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HEATH & Digitized CO. PUBLISHERS 1907 by Microsoft® . H..I)eatb'5 flDot>ern tHanduage Qctics AN INTRODUCTION VULGAR LATIN BY C. U. A. C. S. GRANDGENT Fbofbssor of Romance Languagss in Harvahd University BOSTON. D.

Digitized by Microsoft® . By D. Heath & Co.V^-^5 3J( Copyright. C. 1907.

— . abreast of current scholarship. have endeavored to keep I at every stage. "^^HILE this book is intended primarily for students of it will. Grandgent. H. have tried. others are cited in the appropriate places in the C. somewhat scanty as compared with the other It will be seen that I have continually furnished abundant references for the guidance of those topics. to treat all portions of the subject. however. Although it. I Philology. graphy. furthermore. Digitized byiUicrosoft® . I hope. PREFACE. not exhaustively. but with even fulness I fear. that the is Syntax — perhaps unavoidably parts. it be of some interest to has been long in the Classical scholars as well. who wish to look further into special My principal authorities are listed in the Bibliotext. Romance making.

and Pronouns Prefixes used with Verbs Suffixes Suflixes for Suffixes for Verbs Nouns Adverbs iv Digitized 18-23 Suffixes for Adjectives Suffixes for 23-25 25-26 27-28 Change of Suffix by Microsoft® . AND Their Meanings.. Sense Restricted Sense Extended .. ^ . . ^ .... 6-29 6-12 6 7-8 7 . with Abbreviations PHONETIC ALPHABET and Other Symbols X. 13 13-16 13-14 14-16 16-28 16-17 Prefixes used with Nouns. 7-8 Words used in Classic but not in Vulgar Latin .TABLE OF CONTENTS.. xi x xi xiii-xvi .. Words used alike in Classic and in Vulgar Latin Words used differently in Classic and in Vulgar Latin . 9 9-10 10 10-12 Ii>-i2 Particles Words used in Vulgar but not in Classic Latin Native Words Foreign Words I2 Uerivation Post-Verbal Prefixes 13-29 Nauru .. 8-9 Synonyms Substitutes.... . xvii INTRODUCTION i-S VOCABULARY WoBDS.. Pages MAPS The Roman Empire The Neo-Latin Territory in Europe BIBLIOGRAPHY... . .... . Adjectives.

Table of Contents. Future Active Participle Digitized 49 49 49 by Microsoft® . Gerund Gerundive . 30-59 30-32 32-41 32-34 33 33-34 34-38 Pronouns 34 35-36 36-37 37-38 38 ^^38-39 Verbs Adverbs Prepositions 39-41 ^ Conjunctions 41 Use of Inflections Cases 42-59 42-48 42-43 43 43-44 Locative Vocative Genitive Dative Ablative 44-4S 45-47 48^ Accusative Fall of Declension Verb-Forms Impersonal Parts Supine 48 48 48-51 48—49 '. . Adjectives Pronouns- Verbs Adverbs Fiepositions 28-29 29 20 Conjunctions SYNTAX Order of Words Use of Words Nou»s and Adjectives Comparison Numerals Pronouns Personal and Possessive Pronouns Demonstratives Interrogatives and Relatives Indefinite . . Compounds v Pages 28-29 28 28 28 28 Nouns .

vi Table of Contents. Pages Present Participle Perfect Participle Infinitive 5° 50 5°~5I 51-52 Voice Mood Imperative Subjunctive 52-54 52 5^-54 54-59 54-5^ Tense The Perfect Tenses Future and Conditional 5^59 60-143 60-61 61-68 61-66 61-62 62-63 63 63 64 64-66 PHONOLOGY Syllabication Accent Primary Stress Vowels in Hiatus Compound Verbs Iliac. Illic Ficatum Numerals Greek Words Greek Oxytones . Greek Paroxytones Greek Proparoxytones Other Foreign Words Secondary Stress Unstressed Words 64 64-65 65-66 66 66-67 67-68 68-77 68-70 71-77 Quantity Position Vowel Quantity Vowels in Hiatus Lengthening before Consonants Disappearance of the Old Quantity Development of a New Quantity 72-73 73-75 75-76 76-77 77-104 78-82 82-gi Vowels Greek Vowels Accented Vowels Single Vowels 82-87 82-83 Digitized o by Microsoft® .

before Front Vowels and G before Back Vowels and G Final and before Consonants .Table of Contents. 11 2-1 14 Palatals Dentals Liquids 114-118 118-121 121-124 121-123 123-124 L R Sibilants 124-126 127-132 132-137 Nasals Labials P Digitized 132-133 by Microsoft® . e vii Pages 83-84 84 . ... 104-143 106-137 106-107 107-114 109-112 112 C and G Q. Q... ^ »" I o 84 84-85 85-86 H u 86 86-87 87 a Diphthongs te 88-90 88-89 89-90 au eu ce ui Influence of Labials Clerical Latin 90 90 90 91 91 Unaccented Vowels 91-104 in Unaccented Vowels Initial Syllable Hiatus 93-96 96-98 98-99 99-102 102-104 Intertonic Syllable Penult Final Syllable Consonants Latin Consonants Aspirate Gutturals ..

n. 133-13S 13s i3S-'37 137 137—141 u Greek Consonants B. Adjectives Personal Pronouns Possessives Demonstratives Interrogative Indefinite 162-163 163-164 165 165 and Relative Pronouns Pronouns and Adjectives Verbs The Four Conjugations First Conjugation 166-187 166-170 166-167 167 Second Conjugation Third Conjugation Fourth Conjugation Fundamental Changes in 167-170 170 Inflection 170-173 Digitized by Microsoft® . and Sibilants Z Germanic Consonants 141-143 144-187 144-161 144-147 144 145-146 146-147 MORPHOLOGY NotJNS AND Adjectives Gender Masculine and Feminine Masculine and Neuter Feminine and Neuter Declension of Nouns First Declension 147—156 149-151 Second Declension Third Declension Loss of Declension Declension of Adjectives 151-152 152—156 156 157-158 158-159 159-161 161-165 161-162 Comparison Numerals Pronouns and Pronominai. Nasals. *. T e.viii Table of Contents. r. Pages B F V . A 138 138 138-139 140 140-141 K. X Liquids.

Strong Perfects Pluperfect and Future Perfect Perfect Participle 177-180 180-182 183 Personal Mndings 183-185 186-187 189-219 INDEX Digitized by Microsoft® . Inchoative Venbs ix Pages Present Stems Imperfect Perfect 173-174 174-176 176-177 177-182 » Weak Perfects .Table of Contents.

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Melanges Renier 301-309. Per.. 2^ ed. 278 ft. Histoire de la langue roumaine. Le latin de Grigoire de Tours. 1891. Introduction 1899. Mllanges Boissier 5-9. Le latin d'Espagne d'aprh les inscriptions. 1902. App. Leipzig. Ueber Aussprache. Mohl. Dottin. 1899. Bayard. 1868-70. : 1902-03. Audollent: A. G. 1901. Bechtel: E. New ed. Romanische Forschungen VII. 1863 1893 Claussen T. : Part — — . Die griechischen Wbrter im Franzosischen. Densusianu. (Vol. Claussen. A volume of mis- Bayard : L. I. Carnoy. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. Vocalismus und Betonung der rischen Franzosisch nach ihren Spuren lateinischen Sprache. Dottin: G. Bausteine: Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie. Cf. Heraeus. Bon. : Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. 774. mlrovingienne. I. Wiener Studien XIV. Word Formation in the Roman Sermo Plebeius. Die Suffixwandlungen im Vulgdrlatein und im vorlittera- im NeufranzSsischen. Cohn : G. Defixionum Tabellae. Vol. C. i). : correct- Die Appendix Probi. Chronologie : F.. Bechtel.Cooper. S. cellaneous studies issued in honor of A. Le latin de saint Cyprien. AudoUent. 1902. Corssen. 1872. M. 1905. Archiv : Archiv filr lateinische Lexicographie und Crammatik mit Einschluss des dlteren Mittellateins. 1895. d'Arbois de Jubainville. Corssen : W.T. Cohn. ed. 145 ff. L. 1890. W. 1904. Mussafia. Pr.. La dlclinaison en Gaule d. -Carnoy: A. Silviae Peregrinatio. 1906. Cf. possibly as early as the third century. BIBLIOGRAPHY WITH ABBREVIATIONS. Bonnet. D'Arbois: H. in Romor nische Forschungen XV. <J la chronologic du latin vulgaire. Quarterly. Cooper: F.Pipoque Densusianu: O. I. A. Manuel pour servir h Vltude de I'antiquiti celtique. Digitized b)microsoft® . A Latin list of and incorrect spellings.

1903. Etude lexicograpkique grammaticale de Kasseler Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. Kluge F. Dubois. 2 1902. : Meyer-Liibk'e. Facere G. Historische Syntax der lateinischen Sprache. XIV BlBIJOGRAPHY. ed. 1884. Goelzer. Die lateinisch-romanischen Elemente im Althochdeutschen. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. KofEmane : G. 157. Gl. W. 2d ed. 1904 Haag : O. Entstehung und Entwickelung des Kirchenlateins. 1901. alten Italien.: 1900. — 1888- M. Hoppe: H. 1879Digitized by Microsoft® . ed. Thielmann. 1892. probably 521 ff. Kluge. 2d ed. in the eighth Cf. P. £criture laire. Koff mane. 3 vols. 2d ed. 641 7. Hoppe. I. Le developpement de facere dans langues romanes. Gl. 498.. W. Draeger. Kbrting. Edon: G.. G. et prononciation du latin savant et du latin popu- 1882. 1901. 1890vols. EinfUhrung in das Studium der romanischen les Sprachwissenschaft. Cassel : II. Franz. : century. Beiheft Gram. 1893. : W.. Foerster and E.. Romanen und Germanen in ihren Wechselbeziehungen. Lateinisch-romanisches Wdrterbuch. 1857-1880. Koschwitz. W. Syntax und Siil des Tertullian. Hetzer. Grbber. Einf . Franz : 1883. a: Zur Geschichte des franzosischen 3. Made in France in the eighth Reich. Grammaire des langues romanes. Made. XXII. jd or ninth century. Die Orthographie lateinischer Worter ingriechischen : : Inschriften. Die locale Verbreitungfriihester romanischer Lautwandlungen im. Franz. : : P. Draeger: A. 1894. H. Koschwitz.. Dubois A. Haag. of Vol.. Rydberg. in France. Die Latinitdt Fredegars. W. Foerster and E. 48. 2d 1878. £don. 1902. Grammatici Latini. Keil. Rydberg. Reviewed by G. La latiniti d'Ennodius. Grundriss der romanischen Philologie. Hammer. Paris in Rom. 1903. £E. 1898. Die Reichenauer Glossen in Zs. : : Hammer in Grundriss I^. 1902. 569.. Zs. -Grundriss : G. . Cf.. Meyer-Liibke. 1896 — Futurum G. Keil: H. Eckinger T. in Archiv saint Jlrome. Eckinger. Korting: G. Habere mit dem et Infinitiv und die Entstehung des la latiniti de romanischen Futurums. XXVI. Reichenauer Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. . K.

Lindsay: W. 'P. Teil. 1894. Oliver: A^Oliver. Regnier. Ronsch. Monthly. Cf.S. The Latin Language. : : Ltblt. 1905. 1900. : 1 901..Bibliography. Neumann Franz Neumann. : La langue des inscriptions de la Gaule. auf Aussprache und Recht- schreibung beziiglichen Eigenthiimlickkeiten in den Inschriften aus Gallia Narbonensis. See Bechtel. M. with special reference to the Latin Sermo Vulgaris. Itala und Vulgata. Petite phonltique Phon. . S. P. Die lateinische Sfrache in den romanischen : Landern. t^ Verzeichniss der ed. Spr. Pogatscher. xv W. Loth J. Pogatscher A. Hilarius. 1898. 1892-1902. : Roman Sermo Plebeius. Pirson. in Itinera hierosolymitana saculi Written probably in the latter part of the fourth century by an ignorant nun. Le viritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. Fortsetzung. N. E. Les mots latins dans les langues brittoniques. 1892. 259. in P.. A. J. G. Marchot. 1901. Lexique F. H. in Grundriss V. 451. Thielmann. J. Perf Per. lat. Olcott. 1901. Meyer-Lubke. T. Zur Lautlehre der griechischen. I goo. Geyer. Mohl. Silvice Aquitanm 1898. ed.XXX). Lebreton. ad 367 ff. Archiv II. Digitized by Microsoft® . . : Leipzig. Ferotin. De la latinitl des Sermons de saint Augustin. Neue: Formenlehre der lateinischen Sprache. Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. 372. PI. Perf. Loth. Pirson: J. Lebreton J.'i>(eue. Ang^ade. G. ad loca sancta. 1886. Substantives Word Formation of the Latin Inscrip- and Adjectives. Regnier: A. Studies in the tions. 509: Peregrinatio iiii-viii. Wolfflin in Archiv IV. perhaps from Spain. Olcott : G. 1888. Pass. Pers. 1887. Quillacq. Btudes sur le lexique du latin vulgaire. sit Quillacq : : J. : P. R. Pr. 1903. Mohl. 1899. M. Cf. 1888. Hilarii Tractatus de Mysteriis et Hymni et S. Gamurrini. Observations on the Use of Certain Prepositions in to the Petronius with special reference Part. and S. Silvia AquitancE Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. Quomodo lingua latina usus S. 1897. Habere mit dem Part. De latinitate libelli qui inscriptus est Peregrinatio loca sancta. 1869. Lindsay. La premiire personne du pluriel en gallo-roman. Vokalismus der Tonsilben. Etudes sur la langue et la grammaire de Ciciron. : F. 1898. : LiteraturblattfUrgermanischeundromanischePhilologie. du frangais prilittiraire. lateinischen und romanischen Lehnworte im Altenglischen : II.

371. 1900. in Grundriss P. Historische 1894. Tours. in 204. 539. 1903. numbers a year. I. Romania. Tiktin. Urbat R. Paris. XQ. Der Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. Halle. Bibliography. Suchier. Sepulcri. 1 856-68. XII. which only occasional reference is made are cited in full in Digitized by Microsoft® . Zs. Vok. Grammatik der lateinischen Sprache. Zauner: A. : Wolfflin : E. 125. 138. Die rumdnische Sprache. Paris. Chemnitz and Leipzig. 507. 25. 276. : Zeitschrift Jur romanische Philologie. Substrate : G. Lateinische und romanische Comparaiion. Windisch: E. Notices et Extraits de divers manuscrits latins pour servir A fhistoire des doctrines grammaticales au moyen dge. 371. 1885. in Studi Medievali I. Petronius. Vol. Stolz. 1868. Som. Archiv I. Zs. Spr. Waters. Romanische Sprachwissenschaft. 234. Wblfflin. Seelmann. 117. Urbat. 100. Quarter- ly. 422. Grober. : S. : Zeitschrift fiir franzosische Sprache und Litteratur. 264. 453. V. to Works the text. Sittl: K. 424. Stolz: F. Le alterazioni fonetiche e morfologiche nel latino di Magno e del suo tempo. und Thurot : Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits de la Biblioth^que nationale et : attires bibliothiques Vol. Schuchardt. 1890.. 1&&2. VII. fr. Cena Trimalchionis. 116. in Grundriss P. ^KvA. 171. IV. Sepnlcri : Gregorio A. H. Die keltische Sprache. Tiktin : : H. Waters: W. Die Ausprache des Latein nach physiologisch-historischen Grundsdtzen. 377. Beitrdge zu einer Darstellung der romanischen Elemente im Latein der Historia Francorum des Gregor v. II. Vulgdrlateinische Substrate romanischer Worter. Charles Thurot. : Zur Entstehung der romanischen Wortstellung aus der lateinischen.xvi Richter Elise Richter. 3 vols. 564.nn&r.: E. E. III. Suchier: H. Die franzosische und provenzalische Sprache ihre Mundarten. Die lokalen Verschiedenkeiten der lateinischen SpracAe. Windisch. VI. Quarterly. in Grundriss P. 1902. Four to sLx 1879.

The other marks and abbreviations employed are so generally accepted as to need no explanation. vowel letter shows that the vowel is open. * (an asterisk) before a word shows that the form attested. whichever way it be turned. := rounded i.PHONETIC ALPHABET AND OTHER SYMBOLS. Digitized by Micrqsoft® xvii . =r bilabial /S v. . (a semicircle) under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is not syllabic. J) ii o. . the sound of German «.c = the sound of ch in German ach. = the sound of e in French me. under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is close. = the sound of ng in English long. SMALL CAPITALS mean that the forms so printed occur in inscriptions (but this indication is used only when for some special reason it seems desirable). S =z > the sound of in English i/iis. (an acute accent) after a consonant letter shows that the consonant is (a dot) • C '^ / (a hook)' under a palatal. the source standing at the open end of the figure. o = rounded the sound of German = the sound of th in English thin. q e. . not >• indicates derivation. is conjectural. the sound of Spanish v and i/i *.

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Sicily became a province in 241. The Latinization of these peoples was the work of several centuries^: by 272 b. Celts. Empire it has remained.. The and Teutones were destroyed was a province. beyond the peninsula it spread among Ligurians. Spain was made a province in 197. D. j. Throughout this territory the official language Latin. and. in 50. The extent of the Roman Empire on p. tribes. I Digitized by Microsoft® . Africa after Iberians. Illyria was absorbed after 167. 'See Mohl.n central j. the Orient. civilizations. representing different races. and quite cut off from the rest of the Latin-speaking world in the sixth. Tiber.. also Meyer-Lubke. northern Cim- Gaul Dacia was colonized in 107 A. and linguistic habits. all Italy was subdued south of the Macra and the Rubicon. originally the speech of shown by the map was Latium. forsaken in the third century. and Africa. Lat. the in 102-1. Raetia in 15.AN INTRODUCTION TO VULGAR I. LATIN.talyjt_was Italic tribes. Illyrians in^sou^hea^emjmd southwestern Italy respectively by and Greeks. tEe bri fall "oO^thage in 146. Chronologie . southern Gaul in 120._Semites. Sfr. Aquitanians. 451-455. a little district on the is The Latin tongue was thus extended to many peoples. Sardinia and Corsica in 238._ Germanic and others still. for the most part. Latin language never gained a foothold in Greece. in adopted by Etruscans and by various n orthern Italy by Ligurians. political changes drove it in the rest of the from Great Britain. X. pp. Venetia cast her lot with Rome in 215. IHy- _rians . c. Celts.

Kff. considerable local dive^ences. in the main. Italian nn : for nd. [§ 2 until the present day. there were at all times. 2. conflict of or less with the native idioms . elex for The Italian word zavorra by Microsoft® . Spr. and has been carried thence to Amerand Asia. The map on p. Latin was simply substituted for foreign tongues. like every living language. became more uniform. 445. etc. Oscan forms are ligud for and k for lege^ pru for pro^ ni for 'The is S. Chronologie 98-99. and their In Italy the language §peech_reflected_their varied origin. c. the resulting geographical dis- crepancies are manifest in early monuments. jfor : e. kindred At first there was sturdy resistance. The evidence of inscriptions and of grammarians indicates that from the beginning to the end of Roman history speech was constantly changing. had a levelling and speech in Italy ^ See Chronologie 133 and I16-120. that the language carried effect. it blended more languages.2 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the alteration being most rapid in the earliest and the latest Furthermore.g2eaking peoples_ were not_ homogeneous. however. 464. The Social War. Pomex. but especially p^eriods. and Oscan was used in inscriptions until the first century of our era. has always been in an unstable condition. and to some degree in the peninsula. The before the Social War. The Latin tongue. Digitized may be Oscan. of Latium was adopted by tribes using. Africa.^ When Latin conquered. alL southern Italy was under Oscan influence. It should be remembered. xi marks the parts of ica. and there must have been a variety of accent. Europe where Latin in its modern forms is now spoken. Latm. ilex are perhaps Umbrian possibly Etruscan Lat.'' In the outlying provinces. and there was little or no mixture. but there doubtless were still noticeable differences in pronunciation and even in vocabulary. moreover. piimex. nevertheless a few native words were kept. until the 90-89 B.

%J3] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. _excegting ^reece andthe £entiiry after Christ..^ Vulgar Latin naturally developed differently in ^ * Cf Lai. What wecalTVuIit gar Latin is the speech of the middle classes. and from the slang of the lowest quarters of the city.. under the Empire the variations probably came to be no greater than those /the^kter colonies a now to be found in the English of the British Empire. ugper and that of the lower and^coiintry speech.^ fields: it continues the Classic. was completelyTaFinized by the fourth "^ "" of With the beginnings culture and literature there came inevitably a divergence between the language of . provinces was not identicial: it represented different chronological stages and different local dialects of jI^aUc^Latin .t&L. the earlier acquisitions received a more popular. XV-XXX. more offtcial speech. Spr. the common idiom. 1 . not the primitive. Roman territory. while popular usage tends to quick change. vowel is it Neither the dialect of the slums or of the us of not a few urban and rustic grammarians distinct tell vulgarisms that are not perpetuated in the It is Romance tongues. was constantly developing away from the archaic standard of elegant parlance. Cf Cooper . throughout the Republic and the Empire. as It is grew out of early Classic Latin. . 3 i\2_ik^_J£X?. not an independent offshoot of Old Latin: system. 3. 463-464. drawing away . and is also between city Injatfi. Republican and early Imperial times educated speech became highly^ artificial. Administration and ImiHtary service tended to obliterate distinctions. Digitized by Microsoft® . though affected by all of these. from the consciously polite utterance of cultivated society. . We may say in general that the East.from the everyday language on the other hand. from the brogue of the country.the classes. Literary influence conservative and refining.

^ Ctassic and VulgarXatin. YjJgar Lsatijl. Digitized by Microsoft® ._jjid an abundant use of prefixes and. due partly to phonetic but mainly to syntactic causes. Sittl and Hammer. such as articles and prepositions. If we compare that the latter find also a gre at sim plification of inflections. is most sharply differentiated from Classic Latin when schools decayed „ . some to a desire for differentiation (which lowers i to e to make it more remote from i ).4 . * For a history of the Latin language. roughly The speaking. suftseSWe 4. Pirson and Carnoy also.JLQmance languages _begin. progressed.A-P. we may put it. and the diphthong at is reduced to e). see Lat. some to unknown reasons! WEy~" for instance. until the dialects of distant localities became mutu^ ally unintelligible. become virdis.^ any definite date must be arbitrary.seventh century of our era. . we shall see was always tending to become more flexible and more explicit. ai almost in iCf. in the last few centuries of this epoch. Althou. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. tqa^bout -6oo . from about 200 b. ^l^ various localities. some to a tendency to assimi^tejmlike adjacent sounds (so ipse is spoken isse. period lasts. then. some of which can be ascribed to an inclination to discard those parts of words that are not necessary for their identification (as vetulus when viridis. we observe certain changes in pronunciation. for African Latin. We rfote an. B. Spr. .^ The differentiatign. being accelerated and the military organization was broken. inj^e^ixth Jix .enormous development of modifying and determining words. Furthermore. i6i. c.ALjUus--poin-t we ~may_ say that Vulgar XiSi^ stops and the . vedus). the universal inclination of language to diverge was reinforced by the original habits of the diverse speakers and by such peculiarities of native accent as hacl survived. Kiibler Archiv VIII. as far as the levelling inEuence of schot^l and army permitted.

The Text and a Study of the Latinity. 35. and W. . 301 G. Die Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. 25 ff. "See P. A. . the A^endix Probi^ z. Audollent. Gioixr. ^Cf. E. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. Bechtel. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Heraeus. see Stolz. P. a few texts w ritten by persons of scanty education. a considerable iragment of a description of travel in the East. ^ Utilized by E. in the eighth century. Meyer-Liibke. Le veritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. . S. Zur Mulomedicina Chironis in Archiv XII. 278.— An become^ o. Lommatzsch. in Archiv I. Beiheft 7. S. possib^'as early as the third century'. Aussprache des Latein. Paris in Melanges Renier 301. Sprachgziellen und Wortquellen des lateiniscken Worierbuchs in Archiv I. and VII. Spr. 5* Our sou rces of information' concerning the„ current spoken La tin are^ the statements of grammarians^. G. of the^TConraHcel languages. Foerster and KDfSiiitbdnll>fr. 6t. 1902. 1885. Grober.* All of these are to be used with caution. 55-67. 4 For the chronology of developments. Itinera hierosolymitana sceculi mi-viii. made in France There is an interesting collection of Defixionum Tabellce. 641 K. 1902 . "See 119. in inscriptions and early manu- ^scripts'.Jists„jof JacQlxacJtjOTmjs. 1866-68. see G. Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. the so-called Glossary of Reichenau. Archiv XIV. 401.Mili/BaoilSisches Uebungsbuch. Fcerster in Wiener Studien XIV. Silvia Peregrinatio. Geyer. For a brief account of the Latin grammarians.' spells by A. a problem as yet unsolved. 367. Schuchardt. Die Appendix Probi. Zur Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. . and the establishment of unattested Vulgar Latin words. Cf. 204 if. Seelmann. Hetzer in Zs. 5 universally be came is e. Lot. Ueber die Latinitat der Peregrinatio ad loca sancta in Archiv IV. andrmosTim- ^portant o f_all. XXX). the nonClassic forms.glossaries aDi. F6rotin. Zur Sprache der Mulomedicina Chironis in . 'See W. the occasional lapses in cultivated authors. the subsequent developments. W. 1904. Melanges Boissier 5 W. Herseus. while au did not in Latin generally. Wolfflin. 455-461. 259 M.iSgS.. some . E. early and late. 1899. 551. fourth century^. Of ^speciaTvalue are the Peregrinatiqjidjqtasancta. list of spellings. the distinction of learned and popular words.ijecurring. by an uneducated woman (probably a Spanish nun) of the latter good and bad pajt of the. . * Used by H. E..

puteus. in. 539 —Jiiicum)^ 424£f. VOCABULARY. ~ technical words not found in literature. viridis. {Hie — lamna)^ So?^' {lacusta — mille)\ IV. so cams. longus. {damnum — dui)^ in Arckiv: I. {tabanus — ziruiare). Herasus. amare. polite language. Digitized b^Wlicrosoft® . reconstructed out of Romance words. suus)'. [abbreviare buttis). 233 ff. bonus. II. 255. 138 {hmdus — iticem). Grober. too. ff. bene. A. {minacicE — nutrire). 185-203. ff. Die Sprache der romiscken Kinderstube in Archiv XIII. This class includes a great mass of words. pater. ii6fif. For an approximately complete vocabulary. VulgSrlateinische Substrate romanischer . (eber III. WORDS USED ALIKE IN CLASSIC AND VULGAR LATIN. 149. iiyS. audire.) Worter ff. popular use tends to restrict them. to speak. has many poetic figures and many abstract terms unknown to the crowd. see G. yj^ (supplement. altus. . (Jlagrare —gTttta). the nucleus of the language. ff. 264ff. 422 {pbedire — putidus)-. 2'/$^. 453ff. For a thorough discussion of reconstructed forms. mater. Korting. Examples are : 7. ^See Densusianu. Lateinish-romanisches Worterbuch. male. W.iooff. On the other hand. vendere. quando. the vulgar idiom has homely metaphors of its own and numerous specific. ff. 125 {quadraginta — rascu' {reburrus — runcare). 1901. filius. see G. dicere. — icaccubus — curbus). V. forming. Die romische Soldatensprache in Arckiv XH. WORDS AND THEIR MEANINGS. 1. speech of the literary and fashionable classes should differ from that of the common people so Literature inclines to extend it is in all civilized communities. si. pants. It is natural that the The the senses of words. (sabanum — lare)^ 234 VI.I. 6. ff. vacca .

Many words kept their literal but lost their metaphorical sense: captio ='a. Bayard 63-202. but there are some examples /(7r^j = 'strong' in all 10. not 'sophism' nor 'deceit'. Bon. SENSE RESTRICTED. se piicare=' go'. Dubois 220. collocare= 'go to bed'.. part'.' to^x^a .. be classified under the heads of restriction or extension of meaning. perhaps Cf. etc. however. Regnier 24. : senses. 243. 286). Very many Classic words are used in Vulgar Latin with a different sense: comparare =^h\xy'. G. 1 a. Pirson 257-258 . focus=^iix&\ paganus= 'pagan'./22J£Sfe 46.^ The general use of a word in an extended sense is not common. Capit a ssumed the meaning of fieri potes t: R.'. etc. 286. IN CLASSIC 7 a. ingenium := 'trick'. lectio =^ 'dxoifin' machinari='g[mA. 283. ro6ur= 'o^. 272. Digitized by Microsoft® . Archiv XII.11. mulier='-vi\ie'. 'text'. of the examples can ». defi' 9. G.. non capit prophetam perire. 351—352. = 'rebJiKe§. Hoppe Most 48. Bon. SENSE EXTENDED. necare = Bon. yUloi:^. etc. i ^ns— 'chM'. Bayard 105. words.'k'. nor 'best b. orbus—'hXmd'. non capit utique videri Deus. viaticum = ']ox\xntY'. 235-328. hcec eestimare non capit. assume to the old one: Bechtel 137..ct of taking'. 'authority'. a word assuming a more or concrete signification {^se : icognatus\=z ' brother-in-law coUocare^ 'put to bed' dominicus =: divinus . not 'strength'. Per. 269-270. . § 10] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. tractatus= 'treatise'. nite This happens frequently. WORDS USED DIFFERENTLY AND IN VULGAR LATIN. 8. Bon. and also 'continue'. Quillacq 54-79. Dubois 185-225.'» Many Pirson 260-262. new meaning in addition ambulare= 'march'.

. fletus. Poetic aurora. WORDS USED Numerous all in m CLASSIC BUT NOT IN VULGAR LATIN. G. ergo.per. etc. unus = 'a'. facere (time)'. 258 fif. the French ilj> a. quoad. etc. Very many adverbs and conjunctions dis-"~\ I appeared saltern. although it is common in the Peregrinatio. is very rich in abstract nouns (G. quomodo) assumed new functions. Classic ployed at the vulgar speech or went out of use before the earliest Jubere.. 418. autem. Ecclesiastical Latin. hand.13. etc. wW«/« = 'miracles' (in imitation of the Greek).. hamo has the sense of French on. 66. 422 (in area Noe . 3. 328. ita. ^2S= 't^he' and 'he'. Bon. 391-397. Waters Ch. When lost terms were needed for literary or other purposes. utrum. satis = 'much'. donee.). populus «/««^«j= 'common people'. = 'pass Regnier 27 {quadraglnta dies fecit). postquam. apud. quin. Bechtel 144.tes moral obligation. igitur. replicare= 'reply'. tamen must have been sed. etc. del>ere 'mdica. [§ n 'go'. Dubois 301-308). to be sure. . vel. and quasi. horrescere. quippe. sive. /V/-. Regnier 20. Dubois 218. Bayard 94. but most of them are new formations. . Latin words either were not em- II. ^: moribund. de. proles. Bechtel 127 {habebat de eo. ut. quia.loco forsitan quattuor milia. 58 {bella res). at. etc. 37. quod.. 38. : . Bon.. Unde came to mean 'and so'. quidem. Bayard 83. G. 204. 44. quoque. etiam.". Per. they were either borDigitized by Microsoft® . res is used of persons. Dubois. Per.8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. monuments of the Romance languages: so funus. nam. Pirson 255 ^^l^lj^j^^ ^^^^ habuit serpentes).25. Regnier 29 {in came paucas habet virgines sanctimoniales). Waters Ch. fascia means a measure of land. enim. terms and some abstract nouns were not needed: frondifer. So various prepositions and conjunctions (as ad. Bechtel 144. diu. cum. an.

tanti. French. humerus by spatula. R. clerical 9 rowed from Classic or Latin (as nobilis) or replaced by new constructions (as *carrica for onus).§ 13] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. senex to vetulus.. Spanish. R. caput to testa''. and by villa. 313. R. . to genitores. casa occurs only in Italian inscriptions. Cf Zauner 41-42. Rumanian. urbs by civitas. Italian. G. 324. Dubois 212. Indus to jocus. domus by casa.. 'dwelling') only in . Olcott XXV. ignis hy focus. avus by *aviolus. *filiaster. ^-j 2 parentes . diminutive of avis). 272. French and Provencal mansio and hospitale. sol According to Olcott XVIII. 336. . Portuguese prefer casa. os to bucca. cur to quare.2. mansio. crus gave to gamba. magnus to grandis. noverca by *matraster. . Portuguese. Provenjal. Occasionally the substitute aliquis yielded in part to res -vi&y was apparently a slang word: nata. 12. French. 337. emere by comparare. When Latin had two words nearly synonymous.338.. ^capitia (<^caput) by Spanish and . edere in the main to manducare. R. R. Provengal. Among the Romance languages. Bechtel i^o^gena to gabata. vitrUus hypatraster. equus to caballus. a. . ^ * Caput (or rs. mansio ( Roman. Rjetian. R. Italian. 345. Italian. Sometimes the survivor was far from a synonym in Classic Latin: discere was displaced hy apprendere. cf. privignus by 13. 472 ferre to portare.\ Dubois 209.*avica. some nouns by derivative adjectives: avis ^ by aucellus. Some words were replaced by diminutives. ^ Zauner 41-4. R. omnes by toii. Dubois 220.Va&T* capum) is preserved by Rumanian. testa by Cf. hospitale^. nunc by hora. i'^o^^ tot hy quanti. Sometimes a term was replaced by a word not found in Classic Latin at all: anser-wAs driven out by *auca (<. Digitized ^^^ by Microsoft® .. one often crowded out the other: atrium gave way to cars. 472. R. Raetian. b. SYWOHYMS. SUBSTITUTES. For mansio.

The place of cum was taken various substitutes. . ergo. ^w^ by diurnus. Occasionally. dies largely . igitur. 15. Latin: G. Some of these were probably old Digitized by Microsoft® . quoniam were often replaced by quomodo. infemus.lo in part An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and other phrases. Ab was made unnecessary by de and per.). mammula-:=^^zxiA\aoVs\t. Dubois 147 {novellus'). yielded to apud. which replaced /^r and pro in Spain and to a considerable extent in northern Gaul. paucum tempus for haud diu)._ Cis.x\naucella. Cf. Fro. by subsitution. etiam. R. apud-<n2iS partially supplanted by adj cum. 121-130 {cereolus. too.). infemus. G. in Gaul. sed. Autem. utrum were assumed by si. pra. doubtless under the influence of per. cuculla. words were replaced by phrases: diu by longum tempus (Bon. schedula. etc. neptilla. R. conjunctions. tamen. by other words. appear in Classic Vulgar Latin evidently had many words that do not texts. Gl. WORDS USED IN VULGAR BUT NOT IN CLASSIC LATIN. 403. quod. 184-185. most part by vetulus. etsi. etc. Olcott 250-263 {gemelli. Many prepositions. 472 mane h^ Diminutives were extremely common in late matutinum. 4. R. frequent also: R. PARTICLES. 203. Reich. 108-121 {brevis. erga. quando. 201. Adjectives used as nouns were etc. ver by vemum tempus. credens. and adverbs were lost 14. 100-107 {arida. ut were ousted by functions of an. vetus for [§ 15 by *soUculus.). ne. ex gave to de. Italy. c. the by quando and other conjunctions. and Dacia preferred /^r. Bon. became *por. Densusianu. d'lJ way pro and per. etc. hiems by hibernum. 395-396.). to propter were displaced southern Gaul.

atta. Bayard 179 (applied . 421. Substrate ficatum. Audollent 199. 270-271. *rettna=: 'rein'.. *prodis. Archiv XIII. fin. nonnus.. pa(J>)pa. XVII. Rom. pudoris finis. etc. Waters Ch. apparently a cross then m. tata. 468-469 (^quid enim prode est homini. adj. cf. Pr. hoc enim prode fit vobis. detached 176-177). mots. It. etc. Onomatopees et Revue des langues romanes XLIV. 63. 97.). 186. Archiv XII. gente). Cyprian to the bishop of Carthage). ing 'touch'. a. It. 151— 152.g. Likewise words made by ono- matopoea. prode. cloppus Densusianu 196. fuit prode illis. Korting (found in the 7th century). 237. Vr. expressifs in M. potis est = potest. 151-153. 156-157. Pirson 244. and f. finis honoris > St. Some native words are rarely attested. and 'go' ( adj. 154. etc. Neue II. gent. although they were doubtless in common use:'. so not improbably the original of the Romance words mean'find'. *gentis. Digitized by Microsoft® . 154. (Fr.. E. as *miaulare.§ 17] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. (Fr. sed non genttlis. mamma. Pirson 243. . trepalium. Substrate V. gavia (used by Pliny). drappus. tatus. Ch. Archiv VIII. A few that must have existed are not attested at all: *refusare. II. fine fino). baro — 'athlete'. serutinus. Archiv XIII. from the noun finis in such phrases as honorum finis. 16. 158. Grammont. pappus = 'gra. between genitus and from prodest (cf. battalia.adj.. Densusianu 190. 234.ndta. Archiv XIII. and perhaps those of the words meaning 'gape'. SubstrateY.). Densusianu 196. 17. norma. § 405). some Were borrowed from other languages. Archiv XIII. fins onors. Archiv XIII. 53. 106. (so. R. Some of the unattested words were obviously late developments: *finis. some were late creations. bxmca. Archiv XIII. ii native terms that do not happen to occur in the works preserved. . NATIVE WORDS. Herzog in Bausteine e. circare = 'hnnV .

Introduction) found their way into Latin: bannus. We find a large number of Greek words. b. society. Bechtel 95 {cata mansiones. sabbatizare. schema. alberca. *ausare. FOREIGN WORDS. such as alauda. G. According to Olcott XIX. 66. Some were introduced by fashionable etc. Regnier VIII. cata. *dulcior = 'sweetness'. confessor = 'martyr'.. African Latin was freest in word formation. Dubois 144. This subject chapter. Digitized by Microsoft® . vertragus. *coraticum. *nivicare. Gram. 44. dulcor. there are many Greek words in Petronius: hepatia. zelare. G. cf. sagma. a distributive preposition. thesaurizare . some of popular creation. Reich. Bon. Cf. prophetizare. as allegorizare. catechiblasphemare . scandalizare. and not a few new derivatives. 225. zare. More came in through the Christian vocabulary: angelus. §71. Pirson 236). eunuchizare. folUa. anathematizare. some made by Christian writers.. Judaizare. few Celtic terms were adopted. which affected familiarity with Greek. Waters Ch. 226. numerous verbs in -izare. *man{u)aria. Waters Ch. (cf. *soliculus. will be discussed at length in the following may be given here: post-verbal dolus <dolere.. vict(u)alia. 211. A werra. Very many Greek terms used by ecclesiastical writers never became popular. * abbellire . apparently borrowed by popular speech: amygdalum. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. dactylus. baptizare. 12 An 18. haunjan. Gl. but a few examples Gl. prophetare. colaphus. 205-226: anathema. colaphizare. a few of them on the sense of 'every'. verging 247 {cata mane mane). R. Reich. carricare. [§ 19 Late Latin was rich in derivatives. hapja. *vir{t)dura. 224. haribergum. wfltan 19. modernus. More Germanic words (of. cata pascha). evangelizare. Bon. diaconissa. as baptizatio.

1. which in- the literary language creased. substantives taken from the roots of verbs). Regnier etc.or bi. in-. a. 22. Vulgar Latin is very rich in derivatives and comit has many affectionate diminutives. 170 . PREFIXES. who were especially addicted to prepositional compounds with con-.§ 22] An Introduction to VulgaW Latin. then prefixes. AND PRONOUNS. Cooper XXX ff. (pairs in : VII (blamed by St. facility of word formation. Late writings almost all abound in abstract nouns (Cooper 1-2). Cooper XXXIV. Bis. —itta)} Petronius shows a fondness for long derivatives. 246-247. XL VI. 13 DERIVATION. In strictly Classic texts there appear to be no 20. 98. Bon. G. B. pounds . etc. 21. sub-.was used with some adjectives and appar: ently with a few nouns bisaccium. 2. G. 430-693 Densusianu 156-173. whereas in reality both come from a primitive verb. " Cooper XXXVI..* popular speech preserved and This freedom of formation was abused by African authors. " Cooper 246-297. Digitized by Microsoft® . ' » bimaritus. 61). I. satire). ADJECTIVES. 367. some of them made with new suffixes (as —icca. After the model of cantus — cantare. 35. Vok. bisacutus. POST-VERBAL NOUNS. as canere. such as gaudimonium (Waters Ch. which the noun seems to come from the derivative verb. saltus — saltare. '^ . and finally composite words. really living suffixes \ but the lost.* We shall consider first postverbal nouns (i.^ PREFIXES USED WITH NOUNS.e. a fictitious primitive noun was derived from a number of verbs in Vulgar Latin and in the Romance languages so dolus from dolere. Augustine). Petronius. next suffixes. See Gram. 130 . II.


An Introduction
Ad-, con-, de-,

to Vulgar Latin.


dis—, ex-, in-, re:

and some others were
*adaptus ; commixtius,

occasionally used to form adjectives

G. 160 defamatus ; *disfactus; exsucus; inanimatus ; *replenus.
Cf. G.




Ac-, atque-,

ecce-, eccu-,

met- were used as demonstrative

prefixes to



pronominal adjectives and to adverbs. Eccu— is ecce eum; its origin being forgotten, it was used in

Vulgar Latin as a synonym of ecce. Met, primarily a suffix, came to be used as a prefix through such combinations as semet ipsum, understood as se metipsum. In archaic writings
reinforced demonstratives as eccum, eccam,


ecca, eccillum., eccillam, eccillud, eccistam

are not



Vulgar Latin examples are ac Classic texts they are rare. sic; atque ille-; ecce hie; * eccu iste ; * eccu sic. Substrate VI,





Cf. A.

Kohler, Die Partikel

ecce in

Archiv V,

See §§ 65, 66.



25. Ad-, con—, de-, dis—, ex—, in—, re— were freely used, disbeing mainly a Vulgar Latin prefix: abbreviare, G. 179 * a.d;

cap(i)tare ; adgenuculari, R. 181; adpretiare, R. 181, G. 180;
adpropiare, R. 181, G. 180; adunare, R. 182; confortare, R. 185,

* cominitiare ; complacere, R. 184; deaurare, G. 182 * disjejunare; exaltare, G. 183; excoriare, G. 182; impinguare, G. 181


G. 183; *infurcare; recapitulare, G. 185; *requcerere.
con—, de- lost their special significance;

Ad—, ad— was particularly

favored in Spain, con- in Italy.
ally there

Cf. Lat. Spr. 487.

was a change

of prefix


was used with the

sense of expectare, * convitare sometimes took the place of invitare; dis-

was often substituted

for ex-.


Ab-, contra-, per—, sub-, super supra-, tra trans— were

by Microsoft®

§ 3i]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


used occasionally: * aboculare ; *contrafacere; *perdonare ; subG. 185; * subdudere ; subsannare, R. 199, G. 187; superabundare, G. 187; * super—* suprafacere ; *trabucare ; *transaudire,

annare; transplantare, G. 188.
27. Extra- was sometimes used and 2«/ra— in Italy: * extrabuccare ; 28.
in Italy

and Dacia, infra-

* infraponere ; *intratenere.


e-, ob-, prce-,

pre-, pro-, retro— were apparently

not used to form new verbs in the popular spoken language,
although some of them are occasionally so employed by late
writers: opprobare, G. 184; prcedesiinare, G. 184


prolongare, G. 184.



sometimes replaced by ad—:


> addormire.

Foris and minus came to be used as prefixes in some

Foris was confounded Gaul with the Frankish _;?r- (= ver-) verslahen = Old Fr. See G. Baist, Frdnkisches fir— im altesten Franzosiforbatre. schen in Romanische Forschungen XII, 650; cf. Rom. XXX, For this use of minus, compare the phrase minus est^ 633. caritas in quantum adest in quantum deest, Regnier 109


* minuscredere.






autem minus


Cf. § 245.


Some verbs

take a double prefix

adimplere; coexcitare,

R. 207

(cf. Quintilian, coexercitatus); deexacerbare, R. 207

*deexcitare; *exeligere.




the restoration of the


form of

the primitive verb, was a regular process in Vulgar Latin (cf. §139): aspargo for aspergo is blamed by Velius Longus, £don

Cyprian, Bayard 3; commando is, according to Velius Longus, the usual form, rather than commendo,



used by


S. 60, ifidon

131; consacrati


occur in inscriptions,




Bon. 49°;

^^f^'^i ^30^°





An Introduction
Bon. 490.

to Vulgar Latin.



Computo, 58-64, Bon. 486-493. prdsto seem to cdnsto, consuo, erigo, exeo, infio,

have been regarded as simple verbs

S. 64.

primitive form of prefixes; but this

Late writers were in the habit of restoring the full, was doubtless merely a

matter of spelling, and did not indicate the



In TertuUian, Cyprian, and some others there is generally no assimilation of the prefix other writers, such as

Gregory of Tours, apparently used both assimilated and unassimilated forms. Bayard 12-15: adpetere, conpendium, inproius, obfero, subplanto. Bon. 178-188: adtonitus, conmittere,
inlatus, obprimere, subcuvibere.



in —are; occasionally


Nexhsfrom nouns^ generally end
sometimes in

in -iare or —ire;

which was eventually sup-

planted in Italy and in Gaul by —izare (for pronunciation see

§339)- This last ending came from Greek -dfiv through borrowed words, such as baptizare. For a list of Greek verbs in -i^etv adopted by Christian writers, see R. 248-249 (cf. §19 above); some new formations were used, as catechizare. In early Latin this same ending appears as -issare (attidsso, rhetorisso): see A. Funck, Die Verba auf issare und izare in

Archiv III, 398.


— * dom'nizare;

—plagiare —


oculare; pedinare; plantar.e; potionare; * trepaignire ;



follicare ;

* nivicare ;


Cooper 205-245, Dubois 151-162, Quillacq 41-46, Bonnet 471-474.

"Cf. R. 154-162.

by Microsoft®


§ 36]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

in —are,


Verbs from

and perfect participles e.r\A

—iare, —ire; also in' -icare (cf. albicare), —itare (cf. debilitare,
visitare), —escere


—iscere (cf. canescere, mollescere); possibly


angiistare; *ausare; captivare

confortare ; falsare

gravare ; levare ; * oblltare ; rictare ; Usare ; * abbellire ; tiare ; * captiare ; humiliare ;

— * vanitare —


alleviare; * al-

unire ;


Icetiscere ; vilescere ;

— amari— *blan-




verbs from perfect participles (frequentatives, etc.)

replace the original verbs: adjuvare "> adjutare ; audere'^ausare; canere'^cantare ; uti>usare.

lost their frequentative or inchoative sense







156. in -icqre


Verbs from other verbs end


fodere), —itare (cf. clamitare <,clamare')\ also in -escere, -Iscere
(cf. florescere,

* bullicare

< buUere





inchoative force:

apparescere ;

Vulgar Latin has many old frequentive verbs G. 178-179, Cooper 205. There are some late diminutives in —aculare, —tculare, -uculare, through diminutive nouns or adjecWe find also tives (ci. periculari <,periculum'): * saltlculare. some miscellaneous imitative formations * expaventare (and some others) apparently after the analogy of prasentare * misculare perhaps after maculare.


Greek verbs in -av,

-eiv, etc.,

when taken

into Latin, reg-

KvP€pvav>gubemare ; pXa(r<j}rifidv'>b/asphemare. Cf. Claussen 795. But ^aXS.av>psallere, perhaps through the analogy oifallere: Claussen 796. Germanic verbs in -an or -on regularly passed into the first


in —are:

conjugation in Latin





guidare ; roubon




"jR^etcA. ;

in -jan

went into the fourth
It. guamire. Digitized by Microsofi®


> hatire,


warnjan >

G. R. Cf. participles H ia (as benevolentia. 40. taurellus. -igo. Digitized by Microsoft® . volatilia. used to form adjectives and also nouns. 79-102. 74). -ago. were used The Christian writers are especially rich Waters Ch. tives. -are. to form nouns from nouns: g. Cf. came to be used as a feminine singular: *facienda. The commonest endings -a. Ch. apparently. was very fond of diminutives: adules- centulus. as a feminine singular with an augmentative and pejorative signification. Cf. Cf. * calamarium. porcellus. was extended: breviarium. Olcott 176-182. are the following: : Ch. used to — Haag 41 form f eminines nepta. 1 [§ 37 SUFFIXES FOR NOUWS. -ugo were characteristic of rustic speech: —al. 59. used to designate a place (as gallinarium). * credeniia . socera. -affcum * coraticum. as victualia (cf. placentia. -arius: see Adjectives. : -anda. Vulgar in deriva- Petronius. -entia. Olcott 187-189. -ans. essentia. Cooper 1-91. 355. 49-52. Some go endings. -^a. -enda. Olcott 73-78. 6\. Bon. -dnus: see Adjectives. G. -dtus. 31-37. Quillacq 15-31. fragraniia . -antia. Bon. the collective plural -ilia. —aria : see -ia. in a collective sense. as senatus (common in Petronius. e. *sperantia. 39. was extended: coxale. in Italy and Gaul * canalia •< canis. was extended: clericatus. Waters Ch. for nouns and adjectives: liminare. Dubois 99-136. were used to form abstract nouns from verbs: Cf. 95. etc. -ens: see Adjectives. -ar. bonatus. iCf. Olcott 238-239. especially names of parts of apparel (as bracchiale). *pollicare. as miraUlia. *ducatus.8 — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 366. iio-iii). Ch. b. (as viaticum) was extended. neuter plural of the gerundive. a neuter plural. Pirson 123. Latin. 453-463.. -alia. —ata : see -ta. was used. etc. made from present significantid). 95. too. R. -arium. G. -die. G. Bon. Cooper in. .i in 37.

Cf. abstract extended *fortia fortia n. = ' nouns (as victoria).). -Tela. —eum : -ia. -tcca (as Bodicca. Pr. —eus: see Adjectives. 1-2 1. unaccented. and came to be used as a diminutive suffix in Spanish. perhaps also *-ingus and locally -ancus. For -accus. from Greek -ia through Christian writers and speakers monarchla. manica. used to form feminines (as avus. Horn- —iceus. Bonica. ramenc . vitulus. it was then extended to Spain. -cius: see Adjectives. 283ff. wvicella. anellus . consirier. cula. see —ium. possibly of Ligurian origin (Rom. II. 481. It was often attached to words in -arius. cf. See A. and Nouveaux (aise no. animalico . Pir- son 123. was often used beside -Ulus. -ia. -crum (as miraculum. see A. -enda : see —anda. Arbonenca. porculus. —ens: see Adjectives..§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. : used (cf . -incus or -inguus (as propinguus). —ans. R. diminutive. Les substantifs en -ier et le essais de philologie fran- Rom. somewhat extended: Old Fr. 333ff. —tea: see Archiv fiir das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Litera: turen CXIV. -ellus. avid): neptia. etc. -ia. 19 -cellus.. etc. Sardinia. being used in pet names. lavacrum) were occasionally used: *genuculum. ing in Zs. etc. Portuguese. -Mum. etc. G. and Dacia. 31-37. Cf. avicula. mane 76). 591. to form pi. as desiderium. Karica) first appears in Africa in feminine proper names. XIX. was probably Cf. navicella. -uc(c)us. -occus. unaccented.' *libraria. porcellus. So calamellus. -ensis: see Adjectives. Olcott 131-134. Olcott 173-176. -iccus. Cf. § 173. was mighty deeds of God Koff'. 457. . was used beside -cuius: So * domnicellus. and Rumanian: Sp. -entia : see -antia. —icius: see Adjectives. Rum. It. hence an ending -fflWa. diminutive (as castellum). XX. navi- —ceus. 335. which lost its diminutive force: anulus. suffixe -arius. was used for many new words: Pr. —ceus. Gram. XXXI. Einf. Valinca. XXXV. philosophia . Digitized by Microsoft® solingo. vitellus. 91-92. Thomas.- -culum. 170. It may have arisen in the first place from a childish pronunciation of -iclus.

grassetto. Pirson 226: Julianeta^ Nonnita^ N'onniit Its origin is unknown. the i being short in Gaul. -otus. It. Germanissa. especially : diminutive nouns. W. Olcott see -iio. Zs. -0 {-onem). adjectives. originally used to indicate a characteristic (as Digitized btbo). was probably confounded. 251. lausenga. Olcott 200-204. cf. 56-59. bacito.. regards -dttus. it was freely used. R. much extended. -mum. so pythonissd). 22-25. Sp. but sometimes to form new adjectives to form domnina = 'young lady'. Fr. Einf. were extended. conjectures that have come from the Germanic ending that now appears as in such names as Heinz. Cusanca. Sagitta. etc. -monium. then resemblance. It came to be very widely used as a diminutive suffix for nouns. Pirson 228.20 Sp. used to form nouns from adjectives (as munditia -ies). Cf. Bonitta^ Caritta^ Julitta^ Livitta^ Suavitta. masculine Muritta. calcaneum) : see G. Fr. -io : 134-136. some new formations: ^dukissa. and also for adjectives. R. Montaninus) originally denoted appurtenance. -men. Nebitta. li. see —tUdo. then smallness. as a suffix for proper names: feminine tus. Cf. bonito. 343. § 172. -Uies. -iva : see Olcott 224-226. -tnus (as caninus. sometimes in Spain and Gaul. -eum (as cafitium. amourette. Florentinus . may have arisen from a childish pronun- ciation of -iclus -a: it may Meyer-Liibke. —monia: see Olcott 81-82. following. forms of -dtus. was used for some nouns and perhaps for adjectives (see -incus above): Pr. like littera beside litera. (Cooper XLV): *altitia. *granditia. vestimenium). Cooper 251. —itia. were both are rare in Rumanian -ities especially in the south . serpentinus. and central and northern Italy. especially -mentum : *gubernamentum. An It Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. (as paffiXurcra. -dttus as alternative Sardinia: nouns. . Olcott 123-131. -mentum. doucet. was by Microsoft® . -itUdo : —ium. Cf. with the -ing. -issa. from the Greek Cf. XXVIII. Raetia. Sp. fioretto. -ttas : see —tas. -laaa.. Zimmermann. Cf. a German patronymic ending. A. Attitta. was used for prophetissa. etc. -lius. generally long in the Spanish peninsula and in -Ittus. in inscriptions in Italy -ittus first appears during the Empire and Dacia. -icca. camerlingo. in [§ 37 some regions. used to form nouns from verbs (as certdmen. Olcott 78-80.

beveire. 102-106. common in St. used to form abstract nouns (as candor. —sorium: see —torium. boccone. timor. unknown etc. later -dta. —tas {-tdtem). etc. 44-45. G. was apparently used : first of young animals. XIII. in 21 commonly employed diminutive: g&lo. *nutritio. *lucor. casotta. -sa. mensor). So deitas from deus. G. 222. was freely employed :ya/jfi'aj. lectio. *deUta. Jerome. 475. nativitas . —tor. -Sttus. 85- Bayard 24-25. —sa : see —ia. -sio i^tionem. in. andata. -ittus). trobaire. used to designate the agent -orium . -sorem). 122. revoluUo. someDigitized by Microsoft® . especially in Gaul: dulcor. recubitus . 63. 82-83. Bayard 19-22. viror. used to denote the agent (as Cf. -tus and -j«j were preferred in Dacia (Cooper XLV) collecta. *perdtta. see —torium. Olcott 2-23. narraius: cf. -sus: see —ta. R. *sentor. —sus.). *reddita. i. ostensor. Gaul often as a 56. 88. Cf. and were reinforced —ta.fossato. Cyprian. —sor: see -ior. G. used to form abstract nouns from verbs (as mansio. —trix. G. and other late writers: abbreviatio. sapor). -tus. 69-82. 223. started perhaps with such forms as defensa.G. are very common in St. aggravatio. 453. Pr. was employed for many new formations of the same kind. *movita. St. It. C. perfect participles by fourth declension nouns in -tus. It. Collin in Archiv XIII. venuta. Cf. *vendita. Cf. as collectus. —Stus. Bayard 19-22 (very -tio. potto). *flator. R. —sor (—torem. Substrate IV. -sorium. -tricem. -(orium. aquilotto. purltas . -iita. 503-504 {dolor. Olcott 33-51. Olcott amdtor. as an augmentative or pejorative. prensio. origin (cf. Fr.. then as a general moderate diminutive It.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. —sio : see -ito. Olcott 58-69. 55-63. used to make abstract nouns from adjectives. as *annatd). Olcott 83-87. They were considerably used to make abstract nouns from verbs (and —ata was sometimes attached to nouns. trinitas. Cyprian). G. used to form from verbs nouns denoting place. were very freely employed (but show few traces in Ru- manian : Cooper XLV) : necdtor.. : -or (-orem). feminine perfect participles with a feminine noun understood. -sionem). *flavor. R. 45-56. remissa. 83. Cf. etc. -or {-oreni). of see -tor. ostensio. 415. : extensa. aiglon. used as nouns. In Gaul these nouns came to be feminine: Bon. 88-122. R. —sura: see —ilra. See Archiv V. e.

[§ 38 ex- times instrument (as dormitorium.)u~^ gumma. '^planura. *frig' dura . ossulum. -e. -ura and -t-ura. boletus. cursorium). -tura : see —ura. influenced by olere. -11. ^•vir'dura. Olcott 51-58. was used for a few new formations *alaudula. in popular words gave a feminine -ma (Claussen 796-797) > f -pos preceded by a consonant became -fr (Claussen : 797): 'AWfai'5po$>- Alexander. mesSee sura. -pa cima. used to fortitudd). Bon. -tuda (-tiidinem). pressura. : in late Latin often replacing -or {fervor > *fervurd) were extended. 197. fell popular words either or became -a. ^pressorium. payLda'^ -(an in magida. or -i (Claussen 799) TT^Trepi'^ piper. Kbii. —a. instead of -is (Claussen 798) pausis "^pausa. from adjectives was extended. gave oleum. G. ixrikiipvWov. > p6KLT-qs -I in became -a (Claussen 798-799) : Xa/iirds -7)S. nutritura. oratorium. gave : millefolium. sinape . Sometimes the genitive or the accusative was taken as a basis. often taking the place of —culum (cubiculum much > accubitorium) (as *C(ssorium. *certitudo. 88-90. ^6-gy. tensura. -T7)s became -a. G. by popular etymology. see —ta. 38. the -OS. -ov regularly became respectively -us. -is. -ta or -us. Digitized by Microsoft® . Olcott 194-196. : gummi-s. -aius. Cf. natatorium. Olcott 69-73. 31-37. mensorium. § 171. used to form abstract nouns from perfect participles (as censura. -iita: Cf. later from adjectives also. popular words became -o (Claussen 797) X^wi'> lea. -s-iira. kviuj. Cf. stricturd). —tus: see -ta. -IS often clvain'^ sinapis. -tus (Claussen 798): rpiiKTijs '^ irucia . ornatura. etc. : became -a. reposito- rium. -as in popular words generally > lampa. R. were tended. Einf. missorium. There are a few exceptions for special reasons (Claussen 795) cXaiop. make abstract nouns servitudo. 40-45. etc. -Ala. diminutive (as vitulus).: : : 22 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. When Greek nouns were endings were adapted as follows: — borrowed by Latin. R. instead of the nominative (Claussen 800-802): iXi^avros'^ elepliantus . -um : Claussen 796.

Digitized by Microsoft® . -iceus -ictus. Bechtel 83. -oneus —onius (as extraneus. Romanus). § 39] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -ens {-an/em. Olcott 137-173. Quillacq 32-40. K^paffos : "^cerd-sus *cerSsus. Dubois 136-151. -arius. '^passans^ make adjectives and nouns from verbs: credens. to denote connection. Olcott 215-220. attached to nouns Cf. a combination of —arius — *capiianus. -aceus being employed later as an augmentative and pejorative suffix for adjectives and finally for nouns: chartaceus formaceus . and form nouns of occupation (as aquarius. used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as Cf. 164-195). 415. were extended (especially in rustic speech: Cooper iii). -Sris (as singularis) was extended: particularis. See E. : see A. The phonetic development of this suffix was apparently Gaul and some other regions the earliest examples are glan: 'Cf.). Eon. 23 The unaccented vowel of the penult was often changed in conformity with Latin habits (Claussen 802-806) Sl&^oKos'^ diabolus diabulus. used also in the masculine to gentarius. were extended: *cortilis. erroneus) were slightly ex- tended: *caroneus.i are the following: 39« The commonest endings : — —abllis see —hilis. used to make from nouns adjectives denoting material (as arenaceus. 144. arespecially in the latter function: . Olcott 226-238. Mapa"^ cithara ciihlra. Cooper 92-163 (diminutives. episcopalis. Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise etc. —dneus -anius. Bechtel 83. was used to form adjectives of place (occasionally time) and nouns of office: biduanus. Cf. etc. became and —icius (as sigillaricius). decanus. *werrarius. Olcott 182-187. Wolfflin. *Sicilianus. popular in Gaul 62 (Hacherece. G. mixticius. pelliceus). G. —anus. poiens). It. -actus -actus. tempaccio. Cf. was much extended. denoting appurtenance (as paganus. -tlis. -dlis. *ducaHs. Die Adjectiva auf -icius in Archiv V. peculiar in — apothecarius *marinarius.. * setaceus . -entem). *leviarius. spontaneus. —artcius. -ans. pomarius). imaginarius . and adjectives. aKfnriKot'^ scopulus . Thomas. SUFFIXES FOR ADJECTIVES. »?«i/«a»2«. 464-467. c. were used freely to ^ currens . geniilis). regalis. 143. iTTroTiiXij "^spatula. present participles (as amans. Tuscanus.

used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as/orenwas greatly extended. and Bausteine 641). was slightly extended (but is Rumanian: Cooper XLV). then —iers. I. especially in learned words it is Rumanian (Cooper XLV) acceptabilis . a perfect participle ending (as sceleraius). that -iarius was a. diligibilis . pronounced —arius. Cf.. Staaff. XXXI. 155. *Frankensis. —ceus -cius : see -iceus. A. Zimmermann. the derivatives being sometimes employed as nouns * cortensis . Cf. —iero are probably borrowed. Chairibertus repeatedly used for Charibertus by Fredegarius Haag 7. -bUis. the derivative was sometimes used as a noun: panne us .^* markensis . G. sis). too. the Proven9al cannot. Olcott 209-213. and that this pronunciation spread to the neo-Latin speakers. showing that while the French forms may perhaps be derived from -arius and -iarius. as -erius or —erus. real suffix (cf. Spanish -ero and Italian -aio are perfectly regular. § 227. Zimmermann. i^t. -i [§ 39 glandarius .24 deria <i_ An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Phon. 296 (cf. that -iarius and —carius may have established —iers in French. postulates -ar(i)us and -er{i)us. e. Zs. *faiatus. Gram. : tabilis . 222. and was much employed rare. *cariierribilis). anaiiarius. papyrius. try to derive all the forms from -arius. -atus. *pagensis. especially in popular speech. timo- Olcott 244-250. Cf. G. I. G. rare in — -{bUis : see —bilis. -ensis. R. XXI. suggests that the Germans in Gaul associated -arius with their proper names in -areis 01 —ari. or i before the a. Zs. Die Geschichte des lateinischen Suffixes — arius in den romaniscken Sprachen^ and E. -tbilis. by the analogy of the plural -ari. in an objective suffix used to make adjectives very common in Christian writers in late Latin. adjectives in the popular language: Cf. Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise 119. : -eus -ius. 137. Marchot. XXVI. Rom. 481 (cf. -ier. G. was much used to : make ratus.' exauguratus. G. Olcott 142). E. On the other hand. —iceus —icius: see dcetts. 34-36). Italian —aro is easily explained and Italian —iere. indicibilis. denoting material (as aureus). capabilis. Le suffixe -arius dans les langues romanes. — ia (6th century) and sorcerus <C^* sortiarius (8th century) the earliest forms in French and Provenyal are —ers. turrensis. vallensis. however. and when umlaut affected the a of these. Cf. Digitized by Microsoft® . 591. points out that many words have c. Olcott 339-344. 109-116. Thomas. fageus. from verbs (as amabilis. querceus. 135-140. R. —ens : see —ans. -er. or -dbilis. 159-160. P. is .

dune The usual endings are as follows: — num nunc. with the or of sense of -Wlis the gerundive: Pr. 241. ? I. volon. were used for some new formations: defensorius In Provengal and Rumanian -torius was extended. 552. = + . diminutive (as albulus). Cf Olcott .. (C. I. was used for -icus in some late words: *Angliscus. was used especially in words 25 : -icus (as medicus) cus. etc. § 40] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. probably a fusion of Greek -ktkos {Syriscus) and Germanic -isk (Thiudiscus). G. G. punidor. It was 'Cf. was a favorite with Christian writers. donique in cites eight examples of dune. 157-158. L. Cf. Ill. G. in St. Gram. new formations : *restivus.).) Cf. -sorius. —Andus (as jocundus) was used in Spanish and Proven9al for a few words Pr. turn tunc) was apparently used to form dum ce (cf. Digitized by Microsoft® . —s-or H ius (as notare notor notorius. from the Greek cleri- Cf. mansorius. -inus {as fraxinus) was used for a few adjectives: quercinus. -orius: see -iorius. made up of -t-or. -ulus. -ivus (as nativus) occurs in a few 224-226. -uius (as canutus) was somewhat extended: *camutus. -inus : see Nouns. 193-197 {angelice. -ittus: see Nouns. —ilis: see —dlis. Rum. Cooper 196-204. very common Jerome: G. sapidus. — . -iscus. lo) Pirson 252 IX. 155 (Tertullian)j *npidus.' 40. etc. Franz. one of them from Gaul. censere censor censorius). juratoriH. sliglitly -idus (as rapidus) was extended: exsucidus. —ce -c (as ne nee. Tiktin 597. 103-106. '*Frankiscus. Possibly *anc is derived from an in the same Substrate II. way: -e cf. 4810. ~ius : see —eus. 158. 467-470. —sorius: see —tortus —tortus. is Archiv I. SUFFIXES FOR ADVERBS. Olcott 220-223. Dubois 163-171. promptulus. : d. -oneus : see —dneus. Bon.

though much used in ecclesiastical Latin (G. -tim was favored by St. Fr. Gl. Gram. now now so. Many such mon speech. bocconi. as sometimes in Classic Latin. *bona mente. -0 and etc. II. Ch. whence such formations as Brittanice. * longa mente. a ginocchioni. In the Romance languages mente was sometimes added comment. It. etc. * ipsa mente. . adverbs were preserved in comhence other ad- jectives came to be used as adverbs (as W. XXIX. Cyprian (Bayard 34-35) and some other : writers. G.26 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -ter (as brevUer) was not preserved in common speech. being especially common in St. -um generally coincided in pronunciation (multum = multo. XXXIII. male. 42. caldo. but was not kept alive in popular Latin. 428. tarde. for emphatic effect. multum. Cf. to adverbs: insiememente. sola mente. however. noii). Ch. Zs. Lat. XXX. etc. Later. Then it was employed in a more general sense: pari mente. Adverbs of manner came to be made with the ablative This noun was first used with an adjective to denote a state of mind. 245. 337.' ' Waters Ch. 339- Repetition was used. -ones (in Italy also with- out the preposition) came into use Cf. and occurs also in Romanice. Jerome. This formation is not common. -iter: see -ter. Spr. . longe. in Rumanian. jocunda mente. *mala mente. modo sic modo sic^ nee sursum nee deorsum non cresco.). Reich. a recu230. It. 197-201 infantiliter. Many examples so. mente. 689. as It. [§ 41 preserved in popular speech in bene. and in Rumanian nearly all adjectives may be so used (as greii. 487. etc.). chiaro. basso. Fr. common in other late writers: clanculo. soave). Some lons. obstinata mente. 46. They are rare in St. but rata. adverbial phrases on the model : ad . mente was used with any adjective that could make an adverb of manner. 45 . are to be found in Petronius 37. as forti mente. perhaps after the Vulgar Latin period. pure. poco. alto. Rom. firma mente. Normannice.' cf. piano. Ch. Ch. : modo modo =^ •only yesterday. Digitized by Microsoft® . 58. forte. Cyprian (Bayard 32-34). § SS- 41.

-ix(-icem) consilium * consilium." App. § 195). —iilus'^—ellus: aniilus'^ anellus . tus cauditus. Cohn 30-31. —dnus^—dneus: Cohn 160-172. sortcem *sortcem. extraneus * extranus . -^ —iciilus : capUHlus * capttulus . -iculus =z -UcJilus : ossiculum ossMculum. Waters Ch. Cf. Cohn = -ix(-icem): Cohn 147-151. Cohn 172-180. lanatus lanutus. (3) Alteration of a suffix: — Cf. -ex(-ecem) -ix(-uem) : vervecem berbicem. 216. substitutes one suffix for manipulus. Cf. 131. peduculus. cornlciila *cornuula. The popular language sometimes manuplus for another. Cf. 460. Cohn -tius'^-itus : vacuus'^*v(lcitus (cf. R. loquela per unum /. 321. by Microsoft® . pavoT~^*pavura. venenum"^ *veninum. 27 CHANGE OF SUFFIX. 17-28. R. cauda- Cohn —Ic'eus —icius ^=. Cohn 41-42. Cf. Cohn 213I. etc. —cuius !> cHlus : see -tllus. Cf. rancor"^* ran- > > cilra. (2) Indiscriminate use of two suffixes: — Cf. Cf. Cf. Corssen S. famtlia */amtlia. -iceus -icius 184. -elus"^ -ellus (common in late Latin): camelus'^ camellus. -drius. Caper (Keil VII. querela'^ guerilla. Cohn 180-205. -drius: see Suffixes for Adjectives. R. avicUla'^ avicllla. 460. R. subterraneus ^ subterranus. as are: — The principal types (1) Subsitution of a : rare one -alius — new or common suffix for an old or > -callus : see -tllas. Cohn 1 51-154. : ericius *eruius. etc. Pr. Cohn 219-226. —dtuszzz—ttus=:i—utus: barbatus '^barbutus . Cohn 42— 52." —enus'^-inus: "Byzacenus non Byzacinus..§ 42] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. e. -tc-aius *lenficiila. 460. Digitized Cohn 274-291. suadela"^ suadHla. -ilius =^ -ilius : 154-160. 42. pediculus Cf. loquela'^ loquella. 227. Cf. lenHc-Ula Cf. 65. Cohn 184. etc. ~or(—drem)'^-ura: calor'^*calura. 460. 96): "querela. —tllus^—ellus: axtlla"^ ascella. carnatus *carnutus.

Bechtel loi. manu So tenere. R. 483. Bechtel loi. 46. Cohn 226—264. . Bechtel loi. etc. ij as i: uayijv))'^ 7th century) "^ > Old Fr. ab olim. Substrate 553-554. R. incus incudo * inciimtnem. c. inde fUgere (> Fr. etc. in Gl. 131. a contra. In church writers there are G. 4. COMPOUNDS. Cohn 264-274. 203.. ADVERBS. i<)i\ 45. erable) alba spina. G. late pronunciation of [§ 47 -enus'^-lnus through sagina {Vok. a foras. style. R. VERBS. cornis. genu- G. mentaver) minus pretiare. 483. uniunigenitus . Cf. . Cake pistare. Bechtel loi. a /oris. bene placitum. 160-170: magnisonans . 44. Bechtel loi. PRONOUNS. 483. were popular. ad sero. —iculus ? ^^'—Hciilus : genuciclum . Cf. a longe. G.. mente habere (> Pr. ^ranucula. 190. ad subito. G. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . 65. a semel. Bon. omnimodus . Bechtel loi ad semel. Acer arbor (> Fr. . a. -udo i^udtneni)'^ -umen (-iimtnem) : consuetudo *costumen. medio ADJECTIVES. G. HOUWS. in odio^ loco. medio die. . intra videre. 130-134. 234. — = . ab intus. b. Bon. 191. Bon. Bechtel loi ad horam 'presently'. etc. 231. antemittere. avis struthius. 194.28 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Reich. a modo. Bon. 47. 483. 484. saine. See §§ 24. There were many compounds made up of a preposition and an adverb: ab ante. These compounds generally belonged to the literary G. 121 : Greek etc. I. enfuir). But male habitus. 231. d. Bon. as mortificare: e. 43. 232. many verbs in -ficare. 426 ad mane. bis coctum. crucifigere. flectere. etc. 'just now'. Ill. /oris mittere. R.

doe. day-. 68. per girum zxiA per giro ^ circa. 203. de sursum. in contra. Spr. 235. 484. in ante. de contra. Abante. de inter. is A compound made up of preposition + noun found in: in giro (followed 102. Lexique 38-47.these adverbial Some 40. Per. Mohl. Wolfflin. 39.19. R. Digitized by Microsoft® . Bechtel 102. de retro. R. and Old Sp. de intus. Bechtel 102. f. de intra. in hodie. 38) says: Ubi semel res inclinata amici de medio. R.17. Bon. 232. etc. da. PREPOSITIONS. 203. de post. in mane. 426. Bechtel loi. of . Slightly different intus in. G. Bon.28. Substrate III. 75. 484-486 (cf. The sic. 232. Bechtel 102. Lat. * dabe. CONJUHCTIONS. 437. de magis. Bechtel 102. compounds. in ante.8. Bechtel loi. 433. were used as prepositions: ab ante. E. 203. 232. 487. Lat. It. Bechtel loi. in is Archiv I. G. R.3. 232. 487. 49. G. 268. In any case probably a late product. and ad. following compounds are of a sic. et at ubi.. d^ ante. Bechtel 102. At ubi and ad ubi. G. 235. in by the ablative or the accusative). de sub. Bechtel medio. 484.. Bechtel 102. dad may be it is the result of a fusion rather than a combination of de Some have thought it came from found from the 7th century on he would derive It.15. 23S. * in semel. de semel. Per. Bon. de retro. Some compounds two prepositions: * de ad {y. usque hodie. 29 tunc. R. et Per. Raetian dad from the Oscan da. in contra^ Petronius (Waters Ch. Lexique 48. ad — — R. 74. g. is de+ab. de deorsum. de super. R. ^ Romance da.).— 49] — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bechtel 102. 484. de forts. Bon. Sardinian dave. 233. still different nature : ac Per. Cf. Haag 75. de intus. 85. etc. 203.13. 72. e contra. etc. R. Spr. R. ex tunc. consist of Bechtel 102. and some others similar to them. Per. dat and from a southern Latin *dadl. G. says da . 40.

a crescendo. Romance puts the emphasis at the end of the sentence. such as the prepand the word it governs. by this sentence : The ^ ^ old arrangement " Fabius syptax. for a comprehensive account of Romance See Elise Richter. Gram. byMicrosoft® . The most irrational features of the Classic Latin construction were surely artifical. as in Ovid's "In nova fert animus mutatas Neither does it dicere formas /corpora. Nevertheless there is really a fundamental difference between the old order and the new: Romance has. or the adjective and the modifies. 491). It does not permit the arbitrary- separation of osition noun of it members that belong together. as in the "In multis hoc rebus dicere habemus" of Lucretius. Romance more after the word modified. however. is not primarily rhythmic. the difference being due to a diverse conception of the structure of language: Latin places the modifier before. Ill." allow the collocation words of the same part of speech that belong logically in different places. but psychic. ORDER OF WORDS. proceeding from the exemplified The modern order is the known to the unknown.^ is The Romance order of simpler and more rational than that Classic Latin. from which work most of the matter of Digitized this chapter was taken. 1903. Latin in the middle. so to speak. Spr. SYNTAX/ A. Zur Eniwicklung der romanischen Wortsiellitng aus dcr lateinischen. 50.II. The principle. Latin to a certain extent a diminuendo movement {^Lat. See Meyer-Liibke. is logical. and were not characteristic of daily speech.

33. Classic Latin may be said to represent an in- termediate stage. hoc peccatum eorum" {Exodus XXXII. visitabo et : 52." "Hasc loca sunt The change constitutes a progress in language .21-24). was always a tendency to put a stressed word followed by an unaccented one. The following is a good sample of the style of the Vulgate: "Cui respondit Dominus Qui peccaverit mihi. not imitated from the Greek. there was a long struggle. such as a connective or an atonic pronoun {Lat. in inscriptions and popular writers. it occurs sporadically also in literary authors. angelus meus praecedet te. Digitized According to Meyer- by Microsoft® . and for centuries the ancient and the modern type were used side by side. et due populum istum quo locutus sum Ego autem in die ultionis tibi. all cultivated peoples have made it. tu autem vade. et fuit ibi quadraginta diebus et quadraginta noctibus" i^Per. Petronius has notably short periods and an approach to the new structure. Spr. It is indigenous in Latin. especially in Cicero." omnia brevia. from the Peregrinatio : "Hasc est autem vallis ingens et planissima. 34).§ 52] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 31 sequatus imperio Hannibalern et virtute et fortuna superiorem vidit. 37. quod sanctus Moyses ascendit in montem Domini. with generally increasing frequency. which independently effected the same transformation. The modern order was not abruptly substituted for the On the contrary." The following examples illustrate the later structure: "Mors perfecit tua ut essent et natura montuosa impedita ad rem militarem. There first. delebo eum de libro meo. By the fourth century Here is a characteristic passage the new order prevailed. 490). 51 • old. it is to be found in Latin. in qua filii Israhel commorati sunt his diebus. while the revolution was in progress. from the earliest texts down . But until the fourth century the majority of Latin sentences have the old arrangement.

precedes its but qui le voit. volgra). which were naturally of less im- portance. etc. fortis fortis. malum malum. In dependent clauses. §40. vedolo but le non lo vedo. and sometimes the whole predicate precedes in certain constructions the dependent infinitive may stand before the finite verb (as Pr. 54- USE OF WORDS. prepositions. 313. malus malus. when unstressed. of inflections. see the 55. Use of In- Repetition writers : for intensive effect is not uncommon .. the old order survived longer than in independent. were always enclitic in Latin. I. personal pronouns. sitions are There were great changes in the functions of pronouns. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. however. In a few other respects the old arrangement lingered and under certain conditions is still preserved . Zs. Many uses of prepoconnected with the loss of inflections: these will be discussed under the Use of Inflections. and were attached preferably to the first word in the sentence : . R. morir adverbs precede their verb . [§ 55 XXI. conjunctions. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. it was in the early stages of the Romance languages It. Wolfflin 4 bene bene. noun in all the The Romance languages except Rumanian and Albanian (Zauner 40). aiutatemi but or m'aiutate . in late Commodian. Digitized by Microsoft® . Fr. 53. B. and so cf. and adverbs. 280. Cf.32 Liibke. voit definite article. indefinite article developed out of ille A definite and an and unus. bonis bonis. : negative and intensive under some circumstances the object may come before the verb.For the simplification flections.

etc. etc.. 451. Unus was used as an indefinite article. melius sanus (Wolfflin 16). See Archiv VIII. frequently in late and popular writers • For the forms of numerals. and the superlative was often really a positive in meaning. this formation came to be popularly regarded as the regular one: magis mirabilem. comparative idea. in Sidonius Apollinaris (Wolfflin 29). plus dulce. is likely that this device it existed in late Vulgar Latin. as omnium levior (Wolfflin 68-71). b. From early times certain periphrases were used to emphasize the thiravLS. as their precise sense in St. 33 COMPARISON. old comparative forms remained. 166-170. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . as Plautus. . 415—417). see Morphology. Augustine's sancta atque dulcissima (Wolfflin 57-63). etc. plus felix. and also for a positive. cf. (R. Anplus congruus and maxime congruus (Wolfflin 16. toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period. The comparative came to be used for a superlative. plus popularis. WUMERALS. (Wolfflin 46). Vitruvius. 56.§ 57] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. substitute for the superlative In the Romance languages a was made by prefixing the defiit nite article to the comparative. 280). To avoid ambiguity. R. the plus and magis constructions were employed more and more to express a distinct comparison plus : miser in Tertullian. magis melior. common Adverbs.' lepida 57. a. occasionally in : Classic Latin. in Many use.. Commodian. plus formosus in Nemasianus. magis . Little by little the old comparative and superlative lost 1 from being employed frequently with merely an intensive force (Wolfiflin 83). Cf. however. etc. . prceclarum. as Ovid's inertioratas (Wolfflin 63-68). (Wolfflin 47). and in hie estfilius mens carissimus. Sepulcri 232 . //wj levior. but no example of has been found. BOn. Finally. maxime pessima.

Spr. 25. . An . [§ 62 una etc. R. tu are very 60. see Hoppe Bayard 133. Pseud. especially ilk. Waters Ch. 61. G. the combination eccum {^=ecce eum). Introduction to Vulgar Latin. en. Digitized by Microsoft® . The adverb inde : occasionally as a genitive neuter pronoun came to be used nemo inde dubitat. much used in popular speech after the fifth 2. Ego and common in Petronius. especially the possessives. was often replaced by ille and ipse (Bechtel and eventually was preserved in vulgar speech only in 145). adeum una sorella. . exinde-='¥x. mulier. 580. were employed as personal pro- nouns of the third person. Idem went out of popular use. according as they were accented or unaccented (as suus and sus): see Morphology. PRONOUNS. ipse. DEMONSTRATIVES. too. except a few of the smallest. 58.34 . 489. in Classic Latin : 59. Bon. Petronius. PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. were apparently not century. There was great irregularity in the use of reflexives. . and 104. a. 408-409. . §158. 425 cf. where it was not recog- 62. Cf. Is. suus being generally substituted for ejus. The demonstratives. . being replaced by ille For the encroachment of ipse on idem. Ordinal numerals. Many pronouns developed double forms. See Lat. 26. The personal pronouns came into more and more fre- quent use. Dubois 333-336b. . 48. Pronouns were much more used than G. Hoppe 102-103. 948 accessit unus servus. 403-404. Per. Regnier 10. Plautus.

atque is est (^Stiehus 582). Hie." Digitized by Microsoft® .^- desso). especially in Spain and southern Gaul.-- ipse ille. . there are examples of iste for hie in Caesar's time (Densusianu 178). At any rate. eeee we find early eeee ego. aquesse. Glor. This last compound was used as a neuter pronoun. and also as a demonstrative adjective. G. 646): in Plautus. eeee tu. by atque or ae (as in ac sic). in id ipsum monastyriu. Atque. ille. R.' as id ipsum sapite.§ 65] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 424. Quillacq 126). I. common The end Plautus. use. were confused by late writers (Bayard 132). Franz. 2. was perhaps used as a prefix (^Gram. lat. ille ipse. Hoppe 104. Toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period hie was apparently going out of 63. • A combination of two demonstratives was : common in Christian writers iste hie. maintains that eceu' was the basis in all the Empire. iste ipse. generally invariable. influenced in 1 Cf Plautus. 2. 25 : " Ubi tu's ? — Eccum. 424 (cf. nized. 35 and in the extremely common phrase idipsum (>It. Franz. came to be used indiscriminately (G. iste ille. too. hie ipse. Catalan aqueix. 407. Bayard 130-132). R. in id ipsam rem. and iste 405-406. too. 3 II. etc. also eeee iste. eeeu" was some regions. II. Hie and is. aquese. R. however. G. 303 (discussing Sp. Eeee and eeeum (pronounced eceu) were used as demon- strative prefixes (cf. 424-425. such combinations being until the probably not reached Vulgar Latin period. of the final stage. Mil. The last three have left no trace. Intorno ai continuatori neolatini del "ipsu-" in Arehivio glottologieo italiano XV. where likewise the id lost its significance. §24): hie. eeee nunc. 3 II. common 64. 65. meaning 'it' or 'that. Ascoli.). eeee ille. with the exception of the neuter hoe. as id ipsum velatn. is the fusion of the two parts into one word. Pg. atque ipse illie est {^Epidicus 91). is ipse.

pi. II. In popular speech qui was apparently used regularly for . * accelle. ' this ' eccHste or eccu'tste. semet ipsum {Philip. as f. 8). 427 (iiirum hujic cujus est zona hcBc).. * ceste. Beside ipse. ipse. m. * eccueste. is was probably more literary than popular. 276 {qui. as ace. as n. quce as m. 419-420 {cito proferte mihi stolam illam primam). c. sg..). articles. with the prefix met-. * accueste. ipse. (395-396). becoming metipse through such combinations as temet ipsum {Ecclus. pi. INTERROGATIVES AND RELATIVES. by Microsoft® . This use of ipse. . is is Cf. especially ille. as ace. people said for ' ' that eccHlle or eccu'ille. means infrequent: hie. guem quis qua very often as n. These compounds developed into * ecceste. is. 66. ille lost [§ 69 and their distinctive force. 423—425. Examples of the others are by no R. : common Audollent 549. Spr. R. 391-392. hie. Ego met ipse is blamed by Donatus {Lat. is. §24.. f. Bon. : the place of the feminine quce it occurs in Christian inscripR. there was an emphatic form ipsimus (used by This. Ille. tions from the fifth century on Digitized cf. 22). R.. Cf.. Quillacq 126-127. 391-396 we find qui used as n. it is Furthermore. The forms were greatly confused by late writers. were used also as definite Ille in this function very common: R. 67. * accesie. * cueste and * eccelle. etc. became * metipsimus. * celle. 36 An When iste Introduction to Vulgar Latin. hie. The ipsemet suffix -met was used also as an intensive prefix. 69. sg.. pi. as 69. n. for * accuelle. 423 {in ipsa multitudine). as n. 68. 484). Petronius: Waters Ch. were used as personal pronouns of the third person. * cue lie. * eccuelle.. quod as m. XXX. Ille. and pi. In Bon. quern for quce. § 60. the masculine qui tooV in inscriptions. . pi.

conjectures *ne inde. d. 178). G. § 19. 415- in late popular speech are as follows : — aliquanti took the place of aliqui and aliquot: aliquanta oppida aliquis flourished especially in the west: Sp. was employed as a relative pronoun. inde came to mean. mDEFHTITE PRONOUNS. 416. and some new compounds were made. 37 quam). 650. Zs. etc. nemo judical alterum. Spr. alius filius. 25. Omnis and omnia were kept Digitized by Microsoft® . 394 (^qui f. cata was probably introduced. 53 {^qui for quce in 70. d. in certain constructions. Haag f. by Greek merxard Tfth. *nec ente or *ne ente was apparently used as an equivalent for nihil. § 84. 580. Cf. cepit. This confusion is more frequent in late Latin: St. *ne^ps^unus. Beiheft 7.). and alter viere confused in common speech: G. Some Classic Latin pronouns fell into disuse.. alguem. Meyer-Liibke. in Italy. and f. moreover. 'some' or 'any. Cf. 393. Snus *aliqu'ilnus * alicUnus. in such phrases as cata unum Kaf tva. ^ne ipse icnus. Sardinia. II. Pg. G. omnis: see totus.). Jerome. Qualis was kept. 237. 528 a. 51. quid: Archiv I. alques. Archiv I. Bon. The neuter aliquid was more extended aliqui alius : Pr. cata tres Hence *cata anus. gradually encroached on quod: Bon. nemo was kept nUllus. quern Quid. There may have been a neuter *alid. and Dacia: Lat. in Italy. The principal indefinite pronouns 71- and adjectives used G. as a relative. mUltus.' > = ^ magis: see plus. sg. and was used as an interrogative and The adverb unde came to have occasionally the meaning of French dont (Bon. Gram. Plautus. chants. 417. and eventually * de unde. 390-391. alguien. 485. pi. along the Mediterranean. *caf itnus. 415-417. *d'unde. nee unus. 55.§ 7i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. hdmo was used sometimes like French on: Per. after the model of id.

427. 336-337. iinus. (St. 3. tantus totus. VERBS. G. quisque. tot. also a common pleonastic use of coepi with the in- instead of the perfect: see § 124. 402-403 ifota tormenta diaboli in me veniant. tantus replaced quot. quanti justi esuriunt. ubi being used for quo. Frequent in late Latin Bon. 692. which" and the ibi 73. ' anything R. §§ 163. totis horis. a pleonastic use of debeo. pronounced also tottus (S. is . custodire debeant. Compare the old is Italian use of dovere. Cf. Spr. 415). 204. 212. Jerome. Mil. 338. 488. 345. (2). . 121) and perhaps *tuttus. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 691-693: commonens ut 72. persona. is often used pleonastically Bayard 99-100. Cf. was sometimes used for omnis : Plautus. 109). quique. 409-411). for eo: Lat. Videri. [§ 73 plus and magis were confused: tenetur tanto plus timetur. Glor. being used for quisquis and quicumque (Bayard res and : res nata = ' anyone '. ' : (G. G. quhquis. R.38 faucus. 403). Propertius: Densusianu 179. G. «»w. 414. The words referring to the "place in "place into which" were confused. Cf. Regnier 108-109 {guanto plus quantus. : 4. ADVERBS. qualis. Claudian. . This use was common in late Latin: Densusianu 178. § 1 1 7. There finitive. talis. There are examples as early as Drager 104. quts. Quisque was much extended 135). see quantus. tantis lacri- 413-415 qui. R. Bechtel 143. too. § 53. Unde was employed by Microsoft® in the sense of Digitized .

435. 446-447 {nee is fado est. Cases.14. Lexique 43. sed ecce hie est.§ 78] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 341 jaspide. Repetition was used for in- tensive effect: satis Seneca. aliquid postulare. etc. having been replaced by on. G. G. Plus was often substituted for magis. Die amice unde tristis es. R. from the third century ex {Lat. Hoppe 38 . Wolfflin 5. were employed as intensives more than in Classic Latin. egredere de ecelesia. . . Regnier no. 395. Non no. Bechtel 105. § 74. multum. Plus and magis were used more and more for comparison. de utero matris nati sunt sic. Regnier The absolute use of non. is Per. for ne with the subjunctive common: G. 37. also 'therefore' and 'where84. cf. nihil. 7. 395-396. and magis for potius: Bayard no. 38. . G. is Ab. of the Italic dialects except Latin. Spr. Beiheft fore': 157). PREPOSITIONS. R. 342 . of Inflections. 339. ggressus de area. 5. 487. Hoppe 78. The functions of prepositions were very much extended not found in (Bayard 137-158): see Use 77. .). . and the old comparative and superlative forms became rarer: see § 56. Terence. and others by Microsoft® . muri de lapide de adversario vivo de deeimis. . meaning 'no'. Bechtel 105. according to Mohl. Regnier in. occurs occasionally: Dieit unus ex uno angulo: Eeee hie Alius ex alio angulo: Non. It apparently has no successors in the Romance languages. Bene. Dubois 332. usurped the place of which also. Hoppe 38): de palatio exit. Ad for apud occurs Digitized in Plautus. Totum occurs often as an adverb: places. 39 'where' (Zj. nee de cubiculo . 76. and many other 75- Double negation frequent: R. procedit. semper semper. any de.

390-392. [§ 80 (Oliver 5-6). in authors of the second and third centuries. Bechtel 106 super anima commendatus. apud.?. According to F. etc. derive the Mohl would Old It. not from apud. a new word. and cum for apud in Gregory of Tours. to supplant a critical period for Gaul. and more frequently by later authors: Lat. frequently meant 'concerning': frustrati circa veritatem. except in Gaul. 343 .27- in late writers (R. am. Digitized by Microsoft® . but from ad hoc from Italic Pr. 37. Bechtel 104. pro memoria illius.. Circa. apud is repeatedly found for cum in the Latin writers of Gaul. 75-76). Urbat 10): ad ipsum fontem facta cf. ' : Juxta often signified acjuxta consuetudinem. § 14). Bechtel 105 juxta drachmcB cording to exemplum.. Mohl.' and replaced ob and propter : fides pro una muliere perfida. G. ab he takes from apud. La preposition cum et ses successeurs en gallo-roman in Bausteine 61. ' . as he says. aveCj not from apud + hoc. 343. 489. appo. Spr. being. Bechtel 106. 71) Fr. Super sometimes replaced de: fallere vos super hanc rem. but was substituted lor'per in other regions (Urbat 34-35)80. and common Fer. 40 An Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. but Pr. G. in the Empire. ad For the most part apud-^-a. 42. cum probably disappeared from actual use in Gaul by the fourth century. Pro itself was partially replaced by per (cf. nos. Urbat 27 {tractans apud me metipsum. Bechtel 103.^ 79. but from * (pp. had a great vogue country. Hoppe Hoppe ' 41. also ab una manu pallas altaris tenerem. ad post (p. Hoppe 37. where it was kept with the sense of cum: Haag 74. am amb. . volo pro legentis attendimus locum ilium facilitate abuti sermone vulgato. replaced by ad. G. est oratio. where ab seems Apud is used for cum by Sulpicius to be used for apud). Severus. and so came cum in that Pro often had the sense of 'for.

39. etc. Quomodo became a great favorite. which in late Latin was often reduced to qui or qua (see § 168) frequently took the place of quod: Regnier 111-112. merely Magis is much employed to indicate a subordinate clause. 403. ^. . quare sometimes replaced ^«^^and quia: G. quia. G. and was . etc. et: Per. Aut cf. quasi: Per. temporal sense. Bayard 161. same text (37. ut : R. Tamen in the grinatio. 46.' § 84] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Regnier in. and quoniam : R. Quod. 73. 430): videte si Ac si frequently did service for potest did. 83. Eventually ut was generally discarded. §§ 70. 41 81. Ut 82. 323. Quia. Quando displaced cum in the quod. 'when'. 399. CONJUNCTIONS. in). 399.) seems to be used. Retro. 445-446. guoniam {^SMddlt&r Jubere. and many other places Bon. ' ' ' Digitized by Microsoft® . foras were freely used as prepositions (R. he. etc. . in most cases. 398-400. Bechtel 119-120. etc. 13. Cur. 24. . forts. . 431-432. Peregrinatio : Qua. 48. Ac sic recurs continually in the Pere49. and 'wherefore': G. Regnier 11 2-1 13.. cf. encroaches on quando in the 22. Unde sometimes means therefore for but by late writers. Regnier often used for ne and num (G. with the infinitive «/ is is : not infrequent 549. : R. &'took the place of a« and utrum (R. 403-405. rm\c\\ used in the sense of that ' : Per. aut is sometimes equivalent to et . 334): subtus terram. meaning 'and so' or 'so': 40. de forts. 424 {unde inquit Dominus). R. 402. 427—428) are used very often by late writers instead of the accusative and infinitive construction: R. Quod to for very common AudoUent ' £0 quod cdLiae 27. 8. . 6. subtus. often supplanting quando. R. cf. 84. vade retro me.

Partsiis > > Parigi Paris. Bianchi With other words. several examples Bechtel no. 412-415. for confusion after verbs and adjectives. it generally came to be regarded as an inin Archivio glottologico italiano IX. the locative was replaced by in with the ablative (Hoppe 32 in Alexandria) or by ad with the accusative (Urbat 10).1 42 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. [§ 86 C. constructions. USE OF INFLECTIONS. of the locative ablative singular in Ttbiiri^ Tivoli . R. 174-176 . Quillacq 96- for African Latin. In popular speech prepositions were more used. etc.. LOCATIVE. 8$. ' " Cf. The locative. from prepositional the beginning. ut Clusil~^ Chiusi. larity in the . Astis Asti. Pirson 169-202. plural in Andecavis > Flntbus > Fimes. only in names of places. There is confusion even in Petronius. CASES. rare in Classic Latin. however. 302-326. We remnants of the locative geni- tive in Agrigentt> Girgenti. who occasionally uses the accusative for the dative and the ablative. etc. and the use of cases became more and more 103 restricted. Archiv VIII. Aquis Acqui Aix. 322). Cf. Florentice^ Firenze. and very often with place names also. Arimtnt> Rimini. : > etc. 1. increasingly took the place of pure case distinctions. remained eventually missa Anastasi. the domi or domo of Cicero becomes in domo in Seneca. Hence employment arises in late writers a great irregu- of cases^: G. Digitized by Microsoft® . 86. Palestina (G. When the locative of names of localities was kept. 378. B. than in the literary language. in the Peregrinatio fit : There find are. of the locative ablative Angers. a. et sic fit missa ecclesitz. as time went on.

quid de scientia. and Livy. occur in mens for mi is very common (Regnier 34). save in set combinations. Oliver 14. Pir. the nominative in most words in and such words as had a separate vocative form is like it : tended to discard Plautus. 39. lumine. II. de pomis =^som& apples. de oleo. cited by Draeger I. XVII. For the partitive genitive we find: nil 53. neminem de prcesentibus. de studentibus. terminus de nostra donatione. bus gentilibusque multitudo magna (also quidam ex Acts 4. such Horace. The vocative Classic Latin. son 197. sometimes by the dative. generally . R. 396. 487. de sorore nepus. Terence Heaut. Bechtel 104. vocatives in -us. Bechtel 104. Lat. clerici de ipsa ecclesia. as mi 88. R. b. 40.. 1. 43 variable form we find such locatives used as nominatives : from the third century on Lat. partem de istius impudentia. 426. R. Hoppe 38. de aceto plenum. de spiritu Moysi. R. Regnier 54. Digitized by Microsoft® . 87. . de Deo munus. curator de sacra via. the genitive probably ceased to be really popular. 342 numquid Zacchaus de bono habebat. domine. Plautus. . The genitive. According to Meyer-Liibke. de coleritieis). Spr. 89. IV. 6ioff. de nostris bonis. abound: expers partis Verr. 396. except perhaps in a few set phrases. d. GENITIVE. 481. VOCATIVE. Archiv I. little by constructions. 628 aliquid de . Cf. Cicero. etc. R. Urbat 20. 396. instead of -e. Hoppe 38. 528 a. little. aliquid habet de verecundia discipuli. Pirson 194. cf. 12. i. c. Bon.10. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. de animalibus. Spr. In Vulgar Latin the vocative form probably disappeared entirely. Sepulcri 217.§ 89] An . was supplanted by other by the ablative with de (which occurs Examples as early as Plautus).' -P^r.. gustabit de meo. possessor de propria terra.

40. in the singular of was identical in substitution became very general 64. Bechtel 104. paganorum. De Re Rustica I. find. 329. Plautus. matre mece. C.. in good many set phrases. as early as Plautus. In late Latin a wrong form was often used a deo honorem in an inscription in Gaul. a tendency by the accusative with ad: ad carnuficem dabo. . DATIVE. ad vestram 'I Bechtel 102-103. however. G. = went to the bishop'. g. IV. Bechtel 103. 487. I. in certain . ad quern promissio facta. 1019. D'Arbois 13 alme Maria. True. dicens ad eum. ad quern dixit. : Zs. XXV. est ministerit. . in most of the Empire : ait ad me. G. 1. Spr. stable than the genitive: 90. Sepulcri 218. illujus. apparet ad agricolas. 488. The dative was more Lat. Capt. 194. Lat Spr. 329. some pronouns. 341—342 in /undo ilia villa. causa causis. di notte tempore (later di notte tempo). de noctis cHjus. Dominus ad restituit Moysen dicit. D'Arbois 91-93. 4.. fui ad episcopum etc.44 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The genitive was retained. Cf. alta node silentia. Urbat 12.. Pirson Digitized omne regnum. ad id templum data ad me magna nuntiavit.. in a words that belonged especially to clerical Latin. etc.. mart maribus). G. Inasmuch as the Plautus. etc. [§ 90 by the beginning of the third century. a. 13.. Per. ad me ad Dei officio paratus. loquitur ad Jeremiam. '^^^ hcec affectionem darem. in honore . Paoli. etc. Fieri. Livy II. ad propinquos restituit. etc. ii. etc. etc. tempore > It. Oliver by Microsoft® . ange- lorum. Urbat 12.. We it to replace however. Bon. S. patiens. muro muris. and probably in some proper names: lUna dies. si pecunia most nouns and in the plural of all. Varro. the fear of ambiguity naturally fostered this practice and the dative.C. Spr. illorum. It. 3513. etc. form either with the ablative or with the genitive (e. ad omnem injuriam im330. 135. IX. L. inscription of 57 B.

G. 35. de- ceptus. de se. ab sceleribus parce. Regnier . Hoppe 105). 339-342. de manibus suis. Hoppe. 337. R. Cf. c. 36. G. 392-395. Hoppe Hoppe 34. Sometimes super eum. Bechtel 105. Ex R. 393 patrem de regno privavit. Regnier 54. de singularitate famosum. ml. Bechtel de contumelia sua. ab a prcemio minorem scriptura sancta commemoratos. gaudet de victus necessitate causatur. nobilior de obsoletiore matrice. to distinguish its various functions. reinforced by the analogy of prepositional substitutes for the genitive and dative. occurs also: ex causa humana salutis. etc. R. Bechtel 104 (cf. Hoppe 33. de virgine natus est. is For de= 'than.G. etc. The dative remained in Dacia. de vestra rideat CBmulatione. favored the use of prepositions with the ablative. 335.). elsewhere it probably disappeared from really popular speech by the end of the Empire. 45 3-4. and lingered rather late Gaul (Za/. occidam de lancea. super. ab Ariulfi astutia the most frequent erubescens de infamia sua. and so in 91. 481). super was used: imposuerat manus me misericordiam prastare. tibi. de te beati sunt. illui tilt. 34. not ad.§ 92] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 641. 92. Digitized by Microsoft® . Sepulcri 218. cited by WolfHin $2. St. Rumanian has kept the dative. Ab common : ab omni specie idololatrice intactum. in the first declension (as case). 56. De is : Hoppe 14. digni de cmlo Castores. in its original function and also as a genitive. esse. 426. Regnier 54-56. except in pronouns {cici. Spr. Sepulcri 218. ex infirmitate fatigata. in feminine adjectives (as romine). a came superatur. Cyprian. Bechtel 105.. Hoppe 33 . ABLATIVE. XXX. The analytical tendency of speech. Bechtel 104.' see Zs. Regnier 51 . de oculis. Hoppe 36. Hoppe 33.

quo in tempore. K. late The use of prepositions became really neccessary in the loss spoken language. in camo amore Dei 9 in bonis operibus abundetis. patrem It is likely that before the patre. for the ablative: . 344-347. Regnier 60. but very common before the third. sodales. the accusative being used in J 95- There is evidence of the confusion of accusative and first ablative as early as the century. Regnier 58 Hoppe 31 in maxilla asina delevi mille vires.. The accusative form substituted for the ablative after by Microsoft® Digitized . Cf. Sepulcri 218 pugnare ad ursos. the little ablative differed or not at all from the accusative in the : singular of most words causam causa. G. ad horam sextam aguntur. ad diem. Cum cum it was probably not with the accusative is very frequent: cum suos Lat. of the Empire the ablative plural end form was generally discarded. Bechtel 103. G. epistolam. Lat. : [§ 95 often found . Sometimes ad ov per with the accusative is substituted per hoc. 263. diem die. 488. caput desecare. in most of the Latin territory. ad unum gladii ictum 93. ferventes. Bechtel 95 . etc. Spr. and that the ablative and accusative singular were pronounced alike. in inscriptions. donum dono. XXXI. R. cum res nostras. discenies. Bechtel 103-104. . in aU words. in fif.46 An In is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 5. after the fall of final m and the of quantitative distinctions in unaccented syllables. because. in illo die. cum Cf. 94. fructum fructu. The fusion of the two cases was doubtless helped by the fact that certain prepositions might be combined with either accusative or ablative. Spr. Ps. etfreno maxillas eorum constringe. Rand in is Modem Philology II. 397 . Hoppe 31 .396-397. Hoppe 33. per nomen vocavit. its stead. . 347 R. E. 488. D'Arbois footnote 27.

Bechtel loi. however... generally.... ad . Hoppe 40-41 12 examples of in + ace. sine fructum. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. de. Bechtel 94—101 venit in civitate sua. ilia. puteo. probably in some expressions. luce. . Bechtel 100. 410... such as hora. the nominative absolute took 45. etc. that the ablative absolute survived in a few common 1 like It. . medium maris. in correct use of in etc. vendere cento soldi. pari mente. 47 other prepositions: a monazonies. etc. . ecclesia. Bechtel loi — propter populo. pro nos. de ipsas .. de eo torrentem. de camem. — intra civitate sua. Bechtel 94 ante sole. per valle and 21 other cases of /ifr+abl. Bechtel 96 de hoc ipsud. post . 40. Hoppe 40-41 in the Per. etc. 8). + abl. etc. R. Waters Ch. etc. Bechtel 94. . in popular speech. visa loca sancta omnia {Per. R. etc. was kept only in etc. intro spe- — lectione. Bechtel 96. . the ablative form very often written for . videbo te in publicum. 58. Bechtel 95 contra ipso loco. Bechtel loi. 406-412. etc. The some fixed expressions. Bechtel 96 de actus. . Bechtel 96 de martyrium. Bechtel 97-98 erat in villas. R. . D'Arbois 152. ecclesia majore. . etc. in Per. D'Arbois 70-71 ex fines R. the accusative ante cruce. ablative ist' 97.. its place : Bechtel 09-1 1 o.— — — § 97] — —— — . 406-412. It is likely. perhaps in such phrases as It. Bechtel 95. 406-412. — prope super civitate hac. D'Arbois 27 de rigna nostra. 406-412. is three times as common as the + ace. ante sole. R. is Conversely. proper names with as Delia Casa. circa Bechtel 95 . R. et bene- dicens nos episcopusprofectisumus. too. Bechtel xoo\ post morte. quomodo. — : pro hoc ipsud. Bechtel 99 lunca. Bechtel 99 . for abl. 96. R... for ace. -juxta aqua ipsa. . anno. etc. infinem Deus fecit ccelum et terram. — — — foras in came conversa. tuos.. Bechtel loi . Bechtel 99. 406-412. cib fatto. — Bechtel 96 — . Digitized by Microsoft® .6—412.

[§ 103 ACCUSATIVE. ^i. 100. also is by the ablative Bechtel : 1 08-9. many new tendencies manifested them- IMPERSONAL PARTS. G. these obsolete parts were employed by writers with more or less inaccuracy. By the end of the Vulgar Latin period there probably remained in really popular use (aside from pronouns and a number of set formulas) in Dacia only three cases. a. ad Babyloniatn duxit. 103. FALL OF DECLENSION. omatus est. VERB-FORMS. instead of the simple accusative: eamus in forum. The supine disappeared from general the first placed. in the rest of the Empire only two —a nominative and an accusativenaturally tried to write in ac- ablative. and 101.48 An Introduction f. infinitive 102. G. from use. Regnier 51-52. were replaced by other locutions. to Vulgar Latin. After verbs of motion ad was often used. however. Waters Ch. 328. by the infinitive: as cum Digitized by Microsoft® . 2. cordance with their idea of correct Latin. 98. tota autem nocte vicibus dicuntur p salmi. g. being recentury on. sometimes in. Many parts of the verb went out of popular use. fui ad ecdesiam. regionem venit. consules ad Africam profecti sunt. ad isfam Duration of time was expressed by per with the ac- cusative. 99. Only the present active and the present and perfect participles were left intact. per iotos octo dies etc. Bechtel 103. 327. Cf. Regnier 52. In the parts that remained selves. (i) Supine. Clerics.

(4) 106. and Tacitus. the i. Spr. G. for the future (as facturus sum). became more and more a fui fugiet Eun. 433-434. 432. (3) Gerundive. the gerundive was discarded. however. 389. 386R. R. Densusianu sanando. Eventually. 490. G. took the place of a relative cIzms^: faveant mihi pro Cf. potestatem curare. Digitized by Microsoft® . qui pertransivit benefaciendo et Cf. The ablative gerund was . Hoppe multa vidi sometimes used for a conditional clause cavendo salvi erimus. 430. In Rumanian. R. the supine was preserved: Tiktin 596. Cap. ejus nomine pugnaturo. 490. 432—433. G. 847-849. The ablative form of the gerund substitute for the present participle: ita miserrimus tando. Lat. 57 179. etc. R. 57. from the third century on. Future Active Participle.. it The future active participle Vulgar Latin.§ io6] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. assurgens popu- lando. Dubois 275. The gerundive was used est. it was probably rare in late was used with esse as a substitute Sometimes. of the ablative form. R. Lat. except when style. necessitas tacere. Hoppe 105. V. Terence. conciendo ad se multitudinem. quomodo potest hie nobis camem dare ad manducare.erund infinitive. Augustine. in place of the future: with 388. esse. hanc Marcion captavit errando. 363. : sic legendo. Draeger II. G. 8. Gerund. however. Sermones 225. as a future passive participle. Spr. 433. 49 veneris ad bibere. in a literary 388—389. 4. St. (2) 104. came to be replaced With the exception by the sometimes with a prep- osition: dat manducare. Jilius hominis tradendus Cf. ex- cept in some standing phrases. cites Livy. 2.

ut. 385. The perfect participle was kept. G. 371. (6) Perfect Participle. mundus sit. Late writers. Suffixes for Adjectives. 109. 383 . nemo mentiens plorat. si ipse est ascendens in ccelos. Bechtel 112—115. ut spiritu valeatnon ignoramus.50 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. Bon. Sometimes it was employed periphrastically with esse: G. its use was greatly extended through new methods of forming the passive and the perfect tenses. by Microsoft® . It more avoided from . 371-373. was replaced by the ablative gerund: see Gerund above. (7) Infinitive. wishing to avoid vulgarisms. The infinitive + accusative construction was more and third century on: G. quoniam. Writers occasionally substituted 388. The perfect and passive infinitive forms eventually In late writers. and was used as an : adjective -ans. G. scribitur. etc. no. G. 108. 389. but often by a clause in- troduced by quia. 107. 659-671. perspicue exposuit quod ager nesciebat quia Jesus erat.the was replaced sometimes by the passive.. Regnier 63. and as a noun see Derivation. G. however. 371-375. and.). the perfect instead of the present infinitive very common: R. (5) [§ no Present Participle. sciens quod — libenter haberetis hcec cognoscere. it for a relative clause: it Often. however. is disappeared: see Voice and Tense below. as will presently be seen. etc. : Eva vidisse de- G. 377. Verbs that had no perfect participle were obliged to make one. 375-385. de corpore loquor. 431-432 {malunt credidisse. quod. often misused the infinitive + accusative: Digitized G. credidit ei quia esset vere Jilius Dei. etc. G. legitur dixisse Deus. The present participle was kept. (licent eo quod filii Israhel eas posuerint.

male fecisti dare Spiritum sanctum. 363. conjectus in carcerem fuerat. non habent unde reddere tibi. P. quce legi digna sunt. Regnier 73. to of the perfect participle ern Italy y?^). 647. mean he was loved': flection is loved etc. Hoppe 60. by Microsoft® . It Hoppe malum tions: replaced the subjunctive with ut and similar construcvadent orare. some examples may be culled from late writings: denuo factus filius fui. Regnier 106. 430. b. aliter exprimere non est. of the popular formation . up the classic practice as far as they were Although authors kept able. VOICE. 673. Regnier Digitized 63. G. etc. amant ignorare. participle The old passive forms extent. Facere mit dem Infinitiv in Archiv III.§ 112] An On Introduction to Vulgar -Latin. Bechtel 117. timuisti .. Hoppe 61. I... amatus est came Hence amatus fuit signified he Then a whole passive in2 76ff. the infinitive assumed many new and Gerund above. Thielmann. ' 112. Cf. some the — except the perfect gerundive — gradually + esse (in north- disappeared from ordinary speech. venit aliquis audire. G. non venit justos vocare. It took the place of a relative or indirectly interrogative after certain verbs: clause nesciendo qua petere. 366. Spr. 51 111. Cf. 177. 42. 490. 363-370. Regnier 106. G. 370. Bechtel 117: valeamus assumi. R. . Venantius Fortunatus. G. est. see Draeger was made up and. Hoppe 42-52: Ninus regnare primus. It wias often used as a noun: totum vivere anima carnis est. etc. Regnier 74 mihi prcecepit hac loqui. 368. Bon. cited in Lat. ipsum vivere accedere est. Hoppe 60 mors salva erit cum fuerit devorata. per velle perdidit bonum posse. Bon. functions: see Supine bonus et dicere et facere. revertitur omnis populus resumere se. the other hand. to Under the ' influence of carus '. permissa est accedere. Regnier 73. facere. G. 671-675.

irascere irasci. An As Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. verbs are used as active verbs by Petronius. In negative commands the imperative was often placed by the subjunctive. and in Italy. being replaced by the indicative in many . the subjunctive being used for the third person. -At the end of the Vulgar Latin period it in popular speech. for the use of 25. homo with the force of French on. (i) Imperative. Gaul. 455. see c.. etc. se sanare ^= sanari in the 4th century. much as it is used by Microsoft® . The subjunctive was limited to fewer functions. Bechtel 126. and Dacia by the infinitive: Zat. Many deponent course. Dubois 275 notes that the forms in -0 are very rare in Ennodius. very Digitized was probably used. scribitur When littera seemed archaic.52 113. I'er. XXXII. 55. as in the case oi frusirare frustrari. [§ 117 the passive inflection disappeared. Rom. followed the same Bonnet 402-413. The imperative came to be restricted to the second person singular and plural of the present. constructions: cum hi omnes tarn excelsi sunt. Bechtel 115 si scire vultis quid facitis. people said littera se scribit and litteram scribunt or litteram scribit homo: ct. Even in Classic Latin there is often hesita- tion. who lived in southern Gaul in the fifth century. sequi. In late vulgar speech mori. and littera scripta est vulgar. 117. 115. MOOD. deponent verbs became active. Spr. 114. Regnier 69. Cf. (2) Subjunctive. and also for the first. etc. In the intermediate period the passive was frequently replaced by reflexive and active constructions. facit se hora quinta. re- 116. 490. by the indicative (found in Pirminius).

as In Rumanian the pluperfect subjunctive has assumed the show uncertainty function of a pluperfect indicative 119. Regnier 68-71. •a. its G. Regnier 27-28. cf. potuisset. R. 53 in the Romance Late writers. § III. in dependent clauses that are not adversa- nor dubitative. 428-430. imperfect subjunctive ultimately went out of use. Sittl 133-134.&x facio. etc. Cf. The in the use of it. etc. the indicative was often substituted for the subjunctive: R. The perfect subjunctive the future perfect indicative. Sometimes the subjunctive was replaced by deieo with the infinitive: debeant accipi = accipiantur. Cf. 355-357. were less logical and evidently less spontaneous than Classic authors in their employment of the subjunctive.§ 119] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Gregory the Great (Sepulcri 226) and others. 357-362- (118. late writers often put the subjunctive where Classic authors would have put the indicative: G. ples. 489: examples from the 4th century). 489). Sometimes. : cdntdse. Digitized It was apparently confused with was thus preserved in Spain by Microsoft® . and with perthis use is common in the fect infinitives like tacuisse for tacere {Lat. On the other hand. in indirect In conditions not contrary to tive discourse and indirect questions. G. used freely for the imperfect by isset. Spr.iX. § 72. 418. ecce Pater fecit Filium nasci de fact. It apparently began with debuvoluisset. Spr. languages. The pluperfect : imperfect subjunctive gradually gave way to the Bellum Africanum {^Lat. 431 cites many examtimui ne inter nos bella fuissent orta. while trying to follow the traditional practice. place was taken by the infinitive: vergine. exWriters of the third and fourth centuries cept in Sardinia.

423. C. 535 is . in Classic Latin. Fart. § 124. Crescini in d. ilia omnia missa habeo. § 117.. In late Lastin this compound often had simply a peribi vos meaning: metuo enim ne habeam fatigatos. 405. De Lollis in Zs. In Classic Latin habeo with the perfect participle was used to express a lasting condition: Hannibal quia fessum It was militem praliis operibusque habebat. by Microsoft® . used in the same Part. ff. pecunias magnas 294. Draeger 122. Plautus. collocatas habent. 376. dialects: cf. TENSE. with their old functions. 690. perf. Regnier Cf. I. episcopum invitatum habes. perf 415. however. Draeger I. perf. quid Athenis exquisitum habeam. perf ^11. perf. In the and future perfect indicative great changes took place. in general. § 119. 537-538. perfect. XXIX. Densusianu 181. 121. pluperfect. 619. however.54 An in Italian i. Fart. Part. Part. 414-415. Digitized Bon. cf. omnis res lictas habeo. future. compertum ego habeo. I. or something akin to it: Cato the elder. (i) The Perfect Tenses. way with Even adjectives: miserum habere. The present and imperfect and the present subjunctive remained. The . the mean- ing of this locution began to shift to the perfect. in legal phraseology. Tiktin 596. for the perfect subjunctive. Bon. 28. junctive. perf. rationes cognitas habeo. perf 372 . and Rumanian and V. scriptum habeo. yarf«»2 habeo. re- Fart. fect 294-295. construction very common in Cicero in a sense that closely approaches the perfect: satis . Sallust. Fart. indicative 120. Draeger 295. perf. 516. etc. 689-691. For the imperfect and pluperfect subsee. see § 118. 518-521. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. [§ 122 and Bausteine Cf. which led also to thS formation of a new perfect and pluperfect subjunctive. habeo deliberatum. Fart.

124. The old perfect form remained in popular use. sometimes as a preterit. which came down from the Classic Latin use in conditional sentences. in Proven9al. its vogue began in Gaul in the fifth century. Regnier 28.. however. 70. 489. elsewhere . perf. tional function. the Gl. with esse. 294. Reich. Fart. perf. gener ally with the aorist sense. in the case of neuter verbs. 537. it cxpi with an infinitive: Waters Ch. etc. transalaret in etc. pouret. In the same way a future perfect was made: de Ccesare satis dictum habebo. sometimes as a conditional.§ 124] An Introduction to Vulgar the sixth: Part. Sepulcri 227. On the model of this new perfect. and in the Italian /ora -Cfueram. and to some extent in Italy. with the force of a future indicative or subjunctive. it 55 In popular speech function: perfect form. 541. The old future perfect was apparently confused with the perfect subjunctive. etc. the old perfect meaning was not entirely lost. boltier' in the Old The condiItalian Ritmo Cassinese (^Zs. 620).. § 72. si Dominum iratum haberes. quas in cerario conditas habeDraeger I. and continued to be used. : quam semper cognitam habui. furet. Eventually an entire perfect inflection was built up with habere or. XXIX. but still lingered. 543. a compound pluwas constructed Cicero. was preserved in Spanish. The preterit use occurs in dixerat. which supplanted more and more the original was increasingly confined to its aorist Lat Spr. Old French Sainte Eulalie. in the Spanish peninsula. in some southern Italian dialects (notably in the Rosa in the fresca aulentissima). The old pluperfect indicative became rarer. ortaret. Digitized by Microsoft® . auret. I [ sometimes with its original sense. Some late writers were fond of :\ substituting for Cf. 123. In the Spanish peninsula. perfect bant.

. Old Sp. Furthermore. corrigis. Bechtel 112. Bechtel 90-91. and we find such 126. Bechtel 112. had some circumlocutions. which The Latin mistakes were made in writing: Vok. [§ 126 dialects of Italy. Pr. was native. the formation in —bo. 98. gations. As the tense became rare in speech. and in the other two.— S6 in An some Introduction to Vulgar Latin. inquis. Draeger I. cantdre. (2) 125. § 119. dormibo forms were kept late {Futurum 161). Cf. Sepulcri 225. according to Mohl. Regnier Cf. These causes or others made the future unpopular. for the future forms (such periphrases are particularly fre- quent in African church Latin) : (1) The present indicative for the future is common in Cicero in conditional sentences: Lebreton 188-190. only in Rome and the immediate vicinity. such as fachabeo dicere. was liable to confusion with the present subjunctive and indicative. PL 141-142. qiiando mutarisi eras. cum volueris et imus tecum ostendimus tibi. which approached the meaning of the future. and in Dacia: Sp. The substitution si vis ecce ire became frequent in all sorts of constructions: nam modo pedibus duco vos ibi. cantdro. in late pronunciation. delenda est. The old pluperfect subjunctive was used as an imperfect: see § 118. Sepulcri 225-226. 286 ff. The old audibo. jam crastina non eximus. pervidet. errors as respondeam for respondebo (^Futurum 158). Future and Conditional. Regnier viii. Pers. quando 64. future was not uniform in the four conjuwas used in three of them and prevailed in two. During the Empire there was a strong tendency to substitute these or other constructions Classic Latin turus sum. I. Digitized by Microsoft® . the future in the first two conjugations was suggestive of the imperfect.

Jerome. R. 711. Densusianu 181 in Italy . St. Ovid. . 447 multa habeo dicere. Futurum 48 ff. habes invenire in manibus — tollere habet. R. R. § 129] An The Introduction to Vulgar Latin. videre habetis. 423. Cf. 370.— Servius. 123. frobare non habent. etc. Hoppe 44 it ... . I. G. Regnier 29. I. (4) Debere kept in Sardinian. Trist. Varro. 106. as in Sueto- means I. . debeo dicere: tibi polliceri. De Re ut id mihi habeam curare. Ad Famil. bam. nee verba nobis ista did habent. 128. i. cui velle habet. In these senses habes spectare. . qui nasci habent. Cicero. This habeo construction dare habet finally took the sense of a simple future: Tertullian. See §§ 105. 449 Regnier 28. Hoppe 44 nan habent retribuere. The form that prevailed. the oldest Rumanian future is voiujurd or Jurd vom: Tiktin 599. Hoppe 44-45 . + + It was 5) Vadere. Velle in this sense was preserved in Dacia. in multis hoc . or Digitized by Microsoft® . 448 exire habebat. 129. infinitive was another substitute. 57 (2) future participle writers: stc et Bayard 256.. . I 127. (3) Velk and /^w^ + infinitive were frequent: G. ( ^w^ was a favorite with late nos futuri sumus resurgere. 447 unde mihi dare habes aquam vivam. Futurum 180. tantum habeo Lucretius VI. . quam evenire haDeus corpus. infinitive: In Classic Latin habeo habeo quod dicam. aliter prcedicantur bent. 28. R. Cf. mandare habewas very common in late writers: Hoppe 43 filius Dei mori habuit. I. et sicnihil tuis. ire. Cf. rebus dicere habemus. etc. R. Regnier century. was habeo with the dicere ^=:. it many others. being so used by Cicero and nius. It had become common by the sixth In the early stages of the Romance languages. — St. venire habet. however. Rustica 5. later. Augustine. 447-449. venire + infinitive were used also.

The earliest examples of the Romance future are found in Fredeyet. . Quillacq 116. Digitized by Microsoft® . Hoppe 43-45. Spr. ready for use. separation is common in Old Provencal. the infinitive came to stand regularly. just before the habeo. 55. Haag 54. though not immutably. [§ 130 possibly in the latest stage of Vulgar Latin. Furthermore. cantare or he cantar. amare habedicit quod like dixit si possum venire habet. something like si potuissem venire habebam or habui was called for. Bayard 257. Haag See Morphology.— 58 . amaturus eram or fui was often used and when amaturus sum was replaced by amare habeo. garius: Justinianus dicebat 'daras'. there quod was needed a past construction and corresponding to venire habeo. in place of amassem the conclusion of a conditional sentence. addarabo. in Classic Latin. So it seems to be used by Tertullian. There are sure examples from the fifth century on: Lat. to match such a sentence as venire habebat or habuit. and in Portuguese it is not completed Old Sp. Finally the two words were fused into one.. or conditional. although sometimes with him the meaning borders on a real conditional: non traditus autem traduci habebas. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 489. pati haberet. Herodes principes sacerdotum ubi nasci habebat Christus interrogat. Hilary seem to show a simple conditional use of the compound: quod lex nova dari haberet. new form. etc. but this union was not completed until after the beginnings of the Romance literatures. manifestari habebat. where it was employed with an implication of obligation or necessity. and occurs in Old Italian Pg. Cyprian and St. In Classic Latin. ista civitas esterminari haberet quod esset venturus et 130. fazel-o-he. St. On the model of this future. an imperfect of the was constructed. it was natural that amaturus eram should give m way to bam. The phrase existed. Bayard 256.

Digitized by Microsoft® . Tiktin. of this 59 The development as.§ 130] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. for a discussion of the question. form in the Romance languages see in general. 691. not' bvious. see H. The ')ie origin of the full Rumanian conditional. Bildung des rumanischen Konditionalis in Zs. XXVIII. cintareasH. parallel to that of the future: Moris hology.

The principles of syllabic division are rather difficult to establish. as in Italian. that a consonant group. or in half of a double consonant: a-ni-ma. however. sic-cus. 132-151. in-fans. Cf. as in ob-liviscor. The group mute + liquid makes position in the older dramaafter the first : : tists : Nsevius accents integrant.III. prop-ter. except a mute + a liquid. etc. PHONOLOGY. was usually divided consonant noc-tem. then. Spr. They add In point of that etymological considerations often disturb the operation of the rule. all consonant groups. poets may or may not make tinebrcB. It is altogether likely. Lat. A. It is likely that in Old Latin the division came before the Digitized by Microsoft® . the syllable always ended in a vowel. The Latin grammarians seem to have given no heed to actual speech. According to these writers. or in a liquid or nasal followed by another consonantin the next syllable. position. supporting it with purely theoretical considerations. a-mnis. pro-pter. The division of j + consonant they regard as uncertain {a-s- trum)\ doubtless in reality the s was nearly syllabic. no-ctem. S. it In the Classic I. SYLLABICATION. A single consonant between vowels certainly went with the second po-si-tus. al-ter. but to have followed the usage of Greek spelling. 131. etc. mit-to. in the spoken language. and not pirfe-ctus. Quintilian 5 recom- mends vdlucres. made position an^ attracted the accent: perfSc-tus. In Vulgar Latin this : combination almost invariably attracts the accent cathidra. fact. 132. 466. phdretra.

30-34. through the Classic period even after the distinctions of quantity were lost. In the earliest stage of the language appar- ently fell on the first syllable: Corssen II. had become fixed : 6i liquid. : We — a. the place of the accent was literature began. The penult vowel before mute + liquid (cf. § 132) normally has the stress in Vulgar Latin: cathedra. if : word began with a vowel B. co-lu-bra. Franz.. co-liib-ra. the accent falling on the e Digitized by Microsoft® . when immediately followed by the 136. PRIMARY STRESS. ing to which the accent The falls Classic Latin system — accordis on the penult long. otherwise on the antepenult — developed . if that syllable as early as and remained. some cases in which the Classic principle fails to operate or the Classic stress has been shifted 135. I. § 136] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. both consonants were carried over lub-ra. and /. colubra. became y. the beginning a it 134. have seen that Vulgar Latin regularly accents according to the Classic quantitative accentuation. computo. ACCENT. poltre < *pullitra. The Latin accent was probably from regularly stress accent. but subsequently. after the accent on cd- the preceding vowel. cor exsultat = co r-exsultat. unchanged: bonitatem. There seem to be a few exceptions to the rule palpres < pdlpebras. Accented vowel of the penult. 13. and perhaps : some othfc. 133. pi. inUgram. We speech a that final have reason to believe that in closely connected consonant was carried over to the next word. delicto. however. There are. both in the literary and in the spoken language. Old Fr. 892-906 S. VOWELS m HIATUS. Old Fr.

conteneo. consuere by cdnsuo. condedit. L. On the same plan new verbs were formed: *de-minat. 56. that suos. Lehrbuch der Phonetik.. so parietes" L. Here the shift was apparently due in each case to analogy. parjites^paretes^ C. presteti. paries. effect diios. Cf. §31): deficit >* disfdcit. however. reddtdi "^ reddMi. riquirit "^ * requkrit. inclausus. 192. O. So 54 . etc.. C. Verbs compounded with prefixes were generally constructed with the accent and the vowel of the simple verb. COMPOUND VERBS.62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. S. tenueram by tenui. battuere being influenced by bdttuo. in which the vowel in hiatus is atonic. '/« regularly re-nigat. Sepulcri 213-215. adsteti. Digitized by Microsoft® .pi(teus. Cf § 225. This change X. became w. suds. 468. etc. dedit. consuere'>*cdns^ere'> cdnsere . [§ 139 following vowel: put^olis ~:> mul(eris>muljMs. II. Jespersen. I. /. Lat Spr. became e but if the preceding consonant was . tra- addedi. Accented u. hiatus seems to have had no on the accent in Latin. Gram. 668-670. when immediately followed by the vowel falling of the penult. etc. it was palatalized: \i&xwt f aretes. . calefacis. tuds. displtcet>*displdcet. imp Itcaf^* imp Heat. provided the composite nature of the formation was understood and the parts were recognized (cf. It is possible. 137. crededi. 1889 (pvte6lis). perdedit. I. b. tenueram > * tenj^eram. S. etc. S. 3714 (paretes). habuerunt by hdbuit. reddedit. but * muVeres. the accent on the preceding syllable: bat{^t)iiere'>* bdtty^ere'> bdttere . habMrunf^ * hdb^erunt. reiinet > * ret^net. 51. It was favored also by the analogy of miilier. 138. etc. p. itios were sometimes pronounced duds. > putjdlis. re- 139. Aside from these cases. seems to be due to a tendency to shift the stress to the more sonorous of two contiguous vowels: cf. VI.

ficotum. came to be used only in the sense of 'read. n. 235Digitized by Microsoft® . the simple verbs having become rare or having taken a different sense: legere. and northern Italy. The adverbs iliac. central 2jaA. Reetia. (tdicwtoi/ (Pirson 40). Gaul had ficatum and ficatum. ficatum. a cross between /««/«/« was kept in Sicily and in the Spanish peninsula. fecitum. 63 RMpit became being with In felt. 141. which should properly have been pronounced sycotum . Ficatum. Sardinia preserved both ficatum and ficatum. XXV. perhaps under the influence of a vulgar *hepdte for hepar. Paris in Miscellanea linguistica in onore di Graziadio H. which was applied by cooks to a liver. FICATUM. *fdcatum. n-LAc. a . Schuchardt in Zs. *ftcatum. There existed in Greek a word 'figlike'. for instance. It is found in late Latin in the form sycotum. was preferred in and southern Italy. a fusion of ficatum and * sicotum. all meaning 'liver. Ficatum or prevailed in Dacia. . 435 L. illic accented their last syllable through the analogy of hdc^ hlc. cdlligo and some others not even the composite nature was perceived. 515 and XXVIII. . Through this word there came into use the culinary terms /tedium. Priscian says ^^ illic pro mice": S.§ i4i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. it probably became *secotum. *ficotum */dciium. for some unknown reason. 42.' Ficatum.' c. Ascoli 41 See G. Clddat in Revue de philologie fran(aise et de littirature XV. later. d.Lic. 140. by a change of suffix. the composite character of the word although the compound was no longer associated capere.simple translation of (tvkwtov. * redpit. 'liver'. .

however. kTzi<jTo\rj~> epistula —ola. II. (nraa-it. G. fj. mdgida.. sometimes the word was made to conform to the Latin principle. terms borrowed by ear from the Greek. The accentuation times the Greek stress GREEK WORDS. 69-70. Somewas preserved. with the Greek > Occasionally the accent was kept by doubling the consonant. may represent popular stress.ix.r/xa-vj'^- were stressed according to the Latin system: ^pa-)QiLT^> drdch{u)ma. 42 ff. as polifpus. lines quarranta occurs in a late inscription. etc.guadraginta. Rydberg . [§ 145 NUMERALS. of Greek words was varied. 392. It. § 134). Optisdna)':>lt.poKri'^pardbula. Greek paroxytones were mostly accented according to the quantity of the penult: ypa(j>tov>grdp/iium. tisana. The shift was probably due to a tendency to differentiate the numerals from one compare the floating accent in English thirteen^ another in Melanges natural : fourteen. borrowed Idmpa^s).TKj6. 461. a. 337. (1) Greek Oxytones.tnginta. Ti. See M. Ther\. apparently the first syllable: (2) 145. <f>Ld\rj XoXepa > chdlera) > colira. e. stressed ^vKwrov. Wahlund. \ were sometimes accented on the antepenult: Consentius mentions a faulty pronunciation triginta. Digitized by Microsoft® . when by Latin. irapa. voXvTrovs '^ polypus^ irop(f>vpa /jMyiSa.qumqudginta. > ( ^purpura.64 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Vok. 144.virahersvigintt.. 4-5 Pirson 97. Tairav6s>* iapinus. Xa. see § 141.vr] <f>apiTpa'>p/tdretra ox phar'etra (cf.'i'^ mdc(k)- tna. Keil V. Greek oxytones. etc. Ihm in Archiv VII. Cf. 1 142. Claussen 809.ira. (>pMd/a)> It. iraXa/ir/ ^pd/ma. Kafxapa^cdmera. S. irapaT-fi^'^ pirata. 143. fdia..o^'^ spdstnus. etc. Greek Paroxytones.

kKo. Claus- accentuation: Kxnta. 'i. > ec(^c)Usia. I. penetrated popular speech {(ro<l>ia> sopMa. ylvecTK "^ ginesis. are attested: S. -eum -ium. 148. The ending -2i2. sen 809. raXaxTov > talintum. Cf. > platea platea.'Kav&ov'> balneum. 65 but it more likely that the Italian forms are book-words with a shifted accent.cupressus.) and produced a new Latin ending -ia. and sophta.'avfi<l>(ovia>sym- Later a fashionable pronunciation -ia. etc. The endings -aa. 35. (3) 147.puj<jo%~^* ciiparissosy. etc.>blasp hernia. § 17. S. S. phonia. -eum: ^a. doubtless favored by Cliristian influence.. Gram. the accent remained un- changed phus. -ia 146. Claussen 814-821.<j-(^r]fLux. —aav sometimes became -ea -ia.. of proparoxytones is The treatment complicated. Thomas in Rom. Kuiv(im&ov> conopeum -eum —ium. which was used to form new words: see Derivation. 42-49.- was at first generally assimilated to p\a. When : the penult vowel was in position. (with a KoXa^o^ > cdld- Trpea-ftvrepov > presbyterum new nominative took the prisbyter). Claussen 813-814. Claussen 812. iKKXtjaia the Latin fiipXla^Mblia. A. by Microsoft® .§ 149] ^^ Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. 42£f.<TTopia> kistdria. but their statements are too vague to be of use. etc. Digitized jSawTia-fui > baptisma. Cf.. Claussen 810— 811. Late Latin grammarians mention a pro- nunciation of Greek words with the Greek accent (S. 55-56. 42). A few early borrowed words perhaps show the Old Latin Cf. Cf. The pronunciations melodia. Cf. When : the penult was short.t&o. a-riirta>s^pia. 149. it accent afivcraoi > abyssus. XXXI. Suffixes for Nouns. Greek Proparoxytones. sometimes —ea. KaXafiOi > calamus. 2-3..

apparently took the accent in book-words but not in words learned by ear (S. xa/xtvos it : caminus. Spr. 151. Ut cdrne carnem liberdns p^rderit quos c6ndidit. Pharo. Celtic Baiocasses > > Z>urdcasses'^'Px. Hues Hudn. a-iKlvov^ linum.T]\ai> camelus -ellus. became both encdustum and incaustum.Tri. Dottin 103.66 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. KpoKohaKoi'^ crocodilus. 49): Umbrian Fr. As far as SECONDARY STRESS. Fisaurum It. ipr]iuis> eremus eremus : > (Prudentius). [§ 153 'EyKava-Tov. > 150. 466).it. etc.ov tdolum (both in Prudentius: Lat. Bayeux. it consisted in a tolerably regular alternation syllables.o%> bldsphemus (Prudentius). 'ldKioPoi>/dcobus. 152. Ne Digitized by Microsoft® . OTHER FOREIGN WORDS. Germanic words were apparently made to conform to Latin types: H'&go HUgun > Hugo Hugdnem > Fr. Some words have both pronunciations et8<i)A. j3ovTvpov> *se'- biHtyrum (^milius Macer). 153.. Troyes. Ka. . Dreux. their original accent. 48-49) Ka. ayKvpa>dncora.> sinapi sindpi. contrary to Latin rules (S. When the penult vowel was long and not in position. ^\axr<^-i]p. of accented and unaccented fifth Thus Sedulius. Some words borrowed from other languages kept e. however. t^aWtava'^. judging from phonetic changes late Latin verse. etc.ballcena. (T'aia. at the beginning of the century. of Vulgar and from semi-popular Kluge 500. writes: Beatus iuctor skculi Servile c6rpus fnduit. we can determine the rhythm Latin. 2.pv6<^vKKov Occasionally the consonant group was simplified and the accent remained : > * garofulum. Tricasses'>Yx.

the root syllable may have received an irregular stress through the analogy of the primitive: * drboricellus. When it followed the tonic. but clmPr. Short. v€ttovdglia beside vittdria. Digitized by Microsoft® . cave-facias. especially prepositions and conjunctions. 156. its syllabic value. clerc. so. I. te-videt. were used only as enclitics or proclitics. fell on the second syllable from the tonic: cuptditosus. cum Pr. dd-tibi. *parduldre *pardbuldre : > > > filiiis "^^/ilius. B\i6logn{no beside Bologna. sdzer. in Italian. unemphatic words. F\6rentino beside Fvrenze. clirgue while cUr'cum > > > cdlbe while cdlpum > Pr. strong. however. pldcttiim'^'Pr. it was weak. In many cases the intervening vowel fell out or lost Then the primary and the secondary ac- lost cent were brought together. Idcrlmosa. non-dmat. When the secondary stress preceded the tonic. 154. it and the vowel bearing it was was apparently treated as an accented vowel: * amicUdtem~^'?x. dolorosa. UNSTEESSED WORDS. colp. felidtatem.^plach. Casdrem. Many words. in Latin as in other lan- guages. as well as some adverbs and pronouns. circum-Utora (Quintilian s). 38-39) dma-me. 67 ' The secondary then. In some derivatives. cdlidHs cdldus. 155. Gdllias. and the secondary was shifted or *pdrauldre. In late formations e or i in hiatus did not count as a sylla- ble: * cotninitidre. and were attached as additional end of other words (S. amistdt. stress. cdlapMin Pr.: § 156] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. but probably the vowel bearing it had more force than a wholly unaccented final vowel: sdcer{>'PY. syllables to the beginning or had no accent.

73-79. A syllable was long if it contained ( i ) a long vowel or a diphthong or (2) any vowel + a following consonant. did a final consonant Digitized §133): Jffl-/> Fr. QUANTITY. perhaps influenced proclitic hy plus.68 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. became *mais and * mas. [§ i6o 157. see §§132. how great the difference was we do not know. 1. We must distinguish between the quantity of vowels and the quantity of syllables. pere. Every 'LaXin vowel was by nature either lon^ prshort. position checked it is 160. the consonant. istu' (but iccum istum > eccu'istu'). For the syllabication of mute + liquid. . the consonant was final and the next word began with a vowel. (cf. Words sometimes sa. 379-390. ' I 159. was doubtless carried over to the next syllable and did not make position: see §133. POSITION. 134. by Microsoft® . eccum istum > 'cu" p II. however. In some of the Romance languages the development of the preceding vowel. and probable that the beginnings of this differentiation go back to Vulgar Latin times : pa-rem > Old Fr. sUay- C.5"^ illas and sometimes unstressed and * las. par-tern > Fr. in connected speech. If such particles had more than one syllable. 56-57. did not prevent the development: pa-trem^Y-ic. Mute + liquid Neither. part. ecce that vowel: ilium v{det^ hic^ (but ecce hie > ecc'tc) For 158. 1110. If. sel. see Franz. per. apparently. but we may surmise that in common speech it was more marked in stressed than in unstressed vowels. elision. stressed tended to develop double forms: sua and Cf. 'lu' A 'c'ic dissyllabic beginning with a vowel seems to have regularly lost vldet. they tended to become monosyllabic: unstressed magis. S.

(S. hoc erat hocc S.§ 163] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cuor{e) 161. in— 132. Cf. cippus.. It. ii594)>It. but often it must represent an actual difference in pronunciation. buc{c)lna. ferro <ifer-rum_. doubtless beone with a long vowel + — + a double consonant: brdchium brdcchium . as seems to be ves(s)ica. coupe. VIII. the other with a short vowel . biica bucca . 127). this may result merely the case with the doublet czto> S-p. 129. is common in Greek and Latin manu- scripts: S. -esse -essem etc. Stolz 223-224. which prevailed in Romance. coUo < <icd-r. 125-126 (Velius Longus and Pompeius).^ ec{c)lesta. cedo. It. mut{t')ire. L. S. formossus > > > mtsit. cuve. corpo <:_cdr-pus. Jiipiter Juppiter. Stolz 222—225. S. missit (S. cf. coppa . where we have perhaps only a change of suffix. petto pietra<pe-tra..* co-pVit. gluto glutto . : The The single antiquity of double t is attested by an old inscription Lexique loi. perhaps litera littera. §163. Similarly one / was lost in mallo. ciepa. diphthongs and long 112-120): cdssus> formosus. especially before the accent: bal{l)cBna. had two forms. however. Early in the Empire caussa ss after vowels was apparently reduced to casus. j < peccol- lum. mtllia (but not in mille : Pompeius. c. cetto. 162. cuopre <. nollo. Cf. In some words from bad spelling. citto {C. paullum.fe-rus. 69 Compare tus. — fuore <fd-ris. etc. giving Sp. Fr. copa. In Latin texts there is much confusion of single and double consonants. camelus camellus. siccus ' '' sicccus. cupola and erat. Fr. cot{t)idie. cuba. —Isse —tssem etc. Many words certainly longing to different Latin dialects. cuppa. in the contracted endings -dsse -dssem etc. stupa stuppa. Italian fiero <. I. 163. This did not occur. mucus miiccus . § 42 ctpus a single consonant. Digitized by Microsoft® . pupa puppa.^glut[t)tre. tap{p)ete. Sp. glossa glosa.fiel(^e) Kferl. Cf. 118: mIssit) > causa.

having both the long. Rsetia. cascio). there was occasionally a third. strenna. brdca bracca. Stella. lattrones. suppremis. prevalent in Africa or in Italy. messi). frattre. mattrona. Beside the two forms indicated. 1. [§ 164 may perhaps be added: cdseus * cdsseus bdsium *bassium (>It. Leicique 98-104. chdne{<x°-'^) 261. etc. strennuor. 485. toiius was used by Pirminius. Gaul. a consonant was doubled 122. conservdmus Vok. 334.70 An To these Introduction to Vulgar Latin. strena (> Old Fr. Mohl. For *iiUius see Digitized by Microsoft® . jubemus lltus littus. Vok. In aqua the double con: sonant. cf. tota. (> It. suppra. jubemmus. local ing to F. was very widespread and prevailed in Italy.^)—* tdtta (> Pr. Archiv XIV. anguila) Fr. iota estreine) (>Sp.5 547. seemingly a cross between the other two. baca bacca. This doubling indicates in most cases a Accordpronunciation.488. 403. ^(ji. vowel and the double consonant : angutla (> Sp. Die Entwicklung des aqua in den romanischen Sprachen. voile. S. Gram. toute). conservammus. attested by inscriptions and by Christian poets. Sic. before / and u in the old Italic dialects compare the Italian doubling infabbro. G. (>It. strinna). XXIV. mist * missi 261 {iubimmus iobemmus). toda) ¥ totta (Keil V. reviewed by Meyer-Lubke in Ltblt. channe. botte). ^Stella Vok. dialect stella) = (>It. bascio). XXVI. 612. I. tenne.^ + strenna = * strenna (> It. I. iConsentius: " per adjectionem litterje io««»! pioioto." Cf. + anguilla—* angutUa (> It. Zs. stilla). Stolz 223. 164. Lexique 95-98) + Stella (>It. § 204(2). * butts (<j8oi)tis) *buttis (>It. bellua. * stela (>01d esteile: cf. tennuis. Cf. I. and a large part of lateinischen See Clara Hiirlimann. * According to Lat. anguilla). 339. So perhaps Diomedes' Itttera: Fr. Spr. In late Latin inscriptions and manuscripts a consonant was sometimes doubled before r or u: acqua.

if the word is used in verse. 467. mulus Later. Writers do not clearly distinguish i and i. 166. e. i and u were allowed to drop still lower. 71 VOWEL QUANTITY. cites Tertullian for an e (S. 195. 175. but is used for u in inscriptions. is made with the tongue lying flat in the bottom of the mouth. 176. long dis- - tinguished only by duration. as minses. : vendo pinus pi^er. 211). in debet and mnum \ \ and minus. by 250. d. for the vowels of brief duration the tongue was not in lifted quite so high as for those held longer. However may have been. i. 182). distinguishes do other grammarians (S. According to Meyer-Liibke. is often used for i in inscriptions.. I. Za(. until Consentius. all : of later date. In Digitized by Microsoft® . long were close gula. None of the grammarians apparently distinguished « and «. etc. this nomen and novus. 0. 200-201). (S. in Vok. and i for e. perhaps. In the case of a. and u were eventin ually differentiated. was often used for e in inscriptions (S. and several fifth century grammarians plainly distinguish e from e (S. about 350 a. in iillus and multus. i ff. etc. (S. 2. as menus. 151. distinguishes two ^-sounds Pompeius. most of the Empire. 208. which and became e and see §§201. 212. as ocsor. in 165. and short vowels were redit. II. etc. from the second century on cs Marius Victorinus.. and so Maurus. 193). 174. the evidence of inscriptions. Spr. the vowels having. In open syllables. long and short e. the short vowels being open while the sentio. the distinction U was clear by the first century of our era.§ i66] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 211). III. for instance. Originally. II. solus sqlet. 216-217). is given the testimony of grammarians. . there was no such differentiation. secondus. 146. the same sound in Idtus and Idtus. about 480. Terentianus from q (S. That is.. 182). however. 183-184). in the fifth century (S. In Vok. similar to i. 461. the quantity of the vowel is ' in general easily ascertained.

others demand u. probably kept their original Naturally short vowels doubtless had development also: deus = deus. and the practice of poets was not always in accordance with spoken usage.. is The Classic rule that a vowel before another vowel short is not absolute even for verse. then. etc. Fr. jectured from the etymology. 167. loir calls for *gltrem h&siA^ gltrem. plus kept inscriptions (dIes originally long vowel. although we do find the spellings dius and mius (S. ultra (S. but the i. before u was apparently differentiated into 0: dvum> oum (cf. were apparently pronounced also with short u 81-82). Substrate II. a. Romance undecim. nutrire. languages. 98. sometimes marked in inscriptions. etc. Vowels in hiatus with the last syllable offer difficulties. VOWELS Ilf HIATUS. their Dies.2^)>oum (and also ovum. by Microsoft® . frIgida. (S. Classic i Latin o&ers frtgidus (of. others karessimo. 93. Aulus Gellius prescribes dictum. 105). so cut. duo>dui = dui.72 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. require a short some Romance forms support Classic luridus. ^T. after u had become (see §§ 165. but an inscription has dIctatori (S. 99). and. at least in part. cf. 105). At 208). via— via. siius'>Digitized spus> sous (S. found in inscrip- tions. attested by pIvs piivs. Naturally long vowels. and often shown by subsequent developments in the Romance languages. except Spanish. 101-102). in Plautus. with a restora- tion of the V through the plural ova). proved old inscriptions . and in Ennius close vowel in the Romance (S. 187). testimony conflicts: some inscriptions have carIssimo. fut. their regular quantity in hiatus. 93): these preserved their languages. but it is sometimes given by gram- marians. by S. S. any a later stage. [§ 167 closed syllables and in words not used is by poets the quantity sometimes conOccasionally the in many cases doubtful .

Jean- jaquet. There may have been other special Cf. Fluere was supplanted in popular usage by plovere Fluvia. before a consonant. b. 246-248. into pei-ius. 236). *pldja. which had begun to assume the functions of quod (see §§69. J. 236). The Romance languages. way to Cf. 73 varia- 216. 3 II. as in ejus. For another see A. The apparent contradiction disappears tianus Maurus. Spr. According to some grammarians. which prolonged the — first syllable: not pejor. Franz. we should write Troiia also Priscian analyzes pejus. Cicero preferred aiio. but the / was doubled was a glide from the vowel to the/. cuiius. gave {Lat. Troija. 357-390. as Cicero approved of Aiiacem. 170. inscriptions such S. hut peijor. Troja. spellings as Aiiax. etc. We find in eiius. 104) that the vowels there that is. 169. Maiiam. 341.§ i7o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. words were short. coiiux. used for quod in late Latin. Maiiam. Cf. point to open vowels in pejor. Horning in Zs. under the influence of qua and : . however.(4). mai-ius Digitized (£don by Microsoft® . 82 cf. vowels were lengthened before j. Pirson 16). For a still. §217. 1894. if we accept the statement of Teren- who says (S. qua{ni). XXV. (S.. maiiorem. with double i (S. it became qua. Quintilian states that Pirson 74. a II. Recherches sur Forigine de la conjonction 'que' et des formes romanes iquivalentes. Velius Longus adds that etc. had a peculiar development from the sixth century on before a vowel it was pronounced qui' and was confused with quid. on the other hand.: 236. d. 250 in these a. I. LENGTHENING BEFORE CONSONANTS. Franz. ei-ius. see Gram. tions in different countries. §208. 468). 207). 352-355). 168. Quia. different theory. major. Troja..

all trace of the of the vowel: consul consul cosul cosul. who wrote in the sixth century. (cf. /. S. remains. 90. mesis. 89. etc. and some philologists regard the passage in question as still still an interpola54. etc. conjungere through conducere. and the fall was permanent. coxwenire through continere. signum. (2) Before gn vowels were lengthened according to Priscian and inscriptions mark length in dtgnus. lignum. S. however. S. for inscriptions. n was followed by a fricative (/. but the length and the close quality of the vowel remained. An Introduction When fell to Vulgar Latin.74 171. 172. in-: so infantem through indignus. n occurred in the middle of many words. . [§ 172 regularly early in Latin. 78. nasality disappeared. cojugi. sanctus. call for dtgnus. beside the old popular *pesare. and v only at the end of prefixes. Cf §311. Before J. the vowel was lengthened. for inscriptions. 86. for the usage of Cicero and others. s.- cf. 91). however. «. pugnus. etc. Spr. But inasmuch as n occurs before /". (S. 91./.. signum sigillum). S. a very late authority. u. but insig- It is altogether likely that the n fell through nasalization If so. compounds See S. as above) are either learned terms or new formaS. so that the result Digitized was t. tsula. The Romance is languages. or v). Priscian. coventio. sposus. tion of later date. tions: so pensare. etc. 77-78. tferi.. Romance and late Vulgar Latin words with ns (except in Cf. tjk: quinque. u. but only after H had be- come i. the evidence of the inscriptions I. Archiv XIV. it and the preceding vowel was cesor. 400. (i) Vowels were apparently lengthened before Cf. 467). t. the n being restored only in com- lengthened by compensation: pounds before initial nare. According to Meyer-Liibke {Gram. s: cosul. regnum. it was usually restored by the analogy of the full forms con-. pignus. Lat. not f. benegnvs by Microsoft® .

the preservation of quantity in post-tonic Digitized mostly in the third and fourth centuries. "miserce dativus est non adverbium. J. and the plural —es were confounded by 150 A. etc. about 250. show. XII. seems to observe quantity in stressed and to neglect it in unstressed syllables. as in aut (S. in the fourth century. D. The distinctions in quality. unaccented Terentianus Maurus. difference in quantity 173.). DISAPPEARAHCE OF THE OLD QUANTITY. The was probably greater and more constant in accented than in unaccented vowels. (S. through the Latin period and developed further in the Romance languages. This seems a very plausible C. D. On shift the other hand. and a was often used for e in inscriptions (S. 2153. in unaccented syllables the distinctions were doubtless weaker. 174. . The old quantity itself was It during the Empire. Buck. tells us that au is short in Other grammarians syllables. 226). resulting from the original quantity. 75). explanation. which is 75 in C. doubtless equivalent to the benIgnus of C. Cornu. Latin words borrowed by the Britons. in stressed syllables. 722. Versbau des Commodian in Bausteine 576. of accent. L. I. for the most part seems to have disappeared from unstressed syllables by the third or fourth century but confusion The nominative singular -is set in as early as the second. in the third or fourth century. XII. remained. The poetry of Commodian. (S. in the Classical Review I. and we find numerous metrical errors in other late poets: cf. through a by Microsoft® . warn against quantitative mistakes: so Servius. they existed at c. as due to a vulgar or local pronunciation. lost. L. in so far as all. 183—184: bence." etc. and were often obliterated. prefers to regard such forms as dlgnus.§ 174] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 66). 311. XV. however.

and not complete before the end of the sixth. e. are distinguished by quality also. grammarians blame the confusion of cequus and equus (S. fructus by Microsoft® . too. Digitized fqrmas fori. show the preservation of the quantity of stressed vowels: Loth 64. 106). DEVELOPMENT OF A HEW QUANTITY. 65. taken over in the fifth and sixth centuries. Latin words borrowed by the Britons from the second to the fifth century. Much late poetry disregards quantity altogether. / At the end of the Latin period a new system of quangrew up. 467). Spr. entirely diverse from the old. d.76 syllables: An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Latin words borrowed by Old High German indicate a retention of long i and u before the accent: Franz. all other vowels 176. 178). vendo vents. criticizes Servius. clares that "Afrae aures de correptione St. The Latin words in Old High German. In accented syllables there are sporadic examples of confusion by the second century. and o. Moreover. Augustine devocalium vel produc- Pompeius and other tione non judicant" (^Lat. but mostly in the third and fourth. i?> e 01 i. 107. for. [§ 176 Loth 72. as aques for eques in 197 (S. 175. It is possible that the quantity of unstressed vowels was better kept in the provinces than in Italy.if>« while u and u. Latin words in Anglo-Saxon. and based on th|fe situation of the vowel. tity short: sdncto vales. 225). In most of the Empire accented vowels not in position were pronounced long. e and ?. but probably the disappearance of the old distinction was not general before the fourth and fifth centuries. distinguish by quantity t and i. fourth century. in the Roma (S. d>ii ox 6 while d>o: Franz. dixi plicds. retain the quantity of vowels that bear the accent: Pogatscher. On the other hand.

Latin had the vowels au. Meyer-Liibke in different in Einf. «^j>Fr. d. Zimmermann in Zs. nepotis (A. Lombardy. porta. we find vobit for obiit (S. 0. An isolated example. ca-the-drd te-ni-brds . 467. This pronunciation doubtless sprang up with the old.f>It. beside a. cb. says that the development was and independent in the several Romance languages. e. The vowels most affected were e and q. dis- appearance of the which it displaced. Gram. cq/r me-l no-s re-m In Spain and in some parts neisf of Gaul. cuor. eu. while a was not' affected by q-aawti-ty.q. d. goule. vieni. perhaps only a blunder. occurs in an inscription made a little before 120 a. 213). 77 gule. 735). 178. which in the transition from Latin to the Romance languages re1 77- It is likely that these in sulted in diphthongization in a large part of the Empire. XXV. ^^/a > Old Fr. and the conditions of diphthongization were very diverse in different localities. We shall see presently Digitized by Microsoft® . VOWELS. nounced new long vowels were promost regions with a circuinflex intonation. the groups that e. ce. cqr'^ u were pronounced open. particularly in northern Gaul: z'f«f. 103—104. In 419 D. We and i. syllables before a labial (as in proommus') a short further- more.§ 178] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. o. : Niipos. u. but as posterior to it the fifth century. he puts in the fourth and fifth centuries. in £at. /w>01d Fr. southern Gaul. i. nous. all stressed vowels were appar- ently long: tempus. tre-s. have seen (§ 165) ti. also ui. and in unaccented ii. t. a. and Sicily apparently did not participate in this early breaking. Spr. close. Portugal. (rets. I. he describes it as common to all. 561-562.

In the Germanic vocabulary there is not much to be noted: at in words adopted early apparently became a. long or short. 181.78 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. popular origin it often had the Greek open sound kKKkfitrU > 182. partly from the various pronunciations of the vowels in the several Greek dialects. was pronounced a: ^axriM^ Phdsis. The foreign vowels of borrowed words were assimil- In the few Celtic words that were taken over there are no important peculiarities. as *waidanjan~>*wadaniare. [§ 182 (§§209. iu is found in skiuha?i> ated in some fashion to the Latin system. 210) that cB>e a. The inconsistencies in this substitution arise partly from the different dates at which words were borrowed. (f>dXayi -> phalanx. and ui (as in cut) was lit. bestemmia. the Greek This pronunciation was letters were sounded as in Greek. so in some late words. doubtless the ideal of people of fashion. while au. * skivare. A. by Microsoft® . but early in our became t. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin e: a. Late words often show Digitized do-Ki/Tiys > ascitis. According to Quintilian (£don 64-65). as In words of more ji\acr<\>r}fi. eu (or iu) appears in treuwa (or triuwa). bottega. and 180. but popular speech substituted for unfamiliar vowels the sounds of the vernacular. which became *trewa.iro6riKTf)~:>apotheca^ It. it H era : eclesia. eu (^cduius. a-Ktjvrj'^ sctsna scena. 179. seppia.nd ce>e. (n)Tria~^ sapia. eu generallyremained du.La > blasphemia > It. partly from the channel (written or oral) through which they came. was in Greek originally a long e. ceu). The history of Greek vowels is very complicated: — GREEK VOWELS. but also sepia "^ i: It. Per.

/. In popular words it. Christianus Chres- tianus.'>- Stephanus Stephanus. oo-/x'^ >. etc. Tiov Claussen 854-855. cresme.o'i'> phlmus . it was In assimilated to Latin t: ^lp. 184. ^^. ropvos > tqrnus > It. orma. Cf.^ purpura. 183. Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. tttw^os > It.vri^ovo%'>-* antefona'^ Qi\A Fr. 185. but sometimes open. armeise. -p-hqra). etc. menta. etc. In popular words it was sometimes close. apa. '%Ti<^avo'. 79 40. even when long. a.. apTepXa-M It. open in others. /iu(rT^ptov> mistirium. ally u: tructa. t apparently later often e: apOplriKOi > ariAriticus '> It artetico.. It. "^-phoca.Chrlstus Chrestus.yermo. was assimilated to Latin e: yevans Agenesis. Claussen 869-870. at least in the principal dialects. dqga. <^iKo'i>phtlus. ^ia>drrp > boletus. KiBpo'i'>cedrus'>In book-words it > Fr. ixova<TT'^piov'>raora-n-rj- nastirium. 80x1^ > dqga> It. antiefne. E was close in some It. ermo.v6% > orphanus. Claussen 853-854.. K6ppi>gummi. Greek dialects. was generally close. in 186. I. Sp. sometimes open: eprjfios'^ er'mus er'mus'^ It. Neumann etc. cedro.ix6py7)>amurca. pxirov > blttum'> It. tapit. ^(fila-pa^ chrisma> cresima. regamo. op<^a. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: > cophinus. 1re7rf. occasion- yXStrira > It. popular words I In book-words later e oz e. was probably q. Old Fr. piivOrj^ menta'> It.' It. but perhaps dialectically q (cf. Pr. 9.— § i86] An etc. irop^vpo. seems to have had a very open sound. chiosa. Claussen 855-857. Xpla-ro^'^. crLvaTn> sinapi^ senape. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: <j><!tKri In popular words it apparently became ^. Digitized by Microsoft® . > artemtsia > Old Fr. O most dialects was kocjuvo's o. tapis. pttqcco. and occasionally the same word had both pronunciations: a.p1. Cf. opiyavos > became e. iKKXriKrCiu "> edisice. rprnKTiji'^ Cf.> piper. apparently became I. mienta. cf. li bietal It.

etc.8o torno. fivpros busta seems to represent a peculiar local development: cf. Digitized by Microsoft® . Marsuas. — KoKn^o-i^ cqlaphus cojaphus. > ancilia .vt)> was shortened. ''tymum non tu- mum. y In the App. It. Towards the end of the Republic. /iCSos > It." Among the common people the unfamiliar ii was assimilated to i. etc. was unrounded into /. murta." App." '^ tymum non tumum. AudoUent 536. Koyxiy <tt/3o<^os [§ 187 chorda. in the 9th or loth century. which may represent a Greek dialect pronunciation between u and ii: yvpo'i> gyrus gmrus . says: "Burrum semper Ennius. truttna the v storax. u is the spelling in some words. v regularly was assimilated to Latin u Ionic it jUijXXos 2ig-22i): Pvpara> bursa . 468. calotta. App. Y was > strqppus. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. later in Attic and became ii. which subsequently. which is genCicero erally represented.. Cf. The App. S. Zefurus. Cf. 221. etc..yKvKw. grotta. Pr. Olumpus. 221). — > concha. perhaps taken mostly from Doric (Claussen 865). In inscriptions we find misteriis. According to Cassiodorus. Pr. Mva-Ca^ Jfysia Mmsia. 'OSuo-o-eta > Odissta. in which the ^ is a later local development. these probably have nothing to do with KoXvizTpa. In the older borrowed words. irv^os mullus. Livius Andronicus In ayKvpa ancora. Spr. nunquam Pyrrhum" (S. 187. 221). Pirson 39." "myrta non murta. > It. > > > buxida {=pyxis) in Theodorus Priscianus and in glosses. buxus. originally pronounced u. KpvTTTrj > It. 'OXvcro-eu? > Ulixes. (S. In Tp\yTa. we find: "Marsyas non in others (S. > > and a few other words the v for some reason became o. etc. Lat. Pr. motto. Pr.. KpvTrTy)> crupta ." "porphyreticum marmor non purpureticum marmor. in the case of v. For some words we find an occasional spelling X. The spelling / occurs sometimes before Augustus 6. . by the spelling y. . <jTvpai : . KviJ. yppl-q > Claussen 857-860.p-q>cumba. cultivated people adopted for Greek words the Ionic-Attic pronunciation.

£/ was doubtless originally pronounced ei in Greek. Pr. (as in aiyi^'^ tsgis). 192.§ 192] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cf. finally. a became Clio. 6r]travp6i> thesaurus.> platea. Digitized as in -Koivr] >poina. became ai. probably a local development. <? In Latin. 191. > It.TSa. frequently became qui: The modern Greek pronunciation is represented by some Romance words: afi. e. giro. «S(i)Xov> pirata. It. i. Cf. f.. Tu/iTravov > Fr. except before vowels. then. Claussen 860-869. Such forms Clepatra for as " ermeneumata non erminomata" {App. M. e. see § 141. may be merely misspellings: Some Romance forms show u: 875-877. KoXoKvuT-q"^ cologuinta.• ^ ^generally became ^« E3pos > -£'«''«J'. later e. For o-vkcutoj/. was usually pronounced short. if Audollent 535. Kapa^iuriys'^ paradtsus . j8u^ai'r6s > It. tdolum. /. KS/«i>It. etc. A V> au. misterii. which to be pronounced as in ^otfio^'^it Phxbus Phebus Sometimes. MaTa > Maia.'> w€ipaTyi<s'^ — KA£ki>> Medea. Claussen 873-875. . by Microsoft® became 0. or z before vowels. 277).rihtui. giro. § Kd 223. Claussen 01 originally "became came (S. 190. toreomatum from Topfxpa. 76-77. cf.v\ov > It. however. In -eios -eta —tiov. > It. etc. Cf. oTJpt-yya which became It. if Pirson 39. etc. as in AWiovux > Ethiopia Ethiopia. Cleopatra. Cf. Cf. AI timbre. yrJi/'os — kvkvo%> gesso is e: yvpo% cecino. /ceXttJcr/xa > ? It. Cf. b.). which came to be proClaussen nounced 871-872. ciurma. amido. Claussen 872-873. from the sixth to the fourth century c. oi. > scilinga. the penult was often shortened: Khj. etc.." giret. J before consonants. cima. Cf. . later ce (as in poina). originally cb 188. Bechtel etc. as in Atas > Aiax. bisante. 81 has "gyrus non girus. Frigia. about the third century.. 189. long. This i.

B. senetus. see § 39. etc. tantus. doubtless originally pronounced ou in Greek. Cf. 1527 d 33. ACCENTED VOWELS. (i) Some words had a peculiar development: — Beside alacrem the Romance languages seem to postulate alecrem and alej:rem. 468. — For vowels in hiatus. Haag 6. Olcott 33. under the influence of l?vis: Beside GREVE. 544. S. (6) Beside vacuus there was a vHcuus: vocuam. I. But in Gaul. <u Claussen 877-878. Doric cf. Spr. 198. for cmmeterium < Koi/tjyTiyptov. used by Petronius and others: Lat. Substrate II.slus. and agnetus (for agndtusi) in Fredegarius. unchanged in the greater part of the Empire: caput. L. I. Beside cerasus *clra. The o was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . factum. Rome. Claussen 878-879. manus. -arius. C. Kipaaoi) there must have been a Latin * cerlsus. crepere. 468. Reich. 468 cf. see § 167. volumptczte in Gl. Like 193. 171. In Latin it usually became u: fipovxo's> bruchus. N. A regularly remained dat-e. then 'Valuer (whence alicrem alecrem). ot. I. then q. [§ 195 "^-foeta. latus. it probably had a forward pronunciation tending somewhat toward e: cf. (2) (3) For the suffix -arius. Lat. 195. 0. became comcedia. « : . ovpavo's'^ Uranus. Spr.82 as in An iroirjTtji Introduction to Vulgar Latin. I.T\Kov). So beside dinia. SINGLE VOWELS. CKwas then if. a. especially in the north. which was used elsewhere Lat. Beside gravis there was a grevis. It is possible that dlacer (whence alacrem) > *dlecer (whence alecrem). see § 171.. (5) jiSKav) there was a melum (<i)i. 441. a 194. VI. Cf. Cimiterium cymiterium. For nasal vowels. Substrate (4) I. which was used in southern Italy. perhaps indicates an ignorant confusion of « ce: KOiixMSia'^ and Cf. C. patrem. vocatio. L. malum « cf. Spr. and Sarthere was a clr^slus.

etc. 359-364. Digitized It probably indicates an by Microsoft® . Lat. Also Vok. {Lexique 115). Studi A. In Sicily. 614-615. -Ire. etc. I. Calabria. Sepulcri. By a change § which was pronounced remained unchanged in Vulgar Latin. however. Carnoy 15 ff. filix. and conversely ver iox etc. 127 287-289. 468. 466. I. vendere. and southern Apulia e In old Oscan. iox co- gnusco and other verbs in —usco for -osco. iox fistus. to u. —isco for —esco. T is very often used for e in inscriptions and late —ido for —edo. debet. — in -isco for -esco.). of suffix original. as in cinsum. became vacdre. Republican times. —esimus. I. vindo. {ficet in the 3d century. 196. vocivus regularly whence by analogy vdcat vScuus became ^vdcitus^ for vocat: Lat. Spr. also for colustra. This would account for bistia (= bestia) found in late Latin. I. Some of the —esco >-tsco cases are surely due to a §§414-415... for vindimia instead of vindemia. mercedem. habetis. etc. -elius and —llius. for -elis and —His. probably- at least in most re- gions: debere.. e became i in late {Lexique 106). dulcido. writings: Gregory the Great has crudilitas. conjectures that consonant may have tended to raise e to i. These spellings are due in the main s -¥ to the identity of /and i in late pronunciation: see § 165. verus. 198.ficit. minsam. 189-190. 613. S. no proof of historical con: nection between the phenomena 197. shift of conjugation: see In Gaul this substitution of it i for e was so very com- mon that must signify something. Long e {% 165). diheto. -isimus for vir. I.: Sepulcri 193-194. e. Spr. etc. for —esco 26o£f. old vocdre. III.. same region. for crisco and other verbs for adimplisti. II. and -tsco. cf . 328. vacivus 83 {^vacuus). in Studi Medievali Medievali I. There is. etc.§ igS] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. Cf. which was spoken in nearly the has become i.: for the confusion of -ere and 6911.

Cf. vaster. [§ 201 extremely close pronunciation of the e ern Gaul.84 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. festa. Fngidus. rictu. quincriscens. e in nearly all the Empire: btbo. doubtless by the third century and sporadically earlier. mille. piscem. sidibus. viiium. I. veir): Lat. Long i. ferrum. 1 200. i. Bon. minses. remained unchanged: bene. rigna. which was pronounced e (see § 165). etc. It is interesting to note that Celtic e also became i: Dottin 99. in north- e>ei (verum> Old Fr. 106-113: minse. Spr. ingraviscente. ficit. except in Spain. spelling e for ^ is common from Digitized the third century on frecare. became. (Lexique 119) mentions a rustic speca for spica. see § 229. (4). circulns. dico. 468. quiiscit. stilla. riges. Cf. audtre. § i66. Neumann adoliscens. Vok. which supplanted vester. delitus.ii(i. venit. tepiscit. i pronounced i (§ 165). tulate (4) stegola Varro seems to pos- something like * steva for For St. Short e. habitur. 397. It. Haag 3iiff. pronounced / (§ 165). seniscit. minus. Lexique 104-105: ficerent. 0) . villa. tris. The 201. etc. must have become *frtgidus ij^frigdus). is to be regarded as a new formation on the model of noster rather than as the old form. ferus. e 199. minsis. later. see § 177. vinum. qulnque (^Substrate (i) 546). vexit. For the development (i) of diphthongs. Lexique 114. Archiv (2) Beside ilex there was an elex. 8-9: adoliscens. Cf. tile. etc. exit. Short i. remained unchanged: I. perhaps through association with rtgidus. : (3) Beside sicula there was a secula (Lexique Ii9)>-It. fedilis. etc. stiva. According to Lat. quaginsima. segolo. : by Microsoft® . this very high Spr. found in Gregory of Tours fur das Studium der neueren Sprachen CXV. (cf. teneo. stiis. Pirson 2-5: lo-ii: requiiscit. criscit. rigna.

Quintilian and Varro mention 166) a rustic e for I. 195. like e from e. i is Bon. accepere. Neumann 23-25. Spr. semuL. For ou 203. S. Conversely (S. 468. 202). and southern did in old Oscan: cf.. (3) Sinister was replaced by sinexter. (Zat. In southern Italy e from i. as it (§ 165). remained unchanged most regions: colorem. §§ 197.. used by Gregory the Great and for ostium others. § 196. etc.. corregia. etc. Calabria. minester. etc. Spr. nomen. Apulia of e to /. ceteneris. 6 202. attested also by in- scriptions (S.. 463. Spr. 463. Pirson 8-10. perhaps through the analogy of semel: Lat. has become § 196. sponsus. In Sicily. became i: cf.. after that they were perhaps isolated: Einf. R. viduriiis. zV/z///). Spr.. etc. 469. place. «. Digitized by Microsoft® . see the end of § 197. under the influence of dexter: Lat. These two islands were taken > from Rome by the Vandals in 458 and added to the African kingdom. etc. forma. > ou. Long 0. often used for e (cf. in Gaul {^Lat. etc. The popular ustium I. S. 11 7-1 23.. trea. Haag II. ^/z<^(= minester. see § 167.. 106. etc. R. 541. karessemo. Pirson 13. vea. amure. 85 menus. is The spelling u for etc. 200-201. 198): minses. solus. 468. benivolus. 468): furma.. 214. sebe. In Sardinia and a part of Corsica this change did not take and both t and i i... Beside simul there was a *sSmul. etc. sene. at least in hora. Stu^i Medievali 613) is perhaps to be ex- plained in this way.§203] legare. (i) (2) Beside camtsia there was a camTsia: Substrate I. trebus. pronounced in Vulgar Latin. Carnoy 15^-. cognusco. -^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the change For agnusco. etc. S. very common etc. AudoUent 535.

*tutti or *tucti: It. which Haag 13. 211—212. totto. § 187. court." § 177. (2) Beside totus and *tuttus or *tuctus. meuble. una. the plural. may have come through 6 pronounced ^ (§ 165). Pr. Nyrop. No satisfactory explanation has been proposed the most plausible. For the development of diphthongs. old Fr. q before n + dental. durus. remained unchanged: bonus. tot. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. There are a few peculiar cases: and Sp. solet. the influence of cuncti on toti. Cf. (i) > Old. § 217. etc. Grammaire I.. forts. mueble postulate Cf. and western was probably formed a little forward of its normal It was certainly not u. sg." where tutti is defined as alle. became ou or u: cortem 204. Short 0. in north- ern Gaul. tuit. cognusco.86 etc. folia. The Such a form seems to be attested by the Gl.. Pr. ^'formica noxi furmica. some of the Romance forms point to nom. uuela alle. The rustic Latin funics. tottus (§ 163). perhaps. 216. Italy. — presumably through Fr. or at least to a tutti. pi. nullus. Grammarians mention the protrusion of the lips: S. puni. in But in Gaul. frondes) are perhaps connected with Italian yb«fe and other words containing o for 205. pi. locus. frundes (for fontes. pi.. nun. K. probably represents a very close sound. Italian tutto . tutt3 . namely. Fr. etc. sortem. later. Cassel: " aiatutti. in mobilis. [§ 206 It Bon. is that of Mohl. Lexique 102-104. S. cf. Digitized by Microsoft® . tutto. forum. sg. § 198. see Long u. 126-130. 206. but it doubtless slightly This pronunciation may have been due to the historique de langue francaise approached it. mortem. a large part of northern Rsetia it position. App. U is occasionally used for o in inscriptions: lucus. Cf. gluria. remained unchanged most of the Empire: cura. the analogy of mSveo.. pi. pronounced u (§ 165).. Neapolitan sg.

Spr. etc. due to the analogy of sdror and * nSvia (" bride.§ 2o8] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. a part of Corsica. corso." from nSvus) Lat. The spelling is common in late documents: "columna non colomna. people ssiA plSvere (used by Petronius (4) Instead oi pluere axA pKvia and others) and *pldja: Lat. presumably taken very early. etc. 216). G. 464. pronounced u (§ 165). Windisch 396-397. and ndra. 136. couleuvre. § 217.. Spr." from nSvus). Substrate IV. F. (3) There are other local irregularities. etc. became. criidus > criz) Loth 67-68. through the analogy of *nSvius ("bridegroom. Cf. servos. 217.rdus: Substrate III. NUptia. 517. Mohl pumex there was XXVI. u 208. cubtturn). u. became nSptim: (3) Beside in Zs.> mur) but in a few. 467. change did not take place. and Dacia this u : Lat. Spr. 132-135. Bon. In Sardinia. tomolus. probably by in most of the Empire: bucca. (i) (2) The following special cases are to be noted: — Cf. toneca. §§ 169. App. u> Spr. which lasted down into the Empire. Cf. For qu (i) (2) > qu. ruptus. Jleuve. Digitized Cf. 617-618. 469. 134. culpa. fiUvium. Beside luridus there probably was a *l-S." "formosus noTiformunsus. see § 167. by Microsoft® ." "puella non poella"). a pomex: Bon. and both u and . pomice. . perhaps only orthographic: Lat. 465) and nSra (S. Pr. Fr. in Latin words borrowed by the Celts « is generally treated like Celtic (murus ". 468. "colubemon colober. « > z (cii^a cili.). > : 207. unda. Pirson 15-17. Albania. tonica. 87 linguistic habits of the Celts: u> t in Great Britain cf. In place of niirus we find ndrus (R. Short the fourth century or earlier.. giila." "turma non iorma" (cf. covetum (= is Haag 14. Celtic by the second century. The old spelling for u after v {yoltus. jeune call for local q in coliibra.. jUvlnis. Beside angHstia there must have been *angSstia.

178. sepes 188. Carnoy It was probably general everywhere by the second 69-84. its and pronounced ai. etc. such scBpes both forms were preserved. by analogy. In certain words a vulgar and dialect pronunciation com- and Faliscan (Hammer 7. igo. stressed cb was probably still a diphthong in the city but had become e in rustic Latium. represents the sound better than ai: E is etc. century on (Carnoy 78): questus (2d century). [§ 210 DIPHTHOUGS. spellings as fcecit. 210. e. in stressed syllables in the first century of our era and later. tury. preda prceda. in the first S. but two parts it became cb. etc. The regular change oi ce to e took place largely in Republican times in unaccented syllables. 166—168. c. especially in Pompeii (presta. when Varro cited edus for hadus as a rural form. 687 ff. qucero. Hence. ^ was originally written through the mutual attraction of later e: ccecus. Bechtel Digitized by Microsoft® . Carnoy 79-80. preda. septum. etc. 8). quiceti. ae 209. § 78. 'Sox fenum fcenum. century: Einf. The Pompeius blames the confusion of csquus spelling e for cb was usual in unacfrom the fourth century on. ccelum. in stressed syllables (as questor) may be called regular by the century: S. In Spanish inscriptions e occurs from the first S. 465.): found early in Campania. 225. S. b. seta. Cf.. came into general use: fenum. S. £ for a in dative endings occurs early: Corssen I. 178. fifth it cented syllables (as sancte) before the third century. Cf. Cf. says that cb Terentius Scaurus. and equus : S. Spr. About the first century b. cen224..88 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Neumann 13 (and Fort- mon to Volscian seizung 21-23): famina. 225. sepes. some hundred years later e came into the city and pervaded the middle of the provinces: Lat.

in Oscan territory. The f there S. I. Festus. Carnoy 85-86 (clusa. Scarus. Pr. Cf. R. are pretty common in various countries Carnoy 86-95. where and second centuries B. — speak of a rustic or archaic o for au: Corssen fif.. etc.: § 212] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. In Rumanian and Provengal it was preserved as au. is 223 spellings Cladius. etc.: into Spr. etc. occur inscriptions Carnoy 85. Vok. in Portuguese as ou. II. 8. in the first it the city. 212. Glacus. Lexique 104). Pirson 27. 655-663. where au was normally preserved this pronunciation was used also in the country around So. Festus cites 95. Hammer central Italy: Chronologie . toru.. etc. or possibly (2) they are only orthographic.. taurus. ostrum. in general. Rome. generally remained in Vulgar*^ Latin: aura. Dibmedes. original q (i) is proved by the treatment and Spanish it did not become of c in ^ until had broken into uo or ue. the dialects of northern \i^?s~\(>\. 301 S. orum. its existence in 211. Hammer : 15-19. such as occludo: Vok. century second century Carnoy 85. coda. gaudium. grece.C. in the Probus. In Umbrian inscriptions we find Latin. in place of Latin au: and There are some examples in Pompeii. Cf. and others The grammarians : — . Perhaps they represent a provincial pronuncia- tion. plostrum Carnoy App. Carnoy 100 (cludo in two Sp. In C/^j-a../464. Cludo for claudo is common. an Au. Priscian. pronounced du. and 465-466. crept was used by the lower classes: Lat. with a for au when an u in the next syllable. ^^ auris non cotes.). 183-184) and for Greek r) (as scanam. 304. the earli^est stage of French in Italian causa> chose . Clodius : Ham- and Plotus are common in first mer 4. etc. Conversely ce was often erroneouslyused for e (S. 89 75-76: cedat. Umbrian and Faliscan had 4-5. II. Digitized by Microsoft® . oricla". 162-164. Bayard 5. coming through derivatives. orata. inscriptions of the I St and 2d centuries). orum.

Umbrian suffoco. Digitized cHi. Europa. pcenates. Vok. ote. 227. " sorex ve\ saurex. ccementa. Ola. auscu/um . Spr.. heu. Cicero used loreola. but two parts it became It pcenitet. fosnum. 0. CE was originally written through the mutual attraction of presumably 0. Vulgar Latin in a few words : coda. etc. This rustic and vulgar while the in Romance — which was pronounced — was generally adopted from au was 0. coles =^ caulis." Cf. Phebus. Carnoy 84. plodo. au was occasionally used for 160): Festus. Lat. codex. neu. neuter. Ui. plotus occur also. find amenus. 293ff. L. *^^ Cf. mm227. explodo. The confusion S. oricla. 228. cxlum. seu). mmrore. Marius Victorinus. Cf. postulated by some Romance forms. 213. became popular: coscus. by Microsoft® . eu 214. Bechtel 76. sodes. S. (cf. [§ 216 {^Chronologie Conversely. S. the intermediate stage Phoebe. II. we C. 227. cepi. eui~us. 0. eu. plaudo. foces. stus. ce for ce and e. was not preserved in any popular words. lotus. eheu. may be that for reflected by the spelling phyeb^ E is attested by inscriptions in the first century ceperint. hUic. 1890. S. of our era: Cf. see § 431. Carnoy 95. is its and pronounced oi. etc. 464. S. I. ui pronounced lii.go An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 216. 228. illHi. later e: coepi. of ce and e is mentioned by late grammarians: In late Latin a bad spelling. IV. Jilodere. Cf. pronounced eu (as in ceu. Eu. was preserved: For the development oifui. poena. * auddere for occtdere. pollulum: si audes. Hammer 4)= aut. oe 215. Classic fauces. In the Per. fcemina.

e. — For secondary 153-155. possibly through a lingering the Old Latin accent: cf. the evidence is not convincing. — vowel by a liquid. 2. stress. dvum~>* ovum. 579. in vulgar speech. see G. e=e. XXVII. Although many examples are cited. see § 167. etc. Ascoli. Osservazioni al precedence lavoro. d. pluere'^ ployere. — 457. 218. La vocal tonka alterata da una consonante labiale in Zs. in general.§ 219] An Introduction c. After that. B. 219. by Microsoft® . except sporadically. q. juvenis'^*jovenis. q. until long after the Vulgar Latin period. For a criticism of the theory. § 134. A general influence of this kind can hardly be regarded as proved for any combination except ou. qt INFLUENCE OP LABIALS. to Vulgar Latin. and then only Digitized in a part of the Empire. see §§ N. = 0. p. became ou: S. a = a.. au:=q ox au. The discussion is continued by Pieri. I ' According to some philologists. for the In clerical Latin the vowels were probably pronounced most part as ii). u ^u (or a and ce ^e. u were lowered one stage labial. Among unstressed vowels. i = i. that f. a following labial tends to open a vowel: colubra>* colqbra. La vocal tonka alterata dal contatto d'una consonante labiate in Archivio glottologico italiano XV. influence of The vowels of the final syllable lost much of their distinct- ness. until the reforms of Charlemagne. e. Pieri. mobilis'^* mqbilis. which 217. those of the first syllable had most resistance. maintains ceding or following even if it by a preq was separated from the to e. CLERICAL LATEff. Jluvium'>*flqvium. 476. UNACCENTED VOWELS. but did not fall. ibid.

maxumus quodlubet"^ guodlibet. in Classic and Vulgar Latin: cal{i)dus. vetranus: S. forms as infri. "Messala. etc. SUmus. S. > maximus. found in place of quasi. Spr. secondary or the primary 47-48. Fredegarius is very uncertain in his use of unstressed vowels: 220. see Pirson 41—47. "in here neque e plane nequi i auditur. but simus was favored by Augustus and by some purists of his time (Lindsay 29). 196-198. According to Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. syllables. According to Quintilian I. 221. bdl{i)neum. 35 Franz. In general Latin quantity did not sensibly affect the quality of unstressed vowels. i was certainly distinct from Digitized In final i: sentis. U was cf. employed only before labials. see Pirson. av{^i)dere. 21-24. except in initial syllables. developed two forms. in moderation. Quase. sibi: S.. for o and u. iv. Lindsay 25-26. cal[e)fdcere. syllables: I. § 419. Brutus. dc(^u)lus. 251. Haag 15-24. This tendency continued. Lat. 3 During the Classic period it generally became t: decumus~> decimus. siimus -and simus. Agrippa pro sumus simus scripserunt. in unaccented ." In the vulgar speech simus seems to have Cf. 199-200. 9). (i).92 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and even there the difference must have been small. vtr{i)dis. 2 1 2. 30—36.. cf. 466. 203-208. etc. The former was the one generally adopted in Classic Latin. 7. pontufex "^pontifex. jur(^i)go. In Spanish in- we find maximus. [§ 221 Grammarians sibe are testify to the confusion of and u: S. etc. spelled both with u and with i: Carnoy 65-69. For the confusion of unaccented e and i. however. scriptions etc. by Microsoft® . ID re vailed in Italy and southern Gaul. being sometimes accented. In inscriptions we find such frig{i)daria. In early Latin there was an inclination to syncope: ar{i)ddrem." (Weakest were medial vowels immediately following the stress.

u followed by a vowel was originally itself. oKuAas) very common: Eckinger 123-125. Quintilian says that u and i in uos and iam are not vowels: S. Ovid. quem. In tibi the final vowel was sometimes long. e.§ 224] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Lucilius. Virgil. rather late: Velius Longus distinguishes aquam from acuam. Plautus. a. however. senti. In perfects. §187. left a. and u in hiatus with following vowels first lost their syllabic value era. 222. Otherwise. alio. After gutturals. 236. These. e. fes. In Greek transliterations kv for qui (as in cf. qui. Lucretius. feci. fis. and will be out of consideration in the present chapter. used before Joseph. fectf^Vr. will be treated as consonants. then. the u was ap- parently not reduced to a semivowel until the end of the In some other words the syllabic value of u was kept. a vowel but lost its syllabic value in early Classic times: acua > aqua. 223. Quintilian and Velius Longus cite the spellings Aiiax. placuit. sente. UNACCENTED VOWELS IN HIATUS. /"and u followed by a vowel and beginning a syllable were apparently pronounced as consonants from the earliest times.. vaqui. Occasional examples (such as dormio. abietiItalia counts as three syllables in poets of the ' bus in Virgil. Horace. "vacua non vaqua." "vacui gon 224.. Juvenal. is distinguere qucBro. senttt> It. fluviorutn) are found in Ennius." S. vindemiator'va. Maiiam not ab. fudxis. So it was in qualis. Digitized by Microsoft® . nocuit. abiete. as approved is by Cicero: S. probably by the century of our and sporadically earlier. > distinguere.g. 93 stbi. such as Classic period. facias. Pr. Horace. i. 234. App. at least in theory. 232. Bonnet notes that etc. and Seneca: deorsum in Lucretius. sometimes short.

century or before by the third century. four-syllable induruit are barbarisms Caesellius is undecided whether tenuis has three syllables or two: S. Uniamenta. "ares veteres pro anVi. with a narrowing of the mouth-passage. Consentius declares that trisyllabic soluit and . * de-excito~^* dexctto'^ It. it became soef in French.:> Digitized by Microsoft® . cf- Carnoy 33-35. ie. We have.dixisse": Carnoy 43). Bayard 4. In the same vi2. I. So alea>alea'^alja. "non iamus sed eamus. VI.sapui > saj>ui> sapwi. u6 developed differently. however. II>'43. aleum. noxeus.94 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.y Jiliolus>Jiljdlus (§136). in late Latin. But the combinations ei -. lancia. 00. exiat. solia. S. tenueram > tenweram (§137). at an early date: arietem (^^\-^6)'> are tern (Varro. Pr. ee. abias. fasiolus. C. R. prehcndere 225. cavia. Audollent 535. Caper. Lauriatus. a great confusion of e and i in hiatus: capriolvs (cf. eccu'istay-* ecwista (§65). earn {=jani). 234. 103. then. 463.. 06 and u6 into o. etc. 3714 (Rome). was used as a trisyllable by Sedulius in the fifth century. valiat. Valerius Probus has parietibus: £don 208. 232. Vok. calciare. Cf. palleum. §136). calcius. the semivowels pre- sumably developed into the fricative consonants y and w: S.. desto. 106.> mul'erem. App. likewise eccu'kic> *eccwic. lintium. vinia. a new y and a new w. abiat. faciebam'>*facebam. in late Latin spelling. L. etc." " sobrius per i non per e scribendum. soave in Italian. The pronunciation speech by the first u was probably regular in popular . as e. mulierem (% 1^6) ". parieUs {%i2t^)>p aretes. S. Suavis." KeilVII. it was probably a semi-learned word. [§ 225 early Empire. coclia. 231-232. eacit {^=jacei).. Hence arises. the / remaining long enough to palatalize the / (the Romance e was doubtless a later analogical development).filius'>ftlius'^Jiljus. and // apparently being contracted into e. i. 187.

" coquens non cocens"." " coqus non cocus". . 468-469." Keil VII. (Pirson 58) quatro (7th century. in late inscriptions. equus S. defendere. Pr. ho-Tievex. inndcuus>inndcus.. Pr. the Viduus.oSmsiT\& mortus. 218) quator — in. 95 prendere. Audollent 536). S. 2 1 7 ) . common Carnoy 43). "ungue non unge. contin{u)ari. mortuus'^p- cottidie. .. u before stressed u and 0: 536. coquus'^ cocus {App. Audollent See §354. qudmddo> comodo. Carnoy 117. Carnoy 221). "equs non ecus ". tdrqueo>*torquo> *tdrco. S. cooperire"^ coperlre. 351). Caper. before unaccented by the second century: antiquus "> anticus carduus^^cardus. suus'> sus. coquo^coco {App. z/ after all consonants fell before unaccented u probably by the middle of the first century. ungi. Furthermore. / after a consonant fell before unaccented i: Velius audit '^ audi. battuo "^ batto (cf. Reich. distinguunf> distingunt (ac- cording to Velius Longus. unguo'>ungo {ungo. 105. 472: ero). U often fell irregularly II. tendere." Keil VII. requebit. Jan{u)arius: Vok. . "tin352. in quum>cum. Pr. 227. opus. £don 130). So apparently aruum^* arum. then *cdpenre *cdp'rtre through the analogy of co.. Bayard 7. Gl. unguntur. Pirson 57 (cf. pendere. 226. £ruum'>erum {Lat. — cdhdrtew^ cortem. tinguo~^ttngo (Caper. cf. Spr. consiln'^ consilt. kept its u: Old Fr. abattas. Similarly. '' coqui non cod. fell commoner After gutturals.'K. Velius Longus. > ecus {^App. 217-218. cf.'). quteius'> quetus. quoi{f)tdie> stingo . doubtless under the influence of vidua. then *prendere through the analogy of reddere and perhaps also of ascendere. Digitized by Microsoft® .and perhaps also ol opera. sttnguo > guere non tingere. § 227] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. duodecim'^ dodecim (Pirson 58: dodece). S. hence *cocma).. tuum'^tum. quat{t')uor'^quattor (^. Febr{u)arius. vef. uncis = unguis. ministerW^ ministeri. some writers use no u in distinguere. 106).

136. long or short. 57. valere. agusias. INITIAL SYLLABLE. /^22: Jejunus after prefixes lost its first syllable: * dis-junare. Keil VII. plordre. Cf. 109. (Lat. Spr. dtrectus generally '> drictus)\ quirttare~>*dritare. Pr. is very often replaced divota. one can judge from spellings and subsequent developments. i. in Gallic inscriptions cf. Koffmane no. A(u)runci. kept It. — Latin /(j/»««j > Classic Jejunus (the original a seems to be preserved in Classic Januarius '^ Jenuarius . S. Farisiis > Parigi.96 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Caper says "ausculta non asculta. debere. ridemus. etc. A(u)gustus. i: should be spelled with double late words. Digitized by Microsoft® . Some minor peculiarities are to be noted: (i) A after/ apparently tended to become e: Old dialect forms) . colorem. a was pronounced a. Dionigi. > *jenua > Sardinian genna. Bon. it [§ 229 Longus found etc. I. a{u)sculto. fxddre. but otherwise remained unchanged (cf. subinde. * agurium (cf. 470) (2) Classic/awKa mimoricB. e For the confusion of Carnoy 17-33." S. Spr. some Italian (common by i in inscriptions. Some however. moniti (for muniti). Julii. -n and —ns: Dtonysii>lt. naufragium. Comelii. ce all came to be sounded e. golosus gylosus (ior gulosus). gaudere. Lat. au became a if there was an accented u in the next syllable. 11. 470): dilevit. d'rectus (^Vok. necessary to say that Claudii. I. E. Bechtel 76. tenere. In a few words the vowel of the initial syllable was an r: *corrStulare^*^roflare. (Bcclesia. and u were finally all pronounced 228. and see Audollent 535. 171-1 72. videre. Arunci occurs in manuscripts of Virgil. frumentum. Bon. 135—138. Lat. must have existed 229. i. audere. b... lost before also. ce. Agustus is frequent from the second century on. 470): rddicem. Bon. movetis. dolere. '^senatus non sinatus" App. 223. S. hibernus. l remained i. dvitdtem. far as As or u. cetdtem. 223 Pirson 26). Vok. Spr. 0^ remained p..

front vowel (until the seventh century nearly always an ' later e Mohl's view. Lexique > I04ff. Rom. oricla. Lindsay 40). the e is perhaps due to the Haag II. by dissimilation. as in 6' before a consonant was doubtless long and sharp. Vitruvius.for i in 422-424. 224 ff. Italian. § 198. (6) O appears as u mfurmica (App. Spr. which prevailed in Vulgar Latin. Pr^. Si. 3 II. Au 230. retundatio. I was occasionally assimilated to a following accented a : ^gdntem It. Bon. salvatico. serorihus. Spr. de-.. Pr. Great: dirivare. Sfr. e became southern Italy from the fourth to the sixth century RIVOCAVERIT. z. C. §§ 69. 3 II. Lexique 105-108. 127). JUntfSrus'^jeniperus (Lat. cf. According to Mohl. also sometimes in serore (Lat. Old Genoese zagante. is that original Latin ei. nutrire (beside *nqtrire). turrente (Bon.§ 23o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cf. attested from the sixth 87. Vr. mcinus vecinus. XXXV. cf. 131). Lexique 120. Proven9al. was kept by analogy in many words : dUrare. attested by Servius. : 97 Di. 126. 470. Umbrian ate. analogy of *que quid^ quod (cf. in manuscripts and inscriptions. Reich. Italian sed on the model of ched: si is preserved in French. (4) / tended to become e. fimre'^fenire. 205) . Carnoy (7) 107). in late Latin. Franz.jaian. divmus"^ demnus. putator O is changed to e in retundus (Vok. II. in very late texts there is frequent confusion of si and sed (Franz. 470) and/m?- perus (App. se in Portuguese.. Cf. 234-235) . became instead of Digitized by Microsoft® .Jaiant. so that at the modern a syllabic effect — beginning of a word it had s-chola.. etc. mUtare. if i followed. Pr. if there was an accented i in the next syllable:^ dividSre'^*devTdlre. nise. I. serori. and Old Rumanian. Lexique \2Z-iz6. 82). in vulgar speech was often replaced by (cf. 225. in fourth century inscriptions. cf. through the influence of the prefix re—. Spr. century on (Foi. §§ 212. sdlbatec. cf. Rum. silvdticus> salvaticus (Gl. 213. so *ot (for aut: cf. 213): App. I. : (3) > *jagante > Old Yr. A form ni for ne is found from early times Pirson 3. This led to the prefixing of a 2. This perhaps indicates a close pronunciation cf. mUrare. L. Lat. II. cf. and Spanish. §111. (Bon. is common : in Gregory the etc. Lexique I2z. 470).. 470) > Old Fr. Italian. possibly through confusion with dis-. < e In miraUlia the i ap- parently became (5) U and a. salvage. Lat. Einf. Lexique 123. 16^. Pirson 27. sometimes became se. Old French.

etc. scoriare for excoriare. R. 316-319. written Barcelona in the second century. ab scandalo. Dubois 171. not frequently. 445. 445-446. is. cdrr(i)care. in the fifth it is very common: espiritum. Slementum 6limintum. . cirebellum. dv{i)idtem. etc. Spania. dil{i)cdtus. estatio. etc. II. in the third century (Carnoy 114-116). The es-. scalciare for excalceare.98 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The The in Latin example probably it is iscolasticus. prosthetic vowel earliest occurs in Greek inscriptions. Isidore. of it iscola. Grammarians took But in no note late until St. frigiddria frigddria. isiudio. mirabilia.thus produced was confounded with ex-. N. compardre comperdre. spiratio for inspiratio. This i came to be regarded as a regular part of the word. 148. S... IHTERTONIC SYLLABLE. ^w. S. splorator. instruo for struo. ischola. tlie C. Vowels so situated probably became more and more end of the Empire. hispatii for Bechtel 78. spandere for ex- pandere. Cf. B. Digitized by Microsoft® . ismaragdus. Latin texts ab rather than a was used before words besc. Bon. cf.. Koffmane 109. Spanus. though iscripta. Pirson 60. spatii. strumentum. ab sceleribus. stantia for instantia. [§ 231 often e) to the s or e when tio vowel preceded first is — in i-schola. in the seventh century. ispose. Estephanus. Spania. Dubois 1 71-17 2. sp. spectante for expectante. istatuam. 3656-. and occasionally disappeared. st: ginning with Bon. S. cdlK^o^cdre. 317 R. indistinct towards the erally kept: bdn{i)idtem. 467. exs— (pronounced «-) and /«j-. In some regions they began to fall regularly before the close of the Vulgar Latin period. — By this term is meant syllable following the secondary and preceding the primary stress. 469-470. but a was gen231. fourth and found repeatedly. Bon. isperabi. dub{i)idre. Vok. Pirson 59-60. 317.(pronounced w-): expiendido. cdp[i)idlis. istare.

of this vowel. similarly As far as the general phenomena can be we may say that in popular words in penult tended to (i) fall common speech the vowel of the under the following conditions: — Between any Consonant and a Liquid.. etc. R. The Vulgar Latin rhythmic erate one of the two post-tonic syllables of proparoxytones.. Cf. insola. Neumann 22. 131— 135.• anemis. cf. c. and the conditions differed widely in different regions. fall 559. in the second century b. etc. dedcavit. PENULT. vetranus. the uneducated pronounced 'om'nes beside socerum there was sScrum. separdre seperdre. was weaker and more exposed to syncope.. being next to the accent. in Sepulcri 201—202. The fall of the vowel of course disturbed the Vulgar Latin rhythm: see § 153. 116. stablarius. Pirson 51. Substrate IV. Neumann in Zs. principle tended to oblit- 232. 464. There was probably a conflict between cultivated and popular pronunciation. 12. 99 sdcramintum. Pir- Franz. 118. Bon. dixemus.. son 52. however. v^recundia. both types The treatment inconsistent often being preserved in the Romance languages: thus while the literary and official world said {h)dmines (>It. Koffmane III. R. (>Pr. comare for coronare. : Frigdaria occurs Cf. We find in late Latin much confusion of e and /. was apparently very Vulgar Latin. Likewise o and u: ambolare. Mintsterium apparently became minsterium early enough for the n to before the s: see §171. vowel preceded by a consonant and followed by a fell in the earlier part of the Vulgar Digitized 233. The penult. d. etc. Cf. 467. etc. Bon. uomini). XIV.§ 233] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. liquid A weakened and by Microsoft® . meretis. pi. F. omne)\ classified.

which must have been slow in entering the common vocabulary. aspra. Carnoy 12. Pirson 49-50. bdc{u)lus. Die Sprache des Petronius und die Glossen. App. App. cltera.). Cf. Juglus. Latin originally had the two diminutive endings —clus and -cuius {<i-co-lo). I.). 195-196. Digitized by Microsoft® .^-* spatla. Pr. 3 To -clus was assimilated in popular Latin the ending -talus: capitulus"^* capiclus . virginem.stulum> crustlum (found in 18 Cf. ins(u)la. In some words we find a weakened to e: socro. These by Plautus. comp'tus. hilerus. Franz. e^-16 . frigidus^frigdus. oclos. maniplus. Lexique 63. 16-18. spec{ii)lum. 57. vemdc(^u)lus. Pr. Bon. seperat (about 500 A. fecrunt fecru. d. a. § 284. dedro for dederunt. tum. vitulus>veclus. masclus. Eseram for Isaram. Franz. 1 digitum> dicCf. Lexique 64. Heraeus.' For a vowel between a labial and a liquid. Pirson 51. as in auricula. § 259. 96. vowel preceded by a labial and followed by a confall early: 235. frdgilis. Vok. A sonant was inclined to bublus. 234. cdm{i)tem. [§ 235 Latin period: altra. gracilis. scaplas. were kept distinct vulgar speech: artic{u)lus. Cceseris. see first consonant -Cvas a palatal. compera. the vowel seems to have been kept. as in saclum. Later they were confused. Many exI.. peduclum. ci. vic(u)lus. Pr. App. felicla. In vigilafp-* viglat the vowel fell before (2) below. anglus. spatula'. both becoming —cuius in Classic Latin. (2) Between a Labial and any Consonant. 1899. dc{ii)lus. (cf. amples are found in inscriptions: AudoUent 538. at any rate in some regions: bdjulus. mdsc{u)lus. villus. aunclus. both -clus in {^<i—tlo). D. But a few words.loo An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ftsiula>*Jiscla. Pirson 51). Waters Ch. Oclus and some others occur in Petronius: see W. But if the the ^ began to be palatalized (so apparently in 9 I. escaped this absorption: cni.').

virdiaria. h6m{i')nes jiiv{e)nis . tdbula>*taula *tabla. colpus. domnulus. Franz. 44. pardbula>*paraula *parabla.. virdis. in R. either everywhere or in a large region: drbi^o^rem. c6l{a)phus {ci. per- colopabat. Augustine. Horace and Vitruvius. Pirson 51. the older: d6m. Reich. offla. App. Waters Ch. caldus. sablum. valde. the vowel was kept. Waters Ch. frigidus by Microsoft® .Jibla. Vegetius. Koff109. * ndvitaf. 56. Pirson 50. 467. (3) Between a Liquid and any Consonant.{i')nus. pi. however. Franz. Pliny. Franz. Cf. hdmula.. tions: In some words the vowel fell under digitum> dictum. 467. p I. Digitized different condi§ 233) . Plautus. In d6m(i')nus the mn form may be mane domni. vdpulo baplo. Cato. domnus in St. pi. merto. gdbata>*gauta *gabta. etc. tremulat. *navi- > fragus>naufragus). Franz. Petronius. fdbula>*faula *fabla. . dvidus avunculus"^ aunculus. 3 \. R. sablum. * dvka "^ auca. Ovid. occurs in Lamna Petronius has bublum. ioi tri- dib{i)tum. : § 238] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Horace. b{u)la. * cldvido> claudo (cf. Martial. 13. Caesar. 12. 15-16 (cf. 238. Juvenal. pi. lardum. 237. Plautus. f{b{u)la. Franz. 236. . Ci. nibula. In some words. the fall When ab or av was brought next to a consonant by it of a following vowel. KofiEmane iii. pdp{u)lus. poplus. i2ff.^-* nautat . Pr. (cf. Plautus).). (4) Miscellaneous. fulica fulca. Varro. 15 soldus. 4th century). Plautus (cf. Gl. Varro. domnicus. Cf. found in glosses. Waters Ch. 44. but often there were double forms the process began very early audus. generally became au. Franz. A vowel preceded by a liquid and followed by a consonant was subject to syncope at all periods: ardus. p I. 13.

(2). dic{i)mus. debita~^* depta. except a and in Celtic. e. viaticum. habitus > * abtus. Later. mdnica'>* manca. See Morphology. but rius is evidently the ancestor of Italian and Spanish rio. and a number of vowels otherwise placed fell under different conditions in various regions: pdnere'^*ponre. tdllere > * tolre. 233). cdrrico'^*carco. sid(^e)cim. In the App.102 An (cf. Cato). § Introduction to Vulgar Latin. carcatus. 2d century. Suchier 732. 240. clericus^*clercus. and Ligurian territory. . Aquitanian. they generi. Pr. App. they had not fallen already. c6llocat'>-*colcat. culicet culcet Cf. fimina *femna. FINAL SYLLABLE. pers{i)ca. 239. shortened forms were used in other regions." "flavus non Jlaus" "rivus non rius. posius. Lucretius. — were — syncopated with some regularity. Pompeii (fridam). In the transition from Vulgar Latin to the Romance in so far as languages the vowels in classes (i). 241. dominica-^ * dominca. (fricda)." Aus and flaus have left no representatives. probably late. Franz. Reich. p I. 13-14 (ci.: = collocat. Gl. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. ntHdus>*niiius. semita'^* senta. A vowel preceded by </ or ^ and followed by c seems to have remained longer than most other vowels that fell at all: judico. pi2tidus'^*puttus. [§ 241 ^frigdus maxima^ masma. (3). Through a large part of the Empire -avit>-aut: umphaut is found in Pompeii. The vowels regularly remained through the Vulgar Latin period. Pr. about the eighth century. medicus. Pirson 50. we find "avus non aus. frdx(i)nus. All three forms are probably examples of a tri- phonetic reduction that affected certain regions. vindico. posturus. rapidus > > *rapdus. Some of these In a part of Gaul dmita'^* anta. ally fell.

autumnal {e). praber. E I. corpus. for / is frequent in the dative and ablative. About the eighth century a probably became ? in northern Gaul." ^^figulus nonfigel. dmdt. t. a. facul =facilis. tristem. and i came to be used almost indiscriminately.Xxa. Quintilian says that Livy wrote sibe and quase. etc. in late Latin. It is likely that final vowels were especially ob- scure in Gaul in the sixth and seventh centuries. 41. See Franz.. morior. tribunal{e). Old 'Lz. Examples: dmds. were all probably sounded e. Italian. iv and I. etc. So. 469). feci. he i." "masculus non mascel. vii. were not usually distinguished (cf. but generally they were confounded {Lat.. Neumann 7-8 cites ten cases of e for a: Italice. sancta. mihe. was naturally pronounced a. which left no trace in the Romance famulus. etc." These curious forms are probably not the result of a phonetic development. by Microsoft® . which in Sicily be- came eventually // t remained // was 0. bom. The App. perhaps. ablative. 103 242. etc. 244. which became u in Sicily. especially e after liquids: Caper. fructu. u was u. inflection. has "barbarus non barbar. Lexique 118. bonds. modern must have been often elided or syncopated in the interior of a phrase. conder. as in to Vulgar Latin. vii. sentls. in I. tibe. e. §210): apte^aptcB. but are rather due to a local change of languages. Bechtel 75-76. Cf. In some localities this and this u were kept distinct. uxore. pradiscer. E and a. Carnoy45: Digitized dative. describes the final vowel of here as neither quite e nor quite Cf. Spr. haber in an inscription. 469). famul = A. 243. Spr. "bibere non biber". cotidia. long or short. tristts. The changes in pronunciation led to great confusion in spelling. Pr. tanger in manuscripts. according to the testimony of numerous inscriptions {Lat.§ 244] An Introduction Final vowels. tristes. 3 I. E luce.

used as a prefix (cf. mares etc. Carnoy 13. T. I. Neumann 11-13. also in Gregory the Great. siiper'>-*supre./^^. larly common 42. etc. II. Neumann 11-13. 474. cf. and us for os. L... an R. monumento ^= monumentum. Bon. Minus. Sepulcri 201. omnes ^^omnis. in us was particu128. for the vowels i were B.4 G.. Phon. omnes ^ omnis (3d century). etc.. was kept in Digitized some formulas . of om for um. tenit. accusative plural G|^l|ii Jilius—Jilios. 246. Haag 245. 115. etc. sem- per'^* sempre . Q. C. -re. posuet. Lat. common in Per. and 121. ^and Fwere used both and u and for the consonants/ and v. etc. In words ofteii used as proclitics final -er. [§ 246 Es and are continually interchanged: 24. 61 examples of u for ablative In Vok. S. With and u it was the same.. Bon. in etc. Cf. Z. §29) as in minus-pretiare. became in Gaul mis-. 131 has spoliatur for spoliatot. H. it need by Microsoft® . Bon.. Ill. 916. movit. Carnoy 48. Joannis. E.. V. as well as frequent instances of ablative in um. Carnoy 48 bonus = bonos. Spr. Bon. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin period. 11 1. there are between 126 and 563 a. K. Sepulcri 229-230. of.. under the influence of dis-. CONSONANTS... d. 'Im. Bon. M. Carnoy 13-15. F. Os and us were interchanged from the third century on awi' = annos. etc. -£?. K. etc. letters The Latin consonant P. X. and um is very common in Per. os The confusion of for us. Vok. •quat{u)or'>quatro. 43-44. = maris. Audollent 535. D. etc. -ro: inter'>*intre.. Sepulcri 203-204.r became Carnoy 221.. regis ^reges. : . very etc. 116. I. old letter equivalent to C... So et it: Bechtel 88-89.104 An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. N. G.

consonants are often written single in early inscriptions. 105 in not be separately considered. nasals. 247. m and n became silent at the end of a word. In words borrowed from Greek and German there were several foreign consonants. 163. later it represented a different Latin version of Greek t. ^ and g before front vowels were palatalized and were then subject to further alterations. Pirson 83-91. For w>j and For double forms like of single cipus ctppus. nullus. see §§ 162. The voicing of intervocalic surds began during the Vulgar Latin period. passus. § 223). In late spelling there is some confusion and double consonants: anos. dentals. labials. palatals. sonants The principal developments that affected Latin conmay be summed up as follows: b between vowels was opened into the bilabial fricative /3. Pirson 88. In addition to the above. sibilants. see §161. and n ceased to be sounded before s. which also changed to /8. //>/ vowels. e. Z in Old Latin apparently meant j. which will be discussed after the native ones. Pirson 85. 158. Double cf. next the Greek.or ss (S. Q V= kw (cf. Bon. Digitized by Microsoft® . 319-320). with The consonants will now be considered in detail. the combination Q was generally used only Jf stands for ks. For Fredegarius see Haag 39-40. terra. the Celtic need not be separately studied. liquids. which will be treated below (§§338-339). fillio.§ 248] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. serra. h was silent. lastly the Germanic. 248. or / in hiatus: see § 224. Double consonants regularly kept after long their long pronun- ciation: annus.. vacca. and thus became identical V. Vulgar Latin had a new w and y coming from originally syllabic u. gutturals. taken up The Latin consonants will be in the following order: aspirate. first the native Latin.

honera : Pompeius notes that k sometimes makes position. first XI. 255-256. but Cicero's contemporaries much. 249. vemens: S. hinsidias. Gellius says ahenum." see S. being little or nothing more than a breathed on-glide: S. 264. 1. 264-265. sometimes does not. and cites "ados ircosque": S. doubtless the Romance It languages. Gellius quotes P. very much as happens in Cockney English to-day: for the would-be elegant chommoda. If -was weak and uncertain at all times in Latin. Quintilian commends the spelling deprendere: S. vehemens. 263. 266. Initial h was surely very feeble and often silent during In Cicero's time and in the early Empire there was an attempt to revive it in polite society. G. [§ 251 LATIN CONSONANTS. cortis. Pr. a. probably disappeared when medial: .— io6 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 250. Grammarians say that A is not a letter but a mark There is no trace of Latin k in of aspiration: S. comprendit. Paris in I?om. 266. as in terga fatigamus hasta. Nigidius Figulus fit to the effect that "rusticus sermo i. etc. the Republic.. Cf. in such words as sepu/c/irum.. 399. 267—268. and both he and Velius Longus declare there is no h \VLprendo: S. 117. Digitized by Microsoft® . 266. S. — aspires perperam". Probus states that traho is pronounced trao: Lindsay 57. as in quisquis honos tumuli: Keil V. 251. 262-263. incohare are archaic calls Terentius Scaurus and vehemens incorrect. which led to frequent misuse by the ignorant." In inscriptions we find such forms as reprehensus aduc.e.. Grammarians felt obliged to discuss in detail the spelling of words with' or without h : S. Quintilian says the ancients used h but little. si speaks of bygone generations as using k very S. nil. Cf. App. of "Arrius. mi. 263-264. "adhuc non aduc. ASPIRATE.

254. ic. C. C. S. of S. choante. omo. ymnus. Bechtel 77-78. Bechtel 78. cf. ora. 265-266. ortus.. = coperta. Cf. other languages: michi. the Empire. S. pronounced kw: 0. dialects: Quintilian VI. Q F was Audollent 536. southand Sicily subsequent developments point to a ke. b. hodio. non dicitus". less indisetc. There was some confusion. 924. 252. I. S. secuntur. I. Before u and first however.. heremum. S. But in Dacia.§ 254] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. 341-344. 819. I. etc. Spr.. '^digitus = digitos. 345. 473. Q and C: S. 107 is dropped in a few inscriptions towards the end of the Republic: arrespex (for haruspex). GUTTURALS. I. in quo ante=^inBechtel 78-79. anc.. kw was Before other vowels the regularly kept in most of k. Pr. etc. In Rome are found: e[redes]. 462-463. 351. oratia. too. S. L. Sheldon in Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Litera- turel (1892). In Pompeii h is freely omitted. and H after the third century it is everywhere more or eres. ospitiutn. by Microsoft® . 1034. 345-346. quooperta cot. cocus : see §226. etc. etc. I.. nichil. 82-87. 351-352.. etc... probably earlier in local or vulgar iii. L. haram. I. hegit. After h had become pronunciation of medial h as Italian pronunciation of there grew up a school which has persisted in the Latin and has affected some words in silent. Cf. unless analogy led to a substitution of cociior coqui throvigh. the kw was 340-341.L. R. Vulgar Latin reduction of que to Digitized qui to ki: Lat. oe. hostium. etc. 264. 350reduced to k by the or second century. hossa. condam. R. Mens. OSTIA. 455. 253- C and K did not differ in value except that C some- times did service for dicitos G: App. records a pun of Cicero on cogue and quoque. k. § 226. cottidie. abitat. C. criminately used: abeo. as in eastern Italy. E.

sometimes. Carnoy 171. but this was only local: alesan[der]. ubi materia per s. milex. ^ stood for ks: S. Bechtel 139. On In norththe other hand." "locuples non lucuplex. began as shown by Anglo-Saxon borrow- ings and by such Latin forms as frigare. Laqueus seems. pregiiax became s. 353 (cf.. for some reason. Fr. Cf. Lexique 93). Carnoy 157. Cinqvaginta. Caper.). S. etc. After a consonant ks early tended to become s: Piautus uses mers for est. So ex-^es. etc. 221. 352. 145. 256. io8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 353. cinctivs. nasco. mextum for mcestum. felis. cf.." Keil VII.: Hence cf. by analogy. There are some examples. 353. in late Latin. Vok. ''cah dicendum. S. 274. 353. s: sestus is common in inscriptions. fifth tury. ern Gaul apparently sk regularly became ks. viscit). except in mono^prmgnans. /'m«7/« > prixsilla. App. cen- inscriptions. of a metathesis of ks into sk: axilla"^ ascella. Carnoy 159. es~ for ex. as in * essaexire. first [§ 256 In quinque the w was lost by dissimilation: cinqve. exponere. e. "aries non ariex. to Carnoy have become *laceus: Substrate 255." "poples noT\ poplex. as in cresco.. destera. Carnoy Eckinger 126 (2eorros). Audollent 537. S. Lindsay 102. III." In parts of Italy ks between vowels was assimilated into ss by the first century. S. Carnoy 158. merx. 98. 341. but not in syllables etc. migat in inscriptions Digitized by Microsoft® .in excutere. buxus'^* buscus vixit>\iyiC\Ti (i.. etc. gium. BissiT BisiT VISIT = vixit. S. For ks>-)(S.: see Melanges Wahlund t^^. xanto.before vowels. dester. extimare for cestimare. I. see § 266. conjus. in At about the same time : final ks cojus. The voicing of intervocalic surds doubtless it is early as the fifth century. By the second reduced to or third century ks before a consonant was 170. 346. 351.'' "miles non milex. found in Spain (so cinqv. subornatris.

G seems to have been attracted sooner than k : in Sardinian we find k before e or i preserved as a stop whiles is not decern. and in Sicily. lebra. became g and gr: *gaveola. Digitized by Microsoft® . into a mediopalatal position k'. kima. intervocalic c. southern Italy. crassus + grossus'^grassus. 257. Initial c and cr. 3 I. XXV. i25ff. kelu. Before the front vowels e and the velar stops k and g were drawn forward. ne121.— — § 258] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Some above examples show that consonants followed by r shared in the voicing. 7th century. Spr. and Illyria k' went no further. I. pagandum. pontivicatus.. In Central Sardinia.. According to Loth 21-26. Haag 28-29. gat. however. Haag 27. Rydberg. siubri. 474. in some places perhaps as early as the first century. 109 and manuscripts. Dalmatia. (i) Cf. 32. early in the Empire or before. Zimmermann. etc. that t>d'm the fifth century and the beginning of the sixth. in a few words. etc. Zs. there are many examples from the sixth century: Lat. Dalmatia. Vok. but reina. kera. occubavit. C and G before Front Vowels. etc. 2d century... p. kena. noghe < nucem. Spr.. etc. of the cataveris ^^ cadaveris. kircare. found in the 4th century. . Franz. while c>gz. etc. immudavit. finds in inscriptions some slight evidence of a change of t to d during the Empire. Cf. A. etc. on the evidence of inscriptions and manuscripts. and Dacia. maintains. Carnoy eglesia. Carnoy 123. t were voiced in Gaul in the second half of the sixth century. deghe<. Voicing was not general. * gratis. sigricius ^= secretins. 472. at least as early as the seventh century. Haag 27—28.g'.t least two centuries earlier. 731. Densusianu 111-112. / 258. and Dacia the k' stage was apparently kept longer than in most regions: Lat. cubidus. in central and southern Italy.

Gepte. F.. S. Troge. S.. agere = ^ aiere. the regularly remained. 461 . . 173. §233. 275. Pirson 97 quarranta = qicadraginta. leges.Gi.. similarly perhaps the proclitic ma{g)is. Digitized by Microsoft® . recoUiendo.e. both in popular and in Gerapolis for HierapoHs. iesta. fmucrrpo. no An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. [§259 259. Stolz 349. 239. etc. This y. .. and portions of Sardinia. to the effect g has "its own sound " (i. a part of southwestern Gaul. fused. lenubam = Bon. diriens. Tragani.Gi 5. 349. 3. etc. maestati. 15-16): cf. Lat. when it was intervocalic. vigtlat had become *viglat.1 1 Some light is thrown on the later clerical pronunciation by a statement in a fragment of a tenth century treatise on Latin pronunciation. 473. re{g)ina. 460) trienta. but is " weak " before other vowels. Agrientum. in nearly all the Empire. Vok. Haag 34 manes 1' . Spr." geiuna= Jejuna. Before happened. 61. Spain. After the accent. coi^i. G' by the fourth century had become had opened into y. 250. ingens aiebat.): it its disap- pearance (as in pldngit. 3 I. genarivs. {g)inti. "-frigida non fricda"). etc. and digitus in some places had become dictus {Franz. in through legit. D'Arbois 10. = conjugi. except colliens when analogy forced *colliente.. 461.. Spr. genvarivs. and southwestern Italy remained at the y stage elsewhere the y developed further in the Romance languages. II. Pr. II. praepalatal clerical and Latin: App. But sometimes : fused with a following i proparoxy tones roitus {=irdgitus z= rogdtus). S. Cf. Sicily. that of English g in gem) before e and /. "calcostegis Neumann 75. II. Cf. 473. agebat Lat. Pirson iniens. Diez. = Sepulcri 205. (cf. and after a consonant. Pr. argentum.. with the following e or i if this vowel was stressed: vi- mag2ster'>*mayister'.>maester. Thm-ot 77. non cakosieis. etc. Pirson 97 celiens. jSctevTt = viginti. frigidus in most of the Empire had become frigdus {App. Voi. this Haag 33. colliens. neglienda.. Genavam. agebat ^ aiebat. Per. so *pa{g)e{n)sis. Vok. Grammaire des langues ro- I.

348. W. 123-126. duk'ere. Vok. ka.S^ was palatalized also: crescere. 1893. k'y had become t'y: t'yentu. co{g)ndscere. in 260. nascere. dut'yere. For a discussion of the subject. Meyer-Liibke in Einf. S. 51-53. XXX. 7. intcitamento: P. in the fifth century we find bintcente. of this glide the group then. In the half of the third ce. 617). apparently as and postpalatal. By the fifth century the k' had passed a little further forward and the Through a modification tsentu. tury). in Lat. G. 348 cites fes[it]. ffautes-^tudes. 1 was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . Fetite phonetique du franfais prelitieraire. G. mediopalatal. developed into or ts: t's'entu or Speakers were apparently unaware of the phenomenon until the assibilation was complete. 322 P. In the school pronunciation of the seventh and eighth centuries c before e and i In the treatise cited in the preceding note. consiensia. Mohl. 81. and in Rom. XXXIII. Vok. XXVI. 21-51 (cf. etc. fascem. Paris in Journal des savants. There is no mention of first it by 340. Marchot. a short y. S. Guarnerio in Supplementi aWArchivio glottologico italiano IV (1897). paze (6th or 7th cenFrankish tins (German zins') is from fifth borrowed probably in the 595. the earlier grammarians: prsepalatal. Cf. between the k' and the following vowel: k'yentu. piscem. duk'yere. as early as the third ce. articulation: k'entu. and is almost like q before other vowels. and Libit. century some writers distinguish Rom. in the t's sixth or seventh century.. Cf. E.itury must have had nearly front. 1900. 359. Schuchardt. or praepalatal. . 151. septrvm. 360. Thurot 77. S. see H. everywhere a The next step was the development of an audible glide. 1901. XIV. it is stated ts. I.§ 26i] An K' Introduction to Vulgar Latin. I.1 century: F. that c has " its own sound " before c and i. . in the Comptes rendus des seances de I'Academie des Inscriptions. 1893. census. Zs. 163. and qu. in the Annuaire de I'^cole pratique des 261.

129 (other examples in manuscripts. in Introduction to Vulgar Latin. * liamen. 349. dimmi (< die mi). jambe. ci. fammi {<ifac mi). due. through alliteration. pagdnus. Carnoy 127 (cf. however. by Microsoft® . eccu'hdc. g'a. *redlis (for XXX. (2) C AND G before Back Vowels. and apparently remained under learned or under analogical influence in others: avstvs from the second century on. frvalitas. cher. 50). But ligdre. siffatto {<.. in the front of the 263. gamba>'Ex. see Archiv XV. realis in Gl. see Palatals below. Reich. 3 II. too. Inasmuch as a had in Gaul a front pronunciation (§ 194). 262. hoc. gustus. the proclitic eo for ego. of a word the guttural seems : to have been regularly preserved in Vulgar Latin fac. For a possible indication.. ka. ga in most of that country became k'a. S. probably by the end of the seventh century. negdre. so. and then developed further: carum>'Fr. Italian die. found about the sixth century. Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie [§264 3131!. See. the c must have been Digitized lost. Occasionally. sic. avste. pacare. — mainly. sic factum). ecce htc. I. y^ 264. Vok. Sfir. At the end cf. Carnoy 155-160 (who puts the assibilation in the sixth century and earlier). K and g before vowels not formed mouth usually remained unchanged: canis. 242-243). so * ledlis.112 An 472. Intervocalic g before the accent fell in many words in all or a part of the Empire. (3) C and G Final and before Consonants. of a local assibilation of c as early as the second century. For ce. S- — — perhaps 349). § 256. however. Franz. negare. 146. see Zs.

398*fC'X^um>Vx. Lat. and likewise substituted x^ fo"^ ^^' Suchier 735. 215-224. "dumecta S." 348. Spr. = qu. Xf some parts was assimilated into U by the beginning of the fourth century. Cf. Zaf. oclus. sante. S. however. saint. irqyfua. inasmuch as their own rf had as x^ from the become ^f (e. however. Spr. 265. fata. Lat..g. etc. 472. *viglat (§233). "pegma non peuma" Digitized St. 113 no doubt. cuntis.e. > Fr. 267. Pr. that the y was retained very generally in Gaul and perhaps some other regions. D. and there is a confusion of si and sic: Franz. A. in the south even in the first century: AVTOR. 278. Spr. Nkt became yt. Isidore. which seems to have been assimilated first into nt in parts of the Empire. In late texts nee is often written ne before a consonant.§268] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. OTOBRIS (380 A. — sanctum 268. subsequently drawn forward to the praepalatal position santus.. There is reason to believe. Pr. otogentos. regnancte.). Before another consonant k and g were for the most part kept through the Vulgar Latin period: actus. LATTVCjE (3OI etc. became um: fraumenta.).. 236-240. The Celts perhaps pronounced the Latin beginning. D. see § 255. 472.^ Ft. 348. Old ct Windisch 394. in see § 254. and «'. Carnoy 172. Gram. I.) . "sagma by Microsoft® . eissir. § 186. frigdus. PR/EFETTO. fleuma. in Pompeii... S. For ks of Italy = x. For kw 266. ^^auctor non autor". App. through assimilation to a following initial consonant: PA iot fac. The resultant phenomena can. App. probably by the century: defuntus. 9 II. 476. * exsire . sank. §650. fait. ( i. be explained otherwise: Irish ocht-n corresponding to Latin octo. 735. santo. Gm Pr. Zs. Einf. XXV. antiqui quasi dumecita appellabant quae nos dumeia. 399). Festus.

venio. diumus. soma. adjuiare. Lat. In cognosco the decomposed — g generally disappeared. no SCO. inte{g)rum. PALATALS. 476. Fortsetzung 7. of ii was often used: coiiugi.114 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. eiius. rcenante. teneaf. followed a consonant. hodie. the after the fall of initial g in gnosco —-into lost in cognatus : word being co~ and Vok. which comes from Koxfrn. gaudium. conjux. y. Italian sauma [or salma^ dicitur" (i. 270. ftlia.e. Stolz 275. rarest in Dacia. Spr. fageus. cujus. 271. Gn was still variously treated in different regions. Compare oz^^ hodie (S. t. that consonant was often less assimilated. [§272 quae corrupte vulgo S. Cf. Dy and^. in popular words apparently became r parts of the Empire: fra{g)rare.. connato. 115-116. ajutit =adjutet. Palatalization was commonest probably were reduced to y in vulgar speech: deorsum. 239). etc. as calma from Soma occurs in Gl. Pirson 76. sauma 269. renum. ZACOiJVS = diaconus. and subjected to further modifications. Gr. being preserved in some. and also salma. edmus. Reich. I. aayixa). Instead i (=/) the spelling mann.. d. Latin / was pronounced being identical in sound with the consonant that developed out of e and / (§ 224): jam. madias = maias. 272. exagium. 324) and zesv =/esu. habeam. audiam. in the latter part of the Empire. videavi . Carnoy Digitized by Microsoft® .. similarly the ^ was sometimes etc. assimilated into n or n in others. Pirson 75. podium. pere{g)rtnum. sometimes entirely absorbed by the in Gaul. Haag 34. 323) and Zovk^la= Julia (Eckinger 80). cunnuscit. 327. Neu- When y more or y. Cf. Cf. odium. ni{g)rum. ZVNIOK = junior (S. (S. 364 a. between in vowels. pi{g)ntia.

pranzo. sappia. deggio. mezzo. In most words the vulgar jv prevailed.§274] ^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. probably dz : podium proferenda est. His- pania. "solent Itali dicere ozie pro hodie. n' before the end of the Empire: ftlius. fiios. teneat. magias ^= maias. 321. says. Carnoy 162. prandium > It. juria = jurgia. It. madio S- 349.. Carnoy 161. aggio. Haag 34. by Microsoft® . Digitized etc. video>*veyo. 63. De. Vok." S. 339): z^s cf. Waters Ch. Servius in Virg. Remidium — Eemigium. It hordeurh > It. 324. or dz (cf." S. /'. S. Pr. 461. represented by the spellings Aureia. etc. But through the analogy of audio"^* auyo. = dies. another — doubtless more elegant — pronunciation. generally prevailed. The : dz pronunciation was especially favored after a consonant 273. § . Condianus. most of the Empire: 274. II. but not everywhere. licpioi = Sergius. *deyo: cf. 34. in others especially in Italy the cultivated dz. cor- aytos. Z is often used in inscriptions. = maio. and perhaps through slurring due to constant and careless use. Corneius. which was > It. lated in Vulgar Latin beside abbio. Haag anoget = *inodiaf.(4). sapcha. Reich. means dy.i£=die. towards the end of the Empire. Ly. Media. but it we generally cannot whether t. This palatal pronunciation may be 327. II. Georg. 216. debbio. melius. Gl.. however. habeo. The reduced forms cf. probably became veniam. had poggio. 320. tilia. Congianus =. palea. folia. 208. sacriius—SiaKpiTOi. ny. Audollent 537 zogenes. St. etc. y. : orzo. debeo often became *ayo. writes. aios = Carnoy 162. but medium ^^ > It. The S. between vowels. di. 115 162. 323. S. in Yox plUvia a form *pldja was substituted §§ 169. di sine sibilo Isidore letter tell grsecum enim nomen est. from radius Italian has both raggio — — and razzo. ridia =! corrigim. appears that the labials were not regularly assimi- sapiam > It.

concupiscencia many examples Gaul in the 5th century. foreign words borrowed from Latin oleum indicate the same irregularity. justicia. eAaiov. Bon. a sound similar to English sh in ship: basium. S. Spr. 171 especially common in Gallic inscriptions of the seventh century. . being respectively k'y second and third centuries.). /' [§276 later: were probably reduced to ex-eligit. Fr. Vok. ci. scy. defeniciones (222235 A. we are told that ti. collt^t. Sp. furthermore. D. from oleo. Eckinger 99.. leticia. is confused with the spelling c being prescribed in amicicia. 475. prophetia. tercius. termina(an acrostic in Com- ciONES in (2d century). in the similar in sound. oli. Riquier 131 &nd pitid in popular speech). consiensia. / 'i'l^^^y. Ssy. non c. malleus. and hence were often confused: a. were very and t'y (cf. postea. Stolz 51. etc. unless preceded by s. somewhat allium. D. etc. ocium. 323. see § 296. oracionem (601 a.y«j/i«'a (in an edict of Diocletian). also in nuncius. huile. caseus. is pronounced like c. According to Albinus (S. silentium. staacio (601 a. In later school pronunciation cy and ty were sounded alike. as in etiam. ocio (389 A.." In the treatise published by Thurot (see footnote to § 259).. fascia. I'g' to Vulgar Latin. the an exception-: cf. servicium. doubtless became during the VulgHRjatin period /. Digitized by Microsoft® . d. modian). avaricia.). Cf. Pirson 72. D. Lat. olio.). malicia. Cy and ty. Pg. duricia. pudicicia.. isoff. Oleum.ii6 Lly. ti. It. 'ApovKiavoi = Aruntianus. For rv. Cf. I. . tercia. An Introduction ll'g'. Pirson 71 mendatium.d. sty were generally assimilated of sy later: *bassiare. etc. Fr. mansionem. between vowels. For the confusion 276. and ty. 78. p. 321) "benedictio et oratio et talia t debent habere in psenultima syllaba. see § 277. quatio.). Densusianu in. is Pr.

see S. (as injustius. in some cases. etc.vel di^ syllabam sequitur vocalis. zodorys = Theodoras. pinguius sonat et perdit sonum suum et accipit sibilum.: audatia. This explains such seemingly anomalous developments 324. It. later avarttic^-cia. etc. gocciare. or vice versa: cf. t. tercius. I. as * exquartiare-^YX. into ts (cf. Anitius -cius. Gl. Reich. MARSIANESSES = J/ar/z'a«^«j'M. by the 140 A. 68. cum scribitur. inicio. Puscariu. 117 spacium. 545. Cf. spacio. T'y developed sporadically in the second century. 320) says. to the substitution of suffixes and to other permanent transfers of words from one class to the other: cf. Audollent 537. sotium. Carnoy 154. S. either whole Empire. 320). ularly a school pronunciation with etc. adding (S.. castius). etc. 3d ccntury. A number of words evidently had a popular pronunciation with f and 277. Digitized by Microsoft® . Pompeius says the same thing at con- siderable length. * gutteare "> Horning in Zs. Cf. 323. XXVII. etc. "si dicas Titius." Papirius. (S. servitium -cium. otia.§277] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. speties. . Servius in Don. except in foreign proper names or after j litteris. 1904. so many ^|ftper names. conditio. et i". 320): "/ustitia ex tribus he goes on to state that it is always so when ti is followed by a vowel other than / (as in Tatius. *cominitiare -ciare. Hence arose numeroimdouble forms: condicio solacium solatium. 64.. tristicia. Vok. Carnoy 151-154. reviewed in Libit. XXIV. Vincentl^us. cited by Cassiodorus (S. 324. Italienischen und Sardischen. D. tertia syllaba sic sonat quasi constet z. §260): crescentsian[vs]." Consentius 'For a different explanation of the Italian and Rumanian developments. Latetnisches ti und ki im Ru7ndnischen. et plerumque supradictse syllabse in sibilum transeunt. etc. "lotacismi sunt quotiens post ti. Justitii). am- bicio. A.^ k'. ampittfltru.. locally or in the This similarity or identity of sound led.. comenzare chminciare. S. squarciare. It. but not in otii. S. regfourth.

glacies. But the intermediate stages were similar enough to lead to some confusion. etc.s or sixth.'a. 323. The resulting sibilant was different from came from t'y: faciam'^-lt. DENTALS. 153. vezzo.. . servitium —slum. faccta. 5th century.palagio heside patazzo. Clerical usage for a while doubtless favored sy for ty. ratio —sio. 279. g'. Exai^les are very numerous: observasione. pretium —sium.vo'. 6th century. Cf. Ztd/t. perdo. 307. 301-302. was easily confused with sy. XXXV. carried into Brittany in the second half of the fifth century. after the assibilation completed: Mapa-w. Pirson 71. [§281 mentions the assibilation in etiam. etc. Vok. so facio.. diposisio ^= depositio. statio —sio. Welsh words borrowed from Latin before the fourth century show no assibilation. sepsies. The in modern French. hocsies. and many words have palatium preserved it in various regions. D regularly remained unchanged: Digitized dare. see Gutturals. k'. 323. dentals were pronounced with the middle of the tongue arched up and the tip touching the gums or teeth..l. 320-321. hence \X?X\2. XXVII. " ' by Microsoft® . JT'y was assibilated sporadically in the third century. d. as in English : S. 278. Carnoy 154. and the ultimate products have become identical in that which many For regions. not followed by y. S.g. modus. tersio. if the /' was rather weak. Isidore in justitia: S. d. etc. St. — — S. especially in suffixes: —slum. 225 a. 480. and -igia beside -ezza from -ztia. and not 281. but names in -tiacum. 6th cen- tury. Pirson 71. placeam. 65 Horn. fifth but not regularly until the of t'y -wa. say t's'y the At aa intermediate stage between ty and ts grouD.. as 280.ii8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cf. =^ Afardanus. are Metiacus> Messac). judigsium. vitiutrf^lt. assibilated (e. Eck- inger 103.

. 283. S. ad eos and at ea. arVORSVM =r adversum. it. CO. arripere). devocalized before a voiceless : initial consonant. fecit feced. 366-367 Some of the confusion was doubtless due to the fall of both d 365 . a. quo and Haag Illud. Carnoy 180. Intervocalic d. Gaul. : (i) Occasionally (/>/.. became ilium : Haag 29. etc. § 289. In proclitics assimilation naturally went further. At the end of a word there was hesitation between d and S. verecvnnvs. period. 365-366. attendere) but sometimes *ar Romam (cf. . Digitized by Microsoft® . 282. etc. the central and southern Italian nn for nd (as quannu for quando) may go back to ancient times Lat." App. Pr. Spr." Cf. set. dacruma'^ lacrima .. etc. ilium corpus.• Cf. as we may infer from the treatment of the prefix ad~: people probably said not only at te (cf.. Carnoy 180. northern Italy. Liquids. 31 1 Consentius blames " peres pro pedes" S.» Sittl 37.. and t: see §285. S. id 29. o\d. So the final consonant eventually often dis- appeared. S. capud in Gregory the Great. The cases seem to be sporadic and due to different special causes. guoi. at. etc. Cf. few words d~^r: medidies by dissimilation ^«^«rf««. Grammarians warn against the Cf. etc. " adif^ non alipes. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin became 6 in Spain. INQVID. Pr.. (2) In a. App. 119 Oscan and Umbrian had nn corresponding to Latin nd: There is some indication that this pronunciation was locally adopted in Latin: agennjE. Raetia. S. §283] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 311312 "grundio non grunnio. . If this was the case. // d may have been .. Carnoy 179-180. through the analogy of other neuters. 358-359. 476. (3). 365 aput. S. part of Sardinia: vt3ere':>*vedere. S. set. quid quit. 31 1. and possibly at the end of a phrase apvd apvt. and a Similarly intervocalic dr. confusion of ad and etc.

Hammer 28-32. > *scloppus > . peria. App.120 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ascla. occasionally in Faliscan: Hammer 5. [§ 285 either at the same time or became drin Spain and Gaul: quadro'. and Sardinia kept the t late." "vitulus non vidus. —tulus~^—dus. Rumanian. northern Italy. Digitized by Microsoft® . 8. seems to have regularly become d: astula> Pr. 472. etc. 312-313 "Martulus non Marculus" "stlataris sine c littera Caper.315. valia. It. f^habe). 284. sitis. Gaul. in Volscian {fasia=fadat). and sclitib. Spr. Raetia.: others appear later in the inscrip- Rome and S. Italy. 107. 7. 8. In early dialects we find such forms as cvpa." capidum. dr~> rr: quarranta. 367. etc. as ama. Tl. sure examples of the fall in Latin are found in Pompeii tions in Christian relinque. The first . sclit. usclar. So probably insula > * isla > * istla > * isda > Final t fell It." For Cf. dede: S. Spr. S. §234. 105. In quadraginta. however. Cf. its Final nt perhaps lost before consonants: Lat. partem. .(from stlis stlitis). Italian (except Sardinian).. Pr." "vefulus non vedus. and also Spanish and Portuguese show no trace of final / except in monosyllables. Lat.?. cf. often in Umbrian In Latin. but forms without the possibly due to Italian stoneconsonant (as audivi. vixi. facit.> *quadro. Ischia. final t disappeared early in the Empire in southern and during the Empire in most of Italy and Dacia. '^ pessulum non pestulum" (hence Italian /ifj'//. Between j and I z. 285. Keil VII. T usually stloppus remained unchanged : teneo. 367-368. later. Pirson 97. posui) occur in Gallic inscriptions. ustulare > Pr. f developed: Caper. " capitulum non dicendum. schioppo.). . Fredegarius wrote e for cutters — — t et: Haag 29.

^> d in northern Gaul and Spain. Priscian I. (I) L. Nt. pos. — 368. is preserved in the same regions as Pisaurum. in 365. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) or *capum. Marius Victorinus preferred posquam : S.The Romance languages show forms with nt. posquam in R. videtur. S. 306-307. likewise. 287. Raetia. 473-474. moreover. Cf. Italy probably in the fifth or sixth century: Inscriptions show a few such forms 309) as amadus. In Gaul and Spain. 309. it was doubtless often Fredegarius voiced. When did not fall. 121 n. may indicate un- certainty in the use of d and t. Gaul. feced. and-^J is found: S. Spr. S. of final t For the confusion inquid are found. According to Velius Longus.. 473. L had a convex formation. Pos is very common in inscriptions. Intervocalic was voiced to d in Spain. Cicero favored posmeridianus . Final st. with and without either consonant. §283. in general. tr'p-dr'^dr. cf. Such a spelling as Later this retere for reddere (S. restituerun. e. Lindsay 124. like d and "Z t (cf. § 280): S. Both st and s are represented in the Romance languages.§288] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 473-474. 288. 470. est amatus but es' portatus : Lat. triplicem. before a vowel or a voiced consonant. see §282: capud. and northern § 256. In inscriptions we find : dedro and dedrot. ut Plinio sonum habet: quando geminatur secundo loco Digitized by Microsoft® . 309. uses capo: Haag 29. /. LIQUIDS. Lat. posuerun. 368. Spr. Cf. t 286. may have lost its t before consonants as post ilium but pos' me. Cf. 38 (S. inside a phrase. d and t. 324) writes: exilem.

sol. Vok. etc. Osthoff.122 posita. For sl>stl. in obscure terms. tribunal. sporadically by the fourth century but regularly not until the eighth and ninth and later (^Lat. zi. this elevation. medium in aliis. See also Zs. 326. Other grammarians blame. from the "pinguis. quando finit nomina vel quando aliquam habet ante se in eadem syllaba sol. ut lectus." Consentius distinguishes the "sonus which he ascribes to initial and double / (as in lana.): S. 476). 325-326. consonants. this formation led in some regions. shifted forwards. Greece: S. cauculus in manuscripts. It. sound — as 50. consonantem. intervocalic va. (i) Metathesis occurs occasionally: Consentius (S. to the vocalization of / into u: KavKovXaT<o in an edict of Diocletian. alga. ski. It is likely that / before or after another consonant had a Before thick sound caused by lifting the back of the tongue. Dunkles undhelles 1 im Lateinischen in the Transactions of the American Philological Association / in : > XXIV. also had the thick is famuXus (but not in similis): thus explained the different fate of a in calere^OXd Fr. flavus. (2) There are sporadic examples of the dissimilation of two Ts: Digitized by Microsoft® . Have. ut exilis. It remained unseems to have fallen in For //>/. 327) blames "coacla pro cloaca" " displicina pro disciplina". 301 a. plenum. / regularly changed: luna. 289. chaloir and gallina~> Old Fr. An ut il-le. After consonants. brought about the palatalization of Spanish and Italian clavem kl'ave > Sp. Eckinger 12." lectum. II. During the Latin period altus. /. XXX. mtlle. silva.d. According to H. geline. chiave.. 494.. ille). fiaba. etc. clarus. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. a faulty pronunciation of / particularly prevalent in Africa or 648. fabula^*flaba'y-\\. [§ 289 syllabas et Metel-lus. etc." heard before a consonant (as in albo. except before i. see §274. For ly. see §161. Sfr. see §284.

(see § i6r). in about half the Empire in persua. 307. 243. Gl. reversus. et retrosum. locally in aliorsum. 290. diosum. however.s pessica. App. susum. —arts after r^-alis. R. "terebra non tekbra". After long vowels the 292. pater. Reich. was early reduced to ss: Lat. carrus. or praepalatal change 291. so sussum>siisum. 123 cf. § 292] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 471. App." Cf." Russum rusum. 309. L. Pr. R : in Classic trill: and Vulgar Latin was probably a gingival S. Pr. as xcfloralis. . The principle seems have been that original rs remained. Pr. 327. 8) says: " Gn. etc. 460. dossum remained unchanged: susum.. (i). being probably somewhat hindered by school inIt took place in the whole territory in deorsum and fluence. "flagellum non frag-ellum. cursus. 328. C. {2)Ji. Velius to Longus says est (S. while susosusu susum. Corssen I. ndet. App. introsus. 1593. ac tota r littera sublata est in eo quod rusum . deorsum.. two r's. 330): "Dossum per duo s quam per r quidam ut lenius enuntiaverunt. R. while old rss.. we fin(J repeatedly pelegrinus by Microsoft® . 460-461 Cf.f It generally resisted In many words. S. I. rj > J. suso. susum occur ha. in early writers tions: dextrosus. MVNTV for multum. The «>j." "cultellum non cuntellum". coming from rtt. in most of the Empire in dorsum. has iusu = was Hot consistently carried out everywhere. Cf. (3) Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. rusus. although Moreover. there was a strong tendency to dissimilate it was only sporadically carried out: in Old in inscriptions Digitized Latin. in inscrip- S. § 281. Spr. retrorsum. Pompejus Magnus et scribebat et dicebat kadamitatem pro calamitate.. IV. sursum. assimilation versus. Bechtel 83: susum very common. Waters Ch. 330. 77.

This assimilation was probably not widespread in Latin. in most of Italy and Dacia: sdror'. as frate. propio. 304. Rum. Cf. "Barbarismus. with the upper surface of the tongue convex (cf.. 477. orlo. averlo^ (in Old It. 329) / us that in elegant speech per before was pronounced pel. Italian Carlo. it has left very few traces in the Romance languages. 307-308. perpenna ^ Perferna. corcodrillus. 331. Waters Ch. etc. as in pellabor. est marmor. For quatro.z\vax\. 314-315). PELLiGE. etc. Cf. uxo. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Lat. Metathesis is not uncommon S. to y in parts of Italy. albor. 330 notes prancati. Consentius mentions "perlum -pro prcslum. except in monosyllables. *sempre. cocodrilus." S. 302. 330— 331. criblare. The old voiced having become r (S. cuoto). 296.. f. coliandrum. mate. early fall of final r mate. Crocodilus appears as corcodilus. among the soaru. cf. S. suora. see § 245. etc. quando dico mamor pro eo quod Cf. : ^ j- Digitized by Microsoft® . : 294. seems to have been dental. Final r. An intrusive r is found in culcitra. plurigo are attested likewise.'' propio. fell.124 (Sittl An 74). 330. Velius Longus (S. Ry was probably preserved through the Vulgar Latin it period. It. Spr. 295. mehtrix.>. § 280) S. Italian £Occodri//o. Falisci Sittl 11 mentions an in and the Marsi. Classic Latin j was probably ^Iways voiceless and remained so in 297. 38. \X. merlo. [§ 297 also ministorum. cf.) avello. pellicere. propietas. tells 293. perla. S. dietro drieto.It. Jlagrare. S. So Italian per lo '^pello. 329) says: Pompeius (S. 329. S. 329. corium'^ *coryu (cf. although may have been reduced and possibly *cqyu SIBILAUTS. probably before the end of the Vulgar Latin period.

Cornelio. pieta." Quintilian also (S. intervocalic s may have nupsi. 302-304): this in is 125 Vulgar Latin intervocalic s in (S. indicated by the fact that is still generally surd in Spanish [casa. furnished by such spellings as maximus. and occasionCf. mtsi. rarely in -as: bonu.. § 256): was generally preserved: causa. 8. ut ubi opus fuerit excludatur de metro. At the very end of the Vulgar Latin period. D. olim autem politius. the nominative singular without s (as Cornelio. etc. j- ^In the previously cited Latin treatise (see footnote to §259). and the developwords as hiemps. but later it is In the older inscripin the main correctly used until the second century of our era: Lat. urps. Thurot T]^ y between vowels is described as " weak. and often was not is says the loss of —s written. Pompeius (Keil V. not count -j before a consonant in verse: 355-356. nepoti. as far as goes. Cicero (^Lat Spr. 361-362. The omission is commonest in nominative -os or —us. pleps.) and most popular words it Tuscan is [naso. ii Umbrian {kumate). filio') predominated in (jpntral Italy until the time of Csesar. tste.. This evidently indicates a voicing in late school pronunciation. etc. etc." tions -s is freely omitted. 471) "subrusticum.^ sex. when -j was partially restored. etc. ossum. Cf. rexi. Digitized by~Microsoft® . Ennius and his followers down to Catullus did S. and matrona for matronas. also ment of a / in such become voiced sus. Sittl 27. in Classic Latin s some regions (cf. such as resolvit.) .§298] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. however. 108): "5 littera hanc habet potestatem. Final s often fell in ally in Faliscan: Hammer In early 5. brian PiSAVRESE. etc. sumpsi. Spr." except in compounds. who cites UmLatin final s was very weak after and t. corroborative evidence. cur- 298. the forms without Terentio. 471. but became common by 150 to 200 A. but occurs also in -ts and -as. According to Chronologic 175-186. S. unu. 361) notes the omission of -s by the ancients.

traduxit. tion. traducir). pronounced and therefore preserved. 301. see § 230. Hammer 19-28. -s. tra{ns)posuit . etc.before d. 471): sentts'^YX. tra. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. but notes that happens at the end of a doubt- only a conventional abbreviation. Cf. senti. In Old French pasmer (from spasmus) the ^ was lost probably through confusion with es. cords the omission of -s in as this nearly always less was strongly Carnoy 185-206 reline it is many inscriptions. examdtis "> dai. but das^lt. Audollent In most of Italy.. For prosthetic i or e before s + consonant.coming from the prefix ex-. C. trans.. tion of the prefix /r.126 again. According to Velius Longus (S. In Gaul. [§302 and prevailed in central Italy in the third century («<7 Cf. tra{ns)misit. It. see § 246 and Greek by Microsoft® Consonants. 539. see § 161.). For sy. tres^OXA. cept in monosyllables {^Lat. tratransjicio. Italy generally favored tra. usually preferred tras. see § 275. (later tre^. preveire {<. tempo.«. tra{ns')veho. jecit.became and sometimes before m and/. filio^filios. 1938. final J disappeared for good from the common pronunciation in the second and third centuries. Densusianu 122—123. however. liberio. 300. a new nominative constructed from irpeers fell in Italy and elsewhere through the substituva. L. prete. Digitized .*prcebyterum'). transtulit. 540. find. and probably in Dacia. 316).(but trasporre). transduco and We sometimes Both forms occur Gaul and Spain before / and v : tra (^ns) luce 0. 299. IX. the In presbyter. trei amate. probably owing to the previous linguistic habits of the natives. for ejus. see Gutturals For ss>s.(as prabitor) for the unusual initial pres-: hence It. For assibilaand Palatals. For z. Vx. morbu ^ morbus. tempus>lt.j.(but traduire. etc. It. 302.. I. /SvTcpos. and some other regions. Spr. Spain.

275) Before liquids the nasal was assimilated cf. S. rigo." Terentianus Maurus (S. and the mouth closure incomplete. is 278). minus. described by Nigidius (in Gellius). The y Cf. were the preceding vowel obscure and weak in Classic mis-. S. 275) a spiritu explicabitur. S. Bologna. 276.: cf. contineo. as / . iVNCXi. imperio. etc. M and 304. 269-270. In Classic Latin the nasal naturally took before labials the form of m. 311). must have been partly nasalized. g. regularly venit." sound between m and n: "Omnes fere aiunt inter m eX n litteras mediam vocem quae non abhorreat ab utraque littera sed neutram proprie exprimat. remained unFor the reduction of There was a dissimilation of two M and n. ut umbra. initial and intervocalic. innocens.). anguis. see § 245. mediocre in mediis. So Marius Victorinus (S. apertum in principio. changed: meus. inquit. Priscian. amat. probably tives first the pronunciation of these fricabefore changed from bilabial to dentilabial (cf. as between n and ^ (S. — or "« adulterinum"— and also nvncqvam. comfluo confluo.§ 305] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 303. etc. with an arched tongue: S. 279-280. by Microsoft® . . comvenio convenio. 269- {colligo. 127 NASALS. 275). § 320) gutterals. before dentals. 275): "iVvero sub convexo palati lingua inhaerente gemino naris et oris The same author describes (S. N. n. n. ut magnus. ut templum. 270. noster. According to Priscian (S. cor- before s it was Digitized silent [cosul. conduco. was dental or gingival. immitto. 275) says that for n the air comes through both nose and mouth. like d and t (§ 280). 272. y: combura. "m obscurum in extremitate dictionum sonat. then n. final or followed by a consonant. «'s in Bononia > It. and v. before m. Cf. S. §§ 171." 305. by 270. uncus (cf.

Carnoy 176. nunquam. nom paret. [§307 to a following consonant: Final nasals seem to have been adapted. pricipis. cun duce. S. see § 267: santa. Carnoy 220. forsitam mille. 364. 281-285. nom or non fecit. iy carne. but in great measure also to the mistaken efforts of later writers to restore a real or hypothetical earlier orthography: compare the treatment of prefixes. In late Vulgar Latin m. 476. cun navibus : Lat. reliquat. 272): this is indicated by such spellings as senper. 278. Digitized by Microsoft® . Pirson 92." Cf. de- fuctce. For the change of rjkt to yt. secudo. cur regibus. i senatu. 311).. 271-272). etc. 273. nol lego. quen. Servius. decemter.. Cf. we ci. S. find cun.. S. little trace of confusion in the Romance lan- guages. before/ and v there was great uncertainty (cf. etc.. laterna. occubas. 276—277. 286) says: littera "Columnam et consules legimus. quamta. like medial nasals. 306. etc. conplere. etc. Cicero advocated cun nobis. quan floridos. Bechtel 81 {forsitam. plu. nomem. Mn seems at one time to have been pronounced m: Quintilian (S. frequent. etc. Carnoy 176-177. iferos. and there was apparently some labials doubt before ^« and qu (S. then to nt. 275): exempta n "iV quoque plenior in primis sonat et in ultimis partibus syllabarum. In inscriptions S. r/ must have been reinforced. largely to mere careless- ness in cutting. locun sanctum. Priscian (S. santo. §§171. nynfis. exeetc. 307. Spr. In the vulgar speech of the Empire the sound before seems to have been indistinct. ut nomen. n. Carnoy 220). tan mulieribus.. as there is § 32. The due hesitation and inconsistency in spelling are certainly in part to imperfect articulation.. In both old and late inscriptions the nasal is often omitted altogether before a consonant: Decebris. and even before dentals not always clear (S.128 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. innoceti.

So R. Bechtel 91 Digitized cf. jacente. 363-364. passi. pride. the wrong use of it are very frequent in the Per. S. App. and again in late plebeian inscriptions. and conversely forms with a superfluous m. show a fondness for such spellings as calumpnia. 462. Late inscriptions. septe. and dampnum (cf. accedere. : que ad mo- century of the Republic and the dum. 356. mpn is common in 189. etc.. S. S. was probably assimilated into nn in central and southern Italy before the Empire was over {Lat. umpnia.. etc. Between is m and j or / a / generally developed in Latin was unvoiced and denasalized before the surd that followed this / was not always written: sum(J))si. dampnare. exilior in mediis. eoru. etc. etc.). counteracting a previous ten- dency to although slur the group. cf. 129 stamen. in the last first two centuries of the Empire the traditional spelling is carefully observed: early and late such forms as dece. sum(J>)tus. The Romance languages it point to the preservation of mn. Carnoy 166. cal- the early indi- Romance languages. damnum. (as in puplu). Bechtel •]()•. by Microsoft® . to say.§309] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. from the first century." Carnoy 166 has Interamico. It is likely that this orthography and painful effort to articulate clearly. oli. unu are very common. mense. dormito for dormitum. ut amnis. 476): Interanniensis. on the other hand. numqua. — that 309. occa- sionally in Faliscan: Hammer 8. Bechtel 80.. Audollent 539-540. for -amn~. In Old Latin it was to weak: 130 B. ide. 298. terra. The omission of -m and Pr. the latter part of the . Bon. It is often omitted in inscriptions down c. Toward the end of the Empire fashion evidently prescribed cates a conscious a distinct pronunciation of mn. Cf. Spr. abundant examples. m Final m often fell in Umbrian 5. Bechtel 107. . 308. mecu.

In the opinion of Schuchardt. etc. in poetry it may be disregarded (cf. next before spirants and at the end of a phrase. who notes the omission of -m in many inscriptions under all possible conditions. of -n in Latin (S. 288-292. fix The con— became co— before vowels. etc.130 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. from early times. 361): see §305. 473. etc. scarcely any m audible quantum erat. too. reaches the conclusion that silent at the it became end of polysyllables by the first century. For further assimilation. 361): see 305. 358).. it was assimilated (cf.tenea{m')\ cum. "/« Siciliam dicendum. Final m before vowels seems to have been. etc. 360. 274. ignotus: is Other- wise there no sure proof of the fall but there is abundant evidence 365). S. 274). Hammer 32-41. Spr. jam. tan dvrvm. of its assimilation to a § following labial (im bello. 356-358. 106). having disappeared very early before vowels. Cato said dice hanc. 361). the final S. ing vowel was nasalized. 110-112. cf. I. S. only a weak nasal glide: in circueo it disappears (S. fell Before^. as in cognatus. Final n must have been indistinct (S. cf. 364Lat. quern (^quen. 286). (S. audiendu' st. as in coactum. very early. coharere. n of prefixes 274. Before consonants S. Caper (Keil VII. 282. According to Quintilian is 362). pdssu{ni). The Romance languages point to a loss of -m in all words but monosyllables: damnu{m). cognosco. coicere: S. hors. but it seems preco- to have been reinforced in Classic speech (S. Cf. S. Digitized by Microsoft® . Vok. then (by assimilation) before other consonants.. the precedThe contrary view is maintained by Seelmann. Carnoy 206-221.. he adds that there in tantum ille. AudoUent 537). As the fall of m seems to have been due primarily to a failure to close the lips completely between two it is likely that the nasalization was slight. Cf. 310. vowels. non is Siciliam": see § 311. [§ 310 ardente lucemam.

probably through nasalization of the preceding vowel: see § 171. Pr. etc. Before fricatives or spirants n regularly fell." Cf. Digitized by Microsoft® . seme{n) in. after the Vulgar Latin period: Lat. Stolz 243fT. 287). 281-285.. cesor. 462. 281-285. ^^ i'^ Greek- ko^ous. Pr. cojugi. Carnoy 177. covenimus. trare.. iferi. was probably constant from early in/as. Stolz 243.. § App. "consules exempta n littera legimus. ifimo. libes. Quintilian (S. 461Conversely. with a superfluous n: fidens =-fides. 311. ifra. both forms were used in -e{n)sis (according to Velius Longus. iferi. R. coventionid. etc. 273)." "occasio non occansio.ifs. non. ifer cojectis. Plautus repeatedly uses mosTerence seems to intend a rhyme in "neque Stolz 243. 286) records that "men- sam sine n littera dictam Varro fall ait. except in monosyllables: ndtne{Ti)./. etc." Eunuchus 728. (on a (Capua. 113-115.. v. thensaurus. Spr. 274. pes neque mens.. —iens'^-ies.§ 31 1] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 274. Cicero preferred foresia.. letter inscriptions: Kki]ix. however." Before/. App. toties. "Hercules non Herculens. etc. "ansa non asa" ." In popular speech the times: S. 459. 274. Such forms are frequent in cojugi (very common). as videns. mansus. as in vicesimus. 286). occansio. It probably fell late.. locuplens. mesor messor = mensor. infas. 131 The Romance languages indicate the disappearance of -n. This phenomenon was only thority: partially recognized by Classic au—ensimus -^ -esimus. Cf. S. cosol. For final nt. S. Charisius (S. 274. the n was generally restored by analogy (see 171). etc. coin of Vespasian's reign).). AudoUent 538. formosus (S. inscriptions: cofecisse. etc. resurges S. 387 a. hortesia. such words as conjux. 285. quiensces.. cojux. d. remasit. convenio'&ie really new formaThe only sure Romance traces of the loss oin tions: S. . R. Eckinger 80. -onsus>-dsus. ns. 473. thensaurus. iventa. mesis. see § 285. prcBgnas repeatedly. was kept in participles. if eras. Pirson 94.

etc. opus. as was the case with Celtic// (Dottin 100. and northern Italy: see Cf. Bon. App. pesat. It. Pirson 60-61: labidem.. S. S. the fall of n was permanent.. (i) F regularly remained unchanged: pater. Lat. S. hut pensare. Spr. Pirson 93. canapa. 7th century. (I) P. h. Pr. 314. Old Irish secht-n = septem. and the only Romance words containing ns are learned terms or new formations: mesa. Car- noy 165. or perhaps captivus became first *cactivus. and is attested by Martial and possibly by the icse for ipse mentioned by Suetonius. stubrum. Windisch 394). 299. 160. Gaul. // probably early in 299. Raetia. "plasta non blasta" " ziziber non ziziper" cannabis and . scripit. In a part of Italy /j became ss as early as the isse for ipse is first century: found in Pompeii. There was some sporadic confusion of/ and b: uvBLlCyE. under the influence of Celtic *cactos (Welsh caetJi) = Latin captus (Loth 35). 476. etc. In a part of Gaul capfivus seems to have been pronounced *cayttvus: it may be that in Gallic speech the pt oi this word became yt. 299. etc. settembres.132 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 312. Intervocalic / probably became b in the fifth and sixth centuries in Spain. Before s. [§ 314 before these consonants in Latin are Italian /a«/^ and French in Raetia and convent.. In central and southern Italy// became the Empire: scritus. 313. by Microsoft® . to drop In Italy and perhaps elsewhere there was a tendency / between a consonant and an j- or /. lebrm.• redemti. Pirson 61.. LABIALS. sposus. although at a later date nf became / much of southern France. mesis. corpus. cf. Digitized became Haag862. § 256. tosus. scultor. etc. /V likewise br: Abrilis.

§ 3i6]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


In northern Gaul intervocalic/ and/r, even in clerical Latin, /8 and ^r by the seventh century: rivaticus, 629 a. d., Vok. I, 128; cavanna, Gl. Reich.
developed through b and br into
'Soxpe,pi, see § 273.
(2) B.


as in


was not



usually ifemained un-


bene, blitum, oblitus.


Oscan and Umbrian, became vim

in Sicily


southern and central Italy, the
as far north as


being found in inscriptions
Cf. nd, § 281.


Lat. Spr. 476.

Before s or tit

likely that b regularly

became /

in Latin,



was often written

b: absens apsens, ab— apsolvere,

plebs pleps, scribsi scripsi, scribtum scriptum, trabs traps, urbs

urps; App. Pr., "celebs non celeps," "labsus non lapsus."

Final b must have been often assimilated to a following

consonant: sud



a. d.,



In the Empire, especially in the second century,
in inscriptions (cf.

and v were much confused


bixit, botu,

vene, etc., S. 240; Baleria, Balerius, Beneria,


Betrubius, Bictor, bos, valneas, Audollent 536; African birtus, bita, boluntas, Vok. I, 98 bivere, very common, Carnoy

140; baluis, Bechteh"78;

vibit, etc.,

R. 456; bobis in Consenany, traces of

Vok. Ill, 68.

In the

Romance languages

there are few,


such an early interchange.

Probably the confusion was mainly

or wholly graphic, being due to the identity in sound of b and v between vowels (§ 318): Lat. Spr. 473; cf. Einf., § 120. The Spanish levelling of initial b and v does not go back to Vulgar Latin (Carnoy 139— 141); the confusion is far commoner in Italian inscriptions than in Spanish or Gallic (Carnoy 142-146). We find also a change of initial v to b va. north Portuguese, Gascon, south Italian, and Old Rumanian.

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Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


After liquids, too, there was a confusion of b and v in inscriptions, b being substituted for v much oftener than v for
b: Nerba, salbum, serbus, solbit, etc.,

240; berbex, Waters

Ch. 57; solbere, repeatedly, Carnoy 140; solbere, etc., R. 455; App. Pr., "alveus non albeus." In all probability v really changed to b after liquids: see V.


remained unchanged.
Intervocalic b opened into

the development apparin the second,

ently began in the


was well along

Oitovin = and was devitvm, provata, etc., Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95; devere, As V also was pronounced j8, a confusion in spelling S. 240. cvrabit, resulted, b and v being used indiscriminately:

completed, at least in Italy, in the third:

ivbentvtis, nobe,

etc., S.

240; i-vwE.nTE.=jubente, 2d century,

£inf. 127, § 120; cabia
vovis, etc.,

— cavea,

Danuvium, Dibona,


Audollent S3^~537j devitum (6th century), lebis, vibi, Carnoy 134-135; annotavimus, lebat, Bechtel 78;


habe:=ave, rogavo, suabitati,

R. 455— 456;



51, Pirson 61-62,



Carnoy 134-136. became contiguous

Cf. V.

to a following consonant,
Cf. V.

was vocalized

into u: *faula, *paraula, *taula, etc.

became /3r and Dacia.

perhaps not until the end of our period, in northern Gaul, Raetia, part of northern Italy,


as in popular speech: *fa§ula, * tabula, etc.

In the early stages of clerical Latin intervocalic b was pronounced Later, perhaps by the

seventh century,

was sounded


In App. Pr. we find " sibilus non


tions " sifilum pro sibilum" ;


comes from some non-Latin Italic dialect few other words. *a^ea, see § 421. (3) For habebam


(S. 300) menPerhaps the form with/ bubulcus =^ It. bifolco, and a

and Priscian



Be, bi probably remained unchanged, at least in most

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§ 322]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


of the Empire: rabies, rubeus, etc.

For the analogical change

of habeo to *ayo, debeo to *deyo, see § 273.

(3) F-


F was

originally bilabial (S. 294-295), but
of the



by the middle


(S, 295): cf. § 305.

It is the old /, apparently, that is described

by Quintilian

296-297) a plain description of the dentilabial y is given by Terentianus Maurus and Marius Victorinus (S. 296).

Grammarians speak

of an alternation of h


fasena^ harena, fircum'^ hircum, habam'^fabam,
Varro, Ling. Lat.

etc., S.

f: fcedus'^hadus, The /"and 300.

the h doubtless belonged to different dialects in early Latin
§ 97, the

according to

This phenomenon can have no connection with the change of initial/to h in Spanish and Gascon.

/for h was Sabine.

of the

It is

probable that intervocalic

y became

v at the end

Vulgar Latin period

256): alevanii

^ elephanti,

paceveci ^pacifici, pontevecem =. poniificem,




was doubtless originally pronounced w; but, losing its velar element, the sound was reduced, probably During the early in the Empire, to the bilabial fricative /8. Empire Greek-letter inscriptions have ov or ^ for v (Ncpoua or Nep/3a) Ov\av!a = Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95 yS for » is common from the first century on, Eckinger 85-91. Velius Longus, in the middle of the second century, says that the u in ualente is pronounced "cum aliqua aspiratione": S. 232. Hence arises a complete confusion of intervocalic b and v








By. CVRABIT, ivbentvtis, etc, Gregory the Great. This leads


240; jubari iox juvari

to a graphic confusion of

initial b

and v

in inscriptions: biginti, bixit, botv, etc. (so



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An Introduction

to Vulgar Latin.
dentilabial v in


Later the bilabial

p became


of the


cf. §


For the substitution Germanic Consonants.
323. After liquids




or w in a few words, see

this state

/3 seems to have closed regularly into b; was preserved in Rumanian (Densusianu 97, 103105), but elsewhere the p ox v was partially restored by school

influence: cerbvs, corbi, cvrbati, ferbeo,
A. D.),
§ 317.

nerba (about 100

serbat, solbit, E. G. Parodi in Horn.




So vervex became *verbex, then berbex: Waters Ch. 57 BERBECES, 2d Century, Einf. 127, § 120 (also in Gl. ReichJ).

Hence came

hesitation in spelling (^ferveo, ferbui, etc.)


inconsistent results in the


languages: corvus^

corbo corvo, Fr. corbeau; curl/US'^

Ft., Pr. corp, Sp. corvo;



nerbo, Fr. neff; servare, servire'^ It. serbare, servire.

Intervocalic w ox fi had a tendency in older Latin, as Umbrian, to disappear between two like vowels: divtnus'^ dinus (cf. Umbrian deivina> deina, Sittl 26), obHviscor> obliscor, si vis'i> sis. Cf. Lindsay 52. Also, at all times, before or after 0: bovis'^bos; devorsum>dedrsum; faor, Pirson 63; moere, AudoUent 539; Noe/u/Spios, Vok. II, 479; noem[bris], S. 241; '^pavor xiOXL paor," App. Pr.; cf. late noembris, noicius, Lindsay 52. "Favilla xion failla" in App. Pr. seems to be




In the above cases the


apparently was only sporadic.

But before an accented o or u, the w ox p fell regularly in most of the Empire: aunculus, Vok. II, 471 (cf. auncli, Pirson 63); FLAONivs, S. 241; *padnem; *padrem.
Furthermore, intervocalic
popular speech before any


ox p regularly disappeared in probably towards the end of the
vIvs, S. 241 {zLJlaus in



-vos>-vus): flavs,

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471) and others as aum. by Microsoft® . Carnoy 128. rius."^ ec{c)lesia. II. 327- In Greek the surd and the sonant stops must have than in Latin. 1220. claudo. Before 322. Digitized Cf. nasals. /3 became contiguous to a folwas vocalized into u (cf.. II. triumphaut. : Cf. oum. (S) u.:>*eccwic. Vulgar aucella. Claussen 847-851. is 325. voiced explosion: so they were not always distinguished by the Latin ear. stored. 472 (cf. and Greek double consonants sometimes became single: vd/xos >nummus. rivus (beside rius) through rivi. the sonants were perhaps not fully voiced. oum in Probus. after the analogy of a feminine or a plural form ovum (beside oum) through ova. Pirson 63). L. 328. and the surds doubtless had a weak. Pirson 63. eccu' ista'>*eccwista. (i) In inscriptions -vs is common in place of -vvs. etc. this. period: eccu' ktc'. The Greek liquids. Fr. noum. ndcui^ nocwi. I. Lindsay 52. Audollent 539 (cf. datius. in most cases this probably only graphic: Carnoy 128-131. cited by Schuchardt (Vok. and sibilants less sharply differentiated been usually remained unchanged in transmission. 1. however. naufragus. is evidently intended for csvum. 137 App. Vok. 113) nous. primitius.§ 328] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The ^Vm of C. etc. Often. Vva. B): Classic . iKKKyfTia. placuit> placwit. When intervocalic a/ or it lowing consonant. Keil IV. Pr. gnaus. § 167. aus. App. hiatus which had not already become w {%% 223224) probably took that sound by the end of the Vulgar Latin 326. the original Latin w (spelled v) had become |8: § 2. the v was re. vius in Pirson 63). GREEK CONSONANTS. etc. Single consonants sometimes became double in Latin.

(3) ®. c (S. t: xoAa^os > colaphus. advCf. became in Old Latin t.. avrpov^ dndron. 8 regularly ydpov>garum. later inscriptions. K. gamba. — 329. sandal. K. yoyypoi Cf. tt. 268): (cf. 2S9-26a 332. This late such cases as Kafiinj Greek pronunciation perhaps accounts for > Lat. 833-838. K6p. S. S. The From the middle of the second century spellings th. theywere *Jdcopus (also */dcomus) 'la. etc. remained b. y. v sometimes became b. ch: Claussen 823-833. k.papo^ cammarus gammarus. Crista.KO)0(K delta. cf. timbre.iravov > Fr. *. toKomtov > talentum. cin in kvki/os > > cicinus > Old. Pilipus. S. Teodor. x 252-253): vop^-ipa^ purpura . KvPipva. — fusion 346. egloge. Ta\oi'>rr. often became g. t: blcesus. <t>. It. b. the conis mentioned by Terentius Scaurus and others. n. 7rop<j)vpa. "calatus non galatus" {^ KoXadoi). Reich. we find the People of fashion by Microsoft® . 'Kixpmp6<i'>-> sagma sauma. T generally remained c. T. however. however. § a-iriijXvyya > spelunca. KaiPw%>gobius . r. old inscriptions. S. TTuppos burrus. although KavZiTo? for candidus (Eckinger 98) seems to point in that direction: 'Aicpayas > Acragas Agragas. "> purpura. etc.yKri> andngi. Claussen c.v>gubemare. w.p. g. Ka. of a change oi r to d there is no example. Digitized b. 330.p. 259. B. Claussen 838-841. c. nimpa. cf. A.fu > > gumtni. p.. > > . App. (2) K. ^iXra^ unvoiced into /. cecino. rvp. keSjoos > citrus. 347 buxus. ph. TTvio'i > Kr > 331' g. After nasals. d: l3XauT6i Sometimes. TfL'^um (j-a. > conger ganger. 138 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. X. [§ 332 (i) B. Pr. progne. t regularly came to be pronounced //in Greek: a.. bustiola in Gl. explosives 6.

S. etc. Theos. The etc. ut ather. Matheus ''. ut thiara. . and some other early adopperhaps the reason is to be sought in a Greek dialect pronunciation: Claussen 829-831. palanca. pache. so o^-1\kiov for qfficium. : letter h is occasionally misused. .avTac7La> > Pr. S. 79 (cf. Thescelus. Claussen 828. X ><?"• Claussen 831.<^ao-i.§ 334] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. p. pantaisar. 256) speaks of using the old. <jia. " In principio inquam dictionis nulla prescripta causa variari compellitur. 256) says there were no aspirate consonants in older Latin. Bonnet 141. 333" tions. for new words as well as for old: <TvaOri>spatka— spata. S-p. 4.Xay^ It." "strofa non stropa". etc. f is common later in southern Italy. unaspirated pronunciation (as pulcros. Parthi. Quintilian (S. ^ had developed into / in some places (S. 139 undoubtedly tried to imitate the aspirates (Lindsay 54). Fitones in Gl. Bechtel 79. iriumpos) in order to be better understood. but popular speech kept the old t.. cathedra. '^Theophilus non izofilus": (i) Evidence of a late school pronunciation of 6 as ts is to be found in Thurot 78. "amfora /came non ampora. Thestius. as in phosit..\os> phaselus faselus .^o'i^ colaphus = colapus. App. cf. 218. It is transposed in Fhitonis. Fr." 334. zampogna. In ^£ros>It. ut c enuntiatur. Certainly as early to be the standard as the fourth century (Lindsay 58) pronunciation: App. x^P^ > chorda = corda. Fr. 0. Thiestes. phitonissm. <f> > b. 260. Eckinger 97.. Digitized by Microsoft® . Fitonis. KoKa. d. nothus. cefalo. 261. Reich. cru/x<^o)V4a>It. In <l>aXKaiva> ballcBna.. c. In hoxri>doga. caikoluus. etheus. neofiti. etc. si aspiretur.. 261): dafne occurs in Pompeii.. footnote to § 259): " T quoque. Ki^oXoi > It. 257-258. By the first century a. In late words ^ regularly appears as/. The proper spelling is discussed by gram- marians: S. zio we have a late development of Claussen 833. of. Cicero (S.

or d as in Saguntum. etc. lampas.. is sounded sd. Claussen 845. /8oj«. and ^ were regularly > sinapis. Medentius. and a few other words. cr 337. [§ 339 (4) Liquids. — 339. some indica: tions that they were weak before consonants > Pr. : t. orma. see below.8os /talpos > maurus. among 36) says that the ancients. regularly vop. The liquids regularly rhetor. bobansa. The nasals. From Sulla's time on it was written z in The grammarians throw no light Latin: Claussen 841-843.v>psallere spallere. massa.I40 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. r. and subsequent developments confirm this view: baptizare Digitized was equivalent to bapti{d)yare. t. 308. and Sibilants. 338. priTmp> Rh in remained unchanged: \a/x7ras> common speech was doubtless pronounced In trkXivov like > It. too. ^dvr] "^ sona (Plautus). later j' (cf. as a simple sound. by s. unchanged: <j has probably become For npvj^vre. In it was represented by jj or s: pAtfl.po'i'^ prebiter. sedano. we probably 8. by Microsoft® . Quintilian refers only to the on the Latin pronunciation. i/f In ocr/u. (S) z- Z doubtless had several pronunciations in Greek. have to do with a late Greek change of \ to 336. § 272).'^massa. early Latin . The For unfamiliar combination lent itself readily to meta- thesis: i^6X\v.. ss. but seems to be referring only to Greek speech S. see § 300. Nasals. Cf.-^ remained unchanged: are. but was often replaced. e^oSos r. (Tivain Of the sibilants. > exodus. Priscian (Keil II. There however. > nome.^ ? > It. Judging from inscriptions. Greek letter and the lack of a corresponding Latin one Velius Longus discusses z at length. 335. it was pronounced in Vulgar Latin dy.

and is common in inscriptions (cf. and w. geldra. Spr. *giga>'Pr. gerbe.. giga. zanuari. 33.. Carnoy 163). being had no Latin equivaFurthermore. of the consonants offer Most treated as in Latin. re- mained a stop : roubdn it > It. Vok. zosum z= deorsum. 473. *striban > Pr. ZESv. can scarcely have come in time to share in the early palatalization of Latin g before front vowels (§§ 25811. zdcones. zebus. Eckinger 80. I. Zov\e.. 22. Carnoy 163. (90. 340. = conjux. 68 . rubare. zaconus. b and k came in after the lents: 8. etc. 239. A. etc. z zabulus. Franko seems to have been an early acquisition. B between vowels. Bechtel 79). Pr. Cf. zeta = Koffmane 38 Lazis — dixta.§ 34i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. D. so *rik-itia > Pr. 141 zelosus to {d)yelosus. p.= Julia. 457-458- In late inscriptions z for/ is common: zerax = Upa^ (202 S. Francesco. esquena. h. oridium for opvtfi. 69. Lat. 341.). however. estribar. jart. GERMANIC CONSONANTS. and its derivatives palatalized In the their k before e and /. zabulus. occurring apparently only in words adopted after Latin intervocalic b had become ^ (§ 318). and to G.• frank-iscus>lX. Vok. septuazinta. cf. baptidiatus. corresponding Latin sounds had undergone some modification. garba > K It. resisted front vowels : skena > > Sp. ZABVLLVS. geisla Fr.. R. I. Conversely. giscle. is often used for di: . It. Kotflv^ zvnior. The ending -i{d)yare became very is common: see § The spelling di for z occurs repeatedly: baptidiare found several times in Per. skernon > schernire.ta. seems to have followed a similar course. although have participated also in the later Gallic palatalization of g > before a (§ 263): gilda>lt. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. 3.). riqueza. A few. Ladiis. no peculiarities. garto Old Fr.

etc. ht were generally treated tasso. a time when original Latin fricative w (spelled v) It the purely labial ^ (§ 322). Fr. — > \X. skiuhan'^'Fx. blanche (but It. helm elmo. Fr. It. of a At the beginning word it kept its sound in northern Gaul. regions where Latin eschine. esguiver. gequir. It. It. helme.. Old Sp. fio . hache. W. became Old guatare. nipa The spirants 8 and p t: corresponding stops. Kluge 500. 342. jaquir. hardjan Old Fr. In the Gl. —jehan > Old It. sleht > Pr. Pr. Germanic k was modified in the same way before all front vowels (including a): cf. Fr. eschernir. Pr. tasso. bianca^. but apparently was neglected in the rest of the Empire: hanca~^Yx. we find Digitized by Microsoft® . schiatta. d and widarlon were replaced in Latin by the It.. Intervocalic h disappeared in most words. schivare. in the seventh century and later. different time. guiderdone. Bon. espiar. It. is used before > > initial ch: ab Chilperico. 445 notes that ab. spehon~>0\6. hau- > > > Pr. tt: pahso > It. parrjan > Cf. gecchire. had become was nearer in it sound to Latin u: see § 326. doubtless adopted at a Tr. But wahta. Fr. [§ 344 c was palatalized. Fr. Reich. cf. 344. silent in Fr. Old Fr. Sp. trescar. rather than a. hapja'^Yz. esclate. like Latin ss. hardir. apcha. hanche. ardire. It. Pr.— 142 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Pr. espier. 343. but in a few it seems to have been sounded kk in the greater part of the Empire: fehu Fr. — slahta'^-OXA esclet. Pr. anca. tarir. so blank-a'^Yx. schietto. esclata. at Germanic w was a strong velar and labial fricative. pahso > It. prescan Germanic h appeared when Latin h had long been popular speech. Hs. Yr. perhaps borrowed at a different date feu. gaite. jehir. honte. before a (§ 263). richesse.gaita.

1899. See E. Die frdnkischen Elemente W. elsewhere.§ 344] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.:>*wadum. Digitized by Microsoft® . in northwestern Italy. Bruckner. Wandali. 1885. Through association with Germanic words. in der franzSsischen Sprache. became gw: warjan>*warire wisa guarire. but Wintrio is spelled Quintrio: Haag 38. 1884. 143 re- represented by uu. Charakteristik der germanischen Elemente im Italienischen. wa (the interjection). Waltemath. walde. In extreme northern and eastern Gaul. etc. Waddo. reuuardent. vastare + wost— > *wasiare. and in the in Rsetia this w apparently remained unchanged Vulgar Latin period. through a reinforceit ment of its velar element. Bon. etc. 167 cords Euua. > *wisa guisa. Die germanischen Elemente in der franzSsischen und provenzalischen Sprache. Mackel. etc. in uuadius. It is generally written w in Fredegarius. the /3 of some Latin words was changed to w: vadum +watan'. werra > werra guerra. W.

sex.IV. Spr. grex became feminine. but there were ( I ) Between masculine and feminine there was not much some important shifts: Feminines of the second declension nearly all became — masculine: fraxinus. II. had a proparoxytonic accusative in -erem. n. 461): (2) In Gaul. G. castaneus for castanea. Bon. The three genders of Latin were not. (4) There were some sporadic changes: duos arbores. MORPHOLOGY. —orem. Hmor. Spr. Lat. They were grammatical whose observance was a matter of outward form. A. iomus. 483. or [I. (5) See also § 351. Lat. 293.. Nouns that -icem. 504. manus. ficus. turturem. —urem were of uncertain gender ( Gram. GENDER. in the main. through the analogy of the great majority of abstract terms. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. became feminine (Bon. leporem. Pirion 157. pulicem. I. If words lost their differentiating terminations. marginem. dependent on sex or lack of distinctions. etc. 503-504): (3) color. 346. Feminines of the fourth declension varied (^Gram. 464-467): carcerem. 483 . confusion of gender ensued. -inem. 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . cf. 194. dolor. cucullus and cuculla. abstract nouns in -or. 345. fans feminine in late Latin. Bon. MASCULINE AND FEMININE. honor. ~" confusion.

*ndminem. 145 MASCULINE aIiD NEUTER. ciner. lignus. vinus. lactem. etc.. 2. piper \h&x& must have been *liiminem. 483). Waters Ch. b. beside pulvis. 348. 173. papaver . In popular and late Latin this tendency was strong: anteClassic. Densusianu 132. collus —um. G. sg. Waters Ch. R. for ctnis. n. 507-509. me\_nt]us. ledus —um. D'Arbois 135. . 348. ra. Plautus.. Bon. fatus. II. roborem. marmorem. Beside lUmen. pectorem. fcenus. collus. incipit judicius. Glor. (Za/. nomen. MAREM. thesaurum.guttur. gladium.. lactem {Bacch. caseum -us. VA. Cf. 270—272.. 266. 46. laqueum. cornu —um —us. balneus. tergum —us. 41. templus. do^sus (^Mil. For the confusion of masculine Cf. cf. Conversely we find cinus. *ptperem. vinus. nasuni : —us. 132. calus. n. and neuter in Africa. 347. m. Audol- lent 545. etc. 4. maris nom. there must have been a *pulvus. murmur. 16). frenum -i. 345-349. Densusianu 129. and also by the fall of final s in that phenomenon occurred (§ 298). m.. Petronius.. 39. signus. frigorem. vasus -um. MARIS. Bon. These m two genders: filiu{s) — . Varro. see Archiv VIII. vadum —us.Y. 293. 57. castellus. etc. etc. puteum.§ 348] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. R. and f. verbus.. 42.. In Classic Latin a number of neuters became masculine balteum -us. sulphurem. 44). Spr. etc. m. The transition from masculine to neuter was facilitated by the fall of final the regions where changes reduced considerably the distinguishing marks of the (§ 309). Petronius has thesaurum.

Densusianu 132. popular. give in Italian: sg. muro. Among pronouns. : if The loss of the neuter became feminine: cyma. Zs. for instance. 349. illud or ilium. 386.146 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. hunc verbum. perhaps calestem. complete until early Romance times. / muri mura. the early stages of the Neuter adjective forms were used for a similar purpose: in Romance languages we find phrases veniat. Thus the masculine and neuter fused. Nearly all neuters became masculine: os locutus R. pointing to such Vulgar Latin constructions as *mihi est grave quod ille non c.. 45 . Mare. luoghi luogora. FEMININE AND NEUTER. quid. 161. and 48. etc. Greek neuters in -ma. hunc stagnum. luogo. So pi. murus. however. est.. etc. donum hunc scBCulum. R. 348. Archiv III. XXX. hunc vulnere. generally L. quod. 266. miles. 277. in Livy: Draeger I. gender for nouns was probably not Cf. the : neuter forms were kept to express an indefinite idea hoc. 4). plural in a collective sense (as eques. Cf. 351 Classic Latin often used not only the singular for the cf. m. § 351. locus. id ipsum. but also the collective plural for the singular Digitized by Microsoft® . tive h In the third declension the genders are distinguished only in the accusative singular and the nomina- and accusative plural. generally Haag became feminine maris. influenced f. Bon. rivus rivora. and in Italy and Dacia the distinction disappears even in the nominative singular. sagma. 350. 635. [§ 351 In the second declension the only difference is in the nominative singular and the nominative and accusative plural. etc. cf. the characteristic neuter plural inflections came to be -a being regarded as an alternative masculine plural ending: for nervi. mare.. Petronius writes nervia Waters Ch. by terra.

fructa. 352. ligna. frutta. see § 349. The feminine character of such words was *illcB doubtless reinforced by the use. marmor. Aside from these. 270. Sardinian. but many were and southern Italy and Rumania. R. crigne < ? *cnnea = crines. palpebrum iox palpebra occurs. 353. . ne forte et mihi hcec eve- R. 435. . Apulian.. Bon. etc. So the neuter plural forms in -a were preserved in their collective use after the neuter singular forms had disappeared. 63). of an to pectora maXch qua pectora : Chronologie \()(). 147 marmora. *folia. see §§ 85-100. gesta. Lat. the Vulgar Latin period the cases were generally reduced. {z. cf. 483. . For the use of cases. Draeger I. hie est iesia. By the end of 354. Spr. membras. which a new plural was created: brachias. Convtrstly. Gl. In late Latin and early Romance this collective plural —a came to be taken for a feminine singular: tribula sg. Gl. 482. etc. few neuter nouns became feminine: For mare and f. for instance. Gl. ingenias.. *pulvus = pulvis. sg. ligna . grada occur in late Latin. gaudia niat. occurs in late Latin. Spr. simulaehras. DECLENSION OF NOUNS. Digitized by Microsoft® .. For cinus — cinis. 2... This formation in -a was extended to many masculine (cf. Cf. in Rumanian y>-««2a < ? *frondia ^frondes. Archiv XIV. Cassel. Hence arose such feminine gaudia. In most of the in central Romance territory the -a forms were kept preserved as plurals only as feminine singulars. § 349) and even to some feminine nouns: digita. Reich. etc.§ 354] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. fusa. see § 347. D'Arbois 10.% frigora. ardet (cf. rama). rura: cf. armentas. Lat. 351. Audollent 548. R. Old Fr. It. in Greek neuters -ma. Reich. 269. 5-9. for singular forms as *brachia. dita.

but -ies was kept in the Spanish peninsula. Audollent genum. scaiiazre attested Inter: Denfor -OS.. The other declensions generally held their own. —a nominative and an accusative- plural following the analogy of the singular. Sp. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. Fifth declension nouns not in -ies rem.. sendti. manos. 337-338. so friicti. Pr. 282-283. passes. R. [§ 356 except in Dacia.g/ada. gelus.148 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 152. went into the third res There was also an inflection spes : spene{m). G. the fourth and being absorbed by the others. and occasionally in southern Gaul. 482. ablative. as a third declension noun. fourth declension eventually went over. Sittl in Archiv II. whence Italian spene (cf. jusso. glatz. Bon. etc. K. beside dia. One result of the intermediate confusion was an accusative plural spelling -us which was very common in Gaul: Bon. Classic Latin and continued in vulgar and late speech: ftcus. etc. Ada. Bechtel 86. being assimilated to the third declension: cf. 260—262. etc. 356. Dies maintained itself. 135. jusso. transfer of nouns in -ies from the fifth to the first declension began also in Classic Latin: effigies— ia. haz. materies -ia. in southern Italy and Sardinia. The transfer from the fourth to the second began in domus. lucto. — the Cf. All the mercatus. fructo fructos. £ai. All passed over in the greater part of the Empire. Spr.. see § 359. spiritus. etc. but there were a few shifts: — (i) For an inflection mama mamdne(^m). senatus. 550. 270. In Dacia the dative singular was to some extent preserved also: '' § 91. (2) The susianu 133. Heraeus in Archiv XIII. to two. spes spent. luxuries —ia. 355(i) The number fifth of declensions was reduced to three. lacus. speni): W. cornum. 544. gradus. gustus in Petronius ./ada.

This use was due in the main to the analogy of the singular. by Audollent 416.) and probably *potesta. a.) *femdris: cf. which had only one form in the plural: flia So linguas. 280. siren '^ sirena.. femps. of the third declension sometimes passed into lampas~^lampada. Fr. there was an ervus ervoris: Lat. 483. 57). 280. Audolfilia{m). 258Dubois 258. 280. arroser. G. vas>va- sum vasus (Waters Ch. Spr. Digitized -s made the accusative plural identical with the singular. effondrer. It probably was not common until late Vulgar Latin or early Romance times. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) and *capum -i: XXVII. G. (3) On the other hand. / 357. but the old forms were retained also. the nominative plural was' by Microsoft® . Puulva for pulvis is recorded adsis '> aisida.>*rdsum (cf. cf. there was a termen terminis. apparently became femus {Gl. Greek nouns 259.§ 357] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. h&nc& filias filias. 149 (2) For an inflection Bellus Bellone^m). R. : Bechtel 86. Libit. where the kept instead. so apparently ros'. the accusative plural form came to be used as a nominative plural. J where there was only one form. matres matres. Fundus fundi perhaps became fundus *funddris: Old Fr. ds>dssum (R. lent 546. rugiada. G. Reich.). FIRST DECLENSION.In countries which did not lose final s {% 298). Pr. Beside terminus ~i. under the influence of stercus. beside coclear fiitre: was codearium. Old Fr. Fr. fons. and of feminine nouns of the third declension. 259-260). Beside ervum ervi. Fimus ftmi. fiens. the first: 367. Corpo for corpore occurs in the Per. fonz. It. pyxis '^*buxida. etc. etc. Pr. So a few Latin nouns: juventus or ~tas > Juventa. likewise tempesta {Gl. fall of In Italy and Dacia. Reich. see § 362.

D'Arbois 21-24 assumes Celtic influence: hic sunt cartas. filiabus. deabus.. This feminine inflection left some traces in Gaul. 198. Rom. Some masculine person-names in —a had crisia the same declension {Einf. an inflection in —dnis. Celtic. Archiv N\\\. Spr. An ablative in -abus is occasionally found: Cassiabus.. 264). 70. 152-153. rather late. 171. diffusion. villabus. XXXV. but they may have helped its the second century . 150. amita *amitdnis (so Juliana Julianenis in Pirson 143). 359. the nominative plural in some parts of Italy SCALAS.: hence arose Anna Anndnis or -inis. Her^us in Zs. cf. Dante's Semele. scriba *scribanis (cf. etc. Salvioni in Rom. Journal des savants igoo. Pupils were taught to inflect Glance Glaucenis.. 321. Nice Nicenis. mamma mammdnis. Philipon. liberti LIBERTASQVE. filiabus. cf. Herseus in Archiv XIII. etc. nom. Feminine proper names and words denoting persons etc. See G. Raetia. Bon. etc. This form left no traces in the Romance languages. c. XXXI. M. sa* sacristanis (cf. Paris. XXV. etc. —enis. (R. Africa. Hic qvescvnt dvs mres dvas filias.. It. etc. had a similar plural. W.2 01. and also in Latin down to -as was probably old in : B.ISO (i) An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. pupillabus. too. Rom. or probably under the influence of the consonantal declension of Greek names that was in vogue in schools. often developed. 483. No foreign or dialect influences are needed to explain the practice. XXIII. Both mamani and tatani are found in the third W. Spr. and Digitized by Microsoft® . Chronologie 205-209. scrivano). p. century: feminine -a -ants In Lat. 136. G. feminabus. 206. W. XXV. etc. Les accusatifs en -ain. ii. filiabus. sacristano). Dalmatia. [§359 According to Mohl. 358. It.. MeyerLiibke in Ltblt.. Meyer-Liibke expresses doubt whether the is connected with masculine tatani. E. ahimabus. § 153): barba barbani. 57 B. Feb. Les accusatifs en -on et en -ain. famulabus. Br^al. affirms that there was a feminine in -a with a plural in -as in Oscan. fr. Pirson 115-116. 331. c.

from 750 on: amitane. Rom. however. — luna facia *folia luna lune lunas luna{s) facia folia f^i^ facias f'^^i^ folias facia(s) folia{s) In Dacia the dative singular {lune. XXXV. 214-215. 218. was retained to a considerable and central Italy and Dacia. Ger- From the seventh century on. §§ 347-349. XXXV. the starting-point of all this inflection was bdrba barbdnis. As neuter nouns became masculine. Rom. R.. The plural in -a. etc. extent. Zs.. Rom. (2) A. Dubois 250. barbane still exist at both ends of Italy.: § 362] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. barbane. Attane. (i) 207. Romance.) was kept also. putain. — perhaps under manic influence combined with the analogy of the Latin type Digitized by Microsoft® . Zimmermann. 2l6. and -Stis: Aureliati. 351-352. the masculine where the masculine and neuter partly in Vulgar Latin but mostly in inflection in those countries differed: vinus. domnani. XXXV. me -ene. bdrba barbdnis influence of the itself he would ascribe to the synonymous *bdrbo *barb6nis. the first declension was reduced to this pattern: 360. shows that these forms of declenall sion were very common the mediasval Latin documents of parts of Italy. 216. b. Andreate. §§349. etc. etc. 361. 250. etc. etc. especially in southern Some masculines took 362. in ig8. -o -6ne. also Joannentis. Agneti. Lombard madrane. shows that there was also an Cf. Eugeneti inflection in -dtis. 250. -e ^ne -me. SECOND DECLENSION. In general. from Eugenes. 343. *botella. Italy: Fr. 151 etc. *botula. this -a. -His. Joanneni. Rom. at the beginning of the Romance period. by the analogy of bracchia. they assumed. Andreani. nonnain. -i La declinazione imparisillaba in -a -dne. XXVIII. 264. Salvioni. fructa. G. etc. Cf. XXXV. from which it was extended to other nouns of relationship and to proper names. digita. rama.. According to Salvioni. etc. 219. Cf.

c. XXXV. both in Classic and in Vulgar Latin: -Is. [§ 365 gulo guldnis. avus avi>avo avonis.. I. Italy. The traces ablative in —e finally triumphed. etc. Rsetia. XXXV. 247-249. and possibly Spain. Paulus or Paulo Pauldne{ni). XXXV. etc. II. etc. etc. Vok. XXXI. Cf. G.. 365. suceroni: Rom. attested in Lucca in 776 {Rom.- ending was often Bon. cf. 85. cf. See E. 204). §355. § 152). Salvioni in Rom. In general. Huon. Philipon in Rom. and possibly Corsican baboni. 363. Firmus Firmonis. -« crowded out the rarer which left no sure Digitized by Microsoft® . 198. hence Pitrus or Pitro Petrdne^m). but there are of -l: It. In the ablative there was considerable confusion of -z and -e in Classic LatiiK OTan mare. etc. etc. etc. 337-338. at the beginning of the Romance period. the second declension followed this pattern: annu(s) — annu ~o anni anno{s) fa^e(f) fabru —o vinu{s) bracciu *—us fructu(s) vinu -0 vini bracciu —o braccia fructu fructi fructo{s) —o fabri fabro(s) —i —o{s) vmo(s) braccia —a -a The letters enclosed in parentheses were silent in Italy and plural Dacia. Pirson 133:. In the accusative plural there was still greater confusion of -is and -es {nubes nubls. Traces of this inflection are to be seen especially in French and Provengal proper names: Foucon. 212-213. THIRD DECLENSION.f. carried further in common speech: cf. (1). 87. So perhaps Italian Donaioni. This was 364.). Apparently traces. — there developed in Gaul. spelled In Gaul the accusative -«. Giovannoni. Bellus Belloni. proper names: 201. Vok. a declension -us (or —o) —dnis for masculine Hugo Hugon was Latinized into Hugo Hugdne{m) (cf.152 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. some pari. turri turre.

116. divite. Nouns which added a syllable in the genitive." Keil VII. in Ennius. pedis. -es. latrone. R.. calcis in Venantius Fortunatus. heredes. mdis. Petronius (Waters Ch. D'Ovidio in critici Raccolta di studii dedicata ad Alessandro JD'Ancona 627). without a change of accent.• -« Vok.. nubis. Ill. These forms prevailed in Romance. 45. Apuleius. nom. etc. etc. "nubes non nubis". it is futile trace the Romance forms phonetically to one source rather than the other. Sepulcri 220. Audollent 545-547. 9. 263.. bovis in Varro. 263. D'Arbois 85-88.. cf. Plautus. lade in Ennius. folli tor folks in GL Reich. papilionis (cf.. Petronius (Waters Ch. superstitis. etc. GL Reich. Prudentius. Jovis.... 367. GL Reich. etc.famis. 105. R. famis. audace. Varro. principens antestetis. III. Rumanian pint. As ~es and ~is came to be pronounced alike before the end to of the Vulgar Latin period (cf. heredes. suis in Prudentius (F.§ 367] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. aculionis for aculeus). Haag 45. 153 Italian pani. etc. §§ 174. "fames non famis. R. camis in Livy. perhaps in late popular Latin. 263. lentis in Priscian. 243). App.. Pr. . cardonis. "grus non gruis. 47). victore. or -e fashioned on the model of the oblique cases: so seeps "> sapes. In the nominative singular the common -^s largely placed the less f requent 244-247. stips^ stipes. 481. Waters a Ch. castore. 66. Audollent 545-547. Pr. urbis. Petronius (Waters Ch. Lat. etc.principis). Caper.. travis (three times). I. tended in popular speech to use for the nominative a form in -is." App. etc. through the analogy of the second declension: see §368. 38). In Vulgar Latin this formation was extended to words with shift of accent: excellente for excellens in Petronius. are best explained. (^=z. Aulus Gellius. Ci.. Vok. slirpis in Livy. Chronolo- gie 203. 62). as by Tiktin 565-566. Spr. Digitized by Microsoft® . voluntate.. dis- 366.

Rum. soror. cantdtor. 482). masculine nouns made over their nominative plural on the model of the second declension. etc. Rumanian Tiktin 566.). retained names of and and generally preferred the old nominative But names of persons in -ans and -ens usually made over the nominative: parentis. carpi corpora. for *lumine{m).. 369. 154 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. were kept also {Lat. declensions: Neuters in which apparently became by Microsoft® masculine or Digitized . however. prevailed in Romance. doubt. etc. corpus cdrpu(^s). prcBgnans). hence *me(n')si. so. to Bon. Neuters in —n and -s regularly kept their nominative- accusative singular. etc. see § 347.. which was regarded as the normal masculine type: fllii. [§ 369 These forms. however. timpuri). etc. made in Italy in the eighth or ninth century. new forms on the masculine pattern. servitor. but in Italy and Rumania the old ones. Spr. The process may have begun in the Vulgar Latin period. no form: homo. both the second and -r. hence *cani. lupi. (also presentis. being used mainly in the nominative vocative. which. In these countries —ora was used as a plural ending (It. *amantis. (also * damantis.). and was extended to in Old Italian to the second. as nomeiji). but infans (also 368. except for persons. *ndmine{ni). For the nominative-accusative plural. *cdrpes *cdrpe{s). we find sapienti. hence *patri. they constructed. In most of the Romance languages (but not Spanish). too. first in cf. timp. as *ndmes *ndme(s). corpo. D'Arbois 85-88. beside the old forms. etc. especially those in —ora. etc. probably in late Vulgar Latin or early Romance. elifanti is common. according . but there is virtually no evidence that it started so early: in late Latin. 367 parentorum is frequent in charters in the Gl. Cassel. anni.

sangutne(m) also sanguei^m). 348. Incus. polve may come irorapulver). 113. PERSONS. 293. papaverem. . pulvis whence S-p. pals {It. cf. But marmor. Cor apparently made its plural * cores instead of * cordes : according to Mohl. 483. 370. In general. 2. *cdris = Krjp lajpo's. (3). Old Yt. except Spanish cuerdo. *piperem. iticudis > incudo. Sanguis. incudtnis : Lat. were kept also. Spr. sulphurem. § 347. Fxn. at the beginning of the Romance period. the word shows no trace of d in any of the Romance lan- guages. the third declension must have gone about as follows {-is and -es having coincided in the pronunciation -w) : — (i) No Change of Accent. *pulvus. A few feminines in -is apparently became neuters in —us. Plautus. and so probably goes back to an Old Latin *cdr Classic cor.§ 37i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the open o would possi- bly be explained as due to a cross between this *cor and the Caput became *capu{ni) or capus (Pirson 238). etc. marmorem. and passed into the second declension: cf. G. Lexique 21-38. Zauner 2.0. §356. 155 feminine earlier than the others. 371. polvo. but the original forms were kept also: cinis ctnus.. NO CHANGE OF STEM. often developed an accusative singular in -e{m) as well as a nominative-accusative plural in -es: I. Bon.

. [§373 change of stem.156 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

and the neuter plural (as omnia) was doubtless emr ployed from time to time as an indefinite collective. § was kept to represent a whole idea (cf.§375] An 3. As neuter nouns assumed masculine endings (§ 347). the neuter adjective forms were less and less used. 350). 374- Adjectives were declined after the same model as nouns. however. the neuter singular. 375" The principal types are: — So ager. . Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 157 DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES.

162. Cf. gracilus. magis magls f J Digitized by Microsoft® . App.. comuna. Prcecox developed a feminine pracoca: Neue II. so teeter'^ tetrus.. l_ \ !-. and f.— 158 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. jac^r passed into the -us ~a —um class. 275 (^ci. App. effrenis. 46). and f. firmis. pauperum. celerus. see § 56. : to 4. m. 377. COMPARISON. Densusianu 142. Decllvis. (plus L 1 J ^plus llle-{'^"~. Pr. m. R. doussa. prcestus. there was alacris. Romance was: For the new method of comparison. The type. not completely evolved in Vulgar Latin.. [§377 (3) Originally *feUce(s) One Gender filis fills fellcla in the Nominative Singular. Pr. miser. in376. . etc. Macer. sublimus. pauperorum.. imbecillis also assumed the -us -a —um inflection in the Latin period so trtstis^tristus. In the the —us —a Romance languages more adjectives went over -um type Pr. prude(s) prude(s) *prudente(s) feUce fellce(s) prudente prudente{s) prudente{s) prudentia prudentia fellceis) fellcla (4) Comparatives apparently did not reconstruct the Nominative Singular: melloif) mellu{s) millu(s) mellore mellore(s) mellora mellSra melidre(s) There was a good deal of confusion of types in Latin times: beside alacer. Waters Ch. pauperorum. R. and conversely benignis. Pauper early developed a feminine paupera and later a neuter pauperum: paupera. 274. etc. and there was probably also a feminine * alacra and * alecra. etc.

minor. gravior grevior. also as (cf. also ijuatro ^guaitro. Quattuor became quattor {Archiv VII. NUMERALS. proximus. on the model of dui. 65. 285). is regular. (G. Quinque. levior. etc. Vulgdrformen lateinischer Zahlworter auf Inschriften in Archiv VII. longior. Scto ( and Cf. minus. 107). For dodece. Archiv VII. Six. 159 However. "i^. became cinque {Archiv VII. melius. attested in the third cen- tury: Archiv IX. 65). Ihm.§379] '^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 68. pessimus. *Stto). pejus. Cf.i 378. (Camoy . lows : — The numbers between two and twenty were as fol- Tres probably developed a nominative *irei. nSve. sanctissimus. DHo came by dui. the Classic Latin comparatives of many common adjectives remained in use: altior. an Unus was probably declined like bonus. as intensives: altissimus. magis. II. Digitized by Microsoft® . by dissimilation. 221). It was used indefinite article (§S7) and an indefinite pronoun to be replaced §71). pejor. 5. of the Vulgar Latin period dui dot {duoT) duo(s) Its inflection at the was probably: doa{s) — end due doe duas doas d'ua{s) dua doa dua doa In early Romance there was doubtless much confusion of the forms. 379. dice offer so cinqua- no peculiarities. sordidius. The old superlatives remained to a considerable extent. 558 (cf. vivacius. carissimus. Beside Undece there seems to have been * iindece. see § 225. grossior So the adverbs: longius. Tredece * See M. melior. §254. 66) ginta (Archiv Nil. in the clerical language. major. septe (and *sette).

381. 461. ii. For its plural it had *dui mille or *dui mtl{l)ia. Ryd- berg in Milanges Wahlund 337. so ^dece et (or dcto. probably anterior to the fall of faulty pronunciation the g. Mille was regular. 69). 400. regularly [§ 381 also Quattuordecim *quatti!rdece. Archiv VII. et (or ac) sex. * quadrdinta became rr: quarranta Furthermore the dr of found in an inscription. *dece et (or ac) nHve. Rumanian has new formations. II. etc. the septucu. * octdinta * ottdinta.. Digitized by Microsoft® . also unus de viginti. *septdinta * settdinta. which account in general for the Italian. beginning with 20. trinta: Archiv VII. with an opening of the first i and an early shift of accent. XXV. in fact. trinta {yinti.. Zs. etc. These forms easily contracted into vinti. * cinqudinta. Keil V. 392. Centu was regular. there were probably new formations. but Qulndlce is regular. * triinta. Priscian (Keil III. This change of accent apparently occurred everywhere for the subsequent tens: * guadrdinta.i6o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.: G. Spr. Archiv VII. 69. 412) mentions decern et septem. 69). perhaps of the fifth century (Pirson 97. trienta. The tens. Beside sedece there was *dece SeftendScim. But beside these we Vigtntl. etc. Provengal. mentioned as a by Consentius. Beside this dice et septe ac") there was *dece ac septe . Cf. trecenti. made to conform Outside of the Spanish peninsula is -dinta apparently became -dnta. are irregular: regularly § 142. triginta is. and French words. etc. cf. triinta (§ 259): ISatvTi occurs in a sixth century document of Ravenna. *nondinta *novdinta. etc. f^ok. trigtnta must assume for Spanish something like * viinti. 380. became * quattordece (cf. went out of use. 136.of 70 and 80 were to the type of the others. became viinti. * sexdinta.and the octo. For ducenti. § 225). such as * dui centu.

and so was the genitive singular and plural of ille. were probably not very commonly used: the Romance languages show many new formations. after 5th. ? II. and Catalan ending -enus was employed {septenus ion tertius. tile and also hic. PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. But his reference to Vok. The ordinals were best preserved in Italy. 161 382. ipse. and the dative was preserved in personal.). nemo inde Regnier no. Examples occur as early as the second century: Franz. 67. remained. According to sixth century. B. B. as an indefinite neuter. 262. Lat. and iste. kept. The ordinal numerals. etc. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. accusative SSs. probably not 385. Spr. in northern Italian. to the dative and accusative. and interrogative pronouns. but the end of the Vulgar Latin period. The nominative and. until Ego lost its g in all the territory. The ablative gave way . 484. 384. but some languages have new formations even for these. N. eo occurs in manuscripts of the See §263. Primus. Provengal.^ ' Meyer-Liibke. 242 is incorrect Digitized by Microsoft® . and is were used to supply the lacking pronoun of the third person: cf. I. demonstrative. relative. the distributive Septimus. quintus were generally bonus. §§6o. see § 60. secundus. — For the use of personal pronouns. The genitive was usually lost but ciijus was kept. ipse.§ 385] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. definite genitive: Hoc served in- Inde assumed the function of an dubitat. As the pronouns came to be expressed more and more. inflected like quartus. I.

acof. 484. the pattern of stbt. stbi the short i prevailed.ording ti. vobis. found. there were formed •. ^ )86. On tibi. from the sixth century on. si beside to Lat. Franz.1 62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. II. [§ 388 In the last syllable of ttbt. i" 243-244. inflection The was probably reduced to: — . these are and mt<mihi. Spr. •was carried into nobis.

Romance: Old \X. B. the special forms ipsus for R. Franz. sg. having become archaic in peninsula. was partially replaced. — For the use of demonstratives. definite N. 3. used by 427. 9 beside II. however. Ille. Franz. in II. nom. was from that. There was another dative form. and the Spanish Illius {ipsins. Quillacq 83). and Cato and on the model of illui (and perhaps of quei). articles For their function as and personal pronouns.§ 390] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 274. Through the analogy of cu^us. 246-260. others (Neue Digitized by Microsoft® . . they came to be compounded usually with the prefix ecc' or Cf. 427. m. but it disappeared from late Latin. 273. subsequently went out of use. and the latter is not found in Calabria. tilt was replaced in part by illHi. The Old Latin genitive illi {ipsi. sometimes occurred as a dative: Franz. 275. cf. ipsi=^ ipse. see §§ 61-68. 390. etc. 275. Franz. Sardinia. R. 277-279. 114. the m. istius). cut. 3 II.. Audollent 302). 389. see §§ 60. madre- DEMONSTRATIVES. and the dat. 275. Sicily. also §392. illo. 9 II. 283-304. tilt. These forms survived ma. framed on the model of cf. popular speech. being confused with the ablative and the accusative. probably in the sec- ond half of the sixth century. m. leius was abandoned: In the dat. R. f. isti). 67-68. illi^ille. sg. illms gave way to iliajus. we find. and ipsud for ipsum. The inflection of tile developed considerably in popu- lar speech. sg. used by Apu- and others (Neue II. Ipse and isfe followed a similar course ipse however. by illi. fratelmo. qui: Bon. there was tllce (or ille). Franz.. is 163 g The full inflection found in the sixth century: Franz. eccu': see § 65. 9 II. The former. 244. 276. II. g II. When Ule and ute had a really demonstrative force.

ipsujus. [§ 392 which was used beside ilU and Ulm. through the analogy of illUjus. It came. neuter Uludvia. which. 276. 'la' vede(s). furthermore. R. a part of Catalonia and Gascony. ille. which crowded out illtus. period. on: Zs. 619. to Vulgar Latin. Ille and ipse were used freely as definite articles from the fourth century on: Densusianu in Sardinia. illdrum. 9 II. illejus. nice. In the on the same pattern (influenced perhaps by guejus). illui. XXVI. Franz. and illis. 426. The popular : inflection. When unaccented. Majorca. In parts of northern Spain and southwestern France illorum seems to have become *illurum. and some dialects on the south shore of France. illui. Illujus. was constructed illcejus (illejus). however.s replaced by tllum: Neue II. Ille prevailed. be used.164 An Introduction illcei (illei). did not entirely disappear. in Romance. m. Illorum displaced the f. Spr. illejus. for the dat. are found after the seventh century: Franz. at the end of the Vulgar Latin forms not was something like kept in Romance) elle elli — this (brackets indicating Ma ellejus elli elle ellei ellu [ellujus] elli \ello\ ellui elli ellu ello elli ella elle ? ellu ello ella ? ellqru elluru elli(s) \ellaru\ ellqru elluru ellqru ^im/) ellais) ello(s) ella 392. ipseus. Cf. to f. 271-272. these words tended to lose their first syllable (see § 157): tu illam vzdes>*tu 9 II. illei are found from the sixth century made genitive. except 177. Lat. illui. vides lei ta ipsam clavem'>-*vede(^s) iu 'sa' clave'] Lui and 281-283. The 391. 600. Cf. 484: illujus. Digitized by Microsoft® .

619. Beside ctijus. 165 4. INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS. and also of the feminine qum. to something like this qui — . — For the use of these pronouns. In Christian inscriptions from the fifth century on. quel: Mohl in Zs.§ 395] -^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 393. XXVI. N. B. qui takes the place of quts. The combined inflection of qui and quis. by the end of the : Vulgar Latin period. was probably reduced. in common speech. see cm is found a corresponding feminine quejus. quis. and the substitution of qui for feminine see §§69-70.

Lexique 47-54. sto." Lexique 47. state. the Eventually Spanish and Portuguese discarded New formations went into the and Sardinian the second. dant and stant there came Old It. estou. defections into use * dao. Italian development due to the analogy of sia: see §419. PI. Cf. however. 396. Mohl. For new formations. to Vulgar Latin. The second gained most fourth in Gaul. Probus. In northern Gaul there may have developed with * stao a * stats and a * stait. Pr. being few and Beside do. "adno non adnao. that the form is a later. the first and fourth were least affected. would connect these forms with Umbrian stahu. *staunt: Rum. dou. in Germanic verbs -on and in by Microsoft® . Sicilian in Spain. [§ 398 VERBS. Pg. Pers. Lexique 47. werrizare. follicare. Lexique 47 and Pr. estaun. a. its 397. estau. own. *vait date. etc. but it seems more likely that they were late Latin formations due to an effort to keep the root vowel distinct from the ending. on the analogy of {*vao). *vais. " The first conjugation generally held partial. 398.1 66 An Introduction C. dau. dao. daun. It is entirely possible.. The Italian present subjunctive dia from dare is associated by Mohl. (2). — see §§33-35.nd *stao. in other texts the third gains at the expense of the second. Digitized — such as abbreviare. FIRST CONJUGATION. In the Peregrinatio the second decidedly preponderates over the third (Bechtel 87). There was some confusion of conjugations. (see §405): cf. first and fourth. I. the third. 30. the third in Italy. *daunta. with Umbrian dia. THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS.

*putrisco. under the influence of dare and stare. at least in Italy. lugere (R. Digitized by Microsoft® . by habere. 10. *ridere. *torcere (for torquere). The inchoa284). 1636. ^^^^ i^ a peculiarity of ancient Umbrian. * lucere. C. In Vulgar Latin the second lost some verbs to the third in most of the territory: * ardere. became —iscere: *florisco. fiorlre (R. respondere (Bechtel 88: responduntur). capere may easily have imitated sapere. 401. Some verbs went into the fourth. habet. habent. 284). the verb habere. 283). L. While retaining habeo. and cadere may have followed capere. b. Bechtel 88. Habere. Lexique 108-109. * luctre. 20. *nocere. roubo?i'>lt. sapere sapui: sapere was influ- enced. beginning with those that had a perfect in -ui. t. tondere. 400. *putrtre. p. * has. habibai. 1. Luke VI. Italian dialects in which e does not phonetically and even in early Tuscan (cf. sometimes became habtre: Vok. Other verbs passed over locally or occasionally: sediiur.\i^x\..§402] An Introduction regularly to Vulgar Latin. *hant or * haunt. especially in Italy. many become i. 266 ff. probably through the pronunciation of —eo as —io (see §224): * complire. According to Mohl. Monaci. tergere. *impllre. luctsco. rubare. *mordere. 8. habes. tive —escere \. V. wttan'^lt. capere * caput. lugire (R. in Classic : Even miscere (R. Crestomazia italiana dei primi secoli I. avire in havite. etc). THIRD CONJUGATION. adopted the forms *ho or *hao. * hat. 284). §36. third conjugation gave a few verbs to the second. Itala. I. Latin there was some confusion between the second conjugation and the third fervere. 399. E. The as cadere *cadui. 167 —an (but not -jan) went in the first conjugation: Cf. SECOND CONJUGATION. I. such perhaps 402. guidare.

velle volui naturally went over to the second conjugation. PL in 745 A. there doubtless existed *fare {Facere 48). {Pr. D. framed on the pattern of potestis. (2) the Volimus Reich. Dare Z. Pers. strongly influenced by dare and stare. GL found in the sixth century (^Lat Spr. Pers. The present indicative forms must have been something like this: ^vojeo voje^s) — volimu{s) volemu(s) voleste(s) *volete(s) *vole(i) *vqlen(t) The present subjunctive must have been similarly inflected. was discarded in Spain and potebam occur repeatedly in the sixth century 24). PL 25). assumed the infinitive forms potere. however. Gregory and Fredegarius {Pr. PL 21). 478). is twice used by Fredegarius {Pr. potebo is found in the Gl.. Pers. Furthermore. The anomalous posse potui. is volemus in the seventh {Pr.A facere were associated in old formulas: Lexique 53.-R.1 68 An Introduction all to Vulgar Latin. [§ 404 In Spain the third conjugation verbs eventually passed into the second. their inflection more or less to the regular type. Sardinia. and conformed Velte. *volere. voles is found in Volestis. a sug- gestion of shortening existed in the monosyllabic imperative Digitized by Microsoft® . potebas Posso for possum is used by in Fredegarius (Haag 60). facere 404. PL 2^). PL 21). This transition was probably helped by a partial fusion of esse and sedere.poteo is attested ( 1) Potere. {Pr. 'Bt&ide. Reich. The present like this: have been inflected something passu posso foteo *posseo poieis) *pote(i) — indicative must ^poiemu{s) poteste(s) *potete(s) pqssunif) *poten(t) The present subjunctive must have had corresponding forms. 403. Pers. Pers.

which must have led to *fate present indicative certainly had several being on the pattern of the first con- jugation. 434): — its old inflection *fao . 169 fac (also /a. 121. series The one 735). but the present subjunctive retained (see Facere 72. beside factte. facio XVIII. Zs.§405] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. sets of forms. Zs. XXV.

such as * abbellire. ite(s) Vulgar Latin. 477). [§408 facere fare : — present indicative. ^26. the entire passive inflection having been discarded: the by Microsoft® . It. Bon. vadunif) *vaunt *vant 406.lyo present. marrJan>'Fr. its own. beside * sequere. Bechtel 90. St. Cf. tarir. Bon. 407. R. see § 34. ignire. Augustine {Lat. Germanic verbs in -Jan regularly went into the fourth conjugation in Latin (Kluge 500): furbjan~>\X. at least locally: *falllre. cf. doubtless suggested by die ( cf fac and *fare. (j^^r^i". mortri. hesiAe. Spr. The fourth conjugation usually held — — marrir. * sequlre. d. Some others went over. Verbs in -to tended to pass into the fourth conjugation (see. §404) and helped by the analogy of audire. developed a form * dire. guarnire. ^. by the analogy of aperire {sufferit. was influenced by *vao viidimu(s) vddite(s) *vo *vas vadeif) *vait *vat vadeis) *vais imu(s) etc.into this conjuga- FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES Romance only Digitized IN INFLECTION. Gl. For the intrusion of the inchoative -sc. 477). 427. C2X0 fugtre. Spr. * capere . moreover. Sepulcri 229. Dicere. 286. parrjan^Yv. 285). and gained some verbs from the others. Densusianu 148. Lucretius {Lat. fodiri. deferet. Of the personal forms of the verb there remained general use in the following tenses of the active voice. forbire . *soffertre. §36. . Pirson 148. Plautus. Lexique 62 ). For new formations. §416): *caplre. first half of the 7th century. . * offertre. Carnoy 112).. cuptre. Haag 60. see § 415. probably in the Vulgar Latin period (cf. Reich. offeret. common in the Vulgate (R. FOURTH CONJUGATION. warnjan'> tion. An The vado Introduction. in 408. and *monre. however. occurire. gemire. Pirson 148.

perfect was kept in its preterit sense. 289. fell into disuse from the first century on. as a preterit or a conditional. and in 171 indicative present. perfect. the present participle. Similar compounds replaced the pluperfect and the future perfect. amassem. 298 Conversely. R. . pluperfect. § 4io] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. R. some regions the future perfect . . : Deponent verbs became active cf. In the subjunctive the pluperfect was used instead of the Digitized by Microsoft® . imperfect. For amo. See Syntax. and in instance: some regions the perfect the imperative present. For instance: amare. R. cf. (amaro).. 302-304. etc. amans. Cf. pluperfect. See 410. towards the end the Vulgar Latin period. 304. The entire passive inflection -of came to be replaced. audiram) was kept. in the Vulgar Latin period. amatus. operare. in various regions: see §124. {amandusi). the deponent for the active inflection of a few verbs: Petronius. and probably in some standing phrases the gerundive.. In was replaced. the perfect participle. some writers substituted R. 297-302. rideri. 388-389. R. The old pluperfect indicative (^amaram. the gerund (especially the ablative case). amando. amaram. The supine 409. See Syntax. amabam. amem. The Latin it its perfect sense — §§121-124. etc. the subjunctive present. §§ 112-114. in the by a compound of habere and the "perfect participle case of neuter verbs. reverti"^ reversus sum. mentire. partly by active and reflexive constructions but perfect participle with esse' mainly by a compound of the (m northern Italy fieri): littera ' scriMtur -flittera scripta est (or fit).. amavi. esse and the perfect participle: feci"^ habeo factum. Of the impersonal forms of the verb there remained: the present active infinitive. {amarini)\ ama.

—at. sometimes confused with the pluperfect indicative and later sometimes with the infinitive {dpriro. V. Digitized In Italian we by Microsoft® . an imperfect of the late future. C.): see Spanish and Portuguese. which has prevailed in the find. -ds.(ye')rim and apparently remained subjunctive fect — — — — more or all less in use. De 411. Lollis in Bausteine i . etc.): amdrem'^amdssem. to correspond to the dissyllabic or monosyllabic -dyo. -dyo. but and Macedonian. was crowded out by the present and by new formations.172 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -ete(s). 619. —d. or conditional. -dnt: *amar' —dmu(s). The ings. came to be made. *amar' —e'te(s). especially by the infinitive combined with the present indicative of habere {amdbo > amar' habeo): see §§125-129.-dben(t) and -d. . In this compound all the various forms of the present indicative of habere were used (see §§273. *amar' dben(t). —aunt. were reduced to -emu{s). On the model of this new future. which disappeared everywhere but in Sardinia {facheret. but * amar' abut. &tc. from the *amar' -abut. —do. It is best preserved in is found also in Old Rumanian There are traces of it in Old Italian. in Vulgar Latin and Romance. amd{ve)ro fused with the perThe old future perfect ama. habemus and habetis eventually. -dbe(s). cf. etc. [§411 imperfect. pdteri. * amar" -dbe(s'). etc. as they came to be regarded as mere endold future. 401): *amar' —dbeo. -dnt. with the exception of ero. *amar' -isti. as in the In these formations the unaccented {Ji)ab— first and second persons plural of the future: * amar' -^{b)a. audtrem'^audissem. a form in -ii {amerii). -ds. §118. In the first and second persons plural. cridere. Crescini in Zs. XXIX. beside -ia from habebam and -dbbi —ibbi from habui. infinitive the perfect of habere (see §130): combined with the imperfect or *amar' ~dbe{b')a{ni) or disappeared. —dbe{t). *amar' -dbe(t). as a future indicative or subjunctive. -dt. in regions except Gaul and Raetia.

414. such as caleseo ealisco. Clarisco. and Spain Digitized — Sp. French Switzerland. are common in Gregory the Great: Sepulcri 193. etc. to the Romance languages. Lyons.of avere : it is probably due to the analogy of the first person singular of the weak preterit (credit. For the monosyllabic die. Virgilius Grammaticus (Sepulcri 194) mentions double forms of inchoative verbs. Beam. Dauphin^. irdisser <irdseere. 3. they Pr. amdte. vived in the Tyrol. fae. Savoy. etc. 173 modern language. person singular and plural: credite. the second person plural of the present indicative came to be used: adferte> adferitis.§414] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 412. the Grisons. INCHOATIVE VERBS. See § 115. audi. duce.. in Vok. due. paresco. tene. In some verbs the present subjunctive was used instead of all imperative forms. The first and third persons were supplied from the present subjunctive. second dmd. In Veglia. cf. There is some evidence of a confusion of -esco and —uco in Latin. Instead of the plural form.face: R. and a part of Lorraine Only -eseo surneither of these two endings left any trace. The Latin The inchoative ending -sco was preceded by a-. §426. 294. 3596. types —dsco and —osco were sparingly repre- sented and were not extended in late and popular Latin have bequeathed but few verbs con<Sisser<ico(g)ndseere types —esco and —tseo in the third century — — as — such as and . tenete. 294. except the present. the Abruzzi. hence crederdt). writers sometimes emploved diee. audite. Sardinia. Cf. crede. 413. erubisco. The imperative disappeared. criseere. I. the Landes. e—. t—.. lost their inchoative sense. etc. pareeer. while in Old Italian the ei was sometimes detached and used as a preterit. by Microsoft® . R. or o—. dormisco — were extended The and later.

partientem * sentente. 4. By the analogy of these.then generally disappeared from the infinitive Later. northern and central _fimmii(s) finite{s) Italy. -tsco prevailed fiorisce. Rom. Many verbs in -io dropped the whenever it was fol- lowed by another vowel. trated the present subjunctive {Yr. by the by Microsoft® .. etc. The ending -tsco of the present in Spanish. partiunt *partunt. see E. XXIV. [§416 florecer. the e was occasionally lost in the second conjugation: v^deo *vtdo.. See Archiv Lat. fiorire. Rastia. facientem *facente. XXX. sentiam * sentam. 174 An Introduction was preferred For to Vulgar Latin. eventually entered into the formation stem of fourth conjugation verbs. Zs. Portuguese. there are traces of -esco. Herzog Bausteine 481. tricts also pene- eventually the present participle ( and in some disand the imperfect indicative Fr. Hence forms without the or > > *partente. despereissir. PRESENT STEMS. nor are there any traces of it 415. 465. Spr. finissez). finis sais ) I. finissons. although fleurit. Sardinian. in — It. but in the earliest texts of France. some regions. * dormo. 81. etc. 291-294. \\. — Fr. or southern Italian. -esco also in Rumanian. Elsewhere. il in Pr. finis sant. and Rumania we find a type *finisco *finisce(s) ^Jinisce{i) *Jiniscun{t) The ~sc. There is no direct evidence of this in Latin. / sentieniem > were introduced more less into the indicative and subjunctive: audio * audo. / 416. the -sc- was carried throughit out the present indicative (Yx.Jinisse). 478. In the present participle this was a regular phonetic development (see §225): audientem^* audente.. Digitized On the other hand.

trdgere. vegere {tragere and used by 34) and a whole present and imperfect inflection with —g—. underwent considerable changes in the present: see §§273. * vtdeunt. 419. 175 analogy of capiunt. Substrate VI. Italian sei siete is PL 128) went out of for estis. velle dare. cingo cinxi cinctus. Jigo fixi. 412. and Raetian ses point to a * ses beside es. based on the analogy of dico dixi dictus. to bring it into conformity with the usual third conjugation type. as *trago. lego lectus. Esse was made into *essere. *trdcere. 418. the second conjugation admitted such f oriris as * habeunt. tango tactus. The Spanish use of probably later than our period. 397. etc. faciunt. Considerable alterations use of fieri for esse is (I ) were made in the present indicative and subjunctive. dtcere. see § 409. trahere. habere. The verbs struere. facere. debere. ungo unxi unctus. Old Italian se for e. *vkere. 416. etc. There may have been also *striicere. tego and probably junxi junctus. structus. rego rexi rectus. actus.. The verbs vadere. 417. duco duxi ductus. esse. Prpvengal ses for Digitized by Microsoft® . 403-406. pango panxi panctus.. *tragebam. etc. Pers. j'ungo Cf. stare. and the perfect partivexi vectus on the — analogy of ago tectus. The guttural Fredegarius. present indicative shows some signs of a tendency its to normalize erratic inflection by making all the forms be- gin with The use. etc. plango planxi planctus.. also Jingo finxi fictus. Haag was derived from the ciple — struxi and perfect indicative traxi iractus. 401. indicate a * setts some evidence of an alternative * siitis sicmus. vtdent. old esum cited by Varro {Fr. For the sedere for The s. etc.§419] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. *fragam. 131. beside the regular habent. vehere developed infinitive vegere are forms *striigere. posse. Italian while there of on the model and Raetian siede.

347. Siamus. 5. 135. see sead in Vok.): cf. —ebam. The present indicative inflection was doubtless something like this sqm fs est : — sqmu(s) *ses *set} *sest? i^ie(s) semu{s) *esmu{s) *sete(s) *sciie(s)! sqnt (2) In the present subjunctive the analogy of other third conjugation verbs tended to introduce the characteristic vowel a. B. etc. Lat. Rom. (cf. and by various purists of the Augustan age (Stolz 58). too. It is likely. see 420. sumus. Pr. etc. § iiS. [§420 usually understood as reflexive forms. fiam reand Dacia. Hence comes an etc. Spr. that cal influence oifiam. Old Fr. Italy. The endings were -dbam. -icbam. In the third conjugatiqjyg^-jyj^^ Ajgaj^g^ developed into -ebam. PI. Dalmatia. and Dacia (Pr. which ultimately prevailed: Lexique ^x): fiet is common places sim in northern Italy alternative inflection * siam. prevailed in southern Gaul. the usual Classic form. II. according to Suetonius. may go back to *sei and *sesf for est In the first person plural sumus became sumus and simus (see §220). —ibam. occurs in Italian documents of the eighth century. Mohl. which -was used. according to Lat. sem. northern Gaul. . Spr. 42.. 479. — For the loss of the imperfect subjunctive. Old It. 478. sons.. was preferred in Spain. *esmus seems to be a new formation on the analogy of esHs. somas. and the Tyrol (Sp. Pr. etc. IMPERFECT. Pers. would derive it from old esimus. XXI. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. — sem *sea sis simu{s) sidmu(s) site{s) *jfa(j) sea(t) *sidie[s) set sent *sean{i) For Stat. which existed with esum. Provengal esmes<.176 es. by Augustus. PL 130. Pirson Yt^o. simus. semo. N. from early times there was a reciproand the Old Latin optative siem. etc. Portugal. iox fit.). Pers.

and —iebam disappeared: vestibat. §318).§423] just as An Introduction -ientem> -entem (see §§ to Vulgar Latin. to a reduction tendency to keep the stress on the characteristic Digitized by Microsoft® . —Ibam as in munibam — in early Latin and recurring at later periods (Lindsay 491). Hence came an alternative ending —ea for -e/ia. developed another form. 423. those of the second and third had mostly all of the second conjugation and Only six verbs strong. sentia. silevit for siluit occurs also. WEAK PERFECTS. A vowel. -tvi). —oleo.fleo. -evi. had weak perfects. pronounced a^e^a (cf. most of them rare 422. Habebam. in the fourth conjugation. -pleo. etc.'Bi. We — — neo. 177 22t„ /^i6): faciebam'>-*facebam. and also a general inclination to omit v between two i's (see § 324). vieo. which in Romance was widely extended. regularly had a perfect in -evi: deleo. 287. • salui>salivi. 421. 2?>q. — being common In the fourth conjugation -iebam and -ibam existed side byside from early times (Neue II. R. affecting all the conjugations but the It is ved^a. probably through dissimilation. 479. —Ibam. first: It. prevailed in popular speech. the weak and the strong: the weak comprises the v. the strong includes all Verbs of the first and fourth conjugations generally others. territory except common to nearly all the Romance Rumania: Lat. led early. 6. 445). and fourth conjugation verbs with strong perfects developed a weak one in Vulgar Latin: pr(sstiti> probably All first j>rcBstavi. For further encroachment of the weak type on thb strong. Dubois 277-278. credia. PERFECT. which stressed the characteristic vowel of the fourth conjugation. a..perfects in which the v is added to a verb-stem (-dvi. *afiea. Spr. see §426. must distinguish two types.

etc. — probai {'Prdhns). for —ierunt. o-cyvoi. For -nt. The third person singular found in Old Sardinian: Lat. C. 152. Neue III. —ivit to —iit and *-itt. petit. perit. -ivistis to —istis. 440. see Neue III.. perit. 476. —iverunt to —ierunt. Bon. later. II.. in the first and third persons singular *—lrunt: audi. Fredegarius (Haag 55). in the third person singular. 17 (Keil II. II." Priscian XII. etc. A ular. 449. petit. in the third person singan alternative form.I. *-iut: It. and the third person plural. This -aut prevailed '^'^'^. and. —dverunt to Much later -dvt>-di. speclarait. the further reduction of —ivt to which brought about. in the first person plural. -u and *-u. 17 (Keil II.. 451. Spr. to a desire to distinguish the perfect from the present). Densusianu I. Vok. 424. as in repetimus.'X. 446-448. Neue III. -dvistis. 241: 65-121 a.d. etc. servio. to -aut. laborait. denumerat. The A contraction without the . rise early to a reduction of —avisti. as in lenUt. F^/J. S. 434 (cf. -dvtmus>-dmus and probably *-dmmus: calcai (Probus). —tt. probably to *-aumus: triumphaut in Pompeii." Priscian XII. etc. —drunt.Lexique 46.m»'W^ol%tm^ and amdo. locally.judicat. vocitamus. 476. -/. fall of v gave rise. —dstis. [§424 of —tvtsit to -tstt still early. Gregory of Tours (Bon. and. Densusianu I. I. The loss of V. 479.. 216. Then a contraction of the two vowels gave. Fredegarius in -ait is 152. carried into the first conjugation. mus.— 178 An Introduction and to Vulgar Latin. Bayard 60. the reduction of —ivimus to —Imus and probably *—immus (the lengthening of the m being due to compensation and also. (Haag 55). —dvif^dit and -at.L. "fumdt -pro fumavit. etc. for —imus. 440). 587). edificai. see Neue III. contraction without the gave rise. gave —dsti. perhaps. to fall of v. 452-454. ccelebrasperamus. redit. 587). "cupit pro cupivit. see Servius ad Aen. dedicait.). memoramus.

R. in Provengal they invaded the also In Dacia. vendidl. silevit. videderunt (cf. 287. cor-ii. respondidi. tion. perdidt. *-dem(^m)u{s). descendidit. preserved in some Old French dialects near Douai: 607. Lat. ~ivi —isti there- -dvi —dsii -dve{t) —df *~ti —ii -i -dut -dit -dt -weif) *-jut *-{it -lit -it -dvimu(s) -dmu{s) *-dmmu(s) *~dumus -dste(s) -immu{s) -4mu(s) *-jmmu(s) -iste(s) -drunit) *-irun{t) With the exception of -ivi in Old Italian.s ex(see §139): perdedit. fore. incendederit. 479. they apparently did Digitized by Microsoft® . *—desie(s). *-ejti. pandiderunt. Pr. In some (It. helped by dissimilabecame *-deJ. etc. Verbs in —evl doubtless had a similar inflection: *delei. Gl. —asfi. Some other second conjugation verbs apparentlyadopted this perfect: 426. the forms with v were not preserved in Romance. were : 425. Reich.. 179 *~aumus Jiom. Compounds of dare had a perfect in -dtdi {credidt. etc. Hence arose eventually an inflecset of tion *-^«. in the first XXX. (am'ei). which in Vulgar Latin became —dedi This -dedi ^a. from which there came a responding to the —ai first endings *-«'. -derun(f). 288. : and the of the and fourth conjugations so caderunt. *-desti. *-n. this -dedi Through the analogy of -di.). etc. Audollent 544. etc. 480. edediderit with an extra -de-). ascendiderat. Spr. tended to many other verbs in -d-: prandidi. *-ei. 184. The forms — and fourth conjugations.. of the Romance languages cazif). -isti. prendiderunt. etc. descendidi. delesti. odedere.. etc. R. these endings were carried into other verbs of the third and even the second conjugation first baMi. on the other hand.§426] An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Keil IV. *-det..

under the influence of dejti. the Rumania. R. etc it In the second and crevi. or fiwi in Vulgar Latin: cf. salui^ salivi salii *salsi. etc. whence and a set of endings -etti. At any rate.i8o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -dei. In -ui and —si types were qucesivi'^^ A few weak verbs adopted strong inflections: * quasi. presi. bib-i. [§ 428 not develop at In Italy. third conjugations maintained Digitized itself very well: cognovi. 427. etc. etc. Pr. by Microsoft® . (cf.. according to Meyer-Liibke.. necui> necavi. where there was no extended. In Italy all strong verbs except esse introduced weak endings in the second person singular and the first and second persons plural: It. and -ei. Gl. stetti<. 428. dare had (beside diedi^dedi) a perfect arose an inflection side -dei -detti. and those that have nothing between the root and the personal endings plac-u-i. the development of the vi indicates that sort. crevi. included from the start not only perfects of the placui but also all perfects in -vi not made from the verb-stem such as cognovi... dlc-s-i = dixi. Gram. those that add u to the root. also vincisti. . crebbi. * stetui. Through these endings the weak type encroached somewhat on the strong.. 286. etc. etc. — — it was sounded wui. There are three types those that add s. moc. this ending being pronounced wui. II. STRONG PERFECTS. aperui y^ * aperii *apersi. pdvi. §326): placwi. The -ui type. cf. etc. In the first class the u lost its syllabic value and became w • — : (cf. movi. all. §422). prendesti. wwi. b. etc. 357. but written vi to avoid the doubling of the V. conqbbi. plaudisti for plausisti. Reich. sapivi~^ sapui. It. tions: This perfect disappeared from the first and fourth conjugacrepui>*crepavi.

cMdi 479 > (so *rectpui). *acce{n)si. *fusi. cepi^ caput. *pensi. tenui. * cadui *cadedi. *tanxi. which comprised perfects in -si. *vinsi. *pe{n)si. 130. veni '^aXso *venui. Lat. and possibly a few others. *sdlsi. with the exception of dedi and steti (also *j/i?/«2). Among the -i perfects. *imptnxi. *attinxi. *rdsi. posui {>posi). 288. vldi'^zlso *vtdui *vtdui. Keil VII. *taxi. luxi. text sedi>* sedui . *copersi. mansi. Spr. 97. legi'>-* legui *lexi. — assumed the s. XXVIII.perfect through having an Cf. persi. *ersi from *lexi. *fusi. Some of these — * *responsi. silui {^silevi). traxi. frixi. movi'. > > Cf. divisi. sparsi. Of the -si class. junxi. sapivi'^ sapui. Einf. *prensi. In Vulgar Latin there were perhaps some thirty or more new formations: *apersi. dixi.§ 43o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 429. * tensi *te{n)si. Lat. unxi. messui(J). *rosi. natus sum'^*nacui. *mdrsi. risi. coxi. scripsi 163). Zs. ertgo. molui. tinxi. § perhaps on the model of mtssus. —stinxi. sustuli>*tolui * tolsi.> slso *vtscui. R. pavi. planxi. Lat. posi. cinxi. vixi ". excussi. pinxi. pressi. whose reduplicative character was no longer Digitized by Microsoft® . A. however. 430. fixi. z/J« also *vtncui *vinsi. texui. On the other hand it received many additions: Mbi>*Mbui. Haag 56. rexi. duxi. texui. tersi. vixi. i8i It lost gemui{^. strinxi. *franxi. * occisi. *respd{ti)si. Sensi. 479. — — : clausi. —ssi. 479. * morsi. * volsi. § 165. and —xi. s in the perfect participle. 480. Spr. 288. Zimmermann in Archiv XIII. * defe(ji)si. some thirty-five were preserved arsi. peperci^-parcui. expavi'> expabui. cf. *occlsi. Spr.'). *punxi. etc. *pre{n)si. rosi. *salsi. *siirsi. the reduplicative formations were discarded in Vulgar Latin. mlsi (also *mzssi. R. *cursi. *redempsi. Spr. steti>^\so* stetui. abscd{n)si. *tdlsi. became * sentii. finxi. rasi. struxi. *offersi. *qucBsi. mulsi. defensi. torsi. Lat. 94.

*te{n)si. legi > * Kxi.i82 An Introduction . the simple verb came * cadui R. or *cadedi.). to Vulgar Latin. -i perfects were greatly reduced in to the -a/ or the -si type: number in Some simply disappeared. There were : *fugii. inflection. The prevailing something fui *fosti like this — with some variations. was probably foi *fom{m)u(s) *foste(s) foe(t) fue(t) *fgt *fut *forun{t) */urun(t) *f^un{t)} foerun{t)> Digitized by Microsoft® . pependiy. but circumdavit in Gl. some became weak. some went over fUgi^ > > *fusi. fuit *fut. pupHgi "> *punxi. solvi'^* solsi. sedi"^* sedui. The other Vulgar Latin. legi'^* legui. but in Classic Latin. volvi > * volsi. a form *fdrunt. 431. vidi * vtdui. veni * venui. cepi'^capui. and two more were kept beside new formations feci. then futm us was often shortened to also. * acce(^ n ) si. fuisti zxi-di. The other reduplicative perfects either disappeared the or passed into si class: cucurri "> * cHrsi . prendi > *pre{ n * vinsi. 288. tetegi'^* taxi * tanxi. generally became *fum(m)us. fudi > ) si.*pe{^n)si. fui. [§ 431 of dare usually formed their perfect like §426. : There may have been through dissimilation. defendi >• * defe{ n ) si. effort it was shortened Vulgar Latin seems to show both H and H. In fui the u was originally long. apparent compounds (cf. bibi'^*bibui. verti. fefelli'>*falii. peperci"^ parcui. fuistis > *fustis. Two of the old perfects maintained themselves intact. Reich. fregi accendi *franxi. 289). fuerunt became *furunt. momordi'> tetendi'>- *mdrsi. egi. > *fusti. R. In an ( cf . vtci > no additions. to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout §§423-424). while compounds of stare tended to follow the regular first Cecidi beconjugation model (Jtrcestili > pnestavi.

audi{e)ram. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. preserved at all. notes that St.: It. Reich. sonivetatus. amessim amessitz. dixero . Spr. copertus. placutssem. -assetis. amdssimo amdste. Sp. Reich. 296. so the new alatus. R. aimassions aimassiiz. tus"^* sonatus. — before Cyprien employed only the shortened forms ss. : In the third conjugation -dtus disappeared oblatus offertus (^Gl. to *—dssimus. audt(^e)ro . 8. 295. rogitus. ortaret in Gl. cf. ^ i^"]).. etc. > vocUus. prdvttus. delero. 435. Reich. generally fell into disuse: crepitus^ *crepatus. delessem. In the all first conjugation -dtus was preserved and was verbs: /rictus "> fricatus . but Pr. Fr. dixeram. cf. in the first conjugation. > Digitized by Microsoft® . PERFECT PARTICIPLE. Verbs which had no perfect participle were obliged to form one in order to make their passive and their perfect tenses: ferio. In some regions a tendency to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout the pluperfect subjunctive led to a change of —assemus. Reich. *feritus. amaro. Lat.). necius "> necatus . When these tenses followed the old types: pldcueram (cf. etc. plicitus"^ plicatus . etc. audlsBayard 60-61 sem. 434.).§ 435] ^^ 7. 432. secextended to tus'^secatus. deleram. tonitus'^*tonatus. — 433. The ending —ttus. habldsemos habldseis. pldcuero. Gl. domitus'> domatus. fecissem. amdssem. sublatus (from tollo')'>-tdllttus (^Gl. In formations from weak perfects only the contracted forms were used: amdram. by the analogy of apertus. fkero. petisset. 1S3 PLUPERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT. 480. ficeram. vetitus Nevertheless there were some new formations in —ttus: *levitus. R. alarei. dixhsem. *-dssitis. sublatus>* suffertus.

the other hand. The ending —ictus. secutus. fugitus tus > *fugitus. * venutus. creditus'>*credutus. Reich. *vidutus. sepultus^sepelitus. *tenutus. were kept.ovutus. molitus > * molutus. minutus. *vendutus. submonitus > *submo{n)sus.. *mdvitus and *mdssus were formed beside *m. volutus). *parutus.184 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. consutus. tollitus. statutus. * habutus. entirely displace the old perfect participle: natus was kept beside * nascHtus. old and found in Gl. and there were some new formations * solvttus (or *soltus). pds{i)tus. etc. It did not al- ways. §435): absconditus'>absco{n)sus . however. but status. *vdlvitus (or *vdllus). * movitus. [§ 439 436. all periods. remained. etc. corres- ponding to -atus and -itus. The ending -itus tended to disappear (cf. sensus'>*sentitus. solitus. however. * levitus. *per- in Sicily encroached largely on -itus. buius. Apertus and copertus. belonging to verbs in —uere and tri- —vere {argutus. perditus *parsus. dutus. — and — as *credutus. Pirson 152. paritus > *paru> *perdutus *persus. provitus. in -itus: gemitus'!. A few of these particihowever.. Eventually -atus was carried further. *volvitus (or *vdltus) beside volutus. * solvttus (or *sdltus) beside solutus. It was extended to nearly all the verbs that had an -ui perfect: * bibutus. bibitus^* bibutus . On 439. Digitized by Microsoft® . jectives. and ventus generally became * venutus. 437. rogitus. In the second conjugation the rare -etus disappeared as a participial ending: completus. offered a convenient accented form. vocitus. solutus. In the fourth conjugation -Itus was preserved and was extended to nearly all verbs: saltus'>*salltus. ples. In the third conjugation qumsttus>*gucestus. venditus>*vendutus. were kept only as ad- 438.

*persus.*mdssus. *salsus. oc- casionally with a change of stem: ductus . texus * texiisecdtus. pre(n)sus . §439). cretus> *crevutus'>. sirictus *tanctus'!. * suffertus. structus. fixus. victus'>*vin- cutus and *vinctus. sparsus. R. Lat. probably replaced -tus by -atus. or -utus: captus *capttus. pe{Ti)sus. fusus "^fundutus. Dubois 282. There were a few new for- mations in —tus: offertus. pressus. pastus'>-*pavutus'i. *gucestus. *vistus. punctus. 480. 480. fractus *franctus. gavisus>*gaudutus . rosus. 'salted. 295. ex- factus. tinctus. -itus. *vdltus About fifteen verbs (cf. sectusy^ * tenutus. generally kept: acce{n')sus . *pendutus. Gl. fartus'. fictus finctus. Spr. 480. Lat. *parsus. tactus'i tus. risus. ductus. R. The ending —sus was defe{n')sus. *vidutus. divisus.' maintained itself beside salitus. /ric* surtus for surrectus.§ 441] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . saltus'^-* salitus and *salsus. The ending -tus was kept for some twenty verbs. fusus. tentus > > tus. tus. 441. mistus.. 185 440. mdtus'>*movutus'> &. te{n)sus. also probably * wwclausus. pictus *pinctus. tortus. lectus. 94. dictus.>*farcitus axiAfarsus. and perhaps *sdltus. tersus. Several of these developed also a participle in -utus: etc. falsus *fallitus. sepultus >• sepelitus. vtctus~>* vixutus. wjwj. A > > > * sentttus . missus. Keil VII. *mossus. Spr. Hr- excussus. Spr. there were some absco{n)sus. morsus. rectus. nectus>necdtus. cogndtus>*conovutus'i. expansus sensus few verbs replaced the old form by one in -itus or -ietus: * expandutus . messus'^ metitus. Salsus. Lat. sessus > * sedutus. also perhaps *misus by the analogy of mist. to{n)sus. 295 (very common). *strinctus. ventus'^*venutus and venttus. scriptus. new formations in -sus: On the other hand. ma{n)sus. *submo{n)sus. Bechtel 91. farsus. Reich. tractus. frictus "^fricdtus.viA. stinctus. sus.

53. historically considered. does not support this view. forms due to Celtic influence. PL 73-80): — dmo dmaa dmat 446. are correctly explained by Tiktin 565-566 as 444. and -Isti. *amdmu amdtes dmant like * cdnomus. Pr. It may be that -s was dropped because it was regarded as a characteristic of the second person. whence came the French -ons. —et and -U. In southern and to some extent in northern Gaul the its final s. however. [§ 447 9. For the reduction of -to to 443. Italian lodi and Rumanian lauzi. Grundriss V. its — tended. then the accent was shifted to the penult *canomus. analogical formations. first person plural lost perhaps in the Vulgar Latin period: videmus'>-'St. see §416. PEESONAL ENDINGS. fez^m. Pers. perhaps S. colliget. -imus. This is not a phonetic phe- nomenon. Pr. vezim. 670. as -s did not fall in this region. PL. — through the analogy perfects as well. not found acceptance.. — This theory has In strong perfects the of -tstis first person plural. and i came to be pronounced alike (§243). from laudas. According to Mohl. etc. 442. -0. Meyer-Liibke. e. as t was of the third (cf. The evidence. by Microsoft® . assumes that in Italy -as and -es became -i. were used in northern Gaul instead of canimus. 447. to stress this in ^smiVi: fecimiis>'Pr. 445. There are traces of 47. etc. great confusion ensued between -es and —is. This confusion is very frequent in the Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-89. As unaccented e. Pers.1 86 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. inscriptions and elsewhere: Digitized The shift. and doubtless of weak after our period.

In the present indicative and imperative. due to the analogy of -iunt. -ent prevailed in cen. —^te. tral and the rest of southern Italy. viderunt. etc. sometimes had a short e (e is common in the comic poets. in Vulgar Latin this vowel was apparently al450. Pers. etc. etc. in Spain and Portugal. 449. dixerunt. vindem. in southeastern facitis There are some traces of its preservation French dialects also. became. ite(s). Cf.J^kuJ-i n^g^^xd^so^'^i^-i -^--^/^^ . lingeti. for instance. Pr. Rumanian. 112. Beside second conjugation. however. absolvent. etc. The Classic distinction was best kept in Gaul and northern Italy. Pers.j—th& penult assuming the accent. Furthermore. as there are in Italian and French remains of the original accentuation. — — particularly common in Italy: cf. 187 was not universal. 448. the con- fusion goes back to early Italic. kept the old accent (Tiktin 596): iingem. . and dicimus. in the sixth or seventh century. see §416. -dte(s). their interchange Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-90. was perhaps viitttmus. -ent. respon- duntur. —die and -^mu(s). In the perfect. the third person plural ending -ere was The ending -erunt. facimus. -imus. PI. 64. in the For the reduction of —iunt to -unt. Virgil wrote tulerunt. §416. -unt was preferred. §137. exient. being attracted by mittimus: Pr. -ttis. dicUis kept their old forms in many regions. discarded. and Dacia. 30. ite in the other conjugations. helped by the analogy of the future — The shift and -{mu{s).). -ite -dmu(s').). Dalmatia. and a part of southern Italy. The endings -ent and -unt came to be very is much confused frequent in the (* credent.§ 45°] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. accipient. Sardinia. Rastia. there was an ending *-eunt which was (^habeunt. in Classic Latin. PI. *vidunt. to match —^te(^s). —ite generally —Ste(^s). According to Mohl.). -/»z«(j'). etc. vindett. ways /3 short: debuerunt.

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= abl. 86. 377 accipient 449 declension 374-9 accubitorium ^'j numerals 378-82 -accus ^y unus (article) 57 Accusative. 82 ace.24. 383 adnao 397 ace. pi. ad = at 282 ad. 194-5 absida 356 (3) absolvent 449 -anus 39 ja-> je. abyssus 149 ac. 90. -I.1 INDEX. 229 231. 228. 25 recomposition 139 verbs 423-4. 140 iicatum r4i aculionis 367 abeo = habeo 251 224 abias 224 abiat 224 abiete -abilis 39 ab intus 47 abitat 25 1 Ablative 92-7.229 (i) unaccented 228. words in modern languages. 441 ad 14. adjutare 34 ad mane 47 373.=accus. 34 abbio 273 abbreviare 25 abbreviatio yj shift 136-8. 244 (i). 78. 92 beJEore j 222 Accent 134-58 primary 135-52 Greek words 143-50 other foreign words 15 1-2 acer arbor 43 -aceus 37 acia 355 (2) -acius ^y a contra 47 a(c)qua 164 Acqui Z^ Acragas 330 ac si 83 ac sic 24.infin. 93. a 194-5. 383 abl. 96. 244 accented 39. 84 acua aqua 223 -aculare 35 before s + cons. 94-6 aboculare 26 ab olim 47 abs. adaptus 23 adcap(i)tare 25 433> 447-8. 431. 240. 77. 82.— Arabic numerals refer to Paragraphs. N.23. 47. 243. 229 (i). 65 accedere(m) 309 accensus 441 -a 37 0181 ab 14. 230 = 0*78 ab-25 ab-]> au. 450 Towels in hiatus addedi 139 136-8 addormire 25 secondary 153-5 adferitis (imper. 94-6 nouns 367 numerals 142 : ace. 48 abbellire 18. 240. italics to Words printed in Roman type belong to ancient.28 absconsus 439. absolute 97 abl. 98-9. 231. in -us 244. 94-6.236 ab ante 47. 355(1) adparescere 34 adpetere 32 Digitized by Microsoft® .B. 243.) 412 unstressed words 156-8 adgenuculari 25 Accented Vowels see ad horam 47 Vowels adimplere 30 accepere 201 Adjectives acceptabilis 39 comparison 56.

244 -EE = -e 174. Adverbs 73-5 as 174.Ethiopia 188 alipes (i) = ad.) 372 adpretiare 25 adpropiare 25 ad semel 47 —aio 39 (-arius) aios =: BjyiQS 272 am 78 ad sero 47 adsteti 139 Aix ajutit = adjutet 272 ad subito 47 adtonitus 32 ad tunc 47 -al37 alacer 195 (i) alare 405. 187 -ancus 37 (-incus) -anda 37 andare 405 andata 37 (-ta) Andreani 359 (i) Andreate 359 (2) andron 331 anellus 37.243. 244 aecclesia 228 Eedis 366 ffigis -ale y] alecer 195 (i) Alesander 255 alevanti eleph. 210 EEteneris = itineris 201 sequus alid alicunus 71 aliud 71 alio(r)sum 291 = .) 367 amho 424 amaricare 34 ama(t) 285 ambitare 405 ambolare 232 ambulare 10.321 = Alexander alguein 71 alguien 71 -alia 37 38. 232. 255 188 seliens = eligens 259 =8-175 alicer 195 (i) agques = e. altiare 34 altior yj'] anca 343 ancilia 187 395 Agustus 228 ahenum 250 ai >.286 amantis (nom. 209-10. albor = arbor 292 . 178.175.281 = aliquot 71 -alis agere ajere 259 aggio 273 aggravatio 37 = 39 alium 224 alius 71 allare 405.I go aiio 2. 209-10 unaccented 174. 83 -an 36 -aj* a f oris 47 agennae -nd. 435 allegorizare ig alleviare 34 Agneti 359 (2) agnetus -na. 233. 1 78. 244 accented 1 74. 222 alto (adv.194 = -ago 2>7 Agragas 330 Agrientum 259 agurium 228 agustas 228 36 anangi 331 anathema 19 anathematizare 19 anc 40 anc hanc 251 = allium 274 a longe 47 alques 71 alter 71. 435 ad ubi 47 aduc 250 adulescentulus 37 adunare 25 alauda 19 alaudula yj alba spina 43 alberca 19 albeus 317 228. 42 Digitized by Microsoft® .281 (i) Eeum = cBvum 324 ^a foras 47 aliquant! 71 aliqui 71 aliquis 13. 178. 14. alumnu (nom. 405 amei 424 amenus 215 amfora 334 amicicia 276 amadus amido 187 amistat 154 amita 239. = -t. 359. 359 (i) amitane 359 (i) amitanis 359 amma 16 243.22 Index. 71 amnavit 405 amh 424 a mode 47 amourette yj (-ittus) ampitzatru 277 ampora 334 amurca 186 amure 203 amygdalum 19 an II.£6 2> e 209 at 188 altissimus 377 altitia 37 Aiax 188.) 40 aiglon yj (-0) altra 233 altrui Aiiax 222 395 ancora 150.

68. 236 (7) apersi 428. 265 aspra 233 -asse 161 ardente(m) 309 ardere 399 animabus 358 animalico yj (-icca) Anitius 276 Annanis 359 annare 405 annata yj (-ta) Annenis 359 annitare 405 annotavimus -bi. 255.) 346 (4) arb(o)rem 235 arboricellus 153 Aspirates 249-52. 42 Aorist 124 armeise 184 armentas 352 -aro 39 (-arlus) Aroncianos 276 arrespex r= haruspex 251 Arrius 251 arroser 356 (3) arsi Attane 359 atticissare (i) t^^ attinxi 429 Attitta 37 (-ittus) -attus yj at ubi 48 apcha 343 aperii 428 429 -atus 37 (-ta). 423 audiendu'st 309 = ascella =r axilla 42. 255 -ans39 anser 13 ad 282 -ata 37 (-ta) -aticum yj atque. 39.24. anemis 232 -aneus 39. 267. 307. 211 -3 unaccented 228.) -assem 161 -^ssemus 433 33. 269. 310.) 367 audi audivi 227. 65 at = anta 239 ante 96 antemittere 46 antestetis (nom.318 annulare 405 anos = annos 247 ardire 343 -are (infin. 228. 229 accented 178. 211-3. 42 participle 435.Index. 282. 42 angelice 40 angelus 19 191 ascendiderat 426 ascetes 182 ascla apud aqua 14. 282 aput 282 164. 440 au 178. 34. 325 aucidere 212 -OS 38 -as -i 443 > audace (nom. 293. 36. 78. 255 Digitized by Microsoft® . 315 Asti 86 astula 284 at II = ar(i)dorem 219 ar(i)dus 237 aries 225. 265.^y anticus 226 antiefne 184 antiphona 184 ariex = -s 255 -aris 39 -aris -alis 292 ^ -arius 39 atque ille 24 atque ipse 65 atque is 65 atrium 12 atta 16. 223 284 aquilotto 37 (-ottus) asculta 228 Angers 86 angliscus 39 angostia 208 (i) anguil(l)a 163 ang(u)Ius 233 angustiare 34 Anicius 276 -ar37 Arbonenca yj (-incus) a semel 47 aspargo 31 aspectare 25 arbor (masc. 392 artic(u)lus 234 > (7) appo 78 apprendere 12 arvorsum (2) = adversum 281 ApHro 410 apsens 315 apsolvere 315 apte =: -se 244 arvum > aram 2z6 aucellus 13. 264. 229 au o 229 (7) OK 189 auca 13. -dssetis 433 397-8 -are (nouns) y] ares = aries 225 aretem 225 argentum 259 -aria 37 -aricius 39 arida (noun) 13 Assibilation 277-8. 260-1 Assimilation 229 (3). 359 (i) anus = annos 244 -anus 39.) 367 -antia . 429 apertus 436 arsus 441 artemisia 184 arietico 184 apotheca 182 apothecarius 39 apparescere 35 arthriticus 184 Article 57.

316 Bodicca 37 (-icca) boletus 38. 236 avicella 37. 226 Bayeux 151 bel(I)ua 164 blasphemus 150 blasta 312 (i) blitum 184 bob ansa 336 bobis vo.3171323 bestemmia 182 Betrubius 316 beveire y^ (-tor) bi. 42. 236. 33.22 Bononia 303 bonu 298 bonus = -OS 244 bonus bonus 55 bos =:i vos 316. 14 5 Authorities autor 266 baptizare 19. 74 bene bene 55 benegnus 172 (2) bene placitum 43 Beneria Ve.316 boccone 37 (-0) bocconi 40 avec 78 avello = -avi ^ = averlo 293 -ai 424 avica 13. 162. 324 Aureia -elia 274 Index. 184 Bologna 303 bonatus 37 (-atus) Bonica 37 (-icca) bon(i)tatem 231 bonito y] (-ittus) = avire 400 -avit -ait -at -aut 241.192 aud(i)entem 416 aud(i)o 272-3. 241 avaricia 276 ^ bas(s)ium 163 basso 40 battaUa 16 battel 426 ba(t)t(u)ere 137. 182 autumnal (e) 242 auyo 272-3 avau. .316.316. Balerius Va.316 bixit = vi.212 39 bimaritus 22 bintcente vincente 260 bis. 324 botella 361 bottega 182 b see Labials : baboni 362 bac(c)a 163 bacito yj (-ittus) bac(u)lus 234 Baiocasses 151 bajulus 233 Baleria = Va.22 bisaccium 22 bisacutus 22 bisante 187 = = bis Austus 263 aut 174 aut aut 84 -aut -avit 424 . = autem 11. 324 ausare 18.) 367 brae (c) a 163 bracchiale 37 = brac(c)hium 163 brachia 352 Digitized by Microsoft® . 416 audivi(t) 2S5 audus 236 -aumus := -avimus 424 aunc(u)lus 234. 322 botula 361 bovis (nom.3165 322 bis(s)it coctum 43 bivere blaesus 329 blanche 341 blanka 341 blankizare 34 blaspheraare ig. 359(1) barbane 359(1) barbar 242 barbo -onis 359(1) barbutus 42 baro 16 bassiare 275 = vixit 255 = vi. 333 balneum 146: balneus 347 = bifolco biginti ti 318 (2) = vi.316 bianca 341 biber 242 biblia 146 bibui 428 bibutus 438. 339 baptizatio 19 barba -anis 359. 219 balneus 347 ballaena 150. 325 av(i)dere 219 avidus 236 aviolus 13 avis 13 avis struthius 43 Bellus -onis 362 bene 40. ^ benignis 376 benivolus 201 berbeces 323 Bonitta 37 (-ittus) 424 avo avus 362 avus 13 ayo = habeo 273 = berbex (-ix) 42. 322 -bilis = balteum -us 347 bannus 19 baplo 235 baptidiare 339 baptisma 149 Aureliati 359 (2) aurora 11 aus avus 241.316 bal(i)neum 146. .236. 36 blasphemia 146. 34 ausculum := osc. 439 Bictor 316 biduanus 39 bieta 184 botu vo.

33.) 357 (i) Breaking 177 breviarium 37 brevis 13 Brittanice 40 calcius (nom.) 367 224 calcoste(g)is 259 caldo 40 cal(e)facere 219 calefacis 139 calere 288 bruchus 193 pu. 356 (3). 284 capire 406 cap(i)talis 231 cauculus 288 cauditus 42 caus(s)a 161 cavia 224 -ce 40 cecino 187. 282.) 367 cammarus 330 canalia yj cani (pi. 231. 234 capitus 440 = cedo 162 cadedi 428 cadere 402 caderunt 426 cadui 428 cselebramus (perf . 372.Indkx. 163 buUicare 35 buplicae = carum 263 casa 12 cal(i)dusi55. 356 (3). 195 (3) calcaneum carissimus 377 caritabilis calce pistare 46 calciare 224 39 Caritta 37 (-ittus) Digitized by Microsoft® . 42 caroneus 39 carrica 11 car(ri)care 18. 369 cardonis (nom. 239 cartas (nom. 219.) 424 cedrus 182 cefalo 334 celeps 315 capriolus 224 captiare 34 cslus 347 Cjeseris 233 caesorium 37 caetk 313 captio 9 captivare 34 captivus 313 celerus 376 -cellus 37 Celtic Words 19 capud 282 capui 428 calamarium 37 calamellus 37 calamus 150 calatus calcai capum 285. 195 (3) cerbus 323 cerebellum 231 cereolus 13 cereseus 195 (3) ceresus 38. 356 buxus 187. branca i6 calcis 193 camis (nom.) 367 camutus 39. 402 -C40 caballus 12 capiclus 234.354. pi.330 (-ium) cerasus 38. 278 capere 8. 285. 330 Byzacinus 42 c : castius 277 castore (nom.256 catechizare 19. 150. 356 (3). Buolognino 154 burrus 330 Burrus 187 bursa 187 buscus 255 iusta 187 but(t)is 163 cals 255 casotta 37 (-ottus) cas(s)eus 163 . 237 calisco 414 calma 268 calotfa 187 caseum -us 347 Cases85-ioo. 33 cat' cantare 34 unus 71 see Gutturals c for capabilis 39 g 253 cy 276. 347 calumpnia 307 calura 42 camel(l)us 42.) 367 cardu(u)s 226 ce(n)sor 311 census 260 centu 381 ceperint 215 cepi 215 = -avi 424 •^•j = ga. 369 capus 285.312 (i) bublus 235 bubukus 318 (2) buc(c)a 12. cf . 163 . 383 cf. 330 cedat caedat 210 cabia =: cavea 318 cactivus 313 cactos 313 capitanus 39 capitium 37 (-ium) capitulus 42. 71 cata unus 71 cataveris rr -d.) 368 cata 19. 163 Cassiabus358 cas(s)us 161 castaneus 346 (i) castellus camera 145 camerlingo 37 (-ing) caminus 150 camisla 201 (i) (3) 347 butyrum 150 buxida 187. 369 caput 13.

) 40 chiave 288 Chilperico 343 ckiosa 185 clergue 154 305. 332 cib Clodius 212 cloppus 16 closa 212 Cludo 211 (2) -clus 234 CO quod 282 colomna 208 coloquinta 187 color (fern. 379 cocodrilus 294 cinsum = ce- 196 cocus 226 coda 212. 197.1 194 certitude cetto 'r^j Index. 139. 297\ 318(1). 237. 259.) 346 (2) colp 154 colustra 197 = coacla 289 (i) 206 cicinus 330 -cillus ]> -cellus 42 coactum 310 coccodrillo 294 cocens 226 comenzare 276 coininciare 276 cominiciare 276 cominitiare 25. 150. 217 Chiusi 86 cholera 145 chommoda 25 c(h)orda 186. X54. 271 colaphizare 19 col(a)p(h)us 19. 154. of. 259*. 310 coicere 310 coiiugi 271 cojectis 311 . 160 coUus -um 347 239 colober 208 Clio 190 colobra 208 (2). 213 codex 213 coemiterium 192 coepi 72. 329 191 ciurma -cius 39 of. 311 condam 254 condedit 139 conder(e) 242 condicio 276 conditio 276 civ(i)tas 12. 64 comprendit 250 computare 31 circare 16 circueo 309 circumdavit 430 cis 14 cit(h)era. 25 concha 186 concupiscencia 276 cohors 12. 333(1) clericatus 37 cler(i)cus 39. 12. 187 cimiterium 192 cinctius coclearium 356 (3) coclia commando 31 comment 41 commixtius 23 224 254 cinctus 440 cinqua(gi)nta 254. 332 Conditional 124.226 comoedia 192 comparare 8. 370 cinxi 429 cip(p)us 163 circa 80. 233 cito 162 citrus cognatus 9. 276 comitem 235 cima 38. 186.411 Digitized by Microsoft® . 276. 233 Comparison 56 comperare 231. 31. claudo 236. 269.23. 277. 239 collo Clerical 218. 380 cinque 254. 130. 332 Chrestus 184 chrisma 184 C(h)ristus 184.444 Pronunciation coUiget 444 col(lo)care 9. 272. 325 clausi 429 clausus 441 clavem 288 clavido 236. 231. 153. Clepatra 191 clerc 154 Change of Suffix 42 chan(n)e 163 chartaceus 39 cher 263 chiaro (adv. 260^. 310 cognovi 428 cognusco 197 cohaerere 310 computus 235 comuna 376 con. 124 coexcitare 30 comedo = quo. 325 colhe 154 coles 213 i6z -ceus 39 Chairibertus 39 (-anus) chaloir 288 Change of Meaning 8-10 coliandrum 292 coUecta 37 (-ta) collectus yj (-ta) colli(g)ens 259 col(li)gere 31. 379. -ara 38. 330.) 367 clarisco 414 Cla(u)dius 211 (i) cojugi 311. 269 co(g)nosco 43. 231 clamantis (nom. 231. 233 complacere 25 complire 400 cinus 347. coexercitatus 30 cofecisse 311 96 Compound Words 43-9.

139 credens (noun) 13. 275 227 consilium 42 consili corbeau 323 corbi 323 corbo 323 corcodilus 294 corcodrillus 294 cores = corda 369 corium 294 Comeius =-elius 274 Cornelio (nom. 160 Fourth 407 Fundamental Changes • 408-12 Imperfect 420-1 constare 31 Inchoative Verbs 413-5 consuere 31. 255. 34 19s corpo r6o corregia 201 corridije conger 329 Congianus 272 congigi 259 Conjugation 101-30. 244. 226. 311 Weak 422-6 conteneo 139 Perfect Participle 434. 225 cortensis 39 cortilis cortis 39 250 corvo 323 corvus 323 cosol 311 costumen 42 cosul 305 cot 254 cotes 212 cotidiae 244 cot(t)idie 162. 3ro corso 208 Groups 131-2.26 contrafacere 26 co(n)ventio 171 convltare 25 coperire 225 copersi 429 Gutturals 253-70 Labials 312-26 Latin 246-8 Letters 246 Liquids 2S7-96 Hasals 303-11 Palatals 271-8 Sibilants 297-302 cortera 203. 37 crebbi 428 credea 421 crededi 31. co(n)jux 171.continari 226 contra 96 contra. confessor 18 confortare 25. 396450 Four Conjugations 396407 First 397-8 Second 399-401 Third 402-6 Double: see Double Consonants Germanic : see Germanic Consonants Greek : see Greek Consonants 272 corrigo 305 corrotulare 229 cors 12.1 Index.) 298 cornicula 42 cornu -um-us 347. 311 conmittere 32 couleuvre 208 (2) court 203 couvent 311 covenimus 311 coventionid 3x1 covetum coxale coxi 429 = cubitum 208 -^j^j copertus 436 cophinus 186 coque 254 coraticimi 18. 355 cor(o)nare 231 corp 323 corpora 369 corpes corpi -ora 369 coi"pore 356 (3) corpo credere 410 credutus 438. 439 crepatus 435 crepavi 428 Crescentsiarius 277 cresco 255 cresima 184 cresme 184 crevi (i) 428 292 crevutus 440 criblare crigTie 35 c'ritare 229 consirier yj (-erium) Consonants Aspirate 249-52 Dentals 280-6 = criz 206 = crocitare 35 Digitized by Microsoft® . 39 credentia 37 (-antia) " connato 269 conobbi 428 conoisser 413 conopeum 146 conovutus 440 conpendium 32 conplere 306 consacrati 31 conservam(m)us 163 consiensia 260. 254 41 Personal Endings 44250 Pluperfect and Future Perfect 432-3 Present Stems 416-9 Use of Forms 101-30 Conjunctions 82-4 co(n)jus 25. 137 Perfect 422-31 consuetudo 42 Strong 427-31 co(n)sul 171.

78. cf. (fem. 48.) 14. 372-3 de^£-io 273 defna 324 de inter 48 de intro 47 de intus 47. 354-76 Adjectives 374-6 Fall of Decl. 239 decanus 39 dece(m) 309 decern et (or ac) septem 379 dece(m)bris 306 decemter 306 dec(i)mus 239 Declension 85-100.23. 48 deltas 27 del(i)catus 227 delitus 198 delta 329 de magis 47 de medio 47 deminat 139 Dentals d 272. 376 First 357-60 cy 276-8 cy ty277 = cycnus 187. 88. 226 cum (prep. 95. 117. cumba 187 cun = cum 305 cunnuscit 269 cimtellum =r cul. 294 Index. 82 curabit cursi de-^ di.229 (2) deabus 358 de ad 48 de ante 48 deaurare 23. 100. da 48 dedi 430 (i) 229 crucifigere 46 c'rot'lare dacruma 281 dactylus 19 dedicait 424 ded(i)cavit 231 crudilitas 197 -crum 37 (-culum) crupta 187 crus 13 dad 48 Dafne 334 dai 2<)% dampnum 307 crust(u)lum 234 crypta 187 cubidus cupidus 256 Danuvlum 318 dao397 dare 397 datfus 324 dedro dedrot 285 deexacerbare 30 deexcitare 30 defeniciones 276 defensa 37 (-ta) defensi 429 defensorlus 39 = cuculla 13. 292 Derivation 20-49 descendidi 426 de semel 47 despereifser 414 by Microsoft® . de. 392 de foris 47. 324 deorsum 224 Cusanca 37 (-^ncus) Wouns 354-73 Shift of Decl. 355-6. 187. 330 cyma38.) 349 cymba 187 cymiterium 192 cypressus 150 Second 361-3 Third 364-71 Use of Cases 85-100 376 de contra 47 decumus 220 dede = dedit 285 de deorsum 47 Digitized declLvis Deponent Verbs 113. 48. 383 cuerdo 369 culcitra 294 dau 397 daun 397 234 dave 48 de 14.289 (2) cuoio 296 cuofre 160 cuore 160. 177 cnpa(t) 285 cupire 406 cupit 423 cup(p)a 163 cupressus 150 cur 12.196 crocodilus i.) 82. 285 > -avit 318. 346 (4) cucullus -a 346 (4) defensus 441 deferet 406 Dative 90-1. 306 -cellus 42 95 -c(u)lus 42. 281-3 dy 272 nd nn 281 Final 282. 25 305 77. 126 (4) debita 37 deb(i)tum 235. 409 d : see Dentals dy 272 de post 48 deprendere 250 de retro 47. -culum -cuius > 37. 25 debbio 273 debeo 273 debere 10. 72.o. 92. 286 nd > nn 281 429 cursorium 37 curvus 323 nt 285 St 285 t 284-6 denumer^t 424 deo(r)sum 291. 322 currens 39 = Intervocalic 283. Definite Article 68. 81 defuntus 267. 234 cum (conj.

) 346(1). 259 dignus 172 (2) dilevit domatus 435 domin(i)ca 239 dominicus 9. 378 dukissa yj dulcior (noun) 18 — > -dei 426 = dulcor 18. 21 dolus dictus := digitus 233. dibeto 196 Dibona 318 die 264. 229 (4). 440 dicere divisus 441 divite (nom. 43> distinguere 223. 303.) e 165. 292. 328 289 (i) Dissimilation 167. devitum 318 dexcito 225 cf .23. 167. 195 (6). 209-16 209-10 de sub 48 de super 48 de sursum 47 detti 426 de unde 70. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® .) 349 dormio 224 dormito 309 dormitorium 37 dormo 416 dorsus 347 dossum 291 Diphthongs 36 177. 421. 229 displacet 139 displicina Doable >Single i6i. 196-9. 25 discere 12 disfacit 139 Double 247 = Single 162-3. 253. accented 165. 30 . (2ddecl. 247. 226 dita 351 diu II. 355 (2) dietro 292 digita35i. 37 dies 13. 406. 238. 177. 259 -didi ducatus 37 (-ta) duce due 412 ductus 440 dui 167.253 dictus 166. and fem. 13 Double Forms 158 Double Negation 75 Double Prefixes 30 doucet 37 (-ittus) doussa 376 drachma 144 drappus 16 d'rectus 229 diurnus 13 divisi Dreux 151 429 drieto 292 406 dicimus 448 dicitis 448 dicitus = -g. 426. 196-9 (I) . 412 dice = die 412 dice(m) 309 disfactus 23 dis(je)junare 25. 393 deus 167 devere 318 devetis 318 au 21 1-3 eu 214 oe 215 ui 216 diposisio 277 dire 406 directus 229 diri(g)ens 259 dirivare 229 (2) dou 397 Double Consonants 161-4. 393 duo 378 duos 138 durare 229 (5) Duration 99 duricia 276 Durocasses 151 duxi 429 (masc. dextro(r)sus 291 deyo 273 dia = dies355 (2).3 Index. 238. 289 (2). 328 Single >Double 164. 328 devidere 229 (4) devinus 229 (4) dis. 333 dolor (fem. desso 62 dester 255 desto 225 197 donee 11 dont 70 donum (masc.) 367 dub(i)tare 231 ducalis 39 divota 229 (2) dixemus 232 dbd429 dodecim 225 doga 186. 239 domnani 359 (i) domnicellus 37 domnicus 235 229 (2) diligibilis 39 domnina 37 domnizare 33 domnulus 235 dint-mi 264 divinus 324 dinus = Dionigi 227 Dionysii 227 diosum = deorsum 291 Diphthongization 177 domnus 235 domus 12 355 dume(c)ta 266 dune 40 d'unde 70.) 346 (2) dolor 18. 361 digitus 233. 397 dia 397 diabulus 38 diaconissa 19 Dialects 2. 254.

182.) 450 -ere -ire 197 erodes 251 > effigia 355 (2) eu 214 effondrer 356 (2) i6 >• e 225 unaccented 219. 298 elementum 231 elephantus 38 elex -ebam : see -ea 429 eiii 411 ecca 24 = ilex 200 (2) erubisco 414 elifanti (pi. 65 ecce ego 65 ecce hie 24. 65 ecce nunc 65 ecce tu 65 eccillam 24 eccillud elimentum 231 -elis >• -ills 197 Elision 157. 263. 413-4 eschernir 341 emere 12 encaustum 149 Enclitics 156 -enda 37 (-anda) : 24 eschine 341 esclate 343 eccillum 24 ecclstam 24 ec(c)lesia 146. 244. 242 -elius >• -ilius 197 -ellus 37. 65 ecce ille 24. > e > y 224 e i 229 s (2) edere 13 edificai e prefixed to + cons.e 225 = equus 12 equus = sequus 210 -re 245 -er -er 39 (-arius) erable 43 -ere (perf . 73. 65 eccu' 'ic 326 eccu' ille 24. -unt 449 es(i)mus 419 (i) -isimus 197 -esimus esmes 419 (l) eccos 24 eccu.198 e 196-8 Index. 42 elmo 343 illud 201 elud -elus >• -ellus 42 ervum > erum 226 ervus (3d decl. 243.24. 162. > = = 444 = ex. 244 egloge 330 e e 165 > > e > e 165 V 182' ei83 e(g)o 60. 385 eo quod 82. 326 espiar 343 "pier 343 Digitized by Microsoft® . 35. 424 230 e6 > e 225 -edo . 328 Endings Personal 442-50 -esco ]> -isco 197 414 enim 11 escupare 255 -ens 39 (-ans) -e(n)simus 311 -e(n)sis39. 429 -erium 37 erminomata 191 ero 411 -ero 39 (-arius) ersi ericius = jacet 224 earn = jam 224 eacit ejus 170.) 356 (2) -i 443 -es -es -is 174. 197.24. 65. 364 -V3S -ea 421 -etv 36 ejus 298 eio = -etbv 146 42 erigere 31.exs. 6. 199 n 182 eccu' sic 24 e contra -entia 37 (-antia) -inns 42 -enus > 47 C183 ecus 226 edediderit 426 i eo=:ego 73. 385 ego-met-ipse 66 et -erem 346 (3) eremus 150 eres 251 190 e-28 -640 -e>-ffi I74>244 -e -ei 411 -eta 146 eiius 271 erga 14 ergo II.> -ido 197 edus haedus 210 e6 >.228. s 177. 365-6. eccum 24. 229 effrenis 376 eglesia 256 (2).) 368 -Irunt 450 eccam 24 eccas 24 ecce. 62. > 65 > eccu' iste 24. 14 > -i 244. 65 ecce iste 24.230. 449 -ent >. 311 -ent -eunt 416. 255 es-7. no eoru 309 episcopalis 39 epistula 144 > 196-8 e unacc.538 Esaram 233 -escere 34. 232.

230. 266 = = fait 324 266 fallii -esse 161 -essem 161 essere = esse 419 es(t) 285 estatio 230 estau 397 estaun 397 Estephanus 230 estou 397 estribar 341 esum 419 -et et et at ubi . 404 facheret 410 faciam 278 fadas 224 fac(i)ebam 225. 440 fascia 10. espiritum 230 exeligit 199 fffinum 209 fffinus esquena 341 esguiver 343 essagium 255 esse 112-4. 95 ex. facienda 37 fem(i)na 239 feminabus 358 > exaltare 25 exaugiu^tus 39 excellente (nom.= es. 274 facimus 448 404 facitis 448 factum 266 facire Feminine femps 356 femus (3d : see Gender (2) decl. 404 faccia 278 fatus 347 taula 236. (i) = -it 244. . et 84 Ethiopia 188 etiam 11. 420 face feced feci = fecit 282 fec(e)ru(nt) 233 430 fehu 343 felicla 234 felis25. 92. 275 faselus 334 fasena 320 (i) f asia = faciat 285 224 fasiolus -etus 437 see Labials (i) fata 266 eu 214 cu 190 fa 264. 25 ex.= as.Index.27 extrabuccare 27 extranus 42 ex tunc 47 ezza 277 f : fallire 430 406 441 34 37 familia 42 famis 366 famTfii 264 famul 242 famulabus 358 fante 311 falsare falsitas fallitus faor 324 farcitus 440 fare 404 farsus 440. 77.) 356 (2) fenire 229 (4) factus 440 fenum 209 ferbeo 323 feritus 242 fascit 209 faedus 320 (i) fcemina 209 f acul 434 ferre 12 ferro 160 Digitized by Microsoft® . 404 fatatus 39 fate fabam 320 404 Eugeneti 359 (2) -eum 37 eunuchizare 19 fab(u)la 236 f ac 264.23. 14. 318 febrarius 226 Eurus 191 -eus39 Euua 344 evangelizare 19 -evi -ei 424 > Evidence 5 ex 14. 277 etsi I \ et sic 47 exodus 337 expabui 42S expandutus 441 expaventare 35 explendido 230 exquartiaxe 276 exs. 444 49 .230 exstinctus 440 exstinxi 429 exsucidus 39 exsucus 23 extensa 37 extimare 255 extra.) 367 excoriare 25 excussi 429 excussus 441 exeligere 30. 126 (2). 255 -ex -ix 42 = fac 412 facentem 416 facere 10. 419 (i) esse essere 419 esse sedere 402 274 exe(m)plu 306 exiat 224 exient 449 347 fageus 39 failla exinde 60 exire 31.

406 folia 352 follia (noun) 18 follicare (i) = 259 f rictus 440 frigare 256. 96 forbatre 2.419 (2) 400 florisco 400 flovium 208 (2). 217 fluviorum 224 feces 213 florire fratelmo 38S frat(t)re 164 frax(i)nus 239. 256 frenum -us 347 fricatus 435.) 355 (i) fnindes 205 /^343 fiorentino 154 fioretto yj (-ittus) fiorisce \\^ foris- 29 frunza 351 frutta 351 fugii 430 f ugire 406 fugitus 439 fui 431 forisfacere 29 f orismittere 29 fircum 320 (i) Firenze 86 Firmus -onis 362 fir- 46 formaceus 39 formosus 161 formunsus 208 forsitan 305 forte 40 f ortescere ful(i)ca237 fiscla 234 fistula 234 fistus 197 fix! 34 fumAt 424 fundus (3d decl. 361 fructus (2d decl. 440 fricda frigida 238.) 346 (4) filiaster filio(s) fans 356 frigdura 37 Frigia 187 frig(i)dus 166. fragrantia 37 fra(g)rare 270 flavor 37 fletus II Francesco 341 franctus 440 fieuma 268 fleurit 414 ' fictus 197 440 fleuve 208 (2) fioralis Frankensis 39 Frankiscus 39. and fern.) 357 13 . 259 frigora 351 filius 155. 201 filiabus filias 33 (2) frigdaria 219. see frondifer 11 fnialitas Germanic Words Greek Words foresia 311 foris 81 and finiscere 35 finxi 429 fructa35i.) 355 (i) fidens 311 fiele 160 Jiens 356 (2) fieri 112.7 flaus 240. fiero 160 fiet focus fodiri 8. 12 419 (2) figel 242 fiios — filios 274 358 (nom. 233. 231 fons (fem.) 356 fundutus 441 funtes 205 (2) fortia 37 fortis 10 fortis fortis 55 429 fixus 441 fossato 2^1 (-ta) funus II fuore 160 Digitized by Microsoft® . 141 ficit 2.) 17 429 263 Foreign Words 19. 200 (i).) 346 florecer 292 414 frate 295 Florentinus 37 ficus (2d decl.409.)346(i) fraumenta 268 frecare 201 . 238. cf.Index.f:^ forbire 407 frigorem 347 frixl Fimes 86 Final Syllable 240-5 finctus 440 finis (adj. filix 298 274 = filios T97 fiUio 247 fonte 205 244 fonz 356 (2) foras 81. 341 Franko 341 franxi 429 ficus (I) (masc. (mc. cf . fervere 399 fervura 37 fesit flaba 289 (i) flagrare 292 flaonis flator fractus 440 fragellum 289 (2) fragilis 260 324 324 233 >« 343 fezem 44 fiaba 289 (i) fiam 419 (2) fib(u)la 235 ficatum 16.

furbjan 407 furma 203 furmica 229
genesis 148, 183 Genitive 88-9, 383 genitores 12 genitus 17
gIut(t)o 163




fusa 3; I

gocciare 276 gcerus 187
golosus 228 gonger 329 goule 177


genna 229
gentilis 17


fusus 441

Future 125-9,411
127-9,411 Periphrastic Put. 126 Pres. for Put. 126 (i) Future Perfect 119, 123-4,
410, 423 g: see Gutturals

gentis (adj.) 17

Hew Put.


= jan- 259
37, (i)



genuflectere 46

genum 355
Gepte 259 geguir 343

233 gradlus 376 grada 35.1 gradus 355 (i)
grandis 12
granditia 37 graphium 145 grassetto 37 (-ittus)

= Hier- 259

gabata 13, 236 gabta 236 gaita 343
gaite 343 galatus 330
gallina 288

gerbe 341

Germanic Consonants
b, c,

grassus 257

= Gratis 257

g 341

gravare 34
gravior 377 grece 210

^,^342 h343 W344
Germanic Endings 36 Germanic Words 19,
340-4 Germanissa 37 Gerund 104

gamba 13, 263, 331 gammanis 330
garba 341 garofulum 149 garum 329 gaudia (sg.) 352 gaudimoniuin 20 gaudutus 44 X gauta 236 gaveola 257 gavia 16
gecchire 343 geisla 341 geiuna je- 259 geline 288

Greek Accent 143-50 Ozytones 144
Paroxytones 145-6 Proparoxytones 147-50 Greek Consonants 327-39
ft 7, S 329
K, V,

Gerundive 103
gesso 187 gesta (sg.) 352 gJga 341 gig'i 341

T 330-1

X 332-4 Liquids 335 Hasals 336

I 337


gigantem 229 (3) ginocchioni 40 Giovannoni 362 giret 187
girus 187
giscle 341 glacia 355 (2)

f 338-9
Greek Endings 36, 38, 146 Greek Vowels 180-93 Diphthongs 188-93 Single Vowels 180-7 Greek Words 19, 36, 38,
gre-U 40 grevior 377
grevis 195 (4)

gelus (2d decl.) 355 (i) gemellus 13

gemire 406 gemitus 439

Glacus 211 (i) gladium 347
glanderia 39 glaiz 355 (2) Glauc6 -^nis 359 Glaucu (nom.) 372 glirem 166
glos(s)a 161, 185

gemui 428
gena 13

Gender 345-53 Fem. and Heat. 351-3 Masc. and Pern. 346 Masc. and Heut. 347-50 Heut.Pl.>Fero.Sg.352 Heut.Pron.and Adj. 350

grex (fem.) 346 (4) grossior 377 gratia 187 gruls (nom.) 367 gninnio 281-

gluria 203
glut(t)ire 162

guarire 344 guarnire 36, 407


by Microsoft®

guaiare 343
hab(i)tus 239 h^buerat 137
hocsies 277

gubernamentum 37
gubernare 36, 330
gtterra 344

guidare 36, 398 guiderdone 342 guisa 344
gul0 37
-i -1338, 186, 330 gustus (2d decl.) 355 (i) guttur (masc.) 347


Gutturals 253-70 c c' 258, 260-1 c g 256-7

> >

habutus 438 hache 343 hackerece 39 hffidus 320 (i) hamula 235 hanca 343 handle 343 hant 401 hao 401 hapja 19, 343

hodie 272 hodio 251


hom(i)nes 232, 235 (pi.) 36S
10, 71


honera 251 honor 346 (2) honte 342 hora 12, 185 hordemn 272
horrescere 11
hortesia 311 hospitale 12

haram 251
hardir 343
harena 320 (i) haribergum 19 has 401 hat 401 hatire 36 hatjan 36


g before back vowels hardjan 343

263 c, g before cons. 265-70 c, g final 264 ct 266

hossa 251 hostium 251 Hugo Hflgon

= Hdgo


huile 274

152, 362


> g' 258-9. z6i

humerus r2
humiliare 34

g intervocalic 263

gm 268
gn 172
gr intervocalic 270




152, 362


net 267
Falateilization 258-62

haunitha 342 haunjan 19 haunt 401 havite 400

165, 200-1, etc.

accented 200-1 I 200

haz 355


hegit 251

260 X 255, 266 gylosus 228 gyrus 187


helm 343
keltne 343

h 249-52

hepatia 19 here 219, 244 heredes (sg.) 367 heremum 251 Hiatus 136-8, 222-7

> e 201 e ^ 201 > 165, 200 i>e2oi > > e 165, 201 (cons.) 222 > y 224 -i > -e 224







habam = fabam 320

hlbemus 13
hie 63-4, 67-8 hie ipse 64

habe = ave 318 habe(b)am 421 hiem(p)s 13, 297 habeo 273 hiens = iens 251 habere 10, 121-4, 127-30, hilerus 233
239, 273, 285, 400, 401, 421, 438, 449

(Greek) 184 (Greek) 38 i^ e 225 ii i 227 prefixed to s cons. 230 unaccented 219, 221,228,


> >


hinsidias 251

hireum 320


haber 242 habe(t) 285 habeunt 416, 449 habibat 400
habire 400

= is- ins- 230 hispatii = spatii 230
historia 146

229(3X4), 240, 243, 244 in hiatus 222, 224-5,


> e 229 (4) > a 229 (3)

ho 40 hoc 63,



-ia 37, 146 -(a 37, 146


by Microsoft®

-iamus 224 -are 33, 34
ille 10,

Future Future
125-9, 411

61-8, 389-92

ipse 64





123-4, 410

-ibo 125
-ic 251



-ica 37 -icare 33, 34, 35 -icca 37


390 ille 390 140


(dat.) 390


-iccus 37

> ilium 282, 350
390 390

= suus


Imperfect 120, 420-1 Perfect 121-4, 422-31 Pluperfect 123-4, 410, 432 Present 120, 273, 397, 401, 403-5, 415, 416-9

-icem 42, 346



-iceus 37, 39, 42
-icius 37, 39, 42


induruit 224


ilium illud 282, 350 illurum 390


-inem 346

-iculare 35 -iculus 42

> -ellus 42

infa(n)s 10, 311 i(n)fans 171
inf antiliter
i(n)feri 171,

im = in 310
imaginarius 39

-icus 39

40 219

idem 61, 3C39 id ipsum 62, 350 idolum 150, 190
-idus 39 -i(d)yare 339 i6 e 225


376 immudavit 256 Imperative 115-6, 412 impinguare 25 impinxi 429


infernus 13 Infinitive

-iebam -ebam 225 -ibam 420
-ie(n)s 311



implicat 139 implire 400


> -fmus 447-8 >

in 86, 92, 95, 96, 97
is 310 inanimatus 23 in ante 47, 48 incendiderit 426

lenubam 259
-ier 39 -iere 39

in- 23, 25 in -t- s

as Noun iii Conjugations 396-407 dicere 406 esse 419 facere 404 for Clause for Imperative 116 for Subjunctive iii, 117 for Supine and Gerund




= gesta 259, 352

311 iferi 311
iferos 306, 311

Inchoative Verbs
inclausus 139 incohare 250
in contra 47, 48 incudo 42, 370


103, 104 habere 400 Passive 109 Perfect 109 with habere 125-9, 4^^ posse 403

ifimo 311 if ra 311

Present Active

102, 109


-4gia 2^^
igitur II, 14

with Accusative
inflare 31


incuminem 42
incus 42 -incus 37 inde 60, 71, 384 inde fugere 46

ignire 33 ignis 12


ignotus 310 -igo 37

Forms 345-450 Use 85-130
infra- 27



227, 423


39 -ilius 42 iliac 140

Indefinite Article 57 Indefinite Pronouns: see

infraponere 27


Indicative Conditional 130, 411
for Imperative 116, 412
for Subjunctive 117

infurcare 25

-ing 37

(dat.) 390

390 illsejus 390

ingenium 9 ingens 259 in giro 48


by Microsoft®

-ingus 37 (-incus) in hodie 47
Initial Syllable

62-4, 67-8 ins- liis- 230


— -is = -es 244, 365-6, 444

-iva 37 iventa 311

inlatus 32 in mane 47

-iscere 34, 35


> > -i 423 > -iut > -it 423

-ivum yj
-ivus 39 -ix 42
-izare 33, 34, 339

medio 48

Ischia 284

innoce(n)ti 306 innocus 226
in odio


ischolasticus 230


inprobus 32 inquid 282 in quo ante 254 -inquus 37 (-incus) ins13-230 in semel 47

-isco for -esco 197, iscripta 230


-'{«" 33
izophilus 333
j 271 jacente(m) 309 jacis 244 Jacobus 150, 329

-iscus 39 is ipse 64


ismaragdus 230 isperabi 230 ispose 230
-issa 37 -issare 33

insiemcmenie 41 insola 232 instruo — struo 230 ins(u)la 171, 233, 284 intcitamento 260 inte(g)rum 270 Interamico 307

Jacomus 329
jagante 229 (3)


-isse 161

-issem 161 -issimus 166

jaiant 229 (3) jajunus 229 (i) jambe 263
-jan 36
janarius 226

230 Interanniensis 307 istatuam 230 Interrogatlves see Pro- iste 63-8, 390-2 nouns iste hie 64 Intertonlc Vowel 231 iste ille 64 intra g6 iste ipse 64 intra- 27 istudio 230 intra tenere 27 it id 282 intravidere 46 -it -et 244, 444 intre 245 ita II intro(r)sus 291 Italia 224 intus in 49 Iteilic Tribes i, 2 -inus 37, 42 -itare 34, 35

jaquir 343
jauzei 426 jehan 343 jehir 343
jejunus 229, 229 (i) jeniperus 229 (5)

= =

jenua 229


jenuarius 229 (i) jeuTie 208 (2)
jinipenis 229 (5)

-Inus 39

> -o 416

-itas 37 -ite -Ite


Joanneni 359 (i) Joannentis 359 (2) Joannis 244
jocus 12


ipsa mente 41 ipse 61-8, 390-2



jovenis 208 (2), 217
jovis 367

64 ipsejus 390 ipsimus 66 ipsud 390
ipsujus 390 ipsus 390
iraisser 413 irascere 413

-itia 37, -ities 37


jubari 322



-ittus 37

-itudo 37 -itus 42 (2), 436, 438, 441 -Itus 435, 438-9


jubem(m)us 163 jubenis 318 jubentutis 318, 322 jubere 11
Judaizare 19
judicat 424

-ium 37
-ius 39

126 (5), 405

> -unt 416
by Microsoft®

-ire 33,


judidus 347 judico 239 judigsium 278


juglus 233 Julianenis 359 Julianeta 37 (-ittus)
Julitta 37 (-ittus)

429 Liaison 133, 159 liamen 263
lexi 428,

intervocalic 324

Voicing 314
laborait =:-avit 424

laceus 254
lacte 367

libe(n)s 311

juncxi 305 juniperus 229 (5) junxi 429
Jup(p)iter 163

jurHtortu 39 juria 272 jur(i)go 219
jusso 355 (i)

lactem 347 lacus (2d decl.) 355 (i) ladro yji ladrone 372


298 (nom. pi.) 357


libraria 37 ligare 201,

ligna (sg.) 352


justitia 276,

justius 277

juv(e)nis 235

juventa 356 (3) juvente 318
juxta 81, 96


246, 253

kadamitatem 289

= candidus 330 karessemo 201 Karica 37 (-icca) kaukoulato cal- 288 kleme(n)s 311 kozous = conjux 311, 339


34 lambros 331 lamna 235 lampada 356 (3) lampa(s) 38, 144, 335 lancia 224 la(n)tema 306 lanutus 42 lapsus 315 laqueum 347 ; cf, 254 lardum 237 Latinization i, 2 latrone (nom.) 367 lat(t)rones 164 lattucae 266 Lauriatus 224 lausenga 37 (-ing)
lauzi 443 Lazis Ladiis 339


lignum -us 172
liminare 37


Unguas (nom.) 357
liniamenta 224


133, 159

lintium 224

Liquids Assimilation 293 Dissimilation 292
Fall Fall



Liquid 237

Vowel before

Liquid 233-4 1 287-9 ly274 Metathesis 294 r 290-6
rs 291 ry 296 lit (t) era 163


kumate 298 ky = qui 187, 223



lebat 318

lit(t)us 163

see Liquids

318 lebra 256

Livitta 37 (-ittus) U 1 161


la ilia 392 Labials Assimilation 313 b 315-9 initial 316 intervocalic 318 by, py, vy 273, 319 f 320-1 Fall of Vowel after Labial 235-6 Influence on Vowels 217



Have 2 88



Locative 86
locun 305 locuplens 311 locuplex 255
lodi 443
loir 166

lectus (p.p.) 440 legare 201

leges 259

(nom.) 367

legui 428

lenticula 42

longa mente 41 longe 40
longior 377


longius 377


longum tempus 13
loquella 42 loreola 213

P 3"-4 U326
V 322-s
after liquid 323

levare 34 leviarius 39


Lost Words 11-4
lotus 213

levitus 435,


by Microsoft®

198. 71.) 244 lucSre 399 lucire Index.) 424 -men 37 mendatium 276 fern.24. 220. 207 (i) luxi 4V 9 luxuria 355 (2) mansorius 39 mansus 441 manuaria iS manuplus 42 manus (masc.) 349 machina 144 machinari 9 macra 376 madias = majas 272 madio majo 272 madrema 388 maestati 259 maester 259 magias majas 272 marem 347 mares = -is 244 marl -e 364 marinarius 39 maris (masc. 259 ma(g)ister 259 marmora 351 marmorem 347.) = magida = 38.) 17274 m: see Nasals ma = mea -Ma 38 388 manu tenere 46 Slaps : pp. 233 lucor 37 lucto 355 (i) maximus 56. 238. 157. 259 major 170. and 346 (I) fern.) 368 me(n)sis 171. 145 ma(r)mor 292 cf . 201. 359 by Microsoft® . 347. 222 Maiiam 222 mais = magis 157. 353 me(n)sor 311 56. 347. 349 melum 195 (5) membras 352 memoramus (perf. X. xi Marcianus 278 Marculus 284 mare (fern. 347. ma(g)is 353 . 297 maxumiis 220 lucus locus 205 ludus 12 lugere 399 lugire 400 = Meanings Change 10 of of Words 7-10 Meaning 8- manos 355 mansi 429 mansio 12 (i) luminem 347 lunae dies S9 mecu 309 Medea 190 Medentius 338 media 272 medianus 39 medicus 239 medio die 43 medio loco 43 medius 272 meletrix 292 melior 377 melius 56. 377 mala mente 41 male 40 male habitus 44 malicia 276 malleus 274 mensorium 37 menta 184 -mente 41 mente habere 46 mentire 409 Marsuas 187 Marsyas 187 mas = magis 157 mascel 242 -mentum 37 mentus 347 menus 201 mercatus (2d decl. 74.) 355 (i) meretis 232 meridjes 281 (2) mer(i)to 237 Masculine : see Gender masc(u)las 234 masma = maxima 238 massa 338 mate(r) 295 materia 355 (2) matrona(s) 298 mat(t)rona 164 Digitized mersi=merx 255 Messac 277 messui 428 messura 37 met. 377 luoghi -ora 349 liirdus 207 (i) luridus 166.) = and markensls 39 me(n)sa 311 mense(m) 309 mensi (pi. manner (fern.2o6 luce (dat. 84. mam(m)anis 359 matutinus 13 maurus 336 maxime 56 mammula mane 13 13 400 manducare 13 man(i)ca 239 manicd 37 (-icca) maniplus 42. 369 3" . 66 mal(l)o i6i malus malus 55 mam(m)a 16. cf . 369 marrir 407 marrjan 407 Marsianesses 277 magnisonans 44 magnus 12 Maia 188.

201 minus 201. 229 (2) Nebitta 37 (-ittus) nebula 235 necare 9 necator 37 mirabilia 37. 429 = mullus 187 mulsi 429 multum 74 multus 71 muntu = multum 289 (2) necatus 435. 66 metipsimus 66 metltus 441 207 Mute -t. 187 meuble 204 (i) meus = mi 87 n: see Nasals mextum — m2estuin mezzo 272 mi r= meus -a 87. 298 + Cons.311 11 ny 274 nacui 428 nam — mu. 83. cf. 381 mn 307 millefolium 38 mil(l)ia 161 mordSre 399 morire 406 moriri 406 n -h fricative ny 274 nasco 255 nascutus 438 nasum -us 347 natatorium 37 nati vitas 37 Morphology 345-45° morsi 429 morsus 441 mortificare 46 mimoriEe 229 (2) minester 201 ministeri(i) 89. 441 motto 187 movi 428 movit 244 movita37-. 245 mis. 440 necavi 428 nee ente 71 nee unus 71 ne ente 71 negare 263 negat 256 mur 206 murare 229 (5) muri -a 349 muritta 37 (-ittus) murta 187 Negation 75 negliencia 259 nemo 71 neofiti missorium 37 mis (s) us 441 mistus 440 mixticius 39 mobilis 204 (i).324 Moesia 187 molui 428 molutus 439 255 myrta 187 Mysia 187 mysterium 182. 438 naucella 13 naufragus 325 nautat 236 navicella 37 navitat 236 ne 14.29. 75. 377 minus. 217 334 mutare 229 Digitized (5) nepoti(s) 298 ne'ps'unus 71 by Microsoft® . 37 raovutus 438. 438. cf. Metathesis 245. 385 miauiare 17 michi 252 mienia 1S4 migat micat 256 monarchia 37 monasterium 182 -monia 37 monibam 420 moniti n + fricative 171.Index. 255. 229 (4). 439. 294 modernus 18 Metiacus 277 metipse 24. 163.Liquid mut(t)ire 162 132. 136 mulieris 136 natus 13.245 miscere 399 misculare 35 misera 376 mis(s)i x6i. 227 mi(ni)sterium 231 minist(r)onun 292 minor 377 minsis 198.439 movitus438. 304-6 171.245 minus credere 29 minus est 29 minus pretiare 46 minutus 10 > mortu(u)s 226 mossus 438. 231 mis meis 388 mis. 440. 311 -m -n falls 309 falls 310 mihe 244 milex 255 mille 161. 289 moc 428 (i). 160 mode modo 40 moere = mov.228 narratus 37 (-ta) -monium 37 mo(n)strare 311 Nasals 303-11 Final or = monumento = -um 244 Mood 1 1 5-9 morbu(s). 387 mi = mihi25o. 440 muc(c)us 163 muebie 204 (i) mul'erem 225 mulier 9.

311 nubis 366 nulli (gen.208 nepta 37 neptia 37 neptilla 13 Index. 274 > ola 213 oleo 373. 250. 177. 202-5. 309 nivicare 18. 33 nuncquam 305 nunqua(m) 305. 215 offertus 435. 203 o (Greek) 192 274 38. 234 306. 215 omnes = —is 244 onmimodus 44 omnis 12. nupsi 297 nobe 318 nobilis 11 nobis 318. 22S.324 nova(i)nta 380 novellus 13 novius 207 (2) noxeus 224 ns 171. 328 noembrios 324 noembris 324 noicius 324 nolo 161 ny274 nynfis 306 406 406 429 440 192. 229 (6). 71 o for au 212-3 >oe ]>e 06 > o 225 > omo 251 -omus 446 on 71 ou>. 205 5 > 9 205 9>uo oi ou|>-gu 167 o u 202 o ou 203 oleum oli 274 274 oli(m) 309 olio nonna 16 nonnita 37 (-ittus) nonnitus 37 (-ittus) nonnus 16 noptiae 207 (2) 177 192. 251 nil 250 nimpae 332 nise 229 (4) nitidus 238 nittus 238 Numerals 57-8. offla 235 oi>oe>-e ot nome 336 nomem nomes = nomina 369 Nominative 97. 40 (Greek) 186 Digitized nora 208 (3) Normannice 40 norus 208 (3) notrire 229 (5) noli 40 -on 36 -ov 38 -iav 38 -ones 40 -oneus 39 by Microsoft® . 378-82 occu(m)bas 306 occurire 406 Accent 142 nummus 328 nun = non 203 nunc 12 nuncius 276 -occus 37 ocio 276 ocium 276 octa(gi)nta 380 oc(u)lus 219. etc. 349 see Gender ne 229 (2) ni : = nichil 251 niepos 177 observasione 277 oc 251 occansio 311 occidere 212 occubavit 256 ni(g)rum 270 nihil 71. 100. 79 ob-28 obdormire 28 obferre 32 obliscor 324 oblitare 34 obprimere 32 Nerba3i7. 323 nerbo 323 Neroua 322 nervia 349 Neuter nervus 323. Nouns 345-73 see Declension and Gender nous 177. > > 6 165. 244 u6 o 225 -o 37. 197. Absolute 97 non 203 nona(i)nta 380 75. o 165. 385 nocere 399 nutrire 166.ou 167 unaccented 219. 167. 395 num 83 u ob (Greek) i?5 14. 383 305 accented 202-5 o 202-4 o 197.) 395 nullus 71. 243. 229 (5) nutritio 37 odedere 426 Odissia 187 oe 215 oefor xand e 215 offeret offerire offers! nutritura 37 nocui 223.

322 > = oum 167.212 aut 213. 227 pari mente 41 227 Palatalization 258-62. 12 parentis (nom.) 349 Present 102. 202-3 -osco ossiculum 42 ossuculum 43 > ssy 275 sty 275 partunt 416 parutus 438.Index. 409 passos 355 paucum tempus 13 ostentare 34 ostia palma 14. 369 papilipnis (nom. oze ozie 324 = > > = hodie 272 = hodie 272 = pacific! 321 8.) 367 parentorum 368 p : see Labials paceveci = oratia = Hor-25i Order of Words 50-3. Pans 86 Parisiis 272-8. palpebrum 352 pal/ires 134 = hos-25i = ostium 202 ostrum aus. Ordinal Numerals 382 -orem 346 (3) oricla2i2. 296 Palatals 271-8. Active 106 Put. 225 parietibus 224 oratorium 37 orbus 9 palanca 332 palasium 277 Parigi 86. 296 parsi 429 by 273 c': see Gutturals cy 276. py 273 ry 296 scy 275 40S Particles 156-8 particularis 39 -OS (Greek) 38 Oscan 2 -usco 197. 324 ovum 167. 441 part 160 partentem 416 Participle dy 272 g': omatura 37 orphanus 186 ortaret 432 hor-25i ortus see Gutturals gyz72 J271 ly274 ny 274 Put. 236 parabulare 155 paradisus 190 paraula 236. 408 Perfect 102.) 367 pap(p)a -us 16 papyrius 39 parabula 144. 104. 107. 229 (7) pandiderunt 426 paucus 71 paul(l)um 161 Paulus -onis 362 paupera 376 pani 364 panneus 39 pantaisar 332 Digitized = pauperorum 376 pausa 38 pavi 428 by Microsoft® . 217. 259 pari 364 par(i)etes 136. 278 parsus 439. 42 feminine 346 (2) -re 245 -or -ura 42 -or hora25i ora oracionem 276 aur. 439 pasmer 300 passans 39 passi(m) 309 sy 275 ty 276-7 ossulum 37 ossum 356 (3) ostensio 37 ostensor 37 vy273 palatium 277 palleum 224 Passive 112-4. 434-41 = orum = aurum 212 orzo 272 OS (masc.) 347. 229 (7) ot ote = aut 213. parecer 414 parens 10. Passive 105.212 orata ou (Greek) 193 ou 167 9u Ouiouia Vibia 318. 229 (7) oridium 339 -orlum 37 -orius 39 orma 186. 337 pagandum 256 paganus 263 pa(g)e(n)sis 39. 318 parcui 428 onus II o 225 operare 409 0(5 > otogentos 266 -ottus 37 ophekion = ofBcium 334 opprobare 28 -or 37. -omus 39 -o«J446 -o(n)sus 311 otia 277 otobris 266 209 paor 324 papaver (masc. 108.

123-4. 183. 435 plicatus 435 293 293 pello 293 pendutus 441 pellige pellicere peuma 368 ph: see Greek Consonants phalanx 181 pharetra 145 phaselus 334 Phasis 181 pe(n)sare 171. 213 plovere 169. igo plaudisti 426 pestulum 284 petft 423 Petrus -onis 362 peito 160 pleps 297. 315 plicare 10. 311 pensi 429 pensus 441 plodere2i3 ploja 169. 273 poco 40 perdedit 139. 217 pluere 169. 190 Periphrastic Future 126 perit 423 perlum = prse. 217 Pluperfect 118. 96. 208 (4).Index. 208 (4). 273 plostrum 212 plotus 212. 99 per pel 293 per 160 per. 410. 369 per girum 48 piperem 347. 426 perdita 37 (-ta) perdqnare 26 perdutus 438. pinl 365 123-4 pinxi 429 per giro 48 piper 38. 441 Pesaro 151 pessica 291 pessimus y]"] pestio 2S4 pectorem 347 pediculus 42 pedis (nom. = pr-292 plus 56. 326 plagiare 33 Pronouns persus 439. 439 pere 160 pere(g)rinus 270 peres pedes 281 (2) Perfect 121-4. 74 pluvia 169.294 Pisaurese 297 Pisaurum 151 pitocco T85 Digitized pon(e)re 239 pontevecem 321 pontivicatus 256 pontufex 220 poplex 255 pop(u)lus 10. pa(v)onem 324 pa(v)orem 324 pavura 42 pavutus 440 paze 260 pectinare 33 perpenna 292 persi 429 pe(r)s(i)ca 239 persona 71 Personal Pronouns: pius 167 placentia 37 plach 154 see placuit 223.) 367 plangit 259 plantare 33 peduclum 234 peduculus 42 pejor 170. 410 432> 433 Pluperfect Penult 232-9 per 14. 208 (4). pIurigo 123. 377 pejus 377 pelegrinus 292 pellabor 293 planura yj planxi 429 platea 146. 369 peria(t) 285 poena 192 poeta 192 poggio 272 polippus 145 poUicare yj pollulum 213 pols 370 poltre 134 polve 370 polvo 370 polypus 145 pomex 207 (2) pirata 144. 93. 208 (4). 422-31 = phoca 185 Phoebus 192 Phonology 131-344 Phyebae = Phoebe 215 piano 40 pictus 440 pietas 298 pietra 160 pignus 172 (2) pi(g)ritia podium 272 poella 20S Strong 427-31 Weak 422-6 Perfect Participle Participle : 270 see Pilipus 332 pinctus 440 Perfect Subjunctive 119. 79. 235 by Microsoft® .26 percolopabat 237 > Phebus 192 phiala 145 philosophia yj philus 184 phimus 184 Phitonis 332 phitonissas 332 Subjunctive 433 "8. 347.

439 proximus 377 psallere 36. = pr<Egnans 255 Pronunciation 131-344 prophetissa 37 prophetizare 19 propietas 292 propio 292 propter 14. 95 pro. prolongare 28 q 246. 429 Position 160-4 positus 238. 397. preda 209 Prefixes 21-32 393-4 Personal 60. 311 prEEStare 31 prffistavi 422. 41 5> 416-9 presentis (nom. 79. pos(t)quam 11. 186.Index. 401. 439 = 311 prendere 225. 285 posturus 238 postus 238 Post-Verbal Nouns 21 posueram 285 posuet 244 posui(t) 285 403-5. -^yj pos(t) 96. 226. 85-g presbyter 148. 226. 96 provata 318 porphyreticum 187 portare 12 posi posui 428. 71. 387-8 Relative 69-70. 250 prendiderunt 426 prendo 250 prensi 429 prensio 37 posmeridianus 285 posse 126 (3). 384-6 Possessive 60. 330.28 prebiter 300 Interrogative 7o> 69- quadraginta 142. 394 quamta 306 quan 305 Digitized by Microsoft® . 440 cf. 259 quadra(l)nta 380 qua(9'ro 283 quKSi 426. 67. qu 223. por 14 porcellus yj pregnax cf. 79.229 (6) puteolis 136 • potebam 403 (i) potebo 403 (i) poteo 403 (i) potere 403 (i) pdteri 410 potestas 356 (3) potionare 33 potis 17 pretium 277 preveire 300 pride (m) 309 primitius 324 principens 367 pri(n)cipis 306 Prixsilla 255 puteum 347 putrire 400 potius 74 pr:e 14 pr£E-28 prjeber(e) 24? prsecoca 376 praeda 209 prsedestinare 28 prsEdiscer(e) 242 pro 14.) 367 pugnus 172 (2) pulvus 347. 252. 332 purpureticum 1S7 putator = po. 254 qu k. 383-95 Demonstrative 61-8 Indefinite 71. 380. 393-4 quaKs 70. 370 punctus 440 puni poni 203 = presium 277 pressi 429 pressorium 37 pressura 37 pressus 441 presta 210 presteti 139 frete 300 punidor 39 punxi 429 pupillabus 358 puplu 309 pup(p)a 163 pure 40 puritas 37 purpura 145. 395 prandium 272 pranzo 272 pre. 429 quiestus 436. 254 qua 82 > promptulus 39 430 prsstus 376 Pronouns 59-71. 300 presbyterum 148 provitus435. 285 Present 120 for Future 126 ptisana 145 pudicicia 276 (i) Stems 273. etc. 403 (i) Possessives: see Pronouns posso 403 postea 275 (i) prensus 441 Prepositions 76-81.28 probai 424 Proclitics 156-8 prodis 17 putrisco 400 puulva 356 (3) Pyrrhus 187 pyxis 187 Progne 330 proles II preefetto 266 prffigna(n)s 255.

82. 350. 139 requEerit 139 rs see Liquids >• ss 291 requebit 225 res 10. 71 rabies 319 radius 272 rainante = reg. 380 quase 244 quasi 83. 355 (2) res nata 13. 200 redft 423 redivit quannu 281 = Win.344 = -bit 318 263 Quantity 159-77. rectus 440 32.269 respondere 399. 223 quia 82.269 Vowels in Hiatus 167-9 quomodo 14. 393 re(g)ina 259 regis -es 244 = quisque 71 quisquis 71 Unaccented Vowels 221 174. 379 quel 393 quejus 393 quoque quot quot n Repetition 40. 429 rhetor 335 rhetorissare 33 richesse 341 rictu quiaeti 209 quicumque 71 quid 350 quidem 11 recubitus yj (-ta) quiensces 311 quietus 225 quin II quinqua(gi)nta 142.254 guages 1 74-5 > = quantu(m) 309 quantus 12. 393 qui quia 82 qui ky 187. 309 querceus 39 quercinus 39 querel(l)a 42 rama (pi. 71 = quod 282 quum r : > cum 226 repositorium 37 reprehensus 250 requeerere 25.quoniam 14. 168 429 = reddere 286 rasio = ratio 277 ratio 277 retina 17 retro 81 razzo 272 re. retundus 229 (6) reuuardent 344 139 reve(r)sus 291 reversus sumrz reverti 410 revolutio 37 rexi 297. 82 comodo 226 Vowel Length 165-77 Words from Other Lan. 449 responduntur 449 responsi 429 raggio 272 que(m) 309 quen 305. 139 redempsi 429 redemti 313 Digitized = rectum igS by Microsoft® . 71 quare 12. 71.28 retro (r) sum 291 = = redpit 139 recolli(g)endo 259 Recomposition 31. 221 Development of New Quantity 176-7 Disappearance of Old Quantity 173-5 Doubtful Quantity 166 Length before Consonants 170-2 Position 160-4 refusare 17 re(g)alis quiritare 229 quis 69. no. 350 = -it 285 remasit 311 Remidium 272 remissa 37 (-ta) ren^gat 139 renum reg. quo 73 quo = quod 282 quoad 11 quod 14. 139 retenet 139 retere questor 210 questus 210 quetus 225 qui 69. no. replenus 23 55. 259.23. 379 quattordecim 379 quat(t)ro 226. 82. 245. 74 12. 71. 244 quat(t)or 226. quando 14. no quooperta = co.1 Index. 380 reculons 40 reddedi 31. 71. 281 quinque 172 Quintrio quippe 1 quique 71 (i). 219. 25 recapitulare 25 retro.) 361 ramenc 37 (-incus) rancura 42 ranucula 42 rap(i)dus 239 rasl restitueram 285 restivus 39 resurge(n)s 311 retenere 31. quodlubet 220 regnancte 267 regnum 172 (2) Relatives : see Pronouns reli (n) quat 306 relinque 282. 82. 82 quarranta 142.

xi Roman Empire p. 367 SiEpia 182 saginae 42 = 284 Sagitta 37 (-ittus) ripidus 39 scloppus 284 scopulus 38 scorlare excor. 341. 201 (2) senape 184 senatus (2d decl. 267 sedano 335 sed(e)cim 239 sedere seditur 399 = esse 402. 14 sed-= se 229 (4) 429 rosum = ros 356 rosus 441 (3) sanctissimus 377 san(c)tus 172 (i). (stlis) riges = re. (3) = 229 salbum3i7 salii scrivano 359 scultor 313 se 422.230 scriba -anis 359 = rigueza 341 risi 429 risus 441 rius 241. 230 sy 275 scy. Saguntum 338 saine 42 saini 267 sltlbaiec (fern.268. 210 scalciare excalceare 230 scandalizare 19 445 initial s + cons. salivi 428 440 J^= sead sebe salma 268 salsi 428. 435 salitus 436. 428 = si 229 (4) = sit 419 (2) = sibi 201 ^ 419 (i) roborem 347 robur 9.) 368 419 (i) sel 160 selinum 150 sappia 272 sapui 426. 347 rogavo = -bo 318 ro(g)itus 259.) 349 scripit 312 (i) scrips! 315. ridSre rideri 213 schioppo 284 sclitib. sty.Index.) 355 (i) sine 201 sene -sa 37 (-ta) sabbatizare 19 scaplas 234 sablum 233 sacra 376 Sca(u)rus 211 scena 182 (i) = sacramentum 231 359 sacristano 359 sacrista -anis- schema 19 schernire 341 schiatta 343 schietto 343 senex 12 senper 306 semita 239 senta sentam 416 sententem 416 = Digitized by Microsoft® .314 rivocaverit 229 (2) sagma 19. pi. 419 roubSn rs > 36. sauma 26S scabia 355 (2) scsena 182.) 372 salvage 229 (3) salvatico 229 (3) salvaticus 229 (3) secu(n)do 306 secuntur 254 sed II. 428 satis 74 sem 419 (i) Semele 359 semita 239 semo 419 (i) : see Sibilants final s in ist pers. 34r. 441 saltern 11 salticulare 35 secatus 435. 429 440 scriptum 315 scri(p)tus 313.igS 399 409 sacritus rigna 198 rikitia 341 Jiimini 86 SidxpiTos 272 sseculum (masc. 398 398 ss 291 36. rubare nibeus 319 sandal 330 sanguem 370 sanh 267 sapcha 272 sapere 402 sedui 428 sedutus 441 signavi 424 segnai = rugiada 356 nira35r ru(r)sum 291 russum 291 rutare 34 s (3) segolo 200 (3) sei sapiam 272 sapidus 39 sapienti (pi. ssy. x : salsus 440. = sa = ipsa 392 semper semper 74 sempre 245 semul 201. 324 rivaticus rip. : 429 Romance Territory p. 440 secula 200 (3) Romanice 40 Romanu -pos 38 rosi (nom.) 349 sffipes sepes saeps 209.

sty. sibl 201.cons. soliculus 13.419 (1) sinapis -e -i 38.214 senii 298 Index.^'j final s 298. 385 385 Sibilants 297-302. septa (gi)nta 380 septe(m) 309 sidibus = se. ssy. = secretins 256 347 sonatus 435 sons 419 (i) Sophia 146 -sor 37 sorcerus = sortiarius 39 s^bat 323 serbus 317 Serios Sergius 272 serore so. si sol 13 = sibi spehon 343 spelunca 329 siam 419 (2) siamus 419 (2) sibe 219.z\ sofferire sparsus 441 spasmus 144 spat (h) a 332 spat(u)la 12. 219. sibi 219. solbit sentia 421 sentii 42S. 337 sinatus 228 (-arius) sordidius 377 sorex 42. 201 sinexter 201 (3) -sic 37 sirena 356 (3) sis si vis 324 -sorium ^y -sorius 39 soro(r) 295 sous = suus 167.229 (7) serpentinus 37 = = 428 simus 220. 445 initial s 4. 441 solia 323 224 sentor . 277 servitude 37 ses servire = spacium 276 spallere 337 sive II = es 419 (i) (i) skena 341 skern6n 341 skiuhan 343 slahta 343 sleht 343 spandere exp. 244.) 395 solsi s 161 429 440 224 sepes 209 sepia 146. 221. 233 soef 2. 387 sozer 154 servicium 276 323 servisium 277 servitium 276. 233 sepelitus 436. 38. (2). etc. 234 speca spica 200 (3) = speclarait spectante = -avit 424 = exp. sy. 213 serra = sera 247 serutinus 16 servare 323 sine 95.230 = 406 si 14. 429 sentitus 436. 244.230 Spania 230 = Spanus 230 sparsi 429 J« 419 sest = est 419 (i) set = est 419 (i) set = sed 282 seta 209 setaceus 39 setis = estis 419 (i) 229 385 (4) settembres 313 seus suus 387 soaru 295 soave 224 sobreus 224 socera 37 soc(e)rum 232. 440 ss > 275 solingo 37 (-incus) solo (dat. 213 soricem 42. soluit sic nants 264 Sicilianus 39 solus 395 solutus 438 solvitus 438. 184. scy. 244 solacium 276 sola mente 41 solatium 276 solbere 317 spene^SS (2) speni from spes 355 (2) speramus = -avimus 424 sperantia 37 Digitized by Microsoft® . 83. 18 sol(i)dus 237 230 separare seperare 231. 439. 182 seppia 182 sepsies 277 z : see Greek Conso- soltus 438. 150.ig8 439 siede 419 (1) soma 268 somas 419 (i) sona 2ona 338 septrum 260 septuazinta 339 septum 209 sepulchrum 251 sequere 406 sequire 406 serbare 323 siem 419 (2) siete 419 (i) siffatto 264 siffler 318 (2) sifilus 318 (2) = signum-us 172 sigricius silevit 422.

430 sietti 426 stetul 426. 38 tamen 11.230 spoliatur = -or 244 structus 440 straere 417 strugere 417 spo(n)sus 171 spontaneus 39 squarciare 276 ss s 161 strumentum = inst. 14. 84 440 440 strinxi 429 strofa 334 stropa 334 stroppus 186 strinctus strictus for Verbs 33-6 Greek Endings 36.230 struxi 429 stupescere 35 > staacio 276 stablarius 231 stagnum (masc.230 stais stup(p)a 163 suabitati 318 5uadel(l)a 42 suavis 224 Suavitta 37 (-ittus) sub. 96 super. 415. 229. 118 Pres. 330 talis 71 strlban 341 for Adj. 388 -sus 37.) 349 stahu 397 397 stait 397 stantia= inst. 41 for Nouns 37.26 superabundare 26 superfacere 26 superstitis (nom.Index. 387-8 submonsus 439. 428. 332 Syncope 219.26 subaudire 26 subcludere 26 stao 397 stare 397 stasio 277 static subcumbere 32 Subjunctive 117-g for Imper. 430 steva 200 (3) stilla 419 (i) suus 60. 419 (2) sublimus 376 429 su(r)sum 291 surtus 440 sus = suus 226.) 367 Supine 103 sup(p)ra 164 sup(p)remis 164 supra. 40.) 367 sulphurem 347. 116 for Indie. 397. 405. 410 Plup.) 367 stlataris 284 stlis 284 stloppus 284 storax 187 stren(n)a 163 stren(n)uor 164 Stress : see Accent stirpis see Dentals ty 276-7 sud=sub3i5 sufferit 406 -ta37 tab(u)la 236 tactus 440 suffertus 435. 441 subornatris 255 subplantare 32 sy=ty277 sycotum 141 Syllabication 131-3 = Stella = 198 stingo 226 -stinxi 429 stipes stips 367 subsannare 26 Substitution of subterranus 42 subtus 81 suc(c)us 163 suceroni 362 Words 13 symphonia 146. 231-g Synonyms 12 Syntax 50-130 t : (nom. = Iniperf. 38 suis (nom. 419 (i) suora 295 sues 138 super 80. 39 for Adv. 428. 117 > 277 status 438 397 staunt 397 stegola zoo stel(l)a 163 siaii (3) Imperfect 118 Perfect 119. 369 sumpsi 29S sumptus 308 tan 306 tanctus 440 tanger(e) 242 tantu(m) 309 tantus 71 tanxl 429 tapinus 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . 403.26 suprafacere 26 supra 245 -sura 37 Surd Sonant: see Voicing = exp. 440 Suffixes 33-42 Cbange of Suffix 42 talentum 149.) 355 (i) splorator stnicere 417 215 sumus 220. spes 355 (2) spiritus (2d decl. 90. 441 sus(s)um 291 sutis sursi Stephanus 183 steti 426.

299 trabucare 26 tracere 417 tap(p)ete 162 tarde 40 tarir 342.163.26. 325. 399 trapalium 16 tres 379 tergum -us 347 termen 356 (3) terminaciones 2 76 terra (m) 309 tersi toreomatum 191 -torium 37 -tonus 39 torma = tu. 440 239 tollitus 435.208 tonatus 435 tondere 399 tonica tu. 407 theios 333 toto (dat.208 tomus 186 torqu(e)o 226. 399 torsi trescar 342 trib(u)la 235. 71. 299 transannare 26 tra(ns)duco 299 tra(ns)jicio 299 260 tra(ns)luceo 299 tra(ns)mitto 299 tempo 298 tempus 13 tenit 244 tinxi 429 -tic n transplantare 26 tra(ns)pono 299 tra(ns)tulo 299 ten(n)uis 164 Titius 277 Tivoli 86 tra(ns)veho 299 traps 315 trasporre 299 travis (nom.204(2).) 346 timoratus 39 Tragani (2) = Traj. -anis 359 = tibi 385 -tiacum 277 tibe 244 ti tractatus 9 tractus 440 tradedit 31. 289 Tricassas 151 trienta 259 tri(g)inta 142. 439 tolsi 428. 198 376 triumphaut 241. 244.259 tragere 417 trahere 417 = tempaccio 39 tempesta 356 (3) templus 347 timpuri 369 tinctus 440 tinge 226 tinguere 226 tins -^^ census trans.) 395 tot(t)uS 12. 259. 347 threscan 342 tra. 318 taurellus 37 taxi 429 telebra ter. 385 traducir 299 traduire 299 Tatius 277 tatus 16 taula 236.208 tonsus 441 toll(e)re 429 trebus 201 trei = tres 379 298 trei Teodor 332 -ter 40 tardus 276 Terentio = treis 177 tremulat 235 trepaliare 33 = -us 298 tergSre 399 -tor 37 torcere 399 torco 226.) 74 tous thensaurus 311 — tuus 387 Trogar=-jae 259 Troja 170 Digitized by Microsoft® .) 367 traxi Tense 120-30 tensi 429 tensura 13 tensus 441 t^nueram 137 tenui 42S tenutus 438. 139 tibi 221. 424 tristus = tres 395 -trix 37 trobaire 37 (-tor) totum (adv.2l6 tapis 182 tapit 182 Index. Theophilus 333 thesaurizare 19 thesaurus -um 189. 331 timor (fern.26. 352 tribuna(l) 242. 407 -tas 37 tasso 342. 343 tata 16 . 343 tharrjan 342. 429 tolui 428 tomolus =: tumu. 380 trinitas 429 tarsus 441 -Tt\% 38 testa 13 tetrus 376 428 tortus 440 tot 71 tot trinta tris 37 380 taxui 428 204 (2) texutus 440 thahso 342.292 -tim 40 timbre 187.

187.298. 187.) 367 vendutus 438 vene bene 316 = urbs 12. 393 undecim 166. 220 ui 216 unaccented 219. 315. 82. 326 u 178. 57. 192. 440. 206.395 unu(s) 29S unxi 429 U(5 >• o 225 uo unacc. > -clus 234 388 Vowels unde 10. 42 accented 206-8 u 206-7 ii>-u 165. 220 -ugo 37 (-ago) ui 216 V see Labials vacuus 42 195 (6). 83 ubi 73 -uc(c)us 37 (-icca) -uculare 35 -uculus 42 -utus 39. 222. 438. 39 (5). 217 vadere 126 204 (2) -tudo 37 iuii 204 (2) tul£runt 450 tucti > -ellus 42 40 -um vallensis 39 : Unaccented Vowels see valneas = ba. 349 * verecundia 231 verecunnus 281 Inflection: > > > utrum II. o 226 vecinus 229 (4) vedus 234. etc. 223 : vernac(u)lus 234 vemum tempus 13 ve(r)sus 291 vertragus 19 Digitized by Microsoft® . 206. 229 (5). 42. 367 veni 428.316 -tulus turn = tuum 226. 2c6 u 208 u ii o 165. 284 vedea 421 = ve^ere 283 vef 226 vegere = veh-4i7 uobit = obiit > ve(he)inens 250 vehere 417 vel II velle 126 (3). 440 unire 34 Tuscanus 39 iuito 204 (2) tuttus 204 (2) tuus 226. 14.) 429 -unt -ent 449 unus 10. 441 uu unacc. 438. 440 ver 13 usque hodie 47 ustium 202 Ut II. 440 venui 428. 101-30 Verbs : see Verb Forma verbus 347. 438. 285 Valinca 37 (-Incus) . 405 vadum 344 -us 347 valde 237 vaUa(t) 224. 430 > > -urem 346 (3) veninum 42 venire 126 (5) venitus 436. 70. 403 vendita 37 (-ta) 177 u 165. 244 in hiatus 222-6 uo >• o 226 uu u 226 o 225 u(5 uu u 226 Uranus 193 urbis (nom. 71. III -uta 37 (-ta) verbex = vervex 323 Verb Forms see Conjugation Use 72. 192. 243. 206-8. 356 (3) vea via 201 = vecere = veh-4i7 -e 364 -tus 37 (-ta). 297. 73.) 244 178.Index. u 226 uuadius 344 > -uus > -itus 42 -udo ii > -umen 42 uxo(r) 295 uxore (abl. 430 urps 297. -ura 37.315 usare 34 Use Use Use of of Cases 85-100 of Inflections 85-130 Words 54-84 venuta 37 (-ta) venutus 436. Troyes 151 tructa 38. 228. 14. 208 u cons. 185 trutina 187 tu 60 -ula 37 (-ulus) Ulixes 187 ultra 166 -ulus 37. 387-8 ty 276-7 ty ty > cy 277 > sy 277 uno (dat. 84. 379 -undus 39 ungo 226 unguere 226 unicornis 44 unigenitus 44 vaqua = vacua 223 vaqui vacui 223 vastare 344 vanitare 34 = 187 tuos 138 -tura 37 turrensis 39 turri tumum vasus -um 347. 378.

318 . 385 Vowels 136-8. cf. 429 vinti 380 vincisti Intert. 239 vibi = bibi 318 iiibit 316 vibit victore (nom. 228-30 259 34 vi(gi)nti 142.) 349 314. 429 vixi(t) 285 . 438. 358' villabus 358 Vincentzus 277 426 vinctus 440 vincui 428 vincutus 440 vindemiator 224 vindico 239 vindimia 197 vindo = v6. Vulgar Words 15. 218 Diphthongs 209-16 420 vetatus 435 vet(e)ranus 219. 416. 407 volutus 438 wastare 344 = ^ = = volvitus 438. 37 viror 37 virtus 10 vlscui visit Influence of Labials 217 Single Vowels 194208 before gn 172 (2) before j 170 before n fricative 171 before nk 172 (i) = = vixi 428. 441 vixutus 440 vobis 385 cf. Quantity 165-77.) 367 victualia 18. Syl. 13. 321 volatilia 37 volemus 403 (2) w (Ger. = vac. 37 victurias 203 vic(u)lus'234. 221 Unaccented 219-45 (6) Vocabulary 6-49 vocatio videunt 416 vidi 428. 165-245 watan werra = . 387 vovis vobis 318 cf .285.93 in hiatus 136-8. vivacius 377 vixcit = vixit 255 cf. 430 vido vidutus 438.195 (6) vocuus Quantity 221 Voice 1 12-4 Vulgar Latin 3. 380 vilescere villa 10. 255. 430.195 = video 416 vidui = vidi 428. 231 (6) vocatus 435. 428 vixi 255. 240-5 in hiatus 222-7 Init. 4 Voicing 256-7. 439 Penult 232-9 vac. 441 viduus 226 vieni 177 vig(i)lat 430 Vocative 87 vocitus = vacuus 42. 428 in words borrowed by other languages 1 74-5 Latin Vowels 178 Position 160-4 videre 72. 429 = vixit 255 cf. Accented 194-218 Digitized 344 344 werrarius 39 werrizare 33 wi^arlon 342 19.201 viaticum 8. 272-3. + vezem 445 vezzo 278 -vui 428 -vi via 167.2l8 vervex 323 ves(s)ica 162 vestibat Index. 416 vistus 441 visus 441 vitellus Breaking 177 = 37 vitium 278 vitricus 13 Vowels 179 Close and Open 165 Differentiation 165 Celtic = vit(u)lus 234 vivus 324 vius = German Vowels 179 Greek Vowels 180.) 367 warnjan 36. 284 videderunt 426 video 272-3. 428 . 167-9 . 284 vetus 13 video 272-3 veyo virginem 233 vir(i)diaria 237 vir(i)dis 237 vir(i)dura 18. 428. Syl. 428. 195 vocitus Final Syl. vinus 347 Clerical Pronun. 19. 19 vulnus (masc. 440 warjan 344 voluntate (nom. 234. 297. 439. 231 vettovaglia 154 vetulus 12. 439 voster 199 (i). 285.197 -ea 224 vinia vinsi 428. 283. 259.) 344 volere velle 403 (2) w (Latin) 224 voles 403 (2) Waddo 344 volestis 403 (2) wadum 344 volimus 403 (2) wahta 343 volon 39 (-undus) walde 344 volsi 429 Wandali 344 voltus 438. 285. 286. 12. by Microsoft® .

339 = dies 272 = Jesu 272. 255. Wintrio 344 wlsa 344 witan 36. 339 Digitized by Microsoft® .344 z 246 zabul(l)us zes 219 zacones zaconus ~ dia. 339 = dia. 398 Word Order 50-3 wost.277 Zogenes = Dio. 266 y (Greek) 187 y (Latin) 224 zagante 229 (3) zampogna 332 zanuari = ja.Index.272.272 ymnus 251 zerax = liierax 339 zosuin=deorsum 339 Zouleia= Julia 272.339 Zefurus 187 zelosus 339 2» 333 Zodorus = Theo.339 = dia.339 zebus = die. 339 zeta = diseta 339 zie = die 272 Zesu zins 260 ziziper 312 (i) X 246.

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Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .