VULGyiR Latin







by Microsoft®

Cornell University Library

PA 2619.G7S


introduction to vulgar Latin

3 1924 021

623 800


by Microsoft®

This book



by Microsoft Corporation


cooperation with Corneii University Libraries, 2007.

You may use and print


copy in

iimited quantity

for your personai purposes, but

may not distribute


provide access to


(or modified or partiai versions of it)

for revenue-generating or other

commerciai purposes.


by Microsoft®

HEATH & Digitized CO. C.. H. D. U. S. PUBLISHERS 1907 by Microsoft® . A. GRANDGENT Fbofbssor of Romance Languagss in Harvahd University BOSTON.I)eatb'5 flDot>ern tHanduage Qctics AN INTRODUCTION VULGAR LATIN BY C.

By D. Heath & Co.V^-^5 3J( Copyright. C. Digitized by Microsoft® . 1907.

who wish to look further into special My principal authorities are listed in the Bibliotext. I Philology. not exhaustively. it be of some interest to has been long in the Classical scholars as well. PREFACE. graphy. Digitized byiUicrosoft® . Although it.— . have endeavored to keep I at every stage. to treat all portions of the subject. I hope. others are cited in the appropriate places in the C. Grandgent. somewhat scanty as compared with the other It will be seen that I have continually furnished abundant references for the guidance of those topics. furthermore. Romance making. "^^HILE this book is intended primarily for students of it will. but with even fulness I fear. that the is Syntax — perhaps unavoidably parts. abreast of current scholarship. have tried. however. H.

... with Abbreviations PHONETIC ALPHABET and Other Symbols X. Pages MAPS The Roman Empire The Neo-Latin Territory in Europe BIBLIOGRAPHY... 8-9 Synonyms Substitutes. . xi x xi xiii-xvi . AND Their Meanings. xvii INTRODUCTION i-S VOCABULARY WoBDS... Sense Restricted Sense Extended . ^ . 13 13-16 13-14 14-16 16-28 16-17 Prefixes used with Nouns... . ^ . and Pronouns Prefixes used with Verbs Suffixes Suflixes for Suffixes for Verbs Nouns Adverbs iv Digitized 18-23 Suffixes for Adjectives Suffixes for 23-25 25-26 27-28 Change of Suffix by Microsoft® .TABLE OF CONTENTS... 9 9-10 10 10-12 Ii>-i2 Particles Words used in Vulgar but not in Classic Latin Native Words Foreign Words I2 Uerivation Post-Verbal Prefixes 13-29 Nauru ... 6-29 6-12 6 7-8 7 . ... ... Adjectives. 7-8 Words used in Classic but not in Vulgar Latin . . Words used alike in Classic and in Vulgar Latin Words used differently in Classic and in Vulgar Latin .

Compounds v Pages 28-29 28 28 28 28 Nouns . Gerund Gerundive .Table of Contents. . Future Active Participle Digitized 49 49 49 by Microsoft® . 30-59 30-32 32-41 32-34 33 33-34 34-38 Pronouns 34 35-36 36-37 37-38 38 ^^38-39 Verbs Adverbs Prepositions 39-41 ^ Conjunctions 41 Use of Inflections Cases 42-59 42-48 42-43 43 43-44 Locative Vocative Genitive Dative Ablative 44-4S 45-47 48^ Accusative Fall of Declension Verb-Forms Impersonal Parts Supine 48 48 48-51 48—49 '. . Adjectives Pronouns- Verbs Adverbs Fiepositions 28-29 29 20 Conjunctions SYNTAX Order of Words Use of Words Nou»s and Adjectives Comparison Numerals Pronouns Personal and Possessive Pronouns Demonstratives Interrogatives and Relatives Indefinite .

Pages Present Participle Perfect Participle Infinitive 5° 50 5°~5I 51-52 Voice Mood Imperative Subjunctive 52-54 52 5^-54 54-59 54-5^ Tense The Perfect Tenses Future and Conditional 5^59 60-143 60-61 61-68 61-66 61-62 62-63 63 63 64 64-66 PHONOLOGY Syllabication Accent Primary Stress Vowels in Hiatus Compound Verbs Iliac. Greek Paroxytones Greek Proparoxytones Other Foreign Words Secondary Stress Unstressed Words 64 64-65 65-66 66 66-67 67-68 68-77 68-70 71-77 Quantity Position Vowel Quantity Vowels in Hiatus Lengthening before Consonants Disappearance of the Old Quantity Development of a New Quantity 72-73 73-75 75-76 76-77 77-104 78-82 82-gi Vowels Greek Vowels Accented Vowels Single Vowels 82-87 82-83 Digitized o by Microsoft® . Illic Ficatum Numerals Greek Words Greek Oxytones .vi Table of Contents.

104-143 106-137 106-107 107-114 109-112 112 C and G Q.. e vii Pages 83-84 84 . 11 2-1 14 Palatals Dentals Liquids 114-118 118-121 121-124 121-123 123-124 L R Sibilants 124-126 127-132 132-137 Nasals Labials P Digitized 132-133 by Microsoft® .. ..Table of Contents. before Front Vowels and G before Back Vowels and G Final and before Consonants . Q. ^ »" I o 84 84-85 85-86 H u 86 86-87 87 a Diphthongs te 88-90 88-89 89-90 au eu ce ui Influence of Labials Clerical Latin 90 90 90 91 91 Unaccented Vowels 91-104 in Unaccented Vowels Initial Syllable Hiatus 93-96 96-98 98-99 99-102 102-104 Intertonic Syllable Penult Final Syllable Consonants Latin Consonants Aspirate Gutturals ...

n. *.viii Table of Contents. and Sibilants Z Germanic Consonants 141-143 144-187 144-161 144-147 144 145-146 146-147 MORPHOLOGY NotJNS AND Adjectives Gender Masculine and Feminine Masculine and Neuter Feminine and Neuter Declension of Nouns First Declension 147—156 149-151 Second Declension Third Declension Loss of Declension Declension of Adjectives 151-152 152—156 156 157-158 158-159 159-161 161-165 161-162 Comparison Numerals Pronouns and Pronominai. X Liquids. r. T e. A 138 138 138-139 140 140-141 K. 133-13S 13s i3S-'37 137 137—141 u Greek Consonants B. Pages B F V . Adjectives Personal Pronouns Possessives Demonstratives Interrogative Indefinite 162-163 163-164 165 165 and Relative Pronouns Pronouns and Adjectives Verbs The Four Conjugations First Conjugation 166-187 166-170 166-167 167 Second Conjugation Third Conjugation Fourth Conjugation Fundamental Changes in 167-170 170 Inflection 170-173 Digitized by Microsoft® . Nasals.

Strong Perfects Pluperfect and Future Perfect Perfect Participle 177-180 180-182 183 Personal Mndings 183-185 186-187 189-219 INDEX Digitized by Microsoft® .Table of Contents. Inchoative Venbs ix Pages Present Stems Imperfect Perfect 173-174 174-176 176-177 177-182 » Weak Perfects .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Densusianu. Le latin d'Espagne d'aprh les inscriptions. 1872. Cohn : G. 278 ft. Dottin. Leipzig. Introduction 1899. : Part — — . i). Bechtel: E. in Romor nische Forschungen XV. 1891. Bonnet. 1902. A Latin list of and incorrect spellings. D'Arbois: H. Pr. 1901. Cf. 1868-70. Audollent: A. C. A volume of mis- Bayard : L. L. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. Bon. Ueber Aussprache. Defixionum Tabellae. Romanische Forschungen VII. A. <J la chronologic du latin vulgaire. Silviae Peregrinatio. (Vol. 1904. : 1902-03. Per. Die Suffixwandlungen im Vulgdrlatein und im vorlittera- im NeufranzSsischen. Bausteine: Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie. Chronologie : F. Word Formation in the Roman Sermo Plebeius.Pipoque Densusianu: O. M. Melanges Renier 301-309. Bayard. BIBLIOGRAPHY WITH ABBREVIATIONS. W. New ed.. -Carnoy: A. S. possibly as early as the third century.. Corssen : W. Le latin de saint Cyprien. I. Mohl. G.Cooper. I.T. 2^ ed. Carnoy. Vol. d'Arbois de Jubainville. Manuel pour servir h Vltude de I'antiquiti celtique. Die griechischen Wbrter im Franzosischen. Cohn. Bechtel. 1863 1893 Claussen T. Claussen. I. Cooper: F. Vocalismus und Betonung der rischen Franzosisch nach ihren Spuren lateinischen Sprache. AudoUent. mlrovingienne. Le latin de Grigoire de Tours. Digitized b)microsoft® . 145 ff. Dottin: G. 1890. : correct- Die Appendix Probi. 1899. Corssen. Archiv : Archiv filr lateinische Lexicographie und Crammatik mit Einschluss des dlteren Mittellateins. : Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. 1906. Mussafia. Wiener Studien XIV. Mllanges Boissier 5-9. 1895. 1902. ed.. Heraeus. La dlclinaison en Gaule d. cellaneous studies issued in honor of A. Cf. 774. Histoire de la langue roumaine. Quarterly. App. 1905.

in the eighth Cf. in Archiv saint Jlrome. Foerster and E. KofEmane : G. W. : : Hammer in Grundriss I^. 1901. ed. Facere G. Koschwitz. Dubois A. Franz : 1883. Grammaire des langues romanes. 2d ed. in France. : : P. Habere mit dem et Infinitiv und die Entstehung des la latiniti de romanischen Futurums. 1884. XIV BlBIJOGRAPHY. jd or ninth century. Made. Foerster and E.. Historische Syntax der lateinischen Sprache. 2d 1878. 569. Eckinger. Cf. Rydberg. XXII. P. Draeger. Entstehung und Entwickelung des Kirchenlateins. 1892. 1890vols. Beiheft Gram. 1903. . 2 1902. 641 7. Haag. 1894.. Grbber. Korting: G. Kluge F. : century. et prononciation du latin savant et du latin popu- 1882. of Vol. Thielmann. EinfUhrung in das Studium der romanischen les Sprachwissenschaft. Dubois. Keil. Edon: G. probably 521 ff. Rydberg. Zs. alten Italien. K.: 1900. Kluge. — 1888- M. W.. Hammer. Le developpement de facere dans langues romanes.. 48. Koschwitz. 1879Digitized by Microsoft® . £criture laire. 1896 — Futurum G. Hetzer. Einf . Eckinger T. £don. 2d ed. La latiniti d'Ennodius. 1901. Hoppe: H. Lateinisch-romanisches Wdrterbuch. Reichenauer Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. I. 1903. : W. Etude lexicograpkique grammaticale de Kasseler Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. 1902. Franz. Syntax und Siil des Tertullian. Franz. Meyer-Liibke. 3 vols. Kbrting. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. 1893. £E.. Die Latinitdt Fredegars. a: Zur Geschichte des franzosischen 3. Goelzer. 1857-1880. Die Orthographie lateinischer Worter ingriechischen : : Inschriften. Made in France in the eighth Reich. Die Reichenauer Glossen in Zs. W. . Keil: H. -Grundriss : G. 1904 Haag : O.. W. 498. 1898. 1902. Draeger: A. Grundriss der romanischen Philologie. 157. Reviewed by G. Paris in Rom. Koff mane. 2d ed. Romanen und Germanen in ihren Wechselbeziehungen. H. G.. Hoppe. : Meyer-Liibk'e. Die locale Verbreitungfriihester romanischer Lautwandlungen im.. Gl. Die lateinisch-romanischen Elemente im Althochdeutschen. Grammatici Latini. ed. Cassel : II. Gl. XXVI.

Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. 1892-1902. I goo. Monthly. PI. and S. . Neumann Franz Neumann. : : Ltblt. R. 1887. Pers. 1888. Ang^ade.XXX). du frangais prilittiraire. Meyer-Lubke. Quillacq. 1897. Itala und Vulgata. N. Cf. ad 367 ff. The Latin Language. Olcott : G. Petite phonltique Phon. xv W. Zur Lautlehre der griechischen. lat. 1894. 372. Ronsch. Digitized by Microsoft® . in P. De latinitate libelli qui inscriptus est Peregrinatio loca sancta. 1901. Regnier. 1898. 1886. Studies in the tions. J. 1903. T. Btudes sur le lexique du latin vulgaire. M. 1892. Hilarius. perhaps from Spain. P. Habere mit dem Part. Lebreton J. 1888. Le viritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. Lindsay. Ferotin. 259. Pirson. 1869. Perf Per. Pr.S. : F. S. auf Aussprache und Recht- schreibung beziiglichen Eigenthiimlickkeiten in den Inschriften aus Gallia Narbonensis.. G.. . Archiv II. Pass. Teil. ed. See Bechtel. 1898. M. La premiire personne du pluriel en gallo-roman. Mohl. Olcott.Bibliography. Lebreton. Fortsetzung. Oliver: A^Oliver. Gamurrini. Hilarii Tractatus de Mysteriis et Hymni et S. t^ Verzeichniss der ed. H. : La langue des inscriptions de la Gaule. Observations on the Use of Certain Prepositions in to the Petronius with special reference Part. 'P. : 1 901. Quomodo lingua latina usus S. 1901. in Itinera hierosolymitana saculi Written probably in the latter part of the fourth century by an ignorant nun. Regnier: A. Silvice Aquitanm 1898. E.'i>(eue. Cf. Etudes sur la langue et la grammaire de Ciciron. G. Neue: Formenlehre der lateinischen Sprache. Les mots latins dans les langues brittoniques. ad loca sancta. Lexique F. : LiteraturblattfUrgermanischeundromanischePhilologie. J. Pogatscher. 509: Peregrinatio iiii-viii. Lindsay: W. Thielmann. Mohl. 1905. Pirson: J. Die lateinische Sfrache in den romanischen : Landern. Perf. with special reference to the Latin Sermo Vulgaris. in Grundriss V. Loth J. 451. 1900. Pogatscher A. Geyer. : P. Wolfflin in Archiv IV. Silvia AquitancE Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. 1899. Substantives Word Formation of the Latin Inscrip- and Adjectives. : Roman Sermo Plebeius. sit Quillacq : : J. Spr. : Leipzig. De la latinitl des Sermons de saint Augustin. Vokalismus der Tonsilben. Marchot. A. lateinischen und romanischen Lehnworte im Altenglischen : II. Loth.

: S. Bibliography. Historische 1894. Die rumdnische Sprache. 539. Suchier. : Zeitschrift fiir franzosische Sprache und Litteratur. 117. 234. in Grundriss P. Stolz. Seelmann. IV. Romania. 1&&2. Windisch. Der Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. 424. Le alterazioni fonetiche e morfologiche nel latino di Magno e del suo tempo. III. Die lokalen Verschiedenkeiten der lateinischen SpracAe. in Grundriss P. Vok. H. Spr. Grober. Sepnlcri : Gregorio A. Tiktin : : H. 1 856-68. Tours. 1885. Beitrdge zu einer Darstellung der romanischen Elemente im Latein der Historia Francorum des Gregor v. Schuchardt. Vol. in 204. which only occasional reference is made are cited in full in Digitized by Microsoft® . XII. 1890. Windisch: E. Quarterly.nn&r. Waters: W. Paris. Paris. Sittl: K. 1868. Urbat. 453. 125. Die franzosische und provenzalische Sprache ihre Mundarten. und Thurot : Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits de la Biblioth^que nationale et : attires bibliothiques Vol. 25. 100. Four to sLx 1879. Zs. Som. Notices et Extraits de divers manuscrits latins pour servir A fhistoire des doctrines grammaticales au moyen dge. I. Petronius. numbers a year. Waters. Charles Thurot. Sepulcri. : Zeitschrift Jur romanische Philologie. Wblfflin. Vulgdrlateinische Substrate romanischer Worter. 422. fr.: E. to Works the text. Die Ausprache des Latein nach physiologisch-historischen Grundsdtzen. : Zur Entstehung der romanischen Wortstellung aus der lateinischen.xvi Richter Elise Richter. Grammatik der lateinischen Sprache.. 1903. Die keltische Sprache. Substrate : G. 371. Archiv I. Cena Trimalchionis. Lateinische und romanische Comparaiion. 138. V. 564. XQ. in Studi Medievali I. in Grundriss P. Suchier: H. 1902. 276. Stolz: F. 1900. Zs. VII. 3 vols. ^KvA. 371. Tiktin. II. 264. Urbat R. Chemnitz and Leipzig. Romanische Sprachwissenschaft. 507. Halle. : Wolfflin : E. VI. Zauner: A. E. 116. 171. 377. Quarter- ly.

:= rounded i. J) ii o. . the sound of German «. = the sound of ng in English long. . Digitized by Micrqsoft® xvii .PHONETIC ALPHABET AND OTHER SYMBOLS. o = rounded the sound of German = the sound of th in English thin. * (an asterisk) before a word shows that the form attested. (a semicircle) under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is not syllabic.c = the sound of ch in German ach. The other marks and abbreviations employed are so generally accepted as to need no explanation. not >• indicates derivation. under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is close. the sound of Spanish v and i/i *. vowel letter shows that the vowel is open. = the sound of e in French me. . whichever way it be turned. q e. (an acute accent) after a consonant letter shows that the consonant is (a dot) • C '^ / (a hook)' under a palatal. =r bilabial /S v. S =z > the sound of in English i/iis. the source standing at the open end of the figure. is conjectural. SMALL CAPITALS mean that the forms so printed occur in inscriptions (but this indication is used only when for some special reason it seems desirable).

Digitized by Microsoft® .

. and. Sicily became a province in 241. Illyrians in^sou^hea^emjmd southwestern Italy respectively by and Greeks. tEe bri fall "oO^thage in 146. tribes. Latin language never gained a foothold in Greece. a little district on the is The Latin tongue was thus extended to many peoples. the Orient. civilizations. in adopted by Etruscans and by various n orthern Italy by Ligurians. Celts. The Latinization of these peoples was the work of several centuries^: by 272 b. Chronologie . the in 102-1.AN INTRODUCTION TO VULGAR I. and quite cut off from the rest of the Latin-speaking world in the sixth. representing different races. X. originally the speech of shown by the map was Latium. Lat. LATIN. Africa after Iberians._Semites. in 50. and linguistic habits. Sfr. Venetia cast her lot with Rome in 215. Spain was made a province in 197. The extent of the Roman Empire on p. Tiber. 'See Mohl. The and Teutones were destroyed was a province. also Meyer-Lubke. Illyria was absorbed after 167. Aquitanians.._ Germanic and others still.n central j. IHy- _rians . D. Celts. and Africa. Throughout this territory the official language Latin. political changes drove it in the rest of the from Great Britain. beyond the peninsula it spread among Ligurians.talyjt_was Italic tribes. Empire it has remained. southern Gaul in 120. forsaken in the third century. 451-455. j. all Italy was subdued south of the Macra and the Rubicon. Raetia in 15. pp. c. for the most part. I Digitized by Microsoft® . northern Cim- Gaul Dacia was colonized in 107 A. Sardinia and Corsica in 238.

and there must have been a variety of accent. and has been carried thence to Amerand Asia. The Social War. became more uniform. had a levelling and speech in Italy ^ See Chronologie 133 and I16-120. Digitized may be Oscan. kindred At first there was sturdy resistance. Kff. etc. 445. 464. Europe where Latin in its modern forms is now spoken. nevertheless a few native words were kept. The Latin tongue. it blended more languages. It should be remembered. The before the Social War.'' In the outlying provinces. Oscan forms are ligud for and k for lege^ pru for pro^ ni for 'The is S. moreover. Latm. and Oscan was used in inscriptions until the first century of our era. Pomex. xi marks the parts of ica. in the main. has always been in an unstable condition. piimex. jfor : e. c. The evidence of inscriptions and of grammarians indicates that from the beginning to the end of Roman history speech was constantly changing. the alteration being most rapid in the earliest and the latest Furthermore. 2. Italian nn : for nd. [§ 2 until the present day. and to some degree in the peninsula. and their In Italy the language §peech_reflected_their varied origin. considerable local dive^ences. Latin was simply substituted for foreign tongues. alL southern Italy was under Oscan influence.2 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. but especially p^eriods. elex for The Italian word zavorra by Microsoft® . Chronologie 98-99. Africa. there were at all times. Spr.^ When Latin conquered. The map on p. like every living language. conflict of or less with the native idioms . however. the resulting geographical dis- crepancies are manifest in early monuments. ilex are perhaps Umbrian possibly Etruscan Lat.g2eaking peoples_ were not_ homogeneous. and there was little or no mixture. of Latium was adopted by tribes using. but there doubtless were still noticeable differences in pronunciation and even in vocabulary. until the 90-89 B. that the language carried effect.

from the consciously polite utterance of cultivated society. 1 .. Administration and ImiHtary service tended to obliterate distinctions. %J3] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. was constantly developing away from the archaic standard of elegant parlance.from the everyday language on the other hand. .t&L. while popular usage tends to quick change. drawing away . vowel is it Neither the dialect of the slums or of the us of not a few urban and rustic grammarians distinct tell vulgarisms that are not perpetuated in the It is Romance tongues. XV-XXX. .^ fields: it continues the Classic.the classes. _excegting ^reece andthe £entiiry after Christ. though affected by all of these. 463-464.^ Vulgar Latin naturally developed differently in ^ * Cf Lai. Cf Cooper . and is also between city Injatfi. from the brogue of the country. ugper and that of the lower and^coiintry speech. Roman territory. more offtcial speech. Republican and early Imperial times educated speech became highly^ artificial. What wecalTVuIit gar Latin is the speech of the middle classes. Literary influence conservative and refining. the common idiom. the earlier acquisitions received a more popular. as It is grew out of early Classic Latin. not the primitive. 3. throughout the Republic and the Empire. 3 i\2_ik^_J£X?.. and from the slang of the lowest quarters of the city. not an independent offshoot of Old Latin: system. Digitized by Microsoft® . was completelyTaFinized by the fourth "^ "" of With the beginnings culture and literature there came inevitably a divergence between the language of . We may say in general that the East. under the Empire the variations probably came to be no greater than those /the^kter colonies a now to be found in the English of the British Empire. Spr. provinces was not identicial: it represented different chronological stages and different local dialects of jI^aUc^Latin .

period lasts. such as articles and prepositions. c. suftseSWe 4.^ any definite date must be arbitrary. Pirson and Carnoy also. see Lat. some to unknown reasons! WEy~" for instance. ^l^ various localities.seventh century of our era. and the diphthong at is reduced to e).ALjUus--poin-t we ~may_ say that Vulgar XiSi^ stops and the . i6i.^ The differentiatign._jjid an abundant use of prefixes and.JLQmance languages _begin. in the last few centuries of this epoch. roughly The speaking. progressed. we may put it. we observe certain changes in pronunciation. inj^e^ixth Jix .it is most sharply differentiated from Classic Latin when schools decayed „ . Kiibler Archiv VIII. being accelerated and the military organization was broken. then. from about 200 b. Furthermore. . the universal inclination of language to diverge was reinforced by the original habits of the diverse speakers and by such peculiarities of native accent as hacl survived.^ Ctassic and VulgarXatin. Sittl and Hammer. * For a history of the Latin language. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. some to a tendency to assimi^tejmlike adjacent sounds (so ipse is spoken isse. as far as the levelling inEuence of schot^l and army permitted. Althou. 492-497. . for African Latin. until the dialects of distant localities became mutu^ ally unintelligible. Digitized by Microsoft® . tqa^bout -6oo . YjJgar Lsatijl. due partly to phonetic but mainly to syntactic causes. become virdis. some of which can be ascribed to an inclination to discard those parts of words that are not necessary for their identification (as vetulus when viridis. If we compare that the latter find also a gre at sim plification of inflections. we shall see was always tending to become more flexible and more explicit.4 . Spr. some to a desire for differentiation (which lowers i to e to make it more remote from i ). B.enormous development of modifying and determining words.A-P. vedus). We rfote an. ai almost in iCf.

list of spellings. Audollent. 6t. 278. Itinera hierosolymitana sceculi mi-viii. 1902. . a considerable iragment of a description of travel in the East.* All of these are to be used with caution. the occasional lapses in cultivated authors. Bechtel. Melanges Boissier 5 W. Lot. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 367. A. . Sprachgziellen und Wortquellen des lateiniscken Worierbuchs in Archiv I. the so-called Glossary of Reichenau. 35. Herseus.Mili/BaoilSisches Uebungsbuch. P. Seelmann. 4 For the chronology of developments. a problem as yet unsolved. * Used by H. 25 ff. Wolfflin. and the establishment of unattested Vulgar Latin words. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. 1866-68. Meyer-Liibke. Silvia Peregrinatio. 401. the nonClassic forms. . 'See W. Gioixr. 55-67. Le veritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. the distinction of learned and popular words. W. some . Geyer. the subsequent developments. andrmosTim- ^portant o f_all. Paris in Melanges Renier 301. 204 if.iSgS. 1904. 1902 .. Hetzer in Zs. ^Cf. in Archiv I. 5 universally be came is e. Zur Mulomedicina Chironis in Archiv XII. see Stolz. E. "See P. Die Appendix Probi. ^ Utilized by E. a few texts w ritten by persons of scanty education. made in France There is an interesting collection of Defixionum Tabellce. in the eighth century. while au did not in Latin generally. by an uneducated woman (probably a Spanish nun) of the latter good and bad pajt of the. Die Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. of the^TConraHcel languages. and VII. XXX). in inscriptions and early manu- ^scripts'. For a brief account of the Latin grammarians. 1899. Of ^speciaTvalue are the Peregrinatiqjidjqtasancta.glossaries aDi. Fcerster in Wiener Studien XIV. F6rotin. Ueber die Latinitat der Peregrinatio ad loca sancta in Archiv IV. S. Schuchardt. E. Zur Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. S. Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins.' spells by A. . Spr.. and W. 455-461.Jists„jof JacQlxacJtjOTmjs.— An become^ o. Beiheft 7.ijecurring. 1885. Lommatzsch. see G. Grober. Zur Sprache der Mulomedicina Chironis in . 551. "See 119. 301 G. Aussprache des Latein. . Cf. 259 M. Foerster and KDfSiiitbdnll>fr. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. 641 K. 5* Our sou rces of information' concerning the„ current spoken La tin are^ the statements of grammarians^. the A^endix Probi^ z. fourth century^. G. possib^'as early as the third century'. Archiv XIV. E. early and late. Heraeus.

mater. 1901. WORDS AND THEIR MEANINGS. iiyS. 2'/$^. vendere. yj^ (supplement. {Hie — lamna)^ So?^' {lacusta — mille)\ IV. For an approximately complete vocabulary. reconstructed out of Romance words. Herasus. the vulgar idiom has homely metaphors of its own and numerous specific. 233 ff. in. ff. (eber III. (Jlagrare —gTttta). to speak. pater. 453ff. 185-203. 1. {damnum — dui)^ in Arckiv: I. 125 {quadraginta — rascu' {reburrus — runcare). {tabanus — ziruiare). W. forming. 255. vacca . Die Sprache der romiscken Kinderstube in Archiv XIII. II. male. too. the nucleus of the language. A. audire. longus. Korting.) Worter ff. see G. Digitized b^Wlicrosoft® . [abbreviare buttis). see G. (sabanum — lare)^ 234 VI. Lateinish-romanisches Worterbuch. altus. VOCABULARY. filius. bonus. bene. ^See Densusianu. has many poetic figures and many abstract terms unknown to the crowd. {minacicE — nutrire). polite language. ff. dicere. Examples are : 7. For a thorough discussion of reconstructed forms. It is natural that the The the senses of words. VulgSrlateinische Substrate romanischer . pants. viridis.I. puteus. 422 {pbedire — putidus)-. so cams. si. 539 —Jiiicum)^ 424£f. On the other hand. WORDS USED ALIKE IN CLASSIC AND VULGAR LATIN. 138 {hmdus — iticem). .iooff. 149. V. 264ff. ~ technical words not found in literature. ii6fif. This class includes a great mass of words. popular use tends to restrict them. ff. speech of the literary and fashionable classes should differ from that of the common people so Literature inclines to extend it is in all civilized communities. — icaccubus — curbus). amare. ff. ff. 6. Grober. suus)'. Die romische Soldatensprache in Arckiv XH. quando.

235-328.11. a word assuming a more or concrete signification {^se : icognatus\=z ' brother-in-law coUocare^ 'put to bed' dominicus =: divinus . se piicare=' go'. ingenium := 'trick'. of the examples can ». 1 a.^ The general use of a word in an extended sense is not common.. collocare= 'go to bed'.'. Hoppe Most 48. lectio =^ 'dxoifin' machinari='g[mA. 283.. perhaps Cf. but there are some examples /(7r^j = 'strong' in all 10. = 'rebJiKe§. G. Quillacq 54-79. 'text'. : senses. non capit utique videri Deus. Bon. new meaning in addition ambulare= 'march'. however.'» Many Pirson 260-262. orbus—'hXmd'. tractatus= 'treatise'. 286). Capit a ssumed the meaning of fieri potes t: R. part'. SENSE EXTENDED. viaticum = ']ox\xntY'.'k'. IN CLASSIC 7 a. 243. Pirson 257-258 . Bayard 105. etc. focus=^iix&\ paganus= 'pagan'. etc. mulier='-vi\ie'. 'authority'..ct of taking'.' to^x^a . Bon. and also 'continue'. Dubois 185-225. words. nor 'best b. Bon. yUloi:^. Very many Classic words are used in Vulgar Latin with a different sense: comparare =^h\xy'. § 10] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. i ^ns— 'chM'. nite This happens frequently. necare = Bon. Digitized by Microsoft® . . Regnier 24./22J£Sfe 46. non capit prophetam perire. SENSE RESTRICTED. WORDS USED DIFFERENTLY AND IN VULGAR LATIN. ro6ur= 'o^. 286. G. assume to the old one: Bechtel 137. Bayard 63-202.. 269-270. Per. 8. hcec eestimare non capit. etc. 351—352. 272. not 'sophism' nor 'deceit'. be classified under the heads of restriction or extension of meaning. Dubois 220. Archiv XII. defi' 9. not 'strength'. Many words kept their literal but lost their metaphorical sense: captio ='a.

Bechtel 127 {habebat de eo. WORDS USED Numerous all in m CLASSIC BUT NOT IN VULGAR LATIN. quin.. to be sure.loco forsitan quattuor milia. quoque. populus «/««^«j= 'common people'. terms and some abstract nouns were not needed: frondifer. cum. /V/-. etc. 328. Bayard 83. 58 {bella res). monuments of the Romance languages: so funus.". nam. ergo. Bon. ita. ^: moribund. de. although it is common in the Peregrinatio. ut. : . quod. postquam. hamo has the sense of French on. etc. Bon. the French ilj> a. utrum. 204. autem. Dubois. vel. donee. 37. Dubois 301-308). tamen must have been sed. quoad. 258 fif. horrescere. 66. but most of them are new formations. apud. Regnier 20. Per. diu. Regnier 29 {in came paucas habet virgines sanctimoniales). G.). . 38. they were either borDigitized by Microsoft® . quomodo) assumed new functions. 422 (in area Noe . Latin words either were not em- II. del>ere 'mdica. = 'pass Regnier 27 {quadraglnta dies fecit). enim. Classic ployed at the vulgar speech or went out of use before the earliest Jubere. Ecclesiastical Latin. and quasi. . Bechtel 144.per. 44. proles. When lost terms were needed for literary or other purposes.25. Bechtel 144. Unde came to mean 'and so'. at. Bayard 94.. quia. . [§ n 'go'. Dubois 218. Waters Ch. res is used of persons. G. Very many adverbs and conjunctions dis-"~\ I appeared saltern.. quippe. 391-397. facere (time)'. quidem. wW«/« = 'miracles' (in imitation of the Greek). etc.tes moral obligation.13. Poetic aurora. hand. sive. Pirson 255 ^^l^lj^j^^ ^^^^ habuit serpentes). etc. an. Waters Ch. satis = 'much'.8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 418. So various prepositions and conjunctions (as ad. igitur. 3. fletus. Per. fascia means a measure of land. etc. unus = 'a'. is very rich in abstract nouns (G. etiam. replicare= 'reply'.. ^2S= 't^he' and 'he'.

Sometimes a term was replaced by a word not found in Classic Latin at all: anser-wAs driven out by *auca (<. ignis hy focus. 337. G. Sometimes the survivor was far from a synonym in Classic Latin: discere was displaced hy apprendere. 313. .Va&T* capum) is preserved by Rumanian. humerus by spatula. ^-j 2 parentes . equus to caballus.. Rjetian. 272. For mansio. cur to quare. noverca by *matraster. Dubois 212. Some words were replaced by diminutives. some nouns by derivative adjectives: avis ^ by aucellus. Rumanian. 472 ferre to portare.*avica. 12. senex to vetulus. French. mansio. 324.338. Italian. R. Provengal.. b. French and Provencal mansio and hospitale. to genitores. R. testa by Cf. tanti. edere in the main to manducare. Spanish. Olcott XXV. Bechtel i^o^gena to gabata. and by villa. clerical 9 rowed from Classic or Latin (as nobilis) or replaced by new constructions (as *carrica for onus). Provenjal. Italian. R. vitrUus hypatraster. R. urbs by civitas. a. diminutive of avis). mansio ( Roman. nunc by hora. crus gave to gamba. SUBSTITUTES. R. ^capitia (<^caput) by Spanish and . Italian. emere by comparare. cf. Among the Romance languages. 336. Portuguese prefer casa. domus by casa. Digitized ^^^ by Microsoft® . Cf Zauner 41-42.\ Dubois 209. avus by *aviolus. 345. Dubois 220.§ 13] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.2.. privignus by 13. omnes by toii. French. Portuguese. R. R. Indus to jocus. When Latin had two words nearly synonymous. hospitale^. . *filiaster. os to bucca. casa occurs only in Italian inscriptions. Raetian. Occasionally the substitute aliquis yielded in part to res -vi&y was apparently a slang word: nata. magnus to grandis. SYWOHYMS.. . . 'dwelling') only in . sol According to Olcott XVIII. ^ * Caput (or rs. R. caput to testa''. i'^o^^ tot hy quanti. ^ Zauner 41-4. one often crowded out the other: atrium gave way to cars. 472.

G. R. quando. 121-130 {cereolus. . ergo. ex gave to de. 15. too. 203.x\naucella. paucum tempus for haud diu). hiems by hibernum. WORDS USED IN VULGAR BUT NOT IN CLASSIC LATIN. infemus. Reich. appear in Classic Vulgar Latin evidently had many words that do not texts. ver by vemum tempus. ^w^ by diurnus. Gl. Many prepositions. words were replaced by phrases: diu by longum tempus (Bon.). etsi. Autem. 4._ Cis. and Dacia preferred /^r. cuculla. utrum were assumed by si. schedula. 395-396. 403. ne.). Bon. Latin: G. infemus. ut were ousted by functions of an.). in Gaul. sed. R.lo in part An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. pra. c. Cf. vetus for [§ 15 by *soUculus. became *por. dies largely . Some of these were probably old Digitized by Microsoft® . yielded to apud. tamen. d'lJ way pro and per. to propter were displaced southern Gaul. credens. Adjectives used as nouns were etc. Ab was made unnecessary by de and per. etiam. igitur. erga. PARTICLES. 184-185. by other words. Occasionally. 472 mane h^ Diminutives were extremely common in late matutinum. etc. apud-<n2iS partially supplanted by adj cum. 108-121 {brevis. quod. R. Olcott 250-263 {gemelli. neptilla. frequent also: R. by subsitution. doubtless under the influence of per. conjunctions. 201. quoniam were often replaced by quomodo. etc. the by quando and other conjunctions. which replaced /^r and pro in Spain and to a considerable extent in northern Gaul.). mammula-:=^^zxiA\aoVs\t. most part by vetulus. Italy. Dubois 147 {novellus'). and adverbs were lost 14. and other phrases. Fro. 100-107 {arida. etc. The place of cum was taken various substitutes. Densusianu.

Bayard 179 (applied . ii native terms that do not happen to occur in the works preserved. Grammont. 158. norma. trepalium. as *miaulare. some Were borrowed from other detached 176-177). gavia (used by Pliny).adj. Densusianu 196. and f. cf. ing 'touch'. (so. pappus = 'gra. Herzog in Bausteine e.)... Korting (found in the 7th century). 270-271. 237. 154. so not improbably the original of the Romance words mean'find'.§ 17] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. adj. 97. tata. NATIVE WORDS. Archiv XIII. § 405). Archiv XIII. pudoris finis. etc. 154. apparently a cross then m. (Fr. *rettna=: 'rein'. 234. fin. etc. Some native words are rarely attested. Substrate V. A few that must have existed are not attested at all: *refusare.ndta. adj. potis est = potest. circare = 'hnnV . cloppus Densusianu 196. 156-157. 106. and perhaps those of the words meaning 'gape'. Archiv VIII. drappus. 17. hoc enim prode fit vobis. Archiv XIII. etc. mamma. 16. some were late creations. Pirson 244. Digitized by Microsoft® . . although they were doubtless in common use: amma. 63. tatus. Archiv XIII. Likewise words made by ono- matopoea. XVII. (Fr. Vr. from the noun finis in such phrases as honorum finis. and 'go' (cf. fuit prode illis. Densusianu 190. baro — 'athlete'. *gentis. Rom. Neue II. II. fins onors. pa(J>)pa. . 421.. SubstrateY. *prodis. Archiv XII.). Pr. 151-153. gente). Onomatopees et Revue des langues romanes XLIV. 151— 152. Audollent 199.g.. finis honoris > 484. St. Waters Ch. Archiv XIII. R. mots. Substrate ficatum. Archiv XIII. expressifs in M. atta. 468-469 (^quid enim prode est homini. serutinus. battalia. bxmca. Pirson 243. Cyprian to the bishop of Carthage). fine fino). prode. sed non genttlis. It. between genitus and from prodest (cf. nonnus. Some of the unattested words were obviously late developments: *finis.'. 186. E. Ch. a. It.

which affected familiarity with Greek. thesaurizare . *coraticum. 211. confessor = 'martyr'. evangelizare. *dulcior = 'sweetness'. 205-226: anathema. Bon. scandalizare. cf. FOREIGN WORDS. dactylus. Introduction) found their way into Latin: bannus. prophetare. §71. zare. vict(u)alia. a distributive preposition. * abbellire . A werra. This subject chapter. Bechtel 95 {cata mansiones. carricare. b. 224. anathematizare. some of popular creation. there are many Greek words in Petronius: hepatia. colaphus. haunjan. Reich. Bon. diaconissa. Judaizare. We find a large number of Greek words. Pirson 236). *vir{t)dura. will be discussed at length in the following may be given here: post-verbal dolus <dolere. society. catechiblasphemare . prophetizare. *man{u)aria. alberca. 226. Waters Ch. numerous verbs in -izare. G. Waters Ch. 44. More Germanic words (of.. wfltan 19. 225. vertragus. *nivicare. African Latin was freest in word formation. sabbatizare. hapja. Gram. Digitized by Microsoft® . a few of them on the sense of 'every'. Cf. colaphizare. dulcor. Dubois 144. but a few examples Gl. 66. (cf. eunuchizare. cata. *ausare. as allegorizare. G. Reich. More came in through the Christian vocabulary: angelus. apparently borrowed by popular speech: amygdalum. *soliculus. According to Olcott XIX. modernus. 12 An 18. zelare. some made by Christian writers. cata pascha). sagma. baptizare. Gl. such as alauda. folUa. verging 247 {cata mane mane). schema. few Celtic terms were adopted. Very many Greek terms used by ecclesiastical writers never became popular. haribergum. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. R. as baptizatio. Some were introduced by fashionable etc. Regnier VIII. and not a few new derivatives. [§ 19 Late Latin was rich in derivatives...

Bon. 98. which in- the literary language creased. whereas in reality both come from a primitive verb. " Cooper XXXVI. Augustine). then prefixes. who were especially addicted to prepositional compounds with con-. Vulgar Latin is very rich in derivatives and comit has many affectionate diminutives. pounds . as canere. G.* We shall consider first postverbal nouns (i. Bis. a.was used with some adjectives and appar: ently with a few nouns bisaccium. 13 DERIVATION. saltus — saltare. 1. II. G. and finally composite words. 21. 2. 35. a fictitious primitive noun was derived from a number of verbs in Vulgar Latin and in the Romance languages so dolus from dolere. POST-VERBAL NOUNS. (pairs in : VII (blamed by St. satire). 170 . '^ . I. In strictly Classic texts there appear to be no 20. Regnier etc. Vok. really living suffixes \ but the lost. ADJECTIVES. etc. " Cooper 246-297. sub-. such as gaudimonium (Waters Ch. Digitized by Microsoft® . 61). facility of word formation. Petronius. 246-247. which the noun seems to come from the derivative verb. in-. —itta)} Petronius shows a fondness for long derivatives.or bi. AND PRONOUNS. 367. See Gram.* popular speech preserved and This freedom of formation was abused by African authors. After the model of cantus — cantare. Cooper XXXIV. some of them made with new suffixes (as —icca. B.e. Late writings almost all abound in abstract nouns (Cooper 1-2). XL VI. Cooper XXX ff.§ 22] An Introduction to VulgaW Latin. 430-693 Densusianu 156-173. bisacutus.. 22.^ PREFIXES USED WITH NOUNS. next suffixes. 130 . ' » bimaritus. PREFIXES. substantives taken from the roots of verbs).


An Introduction
Ad-, con-, de-,

to Vulgar Latin.


dis—, ex-, in-, re:

and some others were
*adaptus ; commixtius,

occasionally used to form adjectives

G. 160 defamatus ; *disfactus; exsucus; inanimatus ; *replenus.
Cf. G.




Ac-, atque-,

ecce-, eccu-,

met- were used as demonstrative

prefixes to



pronominal adjectives and to adverbs. Eccu— is ecce eum; its origin being forgotten, it was used in

Vulgar Latin as a synonym of ecce. Met, primarily a suffix, came to be used as a prefix through such combinations as semet ipsum, understood as se metipsum. In archaic writings
reinforced demonstratives as eccum, eccam,


ecca, eccillum., eccillam, eccillud, eccistam

are not



Vulgar Latin examples are ac Classic texts they are rare. sic; atque ille-; ecce hie; * eccu iste ; * eccu sic. Substrate VI,





Cf. A.

Kohler, Die Partikel

ecce in

Archiv V,

See §§ 65, 66.



25. Ad-, con—, de-, dis—, ex—, in—, re— were freely used, disbeing mainly a Vulgar Latin prefix: abbreviare, G. 179 * a.d;

cap(i)tare ; adgenuculari, R. 181; adpretiare, R. 181, G. 180;
adpropiare, R. 181, G. 180; adunare, R. 182; confortare, R. 185,

* cominitiare ; complacere, R. 184; deaurare, G. 182 * disjejunare; exaltare, G. 183; excoriare, G. 182; impinguare, G. 181


G. 183; *infurcare; recapitulare, G. 185; *requcerere.
con—, de- lost their special significance;

Ad—, ad— was particularly

favored in Spain, con- in Italy.
ally there

Cf. Lat. Spr. 487.

was a change

of prefix


was used with the

sense of expectare, * convitare sometimes took the place of invitare; dis-

was often substituted

for ex-.


Ab-, contra-, per—, sub-, super supra-, tra trans— were

by Microsoft®

§ 3i]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


used occasionally: * aboculare ; *contrafacere; *perdonare ; subG. 185; * subdudere ; subsannare, R. 199, G. 187; superabundare, G. 187; * super—* suprafacere ; *trabucare ; *transaudire,

annare; transplantare, G. 188.
27. Extra- was sometimes used and 2«/ra— in Italy: * extrabuccare ; 28.
in Italy

and Dacia, infra-

* infraponere ; *intratenere.


e-, ob-, prce-,

pre-, pro-, retro— were apparently

not used to form new verbs in the popular spoken language,
although some of them are occasionally so employed by late
writers: opprobare, G. 184; prcedesiinare, G. 184


prolongare, G. 184.



sometimes replaced by ad—:


> addormire.

Foris and minus came to be used as prefixes in some

Foris was confounded Gaul with the Frankish _;?r- (= ver-) verslahen = Old Fr. See G. Baist, Frdnkisches fir— im altesten Franzosiforbatre. schen in Romanische Forschungen XII, 650; cf. Rom. XXX, For this use of minus, compare the phrase minus est^ 633. caritas in quantum adest in quantum deest, Regnier 109


* minuscredere.






autem minus


Cf. § 245.


Some verbs

take a double prefix

adimplere; coexcitare,

R. 207

(cf. Quintilian, coexercitatus); deexacerbare, R. 207

*deexcitare; *exeligere.




the restoration of the


form of

the primitive verb, was a regular process in Vulgar Latin (cf. §139): aspargo for aspergo is blamed by Velius Longus, £don

Cyprian, Bayard 3; commando is, according to Velius Longus, the usual form, rather than commendo,



used by


S. 60, ifidon

131; consacrati


occur in inscriptions,




Bon. 49°;

^^f^'^i ^30^°





An Introduction
Bon. 490.

to Vulgar Latin.



Computo, 58-64, Bon. 486-493. prdsto seem to cdnsto, consuo, erigo, exeo, infio,

have been regarded as simple verbs

S. 64.

primitive form of prefixes; but this

Late writers were in the habit of restoring the full, was doubtless merely a

matter of spelling, and did not indicate the



In TertuUian, Cyprian, and some others there is generally no assimilation of the prefix other writers, such as

Gregory of Tours, apparently used both assimilated and unassimilated forms. Bayard 12-15: adpetere, conpendium, inproius, obfero, subplanto. Bon. 178-188: adtonitus, conmittere,
inlatus, obprimere, subcuvibere.



in —are; occasionally


Nexhsfrom nouns^ generally end
sometimes in

in -iare or —ire;

which was eventually sup-

planted in Italy and in Gaul by —izare (for pronunciation see

§339)- This last ending came from Greek -dfiv through borrowed words, such as baptizare. For a list of Greek verbs in -i^etv adopted by Christian writers, see R. 248-249 (cf. §19 above); some new formations were used, as catechizare. In early Latin this same ending appears as -issare (attidsso, rhetorisso): see A. Funck, Die Verba auf issare und izare in

Archiv III, 398.


— * dom'nizare;

—plagiare —


oculare; pedinare; plantar.e; potionare; * trepaignire ;



follicare ;

* nivicare ;


Cooper 205-245, Dubois 151-162, Quillacq 41-46, Bonnet 471-474.

"Cf. R. 154-162.

by Microsoft®


§ 36]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

in —are,


Verbs from

and perfect participles e.r\A

—iare, —ire; also in' -icare (cf. albicare), —itare (cf. debilitare,
visitare), —escere


—iscere (cf. canescere, mollescere); possibly


angiistare; *ausare; captivare

confortare ; falsare

gravare ; levare ; * oblltare ; rictare ; Usare ; * abbellire ; tiare ; * captiare ; humiliare ;

— * vanitare —


alleviare; * al-

unire ;


Icetiscere ; vilescere ;

— amari— *blan-




verbs from perfect participles (frequentatives, etc.)

replace the original verbs: adjuvare "> adjutare ; audere'^ausare; canere'^cantare ; uti>usare.

lost their frequentative or inchoative sense







156. in -icqre


Verbs from other verbs end


fodere), —itare (cf. clamitare <,clamare')\ also in -escere, -Iscere
(cf. florescere,

* bullicare

< buUere





inchoative force:

apparescere ;

Vulgar Latin has many old frequentive verbs G. 178-179, Cooper 205. There are some late diminutives in —aculare, —tculare, -uculare, through diminutive nouns or adjecWe find also tives (ci. periculari <,periculum'): * saltlculare. some miscellaneous imitative formations * expaventare (and some others) apparently after the analogy of prasentare * misculare perhaps after maculare.


Greek verbs in -av,

-eiv, etc.,

when taken

into Latin, reg-

KvP€pvav>gubemare ; pXa(r<j}rifidv'>b/asphemare. Cf. Claussen 795. But ^aXS.av>psallere, perhaps through the analogy oifallere: Claussen 796. Germanic verbs in -an or -on regularly passed into the first


in —are:

conjugation in Latin





guidare ; roubon




"jR^etcA. ;

in -jan

went into the fourth
It. guamire. Digitized by Microsofi®


> hatire,


warnjan >

The commonest endings -a. neuter plural of the gerundive. used to designate a place (as gallinarium). Cf. * calamarium. iio-iii). Quillacq 15-31. was very fond of diminutives: adules- centulus. a neuter plural. 1 [§ 37 SUFFIXES FOR NOUWS. 355. *pollicare. -enda. -ans. Olcott 176-182. used to form adjectives and also nouns.. G. : -anda. -die. 39. Ch. was extended: breviarium. -alia. for nouns and adjectives: liminare. Some go endings. Cooper 1-91. socera. Olcott 238-239. were used to form abstract nouns from verbs: Cf. etc. * credeniia . especially names of parts of apparel (as bracchiale). -ens: see Adjectives. G. as senatus (common in Petronius. Latin. Cf. as a feminine singular with an augmentative and pejorative signification. iCf. -ago. participles H ia (as benevolentia. 31-37. *sperantia. 49-52. -ugo were characteristic of rustic speech: —al. Digitized by Microsoft® . 40. *ducatus. R. -affcum * coraticum. -ar. Olcott 187-189. Bon. —aria : see -ia. -igo. as victualia (cf. the collective plural -ilia. —ata : see -ta. G. Cf. Ch. -are. in a collective sense. taurellus.i in 37. are the following: : Ch. 74). -entia. etc. essentia. was extended: clericatus. 453-463. -^a. came to be used as a feminine singular: *facienda. 79-102. 366. used to — Haag 41 form f eminines nepta. -dnus: see Adjectives. -arius: see Adjectives. to form nouns from nouns: g. e. Dubois 99-136. tives. fragraniia . bonatus. R.8 — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. b. Waters Ch. were used The Christian writers are especially rich Waters Ch. Cooper in. Bon. -antia. apparently. placentia. was used. 95. (as viaticum) was extended. in Italy and Gaul * canalia •< canis. Vulgar in deriva- Petronius. Olcott 73-78. volatilia. made from present significantid). 95. -arium. . Bon. too. Pirson 123. porcellus. as miraUlia. -dtus. G. 59. was extended: coxale. Cf. 6\.

1-2 1. 335. somewhat extended: Old Fr. 91-92. Horn- —iceus. Gram. porcellus. which lost its diminutive force: anulus. -crum (as miraculum. was used beside -cuius: So * domnicellus. Arbonenca. was used for many new words: Pr. wvicella. mane 76). to form pi. -Tela. R. Olcott 173-176. 31-37. 591. unaccented. Einf. diminutive (as castellum). 333ff. Pr. 19 -cellus. —ceus. . Olcott 131-134. was probably Cf. It may have arisen in the first place from a childish pronunciation of -iclus.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. —tea: see Archiv fiir das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Litera: turen CXIV.- -culum. Thomas. used to form feminines (as avus. it was then extended to Spain. It.' *libraria. anellus . unaccented. -enda : see —anda. etc. cula. See A. -cius: see Adjectives. Karica) first appears in Africa in feminine proper names. manica. § 173. Rum. perhaps also *-ingus and locally -ancus. and came to be used as a diminutive suffix in Spanish. -ia. Sardinia. : used (cf . G. —icius: see Adjectives. Valinca. Cf. and Dacia. lavacrum) were occasionally used: *genuculum. -tcca (as Bodicca.. see —ium. -ensis: see Adjectives.). being used in pet names. avicula. —eum : -ia. —ens: see Adjectives. hence an ending -fflWa. -ellus. -incus or -inguus (as propinguus). navicella. -Mum. avid): neptia. -occus. —ans. XXXI. Portuguese. It was often attached to words in -arius. abstract extended *fortia fortia n. philosophia .. Cf. -ia. -iccus. etc. animalico . 283ff. 481. -uc(c)us. Les substantifs en -ier et le essais de philologie fran- Rom. from Greek -ia through Christian writers and speakers monarchla. —eus: see Adjectives. So calamellus. etc. etc. Bonica. ramenc . as desiderium. Digitized by Microsoft® solingo. vitellus. Cf. XX. possibly of Ligurian origin (Rom. was often used beside -Ulus. II. Pir- son 123. suffixe -arius. = ' nouns (as victoria). diminutive. porculus. vitulus. 457. 170. and Rumanian: Sp. -entia : see -antia. navi- —ceus. XXXV. For -accus. was mighty deeds of God Koff'. ing in Zs. XIX. cf. see A. consirier. and Nouveaux (aise no.

sometimes in Spain and Gaul. camerlingo. Cf. -otus. 251. -io : 134-136. regards -dttus. calcaneum) : see G.20 Sp. Olcott 78-80. R. then smallness. Cusanca. bonito. It came to be very widely used as a diminutive suffix for nouns. generally long in the Spanish peninsula and in -Ittus. Cf. in [§ 37 some regions. originally used to indicate a characteristic (as Digitized btbo). etc. (Cooper XLV): *altitia. § 172. -issa. from the Greek Cf. Fr. -tnus (as caninus. but sometimes to form new adjectives to form domnina = 'young lady'. as a suffix for proper names: feminine tus. An It Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Pirson 226: Julianeta^ Nonnita^ N'onniit Its origin is unknown. following. It. —monia: see Olcott 81-82. -Uies. serpentinus. etc. much extended. adjectives. Cf. R. -icca. -mentum. 343. was probably confounded. conjectures that have come from the Germanic ending that now appears as in such names as Heinz. then resemblance. -0 {-onem). may have arisen from a childish pronun- ciation of -iclus -a: it may Meyer-Liibke. Bonitta^ Caritta^ Julitta^ Livitta^ Suavitta. Sp. Cooper 251. Sp. with the -ing. and also for adjectives.. and central and northern Italy. Fr. -itUdo : —ium.. -mum. Germanissa. was used for some nouns and perhaps for adjectives (see -incus above): Pr. Olcott 123-131. in inscriptions in Italy -ittus first appears during the Empire and Dacia. -lius. -monium. Montaninus) originally denoted appurtenance. (as paffiXurcra. were both are rare in Rumanian -ities especially in the south . vestimenium). —itia. Sagitta. Zimmermann. were extended. Cf. -iva : see Olcott 224-226. -dttus as alternative Sardinia: nouns. Raetia. Olcott see -iio. especially : diminutive nouns. cf. -ttas : see —tas. Olcott 200-204. bacito. -men. Attitta. *granditia. doucet. 22-25. used to form nouns from adjectives (as munditia -ies). Zs. amourette. Florentinus . it was freely used. some new formations: ^dukissa. 56-59. A. Einf. Nebitta. see —tUdo. W. especially -mentum : *gubernamentum. was by Microsoft® . fioretto. was used for prophetissa. masculine Muritta. the i being short in Gaul. like littera beside litera. so pythonissd). forms of -dtus. -eum (as cafitium. etc. a German patronymic ending. li. Pirson 228. -laaa. used to form nouns from verbs (as certdmen. . lausenga. XXVIII. grassetto.

used to form from verbs nouns denoting place. 503-504 {dolor. prensio. *movita. unknown etc. 88-122. *lucor. 102-106. e.. used to form abstract nouns (as candor. : extensa. 44-45. used to designate the agent -orium . was employed for many new formations of the same kind. XIII. especially in Gaul: dulcor. 122. Cf. 45-56. So deitas from deus. In Gaul these nouns came to be feminine: Bon. -sus: see —ta. *sentor. -(orium. Collin in Archiv XIII. used to make abstract nouns from adjectives. Olcott 58-69. casotta. -ittus). aggravatio. revoluUo. -sa. aquilotto. R. Gaul often as a 56. R. see —torium. *deUta. G. —trix. —sor (—torem. viror. someDigitized by Microsoft® . remissa. *perdtta. St. 415. used to denote the agent (as Cf. trobaire. 88. ostensio. i. narraius: cf. as an augmentative or pejorative. It. Cyprian). *flator. Olcott 33-51.G. They were considerably used to make abstract nouns from verbs (and —ata was sometimes attached to nouns. of see -tor. —tas {-tdtem). perfect participles by fourth declension nouns in -tus. -sorium. Pr. used as nouns. Cf. -or {-oreni). origin (cf. 85- Bayard 24-25. -iita. timor. as collectus. sapor). Olcott 2-23. C. venuta. Olcott 83-87. and other late writers: abbreviatio. : -or (-orem). feminine perfect participles with a feminine noun understood. were very freely employed (but show few traces in Ru- manian : Cooper XLV) : necdtor. 55-63. -sionem). —sorium: see —torium. Bayard 19-22. 82-83. —tor. lectio. R.). -sio i^tionem. Cf. 83. -tus and -j«j were preferred in Dacia (Cooper XLV) collecta. 453. Cf. Jerome. *nutritio. See Archiv V. —sio : see -ito. trinitas. are very common in St. recubitus . started perhaps with such forms as defensa. -tus. as *annatd). -sorem). It. 475. 222.. 223. Cyprian. ostensor. nativitas . andata. R.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 69-82. -Sttus. Bayard 19-22 (very -tio. in. —Stus. was apparently used : first of young animals. —sus. Olcott amdtor. G. Fr. etc. Substrate IV. etc. —sura: see —ilra. later -dta. —sor: see -ior. G. purltas . aiglon. 63. boccone. in 21 commonly employed diminutive: g&lo. G. mensor). —sa : see —ia. *flavor. G. *vendita. and were reinforced —ta. beveire. *reddita. was freely employed :ya/jfi'aj. used to form abstract nouns from verbs (as mansio.fossato. -tricem. potto). then as a general moderate diminutive It. common in St.

-iita: Cf. -11. 40-45. sinape . -um : Claussen 796. -e. -ura and -t-ura. G. instead of -is (Claussen 798) pausis "^pausa. from adjectives was extended. -IS often clvain'^ sinapis. ^•vir'dura. Olcott 69-73. -Ala.)u~^ gumma. missorium. influenced by olere. : gummi-s. ornatura. ^pressorium. R. G. later from adjectives also. the -OS. make abstract nouns servitudo. tensura. etc. etc. 38. —tus: see -ta. : became -a. -T7)s became -a. -as in popular words generally > lampa. '^planura. When Greek nouns were endings were adapted as follows: — borrowed by Latin. 197. payLda'^ -(an in magida. —a. Cf. mensorium. or -i (Claussen 799) TT^Trepi'^ piper. Cf. in popular words gave a feminine -ma (Claussen 796-797) > f -pos preceded by a consonant became -fr (Claussen : 797): 'AWfai'5po$>- Alexander. -tus (Claussen 798): rpiiKTijs '^ irucia . R. ossulum. : in late Latin often replacing -or {fervor > *fervurd) were extended. Sometimes the genitive or the accusative was taken as a basis. Einf. diminutive (as vitulus). often taking the place of —culum (cubiculum much > accubitorium) (as *C(ssorium. pressura. fell popular words either or became -a. instead of the nominative (Claussen 800-802): iXi^avros'^ elepliantus . -s-iira. Olcott 194-196. 31-37. Olcott 51-58. reposito- rium. used to form abstract nouns from perfect participles (as censura. > p6KLT-qs -I in became -a (Claussen 798-799) : Xa/iirds -7)S. *certitudo. Digitized by Microsoft® . § 171. Bon. -tuda (-tiidinem). boletus. There are a few exceptions for special reasons (Claussen 795) cXaiop. ^6-gy. -pa cima. -aius. oratorium. by popular etymology. cursorium). see —ta.: : : 22 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. gave oleum. -ov regularly became respectively -us. was used for a few new formations *alaudula. mesSee sura. kviuj. popular words became -o (Claussen 797) X^wi'> lea. used to fortitudd). -tura : see —ura. -ta or -us. ixrikiipvWov. gave : millefolium. stricturd). natatorium. 88-90. -is. Kbii. [§ 38 ex- times instrument (as dormitorium. *frig' dura . were tended. nutritura.

Cooper 92-163 (diminutives. *werrarius.i are the following: 39« The commonest endings : — —abllis see —hilis. became and —icius (as sigillaricius). Cf. etc. *leviarius. G. Die Adjectiva auf -icius in Archiv V. -oneus —onius (as extraneus. were extended (especially in rustic speech: Cooper iii). -actus -actus. Romanus). Olcott 226-238. *Sicilianus. Olcott 215-220. -dlis. Eon. -aceus being employed later as an augmentative and pejorative suffix for adjectives and finally for nouns: chartaceus formaceus . G. -ens {-an/em. aKfnriKot'^ scopulus . 143. —dneus -anius.. See E. and form nouns of occupation (as aquarius. to denote connection. attached to nouns Cf. Cf. -Sris (as singularis) was extended: particularis. »?«i/«a»2«. episcopalis. regalis. 164-195). iTTroTiiXij "^spatula. § 39] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. present participles (as amans. 464-467. 415. decanus. Dubois 136-151. used to make from nouns adjectives denoting material (as arenaceus. erroneus) were slightly ex- tended: *caroneus. -entem). The phonetic development of this suffix was apparently Gaul and some other regions the earliest examples are glan: 'Cf. Tuscanus. poiens). was much extended. : see A. imaginarius . Bechtel 83. denoting appurtenance (as paganus. —anus. '^passans^ make adjectives and nouns from verbs: credens.). popular in Gaul 62 (Hacherece. It. c. pelliceus). were used freely to ^ currens . tempaccio. 23 The unaccented vowel of the penult was often changed in conformity with Latin habits (Claussen 802-806) Sl&^oKos'^ diabolus diabulus. -tlis. K^paffos : "^cerd-sus *cerSsus. 144. pomarius). and adjectives. spontaneus. Thomas. geniilis). Wolfflin. Bechtel 83. arespecially in the latter function: . a combination of —arius — *capiianus. Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise etc. used also in the masculine to gentarius. -ans. was used to form adjectives of place (occasionally time) and nouns of office: biduanus. SUFFIXES FOR ADJECTIVES. —artcius. Olcott 137-173. were extended: *cortilis. Digitized by Microsoft® . used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as Cf. *ducaHs. -arius. mixticius. Quillacq 32-40. Olcott 182-187. -iceus -ictus. * setaceus . peculiar in — apothecarius *marinarius. Mapa"^ cithara ciihlra.

querceus. -tbilis. -ensis. suggests that the Germans in Gaul associated -arius with their proper names in -areis 01 —ari. 137. 135-140. *faiatus. papyrius. Digitized by Microsoft® . Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise 119. in an objective suffix used to make adjectives very common in Christian writers in late Latin. by the analogy of the plural -ari. used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as/orenwas greatly extended. 591. then —iers. diligibilis . or -dbilis. indicibilis. Zimmermann. from verbs (as amabilis. Thomas. On the other hand. however. adjectives in the popular language: Cf. Cf. A. Zimmermann. e. was much used to : make ratus. Italian —aro is easily explained and Italian —iere. pronounced —arius. *pagensis. capabilis. G. and that this pronunciation spread to the neo-Latin speakers. as -erius or —erus. : tabilis . —iceus —icius: see dcetts. 481 (cf. especially in popular speech. -i [§ 39 glandarius . XXXI. Cf. : -eus -ius. 34-36). —ceus -cius : see -iceus. *cariierribilis). Zs. the derivative was sometimes used as a noun: panne us . and was much employed rare. too. -er. or i before the a. showing that while the French forms may perhaps be derived from -arius and -iarius.24 deria <i_ An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. XXVI. G. timo- Olcott 244-250. turrensis.. denoting material (as aureus). Staaff. a perfect participle ending (as sceleraius). the derivatives being sometimes employed as nouns * cortensis . 159-160. Chairibertus repeatedly used for Charibertus by Fredegarius Haag 7. G. Cf. real suffix (cf. points out that many words have c. was slightly extended (but is Rumanian: Cooper XLV). the Proven9al cannot. *Frankensis. try to derive all the forms from -arius. -bUis. i^t. 296 (cf. 109-116. E.^* markensis . that -iarius and —carius may have established —iers in French. fageus. Gram. rare in — -{bUis : see —bilis. Zs. R. is . vallensis. Rom. —iero are probably borrowed. Spanish -ero and Italian -aio are perfectly regular.' exauguratus. anaiiarius. and when umlaut affected the a of these. Olcott 142). P. § 227. 222. especially in learned words it is Rumanian (Cooper XLV) acceptabilis . Marchot. Phon. — ia (6th century) and sorcerus <C^* sortiarius (8th century) the earliest forms in French and Provenyal are —ers. I. 155. Cf. postulates -ar(i)us and -er{i)us. XXI. sis). and Bausteine 641). Olcott 209-213. Le suffixe -arius dans les langues romanes. G. Die Geschichte des lateinischen Suffixes — arius in den romaniscken Sprachen^ and E. I. -atus. that -iarius was a. R. —ens : see —ans. Olcott 339-344. -ier. G.

was used especially in words 25 : -icus (as medicus) cus. 193-197 {angelice. 4810. with the or of sense of -Wlis the gerundive: Pr. § 40] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Possibly *anc is derived from an in the same Substrate II. -ittus: see Nouns. Franz. —Andus (as jocundus) was used in Spanish and Proven9al for a few words Pr. G. etc. G. donique in cites eight examples of dune. 155 (Tertullian)j *npidus. in St. Cf Olcott . Cf. -sorius. = + . -iscus. volon.' 40. dune The usual endings are as follows: — num nunc. was a favorite with Christian writers. I. —sorius: see —tortus —tortus. from the Greek cleri- Cf. 552.. one of them from Gaul. juratoriH. censere censor censorius). new formations : *restivus. 241. probably a fusion of Greek -ktkos {Syriscus) and Germanic -isk (Thiudiscus). way: -e cf. made up of -t-or. -uius (as canutus) was somewhat extended: *camutus. L. -oneus : see —dneus. —ilis: see —dlis. 157-158. Olcott 220-223. Tiktin 597. Rum. Digitized by Microsoft® . is Archiv I. mansorius. G. diminutive (as albulus). Ill. (C. were used for some new formations: defensorius In Provengal and Rumanian -torius was extended. ~ius : see —eus. ? I. -orius: see -iorius. It was 'Cf. sapidus. lo) Pirson 252 IX. Bon.). : d. -inus {as fraxinus) was used for a few adjectives: quercinus. was used for -icus in some late words: *Angliscus. SUFFIXES FOR ADVERBS. -inus : see Nouns. 103-106. 158. promptulus. very common Jerome: G.) Cf. — . —s-or H ius (as notare notor notorius. sliglitly -idus (as rapidus) was extended: exsucidus. turn tunc) was apparently used to form dum ce (cf. Cooper 196-204. punidor. Gram. —ce -c (as ne nee. etc. Dubois 163-171. -ivus (as nativus) occurs in a few 224-226. '*Frankiscus. -ulus. 467-470.

*mala mente. forte. though much used in ecclesiastical Latin (G. Cyprian (Bayard 34-35) and some other : writers. Later. *bona mente. mente. Then it was employed in a more general sense: pari mente. are to be found in Petronius 37. 46. They are rare in St. Cyprian (Bayard 32-34). etc. being especially common in St. -ones (in Italy also with- out the preposition) came into use Cf. male. Cf. basso. as It. for emphatic effect. Reich. 42. Ch.' ' Waters Ch. adverbial phrases on the model : ad . etc. as sometimes in Classic Latin. etc. 197-201 infantiliter. In the Romance languages mente was sometimes added comment. piano. Normannice. jocunda mente. caldo. -um generally coincided in pronunciation (multum = multo. XXX. in Rumanian. XXIX. whence such formations as Brittanice. obstinata mente. bocconi. . 245. modo sic modo sic^ nee sursum nee deorsum non cresco. noii). now now so. and occurs also in Romanice. Gram. 337. Rom. alto. * ipsa mente. It.). tarde. poco. II. to adverbs: insiememente.). 58. and in Rumanian nearly all adjectives may be so used (as greii. a recu230. soave). 689.' cf. -iter: see -ter. Some lons. mente was used with any adjective that could make an adverb of manner. * longa mente. . This formation is not common. Zs. Ch. : modo modo =^ •only yesterday. a ginocchioni. pure. common in other late writers: clanculo. longe. Many such mon speech. Jerome. [§ 41 preserved in popular speech in bene. Ch. sola mente. Digitized by Microsoft® . It. Adverbs of manner came to be made with the ablative This noun was first used with an adjective to denote a state of mind. Many examples so. -ter (as brevUer) was not preserved in common speech. adverbs were preserved in comhence other ad- jectives came to be used as adverbs (as W. -0 and etc. G. but rata. Ch. but was not kept alive in popular Latin. 339- Repetition was used. however. perhaps after the Vulgar Latin period. 428. 487. § SS- 41. 45 . XXXIII. firma mente. chiaro. Fr. Lat. as forti mente. Gl. multum.26 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Spr. Fr. -tim was favored by St.

Cohn -tius'^-itus : vacuus'^*v(lcitus (cf." App. subterraneus ^ subterranus. § 195). Cf. Cf. -drius: see Suffixes for Adjectives. Caper (Keil VII. etc.. cornlciila *cornuula. : ericius *eruius. lanatus lanutus. Cf. —tllus^—ellus: axtlla"^ ascella. Cohn 41-42. —dnus^—dneus: Cohn 160-172. Cf. Cohn 1 51-154. Pr. -iculus =z -UcJilus : ossiculum ossMculum. (2) Indiscriminate use of two suffixes: — Cf. Cf. rancor"^* ran- > > cilra. Cohn 42— 52. 96): "querela. loquela'^ loquella. Waters Ch. 227. tus cauditus. Corssen S. loquela per unum /. e. 216. (3) Alteration of a suffix: — Cf. as are: — The principal types (1) Subsitution of a : rare one -alius — new or common suffix for an old or > -callus : see -tllas. sortcem *sortcem. Cohn 172-180. Digitized Cohn 274-291. venenum"^ *veninum. -ix(-icem) consilium * consilium. Cf. The popular language sometimes manuplus for another. —iilus'^—ellus: aniilus'^ anellus . 65. 131. pediculus Cf. Cf. -iceus -icius 184. R. etc. carnatus *carnutus. Cohn 219-226. extraneus * extranus . Cohn 30-31. 460. —dtuszzz—ttus=:i—utus: barbatus '^barbutus . Cf. ~or(—drem)'^-ura: calor'^*calura. suadela"^ suadHla. peduculus. lenHc-Ula Cf. querela'^ guerilla. 321. Cohn 213I. R. -drius. pavoT~^*pavura. R. famtlia */amtlia. -elus"^ -ellus (common in late Latin): camelus'^ camellus. Cohn 184. 42. by Microsoft® . -^ —iciilus : capUHlus * capttulus . Cohn = -ix(-icem): Cohn 147-151. avicUla'^ avicllla. 460. etc. -tc-aius *lenficiila. Cohn 180-205. 17-28. substitutes one suffix for manipulus. 27 CHANGE OF SUFFIX. 460. —cuius !> cHlus : see -tllus.§ 42] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -ex(-ecem) -ix(-uem) : vervecem berbicem. 460. -ilius =^ -ilius : 154-160. R." —enus'^-inus: "Byzacenus non Byzacinus. cauda- Cohn —Ic'eus —icius ^=.

Digitized by Microsoft® . Bon. antemittere. in odio^ loco. a contra. —iculus ? ^^'—Hciilus : genuciclum . 160-170: magnisonans .. 130-134. Cohn 264-274. HOUWS. etc. 194. bene placitum. 232. . avis struthius. In church writers there are G. 131. medio ADJECTIVES. -udo i^udtneni)'^ -umen (-iimtnem) : consuetudo *costumen. etc. ab olim. PRONOUNS. R. G. etc. . /oris mittere. 483. Cf. Bechtel loi. .. d. 426 ad mane. Acer arbor (> Fr. flectere. saine. 231. uniunigenitus . 234. enfuir). But male habitus. Bechtel loi. c. late pronunciation of [§ 47 -enus'^-lnus through sagina {Vok. G. genu- G. etc. cornis. ab intus. a. Bon. R. Bechtel loi. etc. Bon. medio die. 483. bis coctum. Bechtel loi ad semel. 'just now'. a semel. intra videre. a longe. Cohn 226—264. ADVERBS. 203. omnimodus . Reich. a modo. were popular. mentaver) minus pretiare. Cf. Bechtel loi. inde fUgere (> Fr. COMPOUNDS. 231. b. — = . manu So tenere. ad subito. erable) alba spina. in Gl. incus incudo * inciimtnem. 484. Bechtel loi. 44. R. G. 483. crucifigere. Cake pistare. i<)i\ 45. style. a foras. Ill. 4. Bon. many verbs in -ficare. VERBS. ij as i: uayijv))'^ 7th century) "^ > Old Fr. Bon. R.28 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 65. There were many compounds made up of a preposition and an adverb: ab ante. mente habere (> Pr. 191. 190. Bechtel loi ad horam 'presently'. 121 : Greek etc. Substrate 553-554. . See §§ 24. 483. ^ranucula. These compounds generally belonged to the literary G. 46. a /oris. G. 43. ad sero. as mortificare: e. 47. I.

487. 40. Slightly different intus in. 268. CONJUHCTIONS. Spr. in hodie.28. Substrate III. R. 233. 203. The sic. dat and from a southern Latin *dadl. * in semel. 74. At ubi and ad ubi. per girum zxiA per giro ^ circa. Bechtel 102. 72. et at ubi. G. R. usque hodie. Bechtel 102. Bon. consist of Bechtel 102. were used as prepositions: ab ante. Bechtel 102. Digitized by Microsoft® . de retro. R. da.17. is de+ab.. Mohl. R. In any case probably a late product. 203. and Old Sp. E. 426. 235. 235. de intus. de sursum. and ad. de sub. Bon. Lat. 38) says: Ubi semel res inclinata amici de medio. R. de contra. 39. dad may be it is the result of a fusion rather than a combination of de Some have thought it came from found from the 7th century on he would derive It. ad — — R. It. de deorsum. de semel. Bechtel 102.8.15. PREPOSITIONS. Bechtel loi. Bechtel 102. 484.13. de inter. Lexique 38-47.3. in contra. etc. Bon. in ante. in is Archiv I. 49.these adverbial Some 40. etc. Per. Lat. Bechtel loi. e contra. in by the ablative or the accusative). day-. 29 tunc. Per. compounds. Per. Cf. 484.— 49] — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. * dabe. of . Spr. de intra. in contra^ Petronius (Waters Ch. Bechtel loi. Sardinian dave. 68. says da . 75. Bon. and some others similar to them. G. de magis. etc. ex tunc. Lexique 48. 484.19. et Per. following compounds are of a sic. in ante. 203. 433. d^ ante. Some compounds two prepositions: * de ad {y. 203. f. is A compound made up of preposition + noun found in: in giro (followed 102. doe. de intus. de retro. 437. de post. Bechtel 102. still different nature : ac Per. Bechtel 102. 23S. g.). in mane. Wolfflin. R. G. 232. Abante. 232. R. G. de forts. 232. 85. ^ Romance da.. de super. Bechtel medio. 484-486 (cf. G. Haag 75. R. 487. 232. Raetian dad from the Oscan da.

Ill. Latin in the middle. proceeding from the exemplified The modern order is the known to the unknown. 50. however. and were not characteristic of daily speech. Romance puts the emphasis at the end of the sentence. as in the "In multis hoc rebus dicere habemus" of Lucretius. so to speak. byMicrosoft® . a crescendo. from which work most of the matter of Digitized this chapter was taken. It does not permit the arbitrary- separation of osition noun of it members that belong together. Nevertheless there is really a fundamental difference between the old order and the new: Romance has. is logical. See Meyer-Liibke. by this sentence : The ^ ^ old arrangement " Fabius syptax. is not primarily rhythmic.II. The most irrational features of the Classic Latin construction were surely artifical. Gram. but psychic. 1903. The principle. or the adjective and the modifies. ORDER OF WORDS. such as the prepand the word it governs. Spr. 491)." allow the collocation words of the same part of speech that belong logically in different places. Latin to a certain extent a diminuendo movement {^Lat. Romance more after the word modified. the difference being due to a diverse conception of the structure of language: Latin places the modifier before. Zur Eniwicklung der romanischen Wortsiellitng aus dcr lateinischen. for a comprehensive account of Romance See Elise Richter. as in Ovid's "In nova fert animus mutatas Neither does it dicere formas /corpora. SYNTAX/ A.^ is The Romance order of simpler and more rational than that Classic Latin.

it occurs sporadically also in literary authors. 31 sequatus imperio Hannibalern et virtute et fortuna superiorem vidit. there was a long struggle. from the earliest texts down . hoc peccatum eorum" {Exodus XXXII. especially in Cicero. Classic Latin may be said to represent an in- termediate stage. it is to be found in Latin. By the fourth century Here is a characteristic passage the new order prevailed. Spr.§ 52] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 490)." The following examples illustrate the later structure: "Mors perfecit tua ut essent et natura montuosa impedita ad rem militarem. all cultivated peoples have made it. angelus meus praecedet te. et fuit ibi quadraginta diebus et quadraginta noctibus" i^Per. in inscriptions and popular writers. Digitized According to Meyer- by Microsoft® . from the Peregrinatio : "Hasc est autem vallis ingens et planissima." omnia brevia. which independently effected the same transformation. and for centuries the ancient and the modern type were used side by side." "Hasc loca sunt The change constitutes a progress in language . Petronius has notably short periods and an approach to the new structure. et due populum istum quo locutus sum Ego autem in die ultionis tibi. There first. such as a connective or an atonic pronoun {Lat. But until the fourth century the majority of Latin sentences have the old arrangement. while the revolution was in progress. visitabo et : 52. 34). The modern order was not abruptly substituted for the On the contrary. delebo eum de libro meo. not imitated from the Greek. tu autem vade. 37. with generally increasing frequency. It is indigenous in Latin. quod sanctus Moyses ascendit in montem Domini. was always a tendency to put a stressed word followed by an unaccented one.21-24). 51 • old. 33. The following is a good sample of the style of the Vulgate: "Cui respondit Dominus Qui peccaverit mihi. in qua filii Israhel commorati sunt his diebus.

noun in all the The Romance languages except Rumanian and Albanian (Zauner 40). however. and were attached preferably to the first word in the sentence : . precedes its but qui le voit. etc. vedolo but le non lo vedo. Digitized by Microsoft® . In dependent clauses.32 Liibke. B. see the 55. aiutatemi but or m'aiutate . [§ 55 XXI. Use of In- Repetition writers : for intensive effect is not uncommon . malum malum. R. I. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. volgra). personal pronouns. prepositions. Zs. 54- USE OF WORDS. when unstressed. §40. in late Commodian. which were naturally of less im- portance. bonis bonis.For the simplification flections. Cf. it was in the early stages of the Romance languages It.. sitions are There were great changes in the functions of pronouns. and adverbs. and so cf. 313. fortis fortis. 280. 53. Many uses of prepoconnected with the loss of inflections: these will be discussed under the Use of Inflections. voit definite article. of inflections. In a few other respects the old arrangement lingered and under certain conditions is still preserved . Fr. morir adverbs precede their verb . NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. Wolfflin 4 bene bene. : negative and intensive under some circumstances the object may come before the verb. the old order survived longer than in independent. malus malus. conjunctions. were always enclitic in Latin. indefinite article developed out of ille A definite and an and unus. and sometimes the whole predicate precedes in certain constructions the dependent infinitive may stand before the finite verb (as Pr.

See Archiv VIII. Unus was used as an indefinite article. 56. The comparative came to be used for a superlative. frequently in late and popular writers • For the forms of numerals. and in hie estfilius mens carissimus. R. toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period. 415—417). 451. Digitized by Microsoft® . 280).' lepida 57. in Many use. WUMERALS. //wj levior. maxime pessima.. prceclarum. etc. (R. but no example of has been found. etc. melius sanus (Wolfflin 16). 33 COMPARISON. cf. magis .§ 57] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. plus popularis. b. etc. plus formosus in Nemasianus. as Ovid's inertioratas (Wolfflin 63-68). (Wolfflin 46). and the superlative was often really a positive in meaning. common Adverbs. the plus and magis constructions were employed more and more to express a distinct comparison plus : miser in Tertullian. a. this formation came to be popularly regarded as the regular one: magis mirabilem. 166-170. in Sidonius Apollinaris (Wolfflin 29). and also for a positive. is likely that this device it existed in late Vulgar Latin. comparative idea. plus felix. Commodian. however. . Augustine's sancta atque dulcissima (Wolfflin 57-63). Vitruvius. Finally. plus dulce.. . BOn. (Wolfflin 47). From early times certain periphrases were used to emphasize the thiravLS. as Plautus. as their precise sense in St. occasionally in : Classic Latin. etc. see Morphology. To avoid ambiguity. magis melior. old comparative forms remained. Sepulcri 232 . as omnium levior (Wolfflin 68-71). Little by little the old comparative and superlative lost 1 from being employed frequently with merely an intensive force (Wolfiflin 83). Anplus congruus and maxime congruus (Wolfflin 16. etc. substitute for the superlative In the Romance languages a was made by prefixing the defiit nite article to the comparative.

especially ilk. see Hoppe Bayard 133. Idem went out of popular use. . Many pronouns developed double forms. and 104. [§ 62 una etc. suus being generally substituted for ejus. . The adverb inde : occasionally as a genitive neuter pronoun came to be used nemo inde dubitat. R. too. The personal pronouns came into more and more fre- quent use. . 425 cf. There was great irregularity in the use of reflexives. where it was not recog- 62. 25. 58. especially the possessives. was often replaced by ille and ipse (Bechtel and eventually was preserved in vulgar speech only in 145). adeum una sorella. Cf. according as they were accented or unaccented (as suus and sus): see Morphology. en. 403-404. the combination eccum {^=ecce eum). Waters Ch. Bon. DEMONSTRATIVES. Is.34 . ipse. in Classic Latin : 59. 580. . Spr. Digitized by Microsoft® . . mulier. being replaced by ille For the encroachment of ipse on idem. were apparently not century. 48. G. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Per. See Lat. Dubois 333-336b. 489. Pronouns were much more used than G. 26. exinde-='¥x. Ego and common in Petronius. 408-409. Petronius. Regnier 10. PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. except a few of the smallest. tu are very 60. §158. 61. The demonstratives. PRONOUNS. 948 accessit unus servus. Pseud. a. were employed as personal pro- nouns of the third person. An . Hoppe 102-103. Ordinal numerals. . Plautus. much used in popular speech after the fifth 2.

The last three have left no trace. 2. nized. was perhaps used as a prefix (^Gram. . §24): hie. I. This last compound was used as a neuter pronoun. 25 : " Ubi tu's ? — Eccum. Toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period hie was apparently going out of 63. Mil. etc. of the final stage. Intorno ai continuatori neolatini del "ipsu-" in Arehivio glottologieo italiano XV.§ 65] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. atque is est (^Stiehus 582). Eeee and eeeum (pronounced eceu) were used as demon- strative prefixes (cf. Bayard 130-132). Catalan aqueix. lat. too. Pg. in id ipsam rem. as id ipsum velatn. 424-425. Hie and is. and iste 405-406. G. R. with the exception of the neuter hoe. such combinations being until the probably not reached Vulgar Latin period. aquesse. too. is ipse. 303 (discussing Sp. common The end Plautus. maintains that eceu' was the basis in all the Empire. aquese. especially in Spain and southern Gaul. 407. eeeu" was some regions. iste ille. II. in id ipsum monastyriu. Atque. Franz. 646): in Plautus. generally invariable. eeee tu. 2. R. and also as a demonstrative adjective. influenced in 1 Cf Plautus. 35 and in the extremely common phrase idipsum (>It. 424. R. Hoppe 104. • A combination of two demonstratives was : common in Christian writers iste hie. where likewise the id lost its significance.^- desso). there are examples of iste for hie in Caesar's time (Densusianu 178). At any rate. ille ipse. Ascoli.-- ipse ille. common 64. atque ipse illie est {^Epidicus 91). eeee ille. ille. hie ipse.).' as id ipsum sapite. meaning 'it' or 'that. by atque or ae (as in ac sic). were confused by late writers (Bayard 132). Glor." Digitized by Microsoft® . Quillacq 126). use. Hie. eeee we find early eeee ego. also eeee iste. 3 II. eeee nunc. came to be used indiscriminately (G. 3 II. 65. is the fusion of the two parts into one word. G. however. iste ipse. Franz. 424 (cf.

* accueste. pi. This use of ipse. 391-392. §24. Ille. Ille. ipse. etc. articles. . Bon. 69. Spr. * accelle... tions from the fifth century on Digitized cf. and pi. . is. f. sg.. means infrequent: hie. These compounds developed into * ecceste. sg.. : the place of the feminine quce it occurs in Christian inscripR. especially ille. R. 427 (iiirum hujic cujus est zona hcBc). people said for ' ' that eccHlle or eccu'ille. as ace. for * accuelle. hie. XXX. n. In Bon. Ego met ipse is blamed by Donatus {Lat. hie. ' this ' eccHste or eccu'tste. Quillacq 126-127. * eccuelle. becoming metipse through such combinations as temet ipsum {Ecclus. 36 An When iste Introduction to Vulgar Latin. * eccueste. became * metipsimus. * accesie. with the prefix met-. there was an emphatic form ipsimus (used by This. it is Furthermore. m. 68. * celle. is. quern for quce. 391-396 we find qui used as n.). as 69.. guem quis qua very often as n. quce as m. : common Audollent 549. pi. R. (395-396).. 419-420 {cito proferte mihi stolam illam primam). by Microsoft® . * cueste and * eccelle. * cue lie. as f. Cf. 423—425. Petronius: Waters Ch. as n. II. Beside ipse. Examples of the others are by no R. ipse. quod as m. 67. c. 66. * ceste. as n. the masculine qui tooV in inscriptions. pi. semet ipsum {Philip. INTERROGATIVES AND RELATIVES. § 60. ille lost [§ 69 and their distinctive force.. 484). were used also as definite Ille in this function very common: R. 423 {in ipsa multitudine). 8). were used as personal pronouns of the third person. 22). is was probably more literary than popular. as ace. pi. 276 {qui. The forms were greatly confused by late writers. In popular speech qui was apparently used regularly for . is is Cf. The ipsemet suffix -met was used also as an intensive prefix.

417. *nec ente or *ne ente was apparently used as an equivalent for nihil. and was used as an interrogative and The adverb unde came to have occasionally the meaning of French dont (Bon. 'some' or 'any.. nemo judical alterum. sg. cepit. 650. 53 {^qui for quce in 70. G. Snus *aliqu'ilnus * alicUnus. Meyer-Liibke. Beiheft 7. hdmo was used sometimes like French on: Per. Qualis was kept. alius filius. § 19. Archiv I. d. II. quid: Archiv I. etc. in Italy. in certain constructions. pi. as a relative. after the model of id. in Italy. moreover. Haag f. Sardinia. and f. chants. in such phrases as cata unum Kaf tva.).' > = ^ magis: see plus.). alguien. 416. and eventually * de unde. 415- in late popular speech are as follows : — aliquanti took the place of aliqui and aliquot: aliquanta oppida aliquis flourished especially in the west: Sp. nee unus. gradually encroached on quod: Bon. G. 485. § 84. Pg. *caf itnus. cata tres Hence *cata anus. 25. d. alques. *d'unde. 178). conjectures *ne inde. Cf. mDEFHTITE PRONOUNS. 415-417. cata was probably introduced. and Dacia: Lat. nemo was kept nUllus. This confusion is more frequent in late Latin: St. and some new compounds were made. There may have been a neuter *alid. omnis: see totus. 394 (^qui f. Spr. by Greek merxard Tfth. 528 a. 37 quam). 390-391. Gram. 580. was employed as a relative pronoun. 51. ^ne ipse icnus. along the Mediterranean. The neuter aliquid was more extended aliqui alius : Pr. quern Quid. and alter viere confused in common speech: G. Omnis and omnia were kept Digitized by Microsoft® . 393. The principal indefinite pronouns 71- and adjectives used G. alguem. Cf. mUltus. *ne^ps^unus. Some Classic Latin pronouns fell into disuse. Bon. Plautus. Zs. inde came to mean. Jerome. 55. 237.§ 7i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

ubi being used for quo. see quantus. ' anything R. tantus totus. Cf. 403). «»w. 336-337. 415). is . Cf. G. 338. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. quts. quanti justi esuriunt. Compare the old is Italian use of dovere. . (2). Videri. tot. §§ 163. custodire debeant. § 1 1 7. was sometimes used for omnis : Plautus. Mil. Unde was employed by Microsoft® in the sense of Digitized . Claudian. tantus replaced quot. a pleonastic use of debeo. 204. pronounced also tottus (S. too. 691-693: commonens ut 72. 409-411). VERBS. § 53. Quisque was much extended 135). for eo: Lat. talis. R. iinus. also a common pleonastic use of coepi with the in- instead of the perfect: see § 124. Jerome. tantis lacri- 413-415 qui. quique. R. is often used pleonastically Bayard 99-100.38 faucus. being used for quisquis and quicumque (Bayard res and : res nata = ' anyone '. ADVERBS. 345. : 4. G. 121) and perhaps *tuttus. Bechtel 143. There are examples as early as Drager 104. This use was common in late Latin: Densusianu 178. Frequent in late Latin Bon. (St. . 402-403 ifota tormenta diaboli in me veniant. 488. Spr. which" and the ibi 73. qualis. 427. 212. [§ 73 plus and magis were confused: tenetur tanto plus timetur. persona. Propertius: Densusianu 179. 109). G. ' : (G. 3. totis horis. Regnier 108-109 {guanto plus quantus. There finitive. quhquis. 414. The words referring to the "place in "place into which" were confused. Glor. quisque. Cf. 692.

Dubois 332. G. de utero matris nati sunt sic.§ 78] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 446-447 {nee is fado est. 5. It apparently has no successors in the Romance languages. having been replaced by on. and magis for potius: Bayard no. semper semper. Bene. . is Ab. . R. and many other 75- Double negation frequent: R. Spr. Terence. from the third century ex {Lat. G. Regnier The absolute use of non. procedit. 435. is Per. of the Italic dialects except Latin.). . . 395. Totum occurs often as an adverb: places. Hoppe 38 . and others by Microsoft® . were employed as intensives more than in Classic Latin. R. 395-396. usurped the place of which also. Repetition was used for in- tensive effect: satis Seneca. Bechtel 105. § 74. nihil. Lexique 43. Hoppe 78. according to Mohl. cf. 487. of Inflections. aliquid postulare. 342 . 37. G. Cases. 7. 38. occurs occasionally: Dieit unus ex uno angulo: Eeee hie Alius ex alio angulo: Non. multum. any de. 39 'where' (Zj. meaning 'no'. The functions of prepositions were very much extended not found in (Bayard 137-158): see Use 77. Die amice unde tristis es. Plus was often substituted for magis. etc. Hoppe 38): de palatio exit. 76. also 'therefore' and 'where84. Ad for apud occurs Digitized in Plautus. for ne with the subjunctive common: G. Regnier no. Non no. sed ecce hie est. Bechtel 105. Plus and magis were used more and more for comparison. ggressus de area. . muri de lapide de adversario vivo de deeimis. 341 jaspide. nee de cubiculo .14. egredere de ecelesia. 339. and the old comparative and superlative forms became rarer: see § 56. . Wolfflin 5. PREPOSITIONS. Regnier in. Beiheft fore': 157).

G. ' : Juxta often signified acjuxta consuetudinem. Bechtel 104. Digitized by Microsoft® . ad For the most part apud-^-a. but from ad hoc from Italic Pr.. [§ 80 (Oliver 5-6). but Pr. Circa. Pro itself was partially replaced by per (cf. being. . ab he takes from apud. and cum for apud in Gregory of Tours.27- in late writers (R. est oratio. Bechtel 103. pro memoria illius. volo pro legentis attendimus locum ilium facilitate abuti sermone vulgato. 37. Bechtel 105 juxta drachmcB cording to exemplum. ' . and common Fer. derive the Mohl would Old It. apud is repeatedly found for cum in the Latin writers of Gaul. 343. Severus. but was substituted lor'per in other regions (Urbat 34-35)80. had a great vogue country. According to F. cum probably disappeared from actual use in Gaul by the fourth century. to supplant a critical period for Gaul. Mohl. aveCj not from apud + hoc. 71) Fr.^ 79. 343 . G. in authors of the second and third centuries. Bechtel 106 super anima commendatus. ad post (p. where ab seems Apud is used for cum by Sulpicius to be used for apud).' and replaced ob and propter : fides pro una muliere perfida. G. a new word. Urbat 10): ad ipsum fontem facta cf. Hoppe 37. nos. not from apud. frequently meant 'concerning': frustrati circa veritatem. 42. 75-76). replaced by ad. 40 An Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. in the Empire. apud. La preposition cum et ses successeurs en gallo-roman in Bausteine 61. where it was kept with the sense of cum: Haag 74. Urbat 27 {tractans apud me metipsum. 489.?. Hoppe Hoppe ' 41. also ab una manu pallas altaris tenerem. 390-392. as he says. § 14). Spr. except in Gaul. and so came cum in that Pro often had the sense of 'for. am amb. appo. am.. but from * (pp. and more frequently by later authors: Lat. Bechtel 106. etc. Super sometimes replaced de: fallere vos super hanc rem.

430): videte si Ac si frequently did service for potest did. . cf. : R.) seems to be used. and 'wherefore': G. Peregrinatio : Qua. Regnier often used for ne and num (G. often supplanting quando. 'when'. 445-446. in most cases.' § 84] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 48. 399. Quod to for very common AudoUent ' £0 quod cdLiae 27. merely Magis is much employed to indicate a subordinate clause. ' ' ' Digitized by Microsoft® . 39. temporal sense. Cur. 24. subtus. Retro. Unde sometimes means therefore for but by late writers. 334): subtus terram. foras were freely used as prepositions (R. CONJUNCTIONS. Bayard 161. Ut 82. 399. quare sometimes replaced ^«^^and quia: G. Quod. 46. aut is sometimes equivalent to et . etc. Bechtel 119-120. 323. and was . Tamen in the grinatio. forts. guoniam {^SMddlt&r Jubere. Quomodo became a great favorite. Aut cf. §§ 70. which in late Latin was often reduced to qui or qua (see § 168) frequently took the place of quod: Regnier 111-112. 398-400. in). etc. Quia. &'took the place of a« and utrum (R. with the infinitive «/ is is : not infrequent 549. 424 {unde inquit Dominus). 13. same text (37. 6. encroaches on quando in the 22. 83. G. and many other places Bon. R. etc. R. meaning 'and so' or 'so': 40. and quoniam : R. de forts. vade retro me. . et: Per. 402. quia. 403. 84. quasi: Per. rm\c\\ used in the sense of that ' : Per. he. 431-432. 73. ^. 41 81. 403-405. . Ac sic recurs continually in the Pere49. 427—428) are used very often by late writers instead of the accusative and infinitive construction: R. Quando displaced cum in the quod. etc.. cf. 8. Regnier 11 2-1 13. Regnier in. Eventually ut was generally discarded. . ut : R. .

plural in Andecavis > Flntbus > Fimes. Aquis Acqui Aix. Florentice^ Firenze. 174-176 . There is confusion even in Petronius. R. as time went on. from prepositional the beginning. etc. Astis Asti. Archiv VIII. Partsiis > > Parigi Paris. USE OF INFLECTIONS. of the locative ablative Angers. 86. Quillacq 96- for African Latin. than in the literary language. in the Peregrinatio fit : There find are. and very often with place names also. ' " Cf. larity in the .. : > etc. remained eventually missa Anastasi.1 42 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Arimtnt> Rimini. it generally came to be regarded as an inin Archivio glottologico italiano IX. 378. the locative was replaced by in with the ablative (Hoppe 32 in Alexandria) or by ad with the accusative (Urbat 10). ut Clusil~^ Chiusi. et sic fit missa ecclesitz. Bianchi With other words. 412-415. Digitized by Microsoft® . Palestina (G. [§ 86 C. 322). a. however. who occasionally uses the accusative for the dative and the ablative. LOCATIVE. We remnants of the locative geni- tive in Agrigentt> Girgenti. Hence employment arises in late writers a great irregu- of cases^: G. When the locative of names of localities was kept. constructions. 302-326. B. In popular speech prepositions were more used. rare in Classic Latin. CASES. Cf. only in names of places. Pirson 169-202. increasingly took the place of pure case distinctions. several examples Bechtel no. of the locative ablative singular in Ttbiiri^ Tivoli . The locative. and the use of cases became more and more 103 restricted. 1. 8$. etc. the domi or domo of Cicero becomes in domo in Seneca. for confusion after verbs and adjectives.

and Livy. bus gentilibusque multitudo magna (also quidam ex Acts 4. terminus de nostra donatione. R. 528 a. domine. 396. 628 aliquid de . 6ioff. Urbat 20. Archiv I. little by constructions. Bechtel 104. R. 40. According to Meyer-Liibke. Oliver 14. VOCATIVE. son 197. 43 variable form we find such locatives used as nominatives : from the third century on Lat. i. 342 numquid Zacchaus de bono habebat. IV. the genitive probably ceased to be really popular. Regnier 54. 426. Hoppe 38. as mi 88. R. occur in mens for mi is very common (Regnier 34). de spiritu Moysi. 87. such Horace. was supplanted by other by the ablative with de (which occurs Examples as early as Plautus). de sorore nepus. b. generally . Cicero. the nominative in most words in and such words as had a separate vocative form is like it : tended to discard Plautus. Cf. lumine. 487. Bon. de studentibus. Pir. de animalibus. cited by Draeger I. vocatives in -us. 396.§ 89] An . The genitive. gustabit de meo. abound: expers partis Verr. Digitized by Microsoft® . aliquid habet de verecundia discipuli. 12. R. clerici de ipsa ecclesia. Hoppe 38. R. partem de istius impudentia. save in set combinations. For the partitive genitive we find: nil 53. de oleo. Lat. except perhaps in a few set phrases. little. quid de scientia. 1. instead of -e. 481. Spr. Terence Heaut.. II. etc. de pomis =^som& apples. d. GENITIVE. 39. The vocative Classic Latin. de aceto plenum.' -P^r. possessor de propria terra. . XVII. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cf.10. de Deo munus. Bechtel 104. de coleritieis). Pirson 194. sometimes by the dative. Sepulcri 217. de nostris bonis. 396. . In Vulgar Latin the vocative form probably disappeared entirely.. curator de sacra via. Spr. Plautus. neminem de prcesentibus. 89. c.

Bechtel 104. 341—342 in /undo ilia villa. however. ange- lorum. in most of the Empire : ait ad me. etc. Paoli. C. etc. si pecunia most nouns and in the plural of all. Varro. illorum. the fear of ambiguity naturally fostered this practice and the dative. 329. 3513.. fui ad episcopum etc. Inasmuch as the Plautus. Oliver by Microsoft® . 487. etc. de noctis cHjus. Capt. paganorum. De Re Rustica I. 329. g. Spr. 4.C. a tendency by the accusative with ad: ad carnuficem dabo. 135. Fieri. Cf. as early as Plautus. IX. Urbat 12. causa causis. muro muris. '^^^ hcec affectionem darem. patiens. D'Arbois 91-93. Bechtel 103. in a words that belonged especially to clerical Latin. In late Latin a wrong form was often used a deo honorem in an inscription in Gaul. tempore > It. I. XXV. Bon. .fr. Livy II. 40. = went to the bishop'. ad me ad Dei officio paratus. ad propinquos restituit. Per. The genitive was retained. a. ad me magna nuntiavit. Urbat 12. in certain . Pirson Digitized omne regnum. ad quern dixit. inscription of 57 B. ad omnem injuriam im330. find. L. matre mece. illujus. [§ 90 by the beginning of the third century.. stable than the genitive: 90. etc.. in the singular of was identical in substitution became very general 64. ad vestram 'I Bechtel 102-103. ad id templum data erit. G. form either with the ablative or with the genitive (e. 1. some pronouns. ii. alta node silentia.. mart maribus). in good many set phrases. 488. We it to replace however. dicens ad eum.. apparet ad agricolas.. D'Arbois 13 alme Maria. ad quern promissio facta. 194. Lat Spr.44 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. G. True. The dative was more Lat. and probably in some proper names: lUna dies. Plautus. DATIVE. IV. It. loquitur ad Jeremiam. 13. : Zs. Sepulcri 218.. . Dominus ad restituit Moysen dicit. 1019. di notte tempore (later di notte tempo). Spr. S. etc. in honore . G. est ministerit. etc. etc.

ml. R. Hoppe 33 . etc. in its original function and also as a genitive. is For de= 'than. occurs also: ex causa humana salutis. Hoppe 36. de- ceptus. elsewhere it probably disappeared from really popular speech by the end of the Empire. de se. The dative remained in Dacia. Sometimes super eum. Hoppe Hoppe 34. de oculis. digni de cmlo Castores. ab Ariulfi astutia the most frequent erubescens de infamia sua. Hoppe. a came superatur. 335. Regnier . 393 patrem de regno privavit. to distinguish its various functions. Regnier 54. de manibus suis. esse. de te beati sunt. Bechtel de contumelia sua. in feminine adjectives (as romine). Rumanian has kept the dative. 45 3-4.' see Zs. c. Ex R. Hoppe 33. De is : Hoppe 14. cited by WolfHin $2. 426. ABLATIVE. occidam de lancea. 392-395. Hoppe 33. XXX. Sepulcri 218. 92. Regnier 54-56. super. ab sceleribus parce. Cyprian. nobilior de obsoletiore matrice. 34. 35. reinforced by the analogy of prepositional substitutes for the genitive and dative. Sepulcri 218. Spr.G. Digitized by Microsoft® . G. 56. The analytical tendency of speech. except in pronouns {cici. not ad. de virgine natus est. 339-342. ex infirmitate fatigata. tibi. ab a prcemio minorem scriptura sancta commemoratos.). Bechtel 104 (cf. G. Bechtel 104. favored the use of prepositions with the ablative. gaudet de victus necessitate causatur. and so in 91. 641. Cf. 36. etc. St. illui tilt. in the first declension (as case).. Regnier 51 . de singularitate famosum. Hoppe 105). de vestra rideat CBmulatione. Bechtel 105. and lingered rather late Gaul (Za/. R. Bechtel 105. 337.§ 92] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Ab common : ab omni specie idololatrice intactum. super was used: imposuerat manus me misericordiam prastare. 481).

488. XXXI. Ps. because. Sepulcri 218 pugnare ad ursos.. R. fructum fructu. Bechtel 103. in aU words. K. Bechtel 103-104. D'Arbois footnote 27. G. : [§ 95 often found . E. sodales. Hoppe 33. 94. its stead. The accusative form substituted for the ablative after by Microsoft® Digitized . discenies. Cf. 344-347. but very common before the third. Spr. ad horam sextam aguntur. etfreno maxillas eorum constringe. cum res nostras. patrem It is likely that before the patre. in camo amore Dei 9 in bonis operibus abundetis.46 An In is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bechtel 95 . Regnier 58 Hoppe 31 in maxilla asina delevi mille vires. G. epistolam. in fif. The fusion of the two cases was doubtless helped by the fact that certain prepositions might be combined with either accusative or ablative. in most of the Latin territory. the little ablative differed or not at all from the accusative in the : singular of most words causam causa. Lat. quo in tempore. for the ablative: . late The use of prepositions became really neccessary in the loss spoken language. etc. 488. Sometimes ad ov per with the accusative is substituted per hoc. per nomen vocavit. ad diem. in inscriptions. and that the ablative and accusative singular were pronounced alike. 263. ad unum gladii ictum 93. 397 . diem die. in illo die. Regnier 60. 5. . Hoppe 31 . of the Empire the ablative plural end form was generally discarded. . 347 R. Cum cum it was probably not with the accusative is very frequent: cum suos Lat. donum dono. ferventes. Rand in is Modem Philology II.396-397. cum Cf. caput desecare. Spr. the accusative being used in J 95- There is evidence of the confusion of accusative and first ablative as early as the century. after the fall of final m and the of quantitative distinctions in unaccented syllables.

in Per. . probably in some expressions. 406-412. R. — — — foras in came conversa. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. puteo. de. R. Digitized by Microsoft® . Bechtel 94.. sine fructum. ablative ist' 97. that the ablative absolute survived in a few common 1 like It.6—412. 40. . perhaps in such phrases as It. ecclesia majore.. ecclesia. de camem. 406-412. de ipsas . Bechtel 99. post . is three times as common as the + ace. such as hora. etc. etc. R. D'Arbois 70-71 ex fines R. videbo te in publicum. Bechtel loi. D'Arbois 152. generally. however. ante sole. + abl. cib fatto. R. 47 other prepositions: a monazonies. Bechtel 94 ante sole. Hoppe 40-41 in the Per. . etc. Bechtel loi . Bechtel 95 contra ipso loco. Bechtel loi — propter populo. is Conversely.. Bechtel 95. — : pro hoc ipsud.. etc. Bechtel 100. . — Bechtel 96 — . . etc. etc. its place : Bechtel 09-1 1 o.. for ace. etc. R. for abl. pro nos. Bechtel 99 . R. was kept only in etc. Bechtel 96 de martyrium. It is likely. Bechtel 96 de hoc ipsud. de eo torrentem.. vendere cento soldi. . intro spe- — lectione. Bechtel 99 lunca. Bechtel 96 de actus. Bechtel xoo\ post morte. . Bechtel 96. tuos. Bechtel 97-98 erat in villas. ad . 406-412. . too. anno.. the nominative absolute took 45. 58. . — intra civitate sua. quomodo.. Bechtel 94—101 venit in civitate sua. in correct use of in etc. in popular speech. the ablative form very often written for . etc. 406-412. per valle and 21 other cases of /ifr+abl. Bechtel loi.— — — § 97] — —— — . infinem Deus fecit ccelum et terram. Waters Ch. luce. D'Arbois 27 de rigna nostra. pari mente. et bene- dicens nos episcopusprofectisumus.. Hoppe 40-41 12 examples of in + ace. proper names with as Delia Casa. 96.. the accusative ante cruce. — prope super civitate hac.. -juxta aqua ipsa. The some fixed expressions. etc. 410. ilia. visa loca sancta omnia {Per. circa Bechtel 95 .. 406-412. 8). medium maris.

many new tendencies manifested them- IMPERSONAL PARTS. also is by the ablative Bechtel : 1 08-9. Bechtel 103. a. from use. however. to Vulgar Latin. After verbs of motion ad was often used. by the infinitive: as cum Digitized by Microsoft® . Waters Ch. 328. and 101. fui ad ecdesiam. By the end of the Vulgar Latin period there probably remained in really popular use (aside from pronouns and a number of set formulas) in Dacia only three cases. (i) Supine. g. omatus est. Regnier 51-52. [§ 103 ACCUSATIVE. consules ad Africam profecti sunt. regionem venit. per iotos octo dies etc. 98. Only the present active and the present and perfect participles were left intact. Many parts of the verb went out of popular use. cordance with their idea of correct Latin. FALL OF DECLENSION. ^i. 103. in the rest of the Empire only two —a nominative and an accusativenaturally tried to write in ac- ablative. ad Babyloniatn duxit. Regnier 52. 327. instead of the simple accusative: eamus in forum. sometimes in. G. In the parts that remained selves. ad isfam Duration of time was expressed by per with the ac- cusative. VERB-FORMS. being recentury on. tota autem nocte vicibus dicuntur p salmi. infinitive 102. 100. G. 2. The supine disappeared from general the first placed. were replaced by other locutions.48 An Introduction f. 99. Cf. these obsolete parts were employed by writers with more or less inaccuracy. Clerics.

however. (3) Gerundive. however. in place of the future: with 388. The gerundive was used est. for the future (as facturus sum). 847-849. 4. potestatem curare. Lat. hanc Marcion captavit errando. 490. quomodo potest hie nobis camem dare ad manducare. Lat. Gerund. necessitas tacere. Eventually. the gerundive was discarded. Draeger II. 433-434. G. it was probably rare in late was used with esse as a substitute Sometimes. assurgens popu- lando. 430. 57. G. 433. in a literary 388—389. took the place of a relative cIzms^: faveant mihi pro Cf.erund infinitive. became more and more a fui fugiet Eun. as a future passive participle. 389. qui pertransivit benefaciendo et Cf. Sermones 225. Cf. The ablative form of the gerund substitute for the present participle: ita miserrimus tando. 432. ex- cept in some standing phrases. esse. 2. it The future active participle Vulgar Latin. and Tacitus. 490.. Cap. came to be replaced With the exception by the sometimes with a prep- osition: dat manducare. (4) 106. Jilius hominis tradendus Cf. R. conciendo ad se multitudinem. ejus nomine pugnaturo. Spr. Hoppe 105. Future Active Participle. 57 179. from the third century on. R. the supine was preserved: Tiktin 596. cites Livy. of the ablative form. Digitized by Microsoft® . Augustine. except when style. V. Hoppe multa vidi sometimes used for a conditional clause cavendo salvi erimus. 386R. 363. R. 8. 49 veneris ad bibere. Spr. Densusianu sanando. G. : sic legendo. Terence. (2) 104. St. etc. Dubois 275. the i. G. R. The ablative gerund was .§ io6] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 432—433. In Rumanian.

and as a noun see Derivation. and was used as an : adjective -ans. 109. Cf. The infinitive + accusative construction was more and third century on: G.50 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 371. The perfect and passive infinitive forms eventually In late writers. was replaced by the ablative gerund: see Gerund above. The present participle was kept. however. 431-432 {malunt credidisse. credidit ei quia esset vere Jilius Dei. and. Verbs that had no perfect participle were obliged to make one. 659-671. It more avoided from . 107. de corpore loquor. G. by Microsoft® . 371-373. The perfect participle was kept. mundus sit. legitur dixisse Deus. often misused the infinitive + accusative: Digitized G. si ipse est ascendens in ccelos. Late writers. Sometimes it was employed periphrastically with esse: G. Bon. 108. nemo mentiens plorat. 375-385. Writers occasionally substituted 388. etc. G. 389. Regnier 63. ut. quoniam. G. no. the perfect instead of the present infinitive very common: R. it for a relative clause: it Often.the was replaced sometimes by the passive. sciens quod — libenter haberetis hcec cognoscere.). 383 . as will presently be seen. scribitur. its use was greatly extended through new methods of forming the passive and the perfect tenses. however. Suffixes for Adjectives. (5) [§ no Present Participle.. G. ut spiritu valeatnon ignoramus. perspicue exposuit quod ager nesciebat quia Jesus erat. etc. etc. (7) Infinitive. wishing to avoid vulgarisms. but often by a clause in- troduced by quia. is disappeared: see Voice and Tense below. : Eva vidisse de- G. (licent eo quod filii Israhel eas posuerint. G. 371-375. Bechtel 112—115. 377. 385. (6) Perfect Participle. quod.

up the classic practice as far as they were Although authors kept able. some examples may be culled from late writings: denuo factus filius fui. venit aliquis audire. aliter exprimere non est. Spr. of the popular formation . the infinitive assumed many new and Gerund above. I.. est. G. Bechtel 117. It wias often used as a noun: totum vivere anima carnis est. Regnier 106. amant ignorare. per velle perdidit bonum posse. ipsum vivere accedere est. Regnier 73. 430. permissa est accedere. 177. etc. cited in Lat. R. Hoppe 60 mors salva erit cum fuerit devorata. Regnier Digitized 63. non habent unde reddere tibi. G. Cf. Bon. 370. 51 111. male fecisti dare Spiritum sanctum. Regnier 74 mihi prcecepit hac loqui.. quce legi digna sunt. revertitur omnis populus resumere se. by Microsoft® . It Hoppe malum tions: replaced the subjunctive with ut and similar construcvadent orare. facere. 368. 42. Hoppe 61. . amatus est came Hence amatus fuit signified he Then a whole passive in2 76ff. conjectus in carcerem fuerat. 671-675. non venit justos vocare. G. 363-370. Bon. b. timuisti .. Venantius Fortunatus. participle The old passive forms extent. to of the perfect participle ern Italy y?^).§ 112] An On Introduction to Vulgar -Latin. Regnier 106. 647. VOICE. mean he was loved': flection is loved etc. Regnier 73. 673. It took the place of a relative or indirectly interrogative after certain verbs: clause nesciendo qua petere. Hoppe 42-52: Ninus regnare primus. 363. some the — except the perfect gerundive — gradually + esse (in north- disappeared from ordinary speech. Thielmann. ' 112. functions: see Supine bonus et dicere et facere. 366. 490. Bechtel 117: valeamus assumi. Hoppe 60. G. the other hand. to Under the ' influence of carus '. G. see Draeger was made up and. P. Cf. Facere mit dem Infinitiv in Archiv III. etc.

114. Cf. 55. see c. XXXII. An As Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Dubois 275 notes that the forms in -0 are very rare in Ennodius. 455. for the use of 25. homo with the force of French on. as in the case oi frusirare frustrari. (i) Imperative. 490. The subjunctive was limited to fewer functions. by the indicative (found in Pirminius). irascere irasci. constructions: cum hi omnes tarn excelsi sunt. Many deponent course. In negative commands the imperative was often placed by the subjunctive. [§ 117 the passive inflection disappeared. who lived in southern Gaul in the fifth century. MOOD. se sanare ^= sanari in the 4th century. 117. Bechtel 115 si scire vultis quid facitis. very Digitized was probably used. Rom. scribitur When littera seemed archaic. and in Italy. Even in Classic Latin there is often hesita- tion. In the intermediate period the passive was frequently replaced by reflexive and active constructions. sequi. etc. deponent verbs became active. Gaul. etc. being replaced by the indicative in many . people said littera se scribit and litteram scribunt or litteram scribit homo: ct. (2) Subjunctive. followed the same Bonnet 402-413. The imperative came to be restricted to the second person singular and plural of the present.52 113. and also for the first. In late vulgar speech mori. Bechtel 126. the subjunctive being used for the third person.. 115. Regnier 69. re- 116. and Dacia by the infinitive: Zat. Spr. etc. -At the end of the Vulgar Latin period it in popular speech. facit se hora quinta. verbs are used as active verbs by Petronius. and littera scripta est vulgar. much as it is used by Microsoft® . I'er.

: cdntdse. Regnier 27-28. § III.&x facio. were less logical and evidently less spontaneous than Classic authors in their employment of the subjunctive. Sometimes the subjunctive was replaced by deieo with the infinitive: debeant accipi = accipiantur. Sittl 133-134. etc. On the other hand. 357-362- (118. It apparently began with debuvoluisset. 489). 355-357.iX. 431 cites many examtimui ne inter nos bella fuissent orta. Sometimes. The in the use of it. G. ecce Pater fecit Filium nasci de fact. Spr. languages. Cf. Digitized It was apparently confused with was thus preserved in Spain by Microsoft® . late writers often put the subjunctive where Classic authors would have put the indicative: G. The pluperfect : imperfect subjunctive gradually gave way to the Bellum Africanum {^Lat. 418. imperfect subjunctive ultimately went out of use.§ 119] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. Spr. § 72. in dependent clauses that are not adversa- nor dubitative. etc. the indicative was often substituted for the subjunctive: R. place was taken by the infinitive: vergine. its G. Gregory the Great (Sepulcri 226) and others. as In Rumanian the pluperfect subjunctive has assumed the show uncertainty function of a pluperfect indicative 119. in indirect In conditions not contrary to tive discourse and indirect questions. potuisset. and with perthis use is common in the fect infinitives like tacuisse for tacere {Lat. cf. •a. 428-430. exWriters of the third and fourth centuries cept in Sardinia. Regnier 68-71. The perfect subjunctive the future perfect indicative. 489: examples from the 4th century). ples. while trying to follow the traditional practice. R. 53 in the Romance Late writers. used freely for the imperfect by isset.

54 An in Italian i.. episcopum invitatum habes. perf 372 . (i) The Perfect Tenses. cf. § 124. perf. construction very common in Cicero in a sense that closely approaches the perfect: satis . in general. collocatas habent. ilia omnia missa habeo. The present and imperfect and the present subjunctive remained. future. Regnier Cf. yarf«»2 habeo. [§ 122 and Bausteine Cf. for the perfect subjunctive. Draeger 295. 690. Fart. junctive. Fart. Sallust. § 119. De Lollis in Zs. rationes cognitas habeo. re- Fart. by Microsoft® . scriptum habeo. 414-415. Densusianu 181. 516. the mean- ing of this locution began to shift to the perfect. 405. 28. see § 118. XXIX. fect 294-295. dialects: cf. Tiktin 596. which led also to thS formation of a new perfect and pluperfect subjunctive. perf 415. Fart. perf ^11. perf. in legal phraseology. 518-521. pluperfect. Draeger I. ff. The . habeo deliberatum. however. Crescini in d. way with Even adjectives: miserum habere. in Classic Latin. I. Bon. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 689-691. C. perf. TENSE. indicative 120. In Classic Latin habeo with the perfect participle was used to express a lasting condition: Hannibal quia fessum It was militem praliis operibusque habebat. Draeger 122. 423. § 117. 619. Digitized Bon. Part. 121. Fart. etc. omnis res lictas habeo. used in the same Part. I. In the and future perfect indicative great changes took place. perf. Plautus. or something akin to it: Cato the elder. perf. For the imperfect and pluperfect subsee. with their old functions. Part. perfect. 535 is . 537-538. compertum ego habeo. pecunias magnas 294. In late Lastin this compound often had simply a peribi vos meaning: metuo enim ne habeam fatigatos. however. quid Athenis exquisitum habeam. 376. and Rumanian and V.

489. and in the Italian /ora -Cfueram. perfect bant.§ 124] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. but still lingered. perf. a compound pluwas constructed Cicero. pouret. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . 537. Old French Sainte Eulalie. in Proven9al. 124.. The old perfect form remained in popular use. and to some extent in Italy. In the same way a future perfect was made: de Ccesare satis dictum habebo. Some late writers were fond of :\ substituting for Cf. 620). its vogue began in Gaul in the fifth century. Reich. § 72. In the Spanish peninsula. the old perfect meaning was not entirely lost. The old pluperfect indicative became rarer. sometimes as a conditional. and continued to be used. the sixth: Part. quas in cerario conditas habeDraeger I. in the case of neuter verbs. Sepulcri 227. auret. Regnier 28. it cxpi with an infinitive: Waters Ch. perf. it 55 In popular speech function: perfect form. the Gl. which supplanted more and more the original was increasingly confined to its aorist Lat Spr. etc. Eventually an entire perfect inflection was built up with habere or. 543. ortaret. gener ally with the aorist sense. si Dominum iratum haberes. was preserved in Spanish. which came down from the Classic Latin use in conditional sentences. 541. with esse. furet. On the model of this new perfect. 70. elsewhere . 294. : quam semper cognitam habui. in some southern Italian dialects (notably in the Rosa in the fresca aulentissima). in the Spanish peninsula. 123. I [ sometimes with its original sense. transalaret in etc. tional function. Fart. sometimes as a preterit. The old future perfect was apparently confused with the perfect subjunctive.. The preterit use occurs in dixerat. XXIX. boltier' in the Old The condiItalian Ritmo Cassinese (^Zs. with the force of a future indicative or subjunctive.

I. Bechtel 90-91. 286 ff. PL 141-142. which approached the meaning of the future.— S6 in An some Introduction to Vulgar Latin. only in Rome and the immediate vicinity. which The Latin mistakes were made in writing: Vok. corrigis. Regnier viii. The old pluperfect subjunctive was used as an imperfect: see § 118. qiiando mutarisi eras. according to Mohl. These causes or others made the future unpopular. During the Empire there was a strong tendency to substitute these or other constructions Classic Latin turus sum. gations. and in Dacia: Sp. Bechtel 112. the formation in —bo. pervidet. Digitized by Microsoft® . Sepulcri 225-226. Furthermore. for the future forms (such periphrases are particularly fre- quent in African church Latin) : (1) The present indicative for the future is common in Cicero in conditional sentences: Lebreton 188-190. dormibo forms were kept late {Futurum 161).. was native. had some circumlocutions. the future in the first two conjugations was suggestive of the imperfect. Draeger I. As the tense became rare in speech. The old audibo. future was not uniform in the four conjuwas used in three of them and prevailed in two. Bechtel 112. 98. cantdro. and we find such 126. quando 64. Sepulcri 225. § 119. was liable to confusion with the present subjunctive and indicative. Old Sp. The substitution si vis ecce ire became frequent in all sorts of constructions: nam modo pedibus duco vos ibi. Future and Conditional. inquis. delenda est. [§ 126 dialects of Italy. Regnier Cf. cum volueris et imus tecum ostendimus tibi. Pers. and in the other two. jam crastina non eximus. Pr. cantdre. (2) 125. such as fachabeo dicere. Cf. errors as respondeam for respondebo (^Futurum 158). in late pronunciation.

Varro. It had become common by the sixth In the early stages of the Romance languages. 448 exire habebat. § 129] An The Introduction to Vulgar Latin. . being so used by Cicero and nius. R. + + It was 5) Vadere. . in multis hoc . This habeo construction dare habet finally took the sense of a simple future: Tertullian. infinitive: In Classic Latin habeo habeo quod dicam. The form that prevailed. Cf. ( ^w^ was a favorite with late nos futuri sumus resurgere. however. G. R.. Cicero. it many others. Rustica 5. Cf. the oldest Rumanian future is voiujurd or Jurd vom: Tiktin 599. I. 447-449. frobare non habent. . Hoppe 44-45 . quam evenire haDeus corpus. See §§ 105. . Velle in this sense was preserved in Dacia..— Servius. R. as in Sueto- means I. 57 (2) future participle writers: stc et Bayard 256. 28. Hoppe 44 nan habent retribuere. venire habet. debeo dicere: tibi polliceri. (3) Velk and /^w^ + infinitive were frequent: G. was habeo with the dicere ^=:. 129. Densusianu 181 in Italy . 106. later. . R. 447 multa habeo dicere. I. rebus dicere habemus. tantum habeo Lucretius VI. mandare habewas very common in late writers: Hoppe 43 filius Dei mori habuit. 711. I 127. videre habetis. Hoppe 44 it . aliter prcedicantur bent. In these senses habes spectare. — St. Trist. Futurum 180. cui velle habet. Futurum 48 ff. venire + infinitive were used also. R. qui nasci habent. or Digitized by Microsoft® . habes invenire in manibus — tollere habet. 447 unde mihi dare habes aquam vivam. bam. infinitive was another substitute. I. etc. et sicnihil tuis. Ad Famil. Cf. . nee verba nobis ista did habent. Regnier 29. 128. i. St. (4) Debere kept in Sardinian. Regnier century. etc. De Re ut id mihi habeam curare. 370. 123. 423. Jerome. 449 Regnier 28. Ovid. Augustine. ire..

In Classic Latin. On the model of this future. 55. manifestari habebat. The phrase existed. cantare or he cantar. [§ 130 possibly in the latest stage of Vulgar Latin. 489. in Classic Latin. Bayard 256. new form. addarabo. fazel-o-he. Haag 54. to match such a sentence as venire habebat or habuit. garius: Justinianus dicebat 'daras'. the infinitive came to stand regularly. Spr. Cyprian and St. amaturus eram or fui was often used and when amaturus sum was replaced by amare habeo. and in Portuguese it is not completed Old Sp. So it seems to be used by Tertullian. Herodes principes sacerdotum ubi nasci habebat Christus interrogat. or conditional. Digitized by Microsoft® . just before the habeo.. Hilary seem to show a simple conditional use of the compound: quod lex nova dari haberet. St. although sometimes with him the meaning borders on a real conditional: non traditus autem traduci habebas. and occurs in Old Italian Pg. etc. in place of amassem the conclusion of a conditional sentence. it was natural that amaturus eram should give m way to bam. ista civitas esterminari haberet quod esset venturus et 130. amare habedicit quod like dixit si possum venire habet. Finally the two words were fused into one. There are sure examples from the fifth century on: Lat. Furthermore. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. where it was employed with an implication of obligation or necessity. but this union was not completed until after the beginnings of the Romance literatures. Quillacq 116. . separation is common in Old Provencal. Hoppe 43-45. there quod was needed a past construction and corresponding to venire habeo. Haag See Morphology. Bayard 257. The earliest examples of the Romance future are found in Fredeyet.— 58 . something like si potuissem venire habebam or habui was called for. an imperfect of the was constructed. pati haberet. ready for use. though not immutably.

Bildung des rumanischen Konditionalis in Zs. for a discussion of the question.§ 130] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The ')ie origin of the full Rumanian conditional. parallel to that of the future: Moris hology. see H. of this 59 The development as. 691. Tiktin. not' bvious. form in the Romance languages see in general. cintareasH. Digitized by Microsoft® . XXVIII.

It is likely that in Old Latin the division came before the Digitized by Microsoft® . fact. or in half of a double consonant: a-ni-ma. 131. The group mute + liquid makes position in the older dramaafter the first : : tists : Nsevius accents integrant. S.III. position. then. made position an^ attracted the accent: perfSc-tus. was usually divided consonant noc-tem. and not pirfe-ctus. as in Italian. PHONOLOGY. mit-to. sic-cus. no-ctem. phdretra. etc. Quintilian 5 recom- mends vdlucres. a-mnis. all consonant groups. or in a liquid or nasal followed by another consonantin the next syllable. except a mute + a liquid. The division of j + consonant they regard as uncertain {a-s- trum)\ doubtless in reality the s was nearly syllabic. prop-ter. Lat. it In the Classic I. The Latin grammarians seem to have given no heed to actual speech. 132. etc. as in ob-liviscor. In Vulgar Latin this : combination almost invariably attracts the accent cathidra. SYLLABICATION. 466. They add In point of that etymological considerations often disturb the operation of the rule. Cf. in-fans. A single consonant between vowels certainly went with the second po-si-tus. poets may or may not make tinebrcB. but to have followed the usage of Greek spelling. however. the syllable always ended in a vowel. Spr. 132-151. in the spoken language. The principles of syllabic division are rather difficult to establish. According to these writers. that a consonant group. al-ter. pro-pter. A. supporting it with purely theoretical considerations. It is altogether likely.

computo. however. when immediately followed by the 136. 892-906 S. inUgram. ing to which the accent The falls Classic Latin system — accordis on the penult long. cor exsultat = co r-exsultat. but subsequently. The penult vowel before mute + liquid (cf. In the earliest stage of the language appar- ently fell on the first syllable: Corssen II. had become fixed : 6i liquid. I. co-lu-bra. otherwise on the antepenult — developed . the beginning a it 134. ACCENT. There seem to be a few exceptions to the rule palpres < pdlpebras. PRIMARY STRESS.. The Latin accent was probably from regularly stress accent. some cases in which the Classic principle fails to operate or the Classic stress has been shifted 135. through the Classic period even after the distinctions of quantity were lost. Franz. Old Fr. became y. both consonants were carried over lub-ra. have seen that Vulgar Latin regularly accents according to the Classic quantitative accentuation. Old Fr. both in the literary and in the spoken language. § 132) normally has the stress in Vulgar Latin: cathedra. if : word began with a vowel B. 133. pi. § 136] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Accented vowel of the penult. 30-34. unchanged: bonitatem. : We — a. We speech a that final have reason to believe that in closely connected consonant was carried over to the next word. 13. and perhaps : some othfc. delicto. and /. if that syllable as early as and remained. the place of the accent was literature began. after the accent on cd- the preceding vowel. co-liib-ra. VOWELS m HIATUS. the accent falling on the e Digitized by Microsoft® . There are. poltre < *pullitra. colubra.

displtcet>*displdcet. reddtdi "^ reddMi. tenueram by tenui. §31): deficit >* disfdcit. riquirit "^ * requkrit. etc. /. paries. Lat Spr. > putjdlis. reiinet > * ret^net. Here the shift was apparently due in each case to analogy. crededi. C. consuere'>*cdns^ere'> cdnsere . hiatus seems to have had no on the accent in Latin. tra- addedi. 3714 (paretes). It was favored also by the analogy of miilier. perdedit. This change X. condedit. parjites^paretes^ C. when immediately followed by the vowel falling of the penult. inclausus. COMPOUND VERBS. Cf. Verbs compounded with prefixes were generally constructed with the accent and the vowel of the simple verb. habMrunf^ * hdb^erunt. I. calefacis. Aside from these cases. It is possible.62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. re- 139. etc. 668-670. adsteti. seems to be due to a tendency to shift the stress to the more sonorous of two contiguous vowels: cf. provided the composite nature of the formation was understood and the parts were recognized (cf. VI. became w. So 54 . tenueram > * tenj^eram. Gram. L. p. Accented u. so parietes" L. S. habuerunt by hdbuit. etc. [§ 139 following vowel: put^olis ~:> mul(eris>muljMs. On the same plan new verbs were formed: *de-minat. however. itios were sometimes pronounced duds. Lehrbuch der Phonetik. Digitized by Microsoft® . 1889 (pvte6lis). Cf § 225. 468. consuere by cdnsuo. II. dedit. but * muVeres. imp Itcaf^* imp Heat. . reddedit. 51. 56. etc. it was palatalized: \i&xwt f aretes.pi(teus. in which the vowel in hiatus is atonic. b. effect diios. 192. 137. tuds. the accent on the preceding syllable: bat{^t)iiere'>* bdtty^ere'> bdttere . S. 138.. that suos. S.. conteneo. presteti. Jespersen. battuere being influenced by bdttuo. etc. became e but if the preceding consonant was . O. Sepulcri 213-215. '/« regularly re-nigat. suds. I.

Ficatum or prevailed in Dacia. a fusion of ficatum and * sicotum. Sardinia preserved both ficatum and ficatum. FICATUM. *ficotum */dciium. Through this word there came into use the culinary terms /tedium. XXV. cdlligo and some others not even the composite nature was perceived. came to be used only in the sense of 'read. it probably became *secotum.§ i4i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.' Ficatum. n. perhaps under the influence of a vulgar *hepdte for hepar. fecitum. Reetia. Paris in Miscellanea linguistica in onore di Graziadio H. 'liver'.' c. It is found in late Latin in the form sycotum. . 235Digitized by Microsoft® . for instance. Ascoli 41 See G. Clddat in Revue de philologie fran(aise et de littirature XV. a cross between /««/«/« was kept in Sicily and in the Spanish peninsula. . was preferred in and southern Italy. for some unknown reason. There existed in Greek a word 'figlike'. Priscian says ^^ illic pro mice": S. ficotum. Ficatum. which should properly have been pronounced sycotum . later. which was applied by cooks to a liver. Gaul had ficatum and ficatum. *ftcatum. illic accented their last syllable through the analogy of hdc^ hlc. d. all meaning 'liver. ficatum. (tdicwtoi/ (Pirson 40). a . Schuchardt in Zs. The adverbs iliac. the simple verbs having become rare or having taken a different sense: legere. 141. n-LAc. the composite character of the word although the compound was no longer associated capere. . * redpit. 63 RMpit became being with In felt. by a change of suffix. *fdcatum. and northern Italy. 515 and XXVIII.simple translation of (tvkwtov. 140. 42. central 2jaA.Lic. 435 L.

iraXa/ir/ ^pd/ma. Optisdna)':>lt. 144. <f>Ld\rj XoXepa > chdlera) > colira.tnginta. See M. terms borrowed by ear from the Greek.vr] <f>apiTpa'>p/tdretra ox phar'etra (cf.qumqudginta. etc. kTzi<jTo\rj~> epistula —ola. a. etc. The accentuation times the Greek stress GREEK WORDS. Claussen 809. borrowed Idmpa^s). The shift was probably due to a tendency to differentiate the numerals from one compare the floating accent in English thirteen^ another in Melanges natural : fourteen. (>pMd/a)> It. It. Wahlund. tisana. lines quarranta occurs in a late inscription. Ther\.'i'^ mdc(k)- tna. 69-70. Ti. II. fj. stressed ^vKwrov... 1 142. Xa. e. Tairav6s>* iapinus. Greek oxytones.ira.poKri'^pardbula. (1) Greek Oxytones. [§ 145 NUMERALS.ix.r/xa-vj'^- were stressed according to the Latin system: ^pa-)QiLT^> drdch{u)ma. Cf. irapaT-fi^'^ pirata.guadraginta. sometimes the word was made to conform to the Latin principle. mdgida. 4-5 Pirson 97. of Greek words was varied. \ were sometimes accented on the antepenult: Consentius mentions a faulty pronunciation triginta. Greek Paroxytones.64 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.o^'^ spdstnus. may represent popular stress. 42 ff. Somewas preserved.. Digitized by Microsoft® . S. as polifpus. 337. Vok.virahersvigintt. with the Greek > Occasionally the accent was kept by doubling the consonant. Ihm in Archiv VII. Kafxapa^cdmera. Rydberg . see § 141. however.TKj6. § 134). 461. etc. irapa. voXvTrovs '^ polypus^ irop(f>vpa /jMyiSa. G. fdia. when by Latin. (nraa-it. Greek paroxytones were mostly accented according to the quantity of the penult: ypa(j>tov>grdp/iium. Keil V. 143. > ( ^purpura. apparently the first syllable: (2) 145. 392.

42-49. sen 809. Cf. The endings -aa. > platea platea. > ec(^c)Usia. etc. (3) 147. Gram. When : the penult vowel was in position. Claussen 813-814. 42). Kuiv(im&ov> conopeum -eum —ium. —aav sometimes became -ea -ia. Cf. 65 but it more likely that the Italian forms are book-words with a shifted accent. Greek Proparoxytones. Cf. etc. sometimes —ea.t&o. iKKXtjaia the Latin fiipXla^Mblia. and sophta. Suffixes for Nouns. -eum -ium. 42£f. of proparoxytones is The treatment complicated. S.puj<jo%~^* ciiparissosy. etc. When : the penult was short. it accent afivcraoi > abyssus.. I. -eum: ^a. 148. Claus- accentuation: Kxnta. -ia 146. 'i. The ending -2i2. penetrated popular speech {(ro<l>ia> sopMa. but their statements are too vague to be of use. ylvecTK "^ ginesis. by Microsoft® . S. Cf. 35. Digitized jSawTia-fui > baptisma. kKo. A. Late Latin grammarians mention a pro- nunciation of Greek words with the Greek accent (S. raXaxTov > talintum. which was used to form new words: see Derivation. the accent remained un- changed phus.'avfi<l>(ovia>sym- Later a fashionable pronunciation -ia.§ 149] ^^ Introduction is to Vulgar Latin.<TTopia> kistdria.cupressus. The pronunciations melodia.) and produced a new Latin ending -ia..'Kav&ov'> balneum.<j-(^r]fLux. (with a KoXa^o^ > cdld- Trpea-ftvrepov > presbyterum new nominative took the prisbyter).. doubtless favored by Cliristian influence. A few early borrowed words perhaps show the Old Latin Cf. 149.. a-riirta>s^pia. Claussen 814-821. Claussen 812. XXXI.- was at first generally assimilated to p\a. Claussen 810— 811.>blasp hernia. § 17. 2-3. KaXafiOi > calamus. Thomas in Rom. 55-56. are attested: S. phonia.

etc. etc. Celtic Baiocasses > > Z>urdcasses'^'Px.ov tdolum (both in Prudentius: Lat.ballcena. ayKvpa>dncora. we can determine the rhythm Latin. of Vulgar and from semi-popular Kluge 500. Fisaurum It. Some words borrowed from other languages kept e.. ipr]iuis> eremus eremus : > (Prudentius).pv6<^vKKov Occasionally the consonant group was simplified and the accent remained : > * garofulum.> sinapi sindpi. As far as SECONDARY STRESS. of accented and unaccented fifth Thus Sedulius. Bayeux. judging from phonetic changes late Latin verse. Ka. Troyes. 49): Umbrian Fr. Dreux. 151. 152. Spr. became both encdustum and incaustum. writes: Beatus iuctor skculi Servile c6rpus fnduit. OTHER FOREIGN WORDS. Pharo.T]\ai> camelus -ellus. 153. it consisted in a tolerably regular alternation syllables. 2. xa/xtvos it : caminus. 466). Ut cdrne carnem liberdns p^rderit quos c6ndidit. Dottin 103. 'ldKioPoi>/dcobus. Tricasses'>Yx. contrary to Latin rules (S. Germanic words were apparently made to conform to Latin types: H'&go HUgun > Hugo Hugdnem > Fr. their original accent. at the beginning of the century. [§ 153 'EyKava-Tov. ^\axr<^-i]p. 48-49) Ka. KpoKohaKoi'^ crocodilus.Tri.66 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. j3ovTvpov> *se'- biHtyrum (^milius Macer). t^aWtava'^. Hues Hudn. (T'aia. apparently took the accent in book-words but not in words learned by ear (S. Ne Digitized by Microsoft® . a-iKlvov^ linum. . Some words have both pronunciations et8<i)A. When the penult vowel was long and not in position. > 150.o%> bldsphemus (Prudentius).

Many words. 156. When it followed the tonic. 154. In some derivatives. however. *parduldre *pardbuldre : > > > filiiis "^^/ilius. syllables to the beginning or had no accent.^plach. in Italian. it was weak. circum-Utora (Quintilian s). F\6rentino beside Fvrenze. fell on the second syllable from the tonic: cuptditosus. felidtatem. colp. B\i6logn{no beside Bologna. amistdt. 38-39) dma-me. dd-tibi. as well as some adverbs and pronouns. but clmPr. te-videt. it and the vowel bearing it was was apparently treated as an accented vowel: * amicUdtem~^'?x. Casdrem. pldcttiim'^'Pr. In late formations e or i in hiatus did not count as a sylla- ble: * cotninitidre. clirgue while cUr'cum > > > cdlbe while cdlpum > Pr. 155. especially prepositions and conjunctions. cave-facias. the root syllable may have received an irregular stress through the analogy of the primitive: * drboricellus. strong. cum Pr. When the secondary stress preceded the tonic. its syllabic value. so. Idcrlmosa. UNSTEESSED WORDS. I. were used only as enclitics or proclitics. unemphatic words. and the secondary was shifted or *pdrauldre. and were attached as additional end of other words (S. Short. cdlidHs cdldus. clerc.: § 156] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cdlapMin Pr. In many cases the intervening vowel fell out or lost Then the primary and the secondary ac- lost cent were brought together. stress. 67 ' The secondary then. sdzer. in Latin as in other lan- guages. v€ttovdglia beside vittdria. Gdllias. non-dmat. but probably the vowel bearing it had more force than a wholly unaccented final vowel: sdcer{>'PY. dolorosa. Digitized by Microsoft® .

[§ i6o 157. the consonant. see Franz.5"^ illas and sometimes unstressed and * las. 134. by Microsoft® . pere. per. For the syllabication of mute + liquid. ecce that vowel: ilium v{det^ hic^ (but ecce hie > ecc'tc) For 158. QUANTITY. 'lu' A 'c'ic dissyllabic beginning with a vowel seems to have regularly lost vldet. sUay- C. stressed tended to develop double forms: sua and Cf. in connected speech. S. did not prevent the development: pa-trem^Y-ic. position checked it is 160. apparently. par-tern > Fr. We must distinguish between the quantity of vowels and the quantity of syllables. see §§132. sel. A syllable was long if it contained ( i ) a long vowel or a diphthong or (2) any vowel + a following consonant. If. If such particles had more than one syllable. they tended to become monosyllabic: unstressed magis. 1110. did a final consonant Digitized §133): Jffl-/> Fr. Mute + liquid Neither. how great the difference was we do not know. became *mais and * mas. and probable that the beginnings of this differentiation go back to Vulgar Latin times : pa-rem > Old Fr. was doubtless carried over to the next syllable and did not make position: see §133. however. perhaps influenced proclitic hy plus. elision. 73-79. . Words sometimes sa. In some of the Romance languages the development of the preceding vowel. part. 1. istu' (but iccum istum > eccu'istu'). 379-390. ' I 159. Every 'LaXin vowel was by nature either lon^ prshort. (cf. but we may surmise that in common speech it was more marked in stressed than in unstressed vowels. eccum istum > 'cu" p II. the consonant was final and the next word began with a vowel. POSITION.68 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 56-57.

Italian fiero <. doubtless beone with a long vowel + — + a double consonant: brdchium brdcchium . mtllia (but not in mille : Pompeius. which prevailed in Romance. § 42 ctpus a single consonant. S. where we have perhaps only a change of suffix.. cuba. is common in Greek and Latin manu- scripts: S. paullum. It. siccus ' '' sicccus. cot{t)idie. buc{c)lna. 162. 118: mIssit) > causa. coppa . mut{t')ire. Many words certainly longing to different Latin dialects. camelus camellus. petto pietra<pe-tra. Digitized by Microsoft® . hoc erat hocc S. 163. as seems to be ves(s)ica. biica bucca . giving Sp. 69 Compare tus. VIII. cippus. Cf. corpo <:_cdr-pus. ferro <ifer-rum_. : The The single antiquity of double t is attested by an old inscription Lexique loi. 125-126 (Velius Longus and Pompeius). but often it must represent an actual difference in pronunciation. cupola and erat. L. cuopre <. —Isse —tssem etc. Fr. diphthongs and long 112-120): cdssus> formosus. coUo < <icd-r. however. -esse -essem etc. copa. cuppa. glossa glosa. ciepa. In some words from bad spelling. in— 132.§ 163] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. mucus miiccus . Cf. in the contracted endings -dsse -dssem etc. It. Similarly one / was lost in mallo. this may result merely the case with the doublet czto> S-p. (S. the other with a short vowel .* co-pVit. stupa stuppa. S. In Latin texts there is much confusion of single and double consonants. nollo. missit (S. gluto glutto . c. 127). had two forms. Stolz 222—225.fiel(^e) Kferl.fe-rus. cf. I. tap{p)ete. cedo. citto {C. perhaps litera littera. Fr. cuor{e) 161. cetto. §163. — fuore <fd-ris. cuve.^glut[t)tre. coupe. j < peccol- lum. pupa puppa. formossus > > > mtsit. Stolz 223-224. etc. ii594)>It.. This did not occur.^ ec{c)lesta. Early in the Empire caussa ss after vowels was apparently reduced to casus. Jiipiter Juppiter. Cf. Sp. 129. especially before the accent: bal{l)cBna.

So perhaps Diomedes' Itttera: Fr. 334. stilla). suppremis. attested by inscriptions and by Christian poets. 164. 612. ^Stella Vok. + anguilla—* angutUa (> It. cf. bellua. Gaul. Lexique 95-98) + Stella (>It. Beside the two forms indicated. Stolz 223. seemingly a cross between the other two. dialect stella) = (>It. mist * missi 261 {iubimmus iobemmus). Sic. Rsetia. * stela (>01d esteile: cf. Spr. tenne. tota. I. This doubling indicates in most cases a Accordpronunciation. [§ 164 may perhaps be added: cdseus * cdsseus bdsium *bassium (>It. (>It. before / and u in the old Italic dialects compare the Italian doubling infabbro. baca bacca. botte). Mohl. toiius was used by Pirminius. For *iiUius see Digitized by Microsoft® . lattrones. Cf. S. (> It. Gram. Vok. channe. conservdmus Vok.^ + strenna = * strenna (> It. reviewed by Meyer-Lubke in Ltblt. anguila) Fr. voile. bascio). strenna. cascio). anguilla). tennuis. In aqua the double con: sonant. I. Archiv XIV.5 547. jubemmus. mattrona. Zs. toda) ¥ totta (Keil V. messi). Leicique 98-104. G. iConsentius: " per adjectionem litterje io««»! pioioto. 485. vowel and the double consonant : angutla (> Sp.^)—* tdtta (> Pr. Die Entwicklung des aqua in den romanischen Sprachen. In late Latin inscriptions and manuscripts a consonant was sometimes doubled before r or u: acqua. * butts (<j8oi)tis) *buttis (>It. § 204(2). and a large part of lateinischen See Clara Hiirlimann. local ing to F. chdne{<x°-'^) 261. having both the long. strena (> Old Fr." Cf. jubemus lltus littus. * According to Lat. suppra. strennuor. a consonant was doubled 122.488. etc. ^(ji. brdca bracca. XXIV. XXVI. conservammus. toute). prevalent in Africa or in Italy. 339. Stella. 403. I.70 An To these Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 1. strinna). was very widespread and prevailed in Italy. frattre. there was occasionally a third. iota estreine) (>Sp.

etc. for the vowels of brief duration the tongue was not in lifted quite so high as for those held longer. 461.§ i66] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 174. until Consentius. 208. 467. None of the grammarians apparently distinguished « and «.. similar to i. 212. 200-201). 211). by 250. III. d. and so Maurus. In the case of a. In Vok. long and short e. in the fifth century (S. the same sound in Idtus and Idtus. if the word is used in verse. and u were eventin ually differentiated. is made with the tongue lying flat in the bottom of the mouth. e. distinguishes do other grammarians (S. i ff. about 350 a. most of the Empire. is often used for i in inscriptions. etc. 71 VOWEL QUANTITY. Terentianus from q (S. perhaps. 193). 182). long dis- - tinguished only by duration. In Digitized by Microsoft® . However may have been. as minses. as ocsor. II. however. Spr.. as menus. all : of later date. the distinction U was clear by the first century of our era. etc. long were close gula. in Vok. in debet and mnum \ \ and minus. mulus Later. was often used for e in inscriptions (S. : vendo pinus pi^er. Za(. the quantity of the vowel is ' in general easily ascertained. which and became e and see §§201. is given the testimony of grammarians. the evidence of inscriptions. 175. 195. the short vowels being open while the sentio. about 480. 151. from the second century on cs Marius Victorinus. 2. and several fifth century grammarians plainly distinguish e from e (S. . 146. In open syllables. II. 182). and i for e. (S. i. Writers do not clearly distinguish i and i. for instance. secondus. 211). cites Tertullian for an e (S. i and u were allowed to drop still lower. (S. but is used for u in inscriptions. That is. 176. Originally. solus sqlet. and short vowels were redit. 216-217). distinguishes two ^-sounds Pompeius. the vowels having. 0. 166. 183-184). in 165. there was no such differentiation. in iillus and multus. I.. this nomen and novus. According to Meyer-Liibke.

. except Spanish. require a short some Romance forms support Classic luridus. 105). then. (S. at least in part. proved old inscriptions . loir calls for *gltrem h&siA^ gltrem. others karessimo. Classic i Latin o&ers frtgidus (of. but an inscription has dIctatori (S. their Dies. duo>dui = dui. languages. frIgida. Fr. is The Classic rule that a vowel before another vowel short is not absolute even for verse. ultra (S. nutrire. fut. in Plautus. by S. 105). [§ 167 closed syllables and in words not used is by poets the quantity sometimes conOccasionally the in many cases doubtful . after u had become (see §§ 165. sometimes marked in inscriptions. 93): these preserved their languages. attested by pIvs piivs. were apparently pronounced also with short u 81-82). their regular quantity in hiatus. Aulus Gellius prescribes dictum. cf. Vowels in hiatus with the last syllable offer difficulties. VOWELS Ilf HIATUS. a. At 208). siius'>Digitized spus> sous (S. so cut. Romance undecim. ^T. by Microsoft® . etc. Naturally long vowels. found in inscrip- tions. although we do find the spellings dius and mius (S. any a later stage. and. but the i. plus kept inscriptions (dIes originally long vowel. etc. and often shown by subsequent developments in the Romance languages.72 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 187).2^)>oum (and also ovum. with a restora- tion of the V through the plural ova). 167. and the practice of poets was not always in accordance with spoken usage. 99). S. jectured from the etymology. testimony conflicts: some inscriptions have carIssimo. 93. 98. via— via. 101-102). and in Ennius close vowel in the Romance (S. before u was apparently differentiated into 0: dvum> oum (cf. probably kept their original Naturally short vowels doubtless had development also: deus = deus. Substrate II. others demand u. but it is sometimes given by gram- marians.

Quia. 104) that the vowels there that is.. The Romance languages. hut peijor. point to open vowels in pejor. we should write Troiia also Priscian analyzes pejus. but the / was doubled was a glide from the vowel to the/. maiiorem. however. inscriptions such S. mai-ius Digitized (£don by Microsoft® . 207). 352-355). Spr. tions in different countries. §208. 250 in these a. Cf. as Cicero approved of Aiiacem. before a consonant. etc. Recherches sur Forigine de la conjonction 'que' et des formes romanes iquivalentes. Franz. 246-248. Fluere was supplanted in popular usage by plovere Fluvia. For another see A. XXV. d. 468). it became qua. cuiius. words were short. 1894. Troja. *pldja. (S. §217. major. Horning in Zs. 73 varia- 216. b. Maiiam. with double i (S. Maiiam. The apparent contradiction disappears tianus Maurus. 236). had a peculiar development from the sixth century on before a vowel it was pronounced qui' and was confused with quid. Troja. There may have been other special Cf. into pei-ius. gave {Lat. 341. qua{ni). different theory. 82 cf. way to Cf.(4). if we accept the statement of Teren- who says (S. Cicero preferred aiio.. J. 170. under the influence of qua and : . Troija. For a still. spellings as Aiiax. 169.§ i7o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 3 II. Quintilian states that Pirson 74.: 236. According to some grammarians. I. Pirson 16). which prolonged the — first syllable: not pejor. LENGTHENING BEFORE CONSONANTS. Velius Longus adds that etc. used for quod in late Latin. 357-390. as in ejus. ei-ius. 236). which had begun to assume the functions of quod (see §§69. We find in eiius. 168. on the other hand. coiiux. a II. Franz. see Gram. vowels were lengthened before j. Jean- jaquet.

S. the n being restored only in com- lengthened by compensation: pounds before initial nare. nasality disappeared. benegnvs by Microsoft® . pugnus. Priscian. Cf §311. however. [§ 172 regularly early in Latin. for inscriptions. Spr. remains. Lat. mesis.. tions: so pensare. 89. Romance and late Vulgar Latin words with ns (except in Cf. but the length and the close quality of the vowel remained. regnum. Before J. coventio. sposus.. signum sigillum). the evidence of the inscriptions I. beside the old popular *pesare. (i) Vowels were apparently lengthened before Cf. all trace of the of the vowel: consul consul cosul cosul. (S. etc. «. coxwenire through continere. etc. Archiv XIV. it and the preceding vowel was cesor. but only after H had be- come i. call for dtgnus.- cf. tferi. the vowel was lengthened. /. who wrote in the sixth century. etc. 78. and v only at the end of prefixes. An Introduction When fell to Vulgar Latin. sanctus.74 171. tion of later date. 91). s. tjk: quinque. According to Meyer-Liibke {Gram. 400. signum. s: cosul./. so that the result Digitized was t. and the fall was permanent. lignum. tsula. not f. S. compounds See S. for the usage of Cicero and others. 86. n occurred in the middle of many words. 91. it was usually restored by the analogy of the full forms con-. But inasmuch as n occurs before /". u. 467). in-: so infantem through indignus. 90. as above) are either learned terms or new formaS. u. 172. n was followed by a fricative (/. (cf. for inscriptions. and some philologists regard the passage in question as still still an interpola54. pignus. cojugi. 77-78. or v). t. . however. but insig- It is altogether likely that the n fell through nasalization If so. The Romance is languages. etc. a very late authority. S. (2) Before gn vowels were lengthened according to Priscian and inscriptions mark length in dtgnus. conjungere through conducere. S.

difference in quantity 173. Latin words borrowed by the Britons. D. "miserce dativus est non adverbium. 722. and were often obliterated. as in aut (S." etc. prefers to regard such forms as dlgnus. 183—184: bence. 66). seems to observe quantity in stressed and to neglect it in unstressed syllables. remained. etc. in the fourth century. in the Classical Review I. and we find numerous metrical errors in other late poets: cf. J. (S. show. however. through the Latin period and developed further in the Romance languages. in the third or fourth century. they existed at c. The old quantity itself was It during the Empire. 174.§ 174] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cornu. about 250. 75). in so far as all. Buck.). in stressed syllables. 2153. which is 75 in C. the preservation of quantity in post-tonic Digitized mostly in the third and fourth centuries. Versbau des Commodian in Bausteine 576. XV. I. (S. D. On shift the other hand. L. XII. warn against quantitative mistakes: so Servius. The distinctions in quality. unaccented Terentianus Maurus. The poetry of Commodian. in unaccented syllables the distinctions were doubtless weaker. DISAPPEARAHCE OF THE OLD QUANTITY. 226). and a was often used for e in inscriptions (S. . tells us that au is short in Other grammarians syllables. and the plural —es were confounded by 150 A. of accent. explanation. lost. XII. for the most part seems to have disappeared from unstressed syllables by the third or fourth century but confusion The nominative singular -is set in as early as the second. doubtless equivalent to the benIgnus of C. 311. The was probably greater and more constant in accented than in unaccented vowels. as due to a vulgar or local pronunciation. through a by Microsoft® . resulting from the original quantity. This seems a very plausible C. L.

Digitized fqrmas fori. In accented syllables there are sporadic examples of confusion by the second century. The Latin words in Old High German. i?> e 01 i. In most of the Empire accented vowels not in position were pronounced long. and not complete before the end of the sixth.if>« while u and u. fourth century. 467). [§ 176 Loth 72. entirely diverse from the old. show the preservation of the quantity of stressed vowels: Loth 64. 178). retain the quantity of vowels that bear the accent: Pogatscher. are distinguished by quality also. and based on th|fe situation of the vowel. dixi plicds. distinguish by quantity t and i. Spr. taken over in the fifth and sixth centuries. DEVELOPMENT OF A HEW QUANTITY. all other vowels 176. Latin words in Anglo-Saxon. 225). clares that "Afrae aures de correptione St. for. as aques for eques in 197 (S. d>ii ox 6 while d>o: Franz. d. 107. It is possible that the quantity of unstressed vowels was better kept in the provinces than in Italy.76 syllables: An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. e and ?. Latin words borrowed by the Britons from the second to the fifth century. Augustine devocalium vel produc- Pompeius and other tione non judicant" (^Lat. On the other hand. too. 106). Moreover. in the Roma (S. vendo vents. criticizes Servius. 65. e. but probably the disappearance of the old distinction was not general before the fourth and fifth centuries. Much late poetry disregards quantity altogether. but mostly in the third and fourth. and o. 175. / At the end of the Latin period a new system of quangrew up. tity short: sdncto vales. Latin words borrowed by Old High German indicate a retention of long i and u before the accent: Franz. grammarians blame the confusion of cequus and equus (S. fructus by Microsoft® .

cq/r me-l no-s re-m In Spain and in some parts neisf of Gaul. cuor. t. 178.f>It. cb. 561-562. and the conditions of diphthongization were very diverse in different localities. in £at. VOWELS. goule. while a was not' affected by q-aawti-ty.q. d. I. occurs in an inscription made a little before 120 a. all stressed vowels were appar- ently long: tempus. perhaps only a blunder. cqr'^lt.§ 178] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. says that the development was and independent in the several Romance languages. 77 gule. o. e. beside a. : Niipos. The vowels most affected were e and q. This pronunciation doubtless sprang up with the old. In 419 D. (rets. and Sicily apparently did not participate in this early breaking. 467. 213). Portugal. southern Gaul. also ui. the groups that e. ^^/a > Old Fr. porta. Zimmermann in Zs. a. We shall see presently Digitized by Microsoft® . and in unaccented ii. vieni. 735). particularly in northern Gaul: z'f«f. syllables before a labial (as in proommus') a short further- more. ca-the-drd te-ni-brds . ce. u. i. tre-s. nepotis (A. Gram. nous. which in the transition from Latin to the Romance languages re1 77- It is likely that these in sulted in diphthongization in a large part of the Empire. we find vobit for obiit (S. 103—104. Lombardy. XXV. Meyer-Liibke in different in Einf. but as posterior to it the fifth century. We and u were pronounced open. Latin had the vowels au. «^j>Fr. he puts in the fourth and fifth centuries. d. An isolated example. /w>01d Fr. close. he describes it as common to all. nounced new long vowels were promost regions with a circuinflex intonation. eu. Spr. 0. have seen (§ 165) ti. dis- appearance of the which it displaced.

long or short. and 180. which became *trewa.iro6riKTf)~:>apotheca^ It. was in Greek originally a long e. [§ 182 (§§209. iu is found in skiuha?i> ated in some fashion to the Latin system. but also sepia "^ i: It. eu (or iu) appears in treuwa (or triuwa). as *waidanjan~>*wadaniare. eu generallyremained du. The inconsistencies in this substitution arise partly from the different dates at which words were borrowed. so in some late words. According to Quintilian (£don 64-65).nd ce>e. doubtless the ideal of people of fashion. 210) that cB>e a. In the Germanic vocabulary there is not much to be noted: at in words adopted early apparently became a. the Greek This pronunciation was letters were sounded as in Greek. eu (^cduius. The history of Greek vowels is very complicated: — GREEK VOWELS. ceu). bestemmia. and ui (as in cut) was lit. it H era : eclesia. as In words of more ji\acr<\>r}fi. seppia. partly from the channel (written or oral) through which they came. 181. bottega. Per. The foreign vowels of borrowed words were assimil- In the few Celtic words that were taken over there are no important peculiarities. (n)Tria~^ sapia.78 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. popular origin it often had the Greek open sound kKKkfitrU > 182. 179. a-Ktjvrj'^ sctsna scena. A. but popular speech substituted for unfamiliar vowels the sounds of the vernacular. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin e: a. * skivare.La > blasphemia > It. but early in our became t. by Microsoft® . partly from the various pronunciations of the vowels in the several Greek dialects. was pronounced a: ^axriM^ Phdsis. (f>dXayi -> phalanx. while au. Late words often show Digitized do-Ki/Tiys > ascitis.

In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: > cophinus. irop^vpo. ermo. was probably q. occasion- yXStrira > It.ix6py7)>amurca. /. and occasionally the same word had both pronunciations: a. was generally close. oo-/x'^ >.. it was In assimilated to Latin t: ^lp. tapis. Digitized by Microsoft® .v6% > orphanus. > artemtsia > Old Fr. 183. I. tapit.yermo. ^^. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 9. ^ia>drrp > boletus. O most dialects was kocjuvo's o. In popular words it. Cf. ixova<TT'^piov'>raora-n-rj- nastirium.' It. at least in the principal dialects. menta. Greek dialects. in 186. Christianus Chres- tianus. open in others. pxirov > blttum'> It. t apparently later often e: apOplriKOi > ariAriticus '> It artetico. tttw^os > It. 79 40. mienta. cresme. opiyavos > became e. chiosa. 184. ally u: tructa.vri^ovo%'>-* antefona'^ Qi\A Fr. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: <j><!tKri In popular words it apparently became ^.> piper..p1. sometimes open: eprjfios'^ er'mus er'mus'^ It. cedro. It. /iu(rT^ptov> mistirium.. but sometimes open. Claussen 869-870. Xpla-ro^'^. 185. rprnKTiji'^ Cf. KiBpo'i'>cedrus'>In book-words it > Fr. pttqcco. apTepXa-M It. Old Fr. etc.'>- Stephanus Stephanus. cf. but perhaps dialectically q (cf. orma. antiefne. E was close in some It. op<^a. 80x1^ > dqga> It. a. was assimilated to Latin e: yevans Agenesis. apa. '%Ti<^avo'.^ purpura. In popular words it was sometimes close. apparently became I. piivOrj^ menta'> It. dqga. regamo. K6ppi>gummi. "^-phoca. Tiov Claussen 854-855. ^(fila-pa^ chrisma> cresima. seems to have had a very open sound.. Claussen 853-854. ropvos > tqrnus > It. li bietal It. Pr. -p-hqra). armeise. <^iKo'i>phtlus.Chrlstus Chrestus. crLvaTn> sinapi^ senape. iKKXriKrCiu "> edisice. popular words I In book-words later e oz e. Neumann etc. Claussen 855-857. etc. etc. even when long. Cf. 1re7rf. Sp.o'i'> phlmus .— § i86] An etc.

fivpros busta seems to represent a peculiar local development: cf." "porphyreticum marmor non purpureticum marmor. Cf." App. which is genCicero erally represented. AudoUent 536. in the case of v.. It. in the 9th or loth century.p-q>cumba. For some words we find an occasional spelling X. Pr. — > concha. etc. KpvTTTrj > It. 221.yKvKw. . KviJ. Olumpus. in which the ^ is a later local development." Among the common people the unfamiliar ii was assimilated to i. Cf. Pr. /iCSos > It. Digitized by Microsoft® . In inscriptions we find misteriis. was unrounded into /. v regularly was assimilated to Latin u Ionic it jUijXXos 2ig-22i): Pvpara> bursa . Marsuas... buxus. ''tymum non tu- mum. etc. Livius Andronicus In ayKvpa ancora. In the older borrowed words. According to Cassiodorus. 187. > > > buxida {=pyxis) in Theodorus Priscianus and in glosses. S. nunquam Pyrrhum" (S. > > and a few other words the v for some reason became o. Spr. App. we find: "Marsyas non in others (S. Mva-Ca^ Jfysia Mmsia." "myrta non murta. Pr. Pr. 221). Y was > strqppus. y In the App. motto. perhaps taken mostly from Doric (Claussen 865). KpvTrTy)> crupta . by the spelling y. truttna the v storax. Lat. Zefurus. In Tp\yTa. these probably have nothing to do with KoXvizTpa. says: "Burrum semper Ennius. 221). calotta. > ancilia . u is the spelling in some words. 'OXvcro-eu? > Ulixes. grotta.8o torno. cultivated people adopted for Greek words the Ionic-Attic pronunciation. etc. — KoKn^o-i^ cqlaphus cojaphus. 'OSuo-o-eta > Odissta. later in Attic and became ii. Pirson 39. irv^os mullus. > It. The spelling / occurs sometimes before Augustus 6. which subsequently. <jTvpai : .vt)> was shortened. originally pronounced u. Koyxiy <tt/3o<^os [§ 187 chorda. . The App. (S. 468. murta. Towards the end of the Republic. etc. which may represent a Greek dialect pronunciation between u and ii: yvpo'i> gyrus gmrus . An Introduction to Vulgar Latin." '^ tymum non tumum. yppl-q > Claussen 857-860.

" giret. probably a local development. Cf. KoXoKvuT-q"^ cologuinta. Digitized as in -Koivr] >poina. bisante. yrJi/'os — kvkvo%> gesso is e: yvpo% cecino.'> w€ipaTyi<s'^ — KA£ki>> Medea. Frigia. etc. 190. etc. giro. originally cb 188. except before vowels. For o-vkcutoj/. which came to be proClaussen nounced 871-872.. «S(i)Xov> pirata.. 81 has "gyrus non girus. b. /. Cf. § Kd 223. Cleopatra. Cf. <? In Latin. MaTa > Maia.v\ov > It. 192. £/ was doubtless originally pronounced ei in Greek. 76-77. J before consonants. however. from the sixth to the fourth century c. e. about the third century.rihtui. was usually pronounced short. amido.TSa.§ 192] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Claussen 873-875. /ceXttJcr/xa > ? It. frequently became qui: The modern Greek pronunciation is represented by some Romance words: afi. etc. which to be pronounced as in ^otfio^'^it Phxbus Phebus Sometimes. Bechtel etc. Claussen 872-873. f. It. if Pirson 39.• ^ ^generally became ^« E3pos > -£'«''«J'. > scilinga. . M. i. if Audollent 535. see § 141. Such forms Clepatra for as " ermeneumata non erminomata" {App. 189. This i. > It. by Microsoft® became 0. toreomatum from Topfxpa. > It. misterii. as in AWiovux > Ethiopia Ethiopia. etc. cf. Pr. then. e.). Kapa^iuriys'^ paradtsus . tdolum. In -eios -eta —tiov. cima. a became Clio. later ce (as in poina). Cf. KS/«i>It. Cf. giro. cf. 191. ciurma. oTJpt-yya which became It. as in Atas > Aiax. later e. j8u^ai'r6s > It. 277).> platea. Tu/iTravov > Fr. long. became ai. . Claussen 860-869.. finally. A V> au. Cf. oi. Claussen 01 originally "became came (S. or z before vowels. 6r]travp6i> thesaurus. may be merely misspellings: Some Romance forms show u: 875-877. (as in aiyi^'^ tsgis). the penult was often shortened: Khj. AI timbre.

For nasal vowels. I. doubtless originally pronounced ou in Greek. Rome. volumptczte in Gl. factum. C. then 'Valuer (whence alicrem alecrem). used by Petronius and others: Lat.B. Like 193. So beside dinia. for cmmeterium < Koi/tjyTiyptov. and agnetus (for agndtusi) in Fredegarius. Haag 6. etc. crepere. a. The o was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . Cimiterium cymiterium. especially in the north. tantus. C. 544. Claussen 878-879. In Latin it usually became u: fipovxo's> bruchus. I. latus. A regularly remained dat-e. [§ 195 "^-foeta. which was used in southern Italy. under the influence of l?vis: Beside GREVE. « : . Substrate II. N. L. 198. 468. 0. ACCENTED VOWELS.slus. 1527 d 33. Doric cf. CKwas then if. It is possible that dlacer (whence alacrem) > *dlecer (whence alecrem). Spr. Kipaaoi) there must have been a Latin * cerlsus. vocatio. S. perhaps indicates an ignorant confusion of « ce: KOiixMSia'^ and Cf. (i) Some words had a peculiar development: — Beside alacrem the Romance languages seem to postulate alecrem and alej:rem. 441. senetus. Spr. 468. — For vowels in hiatus. unchanged in the greater part of the Empire: caput. Reich. ot. Lat. Cf. a 194. see § 39.. see § 167. -arius. Beside cerasus *clra. see § 171. became comcedia. malum « cf. Spr. manus. patrem. SINGLE VOWELS. Substrate (4) I. Beside gravis there was a grevis. But in Gaul. ovpavo's'^ Uranus. 171. Olcott 33.82 as in An iroirjTtji Introduction to Vulgar Latin. <u Claussen 877-878. L. it probably had a forward pronunciation tending somewhat toward e: cf. (5) jiSKav) there was a melum (<i)i. 195. I.T\Kov). (6) Beside vacuus there was a vHcuus: vocuam. and Sarthere was a clr^slus. I. (2) (3) For the suffix -arius. Cf. 468 cf. then q. VI. which was used elsewhere Lat.

also for colustra. Spr. as in cinsum. minsam. which was spoken in nearly the has become i. iox fistus. — in -isco for -esco. of suffix original. -elius and —llius. for —esco 26o£f. vocivus regularly whence by analogy vdcat vScuus became ^vdcitus^ for vocat: Lat. III. —esimus. e became i in late {Lexique 106). S. I. Sepulcri. Digitized It probably indicates an by Microsoft® .: Sepulcri 193-194. and southern Apulia e In old Oscan. etc. Some of the —esco >-tsco cases are surely due to a §§414-415.. {Lexique 115). for vindimia instead of vindemia. no proof of historical con: nection between the phenomena 197. 468. Republican times. mercedem. old vocdre. e. 614-615. By a change § which was pronounced remained unchanged in Vulgar Latin..ficit. In Sicily. -isimus for vir. same region.). II. 328. —isco for —esco. Calabria. etc. Also Vok. 127 287-289.: for the confusion of -ere and 6911. became vacdre.. I. 196. Cf. I. 466. Lat. to u. debet. for crisco and other verbs for adimplisti. 613. etc. -Ire. I. Long e {% 165). Carnoy 15 ff. diheto. vendere. habetis. 359-364. probably- at least in most re- gions: debere. vacivus 83 {^vacuus).. for -elis and —His. There is. Spr. etc. 189-190. This would account for bistia (= bestia) found in late Latin. however. in Studi Medievali Medievali I. {ficet in the 3d century.§ igS] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cf . and -tsco. filix. conjectures that consonant may have tended to raise e to i. T is very often used for e in inscriptions and late —ido for —edo. These spellings are due in the main s -¥ to the identity of /and i in late pronunciation: see § 165. shift of conjugation: see In Gaul this substitution of it i for e was so very com- mon that must signify something. Studi A. I. etc. and conversely ver iox etc. verus. vindo. 198. dulcido. iox co- gnusco and other verbs in —usco for -osco. writings: Gregory the Great has crudilitas..

: by Microsoft® . i pronounced i (§ 165). fedilis. ingraviscente. is to be regarded as a new formation on the model of noster rather than as the old form. later. Pirson 2-5: lo-ii: requiiscit. became. remained unchanged: bene. Bon. Cf. e 199. vaster. viiium. spelling e for ^ is common from Digitized the third century on frecare. minsis. Cf. Spr. quiiscit. tile. see § 177. piscem. rigna. minses. It. stiva. criscit. etc. rictu. tris. which was pronounced e (see § 165). exit. 468. etc. 106-113: minse. sidibus. Lexique 114. teneo. (cf. etc. audtre. quaginsima. (Lexique 119) mentions a rustic speca for spica.84 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Neumann adoliscens. ferus. i. : (3) Beside sicula there was a secula (Lexique Ii9)>-It. riges. remained unchanged: I. e in nearly all the Empire: btbo. Short e. ficit. mille. I. Vok. Cf. found in Gregory of Tours fur das Studium der neueren Sprachen CXV. Short i. villa. which supplanted vester. pronounced / (§ 165).ii(i. vinum. qulnque (^Substrate (i) 546). in north- e>ei (verum> Old Fr. Long i. stilla. (4). 0) . dico. According to Lat. quincriscens. doubtless by the third century and sporadically earlier. [§ 201 extremely close pronunciation of the e ern Gaul. habitur. 1 200. The 201. ferrum. tepiscit. etc. Archiv (2) Beside ilex there was an elex. segolo. venit. delitus. perhaps through association with rtgidus. except in Spain. For the development (i) of diphthongs. vexit. seniscit. veir): Lat. 397. festa. must have become *frtgidus ij^frigdus). minus. rigna. tulate (4) stegola Varro seems to pos- something like * steva for For St. this very high Spr. It is interesting to note that Celtic e also became i: Dottin 99. see § 229. § i66. Lexique 104-105: ficerent. 8-9: adoliscens. stiis. Haag 3iiff. Fngidus. circulns.

Spr. karessemo. accepere. amure. 195. Neumann 23-25. vea. 106. often used for e (cf. 463. in Gaul {^Lat. Spr. forma. For ou 203. 200-201. (i) (2) Beside camtsia there was a camTsia: Substrate I. ceteneris. etc. In Sicily. In southern Italy e from i. 214. sponsus. trebus. §§ 197. R. trea. -^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. very common etc. 85 menus. Conversely (S. etc. 468): furma.. In Sardinia and a part of Corsica this change did not take and both t and i i.. solus. perhaps through the analogy of semel: Lat. (3) Sinister was replaced by sinexter. i is Bon. etc. is The spelling u for etc. 198): minses. etc. etc. Spr. Pirson 8-10. has become § 196. see § 167. R. 6 202. as it (§ 165). place. etc. 468. Stu^i Medievali 613) is perhaps to be ex- plained in this way.. benivolus. S..§203] legare. nomen. like e from e. 468. the change For agnusco. minester. at least in hora. used by Gregory the Great and for ostium others. remained unchanged most regions: colorem. S. Haag II. corregia.. Carnoy 15^-. Long 0. 463. Spr. Pirson 13. 469. Quintilian and Varro mention 166) a rustic e for I. cognusco. S. semuL. etc. etc. These two islands were taken > from Rome by the Vandals in 458 and added to the African kingdom. Apulia of e to /. «.. under the influence of dexter: Lat.. etc. became i: cf. zV/z///). 202). see the end of § 197. and southern did in old Oscan: cf. Calabria. Beside simul there was a *sSmul. 541. viduriiis. Digitized by Microsoft® . after that they were perhaps isolated: Einf.. § 196. (Zat. sebe. sene.. pronounced in Vulgar Latin... The popular ustium I. AudoUent 535. 11 7-1 23. ^/z<^(= minester. attested also by in- scriptions (S. > ou.

pi. the influence of cuncti on toti. Cassel: " aiatutti. mueble postulate Cf. sg. Italian tutto . the analogy of mSveo. Italy. For the development of diphthongs. pronounced u (§ 165). Cf. or at least to a tutti. which Haag 13." § 177. Digitized by Microsoft® . Grammarians mention the protrusion of the lips: S. K. The Such a form seems to be attested by the Gl. later. in north- ern Gaul. mortem. see Long u... tutt3 . and western was probably formed a little forward of its normal It was certainly not u. a large part of northern Rsetia it position. 211—212. pi.. court. locus. Cf. The rustic Latin funics. cognusco. etc. — presumably through Fr. sg. became ou or u: cortem 204. S. remained unchanged most of the Empire: cura. etc. Short 0. totto. 126-130. frundes (for fontes. ^'formica noxi furmica. meuble. Grammaire I. durus. No satisfactory explanation has been proposed the most plausible. forts. pi. but it doubtless slightly This pronunciation may have been due to the historique de langue francaise approached it. perhaps. sortem. [§ 206 It Bon. 216. pi. solet. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. namely. U is occasionally used for o in inscriptions: lucus. tuit. Pr. tot. *tutti or *tucti: It. is that of Mohl. Neapolitan sg.86 etc. Fr. forum." where tutti is defined as alle. nun. (i) > Old. q before n + dental. may have come through 6 pronounced ^ (§ 165). Lexique 102-104. frondes) are perhaps connected with Italian yb«fe and other words containing o for 205. Pr. cf.. uuela alle. some of the Romance forms point to nom. in But in Gaul. una. § 187. 206. tottus (§ 163). folia.. § 198. in mobilis. gluria. App. old Fr. remained unchanged: bonus. tutto. § 217. puni. Nyrop. the plural. (2) Beside totus and *tuttus or *tuctus. There are a few peculiar cases: and Sp. nullus. probably represents a very close sound.

). perhaps only orthographic: Lat. a part of Corsica. Spr." "formosus noTiformunsus. Beside angHstia there must have been *angSstia. Pr. 468. "colubemon colober. through the analogy of *nSvius ("bridegroom. For qu (i) (2) > qu. and ndra. servos. Cf. see § 167. 134. In Sardinia. Cf. Windisch 396-397." "turma non iorma" (cf. u 208. G. 87 linguistic habits of the Celts: u> t in Great Britain cf. jUvlnis. u. couleuvre. Spr. pronounced u (§ 165). a pomex: Bon. giila. tomolus. The old spelling for u after v {yoltus.rdus: Substrate III. 132-135. Jleuve. due to the analogy of sdror and * nSvia (" bride. Albania. Short the fourth century or earlier. Digitized Cf.. people ssiA plSvere (used by Petronius (4) Instead oi pluere axA pKvia and others) and *pldja: Lat. which lasted down into the Empire. 217. in Latin words borrowed by the Celts « is generally treated like Celtic (murus ". pomice. and Dacia this u : Lat. and both u and . criidus > criz) Loth 67-68. . F. Celtic by the second century. change did not take place. NUptia. unda. 136. cubtturn). 467. ruptus. 465) and nSra (S. Pirson 15-17. became nSptim: (3) Beside in Zs. 617-618. Fr. > : 207. (3) There are other local irregularities. (i) (2) The following special cases are to be noted: — Cf. Beside luridus there probably was a *l-S. « > z (cii^a cili. Spr. probably by in most of the Empire: bucca." "puella non poella"). 464. culpa.> mur) but in a few. 469. In place of niirus we find ndrus (R. became.. by Microsoft® . toneca.§ 2o8] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. §§ 169. 216). presumably taken very early. etc. etc. 517. tonica.." from nSvus). fiUvium. App. Mohl pumex there was XXVI. jeune call for local q in coliibra. etc. The spelling is common in late documents: "columna non colomna. corso. Bon." from nSvus) Lat. u> Spr. Substrate IV. § 217. covetum (= is Haag 14.

preda prceda. etc. by analogy. Cf. etc. such scBpes both forms were preserved. but two parts it became cb. Spr. spellings as fcecit. in stressed syllables (as questor) may be called regular by the century: S. § 78. quiceti. in the first S. igo.. fifth it cented syllables (as sancte) before the third century.. Cf. etc. In certain words a vulgar and dialect pronunciation com- and Faliscan (Hammer 7. e.): found early in Campania. S. About the first century b. septum. says that cb Terentius Scaurus. Hence. some hundred years later e came into the city and pervaded the middle of the provinces: Lat. seta. and equus : S. [§ 210 DIPHTHOUGS. Cf. cen224. In Spanish inscriptions e occurs from the first S. especially in Pompeii (presta. The Pompeius blames the confusion of csquus spelling e for cb was usual in unacfrom the fourth century on. stressed cb was probably still a diphthong in the city but had become e in rustic Latium. 687 ff.88 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. represents the sound better than ai: E is etc. 465. sepes 188. 178. century: Einf. came into general use: fenum. ccelum. Carnoy It was probably general everywhere by the second 69-84. when Varro cited edus for hadus as a rural form. qucero. preda. 225. 'Sox fenum fcenum. 8). 166—168. sepes. b. The regular change oi ce to e took place largely in Republican times in unaccented syllables. 225. 178. Neumann 13 (and Fort- mon to Volscian seizung 21-23): famina. 210. Bechtel Digitized by Microsoft® . Carnoy 79-80. £ for a in dative endings occurs early: Corssen I. c. ^ was originally written through the mutual attraction of later e: ccecus. in stressed syllables in the first century of our era and later. its and pronounced ai. century on (Carnoy 78): questus (2d century). S. ae 209. tury.

in the Probus. Cludo for claudo is common. I. 304. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. oricla". such as occludo: Vok.. toru. — speak of a rustic or archaic o for au: Corssen fif. 212. crept was used by the lower classes: Lat. is 223 spellings Cladius. century second century Carnoy 85. orum. and 465-466. 162-164. in Portuguese as ou. orum. are pretty common in various countries Carnoy 86-95. Hammer central Italy: Chronologie . II.: § 212] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Festus. original q (i) is proved by the treatment and Spanish it did not become of c in ^ until had broken into uo or ue. Rome. Dibmedes. generally remained in Vulgar*^ Latin: aura. with a for au when an u in the next syllable. 183-184) and for Greek r) (as scanam. Festus cites 95. etc. The f there S.. coda. Umbrian and Faliscan had 4-5. Carnoy 100 (cludo in two Sp. Pr. ^^ auris non cotes. R. Scarus. in the first it the city. taurus. or possibly (2) they are only orthographic. pronounced du. In Umbrian inscriptions we find Latin. 301 S. II. in general. etc. coming through derivatives./464.C. and others The grammarians : — . Priscian. 89 75-76: cedat. grece. where au was normally preserved this pronunciation was used also in the country around So.: into Spr. 655-663. the earli^est stage of French in Italian causa> chose . orata. gaudium. In Rumanian and Provengal it was preserved as au. its existence in 211. Glacus.. in Oscan territory. occur inscriptions Carnoy 85. Hammer : 15-19. Pirson 27. an Au. Bayard 5. where and second centuries B. etc. In C/^j-a. the dialects of northern \i^?s~\(>\. Clodius : Ham- and Plotus are common in first mer 4. Perhaps they represent a provincial pronuncia- tion. Carnoy 85-86 (clusa. Cf. etc. in place of Latin au: and There are some examples in Pompeii. Cf. Conversely ce was often erroneouslyused for e (S. plostrum Carnoy App. ostrum. 8.). Lexique 104).. Vok. inscriptions of the I St and 2d centuries).

1890. seu). This rustic and vulgar while the in Romance — which was pronounced — was generally adopted from au was 0. Cf. lotus. by Microsoft® . Vulgar Latin in a few words : coda. I. au was occasionally used for 160): Festus. foces. The confusion S. Eu. fosnum. Spr. hUic. Classic fauces. pronounced eu (as in ceu. Bechtel 76. 0. Phebus. auscu/um . eu.go An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. S. Jilodere. cepi. mm227. cxlum. 293ff. Umbrian suffoco. Hammer 4)= aut.. plotus occur also. Cicero used loreola. 227. Lat. eheu. 464. eu 214. plodo. In the Per. CE was originally written through the mutual attraction of presumably 0. * auddere for occtdere. of our era: Cf. ui pronounced lii. sodes. L. II. we C. S. Digitized cHi. ote. ccementa. (cf. see § 431. Europa. 213. eui~us. [§ 216 {^Chronologie Conversely. Carnoy 84. Ui. later e: coepi. 227. " sorex ve\ saurex. but two parts it became It pcenitet. is its and pronounced oi. S. Marius Victorinus. fcemina. plaudo. neuter. find amenus. stus. codex. S. explodo. oe 215. etc. illHi. the intermediate stage Phoebe. poena. 228. 216. Carnoy 95. became popular: coscus. Ola. oricla. Vok. heu. ce for ce and e. neu. 0. of ce and e is mentioned by late grammarians: In late Latin a bad spelling. 228." Cf. pollulum: si audes. Cf. was not preserved in any popular words. *^^ Cf. pcenates. mmrore. IV. coles =^ caulis. postulated by some Romance forms. may be that for reflected by the spelling phyeb^ E is attested by inscriptions in the first century ceperint. etc. was preserved: For the development oifui.

e=e. p. a following labial tends to open a vowel: colubra>* colqbra. 218. mobilis'^* mqbilis. 476. and then only Digitized in a part of the Empire. became ou: S. § 134. d. 579. stress.§ 219] An Introduction c. I ' According to some philologists. until the reforms of Charlemagne. that f. — vowel by a liquid. in vulgar speech. — For secondary 153-155. to Vulgar Latin. Among unstressed vowels. Osservazioni al precedence lavoro. — 457. until long after the Vulgar Latin period. qt INFLUENCE OP LABIALS. The discussion is continued by Pieri. Jluvium'>*flqvium. A general influence of this kind can hardly be regarded as proved for any combination except ou. au:=q ox au. dvum~>* ovum. e. by Microsoft® . u ^u (or a and ce ^e. Although many examples are cited. 2. pluere'^ ployere. influence of The vowels of the final syllable lost much of their distinct- ness. ibid. i = i. those of the first syllable had most resistance. except sporadically. possibly through a lingering the Old Latin accent: cf. in general. 219. juvenis'^*jovenis. for the In clerical Latin the vowels were probably pronounced most part as ii). La vocal tonka alterata da una consonante labiale in Zs. u were lowered one stage labial. maintains ceding or following even if it by a preq was separated from the to e. After that. the evidence is not convincing. XXVII. Pieri. see § 167. which 217. but did not fall. La vocal tonka alterata dal contatto d'una consonante labiate in Archivio glottologico italiano XV. = 0. For a criticism of the theory. see §§ N. see G. Ascoli. CLERICAL LATEff. UNACCENTED VOWELS. B. etc.. q. e. a = a. q.

syllables: I. however. jur(^i)go. by Microsoft® . The former was the one generally adopted in Classic Latin. etc. "in here neque e plane nequi i auditur.. iv. S. dc(^u)lus. employed only before labials. Quase. Haag 15-24. i was certainly distinct from Digitized In final i: sentis. see Pirson. This tendency continued. SUmus. forms as infri. 466. Lat. etc. vetranus: S. In early Latin there was an inclination to syncope: ar{i)ddrem. 21-24. siimus -and simus. 7. in moderation. [§ 221 Grammarians sibe are testify to the confusion of and u: S. In general Latin quantity did not sensibly affect the quality of unstressed vowels. in unaccented . developed two forms. scriptions etc. 221. "Messala. and even there the difference must have been small. > maximus. except in initial syllables. 3 During the Classic period it generally became t: decumus~> decimus. bdl{i)neum. av{^i)dere. In inscriptions we find such frig{i)daria. secondary or the primary 47-48." In the vulgar speech simus seems to have Cf. 30—36. U was cf. vtr{i)dis. (i). spelled both with u and with i: Carnoy 65-69. 203-208. ID re vailed in Italy and southern Gaul. Spr.92 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 2 1 2. found in place of quasi. Agrippa pro sumus simus scripserunt. 251. cf. § 419. cal[e)fdcere. 196-198. According to Quintilian I. pontufex "^pontifex. 35 Franz. maxumus quodlubet"^ guodlibet. In Spanish in- we find maximus. Fredegarius is very uncertain in his use of unstressed vowels: 220. etc. being sometimes accented. According to Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. but simus was favored by Augustus and by some purists of his time (Lindsay 29).. 9). syllables. see Pirson 41—47. for o and u. Brutus. sibi: S. 199-200. For the confusion of unaccented e and i. in Classic and Vulgar Latin: cal{i)dus." (Weakest were medial vowels immediately following the stress. Lindsay 25-26.

§ 224] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Plautus. fluviorutn) are found in Ennius. fudxis. fis. rather late: Velius Longus distinguishes aquam from acuam. is distinguere qucBro. After gutturals. senti. the u was ap- parently not reduced to a semivowel until the end of the In some other words the syllabic value of u was kept. e. oKuAas) very common: Eckinger 123-125. /"and u followed by a vowel and beginning a syllable were apparently pronounced as consonants from the earliest times. qui. and u in hiatus with following vowels first lost their syllabic value era. Bonnet notes that etc. at least in theory. sometimes short. senttt> It." S. So it was in qualis. such as Classic period. Quintilian says that u and i in uos and iam are not vowels: S. 236. Horace. probably by the century of our and sporadically earlier. left a.. Lucilius. > distinguere. e. §187. Horace. UNACCENTED VOWELS IN HIATUS. vindemiator'va. Otherwise. used before Joseph. as approved is by Cicero: S. alio. a vowel but lost its syllabic value in early Classic times: acua > aqua. App. abiete. 234. "vacua non vaqua.. fectf^Vr. and will be out of consideration in the present chapter." "vacui gon 224. quem. and Seneca: deorsum in Lucretius. Quintilian and Velius Longus cite the spellings Aiiax. 93 stbi. nocuit. sente. Pr. These. In Greek transliterations kv for qui (as in cf. abietiItalia counts as three syllables in poets of the ' bus in Virgil. fes. vaqui. 222. Digitized by Microsoft® . Maiiam not ab. In tibi the final vowel was sometimes long. Ovid. however. Occasional examples (such as dormio. will be treated as consonants. a. 232. feci. 223. u followed by a vowel was originally itself. then. In perfects.g. Lucretius. Juvenal. placuit. facias. i. Virgil.

century or before by the third century. lancia. S. I. ie. Pr. vinia. a great confusion of e and i in hiatus: capriolvs (cf. then. Consentius declares that trisyllabic soluit and .. In the same vi2. 103. 3714 (Rome). 187.y Jiliolus>Jiljdlus (§136). u6 developed differently. App. it became soef in French. etc. it was probably a semi-learned word. soave in Italian. abias.> mul'erem.. a new y and a new w. eacit {^=jacei). * de-excito~^* dexctto'^ It. L. Caper. Audollent 535. palleum. II>'43. calciare. 234. the semivowels pre- sumably developed into the fricative consonants y and w: S. Lauriatus.94 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The pronunciation speech by the first u was probably regular in popular . Vok. however. 06 and u6 into o..filius'>ftlius'^Jiljus. We have. the / remaining long enough to palatalize the / (the Romance e was doubtless a later analogical development). 463. Bayard 4. 232. coclia. "ares veteres pro anVi. lintium. was used as a trisyllable by Sedulius in the fifth century. R. as e. in late Latin spelling. 106. Valerius Probus has parietibus: £don 208. cf- Carnoy 33-35. Hence arises. eccu'istay-* ecwista (§65). abiat." KeilVII. and // apparently being contracted into e. tenueram > tenweram (§137).:> Digitized by Microsoft® . Uniamenta. fasiolus. C. desto.dixisse": Carnoy 43). prehcndere 225. with a narrowing of the mouth-passage. etc. Cf. noxeus. §136).sapui > saj>ui> sapwi. S. VI. "non iamus sed eamus. earn {=jani). four-syllable induruit are barbarisms Caesellius is undecided whether tenuis has three syllables or two: S. 231-232. Suavis. But the combinations ei -. faciebam'>*facebam. 00. calcius. aleum. exiat. parieUs {%i2t^)>p aretes. [§ 225 early Empire. likewise eccu'kic> *eccwic. mulierem (% 1^6) ". in late Latin." " sobrius per i non per e scribendum. cavia. at an early date: arietem (^^\-^6)'> are tern (Varro. i. ee. valiat. So alea>alea'^alja. solia.

duodecim'^ dodecim (Pirson 58: dodece). Pr. 472: ero). pendere. 351). then *prendere through the analogy of reddere and perhaps also of ascendere. doubtless under the influence of vidua. cooperire"^ coperlre. distinguunf> distingunt (ac- cording to Velius Longus." " coqus non cocus". " coquens non cocens". kept its u: Old Fr. cf. Reich. 95 prendere. uncis = unguis. £ruum'>erum {Lat. . tdrqueo>*torquo> *tdrco. (Pirson 58) quatro (7th century. quteius'> quetus. So apparently aruum^* arum. tuum'^tum. . Velius Longus. unguntur.'K. coquus'^ cocus {App. tendere. battuo "^ batto (cf. > ecus {^App. . — cdhdrtew^ cortem. vef. z/ after all consonants fell before unaccented u probably by the middle of the first century. Febr{u)arius. tinguo~^ttngo (Caper. then *cdpenre *cdp'rtre through the analogy of co." Keil VII. 106). '' coqui non cod. ministerW^ ministeri. hence *cocma). 226. § 227] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 217-218. Carnoy 117. contin{u)ari. abattas.oSmsiT\& mortus. Audollent 536). Pr. 2 1 7 ) . common Carnoy 43). Similarly. U often fell irregularly II. Caper. equus S. defendere. 227.. requebit. qudmddo> comodo. Jan{u)arius: Vok. coquo^coco {App. 468-469. ungi.. u before stressed u and 0: 536.'). Gl. consiln'^ consilt. / after a consonant fell before unaccented i: Velius audit '^ audi. S. fell commoner After gutturals. in late inscriptions. Spr. Furthermore. Audollent See §354. "ungue non unge. 218) quator — in. sttnguo > guere non tingere. Carnoy 221). S. Digitized by Microsoft® . S. Bayard 7. quat{t')uor'^quattor (^. ho-Tievex. opus.. some writers use no u in distinguere. inndcuus>inndcus." Keil VII. suus'> sus. quoi{f)tdie> stingo . before unaccented by the second century: antiquus "> anticus carduus^^cardus. cf. 105. mortuus'^p- cottidie. "equs non ecus ".and perhaps also ol opera. "tin352. in quum>cum.. Pirson 57 (cf. £don 130). unguo'>ungo {ungo. the Viduus. Pr.

valere. etc. ce. dvitdtem. ridemus. 223. debere. must have existed 229. Keil VII. some Italian (common by i in inscriptions.96 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. * agurium (cf. and u were finally all pronounced 228. Agustus is frequent from the second century on. audere. > *jenua > Sardinian genna. Vok. moniti (for muniti). 109. Cf. 470): dilevit. Bechtel 76. Bon. far as As or u. S. ce all came to be sounded e. b. is very often replaced divota. tenere. subinde. golosus gylosus (ior gulosus). e For the confusion of Carnoy 17-33. but otherwise remained unchanged (cf. Pr. plordre.. Julii. necessary to say that Claudii. Some however. au became a if there was an accented u in the next syllable. agusias. kept It. fxddre. Spr. Bon. cetdtem. 0^ remained p. lost before also. I. Farisiis > Parigi. Koffmane no. E. one can judge from spellings and subsequent developments. l remained i. Spr. it [§ 229 Longus found etc. 171-1 72. /^22: Jejunus after prefixes lost its first syllable: * dis-junare. videre. a{u)sculto. d'rectus (^Vok. Arunci occurs in manuscripts of Virgil. A(u)runci. INITIAL SYLLABLE." S. naufragium. 470): rddicem. long or short. i. I. in Gallic inscriptions cf. hibernus. gaudere.. (Lat. 223 Pirson 26). 11. (Bcclesia. and see Audollent 535. '^senatus non sinatus" App. dolere. 135—138. i. i: should be spelled with double late words. Some minor peculiarities are to be noted: (i) A after/ apparently tended to become e: Old dialect forms) . Comelii. — Latin /(j/»««j > Classic Jejunus (the original a seems to be preserved in Classic Januarius '^ Jenuarius . 57. Digitized by Microsoft® . S. dtrectus generally '> drictus)\ quirttare~>*dritare. Dionigi. A(u)gustus. 136. movetis. a was pronounced a. In a few words the vowel of the initial syllable was an r: *corrStulare^*^roflare. colorem. Caper says "ausculta non asculta. Bon. -n and —ns: Dtonysii>lt. Lat. Spr. frumentum. Lat. 470) (2) Classic/awKa mimoricB..

Franz. 470) > Old Fr. Cf. by dissimilation. analogy of *que quid^ quod (cf. as in 6' before a consonant was doubtless long and sharp. also sometimes in serore (Lat. se in Portuguese. serorihus. Lexique \2Z-iz6. so that at the modern a syllabic effect — beginning of a word it had s-chola. Italian. Sfr. attested by Servius. Spr.Jaiant. mUtare. Spr. cf. According to Mohl. is common : in Gregory the etc. 131). silvdticus> salvaticus (Gl. II. Carnoy (7) 107). which prevailed in Vulgar Latin. : (3) > *jagante > Old Yr. attested from the sixth 87. Lexique > I04ff. de-. 3 II. in fourth century inscriptions. was kept by analogy in many words : dUrare. cf. I. 82). I was occasionally assimilated to a following accented a : ^gdntem It. possibly through confusion with dis-. if there was an accented i in the next syllable:^ dividSre'^*devTdlre. This perhaps indicates a close pronunciation cf. the e is perhaps due to the Haag II. (6) O appears as u mfurmica (App. and Old Rumanian. 470. divmus"^ demnus. mcinus vecinus. 225. Great: dirivare. front vowel (until the seventh century nearly always an ' later e Mohl's view. putator O is changed to e in retundus (Vok. This led to the prefixing of a 2. Umbrian ate. nutrire (beside *nqtrire). cf. sdlbatec. 16^. §111. 213): App. 3 II. (4) / tended to become e. L. XXXV. Pr^. § 198. Lat. cf. became instead of Digitized by Microsoft® . so *ot (for aut: cf. etc. 470). 224 ff. II. < e In miraUlia the i ap- parently became (5) U and a.jaian. 127). I. C. Einf. 205) . z. salvatico. Lexique 123. oricla. Pr. cf. 213.. Rom. turrente (Bon. if i followed.for i in 422-424. Lexique I2z. Vr. §§ 212. fimre'^fenire. Reich. Italian. A form ni for ne is found from early times Pirson 3. Pr. mUrare. is that original Latin ei. Pirson 27. Si.. century on (Foi. retundatio.§ 23o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bon. Old French. cf. Lexique 120. Lat. Old Genoese zagante. 126. and Spanish.. serori. 470) and/m?- perus (App. Au 230. Proven9al. in manuscripts and inscriptions.. in very late texts there is frequent confusion of si and sed (Franz. JUntfSrus'^jeniperus (Lat. Lexique 105-108. through the influence of the prefix re—. in late Latin. sometimes became se. : 97 Di. e became southern Italy from the fourth to the sixth century RIVOCAVERIT. Vitruvius. in vulgar speech was often replaced by (cf. Rum. Lindsay 40). (Bon. 234-235) . Spr. Italian sed on the model of ched: si is preserved in French. salvage. nise. §§ 69.

prosthetic vowel earliest occurs in Greek inscriptions. Latin texts ab rather than a was used before words besc. Koffmane 109. Bon. N. 316-319. hispatii for Bechtel 78. istatuam. — By this term is meant syllable following the secondary and preceding the primary stress. indistinct towards the erally kept: bdn{i)idtem. sp. splorator. cirebellum. Slementum 6limintum. S. cdp[i)idlis.thus produced was confounded with ex-. The The in Latin example probably it is iscolasticus. estatio. ispose. compardre comperdre. Bon. cf. stantia for instantia. mirabilia. S. cdrr(i)care. 467. in the fifth it is very common: espiritum. B. Vok. IHTERTONIC SYLLABLE. In some regions they began to fall regularly before the close of the Vulgar Latin period. This i came to be regarded as a regular part of the word. Pirson 60. ab sceleribus. exs— (pronounced «-) and /«j-. 148. etc. not frequently. in the third century (Carnoy 114-116).(pronounced w-): expiendido. Digitized by Microsoft® . spandere for ex- pandere. fourth and found repeatedly. scalciare for excalceare. Grammarians took But in no note late until St. scoriare for excoriare. ^w. and occasionally disappeared. 317. . R. ischola. Dubois 1 71-17 2. spatii. though iscripta. Vowels so situated probably became more and more end of the Empire. written Barcelona in the second century. etc. dil{i)cdtus. 445. 445-446. Cf. is. ab scandalo. cdlK^o^cdre.... istare. strumentum. dv{i)idtem. Spania. dub{i)idre. The es-. isperabi. 3656-. [§ 231 often e) to the s or e when tio vowel preceded first is — in i-schola. st: ginning with Bon. Spanus.98 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. frigiddria frigddria. in the seventh century. Dubois 171. Estephanus. isiudio. Spania. 317 R. Pirson 59-60. S. spectante for expectante. 469-470. Isidore. ismaragdus. spiratio for inspiratio. but a was gen231. of it iscola. etc. II. tlie C. instruo for struo.

principle tended to oblit- 232. Pirson 51.. insola. comare for coronare. Bon. Koffmane III. both types The treatment inconsistent often being preserved in the Romance languages: thus while the literary and official world said {h)dmines (>It. v^recundia. and the conditions differed widely in different regions.• anemis. vowel preceded by a consonant and followed by a fell in the earlier part of the Vulgar Digitized 233. Neumann 22. omne)\ classified. (>Pr. 12.. in Sepulcri 201—202. dixemus. 116. The penult. PENULT. of this vowel. R. being next to the accent. Mintsterium apparently became minsterium early enough for the n to before the s: see §171. the uneducated pronounced 'om'nes beside socerum there was sScrum. The Vulgar Latin rhythmic erate one of the two post-tonic syllables of proparoxytones. etc. was apparently very Vulgar Latin. 99 sdcramintum. : Frigdaria occurs Cf. was weaker and more exposed to syncope. Pir- Franz. 467. liquid A weakened and by Microsoft® . XIV. son 52. fall 559. pi. Bon. etc. Cf. vetranus. separdre seperdre. Likewise o and u: ambolare. R. c. There was probably a conflict between cultivated and popular pronunciation. We find in late Latin much confusion of e and /.§ 233] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. d. F. Cf. however.. The fall of the vowel of course disturbed the Vulgar Latin rhythm: see § 153.. etc. in the second century b. meretis. 131— 135. cf. Substrate IV. 118. similarly As far as the general phenomena can be we may say that in popular words in penult tended to (i) fall common speech the vowel of the under the following conditions: — Between any Consonant and a Liquid. stablarius. uomini). 464. etc. dedcavit. Neumann in Zs.

). the vowel seems to have been kept. both -clus in {^<i—tlo). frigidus^frigdus. anglus. mdsc{u)lus. 3 To -clus was assimilated in popular Latin the ending -talus: capitulus"^* capiclus . App. Pr. bdc{u)lus. ftsiula>*Jiscla. gracilis. 96. 57. d. Latin originally had the two diminutive endings —clus and -cuius {<i-co-lo). frdgilis. a.loo An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Vok. Lexique 64. App. both becoming —cuius in Classic Latin. Juglus. Digitized by Microsoft® . Many exI. Eseram for Isaram. 195-196. seperat (about 500 A. spec{ii)lum. were kept distinct vulgar speech: artic{u)lus. But if the the ^ began to be palatalized (so apparently in 9 I. amples are found in inscriptions: AudoUent 538. maniplus. cltera. 234. Bon. Heraeus. [§ 235 Latin period: altra. virginem. scaplas. Cf. Carnoy 12. spatula'.^-* spatla. villus. at any rate in some regions: bdjulus. 1 digitum> dicCf. 16-18. § 259. (cf. as in auricula. D. cdm{i)tem. § 284.stulum> crustlum (found in 18 Cf. Waters Ch. ins(u)la. In some words we find a weakened to e: socro. But a few words. Later they were confused. comp'tus. peduclum. These by Plautus. as in saclum.). Pirson 51). Franz. ci.. Pr. I. escaped this absorption: cni. Die Sprache des Petronius und die Glossen. Pr. Oclus and some others occur in Petronius: see W. 1899. vowel preceded by a labial and followed by a confall early: 235. Cceseris. e^-16 . Franz. which must have been slow in entering the common vocabulary. aunclus. App. dedro for dederunt. compera. A sonant was inclined to bublus.' For a vowel between a labial and a liquid. felicla. aspra. tum. oclos. see first consonant -Cvas a palatal. vitulus>veclus. Pirson 49-50. In vigilafp-* viglat the vowel fell before (2) below. fecrunt fecru.'). masclus. hilerus. dc{ii)lus. Lexique 63. (2) Between a Labial and any Consonant. Pirson 51. vemdc(^u)lus. vic(u)lus.

colpus. virdis. 56. poplus. *navi- > fragus>naufragus). f{b{u)la. Cf. however. 13. Waters Ch. 15-16 (cf. 467. pi. hdmula. In d6m(i')nus the mn form may be mane domni.. 44. . Juvenal. dvidus avunculus"^ aunculus. * ndvitaf. Pliny. 4th century). 238. in R. offla. Varro. occurs in Lamna Petronius has bublum. the older: d6m. pardbula>*paraula *parabla. merto. either everywhere or in a large region: drbi^o^rem. * cldvido> claudo (cf. (3) Between a Liquid and any Consonant. h6m{i')nes jiiv{e)nis . Gl. valde.. the vowel was kept. Waters Ch.{i')nus.Jibla. KofiEmane iii. etc. Franz. pdp{u)lus. Caesar. domnicus. 467. Digitized different condi§ 233) . nibula. Franz. Plautus (cf. tdbula>*taula *tabla. Petronius. the fall When ab or av was brought next to a consonant by it of a following vowel. Pirson 50. Plautus. Cato. . Martial. 12. vdpulo baplo. Cf. (cf. Pirson 51. lardum. p I. Ovid. Waters Ch. 236. gdbata>*gauta *gabta. Ci. * dvka "^ auca. tions: In some words the vowel fell under digitum> dictum. 237. Augustine. Horace. Horace and Vitruvius. but often there were double forms the process began very early audus. Pr. pi. : § 238] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Franz. virdiaria. 3 \. Varro. R.). Franz. frigidus by Microsoft® . fulica fulca. i2ff. 13. domnulus. generally became au. App. 15 soldus. Plautus). Plautus. 44. (4) Miscellaneous. per- colopabat. pi. found in glosses. ioi tri- dib{i)tum. p I. domnus in St. c6l{a)phus {ci. Franz. In some words. caldus. Koff109.^-* nautat . b{u)la. sablum. Vegetius. tremulat. Reich. Franz. sablum. A vowel preceded by a liquid and followed by a consonant was subject to syncope at all periods: ardus. fdbula>*faula *fabla.

shortened forms were used in other regions. sid(^e)cim. they had not fallen already. 2d century. See Morphology. Lucretius. rapidus > > *rapdus. pers{i)ca. Aquitanian. [§ 241 ^frigdus maxima^ masma. semita'^* senta. about the eighth century. posius. App.: = collocat. vindico. In the transition from Vulgar Latin to the Romance in so far as languages the vowels in classes (i). Digitized by Microsoft® . A vowel preceded by </ or ^ and followed by c seems to have remained longer than most other vowels that fell at all: judico. we find "avus non aus.102 An (cf. etc. Later. habitus > * abtus. Suchier 732. 233). p I. but rius is evidently the ancestor of Italian and Spanish rio. Through a large part of the Empire -avit>-aut: umphaut is found in Pompeii. dominica-^ * dominca. 240. (2). § Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ntHdus>*niiius." "flavus non Jlaus" "rivus non rius. e. viaticum. cdrrico'^*carco. Pirson 50. dic{i)mus. In the App. Franz. 13-14 (ci. . they generi. Pr. Cato). pi2tidus'^*puttus. posturus. 239. except a and in Celtic. Pompeii (fridam). culicet culcet Cf. frdx(i)nus. c6llocat'>-*colcat. debita~^* depta. clericus^*clercus. mdnica'>* manca. Reich. — were — syncopated with some regularity. Gl. 241. Pr. FINAL SYLLABLE." Aus and flaus have left no representatives. tdllere > * tolre. (fricda). medicus. Some of these In a part of Gaul dmita'^* anta. probably late. carcatus. The vowels regularly remained through the Vulgar Latin period. fimina *femna. All three forms are probably examples of a tri- phonetic reduction that affected certain regions. (3). ally fell. and Ligurian territory. and a number of vowels otherwise placed fell under different conditions in various regions: pdnere'^*ponre.

morior." "masculus non mascel.Xxa. inflection. Neumann 7-8 cites ten cases of e for a: Italice. sentls. but are rather due to a local change of languages. for / is frequent in the dative and ablative. tristem. a. etc.. tristts. 3 I.§ 244] An Introduction Final vowels. vii. Pr. Quintilian says that Livy wrote sibe and quase. 244. 103 242. Examples: dmds. ablative. E luce. has "barbarus non barbar. iv and I.. In some localities this and this u were kept distinct. tribunal{e). 469). dmdt. modern must have been often elided or syncopated in the interior of a phrase. long or short. tristes. See Franz. t. pradiscer. E and a. as in to Vulgar Latin. Cf. uxore. conder. he i. E I. but generally they were confounded {Lat. §210): apte^aptcB. u was u. facul =facilis. 41. The changes in pronunciation led to great confusion in spelling. Spr. About the eighth century a probably became ? in northern Gaul." These curious forms are probably not the result of a phonetic development. etc. haber in an inscription. etc. The App. perhaps. praber. feci. Carnoy45: Digitized dative. vii. describes the final vowel of here as neither quite e nor quite Cf. were all probably sounded e. bonds. and i came to be used almost indiscriminately. by Microsoft® . which became u in Sicily. "bibere non biber". e. cotidia. 243. Spr. tanger in manuscripts. Lexique 118. bom. Italian. sancta. etc. especially e after liquids: Caper. It is likely that final vowels were especially ob- scure in Gaul in the sixth and seventh centuries. according to the testimony of numerous inscriptions {Lat." ^^figulus nonfigel. mihe. corpus. was naturally pronounced a. which left no trace in the Romance famulus. Old 'Lz. in I. fructu. 469). autumnal {e). famul = A. were not usually distinguished (cf. which in Sicily be- came eventually // t remained // was 0. So. tibe. in late Latin. Bechtel 75-76.

Ill. of.. cf. S. became in Gaul mis-. II. old letter equivalent to C. So et it: Bechtel 88-89. Carnoy 48 bonus = bonos. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin period. common in Per. E. etc. Neumann 11-13. Bon. -re. Os and us were interchanged from the third century on awi' = annos. omnes ^ omnis (3d century). Haag 245.4 G. larly common 42. siiper'>-*supre. letters The Latin consonant P. and um is very common in Per. tenit. Carnoy 13-15.. 115.. and us for os. Audollent 535. M. 43-44. as well as frequent instances of ablative in um. §29) as in minus-pretiare. 131 has spoliatur for spoliatot. it need by Microsoft® . 116. : . Lat. -£?.r became Carnoy 221. In words ofteii used as proclitics final -er. etc.. F.. os The confusion of for us. I. Spr. •quat{u)or'>quatro. Sepulcri 201. etc. under the influence of dis-. Neumann 11-13. used as a prefix (cf. K. Bon.104 An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. Sepulcri 203-204. Carnoy 48. mares etc. [§ 246 Es and are continually interchanged: 24... and 121. N. = maris. X. etc. H. Cf. V. in etc. Bon. Bon. G./^^. of om for um. very etc... 474. With and u it was the same. regis ^reges. also in Gregory the Great. Carnoy 13. there are between 126 and 563 a. ^and Fwere used both and u and for the consonants/ and v. etc. 11 1. C. Bon. Sepulcri 229-230. omnes ^^omnis. D. 246. Phon. 'Im. K.. for the vowels i were B. Z. etc. 61 examples of u for ablative In Vok. Q. T. Cf. in us was particu128. 916.. L. d.. CONSONANTS. etc. sem- per'^* sempre . movit. I. Minus. was kept in Digitized some formulas . Joannis. accusative plural G|^l|ii Jilius—Jilios.. posuet. an R. monumento ^= monumentum. Vok. -ro: inter'>*intre.

serra. Digitized by Microsoft® . taken up The Latin consonants will be in the following order: aspirate.§ 248] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the Celtic need not be separately studied. 247. or / in hiatus: see § 224. later it represented a different Latin version of Greek t. which will be discussed after the native ones. and n ceased to be sounded before s. liquids. see §§ 162. nasals. The voicing of intervocalic surds began during the Vulgar Latin period. Pirson 88. Q V= kw (cf. 163. with The consonants will now be considered in detail. In late spelling there is some confusion and double consonants: anos. 105 in not be separately considered. h was silent. § 223). see §161. lastly the Germanic. vacca. which will be treated below (§§338-339). gutturals. e. Double cf. //>/ vowels. palatals.or ss (S. 319-320). 248. next the Greek. For Fredegarius see Haag 39-40. 158. fillio. sonants The principal developments that affected Latin conmay be summed up as follows: b between vowels was opened into the bilabial fricative /3. Pirson 85. and thus became identical V. the combination Q was generally used only Jf stands for ks. Vulgar Latin had a new w and y coming from originally syllabic u. m and n became silent at the end of a word. Double consonants regularly kept after long their long pronun- ciation: annus. labials.. terra. Z in Old Latin apparently meant j. Bon. In addition to the above. For w>j and For double forms like of single cipus ctppus. passus. consonants are often written single in early inscriptions. Pirson 83-91. ^ and g before front vowels were palatalized and were then subject to further alterations. sibilants. In words borrowed from Greek and German there were several foreign consonants. dentals. first the native Latin. nullus. which also changed to /8.

vehemens..e. 117. 249. Pr.. ASPIRATE. 262-263. 267—268." see S. 266. 399. doubtless the Romance It languages. 263-264. honera : Pompeius notes that k sometimes makes position. Cf. cortis. si speaks of bygone generations as using k very S. 251. Grammarians say that A is not a letter but a mark There is no trace of Latin k in of aspiration: S. If -was weak and uncertain at all times in Latin. G. 264. Probus states that traho is pronounced trao: Lindsay 57. [§ 251 LATIN CONSONANTS." In inscriptions we find such forms as reprehensus aduc. Nigidius Figulus fit to the effect that "rusticus sermo i. 264-265. etc. Cf. sometimes does not. but Cicero's contemporaries much.— io6 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. as in quisquis honos tumuli: Keil V. incohare are archaic calls Terentius Scaurus and vehemens incorrect. 250. Grammarians felt obliged to discuss in detail the spelling of words with' or without h : S. App. 255-256. Paris in I?om. vemens: S. as in terga fatigamus hasta. in such words as sepu/c/irum. a. 266. Gellius says ahenum. 263. 1. Gellius quotes P.. Digitized by Microsoft® . probably disappeared when medial: . Quintilian commends the spelling deprendere: S. "adhuc non aduc. the Republic. very much as happens in Cockney English to-day: for the would-be elegant chommoda. mi. 266. Quintilian says the ancients used h but little. first XI. and cites "ados ircosque": S. nil. being little or nothing more than a breathed on-glide: S. S. which led to frequent misuse by the ignorant. comprendit. — aspires perperam". and both he and Velius Longus declare there is no h \VLprendo: S. of "Arrius. hinsidias. Initial h was surely very feeble and often silent during In Cicero's time and in the early Empire there was an attempt to revive it in polite society.

§ 254] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 253- C and K did not differ in value except that C some- times did service for dicitos G: App. L. Cf. In Pompeii h is freely omitted. There was some confusion. of S. E. quooperta cot. 345. Vulgar Latin reduction of que to Digitized qui to ki: Lat. hossa. omo. 455. § 226. too. But in Dacia. After h had become pronunciation of medial h as Italian pronunciation of there grew up a school which has persisted in the Latin and has affected some words in silent. R. and H after the third century it is everywhere more or eres. Bechtel 78. less indisetc. S. etc. ortus. dialects: Quintilian VI. Spr. other languages: michi. southand Sicily subsequent developments point to a ke. S. 341-344. ic. oe. Before u and first however. 473. GUTTURALS. I. Pr. 350reduced to k by the or second century.. kw was Before other vowels the regularly kept in most of k. I. anc.. 82-87. etc. 819. Bechtel 77-78. the kw was 340-341. ora.. by Microsoft® . S. k. oratia. ymnus. hodio. R. 254. I. C. C. I. 462-463. In Rome are found: e[redes].. Q F was Audollent 536. criminately used: abeo. Mens. 252.. condam. etc.. C. L. as in eastern Italy. etc. the Empire. heremum. haram. records a pun of Cicero on cogue and quoque. hostium..L. b. I. Cf. OSTIA. 264. hegit. pronounced kw: 0. Q and C: S. Cf. etc. cf. 1034. 107 is dropped in a few inscriptions towards the end of the Republic: arrespex (for haruspex). 351. 924. cottidie. in quo ante=^inBechtel 78-79. 351-352. etc. I. probably earlier in local or vulgar iii. ospitiutn. S. nichil. 345-346. secuntur. cocus : see §226. choante. abitat. = coperta. non dicitus". '^digitus = digitos. 265-266. S. unless analogy led to a substitution of cociior coqui throvigh.. Sheldon in Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Litera- turel (1892).

So ex-^es. merx. dester. ubi materia per s. There are some examples. S. Laqueus seems. S. see § 266. excutere. 221. milex. BissiT BisiT VISIT = vixit. felis. ''cah dicendum." Keil VII.. The voicing of intervocalic surds doubtless it is early as the fifth century. except in mono^prmgnans. e. For ks>-)(S. by analogy. cen- inscriptions. first [§ 256 In quinque the w was lost by dissimilation: cinqve. 341. in At about the same time : final ks cojus. /'m«7/« > prixsilla. Bechtel 139.. gium. 353. Lexique 93). ern Gaul apparently sk regularly became ks. conjus. 351. migat in inscriptions Digitized by Microsoft® . Carnoy 171. in late Latin. 353. mextum for mcestum.: see Melanges Wahlund t^^.'' "miles non milex. sometimes. but this was only local: alesan[der]. as in cresco.: Hence cf. Lindsay 102." "poples noT\ poplex.before vowels. Caper. Cf. 346. Audollent 537. Cinqvaginta. I. S. etc. Fr. xanto. exponere. subornatris. of a metathesis of ks into sk: axilla"^ ascella. 98.." In parts of Italy ks between vowels was assimilated into ss by the first century. cf. as in * essaexire. 256. Carnoy Eckinger 126 (2eorros). buxus'^* buscus vixit>\iyiC\Ti (i. destera. ^ stood for ks: S. 145. App. etc. etc. es~ for ex.). viscit). extimare for cestimare. On In norththe other hand. Vok. to Carnoy have become *laceus: Substrate 255. 353 (cf. s: sestus is common in inscriptions. 352. S. io8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. found in Spain (so cinqv. Carnoy 159. for some reason. pregiiax became s.. began as shown by Anglo-Saxon borrow- ings and by such Latin forms as frigare. "aries non ariex. Carnoy 157. After a consonant ks early tended to become s: Piautus uses mers for est. nasco. Carnoy 158. By the second reduced to or third century ks before a consonant was 170. cinctivs." "locuples non lucuplex. 353. 274. fifth tury. but not in syllables etc. III.

of the cataveris ^^ cadaveris. immudavit.. Carnoy 123. siubri. lebra. Some above examples show that consonants followed by r shared in the voicing. became g and gr: *gaveola. . but reina. Vok. finds in inscriptions some slight evidence of a change of t to d during the Empire. intervocalic c. etc. cubidus. (i) Cf. According to Loth 21-26. in central and southern Italy. maintains. Haag 28-29.g'. Zimmermann. Voicing was not general. early in the Empire or before. and Dacia the k' stage was apparently kept longer than in most regions: Lat. in some places perhaps as early as the first century. and Illyria k' went no further. I. Cf. C and G before Front Vowels. pagandum. at least as early as the seventh century. crassus + grossus'^grassus. Haag 27—28. and Dacia.. Initial c and cr. kircare. Spr. etc. Dalmatia.. pontivicatus. Before the front vowels e and the velar stops k and g were drawn forward. etc. 2d century. 7th century. Digitized by Microsoft® . Densusianu 111-112. etc. in a few words. XXV. Rydberg. found in the 4th century. occubavit. / 258. 472. while c>gz. * gratis. gat. p. A. southern Italy.. kera. 32. 731. 257. t were voiced in Gaul in the second half of the sixth century. into a mediopalatal position k'. there are many examples from the sixth century: Lat. G seems to have been attracted sooner than k : in Sardinian we find k before e or i preserved as a stop whiles is not decern.t least two centuries earlier. Carnoy eglesia. In Central Sardinia. kena.— — § 258] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Spr. kelu. 474. sigricius ^= secretins.. 109 and manuscripts. and in Sicily. Zs. Franz. etc. Dalmatia. kima. however. i25ff. Haag 27. deghe<. 3 I. on the evidence of inscriptions and manuscripts. etc. noghe < nucem. that t>d'm the fifth century and the beginning of the sixth. ne121.

. genvarivs.. But sometimes : fused with a following i proparoxy tones roitus {=irdgitus z= rogdtus). §233. argentum. II. Per. Gepte. Troge. no An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. 349. D'Arbois 10. coi^i. 461 . re{g)ina. Vok. S. agebat Lat. Grammaire des langues ro- I. fused. diriens. Spr. when it was intervocalic. Spain. Cf. etc. neglienda. 461. Before happened. etc. lenubam = Bon. agebat ^ aiebat. F. Cf. a part of southwestern Gaul. II.e. that of English g in gem) before e and /. .. vigtlat had become *viglat. with the following e or i if this vowel was stressed: vi- mag2ster'>*mayister'. 473. etc. Pr. = conjugi. Voi. and after a consonant. 473. similarly perhaps the proclitic ma{g)is. colliens. maestati. 173. so *pa{g)e{n)sis. in through legit. Genavam. Agrientum.): it its disap- pearance (as in pldngit. Pirson 97 celiens. and portions of Sardinia. and southwestern Italy remained at the y stage elsewhere the y developed further in the Romance languages.. This y. etc. G' by the fourth century had become had opened into y. Pr.. 15-16): cf. except colliens when analogy forced *colliente. Pirson iniens.1 1 Some light is thrown on the later clerical pronunciation by a statement in a fragment of a tenth century treatise on Latin pronunciation. 3.Gi. recoUiendo. 275. After the accent. jSctevTt = viginti. "calcostegis Neumann 75. "-frigida non fricda"). Stolz 349. the regularly remained. 250. Haag 34 manes 1' . 460) trienta. non cakosieis. iesta. Pirson 97 quarranta = qicadraginta. 3 I. 239.. to the effect g has "its own sound " (i. and digitus in some places had become dictus {Franz. = Sepulcri 205. but is " weak " before other vowels..>maester. ingens aiebat. Thm-ot 77. leges. this Haag 33. Digitized by Microsoft® . in nearly all the Empire. . S. frigidus in most of the Empire had become frigdus {App. Sicily. Tragani. genarivs.Gi 5. [§259 259. Lat. {g)inti. both in popular and in Gerapolis for HierapoHs. praepalatal clerical and Latin: App. fmucrrpo." geiuna= Jejuna. Spr. 61. agere = ^ aiere. II. Vok. (cf. S. Diez.

Thurot 77. century some writers distinguish Rom. nascere. Cf. between the k' and the following vowel: k'yentu. paze (6th or 7th cenFrankish tins (German zins') is from fifth borrowed probably in the 595. 51-53. Mohl. In the half of the third ce. the earlier grammarians: prsepalatal. Fetite phonetique du franfais prelitieraire. Vok. of this glide the group then. XXXIII. Paris in Journal des savants.1 century: F. I.§ 26i] An K' Introduction to Vulgar Latin. duk'ere. G. Guarnerio in Supplementi aWArchivio glottologico italiano IV (1897). . census. By the fifth century the k' had passed a little further forward and the Through a modification tsentu. etc. S. in the Annuaire de I'^cole pratique des 261. ffautes-^tudes. 1893. 21-51 (cf. and Libit. co{g)ndscere. it is stated ts. 81. and qu. In the school pronunciation of the seventh and eighth centuries c before e and i In the treatise cited in the preceding note. 1900. or praepalatal. 163. as early as the third ce. S. consiensia. Cf. 1893. Marchot. in the Comptes rendus des seances de I'Academie des Inscriptions. and is almost like q before other vowels. XIV. a short y. There is no mention of first it by 340. developed into or ts: t's'entu or Speakers were apparently unaware of the phenomenon until the assibilation was complete. 7.S^ was palatalized also: crescere. 1 was probably Digitized by Microsoft® ..itury must have had nearly front. that c has " its own sound " before c and i. tury). and in Rom. E. intcitamento: P. Schuchardt. everywhere a The next step was the development of an audible glide. dut'yere. 1901. . articulation: k'entu. W. 151. 322 P. 123-126. XXVI. Zs. in 260. in the fifth century we find bintcente. duk'yere. k'y had become t'y: t'yentu. 359. apparently as and postpalatal. Vok. ka. For a discussion of the subject. I. S. 348 cites fes[it]. G. 360. see H. 348. septrvm. mediopalatal. fascem. Meyer-Liibke in Einf. piscem. in Lat. 617). XXX. in the t's sixth or seventh century.

* liamen. § 256. the proclitic eo for ego. cher. 3 II. S- — — perhaps 349). Sfir. — mainly. Carnoy 127 (cf.. I. 349. See. K and g before vowels not formed mouth usually remained unchanged: canis. But ligdre. Carnoy 155-160 (who puts the assibilation in the sixth century and earlier). ga in most of that country became k'a. by Microsoft® . in the front of the 263. avste. however. too. For ce. g'a. however. so * ledlis. see Palatals below. of a local assibilation of c as early as the second century. sic factum). so. realis in Gl. through alliteration.. 262. gamba>'Ex. ka. At the end cf. eccu'hdc. 50). Reich. gustus. see Zs. pacare. negdre. (2) C AND G before Back Vowels. see Archiv XV. jambe. S. in Introduction to Vulgar Latin. (3) C and G Final and before Consonants. and apparently remained under learned or under analogical influence in others: avstvs from the second century on. hoc. For a possible indication. due. the c must have been Digitized lost. Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie [§264 3131!. of a word the guttural seems : to have been regularly preserved in Vulgar Latin fac. y^ 264. found about the sixth century. *redlis (for XXX. siffatto {<. 129 (other examples in manuscripts. probably by the end of the seventh century. 146. 242-243). Intervocalic g before the accent fell in many words in all or a part of the Empire. frvalitas. sic.112 An 472. Inasmuch as a had in Gaul a front pronunciation (§ 194). pagdnus. Occasionally. ecce htc. dimmi (< die mi). Franz. and then developed further: carum>'Fr. negare. fammi {<ifac mi). ci. Italian die. Vok.

became um: fraumenta. 267. XXV. see § 255. otogentos. For kw 266. Isidore. 735. "sagma by Microsoft® . Einf. § 186. Zs. Gram. *viglat (§233). There is reason to believe. irqyfua. fata. 472. 398*fC'X^um>Vx. Spr. In late texts nee is often written ne before a consonant. App. S. in the south even in the first century: AVTOR. §650.) . which seems to have been assimilated first into nt in parts of the Empire. Pr. santo.. and «'. I. 399).. Zaf. that the y was retained very generally in Gaul and perhaps some other regions. The resultant phenomena can. through assimilation to a following initial consonant: PA iot fac. Festus. 472. cuntis. saint. LATTVCjE (3OI etc. For ks of Italy = x. however.^ Ft. Cf. eissir. frigdus. Xf some parts was assimilated into U by the beginning of the fourth century. — sanctum 268. 236-240.. Lat. antiqui quasi dumecita appellabant quae nos dumeia. ^^auctor non autor". however.. and there is a confusion of si and sic: Franz. subsequently drawn forward to the praepalatal position santus. oclus. sank. The Celts perhaps pronounced the Latin beginning. 476. "dumecta S. Spr. sante. Carnoy 172. Spr.). 215-224. OTOBRIS (380 A. = qu. Before another consonant k and g were for the most part kept through the Vulgar Latin period: actus. PR/EFETTO. 9 II. and likewise substituted x^ fo"^ ^^' Suchier 735. App..§268] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. regnancte. Pr. Old ct Windisch 394. * exsire . be explained otherwise: Irish ocht-n corresponding to Latin octo. 265. A.). etc. > Fr.e. 278. fait. Lat. in Pompeii. D. probably by the century: defuntus. in see § 254. 348. S. D. Nkt became yt. inasmuch as their own rf had as x^ from the become ^f (e. 113 no doubt." 348. ( i. "pegma non peuma" Digitized St.g. fleuma. Gm Pr.

ZACOiJVS = diaconus. 327. gaudium. similarly the ^ was sometimes etc. cunnuscit. Cf. Haag 34. which comes from Koxfrn.. Stolz 275. of ii was often used: coiiugi. ajutit =adjutet. teneaf.. podium. madias = maias. t. Cf. diumus. exagium. Italian sauma [or salma^ dicitur" (i. being preserved in some. Palatalization was commonest probably were reduced to y in vulgar speech: deorsum. and subjected to further modifications. that consonant was often less assimilated. cujus. ftlia. odium. conjux. connato. Gr. Cf. Pirson 75. rcenante. 364 a. between in vowels. Latin / was pronounced being identical in sound with the consonant that developed out of e and / (§ 224): jam. Dy and^. inte{g)rum. Instead i (=/) the spelling mann. and also salma. ZVNIOK = junior (S. Carnoy Digitized by Microsoft® . Lat. fageus. rarest in Dacia. in the latter part of the Empire. eiius. 270. soma. assimilated into n or n in others. Compare oz^^ hodie (S. d. 271. (S. Fortsetzung 7. 324) and zesv =/esu. y. PALATALS. 115-116. habeam. hodie. pere{g)rtnum. no SCO. edmus.114 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Spr. aayixa). audiam. in popular words apparently became r parts of the Empire: fra{g)rare. the after the fall of initial g in gnosco —-into lost in cognatus : word being co~ and Vok. etc. venio. 323) and Zovk^la= Julia (Eckinger 80). Gn was still variously treated in different regions. Pirson 76. sauma 269. followed a consonant. videavi . Neu- When y more or y. I. pi{g)ntia.. as calma from Soma occurs in Gl. Reich. 272. renum. adjuiare. 239). [§272 quae corrupte vulgo S. 476. In cognosco the decomposed — g generally disappeared. ni{g)rum. sometimes entirely absorbed by the in Gaul.e.

y. 63. St. But through the analogy of audio"^* auyo. video>*veyo. in others especially in Italy the cultivated dz. palea. melius. Carnoy 161. 321. Condianus. generally prevailed. aggio. licpioi = Sergius. 320. probably dz : podium proferenda est. 208. Remidium — Eemigium. habeo. however. sapcha. Audollent 537 zogenes. The reduced forms cf. but it we generally cannot whether t. Congianus =. /'. lated in Vulgar Latin beside abbio. in Yox plUvia a form *pldja was substituted §§ 169. by Microsoft® . sappia. Gl. Waters Ch. : orzo..i£=die.(4). Haag anoget = *inodiaf. teneat. had poggio. De. fiios. Digitized etc. Pr. Corneius. 115 162." S. The S. cor- aytos. ridia =! corrigim. = dies. madio S- 349. It hordeurh > It. tilia. means dy. sacriius—SiaKpiTOi. from radius Italian has both raggio — — and razzo. Carnoy 162. writes. The : dz pronunciation was especially favored after a consonant 273. S. Vok. towards the end of the Empire. which was > It. Ly. debeo often became *ayo. Reich. or dz (cf. Media. prandium > It. *deyo: cf. It. 461. between vowels. folia. mezzo. deggio. S. etc. II.§274] ^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. n' before the end of the Empire: ftlius. "solent Itali dicere ozie pro hodie. 34. His- pania. Z is often used in inscriptions.. and perhaps through slurring due to constant and careless use. represented by the spellings Aureia. most of the Empire: 274. 323. Servius in Virg. probably became veniam. 339): z^s cf. appears that the labials were not regularly assimi- sapiam > It. II. di. magias ^= maias. but not everywhere. = maio. di sine sibilo Isidore letter tell grsecum enim nomen est. In most words the vulgar jv prevailed. ny." S. Georg. another — doubtless more elegant — pronunciation. says. aios = Carnoy 162. This palatal pronunciation may be 327. pranzo. 216. juria = jurgia. Haag 34. 324. etc. but medium ^^ > It. § . debbio.

is Pr. 475. eAaiov. ti. malleus. Ssy. a sound similar to English sh in ship: basium. oracionem (601 a. fascia. Riquier 131 &nd pitid in popular speech). D. Cy and ty. ocium. consiensia. non c. /' [§276 later: were probably reduced to ex-eligit." In the treatise published by Thurot (see footnote to § 259). foreign words borrowed from Latin oleum indicate the same irregularity. Bon. Cf. etc.. were very and t'y (cf. ci. Densusianu in. 321) "benedictio et oratio et talia t debent habere in psenultima syllaba. . D. I'g' to Vulgar Latin. quatio. the an exception-: cf.d. . Fr.. Pg. 323. and hence were often confused: a. see § 277.). p. 'ApovKiavoi = Aruntianus. Digitized by Microsoft® . prophetia. etc. sty were generally assimilated of sy later: *bassiare. collt^t.ii6 Lly. as in etiam. oli. etc. justicia. is pronounced like c. termina(an acrostic in Com- ciONES in (2d century). silentium. I. see § 296. Spr. duricia. defeniciones (222235 A. avaricia. furthermore. tercius. servicium. concupiscencia many examples Gaul in the 5th century. somewhat allium. we are told that ti. In later school pronunciation cy and ty were sounded alike. and ty. Pirson 72. modian). 78. unless preceded by s. staacio (601 a. d. between vowels. malicia. Pirson 71 mendatium.). Eckinger 99. is confused with the spelling c being prescribed in amicicia. also in nuncius. Vok. Lat. ocio (389 A.y«j/i«'a (in an edict of Diocletian). pudicicia. being respectively k'y second and third centuries. S. According to Albinus (S. For the confusion 276... Stolz 51. tercia. It.). D. An Introduction ll'g'. Cf. olio. from oleo. postea. / 'i'l^^^y. 171 especially common in Gallic inscriptions of the seventh century. Oleum. For rv. mansionem. doubtless became during the VulgHRjatin period /. scy. leticia. Sp.). caseus. Fr. huile. isoff. in the similar in sound.

adding (S. reviewed in Libit. 68. Vok. see S. Latetnisches ti und ki im Ru7ndnischen. This explains such seemingly anomalous developments 324. except in foreign proper names or after j litteris. otia. or vice versa: cf. T'y developed sporadically in the second century. sotium.: audatia. but not in otii. Gl. gocciare. conditio. cited by Cassiodorus (S. "lotacismi sunt quotiens post ti. in some cases. am- bicio. by the 140 A. 1904. 3d ccntury. t. A. Carnoy 154. Puscariu. Reich. inicio. (as injustius. ularly a school pronunciation with etc. into ts (cf. etc. S. etc. cum scribitur. either whole Empire. S. Hence arose numeroimdouble forms: condicio solacium solatium. to the substitution of suffixes and to other permanent transfers of words from one class to the other: cf.§277] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Vincentl^us. squarciare. MARSIANESSES = J/ar/z'a«^«j'M. 117 spacium. A number of words evidently had a popular pronunciation with f and 277.. speties. "si dicas Titius. locally or in the This similarity or identity of sound led. XXVII. * gutteare "> Horning in Zs. Digitized by Microsoft® .vel di^ syllabam sequitur vocalis.." Consentius 'For a different explanation of the Italian and Rumanian developments. D. Carnoy 151-154. pinguius sonat et perdit sonum suum et accipit sibilum. etc. later avarttic^-cia. Servius in Don. §260): crescentsian[vs]. . 320) says. Cf. regfourth. Italienischen und Sardischen.. tercius. (S. ampittfltru.^ k'. 320). *cominitiare -ciare. so many ^|ftper names. etc. S. It." Papirius. comenzare chminciare. etc. 324. tertia syllaba sic sonat quasi constet z. Anitius -cius. 323. Pompeius says the same thing at con- siderable length. It. et i". castius). et plerumque supradictse syllabse in sibilum transeunt. 545. Justitii). 64. Cf. spacio. as * exquartiare-^YX.. Audollent 537. XXIV. I. servitium -cium. tristicia. 320): "/ustitia ex tribus he goes on to state that it is always so when ti is followed by a vowel other than / (as in Tatius. zodorys = Theodoras.

l. judigsium. [§281 mentions the assibilation in etiam. Clerical usage for a while doubtless favored sy for ty. see Gutturals.. The resulting sibilant was different from came from t'y: faciam'^-lt.vo'. =^ Afardanus. vezzo.g. so facio. Ztd/t.s or sixth. Pirson 71. St.. cf. S. g'. etc. placeam. 301-302. Vok. hence \X?X\2. fifth but not regularly until the of t'y -wa.ii8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. but names in -tiacum. was easily confused with sy. diposisio ^= depositio. faccta. XXXV. as 280. and many words have palatium preserved it in various regions. servitium —slum. D regularly remained unchanged: Digitized dare. k'. statio —sio. 225 a. etc. DENTALS. especially in suffixes: —slum. 6th cen- tury. glacies. modus. 279. vitiutrf^lt.palagio heside patazzo. 65 Horn. XXVII. sepsies. tersio. dentals were pronounced with the middle of the tongue arched up and the tip touching the gums or teeth. d. " ' by Microsoft® . after the assibilation completed: Mapa-w.. pretium —sium. 323. But the intermediate stages were similar enough to lead to some confusion. JT'y was assibilated sporadically in the third century. 480. Cf. are Metiacus> Messac). 323. The in modern French. d. 5th century. not followed by y. 278.. Carnoy 154. say t's'y the At aa intermediate stage between ty and ts grouD. assibilated (e. ratio —sio. 320-321. 153. and not 281. and -igia beside -ezza from -ztia. Pirson 71. carried into Brittany in the second half of the fifth century.'a. 6th century. Isidore in justitia: S. etc. and the ultimate products have become identical in that which many For regions. hocsies. Exai^les are very numerous: observasione. . perdo. as in English : S. Welsh words borrowed from Latin before the fourth century show no assibilation. — — S. 307. if the /' was rather weak. Eck- inger 103.

INQVID. etc. became ilium : Haag 29. CO. 365-366. quid quit. S. 31 1. Carnoy 180. 358-359. In proclitics assimilation naturally went further. o\d..• Cf. Cf. arVORSVM =r adversum. the central and southern Italian nn for nd (as quannu for quando) may go back to ancient times Lat. So the final consonant eventually often dis- appeared. Gaul.» Sittl 37. ilium corpus. Grammarians warn against the Cf. S. . 365 aput. etc. etc.. arripere). Carnoy 180. etc. it. Spr. 282. : (i) Occasionally (/>/. Intervocalic d. verecvnnvs. S.. devocalized before a voiceless : initial consonant. ad eos and at ea. Pr. guoi. S. At the end of a word there was hesitation between d and S. Pr. 476." App. dacruma'^ lacrima . §283] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. // d may have been . Carnoy 179-180. § 289. S. " adif^ non alipes. quo and Haag Illud. confusion of ad and etc. and possibly at the end of a phrase apvd apvt. capud in Gregory the Great. id 29. part of Sardinia: vt3ere':>*vedere." Cf.. . Raetia. few words d~^r: medidies by dissimilation ^«^«rf««. 31 1 Consentius blames " peres pro pedes" S. and a Similarly intervocalic dr. App. fecit feced. 311312 "grundio non grunnio. a. as we may infer from the treatment of the prefix ad~: people probably said not only at te (cf. set. northern Italy. set. (2) In a. (3). Digitized by Microsoft® . 283. attendere) but sometimes *ar Romam (cf. at. period.. etc. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin became 6 in Spain. Liquids. 366-367 Some of the confusion was doubtless due to the fall of both d 365 .. The cases seem to be sporadic and due to different special causes.. and t: see §285. through the analogy of other neuters. S. If this was the case. 119 Oscan and Umbrian had nn corresponding to Latin nd: There is some indication that this pronunciation was locally adopted in Latin: agennjE.

8. 284. etc. Fredegarius wrote e for cutters — — t et: Haag 29. In quadraginta. final t disappeared early in the Empire in southern and during the Empire in most of Italy and Dacia. Tl. " capitulum non dicendum. So probably insula > * isla > * istla > * isda > Final t fell It. cf. its Final nt perhaps lost before consonants: Lat. Hammer 28-32. Raetia.315. etc. Lat. northern Italy. > *scloppus > . as ama. dr~> rr: quarranta. valia. schioppo. Cf. Between j and I z. and Sardinia kept the t late. sure examples of the fall in Latin are found in Pompeii tions in Christian relinque. seems to have regularly become d: astula> Pr.> *quadro. f developed: Caper. . partem. often in Umbrian In Latin. Pirson 97. usclar. Spr. occasionally in Faliscan: Hammer 5. Keil VII.: others appear later in the inscrip- Rome and S. Pr. dede: S." "vitulus non vidus. and sclitib. §234. [§ 285 either at the same time or became drin Spain and Gaul: quadro'. facit. 105." "vefulus non vedus. Gaul." For Cf. 285. 107. posui) occur in Gallic inscriptions. 367-368. Italian (except Sardinian). ascla.?. peria. —tulus~^—dus. in Volscian {fasia=fadat). 7. 367. 312-313 "Martulus non Marculus" "stlataris sine c littera Caper. '^ pessulum non pestulum" (hence Italian /ifj'//. later. Italy. however. sclit. ustulare > Pr. App. Rumanian. but forms without the possibly due to Italian stoneconsonant (as audivi. The first ." capidum. Digitized by Microsoft® . and also Spanish and Portuguese show no trace of final / except in monosyllables. 472.(from stlis stlitis). 8. It. vixi. f^habe).). Ischia. S. . Spr. T usually stloppus remained unchanged : teneo. In early dialects we find such forms as cvpa. sitis.120 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin..

e. Cicero favored posmeridianus . Caput became capus (Pirson 238) or *capum. Marius Victorinus preferred posquam : S.. 473-474. ut Plinio sonum habet: quando geminatur secundo loco Digitized by Microsoft® . d and t. 121 n. Spr. cf. 368. like d and "Z t (cf. posuerun.The Romance languages show forms with nt. Final st. Cf. L had a convex formation. Pos is very common in inscriptions. Raetia. S. (I) L. 324) writes: exilem. Lindsay 124. 288. and-^J is found: S. Lat. pos.§288] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. uses capo: Haag 29. 306-307. § 280): S. Cf. Nt. LIQUIDS. est amatus but es' portatus : Lat. is preserved in the same regions as Pisaurum. before a vowel or a voiced consonant. According to Velius Longus. Cf. posquam in R. in 365. ^> d in northern Gaul and Spain. 309. likewise. may indicate un- certainty in the use of d and t. in general. restituerun. with and without either consonant. — 368. 470. In Gaul and Spain. tr'p-dr'^dr. 38 (S. and northern § 256. S. moreover. 309. of final t For the confusion inquid are found. /. Intervocalic was voiced to d in Spain. it was doubtless often Fredegarius voiced. see §282: capud. inside a phrase. may have lost its t before consonants as post ilium but pos' me. §283. When did not fall. Spr. In inscriptions we find : dedro and dedrot. 473. t 286. feced. videtur. Priscian I. triplicem. 473-474. Such a spelling as Later this retere for reddere (S. Gaul. 287. Both st and s are represented in the Romance languages. Italy probably in the fifth or sixth century: Inscriptions show a few such forms 309) as amadus.

For sl>stl. According to H. in obscure terms. Greece: S. medium in aliis. flavus. consonants. etc. clarus. 289." lectum. from the "pinguis. etc. 301 a." heard before a consonant (as in albo. etc. except before i. [§ 289 syllabas et Metel-lus. 494. 327) blames "coacla pro cloaca" " displicina pro disciplina". sporadically by the fourth century but regularly not until the eighth and ninth and later (^Lat. also had the thick is famuXus (but not in similis): thus explained the different fate of a in calere^OXd Fr. / regularly changed: luna. see §274. Have. ut lectus. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. fabula^*flaba'y-\\. brought about the palatalization of Spanish and Italian clavem kl'ave > Sp. Sfr. II. silva. sol. It is likely that / before or after another consonant had a Before thick sound caused by lifting the back of the tongue. For ly. this elevation..d. After consonants. chiave. 325-326. see §161. Osthoff. 326. geline. this formation led in some regions. Vok. see §284. Dunkles undhelles 1 im Lateinischen in the Transactions of the American Philological Association / in : > XXIV. a faulty pronunciation of / particularly prevalent in Africa or 648. fiaba. to the vocalization of / into u: KavKovXaT<o in an edict of Diocletian. quando finit nomina vel quando aliquam habet ante se in eadem syllaba sol. (i) Metathesis occurs occasionally: Consentius (S. Other grammarians blame. /. plenum. ille). sound — as 50. zi.." Consentius distinguishes the "sonus which he ascribes to initial and double / (as in lana.122 posita. tribunal. XXX. It. During the Latin period altus. (2) There are sporadic examples of the dissimilation of two Ts: Digitized by Microsoft® . cauculus in manuscripts. mtlle. ut exilis. An ut il-le. Eckinger 12. See also Zs. shifted forwards. consonantem. intervocalic va. ski.): S. It remained unseems to have fallen in For //>/. chaloir and gallina~> Old Fr. 476). alga.

Waters Ch. 290. Spr.s pessica. "flagellum non frag-ellum. cursus. S.. although Moreover. 1593. in early writers tions: dextrosus. dossum remained unchanged: susum.f It generally resisted In many words. "terebra non tekbra". C. retrorsum. pater. 243.(see § i6r). rj > J. R : in Classic trill: and Vulgar Latin was probably a gingival S. 123 cf. being probably somewhat hindered by school inIt took place in the whole territory in deorsum and fluence. Corssen I. 77. App. etc. suso. in about half the Empire in persua. deorsum. has iusu = was Hot consistently carried out everywhere. § 281. introsus. so sussum>siisum. Pompejus Magnus et scribebat et dicebat kadamitatem pro calamitate. 471. Pr. L." "cultellum non cuntellum". 307. in inscrip- S. we fin(J repeatedly pelegrinus by Microsoft® . diosum. Pr. carrus. The principle seems have been that original rs remained." Cf. as xcfloralis.. susum occur ha. 328. 309. coming from rtt. (i). Bechtel 83: susum very common. App. Velius to Longus says est (S. 460-461 Cf. 327. Pr. ndet. while susosusu susum. IV.. § 292] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. 8) says: " Gn. or praepalatal change 291. R. rusus. I. susum. et retrosum. Cf. was early reduced to ss: Lat. sursum. while old rss. —arts after r^-alis. in most of the Empire in dorsum. there was a strong tendency to dissimilate it was only sporadically carried out: in Old in inscriptions Digitized Latin. R. assimilation versus. 330. After long vowels the 292. locally in aliorsum. ac tota r littera sublata est in eo quod rusum . Gl. however. Reich. App. 330): "Dossum per duo s quam per r quidam ut lenius enuntiaverunt. The «>j. two r's. . reversus." Russum rusum. MVNTV for multum. 460. (3) Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. {2)Ji.

329. 38. 304. Rum. Italian £Occodri//o. perpenna ^ Perferna. as in pellabor. corium'^ *coryu (cf. est marmor. see § 245.z\vax\. *sempre. propio. cocodrilus. S. Consentius mentions "perlum -pro prcslum. among the soaru.>. dietro drieto. coliandrum. merlo. S. An intrusive r is found in culcitra. : ^ j- Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. Metathesis is not uncommon S. perla.) avello. probably before the end of the Vulgar Latin period. although may have been reduced and possibly *cqyu SIBILAUTS. orlo. So Italian per lo '^pello. 329) says: Pompeius (S. in most of Italy and Dacia: sdror'. averlo^ (in Old It. § 280) S." S. [§ 297 also ministorum.'' propio. 330. \X. Velius Longus (S. : 294. uxo. 330 notes prancati. 329. Crocodilus appears as corcodilus. 302. PELLiGE. suora. to y in parts of Italy. mehtrix. Final r. This assimilation was probably not widespread in Latin. early fall of final r mate. For quatro. except in monosyllables. cuoto). 307-308.. 314-315). S. Jlagrare. Waters Ch. Cf. Classic Latin j was probably ^Iways voiceless and remained so in 297. Italian Carlo. 295. f. it has left very few traces in the Romance languages. propietas. tells 293. It. The old voiced having become r (S. Falisci Sittl 11 mentions an in and the Marsi. Cf. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. with the upper surface of the tongue convex (cf. cf. mate. 331. plurigo are attested likewise. albor. etc. "Barbarismus. S. Ry was probably preserved through the Vulgar Latin it period.It. criblare.124 (Sittl An 74). pellicere. seems to have been dental. cf. corcodrillus. 296. Lat. etc. 329) / us that in elegant speech per before was pronounced pel. quando dico mamor pro eo quod Cf. 477. as frate.. 330— 331. fell. Spr.

etc.§298] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. § 256): was generally preserved: causa. According to Chronologic 175-186. tste. Sittl 27. 108): "5 littera hanc habet potestatem. and matrona for matronas. corroborative evidence. The omission is commonest in nominative -os or —us. furnished by such spellings as maximus. etc. filio') predominated in (jpntral Italy until the time of Csesar. olim autem politius.. also ment of a / in such become voiced sus. but became common by 150 to 200 A. but later it is In the older inscripin the main correctly used until the second century of our era: Lat." tions -s is freely omitted. in Classic Latin s some regions (cf. etc. At the very end of the Vulgar Latin period. 8. 471. j- ^In the previously cited Latin treatise (see footnote to §259). and the developwords as hiemps. who cites UmLatin final s was very weak after and t. intervocalic s may have nupsi. S. and occasionCf. mtsi. 471) "subrusticum. when -j was partially restored.) and most popular words it Tuscan is [naso. Final s often fell in ally in Faliscan: Hammer In early 5. ii Umbrian {kumate). 361) notes the omission of -s by the ancients. Digitized by~Microsoft® . ossum. rexi. etc. pieta. and often was not is says the loss of —s written. indicated by the fact that is still generally surd in Spanish [casa. Ennius and his followers down to Catullus did S. the nominative singular without s (as Cornelio.) . brian PiSAVRESE. 361-362. pleps. urps.^ sex. unu. however. not count -j before a consonant in verse: 355-356." except in compounds. nepoti. Cicero (^Lat Spr." Quintilian also (S.. 302-304): this in is 125 Vulgar Latin intervocalic s in (S. etc. Cf. rarely in -as: bonu. the forms without Terentio. as far as goes. Thurot T]^ y between vowels is described as " weak. ut ubi opus fuerit excludatur de metro. D. but occurs also in -ts and -as. sumpsi. such as resolvit. Cornelio. This evidently indicates a voicing in late school pronunciation. Spr. cur- 298. Pompeius (Keil V.

a new nominative constructed from irpeers fell in Italy and elsewhere through the substituva. morbu ^ morbus. 1938.coming from the prefix ex-. however. probably owing to the previous linguistic habits of the natives. see § 246 and Greek by Microsoft® Consonants.. for ejus. tra{ns)misit. For prosthetic i or e before s + consonant. see § 230. L. see Gutturals For ss>s. -s. traducir).«. and probably in Dacia. tra{ns')veho. Digitized . trans.). pronounced and therefore preserved. cords the omission of -s in as this nearly always less was strongly Carnoy 185-206 reline it is many inscriptions. see § 161. 471): sentts'^YX.126 again. Audollent In most of Italy. usually preferred tras. For sy.j. Cf. cept in monosyllables {^Lat.*prcebyterum'). According to Velius Longus (S. jecit. Spr. prete. Densusianu 122—123. tempo. 539. tion of the prefix /r. transduco and We sometimes Both forms occur Gaul and Spain before / and v : tra (^ns) luce 0. examdtis "> dai. tion. liberio. 540. 300. [§302 and prevailed in central Italy in the third century («<7 Cf. /SvTcpos.(but trasporre). but das^lt. the In presbyter. Italy generally favored tra. final J disappeared for good from the common pronunciation in the second and third centuries.. but notes that happens at the end of a doubt- only a conventional abbreviation. I. and some other regions. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. It. 299. tres^OXA.(as prabitor) for the unusual initial pres-: hence It. trei amate. It. find. etc. transtulit. C. tratransjicio. senti. 316). In Gaul. Vx. 301. Spain. IX.before d. 302. filio^filios. tempus>lt. preveire {<. For z. etc.(but traduire. In Old French pasmer (from spasmus) the ^ was lost probably through confusion with es.. tra.traduxit. tra{ns)posuit . see § 275.became and sometimes before m and/. (later tre^. For assibilaand Palatals. Hammer 19-28.

described by Nigidius (in Gellius). ut umbra. comfluo confluo. 279-280. N. Priscian. § 320) gutterals." sound between m and n: "Omnes fere aiunt inter m eX n litteras mediam vocem quae non abhorreat ab utraque littera sed neutram proprie exprimat. remained unFor the reduction of There was a dissimilation of two M and n. 275) says that for n the air comes through both nose and mouth. In Classic Latin the nasal naturally took before labials the form of m. 275). noster. like d and t (§ 280). with an arched tongue: S. 275) a spiritu explicabitur. uncus (cf. ut templum. g. 276. is 278). before m. imperio. see § 245. — or "« adulterinum"— and also nvncqvam. S. then n. were the preceding vowel obscure and weak in Classic Latin. «'s in Bononia > It. by Microsoft® . S. initial and intervocalic. 269-270. immitto. rigo. comvenio convenio. final or followed by a consonant. as between n and ^ (S. 272. 311). 269- {colligo. contineo. innocens. etc. minus. 275) Before liquids the nasal was assimilated cf. and v." 305. "m obscurum in extremitate dictionum sonat. inquit. anguis. Cf. 275): "iVvero sub convexo palati lingua inhaerente gemino naris et oris The same author describes (S. M and 304.). etc. amat. by 270. ut magnus. The y Cf.§ 305] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 127 NASALS. So Marius Victorinus ( mis-. was dental or gingival. . before dentals. y: combura. probably tives first the pronunciation of these fricabefore changed from bilabial to dentilabial (cf. S. apertum in principio." Terentianus Maurus (S. 303. According to Priscian (S. Bologna. changed: meus. S. as / . 270. n. regularly venit. mediocre in mediis. iVNCXi.: cf. and the mouth closure incomplete. conduco. cor- before s it was Digitized silent [cosul. n. §§ 171. must have been partly nasalized.

etc. iferos. quamta. The due hesitation and inconsistency in spelling are certainly in part to imperfect articulation. ut nomen. tan mulieribus. Digitized by Microsoft® .128 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. occubas. quen. 307. reliquat. Pirson 92. In late Vulgar Latin m. Servius. nunquam. nynfis. then to nt. 311). 306. plu." Cf. as there is § 32. Cf. innoceti. [§307 to a following consonant: Final nasals seem to have been adapted. r/ must have been reinforced. nol lego. Carnoy 176-177. 272): this is indicated by such spellings as senper. de- fuctce. and even before dentals not always clear (S. etc. see § 267: santa. decemter. i senatu. secudo. frequent. iy carne. laterna. little trace of confusion in the Romance lan- guages. largely to mere careless- ness in cutting. Carnoy 220. etc. nomem..... exeetc. §§171. In the vulgar speech of the Empire the sound before seems to have been indistinct. Priscian (S. Spr. etc. S. nom paret. Cicero advocated cun nobis. pricipis. before/ and v there was great uncertainty (cf. 278. S.. quan floridos. S. like medial nasals. cun duce. cur regibus. 286) says: littera "Columnam et consules legimus. For the change of rjkt to yt. Carnoy 176. 275): exempta n "iV quoque plenior in primis sonat et in ultimis partibus syllabarum. santo.. locun sanctum. In both old and late inscriptions the nasal is often omitted altogether before a consonant: Decebris. Mn seems at one time to have been pronounced m: Quintilian (S. but in great measure also to the mistaken efforts of later writers to restore a real or hypothetical earlier orthography: compare the treatment of prefixes. find cun. 276—277. 364. nom or non fecit. we ci. 273. In inscriptions S. 271-272). 476. conplere. forsitam mille. Bechtel 81 {forsitam. cun navibus : Lat. etc. n. Carnoy 220). 281-285. and there was apparently some labials doubt before ^« and qu (S.

numqua. show a fondness for such spellings as calumpnia. 462. damnum. Audollent 539-540. Bon. sum(J>)tus. (as in puplu). and conversely forms with a superfluous m. dampnare. to say." Carnoy 166 has Interamico. ide. Bechtel •]()•.). dormito for dormitum. accedere. 308. 129 stamen. and again in late plebeian inscriptions. pride. cf. etc. m Final m often fell in Umbrian 5. cal- the early indi- Romance languages. It is often omitted in inscriptions down c. 356. the wrong use of it are very frequent in the Per.. Bechtel 80. the latter part of the . unu are very common. eoru. for -amn~. and dampnum (cf. mense. etc. oli.§309] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. So R. The omission of -m and Pr.. abundant examples. Late inscriptions. S. Bechtel 91 Digitized cf. It is likely that this orthography and painful effort to articulate clearly. S.. in the last first two centuries of the Empire the traditional spelling is carefully observed: early and late such forms as dece. on the other hand. occa- sionally in Faliscan: Hammer 8. The Romance languages it point to the preservation of mn. Between is m and j or / a / generally developed in Latin was unvoiced and denasalized before the surd that followed this / was not always written: sum(J))si. mecu. counteracting a previous ten- dency to although slur the group. etc. exilior in mediis. App. was probably assimilated into nn in central and southern Italy before the Empire was over {Lat. S. In Old Latin it was to weak: 130 B. Cf. from the first century. etc. septe. : que ad mo- century of the Republic and the dum. Spr. 363-364. by Microsoft® . Carnoy 166. — that 309. mpn is common in 189. Bechtel 107. ut amnis. terra. umpnia. passi. Toward the end of the Empire fashion evidently prescribed cates a conscious a distinct pronunciation of mn. jacente. 298. 476): Interanniensis. .

361). it was assimilated (cf. non is Siciliam": see § 311. quern (^quen. In the opinion of Schuchardt.tenea{m')\ cum. Hammer 32-41. Final m before vowels seems to have been. 282. Final n must have been indistinct (S. only a weak nasal glide: in circueo it disappears (S.. Caper (Keil VII. too. hors. cf. According to Quintilian is 362). AudoUent 537). cognosco. very early. fix The con— became co— before vowels. in poetry it may be disregarded (cf. 274. as in coactum. 310. etc. I. n of prefixes 274. Cf.. ing vowel was nasalized.130 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. scarcely any m audible quantum erat. next before spirants and at the end of a phrase. coicere: S. etc. who notes the omission of -m in many inscriptions under all possible conditions. cf. 274). 288-292. he adds that there in tantum ille. vowels. but it seems preco- to have been reinforced in Classic speech (S. of -n in Latin (S. Cato said dice hanc. Cf. the final S. Carnoy 206-221. The Romance languages point to a loss of -m in all words but monosyllables: damnu{m). 361): see §305. 358). As the fall of m seems to have been due primarily to a failure to close the lips completely between two it is likely that the nasalization was slight. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . as in cognatus. of its assimilation to a § following labial (im bello. the precedThe contrary view is maintained by Seelmann. 473. S.. 356-358. S. fell Before^. 360. 106). 361): see 305. "/« Siciliam dicendum. S. Vok. 110-112. jam. from early times. tan dvrvm. (S. having disappeared very early before vowels. [§ 310 ardente lucemam. Spr. pdssu{ni). then (by assimilation) before other consonants. 364Lat. Before consonants S. coharere. etc. audiendu' st. 286). For further assimilation. reaches the conclusion that silent at the it became end of polysyllables by the first century. ignotus: is Other- wise there no sure proof of the fall but there is abundant evidence 365).

Cf. as in vicesimus. non. Spr." In popular speech the times: S.). iferi. was kept in participles. iferi. 273). App. after the Vulgar Latin period: Lat. occansio. 387 a. ifer cojectis.. both forms were used in -e{n)sis (according to Velius Longus. mesis. see § 285. 274. with a superfluous n: fidens =-fides. (on a (Capua. S. R. quiensces." "occasio non occansio. 287). covenimus. etc. Before fricatives or spirants n regularly fell. etc.. thensaurus.§ 31 1] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ifimo. 286). S. -onsus>-dsus. Pr. 274. 274. seme{n) in. "ansa non asa" . 113-115. ifra. —iens'^-ies. thensaurus. toties. R. the n was generally restored by analogy (see 171). etc.. 274. "Hercules non Herculens. It probably fell late. v. remasit. Charisius (S.. This phenomenon was only thority: partially recognized by Classic au—ensimus -^ -esimus.. letter inscriptions: Kki]ix. 462. was probably constant from early in/as. locuplens. 281-285." Before/. trare. hortesia. ^^ i'^ Greek- ko^ous. coventionid. cesor. inscriptions: cofecisse. etc. cosol. 285.ifs. . d. probably through nasalization of the preceding vowel: see § 171. iventa../. 286) records that "men- sam sine n littera dictam Varro fall ait. however. etc. 281-285. as videns. 311. AudoUent 538. Eckinger 80. libes. 461Conversely.. For final nt. cojux. such words as conjux. § App. Quintilian (S. Pirson 94. pes neque mens. Pr. mesor messor = mensor. 473. mansus. if eras. Digitized by Microsoft® . prcBgnas repeatedly. cojugi. Such forms are frequent in cojugi (very common). Carnoy 177.. except in monosyllables: ndtne{Ti). Stolz 243fT. formosus (S. 459. ns. coin of Vespasian's reign). Plautus repeatedly uses mosTerence seems to intend a rhyme in "neque Stolz 243. etc. resurges S. infas. 131 The Romance languages indicate the disappearance of -n." Cf." Eunuchus 728. "consules exempta n littera legimus. Cicero preferred foresia. convenio'&ie really new formaThe only sure Romance traces of the loss oin tions: S. Stolz 243.

299. Pirson 60-61: labidem. [§ 314 before these consonants in Latin are Italian /a«/^ and French in Raetia and convent. scripit. mesis. S. to drop In Italy and perhaps elsewhere there was a tendency / between a consonant and an j- or /. and is attested by Martial and possibly by the icse for ipse mentioned by Suetonius.. LABIALS. 313. lebrm. S. 160. Digitized became Haag862. etc. Bon. cf.. Lat. Pirson 93.. App. under the influence of Celtic *cactos (Welsh caetJi) = Latin captus (Loth 35). /V likewise br: Abrilis. S.132 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and northern Italy: see Cf. hut pensare. Spr. etc. settembres. In a part of Gaul capfivus seems to have been pronounced *cayttvus: it may be that in Gallic speech the pt oi this word became yt. 7th century. "plasta non blasta" " ziziber non ziziper" cannabis and . Before s. (i) F regularly remained unchanged: pater. Old Irish secht-n = septem. sposus. scultor. In a part of Italy /j became ss as early as the isse for ipse is first century: found in Pompeii. h. 312. § 256.• redemti. Raetia. (I) P. 476. In central and southern Italy// became the Empire: scritus. pesat. tosus. It. etc. the fall of n was permanent.. by Microsoft® . // probably early in 299. 299. Windisch 394). or perhaps captivus became first *cactivus. canapa. Pr. although at a later date nf became / much of southern France. Car- noy 165. and the only Romance words containing ns are learned terms or new formations: mesa. Intervocalic / probably became b in the fifth and sixth centuries in Spain. corpus. opus. stubrum. as was the case with Celtic// (Dottin 100. There was some sporadic confusion of/ and b: uvBLlCyE. Pirson 61. Gaul. etc. 314.

§ 3i6]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


In northern Gaul intervocalic/ and/r, even in clerical Latin, /8 and ^r by the seventh century: rivaticus, 629 a. d., Vok. I, 128; cavanna, Gl. Reich.
developed through b and br into
'Soxpe,pi, see § 273.
(2) B.


as in


was not



usually ifemained un-


bene, blitum, oblitus.


Oscan and Umbrian, became vim

in Sicily


southern and central Italy, the
as far north as


being found in inscriptions
Cf. nd, § 281.


Lat. Spr. 476.

Before s or tit

likely that b regularly

became /

in Latin,



was often written

b: absens apsens, ab— apsolvere,

plebs pleps, scribsi scripsi, scribtum scriptum, trabs traps, urbs

urps; App. Pr., "celebs non celeps," "labsus non lapsus."

Final b must have been often assimilated to a following

consonant: sud



a. d.,



In the Empire, especially in the second century,
in inscriptions (cf.

and v were much confused


bixit, botu,

vene, etc., S. 240; Baleria, Balerius, Beneria,


Betrubius, Bictor, bos, valneas, Audollent 536; African birtus, bita, boluntas, Vok. I, 98 bivere, very common, Carnoy

140; baluis, Bechteh"78;

vibit, etc.,

R. 456; bobis in Consenany, traces of

Vok. Ill, 68.

In the

Romance languages

there are few,


such an early interchange.

Probably the confusion was mainly

or wholly graphic, being due to the identity in sound of b and v between vowels (§ 318): Lat. Spr. 473; cf. Einf., § 120. The Spanish levelling of initial b and v does not go back to Vulgar Latin (Carnoy 139— 141); the confusion is far commoner in Italian inscriptions than in Spanish or Gallic (Carnoy 142-146). We find also a change of initial v to b va. north Portuguese, Gascon, south Italian, and Old Rumanian.

by Microsoft®



Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


After liquids, too, there was a confusion of b and v in inscriptions, b being substituted for v much oftener than v for
b: Nerba, salbum, serbus, solbit, etc.,

240; berbex, Waters

Ch. 57; solbere, repeatedly, Carnoy 140; solbere, etc., R. 455; App. Pr., "alveus non albeus." In all probability v really changed to b after liquids: see V.


remained unchanged.
Intervocalic b opened into

the development apparin the second,

ently began in the


was well along

Oitovin = and was devitvm, provata, etc., Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95; devere, As V also was pronounced j8, a confusion in spelling S. 240. cvrabit, resulted, b and v being used indiscriminately:

completed, at least in Italy, in the third:

ivbentvtis, nobe,

etc., S.

240; i-vwE.nTE.=jubente, 2d century,

£inf. 127, § 120; cabia
vovis, etc.,

— cavea,

Danuvium, Dibona,


Audollent S3^~537j devitum (6th century), lebis, vibi, Carnoy 134-135; annotavimus, lebat, Bechtel 78;


habe:=ave, rogavo, suabitati,

R. 455— 456;



51, Pirson 61-62,



Carnoy 134-136. became contiguous

Cf. V.

to a following consonant,
Cf. V.

was vocalized

into u: *faula, *paraula, *taula, etc.

became /3r and Dacia.

perhaps not until the end of our period, in northern Gaul, Raetia, part of northern Italy,


as in popular speech: *fa§ula, * tabula, etc.

In the early stages of clerical Latin intervocalic b was pronounced Later, perhaps by the

seventh century,

was sounded


In App. Pr. we find " sibilus non


tions " sifilum pro sibilum" ;


comes from some non-Latin Italic dialect few other words. *a^ea, see § 421. (3) For habebam


(S. 300) menPerhaps the form with/ bubulcus =^ It. bifolco, and a

and Priscian



Be, bi probably remained unchanged, at least in most

by Microsoft®

§ 322]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


of the Empire: rabies, rubeus, etc.

For the analogical change

of habeo to *ayo, debeo to *deyo, see § 273.

(3) F-


F was

originally bilabial (S. 294-295), but
of the



by the middle


(S, 295): cf. § 305.

It is the old /, apparently, that is described

by Quintilian

296-297) a plain description of the dentilabial y is given by Terentianus Maurus and Marius Victorinus (S. 296).

Grammarians speak

of an alternation of h


fasena^ harena, fircum'^ hircum, habam'^fabam,
Varro, Ling. Lat.

etc., S.

f: fcedus'^hadus, The /"and 300.

the h doubtless belonged to different dialects in early Latin
§ 97, the

according to

This phenomenon can have no connection with the change of initial/to h in Spanish and Gascon.

/for h was Sabine.

of the

It is

probable that intervocalic

y became

v at the end

Vulgar Latin period

256): alevanii

^ elephanti,

paceveci ^pacifici, pontevecem =. poniificem,




was doubtless originally pronounced w; but, losing its velar element, the sound was reduced, probably During the early in the Empire, to the bilabial fricative /8. Empire Greek-letter inscriptions have ov or ^ for v (Ncpoua or Nep/3a) Ov\av!a = Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95 yS for » is common from the first century on, Eckinger 85-91. Velius Longus, in the middle of the second century, says that the u in ualente is pronounced "cum aliqua aspiratione": S. 232. Hence arises a complete confusion of intervocalic b and v








By. CVRABIT, ivbentvtis, etc, Gregory the Great. This leads


240; jubari iox juvari

to a graphic confusion of

initial b

and v

in inscriptions: biginti, bixit, botv, etc. (so



by Microsoft®




An Introduction

to Vulgar Latin.
dentilabial v in


Later the bilabial

p became


of the


cf. §


For the substitution Germanic Consonants.
323. After liquids




or w in a few words, see

this state

/3 seems to have closed regularly into b; was preserved in Rumanian (Densusianu 97, 103105), but elsewhere the p ox v was partially restored by school

influence: cerbvs, corbi, cvrbati, ferbeo,
A. D.),
§ 317.

nerba (about 100

serbat, solbit, E. G. Parodi in Horn.




So vervex became *verbex, then berbex: Waters Ch. 57 BERBECES, 2d Century, Einf. 127, § 120 (also in Gl. ReichJ).

Hence came

hesitation in spelling (^ferveo, ferbui, etc.)


inconsistent results in the


languages: corvus^

corbo corvo, Fr. corbeau; curl/US'^

Ft., Pr. corp, Sp. corvo;



nerbo, Fr. neff; servare, servire'^ It. serbare, servire.

Intervocalic w ox fi had a tendency in older Latin, as Umbrian, to disappear between two like vowels: divtnus'^ dinus (cf. Umbrian deivina> deina, Sittl 26), obHviscor> obliscor, si vis'i> sis. Cf. Lindsay 52. Also, at all times, before or after 0: bovis'^bos; devorsum>dedrsum; faor, Pirson 63; moere, AudoUent 539; Noe/u/Spios, Vok. II, 479; noem[bris], S. 241; '^pavor xiOXL paor," App. Pr.; cf. late noembris, noicius, Lindsay 52. "Favilla xion failla" in App. Pr. seems to be




In the above cases the


apparently was only sporadic.

But before an accented o or u, the w ox p fell regularly in most of the Empire: aunculus, Vok. II, 471 (cf. auncli, Pirson 63); FLAONivs, S. 241; *padnem; *padrem.
Furthermore, intervocalic
popular speech before any


ox p regularly disappeared in probably towards the end of the
vIvs, S. 241 {zLJlaus in



-vos>-vus): flavs,

by Microsoft®

primitius. the original Latin w (spelled v) had become |8: § 2. rius. Often. Keil IV. is evidently intended for csvum. § 167. Pirson 63). : Cf. B): Classic . datius. The ^Vm of C. claudo. 327- In Greek the surd and the sonant stops must have than in Latin. Audollent 539 (cf. Vok. Single consonants sometimes became double in Latin. nasals. When intervocalic a/ or it lowing consonant. naufragus. iKKKyfTia. however. noum. rivus (beside rius) through rivi. 472 (cf. and Greek double consonants sometimes became single: vd/xos >nummus. Before 322. Vva. this. hiatus which had not already become w {%% 223224) probably took that sound by the end of the Vulgar Latin 326. by Microsoft® . Pr. the v was re. GREEK CONSONANTS. the sonants were perhaps not fully voiced. 1220. I. and sibilants less sharply differentiated been usually remained unchanged in transmission."^ ec{c)lesia. etc. vius in Pirson 63). /3 became contiguous to a folwas vocalized into u (cf. eccu' ista'>*eccwista. Pirson 63. oum in Probus. after the analogy of a feminine or a plural form ovum (beside oum) through ova. placuit> placwit. etc. etc. 471) and others as aum. and the surds doubtless had a weak. II. Vulgar aucella. II. 137 App. The Greek liquids. Digitized Cf. cited by Schuchardt (Vok. 113) nous. App.. period: eccu' ktc'. is 325. L. oum. Carnoy 128. Claussen 847-851. gnaus.:>*eccwic. triumphaut. 328. voiced explosion: so they were not always distinguished by the Latin ear. 1. in most cases this probably only graphic: Carnoy 128-131.§ 328] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Fr. aus. (S) u. Lindsay 52. ndcui^ nocwi. (i) In inscriptions -vs is common in place of -vvs. stored.

ph. S. 268): (cf. A. etc. [§ 332 (i) B. S. ch: Claussen 823-833. sandal. t: xoAa^os > colaphus. often became g. > conger ganger. although KavZiTo? for candidus (Eckinger 98) seems to point in that direction: 'Aicpayas > Acragas Agragas. cf. S. etc. tt. w. avrpov^ dndron. 259. 2S9-26a 332. nimpa. § a-iriijXvyya > spelunca. yoyypoi Cf. Reich. 330. K. keSjoos > citrus. <t>.. Pilipus. 347 buxus. t regularly came to be pronounced //in Greek: a. however. (3) ®.iravov > Fr. ^iXra^ unvoiced into /. 'Kixpmp6<i'>- lambros. c.fu > > gumtni. 138 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. c (S. The From the middle of the second century spellings th. TTvio'i > Kr > 331' g. T generally remained c. S. Pr. r. This late such cases as Kafiinj Greek pronunciation perhaps accounts for > Lat. Claussen c. v sometimes became b. KvPipva. advCf. Ka. progne. 8 regularly ydpov>garum. old inscriptions.p. y. however. T. Crista. — fusion became in Old Latin t. Teodor. X. K. b. n. p.p. It. App. k. KaiPw%>gobius . "> purpura. cecino.. t: blcesus.. cin in kvki/os > > cicinus > Old. we find the People of fashion by Microsoft® . Ta\oi'>rr.yKri> andngi. 7rop<j)vpa. x 252-253): vop^-ipa^ purpura . the conis mentioned by Terentius Scaurus and others. bustiola in Gl.KO)0(K delta. — 329. theywere *Jdcopus (also */dcomus) 'la. Claussen 838-841. of a change oi r to d there is no example. K6p. cf. toKomtov > talentum. g. remained b. Digitized b. > > . (2) K. egloge. rvp. timbre. After nasals. *. explosives 6. d: l3XauT6i Sometimes.v>gubemare.papo^ cammarus gammarus. TfL'^um (j-a.. B. gamba. later inscriptions. TTuppos burrus. "calatus non galatus" {^ KoXadoi). 833-838.yfjia> sagma sauma.

cf. X ><?"• Claussen 831. phitonissm. KoKa." "strofa non stropa". Fitones in Gl. x^P^ > chorda = corda.<^ao-i. <f> > b. f is common later in southern Italy.avTac7La> > Pr. Reich.Xay^ It. pache. neofiti. etc. as in phosit. si aspiretur. 79 (cf. " In principio inquam dictionis nulla prescripta causa variari compellitur. Thescelus. Digitized by Microsoft® . 0. 261. 256) says there were no aspirate consonants in older Latin. 4.^o'i^ colaphus = colapus. c. and some other early adopperhaps the reason is to be sought in a Greek dialect pronunciation: Claussen 829-831. Matheus ''. The proper spelling is discussed by gram- marians: S. S. <jia. unaspirated pronunciation (as pulcros." 334. etc. for new words as well as for old: <TvaOri>spatka— spata. Quintilian (S. palanca. The etc. Claussen 828. '^Theophilus non izofilus": (i) Evidence of a late school pronunciation of 6 as ts is to be found in Thurot 78.. 261): dafne occurs in Pompeii. Fitonis. footnote to § 259): " T quoque. In hoxri>doga. cathedra. Parthi.. etheus. zampogna. d. In ^£ros>It. ut c enuntiatur. Theos. In <l>aXKaiva> ballcBna. "amfora /came non ampora. 333" tions. By the first century a. etc. iriumpos) in order to be better understood. Certainly as early to be the standard as the fourth century (Lindsay 58) pronunciation: App. In late words ^ regularly appears as/. . Cicero (S. of. . S. Bechtel 79. App. Eckinger 97. It is transposed in Fhitonis. cefalo. zio we have a late development of Claussen 833. ut ather. 257-258. pantaisar. 139 undoubtedly tried to imitate the aspirates (Lindsay 54).. Thiestes.\os> phaselus faselus . so o^-1\kiov for qfficium. Fr. ut thiara. Fr. but popular speech kept the old t. Thestius. Bonnet 141. p. 218. : letter h is occasionally misused. 256) speaks of using the old. caikoluus. cru/x<^o)V4a>It. nothus.. S-p. 260.§ 334] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. ^ had developed into / in some places (S. Ki^oXoi > It..

Claussen 845. too. and Sibilants. priTmp> Rh in remained unchanged: \a/x7ras> common speech was doubtless pronounced In trkXivov like > It.^ ? > It. have to do with a late Greek change of \ to 336. see below.'^massa.8os /talpos > maurus. etc. 335. cr 337. e^oSos r. but was often replaced. 338. is sounded sd. There however. (S) z- Z doubtless had several pronunciations in Greek. The For unfamiliar combination lent itself readily to meta- thesis: i^6X\v. From Sulla's time on it was written z in The grammarians throw no light Latin: Claussen 841-843. — 339.v>psallere spallere. Nasals. ss. Cf. (Tivain Of the sibilants. some indica: tions that they were weak before consonants > Pr. it was pronounced in Vulgar Latin dy. sedano.. r. and subsequent developments confirm this view: baptizare Digitized was equivalent to bapti{d)yare. as a simple sound. Quintilian refers only to the on the Latin pronunciation. but seems to be referring only to Greek speech S.. and ^ were regularly > sinapis. by s. lampas. see § 300. t. The liquids regularly rhetor.-^ remained unchanged: are.I40 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. i/f In ocr/u. Judging from inscriptions. or d as in Saguntum. orma. regularly vop. : t. Greek letter and the lack of a corresponding Latin one Velius Longus discusses z at length. ^dvr] "^ sona (Plautus). we probably 8. > nome. later j' (cf. Medentius. by Microsoft® . bobansa. unchanged: <j has probably become For npvj^vre. > exodus. early Latin . among 36) says that the ancients. massa. In it was represented by jj or s: pAtfl. and a few other words. /8oj«. [§ 339 (4) Liquids. The nasals. § 272).po'i'^ prebiter. 308. Priscian (Keil II.

GERMANIC CONSONANTS. 457-458- In late inscriptions z for/ is common: zerax = Upa^ (202 S. Francesco. Bechtel 79).§ 34i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. I.= Julia. ZABVLLVS. 68 . A.).. zanuari. 33. gerbe. 239. cf. zaconus. p. Cf. Pr. septuazinta. h. 22. and to G. etc. zeta = Koffmane 38 Lazis — dixta. garto Old Fr. Ladiis.). and is common in inscriptions (cf. so *rik-itia > Pr. 341. skernon > schernire. *striban > Pr. is often used for di: . R.ta. z zabulus. etc. *giga>'Pr. and its derivatives palatalized In the their k before e and /. B between vowels. = conjux. zabulus. Carnoy 163). Carnoy 163. The ending -i{d)yare became very is common: see § The spelling di for z occurs repeatedly: baptidiare found several times in Per.. b and k came in after the lents: 8. D. ZESv. jart. estribar. Kotflv^ zvnior. 69. baptidiatus.• frank-iscus>lX. zdcones. and w. zebus. Lat. I. resisted front vowels : skena > > Sp. corresponding Latin sounds had undergone some modification.. 141 zelosus to {d)yelosus.. It. rubare. of the consonants offer Most treated as in Latin. re- mained a stop : roubdn it > It. no peculiarities. (90. giscle. seems to have followed a similar course. Conversely. 473. however. Vok. riqueza. garba > K It. Eckinger 80. can scarcely have come in time to share in the early palatalization of Latin g before front vowels (§§ 25811. esquena. A few. being had no Latin equivaFurthermore. 3. Franko seems to have been an early acquisition. 340. geldra. Digitized by Microsoft® . although have participated also in the later Gallic palatalization of g > before a (§ 263): gilda>lt. oridium for opvtfi. giga. etc. Spr. geisla Fr. Vok. zosum z= deorsum. occurring apparently only in words adopted after Latin intervocalic b had become ^ (§ 318). Zov\e.

perhaps borrowed at a different date feu. It. different time. blanche (but It. regions where Latin eschine. like Latin ss. Pr. It. hanche. gaite. tt: pahso > It. gecchire. It. — > \X. but apparently was neglected in the rest of the Empire: hanca~^Yx. anca. espiar. 343. In the Gl. Reich. skiuhan'^'Fx. pahso > It. became Old guatare. had become was nearer in it sound to Latin u: see § 326. hardir.. hache. 342. a time when original Latin fricative w (spelled v) It the purely labial ^ (§ 322). — slahta'^-OXA esclet. Germanic k was modified in the same way before all front vowels (including a): cf. esclata. before a (§ 263). Fr. we find Digitized by Microsoft® . —jehan > Old It.. hapja'^Yz. Fr. sleht > Pr. Pr. in the seventh century and later. It. ardire. is used before > > initial ch: ab Chilperico. [§ 344 c was palatalized. doubtless adopted at a Tr. jehir. hau- > > > Pr. 344. honte. Fr. gequir. W. But wahta. esguiver. richesse. Pr. 445 notes that ab. Intervocalic h disappeared in most words. Sp. Yr.gaita. It. Kluge 500. nipa The spirants 8 and p t: corresponding stops. Bon. prescan Germanic h appeared when Latin h had long been popular speech. rather than a. eschernir. fio . Hs. schivare. cf. Old Sp. guiderdone. helm elmo. silent in Fr.— 142 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. d and widarlon were replaced in Latin by the It. helme. espier. bianca^. ht were generally treated tasso. schietto. trescar. parrjan > Cf. spehon~>0\6. tasso. of a At the beginning word it kept its sound in northern Gaul. Pr. etc. tarir. jaquir. Old Fr. so blank-a'^Yx. schiatta. Fr. Pr. apcha. esclate. but in a few it seems to have been sounded kk in the greater part of the Empire: fehu Fr. Fr. at Germanic w was a strong velar and labial fricative. hardjan Old Fr.

werra > werra guerra. Bruckner. Through association with Germanic words. Mackel. W. Wandali. Die frdnkischen Elemente W.§ 344] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. In extreme northern and eastern Gaul. etc. through a reinforceit ment of its velar element. and in the in Rsetia this w apparently remained unchanged Vulgar Latin period. Charakteristik der germanischen Elemente im Italienischen. Digitized by Microsoft® . > *wisa guisa. walde. See E. elsewhere. etc. in uuadius.:>*wadum. wa (the interjection). in der franzSsischen Sprache. etc. 143 re- represented by uu. 167 cords Euua. vastare + wost— > *wasiare. 1884. the /3 of some Latin words was changed to w: vadum +watan'. 1899. became gw: warjan>*warire wisa guarire. Waltemath. Die germanischen Elemente in der franzSsischen und provenzalischen Sprache. in northwestern Italy. It is generally written w in Fredegarius. reuuardent. Waddo. Bon. 1885. but Wintrio is spelled Quintrio: Haag 38.

Bon. 483 . The three genders of Latin were not. dependent on sex or lack of distinctions. (5) See also § 351. grex became feminine. -inem. —orem. Lat. in the main. sex. Pirion 157. Lat. They were grammatical whose observance was a matter of outward form. Feminines of the fourth declension varied (^Gram. honor.IV. MORPHOLOGY. 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . II. Nouns that -icem. ~" confusion. iomus. ficus. n. manus. 293. confusion of gender ensued. MASCULINE AND FEMININE. 504. had a proparoxytonic accusative in -erem. 464-467): carcerem. 483.. turturem. 346. but there were ( I ) Between masculine and feminine there was not much some important shifts: Feminines of the second declension nearly all became — masculine: fraxinus. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. cucullus and cuculla. or [I. leporem. etc. castaneus for castanea. through the analogy of the great majority of abstract terms. dolor. 345. cf. fans feminine in late Latin. Spr. —urem were of uncertain gender ( Gram. GENDER. pulicem. became feminine (Bon. (4) There were some sporadic changes: duos arbores. marginem. Hmor. Spr. A. Bon. 461): (2) In Gaul. 503-504): (3) color. abstract nouns in -or. G. I. 194. If words lost their differentiating terminations.

173. m. 483). 44).. for ctnis. MARIS. 145 MASCULINE aIiD NEUTER.. 270—272. there must have been a *pulvus. piper \h&x& must have been *liiminem. etc. 507-509. roborem. Waters Ch.. These m two genders: filiu{s) — . castellus. frenum -i. 266. fatus. incipit judicius.§ 348] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 39. templus.. etc. Spr.guttur. etc. 348. 57. thesaurum. Beside lUmen. lactem {Bacch. 16). papaver . calus. verbus. b.. Varro. R. ra. etc. II. tergum —us. m. and f. 41. etc. 2. Cf. murmur. m. sulphurem.. Audol- lent 545.Y. cf. *ptperem. MAREM. puteum. Petronius. beside pulvis. R. Waters Ch. Bon. 4. Plautus. Glor. see Archiv VIII. Densusianu 132. signus. maris nom. pectorem. 347. 348. do^sus (^Mil. n. . sg. gladium.. and neuter in Africa. (Za/. *ndminem. 132. vinus. D'Arbois 135. laqueum. vinus. nomen. G. 46. collus. vadum —us. Densusianu 129. For the confusion of masculine Cf. In popular and late Latin this tendency was strong: anteClassic. Bon. cornu —um —us. VA. collus —um. lactem. lignus. 345-349. nasuni : —us. vasus -um. balneus. 42. Conversely we find cinus. ciner. and also by the fall of final s in that phenomenon occurred (§ 298). n. The transition from masculine to neuter was facilitated by the fall of final the regions where changes reduced considerably the distinguishing marks of the (§ 309). marmorem.. fcenus. In Classic Latin a number of neuters became masculine balteum -us. 293. me\_nt]us. caseum -us. ledus —um. Petronius has thesaurum. frigorem.

Mare. Densusianu 132. R. Thus the masculine and neuter fused. : if The loss of the neuter became feminine: cyma. give in Italian: sg. luogo. So pi. illud or ilium.. gender for nouns was probably not Cf. by terra. [§ 351 In the second declension the only difference is in the nominative singular and the nominative and accusative plural. XXX. § 351. cf.146 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Nearly all neuters became masculine: os locutus R. donum hunc scBCulum.. influenced f. 4). muro. however. perhaps calestem. plural in a collective sense (as eques. / muri mura. m. 277. Among pronouns. for instance. Cf. murus. popular. Bon. complete until early Romance times. luoghi luogora. etc. hunc vulnere. and in Italy and Dacia the distinction disappears even in the nominative singular. quid. and 48. pointing to such Vulgar Latin constructions as *mihi est grave quod ille non c. hunc stagnum. 635. 45 . miles. hunc verbum. sagma. rivus rivora. 348. quod. id ipsum. generally Haag became feminine maris. Petronius writes nervia Waters Ch. Zs. est. locus. etc. Archiv III. generally L. in Livy: Draeger I. 266. 386. etc. 161.. 350. FEMININE AND NEUTER. 351 Classic Latin often used not only the singular for the cf. the : neuter forms were kept to express an indefinite idea hoc. the early stages of the Neuter adjective forms were used for a similar purpose: in Romance languages we find phrases veniat. tive h In the third declension the genders are distinguished only in the accusative singular and the nomina- and accusative plural. 349. mare. Greek neuters in -ma. but also the collective plural for the singular Digitized by Microsoft® . the characteristic neuter plural inflections came to be -a being regarded as an alternative masculine plural ending: for nervi.

270. Cf. Reich. rura: cf. ligna . dita. ne forte et mihi hcec eve- R.% frigora. which a new plural was created: brachias. frutta. in Greek neuters -ma. see §§ 85-100. grada occur in late Latin. For cinus — cinis. Old Fr. Audollent 548. ingenias.. rama). etc. 353. 269. § 349) and even to some feminine nouns: digita.. {z. For the use of cases. simulaehras. Bon.. Digitized by Microsoft® . occurs in late Latin. By the end of 354. R. 2. in Rumanian y>-««2a < ? *frondia ^frondes. ligna. the Vulgar Latin period the cases were generally reduced. etc. fructa. membras.§ 354] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cf. but many were and southern Italy and Rumania. fusa. see § 347. . *pulvus = pulvis. Hence arose such feminine gaudia. This formation in -a was extended to many masculine (cf. 435. 147 marmora. few neuter nouns became feminine: For mare and f. palpebrum iox palpebra occurs. 483. Lat. for singular forms as *brachia. of an to pectora maXch qua pectora : Chronologie \()(). In most of the in central Romance territory the -a forms were kept preserved as plurals only as feminine singulars. crigne < ? *cnnea = crines. 351. . R. Apulian. Spr. 482. 63). for instance. Reich. Convtrstly.. Gl. armentas. gaudia niat. see § 349. . Spr. Lat. In late Latin and early Romance this collective plural —a came to be taken for a feminine singular: tribula sg. hie est iesia. D'Arbois 10. Gl. marmor. gesta. sg. etc. So the neuter plural forms in -a were preserved in their collective use after the neuter singular forms had disappeared. Archiv XIV. ardet (cf.. Aside from these. The feminine character of such words was *illcB doubtless reinforced by the use. Sardinian. DECLENSION OF NOUNS. *folia. 352. Gl. Draeger I. 5-9. Cassel. It..

355(i) The number fifth of declensions was reduced to three. 337-338.. Sittl in Archiv II. cornum. etc. R. In Dacia the dative singular was to some extent preserved also: '' § 91. to two. glatz. scaiiazre attested Inter: Denfor -OS.g/ada.. Audollent genum. Heraeus in Archiv XIII. senatus. The transfer from the fourth to the second began in domus. £ai. see § 359./ada. 482. Pr. 135. Dies maintained itself. the fourth and being absorbed by the others. 152. All the mercatus. sendti. 260—262. spes spent. (2) The susianu 133. gelus.. G.148 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. [§ 356 except in Dacia. materies -ia. etc. but -ies was kept in the Spanish peninsula. passes. 356. lacus. and occasionally in southern Gaul. being assimilated to the third declension: cf. ablative. jusso. 544. K. whence Italian spene (cf. Bechtel 86. Classic Latin and continued in vulgar and late speech: ftcus. manos. Digitized by Microsoft® . gustus in Petronius . 550. speni): W. Bon. in southern Italy and Sardinia. luxuries —ia. went into the third res There was also an inflection spes : spene{m). Spr. etc. One result of the intermediate confusion was an accusative plural spelling -us which was very common in Gaul: Bon. but there were a few shifts: — (i) For an inflection mama mamdne(^m). spiritus. so friicti. fourth declension eventually went over. fructo fructos. haz. —a nominative and an accusative- plural following the analogy of the singular. gradus. Ada. Sp. etc. jusso. The other declensions generally held their own. All passed over in the greater part of the Empire. transfer of nouns in -ies from the fifth to the first declension began also in Classic Latin: effigies— ia. 270. 282-283. Fifth declension nouns not in -ies rem. etc. lucto. beside dia. — the Cf. as a third declension noun.

). Spr.In countries which did not lose final s {% 298). of the third declension sometimes passed into lampas~^lampada. under the influence of stercus. h&nc& filias filias. (3) On the other hand. G. 280. arroser. there was an ervus ervoris: Lat. Beside terminus ~i. Fundus fundi perhaps became fundus *funddris: Old Fr. Greek nouns 259. It. but the old forms were retained also. Audolfilia{m). 259-260). Pr. see § 362. J where there was only one form.>*rdsum (cf. Fimus ftmi. R.) *femdris: cf. fonz. lent 546. etc.§ 357] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the first: 367. Fr. 258Dubois 258. so apparently ros'. which had only one form in the plural: flia So linguas. where the kept instead. Fr. Reich..) and probably *potesta. Puulva for pulvis is recorded adsis '> aisida. G. 57). G. Reich. a. ds>dssum (R. vas>va- sum vasus (Waters Ch. matres matres. the nominative plural was' by Microsoft® . FIRST DECLENSION. the accusative plural form came to be used as a nominative plural. fiens. Old Fr. beside coclear fiitre: was codearium. 149 (2) For an inflection Bellus Bellone^m). It probably was not common until late Vulgar Latin or early Romance times. Pr. 280. Digitized -s made the accusative plural identical with the singular. and of feminine nouns of the third declension. etc. So a few Latin nouns: juventus or ~tas > Juventa. cf. Libit. siren '^ sirena. : Bechtel 86. 483. apparently became femus {Gl. there was a termen terminis. 280. pyxis '^*buxida. Beside ervum ervi. effondrer. femps. fons. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) and *capum -i: XXVII. / 357. fall of In Italy and Dacia. This use was due in the main to the analogy of the singular. by Audollent 416. Corpo for corpore occurs in the Per. rugiada. likewise tempesta {Gl.

Celtic. and Digitized by Microsoft® . Salvioni in Rom. nom. etc. M. Dalmatia. It. See G. Rom. XXV. 136. an inflection in —dnis. too. sa* sacristanis (cf. cf. Raetia. feminabus. This form left no traces in the Romance languages. Pupils were taught to inflect Glance Glaucenis. (R. It. Spr. Africa. MeyerLiibke in Ltblt. 359. sacristano).. XXXV.ISO (i) An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bon. 358. XXV. rather late. Les accusatifs en -ain.. etc. liberti LIBERTASQVE. Dante's Semele. Spr. filiabus. Chronologie 205-209.. 206. Rom. mamma mammdnis. villabus. [§359 According to Mohl. —enis. Feb..2 01. Pirson 115-116. § 153): barba barbani. p. 171. famulabus. Paris. ahimabus. or probably under the influence of the consonantal declension of Greek names that was in vogue in schools. pupillabus. scriba *scribanis (cf. E. affirms that there was a feminine in -a with a plural in -as in Oscan.. etc. 321. deabus. Br^al. 198. Nice Nicenis. Meyer-Liibke expresses doubt whether the is connected with masculine tatani. scrivano). but they may have helped its the second century . Some masculine person-names in —a had crisia the same declension {Einf. Feminine proper names and words denoting persons etc. cf. 70. Hic qvescvnt dvs mres dvas filias. fr. often developed. the nominative plural in some parts of Italy SCALAS. Archiv N\\\. No foreign or dialect influences are needed to explain the practice. W.: hence arose Anna Anndnis or -inis.. Les accusatifs en -on et en -ain. filiabus. 483. XXIII. etc. Her^us in Zs. and also in Latin down to -as was probably old in : B. 264). An ablative in -abus is occasionally found: Cassiabus. This feminine inflection left some traces in Gaul. Philipon. 152-153. 150. D'Arbois 21-24 assumes Celtic influence: hic sunt cartas. etc. etc. W. 331. Both mamani and tatani are found in the third W. ii. amita *amitdnis (so Juliana Julianenis in Pirson 143). had a similar plural. filiabus. 57 B. Journal des savants igoo. XXXI. c. c. Herseus in Archiv XIII. century: feminine -a -ants In Lat. G. diffusion.

Zs. 216. 214-215. R.: § 362] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. barbane still exist at both ends of Italy. Cf. this -a. they assumed. barbane. In general. Attane. XXXV. was retained to a considerable and central Italy and Dacia. *botula. by the analogy of bracchia. the starting-point of all this inflection was bdrba barbdnis. etc. domnani. also Joannentis. nonnain. however. Rom. etc. XXXV. -e ^ne -me. fructa. 250. Cf. 2l6. — luna facia *folia luna lune lunas luna{s) facia folia f^i^ facias f'^^i^ folias facia(s) folia{s) In Dacia the dative singular {lune.. 218. SECOND DECLENSION. XXXV. especially in southern Some masculines took 362. Andreani. Eugeneti inflection in -dtis. Zimmermann. Ger- From the seventh century on. §§ 347-349. from 750 on: amitane. §§349. shows that there was also an Cf. 361. etc. XXVIII. in ig8. rama. -o -6ne. from which it was extended to other nouns of relationship and to proper names. 250. G. bdrba barbdnis influence of the itself he would ascribe to the synonymous *bdrbo *barb6nis. etc. the masculine where the masculine and neuter partly in Vulgar Latin but mostly in inflection in those countries differed: vinus. -i La declinazione imparisillaba in -a -dne. 219.. the first declension was reduced to this pattern: 360. XXXV. etc. — perhaps under manic influence combined with the analogy of the Latin type Digitized by Microsoft® . shows that these forms of declenall sion were very common the mediasval Latin documents of parts of Italy. from Eugenes. Salvioni. etc. Andreate. Rom. 351-352. Joanneni. (2) A. Italy: Fr. Lombard madrane. -His. According to Salvioni. and -Stis: Aureliati.. 264. Rom. Rom. 343. Agneti. *botella. digita. etc. 151 etc.) was kept also. The plural in -a. (i) 207. As neuter nouns became masculine. Dubois 250. extent. me -ene. b. Romance. at the beginning of the Romance period. putain.

the second declension followed this pattern: annu(s) — annu ~o anni anno{s) fa^e(f) fabru —o vinu{s) bracciu *—us fructu(s) vinu -0 vini bracciu —o braccia fructu fructi fructo{s) —o fabri fabro(s) —i —o{s) vmo(s) braccia —a -a The letters enclosed in parentheses were silent in Italy and plural Dacia. This was 364. [§ 365 gulo guldnis. G. at the beginning of the Romance period. cf.). THIRD DECLENSION. Firmus Firmonis. The traces ablative in —e finally triumphed.. both in Classic and in Vulgar Latin: -Is. Pirson 133:. XXXV. 247-249. In the accusative plural there was still greater confusion of -is and -es {nubes nubls.f. Apparently traces. 212-213. Rsetia. carried further in common speech: cf. etc. Bellus Belloni.- ending was often Bon. 365. § 152). Vok. Philipon in Rom. and possibly Spain. In the ablative there was considerable confusion of -z and -e in Classic LatiiK OTan mare.152 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. c. etc. 198. but there are of -l: It. -« crowded out the rarer which left no sure Digitized by Microsoft® . Giovannoni. hence Pitrus or Pitro Petrdne^m). attested in Lucca in 776 {Rom. §355. 337-338. proper names: 201. II. and possibly Corsican baboni. Italy. 363. — there developed in Gaul. XXXI. some pari. etc. suceroni: Rom. a declension -us (or —o) —dnis for masculine Hugo Hugon was Latinized into Hugo Hugdne{m) (cf. turri turre. 85. avus avi>avo avonis. Traces of this inflection are to be seen especially in French and Provengal proper names: Foucon. XXXV. etc. Salvioni in Rom. etc. spelled In Gaul the accusative -«. 204). I. cf. See E. Cf. XXXV. Huon. Paulus or Paulo Pauldne{ni). etc. etc. So perhaps Italian Donaioni. (1). Vok. In general. 87..

perhaps in late popular Latin. . it is futile trace the Romance forms phonetically to one source rather than the other. divite. superstitis. Varro.. Aulus Gellius.. GL Reich." Keil VII.. victore. §§ 174. 367. etc. III. Lat. 153 Italian pani. castore. 38). slirpis in Livy. folli tor folks in GL Reich. D'Arbois 85-88. lentis in Priscian. I.§ 367] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Haag 45. "nubes non nubis". Vok. through the analogy of the second declension: see §368. or -e fashioned on the model of the oblique cases: so seeps "> sapes. etc. Nouns which added a syllable in the genitive. in Ennius. heredes. 66. Petronius (Waters Ch. R.• -« Vok. Prudentius. etc. GL Reich. App. travis (three times). heredes. "fames non famis. Digitized by Microsoft® .. -es. as by Tiktin 565-566. Jovis. Audollent 545-547. etc. calcis in Venantius Fortunatus. These forms prevailed in Romance. aculionis for aculeus). Caper. stips^ stipes. lade in Ennius. Waters a Ch. suis in Prudentius (F.. "grus non gruis. As ~es and ~is came to be pronounced alike before the end to of the Vulgar Latin period (cf.principis). nubis. are best explained. etc. principens antestetis. Rumanian pint. camis in Livy. Spr. 9. 481. Ill. latrone. 62).. Petronius (Waters Ch. etc. 45. 105. Plautus. urbis. (^=z.. voluntate. etc.. Audollent 545-547. without a change of accent. Ci. audace. 263. Apuleius. dis- 366. R." App.. tended in popular speech to use for the nominative a form in -is. cardonis. D'Ovidio in critici Raccolta di studii dedicata ad Alessandro JD'Ancona 627). cf. In the nominative singular the common -^s largely placed the less f requent 244-247. R. In Vulgar Latin this formation was extended to words with shift of accent: excellente for excellens in Petronius. mdis. Pr.famis. Chronolo- gie 203.. 263. Sepulcri 220. Pr.. Petronius (Waters Ch. 116. 263. 243).. bovis in Varro. nom. papilionis (cf. 47). pedis. famis.

and was extended to in Old Italian to the second. but there is virtually no evidence that it started so early: in late Latin. masculine nouns made over their nominative plural on the model of the second declension. timpuri). hence *me(n')si. declensions: Neuters in which apparently became by Microsoft® masculine or Digitized . etc. no form: homo. 369. prevailed in Romance. (also presentis. being used mainly in the nominative vocative. hence *patri. (also * damantis. In these countries —ora was used as a plural ending (It. both the second and -r. *amantis. probably in late Vulgar Latin or early Romance. to Bon. we find sapienti. timp. which. Cassel. however. Spr. too.). etc. The process may have begun in the Vulgar Latin period. elifanti is common. for *lumine{m). [§ 369 These forms. servitor.). prcBgnans). doubt. Rum. as *ndmes *ndme(s). but in Italy and Rumania the old ones. 482). etc. except for persons. Neuters in —n and -s regularly kept their nominative- accusative singular. soror. but infans (also 368. lupi. were kept also {Lat. see § 347. etc. 154 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. corpus cdrpu(^s). etc. however. *ndmine{ni). etc. *cdrpes *cdrpe{s). 367 parentorum is frequent in charters in the Gl. beside the old forms. hence *cani. retained names of and and generally preferred the old nominative But names of persons in -ans and -ens usually made over the nominative: parentis. cantdtor. Rumanian Tiktin 566. they constructed. anni.. so. first in cf. made in Italy in the eighth or ninth century. corpo. D'Arbois 85-88. carpi corpora. For the nominative-accusative plural. which was regarded as the normal masculine type: fllii.. according . especially those in —ora. In most of the Romance languages (but not Spanish). as nomeiji). new forms on the masculine pattern.

Zauner 2. §356. but the original forms were kept also: cinis ctnus.. Plautus. marmorem. Old Yt. polve may come irorapulver). 155 feminine earlier than the others. pals {It. except Spanish cuerdo. were kept also. G. 370. at the beginning of the Romance period. the third declension must have gone about as follows {-is and -es having coincided in the pronunciation -w) : — (i) No Change of Accent.§ 37i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and passed into the second declension: cf. Lexique 21-38. 113. Bon. Cor apparently made its plural * cores instead of * cordes : according to Mohl. Incus. polvo. cf. Fxn. . PERSONS. *piperem.0. *pulvus. sangutne(m) also sanguei^m). 2. *cdris = Krjp lajpo's. etc. and so probably goes back to an Old Latin *cdr Classic cor. But marmor. (3). sulphurem. A few feminines in -is apparently became neuters in —us. 348. 371. Sanguis. 293. iticudis > incudo. In general. the word shows no trace of d in any of the Romance lan- guages. § 347. the open o would possi- bly be explained as due to a cross between this *cor and the Caput became *capu{ni) or capus (Pirson 238). 483. NO CHANGE OF STEM. pulvis whence S-p. incudtnis : Lat. Spr. often developed an accusative singular in -e{m) as well as a nominative-accusative plural in -es: I. papaverem.

.156 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. [§373 change of stem.

375" The principal types are: — So ager. the neuter singular. 157 DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 350). the neuter adjective forms were less and less used. . however. § was kept to represent a whole idea (cf. 374- Adjectives were declined after the same model as nouns.§375] An 3. As neuter nouns assumed masculine endings (§ 347). and the neuter plural (as omnia) was doubtless emr ployed from time to time as an indefinite collective.

comuna.. doussa. Decllvis. App. 274. and conversely benignis. Macer. App. etc. there was alacris. R. 377. see § 56. and f. etc.. gracilus.— 158 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. Pr. The type. 275 (^ci. Waters Ch. Densusianu 142. pauperorum. pauperorum. .. R. Pauper early developed a feminine paupera and later a neuter pauperum: paupera. sublimus. m. so teeter'^ tetrus. prcestus. 162. imbecillis also assumed the -us -a —um inflection in the Latin period so trtstis^tristus.. Prcecox developed a feminine pracoca: Neue II. [§377 (3) Originally *feUce(s) One Gender filis fills fellcla in the Nominative Singular. magis magls f J Digitized by Microsoft® . effrenis. COMPARISON. and f. m. : to 4. Romance was: For the new method of comparison. l_ \ !-. not completely evolved in Vulgar Latin. prude(s) prude(s) *prudente(s) feUce fellce(s) prudente prudente{s) prudente{s) prudentia prudentia fellceis) fellcla (4) Comparatives apparently did not reconstruct the Nominative Singular: melloif) mellu{s) millu(s) mellore mellore(s) mellora mellSra melidre(s) There was a good deal of confusion of types in Latin times: beside alacer. firmis. etc. and there was probably also a feminine * alacra and * alecra. jac^r passed into the -us ~a —um class. pauperum. celerus. Pr. (plus L 1 J ^plus llle-{'^"~. 46). in376. In the the —us —a Romance languages more adjectives went over -um type Pr. miser.

(G. II. became cinque {Archiv VII. Archiv VII. an Unus was probably declined like bonus. proximus. 379. Tredece * See M. 5. §254. minus. longior. the Classic Latin comparatives of many common adjectives remained in use: altior. Beside Undece there seems to have been * iindece. sordidius. vivacius. lows : — The numbers between two and twenty were as fol- Tres probably developed a nominative *irei. etc. attested in the third cen- tury: Archiv IX. 66) ginta (Archiv Nil. on the model of dui. The old superlatives remained to a considerable extent. Quinque. also ijuatro ^guaitro. Vulgdrformen lateinischer Zahlworter auf Inschriften in Archiv VII. as intensives: altissimus. 68. (Camoy . pejor. dice offer so cinqua- no peculiarities. *Stto). Scto ( and Cf. NUMERALS. 558 (cf. "i^. major. grossior So the adverbs: longius. pejus. Cf. 285). magis. melius. also as (cf. minor. by dissimilation. It was used indefinite article (§S7) and an indefinite pronoun to be replaced §71). Six. levior. in the clerical language. nSve. 159 However. of the Vulgar Latin period dui dot {duoT) duo(s) Its inflection at the was probably: doa{s) — end due doe duas doas d'ua{s) dua doa dua doa In early Romance there was doubtless much confusion of the forms. For dodece. see § 225. 65. 65). pessimus. sanctissimus. Quattuor became quattor {Archiv VII. gravior grevior. 221). carissimus. 107). DHo came by dui. Digitized by Microsoft® .i 378. is regular. Ihm.§379] '^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. septe (and *sette). melior.

: G. *dece et (or ac) nHve. These forms easily contracted into vinti. with an opening of the first i and an early shift of accent. *septdinta * settdinta. 400. trinta {yinti. 392.i6o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. II. 380. went out of use. and French words. 381. trienta. * triinta. Priscian (Keil III. § 225). Beside sedece there was *dece SeftendScim. trinta: Archiv VII. are irregular: regularly § 142. etc. G. cf. Centu was regular. etc. Cf. *nondinta *novdinta. trigtnta must assume for Spanish something like * viinti. Mille was regular. Zs. ii. etc.. 412) mentions decern et 461. Provengal. 69). also unus de viginti. 69). but Qulndlce is regular. became * quattordece (cf. perhaps of the fifth century (Pirson 97. 136. triinta (§ 259): ISatvTi occurs in a sixth century document of Ravenna. trecenti. Archiv VII. Beside this dice et septe ac") there was *dece ac septe . et (or ac) sex. in fact. f^ok. made to conform Outside of the Spanish peninsula is -dinta apparently became -dnta.of 70 and 80 were to the type of the others. etc. mentioned as a by Consentius. * quadrdinta became rr: quarranta Furthermore the dr of found in an inscription. which account in general for the Italian. But beside these we Vigtntl. Spr. * cinqudinta. there were probably new formations. so ^dece et (or dcto. The tens. * sexdinta. the septucu. probably anterior to the fall of faulty pronunciation the g. * octdinta * ottdinta. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. Rumanian has new formations. became viinti. beginning with 20. regularly [§ 381 also Quattuordecim *quatti!rdece.. XXV. such as * dui centu. Keil V. For its plural it had *dui mille or *dui mtl{l)ia. Archiv VII. This change of accent apparently occurred everywhere for the subsequent tens: * guadrdinta. 69. For ducenti. triginta is. Ryd- berg in Milanges Wahlund 337.and the octo.

ipse. According to sixth century. 384. — For the use of personal pronouns. probably not 385. quintus were generally bonus. and interrogative pronouns. and the dative was preserved in personal. 484. The ordinal numerals. accusative SSs.). relative. after 5th. The ordinals were best preserved in Italy. in northern Italian. Provengal. definite genitive: Hoc served in- Inde assumed the function of an dubitat. kept. and so was the genitive singular and plural of ille. the distributive Septimus. Examples occur as early as the second century: Franz. ipse. inflected like quartus. I. Spr. etc. until Ego lost its g in all the territory. to the dative and accusative. But his reference to Vok. The ablative gave way . The nominative and. 242 is incorrect Digitized by Microsoft® . Lat. and is were used to supply the lacking pronoun of the third person: cf.^ ' Meyer-Liibke. I. remained. 67. The genitive was usually lost but ciijus was kept. 161 382. PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. Primus. B. nemo inde Regnier no. 262. see § 60.§ 385] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. As the pronouns came to be expressed more and more. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. B. but the end of the Vulgar Latin period. tile and also hic. ? II. and Catalan ending -enus was employed {septenus ion tertius. N. and iste. §§6o. but some languages have new formations even for these. eo occurs in manuscripts of the See §263. demonstrative. were probably not very commonly used: the Romance languages show many new formations. as an indefinite neuter. secundus.

1 62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. II. found. [§ 388 In the last syllable of ttbt. 484. Spr. vobis. Franz. On tibi. •was carried into nobis. i" 243-244. the pattern of stbt. inflection The was probably reduced to: — . acof. stbi the short i prevailed. there were formed •. ^ )86. si beside to Lat. these are and mt<mihi. from the sixth century on.ording ti.

67-68. 3. There was another dative form. 9 II. however. sg. definite N. 275. popular speech. 427. B. Romance: Old \X. 283-304. is 163 g The full inflection found in the sixth century: Franz. 275. used by 427. used by Apu- and others (Neue II. R. they came to be compounded usually with the prefix ecc' or Cf. and the Spanish Illius {ipsins. g II. The Old Latin genitive illi {ipsi. . The former. eccu': see § 65. m. being confused with the ablative and the accusative. 273. These forms survived ma. and the latter is not found in Calabria. see §§ 61-68. — For the use of demonstratives. madre- DEMONSTRATIVES.§ 390] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and ipsud for ipsum. Sicily. and the dat. others (Neue Digitized by Microsoft® . Through the analogy of cu^us. we find. cf. the special forms ipsus for R. sg. R. was partially replaced. tilt was replaced in part by illHi. 389. by illi. When Ule and ute had a really demonstrative force. Franz. Ille. leius was abandoned: In the dat.. etc. 274. f. subsequently went out of use. 277-279. 275. 3 II. 114.. Franz. articles For their function as and personal pronouns. 390. Ipse and isfe followed a similar course ipse however. in II. qui: Bon. tilt. 276. nom. cut. Franz. illi^ille. istius). there was tllce (or ille). 9 II. framed on the model of cf. illms gave way to iliajus. the m. having become archaic in peninsula. II. m. 246-260. Audollent 302). but it disappeared from late Latin. Sardinia. The inflection of tile developed considerably in popu- lar speech. 244. illo. and Cato and on the model of illui (and perhaps of quei). isti). also §392. was from that. Franz. Quillacq 83). fratelmo. sometimes occurred as a dative: Franz. ipsi=^ ipse. sg. 9 beside II. see §§ 60. probably in the sec- ond half of the sixth century.

for the dat. Majorca. which crowded out illtus. nice. illui. at the end of the Vulgar Latin forms not was something like kept in Romance) elle elli — this (brackets indicating Ma ellejus elli elle ellei ellu [ellujus] elli \ello\ ellui elli ellu ello elli ella elle ? ellu ello ella ? ellqru elluru elli(s) \ellaru\ ellqru elluru ellqru ^im/) ellais) ello(s) ella 392. Illorum displaced the f. 600. 426. was constructed illcejus (illejus). When unaccented.s replaced by tllum: Neue II. which. In the on the same pattern (influenced perhaps by guejus). The 391. m. however. 9 II. furthermore. these words tended to lose their first syllable (see § 157): tu illam vzdes>*tu 9 II. illui. vides lei ta ipsam clavem'>-*vede(^s) iu 'sa' clave'] Lui and 281-283. Franz. and illis. a part of Catalonia and Gascony.164 An Introduction illcei (illei). [§ 392 which was used beside ilU and Ulm. to Vulgar Latin. 619. on: Zs. Illujus. illejus. illui. ipsujus. through the analogy of illUjus. 276. illejus. In parts of northern Spain and southwestern France illorum seems to have become *illurum. in Romance. be used. illei are found from the sixth century made genitive. ipseus. period. XXVI. 271-272. Lat. The popular : inflection. Cf. to f. and some dialects on the south shore of France. Digitized by Microsoft® . are found after the seventh century: Franz. Cf. 'la' vede(s). Ille and ipse were used freely as definite articles from the fourth century on: Densusianu in Sardinia. neuter Uludvia. did not entirely disappear. ille. R. Spr. except 177. illdrum. Ille prevailed. 484: illujus. It came.

XXVI. in common speech. B. INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS. was probably reduced. The combined inflection of qui and quis. quis. N. 393. qui takes the place of quts. quel: Mohl in Zs. see cm is found a corresponding feminine quejus. In Christian inscriptions from the fifth century on. to something like this qui — . and the substitution of qui for feminine see §§69-70. 165 4. Beside ctijus. 619.§ 395] -^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. — For the use of these pronouns. by the end of the : Vulgar Latin period. and also of the feminine qum.

defections into use * dao. Mohl. Sicilian in Spain. in other texts the third gains at the expense of the second. estaun. *vais.. "adno non adnao. etc. dou. *vait date. " The first conjugation generally held partial. PI. dau. For new formations. 30. 398. a. werrizare. the first and fourth were least affected. It is entirely possible. Probus.1 66 An Introduction C. however. Pers. its 397. own. In the Peregrinatio the second decidedly preponderates over the third (Bechtel 87). [§ 398 VERBS." Lexique 47. estau. the third in Italy. that the form is a later. Lexique 47. dao. *staunt: Rum. estou. Italian development due to the analogy of sia: see §419. Lexique 47 and Pr. *daunta. (see §405): cf. THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. There was some confusion of conjugations. Digitized — such as abbreviare.nd *stao. 396. The Italian present subjunctive dia from dare is associated by Mohl. Pr. with Umbrian dia. The second gained most fourth in Gaul. In northern Gaul there may have developed with * stao a * stats and a * stait. first and fourth. FIRST CONJUGATION. Lexique 47-54. follicare. (2). Pg. sto. Cf. dant and stant there came Old It. I. in Germanic verbs -on and in by Microsoft® . the third. — see §§33-35. to Vulgar Latin. being few and Beside do. the Eventually Spanish and Portuguese discarded New formations went into the and Sardinian the second. but it seems more likely that they were late Latin formations due to an effort to keep the root vowel distinct from the ending. on the analogy of {*vao). state. daun. would connect these forms with Umbrian stahu.

SECOND CONJUGATION. capere * caput. 8. became —iscere: *florisco. by habere. The as cadere *cadui. V. * hat. habes. * has.. habet. *hant or * haunt. capere may easily have imitated sapere. lugire (R. Itala. * lucere. avire in havite. *putrtre. rubare. *putrisco. habent. 1636. p. 20. and cadere may have followed capere. Other verbs passed over locally or occasionally: sediiur. I. Latin there was some confusion between the second conjugation and the third fervere. *ridere. luctsco. probably through the pronunciation of —eo as —io (see §224): * complire. *impllre. respondere (Bechtel 88: responduntur). lugere (R. wttan'^lt. 10. in Classic : Even miscere (R. Monaci. 399. fiorlre (R. at least in Italy. Italian dialects in which e does not phonetically and even in early Tuscan (cf. especially in Italy. t. Crestomazia italiana dei primi secoli I. §36. I. sometimes became habtre: Vok. tergere. etc). roubo?i'>lt. 167 —an (but not -jan) went in the first conjugation: Cf. sapere sapui: sapere was influ- enced. many become i. beginning with those that had a perfect in -ui. *torcere (for torquere). 284). habibai. *nocere. Digitized by Microsoft® . Some verbs went into the fourth. Luke VI. The inchoa284). under the influence of dare and stare. b. guidare. 266 ff. Bechtel 88. 401. tondere. tive —escere \. In Vulgar Latin the second lost some verbs to the third in most of the territory: * ardere. adopted the forms *ho or *hao. 400. the verb habere. C. While retaining habeo. *mordere. Habere. 283). L. According to Mohl. 1. Lexique 108-109.§402] An Introduction regularly to Vulgar Latin. ^^^^ i^ a peculiarity of ancient Umbrian. such perhaps 402.\i^x\. 284). THIRD CONJUGATION. * luctre. E. third conjugation gave a few verbs to the second.

assumed the infinitive forms potere. [§ 404 In Spain the third conjugation verbs eventually passed into the second. potebas Posso for possum is used by in Fredegarius (Haag 60). Pers. PL in 745 A. is volemus in the seventh {Pr. was discarded in Spain and potebam occur repeatedly in the sixth century 24). a sug- gestion of shortening existed in the monosyllabic imperative Digitized by Microsoft® . Pers. Pers. PL 21).-R. is twice used by Fredegarius {Pr.poteo is attested ( 1) Potere.1 68 An Introduction all to Vulgar Latin.A facere were associated in old formulas: Lexique 53. {Pr. *volere. PL 25). Gregory and Fredegarius {Pr. Dare Z. PL 21). potebo is found in the Gl. GL found in the sixth century (^Lat Spr. Reich. and conformed Velte. velle volui naturally went over to the second conjugation. {Pr. PL 2^). their inflection more or less to the regular type. there doubtless existed *fare {Facere 48). Sardinia.. 478). 403. however. (2) the Volimus Reich. Pers. This transition was probably helped by a partial fusion of esse and sedere. The anomalous posse potui. framed on the pattern of potestis. D. facere 404. Pers. The present indicative forms must have been something like this: ^vojeo voje^s) — volimu{s) volemu(s) voleste(s) *volete(s) *vole(i) *vqlen(t) The present subjunctive must have been similarly inflected. strongly influenced by dare and stare. Furthermore. The present like this: have been inflected something passu posso foteo *posseo poieis) *pote(i) — indicative must ^poiemu{s) poteste(s) *potete(s) pqssunif) *poten(t) The present subjunctive must have had corresponding forms. 'Bt&ide. voles is found in Volestis.

facio XVIII.§405] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Zs. which must have led to *fate present indicative certainly had several being on the pattern of the first con- jugation. Zs. but the present subjunctive retained (see Facere 72. sets of forms. 169 fac (also /a. series The one 735). beside factte. 121. 434): — its old inflection *fao . XXV.

in 408. Bon. §416): *caplre. fodiri. R. parrjan^Yv. FOURTH CONJUGATION. * capere . deferet. It. developed a form * dire. Spr. marrJan>'Fr. §36. common in the Vulgate (R. * sequlre. §404) and helped by the analogy of audire. Of the personal forms of the verb there remained general use in the following tenses of the active voice. occurire. 285). Carnoy 112). Some others went over. cf. An The vado Introduction. Lucretius {Lat. Lexique 62 ). The fourth conjugation usually held — — marrir. at least locally: *falllre. probably in the Vulgar Latin period (cf. (j^^r^i". 477).. . St. Augustine {Lat. and *monre. Bon. the entire passive inflection having been discarded: the by Microsoft® . ignire. its own. was influenced by *vao viidimu(s) vddite(s) *vo *vas vadeif) *vait *vat vadeis) *vais imu(s) etc. guarnire. moreover. offeret. For new formations.lyo present. beside * sequere. For the intrusion of the inchoative -sc. . ite(s) etc. and gained some verbs from the others. tarir. 286. d. Reich. warnjan'> tion. forbire . however. Spr. * offertre. see § 34. Germanic verbs in -Jan regularly went into the fourth conjugation in Latin (Kluge 500): furbjan~>\X. vadunif) *vaunt *vant 406. [§408 facere fare : — present indicative. Cf. Plautus. 427. 477). by the analogy of aperire {sufferit. Gl. first half of the 7th century. Sepulcri 229. ^ Vulgar Latin. *soffertre. hesiAe. such as * abbellire. see § 415. Haag 60. Densusianu 148. Dicere. Verbs in -to tended to pass into the fourth conjugation (see. mortri. Pirson 148. cuptre. Pirson 148. gemire. 407. C2X0 fugtre. doubtless suggested by die ( cf fac and *fare. Bechtel 90. ^.into this conjuga- FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES Romance only Digitized IN INFLECTION.

amando. 298 Conversely. R. and in instance: some regions the perfect the imperative present. See Syntax. 302-304. the subjunctive present. the deponent for the active inflection of a few verbs: Petronius. perfect was kept in its preterit sense. the perfect participle. For amo. Similar compounds replaced the pluperfect and the future perfect. some regions the future perfect . R. fell into disuse from the first century on. amaram. pluperfect. §§ 112-114. as a preterit or a conditional. See Syntax. partly by active and reflexive constructions but perfect participle with esse' mainly by a compound of the (m northern Italy fieri): littera ' scriMtur -flittera scripta est (or fit). and probably in some standing phrases the gerundive. amatus. in various regions: see §124. etc. Of the impersonal forms of the verb there remained: the present active infinitive. amem. 388-389. § 4io] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 304. cf.. R. The entire passive inflection -of came to be replaced. some writers substituted R. in the by a compound of habere and the "perfect participle case of neuter verbs.. R. pluperfect. In the subjunctive the pluperfect was used instead of the Digitized by Microsoft® . imperfect. operare. See 410. rideri. the present participle. The supine 409. amans. In was replaced. amabam. The Latin it its perfect sense — §§121-124. in the Vulgar Latin period. 289. {amandusi). . (amaro). reverti"^ reversus sum. audiram) was kept. and in 171 indicative present. mentire. esse and the perfect participle: feci"^ habeo factum. : Deponent verbs became active cf. amavi. the gerund (especially the ablative case). amassem. {amarini)\ ama. For instance: amare. towards the end the Vulgar Latin period. perfect. .. etc. Cf. 297-302. The old pluperfect indicative (^amaram.

etc. —at. in regions except Gaul and Raetia. audtrem'^audissem. cridere. It is best preserved in is found also in Old Rumanian There are traces of it in Old Italian. pdteri. cf. from the *amar' -abut.172 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. —d. or conditional. but * amar' abut. XXIX. an imperfect of the late future. -dt. were reduced to -emu{s). was crowded out by the present and by new formations. C. —do. -dnt. in Vulgar Latin and Romance. On the model of this new future. In this compound all the various forms of the present indicative of habere were used (see §§273. especially by the infinitive combined with the present indicative of habere {amdbo > amar' habeo): see §§125-129. as in the In these formations the unaccented {Ji)ab— first and second persons plural of the future: * amar' -^{b)a. —aunt. -dbe(s). *amar' dben(t). §118. 619.): see Spanish and Portuguese. *amar' -dbe(t). etc. as a future indicative or subjunctive. came to be made. *amar' —e'te(s). -ete(s). —dbe{t). . habemus and habetis eventually. to correspond to the dissyllabic or monosyllabic -dyo. which disappeared everywhere but in Sardinia {facheret. The ings. -dnt: *amar' —dmu(s). -ds. [§411 imperfect. Crescini in Zs. infinitive the perfect of habere (see §130): combined with the imperfect or *amar' ~dbe{b')a{ni) or disappeared. beside -ia from habebam and -dbbi —ibbi from habui. &tc.): amdrem'^amdssem. etc. De 411. with the exception of ero. but and Macedonian. V. -dyo.(ye')rim and apparently remained subjunctive fect — — — — more or all less in use. Digitized In Italian we by Microsoft® . as they came to be regarded as mere endold future. sometimes confused with the pluperfect indicative and later sometimes with the infinitive {dpriro. * amar" -dbe(s'). 401): *amar' —dbeo. which has prevailed in the find. -ds. In the first and second persons plural. Lollis in Bausteine i . *amar' -isti. amd{ve)ro fused with the perThe old future perfect ama.-dben(t) and -d. a form in -ii {amerii).

There is some evidence of a confusion of -esco and —uco in Latin. etc. they Pr. For the monosyllabic die.face: R. fae.§414] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. audi. by Microsoft® . 294. In Veglia. R. Savoy. duce. writers sometimes emploved diee. irdisser <irdseere. vived in the Tyrol. while in Old Italian the ei was sometimes detached and used as a preterit. Instead of the plural form. amdte. Cf. or o—. second dmd. Lyons.. are common in Gregory the Great: Sepulcri 193. and Spain Digitized — Sp. See § 115. crede. lost their inchoative sense. person singular and plural: credite. 3. etc. French Switzerland. the Abruzzi. the Grisons. tenete. audite. pareeer. 412. Clarisco. 3596. the second person plural of the present indicative came to be used: adferte> adferitis. e—. the Landes. §426.. INCHOATIVE VERBS. 173 modern language. except the present. The imperative disappeared. cf. hence crederdt). Dauphin^. tene. I. to the Romance languages. t—. Sardinia. dormisco — were extended The and later. etc. paresco. types —dsco and —osco were sparingly repre- sented and were not extended in late and popular Latin have bequeathed but few verbs con<Sisser<ico(g)ndseere types —esco and —tseo in the third century — — as — such as and .of avere : it is probably due to the analogy of the first person singular of the weak preterit (credit. The first and third persons were supplied from the present subjunctive. 413. In some verbs the present subjunctive was used instead of all imperative forms. and a part of Lorraine Only -eseo surneither of these two endings left any trace. due. Virgilius Grammaticus (Sepulcri 194) mentions double forms of inchoative verbs. in Vok. erubisco. 414. such as caleseo ealisco. Beam. criseere. The Latin The inchoative ending -sco was preceded by a-. 294.

There is no direct evidence of this in Latin. fiorire. 291-294. eventually entered into the formation stem of fourth conjugation verbs. The ending -tsco of the present in Spanish. Rom. although fleurit. See Archiv Lat.. [§416 florecer.Jinisse). PRESENT STEMS. in — It. Hence forms without the or > > *partente. Rastia. 174 An Introduction was preferred For to Vulgar Latin. sentiam * sentam. In the present participle this was a regular phonetic development (see §225): audientem^* audente. / sentieniem > were introduced more less into the indicative and subjunctive: audio * audo. northern and central _fimmii(s) finite{s) Italy. etc. / 416. Herzog Bausteine 481. 478. finis sant. nor are there any traces of it 415. despereissir. tricts also pene- eventually the present participle ( and in some disand the imperfect indicative Fr. Spr. finissez). or southern Italian. * dormo. finis sais ) I. -tsco prevailed fiorisce. but in the earliest texts of France. Elsewhere. Many verbs in -io dropped the whenever it was fol- lowed by another vowel. the -sc- was carried throughit out the present indicative (Yx. there are traces of -esco. partientem * sentente. partiunt *partunt..then generally disappeared from the infinitive Later. trated the present subjunctive {Yr. Sardinian. XXIV. By the analogy of these. Portuguese. see E. XXX. il in Pr. facientem *facente. 465. -esco also in Rumanian. and Rumania we find a type *finisco *finisce(s) ^Jinisce{i) *Jiniscun{t) The ~sc. \\.. by the by Microsoft® . Digitized On the other hand. some regions. the e was occasionally lost in the second conjugation: v^deo *vtdo. 4. etc. Zs. finissons. — Fr. 81.

There may have been also *striicere. present indicative shows some signs of a tendency its to normalize erratic inflection by making all the forms be- gin with The use. Prpvengal ses for Digitized by Microsoft® . rego rexi rectus.. Haag was derived from the ciple — struxi and perfect indicative traxi iractus. based on the analogy of dico dixi dictus. tego and probably junxi junctus.§419] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. trahere. indicate a * setts some evidence of an alternative * siitis sicmus. 401. tango tactus. debere. old esum cited by Varro {Fr. etc. pango panxi panctus. etc. 418. Italian sei siete is PL 128) went out of for estis. structus. Considerable alterations use of fieri for esse is (I ) were made in the present indicative and subjunctive. to bring it into conformity with the usual third conjugation type. *fragam. ungo unxi unctus. Italian while there of on the model and Raetian siede. *trdcere. vehere developed infinitive vegere are forms *striigere. 403-406. plango planxi planctus.. also Jingo finxi fictus. 397. Esse was made into *essere. For the sedere for The s. facere. beside the regular habent. cingo cinxi cinctus. The verbs struere. Old Italian se for e. and Raetian ses point to a * ses beside es. 417. trdgere. 131. 416. duco duxi ductus. Substrate VI. 419. see § 409. dtcere. velle dare. j'ungo Cf. habere.. *vkere. stare. etc. 175 analogy of capiunt. esse. vegere {tragere and used by 34) and a whole present and imperfect inflection with —g—. Pers. faciunt. The Spanish use of probably later than our period. etc. posse. the second conjugation admitted such f oriris as * habeunt. lego lectus. * vtdeunt. etc. vtdent. The verbs vadere. and the perfect partivexi vectus on the — analogy of ago tectus. as *trago. *tragebam. underwent considerable changes in the present: see §§273. The guttural Fredegarius. actus. 412. Jigo fixi.

42. that cal influence oifiam.). 347. by Augustus. Old Fr. see 420. would derive it from old esimus. — sem *sea sis simu{s) sidmu(s) site{s) *jfa(j) sea(t) *sidie[s) set sent *sean{i) For Stat. simus. Siamus. Spr. the usual Classic form. —ibam.. sem. Dalmatia. Italy. Old It. PI. (cf. — For the loss of the imperfect subjunctive. etc. 478. *esmus seems to be a new formation on the analogy of esHs. etc. In the third conjugatiqjyg^-jyj^^ Ajgaj^g^ developed into -ebam. from early times there was a reciproand the Old Latin optative siem. The present indicative inflection was doubtless something like this sqm fs est : — sqmu(s) *ses *set} *sest? i^ie(s) semu{s) *esmu{s) *sete(s) *sciie(s)! sqnt (2) In the present subjunctive the analogy of other third conjugation verbs tended to introduce the characteristic vowel a. Pr. iox fit. 479. Hence comes an etc. Pers. and by various purists of the Augustan age (Stolz 58). B. which ultimately prevailed: Lexique ^x): fiet is common places sim in northern Italy alternative inflection * siam. IMPERFECT. which -was used. Lat. fiam reand Dacia. II. -icbam. It is likely. [§420 usually understood as reflexive forms. and the Tyrol (Sp. according to Lat. somas. etc. which existed with esum. prevailed in southern Gaul. . Provengal esmes<. 5. etc. PL 130. northern Gaul. The endings were -dbam. sumus. was preferred in Spain. according to Suetonius. Pr. semo. Spr. XXI. sons. too. N. Pers.176 es. Portugal. 135. see sead in Vok.): cf. Pirson Yt^o. —ebam. § iiS. may go back to *sei and *sesf for est In the first person plural sumus became sumus and simus (see §220).. Rom. and Dacia (Pr. occurs in Italian documents of the eighth century. Mohl. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

developed another form. Habebam. sentia. pronounced a^e^a (cf. and —iebam disappeared: vestibat. most of them rare 422. -evi. 423. 287. in the fourth conjugation. probably through dissimilation. 6. credia. had weak perfects. Spr.'Bi. PERFECT. which in Romance was widely extended.fleo. §318). prevailed in popular speech. —oleo. regularly had a perfect in -evi: deleo. 479.perfects in which the v is added to a verb-stem (-dvi. 2?>q. Hence came an alternative ending —ea for -e/ia. territory except common to nearly all the Romance Rumania: Lat. -tvi). *afiea. see §426. vieo. • salui>salivi. silevit for siluit occurs also. 177 22t„ /^i6): faciebam'>-*facebam. — being common In the fourth conjugation -iebam and -ibam existed side byside from early times (Neue II.§423] just as An Introduction -ientem> -entem (see §§ to Vulgar Latin. a. A vowel. —Ibam as in munibam — in early Latin and recurring at later periods (Lindsay 491). etc. —Ibam. must distinguish two types. those of the second and third had mostly all of the second conjugation and Only six verbs strong. the strong includes all Verbs of the first and fourth conjugations generally others. first: It. Dubois 277-278. which stressed the characteristic vowel of the fourth conjugation. We — — neo. and fourth conjugation verbs with strong perfects developed a weak one in Vulgar Latin: pr(sstiti> probably All first j>rcBstavi. R. affecting all the conjugations but the It is ved^a. led early.. the weak and the strong: the weak comprises the v. to a reduction tendency to keep the stress on the characteristic Digitized by Microsoft® . and also a general inclination to omit v between two i's (see § 324). For further encroachment of the weak type on thb strong. WEAK PERFECTS. -pleo. 421. 445).

452-454. dedicait. redit." Priscian XII. F^/J. This -aut prevailed '^'^'^. perit. 17 (Keil II. 17 (Keil II.— 178 An Introduction and to Vulgar Latin. to fall of v. to -aut. —dstis. II. in the first person plural. "cupit pro cupivit.. laborait.. 449. Vok.). rise early to a reduction of —avisti. 587). locally. fall of v gave rise. The third person singular found in Old Sardinian: Lat. 440).'X. S. -ivistis to —istis. Neue III. 451. servio. and. as in lenUt. II. Bayard 60. The loss of V. Fredegarius in -ait is 152. (Haag 55). the reduction of —ivimus to —Imus and probably *—immus (the lengthening of the m being due to compensation and also. etc. —tt. Densusianu I. [§424 of —tvtsit to -tstt still early. for —ierunt. and. 424. C. 440. vocitamus. etc. see Neue III. —drunt. in the third person singular. 479. Then a contraction of the two vowels gave.I. 216. petit.Lexique 46. perit. petit. 241: 65-121 a. 152.. contraction without the gave rise. speclarait.d. mus. in the first and third persons singular *—lrunt: audi. ccelebrasperamus. for —imus. carried into the first conjugation. Spr. edificai. I." Priscian XII. *-iut: It. 587). A ular. denumerat. —dverunt to Much later -dvt>-di. Densusianu I. Neue III.L. etc. —iverunt to —ierunt.. -/.m»'W^ol%tm^ and amdo. —dvif^dit and -at. -dvtmus>-dmus and probably *-dmmus: calcai (Probus). — probai {'Prdhns).judicat. For -nt. -u and *-u. to a desire to distinguish the perfect from the present). and the third person plural. Gregory of Tours (Bon. "fumdt -pro fumavit. Bon. etc. —ivit to —iit and *-itt. Fredegarius (Haag 55). in the third person singan alternative form. 476. etc. gave —dsti. the further reduction of —ivt to which brought about. The A contraction without the . -dvistis. 434 (cf. 476. memoramus. o-cyvoi. later. see Servius ad Aen. 446-448. as in repetimus. perhaps. see Neue III. probably to *-aumus: triumphaut in Pompeii.

were : 425. 288. -isti. the forms with v were not preserved in Romance. of the Romance languages cazif).§426] An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. vendidl. etc. *-det. Verbs in —evl doubtless had a similar inflection: *delei. -derun(f). in Provengal they invaded the also In Dacia. edediderit with an extra -de-)... silevit. (am'ei). prendiderunt. Compounds of dare had a perfect in -dtdi {credidt. etc. etc. Hence arose eventually an inflecset of tion *-^«. cor-ii. etc. they apparently did Digitized by Microsoft® . perdidt. ~ivi —isti there- -dvi —dsii -dve{t) —df *~ti —ii -i -dut -dit -dt -weif) *-jut *-{it -lit -it -dvimu(s) -dmu{s) *-dmmu(s) *~dumus -dste(s) -immu{s) -4mu(s) *-jmmu(s) -iste(s) -drunit) *-irun{t) With the exception of -ivi in Old Italian. delesti. Keil IV. Some other second conjugation verbs apparentlyadopted this perfect: 426. incendederit. 179 *~aumus Jiom. pandiderunt. helped by dissimilabecame *-deJ. Audollent 544.. videderunt (cf. descendidit. etc. *-n. In some (It. 480. on the other hand. Pr.. *—desie(s). ascendiderat. —asfi. odedere. fore. Spr. Reich.). Gl. respondidi. *-ei. *-dem(^m)u{s). tion. descendidi. *-ejti. *-desti. from which there came a responding to the —ai first endings *-«'. R. Lat. 184. preserved in some Old French dialects near Douai: 607. tended to many other verbs in -d-: prandidi. etc. 479. R.s ex(see §139): perdedit. this -dedi Through the analogy of -di. The forms — and fourth conjugations. which in Vulgar Latin became —dedi This -dedi ^a. : and the of the and fourth conjugations so caderunt. these endings were carried into other verbs of the third and even the second conjugation first baMi. 287. in the first XXX.

crevi. §422). . third conjugations maintained Digitized itself very well: cognovi. according to Meyer-Liibke. STRONG PERFECTS.. etc. and those that have nothing between the root and the personal endings plac-u-i. cf. (cf. etc. aperui y^ * aperii *apersi. etc. The -ui type. R. In Italy all strong verbs except esse introduced weak endings in the second person singular and the first and second persons plural: It. At any rate. 286.. also vincisti. under the influence of dejti. those that add u to the root. Gl. stetti<. bib-i. prendesti. presi. etc. sapivi~^ sapui. the Rumania. Gram. etc. where there was no extended. * stetui. crebbi. II. §326): placwi. In -ui and —si types were qucesivi'^^ A few weak verbs adopted strong inflections: * quasi.i8o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. There are three types those that add s. [§ 428 not develop at In Italy.. — — it was sounded wui. Reich. etc. tions: This perfect disappeared from the first and fourth conjugacrepui>*crepavi.. or fiwi in Vulgar Latin: cf. 427. Through these endings the weak type encroached somewhat on the strong. and -ei. the development of the vi indicates that sort. 357. pdvi. all. wwi. salui^ salivi salii *salsi. -dei.. dare had (beside diedi^dedi) a perfect arose an inflection side -dei -detti. In the first class the u lost its syllabic value and became w • — : (cf. dlc-s-i = dixi. whence and a set of endings -etti. etc. 428. necui> necavi. plaudisti for plausisti. It. but written vi to avoid the doubling of the V. by Microsoft® . etc it In the second and crevi. included from the start not only perfects of the placui but also all perfects in -vi not made from the verb-stem such as cognovi. moc. conqbbi. Pr. this ending being pronounced wui. b. movi.

luxi. Of the -si class. *punxi. Spr. * morsi. Lat. Spr. *ersi from *lexi. divisi. tersi. * defe(ji)si. Lat. *pre{n)si. mlsi (also *mzssi. Zs. *siirsi. defensi. strinxi. 480. Among the -i perfects. posui {>posi). *respd{ti)si. silui {^silevi). and possibly a few others. *rosi. sustuli>*tolui * tolsi. 94. Spr. became * sentii. frixi. movi'. * volsi. excussi. *copersi. 479. pinxi. *redempsi. 430. messui(J). the reduplicative formations were discarded in Vulgar Latin. z/J« also *vtncui *vinsi. abscd{n)si. — — : clausi. —stinxi.> slso *vtscui. Some of these — * *responsi. cinxi. Keil VII. and —xi. —ssi. ertgo. R. torsi. Spr. vixi. unxi. mansi. XXVIII. finxi. *offersi. however. § perhaps on the model of mtssus. R. *salsi. traxi. 288. pavi. *tanxi. cMdi 479 > (so *rectpui). *qucBsi. Einf. *attinxi. *mdrsi. mulsi. *cursi. cf. legi'>-* legui *lexi. > > Cf. with the exception of dedi and steti (also *j/i?/«2). *pe{n)si. *occlsi. *acce{n)si. 429. *fusi.'). 479. *tdlsi. expavi'> expabui. Sensi. — assumed the s. whose reduplicative character was no longer Digitized by Microsoft® . veni '^aXso *venui. In Vulgar Latin there were perhaps some thirty or more new formations: *apersi. texui. rosi. natus sum'^*nacui. i8i It lost gemui{^. *taxi. vixi ". etc. rexi. planxi. *sdlsi. Haag 56. 97. rasi. persi. Lat. peperci^-parcui. steti>^\so* stetui. sparsi. * tensi *te{n)si. 130. fixi. pressi. scripsi 163). posi. which comprised perfects in -si. coxi. * cadui *cadedi.§ 43o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. On the other hand it received many additions: Mbi>*Mbui. molui. cepi^ caput. vldi'^zlso *vtdui *vtdui. junxi. struxi. duxi. *franxi. s in the perfect participle. 288. Zimmermann in Archiv XIII. *prensi. *rdsi. dixi. tinxi. Lat. *imptnxi. *vinsi. *pensi. sapivi'^ sapui. * occisi.perfect through having an Cf. texui. risi. some thirty-five were preserved arsi. *fusi. text sedi>* sedui . tenui. A. § 165.

some became weak. Reich. apparent compounds (cf. Two of the old perfects maintained themselves intact. fudi > ) si. tetegi'^* taxi * tanxi. The prevailing something fui *fosti like this — with some variations. bibi'^*bibui. The other reduplicative perfects either disappeared the or passed into si class: cucurri "> * cHrsi . fuerunt became *furunt. > *fusti. -i perfects were greatly reduced in to the -a/ or the -si type: number in Some simply disappeared. momordi'> tetendi'>- *mdrsi. but in Classic Latin. pupHgi "> *punxi. * acce(^ n ) si. vtci > no additions. 289). prendi > *pre{ n * vinsi. then futm us was often shortened to also. In an ( cf . egi.). some went over fUgi^ > > *fusi. peperci"^ parcui. fefelli'>*falii. legi'^* legui. : There may have been through dissimilation. but circumdavit in Gl. legi > * Kxi. effort it was shortened Vulgar Latin seems to show both H and H. fuit *fut. inflection. a form *fdrunt. while compounds of stare tended to follow the regular first Cecidi beconjugation model (Jtrcestili > pnestavi. was probably foi *fom{m)u(s) *foste(s) foe(t) fue(t) *fgt *fut *forun{t) */urun(t) *f^un{t)} foerun{t)> Digitized by Microsoft® . sedi"^* sedui. 288.i82 An Introduction . There were : *fugii. In fui the u was originally long. or *cadedi. 431. volvi > * volsi. to Vulgar Latin.*pe{^n)si. the simple verb came * cadui R. pependiy. generally became *fum(m)us. to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout §§423-424). vidi * vtdui. R. verti. veni * venui. cepi'^capui. fuisti zxi-di. fuistis > *fustis. and two more were kept beside new formations feci. fregi accendi *franxi. The other Vulgar Latin. [§ 431 of dare usually formed their perfect like §426. fui. *te{n)si. solvi'^* solsi. defendi >• * defe{ n ) si.

sublatus (from tollo')'>-tdllttus (^Gl. rogitus.). audlsBayard 60-61 sem. dixhsem. so the new alatus. : In the third conjugation -dtus disappeared oblatus offertus (^Gl. 435. fecissem. 295. dixero . secextended to tus'^secatus. In formations from weak perfects only the contracted forms were used: amdram. ficeram. In the all first conjugation -dtus was preserved and was verbs: /rictus "> fricatus . vetitus Nevertheless there were some new formations in —ttus: *levitus. habldsemos habldseis. R. sonivetatus. PERFECT PARTICIPLE. fkero.. etc. pldcuero. Reich. amaro.§ 435] ^^ 7. amdssimo amdste. amdssem. Verbs which had no perfect participle were obliged to form one in order to make their passive and their perfect tenses: ferio. delero. -assetis. to *—dssimus. Sp. When these tenses followed the old types: pldcueram (cf. ^ i^"]). preserved at all. The ending —ttus. aimassions aimassiiz. placutssem. 296. generally fell into disuse: crepitus^ *crepatus. > Digitized by Microsoft® . notes that St.: It. audi{e)ram. etc. 434. in the first conjugation. Gl. Reich. audt(^e)ro . plicitus"^ plicatus . alarei. 1S3 PLUPERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT. but Pr. 432. deleram. 8. copertus. In some regions a tendency to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout the pluperfect subjunctive led to a change of —assemus. — 433. cf. *feritus. *-dssitis. > vocUus. prdvttus. Reich. petisset. delessem. tus"^* sonatus. cf. sublatus>* suffertus. R. Lat. Spr. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Fr. Reich. etc.). domitus'> domatus. tonitus'^*tonatus. — before Cyprien employed only the shortened forms ss. amessim amessitz. ortaret in Gl. necius "> necatus . dixeram. 480. by the analogy of apertus.

creditus'>*credutus. in -itus: gemitus'!. It was extended to nearly all the verbs that had an -ui perfect: * bibutus. volutus). entirely displace the old perfect participle: natus was kept beside * nascHtus. * movitus. *mdvitus and *mdssus were formed beside *m. It did not al- ways. On 439. *per- in Sicily encroached largely on -itus. Pirson 152. * levitus. Reich. sepultus^sepelitus. dutus. secutus. bibitus^* bibutus . The ending —ictus. The ending -itus tended to disappear (cf. *vidutus. In the fourth conjugation -Itus was preserved and was extended to nearly all verbs: saltus'>*salltus. however. paritus > *paru> *perdutus *persus. solitus. offered a convenient accented form. * venutus. the other hand. and there were some new formations * solvttus (or *soltus). were kept. buius. * solvttus (or *sdltus) beside solutus. consutus. provitus.. however. [§ 439 436. tollitus. fugitus tus > *fugitus. In the third conjugation qumsttus>*gucestus. were kept only as ad- 438. — and — as *credutus. etc. *volvitus (or *vdltus) beside volutus. Digitized by Microsoft® . submonitus > *submo{n)sus. statutus. all periods. *parutus. vocitus. Eventually -atus was carried further. but status. * habutus.184 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. remained. 437. *vendutus. pds{i)tus. perditus *parsus. sensus'>*sentitus. solutus. and ventus generally became * venutus. Apertus and copertus. *vdlvitus (or *vdllus). minutus. etc.ovutus. molitus > * molutus. jectives. belonging to verbs in —uere and tri- —vere {argutus. §435): absconditus'>absco{n)sus . *tenutus. corres- ponding to -atus and -itus. ples. A few of these particihowever. rogitus. In the second conjugation the rare -etus disappeared as a participial ending: completus. venditus>*vendutus.. old and found in Gl.

punctus. sepultus >• sepelitus. ventus'^*venutus and venttus. Dubois 282. A > > > * sentttus . structus. Gl.viA. pe{Ti)sus. pastus'>-*pavutus'i. Lat. 480. * suffertus. falsus *fallitus. and perhaps *sdltus. tractus. texus * texiisecdtus. Lat. ductus. tactus'i tus. frictus "^fricdtus. pictus *pinctus. Spr. saltus'^-* salitus and *salsus. messus'^ metitus. pressus. 480. The ending -tus was kept for some twenty verbs. morsus. The ending —sus was defe{n')sus. *mossus. also probably * wwclausus. cogndtus>*conovutus'i. sectusy^ * tenutus. pre(n)sus . sessus > * sedutus. R. Bechtel 91. 'salted. rectus. scriptus. Spr. divisus. There were a few new for- mations in —tus: offertus. Hr- excussus. wjwj. missus. *salsus. probably replaced -tus by -atus. fictus finctus. Several of these developed also a participle in -utus: etc. 441. fractus *franctus. tortus. 94. §439). expansus sensus few verbs replaced the old form by one in -itus or -ietus: * expandutus . fartus'. *submo{n)sus. dictus. Spr. ma{n)sus. cretus> *crevutus'>. te{n)sus. *strinctus. victus'>*vin- cutus and *vinctus. Keil VII.§ 441] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. *parsus. Salsus. mdtus'>*movutus'> &. nectus>necdtus. -itus. vtctus~>* vixutus.' maintained itself beside salitus. fusus "^fundutus. Digitized by Microsoft® . tus. *gucestus. *vistus. 480. generally kept: acce{n')sus . risus. stinctus. *pendutus. lectus. to{n)sus. fusus. *vdltus About fifteen verbs (cf. ex- factus. fixus. rosus. mistus. 295 (very common). /ric* surtus for surrectus. sus.*mdssus. also perhaps *misus by the analogy of mist. *vidutus. tentus > > tus. new formations in -sus: On the other hand.. or -utus: captus *capttus. there were some absco{n)sus. sparsus. Reich. farsus. 185 440. tinctus. gavisus>*gaudutus . Lat. tersus. R. oc- casionally with a change of stem: ductus . *persus. sirictus *tanctus'!. 295.>*farcitus axiAfarsus.

first person plural lost perhaps in the Vulgar Latin period: videmus'>-'St. 447. its — tended. This confusion is very frequent in the Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-89. great confusion ensued between -es and —is. does not support this view. e. — This theory has In strong perfects the of -tstis first person plural. however. In southern and to some extent in northern Gaul the its final s. to stress this in ^smiVi: fecimiis>'Pr. Pr. 445. For the reduction of -to to 443. 53. PL 73-80): — dmo dmaa dmat 446. -imus. Italian lodi and Rumanian lauzi. then the accent was shifted to the penult *canomus. 670. [§ 447 9. fez^m. and -Isti. It may be that -s was dropped because it was regarded as a characteristic of the second person. not found acceptance. etc. as -s did not fall in this region. The evidence. -0. assumes that in Italy -as and -es became -i. Pers. were used in northern Gaul instead of canimus. colliget. PL. vezim. by Microsoft® . as t was of the third (cf. and doubtless of weak after our period.. whence came the French -ons. As unaccented e. There are traces of 47. and i came to be pronounced alike (§243). — through the analogy perfects as well. forms due to Celtic influence. perhaps S. According to Mohl. Meyer-Liibke. —et and -U. from laudas. analogical formations. are correctly explained by Tiktin 565-566 as 444. see §416. PEESONAL ENDINGS. Pers. *amdmu amdtes dmant like * cdnomus. inscriptions and elsewhere: Digitized The shift. etc. historically considered. 442.1 86 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. This is not a phonetic phe- nomenon. Pr. Grundriss V.

the con- fusion goes back to early Italic. PI. and a part of southern Italy. -ent. 448. there was an ending *-eunt which was (^habeunt. Cf. -unt was preferred. Beside second conjugation. —^te. In the perfect. -dte(s). §137. discarded. Pers. etc. etc. in southeastern facitis There are some traces of its preservation French dialects also. ite in the other conjugations. In the present indicative and imperative. lingeti. -ent prevailed in cen. PI.). dicUis kept their old forms in many regions. etc. -/»z«(j').). in Vulgar Latin this vowel was apparently al450. Rumanian. became. the third person plural ending -ere was The ending -erunt. see §416.J^kuJ-i n^g^^xd^so^'^i^-i -^--^/^^ . being attracted by mittimus: Pr. in Spain and Portugal. respon- duntur. The Classic distinction was best kept in Gaul and northern Italy. Dalmatia. due to the analogy of -iunt. kept the old accent (Tiktin 596): iingem. viderunt. and dicimus. absolvent. 30. Pers. Pr. -ttis. *vidunt. and Dacia. 187 was not universal. their interchange Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-90. Sardinia. Virgil wrote tulerunt. vindem. -imus.). helped by the analogy of the future — The shift and -{mu{s). §416. According to Mohl. etc.§ 45°] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ways /3 short: debuerunt. as there are in Italian and French remains of the original accentuation. —ite generally —Ste(^s). The endings -ent and -unt came to be very is much confused frequent in the (* credent. ite(s). to match —^te(^s). — — particularly common in Italy: cf.j—th& penult assuming the accent. . etc. 112. Furthermore. in Classic Latin. vindett. 64. was perhaps viitttmus. 449. in the sixth or seventh century. —die and -^mu(s). in the For the reduction of —iunt to -unt. exient. facimus. accipient. tral and the rest of southern Italy. for instance. sometimes had a short e (e is common in the comic poets. -ite -dmu(s'). however. dixerunt. Rastia.

Digitized by Microsoft® .

1 INDEX. abyssus 149 ac. 94-6 aboculare 26 ab olim 47 abs. 377 accipient 449 declension 374-9 accubitorium ^'j numerals 378-82 -accus ^y unus (article) 57 Accusative. adaptus 23 adcap(i)tare 25 433> 447-8. pi. 240. = abl. 78. 140 iicatum r4i aculionis 367 abeo = habeo 251 224 abias 224 abiat 224 abiete -abilis 39 ab intus 47 abitat 25 1 Ablative 92-7.) 412 unstressed words 156-8 adgenuculari 25 Accented Vowels see ad horam 47 Vowels adimplere 30 accepere 201 Adjectives acceptabilis 39 comparison 56. 230 = 0*78 ab-25 ab-]> au. 355(1) adparescere 34 adpetere 32 Digitized by Microsoft® . 34 abbio 273 abbreviare 25 abbreviatio yj shift 136-8. 441 ad 14. 92 beJEore j 222 Accent 134-58 primary 135-52 Greek words 143-50 other foreign words 15 1-2 acer arbor 43 -aceus 37 acia 355 (2) -acius ^y a contra 47 a(c)qua 164 Acqui Z^ Acragas 330 ac si 83 ac sic 24. 94-6 nouns 367 numerals 142 : ace. 25 recomposition 139 verbs 423-4. N. 240.229 (i) unaccented 228. 228. 243. 93. 96. 90. 98-9. words in modern languages. 48 abbellire 18. italics to Words printed in Roman type belong to ancient. 244 accented 39. 84 acua aqua 223 -aculare 35 before s + cons.23.B. ad = at 282 ad. 243. 47.236 ab ante 47.28 absconsus 439.24. 94-6.=accus.infin. 194-5 absida 356 (3) absolvent 449 -anus 39 ja-> je. 231. 450 Towels in hiatus addedi 139 136-8 addormire 25 secondary 153-5 adferitis (imper.— Arabic numerals refer to Paragraphs. -I. 383 adnao 397 ace. 383 abl. adjutare 34 ad mane 47 373. 86. 244 (i). in -us 244. 77. 82 ace. 229 (i). 431. 229 231. 82. 65 accedere(m) 309 accensus 441 -a 37 0181 ab 14. a 194-5. absolute 97 abl.

244 -EE = -e 174.286 amantis (nom.) 372 adpretiare 25 adpropiare 25 ad semel 47 —aio 39 (-arius) aios =: BjyiQS 272 am 78 ad sero 47 adsteti 139 Aix ajutit = adjutet 272 ad subito 47 adtonitus 32 ad tunc 47 -al37 alacer 195 (i) alare 405.22 Index. 83 -an 36 -aj* a f oris 47 agennae -nd. 359.321 = Alexander alguein 71 alguien 71 -alia 37 38. 244 aecclesia 228 Eedis 366 ffigis -ale y] alecer 195 (i) Alesander 255 alevanti eleph. 233. 1 78. alumnu (nom.281 = aliquot 71 -alis agere ajere 259 aggio 273 aggravatio 37 = 39 alium 224 alius 71 allare 405. 435 allegorizare ig alleviare 34 Agneti 359 (2) agnetus -na. 359 (i) amitane 359 (i) amitanis 359 amma 16 243.I go aiio 2. 222 alto (adv. 209-10 unaccented 174. 71 amnavit 405 amh 424 a mode 47 amourette yj (-ittus) ampitzatru 277 ampora 334 amurca 186 amure 203 amygdalum 19 an II. 244 accented 1 74. albor = arbor 292 . 42 Digitized by Microsoft® . 209-10. 232. 435 ad ubi 47 aduc 250 adulescentulus 37 adunare 25 alauda 19 alaudula yj alba spina 43 alberca 19 albeus 317 228. 405 amei 424 amenus 215 amfora 334 amicicia 276 amadus amido 187 amistat 154 amita 239.175. 187 -ancus 37 (-incus) -anda 37 andare 405 andata 37 (-ta) Andreani 359 (i) Andreate 359 (2) andron 331 anellus 37.281 (i) Eeum = cBvum 324 ^a foras 47 aliquant! 71 aliqui 71 aliquis 13. 210 EEteneris = itineris 201 sequus alid alicunus 71 aliud 71 alio(r)sum 291 = . 178.) 367 amho 424 amaricare 34 ama(t) 285 ambitare 405 ambolare 232 ambulare 10. Adverbs 73-5 as 174.) 40 aiglon yj (-0) altra 233 altrui Aiiax 222 395 ancora 150.£6 2> e 209 at 188 altissimus 377 altitia 37 Aiax 188. 178. altiare 34 altior yj'] anca 343 ancilia 187 395 Agustus 228 ahenum 250 ai >.243. = -t. 255 188 seliens = eligens 259 =8-175 alicer 195 (i) agques = e.Ethiopia 188 alipes (i) = ad. 14.194 = -ago 2>7 Agragas 330 Agrientum 259 agurium 228 agustas 228 36 anangi 331 anathema 19 anathematizare 19 anc 40 anc hanc 251 = allium 274 a longe 47 alques 71 alter 71.

423 audiendu'st 309 = ascella =r axilla 42. 282. 42 angelice 40 angelus 19 191 ascendiderat 426 ascetes 182 ascla apud aqua 14. anemis 232 -aneus 39. 42 participle 435. 429 apertus 436 arsus 441 artemisia 184 arietico 184 apotheca 182 apothecarius 39 apparescere 35 arthriticus 184 Article 57. 228. 34.) 367 audi audivi 227. 265 aspra 233 -asse 161 ardente(m) 309 ardere 399 animabus 358 animalico yj (-icca) Anitius 276 Annanis 359 annare 405 annata yj (-ta) Annenis 359 annitare 405 annotavimus -bi.24. 264. 255 Digitized by Microsoft® . 265. 236 (7) apersi 428. 36. 325 aucidere 212 -OS 38 -as -i 443 > audace (nom.318 annulare 405 anos = annos 247 ardire 343 -are (infin.^y anticus 226 antiefne 184 antiphona 184 ariex = -s 255 -aris 39 -aris -alis 292 ^ -arius 39 atque ille 24 atque ipse 65 atque is 65 atrium 12 atta 16. 315 Asti 86 astula 284 at II = ar(i)dorem 219 ar(i)dus 237 aries 225. 260-1 Assimilation 229 (3). 68. 211 -3 unaccented 228.) 346 (4) arb(o)rem 235 arboricellus 153 Aspirates 249-52. 39. 229 au o 229 (7) OK 189 auca 13. 293. 310. 282 aput 282 164. 255. 78. 229 accented 178. 255 -ans39 anser 13 ad 282 -ata 37 (-ta) -aticum yj atque. 359 (i) anus = annos 244 -anus 39. 65 at = anta 239 ante 96 antemittere 46 antestetis (nom. 267. -dssetis 433 397-8 -are (nouns) y] ares = aries 225 aretem 225 argentum 259 -aria 37 -aricius 39 arida (noun) 13 Assibilation 277-8.Index. 223 284 aquilotto 37 (-ottus) asculta 228 Angers 86 angliscus 39 angostia 208 (i) anguil(l)a 163 ang(u)Ius 233 angustiare 34 Anicius 276 -ar37 Arbonenca yj (-incus) a semel 47 aspargo 31 aspectare 25 arbor (masc. 211-3. 42 Aorist 124 armeise 184 armentas 352 -aro 39 (-arlus) Aroncianos 276 arrespex r= haruspex 251 Arrius 251 arroser 356 (3) arsi Attane 359 atticissare (i) t^^ attinxi 429 Attitta 37 (-ittus) -attus yj at ubi 48 apcha 343 aperii 428 429 -atus 37 (-ta). 269. 440 au 178.) -assem 161 -^ssemus 433 33. 392 artic(u)lus 234 > (7) appo 78 apprendere 12 arvorsum (2) = adversum 281 ApHro 410 apsens 315 apsolvere 315 apte =: -se 244 arvum > aram 2z6 aucellus 13. 307.) 367 -antia .

316. . 36 blasphemia 146. ^ benignis 376 benivolus 201 berbeces 323 Bonitta 37 (-ittus) 424 avo avus 362 avus 13 ayo = habeo 273 = berbex (-ix) 42. 236 avicella 37. 182 autumnal (e) 242 auyo 272-3 avau. Balerius Va.316 bixit = vi.316 boccone 37 (-0) bocconi 40 avec 78 avello = -avi ^ = averlo 293 -ai 424 avica 13. 322 botula 361 bovis (nom.316 bianca 341 biber 242 biblia 146 bibui 428 bibutus 438. 324 botella 361 bottega 182 b see Labials : baboni 362 bac(c)a 163 bacito yj (-ittus) bac(u)lus 234 Baiocasses 151 bajulus 233 Baleria = Va.3171323 bestemmia 182 Betrubius 316 beveire y^ (-tor) bi. 236.316. 324 ausare 18. 74 bene bene 55 benegnus 172 (2) bene placitum 43 Beneria Ve. = autem 11. 241 avaricia 276 ^ bas(s)ium 163 basso 40 battaUa 16 battel 426 ba(t)t(u)ere 137. 14 5 Authorities autor 266 baptizare 19.212 39 bimaritus 22 bintcente vincente 260 bis. 34 ausculum := osc. 322 -bilis = balteum -us 347 bannus 19 baplo 235 baptidiare 339 baptisma 149 Aureliati 359 (2) aurora 11 aus avus 241.316 bal(i)neum 146.192 aud(i)entem 416 aud(i)o 272-3. 439 Bictor 316 biduanus 39 bieta 184 botu vo. 359(1) barbane 359(1) barbar 242 barbo -onis 359(1) barbutus 42 baro 16 bassiare 275 = vixit 255 = vi.3165 322 bis(s)it coctum 43 bivere blaesus 329 blanche 341 blanka 341 blankizare 34 blaspheraare ig.236. 162. 219 balneus 347 ballaena 150.316 Bodicca 37 (-icca) boletus 38.22 Bononia 303 bonu 298 bonus = -OS 244 bonus bonus 55 bos =:i vos 316. 33. 42.22 bisaccium 22 bisacutus 22 bisante 187 = = bis Austus 263 aut 174 aut aut 84 -aut -avit 424 . 325 av(i)dere 219 avidus 236 aviolus 13 avis 13 avis struthius 43 Bellus -onis 362 bene 40.) 367 brae (c) a 163 bracchiale 37 = brac(c)hium 163 brachia 352 Digitized by Microsoft® . 339 baptizatio 19 barba -anis 359. . 333 balneum 146: balneus 347 = bifolco biginti ti 318 (2) = vi. 184 Bologna 303 bonatus 37 (-atus) Bonica 37 (-icca) bon(i)tatem 231 bonito y] (-ittus) = avire 400 -avit -ait -at -aut 241. 416 audivi(t) 2S5 audus 236 -aumus := -avimus 424 aunc(u)lus 234. 226 Bayeux 151 bel(I)ua 164 blasphemus 150 blasta 312 (i) blitum 184 bob ansa 336 bobis vo. 324 Aureia -elia 274 Index.

369 cardonis (nom. 195 (3) cerbus 323 cerebellum 231 cereolus 13 cereseus 195 (3) ceresus 38.) 424 cedrus 182 cefalo 334 celeps 315 capriolus 224 captiare 34 cslus 347 Cjeseris 233 caesorium 37 caetk 313 captio 9 captivare 34 captivus 313 celerus 376 -cellus 37 Celtic Words 19 capud 282 capui 428 calamarium 37 calamellus 37 calamus 150 calatus calcai capum 285. 195 (3) calcaneum carissimus 377 caritabilis calce pistare 46 calciare 224 39 Caritta 37 (-ittus) Digitized by Microsoft® . 219. 71 cata unus 71 cataveris rr -d. 356 (3). 356 buxus 187.) 367 224 calcoste(g)is 259 caldo 40 cal(e)facere 219 calefacis 139 calere 288 bruchus 193 pu.330 (-ium) cerasus 38. branca i6 calcis 193 camis (nom. 330 Byzacinus 42 c : castius 277 castore (nom. 402 -C40 caballus 12 capiclus 234. 278 capere 8.354. 383 cf.) 367 camutus 39. 163 buUicare 35 buplicae = carum 263 casa 12 cal(i)dusi55.Indkx. 231. 369 caput 13. cf .312 (i) bublus 235 bubukus 318 (2) buc(c)a 12. 42 caroneus 39 carrica 11 car(ri)care 18. 239 cartas (nom. 285. 33 cat' cantare 34 unus 71 see Gutturals c for capabilis 39 g 253 cy 276.256 catechizare 19.) 357 (i) Breaking 177 breviarium 37 brevis 13 Brittanice 40 calcius (nom. 33.) 368 cata 19. 372. 347 calumpnia 307 calura 42 camel(l)us 42. pi. 150. 237 calisco 414 calma 268 calotfa 187 caseum -us 347 Cases85-ioo.) 367 cardu(u)s 226 ce(n)sor 311 census 260 centu 381 ceperint 215 cepi 215 = -avi 424 •^•j = ga. 356 (3). 282. 369 capus 285. Buolognino 154 burrus 330 Burrus 187 bursa 187 buscus 255 iusta 187 but(t)is 163 cals 255 casotta 37 (-ottus) cas(s)eus 163 . 356 (3). 163 . 163 Cassiabus358 cas(s)us 161 castaneus 346 (i) castellus camera 145 camerlingo 37 (-ing) caminus 150 camisla 201 (i) (3) 347 butyrum 150 buxida 187. 330 cedat caedat 210 cabia =: cavea 318 cactivus 313 cactos 313 capitanus 39 capitium 37 (-ium) capitulus 42.) 367 cammarus 330 canalia yj cani (pi. 234 capitus 440 = cedo 162 cadedi 428 cadere 402 caderunt 426 cadui 428 cselebramus (perf . 284 capire 406 cap(i)talis 231 cauculus 288 cauditus 42 caus(s)a 161 cavia 224 -ce 40 cecino 187.

12. 237. 277. 332 cib Clodius 212 cloppus 16 closa 212 Cludo 211 (2) -clus 234 CO quod 282 colomna 208 coloquinta 187 color (fern. of.) 40 chiave 288 Chilperico 343 ckiosa 185 clergue 154 305. 25 concha 186 concupiscencia 276 cohors 12.23. 64 comprendit 250 computare 31 circare 16 circueo 309 circumdavit 430 cis 14 cit(h)era. 379. 231 clamantis (nom. 260^.444 Pronunciation coUiget 444 col(lo)care 9. 325 colhe 154 coles 213 i6z -ceus 39 Chairibertus 39 (-anus) chaloir 288 Change of Meaning 8-10 coliandrum 292 coUecta 37 (-ta) collectus yj (-ta) colli(g)ens 259 col(li)gere 31. 333(1) clericatus 37 cler(i)cus 39. 276.226 comoedia 192 comparare 8. 259*. 217 Chiusi 86 cholera 145 chommoda 25 c(h)orda 186. 330. 153.) 346 (2) colp 154 colustra 197 = coacla 289 (i) 206 cicinus 330 -cillus ]> -cellus 42 coactum 310 coccodrillo 294 cocens 226 comenzare 276 coininciare 276 cominiciare 276 cominitiare 25. 154. 269 co(g)nosco 43. 332 Conditional 124. 272. 160 coUus -um 347 239 colober 208 Clio 190 colobra 208 (2). 213 codex 213 coemiterium 192 coepi 72. 310 coicere 310 coiiugi 271 cojectis 311 . 130. 329 191 ciurma -cius 39 of. 379 cocodrilus 294 cinsum = ce- 196 cocus 226 coda 212. 233 complacere 25 complire 400 cinus 347. 197. Clepatra 191 clerc 154 Change of Suffix 42 chan(n)e 163 chartaceus 39 cher 263 chiaro (adv. 370 cinxi 429 cip(p)us 163 circa 80. 269. 31.) 367 clarisco 414 Cla(u)dius 211 (i) cojugi 311. 231.1 194 certitude cetto 'r^j Index. 239 collo Clerical 218. 297\ 318(1). 325 clausi 429 clausus 441 clavem 288 clavido 236. X54. 231. 233 Comparison 56 comperare 231. 276 comitem 235 cima 38. 271 colaphizare 19 col(a)p(h)us 19. coexercitatus 30 cofecisse 311 96 Compound Words 43-9. 187 cimiterium 192 cinctius coclearium 356 (3) coclia commando 31 comment 41 commixtius 23 224 254 cinctus 440 cinqua(gi)nta 254. 150. 124 coexcitare 30 comedo = quo. 139. 233 cito 162 citrus cognatus 9. 186.411 Digitized by Microsoft® . -ara 38. 332 Chrestus 184 chrisma 184 C(h)ristus 184. 310 cognovi 428 cognusco 197 cohaerere 310 computus 235 comuna 376 con. 311 condam 254 condedit 139 conder(e) 242 condicio 276 conditio 276 civ(i)tas 12. 380 cinque 254. 259. claudo 236.

39 credentia 37 (-antia) " connato 269 conobbi 428 conoisser 413 conopeum 146 conovutus 440 conpendium 32 conplere 306 consacrati 31 conservam(m)us 163 consiensia 260.26 contrafacere 26 co(n)ventio 171 convltare 25 coperire 225 copersi 429 Gutturals 253-70 Labials 312-26 Latin 246-8 Letters 246 Liquids 2S7-96 Hasals 303-11 Palatals 271-8 Sibilants 297-302 cortera 203. 37 crebbi 428 credea 421 crededi 31. 311 conmittere 32 couleuvre 208 (2) court 203 couvent 311 covenimus 311 coventionid 3x1 covetum coxale coxi 429 = cubitum 208 -^j^j copertus 436 cophinus 186 coque 254 coraticimi 18. 3ro corso 208 Groups 131-2. 355 cor(o)nare 231 corp 323 corpora 369 corpes corpi -ora 369 coi"pore 356 (3) corpo credere 410 credutus 438. 139 credens (noun) 13.) 298 cornicula 42 cornu -um-us 347.continari 226 contra 96 contra. 34 19s corpo r6o corregia 201 corridije conger 329 Congianus 272 congigi 259 Conjugation 101-30. 275 227 consilium 42 consili corbeau 323 corbi 323 corbo 323 corcodilus 294 corcodrillus 294 cores = corda 369 corium 294 Comeius =-elius 274 Cornelio (nom. 396450 Four Conjugations 396407 First 397-8 Second 399-401 Third 402-6 Double: see Double Consonants Germanic : see Germanic Consonants Greek : see Greek Consonants 272 corrigo 305 corrotulare 229 cors 12. confessor 18 confortare 25. 244.1 Index. 311 Weak 422-6 conteneo 139 Perfect Participle 434. 254 41 Personal Endings 44250 Pluperfect and Future Perfect 432-3 Present Stems 416-9 Use of Forms 101-30 Conjunctions 82-4 co(n)jus 25. 225 cortensis 39 cortilis cortis 39 250 corvo 323 corvus 323 cosol 311 costumen 42 cosul 305 cot 254 cotes 212 cotidiae 244 cot(t)idie 162. 137 Perfect 422-31 consuetudo 42 Strong 427-31 co(n)sul 171. co(n)jux 171. 160 Fourth 407 Fundamental Changes • 408-12 Imperfect 420-1 constare 31 Inchoative Verbs 413-5 consuere 31. 255. 226. 439 crepatus 435 crepavi 428 Crescentsiarius 277 cresco 255 cresima 184 cresme 184 crevi (i) 428 292 crevutus 440 criblare crigTie 35 c'ritare 229 consirier yj (-erium) Consonants Aspirate 249-52 Dentals 280-6 = criz 206 = crocitare 35 Digitized by Microsoft® .

196 crocodilus i. 177 cnpa(t) 285 cupire 406 cupit 423 cup(p)a 163 cupressus 150 cur 12. 286 nd > nn 281 429 cursorium 37 curvus 323 nt 285 St 285 t 284-6 denumer^t 424 deo(r)sum 291. 234 cum (conj. 92.23. 354-76 Adjectives 374-6 Fall of Decl. 25 305 77. 226 cum (prep. 306 -cellus 42 95 -c(u)lus 42. 88. cumba 187 cun = cum 305 cunnuscit 269 cimtellum =r cul. 187. 281-3 dy 272 nd nn 281 Final 282. 376 First 357-60 cy 276-8 cy ty277 = cycnus 187. 355-6. 294 Index. cf.229 (2) deabus 358 de ad 48 de ante 48 deaurare 23. 25 debbio 273 debeo 273 debere 10. 100. da 48 dedi 430 (i) 229 crucifigere 46 c'rot'lare dacruma 281 dactylus 19 dedicait 424 ded(i)cavit 231 crudilitas 197 -crum 37 (-culum) crupta 187 crus 13 dad 48 Dafne 334 dai 2<)% dampnum 307 crust(u)lum 234 crypta 187 cubidus cupidus 256 Danuvlum 318 dao397 dare 397 datfus 324 dedro dedrot 285 deexacerbare 30 deexcitare 30 defeniciones 276 defensa 37 (-ta) defensi 429 defensorlus 39 = cuculla 13. 285 > -avit 318. (fem.) 82. 372-3 de^£-io 273 defna 324 de inter 48 de intro 47 de intus 47. 48. 239 decanus 39 dece(m) 309 decern et (or ac) septem 379 dece(m)bris 306 decemter 306 dec(i)mus 239 Declension 85-100. 346 (4) cucullus -a 346 (4) defensus 441 deferet 406 Dative 90-1.o. 383 cuerdo 369 culcitra 294 dau 397 daun 397 234 dave 48 de 14. 322 currens 39 = Intervocalic 283. 48. 81 defuntus 267.289 (2) cuoio 296 cuofre 160 cuore 160.) 14. 82 curabit cursi de-^ di. 392 de foris 47. 292 Derivation 20-49 descendidi 426 de semel 47 despereifser 414 by Microsoft® . 48 deltas 27 del(i)catus 227 delitus 198 delta 329 de magis 47 de medio 47 deminat 139 Dentals d 272. 72. 126 (4) debita 37 deb(i)tum 235. 330 cyma38. 324 deorsum 224 Cusanca 37 (-^ncus) Wouns 354-73 Shift of Decl. 95. -culum -cuius > 37. Definite Article 68.) 349 cymba 187 cymiterium 192 cypressus 150 Second 361-3 Third 364-71 Use of Cases 85-100 376 de contra 47 decumus 220 dede = dedit 285 de deorsum 47 Digitized declLvis Deponent Verbs 113. 409 d : see Dentals dy 272 de post 48 deprendere 250 de retro 47. 117. de. 78.

303. 253. 37 dies 13. 238. 393 duo 378 duos 138 durare 229 (5) Duration 99 duricia 276 Durocasses 151 duxi 429 (masc.) 346 (2) dolor 18. 328 devidere 229 (4) devinus 229 (4) dis. 13 Double Forms 158 Double Negation 75 Double Prefixes 30 doucet 37 (-ittus) doussa 376 drachma 144 drappus 16 d'rectus 229 diurnus 13 divisi Dreux 151 429 drieto 292 406 dicimus 448 dicitis 448 dicitus = -g. 361 digitus 233. 209-16 209-10 de sub 48 de super 48 de sursum 47 detti 426 de unde 70. 239 domnani 359 (i) domnicellus 37 domnicus 235 229 (2) diligibilis 39 domnina 37 domnizare 33 domnulus 235 dint-mi 264 divinus 324 dinus = Dionigi 227 Dionysii 227 diosum = deorsum 291 Diphthongization 177 domnus 235 domus 12 355 dume(c)ta 266 dune 40 d'unde 70. 43> distinguere 223. 333 dolor (fem. 21 dolus dictus := digitus 233. 177. 426. 259 dignus 172 (2) dilevit domatus 435 domin(i)ca 239 dominicus 9. 238. and fem. 25 discere 12 disfacit 139 Double 247 = Single 162-3.) e 165. 247. 292.) 349 dormio 224 dormito 309 dormitorium 37 dormo 416 dorsus 347 dossum 291 Diphthongs 36 177. 393 deus 167 devere 318 devetis 318 au 21 1-3 eu 214 oe 215 ui 216 diposisio 277 dire 406 directus 229 diri(g)ens 259 dirivare 229 (2) dou 397 Double Consonants 161-4. Digitized by Microsoft® . 30 . 229 displacet 139 displicina Doable >Single i6i. 421. (2ddecl. 254. 229 (4). dextro(r)sus 291 deyo 273 dia = dies355 (2).) 346(1). 226 dita 351 diu II. 195 (6).) 367 dub(i)tare 231 ducalis 39 divota 229 (2) dixemus 232 dbd429 dodecim 225 doga 186.23. 289 (2). 412 dice = die 412 dice(m) 309 disfactus 23 dis(je)junare 25.253 dictus 166. 397 dia 397 diabulus 38 diaconissa 19 Dialects 2. 378 dukissa yj dulcior (noun) 18 — > -dei 426 = dulcor 18. 328 289 (i) Dissimilation 167. 196-9. 328 Single >Double 164. 406. 167. 440 dicere divisus 441 divite (nom. accented 165. desso 62 dester 255 desto 225 197 donee 11 dont 70 donum (masc.3 Index. 355 (2) dietro 292 digita35i. 196-9 (I) . dibeto 196 Dibona 318 die 264. etc. 259 -didi ducatus 37 (-ta) duce due 412 ductus 440 dui 167. devitum 318 dexcito 225 cf .

) 450 -ere -ire 197 erodes 251 > effigia 355 (2) eu 214 effondrer 356 (2) i6 >• e 225 unaccented 219.exs. 65 eccu' 'ic 326 eccu' ille 24. > e > y 224 e i 229 s (2) edere 13 edificai e prefixed to + cons. 263. 244.24. 232. 162. 243. no eoru 309 episcopalis 39 epistula 144 > 196-8 e unacc. > 65 > eccu' iste 24. 365-6. 255 es-7. 182. 326 espiar 343 "pier 343 Digitized by Microsoft® .e 225 = equus 12 equus = sequus 210 -re 245 -er -er 39 (-arius) erable 43 -ere (perf . > = = 444 = ex. 65 ecce ille 24. 328 Endings Personal 442-50 -esco ]> -isco 197 414 enim 11 escupare 255 -ens 39 (-ans) -e(n)simus 311 -e(n)sis39. 242 -elius >• -ilius 197 -ellus 37. 62. 14 > -i 244.) 368 -Irunt 450 eccam 24 eccas 24 ecce.230.228. -unt 449 es(i)mus 419 (i) -isimus 197 -esimus esmes 419 (l) eccos 24 eccu. 385 eo quod 82. 311 -ent -eunt 416. 413-4 eschernir 341 emere 12 encaustum 149 Enclitics 156 -enda 37 (-anda) : 24 eschine 341 esclate 343 eccillum 24 ecclstam 24 ec(c)lesia 146. 65 ecce ego 65 ecce hie 24. 65. 65 ecce nunc 65 ecce tu 65 eccillam 24 eccillud elimentum 231 -elis >• -ills 197 Elision 157. 298 elementum 231 elephantus 38 elex -ebam : see -ea 429 eiii 411 ecca 24 = ilex 200 (2) erubisco 414 elifanti (pi.198 e 196-8 Index. 229 effrenis 376 eglesia 256 (2).) 356 (2) -i 443 -es -es -is 174.24. 42 elmo 343 illud 201 elud -elus >• -ellus 42 ervum > erum 226 ervus (3d decl. 449 -ent >. 429 -erium 37 erminomata 191 ero 411 -ero 39 (-arius) ersi ericius = jacet 224 earn = jam 224 eacit ejus 170. 424 230 e6 > e 225 -edo . 65 ecce iste 24. 244 egloge 330 e e 165 > > e > e 165 V 182' ei83 e(g)o 60. eccum 24. 35.538 Esaram 233 -escere 34. s 177. 199 n 182 eccu' sic 24 e contra -entia 37 (-antia) -inns 42 -enus > 47 C183 ecus 226 edediderit 426 i eo=:ego 73. 364 -V3S -ea 421 -etv 36 ejus 298 eio = -etbv 146 42 erigere 31. 197. 73.> -ido 197 edus haedus 210 e6 >. 385 ego-met-ipse 66 et -erem 346 (3) eremus 150 eres 251 190 e-28 -640 -e>-ffi I74>244 -e -ei 411 -eta 146 eiius 271 erga 14 ergo II. 6.

274 facimus 448 404 facitis 448 factum 266 facire Feminine femps 356 femus (3d : see Gender (2) decl. 92. 404 faccia 278 fatus 347 taula 236. 95 ex.= es. 126 (2).230 exstinctus 440 exstinxi 429 exsucidus 39 exsucus 23 extensa 37 extimare 255 extra. 266 = = fait 324 266 fallii -esse 161 -essem 161 essere = esse 419 es(t) 285 estatio 230 estau 397 estaun 397 Estephanus 230 estou 397 estribar 341 esum 419 -et et et at ubi . et 84 Ethiopia 188 etiam 11.27 extrabuccare 27 extranus 42 ex tunc 47 ezza 277 f : fallire 430 406 441 34 37 familia 42 famis 366 famTfii 264 famul 242 famulabus 358 fante 311 falsare falsitas fallitus faor 324 farcitus 440 fare 404 farsus 440. 318 febrarius 226 Eurus 191 -eus39 Euua 344 evangelizare 19 -evi -ei 424 > Evidence 5 ex 14. 404 facheret 410 faciam 278 fadas 224 fac(i)ebam 225. 77. 14. facienda 37 fem(i)na 239 feminabus 358 > exaltare 25 exaugiu^tus 39 excellente (nom. espiritum 230 exeligit 199 fffinum 209 fffinus esquena 341 esguiver 343 essagium 255 esse 112-4. 420 face feced feci = fecit 282 fec(e)ru(nt) 233 430 fehu 343 felicla 234 felis25. 440 fascia 10.Index.) 367 excoriare 25 excussi 429 excussus 441 exeligere 30. 277 etsi I \ et sic 47 exodus 337 expabui 42S expandutus 441 expaventare 35 explendido 230 exquartiaxe 276 exs. 25 ex. 404 fatatus 39 fate fabam 320 404 Eugeneti 359 (2) -eum 37 eunuchizare 19 fab(u)la 236 f ac 264.230. 419 (i) esse essere 419 esse sedere 402 274 exe(m)plu 306 exiat 224 exient 449 347 fageus 39 failla exinde 60 exire 31. (i) = -it 244.23. 255 -ex -ix 42 = fac 412 facentem 416 facere 10.) 356 (2) fenire 229 (4) factus 440 fenum 209 ferbeo 323 feritus 242 fascit 209 faedus 320 (i) fcemina 209 f acul 434 ferre 12 ferro 160 Digitized by Microsoft® . 444 49 .= as. 275 faselus 334 fasena 320 (i) f asia = faciat 285 224 fasiolus -etus 437 see Labials (i) fata 266 eu 214 cu 190 fa 264. .

fervere 399 fervura 37 fesit flaba 289 (i) flagrare 292 flaonis flator fractus 440 fragellum 289 (2) fragilis 260 324 324 233 >« 343 fezem 44 fiaba 289 (i) fiam 419 (2) fib(u)la 235 ficatum 16. 361 fructus (2d decl.) 356 fundutus 441 funtes 205 (2) fortia 37 fortis 10 fortis fortis 55 429 fixus 441 fossato 2^1 (-ta) funus II fuore 160 Digitized by Microsoft® . 200 (i).Index. fragrantia 37 fra(g)rare 270 flavor 37 fletus II Francesco 341 franctus 440 fieuma 268 fleurit 414 ' fictus 197 440 fleuve 208 (2) fioralis Frankensis 39 Frankiscus 39. cf .419 (2) 400 florisco 400 flovium 208 (2).409.) 355 (i) fnindes 205 /^343 fiorentino 154 fioretto yj (-ittus) fiorisce \\^ foris- 29 frunza 351 frutta 351 fugii 430 f ugire 406 fugitus 439 fui 431 forisfacere 29 f orismittere 29 fircum 320 (i) Firenze 86 Firmus -onis 362 fir- 46 formaceus 39 formosus 161 formunsus 208 forsitan 305 forte 40 f ortescere ful(i)ca237 fiscla 234 fistula 234 fistus 197 fix! 34 fumAt 424 fundus (3d decl.) 355 (i) fidens 311 fiele 160 Jiens 356 (2) fieri 112. 12 419 (2) figel 242 fiios — filios 274 358 (nom. 217 fluviorum 224 feces 213 florire fratelmo 38S frat(t)re 164 frax(i)nus 239. 256 frenum -us 347 fricatus 435. 238. fiero 160 fiet focus fodiri 8. 259 frigora 351 filius 155. and fern. 141 ficit 2. filix 298 274 = filios T97 fiUio 247 fonte 205 244 fonz 356 (2) foras 81. see frondifer 11 fnialitas Germanic Words Greek Words foresia 311 foris 81 and finiscere 35 finxi 429 fructa35i.) 17 429 263 Foreign Words 19. 96 forbatre 2. 201 filiabus filias 33 (2) frigdaria 219. (mc. 440 fricda frigida 238.) 346 (4) filiaster filio(s) fans 356 frigdura 37 Frigia 187 frig(i)dus 166. 231 fons (fem. 341 Franko 341 franxi 429 ficus (I) (masc.)346(i) fraumenta 268 frecare 201 .f:^ forbire 407 frigorem 347 frixl Fimes 86 Final Syllable 240-5 finctus 440 finis (adj. 406 folia 352 follia (noun) 18 follicare (i) = 259 f rictus 440 frigare 256.) 346 florecer 292 414 frate 295 Florentinus 37 ficus (2d decl. cf. 233.7 flaus 240.) 357 13 .

furbjan 407 furma 203 furmica 229
genesis 148, 183 Genitive 88-9, 383 genitores 12 genitus 17
gIut(t)o 163




fusa 3; I

gocciare 276 gcerus 187
golosus 228 gonger 329 goule 177


genna 229
gentilis 17


fusus 441

Future 125-9,411
127-9,411 Periphrastic Put. 126 Pres. for Put. 126 (i) Future Perfect 119, 123-4,
410, 423 g: see Gutturals

gentis (adj.) 17

Hew Put.


= jan- 259
37, (i)



genuflectere 46

genum 355
Gepte 259 geguir 343

233 gradlus 376 grada 35.1 gradus 355 (i)
grandis 12
granditia 37 graphium 145 grassetto 37 (-ittus)

= Hier- 259

gabata 13, 236 gabta 236 gaita 343
gaite 343 galatus 330
gallina 288

gerbe 341

Germanic Consonants
b, c,

grassus 257

= Gratis 257

g 341

gravare 34
gravior 377 grece 210

^,^342 h343 W344
Germanic Endings 36 Germanic Words 19,
340-4 Germanissa 37 Gerund 104

gamba 13, 263, 331 gammanis 330
garba 341 garofulum 149 garum 329 gaudia (sg.) 352 gaudimoniuin 20 gaudutus 44 X gauta 236 gaveola 257 gavia 16
gecchire 343 geisla 341 geiuna je- 259 geline 288

Greek Accent 143-50 Ozytones 144
Paroxytones 145-6 Proparoxytones 147-50 Greek Consonants 327-39
ft 7, S 329
K, V,

Gerundive 103
gesso 187 gesta (sg.) 352 gJga 341 gig'i 341

T 330-1

X 332-4 Liquids 335 Hasals 336

I 337


gigantem 229 (3) ginocchioni 40 Giovannoni 362 giret 187
girus 187
giscle 341 glacia 355 (2)

f 338-9
Greek Endings 36, 38, 146 Greek Vowels 180-93 Diphthongs 188-93 Single Vowels 180-7 Greek Words 19, 36, 38,
gre-U 40 grevior 377
grevis 195 (4)

gelus (2d decl.) 355 (i) gemellus 13

gemire 406 gemitus 439

Glacus 211 (i) gladium 347
glanderia 39 glaiz 355 (2) Glauc6 -^nis 359 Glaucu (nom.) 372 glirem 166
glos(s)a 161, 185

gemui 428
gena 13

Gender 345-53 Fem. and Heat. 351-3 Masc. and Pern. 346 Masc. and Heut. 347-50 Heut.Pl.>Fero.Sg.352 Heut.Pron.and Adj. 350

grex (fem.) 346 (4) grossior 377 gratia 187 gruls (nom.) 367 gninnio 281-

gluria 203
glut(t)ire 162

guarire 344 guarnire 36, 407


by Microsoft®

guaiare 343
hab(i)tus 239 h^buerat 137
hocsies 277

gubernamentum 37
gubernare 36, 330
gtterra 344

guidare 36, 398 guiderdone 342 guisa 344
gul0 37
-i -1338, 186, 330 gustus (2d decl.) 355 (i) guttur (masc.) 347


Gutturals 253-70 c c' 258, 260-1 c g 256-7

> >

habutus 438 hache 343 hackerece 39 hffidus 320 (i) hamula 235 hanca 343 handle 343 hant 401 hao 401 hapja 19, 343

hodie 272 hodio 251


hom(i)nes 232, 235 (pi.) 36S
10, 71


honera 251 honor 346 (2) honte 342 hora 12, 185 hordemn 272
horrescere 11
hortesia 311 hospitale 12

haram 251
hardir 343
harena 320 (i) haribergum 19 has 401 hat 401 hatire 36 hatjan 36


g before back vowels hardjan 343

263 c, g before cons. 265-70 c, g final 264 ct 266

hossa 251 hostium 251 Hugo Hflgon

= Hdgo


huile 274

152, 362


> g' 258-9. z6i

humerus r2
humiliare 34

g intervocalic 263

gm 268
gn 172
gr intervocalic 270




152, 362


net 267
Falateilization 258-62

haunitha 342 haunjan 19 haunt 401 havite 400

165, 200-1, etc.

accented 200-1 I 200

haz 355


hegit 251

260 X 255, 266 gylosus 228 gyrus 187


helm 343
keltne 343

h 249-52

hepatia 19 here 219, 244 heredes (sg.) 367 heremum 251 Hiatus 136-8, 222-7

> e 201 e ^ 201 > 165, 200 i>e2oi > > e 165, 201 (cons.) 222 > y 224 -i > -e 224







habam = fabam 320

hlbemus 13
hie 63-4, 67-8 hie ipse 64

habe = ave 318 habe(b)am 421 hiem(p)s 13, 297 habeo 273 hiens = iens 251 habere 10, 121-4, 127-30, hilerus 233
239, 273, 285, 400, 401, 421, 438, 449

(Greek) 184 (Greek) 38 i^ e 225 ii i 227 prefixed to s cons. 230 unaccented 219, 221,228,


> >


hinsidias 251

hireum 320


haber 242 habe(t) 285 habeunt 416, 449 habibat 400
habire 400

= is- ins- 230 hispatii = spatii 230
historia 146

229(3X4), 240, 243, 244 in hiatus 222, 224-5,


> e 229 (4) > a 229 (3)

ho 40 hoc 63,



-ia 37, 146 -(a 37, 146


by Microsoft®

-iamus 224 -are 33, 34
ille 10,

Future Future
125-9, 411

61-8, 389-92

ipse 64





123-4, 410

-ibo 125
-ic 251



-ica 37 -icare 33, 34, 35 -icca 37


390 ille 390 140


(dat.) 390


-iccus 37

> ilium 282, 350
390 390

= suus


Imperfect 120, 420-1 Perfect 121-4, 422-31 Pluperfect 123-4, 410, 432 Present 120, 273, 397, 401, 403-5, 415, 416-9

-icem 42, 346



-iceus 37, 39, 42
-icius 37, 39, 42


induruit 224


ilium illud 282, 350 illurum 390


-inem 346

-iculare 35 -iculus 42

> -ellus 42

infa(n)s 10, 311 i(n)fans 171
inf antiliter
i(n)feri 171,

im = in 310
imaginarius 39

-icus 39

40 219

idem 61, 3C39 id ipsum 62, 350 idolum 150, 190
-idus 39 -i(d)yare 339 i6 e 225


376 immudavit 256 Imperative 115-6, 412 impinguare 25 impinxi 429


infernus 13 Infinitive

-iebam -ebam 225 -ibam 420
-ie(n)s 311



implicat 139 implire 400


> -fmus 447-8 >

in 86, 92, 95, 96, 97
is 310 inanimatus 23 in ante 47, 48 incendiderit 426

lenubam 259
-ier 39 -iere 39

in- 23, 25 in -t- s

as Noun iii Conjugations 396-407 dicere 406 esse 419 facere 404 for Clause for Imperative 116 for Subjunctive iii, 117 for Supine and Gerund




= gesta 259, 352

311 iferi 311
iferos 306, 311

Inchoative Verbs
inclausus 139 incohare 250
in contra 47, 48 incudo 42, 370


103, 104 habere 400 Passive 109 Perfect 109 with habere 125-9, 4^^ posse 403

ifimo 311 if ra 311

Present Active

102, 109


-4gia 2^^
igitur II, 14

with Accusative
inflare 31


incuminem 42
incus 42 -incus 37 inde 60, 71, 384 inde fugere 46

ignire 33 ignis 12


ignotus 310 -igo 37

Forms 345-450 Use 85-130
infra- 27



227, 423


39 -ilius 42 iliac 140

Indefinite Article 57 Indefinite Pronouns: see

infraponere 27


Indicative Conditional 130, 411
for Imperative 116, 412
for Subjunctive 117

infurcare 25

-ing 37

(dat.) 390

390 illsejus 390

ingenium 9 ingens 259 in giro 48


by Microsoft®

-ingus 37 (-incus) in hodie 47
Initial Syllable

62-4, 67-8 ins- liis- 230


— -is = -es 244, 365-6, 444

-iva 37 iventa 311

inlatus 32 in mane 47

-iscere 34, 35


> > -i 423 > -iut > -it 423

-ivum yj
-ivus 39 -ix 42
-izare 33, 34, 339

medio 48

Ischia 284

innoce(n)ti 306 innocus 226
in odio


ischolasticus 230


inprobus 32 inquid 282 in quo ante 254 -inquus 37 (-incus) ins13-230 in semel 47

-isco for -esco 197, iscripta 230


-'{«" 33
izophilus 333
j 271 jacente(m) 309 jacis 244 Jacobus 150, 329

-iscus 39 is ipse 64


ismaragdus 230 isperabi 230 ispose 230
-issa 37 -issare 33

insiemcmenie 41 insola 232 instruo — struo 230 ins(u)la 171, 233, 284 intcitamento 260 inte(g)rum 270 Interamico 307

Jacomus 329
jagante 229 (3)


-isse 161

-issem 161 -issimus 166

jaiant 229 (3) jajunus 229 (i) jambe 263
-jan 36
janarius 226

230 Interanniensis 307 istatuam 230 Interrogatlves see Pro- iste 63-8, 390-2 nouns iste hie 64 Intertonlc Vowel 231 iste ille 64 intra g6 iste ipse 64 intra- 27 istudio 230 intra tenere 27 it id 282 intravidere 46 -it -et 244, 444 intre 245 ita II intro(r)sus 291 Italia 224 intus in 49 Iteilic Tribes i, 2 -inus 37, 42 -itare 34, 35

jaquir 343
jauzei 426 jehan 343 jehir 343
jejunus 229, 229 (i) jeniperus 229 (5)

= =

jenua 229


jenuarius 229 (i) jeuTie 208 (2)
jinipenis 229 (5)

-Inus 39

> -o 416

-itas 37 -ite -Ite


Joanneni 359 (i) Joannentis 359 (2) Joannis 244
jocus 12


ipsa mente 41 ipse 61-8, 390-2



jovenis 208 (2), 217
jovis 367

64 ipsejus 390 ipsimus 66 ipsud 390
ipsujus 390 ipsus 390
iraisser 413 irascere 413

-itia 37, -ities 37


jubari 322



-ittus 37

-itudo 37 -itus 42 (2), 436, 438, 441 -Itus 435, 438-9


jubem(m)us 163 jubenis 318 jubentutis 318, 322 jubere 11
Judaizare 19
judicat 424

-ium 37
-ius 39

126 (5), 405

> -unt 416
by Microsoft®

-ire 33,


judidus 347 judico 239 judigsium 278


juglus 233 Julianenis 359 Julianeta 37 (-ittus)
Julitta 37 (-ittus)

429 Liaison 133, 159 liamen 263
lexi 428,

intervocalic 324

Voicing 314
laborait =:-avit 424

laceus 254
lacte 367

libe(n)s 311

juncxi 305 juniperus 229 (5) junxi 429
Jup(p)iter 163

jurHtortu 39 juria 272 jur(i)go 219
jusso 355 (i)

lactem 347 lacus (2d decl.) 355 (i) ladro yji ladrone 372


298 (nom. pi.) 357


libraria 37 ligare 201,

ligna (sg.) 352


justitia 276,

justius 277

juv(e)nis 235

juventa 356 (3) juvente 318
juxta 81, 96


246, 253

kadamitatem 289

= candidus 330 karessemo 201 Karica 37 (-icca) kaukoulato cal- 288 kleme(n)s 311 kozous = conjux 311, 339


34 lambros 331 lamna 235 lampada 356 (3) lampa(s) 38, 144, 335 lancia 224 la(n)tema 306 lanutus 42 lapsus 315 laqueum 347 ; cf, 254 lardum 237 Latinization i, 2 latrone (nom.) 367 lat(t)rones 164 lattucae 266 Lauriatus 224 lausenga 37 (-ing)
lauzi 443 Lazis Ladiis 339


lignum -us 172
liminare 37


Unguas (nom.) 357
liniamenta 224


133, 159

lintium 224

Liquids Assimilation 293 Dissimilation 292
Fall Fall



Liquid 237

Vowel before

Liquid 233-4 1 287-9 ly274 Metathesis 294 r 290-6
rs 291 ry 296 lit (t) era 163


kumate 298 ky = qui 187, 223



lebat 318

lit(t)us 163

see Liquids

318 lebra 256

Livitta 37 (-ittus) U 1 161


la ilia 392 Labials Assimilation 313 b 315-9 initial 316 intervocalic 318 by, py, vy 273, 319 f 320-1 Fall of Vowel after Labial 235-6 Influence on Vowels 217



Have 2 88



Locative 86
locun 305 locuplens 311 locuplex 255
lodi 443
loir 166

lectus (p.p.) 440 legare 201

leges 259

(nom.) 367

legui 428

lenticula 42

longa mente 41 longe 40
longior 377


longius 377


longum tempus 13
loquella 42 loreola 213

P 3"-4 U326
V 322-s
after liquid 323

levare 34 leviarius 39


Lost Words 11-4
lotus 213

levitus 435,


by Microsoft®

84. 207 (i) luxi 4V 9 luxuria 355 (2) mansorius 39 mansus 441 manuaria iS manuplus 42 manus (masc.) 355 (i) meretis 232 meridjes 281 (2) mer(i)to 237 Masculine : see Gender masc(u)las 234 masma = maxima 238 massa 338 mate(r) 295 materia 355 (2) matrona(s) 298 mat(t)rona 164 Digitized mersi=merx 255 Messac 277 messui 428 messura 37 met. 349 melum 195 (5) membras 352 memoramus (perf. 220. 377 mala mente 41 male 40 male habitus 44 malicia 276 malleus 274 mensorium 37 menta 184 -mente 41 mente habere 46 mentire 409 Marsuas 187 Marsyas 187 mas = magis 157 mascel 242 -mentum 37 mentus 347 menus 201 mercatus (2d decl. and 346 (I) fern. 377 luoghi -ora 349 liirdus 207 (i) luridus 166. 353 me(n)sor 311 56. 145 ma(r)mor 292 cf . 157. 74. 369 3" . 259 ma(g)ister 259 marmora 351 marmorem 347. xi Marcianus 278 Marculus 284 mare (fern. 201.) 244 lucSre 399 lucire Index.) = and markensls 39 me(n)sa 311 mense(m) 309 mensi (pi. 233 lucor 37 lucto 355 (i) maximus 56. 238. mam(m)anis 359 matutinus 13 maurus 336 maxime 56 mammula mane 13 13 400 manducare 13 man(i)ca 239 manicd 37 (-icca) maniplus 42. X. manner (fern. 347. 198.2o6 luce (dat.) 424 -men 37 mendatium 276 fern. 259 major 170.24.) = magida = 38. 297 maxumiis 220 lucus locus 205 ludus 12 lugere 399 lugire 400 = Meanings Change 10 of of Words 7-10 Meaning 8- manos 355 mansi 429 mansio 12 (i) luminem 347 lunae dies S9 mecu 309 Medea 190 Medentius 338 media 272 medianus 39 medicus 239 medio die 43 medio loco 43 medius 272 meletrix 292 melior 377 melius 56. 66 mal(l)o i6i malus malus 55 mam(m)a 16. 359 by Microsoft® . 347. 71.) 17274 m: see Nasals ma = mea -Ma 38 388 manu tenere 46 Slaps : pp. 369 marrir 407 marrjan 407 Marsianesses 277 magnisonans 44 magnus 12 Maia 188. cf .) 368 me(n)sis 171. 347. ma(g)is 353 .) 349 machina 144 machinari 9 macra 376 madias = majas 272 madio majo 272 madrema 388 maestati 259 maester 259 magias majas 272 marem 347 mares = -is 244 marl -e 364 marinarius 39 maris (masc. 222 Maiiam 222 mais = magis 157.

377 minus. Metathesis 245.29. 439. 136 mulieris 136 natus 13. 229 (2) Nebitta 37 (-ittus) nebula 235 necare 9 necator 37 mirabilia 37. 438 naucella 13 naufragus 325 nautat 236 navicella 37 navitat 236 ne 14. 229 (4). 245 mis. 385 miauiare 17 michi 252 mienia 1S4 migat micat 256 monarchia 37 monasterium 182 -monia 37 monibam 420 moniti n + fricative 171. 441 motto 187 movi 428 movit 244 movita37-. cf.324 Moesia 187 molui 428 molutus 439 255 myrta 187 Mysia 187 mysterium 182.Liquid mut(t)ire 162 132. 311 -m -n falls 309 falls 310 mihe 244 milex 255 mille 161. 66 metipsimus 66 metltus 441 207 Mute -t.439 movitus438.245 miscere 399 misculare 35 misera 376 mis(s)i x6i. 294 modernus 18 Metiacus 277 metipse 24. 440 muc(c)us 163 muebie 204 (i) mul'erem 225 mulier 9. 83. 75. 231 mis meis 388 mis. cf.311 11 ny 274 nacui 428 nam — mu. 227 mi(ni)sterium 231 minist(r)onun 292 minor 377 minsis 198. 304-6 171.228 narratus 37 (-ta) -monium 37 mo(n)strare 311 Nasals 303-11 Final or = monumento = -um 244 Mood 1 1 5-9 morbu(s). 37 raovutus 438. 201 minus 201. 440 necavi 428 nee ente 71 nee unus 71 ne ente 71 negare 263 negat 256 mur 206 murare 229 (5) muri -a 349 muritta 37 (-ittus) murta 187 Negation 75 negliencia 259 nemo 71 neofiti missorium 37 mis (s) us 441 mistus 440 mixticius 39 mobilis 204 (i). 217 334 mutare 229 Digitized (5) nepoti(s) 298 ne'ps'unus 71 by Microsoft® . 163. 298 + Cons. 387 mi = mihi25o. 255. 440. 438. 187 meuble 204 (i) meus = mi 87 n: see Nasals mextum — m2estuin mezzo 272 mi r= meus -a 87. 429 = mullus 187 mulsi 429 multum 74 multus 71 muntu = multum 289 (2) necatus 435. 160 mode modo 40 moere = mov.Index. 289 moc 428 (i).245 minus credere 29 minus est 29 minus pretiare 46 minutus 10 > mortu(u)s 226 mossus 438. 381 mn 307 millefolium 38 mil(l)ia 161 mordSre 399 morire 406 moriri 406 n -h fricative ny 274 nasco 255 nascutus 438 nasum -us 347 natatorium 37 nati vitas 37 Morphology 345-45° morsi 429 morsus 441 mortificare 46 mimoriEe 229 (2) minester 201 ministeri(i) 89.

234 306. 383 305 accented 202-5 o 202-4 o 197. 100. 251 nil 250 nimpae 332 nise 229 (4) nitidus 238 nittus 238 Numerals 57-8. 197. 244 u6 o 225 -o 37. 229 (6). 395 num 83 u ob (Greek) i?5 14. 79 ob-28 obdormire 28 obferre 32 obliscor 324 oblitare 34 obprimere 32 Nerba3i7. 40 (Greek) 186 Digitized nora 208 (3) Normannice 40 norus 208 (3) notrire 229 (5) noli 40 -on 36 -ov 38 -iav 38 -ones 40 -oneus 39 by Microsoft® . 243.) 395 nullus 71. 202-5. 349 see Gender ne 229 (2) ni : = nichil 251 niepos 177 observasione 277 oc 251 occansio 311 occidere 212 occubavit 256 ni(g)rum 270 nihil 71.208 nepta 37 neptia 37 neptilla 13 Index.ou 167 unaccented 219. 167. 378-82 occu(m)bas 306 occurire 406 Accent 142 nummus 328 nun = non 203 nunc 12 nuncius 276 -occus 37 ocio 276 ocium 276 octa(gi)nta 380 oc(u)lus 219. 309 nivicare 18. 250. 71 o for au 212-3 >oe ]>e 06 > o 225 > omo 251 -omus 446 on 71 ou>. 177. Nouns 345-73 see Declension and Gender nous 177. 22S. 323 nerbo 323 Neroua 322 nervia 349 Neuter nervus 323. 203 o (Greek) 192 274 38. 215 offertus 435. 215 omnes = —is 244 onmimodus 44 omnis 12. 33 nuncquam 305 nunqua(m) 305.324 nova(i)nta 380 novellus 13 novius 207 (2) noxeus 224 ns 171. Absolute 97 non 203 nona(i)nta 380 75. nupsi 297 nobe 318 nobilis 11 nobis 318. 311 nubis 366 nulli (gen. etc. > > 6 165. offla 235 oi>oe>-e ot nome 336 nomem nomes = nomina 369 Nominative 97. 205 5 > 9 205 9>uo oi ou|>-gu 167 o u 202 o ou 203 oleum oli 274 274 oli(m) 309 olio nonna 16 nonnita 37 (-ittus) nonnitus 37 (-ittus) nonnus 16 noptiae 207 (2) 177 192. 229 (5) nutritio 37 odedere 426 Odissia 187 oe 215 oefor xand e 215 offeret offerire offers! nutritura 37 nocui 223. 274 > ola 213 oleo 373. 328 noembrios 324 noembris 324 noicius 324 nolo 161 ny274 nynfis 306 406 406 429 440 192. 385 nocere 399 nutrire 166. o 165.

202-3 -osco ossiculum 42 ossuculum 43 > ssy 275 sty 275 partunt 416 parutus 438. Ordinal Numerals 382 -orem 346 (3) oricla2i2. 227 pari mente 41 227 Palatalization 258-62. 322 > = oum 167. 236 parabulare 155 paradisus 190 paraula 236.) 367 parentorum 368 p : see Labials paceveci = oratia = Hor-25i Order of Words 50-3. 108. 441 part 160 partentem 416 Participle dy 272 g': omatura 37 orphanus 186 ortaret 432 hor-25i ortus see Gutturals gyz72 J271 ly274 ny 274 Put. py 273 ry 296 scy 275 40S Particles 156-8 particularis 39 -OS (Greek) 38 Oscan 2 -usco 197. 229 (7) oridium 339 -orlum 37 -orius 39 orma 186. 434-41 = orum = aurum 212 orzo 272 OS (masc.) 367 pap(p)a -us 16 papyrius 39 parabula 144. Active 106 Put. palpebrum 352 pal/ires 134 = hos-25i = ostium 202 ostrum aus.212 aut 213. 296 Palatals 271-8. 229 (7) ot ote = aut 213. 324 ovum 167.) 349 Present 102. oze ozie 324 = > > = hodie 272 = hodie 272 = pacific! 321 8. 439 pasmer 300 passans 39 passi(m) 309 sy 275 ty 276-7 ossulum 37 ossum 356 (3) ostensio 37 ostensor 37 vy273 palatium 277 palleum 224 Passive 112-4. 409 passos 355 paucum tempus 13 ostentare 34 ostia palma 14. 369 papilipnis (nom. 259 pari 364 par(i)etes 136. 337 pagandum 256 paganus 263 pa(g)e(n)sis 39. 107. 408 Perfect 102. 296 parsi 429 by 273 c': see Gutturals cy 276.212 orata ou (Greek) 193 ou 167 9u Ouiouia Vibia 318. Passive 105. Pans 86 Parisiis 272-8.Index. 217. 104. 278 parsus 439. parecer 414 parens 10. -omus 39 -o«J446 -o(n)sus 311 otia 277 otobris 266 209 paor 324 papaver (masc. 225 parietibus 224 oratorium 37 orbus 9 palanca 332 palasium 277 Parigi 86. 12 parentis (nom.) 347. 318 parcui 428 onus II o 225 operare 409 0(5 > otogentos 266 -ottus 37 ophekion = ofBcium 334 opprobare 28 -or 37. 42 feminine 346 (2) -re 245 -or -ura 42 -or hora25i ora oracionem 276 aur. 229 (7) pandiderunt 426 paucus 71 paul(l)um 161 Paulus -onis 362 paupera 376 pani 364 panneus 39 pantaisar 332 Digitized = pauperorum 376 pausa 38 pavi 428 by Microsoft® .

217 Pluperfect 118. 190 Periphrastic Future 126 perit 423 perlum = prse. 311 pensi 429 pensus 441 plodere2i3 ploja 169. 217 pluere 169. 426 perdita 37 (-ta) perdqnare 26 perdutus 438. 326 plagiare 33 Pronouns persus 439. pinl 365 123-4 pinxi 429 per giro 48 piper 38. 377 pejus 377 pelegrinus 292 pellabor 293 planura yj planxi 429 platea 146. 183. 435 plicatus 435 293 293 pello 293 pendutus 441 pellige pellicere peuma 368 ph: see Greek Consonants phalanx 181 pharetra 145 phaselus 334 Phasis 181 pe(n)sare 171. 422-31 = phoca 185 Phoebus 192 Phonology 131-344 Phyebae = Phoebe 215 piano 40 pictus 440 pietas 298 pietra 160 pignus 172 (2) pi(g)ritia podium 272 poella 20S Strong 427-31 Weak 422-6 Perfect Participle Participle : 270 see Pilipus 332 pinctus 440 Perfect Subjunctive 119.26 percolopabat 237 > Phebus 192 phiala 145 philosophia yj philus 184 phimus 184 Phitonis 332 phitonissas 332 Subjunctive 433 "8. 96. 123-4. 208 (4). 79. 74 pluvia 169. 273 poco 40 perdedit 139. 410. 99 per pel 293 per 160 per. 315 plicare 10. 410 432> 433 Pluperfect Penult 232-9 per 14. 93. 208 (4). 439 pere 160 pere(g)rinus 270 peres pedes 281 (2) Perfect 121-4. = pr-292 plus 56. 235 by Microsoft® . 208 (4). 213 plovere 169. pa(v)onem 324 pa(v)orem 324 pavura 42 pavutus 440 paze 260 pectinare 33 perpenna 292 persi 429 pe(r)s(i)ca 239 persona 71 Personal Pronouns: pius 167 placentia 37 plach 154 see placuit 223.) 367 plangit 259 plantare 33 peduclum 234 peduculus 42 pejor 170. 369 peria(t) 285 poena 192 poeta 192 poggio 272 polippus 145 poUicare yj pollulum 213 pols 370 poltre 134 polve 370 polvo 370 polypus 145 pomex 207 (2) pirata 144. 347.Index. 369 per girum 48 piperem 347. pIurigo 123. 441 Pesaro 151 pessica 291 pessimus y]"] pestio 2S4 pectorem 347 pediculus 42 pedis (nom. 208 (4). igo plaudisti 426 pestulum 284 petft 423 Petrus -onis 362 peito 160 pleps 297.294 Pisaurese 297 Pisaurum 151 pitocco T85 Digitized pon(e)re 239 pontevecem 321 pontivicatus 256 pontufex 220 poplex 255 pop(u)lus 10. 273 plostrum 212 plotus 212.

85-g presbyter 148. 300 presbyterum 148 provitus435. 380. 332 purpureticum 1S7 putator = po. 387-8 Relative 69-70. prolongare 28 q 246. 226. 397. 285 posturus 238 postus 238 Post-Verbal Nouns 21 posueram 285 posuet 244 posui(t) 285 403-5. 429 quiestus 436. 67. 440 cf. qu 223. 96 provata 318 porphyreticum 187 portare 12 posi posui 428. 403 (i) Possessives: see Pronouns posso 403 postea 275 (i) prensus 441 Prepositions 76-81. 393-4 quaKs 70. 79. 285 Present 120 for Future 126 ptisana 145 pudicicia 276 (i) Stems 273.439 proximus 377 psallere 36.) 367 pugnus 172 (2) pulvus 347. = pr<Egnans 255 Pronunciation 131-344 prophetissa 37 prophetizare 19 propietas 292 propio 292 propter 14. preda 209 Prefixes 21-32 393-4 Personal 60. 429 Position 160-4 positus 238.28 probai 424 Proclitics 156-8 prodis 17 putrisco 400 puulva 356 (3) Pyrrhus 187 pyxis 187 Progne 330 proles II preefetto 266 prffigna(n)s 255. 79. por 14 porcellus yj pregnax cf. 401. 252. pos(t)quam 11. 41 5> 416-9 presentis (nom. -^yj pos(t) 96. 383-95 Demonstrative 61-8 Indefinite 71. 370 punctus 440 puni poni 203 = presium 277 pressi 429 pressorium 37 pressura 37 pressus 441 presta 210 presteti 139 frete 300 punidor 39 punxi 429 pupillabus 358 puplu 309 pup(p)a 163 pure 40 puritas 37 purpura 145. 311 prEEStare 31 prffistavi 422. 259 quadra(l)nta 380 qua(9'ro 283 quKSi 426. 330.28 prebiter 300 Interrogative 7o> 69- quadraginta 142. 186. 395 prandium 272 pranzo 272 pre. 226. 71. 384-6 Possessive 60. 254 qu k.Index. 394 quamta 306 quan 305 Digitized by Microsoft® . 250 prendiderunt 426 prendo 250 prensi 429 prensio 37 posmeridianus 285 posse 126 (3). 95 pro. etc.229 (6) puteolis 136 • potebam 403 (i) potebo 403 (i) poteo 403 (i) potere 403 (i) pdteri 410 potestas 356 (3) potionare 33 potis 17 pretium 277 preveire 300 pride (m) 309 primitius 324 principens 367 pri(n)cipis 306 Prixsilla 255 puteum 347 putrire 400 potius 74 pr:e 14 pr£E-28 prjeber(e) 24? prsecoca 376 praeda 209 prsedestinare 28 prsEdiscer(e) 242 pro 14. 254 qua 82 > promptulus 39 430 prsstus 376 Pronouns 59-71. 439 = 311 prendere 225.

350 = -it 285 remasit 311 Remidium 272 remissa 37 (-ta) ren^gat 139 renum reg. 71. 355 (2) res nata 13.23.quoniam 14. no.269 Vowels in Hiatus 167-9 quomodo 14. 244 quat(t)or 226. 82 comodo 226 Vowel Length 165-77 Words from Other Lan. 449 responduntur 449 responsi 429 raggio 272 que(m) 309 quen 305. rectus 440 32. quodlubet 220 regnancte 267 regnum 172 (2) Relatives : see Pronouns reli (n) quat 306 relinque 282. 82.28 retro (r) sum 291 = = redpit 139 recolli(g)endo 259 Recomposition 31. 74 12. quo 73 quo = quod 282 quoad 11 quod 14. no quooperta = co. 168 429 = reddere 286 rasio = ratio 277 ratio 277 retina 17 retro 81 razzo 272 re. 350. 139 retenet 139 retere questor 210 questus 210 quetus 225 qui 69. retundus 229 (6) reuuardent 344 139 reve(r)sus 291 reversus sumrz reverti 410 revolutio 37 rexi 297. 200 redft 423 redivit quannu 281 = Win.) 361 ramenc 37 (-incus) rancura 42 ranucula 42 rap(i)dus 239 rasl restitueram 285 restivus 39 resurge(n)s 311 retenere 31. 379 quattordecim 379 quat(t)ro 226. 393 qui quia 82 qui ky 187.344 = -bit 318 263 Quantity 159-77. 245. 429 rhetor 335 rhetorissare 33 richesse 341 rictu quiaeti 209 quicumque 71 quid 350 quidem 11 recubitus yj (-ta) quiensces 311 quietus 225 quin II quinqua(gi)nta 142. 259.269 respondere 399. 393 re(g)ina 259 regis -es 244 = quisque 71 quisquis 71 Unaccented Vowels 221 174. 223 quia 82. 379 quel 393 quejus 393 quoque quot quot n Repetition 40. 82. 71 rabies 319 radius 272 rainante = reg. 82. 219. no.1 Index. 25 recapitulare 25 retro. 139 redempsi 429 redemti 313 Digitized = rectum igS by Microsoft® . 71. 281 quinque 172 Quintrio quippe 1 quique 71 (i). quando 14. 309 querceus 39 quercinus 39 querel(l)a 42 rama (pi. 139 requEerit 139 rs see Liquids >• ss 291 requebit 225 res 10. 221 Development of New Quantity 176-7 Disappearance of Old Quantity 173-5 Doubtful Quantity 166 Length before Consonants 170-2 Position 160-4 refusare 17 re(g)alis quiritare 229 quis 69. 71. 71 quare 12. 380 reculons 40 reddedi 31.254 guages 1 74-5 > = quantu(m) 309 quantus 12. replenus 23 55. 71 = quod 282 quum r : > cum 226 repositorium 37 reprehensus 250 requeerere 25. 82 quarranta 142. 380 quase 244 quasi 83.

) 368 419 (i) sel 160 selinum 150 sappia 272 sapui 426. 428 satis 74 sem 419 (i) Semele 359 semita 239 semo 419 (i) : see Sibilants final s in ist pers. sty.314 rivocaverit 229 (2) sagma 19.Index. Saguntum 338 saine 42 saini 267 sltlbaiec (fern. 210 scalciare excalceare 230 scandalizare 19 445 initial s + cons. 440 secula 200 (3) Romanice 40 Romanu -pos 38 rosi (nom. 14 sed-= se 229 (4) 429 rosum = ros 356 rosus 441 (3) sanctissimus 377 san(c)tus 172 (i). 201 (2) senape 184 senatus (2d decl. 428 = si 229 (4) = sit 419 (2) = sibi 201 ^ 419 (i) roborem 347 robur 9. (stlis) riges = re. 367 SiEpia 182 saginae 42 = 284 Sagitta 37 (-ittus) ripidus 39 scloppus 284 scopulus 38 scorlare excor.) 372 salvage 229 (3) salvatico 229 (3) salvaticus 229 (3) secu(n)do 306 secuntur 254 sed II.268. pi.) 355 (i) sine 201 sene -sa 37 (-ta) sabbatizare 19 scaplas 234 sablum 233 sacra 376 Sca(u)rus 211 scena 182 (i) = sacramentum 231 359 sacristano 359 sacrista -anis- schema 19 schernire 341 schiatta 343 schietto 343 senex 12 senper 306 semita 239 senta sentam 416 sententem 416 = Digitized by Microsoft® . 324 rivaticus rip. ssy. (3) = 229 salbum3i7 salii scrivano 359 scultor 313 se 422.230 scriba -anis 359 = rigueza 341 risi 429 risus 441 rius 241.) 349 sffipes sepes saeps 209. 419 roubSn rs > 36. x : salsus 440. salivi 428 440 J^= sead sebe salma 268 salsi 428. ridSre rideri 213 schioppo 284 sclitib. 34r. 398 398 ss 291 36. : 429 Romance Territory p. rubare nibeus 319 sandal 330 sanguem 370 sanh 267 sapcha 272 sapere 402 sedui 428 sedutus 441 signavi 424 segnai = rugiada 356 nira35r ru(r)sum 291 russum 291 rutare 34 s (3) segolo 200 (3) sei sapiam 272 sapidus 39 sapienti (pi. xi Roman Empire p. 341. 347 rogavo = -bo 318 ro(g)itus 259. 435 salitus 436. = sa = ipsa 392 semper semper 74 sempre 245 semul 201. sauma 26S scabia 355 (2) scsena 182.igS 399 409 sacritus rigna 198 rikitia 341 Jiimini 86 SidxpiTos 272 sseculum (masc. 267 sedano 335 sed(e)cim 239 sedere seditur 399 = esse 402. 441 saltern 11 salticulare 35 secatus 435. 429 440 scriptum 315 scri(p)tus 313. 230 sy 275 scy.) 349 scripit 312 (i) scrips! 315.

^'j final s 298. sibl 201. 337 sinatus 228 (-arius) sordidius 377 sorex 42. solbit sentia 421 sentii 42S. soliculus 13. sibi 219.230 Spania 230 = Spanus 230 sparsi 429 J« 419 sest = est 419 (i) set = est 419 (i) set = sed 282 seta 209 setaceus 39 setis = estis 419 (i) 229 385 (4) settembres 313 seus suus 387 soaru 295 soave 224 sobreus 224 socera 37 soc(e)rum 232.214 senii 298 Index. = secretins 256 347 sonatus 435 sons 419 (i) Sophia 146 -sor 37 sorcerus = sortiarius 39 s^bat 323 serbus 317 Serios Sergius 272 serore so. scy. 244. 150. 201 sinexter 201 (3) -sic 37 sirena 356 (3) sis si vis 324 -sorium ^y -sorius 39 soro(r) 295 sous = suus 167. 213 serra = sera 247 serutinus 16 servare 323 sine 95. sy. 18 sol(i)dus 237 230 separare seperare 231.229 (7) serpentinus 37 = = 428 simus 220. 221. 439. 277 servitude 37 ses servire = spacium 276 spallere 337 sive II = es 419 (i) (i) skena 341 skern6n 341 skiuhan 343 slahta 343 sleht 343 spandere exp. 429 sentitus 436. soluit sic nants 264 Sicilianus 39 solus 395 solutus 438 solvitus 438. 234 speca spica 200 (3) = speclarait spectante = -avit 424 = exp.cons. 385 385 Sibilants 297-302.ig8 439 siede 419 (1) soma 268 somas 419 (i) sona 2ona 338 septrum 260 septuazinta 339 septum 209 sepulchrum 251 sequere 406 sequire 406 serbare 323 siem 419 (2) siete 419 (i) siffatto 264 siffler 318 (2) sifilus 318 (2) = signum-us 172 sigricius silevit 422. 440 ss > 275 solingo 37 (-incus) solo (dat.230 = 406 si 14. 445 initial s 4. 244 solacium 276 sola mente 41 solatium 276 solbere 317 spene^SS (2) speni from spes 355 (2) speramus = -avimus 424 sperantia 37 Digitized by Microsoft® . 182 seppia 182 sepsies 277 z : see Greek Conso- soltus 438. 219. ssy. 83. 233 soef 2.) 395 solsi s 161 429 440 224 sepes 209 sepia 146.z\ sofferire sparsus 441 spasmus 144 spat (h) a 332 spat(u)la 12. 244. (2). etc.419 (1) sinapis -e -i 38. sty. 213 soricem 42. 38. septa (gi)nta 380 septe(m) 309 sidibus = se. 233 sepelitus 436. 441 solia 323 224 sentor . 184. 387 sozer 154 servicium 276 323 servisium 277 servitium 276. si sol 13 = sibi spehon 343 spelunca 329 siam 419 (2) siamus 419 (2) sibe 219.

428. 388 -sus 37. 332 Syncope 219. 430 steva 200 (3) stilla 419 (i) suus 60.230 struxi 429 stupescere 35 > staacio 276 stablarius 231 stagnum (masc. 116 for Indie. 40. 405. 38 suis (nom.230 spoliatur = -or 244 structus 440 straere 417 strugere 417 spo(n)sus 171 spontaneus 39 squarciare 276 ss s 161 strumentum = inst. 419 (i) suora 295 sues 138 super 80. 229. 330 talis 71 strlban 341 for Adj.230 stais stup(p)a 163 suabitati 318 5uadel(l)a 42 suavis 224 Suavitta 37 (-ittus) sub. 441 subornatris 255 subplantare 32 sy=ty277 sycotum 141 Syllabication 131-3 = Stella = 198 stingo 226 -stinxi 429 stipes stips 367 subsannare 26 Substitution of subterranus 42 subtus 81 suc(c)us 163 suceroni 362 Words 13 symphonia 146.) 355 (i) splorator stnicere 417 215 sumus 220. 428.) 367 sulphurem 347. 430 sietti 426 stetul 426.Index. spes 355 (2) spiritus (2d decl.) 349 stahu 397 397 stait 397 stantia= inst. 440 Suffixes 33-42 Cbange of Suffix 42 talentum 149.26 subaudire 26 subcludere 26 stao 397 stare 397 stasio 277 static subcumbere 32 Subjunctive 117-g for Imper. 387-8 submonsus 439. 118 Pres.) 367 stlataris 284 stlis 284 stloppus 284 storax 187 stren(n)a 163 stren(n)uor 164 Stress : see Accent stirpis see Dentals ty 276-7 sud=sub3i5 sufferit 406 -ta37 tab(u)la 236 tactus 440 suffertus 435. 410 Plup. 117 > 277 status 438 397 staunt 397 stegola zoo stel(l)a 163 siaii (3) Imperfect 118 Perfect 119. = Iniperf. 369 sumpsi 29S sumptus 308 tan 306 tanctus 440 tanger(e) 242 tantu(m) 309 tantus 71 tanxl 429 tapinus 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . 419 (2) sublimus 376 429 su(r)sum 291 surtus 440 sus = suus 226.26 suprafacere 26 supra 245 -sura 37 Surd Sonant: see Voicing = exp. 441 sus(s)um 291 sutis sursi Stephanus 183 steti 426. 84 440 440 strinxi 429 strofa 334 stropa 334 stroppus 186 strinctus strictus for Verbs 33-6 Greek Endings 36.26 superabundare 26 superfacere 26 superstitis (nom. 415. 90. 41 for Nouns 37. 403. 96 super. 14. 38 tamen 11. 231-g Synonyms 12 Syntax 50-130 t : (nom. 397.) 367 Supine 103 sup(p)ra 164 sup(p)remis 164 supra. 39 for Adv.

343 tata 16 . 299 trabucare 26 tracere 417 tap(p)ete 162 tarde 40 tarir 342.292 -tim 40 timbre 187. 407 theios 333 toto (dat.208 tonsus 441 toll(e)re 429 trebus 201 trei = tres 379 298 trei Teodor 332 -ter 40 tardus 276 Terentio = treis 177 tremulat 235 trepaliare 33 = -us 298 tergSre 399 -tor 37 torcere 399 torco 226. 399 torsi trescar 342 trib(u)la 235.2l6 tapis 182 tapit 182 Index.163. 198 376 triumphaut 241. 244. 331 timor (fern. 380 trinitas 429 tarsus 441 -Tt\% 38 testa 13 tetrus 376 428 tortus 440 tot 71 tot trinta tris 37 380 taxui 428 204 (2) texutus 440 thahso 342. 385 traducir 299 traduire 299 Tatius 277 tatus 16 taula 236. 139 tibi 221. 343 tharrjan 342. 407 -tas 37 tasso 342. 439 tolsi 428. Theophilus 333 thesaurizare 19 thesaurus -um 189. 352 tribuna(l) 242. 347 threscan 342 tra.26. 71.204(2).208 tomus 186 torqu(e)o 226. 289 Tricassas 151 trienta 259 tri(g)inta 142. 440 239 tollitus 435. 399 trapalium 16 tres 379 tergum -us 347 termen 356 (3) terminaciones 2 76 terra (m) 309 tersi toreomatum 191 -torium 37 -tonus 39 torma = tu. -anis 359 = tibi 385 -tiacum 277 tibe 244 ti tractatus 9 tractus 440 tradedit 31.) 346 timoratus 39 Tragani (2) = Traj.) 395 tot(t)uS 12.259 tragere 417 trahere 417 = tempaccio 39 tempesta 356 (3) templus 347 timpuri 369 tinctus 440 tinge 226 tinguere 226 tins -^^ census trans. 318 taurellus 37 taxi 429 telebra ter. 325.26. 424 tristus = tres 395 -trix 37 trobaire 37 (-tor) totum (adv. 259. 429 tolui 428 tomolus =: tumu. 299 transannare 26 tra(ns)duco 299 tra(ns)jicio 299 260 tra(ns)luceo 299 tra(ns)mitto 299 tempo 298 tempus 13 tenit 244 tinxi 429 -tic n transplantare 26 tra(ns)pono 299 tra(ns)tulo 299 ten(n)uis 164 Titius 277 Tivoli 86 tra(ns)veho 299 traps 315 trasporre 299 travis (nom.) 74 tous thensaurus 311 — tuus 387 Trogar=-jae 259 Troja 170 Digitized by Microsoft® .208 tonatus 435 tondere 399 tonica tu.) 367 traxi Tense 120-30 tensi 429 tensura 13 tensus 441 t^nueram 137 tenui 42S tenutus 438.

440. 222. 206.) 429 -unt -ent 449 unus 10. 83 ubi 73 -uc(c)us 37 (-icca) -uculare 35 -uculus 42 -utus 39. 438. 192. 187. 403 vendita 37 (-ta) 177 u 165. 315. 379 -undus 39 ungo 226 unguere 226 unicornis 44 unigenitus 44 vaqua = vacua 223 vaqui vacui 223 vastare 344 vanitare 34 = 187 tuos 138 -tura 37 turrensis 39 turri tumum vasus -um 347. 367 veni 428.316 -tulus turn = tuum 226. 39 (5). Troyes 151 tructa 38. 438. 441 uu unacc. 70. u 226 uuadius 344 > -uus > -itus 42 -udo ii > -umen 42 uxo(r) 295 uxore (abl.) 367 vendutus 438 vene bene 316 = urbs 12. 82. 2c6 u 208 u ii o 165. 192. 42 accented 206-8 u 206-7 ii>-u 165. 349 * verecundia 231 verecunnus 281 Inflection: > > > utrum II. 57. 206-8. 440 venui 428. o 226 vecinus 229 (4) vedus 234. 378. 185 trutina 187 tu 60 -ula 37 (-ulus) Ulixes 187 ultra 166 -ulus 37. 440 ver 13 usque hodie 47 ustium 202 Ut II. 243. 244 in hiatus 222-6 uo >• o 226 uu u 226 o 225 u(5 uu u 226 Uranus 193 urbis (nom. 14. 285 Valinca 37 (-Incus) . 356 (3) vea via 201 = vecere = veh-4i7 -e 364 -tus 37 (-ta). 84. -ura 37.315 usare 34 Use Use Use of of Cases 85-100 of Inflections 85-130 Words 54-84 venuta 37 (-ta) venutus 436. 101-30 Verbs : see Verb Forma verbus 347. 326 u 178. 14. 42. 297. 430 > > -urem 346 (3) veninum 42 venire 126 (5) venitus 436. etc. 284 vedea 421 = ve^ere 283 vef 226 vegere = veh-4i7 uobit = obiit > ve(he)inens 250 vehere 417 vel II velle 126 (3).395 unu(s) 29S unxi 429 U(5 >• o 225 uo unacc. 73. 217 vadere 126 204 (2) -tudo 37 iuii 204 (2) tul£runt 450 tucti > -ellus 42 40 -um vallensis 39 : Unaccented Vowels see valneas = ba. 220 ui 216 unaccented 219. 440 unire 34 Tuscanus 39 iuito 204 (2) tuttus 204 (2) tuus 226. 430 urps 297. > -clus 234 388 Vowels unde 10. 187. III -uta 37 (-ta) verbex = vervex 323 Verb Forms see Conjugation Use 72. 206. 71. 387-8 ty 276-7 ty ty > cy 277 > sy 277 uno (dat.298. 393 undecim 166. 405 vadum 344 -us 347 valde 237 vaUa(t) 224.) 244 178. 228. 220 -ugo 37 (-ago) ui 216 V see Labials vacuus 42 195 (6). 208 u cons. 229 (5). 438. 223 : vernac(u)lus 234 vemum tempus 13 ve(r)sus 291 vertragus 19 Digitized by Microsoft® .Index.

441 viduus 226 vieni 177 vig(i)lat 430 Vocative 87 vocitus = vacuus 42. 221 Unaccented 219-45 (6) Vocabulary 6-49 vocatio videunt 416 vidi 428. 4 Voicing 256-7. 358' villabus 358 Vincentzus 277 426 vinctus 440 vincui 428 vincutus 440 vindemiator 224 vindico 239 vindimia 197 vindo = v6. Syl. 441 vixutus 440 vobis 385 cf. 165-245 watan werra = . 12. 272-3. 416. vinus 347 Clerical Pronun. 234. 416 vistus 441 visus 441 vitellus Breaking 177 = 37 vitium 278 vitricus 13 Vowels 179 Close and Open 165 Differentiation 165 Celtic = vit(u)lus 234 vivus 324 vius = German Vowels 179 Greek Vowels 180. = vac. 428 . 407 volutus 438 wastare 344 = ^ = = volvitus 438. 240-5 in hiatus 222-7 Init. 439 voster 199 (i).) 367 warnjan 36. 430 vido vidutus 438.201 viaticum 8. 438. 231 vettovaglia 154 vetulus 12.) 349 314.195 = video 416 vidui = vidi 428. 297. Accented 194-218 Digitized 344 344 werrarius 39 werrizare 33 wi^arlon 342 19. 231 (6) vocatus 435. 259. 19 vulnus (masc. Vulgar Words 15. 37 viror 37 virtus 10 vlscui visit Influence of Labials 217 Single Vowels 194208 before gn 172 (2) before j 170 before n fricative 171 before nk 172 (i) = = vixi 428. 239 vibi = bibi 318 iiibit 316 vibit victore (nom. 284 videderunt 426 video 272-3.) 367 victualia 18.93 in hiatus 136-8. 385 Vowels 136-8. vivacius 377 vixcit = vixit 255 cf. 19.2l8 vervex 323 ves(s)ica 162 vestibat Index. 428. 428 in words borrowed by other languages 1 74-5 Latin Vowels 178 Position 160-4 videre 72. + vezem 445 vezzo 278 -vui 428 -vi via 167.) 344 volere velle 403 (2) w (Latin) 224 voles 403 (2) Waddo 344 volestis 403 (2) wadum 344 volimus 403 (2) wahta 343 volon 39 (-undus) walde 344 volsi 429 Wandali 344 voltus 438. 429 = vixit 255 cf. 283. 429 vixi(t) 285 . 228-30 259 34 vi(gi)nti 142. 255. cf. 429 vinti 380 vincisti Intert. 321 volatilia 37 volemus 403 (2) w (Ger. 380 vilescere villa 10. Quantity 165-77. 167-9 . 285. 13.195 (6) vocuus Quantity 221 Voice 1 12-4 Vulgar Latin 3. 284 vetus 13 video 272-3 veyo virginem 233 vir(i)diaria 237 vir(i)dis 237 vir(i)dura 18. 286. 428. 439 Penult 232-9 vac. 439. 218 Diphthongs 209-16 420 vetatus 435 vet(e)ranus 219. 440 warjan 344 voluntate (nom.197 -ea 224 vinia vinsi 428. 37 victurias 203 vic(u)lus'234. 387 vovis vobis 318 cf . 285. 195 vocitus Final Syl. 430. by Microsoft® . 318 . Syl. 428 vixi 255.285.

Index. 255. 339 zeta = diseta 339 zie = die 272 Zesu zins 260 ziziper 312 (i) X 246.339 = dia.277 Zogenes = Dio. 339 = dia.272 ymnus 251 zerax = liierax 339 zosuin=deorsum 339 Zouleia= Julia 272. 266 y (Greek) 187 y (Latin) 224 zagante 229 (3) zampogna 332 zanuari = ja. Wintrio 344 wlsa 344 witan 36.339 Zefurus 187 zelosus 339 2» 333 Zodorus = Theo.339 = dies 272 = Jesu 272. 339 Digitized by Microsoft® .272.344 z 246 zabul(l)us zes 219 zacones zaconus ~ dia.339 zebus = die. 398 Word Order 50-3 wost.

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful