 376 con. claudo 236. 187 cimiterium 192 cinctius coclearium 356 (3) coclia commando 31 comment 41 commixtius 23 224 254 cinctus 440 cinqua(gi)nta 254. 197.23. 272. 64 comprendit 250 computare 31 circare 16 circueo 309 circumdavit 430 cis 14 cit(h)era. 160 coUus -um 347 239 colober 208 Clio 190 colobra 208 (2). 239 collo Clerical 218. 124 coexcitare 30 comedo = quo. 330. 276. 260^.1 194 certitude cetto 'r^j Index. 332 Chrestus 184 chrisma 184 C(h)ristus 184. 276 comitem 235 cima 38. 332 cib Clodius 212 cloppus 16 closa 212 Cludo 211 (2) -clus 234 CO quod 282 colomna 208 coloquinta 187 color (fern. 332 Conditional 124. Clepatra 191 clerc 154 Change of Suffix 42 chan(n)e 163 chartaceus 39 cher 263 chiaro (adv. 12. 277.444 Pronunciation coUiget 444 col(lo)care 9. 231. 329 191 ciurma -cius 39 of. 153. 271 colaphizare 19 col(a)p(h)us 19. 217 Chiusi 86 cholera 145 chommoda 25 c(h)orda 186. 325 colhe 154 coles 213 i6z -ceus 39 Chairibertus 39 (-anus) chaloir 288 Change of Meaning 8-10 coliandrum 292 coUecta 37 (-ta) collectus yj (-ta) colli(g)ens 259 col(li)gere 31. of. 325 clausi 429 clausus 441 clavem 288 clavido 236. 380 cinque 254. 333(1) clericatus 37 cler(i)cus 39. 269 co(g)nosco 43. 213 codex 213 coemiterium 192 coepi 72. 233 cito 162 citrus cognatus 9.411 Digitized by Microsoft® . coexercitatus 30 cofecisse 311 96 Compound Words 43-9. 259*.) 346 (2) colp 154 colustra 197 = coacla 289 (i) 206 cicinus 330 -cillus ]> -cellus 42 coactum 310 coccodrillo 294 cocens 226 comenzare 276 coininciare 276 cominiciare 276 cominitiare 25.226 comoedia 192 comparare 8.) 367 clarisco 414 Cla(u)dius 211 (i) cojugi 311.

co(n)jux 171. 139 credens (noun) 13. 311 Weak 422-6 conteneo 139 Perfect Participle 434. 137 Perfect 422-31 consuetudo 42 Strong 427-31 co(n)sul 171. 355 cor(o)nare 231 corp 323 corpora 369 corpes corpi -ora 369 coi"pore 356 (3) corpo credere 410 credutus 438. 34 19s corpo r6o corregia 201 corridije conger 329 Congianus 272 congigi 259 Conjugation 101-30. 39 credentia 37 (-antia) " connato 269 conobbi 428 conoisser 413 conopeum 146 conovutus 440 conpendium 32 conplere 306 consacrati 31 conservam(m)us 163 consiensia 260. 160 Fourth 407 Fundamental Changes • 408-12 Imperfect 420-1 constare 31 Inchoative Verbs 413-5 consuere 31.1 Index. 255.continari 226 contra 96 contra. 396450 Four Conjugations 396407 First 397-8 Second 399-401 Third 402-6 Double: see Double Consonants Germanic : see Germanic Consonants Greek : see Greek Consonants 272 corrigo 305 corrotulare 229 cors 12. 37 crebbi 428 credea 421 crededi 31. 439 crepatus 435 crepavi 428 Crescentsiarius 277 cresco 255 cresima 184 cresme 184 crevi (i) 428 292 crevutus 440 criblare crigTie 35 c'ritare 229 consirier yj (-erium) Consonants Aspirate 249-52 Dentals 280-6 = criz 206 = crocitare 35 Digitized by Microsoft® . 244. 254 41 Personal Endings 44250 Pluperfect and Future Perfect 432-3 Present Stems 416-9 Use of Forms 101-30 Conjunctions 82-4 co(n)jus 25. 311 conmittere 32 couleuvre 208 (2) court 203 couvent 311 covenimus 311 coventionid 3x1 covetum coxale coxi 429 = cubitum 208 -^j^j copertus 436 cophinus 186 coque 254 coraticimi 18. 225 cortensis 39 cortilis cortis 39 250 corvo 323 corvus 323 cosol 311 costumen 42 cosul 305 cot 254 cotes 212 cotidiae 244 cot(t)idie 162. 275 227 consilium 42 consili corbeau 323 corbi 323 corbo 323 corcodilus 294 corcodrillus 294 cores = corda 369 corium 294 Comeius =-elius 274 Cornelio (nom. 3ro corso 208 Groups 131-2. confessor 18 confortare 25. 226.) 298 cornicula 42 cornu -um-us 347.26 contrafacere 26 co(n)ventio 171 convltare 25 coperire 225 copersi 429 Gutturals 253-70 Labials 312-26 Latin 246-8 Letters 246 Liquids 2S7-96 Hasals 303-11 Palatals 271-8 Sibilants 297-302 cortera 203.

226 cum (prep. 306 -cellus 42 95 -c(u)lus 42. (fem. cumba 187 cun = cum 305 cunnuscit 269 cimtellum =r cul. 392 de foris 47. 100. 78. 239 decanus 39 dece(m) 309 decern et (or ac) septem 379 dece(m)bris 306 decemter 306 dec(i)mus 239 Declension 85-100. 322 currens 39 = Intervocalic 283. 48.23. 234 cum (conj. Definite Article 68. 48.196 crocodilus i. da 48 dedi 430 (i) 229 crucifigere 46 c'rot'lare dacruma 281 dactylus 19 dedicait 424 ded(i)cavit 231 crudilitas 197 -crum 37 (-culum) crupta 187 crus 13 dad 48 Dafne 334 dai 2<)% dampnum 307 crust(u)lum 234 crypta 187 cubidus cupidus 256 Danuvlum 318 dao397 dare 397 datfus 324 dedro dedrot 285 deexacerbare 30 deexcitare 30 defeniciones 276 defensa 37 (-ta) defensi 429 defensorlus 39 = cuculla 13. cf. 372-3 de^£-io 273 defna 324 de inter 48 de intro 47 de intus 47. 187.o. 286 nd > nn 281 429 cursorium 37 curvus 323 nt 285 St 285 t 284-6 denumer^t 424 deo(r)sum 291. 177 cnpa(t) 285 cupire 406 cupit 423 cup(p)a 163 cupressus 150 cur 12. 376 First 357-60 cy 276-8 cy ty277 = cycnus 187. 324 deorsum 224 Cusanca 37 (-^ncus) Wouns 354-73 Shift of Decl. 330 cyma38.289 (2) cuoio 296 cuofre 160 cuore 160. 117.) 82. 354-76 Adjectives 374-6 Fall of Decl. 409 d : see Dentals dy 272 de post 48 deprendere 250 de retro 47. 285 > -avit 318.) 349 cymba 187 cymiterium 192 cypressus 150 Second 361-3 Third 364-71 Use of Cases 85-100 376 de contra 47 decumus 220 dede = dedit 285 de deorsum 47 Digitized declLvis Deponent Verbs 113. 81 defuntus 267. 383 cuerdo 369 culcitra 294 dau 397 daun 397 234 dave 48 de 14. 72. 82 curabit cursi de-^ di. 88. de. 281-3 dy 272 nd nn 281 Final 282. 48 deltas 27 del(i)catus 227 delitus 198 delta 329 de magis 47 de medio 47 deminat 139 Dentals d 272. 126 (4) debita 37 deb(i)tum 235. -culum -cuius > 37. 355-6. 346 (4) cucullus -a 346 (4) defensus 441 deferet 406 Dative 90-1. 95. 92. 25 305 77. 294 Index.229 (2) deabus 358 de ad 48 de ante 48 deaurare 23. 25 debbio 273 debeo 273 debere 10. 292 Derivation 20-49 descendidi 426 de semel 47 despereifser 414 by Microsoft® .) 14.

254. 30 . 229 displacet 139 displicina Doable >Single i6i. 259 dignus 172 (2) dilevit domatus 435 domin(i)ca 239 dominicus 9. 13 Double Forms 158 Double Negation 75 Double Prefixes 30 doucet 37 (-ittus) doussa 376 drachma 144 drappus 16 d'rectus 229 diurnus 13 divisi Dreux 151 429 drieto 292 406 dicimus 448 dicitis 448 dicitus = -g. 328 devidere 229 (4) devinus 229 (4) dis. 195 (6). 393 deus 167 devere 318 devetis 318 au 21 1-3 eu 214 oe 215 ui 216 diposisio 277 dire 406 directus 229 diri(g)ens 259 dirivare 229 (2) dou 397 Double Consonants 161-4. 253. 393 duo 378 duos 138 durare 229 (5) Duration 99 duricia 276 Durocasses 151 duxi 429 (masc.23. 226 dita 351 diu II. 361 digitus 233.) 346(1). (2ddecl. and fem. Digitized by Microsoft® . 440 dicere divisus 441 divite (nom.3 Index. 412 dice = die 412 dice(m) 309 disfactus 23 dis(je)junare 25. etc. dibeto 196 Dibona 318 die 264. 292. 21 dolus dictus := digitus 233. 355 (2) dietro 292 digita35i. 397 dia 397 diabulus 38 diaconissa 19 Dialects 2. 25 discere 12 disfacit 139 Double 247 = Single 162-3. 289 (2). 238.) e 165. 247. 238. 421. 259 -didi ducatus 37 (-ta) duce due 412 ductus 440 dui 167. dextro(r)sus 291 deyo 273 dia = dies355 (2). desso 62 dester 255 desto 225 197 donee 11 dont 70 donum (masc.253 dictus 166. 406. 239 domnani 359 (i) domnicellus 37 domnicus 235 229 (2) diligibilis 39 domnina 37 domnizare 33 domnulus 235 dint-mi 264 divinus 324 dinus = Dionigi 227 Dionysii 227 diosum = deorsum 291 Diphthongization 177 domnus 235 domus 12 355 dume(c)ta 266 dune 40 d'unde 70.) 367 dub(i)tare 231 ducalis 39 divota 229 (2) dixemus 232 dbd429 dodecim 225 doga 186. 209-16 209-10 de sub 48 de super 48 de sursum 47 detti 426 de unde 70. 177. 43> distinguere 223.) 346 (2) dolor 18. 328 289 (i) Dissimilation 167. accented 165. 196-9. 167. 303.) 349 dormio 224 dormito 309 dormitorium 37 dormo 416 dorsus 347 dossum 291 Diphthongs 36 177. 333 dolor (fem. 37 dies 13. 378 dukissa yj dulcior (noun) 18 — > -dei 426 = dulcor 18. 426. 229 (4). 328 Single >Double 164. 196-9 (I) . devitum 318 dexcito 225 cf .

14 > -i 244. 232. 6. 244.e 225 = equus 12 equus = sequus 210 -re 245 -er -er 39 (-arius) erable 43 -ere (perf . 244 egloge 330 e e 165 > > e > e 165 V 182' ei83 e(g)o 60. 328 Endings Personal 442-50 -esco ]> -isco 197 414 enim 11 escupare 255 -ens 39 (-ans) -e(n)simus 311 -e(n)sis39. 197. no eoru 309 episcopalis 39 epistula 144 > 196-8 e unacc. 65 eccu' 'ic 326 eccu' ille 24. 364 -V3S -ea 421 -etv 36 ejus 298 eio = -etbv 146 42 erigere 31. 65.) 368 -Irunt 450 eccam 24 eccas 24 ecce. 65 ecce iste 24.24. 229 effrenis 376 eglesia 256 (2). > = = 444 = ex. 65 ecce ille 24. 449 -ent >.> -ido 197 edus haedus 210 e6 >. 311 -ent -eunt 416. 298 elementum 231 elephantus 38 elex -ebam : see -ea 429 eiii 411 ecca 24 = ilex 200 (2) erubisco 414 elifanti (pi. > e > y 224 e i 229 s (2) edere 13 edificai e prefixed to + cons.) 356 (2) -i 443 -es -es -is 174. 35.538 Esaram 233 -escere 34.230. 65 ecce nunc 65 ecce tu 65 eccillam 24 eccillud elimentum 231 -elis >• -ills 197 Elision 157. 62. 255 es-7.exs.228. 385 ego-met-ipse 66 et -erem 346 (3) eremus 150 eres 251 190 e-28 -640 -e>-ffi I74>244 -e -ei 411 -eta 146 eiius 271 erga 14 ergo II. 413-4 eschernir 341 emere 12 encaustum 149 Enclitics 156 -enda 37 (-anda) : 24 eschine 341 esclate 343 eccillum 24 ecclstam 24 ec(c)lesia 146. 263. s 177. 42 elmo 343 illud 201 elud -elus >• -ellus 42 ervum > erum 226 ervus (3d decl.24. 242 -elius >• -ilius 197 -ellus 37. 73. 365-6. 424 230 e6 > e 225 -edo . 65 ecce ego 65 ecce hie 24. eccum 24. 385 eo quod 82. 199 n 182 eccu' sic 24 e contra -entia 37 (-antia) -inns 42 -enus > 47 C183 ecus 226 edediderit 426 i eo=:ego 73. 182. 429 -erium 37 erminomata 191 ero 411 -ero 39 (-arius) ersi ericius = jacet 224 earn = jam 224 eacit ejus 170. -unt 449 es(i)mus 419 (i) -isimus 197 -esimus esmes 419 (l) eccos 24 eccu. 243. 162.198 e 196-8 Index. > 65 > eccu' iste 24.) 450 -ere -ire 197 erodes 251 > effigia 355 (2) eu 214 effondrer 356 (2) i6 >• e 225 unaccented 219. 326 espiar 343 "pier 343 Digitized by Microsoft® .

. 126 (2).) 367 excoriare 25 excussi 429 excussus 441 exeligere 30. 404 faccia 278 fatus 347 taula 236.23.27 extrabuccare 27 extranus 42 ex tunc 47 ezza 277 f : fallire 430 406 441 34 37 familia 42 famis 366 famTfii 264 famul 242 famulabus 358 fante 311 falsare falsitas fallitus faor 324 farcitus 440 fare 404 farsus 440. 266 = = fait 324 266 fallii -esse 161 -essem 161 essere = esse 419 es(t) 285 estatio 230 estau 397 estaun 397 Estephanus 230 estou 397 estribar 341 esum 419 -et et et at ubi .= as. 419 (i) esse essere 419 esse sedere 402 274 exe(m)plu 306 exiat 224 exient 449 347 fageus 39 failla exinde 60 exire 31. (i) = -it 244. 404 facheret 410 faciam 278 fadas 224 fac(i)ebam 225.) 356 (2) fenire 229 (4) factus 440 fenum 209 ferbeo 323 feritus 242 fascit 209 faedus 320 (i) fcemina 209 f acul 434 ferre 12 ferro 160 Digitized by Microsoft® . facienda 37 fem(i)na 239 feminabus 358 > exaltare 25 exaugiu^tus 39 excellente (nom. 318 febrarius 226 Eurus 191 -eus39 Euua 344 evangelizare 19 -evi -ei 424 > Evidence 5 ex 14. 95 ex. 404 fatatus 39 fate fabam 320 404 Eugeneti 359 (2) -eum 37 eunuchizare 19 fab(u)la 236 f ac 264.Index.230 exstinctus 440 exstinxi 429 exsucidus 39 exsucus 23 extensa 37 extimare 255 extra.230. 14. 25 ex. 277 etsi I \ et sic 47 exodus 337 expabui 42S expandutus 441 expaventare 35 explendido 230 exquartiaxe 276 exs. 440 fascia 10. 255 -ex -ix 42 = fac 412 facentem 416 facere 10. 92. 444 49 .= es. 274 facimus 448 404 facitis 448 factum 266 facire Feminine femps 356 femus (3d : see Gender (2) decl. espiritum 230 exeligit 199 fffinum 209 fffinus esquena 341 esguiver 343 essagium 255 esse 112-4. 275 faselus 334 fasena 320 (i) f asia = faciat 285 224 fasiolus -etus 437 see Labials (i) fata 266 eu 214 cu 190 fa 264. et 84 Ethiopia 188 etiam 11. 77. 420 face feced feci = fecit 282 fec(e)ru(nt) 233 430 fehu 343 felicla 234 felis25.

) 346 florecer 292 414 frate 295 Florentinus 37 ficus (2d decl. fiero 160 fiet focus fodiri 8. 341 Franko 341 franxi 429 ficus (I) (masc. (mc.)346(i) fraumenta 268 frecare 201 .409.Index. 201 filiabus filias 33 (2) frigdaria 219. and fern. filix 298 274 = filios T97 fiUio 247 fonte 205 244 fonz 356 (2) foras 81.) 17 429 263 Foreign Words 19.) 356 fundutus 441 funtes 205 (2) fortia 37 fortis 10 fortis fortis 55 429 fixus 441 fossato 2^1 (-ta) funus II fuore 160 Digitized by Microsoft® .7 flaus 240. 406 folia 352 follia (noun) 18 follicare (i) = 259 f rictus 440 frigare 256. 217 fluviorum 224 feces 213 florire fratelmo 38S frat(t)re 164 frax(i)nus 239. 141 ficit 2. 256 frenum -us 347 fricatus 435. 361 fructus (2d decl. 96 forbatre 2. see frondifer 11 fnialitas Germanic Words Greek Words foresia 311 foris 81 and finiscere 35 finxi 429 fructa35i.) 357 13 . 259 frigora 351 filius 155. 12 419 (2) figel 242 fiios — filios 274 358 (nom.419 (2) 400 florisco 400 flovium 208 (2). 231 fons (fem. 238. fragrantia 37 fra(g)rare 270 flavor 37 fletus II Francesco 341 franctus 440 fieuma 268 fleurit 414 ' fictus 197 440 fleuve 208 (2) fioralis Frankensis 39 Frankiscus 39. fervere 399 fervura 37 fesit flaba 289 (i) flagrare 292 flaonis flator fractus 440 fragellum 289 (2) fragilis 260 324 324 233 >« 343 fezem 44 fiaba 289 (i) fiam 419 (2) fib(u)la 235 ficatum 16.) 355 (i) fidens 311 fiele 160 Jiens 356 (2) fieri 112.) 355 (i) fnindes 205 /^343 fiorentino 154 fioretto yj (-ittus) fiorisce \\^ foris- 29 frunza 351 frutta 351 fugii 430 f ugire 406 fugitus 439 fui 431 forisfacere 29 f orismittere 29 fircum 320 (i) Firenze 86 Firmus -onis 362 fir- 46 formaceus 39 formosus 161 formunsus 208 forsitan 305 forte 40 f ortescere ful(i)ca237 fiscla 234 fistula 234 fistus 197 fix! 34 fumAt 424 fundus (3d decl. 440 fricda frigida 238. cf. cf . 200 (i).f:^ forbire 407 frigorem 347 frixl Fimes 86 Final Syllable 240-5 finctus 440 finis (adj.) 346 (4) filiaster filio(s) fans 356 frigdura 37 Frigia 187 frig(i)dus 166. 233.

furbjan 407 furma 203 furmica 229
genesis 148, 183 Genitive 88-9, 383 genitores 12 genitus 17
gIut(t)o 163




fusa 3; I

gocciare 276 gcerus 187
golosus 228 gonger 329 goule 177


genna 229
gentilis 17


fusus 441

Future 125-9,411
127-9,411 Periphrastic Put. 126 Pres. for Put. 126 (i) Future Perfect 119, 123-4,
410, 423 g: see Gutturals

gentis (adj.) 17

Hew Put.


= jan- 259
37, (i)



genuflectere 46

genum 355
Gepte 259 geguir 343

233 gradlus 376 grada 35.1 gradus 355 (i)
grandis 12
granditia 37 graphium 145 grassetto 37 (-ittus)

= Hier- 259

gabata 13, 236 gabta 236 gaita 343
gaite 343 galatus 330
gallina 288

gerbe 341

Germanic Consonants
b, c,

grassus 257

= Gratis 257

g 341

gravare 34
gravior 377 grece 210

^,^342 h343 W344
Germanic Endings 36 Germanic Words 19,
340-4 Germanissa 37 Gerund 104

gamba 13, 263, 331 gammanis 330
garba 341 garofulum 149 garum 329 gaudia (sg.) 352 gaudimoniuin 20 gaudutus 44 X gauta 236 gaveola 257 gavia 16
gecchire 343 geisla 341 geiuna je- 259 geline 288

Greek Accent 143-50 Ozytones 144
Paroxytones 145-6 Proparoxytones 147-50 Greek Consonants 327-39
ft 7, S 329
K, V,

Gerundive 103
gesso 187 gesta (sg.) 352 gJga 341 gig'i 341

T 330-1

X 332-4 Liquids 335 Hasals 336

I 337


gigantem 229 (3) ginocchioni 40 Giovannoni 362 giret 187
girus 187
giscle 341 glacia 355 (2)

f 338-9
Greek Endings 36, 38, 146 Greek Vowels 180-93 Diphthongs 188-93 Single Vowels 180-7 Greek Words 19, 36, 38,
gre-U 40 grevior 377
grevis 195 (4)

gelus (2d decl.) 355 (i) gemellus 13

gemire 406 gemitus 439

Glacus 211 (i) gladium 347
glanderia 39 glaiz 355 (2) Glauc6 -^nis 359 Glaucu (nom.) 372 glirem 166
glos(s)a 161, 185

gemui 428
gena 13

Gender 345-53 Fem. and Heat. 351-3 Masc. and Pern. 346 Masc. and Heut. 347-50 Heut.Pl.>Fero.Sg.352 Heut.Pron.and Adj. 350

grex (fem.) 346 (4) grossior 377 gratia 187 gruls (nom.) 367 gninnio 281-

gluria 203
glut(t)ire 162

guarire 344 guarnire 36, 407


by Microsoft®

guaiare 343
hab(i)tus 239 h^buerat 137
hocsies 277

gubernamentum 37
gubernare 36, 330
gtterra 344

guidare 36, 398 guiderdone 342 guisa 344
gul0 37
-i -1338, 186, 330 gustus (2d decl.) 355 (i) guttur (masc.) 347


Gutturals 253-70 c c' 258, 260-1 c g 256-7

> >

habutus 438 hache 343 hackerece 39 hffidus 320 (i) hamula 235 hanca 343 handle 343 hant 401 hao 401 hapja 19, 343

hodie 272 hodio 251


hom(i)nes 232, 235 (pi.) 36S
10, 71


honera 251 honor 346 (2) honte 342 hora 12, 185 hordemn 272
horrescere 11
hortesia 311 hospitale 12

haram 251
hardir 343
harena 320 (i) haribergum 19 has 401 hat 401 hatire 36 hatjan 36


g before back vowels hardjan 343

263 c, g before cons. 265-70 c, g final 264 ct 266

hossa 251 hostium 251 Hugo Hflgon

= Hdgo


huile 274

152, 362


> g' 258-9. z6i

humerus r2
humiliare 34

g intervocalic 263

gm 268
gn 172
gr intervocalic 270




152, 362


net 267
Falateilization 258-62

haunitha 342 haunjan 19 haunt 401 havite 400

165, 200-1, etc.

accented 200-1 I 200

haz 355


hegit 251

260 X 255, 266 gylosus 228 gyrus 187


helm 343
keltne 343

h 249-52

hepatia 19 here 219, 244 heredes (sg.) 367 heremum 251 Hiatus 136-8, 222-7

> e 201 e ^ 201 > 165, 200 i>e2oi > > e 165, 201 (cons.) 222 > y 224 -i > -e 224







habam = fabam 320

hlbemus 13
hie 63-4, 67-8 hie ipse 64

habe = ave 318 habe(b)am 421 hiem(p)s 13, 297 habeo 273 hiens = iens 251 habere 10, 121-4, 127-30, hilerus 233
239, 273, 285, 400, 401, 421, 438, 449

(Greek) 184 (Greek) 38 i^ e 225 ii i 227 prefixed to s cons. 230 unaccented 219, 221,228,


> >


hinsidias 251

hireum 320


haber 242 habe(t) 285 habeunt 416, 449 habibat 400
habire 400

= is- ins- 230 hispatii = spatii 230
historia 146

229(3X4), 240, 243, 244 in hiatus 222, 224-5,


> e 229 (4) > a 229 (3)

ho 40 hoc 63,



-ia 37, 146 -(a 37, 146


by Microsoft®

-iamus 224 -are 33, 34
ille 10,

Future Future
125-9, 411

61-8, 389-92

ipse 64





123-4, 410

-ibo 125
-ic 251



-ica 37 -icare 33, 34, 35 -icca 37


390 ille 390 140


(dat.) 390


-iccus 37

> ilium 282, 350
390 390

= suus


Imperfect 120, 420-1 Perfect 121-4, 422-31 Pluperfect 123-4, 410, 432 Present 120, 273, 397, 401, 403-5, 415, 416-9

-icem 42, 346



-iceus 37, 39, 42
-icius 37, 39, 42


induruit 224


ilium illud 282, 350 illurum 390


-inem 346

-iculare 35 -iculus 42

> -ellus 42

infa(n)s 10, 311 i(n)fans 171
inf antiliter
i(n)feri 171,

im = in 310
imaginarius 39

-icus 39

40 219

idem 61, 3C39 id ipsum 62, 350 idolum 150, 190
-idus 39 -i(d)yare 339 i6 e 225


376 immudavit 256 Imperative 115-6, 412 impinguare 25 impinxi 429


infernus 13 Infinitive

-iebam -ebam 225 -ibam 420
-ie(n)s 311



implicat 139 implire 400


> -fmus 447-8 >

in 86, 92, 95, 96, 97
is 310 inanimatus 23 in ante 47, 48 incendiderit 426

lenubam 259
-ier 39 -iere 39

in- 23, 25 in -t- s

as Noun iii Conjugations 396-407 dicere 406 esse 419 facere 404 for Clause for Imperative 116 for Subjunctive iii, 117 for Supine and Gerund




= gesta 259, 352

311 iferi 311
iferos 306, 311

Inchoative Verbs
inclausus 139 incohare 250
in contra 47, 48 incudo 42, 370


103, 104 habere 400 Passive 109 Perfect 109 with habere 125-9, 4^^ posse 403

ifimo 311 if ra 311

Present Active

102, 109


-4gia 2^^
igitur II, 14

with Accusative
inflare 31


incuminem 42
incus 42 -incus 37 inde 60, 71, 384 inde fugere 46

ignire 33 ignis 12


ignotus 310 -igo 37

Forms 345-450 Use 85-130
infra- 27



227, 423


39 -ilius 42 iliac 140

Indefinite Article 57 Indefinite Pronouns: see

infraponere 27


Indicative Conditional 130, 411
for Imperative 116, 412
for Subjunctive 117

infurcare 25

-ing 37

(dat.) 390

390 illsejus 390

ingenium 9 ingens 259 in giro 48


by Microsoft®

-ingus 37 (-incus) in hodie 47
Initial Syllable

62-4, 67-8 ins- liis- 230


— -is = -es 244, 365-6, 444

-iva 37 iventa 311

inlatus 32 in mane 47

-iscere 34, 35


> > -i 423 > -iut > -it 423

-ivum yj
-ivus 39 -ix 42
-izare 33, 34, 339

medio 48

Ischia 284

innoce(n)ti 306 innocus 226
in odio


ischolasticus 230


inprobus 32 inquid 282 in quo ante 254 -inquus 37 (-incus) ins13-230 in semel 47

-isco for -esco 197, iscripta 230


-'{«" 33
izophilus 333
j 271 jacente(m) 309 jacis 244 Jacobus 150, 329

-iscus 39 is ipse 64


ismaragdus 230 isperabi 230 ispose 230
-issa 37 -issare 33

insiemcmenie 41 insola 232 instruo — struo 230 ins(u)la 171, 233, 284 intcitamento 260 inte(g)rum 270 Interamico 307

Jacomus 329
jagante 229 (3)


-isse 161

-issem 161 -issimus 166

jaiant 229 (3) jajunus 229 (i) jambe 263
-jan 36
janarius 226

230 Interanniensis 307 istatuam 230 Interrogatlves see Pro- iste 63-8, 390-2 nouns iste hie 64 Intertonlc Vowel 231 iste ille 64 intra g6 iste ipse 64 intra- 27 istudio 230 intra tenere 27 it id 282 intravidere 46 -it -et 244, 444 intre 245 ita II intro(r)sus 291 Italia 224 intus in 49 Iteilic Tribes i, 2 -inus 37, 42 -itare 34, 35

jaquir 343
jauzei 426 jehan 343 jehir 343
jejunus 229, 229 (i) jeniperus 229 (5)

= =

jenua 229


jenuarius 229 (i) jeuTie 208 (2)
jinipenis 229 (5)

-Inus 39

> -o 416

-itas 37 -ite -Ite


Joanneni 359 (i) Joannentis 359 (2) Joannis 244
jocus 12


ipsa mente 41 ipse 61-8, 390-2



jovenis 208 (2), 217
jovis 367

64 ipsejus 390 ipsimus 66 ipsud 390
ipsujus 390 ipsus 390
iraisser 413 irascere 413

-itia 37, -ities 37


jubari 322



-ittus 37

-itudo 37 -itus 42 (2), 436, 438, 441 -Itus 435, 438-9


jubem(m)us 163 jubenis 318 jubentutis 318, 322 jubere 11
Judaizare 19
judicat 424

-ium 37
-ius 39

126 (5), 405

> -unt 416
by Microsoft®

-ire 33,


judidus 347 judico 239 judigsium 278


juglus 233 Julianenis 359 Julianeta 37 (-ittus)
Julitta 37 (-ittus)

429 Liaison 133, 159 liamen 263
lexi 428,

intervocalic 324

Voicing 314
laborait =:-avit 424

laceus 254
lacte 367

libe(n)s 311

juncxi 305 juniperus 229 (5) junxi 429
Jup(p)iter 163

jurHtortu 39 juria 272 jur(i)go 219
jusso 355 (i)

lactem 347 lacus (2d decl.) 355 (i) ladro yji ladrone 372


298 (nom. pi.) 357


libraria 37 ligare 201,

ligna (sg.) 352


justitia 276,

justius 277

juv(e)nis 235

juventa 356 (3) juvente 318
juxta 81, 96


246, 253

kadamitatem 289

= candidus 330 karessemo 201 Karica 37 (-icca) kaukoulato cal- 288 kleme(n)s 311 kozous = conjux 311, 339


34 lambros 331 lamna 235 lampada 356 (3) lampa(s) 38, 144, 335 lancia 224 la(n)tema 306 lanutus 42 lapsus 315 laqueum 347 ; cf, 254 lardum 237 Latinization i, 2 latrone (nom.) 367 lat(t)rones 164 lattucae 266 Lauriatus 224 lausenga 37 (-ing)
lauzi 443 Lazis Ladiis 339


lignum -us 172
liminare 37


Unguas (nom.) 357
liniamenta 224


133, 159

lintium 224

Liquids Assimilation 293 Dissimilation 292
Fall Fall



Liquid 237

Vowel before

Liquid 233-4 1 287-9 ly274 Metathesis 294 r 290-6
rs 291 ry 296 lit (t) era 163


kumate 298 ky = qui 187, 223



lebat 318

lit(t)us 163

see Liquids

318 lebra 256

Livitta 37 (-ittus) U 1 161


la ilia 392 Labials Assimilation 313 b 315-9 initial 316 intervocalic 318 by, py, vy 273, 319 f 320-1 Fall of Vowel after Labial 235-6 Influence on Vowels 217



Have 2 88



Locative 86
locun 305 locuplens 311 locuplex 255
lodi 443
loir 166

lectus (p.p.) 440 legare 201

leges 259

(nom.) 367

legui 428

lenticula 42

longa mente 41 longe 40
longior 377


longius 377


longum tempus 13
loquella 42 loreola 213

P 3"-4 U326
V 322-s
after liquid 323

levare 34 leviarius 39


Lost Words 11-4
lotus 213

levitus 435,


by Microsoft®

xi Marcianus 278 Marculus 284 mare (fern.) = magida = 38.) 355 (i) meretis 232 meridjes 281 (2) mer(i)to 237 Masculine : see Gender masc(u)las 234 masma = maxima 238 massa 338 mate(r) 295 materia 355 (2) matrona(s) 298 mat(t)rona 164 Digitized mersi=merx 255 Messac 277 messui 428 messura 37 met. 157. X. 359 by Microsoft® . 233 lucor 37 lucto 355 (i) maximus 56. 353 me(n)sor 311 56. 201. mam(m)anis 359 matutinus 13 maurus 336 maxime 56 mammula mane 13 13 400 manducare 13 man(i)ca 239 manicd 37 (-icca) maniplus 42.2o6 luce (dat. 347. cf .) 244 lucSre 399 lucire Index. 297 maxumiis 220 lucus locus 205 ludus 12 lugere 399 lugire 400 = Meanings Change 10 of of Words 7-10 Meaning 8- manos 355 mansi 429 mansio 12 (i) luminem 347 lunae dies S9 mecu 309 Medea 190 Medentius 338 media 272 medianus 39 medicus 239 medio die 43 medio loco 43 medius 272 meletrix 292 melior 377 melius 56. 66 mal(l)o i6i malus malus 55 mam(m)a 16. 377 mala mente 41 male 40 male habitus 44 malicia 276 malleus 274 mensorium 37 menta 184 -mente 41 mente habere 46 mentire 409 Marsuas 187 Marsyas 187 mas = magis 157 mascel 242 -mentum 37 mentus 347 menus 201 mercatus (2d decl. 259 major 170. 349 melum 195 (5) membras 352 memoramus (perf. 238. 347. and 346 (I) fern. 207 (i) luxi 4V 9 luxuria 355 (2) mansorius 39 mansus 441 manuaria iS manuplus 42 manus (masc. 377 luoghi -ora 349 liirdus 207 (i) luridus 166. 259 ma(g)ister 259 marmora 351 marmorem 347. 71. 222 Maiiam 222 mais = magis 157. 198. 369 3" . 369 marrir 407 marrjan 407 Marsianesses 277 magnisonans 44 magnus 12 Maia 188.) 349 machina 144 machinari 9 macra 376 madias = majas 272 madio majo 272 madrema 388 maestati 259 maester 259 magias majas 272 marem 347 mares = -is 244 marl -e 364 marinarius 39 maris (masc.24. ma(g)is 353 . 84.) 424 -men 37 mendatium 276 fern. 347.) = and markensls 39 me(n)sa 311 mense(m) 309 mensi (pi. 220.) 17274 m: see Nasals ma = mea -Ma 38 388 manu tenere 46 Slaps : pp.) 368 me(n)sis 171. 74. 145 ma(r)mor 292 cf . manner (fern.

229 (2) Nebitta 37 (-ittus) nebula 235 necare 9 necator 37 mirabilia 37.245 minus credere 29 minus est 29 minus pretiare 46 minutus 10 > mortu(u)s 226 mossus 438. 438 naucella 13 naufragus 325 nautat 236 navicella 37 navitat 236 ne 14. Metathesis 245. 298 + Cons. 163. 377 minus. 255. 136 mulieris 136 natus 13.228 narratus 37 (-ta) -monium 37 mo(n)strare 311 Nasals 303-11 Final or = monumento = -um 244 Mood 1 1 5-9 morbu(s). 201 minus 201. 231 mis meis 388 mis. 381 mn 307 millefolium 38 mil(l)ia 161 mordSre 399 morire 406 moriri 406 n -h fricative ny 274 nasco 255 nascutus 438 nasum -us 347 natatorium 37 nati vitas 37 Morphology 345-45° morsi 429 morsus 441 mortificare 46 mimoriEe 229 (2) minester 201 ministeri(i) 89. cf. 387 mi = mihi25o. 160 mode modo 40 moere = mov. 75. 385 miauiare 17 michi 252 mienia 1S4 migat micat 256 monarchia 37 monasterium 182 -monia 37 monibam 420 moniti n + fricative 171. 66 metipsimus 66 metltus 441 207 Mute -t. 441 motto 187 movi 428 movit 244 movita37-. 439.245 miscere 399 misculare 35 misera 376 mis(s)i x6i. 217 334 mutare 229 Digitized (5) nepoti(s) 298 ne'ps'unus 71 by Microsoft® . 245 mis. 429 = mullus 187 mulsi 429 multum 74 multus 71 muntu = multum 289 (2) necatus 435.311 11 ny 274 nacui 428 nam — mu. 311 -m -n falls 309 falls 310 mihe 244 milex 255 mille 161. 289 moc 428 (i). 440 muc(c)us 163 muebie 204 (i) mul'erem 225 mulier 9. 229 (4). 438. 83. 440. 440 necavi 428 nee ente 71 nee unus 71 ne ente 71 negare 263 negat 256 mur 206 murare 229 (5) muri -a 349 muritta 37 (-ittus) murta 187 Negation 75 negliencia 259 nemo 71 neofiti missorium 37 mis (s) us 441 mistus 440 mixticius 39 mobilis 204 (i). 227 mi(ni)sterium 231 minist(r)onun 292 minor 377 minsis 198. 187 meuble 204 (i) meus = mi 87 n: see Nasals mextum — m2estuin mezzo 272 mi r= meus -a 87. 304-6 171.Liquid mut(t)ire 162 132. 37 raovutus 438.324 Moesia 187 molui 428 molutus 439 255 myrta 187 Mysia 187 mysterium 182. cf.29.Index.439 movitus438. 294 modernus 18 Metiacus 277 metipse 24.

> > 6 165. 79 ob-28 obdormire 28 obferre 32 obliscor 324 oblitare 34 obprimere 32 Nerba3i7. 378-82 occu(m)bas 306 occurire 406 Accent 142 nummus 328 nun = non 203 nunc 12 nuncius 276 -occus 37 ocio 276 ocium 276 octa(gi)nta 380 oc(u)lus 219. 385 nocere 399 nutrire 166.) 395 nullus 71.208 nepta 37 neptia 37 neptilla 13 Index.ou 167 unaccented 219. 167. 229 (5) nutritio 37 odedere 426 Odissia 187 oe 215 oefor xand e 215 offeret offerire offers! nutritura 37 nocui 223. 244 u6 o 225 -o 37.324 nova(i)nta 380 novellus 13 novius 207 (2) noxeus 224 ns 171. 395 num 83 u ob (Greek) i?5 14. 40 (Greek) 186 Digitized nora 208 (3) Normannice 40 norus 208 (3) notrire 229 (5) noli 40 -on 36 -ov 38 -iav 38 -ones 40 -oneus 39 by Microsoft® . etc. 250. 328 noembrios 324 noembris 324 noicius 324 nolo 161 ny274 nynfis 306 406 406 429 440 192. 22S. 100. 251 nil 250 nimpae 332 nise 229 (4) nitidus 238 nittus 238 Numerals 57-8. Absolute 97 non 203 nona(i)nta 380 75. 383 305 accented 202-5 o 202-4 o 197. 229 (6). 215 offertus 435. 311 nubis 366 nulli (gen. 202-5. nupsi 297 nobe 318 nobilis 11 nobis 318. 71 o for au 212-3 >oe ]>e 06 > o 225 > omo 251 -omus 446 on 71 ou>. 203 o (Greek) 192 274 38. 274 > ola 213 oleo 373. Nouns 345-73 see Declension and Gender nous 177. o 165. 323 nerbo 323 Neroua 322 nervia 349 Neuter nervus 323. 33 nuncquam 305 nunqua(m) 305. 177. 234 306. offla 235 oi>oe>-e ot nome 336 nomem nomes = nomina 369 Nominative 97. 309 nivicare 18. 197. 243. 205 5 > 9 205 9>uo oi ou|>-gu 167 o u 202 o ou 203 oleum oli 274 274 oli(m) 309 olio nonna 16 nonnita 37 (-ittus) nonnitus 37 (-ittus) nonnus 16 noptiae 207 (2) 177 192. 349 see Gender ne 229 (2) ni : = nichil 251 niepos 177 observasione 277 oc 251 occansio 311 occidere 212 occubavit 256 ni(g)rum 270 nihil 71. 215 omnes = —is 244 onmimodus 44 omnis 12.

439 pasmer 300 passans 39 passi(m) 309 sy 275 ty 276-7 ossulum 37 ossum 356 (3) ostensio 37 ostensor 37 vy273 palatium 277 palleum 224 Passive 112-4. 202-3 -osco ossiculum 42 ossuculum 43 > ssy 275 sty 275 partunt 416 parutus 438. 236 parabulare 155 paradisus 190 paraula 236. 296 Palatals 271-8. 441 part 160 partentem 416 Participle dy 272 g': omatura 37 orphanus 186 ortaret 432 hor-25i ortus see Gutturals gyz72 J271 ly274 ny 274 Put. oze ozie 324 = > > = hodie 272 = hodie 272 = pacific! 321 8. 225 parietibus 224 oratorium 37 orbus 9 palanca 332 palasium 277 Parigi 86. 318 parcui 428 onus II o 225 operare 409 0(5 > otogentos 266 -ottus 37 ophekion = ofBcium 334 opprobare 28 -or 37. 229 (7) ot ote = aut 213. 227 pari mente 41 227 Palatalization 258-62. parecer 414 parens 10. 229 (7) pandiderunt 426 paucus 71 paul(l)um 161 Paulus -onis 362 paupera 376 pani 364 panneus 39 pantaisar 332 Digitized = pauperorum 376 pausa 38 pavi 428 by Microsoft® . 104. 322 > = oum 167.Index. Active 106 Put. 108. 107. 217. 409 passos 355 paucum tempus 13 ostentare 34 ostia palma 14. -omus 39 -o«J446 -o(n)sus 311 otia 277 otobris 266 209 paor 324 papaver (masc. 324 ovum 167. py 273 ry 296 scy 275 40S Particles 156-8 particularis 39 -OS (Greek) 38 Oscan 2 -usco 197. 369 papilipnis (nom. 278 parsus 439. 12 parentis (nom.) 367 pap(p)a -us 16 papyrius 39 parabula 144. 259 pari 364 par(i)etes 136. 408 Perfect 102. Pans 86 Parisiis 272-8. Passive 105.212 orata ou (Greek) 193 ou 167 9u Ouiouia Vibia 318. 434-41 = orum = aurum 212 orzo 272 OS (masc. 42 feminine 346 (2) -re 245 -or -ura 42 -or hora25i ora oracionem 276 aur.) 349 Present 102.) 347. 229 (7) oridium 339 -orlum 37 -orius 39 orma 186.) 367 parentorum 368 p : see Labials paceveci = oratia = Hor-25i Order of Words 50-3. palpebrum 352 pal/ires 134 = hos-25i = ostium 202 ostrum aus. Ordinal Numerals 382 -orem 346 (3) oricla2i2. 337 pagandum 256 paganus 263 pa(g)e(n)sis 39. 296 parsi 429 by 273 c': see Gutturals cy 276.212 aut 213.

311 pensi 429 pensus 441 plodere2i3 ploja 169.26 percolopabat 237 > Phebus 192 phiala 145 philosophia yj philus 184 phimus 184 Phitonis 332 phitonissas 332 Subjunctive 433 "8. 93. 347. 273 plostrum 212 plotus 212. pa(v)onem 324 pa(v)orem 324 pavura 42 pavutus 440 paze 260 pectinare 33 perpenna 292 persi 429 pe(r)s(i)ca 239 persona 71 Personal Pronouns: pius 167 placentia 37 plach 154 see placuit 223. 217 pluere 169. 377 pejus 377 pelegrinus 292 pellabor 293 planura yj planxi 429 platea 146. 435 plicatus 435 293 293 pello 293 pendutus 441 pellige pellicere peuma 368 ph: see Greek Consonants phalanx 181 pharetra 145 phaselus 334 Phasis 181 pe(n)sare 171. 190 Periphrastic Future 126 perit 423 perlum = prse. 235 by Microsoft® . 410 432> 433 Pluperfect Penult 232-9 per 14. pIurigo 123. igo plaudisti 426 pestulum 284 petft 423 Petrus -onis 362 peito 160 pleps 297. 96. 369 per girum 48 piperem 347. 315 plicare 10. 208 (4).294 Pisaurese 297 Pisaurum 151 pitocco T85 Digitized pon(e)re 239 pontevecem 321 pontivicatus 256 pontufex 220 poplex 255 pop(u)lus 10. 326 plagiare 33 Pronouns persus 439. 208 (4). 99 per pel 293 per 160 per.Index. 410. 422-31 = phoca 185 Phoebus 192 Phonology 131-344 Phyebae = Phoebe 215 piano 40 pictus 440 pietas 298 pietra 160 pignus 172 (2) pi(g)ritia podium 272 poella 20S Strong 427-31 Weak 422-6 Perfect Participle Participle : 270 see Pilipus 332 pinctus 440 Perfect Subjunctive 119. 208 (4). 213 plovere 169. 183. 441 Pesaro 151 pessica 291 pessimus y]"] pestio 2S4 pectorem 347 pediculus 42 pedis (nom. 123-4. pinl 365 123-4 pinxi 429 per giro 48 piper 38.) 367 plangit 259 plantare 33 peduclum 234 peduculus 42 pejor 170. 74 pluvia 169. 79. 217 Pluperfect 118. 208 (4). 369 peria(t) 285 poena 192 poeta 192 poggio 272 polippus 145 poUicare yj pollulum 213 pols 370 poltre 134 polve 370 polvo 370 polypus 145 pomex 207 (2) pirata 144. = pr-292 plus 56. 273 poco 40 perdedit 139. 439 pere 160 pere(g)rinus 270 peres pedes 281 (2) Perfect 121-4. 426 perdita 37 (-ta) perdqnare 26 perdutus 438.

Index. 300 presbyterum 148 provitus435. 254 qua 82 > promptulus 39 430 prsstus 376 Pronouns 59-71. pos(t)quam 11. 395 prandium 272 pranzo 272 pre. 250 prendiderunt 426 prendo 250 prensi 429 prensio 37 posmeridianus 285 posse 126 (3). 285 posturus 238 postus 238 Post-Verbal Nouns 21 posueram 285 posuet 244 posui(t) 285 403-5. 330. 332 purpureticum 1S7 putator = po. 401. qu 223. etc. 71. 67. prolongare 28 q 246. 387-8 Relative 69-70. por 14 porcellus yj pregnax cf. 79. 429 quiestus 436. 403 (i) Possessives: see Pronouns posso 403 postea 275 (i) prensus 441 Prepositions 76-81. 85-g presbyter 148.439 proximus 377 psallere 36. 96 provata 318 porphyreticum 187 portare 12 posi posui 428. 226. -^yj pos(t) 96. 259 quadra(l)nta 380 qua(9'ro 283 quKSi 426.) 367 pugnus 172 (2) pulvus 347. 384-6 Possessive 60. 285 Present 120 for Future 126 ptisana 145 pudicicia 276 (i) Stems 273. 311 prEEStare 31 prffistavi 422. 186. 226. 383-95 Demonstrative 61-8 Indefinite 71. 394 quamta 306 quan 305 Digitized by Microsoft® . = pr<Egnans 255 Pronunciation 131-344 prophetissa 37 prophetizare 19 propietas 292 propio 292 propter 14. 95 pro. 254 qu k. preda 209 Prefixes 21-32 393-4 Personal 60. 41 5> 416-9 presentis (nom. 370 punctus 440 puni poni 203 = presium 277 pressi 429 pressorium 37 pressura 37 pressus 441 presta 210 presteti 139 frete 300 punidor 39 punxi 429 pupillabus 358 puplu 309 pup(p)a 163 pure 40 puritas 37 purpura 145.28 prebiter 300 Interrogative 7o> 69- quadraginta 142. 397.229 (6) puteolis 136 • potebam 403 (i) potebo 403 (i) poteo 403 (i) potere 403 (i) pdteri 410 potestas 356 (3) potionare 33 potis 17 pretium 277 preveire 300 pride (m) 309 primitius 324 principens 367 pri(n)cipis 306 Prixsilla 255 puteum 347 putrire 400 potius 74 pr:e 14 pr£E-28 prjeber(e) 24? prsecoca 376 praeda 209 prsedestinare 28 prsEdiscer(e) 242 pro 14. 440 cf. 429 Position 160-4 positus 238. 380. 252.28 probai 424 Proclitics 156-8 prodis 17 putrisco 400 puulva 356 (3) Pyrrhus 187 pyxis 187 Progne 330 proles II preefetto 266 prffigna(n)s 255. 439 = 311 prendere 225. 393-4 quaKs 70. 79.

393 qui quia 82 qui ky 187. 379 quattordecim 379 quat(t)ro 226. quando 14. 139 requEerit 139 rs see Liquids >• ss 291 requebit 225 res 10.344 = -bit 318 263 Quantity 159-77. quo 73 quo = quod 282 quoad 11 quod 14. 221 Development of New Quantity 176-7 Disappearance of Old Quantity 173-5 Doubtful Quantity 166 Length before Consonants 170-2 Position 160-4 refusare 17 re(g)alis quiritare 229 quis 69. 82. 393 re(g)ina 259 regis -es 244 = quisque 71 quisquis 71 Unaccented Vowels 221 174. 168 429 = reddere 286 rasio = ratio 277 ratio 277 retina 17 retro 81 razzo 272 re.269 respondere 399. 82 comodo 226 Vowel Length 165-77 Words from Other Lan. 71 quare 12. 355 (2) res nata 13. no. 350. 309 querceus 39 quercinus 39 querel(l)a 42 rama (pi.) 361 ramenc 37 (-incus) rancura 42 ranucula 42 rap(i)dus 239 rasl restitueram 285 restivus 39 resurge(n)s 311 retenere 31. 71. 245.28 retro (r) sum 291 = = redpit 139 recolli(g)endo 259 Recomposition 31. 82. no quooperta = co. 219. 71 rabies 319 radius 272 rainante = reg.23. no. 350 = -it 285 remasit 311 Remidium 272 remissa 37 (-ta) ren^gat 139 renum reg. 379 quel 393 quejus 393 quoque quot quot n Repetition 40. replenus 23 55. 281 quinque 172 Quintrio quippe 1 quique 71 (i). retundus 229 (6) reuuardent 344 139 reve(r)sus 291 reversus sumrz reverti 410 revolutio 37 rexi 297. 244 quat(t)or 226. 259. 139 redempsi 429 redemti 313 Digitized = rectum igS by Microsoft® . 82.269 Vowels in Hiatus 167-9 quomodo 14. 25 recapitulare 25 retro. quodlubet 220 regnancte 267 regnum 172 (2) Relatives : see Pronouns reli (n) quat 306 relinque 282. 429 rhetor 335 rhetorissare 33 richesse 341 rictu quiaeti 209 quicumque 71 quid 350 quidem 11 recubitus yj (-ta) quiensces 311 quietus 225 quin II quinqua(gi)nta 142. 449 responduntur 449 responsi 429 raggio 272 que(m) 309 quen 305. 380 quase 244 quasi 83. rectus 440 32. 71. 82 quarranta 142. 74 12. 223 quia 82. 200 redft 423 redivit quannu 281 = Win. 139 retenet 139 retere questor 210 questus 210 quetus 225 qui 69.254 guages 1 74-5 > = quantu(m) 309 quantus 12.1 Index. 380 reculons 40 reddedi 31.quoniam 14. 71. 71 = quod 282 quum r : > cum 226 repositorium 37 reprehensus 250 requeerere 25.

x : salsus 440. pi. 441 saltern 11 salticulare 35 secatus 435. : 429 Romance Territory p. (stlis) riges = re. 398 398 ss 291 36. (3) = 229 salbum3i7 salii scrivano 359 scultor 313 se 422. 230 sy 275 scy.268. rubare nibeus 319 sandal 330 sanguem 370 sanh 267 sapcha 272 sapere 402 sedui 428 sedutus 441 signavi 424 segnai = rugiada 356 nira35r ru(r)sum 291 russum 291 rutare 34 s (3) segolo 200 (3) sei sapiam 272 sapidus 39 sapienti (pi. 347 rogavo = -bo 318 ro(g)itus 259.) 349 scripit 312 (i) scrips! 315. ssy. 14 sed-= se 229 (4) 429 rosum = ros 356 rosus 441 (3) sanctissimus 377 san(c)tus 172 (i). 367 SiEpia 182 saginae 42 = 284 Sagitta 37 (-ittus) ripidus 39 scloppus 284 scopulus 38 scorlare excor. ridSre rideri 213 schioppo 284 sclitib. 267 sedano 335 sed(e)cim 239 sedere seditur 399 = esse 402.) 368 419 (i) sel 160 selinum 150 sappia 272 sapui 426.Index. 201 (2) senape 184 senatus (2d decl.314 rivocaverit 229 (2) sagma 19. 324 rivaticus rip. salivi 428 440 J^= sead sebe salma 268 salsi 428. 429 440 scriptum 315 scri(p)tus 313. 428 satis 74 sem 419 (i) Semele 359 semita 239 semo 419 (i) : see Sibilants final s in ist pers. 341. xi Roman Empire p. 419 roubSn rs > 36.) 355 (i) sine 201 sene -sa 37 (-ta) sabbatizare 19 scaplas 234 sablum 233 sacra 376 Sca(u)rus 211 scena 182 (i) = sacramentum 231 359 sacristano 359 sacrista -anis- schema 19 schernire 341 schiatta 343 schietto 343 senex 12 senper 306 semita 239 senta sentam 416 sententem 416 = Digitized by Microsoft® .230 scriba -anis 359 = rigueza 341 risi 429 risus 441 rius 241. 435 salitus 436. Saguntum 338 saine 42 saini 267 sltlbaiec (fern. 34r.) 349 sffipes sepes saeps 209. 210 scalciare excalceare 230 scandalizare 19 445 initial s + cons.) 372 salvage 229 (3) salvatico 229 (3) salvaticus 229 (3) secu(n)do 306 secuntur 254 sed II. 428 = si 229 (4) = sit 419 (2) = sibi 201 ^ 419 (i) roborem 347 robur 9. sty. 440 secula 200 (3) Romanice 40 Romanu -pos 38 rosi (nom.igS 399 409 sacritus rigna 198 rikitia 341 Jiimini 86 SidxpiTos 272 sseculum (masc. sauma 26S scabia 355 (2) scsena 182. = sa = ipsa 392 semper semper 74 sempre 245 semul 201.

441 solia 323 224 sentor . sty.230 Spania 230 = Spanus 230 sparsi 429 J« 419 sest = est 419 (i) set = est 419 (i) set = sed 282 seta 209 setaceus 39 setis = estis 419 (i) 229 385 (4) settembres 313 seus suus 387 soaru 295 soave 224 sobreus 224 socera 37 soc(e)rum 232. septa (gi)nta 380 septe(m) 309 sidibus = se. soliculus 13. 219. 234 speca spica 200 (3) = speclarait spectante = -avit 424 = exp. 233 soef 2. 439.ig8 439 siede 419 (1) soma 268 somas 419 (i) sona 2ona 338 septrum 260 septuazinta 339 septum 209 sepulchrum 251 sequere 406 sequire 406 serbare 323 siem 419 (2) siete 419 (i) siffatto 264 siffler 318 (2) sifilus 318 (2) = signum-us 172 sigricius silevit 422. etc. sibi 219. 18 sol(i)dus 237 230 separare seperare 231. si sol 13 = sibi spehon 343 spelunca 329 siam 419 (2) siamus 419 (2) sibe 219. 213 serra = sera 247 serutinus 16 servare 323 sine 95. solbit sentia 421 sentii 42S.214 senii 298 Index.230 = 406 si 14. 244 solacium 276 sola mente 41 solatium 276 solbere 317 spene^SS (2) speni from spes 355 (2) speramus = -avimus 424 sperantia 37 Digitized by Microsoft® . ssy. 440 ss > 275 solingo 37 (-incus) solo (dat.419 (1) sinapis -e -i 38. 213 soricem 42.^'j final s 298. 244. 221. = secretins 256 347 sonatus 435 sons 419 (i) Sophia 146 -sor 37 sorcerus = sortiarius 39 s^bat 323 serbus 317 Serios Sergius 272 serore so. 182 seppia 182 sepsies 277 z : see Greek Conso- soltus 438. (2). 150. 337 sinatus 228 (-arius) sordidius 377 sorex 42. 387 sozer 154 servicium 276 323 servisium 277 servitium 276. 445 initial s 4. sibl 201.cons. 201 sinexter 201 (3) -sic 37 sirena 356 (3) sis si vis 324 -sorium ^y -sorius 39 soro(r) 295 sous = suus 167. 233 sepelitus 436. 184. 38.z\ sofferire sparsus 441 spasmus 144 spat (h) a 332 spat(u)la 12. 385 385 Sibilants 297-302.) 395 solsi s 161 429 440 224 sepes 209 sepia 146. sy. 429 sentitus 436. 277 servitude 37 ses servire = spacium 276 spallere 337 sive II = es 419 (i) (i) skena 341 skern6n 341 skiuhan 343 slahta 343 sleht 343 spandere exp.229 (7) serpentinus 37 = = 428 simus 220. 83. soluit sic nants 264 Sicilianus 39 solus 395 solutus 438 solvitus 438. scy. 244.

430 steva 200 (3) stilla 419 (i) suus 60. 410 Plup. 330 talis 71 strlban 341 for Adj.) 367 Supine 103 sup(p)ra 164 sup(p)remis 164 supra. 419 (2) sublimus 376 429 su(r)sum 291 surtus 440 sus = suus 226.26 superabundare 26 superfacere 26 superstitis (nom. 428. 90. 415. 40. 397.230 struxi 429 stupescere 35 > staacio 276 stablarius 231 stagnum (masc. 14.) 349 stahu 397 397 stait 397 stantia= inst. 430 sietti 426 stetul 426. spes 355 (2) spiritus (2d decl. 440 Suffixes 33-42 Cbange of Suffix 42 talentum 149.26 suprafacere 26 supra 245 -sura 37 Surd Sonant: see Voicing = exp.) 367 stlataris 284 stlis 284 stloppus 284 storax 187 stren(n)a 163 stren(n)uor 164 Stress : see Accent stirpis see Dentals ty 276-7 sud=sub3i5 sufferit 406 -ta37 tab(u)la 236 tactus 440 suffertus 435. 229. 387-8 submonsus 439. 96 super. 369 sumpsi 29S sumptus 308 tan 306 tanctus 440 tanger(e) 242 tantu(m) 309 tantus 71 tanxl 429 tapinus 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . 117 > 277 status 438 397 staunt 397 stegola zoo stel(l)a 163 siaii (3) Imperfect 118 Perfect 119. 39 for Adv. 405. 38 tamen 11. 441 sus(s)um 291 sutis sursi Stephanus 183 steti 426. 38 suis (nom. 84 440 440 strinxi 429 strofa 334 stropa 334 stroppus 186 strinctus strictus for Verbs 33-6 Greek Endings 36. 428. 388 -sus 37. 231-g Synonyms 12 Syntax 50-130 t : (nom.26 subaudire 26 subcludere 26 stao 397 stare 397 stasio 277 static subcumbere 32 Subjunctive 117-g for Imper.) 367 sulphurem 347. 403. = Iniperf.Index. 419 (i) suora 295 sues 138 super 80. 332 Syncope 219.) 355 (i) splorator stnicere 417 215 sumus 220. 116 for Indie. 41 for Nouns 37.230 stais stup(p)a 163 suabitati 318 5uadel(l)a 42 suavis 224 Suavitta 37 (-ittus) sub. 441 subornatris 255 subplantare 32 sy=ty277 sycotum 141 Syllabication 131-3 = Stella = 198 stingo 226 -stinxi 429 stipes stips 367 subsannare 26 Substitution of subterranus 42 subtus 81 suc(c)us 163 suceroni 362 Words 13 symphonia 146.230 spoliatur = -or 244 structus 440 straere 417 strugere 417 spo(n)sus 171 spontaneus 39 squarciare 276 ss s 161 strumentum = inst. 118 Pres.

-anis 359 = tibi 385 -tiacum 277 tibe 244 ti tractatus 9 tractus 440 tradedit 31. 440 239 tollitus 435. 71.) 395 tot(t)uS 12. 289 Tricassas 151 trienta 259 tri(g)inta 142.) 367 traxi Tense 120-30 tensi 429 tensura 13 tensus 441 t^nueram 137 tenui 42S tenutus 438.) 74 tous thensaurus 311 — tuus 387 Trogar=-jae 259 Troja 170 Digitized by Microsoft® .208 tomus 186 torqu(e)o 226. 343 tharrjan 342. Theophilus 333 thesaurizare 19 thesaurus -um 189. 198 376 triumphaut 241.208 tonatus 435 tondere 399 tonica tu. 318 taurellus 37 taxi 429 telebra ter. 299 trabucare 26 tracere 417 tap(p)ete 162 tarde 40 tarir 342. 407 theios 333 toto (dat. 352 tribuna(l) 242. 380 trinitas 429 tarsus 441 -Tt\% 38 testa 13 tetrus 376 428 tortus 440 tot 71 tot trinta tris 37 380 taxui 428 204 (2) texutus 440 thahso 342. 439 tolsi 428. 429 tolui 428 tomolus =: tumu. 139 tibi 221. 331 timor (fern. 259.208 tonsus 441 toll(e)re 429 trebus 201 trei = tres 379 298 trei Teodor 332 -ter 40 tardus 276 Terentio = treis 177 tremulat 235 trepaliare 33 = -us 298 tergSre 399 -tor 37 torcere 399 torco 226.163. 347 threscan 342 tra. 244. 424 tristus = tres 395 -trix 37 trobaire 37 (-tor) totum (adv.204(2). 385 traducir 299 traduire 299 Tatius 277 tatus 16 taula 236.26.292 -tim 40 timbre 187. 343 tata 16 . 299 transannare 26 tra(ns)duco 299 tra(ns)jicio 299 260 tra(ns)luceo 299 tra(ns)mitto 299 tempo 298 tempus 13 tenit 244 tinxi 429 -tic n transplantare 26 tra(ns)pono 299 tra(ns)tulo 299 ten(n)uis 164 Titius 277 Tivoli 86 tra(ns)veho 299 traps 315 trasporre 299 travis (nom.2l6 tapis 182 tapit 182 Index.259 tragere 417 trahere 417 = tempaccio 39 tempesta 356 (3) templus 347 timpuri 369 tinctus 440 tinge 226 tinguere 226 tins -^^ census trans.26. 407 -tas 37 tasso 342. 399 trapalium 16 tres 379 tergum -us 347 termen 356 (3) terminaciones 2 76 terra (m) 309 tersi toreomatum 191 -torium 37 -tonus 39 torma = tu. 325.) 346 timoratus 39 Tragani (2) = Traj. 399 torsi trescar 342 trib(u)la 235.

430 urps 297. 42 accented 206-8 u 206-7 ii>-u 165. 349 * verecundia 231 verecunnus 281 Inflection: > > > utrum II. 73. 187. 57. 284 vedea 421 = ve^ere 283 vef 226 vegere = veh-4i7 uobit = obiit > ve(he)inens 250 vehere 417 vel II velle 126 (3).) 244 178. u 226 uuadius 344 > -uus > -itus 42 -udo ii > -umen 42 uxo(r) 295 uxore (abl. 229 (5). -ura 37. 297. 440 venui 428. 440 unire 34 Tuscanus 39 iuito 204 (2) tuttus 204 (2) tuus 226.298. 438. 223 : vernac(u)lus 234 vemum tempus 13 ve(r)sus 291 vertragus 19 Digitized by Microsoft® .316 -tulus turn = tuum 226. 244 in hiatus 222-6 uo >• o 226 uu u 226 o 225 u(5 uu u 226 Uranus 193 urbis (nom.) 367 vendutus 438 vene bene 316 = urbs 12. 315. 206-8. 356 (3) vea via 201 = vecere = veh-4i7 -e 364 -tus 37 (-ta). 192. 83 ubi 73 -uc(c)us 37 (-icca) -uculare 35 -uculus 42 -utus 39. 39 (5). 379 -undus 39 ungo 226 unguere 226 unicornis 44 unigenitus 44 vaqua = vacua 223 vaqui vacui 223 vastare 344 vanitare 34 = 187 tuos 138 -tura 37 turrensis 39 turri tumum vasus -um 347. 206. 187. 440. 440 ver 13 usque hodie 47 ustium 202 Ut II. 393 undecim 166. 387-8 ty 276-7 ty ty > cy 277 > sy 277 uno (dat. > -clus 234 388 Vowels unde 10. 438.Index. 220 -ugo 37 (-ago) ui 216 V see Labials vacuus 42 195 (6). 84. 42. etc. 441 uu unacc. 71. 403 vendita 37 (-ta) 177 u 165. 438. 326 u 178. 2c6 u 208 u ii o 165. 367 veni 428. 185 trutina 187 tu 60 -ula 37 (-ulus) Ulixes 187 ultra 166 -ulus 37. 378. 101-30 Verbs : see Verb Forma verbus 347.) 429 -unt -ent 449 unus 10. 70. Troyes 151 tructa 38. 208 u cons. 228. 243.395 unu(s) 29S unxi 429 U(5 >• o 225 uo unacc. 82. III -uta 37 (-ta) verbex = vervex 323 Verb Forms see Conjugation Use 72. 192. 217 vadere 126 204 (2) -tudo 37 iuii 204 (2) tul£runt 450 tucti > -ellus 42 40 -um vallensis 39 : Unaccented Vowels see valneas = ba.315 usare 34 Use Use Use of of Cases 85-100 of Inflections 85-130 Words 54-84 venuta 37 (-ta) venutus 436. 14. 222. 206. 405 vadum 344 -us 347 valde 237 vaUa(t) 224. 285 Valinca 37 (-Incus) . 220 ui 216 unaccented 219. o 226 vecinus 229 (4) vedus 234. 14. 430 > > -urem 346 (3) veninum 42 venire 126 (5) venitus 436.

) 367 victualia 18. 429 vinti 380 vincisti Intert. 385 Vowels 136-8. 428 vixi 255.) 344 volere velle 403 (2) w (Latin) 224 voles 403 (2) Waddo 344 volestis 403 (2) wadum 344 volimus 403 (2) wahta 343 volon 39 (-undus) walde 344 volsi 429 Wandali 344 voltus 438. 428. 12. 428 . 285. 407 volutus 438 wastare 344 = ^ = = volvitus 438. 439 Penult 232-9 vac. by Microsoft® . 234. 255. vivacius 377 vixcit = vixit 255 cf. Vulgar Words 15. 221 Unaccented 219-45 (6) Vocabulary 6-49 vocatio videunt 416 vidi 428.195 = video 416 vidui = vidi 428. 259. 239 vibi = bibi 318 iiibit 316 vibit victore (nom. Syl. 284 vetus 13 video 272-3 veyo virginem 233 vir(i)diaria 237 vir(i)dis 237 vir(i)dura 18. vinus 347 Clerical Pronun.197 -ea 224 vinia vinsi 428. 240-5 in hiatus 222-7 Init. 19.) 367 warnjan 36. 37 victurias 203 vic(u)lus'234. 218 Diphthongs 209-16 420 vetatus 435 vet(e)ranus 219. 321 volatilia 37 volemus 403 (2) w (Ger. 429 vixi(t) 285 . 285. 37 viror 37 virtus 10 vlscui visit Influence of Labials 217 Single Vowels 194208 before gn 172 (2) before j 170 before n fricative 171 before nk 172 (i) = = vixi 428. 358' villabus 358 Vincentzus 277 426 vinctus 440 vincui 428 vincutus 440 vindemiator 224 vindico 239 vindimia 197 vindo = v6. 438. 231 vettovaglia 154 vetulus 12. 231 (6) vocatus 435. 195 vocitus Final Syl. 318 . 430 vido vidutus 438. 284 videderunt 426 video 272-3. = vac. + vezem 445 vezzo 278 -vui 428 -vi via 167.195 (6) vocuus Quantity 221 Voice 1 12-4 Vulgar Latin 3. 165-245 watan werra = .93 in hiatus 136-8. 440 warjan 344 voluntate (nom. 19 vulnus (masc. 441 vixutus 440 vobis 385 cf. Accented 194-218 Digitized 344 344 werrarius 39 werrizare 33 wi^arlon 342 19. 272-3. cf. 167-9 . 441 viduus 226 vieni 177 vig(i)lat 430 Vocative 87 vocitus = vacuus 42. 416. Quantity 165-77. 4 Voicing 256-7. 428. 429 = vixit 255 cf. 387 vovis vobis 318 cf .) 349 314. 286. 430. 428 in words borrowed by other languages 1 74-5 Latin Vowels 178 Position 160-4 videre 72. 439 voster 199 (i). 297. 228-30 259 34 vi(gi)nti 142.285. 13. 283. Syl. 380 vilescere villa 10. 416 vistus 441 visus 441 vitellus Breaking 177 = 37 vitium 278 vitricus 13 Vowels 179 Close and Open 165 Differentiation 165 Celtic = vit(u)lus 234 vivus 324 vius = German Vowels 179 Greek Vowels 180.2l8 vervex 323 ves(s)ica 162 vestibat Index. 439.201 viaticum 8.

344 z 246 zabul(l)us zes 219 zacones zaconus ~ dia. 255.272 ymnus 251 zerax = liierax 339 zosuin=deorsum 339 Zouleia= Julia 272.339 = dies 272 = Jesu 272.339 zebus = die.339 Zefurus 187 zelosus 339 2» 333 Zodorus = Theo.272. 339 zeta = diseta 339 zie = die 272 Zesu zins 260 ziziper 312 (i) X 246. 339 = dia. 339 Digitized by Microsoft® . 398 Word Order 50-3 wost.339 = dia. Wintrio 344 wlsa 344 witan 36.Index. 266 y (Greek) 187 y (Latin) 224 zagante 229 (3) zampogna 332 zanuari = ja.277 Zogenes = Dio.

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