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I)eatb'5 flDot>ern tHanduage Qctics AN INTRODUCTION VULGAR LATIN BY C.. HEATH & Digitized CO. U. H. PUBLISHERS 1907 by Microsoft® . GRANDGENT Fbofbssor of Romance Languagss in Harvahd University BOSTON. S. C. A. D.

C. Digitized by Microsoft® .V^-^5 3J( Copyright. 1907. By D. Heath & Co.

who wish to look further into special My principal authorities are listed in the Bibliotext. it be of some interest to has been long in the Classical scholars as well. PREFACE. Digitized byiUicrosoft® . that the is Syntax — perhaps unavoidably parts. I hope. "^^HILE this book is intended primarily for students of it will. but with even fulness I fear. furthermore. not exhaustively. others are cited in the appropriate places in the C. to treat all portions of the subject. somewhat scanty as compared with the other It will be seen that I have continually furnished abundant references for the guidance of those topics. graphy. have tried. I Philology. Although it.— . Grandgent. abreast of current scholarship. Romance making. H. however. have endeavored to keep I at every stage.

with Abbreviations PHONETIC ALPHABET and Other Symbols X.... AND Their Meanings. .. xi x xi xiii-xvi . ^ .. . 7-8 Words used in Classic but not in Vulgar Latin . . 6-29 6-12 6 7-8 7 .... Words used alike in Classic and in Vulgar Latin Words used differently in Classic and in Vulgar Latin . 8-9 Synonyms Substitutes.... Adjectives.TABLE OF CONTENTS. 9 9-10 10 10-12 Ii>-i2 Particles Words used in Vulgar but not in Classic Latin Native Words Foreign Words I2 Uerivation Post-Verbal Prefixes 13-29 Nauru . 13 13-16 13-14 14-16 16-28 16-17 Prefixes used with Nouns... . ... Sense Restricted Sense Extended . Pages MAPS The Roman Empire The Neo-Latin Territory in Europe BIBLIOGRAPHY.. and Pronouns Prefixes used with Verbs Suffixes Suflixes for Suffixes for Verbs Nouns Adverbs iv Digitized 18-23 Suffixes for Adjectives Suffixes for 23-25 25-26 27-28 Change of Suffix by Microsoft® .. xvii INTRODUCTION i-S VOCABULARY WoBDS. ^ .

. 30-59 30-32 32-41 32-34 33 33-34 34-38 Pronouns 34 35-36 36-37 37-38 38 ^^38-39 Verbs Adverbs Prepositions 39-41 ^ Conjunctions 41 Use of Inflections Cases 42-59 42-48 42-43 43 43-44 Locative Vocative Genitive Dative Ablative 44-4S 45-47 48^ Accusative Fall of Declension Verb-Forms Impersonal Parts Supine 48 48 48-51 48—49 '.Table of Contents. Compounds v Pages 28-29 28 28 28 28 Nouns . Future Active Participle Digitized 49 49 49 by Microsoft® . Adjectives Pronouns- Verbs Adverbs Fiepositions 28-29 29 20 Conjunctions SYNTAX Order of Words Use of Words Nou»s and Adjectives Comparison Numerals Pronouns Personal and Possessive Pronouns Demonstratives Interrogatives and Relatives Indefinite . . Gerund Gerundive .

Illic Ficatum Numerals Greek Words Greek Oxytones . Greek Paroxytones Greek Proparoxytones Other Foreign Words Secondary Stress Unstressed Words 64 64-65 65-66 66 66-67 67-68 68-77 68-70 71-77 Quantity Position Vowel Quantity Vowels in Hiatus Lengthening before Consonants Disappearance of the Old Quantity Development of a New Quantity 72-73 73-75 75-76 76-77 77-104 78-82 82-gi Vowels Greek Vowels Accented Vowels Single Vowels 82-87 82-83 Digitized o by Microsoft® . Pages Present Participle Perfect Participle Infinitive 5° 50 5°~5I 51-52 Voice Mood Imperative Subjunctive 52-54 52 5^-54 54-59 54-5^ Tense The Perfect Tenses Future and Conditional 5^59 60-143 60-61 61-68 61-66 61-62 62-63 63 63 64 64-66 PHONOLOGY Syllabication Accent Primary Stress Vowels in Hiatus Compound Verbs Table of Contents.

^ »" I o 84 84-85 85-86 H u 86 86-87 87 a Diphthongs te 88-90 88-89 89-90 au eu ce ui Influence of Labials Clerical Latin 90 90 90 91 91 Unaccented Vowels 91-104 in Unaccented Vowels Initial Syllable Hiatus 93-96 96-98 98-99 99-102 102-104 Intertonic Syllable Penult Final Syllable Consonants Latin Consonants Aspirate Gutturals .. Q.. before Front Vowels and G before Back Vowels and G Final and before Consonants . 11 2-1 14 Palatals Dentals Liquids 114-118 118-121 121-124 121-123 123-124 L R Sibilants 124-126 127-132 132-137 Nasals Labials P Digitized 132-133 by Microsoft® .. .Table of Contents.. e vii Pages 83-84 84 .. 104-143 106-137 106-107 107-114 109-112 112 C and G Q.

viii Table of Contents. 133-13S 13s i3S-'37 137 137—141 u Greek Consonants B. *. r. T e. X Liquids. A 138 138 138-139 140 140-141 K. Nasals. n. and Sibilants Z Germanic Consonants 141-143 144-187 144-161 144-147 144 145-146 146-147 MORPHOLOGY NotJNS AND Adjectives Gender Masculine and Feminine Masculine and Neuter Feminine and Neuter Declension of Nouns First Declension 147—156 149-151 Second Declension Third Declension Loss of Declension Declension of Adjectives 151-152 152—156 156 157-158 158-159 159-161 161-165 161-162 Comparison Numerals Pronouns and Pronominai. Pages B F V . Adjectives Personal Pronouns Possessives Demonstratives Interrogative Indefinite 162-163 163-164 165 165 and Relative Pronouns Pronouns and Adjectives Verbs The Four Conjugations First Conjugation 166-187 166-170 166-167 167 Second Conjugation Third Conjugation Fourth Conjugation Fundamental Changes in 167-170 170 Inflection 170-173 Digitized by Microsoft® .

Inchoative Venbs ix Pages Present Stems Imperfect Perfect 173-174 174-176 176-177 177-182 » Weak Perfects . Strong Perfects Pluperfect and Future Perfect Perfect Participle 177-180 180-182 183 Personal Mndings 183-185 186-187 189-219 INDEX Digitized by Microsoft® .Table of Contents.

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2^ ed. Defixionum Tabellae. : correct- Die Appendix Probi. Bonnet. L. Quarterly. I. 1902. Audollent: A. -Carnoy: A. Bausteine: Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie. Pr. BIBLIOGRAPHY WITH ABBREVIATIONS. Die Suffixwandlungen im Vulgdrlatein und im vorlittera- im NeufranzSsischen. Silviae Peregrinatio. 1891. Introduction 1899. Dottin: G. Cohn. D'Arbois: H.T. S. M. Wiener Studien XIV. 278 ft. Mllanges Boissier 5-9.Pipoque Densusianu: O. Leipzig. 1902. Le latin d'Espagne d'aprh les inscriptions. 1899. : Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Histoire de la langue roumaine. C. Cohn : G. d'Arbois de Jubainville. Bechtel: E. in Romor nische Forschungen XV.. possibly as early as the third century. Cf. i). 1895. AudoUent. ed.. Cf. Le latin de Grigoire de Tours. Corssen : W. Vol. : Part — — . Melanges Renier 301-309. W. Densusianu. A volume of mis- Bayard : L. Bon. New ed. 1901. 774. Dottin. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. 1890. Heraeus. Le latin de saint Cyprien. Per. 145 ff. cellaneous studies issued in honor of A. Corssen. A. Chronologie : F. Die griechischen Wbrter im Franzosischen. Vocalismus und Betonung der rischen Franzosisch nach ihren Spuren lateinischen Sprache. G. 1906. Claussen. 1868-70. A Latin list of and incorrect spellings. Cooper: F. mlrovingienne. Romanische Forschungen VII. Carnoy. : 1902-03. La dlclinaison en Gaule d. Word Formation in the Roman Sermo Plebeius. 1904. 1863 1893 Claussen T. Bechtel. (Vol. Archiv : Archiv filr lateinische Lexicographie und Crammatik mit Einschluss des dlteren Mittellateins. I. I. Ueber Aussprache. Digitized b)microsoft® . Mussafia. Manuel pour servir h Vltude de I'antiquiti celtique. 1872.Cooper. Mohl. 1905. Bayard.. App. <J la chronologic du latin vulgaire.

Hetzer. Beiheft Gram. jd or ninth century. Made in France in the eighth Reich. Hoppe: H. 2d ed. -Grundriss : G. Franz : 1883. — 1888- M. Haag. ed. Hammer. 1893. et prononciation du latin savant et du latin popu- 1882. 1902. Syntax und Siil des Tertullian. 2d ed. Paris in Rom. W. Zs. W. XIV BlBIJOGRAPHY. 1896 — Futurum G. 1884. Die lateinisch-romanischen Elemente im Althochdeutschen. in Archiv saint Jlrome. : : P. Die Orthographie lateinischer Worter ingriechischen : : Inschriften. 569. Koschwitz. . W. £don. . KofEmane : G. ed. 2 1902.. 1903. in the eighth Cf. 1894. 1902. 1879Digitized by Microsoft® . : W. Keil.. W. Cassel : II. Die locale Verbreitungfriihester romanischer Lautwandlungen im. 1892. 1857-1880. : : Hammer in Grundriss I^. La latiniti d'Ennodius. Meyer-Liibke. of Vol. Goelzer.. £E. Cf. Rydberg. Eckinger T. in France. alten Italien. Etude lexicograpkique grammaticale de Kasseler Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. 2d 1878. Thielmann. Made. EinfUhrung in das Studium der romanischen les Sprachwissenschaft. G. Romanen und Germanen in ihren Wechselbeziehungen. : Meyer-Liibk'e. Eckinger. Entstehung und Entwickelung des Kirchenlateins. Die Reichenauer Glossen in Zs. K. 1903. XXII. Grundriss der romanischen Philologie. XXVI.. P. Reviewed by G. Edon: G. Grbber. 641 7. Le developpement de facere dans langues romanes. Koff mane. Franz. Draeger: A. 157. Kluge. 1890vols. Gl. 2d ed. Reichenauer Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. 1901. Grammaire des langues romanes. Hoppe. H. I. Habere mit dem et Infinitiv und die Entstehung des la latiniti de romanischen Futurums. Grammatici Latini. Dubois A.. Keil: H. 1898. Draeger. : century. 498. Lateinisch-romanisches Wdrterbuch. Korting: G. Foerster and E.: 1900. Franz. Facere G. Historische Syntax der lateinischen Sprache. Dubois. Die Latinitdt Fredegars. Kbrting. 48. Kluge F.. Foerster and E. 1901.. £criture laire. Gl. probably 521 ff. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. Rydberg.. a: Zur Geschichte des franzosischen 3. 3 vols. Einf . Koschwitz. 1904 Haag : O.

. 1899. M. Pass. Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. : La langue des inscriptions de la Gaule. Loth. Geyer. Regnier: A. 1888. Teil. S. Pogatscher. and S.'i>(eue. Marchot. Mohl. Cf. Habere mit dem Part. The Latin Language. t^ Verzeichniss der ed. Perf Per. Neumann Franz Neumann. Fortsetzung. N. Thielmann. 1894. Olcott. ed. Ferotin. 1892-1902. 1892.Bibliography. Die lateinische Sfrache in den romanischen : Landern. Ronsch. 1903. PI. Lebreton. Pogatscher A. Olcott : G. Mohl. I goo. 1898. Gamurrini. Quillacq. Cf. : Roman Sermo Plebeius. E. Oliver: A^Oliver. sit Quillacq : : J. 1887. : Leipzig. 509: Peregrinatio iiii-viii. G. De latinitate libelli qui inscriptus est Peregrinatio loca sancta. Pers. Wolfflin in Archiv IV. 259. Studies in the tions. in P. lateinischen und romanischen Lehnworte im Altenglischen : II. Itala und Vulgata. : P. R. 1901.XXX). Digitized by Microsoft® .. ad 367 ff. P. A. lat. De la latinitl des Sermons de saint Augustin. Lebreton J. La premiire personne du pluriel en gallo-roman. with special reference to the Latin Sermo Vulgaris. Substantives Word Formation of the Latin Inscrip- and Adjectives. Lindsay. 1886. perhaps from Spain. . Pirson. Regnier. Pr. Perf. Silvia AquitancE Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. Neue: Formenlehre der lateinischen Sprache. 451. Vokalismus der Tonsilben. Btudes sur le lexique du latin vulgaire. Pirson: J. Archiv II. G. : 1 901. Observations on the Use of Certain Prepositions in to the Petronius with special reference Part. 1897. Le viritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. ad loca sancta. 1900. Hilarius. Monthly. Meyer-Lubke. See Bechtel. 1905. J. 1869. in Grundriss V. H. T. : : Ltblt. 1888. : F. : LiteraturblattfUrgermanischeundromanischePhilologie. Etudes sur la langue et la grammaire de Ciciron. du frangais prilittiraire. 'P. Zur Lautlehre der griechischen. Loth J.. Petite phonltique Phon. Lexique F. M. in Itinera hierosolymitana saculi Written probably in the latter part of the fourth century by an ignorant nun. Spr. xv W. Les mots latins dans les langues brittoniques. 372. J. Ang^ade. Quomodo lingua latina usus S. Hilarii Tractatus de Mysteriis et Hymni et S.S. Lindsay: W. 1898. auf Aussprache und Recht- schreibung beziiglichen Eigenthiimlickkeiten in den Inschriften aus Gallia Narbonensis. 1901. Silvice Aquitanm 1898.

234. II. Seelmann. E. H. 539. Vol. Sepnlcri : Gregorio A. 138. 424. : Zur Entstehung der romanischen Wortstellung aus der lateinischen.xvi Richter Elise Richter. 507. : Zeitschrift Jur romanische Philologie. 371. Die rumdnische Sprache. und Thurot : Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits de la Biblioth^que nationale et : attires bibliothiques Vol. Vok. : Wolfflin : E. numbers a year. Windisch. 422. Schuchardt. VI. Paris. Historische 1894. 453. Urbat. 264. 100. Archiv I. to Works the text. Chemnitz and Leipzig. Som. ^KvA. 116. Der Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. Paris. Four to sLx 1879. 1900. Substrate : G. Sittl: K. Zs. 1868. Quarterly. XII. in 204. Charles Thurot. 276. 1890. Notices et Extraits de divers manuscrits latins pour servir A fhistoire des doctrines grammaticales au moyen dge. Die Ausprache des Latein nach physiologisch-historischen Grundsdtzen. which only occasional reference is made are cited in full in Digitized by Microsoft® . V. Le alterazioni fonetiche e morfologiche nel latino di Magno e del suo tempo. Spr. 377. Wblfflin. Lateinische und romanische Comparaiion. 3 vols. 1903. Grammatik der lateinischen Sprache. 564. Tours. Zs. 1902.: E. in Grundriss P. 117. Quarter- ly.. Waters: W. Waters. Stolz. Die keltische Sprache. Suchier: H. 25. Zauner: A. Windisch: E. Vulgdrlateinische Substrate romanischer Worter. Tiktin. 1885. Tiktin : : H. XQ. fr. in Grundriss P. Bibliography. III. IV. 171. in Grundriss P. : S. Sepulcri. Stolz: F. Suchier. Cena Trimalchionis. Romanische Sprachwissenschaft. I. Beitrdge zu einer Darstellung der romanischen Elemente im Latein der Historia Francorum des Gregor v. 371. Grober. Halle. Romania. Die franzosische und provenzalische Sprache ihre Mundarten. Urbat R. 1 856-68. 1&&2. VII. in Studi Medievali I. Petronius.nn&r. : Zeitschrift fiir franzosische Sprache und Litteratur. 125. Die lokalen Verschiedenkeiten der lateinischen SpracAe.

. J) ii o. . (an acute accent) after a consonant letter shows that the consonant is (a dot) • C '^ / (a hook)' under a palatal. is conjectural.c = the sound of ch in German ach. * (an asterisk) before a word shows that the form attested. whichever way it be turned. o = rounded the sound of German = the sound of th in English thin. := rounded i. = the sound of ng in English long. under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is close. vowel letter shows that the vowel is open. (a semicircle) under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is not syllabic. = the sound of e in French me. the sound of Spanish v and i/i *. SMALL CAPITALS mean that the forms so printed occur in inscriptions (but this indication is used only when for some special reason it seems desirable).PHONETIC ALPHABET AND OTHER SYMBOLS. =r bilabial /S v. The other marks and abbreviations employed are so generally accepted as to need no explanation. the source standing at the open end of the figure. not >• indicates derivation. the sound of German «. q e. . S =z > the sound of in English i/iis. Digitized by Micrqsoft® xvii .

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northern Cim- Gaul Dacia was colonized in 107 A. Throughout this territory the official language Latin. also Meyer-Lubke. X. 'See Mohl. Africa after Iberians._ Germanic and others still. pp. j.talyjt_was Italic tribes. D. Sfr. originally the speech of shown by the map was Latium._Semites. southern Gaul in 120.AN INTRODUCTION TO VULGAR I. LATIN. forsaken in the third century. tribes. 451-455. Celts. all Italy was subdued south of the Macra and the Rubicon. Illyria was absorbed after 167. the Orient. tEe bri fall "oO^thage in 146. civilizations. Venetia cast her lot with Rome in 215.. IHy- _rians . and linguistic habits. in adopted by Etruscans and by various n orthern Italy by Ligurians. Celts. Lat. Spain was made a province in 197. a little district on the is The Latin tongue was thus extended to many peoples. I Digitized by Microsoft® . and Africa. representing different races. political changes drove it in the rest of the from Great Britain. The extent of the Roman Empire on p. Illyrians in^sou^hea^emjmd southwestern Italy respectively by and Greeks. beyond the peninsula it spread among Ligurians. Empire it has remained. The and Teutones were destroyed was a province. The Latinization of these peoples was the work of several centuries^: by 272 b. c. Sardinia and Corsica in 238. and quite cut off from the rest of the Latin-speaking world in the sixth.. Raetia in 15. Chronologie . for the most part.n central j. and. Latin language never gained a foothold in Greece. the in 102-1. Sicily became a province in 241. in 50. Aquitanians. Tiber.

had a levelling and speech in Italy ^ See Chronologie 133 and I16-120. Europe where Latin in its modern forms is now spoken. c. there were at all times.g2eaking peoples_ were not_ homogeneous. 2. The map on p. kindred At first there was sturdy resistance. [§ 2 until the present day. and has been carried thence to Amerand Asia. The Social War. Oscan forms are ligud for and k for lege^ pru for pro^ ni for 'The is S. considerable local dive^ences. 445. jfor : e. it blended more languages. alL southern Italy was under Oscan influence. Kff. that the language carried effect. moreover. xi marks the parts of ica. and there must have been a variety of accent. but there doubtless were still noticeable differences in pronunciation and even in vocabulary. became more uniform. Latm. of Latium was adopted by tribes using. however. Digitized may be Oscan. and their In Italy the language §peech_reflected_their varied origin. Pomex. Italian nn : for nd. Spr. etc. until the 90-89 B. and there was little or no mixture. The Latin tongue.2 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Chronologie 98-99. 464. conflict of or less with the native idioms . and Oscan was used in inscriptions until the first century of our era. Africa. and to some degree in the peninsula. Latin was simply substituted for foreign tongues. ilex are perhaps Umbrian possibly Etruscan Lat. piimex. but especially p^eriods. nevertheless a few native words were kept. in the main. the resulting geographical dis- crepancies are manifest in early monuments. like every living language. elex for The Italian word zavorra by Microsoft® . the alteration being most rapid in the earliest and the latest Furthermore. It should be remembered.^ When Latin conquered. The before the Social War.'' In the outlying provinces. The evidence of inscriptions and of grammarians indicates that from the beginning to the end of Roman history speech was constantly changing. has always been in an unstable condition.

Roman territory.the classes. Administration and ImiHtary service tended to obliterate distinctions. the earlier acquisitions received a more popular.^ Vulgar Latin naturally developed differently in ^ * Cf Lai. ugper and that of the lower and^coiintry speech. 463-464. the common idiom.. provinces was not identicial: it represented different chronological stages and different local dialects of jI^aUc^Latin . What wecalTVuIit gar Latin is the speech of the middle classes. . from the brogue of the country. Republican and early Imperial times educated speech became highly^ artificial. was constantly developing away from the archaic standard of elegant parlance. We may say in general that the East. %J3] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. drawing away . under the Empire the variations probably came to be no greater than those /the^kter colonies a now to be found in the English of the British Empire. throughout the Republic and the Empire. 3 i\2_ik^_J£X?.^ fields: it continues the Classic. 3. and from the slang of the lowest quarters of the city. Spr. not the primitive. Cf Cooper . _excegting ^reece andthe £entiiry after Christ. not an independent offshoot of Old Latin: system. as It is grew out of early Classic Latin. more offtcial speech.. and is also between city Injatfi.from the everyday language on the other hand. . from the consciously polite utterance of cultivated society. was completelyTaFinized by the fourth "^ "" of With the beginnings culture and literature there came inevitably a divergence between the language of . while popular usage tends to quick change. Literary influence conservative and refining. though affected by all of these. Digitized by Microsoft® . XV-XXX. vowel is it Neither the dialect of the slums or of the us of not a few urban and rustic grammarians distinct tell vulgarisms that are not perpetuated in the It is Romance tongues. 1 .t&L.

tqa^bout -6oo . then. see Lat. c. progressed. ^l^ various localities.A-P. Furthermore. some to a desire for differentiation (which lowers i to e to make it more remote from i ). i6i. and the diphthong at is reduced to e). in the last few centuries of this is most sharply differentiated from Classic Latin when schools decayed „ . We rfote an. Pirson and Carnoy also. Sittl and Hammer. B. . roughly The speaking. the universal inclination of language to diverge was reinforced by the original habits of the diverse speakers and by such peculiarities of native accent as hacl survived. YjJgar Lsatijl. until the dialects of distant localities became mutu^ ally unintelligible. some of which can be ascribed to an inclination to discard those parts of words that are not necessary for their identification (as vetulus when viridis. being accelerated and the military organization was broken.JLQmance languages _begin. we observe certain changes in pronunciation. Althou. vedus). suftseSWe 4.seventh century of our era. Kiibler Archiv VIII.enormous development of modifying and determining words.^ Ctassic and VulgarXatin._jjid an abundant use of prefixes and. inj^e^ixth Jix . we shall see was always tending to become more flexible and more explicit. some to a tendency to assimi^tejmlike adjacent sounds (so ipse is spoken isse. Spr. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. due partly to phonetic but mainly to syntactic causes. 492-497. some to unknown reasons! WEy~" for instance. period lasts. for African Latin.ALjUus--poin-t we ~may_ say that Vulgar XiSi^ stops and the .^ The differentiatign.^ any definite date must be arbitrary. Digitized by Microsoft® . become virdis. If we compare that the latter find also a gre at sim plification of inflections. ai almost in iCf. * For a history of the Latin language. from about 200 b. such as articles and prepositions. . as far as the levelling inEuence of schot^l and army permitted. we may put it.4 .

E. see Stolz. Grober. W. Hetzer in Zs. 'See W. Seelmann. XXX). 6t. fourth century^.ijecurring. S. 1866-68. 204 if. . Herseus. Gioixr. in the eighth century.iSgS. and VII. Meyer-Liibke. Geyer. Sprachgziellen und Wortquellen des lateiniscken Worierbuchs in Archiv I. F6rotin. the A^endix Probi^ z.— An become^ o. 1885. 55-67.. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Melanges Boissier 5 W.Jists„jof JacQlxacJtjOTmjs. Lommatzsch. For a brief account of the Latin grammarians. 1899. 401. 4 For the chronology of developments. Schuchardt. P. the distinction of learned and popular words. early and late. E. 641 K. in inscriptions and early manu- ^scripts'. Die Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. . Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. "See P. ^Cf. Zur Sprache der Mulomedicina Chironis in . 551. and the establishment of unattested Vulgar Latin words. a few texts w ritten by persons of scanty education. 1902 . Die Appendix Probi. S.glossaries aDi.. 1902. ^ Utilized by E. possib^'as early as the third century'. . Heraeus. Archiv XIV. 367. made in France There is an interesting collection of Defixionum Tabellce. Cf. Fcerster in Wiener Studien XIV. 301 G. while au did not in Latin generally. Le veritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. Of ^speciaTvalue are the Peregrinatiqjidjqtasancta. Zur Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. "See 119. Lot. G. . and W. Spr. Wolfflin. a considerable iragment of a description of travel in the East. andrmosTim- ^portant o f_all. 278. E. the so-called Glossary of Reichenau. Silvia Peregrinatio. . the nonClassic forms. see G. the occasional lapses in cultivated authors.Mili/BaoilSisches Uebungsbuch. Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. Foerster and KDfSiiitbdnll>fr. a problem as yet unsolved. Audollent. Aussprache des Latein. * Used by H.' spells by A. 25 ff. 259 M. Bechtel.* All of these are to be used with caution. the subsequent developments. Zur Mulomedicina Chironis in Archiv XII. in Archiv I. by an uneducated woman (probably a Spanish nun) of the latter good and bad pajt of the. 455-461. Beiheft 7. 35. some . Paris in Melanges Renier 301. A. 5 universally be came is e. 1904. of the^TConraHcel languages. Ueber die Latinitat der Peregrinatio ad loca sancta in Archiv IV. 5* Our sou rces of information' concerning the„ current spoken La tin are^ the statements of grammarians^. Itinera hierosolymitana sceculi mi-viii. list of spellings. The Text and a Study of the Latinity.

[abbreviare buttis). Korting. altus. polite language. has many poetic figures and many abstract terms unknown to the crowd. quando. audire. ff. This class includes a great mass of words. {tabanus — ziruiare). For a thorough discussion of reconstructed forms. 1901. (eber III. It is natural that the The the senses of words. forming. dicere. the nucleus of the language. On the other hand. 453ff. ~ technical words not found in literature. too. ii6fif. — icaccubus — curbus). (sabanum — lare)^ 234 VI. A. 185-203. puteus.iooff. 125 {quadraginta — rascu' {reburrus — runcare).) Worter ff. ff. 422 {pbedire — putidus)-. pants. bonus. {Hie — lamna)^ So?^' {lacusta — mille)\ IV. ff. see G. 233 ff. pater. to speak. ^See Densusianu. For an approximately complete vocabulary. the vulgar idiom has homely metaphors of its own and numerous specific. popular use tends to restrict them. suus)'. mater. VOCABULARY. Examples are : 7. ff. iiyS. WORDS AND THEIR MEANINGS. 264ff. {minacicE — nutrire). . 6. amare. Lateinish-romanisches Worterbuch. 1. yj^ (supplement. Herasus. in. see G. {damnum — dui)^ in Arckiv: I. ff. filius. vendere. bene. longus. 2'/$^. Die romische Soldatensprache in Arckiv XH. Die Sprache der romiscken Kinderstube in Archiv XIII. 539 —Jiiicum)^ 424£f. 149.I. 138 {hmdus — iticem). (Jlagrare —gTttta). si. reconstructed out of Romance words. VulgSrlateinische Substrate romanischer . WORDS USED ALIKE IN CLASSIC AND VULGAR LATIN. II. V. Grober. viridis. W. vacca . so cams. 255. speech of the literary and fashionable classes should differ from that of the common people so Literature inclines to extend it is in all civilized communities. Digitized b^Wlicrosoft® . male.

'text'. : senses.'.. 269-270. necare = Bon. however. Many words kept their literal but lost their metaphorical sense: captio ='a. Pirson 257-258 . assume to the old one: Bechtel 137. new meaning in addition ambulare= 'march'. 235-328. i ^ns— 'chM'. nor 'best b. ro6ur= 'o^. viaticum = ']ox\xntY'. non capit prophetam perire. Bayard 105. Regnier 24. defi' 9. Dubois 220. = 'rebJiKe§. Dubois 185-225. nite This happens frequently. etc. Quillacq 54-79. focus=^iix&\ paganus= 'pagan'. yUloi:^./22J£Sfe 46. 286.'» Many Pirson 260-262. G. Bayard 63-202. IN CLASSIC 7 a. be classified under the heads of restriction or extension of meaning. 'authority'. Bon. part'. G.'k'. a word assuming a more or concrete signification {^se : icognatus\=z ' brother-in-law coUocare^ 'put to bed' dominicus =: divinus . WORDS USED DIFFERENTLY AND IN VULGAR LATIN. and also 'continue'. 243. Hoppe Most 48. words. lectio =^ 'dxoifin' machinari='g[mA. Digitized by Microsoft® . mulier='-vi\ie'. 272. Per. SENSE EXTENDED. § 10] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 286). se piicare=' go'. collocare= 'go to bed'. not 'strength'..11.ct of taking'. but there are some examples /(7r^j = 'strong' in all 10. Very many Classic words are used in Vulgar Latin with a different sense: comparare =^h\xy'. 8. tractatus= 'treatise'. etc.' to^x^a . Bon. hcec eestimare non capit. 283. etc. of the examples can ». 351—352. Bon. ingenium := 'trick'. orbus—'hXmd'. not 'sophism' nor 'deceit'.^ The general use of a word in an extended sense is not common. 1 a. Archiv XII.. perhaps Cf. . non capit utique videri Deus. SENSE RESTRICTED. Capit a ssumed the meaning of fieri potes t: R..

44. nam. monuments of the Romance languages: so funus. hand. tamen must have been sed. although it is common in the Peregrinatio. they were either borDigitized by Microsoft® . horrescere. sive. autem. ita.. etc. = 'pass Regnier 27 {quadraglnta dies fecit). to be sure. Waters Ch. Dubois 218. quomodo) assumed new functions. 258 fif. /V/-. de. ut.. ^2S= 't^he' and 'he'. Dubois. is very rich in abstract nouns (G. quippe. Regnier 20. but most of them are new formations. etiam. replicare= 'reply'. quin.13. Bayard 94. [§ n 'go'. etc.). etc. satis = 'much'. 3. etc. vel. the French ilj> a. Bon.8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 58 {bella res).. apud.loco forsitan quattuor milia. proles. 418. quoad. When lost terms were needed for literary or other purposes. 422 (in area Noe . ^: moribund. Poetic aurora. Pirson 255 ^^l^lj^j^^ ^^^^ habuit serpentes). Bayard 83. quod. . Waters Ch. quidem. res is used of persons. Latin words either were not em- II. 204.25. 391-397. . enim. cum. igitur. utrum. Per.. unus = 'a'. Per. Classic ployed at the vulgar speech or went out of use before the earliest Jubere. . donee. Bechtel 144. and quasi. G.". del>ere 'mdica. quoque. facere (time)'. G. Bechtel 144. WORDS USED Numerous all in m CLASSIC BUT NOT IN VULGAR LATIN. Very many adverbs and conjunctions dis-"~\ I appeared saltern. Ecclesiastical Latin. populus «/««^«j= 'common people'. 37.tes moral obligation. fletus. quia. 66. 38. diu. Dubois 301-308). So various prepositions and conjunctions (as ad. Unde came to mean 'and so'. terms and some abstract nouns were not needed: frondifer. hamo has the sense of French on. etc. wW«/« = 'miracles' (in imitation of the Greek). Bon. : . at. ergo. Regnier 29 {in came paucas habet virgines sanctimoniales). fascia means a measure of land.per. an. 328. postquam. Bechtel 127 {habebat de eo.

senex to vetulus. Italian. testa by Cf.338. For mansio. ^-j 2 parentes . crus gave to gamba. Digitized ^^^ by Microsoft® . 313. mansio ( Roman. 472. Indus to jocus. 472 ferre to portare. Cf Zauner 41-42. Portuguese. hospitale^. Portuguese prefer casa. urbs by civitas.2. R. b. R. mansio. Bechtel i^o^gena to gabata. caput to testa''.§ 13] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. *filiaster. tanti. vitrUus hypatraster. R. i'^o^^ tot hy quanti. French and Provencal mansio and hospitale.\ Dubois 209. . Rjetian. G. Raetian. privignus by 13. some nouns by derivative adjectives: avis ^ by aucellus. . . clerical 9 rowed from Classic or Latin (as nobilis) or replaced by new constructions (as *carrica for onus). ^capitia (<^caput) by Spanish and . French. os to bucca. casa occurs only in Italian inscriptions. Among the Romance languages. 337.Va&T* capum) is preserved by Rumanian. Occasionally the substitute aliquis yielded in part to res -vi&y was apparently a slang word: nata. domus by casa. 12. SUBSTITUTES. Provengal. R.. a. ignis hy focus. cf. humerus by spatula.. French. R. R. noverca by *matraster. Sometimes a term was replaced by a word not found in Classic Latin at all: anser-wAs driven out by *auca (<. Italian. omnes by toii. R. 324.. R. one often crowded out the other: atrium gave way to cars. and by villa. ^ * Caput (or rs. avus by *aviolus. Provenjal. ^ Zauner 41-4. diminutive of avis). cur to quare. 272. Dubois 220. Some words were replaced by diminutives. sol According to Olcott XVIII. When Latin had two words nearly synonymous. Dubois 212.*avica.. Olcott XXV. nunc by hora. Sometimes the survivor was far from a synonym in Classic Latin: discere was displaced hy apprendere. 336. Rumanian. SYWOHYMS. Italian. equus to caballus. to genitores. Spanish. edere in the main to manducare. emere by comparare. 'dwelling') only in . 345. . magnus to grandis.

etsi. cuculla. neptilla. quando. Latin: G. and adverbs were lost 14. schedula. 403. etiam. erga. paucum tempus for haud diu). hiems by hibernum. 121-130 {cereolus. d'lJ way pro and per. The place of cum was taken various substitutes.). ergo. ut were ousted by functions of an. etc. 395-396. R. 201. appear in Classic Vulgar Latin evidently had many words that do not texts. 203. Gl. Some of these were probably old Digitized by Microsoft® . the by quando and other conjunctions. 472 mane h^ Diminutives were extremely common in late matutinum. Adjectives used as nouns were etc. quoniam were often replaced by quomodo. and Dacia preferred /^r. infemus. became *por.). igitur.). sed. ^w^ by diurnus.x\naucella. Occasionally. Fro. Many prepositions. ex gave to de. pra. Densusianu. Italy. 15. R. Autem. mammula-:=^^zxiA\aoVs\t. vetus for [§ 15 by *soUculus. ver by vemum tempus. Cf. which replaced /^r and pro in Spain and to a considerable extent in northern Gaul. in Gaul. doubtless under the influence of per. G. yielded to apud. conjunctions. Olcott 250-263 {gemelli. 108-121 {brevis. etc. . words were replaced by phrases: diu by longum tempus (Bon. ne. to propter were displaced southern Gaul. too. 4. etc.lo in part An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. WORDS USED IN VULGAR BUT NOT IN CLASSIC LATIN. dies largely . by other words. 100-107 {arida. most part by vetulus. Ab was made unnecessary by de and per. utrum were assumed by si. c. quod. by subsitution. infemus. Reich. PARTICLES. Bon. and other phrases.). apud-<n2iS partially supplanted by adj cum._ Cis. R. Dubois 147 {novellus'). frequent also: R. credens. 184-185. tamen.'. nonnus. Archiv XII. Densusianu 190. trepalium. Digitized by Microsoft® . 97. Some native words are rarely attested. prode. 63. between genitus and from prodest (cf. apparently a cross then m. circare = 'hnnV .adj. cf. etc. a.. 151— 152. pappus = 'gra. (so. Archiv XIII. Waters Ch. 468-469 (^quid enim prode est homini. 17. Bayard 179 (applied .by St. Archiv XIII. ii native terms that do not happen to occur in the works preserved. Neue II. etc. Archiv VIII. Grammont. fins onors. hoc enim prode fit vobis. and perhaps those of the words meaning 'gape'. norma. 270-271. II. Onomatopees et Revue des langues romanes XLIV. fuit prode illis. 154. adj. 156-157. some Were borrowed from other languages. 53. A few that must have existed are not attested at all: *refusare. Archiv XIII. E. Substrate ficatum. cloppus Densusianu 196. Archiv XIII. pa(J>)pa. .. It. as *miaulare. some were late creations. XVII. serutinus. 234. It. gente). *rettna=: 'rein'. adj. Likewise words made by ono- matopoea.g. Substrate V. Ch. Rom. finis honoris > 484. ing 'touch'. . Korting (found in the 7th century). *prodis. and 'go' (cf. etc. baro — 'athlete'. mamma. 151-153. from the noun finis in such phrases as honorum finis. so not improbably the original of the Romance words mean'find'. NATIVE WORDS. Vr. § 405). fin. mots. Archiv XIII.. bxmca. and f. Some of the unattested words were obviously late developments: *finis. expressifs in M. pudoris finis. (Fr. fine fino). 106. Pr. potis est = potest. gent. sed non genttlis. Cyprian to the bishop of Carthage). battalia. Pirson 244. Pirson 243.). 237. although they were doubtless in common use: amma.ndta. (Fr. R. 186.. Audollent 199. Densusianu 196. drappus. *gentis.). tatus. Archiv XIII. 421. 158. 154.§ 17] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Herzog in Bausteine e. gavia (used by Pliny). detached 176-177). atta. 16.

such as alauda. sagma. and not a few new derivatives. dactylus. thesaurizare . hapja. More came in through the Christian vocabulary: angelus. Waters Ch. will be discussed at length in the following may be given here: post-verbal dolus <dolere. 226. colaphizare. According to Olcott XIX. *vir{t)dura. dulcor. cata pascha). society. cf. *dulcior = 'sweetness'. a distributive preposition. Dubois 144. Digitized by Microsoft® . there are many Greek words in Petronius: hepatia. 225. apparently borrowed by popular speech: amygdalum. Pirson 236). §71. FOREIGN WORDS. (cf. Bechtel 95 {cata mansiones. haribergum. Regnier VIII. a few of them on the sense of 'every'... 211. sabbatizare. 12 An 18. prophetizare. zare. folUa. Gl. Reich. diaconissa. African Latin was freest in word formation. haunjan. alberca. 66. evangelizare. vict(u)alia. Very many Greek terms used by ecclesiastical writers never became popular. modernus. Waters Ch. *ausare. *coraticum. which affected familiarity with Greek. few Celtic terms were adopted. catechiblasphemare . anathematizare. some made by Christian writers. Reich. 44. * abbellire . More Germanic words (of. schema. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Gram. Bon. Some were introduced by fashionable etc. We find a large number of Greek words.. wfltan 19. Bon. b. *soliculus. carricare. numerous verbs in -izare. *man{u)aria. R. as allegorizare. verging 247 {cata mane mane). prophetare. Introduction) found their way into Latin: bannus. as baptizatio. confessor = 'martyr'. eunuchizare. colaphus. cata. A werra. 205-226: anathema. Cf. 224. but a few examples Gl. baptizare. vertragus. some of popular creation. This subject chapter. zelare. Judaizare. scandalizare. *nivicare. G. G. [§ 19 Late Latin was rich in derivatives.

Vulgar Latin is very rich in derivatives and comit has many affectionate diminutives. whereas in reality both come from a primitive verb. 2. Petronius.was used with some adjectives and appar: ently with a few nouns bisaccium.. pounds . See Gram. ' » bimaritus. " Cooper XXXVI. 35. 22. 367. 21. Digitized by Microsoft® . AND PRONOUNS. 61). which the noun seems to come from the derivative verb. substantives taken from the roots of verbs). 246-247. B. In strictly Classic texts there appear to be no 20. (pairs in : VII (blamed by St. Cooper XXX ff.* We shall consider first postverbal nouns (i. who were especially addicted to prepositional compounds with con-. Vok. ADJECTIVES. 13 DERIVATION. Late writings almost all abound in abstract nouns (Cooper 1-2). a. " Cooper 246-297. saltus — saltare.e. which in- the literary language creased. 1. G. XL VI. 130 . such as gaudimonium (Waters Ch. really living suffixes \ but the lost.§ 22] An Introduction to VulgaW Latin. PREFIXES.* popular speech preserved and This freedom of formation was abused by African authors. 430-693 Densusianu 156-173. as canere. Cooper XXXIV. Bis.or bi. then prefixes. 98. in-. 170 . Augustine). —itta)} Petronius shows a fondness for long derivatives. sub-. etc. '^ . next suffixes. some of them made with new suffixes (as —icca. facility of word formation. a fictitious primitive noun was derived from a number of verbs in Vulgar Latin and in the Romance languages so dolus from dolere. Bon.^ PREFIXES USED WITH NOUNS. II. I. POST-VERBAL NOUNS. G. bisacutus. After the model of cantus — cantare. Regnier etc. satire). and finally composite words.


An Introduction
Ad-, con-, de-,

to Vulgar Latin.


dis—, ex-, in-, re:

and some others were
*adaptus ; commixtius,

occasionally used to form adjectives

G. 160 defamatus ; *disfactus; exsucus; inanimatus ; *replenus.
Cf. G.




Ac-, atque-,

ecce-, eccu-,

met- were used as demonstrative

prefixes to



pronominal adjectives and to adverbs. Eccu— is ecce eum; its origin being forgotten, it was used in

Vulgar Latin as a synonym of ecce. Met, primarily a suffix, came to be used as a prefix through such combinations as semet ipsum, understood as se metipsum. In archaic writings
reinforced demonstratives as eccum, eccam,


ecca, eccillum., eccillam, eccillud, eccistam

are not



Vulgar Latin examples are ac Classic texts they are rare. sic; atque ille-; ecce hie; * eccu iste ; * eccu sic. Substrate VI,





Cf. A.

Kohler, Die Partikel

ecce in

Archiv V,

See §§ 65, 66.



25. Ad-, con—, de-, dis—, ex—, in—, re— were freely used, disbeing mainly a Vulgar Latin prefix: abbreviare, G. 179 * a.d;

cap(i)tare ; adgenuculari, R. 181; adpretiare, R. 181, G. 180;
adpropiare, R. 181, G. 180; adunare, R. 182; confortare, R. 185,

* cominitiare ; complacere, R. 184; deaurare, G. 182 * disjejunare; exaltare, G. 183; excoriare, G. 182; impinguare, G. 181


G. 183; *infurcare; recapitulare, G. 185; *requcerere.
con—, de- lost their special significance;

Ad—, ad— was particularly

favored in Spain, con- in Italy.
ally there

Cf. Lat. Spr. 487.

was a change

of prefix


was used with the

sense of expectare, * convitare sometimes took the place of invitare; dis-

was often substituted

for ex-.


Ab-, contra-, per—, sub-, super supra-, tra trans— were

by Microsoft®

§ 3i]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


used occasionally: * aboculare ; *contrafacere; *perdonare ; subG. 185; * subdudere ; subsannare, R. 199, G. 187; superabundare, G. 187; * super—* suprafacere ; *trabucare ; *transaudire,

annare; transplantare, G. 188.
27. Extra- was sometimes used and 2«/ra— in Italy: * extrabuccare ; 28.
in Italy

and Dacia, infra-

* infraponere ; *intratenere.


e-, ob-, prce-,

pre-, pro-, retro— were apparently

not used to form new verbs in the popular spoken language,
although some of them are occasionally so employed by late
writers: opprobare, G. 184; prcedesiinare, G. 184


prolongare, G. 184.



sometimes replaced by ad—:


> addormire.

Foris and minus came to be used as prefixes in some

Foris was confounded Gaul with the Frankish _;?r- (= ver-) verslahen = Old Fr. See G. Baist, Frdnkisches fir— im altesten Franzosiforbatre. schen in Romanische Forschungen XII, 650; cf. Rom. XXX, For this use of minus, compare the phrase minus est^ 633. caritas in quantum adest in quantum deest, Regnier 109


* minuscredere.






autem minus


Cf. § 245.


Some verbs

take a double prefix

adimplere; coexcitare,

R. 207

(cf. Quintilian, coexercitatus); deexacerbare, R. 207

*deexcitare; *exeligere.




the restoration of the


form of

the primitive verb, was a regular process in Vulgar Latin (cf. §139): aspargo for aspergo is blamed by Velius Longus, £don

Cyprian, Bayard 3; commando is, according to Velius Longus, the usual form, rather than commendo,



used by


S. 60, ifidon

131; consacrati


occur in inscriptions,




Bon. 49°;

^^f^'^i ^30^°





An Introduction
Bon. 490.

to Vulgar Latin.



Computo, 58-64, Bon. 486-493. prdsto seem to cdnsto, consuo, erigo, exeo, infio,

have been regarded as simple verbs

S. 64.

primitive form of prefixes; but this

Late writers were in the habit of restoring the full, was doubtless merely a

matter of spelling, and did not indicate the



In TertuUian, Cyprian, and some others there is generally no assimilation of the prefix other writers, such as

Gregory of Tours, apparently used both assimilated and unassimilated forms. Bayard 12-15: adpetere, conpendium, inproius, obfero, subplanto. Bon. 178-188: adtonitus, conmittere,
inlatus, obprimere, subcuvibere.



in —are; occasionally


Nexhsfrom nouns^ generally end
sometimes in

in -iare or —ire;

which was eventually sup-

planted in Italy and in Gaul by —izare (for pronunciation see

§339)- This last ending came from Greek -dfiv through borrowed words, such as baptizare. For a list of Greek verbs in -i^etv adopted by Christian writers, see R. 248-249 (cf. §19 above); some new formations were used, as catechizare. In early Latin this same ending appears as -issare (attidsso, rhetorisso): see A. Funck, Die Verba auf issare und izare in

Archiv III, 398.


— * dom'nizare;

—plagiare —


oculare; pedinare; plantar.e; potionare; * trepaignire ;



follicare ;

* nivicare ;


Cooper 205-245, Dubois 151-162, Quillacq 41-46, Bonnet 471-474.

"Cf. R. 154-162.

by Microsoft®


§ 36]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

in —are,


Verbs from

and perfect participles e.r\A

—iare, —ire; also in' -icare (cf. albicare), —itare (cf. debilitare,
visitare), —escere


—iscere (cf. canescere, mollescere); possibly


angiistare; *ausare; captivare

confortare ; falsare

gravare ; levare ; * oblltare ; rictare ; Usare ; * abbellire ; tiare ; * captiare ; humiliare ;

— * vanitare —


alleviare; * al-

unire ;


Icetiscere ; vilescere ;

— amari— *blan-




verbs from perfect participles (frequentatives, etc.)

replace the original verbs: adjuvare "> adjutare ; audere'^ausare; canere'^cantare ; uti>usare.

lost their frequentative or inchoative sense







156. in -icqre


Verbs from other verbs end


fodere), —itare (cf. clamitare <,clamare')\ also in -escere, -Iscere
(cf. florescere,

* bullicare

< buUere





inchoative force:

apparescere ;

Vulgar Latin has many old frequentive verbs G. 178-179, Cooper 205. There are some late diminutives in —aculare, —tculare, -uculare, through diminutive nouns or adjecWe find also tives (ci. periculari <,periculum'): * saltlculare. some miscellaneous imitative formations * expaventare (and some others) apparently after the analogy of prasentare * misculare perhaps after maculare.


Greek verbs in -av,

-eiv, etc.,

when taken

into Latin, reg-

KvP€pvav>gubemare ; pXa(r<j}rifidv'>b/asphemare. Cf. Claussen 795. But ^aXS.av>psallere, perhaps through the analogy oifallere: Claussen 796. Germanic verbs in -an or -on regularly passed into the first


in —are:

conjugation in Latin





guidare ; roubon




"jR^etcA. ;

in -jan

went into the fourth
It. guamire. Digitized by Microsofi®


> hatire,


warnjan >

Digitized by Microsoft® . used to — Haag 41 form f eminines nepta. was extended: coxale. Pirson 123. 49-52. participles H ia (as benevolentia. in Italy and Gaul * canalia •< canis. Ch. b. 79-102. * credeniia . as victualia (cf. bonatus.8 — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bon. Some go endings. was extended: breviarium. Cf. iio-iii). came to be used as a feminine singular: *facienda. 95. was very fond of diminutives: adules- centulus. -igo. G. -affcum * coraticum. -ans. —aria : see -ia. 1 [§ 37 SUFFIXES FOR NOUWS. Bon. Cf. were used to form abstract nouns from verbs: Cf. G. Ch.. Waters Ch. Olcott 73-78. placentia. Cooper in. as senatus (common in Petronius. -enda. e. R. to form nouns from nouns: g. used to designate a place (as gallinarium). volatilia. 453-463. tives. as miraUlia. apparently. for nouns and adjectives: liminare. essentia. -^a. 31-37. Dubois 99-136. 355. -ago. Quillacq 15-31. *ducatus. Latin. Olcott 238-239. -ar. -alia. etc.i in 37. 366. 6\. etc. Olcott 187-189. : -anda. a neuter plural. -dnus: see Adjectives. are the following: : Ch. as a feminine singular with an augmentative and pejorative signification. especially names of parts of apparel (as bracchiale). -die. —ata : see -ta. socera. Bon. was extended: clericatus. The commonest endings -a. made from present significantid). taurellus. *pollicare. Vulgar in deriva- Petronius. porcellus. -ugo were characteristic of rustic speech: —al. Cf. -entia. 95. -dtus. was used. -antia. *sperantia. Olcott 176-182. -are. R. used to form adjectives and also nouns. -arius: see Adjectives. -ens: see Adjectives. G. in a collective sense. G. 74). iCf. were used The Christian writers are especially rich Waters Ch. 39. Cf. too. . fragraniia . 59. Cooper 1-91. the collective plural -ilia. neuter plural of the gerundive. 40. (as viaticum) was extended. * calamarium. -arium.

diminutive. R. see A. —ens: see Adjectives. Cf. avid): neptia. was used beside -cuius: So * domnicellus. Olcott 131-134. suffixe -arius. . porculus.. It was often attached to words in -arius. and Rumanian: Sp. XIX. -Mum. wvicella. manica. Cf. was probably Cf. Sardinia. -occus. -ia. was mighty deeds of God Koff'. Rum. unaccented. possibly of Ligurian origin (Rom. mane 76). 481. ramenc . 333ff. Olcott 173-176. —ans. -uc(c)us. XXXV. = ' nouns (as victoria). and Nouveaux (aise no. 31-37. —eus: see Adjectives. to form pi. somewhat extended: Old Fr. -Tela. Pr. navi- —ceus. -ia. —icius: see Adjectives. Gram. animalico . see —ium. -ellus. used to form feminines (as avus. was used for many new words: Pr. being used in pet names.. —ceus. etc. See A. 591. 457. was often used beside -Ulus. : used (cf . avicula. —eum : -ia. 1-2 1. cula. Portuguese. XXXI. etc. vitulus. navicella. Einf. it was then extended to Spain. Horn- —iceus. Cf. —tea: see Archiv fiir das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Litera: turen CXIV. unaccented. 19 -cellus. etc. consirier. Arbonenca. etc. So calamellus. 170. -cius: see Adjectives. -crum (as miraculum. It may have arisen in the first place from a childish pronunciation of -iclus. -iccus. and Dacia. cf. diminutive (as castellum).). 335. II. perhaps also *-ingus and locally -ancus. Pir- son 123. -incus or -inguus (as propinguus). anellus . from Greek -ia through Christian writers and speakers monarchla. -ensis: see Adjectives. 91-92. vitellus. Les substantifs en -ier et le essais de philologie fran- Rom. For -accus. philosophia . which lost its diminutive force: anulus. and came to be used as a diminutive suffix in Spanish. hence an ending -fflWa. § 173. -tcca (as Bodicca. XX. -enda : see —anda. abstract extended *fortia fortia n.' *libraria. ing in Zs. Karica) first appears in Africa in feminine proper names. porcellus. Valinca. Bonica. It. lavacrum) were occasionally used: *genuculum. G. 283ff.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -entia : see -antia.- -culum. as desiderium. Digitized by Microsoft® solingo. Thomas.

Olcott see -iio. fioretto.. —itia. li. -men. then smallness. used to form nouns from adjectives (as munditia -ies). in inscriptions in Italy -ittus first appears during the Empire and Dacia. 22-25. Montaninus) originally denoted appurtenance. Zimmermann. masculine Muritta. . and central and northern Italy. (as paffiXurcra. -monium. -otus. -itUdo : —ium. like littera beside litera. so pythonissd).. sometimes in Spain and Gaul. Cf. especially : diminutive nouns. Nebitta. used to form nouns from verbs (as certdmen. -laaa. Pirson 226: Julianeta^ Nonnita^ N'onniit Its origin is unknown. *granditia. 251. A. § 172. doucet. may have arisen from a childish pronun- ciation of -iclus -a: it may Meyer-Liibke. following. and also for adjectives. -io : 134-136. a German patronymic ending. —monia: see Olcott 81-82. R. Cooper 251. then resemblance. Fr. with the -ing. some new formations: ^dukissa. grassetto. bonito. were extended. -ttas : see —tas. Olcott 200-204. amourette. XXVIII. were both are rare in Rumanian -ities especially in the south . Bonitta^ Caritta^ Julitta^ Livitta^ Suavitta. It came to be very widely used as a diminutive suffix for nouns. was used for some nouns and perhaps for adjectives (see -incus above): Pr. Olcott 123-131. -issa. Olcott 78-80. R. 56-59. regards -dttus.20 Sp. 343. -0 {-onem). Cf. -tnus (as caninus. calcaneum) : see G. W. Germanissa. Fr. Cf. serpentinus. the i being short in Gaul. especially -mentum : *gubernamentum. but sometimes to form new adjectives to form domnina = 'young lady'. in [§ 37 some regions. -mentum. -dttus as alternative Sardinia: nouns. -mum. It. was by Microsoft® . Pirson 228. -Uies. -icca. Cusanca. lausenga. -eum (as cafitium. generally long in the Spanish peninsula and in -Ittus. -lius. Sp. from the Greek Cf. Attitta. etc. An It Introduction to Vulgar Latin. adjectives. see —tUdo. -iva : see Olcott 224-226. was probably confounded. Florentinus . much extended. Raetia. Cf. Einf. bacito. cf. etc. was used for prophetissa. etc. as a suffix for proper names: feminine tus. it was freely used. vestimenium). camerlingo. Sagitta. forms of -dtus. originally used to indicate a characteristic (as Digitized btbo). Sp. (Cooper XLV): *altitia. Zs. conjectures that have come from the Germanic ending that now appears as in such names as Heinz.

Olcott 83-87. —sorium: see —torium. used to make abstract nouns from adjectives. unknown etc. aggravatio. -sus: see —ta. Gaul often as a 56.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. potto). 222. —tas {-tdtem). was employed for many new formations of the same kind. Bayard 19-22 (very -tio. *movita. boccone. Cyprian. -ittus). 82-83. -tus and -j«j were preferred in Dacia (Cooper XLV) collecta. used to form abstract nouns from verbs (as mansio. -tricem.). narraius: cf. —trix. started perhaps with such forms as defensa. purltas .. XIII. trinitas. as an augmentative or pejorative. *reddita. 88. R. —sura: see —ilra. C. 453. Pr. *vendita. G. casotta. -or {-oreni). sapor). -iita. Collin in Archiv XIII. as collectus. feminine perfect participles with a feminine noun understood. G. —sor (—torem. —sa : see —ia. Olcott 33-51. 475. 122. aquilotto. used to denote the agent (as Cf.. common in St. in 21 commonly employed diminutive: g&lo. later -dta. and were reinforced —ta. It. Olcott 58-69. 69-82. viror. etc. mensor). *flator. in. See Archiv V. lectio. 83. Cf. —tor. G. It. 223. Cf. -Sttus. *flavor. 88-122. Cyprian). origin (cf. —sio : see -ito. 55-63. prensio. *nutritio.fossato. Bayard 19-22. In Gaul these nouns came to be feminine: Bon. was apparently used : first of young animals. used to form from verbs nouns denoting place. St. *sentor. -sio i^tionem. as *annatd). trobaire. are very common in St. nativitas . someDigitized by Microsoft® . R. then as a general moderate diminutive It. revoluUo. R. -sa. Jerome. So deitas from deus. —sus. Cf. especially in Gaul: dulcor. remissa. andata. was freely employed :ya/jfi'aj. G. beveire. -tus. used to designate the agent -orium . ostensor. 503-504 {dolor. *perdtta. -sorem). Olcott 2-23. 44-45. timor. -sionem). *deUta. 63. venuta. Olcott amdtor. ostensio. 415. recubitus . 102-106. Substrate IV.G. G. : -or (-orem). 45-56. They were considerably used to make abstract nouns from verbs (and —ata was sometimes attached to nouns. i. —Stus. 85- Bayard 24-25. : extensa. Fr. *lucor. were very freely employed (but show few traces in Ru- manian : Cooper XLV) : necdtor. -sorium. etc. see —torium. and other late writers: abbreviatio. R. —sor: see -ior. of see -tor. used as nouns. used to form abstract nouns (as candor. -(orium. Cf. aiglon. e. perfect participles by fourth declension nouns in -tus.

were tended. missorium. used to form abstract nouns from perfect participles (as censura. oratorium. Olcott 51-58. was used for a few new formations *alaudula. mensorium. 38.: : : 22 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -tus (Claussen 798): rpiiKTijs '^ irucia . see —ta. -IS often clvain'^ sinapis.)u~^ gumma. Sometimes the genitive or the accusative was taken as a basis. in popular words gave a feminine -ma (Claussen 796-797) > f -pos preceded by a consonant became -fr (Claussen : 797): 'AWfai'5po$>- Alexander. -aius. instead of the nominative (Claussen 800-802): iXi^avros'^ elepliantus . etc. natatorium. -Ala. cursorium). [§ 38 ex- times instrument (as dormitorium. -ura and -t-ura. kviuj. : in late Latin often replacing -or {fervor > *fervurd) were extended. Olcott 69-73. > p6KLT-qs -I in became -a (Claussen 798-799) : Xa/iirds -7)S. -as in popular words generally > lampa. There are a few exceptions for special reasons (Claussen 795) cXaiop. boletus. Kbii. -tura : see —ura. ^•vir'dura. -is. ixrikiipvWov. -s-iira. Cf. R. *frig' dura . 88-90. by popular etymology. fell popular words either or became -a. G. Digitized by Microsoft® . Einf. tensura. : became -a. -ov regularly became respectively -us. instead of -is (Claussen 798) pausis "^pausa. pressura. popular words became -o (Claussen 797) X^wi'> lea. -e. '^planura. or -i (Claussen 799) TT^Trepi'^ piper. Cf. 31-37. -pa cima. payLda'^ -(an in magida. Olcott 194-196. R. diminutive (as vitulus). : gummi-s. ossulum. mesSee sura. *certitudo. 197. When Greek nouns were endings were adapted as follows: — borrowed by Latin. -tuda (-tiidinem). 40-45. the -OS. ornatura. reposito- rium. make abstract nouns servitudo. —tus: see -ta. ^6-gy. —a. from adjectives was extended. -iita: Cf. gave : millefolium. nutritura. ^pressorium. stricturd). etc. influenced by olere. G. Bon. sinape . -11. gave oleum. used to fortitudd). later from adjectives also. § 171. -um : Claussen 796. -T7)s became -a. -ta or -us. often taking the place of —culum (cubiculum much > accubitorium) (as *C(ssorium.

i are the following: 39« The commonest endings : — —abllis see —hilis. -dlis. G. mixticius. poiens). '^passans^ make adjectives and nouns from verbs: credens. Cf. Quillacq 32-40. *leviarius. G. *Sicilianus. c. Mapa"^ cithara ciihlra. and form nouns of occupation (as aquarius. became and —icius (as sigillaricius). Dubois 136-151. § 39] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as Cf. -actus -actus. decanus. Olcott 215-220. : see A. geniilis).. 415. used to make from nouns adjectives denoting material (as arenaceus. —dneus -anius. -aceus being employed later as an augmentative and pejorative suffix for adjectives and finally for nouns: chartaceus formaceus . a combination of —arius — *capiianus. were used freely to ^ currens . -entem). —anus. to denote connection. tempaccio. *ducaHs. Digitized by Microsoft® . arespecially in the latter function: . Thomas. etc. See E. and adjectives. The phonetic development of this suffix was apparently Gaul and some other regions the earliest examples are glan: 'Cf. Olcott 182-187. episcopalis. were extended: *cortilis. Bechtel 83. Wolfflin. 144. 143. peculiar in — apothecarius *marinarius. -ens {-an/em. aKfnriKot'^ scopulus . * setaceus . 464-467. was used to form adjectives of place (occasionally time) and nouns of office: biduanus. popular in Gaul 62 (Hacherece. Olcott 137-173. used also in the masculine to gentarius. -oneus —onius (as extraneus. Romanus). was much extended. pomarius). *werrarius. pelliceus). Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise etc. -iceus -ictus. 164-195). -arius. erroneus) were slightly ex- tended: *caroneus. Eon. It. -ans. spontaneus. —artcius. imaginarius . SUFFIXES FOR ADJECTIVES. »?«i/«a»2«. were extended (especially in rustic speech: Cooper iii). iTTroTiiXij "^spatula. 23 The unaccented vowel of the penult was often changed in conformity with Latin habits (Claussen 802-806) Sl&^oKos'^ diabolus diabulus.). regalis. denoting appurtenance (as paganus. -tlis. present participles (as amans. -Sris (as singularis) was extended: particularis. Die Adjectiva auf -icius in Archiv V. Cooper 92-163 (diminutives. K^paffos : "^cerd-sus *cerSsus. Olcott 226-238. attached to nouns Cf. Bechtel 83. Tuscanus. Cf.

vallensis. : tabilis . Staaff. —iero are probably borrowed. a perfect participle ending (as sceleraius). Gram. XXXI. capabilis. or i before the a. —ens : see —ans. the derivative was sometimes used as a noun: panne us . too. 34-36). diligibilis . rare in — -{bUis : see —bilis. 481 (cf. querceus. § 227.' exauguratus. Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise 119. Cf.^* markensis . G. Zimmermann. *cariierribilis). try to derive all the forms from -arius. -tbilis. Digitized by Microsoft® .24 deria <i_ An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the Proven9al cannot. P. *Frankensis. sis). 137. —ceus -cius : see -iceus. as -erius or —erus. that -iarius was a. used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as/orenwas greatly extended. postulates -ar(i)us and -er{i)us. however. Cf. R. E. Die Geschichte des lateinischen Suffixes — arius in den romaniscken Sprachen^ and E. 591. Le suffixe -arius dans les langues romanes. 155. Cf. -er. fageus. Zs. G. Thomas. pronounced —arius. i^t. in an objective suffix used to make adjectives very common in Christian writers in late Latin. G. Phon. Rom. Olcott 339-344. turrensis. adjectives in the popular language: Cf. -ensis. and Bausteine 641). 109-116. 135-140. Spanish -ero and Italian -aio are perfectly regular. timo- Olcott 244-250. points out that many words have c. -ier. especially in learned words it is Rumanian (Cooper XLV) acceptabilis . denoting material (as aureus). Olcott 142). On the other hand. I. G. G. was slightly extended (but is Rumanian: Cooper XLV). especially in popular speech. papyrius. or -dbilis. then —iers. is . Italian —aro is easily explained and Italian —iere. suggests that the Germans in Gaul associated -arius with their proper names in -areis 01 —ari.. from verbs (as amabilis. Zimmermann. the derivatives being sometimes employed as nouns * cortensis . *pagensis. Marchot. indicibilis. Chairibertus repeatedly used for Charibertus by Fredegarius Haag 7. A. *faiatus. real suffix (cf. by the analogy of the plural -ari. R. I. was much used to : make ratus. and was much employed rare. and that this pronunciation spread to the neo-Latin speakers. -i [§ 39 glandarius . 296 (cf. that -iarius and —carius may have established —iers in French. Zs. : -eus -ius. e. XXI. anaiiarius. —iceus —icius: see dcetts. -atus. and when umlaut affected the a of these. showing that while the French forms may perhaps be derived from -arius and -iarius. -bUis. Cf. — ia (6th century) and sorcerus <C^* sortiarius (8th century) the earliest forms in French and Provenyal are —ers. 222. 159-160. Olcott 209-213. XXVI.

— . Cf. very common Jerome: G.). from the Greek cleri- Cf. 157-158. with the or of sense of -Wlis the gerundive: Pr. G. L. I. were used for some new formations: defensorius In Provengal and Rumanian -torius was extended. Dubois 163-171. was a favorite with Christian writers. in St. sapidus. 193-197 {angelice. probably a fusion of Greek -ktkos {Syriscus) and Germanic -isk (Thiudiscus). -inus : see Nouns. Digitized by Microsoft® . -iscus. Cf Olcott .' 40. new formations : *restivus. volon. 158. 103-106. Possibly *anc is derived from an in the same Substrate II.. ? I. 4810. 467-470. is Archiv I. lo) Pirson 252 IX. -sorius. G. donique in cites eight examples of dune. -orius: see -iorius. censere censor censorius). mansorius. —ce -c (as ne nee. Bon. 241. Tiktin 597. = + . -inus {as fraxinus) was used for a few adjectives: quercinus. -ivus (as nativus) occurs in a few 224-226. G. made up of -t-or. SUFFIXES FOR ADVERBS. Franz. § 40] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Gram. -ittus: see Nouns.) Cf. one of them from Gaul. -ulus. was used for -icus in some late words: *Angliscus. 552. —Andus (as jocundus) was used in Spanish and Proven9al for a few words Pr. sliglitly -idus (as rapidus) was extended: exsucidus. way: -e cf. Ill. diminutive (as albulus). etc. Olcott 220-223. : d. promptulus. was used especially in words 25 : -icus (as medicus) cus. juratoriH. Cooper 196-204. -uius (as canutus) was somewhat extended: *camutus. —ilis: see —dlis. It was 'Cf. etc. dune The usual endings are as follows: — num nunc. —s-or H ius (as notare notor notorius. (C. ~ius : see —eus. —sorius: see —tortus —tortus. Rum. 155 (Tertullian)j *npidus. turn tunc) was apparently used to form dum ce (cf. punidor. -oneus : see —dneus. '*Frankiscus.

noii). Digitized by Microsoft® . Ch. in Rumanian. adverbial phrases on the model : ad . bocconi. tarde. perhaps after the Vulgar Latin period. a ginocchioni. etc. piano. obstinata mente. common in other late writers: clanculo. . Gl. modo sic modo sic^ nee sursum nee deorsum non cresco. 689. Normannice. It. Gram. They are rare in St. pure. 245. and in Rumanian nearly all adjectives may be so used (as greii. Many such mon speech. XXX. male. 58. Later. Zs. -ter (as brevUer) was not preserved in common speech. § SS- 41. Cf. as It. alto. but was not kept alive in popular Latin. *bona mente. Reich. basso. -tim was favored by St. sola mente. Then it was employed in a more general sense: pari mente. 197-201 infantiliter. mente. chiaro. 487. : modo modo =^ •only yesterday. 45 . * ipsa mente. Lat. caldo.' ' Waters Ch. Spr. Fr. Rom. This formation is not common. II. however. though much used in ecclesiastical Latin (G. Ch. G. * longa mente. now now so.26 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. [§ 41 preserved in popular speech in bene. Ch. as sometimes in Classic Latin. Some lons. Cyprian (Bayard 34-35) and some other : writers. XXIX. -0 and etc. -um generally coincided in pronunciation (multum = multo.). as forti mente. 339- Repetition was used. mente was used with any adjective that could make an adverb of manner. In the Romance languages mente was sometimes added comment. etc.' cf. Jerome. forte. 428. -ones (in Italy also with- out the preposition) came into use Cf. being especially common in St. Many examples so. XXXIII. and occurs also in Romanice.). for emphatic effect. multum. etc. but rata. whence such formations as Brittanice. jocunda mente. 42. firma mente. longe. 337. soave). Cyprian (Bayard 32-34). Ch. -iter: see -ter. Adverbs of manner came to be made with the ablative This noun was first used with an adjective to denote a state of mind. a recu230. poco. to adverbs: insiememente. are to be found in Petronius 37. It. . *mala mente. 46. Fr. adverbs were preserved in comhence other ad- jectives came to be used as adverbs (as W.

rancor"^* ran- > > cilra. 321. 216." —enus'^-inus: "Byzacenus non Byzacinus. Cohn 41-42. R. —dtuszzz—ttus=:i—utus: barbatus '^barbutus . —tllus^—ellus: axtlla"^ ascella. R. ~or(—drem)'^-ura: calor'^*calura. Corssen S. Cf. 42. —cuius !> cHlus : see -tllus. Cohn 184. famtlia */amtlia. avicUla'^ avicllla. § 195). 27 CHANGE OF SUFFIX. 131. -drius: see Suffixes for Adjectives. 460. tus cauditus. suadela"^ suadHla. Cf. substitutes one suffix for manipulus. 460. Cohn 1 51-154. -elus"^ -ellus (common in late Latin): camelus'^ camellus.§ 42] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cohn 180-205. subterraneus ^ subterranus. Cf. Cf. lanatus lanutus. 96): "querela. Cohn = -ix(-icem): Cohn 147-151. loquela'^ loquella. by Microsoft® . Pr. 227. Cohn 30-31. -drius. cornlciila *cornuula.. 17-28. querela'^ guerilla. 65. -ix(-icem) consilium * consilium. : ericius *eruius. lenHc-Ula Cf. e. -ex(-ecem) -ix(-uem) : vervecem berbicem. sortcem *sortcem. Cohn 172-180. Cf. (3) Alteration of a suffix: — Cf. -iceus -icius 184. -^ —iciilus : capUHlus * capttulus . pavoT~^*pavura." App. Digitized Cohn 274-291. (2) Indiscriminate use of two suffixes: — Cf. carnatus *carnutus. etc. extraneus * extranus . The popular language sometimes manuplus for another. R. Cohn 213I. -iculus =z -UcJilus : ossiculum ossMculum. —dnus^—dneus: Cohn 160-172. -ilius =^ -ilius : 154-160. as are: — The principal types (1) Subsitution of a : rare one -alius — new or common suffix for an old or > -callus : see -tllas. Waters Ch. Cohn 219-226. 460. peduculus. Cohn -tius'^-itus : vacuus'^*v(lcitus (cf. Cohn 42— 52. 460. cauda- Cohn —Ic'eus —icius ^=. Caper (Keil VII. R. -tc-aius *lenficiila. etc. Cf. Cf. Cf. etc. loquela per unum /. pediculus Cf. —iilus'^—ellus: aniilus'^ anellus . venenum"^ *veninum.

incus incudo * inciimtnem. 483. 426 ad mane. Cf. 484. ab intus. a contra. a longe. Bon. flectere. 121 : Greek etc. ij as i: uayijv))'^ 7th century) "^ > Old Fr. 131. Bechtel loi. intra videre. Cake pistare. G. Bon. genu- G. omnimodus . COMPOUNDS. 234. —iculus ? ^^'—Hciilus : genuciclum . a. medio die. 191. style. a /oris. 'just now'. crucifigere. ab olim. In church writers there are G. ad sero. G. Digitized by Microsoft® . 231. . /oris mittere. b. See §§ 24. 65. a foras. 4. I. mente habere (> Pr. many verbs in -ficare. Bon. Bechtel loi. Bechtel loi ad horam 'presently'. mentaver) minus pretiare. R. inde fUgere (> Fr. ^ranucula. 203. — = . a modo. late pronunciation of [§ 47 -enus'^-lnus through sagina {Vok. cornis.. 232. avis struthius. 483. VERBS.28 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bechtel loi. Cf. in odio^ loco. uniunigenitus . 46. etc. . 231. Bechtel loi ad semel. a semel. R. ADVERBS. were popular. i<)i\ 45. R. antemittere. Bechtel loi. etc. PRONOUNS. as mortificare: e. Ill. bis coctum. Cohn 264-274. 43. etc. in Gl. . G. 194. Bon. 47. bene placitum. medio ADJECTIVES. Bechtel loi. -udo i^udtneni)'^ -umen (-iimtnem) : consuetudo *costumen. HOUWS. d. Reich. c. 483. R. . manu So tenere. enfuir). Bon. erable) alba spina. Cohn 226—264. 190. 44. Substrate 553-554. saine. These compounds generally belonged to the literary G. etc. etc. ad subito. 130-134. There were many compounds made up of a preposition and an adverb: ab ante. 160-170: magnisonans . But male habitus. 483. G. Acer arbor (> Fr..

is A compound made up of preposition + noun found in: in giro (followed 102. usque hodie. R. 235. in ante. 203. 487. de contra. Haag 75. Bon. de intus. Mohl. in hodie. 68. de inter. In any case probably a late product. Digitized by Microsoft® . in ante.— 49] — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 39. G. 203. in contra. G. 484. consist of Bechtel 102. day-. Per. of . 484. doe. G. R. 268. et at ubi. ^ Romance da. g. de post.13. R. ex tunc. d^ ante. still different nature : ac Per. de intus. Per. 437. R. de magis. Substrate III. per girum zxiA per giro ^ circa. R. It. Bechtel 102.). Bechtel 102. Per. Bechtel 102. Spr.19. etc. de semel. e contra. Slightly different intus in.. Bechtel 102. 74. G. in by the ablative or the accusative). following compounds are of a sic. R. Lat.15. 38) says: Ubi semel res inclinata amici de medio. Bon. Wolfflin. de forts. were used as prepositions: ab ante. Some compounds two prepositions: * de ad {y. Lexique 38-47. At ubi and ad ubi. de deorsum.17..28. in contra^ Petronius (Waters Ch. * in semel. 487. de sursum. Lat. PREPOSITIONS. R. Raetian dad from the Oscan da. de sub. Abante. 40. Bechtel loi. says da . de intra. * dabe. G. and some others similar to them. 29 tunc. 72. 85. Cf. ad — — R. 232.3. da. 49. de retro. compounds. Sardinian dave. R. The sic. de retro. 203. 433. 426. 23S. 233. Lexique 48. Bechtel 102. 232. Bechtel 102. Bechtel loi. et Per. and Old Sp. 235. dat and from a southern Latin *dadl. CONJUHCTIONS. 232. dad may be it is the result of a fusion rather than a combination of de Some have thought it came from found from the 7th century on he would derive It. f. 203.8. Bechtel 102. in mane. Bon. etc. Bon. E. 232. 484-486 (cf. Spr. is de+ab. 484. Bechtel medio. and ad. etc. Bechtel loi. de super. in is Archiv I.these adverbial Some 40. 75.

however. byMicrosoft® . is logical. Latin in the middle. proceeding from the exemplified The modern order is the known to the unknown.^ is The Romance order of simpler and more rational than that Classic Latin. and were not characteristic of daily speech. is not primarily rhythmic. The most irrational features of the Classic Latin construction were surely artifical. Romance more after the word modified. The principle. Latin to a certain extent a diminuendo movement {^Lat. Zur Eniwicklung der romanischen Wortsiellitng aus dcr lateinischen. SYNTAX/ A. or the adjective and the modifies. Romance puts the emphasis at the end of the sentence. 491). Gram. It does not permit the arbitrary- separation of osition noun of it members that belong together. ORDER OF WORDS. the difference being due to a diverse conception of the structure of language: Latin places the modifier before. See Meyer-Liibke. Nevertheless there is really a fundamental difference between the old order and the new: Romance has." allow the collocation words of the same part of speech that belong logically in different places.II. as in Ovid's "In nova fert animus mutatas Neither does it dicere formas /corpora. 1903. but psychic. as in the "In multis hoc rebus dicere habemus" of Lucretius. Ill. 50. Spr. by this sentence : The ^ ^ old arrangement " Fabius syptax. from which work most of the matter of Digitized this chapter was taken. such as the prepand the word it governs. a crescendo. for a comprehensive account of Romance See Elise Richter. so to speak.

with generally increasing frequency. There first. 490). It is indigenous in Latin." "Hasc loca sunt The change constitutes a progress in language . The modern order was not abruptly substituted for the On the contrary. especially in Cicero. it occurs sporadically also in literary authors. Classic Latin may be said to represent an in- termediate stage. But until the fourth century the majority of Latin sentences have the old arrangement. and for centuries the ancient and the modern type were used side by side. from the Peregrinatio : "Hasc est autem vallis ingens et planissima. The following is a good sample of the style of the Vulgate: "Cui respondit Dominus Qui peccaverit mihi. quod sanctus Moyses ascendit in montem Domini. 51 • old.21-24). was always a tendency to put a stressed word followed by an unaccented one. 33. Spr. tu autem vade. while the revolution was in progress. By the fourth century Here is a characteristic passage the new order prevailed. not imitated from the Greek. in inscriptions and popular writers. Digitized According to Meyer- by Microsoft® . such as a connective or an atonic pronoun {Lat.§ 52] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. hoc peccatum eorum" {Exodus XXXII. 34)." omnia brevia. Petronius has notably short periods and an approach to the new structure. which independently effected the same transformation. 31 sequatus imperio Hannibalern et virtute et fortuna superiorem vidit. visitabo et : 52. from the earliest texts down . et due populum istum quo locutus sum Ego autem in die ultionis tibi. in qua filii Israhel commorati sunt his diebus. angelus meus praecedet te. et fuit ibi quadraginta diebus et quadraginta noctibus" i^Per. all cultivated peoples have made it." The following examples illustrate the later structure: "Mors perfecit tua ut essent et natura montuosa impedita ad rem militarem. delebo eum de libro meo. 37. it is to be found in Latin. there was a long struggle.

in late Commodian. In dependent clauses. precedes its but qui le voit. and sometimes the whole predicate precedes in certain constructions the dependent infinitive may stand before the finite verb (as Pr. when unstressed. Zs. §40. 53. : negative and intensive under some circumstances the object may come before the verb. see the 55. 280. B. indefinite article developed out of ille A definite and an and unus. 313. and were attached preferably to the first word in the sentence : . etc. prepositions. sitions are There were great changes in the functions of pronouns. and so cf. Digitized by Microsoft® . personal pronouns. which were naturally of less im- portance.For the simplification flections. the old order survived longer than in independent.. it was in the early stages of the Romance languages It. Wolfflin 4 bene bene. In a few other respects the old arrangement lingered and under certain conditions is still preserved . volgra). 54- USE OF WORDS. aiutatemi but or m'aiutate .32 Liibke. voit definite article. malum malum. Use of In- Repetition writers : for intensive effect is not uncommon . [§ 55 XXI. R. and adverbs. Cf. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. of inflections. vedolo but le non lo vedo. malus malus. bonis bonis. noun in all the The Romance languages except Rumanian and Albanian (Zauner 40). were always enclitic in Latin. I. fortis fortis. Fr. however. morir adverbs precede their verb . conjunctions. Many uses of prepoconnected with the loss of inflections: these will be discussed under the Use of Inflections. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES.

§ 57] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. See Archiv VIII. and in hie estfilius mens carissimus..' lepida 57. Anplus congruus and maxime congruus (Wolfflin 16. plus dulce. plus formosus in Nemasianus. as Ovid's inertioratas (Wolfflin 63-68). Little by little the old comparative and superlative lost 1 from being employed frequently with merely an intensive force (Wolfiflin 83). frequently in late and popular writers • For the forms of numerals. 415—417). //wj levior. prceclarum. in Sidonius Apollinaris (Wolfflin 29). (Wolfflin 47). Augustine's sancta atque dulcissima (Wolfflin 57-63). (R. 56. Commodian. and the superlative was often really a positive in meaning. cf. magis . Vitruvius. the plus and magis constructions were employed more and more to express a distinct comparison plus : miser in Tertullian. b. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . From early times certain periphrases were used to emphasize the thiravLS. toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period. Cf. occasionally in : Classic Latin. R. 451. Sepulcri 232 . etc. melius sanus (Wolfflin 16). The comparative came to be used for a superlative. Unus was used as an indefinite article. plus popularis. however. and also for a positive. this formation came to be popularly regarded as the regular one: magis mirabilem. To avoid ambiguity. a. (Wolfflin 46). WUMERALS. in Many use. 166-170. substitute for the superlative In the Romance languages a was made by prefixing the defiit nite article to the comparative. but no example of has been found. comparative idea. is likely that this device it existed in late Vulgar Latin. old comparative forms remained. BOn. as Plautus. . . etc. see Morphology. 280). as their precise sense in St. plus felix. Finally. etc. magis melior. 33 COMPARISON. common Adverbs.. as omnium levior (Wolfflin 68-71). maxime pessima.

Per. 61. 580. 408-409. . were employed as personal pro- nouns of the third person. 403-404. Many pronouns developed double forms. Bon. 58. the combination eccum {^=ecce eum). being replaced by ille For the encroachment of ipse on idem. . An . Ordinal numerals. according as they were accented or unaccented (as suus and sus): see Morphology. Ego and common in Petronius. see Hoppe Bayard 133. Spr. tu are very 60. Plautus. Waters Ch. . ipse. G. Idem went out of popular use. 489. The demonstratives. Cf. 48. Dubois 333-336b. too. a. in Classic Latin : 59. especially the possessives. Digitized by Microsoft® . 425 cf. Hoppe 102-103. Is. adeum una sorella. PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 948 accessit unus servus. Pronouns were much more used than G. 26. en. exinde-='¥x. especially ilk. except a few of the smallest. where it was not recog- 62. Regnier 10. The personal pronouns came into more and more fre- quent use. R. mulier. were apparently not century. . There was great irregularity in the use of reflexives. much used in popular speech after the fifth 2. [§ 62 una etc.34 . Pseud. . . §158. DEMONSTRATIVES. 25. was often replaced by ille and ipse (Bechtel and eventually was preserved in vulgar speech only in 145). The adverb inde : occasionally as a genitive neuter pronoun came to be used nemo inde dubitat. suus being generally substituted for ejus. See Lat. and 104. Petronius. PRONOUNS. Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

424. came to be used indiscriminately (G. Mil. generally invariable. . too. by atque or ae (as in ac sic). 424 (cf. such combinations being until the probably not reached Vulgar Latin period. eeeu" was some regions." Digitized by Microsoft® . 35 and in the extremely common phrase idipsum (>It. hie ipse. 303 (discussing Sp. Toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period hie was apparently going out of 63. lat. R. 25 : " Ubi tu's ? — Eccum. eeee tu. Pg. eeee we find early eeee ego. use.^- desso). This last compound was used as a neuter pronoun. 407. and also as a demonstrative adjective. of the final stage.-- ipse ille. Catalan aqueix. meaning 'it' or 'that. especially in Spain and southern Gaul. Hie and is. II. Ascoli. and iste 405-406. Glor. Hie. R. iste ipse. ille. Hoppe 104. 2. influenced in 1 Cf Plautus. with the exception of the neuter hoe. maintains that eceu' was the basis in all the Empire. nized. ille ipse. were confused by late writers (Bayard 132). is the fusion of the two parts into one word. aquesse. was perhaps used as a prefix (^Gram. Franz. Bayard 130-132). Eeee and eeeum (pronounced eceu) were used as demon- strative prefixes (cf. atque is est (^Stiehus 582). where likewise the id lost its significance. iste ille.). R. 646): in Plautus. 424-425. G. atque ipse illie est {^Epidicus 91). At any rate. §24): hie. 65. in id ipsam rem.' as id ipsum sapite. etc.§ 65] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. there are examples of iste for hie in Caesar's time (Densusianu 178). eeee nunc. common 64. 2. is ipse. G. Atque. also eeee iste. aquese. Intorno ai continuatori neolatini del "ipsu-" in Arehivio glottologieo italiano XV. Franz. however. common The end Plautus. too. 3 II. as id ipsum velatn. The last three have left no trace. I. eeee ille. in id ipsum monastyriu. 3 II. • A combination of two demonstratives was : common in Christian writers iste hie. Quillacq 126).

quod as m. sg. Ille. ipse. In Bon. ille lost [§ 69 and their distinctive force. were used also as definite Ille in this function very common: R. hie. In popular speech qui was apparently used regularly for . there was an emphatic form ipsimus (used by This. articles. 22). Spr. : the place of the feminine quce it occurs in Christian inscripR. : common Audollent 549. The forms were greatly confused by late writers. 68. R. quce as m. quern for quce. were used as personal pronouns of the third person. §24. tions from the fifth century on Digitized cf. 427 (iiirum hujic cujus est zona hcBc). n. semet ipsum {Philip. pi. by Microsoft® . * celle.. 423—425.). These compounds developed into * ecceste. Ego met ipse is blamed by Donatus {Lat. 67. as ace. * accelle. * ceste. etc. This use of ipse. ' this ' eccHste or eccu'tste. Bon. 69. * cueste and * eccelle.. pi. sg. is was probably more literary than popular. 391-392. for * accuelle. is. 276 {qui. especially ille. Petronius: Waters Ch. II. hie... § 60. * eccuelle. guem quis qua very often as n. is. the masculine qui tooV in inscriptions. means infrequent: hie. as f. pi. m... becoming metipse through such combinations as temet ipsum {Ecclus. Quillacq 126-127. it is Furthermore. XXX. .. as ace. * eccueste. as 69. 66. Ille. people said for ' ' that eccHlle or eccu'ille. pi. Examples of the others are by no R. as n. 8). became * metipsimus. * accesie. * accueste. with the prefix met-. f. 391-396 we find qui used as n. . 423 {in ipsa multitudine). c. is is Cf. and pi. as n. R. Cf. (395-396). 419-420 {cito proferte mihi stolam illam primam). The ipsemet suffix -met was used also as an intensive prefix. INTERROGATIVES AND RELATIVES. * cue lie. 36 An When iste Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 484). ipse. Beside ipse.

pi. 417. ^ne ipse icnus.§ 7i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 394 (^qui f. Haag f. as a relative. 37 quam). 528 a. cepit. 55. II. in certain constructions. cata was probably introduced. 51. Bon. Pg. in Italy. 485. conjectures *ne inde. gradually encroached on quod: Bon. and was used as an interrogative and The adverb unde came to have occasionally the meaning of French dont (Bon. quid: Archiv I. and alter viere confused in common speech: G. Omnis and omnia were kept Digitized by Microsoft® . Cf. 580.. 650. quern Quid. 415-417. Beiheft 7. Qualis was kept. Zs. 416. *d'unde. G. inde came to mean. Archiv I. Snus *aliqu'ilnus * alicUnus. mDEFHTITE PRONOUNS. *ne^ps^unus. by Greek merxard Tfth. in Italy. 237. 393. and eventually * de unde. Sardinia.' > = ^ magis: see plus. alques. Cf. 53 {^qui for quce in 70. Spr. along the Mediterranean. nemo judical alterum. alguem. was employed as a relative pronoun. 25. d. *nec ente or *ne ente was apparently used as an equivalent for nihil. cata tres Hence *cata anus. *caf itnus. moreover. omnis: see totus. 390-391. and Dacia: Lat. G. There may have been a neuter *alid. hdmo was used sometimes like French on: Per. 178). mUltus. alguien. Gram. chants. nee unus. d. § 84. This confusion is more frequent in late Latin: St. The principal indefinite pronouns 71- and adjectives used G.). Jerome. 'some' or 'any.). 415- in late popular speech are as follows : — aliquanti took the place of aliqui and aliquot: aliquanta oppida aliquis flourished especially in the west: Sp. The neuter aliquid was more extended aliqui alius : Pr. etc. Meyer-Liibke. and some new compounds were made. nemo was kept nUllus. alius filius. § 19. in such phrases as cata unum Kaf tva. sg. after the model of id. Plautus. Some Classic Latin pronouns fell into disuse. and f.

is . 691-693: commonens ut 72. tantus totus. G.38 faucus. 488. Jerome. 204. quisque. 692. being used for quisquis and quicumque (Bayard res and : res nata = ' anyone '. 402-403 ifota tormenta diaboli in me veniant. Cf. G. Compare the old is Italian use of dovere. : 4. 403). Regnier 108-109 {guanto plus quantus. quanti justi esuriunt. 345. Propertius: Densusianu 179. ADVERBS. . The words referring to the "place in "place into which" were confused. quique. a pleonastic use of debeo. for eo: Lat. 427. persona. totis horis. 121) and perhaps *tuttus. «»w. §§ 163. There are examples as early as Drager 104. ubi being used for quo. too. There finitive. talis. 338. 336-337. ' anything R. 212. Cf. tantus replaced quot. [§ 73 plus and magis were confused: tenetur tanto plus timetur. Mil. tot. Quisque was much extended 135). VERBS. iinus. Claudian. see quantus. quhquis. . This use was common in late Latin: Densusianu 178. (St. § 53. which" and the ibi 73. 409-411). Unde was employed by Microsoft® in the sense of Digitized . 414. G. quts. R. qualis. 109). was sometimes used for omnis : Plautus. pronounced also tottus (S. custodire debeant. Spr. tantis lacri- 413-415 qui. § 1 1 7. Videri. 3. 415). Frequent in late Latin Bon. Glor. Bechtel 143. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. also a common pleonastic use of coepi with the in- instead of the perfect: see § 124. Cf. is often used pleonastically Bayard 99-100. (2). ' : (G. R.

multum. The functions of prepositions were very much extended not found in (Bayard 137-158): see Use 77.).§ 78] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. sed ecce hie est. Hoppe 78. 39 'where' (Zj. etc.14. 341 jaspide. It apparently has no successors in the Romance languages. 37. 38. R. and the old comparative and superlative forms became rarer: see § 56. and magis for potius: Bayard no. Regnier The absolute use of non. Regnier no. 342 . and many other 75- Double negation frequent: R. is Per. 487. nihil. Plus and magis were used more and more for comparison. having been replaced by on. Wolfflin 5. Spr. Beiheft fore': 157). 5. from the third century ex {Lat. for ne with the subjunctive common: G. is Ab. de utero matris nati sunt sic. meaning 'no'. Hoppe 38 . and others by Microsoft® . 395. 7. G. any de. were employed as intensives more than in Classic Latin. Totum occurs often as an adverb: places. Hoppe 38): de palatio exit. ggressus de area. Die amice unde tristis es. 446-447 {nee is fado est. muri de lapide de adversario vivo de deeimis. according to Mohl. Terence. Repetition was used for in- tensive effect: satis Seneca. Plus was often substituted for magis. Bechtel 105. G. Non no. Ad for apud occurs Digitized in Plautus. § 74. nee de cubiculo . cf. . . usurped the place of which also. occurs occasionally: Dieit unus ex uno angulo: Eeee hie Alius ex alio angulo: Non. PREPOSITIONS. . procedit. . egredere de ecelesia. Dubois 332. 395-396. Lexique 43. Bechtel 105. 435. 339. G. Bene. of Inflections. . also 'therefore' and 'where84. Regnier in. 76. Cases. semper semper. R. of the Italic dialects except Latin. aliquid postulare. .

but from * (pp. aveCj not from apud + hoc. Circa. etc. Bechtel 103. not from apud.27- in late writers (R. G. 343. being. frequently meant 'concerning': frustrati circa veritatem. Spr. ad For the most part apud-^-a. According to F. La preposition cum et ses successeurs en gallo-roman in Bausteine 61. Digitized by Microsoft® . 390-392. and so came cum in that Pro often had the sense of 'for. Hoppe Hoppe ' 41. Bechtel 106 super anima commendatus. G. am. to supplant a critical period for Gaul. ad post (p. as he says. except in Gaul. 40 An Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. but was substituted lor'per in other regions (Urbat 34-35)80. ' : Juxta often signified acjuxta consuetudinem.. 37. but from ad hoc from Italic Pr. Mohl. and cum for apud in Gregory of Tours. am amb. apud is repeatedly found for cum in the Latin writers of Gaul. Urbat 27 {tractans apud me metipsum. Bechtel 105 juxta drachmcB cording to exemplum. G. where it was kept with the sense of cum: Haag 74. in authors of the second and third centuries. Bechtel 106. Pro itself was partially replaced by per (cf.^ 79. Severus. est oratio. had a great vogue country. cum probably disappeared from actual use in Gaul by the fourth century. Hoppe 37. 42. 71) Fr.. Super sometimes replaced de: fallere vos super hanc rem. 75-76). but Pr. volo pro legentis attendimus locum ilium facilitate abuti sermone vulgato. also ab una manu pallas altaris tenerem. derive the Mohl would Old It. apud.' and replaced ob and propter : fides pro una muliere perfida. where ab seems Apud is used for cum by Sulpicius to be used for apud). in the Empire. nos. replaced by ad. . § 14). a new word. Bechtel 104. ' .?. 489. pro memoria illius. ab he takes from apud. 343 . appo. [§ 80 (Oliver 5-6). and common Fer. and more frequently by later authors: Lat. Urbat 10): ad ipsum fontem facta cf.

in most cases. 445-446. temporal sense. forts. 398-400. de forts. Quia. 13. ^. 334): subtus terram. cf. 24. etc. 73. foras were freely used as prepositions (R. . CONJUNCTIONS. and many other places Bon. 6. Regnier 11 2-1 13.) seems to be used. Quod. aut is sometimes equivalent to et . ' ' ' Digitized by Microsoft® . Tamen in the grinatio. 424 {unde inquit Dominus). Eventually ut was generally discarded. rm\c\\ used in the sense of that ' : Per. 402. quia. ut : R. R. etc. 83.' § 84] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. with the infinitive «/ is is : not infrequent 549. Quomodo became a great favorite. Quod to for very common AudoUent ' £0 quod cdLiae 27. and quoniam : R. Ac sic recurs continually in the Pere49. Regnier in. often supplanting quando. 399. R. etc. in). same text (37. which in late Latin was often reduced to qui or qua (see § 168) frequently took the place of quod: Regnier 111-112. merely Magis is much employed to indicate a subordinate clause. Bechtel 119-120. quare sometimes replaced ^«^^and quia: G. 430): videte si Ac si frequently did service for potest did. cf. and 'wherefore': G. §§ 70. Bayard 161. 403. . G. Ut 82. quasi: Per. 403-405. subtus. : R. and was . meaning 'and so' or 'so': 40. 'when'. Peregrinatio : Qua.. vade retro me. 84. 48. Cur. &'took the place of a« and utrum (R. 46. et: Per. Unde sometimes means therefore for but by late writers. etc. . 323. 427—428) are used very often by late writers instead of the accusative and infinitive construction: R. 399. 431-432. 39. he. encroaches on quando in the 22. guoniam {^SMddlt&r Jubere. . Aut cf. Quando displaced cum in the quod. Retro. Regnier often used for ne and num (G. 41 81. . 8.

rare in Classic Latin. USE OF INFLECTIONS. et sic fit missa ecclesitz. increasingly took the place of pure case distinctions. etc. Pirson 169-202. ' " Cf. 412-415.. Quillacq 96- for African Latin. as time went on. R. Arimtnt> Rimini. B. ut Clusil~^ Chiusi. a. Florentice^ Firenze. only in names of places. and very often with place names also. it generally came to be regarded as an inin Archivio glottologico italiano IX. of the locative ablative Angers. Aquis Acqui Aix. 378. constructions. the locative was replaced by in with the ablative (Hoppe 32 in Alexandria) or by ad with the accusative (Urbat 10). for confusion after verbs and adjectives. LOCATIVE. Cf. Archiv VIII. remained eventually missa Anastasi. : > etc. who occasionally uses the accusative for the dative and the ablative.1 42 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. CASES. Digitized by Microsoft® . plural in Andecavis > Flntbus > Fimes. Bianchi With other words. Partsiis > > Parigi Paris. larity in the . 8$. We remnants of the locative geni- tive in Agrigentt> Girgenti. 302-326. 1. than in the literary language. of the locative ablative singular in Ttbiiri^ Tivoli . In popular speech prepositions were more used. and the use of cases became more and more 103 restricted. from prepositional the beginning. When the locative of names of localities was kept. The locative. Hence employment arises in late writers a great irregu- of cases^: G. however. 86. Astis Asti. in the Peregrinatio fit : There find are. There is confusion even in Petronius. etc. 174-176 . 322). the domi or domo of Cicero becomes in domo in Seneca. several examples Bechtel no. Palestina (G. [§ 86 C.

such Horace. Spr. save in set combinations. gustabit de meo. R. instead of -e. de Deo munus. sometimes by the dative. Plautus.§ 89] An . de sorore nepus. 426. de coleritieis). cited by Draeger I. vocatives in -us. R. Cicero. 39. Urbat 20. cf. The genitive. R. R. 89. 481. curator de sacra via. and Livy.' -P^r. the nominative in most words in and such words as had a separate vocative form is like it : tended to discard Plautus. VOCATIVE. de animalibus. II. XVII. Pir. The vocative Classic Latin. Bon. . 43 variable form we find such locatives used as nominatives : from the third century on Lat. GENITIVE. In Vulgar Latin the vocative form probably disappeared entirely. Cf. quid de scientia. de nostris bonis. i. neminem de prcesentibus. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. b. de aceto plenum.. 6ioff.10. Archiv I. d. possessor de propria terra. 396. de oleo. 528 a. 342 numquid Zacchaus de bono habebat. 396. Regnier 54. Oliver 14. de pomis =^som& apples. as mi 88. little by constructions. Hoppe 38. Pirson 194. aliquid habet de verecundia discipuli. little. 12. Spr. the genitive probably ceased to be really popular. 40. Bechtel 104. . partem de istius impudentia. 396. 87. de spiritu Moysi. except perhaps in a few set phrases. Lat. Bechtel 104. lumine. According to Meyer-Liibke. generally . was supplanted by other by the ablative with de (which occurs Examples as early as Plautus). de studentibus. 628 aliquid de . Hoppe 38. 487. Sepulcri 217. son 197. IV. c. For the partitive genitive we find: nil 53.. R. abound: expers partis Verr. bus gentilibusque multitudo magna (also quidam ex Acts 4. 1. Digitized by Microsoft® . terminus de nostra donatione. clerici de ipsa ecclesia. domine. occur in mens for mi is very common (Regnier 34). etc. Terence Heaut.

13. tempore > It. Bechtel 103. I. etc. 329. C. Pirson Digitized omne regnum. etc. patiens. ad quern dixit. a. 194. and probably in some proper names: lUna dies. Sepulcri 218. De Re Rustica I.44 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. . si pecunia most nouns and in the plural of all. in good many set phrases. 329. Inasmuch as the Plautus. Bon. ii. find. = went to the bishop'. etc. Plautus. 1. in most of the Empire : ait ad me.. mart maribus). Capt. ad omnem injuriam im330. ad quern promissio facta. XXV. matre mece. alta node silentia. '^^^ hcec affectionem darem. 135. IV. etc. ad vestram 'I Bechtel 102-103. ad id templum data erit. 40. a tendency by the accusative with ad: ad carnuficem dabo. g. de noctis cHjus. 1019. DATIVE. 3513. G. however. Spr. The genitive was retained. etc. Livy II. Oliver by Microsoft® .C. In late Latin a wrong form was often used a deo honorem in an inscription in Gaul. We it to replace however.. Per. in a words that belonged especially to clerical Latin. as early as Plautus. ange- lorum. L. 487. loquitur ad Jeremiam. Lat Spr. causa causis. illujus. : Zs. D'Arbois 91-93. 4. True. 488. di notte tempore (later di notte tempo). Fieri. dicens ad eum. the fear of ambiguity naturally fostered this practice and the dative. etc. The dative was more Lat. [§ 90 by the beginning of the third century. Dominus ad restituit Moysen dicit. Varro. etc. . 341—342 in /undo ilia villa. ad me magna nuntiavit. Urbat 12. inscription of 57 B. stable than the genitive: 90. ad me ad Dei officio paratus. IX. in certain . fui ad episcopum etc. Bechtel 104. G.. in the singular of was identical in substitution became very general 64.. paganorum. Paoli. S. It. ad propinquos restituit. Urbat 12.. illorum. G... in honore . D'Arbois 13 alme Maria. form either with the ablative or with the genitive (e. est ministerit. some pronouns. Cf. apparet ad agricolas. muro muris.

super was used: imposuerat manus me misericordiam prastare. Hoppe. is For de= 'than. de singularitate famosum.. ex infirmitate fatigata. 92. Sepulcri 218. Hoppe 33 . Sometimes super eum.). and lingered rather late Gaul (Za/. occurs also: ex causa humana salutis. Regnier 54. de se. Bechtel 105. nobilior de obsoletiore matrice. Hoppe 105). R. Bechtel 104. reinforced by the analogy of prepositional substitutes for the genitive and dative.' see Zs. The analytical tendency of speech. in its original function and also as a genitive. Hoppe 33. 393 patrem de regno privavit. ml. not ad. 641. ab a prcemio minorem scriptura sancta commemoratos. ab sceleribus parce. Digitized by Microsoft® . 34. Spr. 426. 35. gaudet de victus necessitate causatur. de manibus suis. 481). R. favored the use of prepositions with the ablative. super. ab Ariulfi astutia the most frequent erubescens de infamia sua. cited by WolfHin $2. to distinguish its various functions. esse. Hoppe 33. Ab common : ab omni specie idololatrice intactum. de vestra rideat CBmulatione. in feminine adjectives (as romine). in the first declension (as case). 392-395. 45 3-4. ABLATIVE. Rumanian has kept the dative. Ex R. XXX. de oculis. 335. St. G. elsewhere it probably disappeared from really popular speech by the end of the Empire. de te beati sunt. Regnier 54-56. a came superatur. Sepulcri 218. Bechtel 105. G. 339-342. Cyprian. Hoppe 36. 36. The dative remained in Dacia.G. occidam de lancea. De is : Hoppe 14. de- ceptus. tibi. 56. de virgine natus est. Bechtel de contumelia sua. Hoppe Hoppe 34. except in pronouns {cici. etc. digni de cmlo Castores. Regnier . c. illui tilt.§ 92] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. and so in 91. Bechtel 104 (cf. Regnier 51 . etc. 337.

Hoppe 33. quo in tempore. discenies.. The accusative form substituted for the ablative after by Microsoft® Digitized . Cum cum it was probably not with the accusative is very frequent: cum suos Lat. ad horam sextam aguntur. ad diem. Bechtel 103-104. Sepulcri 218 pugnare ad ursos. and that the ablative and accusative singular were pronounced alike. Lat. its stead. cum Cf. The fusion of the two cases was doubtless helped by the fact that certain prepositions might be combined with either accusative or ablative. . ad unum gladii ictum 93. 397 . Hoppe 31 . Spr. Ps. 488.46 An In is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. fructum fructu. 94. cum res nostras. Cf. epistolam. in camo amore Dei 9 in bonis operibus abundetis. E. etfreno maxillas eorum constringe. but very common before the third. Spr. XXXI. caput desecare. in most of the Latin territory. 488. in fif. 263. in inscriptions. R. the accusative being used in J 95- There is evidence of the confusion of accusative and first ablative as early as the century. in illo die. ferventes. Regnier 58 Hoppe 31 in maxilla asina delevi mille vires. in aU words. etc. Sometimes ad ov per with the accusative is substituted per hoc. : [§ 95 often found . donum dono. 5. Bechtel 103.396-397. after the fall of final m and the of quantitative distinctions in unaccented syllables. diem die. of the Empire the ablative plural end form was generally discarded. Bechtel 95 . for the ablative: . because. G. Rand in is Modem Philology II. G. . 344-347. 347 R. Regnier 60. D'Arbois footnote 27. late The use of prepositions became really neccessary in the loss spoken language. K. per nomen vocavit. patrem It is likely that before the patre. sodales. the little ablative differed or not at all from the accusative in the : singular of most words causam causa.

such as hora. R.. ilia. Bechtel 100. in correct use of in etc. Bechtel 99 . vendere cento soldi. etc... generally. etc. pari mente. . 96. was kept only in etc.— — — § 97] — —— — . its place : Bechtel 09-1 1 o. proper names with as Delia Casa.. ecclesia majore. is three times as common as the + ace. — : pro hoc ipsud. etc. perhaps in such phrases as It. . Hoppe 40-41 in the Per. Bechtel 96.. R. Bechtel loi. Bechtel 96 de actus. probably in some expressions. ecclesia. . visa loca sancta omnia {Per. Digitized by Microsoft® .. 406-412. Bechtel xoo\ post morte. . R. 47 other prepositions: a monazonies. Bechtel 94—101 venit in civitate sua. 406-412. + abl. . Hoppe 40-41 12 examples of in + ace. etc. the accusative ante cruce. Bechtel loi . D'Arbois 27 de rigna nostra. — intra civitate sua. 406-412. luce. Bechtel 96 de hoc ipsud. -juxta aqua ipsa. Bechtel 95 contra ipso loco. circa Bechtel 95 . etc.. etc. — — — foras in came conversa. Bechtel 97-98 erat in villas. medium maris. 410. pro nos. etc. the nominative absolute took 45. Bechtel 99 lunca. It is likely. . D'Arbois 152. . de. cib fatto. Bechtel loi. sine fructum. intro spe- — lectione. tuos. in Per. Bechtel 99. Bechtel 94 ante sole. however. et bene- dicens nos episcopusprofectisumus. quomodo. per valle and 21 other cases of /ifr+abl. — prope super civitate hac.6—412. etc. . de eo torrentem. — Bechtel 96 — . that the ablative absolute survived in a few common 1 like It. R. The some fixed expressions. 8). 406-412.. . is Conversely. R. anno. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. D'Arbois 70-71 ex fines R.. Bechtel 96 de martyrium. in popular speech. ante sole. R. etc. 406-412. Bechtel loi — propter populo. ablative ist' 97. 58. videbo te in publicum. ad . puteo. Bechtel 94. for abl. Bechtel 95. infinem Deus fecit ccelum et terram. too. de ipsas ... the ablative form very often written for . post . 40. Waters Ch.. de camem. for ace.

infinitive 102. sometimes in. and 101. however. 327. (i) Supine. By the end of the Vulgar Latin period there probably remained in really popular use (aside from pronouns and a number of set formulas) in Dacia only three cases. were replaced by other locutions. regionem venit. also is by the ablative Bechtel : 1 08-9. Cf. ad Babyloniatn duxit. Regnier 52. 99. in the rest of the Empire only two —a nominative and an accusativenaturally tried to write in ac- ablative. many new tendencies manifested them- IMPERSONAL PARTS. to Vulgar Latin. [§ 103 ACCUSATIVE. In the parts that remained selves. 2. these obsolete parts were employed by writers with more or less inaccuracy. G. Bechtel 103. After verbs of motion ad was often used. ad isfam Duration of time was expressed by per with the ac- cusative. by the infinitive: as cum Digitized by Microsoft® . Waters Ch. Only the present active and the present and perfect participles were left intact. omatus est. cordance with their idea of correct Latin. ^i. G. tota autem nocte vicibus dicuntur p salmi. The supine disappeared from general the first placed. g. fui ad ecdesiam. being recentury on. VERB-FORMS. 103. 98. consules ad Africam profecti sunt. Clerics.48 An Introduction f. a. Regnier 51-52. 328. 100. per iotos octo dies etc. from use. Many parts of the verb went out of popular use. instead of the simple accusative: eamus in forum. FALL OF DECLENSION.

432—433. Lat. (4) 106. (3) Gerundive. it was probably rare in late was used with esse as a substitute Sometimes. 490. Gerund. potestatem curare. Draeger II. ejus nomine pugnaturo. Densusianu sanando. the supine was preserved: Tiktin 596. except when style. 386R. Sermones 225. 389. 57. 430. became more and more a fui fugiet Eun. V. R. Spr. esse. Terence. came to be replaced With the exception by the sometimes with a prep- osition: dat manducare. R. 57 179. Spr. 433-434. 8. etc. cites Livy. R. in a literary 388—389. conciendo ad se multitudinem. hanc Marcion captavit errando. Cf. qui pertransivit benefaciendo et Cf. (2) 104. G. took the place of a relative cIzms^: faveant mihi pro Cf. 432. Jilius hominis tradendus Cf. Dubois 275. Hoppe multa vidi sometimes used for a conditional clause cavendo salvi erimus. 363. Eventually. Augustine. Future Active Participle. 433. however. In Rumanian. G.. quomodo potest hie nobis camem dare ad manducare. St. and Tacitus. The ablative gerund was . The ablative form of the gerund substitute for the present participle: ita miserrimus tando. 4. necessitas tacere.erund infinitive. 490. G. as a future passive participle. of the ablative form. in place of the future: with 388. Cap. Lat. the gerundive was discarded. Hoppe 105. from the third century on. ex- cept in some standing phrases. for the future (as facturus sum). : sic legendo. G. Digitized by Microsoft® . however.§ io6] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 847-849. R. The gerundive was used est. assurgens popu- lando. the i. 2. it The future active participle Vulgar Latin. 49 veneris ad bibere.

and was used as an : adjective -ans. 659-671. 389. Late writers. ut. quod. 377. credidit ei quia esset vere Jilius Dei. sciens quod — libenter haberetis hcec cognoscere. however. Regnier 63. 371-375.the was replaced sometimes by the passive. G. Bon. scribitur. mundus sit. and. Cf. 109. etc. The infinitive + accusative construction was more and third century on: G. etc. (6) Perfect Participle. G. it for a relative clause: it Often. perspicue exposuit quod ager nesciebat quia Jesus erat. 107. The perfect participle was kept. Suffixes for Adjectives. etc. : Eva vidisse de- G. 431-432 {malunt credidisse. wishing to avoid vulgarisms. 383 . ut spiritu valeatnon ignoramus. legitur dixisse Deus. but often by a clause in- troduced by quia. G. It more avoided from . (5) [§ no Present Participle. G.50 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. is disappeared: see Voice and Tense below. the perfect instead of the present infinitive very common: R. The present participle was kept. si ipse est ascendens in ccelos. (7) Infinitive. G. 108.). 375-385. by Microsoft® . 385. as will presently be seen. often misused the infinitive + accusative: Digitized G. Verbs that had no perfect participle were obliged to make one. nemo mentiens plorat. however. its use was greatly extended through new methods of forming the passive and the perfect tenses. (licent eo quod filii Israhel eas posuerint. Sometimes it was employed periphrastically with esse: G. and as a noun see Derivation. 371-373. The perfect and passive infinitive forms eventually In late writers. Bechtel 112—115.. was replaced by the ablative gerund: see Gerund above. 371. Writers occasionally substituted 388. de corpore loquor. quoniam. no.

conjectus in carcerem fuerat. amatus est came Hence amatus fuit signified he Then a whole passive in2 76ff. Bon. G. 177. Hoppe 60 mors salva erit cum fuerit devorata. R. b. the infinitive assumed many new and Gerund above. participle The old passive forms extent. ipsum vivere accedere est. 51 111. some examples may be culled from late writings: denuo factus filius fui. Cf. 671-675. aliter exprimere non est. 490. Thielmann. Venantius Fortunatus. by Microsoft® . etc. 363-370.§ 112] An On Introduction to Vulgar -Latin. Regnier 73. etc. cited in Lat. 430. up the classic practice as far as they were Although authors kept able. G. 366. of the popular formation .. timuisti . 647.. permissa est accedere. male fecisti dare Spiritum sanctum. Regnier 106. Hoppe 60. facere. mean he was loved': flection is loved etc. est. VOICE. Bon. venit aliquis audire. G. Spr. 363. the other hand. It Hoppe malum tions: replaced the subjunctive with ut and similar construcvadent orare. P. 370. Cf. It wias often used as a noun: totum vivere anima carnis est. quce legi digna sunt. ' 112. Regnier Digitized 63. G. Facere mit dem Infinitiv in Archiv III. revertitur omnis populus resumere se. to of the perfect participle ern Italy y?^). Bechtel 117: valeamus assumi. amant ignorare. 673. non venit justos vocare. G.. Bechtel 117. some the — except the perfect gerundive — gradually + esse (in north- disappeared from ordinary speech. Regnier 74 mihi prcecepit hac loqui. I. Regnier 106. see Draeger was made up and. non habent unde reddere tibi. per velle perdidit bonum posse. It took the place of a relative or indirectly interrogative after certain verbs: clause nesciendo qua petere. 42. Regnier 73. to Under the ' influence of carus '. Hoppe 61. . Hoppe 42-52: Ninus regnare primus. functions: see Supine bonus et dicere et facere. 368.

[§ 117 the passive inflection disappeared. (2) Subjunctive. see c. much as it is used by Microsoft® . homo with the force of French on. sequi. and in Italy. -At the end of the Vulgar Latin period it in popular speech. very Digitized was probably used. In negative commands the imperative was often placed by the subjunctive. Cf. being replaced by the indicative in many . Bechtel 126. etc. Even in Classic Latin there is often hesita- tion. 455. people said littera se scribit and litteram scribunt or litteram scribit homo: ct. I'er. and also for the first. An As Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Rom. scribitur When littera seemed archaic. 115. In the intermediate period the passive was frequently replaced by reflexive and active constructions. and Dacia by the infinitive: Zat. (i) Imperative. who lived in southern Gaul in the fifth century. The subjunctive was limited to fewer functions. XXXII. and littera scripta est vulgar. In late vulgar speech mori. followed the same Bonnet 402-413. 114. The imperative came to be restricted to the second person singular and plural of the present. the subjunctive being used for the third person.. Bechtel 115 si scire vultis quid facitis. MOOD. se sanare ^= sanari in the 4th century. Gaul. as in the case oi frusirare frustrari. verbs are used as active verbs by Petronius. deponent verbs became active. re- 116. facit se hora quinta. Regnier 69. constructions: cum hi omnes tarn excelsi sunt. by the indicative (found in Pirminius). Dubois 275 notes that the forms in -0 are very rare in Ennodius. 55. for the use of 25.52 113. Many deponent course. 117. irascere irasci. etc. Spr. 490. etc.

iX. place was taken by the infinitive: vergine. Cf. its G. •a. Spr. potuisset. Spr. Gregory the Great (Sepulcri 226) and others. imperfect subjunctive ultimately went out of use. § III. § 72. exWriters of the third and fourth centuries cept in Sardinia. 355-357. The pluperfect : imperfect subjunctive gradually gave way to the Bellum Africanum {^Lat. On the other hand. Regnier 68-71. The perfect subjunctive the future perfect indicative. R. ples. used freely for the imperfect by isset. 489: examples from the 4th century). the indicative was often substituted for the subjunctive: R. Sometimes. 428-430. cf. while trying to follow the traditional practice. Digitized It was apparently confused with was thus preserved in Spain by Microsoft® . ecce Pater fecit Filium nasci de fact. Sittl 133-134. It apparently began with debuvoluisset. 418. in indirect In conditions not contrary to tive discourse and indirect questions. were less logical and evidently less spontaneous than Classic authors in their employment of the subjunctive. Cf. etc.§ 119] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Regnier 27-28. 53 in the Romance Late writers. G. 431 cites many examtimui ne inter nos bella fuissent orta. The in the use of it. languages.&x facio. 357-362- (118. etc. : cdntdse. 489). as In Rumanian the pluperfect subjunctive has assumed the show uncertainty function of a pluperfect indicative 119. Sometimes the subjunctive was replaced by deieo with the infinitive: debeant accipi = accipiantur. and with perthis use is common in the fect infinitives like tacuisse for tacere {Lat. late writers often put the subjunctive where Classic authors would have put the indicative: G. in dependent clauses that are not adversa- nor dubitative.

Draeger 295. Fart. Densusianu 181. however. 121. TENSE. Sallust. cf. yarf«»2 habeo. quid Athenis exquisitum habeam.54 An in Italian i. perf. perf. The present and imperfect and the present subjunctive remained. 689-691. Tiktin 596. with their old functions. 516. 28. 405. Part. § 119. In late Lastin this compound often had simply a peribi vos meaning: metuo enim ne habeam fatigatos. Plautus. 423. future. way with Even adjectives: miserum habere. Digitized Bon. § 124. etc. The . ff. perf. Part. In Classic Latin habeo with the perfect participle was used to express a lasting condition: Hannibal quia fessum It was militem praliis operibusque habebat. omnis res lictas habeo. ilia omnia missa habeo.. perfect. XXIX. fect 294-295. perf 415. dialects: cf. Draeger I. 376. compertum ego habeo. see § 118. by Microsoft® . re- Fart. perf. perf ^11. perf 372 . pecunias magnas 294. Draeger 122. which led also to thS formation of a new perfect and pluperfect subjunctive. indicative 120. Bon. Fart. however. I. Regnier Cf. in legal phraseology. construction very common in Cicero in a sense that closely approaches the perfect: satis . for the perfect subjunctive. Fart. 619. pluperfect. § 117. 414-415. or something akin to it: Cato the elder. I. scriptum habeo. Crescini in d. and Rumanian and V. C. 537-538. in general. 690. rationes cognitas habeo. perf. In the and future perfect indicative great changes took place. habeo deliberatum. used in the same Part. 535 is . collocatas habent. the mean- ing of this locution began to shift to the perfect. De Lollis in Zs. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. [§ 122 and Bausteine Cf. episcopum invitatum habes. in Classic Latin. Fart. (i) The Perfect Tenses. For the imperfect and pluperfect subsee. junctive. 518-521.

sometimes as a conditional. in Proven9al. On the model of this new perfect. § 72. and to some extent in Italy. which supplanted more and more the original was increasingly confined to its aorist Lat Spr.. etc. 620). however. with esse. 537. in the Spanish peninsula. gener ally with the aorist sense. elsewhere . 541. in the case of neuter verbs. The old future perfect was apparently confused with the perfect subjunctive. the old perfect meaning was not entirely lost. Old French Sainte Eulalie. which came down from the Classic Latin use in conditional sentences. perf. The old perfect form remained in popular use. Reich. boltier' in the Old The condiItalian Ritmo Cassinese (^Zs. tional function. 123.. pouret. its vogue began in Gaul in the fifth century. The old pluperfect indicative became rarer. and continued to be used. was preserved in Spanish. 294. a compound pluwas constructed Cicero. Fart. Digitized by Microsoft® . The preterit use occurs in dixerat. Eventually an entire perfect inflection was built up with habere or. and in the Italian /ora -Cfueram.§ 124] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. it 55 In popular speech function: perfect form. 124. I [ sometimes with its original sense. the sixth: Part. in some southern Italian dialects (notably in the Rosa in the fresca aulentissima). sometimes as a preterit. ortaret. si Dominum iratum haberes. perfect bant. quas in cerario conditas habeDraeger I. 489. it cxpi with an infinitive: Waters Ch. perf. the Gl. with the force of a future indicative or subjunctive. In the same way a future perfect was made: de Ccesare satis dictum habebo. Regnier 28. XXIX. In the Spanish peninsula. auret. 70. transalaret in etc. furet. but still lingered. etc. Sepulcri 227. Some late writers were fond of :\ substituting for Cf. : quam semper cognitam habui.

I. errors as respondeam for respondebo (^Futurum 158). 98. delenda est. PL 141-142. The old audibo. was liable to confusion with the present subjunctive and indicative. dormibo forms were kept late {Futurum 161). Digitized by Microsoft® . and we find such 126. Bechtel 112. which The Latin mistakes were made in writing: Vok. During the Empire there was a strong tendency to substitute these or other constructions Classic Latin turus sum. Pers. inquis. Bechtel 90-91. for the future forms (such periphrases are particularly fre- quent in African church Latin) : (1) The present indicative for the future is common in Cicero in conditional sentences: Lebreton 188-190. As the tense became rare in speech. Old Sp. Regnier Cf. the formation in —bo. Draeger I. Cf. Sepulcri 225-226.— S6 in An some Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. such as fachabeo dicere. Sepulcri 225. corrigis. future was not uniform in the four conjuwas used in three of them and prevailed in two. The substitution si vis ecce ire became frequent in all sorts of constructions: nam modo pedibus duco vos ibi. pervidet. qiiando mutarisi eras. according to Mohl. which approached the meaning of the future. Pr. (2) 125. [§ 126 dialects of Italy. gations. Future and Conditional. the future in the first two conjugations was suggestive of the imperfect. jam crastina non eximus. had some circumlocutions. and in the other two. These causes or others made the future unpopular. Regnier viii. was native. in late pronunciation. cantdre. only in Rome and the immediate vicinity. quando 64. cantdro. Bechtel 112. 286 ff. and in Dacia: Sp. The old pluperfect subjunctive was used as an imperfect: see § 118. § 119. Furthermore. cum volueris et imus tecum ostendimus tibi.

quam evenire haDeus corpus. In these senses habes spectare. R. Hoppe 44 nan habent retribuere. § 129] An The Introduction to Vulgar Latin. G. — St. venire habet. 123. 449 Regnier 28. Cf. it many others. rebus dicere habemus. habes invenire in manibus — tollere habet. 370. R. . Cicero. qui nasci habent. 57 (2) future participle writers: stc et Bayard 256. 128. etc. however. + + It was 5) Vadere. as in Sueto- means I. Regnier 29. aliter prcedicantur bent. (3) Velk and /^w^ + infinitive were frequent: G. mandare habewas very common in late writers: Hoppe 43 filius Dei mori habuit. 129. 447-449. . R. Varro. Augustine. videre habetis. frobare non habent. infinitive: In Classic Latin habeo habeo quod dicam. ( ^w^ was a favorite with late nos futuri sumus resurgere. 28. 447 unde mihi dare habes aquam vivam. 423. Cf. Cf. This habeo construction dare habet finally took the sense of a simple future: Tertullian. infinitive was another substitute. Jerome. R. I. was habeo with the dicere ^=:. See §§ 105. 711. Hoppe 44-45 . et sicnihil tuis. cui velle habet. later.. debeo dicere: tibi polliceri. Futurum 180. venire + infinitive were used also. or Digitized by Microsoft® .. St. . The form that prevailed.. . tantum habeo Lucretius VI. bam. i. etc. . Regnier century. nee verba nobis ista did habent. (4) Debere kept in Sardinian. Velle in this sense was preserved in Dacia. 448 exire habebat. I. Ovid. It had become common by the sixth In the early stages of the Romance languages. I. the oldest Rumanian future is voiujurd or Jurd vom: Tiktin 599. 106. R. I 127. in multis hoc . Rustica 5.— Servius. Hoppe 44 it . Futurum 48 ff. De Re ut id mihi habeam curare. Trist. . ire. 447 multa habeo dicere. Densusianu 181 in Italy . Ad Famil. being so used by Cicero and nius.

Spr. In Classic Latin. ..— 58 . ready for use. amaturus eram or fui was often used and when amaturus sum was replaced by amare habeo. Haag See Morphology. although sometimes with him the meaning borders on a real conditional: non traditus autem traduci habebas. fazel-o-he. Quillacq 116. ista civitas esterminari haberet quod esset venturus et 130. Haag 54. 55. addarabo. The phrase existed. The earliest examples of the Romance future are found in Fredeyet. Bayard 257. garius: Justinianus dicebat 'daras'. and occurs in Old Italian Pg. but this union was not completed until after the beginnings of the Romance literatures. it was natural that amaturus eram should give m way to bam. [§ 130 possibly in the latest stage of Vulgar Latin. or conditional. where it was employed with an implication of obligation or necessity. Hilary seem to show a simple conditional use of the compound: quod lex nova dari haberet. Herodes principes sacerdotum ubi nasci habebat Christus interrogat. Digitized by Microsoft® . 489. in place of amassem the conclusion of a conditional sentence. to match such a sentence as venire habebat or habuit. Bayard 256. So it seems to be used by Tertullian. manifestari habebat. pati haberet. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. On the model of this future. Cyprian and St. the infinitive came to stand regularly. something like si potuissem venire habebam or habui was called for. Finally the two words were fused into one. amare habedicit quod like dixit si possum venire habet. There are sure examples from the fifth century on: Lat. an imperfect of the was constructed. cantare or he cantar. just before the habeo. Hoppe 43-45. there quod was needed a past construction and corresponding to venire habeo. though not immutably. St. Furthermore. new form. in Classic Latin. and in Portuguese it is not completed Old Sp. separation is common in Old Provencal.

cintareasH. Digitized by Microsoft® . 691. parallel to that of the future: Moris hology. Tiktin. for a discussion of the question. The ')ie origin of the full Rumanian conditional. not' bvious.§ 130] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. of this 59 The development as. XXVIII. Bildung des rumanischen Konditionalis in Zs. see H. form in the Romance languages see in general.

sic-cus. The group mute + liquid makes position in the older dramaafter the first : : tists : Nsevius accents integrant. 466. A single consonant between vowels certainly went with the second po-si-tus. Cf. mit-to. In Vulgar Latin this : combination almost invariably attracts the accent cathidra. it In the Classic I. 132-151. was usually divided consonant noc-tem. or in half of a double consonant: a-ni-ma. prop-ter. a-mnis. all consonant groups. the syllable always ended in a vowel. supporting it with purely theoretical considerations. position.III. The Latin grammarians seem to have given no heed to actual speech. The division of j + consonant they regard as uncertain {a-s- trum)\ doubtless in reality the s was nearly syllabic. made position an^ attracted the accent: perfSc-tus. but to have followed the usage of Greek spelling. pro-pter. SYLLABICATION. no-ctem. however. The principles of syllabic division are rather difficult to establish. in the spoken language. A. It is altogether likely. They add In point of that etymological considerations often disturb the operation of the rule. except a mute + a liquid. al-ter. poets may or may not make tinebrcB. 131. According to these writers. fact. as in Italian. then. in-fans. Quintilian 5 recom- mends vdlucres. etc. It is likely that in Old Latin the division came before the Digitized by Microsoft® . and not pirfe-ctus. that a consonant group. or in a liquid or nasal followed by another consonantin the next syllable. Lat. S. Spr. as in ob-liviscor. 132. PHONOLOGY. phdretra. etc.

had become fixed : 6i liquid. VOWELS m HIATUS. became y. computo. poltre < *pullitra. The Latin accent was probably from regularly stress accent. In the earliest stage of the language appar- ently fell on the first syllable: Corssen II. but subsequently. through the Classic period even after the distinctions of quantity were lost. the accent falling on the e Digitized by Microsoft® . PRIMARY STRESS. if : word began with a vowel B. There seem to be a few exceptions to the rule palpres < pdlpebras. unchanged: bonitatem. co-liib-ra. Old Fr.. Franz. 13. pi. otherwise on the antepenult — developed . inUgram. 892-906 S. § 132) normally has the stress in Vulgar Latin: cathedra. cor exsultat = co r-exsultat. the beginning a it 134. ing to which the accent The falls Classic Latin system — accordis on the penult long. § 136] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. have seen that Vulgar Latin regularly accents according to the Classic quantitative accentuation. colubra. ACCENT. if that syllable as early as and remained. co-lu-bra. the place of the accent was literature began. : We — a. There are. 30-34. however. when immediately followed by the 136. both in the literary and in the spoken language. and perhaps : some othfc. Old Fr. Accented vowel of the penult. some cases in which the Classic principle fails to operate or the Classic stress has been shifted 135. The penult vowel before mute + liquid (cf. and /. delicto. after the accent on cd- the preceding vowel. We speech a that final have reason to believe that in closely connected consonant was carried over to the next word. 133. I. both consonants were carried over lub-ra.

etc. tuds. Accented u. imp Itcaf^* imp Heat. II. '/« regularly re-nigat. It was favored also by the analogy of miilier. reddtdi "^ reddMi.. tra- addedi. suds. habMrunf^ * hdb^erunt. VI. 137. C. in which the vowel in hiatus is atonic. the accent on the preceding syllable: bat{^t)iiere'>* bdtty^ere'> bdttere . conteneo. seems to be due to a tendency to shift the stress to the more sonorous of two contiguous vowels: cf. On the same plan new verbs were formed: *de-minat. O. So 54 . Aside from these cases. 1889 (pvte6lis). [§ 139 following vowel: put^olis ~:> mul(eris>muljMs. effect diios. provided the composite nature of the formation was understood and the parts were recognized (cf. it was palatalized: \i&xwt f aretes. dedit. I. 3714 (paretes). paries. itios were sometimes pronounced duds. calefacis. . etc. L. 56. inclausus. Lat Spr. 192. S. presteti. consuere'>*cdns^ere'> cdnsere . tenueram > * tenj^eram. Here the shift was apparently due in each case to analogy. b. etc. but * muVeres. re- 139. COMPOUND VERBS. hiatus seems to have had no on the accent in Latin. 138. Gram. Cf § 225. crededi.pi(teus. that suos. etc. became e but if the preceding consonant was . 51. Sepulcri 213-215. Cf. tenueram by tenui. S. p. S. reddedit. when immediately followed by the vowel falling of the penult. Lehrbuch der Phonetik. It is possible. displtcet>*displdcet. §31): deficit >* disfdcit. reiinet > * ret^net. Verbs compounded with prefixes were generally constructed with the accent and the vowel of the simple verb. parjites^paretes^ C. riquirit "^ * requkrit. I.. habuerunt by hdbuit. became w. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . so parietes" L. condedit. perdedit. 468. This change X. /. > putjdlis.62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. battuere being influenced by bdttuo. however. adsteti. consuere by cdnsuo. 668-670. Jespersen.

the composite character of the word although the compound was no longer associated capere. Schuchardt in Zs. 235Digitized by Microsoft® . 42. Paris in Miscellanea linguistica in onore di Graziadio H. illic accented their last syllable through the analogy of hdc^ hlc. for instance. a .Lic. was preferred in and southern Italy. Sardinia preserved both ficatum and ficatum. it probably became *secotum. 141. There existed in Greek a word 'figlike'. Clddat in Revue de philologie fran(aise et de littirature XV. . fecitum. later. and northern Italy. n-LAc. ficatum. *fdcatum. . perhaps under the influence of a vulgar *hepdte for hepar. central 2jaA. 63 RMpit became being with In felt. cdlligo and some others not even the composite nature was perceived. .' c. 140.§ i4i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. a cross between /««/«/« was kept in Sicily and in the Spanish peninsula. (tdicwtoi/ (Pirson 40). 515 and XXVIII. ficotum. Reetia. all meaning 'liver. The adverbs iliac. the simple verbs having become rare or having taken a different sense: legere. *ftcatum. It is found in late Latin in the form sycotum. which should properly have been pronounced sycotum . d. XXV. Priscian says ^^ illic pro mice": S. 'liver'. n.' Ficatum. which was applied by cooks to a liver. a fusion of ficatum and * sicotum. by a change of suffix. 435 L.simple translation of (tvkwtov. Gaul had ficatum and ficatum. came to be used only in the sense of 'read. FICATUM. Through this word there came into use the culinary terms /tedium. Ascoli 41 See G. Ficatum or prevailed in Dacia. * redpit. for some unknown reason. *ficotum */dciium. Ficatum.

[§ 145 NUMERALS. See M. see § 141. of Greek words was varied. lines quarranta occurs in a late inscription. Greek Paroxytones. Ti. 144. Somewas preserved.tnginta. tisana. a. sometimes the word was made to conform to the Latin principle. Tairav6s>* iapinus. 42 ff. irapa. > ( ^purpura. Keil V. Greek oxytones. 143.r/xa-vj'^- were stressed according to the Latin system: ^pa-)QiLT^> drdch{u)ma. \ were sometimes accented on the antepenult: Consentius mentions a faulty pronunciation triginta. when by Latin. (1) Greek Oxytones.qumqudginta. 69-70. Claussen 809.vr] <f>apiTpa'>p/tdretra ox phar'etra (cf. Xa. § 134). Ihm in Archiv VII. may represent popular stress.. (>pMd/a)> It. G. Optisdna)':>lt. II. however. fj. Vok. It.TKj6. etc. Ther\. 461.o^'^ spdstnus. mdgida. The shift was probably due to a tendency to differentiate the numerals from one compare the floating accent in English thirteen^ another in Melanges natural : fourteen. iraXa/ir/ ^pd/ma.. (nraa-it. as polifpus. apparently the first syllable: (2) 145. S. etc. Kafxapa^cdmera.guadraginta. 337. fdia.'i'^ mdc(k)- tna. The accentuation times the Greek stress GREEK WORDS. <f>Ld\rj XoXepa > chdlera) > colira.poKri'^pardbula. stressed ^vKwrov. 1 142. etc. borrowed Idmpa^s).virahersvigintt. Digitized by Microsoft® .ix. voXvTrovs '^ polypus^ irop(f>vpa /jMyiSa. irapaT-fi^'^ pirata. terms borrowed by ear from the Greek. 392.. Rydberg .64 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 4-5 Pirson 97. Cf.ira. with the Greek > Occasionally the accent was kept by doubling the consonant. e. kTzi<jTo\rj~> epistula —ola. Greek paroxytones were mostly accented according to the quantity of the penult: ypa(j>tov>grdp/iium. Wahlund.

Claussen 812.'Kav&ov'> balneum. -eum -ium. Claussen 810— 811. and sophta. phonia. 55-56. > ec(^c)Usia. When : the penult was short. it accent afivcraoi > abyssus. a-riirta>s^pia.<j-(^r]fLux. Digitized jSawTia-fui > baptisma.puj<jo%~^* ciiparissosy.§ 149] ^^ Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. Claussen 813-814. are attested: S. raXaxTov > talintum. Kuiv(im&ov> conopeum -eum —ium.<TTopia> kistdria. S.>blasp hernia. -eum: ^a. The pronunciations melodia. Cf.. Cf.. doubtless favored by Cliristian influence. Thomas in Rom. the accent remained un- changed phus.- was at first generally assimilated to p\a. etc. 42). Cf. 42£f. Cf. etc.cupressus. Claussen 814-821. etc.t&o. Greek Proparoxytones.. 42-49. § 17. (with a KoXa^o^ > cdld- Trpea-ftvrepov > presbyterum new nominative took the prisbyter). A. sometimes —ea. 149.'avfi<l>(ovia>sym- Later a fashionable pronunciation -ia. Gram. (3) 147. penetrated popular speech {(ro<l>ia> sopMa. which was used to form new words: see Derivation. S. Claus- accentuation: Kxnta. —aav sometimes became -ea -ia. 'i. kKo..) and produced a new Latin ending -ia. 148. iKKXtjaia the Latin fiipXla^Mblia. 35. by Microsoft® . Late Latin grammarians mention a pro- nunciation of Greek words with the Greek accent (S. Suffixes for Nouns. 2-3. -ia 146. When : the penult vowel was in position. ylvecTK "^ ginesis. KaXafiOi > calamus. of proparoxytones is The treatment complicated. I. XXXI. The ending -2i2. A few early borrowed words perhaps show the Old Latin Cf. The endings -aa. sen 809. 65 but it more likely that the Italian forms are book-words with a shifted accent. but their statements are too vague to be of use. > platea platea.

at the beginning of the century. apparently took the accent in book-words but not in words learned by ear (S. Ut cdrne carnem liberdns p^rderit quos c6ndidit. Fisaurum It. of Vulgar and from semi-popular Kluge 500. a-iKlvov^ linum. 48-49) Ka.ballcena. however.ov tdolum (both in Prudentius: Lat.T]\ai> camelus -ellus. Ne Digitized by Microsoft® .> sinapi sindpi. Some words have both pronunciations et8<i)A. ^\axr<^-i]p. ayKvpa>dncora. Troyes. judging from phonetic changes late Latin verse. Pharo. Tricasses'>Yx. Germanic words were apparently made to conform to Latin types: H'&go HUgun > Hugo Hugdnem > Fr.66 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. writes: Beatus iuctor skculi Servile c6rpus fnduit. Dreux. Ka. (T'aia. contrary to Latin rules (S. Some words borrowed from other languages kept e. Dottin 103. 49): Umbrian Fr. etc. j3ovTvpov> *se'- biHtyrum (^milius Macer). it consisted in a tolerably regular alternation syllables. we can determine the rhythm Latin. When the penult vowel was long and not in position. [§ 153 'EyKava-Tov. Hues Hudn. 'ldKioPoi>/dcobus. Spr. 151. t^aWtava'^.o%> bldsphemus (Prudentius). KpoKohaKoi'^ crocodilus. their original accent. xa/xtvos it : caminus.pv6<^vKKov Occasionally the consonant group was simplified and the accent remained : > * garofulum.Tri. 2. 153. ipr]iuis> eremus eremus : > (Prudentius). Celtic Baiocasses > > Z>urdcasses'^'Px. 152. As far as SECONDARY STRESS. of accented and unaccented fifth Thus Sedulius. became both encdustum and incaustum. OTHER FOREIGN WORDS. 466). > 150.. etc. .

in Latin as in other lan- guages. clerc. In many cases the intervening vowel fell out or lost Then the primary and the secondary ac- lost cent were brought together. especially prepositions and conjunctions. In late formations e or i in hiatus did not count as a sylla- ble: * cotninitidre. cdlidHs cdldus. te-videt. Short. but clmPr. I. cdlapMin Pr. non-dmat. Digitized by Microsoft® . 154. and the secondary was shifted or *pdrauldre. the root syllable may have received an irregular stress through the analogy of the primitive: * drboricellus. B\i6logn{no beside Bologna. cum Pr. Many words. unemphatic words. clirgue while cUr'cum > > > cdlbe while cdlpum > Pr.: § 156] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. but probably the vowel bearing it had more force than a wholly unaccented final vowel: sdcer{>'PY. its syllabic value. v€ttovdglia beside vittdria. dd-tibi. When the secondary stress preceded the tonic. Casdrem. it and the vowel bearing it was was apparently treated as an accented vowel: * amicUdtem~^'?x. When it followed the tonic. it was weak. fell on the second syllable from the tonic: cuptditosus. 38-39) dma-me. in Italian. sdzer. UNSTEESSED WORDS. as well as some adverbs and pronouns. Idcrlmosa. strong. 156. dolorosa. pldcttiim'^'Pr. Gdllias. colp. were used only as enclitics or proclitics. *parduldre *pardbuldre : > > > filiiis "^^/ilius. 155. F\6rentino beside Fvrenze. felidtatem. In some derivatives. amistdt. stress. 67 ' The secondary then. circum-Utora (Quintilian s). so. and were attached as additional end of other words (S.^plach. cave-facias. syllables to the beginning or had no accent. however.

POSITION. par-tern > Fr. For the syllabication of mute + liquid. 56-57. sUay- C. QUANTITY. apparently. In some of the Romance languages the development of the preceding vowel.68 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. stressed tended to develop double forms: sua and Cf. by Microsoft® . see Franz. If such particles had more than one syllable. the consonant was final and the next word began with a vowel. eccum istum > 'cu" p II. istu' (but iccum istum > eccu'istu'). S. 73-79. per. in connected speech. perhaps influenced proclitic hy plus. 1110. did a final consonant Digitized §133): Jffl-/> Fr. ecce that vowel: ilium v{det^ hic^ (but ecce hie > ecc'tc) For 158. [§ i6o 157. they tended to become monosyllabic: unstressed magis. see §§132. (cf. 1. 379-390. pere. 134. A syllable was long if it contained ( i ) a long vowel or a diphthong or (2) any vowel + a following consonant. Words sometimes sa. did not prevent the development: pa-trem^Y-ic. however.5"^ illas and sometimes unstressed and * las. but we may surmise that in common speech it was more marked in stressed than in unstressed vowels. the consonant. We must distinguish between the quantity of vowels and the quantity of syllables. . part. Every 'LaXin vowel was by nature either lon^ prshort. If. Mute + liquid Neither. was doubtless carried over to the next syllable and did not make position: see §133. sel. position checked it is 160. elision. and probable that the beginnings of this differentiation go back to Vulgar Latin times : pa-rem > Old Fr. became *mais and * mas. ' I 159. how great the difference was we do not know. 'lu' A 'c'ic dissyllabic beginning with a vowel seems to have regularly lost vldet.

VIII. 118: mIssit) > causa. — fuore <fd-ris. however. had two forms. in— 132.§ 163] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 163. —Isse —tssem etc. Similarly one / was lost in mallo. j < peccol- lum. I. It. Cf. mtllia (but not in mille : Pompeius. as seems to be ves(s)ica. especially before the accent: bal{l)cBna. Early in the Empire caussa ss after vowels was apparently reduced to casus. Stolz 222—225. 127). corpo <:_cdr-pus. but often it must represent an actual difference in pronunciation. Digitized by Microsoft® . where we have perhaps only a change of suffix. stupa stuppa. 129. in the contracted endings -dsse -dssem etc. Cf. gluto glutto . L. S. cuor{e) 161. 162.^glut[t)tre. formossus > > > mtsit. Fr. : The The single antiquity of double t is attested by an old inscription Lexique loi. copa. giving Sp. ii594)>It. In Latin texts there is much confusion of single and double consonants. Cf. petto pietra<pe-tra. biica bucca . citto {C. §163. etc. this may result merely the case with the doublet czto> S-p. cedo. In some words from bad spelling. § 42 ctpus a single consonant. cuppa. siccus ' '' sicccus. ferro <ifer-rum_. -esse -essem etc.. buc{c)lna. doubtless beone with a long vowel + — + a double consonant: brdchium brdcchium . pupa puppa. cuve. mut{t')ire. cf.fe-rus.* co-pVit. camelus camellus. mucus miiccus . cippus. It. cuba. the other with a short vowel . glossa glosa. S. cupola and erat. Fr. missit (S. is common in Greek and Latin manu- scripts: S. nollo. Sp. 125-126 (Velius Longus and Pompeius). Many words certainly longing to different Latin dialects. Jiipiter Juppiter. tap{p)ete. paullum. coupe. perhaps litera littera. (S. This did not occur. ciepa.. which prevailed in Romance. coUo < <icd-r. cot{t)idie.^ ec{c)lesta. 69 Compare tus. cetto. Stolz 223-224. diphthongs and long 112-120): cdssus> formosus. c.fiel(^e) Kferl. coppa . Italian fiero <. cuopre <. hoc erat hocc S.

jubemus lltus littus. iConsentius: " per adjectionem litterje io««»! pioioto. XXIV. I. iota estreine) (>Sp. tennuis. 334. Die Entwicklung des aqua in den romanischen Sprachen. Cf. In late Latin inscriptions and manuscripts a consonant was sometimes doubled before r or u: acqua. Sic. Mohl. toda) ¥ totta (Keil V. (>It. seemingly a cross between the other two. lattrones. § 204(2). S. having both the long. 612. anguilla). 485. I. dialect stella) = (>It. XXVI. Gaul. strena (> Old Fr. suppremis. * stela (>01d esteile: cf. stilla). Vok. strennuor. 1. mist * missi 261 {iubimmus iobemmus). toiius was used by Pirminius." Cf. * According to Lat. 403. channe. etc. a consonant was doubled 122. prevalent in Africa or in Italy. cascio). attested by inscriptions and by Christian poets. Zs. bellua. I. Spr. reviewed by Meyer-Lubke in Ltblt. frattre. local ing to F. suppra. bascio). ^Stella Vok.5 547. baca bacca. cf. 339. This doubling indicates in most cases a Accordpronunciation. For *iiUius see Digitized by Microsoft® . botte). conservammus. chdne{<x°-'^) 261. messi). Leicique 98-104. was very widespread and prevailed in Italy. 164. Stolz 223. Lexique 95-98) + Stella (>It. strenna. jubemmus.^ + strenna = * strenna (> It. tenne. Rsetia. and a large part of lateinischen See Clara Hiirlimann.70 An To these Introduction to Vulgar Latin. [§ 164 may perhaps be added: cdseus * cdsseus bdsium *bassium (>It. Gram. Beside the two forms indicated. strinna). ^(ji. mattrona.488. Archiv XIV. vowel and the double consonant : angutla (> Sp. In aqua the double con: sonant. So perhaps Diomedes' Itttera: Fr. G. toute). there was occasionally a third. voile.^)—* tdtta (> Pr. brdca bracca. * butts (<j8oi)tis) *buttis (>It. anguila) Fr. + anguilla—* angutUa (> It. (> It. before / and u in the old Italic dialects compare the Italian doubling infabbro. tota. Stella. conservdmus Vok.

Writers do not clearly distinguish i and i. the short vowels being open while the sentio. 195. i and u were allowed to drop still lower. the vowels having. None of the grammarians apparently distinguished « and «. similar to i. I. cites Tertullian for an e (S. 176. III. In Vok. 146. e. solus sqlet. etc. is given the testimony of grammarians. 182). II. (S. i ff. but is used for u in inscriptions. That is.§ i66] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in debet and mnum \ \ and minus. In the case of a. was often used for e in inscriptions (S. 183-184). Originally. mulus Later. in the fifth century (S. : vendo pinus pi^er. is made with the tongue lying flat in the bottom of the mouth. In open syllables. distinguishes do other grammarians (S.. Terentianus from q (S. i. 71 VOWEL QUANTITY. 461. distinguishes two ^-sounds Pompeius. the same sound in Idtus and Idtus. 174. 166. (S. long dis- - tinguished only by duration. however. 182). 208. from the second century on cs Marius Victorinus. and several fifth century grammarians plainly distinguish e from e (S. there was no such differentiation. secondus. 211). and short vowels were redit. 211). long were close gula. until Consentius. as ocsor.. 467. etc. perhaps. 151. for the vowels of brief duration the tongue was not in lifted quite so high as for those held longer. and i for e. the distinction U was clear by the first century of our era. which and became e and see §§201. . is often used for i in inscriptions. long and short e. if the word is used in verse. and so Maurus. In Digitized by Microsoft® . 175. 216-217). in iillus and multus. 212. for instance.. by 250. about 350 a. in 165. According to Meyer-Liibke. Za(. 193). the quantity of the vowel is ' in general easily ascertained. as minses. most of the Empire. all : of later date. the evidence of inscriptions. d. 2. this nomen and novus. However may have been. 200-201). as menus. etc. Spr. about 480. and u were eventin ually differentiated. 0. II. in Vok.

101-102). found in inscrip- tions.. require a short some Romance forms support Classic luridus. were apparently pronounced also with short u 81-82).72 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc.2^)>oum (and also ovum. is The Classic rule that a vowel before another vowel short is not absolute even for verse. S. 93. cf. sometimes marked in inscriptions. Fr. loir calls for *gltrem h&siA^ gltrem. and. [§ 167 closed syllables and in words not used is by poets the quantity sometimes conOccasionally the in many cases doubtful . their Dies. others karessimo. a. but it is sometimes given by gram- marians. (S. fut. At 208). probably kept their original Naturally short vowels doubtless had development also: deus = deus. so cut. others demand u. Aulus Gellius prescribes dictum. duo>dui = dui. but an inscription has dIctatori (S. by S. 98. ultra (S. ^T. 99). VOWELS Ilf HIATUS. attested by pIvs piivs. nutrire. with a restora- tion of the V through the plural ova). and in Ennius close vowel in the Romance (S. 105). and the practice of poets was not always in accordance with spoken usage. Romance undecim. after u had become (see §§ 165. 167. their regular quantity in hiatus. and often shown by subsequent developments in the Romance languages. jectured from the etymology. Vowels in hiatus with the last syllable offer difficulties. frIgida. Substrate II. 187). except Spanish. before u was apparently differentiated into 0: dvum> oum (cf. although we do find the spellings dius and mius (S. via— via. 105). in Plautus. then. siius'>Digitized spus> sous (S. testimony conflicts: some inscriptions have carIssimo. Classic i Latin o&ers frtgidus (of. by Microsoft® . but the i. 93): these preserved their languages. at least in part. etc. plus kept inscriptions (dIes originally long vowel. Naturally long vowels. languages. proved old inscriptions . any a later stage.

qua{ni). inscriptions such S. Jean- jaquet. words were short. as in ejus. on the other hand. Horning in Zs. 341. J. gave {Lat. 357-390.. vowels were lengthened before j. 250 in these a. Quintilian states that Pirson 74. Recherches sur Forigine de la conjonction 'que' et des formes romanes iquivalentes. Maiiam. Spr. Troja. spellings as Aiiax. ei-ius. §217. see Gram. under the influence of qua and : . however. Fluere was supplanted in popular usage by plovere Fluvia. 170. For a still. tions in different countries. used for quod in late Latin. with double i (S. different theory. Franz. had a peculiar development from the sixth century on before a vowel it was pronounced qui' and was confused with quid. 1894. 352-355). mai-ius Digitized (£don by Microsoft® . *pldja. 246-248. The apparent contradiction disappears tianus Maurus.: 236. 104) that the vowels there that is. Troja. 236). a II. 207). b. as Cicero approved of Aiiacem. 168. There may have been other special Cf. 3 II. 468). cuiius. point to open vowels in pejor.§ i7o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Franz. Velius Longus adds that etc. before a consonant. Troija. Maiiam. §208. etc. 82 cf. coiiux. LENGTHENING BEFORE CONSONANTS. The Romance languages. hut peijor. major. into pei-ius. According to some grammarians. For another see A. Quia.(4). which had begun to assume the functions of quod (see §§69. 73 varia- 216.. 236). but the / was doubled was a glide from the vowel to the/. XXV. I. it became qua. Cicero preferred aiio. (S. which prolonged the — first syllable: not pejor. d. we should write Troiia also Priscian analyzes pejus. if we accept the statement of Teren- who says (S. way to Cf. Pirson 16). 169. maiiorem. We find in eiius. Cf.

/. S. coxwenire through continere./. all trace of the of the vowel: consul consul cosul cosul. pignus. sanctus. According to Meyer-Liibke {Gram. Lat. not f. [§ 172 regularly early in Latin. 172. however. signum. compounds See S. call for dtgnus. n was followed by a fricative (/. it and the preceding vowel was cesor. tferi. S.. pugnus. . Archiv XIV. Before J. tsula. but insig- It is altogether likely that the n fell through nasalization If so. 91). who wrote in the sixth century. 400. the vowel was lengthened. etc.- cf. u. 86. so that the result Digitized was t. S. (cf. The Romance is languages. (i) Vowels were apparently lengthened before Cf. or v). but the length and the close quality of the vowel remained. Romance and late Vulgar Latin words with ns (except in Cf. 89. s: cosul. as above) are either learned terms or new formaS. conjungere through conducere. sposus. S. etc. tion of later date. t. An Introduction When fell to Vulgar Latin. but only after H had be- come i. «. n occurred in the middle of many words. mesis. etc. 91. (S. tjk: quinque. etc. Spr. benegnvs by Microsoft® . the evidence of the inscriptions I. tions: so pensare. regnum. remains. the n being restored only in com- lengthened by compensation: pounds before initial nare. and some philologists regard the passage in question as still still an interpola54. u. Cf §311. for the usage of Cicero and others. Priscian. (2) Before gn vowels were lengthened according to Priscian and inscriptions mark length in dtgnus. 78. 90. a very late authority.. nasality disappeared. in-: so infantem through indignus. and v only at the end of prefixes. coventio. s. beside the old popular *pesare. however. But inasmuch as n occurs before /". for inscriptions. signum sigillum).74 171. for inscriptions. cojugi. 467). 77-78. it was usually restored by the analogy of the full forms con-. and the fall was permanent. lignum.

2153. This seems a very plausible C. which is 75 in C. 183—184: bence. DISAPPEARAHCE OF THE OLD QUANTITY. through a by Microsoft® . doubtless equivalent to the benIgnus of C. Cornu. . 174. unaccented Terentianus Maurus. XV. I. XII. D. seems to observe quantity in stressed and to neglect it in unstressed syllables. and were often obliterated. The distinctions in quality. in the third or fourth century. of accent. in so far as all. in unaccented syllables the distinctions were doubtless weaker. remained. as due to a vulgar or local pronunciation." etc. for the most part seems to have disappeared from unstressed syllables by the third or fourth century but confusion The nominative singular -is set in as early as the second.§ 174] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. about 250. and the plural —es were confounded by 150 A. D. in the Classical Review I. Buck. "miserce dativus est non adverbium. in the fourth century. 226). warn against quantitative mistakes: so Servius. through the Latin period and developed further in the Romance languages. The old quantity itself was It during the Empire. in stressed syllables. explanation. and we find numerous metrical errors in other late poets: cf. Latin words borrowed by the Britons. The was probably greater and more constant in accented than in unaccented vowels. 722. they existed at c. as in aut (S. prefers to regard such forms as dlgnus. tells us that au is short in Other grammarians syllables. The poetry of Commodian. however. J. the preservation of quantity in post-tonic Digitized mostly in the third and fourth centuries. L. lost. 75). 311. XII. resulting from the original quantity. show. (S. (S. On shift the other hand. difference in quantity 173. 66). Versbau des Commodian in Bausteine 576. etc. and a was often used for e in inscriptions (S. L.).

as aques for eques in 197 (S. dixi plicds. In accented syllables there are sporadic examples of confusion by the second century. On the other hand.76 syllables: An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. grammarians blame the confusion of cequus and equus (S. retain the quantity of vowels that bear the accent: Pogatscher. criticizes Servius. Much late poetry disregards quantity altogether. 225). and based on th|fe situation of the vowel. / At the end of the Latin period a new system of quangrew up. d. entirely diverse from the old. It is possible that the quantity of unstressed vowels was better kept in the provinces than in Italy. d>ii ox 6 while d>o: Franz. tity short: sdncto vales. 178). Digitized fqrmas fori. for. Spr. but probably the disappearance of the old distinction was not general before the fourth and fifth centuries. Latin words in Anglo-Saxon. Augustine devocalium vel produc- Pompeius and other tione non judicant" (^Lat. 65. DEVELOPMENT OF A HEW QUANTITY. all other vowels 176. 106). in the Roma (S. i?> e 01 i. fructus by Microsoft® . distinguish by quantity t and i. vendo vents. Latin words borrowed by Old High German indicate a retention of long i and u before the accent: Franz. are distinguished by quality also. 175. Latin words borrowed by the Britons from the second to the fifth century. [§ 176 Loth 72. The Latin words in Old High German. clares that "Afrae aures de correptione St. 467). e. Moreover. and o. fourth century. e and ?. taken over in the fifth and sixth centuries. but mostly in the third and fourth. 107. In most of the Empire accented vowels not in position were pronounced long.if>« while u and u. and not complete before the end of the sixth. too. show the preservation of the quantity of stressed vowels: Loth 64.

«^j>Fr. Meyer-Liibke in different in Einf. porta.§ 178] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. also ui. In 419 D. e. says that the development was and independent in the several Romance languages. he describes it as common to all. /w>01d Fr. which in the transition from Latin to the Romance languages re1 77- It is likely that these in sulted in diphthongization in a large part of the Empire. 0. This pronunciation doubtless sprang up with the old. cuor. 178. 735). I. d.q. VOWELS. and Sicily apparently did not participate in this early breaking. Zimmermann in Zs.f>It. We and i. eu. particularly in northern Gaul: z'f«f. We shall see presently Digitized by Microsoft® . XXV. The vowels most affected were e and q. the groups that e. : Niipos. and the conditions of diphthongization were very diverse in different localities. An isolated example. close. syllables before a labial (as in proommus') a short further- more. cqr'^lt. a. ^^/a > Old Fr. 561-562. 467. have seen (§ 165) ti. nounced new long vowels were promost regions with a circuinflex intonation. o. he puts in the fourth and fifth centuries. 77 gule. t. u. perhaps only a blunder. in £at. southern Gaul. but as posterior to it the fifth century. Spr. tre-s. d. (rets. Portugal. occurs in an inscription made a little before 120 a. beside a. 103—104. u were pronounced open. vieni. goule. while a was not' affected by q-aawti-ty. dis- appearance of the which it displaced. we find vobit for obiit (S. i. cb. and in unaccented ii. 213). nepotis (A. ca-the-drd te-ni-brds . ce. Latin had the vowels au. cq/r me-l no-s re-m In Spain and in some parts neisf of Gaul. nous. all stressed vowels were appar- ently long: tempus. Gram.

bestemmia. partly from the various pronunciations of the vowels in the several Greek dialects. by Microsoft® . the Greek This pronunciation was letters were sounded as in Greek. 210) that cB>e a. bottega. 181.78 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. long or short. as *waidanjan~>*wadaniare. The foreign vowels of borrowed words were assimil- In the few Celtic words that were taken over there are no important peculiarities. seppia. but popular speech substituted for unfamiliar vowels the sounds of the vernacular. 179. The inconsistencies in this substitution arise partly from the different dates at which words were borrowed. iu is found in skiuha?i> ated in some fashion to the Latin system. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin e: a. [§ 182 (§§209. which became *trewa. eu generallyremained du. Per. (f>dXayi -> phalanx. (n)Tria~^ sapia. while au. was in Greek originally a long e. a-Ktjvrj'^ sctsna scena. doubtless the ideal of people of fashion. partly from the channel (written or oral) through which they came. and ui (as in cut) was lit. and 180.iro6riKTf)~:>apotheca^ It. it H era : eclesia. eu (^cduius. According to Quintilian (£don 64-65). so in some late words. * skivare. eu (or iu) appears in treuwa (or triuwa). The history of Greek vowels is very complicated: — GREEK VOWELS. ceu). A.nd ce>e. but also sepia "^ i: It.La > blasphemia > It. as In words of more ji\acr<\>r}fi. In the Germanic vocabulary there is not much to be noted: at in words adopted early apparently became a. popular origin it often had the Greek open sound kKKkfitrU > 182. Late words often show Digitized do-Ki/Tiys > ascitis. was pronounced a: ^axriM^ Phdsis. but early in our became t.

^(fila-pa^ chrisma> cresima. cf.yermo. tapis. t apparently later often e: apOplriKOi > ariAriticus '> It artetico. apa. etc. seems to have had a very open sound. was probably q. Cf. armeise. Pr. ^ia>drrp > boletus. ally u: tructa. Claussen 853-854. orma. <^iKo'i>phtlus.^ purpura. at least in the principal dialects. popular words I In book-words later e oz e. sometimes open: eprjfios'^ er'mus er'mus'^ It. In popular words it was sometimes close. It. iKKXriKrCiu "> edisice..ix6py7)>amurca. ropvos > tqrnus > It.Chrlstus Chrestus. in 186. it was In assimilated to Latin t: ^lp. Greek dialects. Old Fr. Claussen 869-870. 183. crLvaTn> sinapi^ senape. but perhaps dialectically q (cf. 9... chiosa. op<^a. open in others. was assimilated to Latin e: yevans Agenesis. antiefne. I. K6ppi>gummi. cresme. /iu(rT^ptov> mistirium. and occasionally the same word had both pronunciations: a. dqga. tttw^os > It. even when long. Claussen 855-857. 79 40. Cf.'>- Stephanus Stephanus.vri^ovo%'>-* antefona'^ Qi\A Fr. but sometimes open. oo-/x'^ >. O most dialects was kocjuvo's o. occasion- yXStrira > It. mienta. Sp.v6% > orphanus. etc. piivOrj^ menta'> It. > artemtsia > Old Fr. a. Digitized by Microsoft® . pxirov > blttum'> It. ermo. cedro. 80x1^ > dqga> It. 184.. regamo. 185. tapit. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: > cophinus. '%Ti<^avo'. -p-hqra).> piper. KiBpo'i'>cedrus'>In book-words it > Fr. "^-phoca.o'i'> phlmus . Neumann etc. Christianus Chres- tianus.p1.— § i86] An etc. pttqcco. 1re7rf. etc. irop^vpo. menta. Introduction to Vulgar Latin.' It. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: <j><!tKri In popular words it apparently became ^. opiyavos > became e. Tiov Claussen 854-855. apTepXa-M It. apparently became I. In popular words it. ^^. /. was generally close. Xpla-ro^'^. rprnKTiji'^ Cf. E was close in some It. ixova<TT'^piov'>raora-n-rj- nastirium. li bietal It.

" App. The App. in the case of v. In the older borrowed words. later in Attic and became ii. says: "Burrum semper Ennius.yKvKw. motto. y In the App. 187. > ancilia . Pr. in which the ^ is a later local development. <jTvpai : . 468. App. ." "myrta non murta. — KoKn^o-i^ cqlaphus cojaphus. irv^os mullus.p-q>cumba. yppl-q > Claussen 857-860. Cf. v regularly was assimilated to Latin u Ionic it jUijXXos 2ig-22i): Pvpara> bursa . truttna the v storax. For some words we find an occasional spelling X. (S. etc. /iCSos > It. > > > buxida {=pyxis) in Theodorus Priscianus and in glosses. etc. Lat. Zefurus. 221. KpvTTTrj > It. > > and a few other words the v for some reason became o.. . KpvTrTy)> crupta ." "porphyreticum marmor non purpureticum marmor. etc. Spr. Koyxiy <tt/3o<^os [§ 187 chorda." '^ tymum non tumum. > It. Digitized by Microsoft® .vt)> was shortened. u is the spelling in some words. nunquam Pyrrhum" (S.8o torno. Olumpus. Marsuas. The spelling / occurs sometimes before Augustus 6. perhaps taken mostly from Doric (Claussen 865). AudoUent 536. 221). In Tp\yTa. calotta. originally pronounced u. Y was > strqppus. fivpros busta seems to represent a peculiar local development: cf. was unrounded into /. cultivated people adopted for Greek words the Ionic-Attic pronunciation. ''tymum non tu- mum. KviJ. Mva-Ca^ Jfysia Mmsia. 'OXvcro-eu? > Ulixes. 'OSuo-o-eta > Odissta. Pr. It. Pr.. in the 9th or loth century." Among the common people the unfamiliar ii was assimilated to i. we find: "Marsyas non in others (S. by the spelling y.. Pirson 39. etc. In inscriptions we find misteriis. these probably have nothing to do with KoXvizTpa. Livius Andronicus In ayKvpa ancora. Cf. which may represent a Greek dialect pronunciation between u and ii: yvpo'i> gyrus gmrus . which subsequently. S. Pr. 221). According to Cassiodorus. — > concha. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. murta. grotta. which is genCicero erally represented. Towards the end of the Republic. buxus.

bisante. from the sixth to the fourth century c. except before vowels. giro. In -eios -eta —tiov. if Pirson 39. f. toreomatum from Topfxpa. later e.). 192. This i.'> w€ipaTyi<s'^ — KA£ki>> Medea. 191. (as in aiyi^'^ tsgis). <? In Latin. may be merely misspellings: Some Romance forms show u: 875-877. 190. £/ was doubtless originally pronounced ei in Greek. by Microsoft® became 0. a became Clio. amido. Digitized as in -Koivr] >poina. Cleopatra. became ai. finally. i. tdolum. KS/«i>It. cf. > It. however. 76-77. e. etc.v\ov > It. > scilinga. frequently became qui: The modern Greek pronunciation is represented by some Romance words: afi. Cf. Pr. > It. Claussen 872-873. probably a local development. cima. Tu/iTravov > Fr. or z before vowels. 277). which came to be proClaussen nounced 871-872.• ^ ^generally became ^« E3pos > -£'«''«J'. giro. /. cf. Cf. misterii. oTJpt-yya which became It. § Kd 223." giret. was usually pronounced short. then. as in Atas > Aiax. Bechtel etc. ciurma. etc. oi. yrJi/'os — kvkvo%> gesso is e: yvpo% cecino. b. MaTa > Maia. .§ 192] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc.. the penult was often shortened: Khj. e. J before consonants. j8u^ai'r6s > It. long. 189. 81 has "gyrus non girus. /ceXttJcr/xa > ? It. originally cb 188. 6r]travp6i> thesaurus. Kapa^iuriys'^ paradtsus . Claussen 860-869. Frigia. . etc. It.> platea. Claussen 01 originally "became came (S.. Claussen 873-875. later ce (as in poina). if Audollent 535. as in AWiovux > Ethiopia Ethiopia. about the third century. «S(i)Xov> pirata.TSa. A V> au. For o-vkcutoj/. Such forms Clepatra for as " ermeneumata non erminomata" {App. M. Cf. KoXoKvuT-q"^ cologuinta. Cf. see § 141. AI timbre. Cf. Cf.rihtui.. which to be pronounced as in ^otfio^'^it Phxbus Phebus Sometimes.

it probably had a forward pronunciation tending somewhat toward e: cf. Like 193. see § 39. ACCENTED VOWELS. 195. Cf. crepere. The o was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . Substrate (4) I. which was used elsewhere Lat. senetus. I. (i) Some words had a peculiar development: — Beside alacrem the Romance languages seem to postulate alecrem and alej:rem. Spr. under the influence of l?vis: Beside GREVE. malum « cf. Substrate II. -arius. ovpavo's'^ Uranus.slus. It is possible that dlacer (whence alacrem) > *dlecer (whence alecrem). 468 cf. Claussen 878-879.. Rome. 171. [§ 195 "^-foeta.B. I. SINGLE VOWELS. latus. But in Gaul. S. 468. which was used in southern Italy. Beside gravis there was a grevis. manus. Spr. Reich. then 'Valuer (whence alicrem alecrem). For nasal vowels. Haag 6. (6) Beside vacuus there was a vHcuus: vocuam. then q. tantus. In Latin it usually became u: fipovxo's> bruchus. etc. patrem. N. CKwas then if. factum. I. (2) (3) For the suffix -arius. « : . Cimiterium cymiterium. Spr. especially in the north. unchanged in the greater part of the Empire: caput. I. see § 171. ot. L. <u Claussen 877-878. vocatio. — For vowels in hiatus. and agnetus (for agndtusi) in Fredegarius. Cf. C. perhaps indicates an ignorant confusion of « ce: KOiixMSia'^ and Cf. Doric cf.82 as in An iroirjTtji Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Beside cerasus *clra. Olcott 33. a 194. doubtless originally pronounced ou in Greek. So beside dinia. Lat. 441.T\Kov). became comcedia. (5) jiSKav) there was a melum (<i)i. Kipaaoi) there must have been a Latin * cerlsus. used by Petronius and others: Lat. A regularly remained dat-e. for cmmeterium < Koi/tjyTiyptov. C. volumptczte in Gl. and Sarthere was a clr^slus. see § 167. L. VI. 1527 d 33. a. 0. 544. 468. 198.

for crisco and other verbs for adimplisti. same region. I.. diheto. dulcido. mercedem. I. probably- at least in most re- gions: debere. Long e {% 165). etc. By a change § which was pronounced remained unchanged in Vulgar Latin. Studi A. Lat. old vocdre. These spellings are due in the main s -¥ to the identity of /and i in late pronunciation: see § 165. in Studi Medievali Medievali I. and conversely ver iox etc. habetis. vacivus 83 {^vacuus). Calabria. 127 287-289.. and southern Apulia e In old Oscan. as in cinsum.: Sepulcri 193-194. shift of conjugation: see In Gaul this substitution of it i for e was so very com- mon that must signify something. I. 614-615. -elius and —llius. {ficet in the 3d century.§ igS] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. II. which was spoken in nearly the has become i.: for the confusion of -ere and 6911. for —esco 26o£f. 328.. Spr. I. Digitized It probably indicates an by Microsoft® . however. T is very often used for e in inscriptions and late —ido for —edo. etc. Carnoy 15 ff. Also Vok.). iox fistus. Sepulcri. debet. 196. Some of the —esco >-tsco cases are surely due to a §§414-415. Republican times. —esimus. —isco for —esco.ficit.. This would account for bistia (= bestia) found in late Latin. -Ire. 466. conjectures that consonant may have tended to raise e to i. vocivus regularly whence by analogy vdcat vScuus became ^vdcitus^ for vocat: Lat. cf . In Sicily. etc. and -tsco.. minsam. writings: Gregory the Great has crudilitas. for vindimia instead of vindemia. e. 468. — in -isco for -esco. vendere. iox co- gnusco and other verbs in —usco for -osco. There is. filix. e became i in late {Lexique 106). 189-190. {Lexique 115). 359-364. to u. etc. of suffix original. I. also for colustra. etc. 613. Cf. Spr. -isimus for vir. vindo. became vacdre. no proof of historical con: nection between the phenomena 197. S. III. verus. 198. for -elis and —His.

see § 229.ii(i. (Lexique 119) mentions a rustic speca for spica. etc. Cf. rigna. Pirson 2-5: lo-ii: requiiscit. Cf. remained unchanged: I. Short i. see § 177. Cf. stiva. 1 200. I. delitus. Vok. spelling e for ^ is common from Digitized the third century on frecare. etc. (4). segolo. quincriscens. quaginsima. villa. veir): Lat. Fngidus. tepiscit. ingraviscente. (cf. It. The 201. must have become *frtgidus ij^frigdus). viiium. except in Spain. i. ferus. i pronounced i (§ 165). For the development (i) of diphthongs. vaster. circulns. 106-113: minse. is to be regarded as a new formation on the model of noster rather than as the old form. criscit. vexit. mille. Long i. 468. minus. According to Lat. rigna. sidibus. Bon. became. : (3) Beside sicula there was a secula (Lexique Ii9)>-It. perhaps through association with rtgidus. etc. dico.84 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ficit. Archiv (2) Beside ilex there was an elex. 397. in north- e>ei (verum> Old Fr. stiis. fedilis. § i66. e in nearly all the Empire: btbo. qulnque (^Substrate (i) 546). tile. quiiscit. tris. minses. tulate (4) stegola Varro seems to pos- something like * steva for For St. this very high Spr. minsis. later. found in Gregory of Tours fur das Studium der neueren Sprachen CXV. piscem. pronounced / (§ 165). Neumann adoliscens. stilla. seniscit. habitur. exit. festa. Short e. Lexique 104-105: ficerent. rictu. which was pronounced e (see § 165). remained unchanged: bene. ferrum. [§ 201 extremely close pronunciation of the e ern Gaul. : by Microsoft® . audtre. venit. 0) . Haag 3iiff. Lexique 114. 8-9: adoliscens. etc. It is interesting to note that Celtic e also became i: Dottin 99. vinum. Spr. e 199. which supplanted vester. riges. teneo. doubtless by the third century and sporadically earlier.

S. Stu^i Medievali 613) is perhaps to be ex- plained in this way. viduriiis.. 214.. Haag II. etc. Conversely (S. 195. used by Gregory the Great and for ostium others. karessemo. became i: cf. -^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 200-201. after that they were perhaps isolated: Einf. Pirson 13. 198): minses. as it (§ 165). 106. Long 0. sponsus. under the influence of dexter: Lat. see the end of § 197. (i) (2) Beside camtsia there was a camTsia: Substrate I. For ou 203. perhaps through the analogy of semel: Lat. place. The popular ustium I. amure. > ou. Quintilian and Varro mention 166) a rustic e for I. has become § 196.. etc. sene. i is Bon. R. at least in hora. Neumann 23-25. trea. forma. etc. «. nomen.. vea. § 196. In Sardinia and a part of Corsica this change did not take and both t and i i. ceteneris. 541. see § 167. accepere. often used for e (cf. in Gaul {^Lat. These two islands were taken > from Rome by the Vandals in 458 and added to the African kingdom. 463. the change For agnusco.. cognusco. very common etc. ^/z<^(= minester. In Sicily. (3) Sinister was replaced by sinexter. S.. Spr. 85 menus. sebe. 6 202. In southern Italy e from i. is The spelling u for etc. pronounced in Vulgar Latin. etc. Beside simul there was a *sSmul. attested also by in- scriptions (S. benivolus. 202). like e from e. S. etc. §§ 197. semuL. Calabria. remained unchanged most regions: colorem. Spr. 11 7-1 23.. 468): furma. Pirson 8-10. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . zV/z///). etc. Apulia of e to /. minester. Carnoy 15^-. and southern did in old Oscan: cf. 468. 469... Spr. 463. AudoUent 535.§203] legare. Spr. R. trebus. 468. corregia. etc. etc. solus. (Zat...

sortem.. Italian tutto . (i) > Old. nun. forts. became ou or u: cortem 204. and western was probably formed a little forward of its normal It was certainly not u. some of the Romance forms point to nom. pi. namely. sg. — presumably through Fr. Fr. pi. mueble postulate Cf. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 206. later. tutt3 . mortem. meuble. frondes) are perhaps connected with Italian yb«fe and other words containing o for 205. tuit. For the development of diphthongs.. S. etc. forum.. Pr. [§ 206 It Bon. 211—212. in north- ern Gaul. No satisfactory explanation has been proposed the most plausible. which Haag 13. There are a few peculiar cases: and Sp. pi. Grammarians mention the protrusion of the lips: S. pronounced u (§ 165). Grammaire I. (2) Beside totus and *tuttus or *tuctus.. the analogy of mSveo. durus. totto. Cassel: " aiatutti. nullus. 216. Nyrop. old Fr. but it doubtless slightly This pronunciation may have been due to the historique de langue francaise approached it. Pr.86 etc. the influence of cuncti on toti. U is occasionally used for o in inscriptions: lucus. tottus (§ 163). Lexique 102-104." § 177. pi. K.. remained unchanged: bonus. puni. in mobilis. the plural. Neapolitan sg. solet. Cf. a large part of northern Rsetia it position. frundes (for fontes. court. in But in Gaul. may have come through 6 pronounced ^ (§ 165). remained unchanged most of the Empire: cura. probably represents a very close sound. Cf. tot. § 187. § 217. see Long u. una. q before n + dental. locus. is that of Mohl. § 198." where tutti is defined as alle. or at least to a tutti. Digitized by Microsoft® . The rustic Latin funics. perhaps. gluria. cognusco. uuela alle. The Such a form seems to be attested by the Gl. Short 0. *tutti or *tucti: It. cf. sg. ^'formica noxi furmica. etc. 126-130. tutto. Italy. App. folia.

" "turma non iorma" (cf. a part of Corsica. NUptia. u. and Dacia this u : Lat.> mur) but in a few. fiUvium. by Microsoft® . 468. criidus > criz) Loth 67-68. unda. change did not take place. . 467. Spr. Pr. corso. u> Spr. giila." from nSvus). "colubemon colober. 517. toneca. Substrate IV. etc. see § 167. Beside luridus there probably was a *l-S. Albania. In Sardinia. pronounced u (§ 165). 136. Cf. App. a pomex: Bon. Jleuve." from nSvus) Lat. 87 linguistic habits of the Celts: u> t in Great Britain cf. 464. became. covetum (= is Haag 14. probably by in most of the Empire: bucca. cubtturn). G. (i) (2) The following special cases are to be noted: — Cf. 617-618. In place of niirus we find ndrus (R. Windisch 396-397. 216). culpa. presumably taken very early. (3) There are other local irregularities. The old spelling for u after v {yoltus. 465) and nSra (S." "puella non poella").§ 2o8] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 217. jUvlnis. Pirson 15-17. people ssiA plSvere (used by Petronius (4) Instead oi pluere axA pKvia and others) and *pldja: Lat. Bon. The spelling is common in late documents: "columna non colomna. through the analogy of *nSvius ("bridegroom. Fr. 132-135. and both u and . tomolus. 469. 134. in Latin words borrowed by the Celts « is generally treated like Celtic (murus ". u 208. §§ 169. Short the fourth century or earlier. tonica... > : 207. F.rdus: Substrate III. became nSptim: (3) Beside in Zs. couleuvre. Mohl pumex there was XXVI. pomice. due to the analogy of sdror and * nSvia (" bride.). servos. jeune call for local q in coliibra. etc. « > z (cii^a cili. and ndra. perhaps only orthographic: Lat.." "formosus noTiformunsus. Cf. Digitized Cf. For qu (i) (2) > qu. ruptus. Beside angHstia there must have been *angSstia. etc. which lasted down into the Empire. Spr. § 217. Spr. Celtic by the second century.

Spr. qucero. in stressed syllables (as questor) may be called regular by the century: S. e. 178. Cf. 225. 'Sox fenum fcenum. quiceti. says that cb Terentius Scaurus. Cf. etc. S. Neumann 13 (and Fort- mon to Volscian seizung 21-23): famina. About the first century b. preda prceda. The Pompeius blames the confusion of csquus spelling e for cb was usual in unacfrom the fourth century on. Carnoy 79-80. in stressed syllables in the first century of our era and later.88 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ^ was originally written through the mutual attraction of later e: ccecus. century: Einf. £ for a in dative endings occurs early: Corssen I.): found early in Campania. Cf. c. in the first S. b. century on (Carnoy 78): questus (2d century). 465. S. 687 ff. spellings as fcecit. especially in Pompeii (presta. some hundred years later e came into the city and pervaded the middle of the provinces: Lat. sepes. 166—168. tury. ae 209. came into general use: fenum. and equus : S.. In Spanish inscriptions e occurs from the first S. § 78.. In certain words a vulgar and dialect pronunciation com- and Faliscan (Hammer 7. sepes 188. Carnoy It was probably general everywhere by the second 69-84. stressed cb was probably still a diphthong in the city but had become e in rustic Latium. its and pronounced ai. fifth it cented syllables (as sancte) before the third century. seta. represents the sound better than ai: E is etc. 8). such scBpes both forms were preserved. etc. 178. Bechtel Digitized by Microsoft® . 225. but two parts it became cb. ccelum. preda. 210. septum. Hence. etc. by analogy. The regular change oi ce to e took place largely in Republican times in unaccented syllables. cen224. when Varro cited edus for hadus as a rural form. igo. [§ 210 DIPHTHOUGS.

Cf. Pirson 27. Festus. the earli^est stage of French in Italian causa> chose . In C/^j-a. gaudium. In Rumanian and Provengal it was preserved as au. orata. Cludo for claudo is common. Carnoy 100 (cludo in two Sp. orum. its existence in 211. I. Scarus. toru. original q (i) is proved by the treatment and Spanish it did not become of c in ^ until had broken into uo or ue. Priscian. generally remained in Vulgar*^ Latin: aura. coming through derivatives. Umbrian and Faliscan had 4-5. Carnoy 85-86 (clusa. in place of Latin au: and There are some examples in Pompeii. Clodius : Ham- and Plotus are common in first mer 4.. Hammer central Italy: Chronologie . In Umbrian inscriptions we find Latin. in Portuguese as ou. 304. Vok.: into Spr. Bayard 5. 655-663. Festus cites 95. The f there S. where and second centuries B. Dibmedes. the dialects of northern \i^?s~\(>\. in the Probus. Pr.. 8. and others The grammarians : — . crept was used by the lower classes: Lat. 183-184) and for Greek r) (as scanam. ^^ auris non cotes. R. plostrum Carnoy App. inscriptions of the I St and 2d centuries). an Au. such as occludo: Vok. Digitized by Microsoft® . where au was normally preserved this pronunciation was used also in the country around So. Hammer : 15-19. taurus. — speak of a rustic or archaic o for au: Corssen fif. is 223 spellings Cladius. coda. etc.C.. II.). ostrum. occur inscriptions Carnoy 85. Perhaps they represent a provincial pronuncia- tion. with a for au when an u in the next syllable. Conversely ce was often erroneouslyused for e (S. etc.: § 212] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. pronounced du. grece. Cf. in general.. oricla". 89 75-76: cedat. etc. II. orum. in the first it the city. are pretty common in various countries Carnoy 86-95. Glacus. in Oscan territory. 212. or possibly (2) they are only orthographic. century second century Carnoy 85. and 465-466. Rome. 162-164. etc./464. 301 S. etc. Lexique 104).

codex. later e: coepi. by Microsoft® . 0. eu 214. CE was originally written through the mutual attraction of presumably 0. plotus occur also. coles =^ caulis. eui~us. Marius Victorinus. Jilodere. Digitized cHi. poena. lotus. IV. auscu/um . [§ 216 {^Chronologie Conversely. * auddere for occtdere. Cicero used loreola. In the Per. we C. ccementa. was not preserved in any popular words. heu. foces. S. illHi. 1890. Phebus. Ui. Bechtel 76. eheu. ui pronounced lii. of ce and e is mentioned by late grammarians: In late Latin a bad spelling. Eu. pollulum: si audes. Hammer 4)= aut. Classic fauces. of our era: Cf. but two parts it became It pcenitet. S. 464. fosnum. Ola. II. ote. mm227. seu). plaudo. oricla. etc. pcenates. ce for ce and e. neuter. This rustic and vulgar while the in Romance — which was pronounced — was generally adopted from au was 0. postulated by some Romance forms. pronounced eu (as in ceu. Vok. Vulgar Latin in a few words : coda. Carnoy 84. oe 215. may be that for reflected by the spelling phyeb^ E is attested by inscriptions in the first century ceperint. the intermediate stage Phoebe. 227. 227. fcemina. Cf. became popular: coscus. S. Lat. neu. find amenus. L." Cf. 228. cxlum. Cf. S. see § 431. 293ff. 213. is its and pronounced oi. sodes. 228. etc. 0. The confusion S. 216. eu. was preserved: For the development oifui. Carnoy 95. hUic. Europa. (cf.go An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. au was occasionally used for 160): Festus. *^^ Cf. Spr. " sorex ve\ saurex. stus.. cepi. Umbrian suffoco. I. mmrore. explodo. plodo.

B. La vocal tonka alterata dal contatto d'una consonante labiate in Archivio glottologico italiano XV. p. see § 167. q. Although many examples are cited. which 217. dvum~>* ovum. e=e. e. I ' According to some philologists. § 134. e. possibly through a lingering the Old Latin accent: cf.§ 219] An Introduction c. became ou: S. 2. Among unstressed vowels. for the In clerical Latin the vowels were probably pronounced most part as ii). in general. the evidence is not convincing. For a criticism of the theory. a = a. 218. those of the first syllable had most resistance. mobilis'^* mqbilis. maintains ceding or following even if it by a preq was separated from the to e. 476. ibid. d. until the reforms of Charlemagne. and then only Digitized in a part of the Empire. 579. pluere'^ ployere. to Vulgar Latin. influence of The vowels of the final syllable lost much of their distinct- ness. a following labial tends to open a vowel: colubra>* colqbra. A general influence of this kind can hardly be regarded as proved for any combination except ou. Jluvium'>*flqvium. La vocal tonka alterata da una consonante labiale in Zs. u were lowered one stage labial. — 457. The discussion is continued by Pieri. au:=q ox au. until long after the Vulgar Latin period. except sporadically. etc. that f. see G. but did not fall. After that. stress. — vowel by a liquid. — For secondary 153-155. by Microsoft® . qt INFLUENCE OP LABIALS. juvenis'^*jovenis. u ^u (or a and ce ^e.. i = i. q. CLERICAL LATEff. Pieri. see §§ N. 219. XXVII. UNACCENTED VOWELS. = 0. Osservazioni al precedence lavoro. in vulgar speech. Ascoli.

pontufex "^pontifex. 251. maxumus quodlubet"^ guodlibet. spelled both with u and with i: Carnoy 65-69. in Classic and Vulgar Latin: cal{i)dus. except in initial syllables.. av{^i)dere. 7. and even there the difference must have been small. (i). Agrippa pro sumus simus scripserunt. In general Latin quantity did not sensibly affect the quality of unstressed vowels. 196-198. For the confusion of unaccented e and i. 21-24. being sometimes accented. siimus -and simus. [§ 221 Grammarians sibe are testify to the confusion of and u: S. for o and u. 466. i was certainly distinct from Digitized In final i: sentis. found in place of quasi.. Lindsay 25-26. "Messala. iv. employed only before labials. 203-208. see Pirson. by Microsoft® . 35 Franz. This tendency continued. etc. Fredegarius is very uncertain in his use of unstressed vowels: 220. sibi: S." (Weakest were medial vowels immediately following the stress. syllables. In Spanish in- we find maximus.92 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. § 419. vtr{i)dis. In inscriptions we find such frig{i)daria. 9). scriptions etc. 221. U was cf. 3 During the Classic period it generally became t: decumus~> decimus. Brutus. Quase. 2 1 2. bdl{i)neum. however. see Pirson 41—47. Spr. in moderation. 30—36. dc(^u)lus. S. According to Quintilian I. ID re vailed in Italy and southern Gaul. vetranus: S. secondary or the primary 47-48. forms as infri. jur(^i)go. etc. SUmus. In early Latin there was an inclination to syncope: ar{i)ddrem. cf. According to Marius Victorinus (Keil VI." In the vulgar speech simus seems to have Cf. Lat. but simus was favored by Augustus and by some purists of his time (Lindsay 29). etc. Haag 15-24. > maximus. syllables: I. cal[e)fdcere. 199-200. in unaccented . The former was the one generally adopted in Classic Latin. "in here neque e plane nequi i auditur. developed two forms.

fluviorutn) are found in Ennius. left a. e." "vacui gon 224. /"and u followed by a vowel and beginning a syllable were apparently pronounced as consonants from the earliest times. oKuAas) very common: Eckinger 123-125. fis. and u in hiatus with following vowels first lost their syllabic value era. UNACCENTED VOWELS IN HIATUS. fectf^Vr. i. fudxis. Lucretius. then. used before Joseph. Plautus. 236. 234. Bonnet notes that etc. In perfects. §187. Virgil.g. Juvenal. such as Classic period. Quintilian and Velius Longus cite the spellings Aiiax. In tibi the final vowel was sometimes long. App. senti. sente. e. In Greek transliterations kv for qui (as in cf. 222. at least in theory. Horace. and Seneca: deorsum in Lucretius. > distinguere. will be treated as consonants.. a vowel but lost its syllabic value in early Classic times: acua > aqua.§ 224] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. abiete. feci. senttt> It. Horace. Maiiam not ab. vindemiator'va. Lucilius. however. fes. is distinguere qucBro. "vacua non vaqua. abietiItalia counts as three syllables in poets of the ' bus in Virgil. a. Occasional examples (such as dormio. So it was in qualis. rather late: Velius Longus distinguishes aquam from acuam. and will be out of consideration in the present chapter. nocuit. facias. sometimes short. qui. placuit. quem. These. alio. Otherwise. 93 stbi. Digitized by Microsoft® . 223.. the u was ap- parently not reduced to a semivowel until the end of the In some other words the syllabic value of u was kept. u followed by a vowel was originally itself. 232. Pr. Quintilian says that u and i in uos and iam are not vowels: S. probably by the century of our and sporadically earlier. vaqui." S. as approved is by Cicero: S. Ovid. After gutturals.

Suavis. 103. lancia.filius'>ftlius'^Jiljus.:> Digitized by Microsoft® . II>'43. century or before by the third century. noxeus. In the same vi2. vinia. Cf. in late Latin. fasiolus. valiat. §136). cavia. u6 developed differently. abiat. at an early date: arietem (^^\-^6)'> are tern (Varro. 234. prehcndere 225. likewise eccu'kic> *eccwic. lintium.94 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin... App. abias. solia. desto. was used as a trisyllable by Sedulius in the fifth century. But the combinations ei -. 463. soave in Italian. the / remaining long enough to palatalize the / (the Romance e was doubtless a later analogical development).. a new y and a new w. earn {=jani). calciare.y Jiliolus>Jiljdlus (§136). it became soef in French. Vok. etc.dixisse": Carnoy 43). VI.> mul'erem. So alea>alea'^alja. 231-232. four-syllable induruit are barbarisms Caesellius is undecided whether tenuis has three syllables or two: S. the semivowels pre- sumably developed into the fricative consonants y and w: S. 06 and u6 into o. and // apparently being contracted into e. ee." KeilVII. in late Latin spelling. coclia. calcius. with a narrowing of the mouth-passage. Pr.sapui > saj>ui> sapwi. R. 232. then. 00. cf- Carnoy 33-35. Uniamenta. as e. Bayard 4. S. 106. Valerius Probus has parietibus: £don 208. 3714 (Rome). etc. ie. mulierem (% 1^6) ". * de-excito~^* dexctto'^ It. a great confusion of e and i in hiatus: capriolvs (cf." " sobrius per i non per e scribendum. it was probably a semi-learned word. eacit {^=jacei). We have. "non iamus sed eamus. eccu'istay-* ecwista (§65). Lauriatus. [§ 225 early Empire. 187. aleum. faciebam'>*facebam. C. parieUs {%i2t^)>p aretes. exiat. tenueram > tenweram (§137). L. I. palleum. Audollent 535. Hence arises. "ares veteres pro anVi. The pronunciation speech by the first u was probably regular in popular . S. however. i. Consentius declares that trisyllabic soluit and . Caper.

Pr. tdrqueo>*torquo> *tdrco. contin{u)ari. Spr. £don 130). . quat{t')uor'^quattor (^.. § 227] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 217-218. Pirson 57 (cf. qudmddo> comodo. equus S. ungi. (Pirson 58) quatro (7th century. 351). common Carnoy 43).. unguntur. S. tendere. the Viduus. '' coqui non cod. sttnguo > guere non tingere. Audollent 536). 472: ero). hence *cocma). requebit. distinguunf> distingunt (ac- cording to Velius Longus. defendere. Velius Longus. tuum'^tum. 227. Carnoy 117. "tin352. cf. u before stressed u and 0: 536." Keil VII. . Reich. quteius'> quetus. 218) quator — in." Keil VII. mortuus'^p- cottidie. z/ after all consonants fell before unaccented u probably by the middle of the first century. duodecim'^ dodecim (Pirson 58: dodece). pendere. Caper. U often fell irregularly II.. > ecus {^App. " coquens non cocens". cf. battuo "^ batto (cf. unguo'>ungo {ungo.. ministerW^ ministeri. Carnoy 221). in late inscriptions. before unaccented by the second century: antiquus "> anticus carduus^^cardus. Furthermore. Pr. — cdhdrtew^ cortem. quoi{f)tdie> stingo .oSmsiT\& mortus. ho-Tievex. vef. consiln'^ consilt. "ungue non unge." " coqus non cocus". in quum>cum. then *cdpenre *cdp'rtre through the analogy of co. kept its u: Old Fr. tinguo~^ttngo (Caper.'K. £ruum'>erum {Lat. Audollent See §354. Febr{u)arius. 468-469. opus. uncis = unguis. Similarly. then *prendere through the analogy of reddere and perhaps also of ascendere. 105. abattas. So apparently aruum^* arum.'). 106). cooperire"^ coperlre. Digitized by Microsoft® . some writers use no u in distinguere. 226. doubtless under the influence of vidua. fell commoner After gutturals. . S. "equs non ecus ". 2 1 7 ) . S. 95 prendere. inndcuus>inndcus. Jan{u)arius: Vok. coquo^coco {App. Gl.and perhaps also ol opera. coquus'^ cocus {App. Bayard 7. Pr. suus'> sus. / after a consonant fell before unaccented i: Velius audit '^ audi.

far as As or u. a{u)sculto. Cf. and u were finally all pronounced 228. 136. 11. necessary to say that Claudii. moniti (for muniti). tenere. and see Audollent 535. l remained i. dolere. (Bcclesia. cetdtem. fxddre. 0^ remained p. S. 223 Pirson 26). 109. Bechtel 76. ce. i. it [§ 229 Longus found etc. b.96 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. some Italian (common by i in inscriptions. e For the confusion of Carnoy 17-33. Caper says "ausculta non asculta. Vok. /^22: Jejunus after prefixes lost its first syllable: * dis-junare. agusias. 470): rddicem. naufragium. dtrectus generally '> drictus)\ quirttare~>*dritare. plordre.. Bon. Julii. au became a if there was an accented u in the next syllable. (Lat. ce all came to be sounded e. hibernus. Spr. Lat. i. A(u)runci. videre. valere. I. frumentum. golosus gylosus (ior gulosus). Keil VII. Bon. dvitdtem. i: should be spelled with double late words. gaudere. is very often replaced divota. debere. kept It." S. d'rectus (^Vok. 57. 171-1 72. a was pronounced a. Comelii. INITIAL SYLLABLE. A(u)gustus. * agurium (cf. Arunci occurs in manuscripts of Virgil. one can judge from spellings and subsequent developments. subinde. Farisiis > Parigi. 470): dilevit. Pr. In a few words the vowel of the initial syllable was an r: *corrStulare^*^roflare. Bon. Dionigi. colorem. Koffmane no. long or short. Spr. 135—138. Some however. > *jenua > Sardinian genna. but otherwise remained unchanged (cf. Spr. E. Digitized by Microsoft® . in Gallic inscriptions cf. — Latin /(j/»««j > Classic Jejunus (the original a seems to be preserved in Classic Januarius '^ Jenuarius .. etc. movetis. -n and —ns: Dtonysii>lt. must have existed 229. S. I. 223. Lat. audere. 470) (2) Classic/awKa mimoricB. '^senatus non sinatus" App. Some minor peculiarities are to be noted: (i) A after/ apparently tended to become e: Old dialect forms) .. Agustus is frequent from the second century on. lost before also. ridemus.

Vitruvius. Old Genoese zagante. Si. attested from the sixth 87. if i followed. Pr. century on (Foi. turrente (Bon.§ 23o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 224 ff. 3 II. 234-235) . Franz. This perhaps indicates a close pronunciation cf. Great: dirivare. sdlbatec. (6) O appears as u mfurmica (App.. 470) and/m?- perus (App. nutrire (beside *nqtrire). cf. in fourth century inscriptions. Lat. cf. oricla. Spr. etc. cf. divmus"^ demnus. Pr^. mUrare. putator O is changed to e in retundus (Vok. if there was an accented i in the next syllable:^ dividSre'^*devTdlre. 205) . Spr. Carnoy (7) 107).. so that at the modern a syllabic effect — beginning of a word it had s-chola. so *ot (for aut: cf. 470. JUntfSrus'^jeniperus (Lat. was kept by analogy in many words : dUrare. Spr. §§ 212. Italian sed on the model of ched: si is preserved in French. cf. the e is perhaps due to the Haag II. in manuscripts and inscriptions. 213): App. Umbrian ate. which prevailed in Vulgar Latin. 82). : (3) > *jagante > Old Yr. §111. and Spanish. 470). Cf.. (Bon. 131). Lindsay 40).. This led to the prefixing of a 2. (4) / tended to become e. as in 6' before a consonant was doubtless long and sharp. silvdticus> salvaticus (Gl. e became southern Italy from the fourth to the sixth century RIVOCAVERIT. serorihus. According to Mohl. serori. II. is common : in Gregory the etc. Pr. also sometimes in serore (Lat. Lexique I2z. salvage. 470) > Old Fr. sometimes became se. < e In miraUlia the i ap- parently became (5) U and a. nise.Jaiant. 126. XXXV. Proven9al.jaian. Italian. Lexique > I04ff. Rum. 213. L. 127). attested by Servius. Pirson 27. §§ 69. Lexique \2Z-iz6. 225. in late Latin. Au 230. Lexique 120. analogy of *que quid^ quod (cf. C. A form ni for ne is found from early times Pirson 3. z. I. mcinus vecinus. de-. by dissimilation. Italian. 3 II. Old French. became instead of Digitized by Microsoft® . Bon. cf. in very late texts there is frequent confusion of si and sed (Franz. I. 16^. front vowel (until the seventh century nearly always an ' later e Mohl's view. Lexique 105-108.for i in 422-424. in vulgar speech was often replaced by (cf. I was occasionally assimilated to a following accented a : ^gdntem It. mUtare. : 97 Di. possibly through confusion with dis-. salvatico. Lat. se in Portuguese. Lexique 123. retundatio. Einf. § 198. fimre'^fenire. and Old Rumanian. II. cf. Sfr. is that original Latin ei. Reich. Vr. Rom. through the influence of the prefix re—.

ab sceleribus. dv{i)idtem. exs— (pronounced «-) and /«j-. S. frigiddria frigddria. Spania. B. ^w. ab scandalo. 317. Estephanus. Dubois 171. written Barcelona in the second century. S. etc. isperabi.98 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 3656-. estatio. Digitized by Microsoft® . istatuam. cdp[i)idlis. dub{i)idre. In some regions they began to fall regularly before the close of the Vulgar Latin period. mirabilia. Bon. R. splorator. Isidore. — By this term is meant syllable following the secondary and preceding the primary stress. fourth and found repeatedly. ismaragdus. cf. st: ginning with Bon. 445. 445-446. ischola. not frequently. II. strumentum.. stantia for instantia. in the fifth it is very common: espiritum. Spanus. in the seventh century. tlie C. The es-. is. [§ 231 often e) to the s or e when tio vowel preceded first is — in i-schola. ispose.(pronounced w-): expiendido. Vok. cdlK^o^cdre. Pirson 60. N. though iscripta. instruo for struo. compardre comperdre. Spania. etc. 469-470. The The in Latin example probably it is iscolasticus. and occasionally disappeared. Bon. Dubois 1 71-17 2. 467. in the third century (Carnoy 114-116). spiratio for inspiratio. dil{i)cdtus.. Grammarians took But in no note late until St. istare. etc. 317 R. indistinct towards the erally kept: bdn{i)idtem. sp. but a was gen231. Vowels so situated probably became more and more end of the Empire. scoriare for excoriare. cirebellum. isiudio. spectante for expectante. IHTERTONIC SYLLABLE. cdrr(i)care. Latin texts ab rather than a was used before words besc. spatii. Pirson 59-60. Koffmane 109. spandere for ex- pandere. prosthetic vowel earliest occurs in Greek inscriptions. scalciare for excalceare. hispatii for Bechtel 78. of it iscola. . Slementum 6limintum.. Cf. 148. This i came to be regarded as a regular part of the word. 316-319.thus produced was confounded with ex-. S.

dedcavit. v^recundia. F. similarly As far as the general phenomena can be we may say that in popular words in penult tended to (i) fall common speech the vowel of the under the following conditions: — Between any Consonant and a Liquid. Cf. The fall of the vowel of course disturbed the Vulgar Latin rhythm: see § 153. Bon. (>Pr. vowel preceded by a consonant and followed by a fell in the earlier part of the Vulgar Digitized 233. and the conditions differed widely in different regions. the uneducated pronounced 'om'nes beside socerum there was sScrum. was weaker and more exposed to syncope. in the second century b. The Vulgar Latin rhythmic erate one of the two post-tonic syllables of proparoxytones. comare for coronare. There was probably a conflict between cultivated and popular pronunciation.§ 233] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Pir- Franz. however. Cf. Neumann 22. meretis. separdre seperdre. R. etc. Substrate IV. 131— 135. insola. etc. Bon. d. vetranus. being next to the accent. fall 559. principle tended to oblit- 232. pi.. XIV. of this vowel.. Neumann in Zs. Koffmane III. stablarius. 464. uomini). in Sepulcri 201—202. 12. 467. was apparently very Vulgar Latin. Likewise o and u: ambolare.. PENULT. etc. omne)\ classified. Pirson 51. 99 sdcramintum. R. liquid A weakened and by Microsoft® . We find in late Latin much confusion of e and /. c. both types The treatment inconsistent often being preserved in the Romance languages: thus while the literary and official world said {h)dmines (>It. Mintsterium apparently became minsterium early enough for the n to before the s: see §171.. dixemus. etc. : Frigdaria occurs Cf. 116. cf. son 52.• anemis. 118. The penult.

vowel preceded by a labial and followed by a confall early: 235. spec{ii)lum. § 259.). cltera. Heraeus. In some words we find a weakened to e: socro. the vowel seems to have been kept. aunclus. 1 digitum> dicCf. Pr. Pr. villus. dedro for dederunt. at any rate in some regions: bdjulus. App. scaplas. Cf. Franz. which must have been slow in entering the common vocabulary. 3 To -clus was assimilated in popular Latin the ending -talus: capitulus"^* capiclus . a. A sonant was inclined to bublus. ci. as in auricula.'). These by Plautus. ins(u)la. seperat (about 500 A. spatula'. Eseram for Isaram. Digitized by Microsoft® . felicla. e^-16 . D. frdgilis. Die Sprache des Petronius und die Glossen. 16-18.' For a vowel between a labial and a liquid. Cceseris. Vok. maniplus. But a few words. Franz. (cf. [§ 235 Latin period: altra. vemdc(^u)lus. 96. I. In vigilafp-* viglat the vowel fell before (2) below. as in saclum. Juglus.). d. compera.^-* spatla. 195-196. Pirson 49-50. Waters Ch. fecrunt fecru.. vic(u)lus. App. dc{ii)lus. comp'tus. gracilis. oclos. peduclum. virginem. (2) Between a Labial and any Consonant. mdsc{u)lus. hilerus. Latin originally had the two diminutive endings —clus and -cuius {<i-co-lo). Pirson 51. 1899. Lexique 64.loo An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. § 284. aspra. App. masclus. tum. frigidus^frigdus. vitulus>veclus. ftsiula>*Jiscla. 234. see first consonant -Cvas a palatal. bdc{u)lus. both -clus in {^<i—tlo). Many exI. Pirson 51). Pr.stulum> crustlum (found in 18 Cf. anglus. cdm{i)tem. amples are found in inscriptions: AudoUent 538. Carnoy 12. But if the the ^ began to be palatalized (so apparently in 9 I. 57. Lexique 63. Later they were confused. escaped this absorption: cni. Oclus and some others occur in Petronius: see W. Bon. both becoming —cuius in Classic Latin. were kept distinct vulgar speech: artic{u)lus.

Pr. ioi tri- dib{i)tum. 467.. Reich. : § 238] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Varro. Franz. p I. offla. Franz. *navi- > fragus>naufragus). virdiaria. in R. tdbula>*taula *tabla.{i')nus. (4) Miscellaneous. Pirson 51. A vowel preceded by a liquid and followed by a consonant was subject to syncope at all periods: ardus. (3) Between a Liquid and any Consonant. however. Cato. Waters Ch. pi. Horace. (cf. but often there were double forms the process began very early audus. the fall When ab or av was brought next to a consonant by it of a following vowel. App. 467. p I. 15-16 (cf. i2ff. Horace and Vitruvius. per- colopabat. f{b{u)la. KofiEmane iii. occurs in Lamna Petronius has bublum. domnus in St. poplus. frigidus by Microsoft® . 13. 44. pi. lardum. 237. pi. Waters Ch. . . Caesar. domnulus. found in glosses. Franz. 12. 56. colpus. Gl. * dvka "^ auca. pdp{u)lus. Vegetius. 4th century). 15 soldus. Ci. 238. fulica fulca. 3 \. virdis. c6l{a)phus {ci.). pardbula>*paraula *parabla. h6m{i')nes jiiv{e)nis .Jibla. Augustine. nibula. dvidus avunculus"^ aunculus. 13. Franz.^-* nautat . * ndvitaf. fdbula>*faula *fabla. sablum. Digitized different condi§ 233) . the older: d6m. R. either everywhere or in a large region: drbi^o^rem. etc. Franz. Cf. valde. * cldvido> claudo (cf. merto. In d6m(i')nus the mn form may be mane domni. domnicus. the vowel was kept.. Koff109. hdmula. 44. Juvenal. b{u)la. Plautus (cf. Plautus. tions: In some words the vowel fell under digitum> dictum. tremulat. Varro. In some words. Plautus). gdbata>*gauta *gabta. Cf. 236. Pirson 50. caldus. Plautus. Franz. Waters Ch. Ovid. Pliny. vdpulo baplo. generally became au. sablum. Petronius. Martial.

they had not fallen already. ally fell. [§ 241 ^frigdus maxima^ masma. App. — were — syncopated with some regularity. e. The vowels regularly remained through the Vulgar Latin period. except a and in Celtic. pers{i)ca. habitus > * abtus. 241." Aus and flaus have left no representatives. and Ligurian territory. shortened forms were used in other regions. pi2tidus'^*puttus. Reich. 233). frdx(i)nus. and a number of vowels otherwise placed fell under different conditions in various regions: pdnere'^*ponre. probably late. 2d century. they generi. ntHdus>*niiius. rapidus > > *rapdus. medicus. posturus. 239. Later. 240. In the App. (2). Pr. . Franz. cdrrico'^*carco. (fricda)." "flavus non Jlaus" "rivus non rius. Lucretius. § Introduction to Vulgar Latin. posius. FINAL SYLLABLE. Cato). mdnica'>* manca. etc.102 An (cf. 13-14 (ci. dominica-^ * dominca. dic{i)mus. All three forms are probably examples of a tri- phonetic reduction that affected certain regions. about the eighth century. semita'^* senta. Aquitanian. (3). p I. but rius is evidently the ancestor of Italian and Spanish rio. Suchier 732. debita~^* depta. Pirson 50. Gl. sid(^e)cim. culicet culcet Cf. See Morphology. we find "avus non aus. Digitized by Microsoft® . Some of these In a part of Gaul dmita'^* anta. tdllere > * tolre. clericus^*clercus. c6llocat'>-*colcat. Pr. In the transition from Vulgar Latin to the Romance in so far as languages the vowels in classes (i). Through a large part of the Empire -avit>-aut: umphaut is found in Pompeii.: = collocat. Pompeii (fridam). A vowel preceded by </ or ^ and followed by c seems to have remained longer than most other vowels that fell at all: judico. carcatus. viaticum. fimina *femna. vindico.

103 242. and i came to be used almost indiscriminately. 244. which became u in Sicily. feci. famul = A. sentls. which in Sicily be- came eventually // t remained // was 0. tristes.Xxa. See Franz. by Microsoft® . Carnoy45: Digitized dative. E I. inflection. iv and I. as in to Vulgar Latin. E and a. autumnal {e). e. mihe. tristts." ^^figulus nonfigel. tanger in manuscripts. tibe. but generally they were confounded {Lat. 469). §210): apte^aptcB. describes the final vowel of here as neither quite e nor quite Cf. ablative. 243. t. morior. bom. Examples: dmds. 41. uxore. So." These curious forms are probably not the result of a phonetic development. etc. About the eighth century a probably became ? in northern Gaul. E luce.. he i. "bibere non biber". etc. were all probably sounded e. tribunal{e). It is likely that final vowels were especially ob- scure in Gaul in the sixth and seventh centuries. a. Pr. pradiscer." "masculus non mascel. praber. long or short. according to the testimony of numerous inscriptions {Lat. has "barbarus non barbar. Quintilian says that Livy wrote sibe and quase. especially e after liquids: Caper. was naturally pronounced a. in I. etc. bonds. haber in an inscription. Cf. perhaps. Bechtel 75-76. sancta. for / is frequent in the dative and ablative. Neumann 7-8 cites ten cases of e for a: Italice. In some localities this and this u were kept distinct. Italian. vii. facul =facilis. Old 'Lz. were not usually distinguished (cf. modern must have been often elided or syncopated in the interior of a phrase. 469).. Spr. u was u. Lexique 118. cotidia. in late Latin. dmdt. The changes in pronunciation led to great confusion in spelling. 3 I. tristem. but are rather due to a local change of languages. corpus. conder. fructu. which left no trace in the Romance famulus. Spr. vii.§ 244] An Introduction Final vowels. The App. etc.

in etc. omnes ^ omnis (3d century). it need by Microsoft® . of om for um. of.. monumento ^= monumentum. I. II. 115. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin period. So et it: Bechtel 88-89. Q. : .4 G... Neumann 11-13. Sepulcri 201. T. G. etc. 116. 11 1./^^. Carnoy 48. was kept in Digitized some formulas . regis ^reges. common in Per. [§ 246 Es and are continually interchanged: 24. etc. K. Bon. CONSONANTS. Ill. Cf. posuet. movit. Bon. Sepulcri 203-204. L. Vok. cf. Bon. Cf. Joannis. old letter equivalent to C. K.r became Carnoy 221. In words ofteii used as proclitics final -er. and 121. ^and Fwere used both and u and for the consonants/ and v. Sepulcri 229-230. siiper'>-*supre. I. there are between 126 and 563 a. Carnoy 13. etc. 131 has spoliatur for spoliatot.. accusative plural G|^l|ii Jilius—Jilios. F. larly common 42. §29) as in minus-pretiare. -£?.. S.. for the vowels i were B. omnes ^^omnis. Bon. Bon.. Z. etc. also in Gregory the Great. etc. 'Im.. under the influence of dis-. and us for os. M. Phon. C. N. -re. etc.. X. Os and us were interchanged from the third century on awi' = annos. etc. tenit. used as a prefix (cf. Spr. With and u it was the same. V. H. and um is very common in Per. Carnoy 13-15. became in Gaul mis-. letters The Latin consonant P. Neumann 11-13.. Minus. -ro: inter'>*intre. 246. E. Carnoy 48 bonus = bonos.104 An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. D. •quat{u)or'>quatro. 474. in us was particu128. mares etc. os The confusion of for us.. d. sem- per'^* sempre . very etc. Audollent 535. an R.. Lat. 43-44. = maris.. 916. Haag 245. 61 examples of u for ablative In Vok. as well as frequent instances of ablative in um..

palatals. Vulgar Latin had a new w and y coming from originally syllabic u. In words borrowed from Greek and German there were several foreign consonants. liquids. 158. //>/ vowels. § 223). 248. Pirson 83-91. sonants The principal developments that affected Latin conmay be summed up as follows: b between vowels was opened into the bilabial fricative /3. Pirson 85.or ss (S. and thus became identical V. see §§ 162. consonants are often written single in early inscriptions. 247. which will be treated below (§§338-339). or / in hiatus: see § 224. e. gutturals. ^ and g before front vowels were palatalized and were then subject to further alterations. with The consonants will now be considered in detail. and n ceased to be sounded before s. For w>j and For double forms like of single cipus ctppus. nasals. The voicing of intervocalic surds began during the Vulgar Latin period. next the Greek. Double cf. Bon. Pirson 88. see §161. vacca. Digitized by Microsoft® . the combination Q was generally used only Jf stands for ks. sibilants. 319-320). which will be discussed after the native ones. In late spelling there is some confusion and double consonants: anos. labials. taken up The Latin consonants will be in the following order: aspirate. passus.§ 248] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Z in Old Latin apparently meant j. dentals. Double consonants regularly kept after long their long pronun- ciation: annus. later it represented a different Latin version of Greek t.. fillio. the Celtic need not be separately studied. In addition to the above. h was silent. 105 in not be separately considered. which also changed to /8. terra. serra. m and n became silent at the end of a word. nullus. lastly the Germanic. For Fredegarius see Haag 39-40. Q V= kw (cf. first the native Latin. 163.

nil. Gellius quotes P. 249. Nigidius Figulus fit to the effect that "rusticus sermo i. sometimes does not. Quintilian says the ancients used h but little. 399. vemens: S. 264. mi. etc. Probus states that traho is pronounced trao: Lindsay 57." In inscriptions we find such forms as reprehensus aduc. 1. of "Arrius. 264-265. and cites "ados ircosque": S. App. vehemens. as in terga fatigamus hasta. comprendit.. cortis. 255-256. 250. 266. Gellius says ahenum. ASPIRATE. first XI. 263-264. 262-263. 251. 267—268..— io6 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. very much as happens in Cockney English to-day: for the would-be elegant chommoda. "adhuc non aduc. Pr. incohare are archaic calls Terentius Scaurus and vehemens incorrect. Cf. 266. Quintilian commends the spelling deprendere: S. Paris in I?om.. being little or nothing more than a breathed on-glide: S. Cf. but Cicero's contemporaries much. a. [§ 251 LATIN CONSONANTS. doubtless the Romance It languages. si speaks of bygone generations as using k very S. 117. and both he and Velius Longus declare there is no h \VLprendo: S. in such words as sepu/c/irum. 266. hinsidias. Initial h was surely very feeble and often silent during In Cicero's time and in the early Empire there was an attempt to revive it in polite society. — aspires perperam". probably disappeared when medial: . If -was weak and uncertain at all times in Latin. G. as in quisquis honos tumuli: Keil V. S. the Republic.e. Digitized by Microsoft® ." see S. Grammarians say that A is not a letter but a mark There is no trace of Latin k in of aspiration: S. which led to frequent misuse by the ignorant. Grammarians felt obliged to discuss in detail the spelling of words with' or without h : S. honera : Pompeius notes that k sometimes makes position. 263.

473. I. kw was Before other vowels the regularly kept in most of k. the kw was 340-341. I. anc. There was some confusion. R. C. etc. 252. too. Before u and first however. E.. other languages: michi. I. of S. S. unless analogy led to a substitution of cociior coqui throvigh. b. 350reduced to k by the or second century. I. hodio. 345. In Rome are found: e[redes]. haram.§ 254] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 264. omo. I. in quo ante=^inBechtel 78-79. secuntur. 924. ic. hossa. dialects: Quintilian VI. S. southand Sicily subsequent developments point to a ke. C. records a pun of Cicero on cogue and quoque. etc. ora. non dicitus". S. cf. Bechtel 77-78. GUTTURALS. quooperta cot. less indisetc. oe. oratia. 253- C and K did not differ in value except that C some- times did service for dicitos G: App. Pr. C. OSTIA. 341-344. 351. as in eastern Italy. nichil. etc. etc. ortus. hostium. 462-463. 254. Vulgar Latin reduction of que to Digitized qui to ki: Lat. Sheldon in Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Litera- turel (1892). heremum. 819. cottidie. 455. ospitiutn.. 345-346. probably earlier in local or vulgar iii.. = coperta.. S.. Cf. Spr.. k. pronounced kw: 0. L.. the Empire. ymnus. 1034. by Microsoft® . 351-352. But in Dacia.. L. 265-266. Mens. abitat. Q F was Audollent 536. and H after the third century it is everywhere more or eres. cocus : see §226. Q and C: S.L. § 226. After h had become pronunciation of medial h as Italian pronunciation of there grew up a school which has persisted in the Latin and has affected some words in silent. etc. '^digitus = digitos. In Pompeii h is freely omitted. I. 82-87. Cf. choante. condam. criminately used: abeo. etc. S. Bechtel 78. Cf. hegit. 107 is dropped in a few inscriptions towards the end of the Republic: arrespex (for haruspex). R.

Cinqvaginta. conjus. began as shown by Anglo-Saxon borrow- ings and by such Latin forms as frigare. except in mono^prmgnans. Cf. 351. ubi materia per s. but this was only local: alesan[der].in excutere. io8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 274. 98. /'m«7/« > prixsilla. first [§ 256 In quinque the w was lost by dissimilation: cinqve.before vowels. ^ stood for ks: S. 353 (cf. found in Spain (so cinqv. merx." In parts of Italy ks between vowels was assimilated into ss by the first century. in late Latin. Audollent 537. 341. ''cah dicendum. S. Fr. BissiT BisiT VISIT = vixit. subornatris. fifth tury. pregiiax became s. By the second reduced to or third century ks before a consonant was 170.: see Melanges Wahlund t^^. nasco. Carnoy 171. 353. cinctivs. 256.). by analogy.. Caper. cf. So ex-^es. xanto. ern Gaul apparently sk regularly became ks.. etc. III. migat in inscriptions Digitized by Microsoft® . Carnoy 157. Laqueus seems. For ks>-)(S. e. see § 266.'' "miles non milex." "locuples non lucuplex. as in cresco. etc. S. sometimes. viscit). After a consonant ks early tended to become s: Piautus uses mers for est. I. destera. "aries non ariex. gium. but not in syllables etc. Carnoy 158. 353. Bechtel 139. 145. Lindsay 102. of a metathesis of ks into sk: axilla"^ ascella. mextum for mcestum. as in * essaexire. Lexique 93). dester. es~ for ex. Carnoy Eckinger 126 (2eorros).: Hence cf. milex. cen- inscriptions." "poples noT\ poplex. S. 221. to Carnoy have become *laceus: Substrate 255. s: sestus is common in inscriptions. for some reason. in At about the same time : final ks cojus. The voicing of intervocalic surds doubtless it is early as the fifth century. felis. App. Vok. Carnoy 159. There are some examples. 346. 352. S. buxus'^* buscus vixit>\iyiC\Ti (i. etc. On In norththe other hand. 353. extimare for cestimare. S." Keil VII... exponere.

I. p. kelu.. gat. 474. Haag 27. kircare. Carnoy 123. but reina. and in Sicily. etc. i25ff. / 258. kima. Spr. (i) Cf. and Illyria k' went no further. lebra. Some above examples show that consonants followed by r shared in the voicing. 257. ne121. 7th century. Vok. into a mediopalatal position k'.. southern Italy. in central and southern Italy. there are many examples from the sixth century: Lat. in some places perhaps as early as the first century.. A. that t>d'm the fifth century and the beginning of the sixth. Haag 28-29. pagandum. maintains. while c>gz. on the evidence of inscriptions and manuscripts. Franz. kena. Spr. etc. however. cubidus. Voicing was not general. 109 and manuscripts. intervocalic c. Densusianu 111-112. 2d century. siubri. Zs. Dalmatia.. 3 I..g'. immudavit. occubavit. 32. Rydberg. became g and gr: *gaveola. finds in inscriptions some slight evidence of a change of t to d during the Empire. pontivicatus. early in the Empire or before. * gratis.t least two centuries earlier. G seems to have been attracted sooner than k : in Sardinian we find k before e or i preserved as a stop whiles is not decern. Zimmermann. . found in the 4th century. crassus + grossus'^grassus. t were voiced in Gaul in the second half of the sixth century. Dalmatia. Cf. in a few words. noghe < nucem. C and G before Front Vowels. XXV. Before the front vowels e and the velar stops k and g were drawn forward. In Central Sardinia.— — § 258] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and Dacia the k' stage was apparently kept longer than in most regions: Lat. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . 731. etc. Haag 27—28. Carnoy eglesia. kera. Initial c and cr. According to Loth 21-26. at least as early as the seventh century. etc. sigricius ^= secretins. of the cataveris ^^ cadaveris. and Dacia. deghe<. 472. etc.

recoUiendo. 460) trienta.Gi 5. argentum. and after a consonant. leges. vigtlat had become *viglat. with the following e or i if this vowel was stressed: vi- mag2ster'>*mayister'." geiuna= Jejuna. etc. agebat Lat. similarly perhaps the proclitic ma{g)is. etc.. Pr. "calcostegis Neumann 75. non cakosieis. 15-16): cf.. Pirson 97 quarranta = qicadraginta. 461. maestati. 349. Cf.. {g)inti. Gepte.. in through legit. 473. Digitized by Microsoft® . 173. 3 I. (cf.>maester. II. re{g)ina. Diez. S. Pirson iniens. . G' by the fourth century had become had opened into y. Spain. colliens. Per. Stolz 349. Sicily. Tragani.1 1 Some light is thrown on the later clerical pronunciation by a statement in a fragment of a tenth century treatise on Latin pronunciation. genvarivs. Pr. the regularly remained. 473. Spr. Vok. 275. S. when it was intervocalic. this Haag 33.. 3. But sometimes : fused with a following i proparoxy tones roitus {=irdgitus z= rogdtus). genarivs. = conjugi. "-frigida non fricda"). 461 . to the effect g has "its own sound " (i. II. After the accent. Cf. 250. Voi. Troge. so *pa{g)e{n)sis. II. diriens. Agrientum.e. agebat ^ aiebat. lenubam = Bon. praepalatal clerical and Latin: App. Thm-ot 77. etc. S.. and digitus in some places had become dictus {Franz. F. agere = ^ aiere. fused. in nearly all the Empire. that of English g in gem) before e and /. ingens aiebat. 239.Gi. 61.. [§259 259. D'Arbois 10. but is " weak " before other vowels. . Spr. both in popular and in Gerapolis for HierapoHs. and southwestern Italy remained at the y stage elsewhere the y developed further in the Romance languages. Genavam. Haag 34 manes 1' . neglienda. Vok.): it its disap- pearance (as in pldngit.. Pirson 97 celiens. Before happened. a part of southwestern Gaul. Lat. This y. jSctevTt = viginti. etc. fmucrrpo. frigidus in most of the Empire had become frigdus {App. except colliens when analogy forced *colliente. = Sepulcri 205. iesta. coi^i. §233. Grammaire des langues ro- I. and portions of Sardinia. no An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

S. ffautes-^tudes. S. I. 1901. everywhere a The next step was the development of an audible glide. and Libit. XXXIII. in the Annuaire de I'^cole pratique des 261. 81. 51-53. XXX. tury). see H. Cf. the earlier grammarians: prsepalatal. in 260. in the Comptes rendus des seances de I'Academie des Inscriptions. 322 P.. Guarnerio in Supplementi aWArchivio glottologico italiano IV (1897). By the fifth century the k' had passed a little further forward and the Through a modification tsentu. census. that c has " its own sound " before c and i. 360. 1893.itury must have had nearly front. and in Rom. developed into or ts: t's'entu or Speakers were apparently unaware of the phenomenon until the assibilation was complete. and qu. 617). century some writers distinguish Rom.1 century: F. . Zs. or praepalatal. apparently as and postpalatal. . Vok. dut'yere. consiensia. Thurot 77. paze (6th or 7th cenFrankish tins (German zins') is from fifth borrowed probably in the 595. 21-51 (cf. articulation: k'entu. piscem. ka. 7. 1900. 151. intcitamento: P. G. 1893. septrvm. as early as the third ce. Paris in Journal des savants. k'y had become t'y: t'yentu. Marchot. W. etc.§ 26i] An K' Introduction to Vulgar Latin. between the k' and the following vowel: k'yentu. of this glide the group then. 348. co{g)ndscere. duk'yere. I. G. a short y. Meyer-Liibke in Einf. fascem. Fetite phonetique du franfais prelitieraire. 1 was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . nascere. Schuchardt. 123-126. XXVI. mediopalatal. S. in Lat. There is no mention of first it by 340. Vok. Mohl. 163. In the school pronunciation of the seventh and eighth centuries c before e and i In the treatise cited in the preceding note. 359. and is almost like q before other vowels. it is stated ts. In the half of the third ce.S^ was palatalized also: crescere. E. in the fifth century we find bintcente. 348 cites fes[it]. Cf. For a discussion of the subject. XIV. duk'ere. in the t's sixth or seventh century.

But ligdre. (3) C and G Final and before Consonants. Vok. I. 3 II. Carnoy 155-160 (who puts the assibilation in the sixth century and earlier). so. too.112 An 472. fammi {<ifac mi). For a possible indication. 146. * liamen. however. Occasionally. ci. gamba>'Ex. in the front of the 263. 50). Reich. 242-243). 129 (other examples in manuscripts. in Introduction to Vulgar Latin. avste. sic factum). 262. by Microsoft® . see Palatals below. however. jambe. negare. S- — — perhaps 349). Sfir. Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie [§264 3131!. and apparently remained under learned or under analogical influence in others: avstvs from the second century on. ecce htc. and then developed further: carum>'Fr. g'a. K and g before vowels not formed mouth usually remained unchanged: canis. negdre. S. found about the sixth century. through alliteration. At the end cf. (2) C AND G before Back Vowels. the proclitic eo for ego. *redlis (for XXX. 349. of a word the guttural seems : to have been regularly preserved in Vulgar Latin fac. Intervocalic g before the accent fell in many words in all or a part of the Empire. See. ga in most of that country became k'a. For ce. of a local assibilation of c as early as the second century. probably by the end of the seventh century. Franz. the c must have been Digitized lost.. Carnoy 127 (cf. so * ledlis. ka. pagdnus. frvalitas. eccu'hdc. siffatto {<. hoc. cher. see Zs. Italian die. Inasmuch as a had in Gaul a front pronunciation (§ 194). realis in Gl. dimmi (< die mi). — mainly. gustus. sic. pacare. see Archiv XV. due. § 256.. y^ 264.

I. which seems to have been assimilated first into nt in parts of the Empire. Old ct Windisch 394. For kw 266. fleuma. Spr. OTOBRIS (380 A. "dumecta S.). sante. "pegma non peuma" Digitized St. 476. became um: fraumenta.. = qu. D. probably by the century: defuntus. Gm Pr. Cf. — sanctum 268. Pr. eissir. The resultant phenomena can. For ks of Italy = x. etc. 472. and «'. §650. 735. Lat. > Fr. Nkt became yt. XXV. 278. 9 II. that the y was retained very generally in Gaul and perhaps some other regions. inasmuch as their own rf had as x^ from the become ^f (e. PR/EFETTO. oclus. Isidore. otogentos. Lat. 399)." 348. antiqui quasi dumecita appellabant quae nos dumeia. § 186. and there is a confusion of si and sic: Franz.). and likewise substituted x^ fo"^ ^^' Suchier 735. see § 255.. Zs. through assimilation to a following initial consonant: PA iot fac. Pr. Spr.g. sank. "sagma by Microsoft® . Zaf. D.. 348.e. be explained otherwise: Irish ocht-n corresponding to Latin octo. The Celts perhaps pronounced the Latin beginning.^ Ft. S. frigdus. LATTVCjE (3OI etc. irqyfua. A. saint. Xf some parts was assimilated into U by the beginning of the fourth century.. Before another consonant k and g were for the most part kept through the Vulgar Latin period: actus. Festus. 236-240. ^^auctor non autor".. App. *viglat (§233). Gram. 113 no doubt. There is reason to believe.§268] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. S. subsequently drawn forward to the praepalatal position santus. 267. 472. In late texts nee is often written ne before a consonant. in the south even in the first century: AVTOR. in Pompeii. however. regnancte. Carnoy 172. santo. 398*fC'X^um>Vx. fata. 265. 215-224. cuntis. Spr.) . fait. ( i. Einf. App. in see § 254. however. * exsire .

and subjected to further modifications. no SCO. Lat. madias = maias. Instead i (=/) the spelling mann. Neu- When y more or y. 239). ZVNIOK = junior (S. that consonant was often less assimilated. in popular words apparently became r parts of the Empire: fra{g)rare. eiius. as calma from Soma occurs in Gl. fageus. exagium. Stolz 275.. ZACOiJVS = diaconus. audiam. Palatalization was commonest probably were reduced to y in vulgar speech: deorsum. Compare oz^^ hodie (S. rcenante. 323) and Zovk^la= Julia (Eckinger 80). rarest in Dacia. odium. 476. Cf. venio. Italian sauma [or salma^ dicitur" (i. 272. Haag 34. edmus. adjuiare. PALATALS. Gr. aayixa). I.. cujus. hodie. renum. similarly the ^ was sometimes etc. Dy and^. teneaf. In cognosco the decomposed — g generally disappeared. (S. 364 a. pi{g)ntia.. Cf. Carnoy Digitized by Microsoft® . Latin / was pronounced being identical in sound with the consonant that developed out of e and / (§ 224): jam. 271. 327. inte{g)rum. Cf. [§272 quae corrupte vulgo S. being preserved in some. Spr. ftlia. pere{g)rtnum. t. in the latter part of the Empire. d. Pirson 75. videavi . connato. sometimes entirely absorbed by the in Gaul. assimilated into n or n in others. diumus. 115-116. conjux. Pirson 76. podium. ajutit =adjutet. of ii was often used: coiiugi. gaudium. 270. between in vowels. Gn was still variously treated in different regions. 324) and zesv =/esu. etc. and also salma. sauma 269. ni{g)rum. which comes from Koxfrn. the after the fall of initial g in gnosco —-into lost in cognatus : word being co~ and Vok. habeam. Fortsetzung 7.e. followed a consonant. y. cunnuscit. Reich. soma.114 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

however. Digitized etc. The S. = maio. but medium ^^ > It. aggio. lated in Vulgar Latin beside abbio. § . palea. Haag 34. Vok. aios = Carnoy 162.. another — doubtless more elegant — pronunciation. di sine sibilo Isidore letter tell grsecum enim nomen est. most of the Empire: 274. deggio. S. magias ^= maias. 324. 320. 321. by Microsoft® . : orzo. 216. or dz (cf. The : dz pronunciation was especially favored after a consonant 273. De. etc." S. 339): z^s cf. towards the end of the Empire. Audollent 537 zogenes. sacriius—SiaKpiTOi. But through the analogy of audio"^* auyo. Reich. Condianus. Remidium — Eemigium. In most words the vulgar jv prevailed. S. St. Servius in Virg. = dies.. appears that the labials were not regularly assimi- sapiam > It. y. di. says. This palatal pronunciation may be 327. probably dz : podium proferenda est. in Yox plUvia a form *pldja was substituted §§ 169. represented by the spellings Aureia. ny. 461. Media. prandium > It. cor- aytos. II. The reduced forms cf. "solent Itali dicere ozie pro hodie.i£=die. Corneius. writes. n' before the end of the Empire: ftlius. Carnoy 162. madio S- 349. sappia. It.§274] ^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Georg. Congianus =. Pr. teneat. habeo. *deyo: cf. 34. 208. Ly. which was > It. Waters Ch. His- pania. had poggio. licpioi = Sergius. Haag anoget = *inodiaf. generally prevailed. 115 162. tilia. Z is often used in inscriptions. Gl. /'. etc. Carnoy 161. 63. debeo often became *ayo. but it we generally cannot whether t. II. but not everywhere. melius. 323. in others especially in Italy the cultivated dz. and perhaps through slurring due to constant and careless use. from radius Italian has both raggio — — and razzo." S. folia. sapcha. probably became veniam. pranzo.(4). means dy. It hordeurh > It. debbio. ridia =! corrigim. juria = jurgia. fiios. mezzo. between vowels. video>*veyo.

unless preceded by s. An Introduction ll'g'. I'g' to Vulgar Latin. and ty. scy. sty were generally assimilated of sy later: *bassiare. Lat. Riquier 131 &nd pitid in popular speech). postea. Eckinger 99. Ssy. somewhat allium. Spr. d. is Pr. D. Stolz 51. etc. oli. we are told that ti. ti. 78. etc. pudicicia. were very and t'y (cf. see § 277. Densusianu in. justicia.). caseus. staacio (601 a.d. as in etiam. huile. duricia. Digitized by Microsoft® . . tercia. concupiscencia many examples Gaul in the 5th century. Cf. ci. non c. furthermore. defeniciones (222235 A. isoff. ocio (389 A. malicia. collt^t. Fr. is pronounced like c. in the similar in sound.).).). D. prophetia. 475." In the treatise published by Thurot (see footnote to § 259). 'ApovKiavoi = Aruntianus. avaricia. also in nuncius. is confused with the spelling c being prescribed in amicicia. Pg. For the confusion 276. 171 especially common in Gallic inscriptions of the seventh century. consiensia. doubtless became during the VulgHRjatin period /. 321) "benedictio et oratio et talia t debent habere in psenultima syllaba. and hence were often confused: a. tercius. fascia.ii6 Lly. p. foreign words borrowed from Latin oleum indicate the same irregularity. modian). leticia. Vok. from oleo. I. between vowels. D. ocium. mansionem. / 'i'l^^^y. Fr. silentium. Bon. eAaiov. Pirson 72. olio. termina(an acrostic in Com- ciONES in (2d century). a sound similar to English sh in ship: basium. It. the an exception-: cf. In later school pronunciation cy and ty were sounded alike... . S. being respectively k'y second and third centuries. Oleum. Sp. see § 296.y«j/i«'a (in an edict of Diocletian). For rv.. etc. malleus. Cy and ty. servicium.. /' [§276 later: were probably reduced to ex-eligit. oracionem (601 a. According to Albinus (S. Pirson 71 mendatium. quatio. 323. Cf.

Vincentl^us.^ k'. Pompeius says the same thing at con- siderable length. Justitii). Italienischen und Sardischen. ampittfltru.vel di^ syllabam sequitur vocalis. 68. 117 spacium. to the substitution of suffixes and to other permanent transfers of words from one class to the other: cf. 320) says. * gutteare "> Horning in Zs. locally or in the This similarity or identity of sound led. T'y developed sporadically in the second century. Audollent 537. Cf.. It. "lotacismi sunt quotiens post ti." Consentius 'For a different explanation of the Italian and Rumanian developments. cum scribitur. (S. Carnoy 151-154. by the 140 A. Hence arose numeroimdouble forms: condicio solacium solatium." Papirius. Latetnisches ti und ki im Ru7ndnischen. gocciare. as * exquartiare-^YX. Reich. ularly a school pronunciation with etc. S. am- bicio. Carnoy 154. 3d ccntury. Puscariu. "si dicas Titius. in some cases. S. servitium -cium. et plerumque supradictse syllabse in sibilum transeunt. 320). zodorys = Theodoras. except in foreign proper names or after j litteris. This explains such seemingly anomalous developments 324. castius). A number of words evidently had a popular pronunciation with f and 277. see S. 64. or vice versa: cf.. tertia syllaba sic sonat quasi constet z. XXIV. I. Anitius -cius.§277] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 324. etc. conditio. *cominitiare -ciare. Servius in Don. 545. comenzare chminciare. into ts (cf.. speties. pinguius sonat et perdit sonum suum et accipit sibilum. but not in otii. et i". etc. inicio. squarciare. later avarttic^-cia. reviewed in Libit. XXVII. It. regfourth. cited by Cassiodorus (S. etc. 323. otia. . 320): "/ustitia ex tribus he goes on to state that it is always so when ti is followed by a vowel other than / (as in Tatius. tristicia. Digitized by Microsoft® . (as injustius. either whole Empire. so many ^|ftper names. 1904. adding (S. spacio. Gl. tercius.. Cf. Vok.: audatia. §260): crescentsian[vs]. sotium. S. etc. MARSIANESSES = J/ar/z'a«^«j'M. A. etc. D. t.

But the intermediate stages were similar enough to lead to some confusion. JT'y was assibilated sporadically in the third century. XXXV. 6th century. Clerical usage for a while doubtless favored sy for ty. modus. after the assibilation completed: Mapa-w. servitium —slum. dentals were pronounced with the middle of the tongue arched up and the tip touching the gums or teeth. d. Pirson 71. assibilated (e. pretium —sium. g'. Pirson 71. ratio —sio. . fifth but not regularly until the of t'y -wa. Exai^les are very numerous: observasione. Vok. Carnoy 154. not followed by y. 278. D regularly remained unchanged: Digitized dare. as in English : S. sepsies. Isidore in justitia: S. 5th century. The in modern French. — — S. perdo. and many words have palatium preserved it in various regions.vo'.l. 301-302. XXVII. The resulting sibilant was different from came from t'y: faciam'^-lt. hence \X?X\2. faccta. carried into Brittany in the second half of the fifth century. d. Cf. etc. so facio. judigsium. St.g. statio —sio. 320-321.ii8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. say t's'y the At aa intermediate stage between ty and ts grouD. vitiutrf^lt. Welsh words borrowed from Latin before the fourth century show no assibilation.. [§281 mentions the assibilation in etiam. if the /' was rather weak. are Metiacus> Messac). 480. 6th cen- tury.. 279.. DENTALS. but names in -tiacum. 153. " ' by Microsoft® .'a. vezzo. and not 281. 307. was easily confused with sy. and -igia beside -ezza from -ztia. k'. S. tersio. and the ultimate products have become identical in that which many For regions. especially in suffixes: —slum. =^ Afardanus. Ztd/t. hocsies. 65 Horn. as 280. 225 a. etc. diposisio ^= depositio. 323..s or sixth.palagio heside patazzo. etc. cf. placeam. 323. see Gutturals. Eck- inger 103. glacies.

App. Liquids. at. it.. a. S. " adif^ non alipes. id 29. and a Similarly intervocalic dr. S. set.. Cf. . and possibly at the end of a phrase apvd apvt. became ilium : Haag 29. : (i) Occasionally (/>/. Intervocalic d.. etc.• Cf. // d may have been . few words d~^r: medidies by dissimilation ^«^«rf««. arripere). 119 Oscan and Umbrian had nn corresponding to Latin nd: There is some indication that this pronunciation was locally adopted in Latin: agennjE. devocalized before a voiceless : initial consonant. 358-359. period. quo and Haag Illud. etc. At the end of a word there was hesitation between d and S. Pr." Cf. confusion of ad and etc. Carnoy 180. S. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin became 6 in Spain. . So the final consonant eventually often dis- appeared.. dacruma'^ lacrima . Grammarians warn against the Cf.. Gaul. northern Italy. CO. 365-366. In proclitics assimilation naturally went further. (3). § 289. Pr. S." App. If this was the case. etc. The cases seem to be sporadic and due to different special causes. (2) In a. verecvnnvs. Carnoy 180. ilium corpus.. etc. §283] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. fecit feced. the central and southern Italian nn for nd (as quannu for quando) may go back to ancient times Lat. S. set. INQVID. 283. capud in Gregory the Great. 366-367 Some of the confusion was doubtless due to the fall of both d 365 . part of Sardinia: vt3ere':>*vedere. attendere) but sometimes *ar Romam (cf. 311312 "grundio non grunnio. 31 1. o\d. S. ad eos and at ea. 365 aput. arVORSVM =r adversum.» Sittl 37.. 31 1 Consentius blames " peres pro pedes" S. quid quit. Raetia. and t: see §285. etc. 476. Digitized by Microsoft® . Spr. as we may infer from the treatment of the prefix ad~: people probably said not only at te (cf. Carnoy 179-180. 282. through the analogy of other neuters. guoi.

. " capitulum non dicendum. dede: S. §234. The first . '^ pessulum non pestulum" (hence Italian /ifj'//. Raetia. and sclitib. etc. Spr. Lat. 367-368. sure examples of the fall in Latin are found in Pompeii tions in Christian relinque. Spr. Fredegarius wrote e for cutters — — t et: Haag 29. App. facit. and Sardinia kept the t late. S. —tulus~^—dus. often in Umbrian In Latin. as ama.. Pirson 97. sclit. Italy. Pr.). In quadraginta. Tl. posui) occur in Gallic inscriptions.120 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Keil VII.(from stlis stlitis). dr~> rr: quarranta. cf. In early dialects we find such forms as cvpa. sitis. etc. Gaul." capidum. It. Between j and I z. 105.> *quadro. but forms without the possibly due to Italian stoneconsonant (as audivi. [§ 285 either at the same time or became drin Spain and Gaul: quadro'. Italian (except Sardinian). Rumanian.315. Hammer 28-32. valia. 7. occasionally in Faliscan: Hammer 5. 367. schioppo. 107. 8. seems to have regularly become d: astula> Pr. however. partem. So probably insula > * isla > * istla > * isda > Final t fell It. and also Spanish and Portuguese show no trace of final / except in monosyllables." "vefulus non vedus. f^habe). its Final nt perhaps lost before consonants: Lat. 285.: others appear later in the inscrip- Rome and S.?. 284. T usually stloppus remained unchanged : teneo. final t disappeared early in the Empire in southern and during the Empire in most of Italy and Dacia. Digitized by Microsoft® . peria. 472. Ischia. . usclar. 312-313 "Martulus non Marculus" "stlataris sine c littera Caper. ustulare > Pr. northern Italy. Cf. 8." For Cf. f developed: Caper. > *scloppus > . vixi. ascla. later. in Volscian {fasia=fadat)." "vitulus non vidus.

(I) L. Gaul. uses capo: Haag 29. 121 n. triplicem. Lindsay 124. — 368. Italy probably in the fifth or sixth century: Inscriptions show a few such forms 309) as amadus. see §282: capud. Cicero favored posmeridianus . it was doubtless often Fredegarius voiced. 470. Pos is very common in inscriptions. Raetia. 324) writes: exilem. 368. ut Plinio sonum habet: quando geminatur secundo loco Digitized by Microsoft® . is preserved in the same regions as Pisaurum. Cf. d and t. Priscian I. In Gaul and Spain. t 286.. posquam in R. tr'p-dr'^dr. When did not fall. § 280): S. like d and "Z t (cf. in general.The Romance languages show forms with nt. 287. 309. Such a spelling as Later this retere for reddere (S. videtur. before a vowel or a voiced consonant. 473-474. in 365. cf. and northern § 256. Spr. Intervocalic was voiced to d in Spain. According to Velius Longus. Nt. S. Cf. S. likewise. L had a convex formation.§288] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Both st and s are represented in the Romance languages. Spr. restituerun. inside a phrase. may indicate un- certainty in the use of d and t. moreover. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) or *capum. §283. and-^J is found: S. Marius Victorinus preferred posquam : S. with and without either consonant. posuerun. e. In inscriptions we find : dedro and dedrot. ^> d in northern Gaul and Spain. 306-307. 309. Lat. feced. est amatus but es' portatus : Lat. 473-474. 38 (S. may have lost its t before consonants as post ilium but pos' me. of final t For the confusion inquid are found. Cf. 473. 288. /. Final st. LIQUIDS. pos.

fiaba.122 posita. An ut il-le. shifted forwards. consonants. mtlle. chaloir and gallina~> Old Fr. /. For ly. quando finit nomina vel quando aliquam habet ante se in eadem syllaba sol. alga. also had the thick is famuXus (but not in similis): thus explained the different fate of a in calere^OXd Fr. consonantem. intervocalic va. medium in aliis. plenum. 325-326. cauculus in manuscripts. etc." heard before a consonant (as in albo. After consonants. It. Osthoff. see §161. 494. Greece: S. flavus. from the "pinguis. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 301 a.d. [§ 289 syllabas et Metel-lus. see §274. It is likely that / before or after another consonant had a Before thick sound caused by lifting the back of the tongue. fabula^*flaba'y-\\. 327) blames "coacla pro cloaca" " displicina pro disciplina". a faulty pronunciation of / particularly prevalent in Africa or 648. According to H. brought about the palatalization of Spanish and Italian clavem kl'ave > Sp.. 476). (2) There are sporadic examples of the dissimilation of two Ts: Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. sol." Consentius distinguishes the "sonus which he ascribes to initial and double / (as in lana. this formation led in some regions. this elevation. etc. ut exilis. Sfr.. It remained unseems to have fallen in For //>/. / regularly changed: luna. except before i. Other grammarians blame. zi. (i) Metathesis occurs occasionally: Consentius (S. chiave. XXX. Have. 289. During the Latin period altus. Dunkles undhelles 1 im Lateinischen in the Transactions of the American Philological Association / in : > XXIV. in obscure terms. tribunal. ille). Eckinger 12. silva. geline. For sl>stl. to the vocalization of / into u: KavKovXaT<o in an edict of Diocletian. see §284. sound — as 50. clarus. See also Zs. sporadically by the fourth century but regularly not until the eighth and ninth and later (^Lat. Vok. ut lectus. II. ski.): S." lectum. 326.

290. we fin(J repeatedly pelegrinus by Microsoft® . or praepalatal change 291. locally in aliorsum. 123 cf. S. C. dossum remained unchanged: susum.s pessica. there was a strong tendency to dissimilate it was only sporadically carried out: in Old in inscriptions Digitized Latin. reversus. R. .. 327. while old rss. assimilation versus. I. in most of the Empire in dorsum." Cf. sursum. Waters Ch. L. 309. so sussum>siisum. Pr. susum. § 292] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. et retrosum. Pr. 1593. pater. susum occur ha. Reich. After long vowels the 292. diosum. The «>j. 8) says: " Gn. R : in Classic trill: and Vulgar Latin was probably a gingival S.. Bechtel 83: susum very common. 460-461 Cf. The principle seems have been that original rs remained. as xcfloralis." "cultellum non cuntellum". rj > J. App.(see § i6r). in early writers tions: dextrosus. Cf. however. in inscrip- S. etc. has iusu = was Hot consistently carried out everywhere. suso. Spr. while susosusu susum. IV. being probably somewhat hindered by school inIt took place in the whole territory in deorsum and fluence. 243. retrorsum. ac tota r littera sublata est in eo quod rusum . Gl. coming from rtt. introsus. cursus. —arts after r^-alis. {2)Ji..f It generally resisted In many words. carrus. two r's. "terebra non tekbra". in about half the Empire in persua. § 281. App. deorsum. R." Russum rusum. 460. 307. (3) Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. 471. ndet. "flagellum non frag-ellum. (i). rusus. 77. 328. MVNTV for multum. 330.. Pr. Pompejus Magnus et scribebat et dicebat kadamitatem pro calamitate. App. although Moreover. 330): "Dossum per duo s quam per r quidam ut lenius enuntiaverunt. Velius to Longus says est (S. was early reduced to ss: Lat. Corssen I.

mate. etc. An intrusive r is found in culcitra.It. Rum. Ry was probably preserved through the Vulgar Latin it period.. albor. to y in parts of Italy. Lat. Consentius mentions "perlum -pro prcslum. [§ 297 also ministorum. 330 notes prancati. perla. Metathesis is not uncommon S. pellicere. : 294. So Italian per lo '^pello. corcodrillus. 295. propietas. This assimilation was probably not widespread in Latin. S. Velius Longus (S. as frate. 304. \X. Jlagrare. : ^ j- Digitized by Microsoft® . 296. 329. 314-315).. among the soaru.) avello. Crocodilus appears as corcodilus. corium'^ *coryu (cf. Spr. suora. Classic Latin j was probably ^Iways voiceless and remained so in 297. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 307-308. Cf. 331.'' propio. etc." S. uxo.124 (Sittl An 74). 477. early fall of final r mate. criblare. Falisci Sittl 11 mentions an in and the Marsi. probably before the end of the Vulgar Latin period. 330— 331. etc. cf. perpenna ^ Perferna. Italian £Occodri//o. "Barbarismus. Cf. seems to have been dental. S. in most of Italy and Dacia: sdror'. merlo. although may have been reduced and possibly *cqyu SIBILAUTS. see § 245. cf. Final r. S. it has left very few traces in the Romance languages. dietro drieto. est marmor. orlo. cocodrilus. as in pellabor. It. The old voiced having become r (S. f. 302. mehtrix. For quatro. 330. fell. 329) says: Pompeius (S. coliandrum. with the upper surface of the tongue convex (cf. 329) / us that in elegant speech per before was pronounced pel. Italian Carlo.>. *sempre. S. except in monosyllables.z\vax\. quando dico mamor pro eo quod Cf. 329. § 280) S. cuoto). Waters Ch. plurigo are attested likewise. propio. PELLiGE. averlo^ (in Old It. tells 293. 38.

the nominative singular without s (as Cornelio. Digitized by~Microsoft® ." Quintilian also (S. as far as goes." tions -s is freely omitted. olim autem politius. pleps. Ennius and his followers down to Catullus did S. unu. and often was not is says the loss of —s written. when -j was partially restored. rexi. indicated by the fact that is still generally surd in Spanish [casa. Cornelio. but became common by 150 to 200 A. pieta. nepoti. Spr." except in compounds. but occurs also in -ts and -as. the forms without Terentio. D. also ment of a / in such become voiced sus. urps. and matrona for matronas. S. however.§298] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. etc. sumpsi.) and most popular words it Tuscan is [naso. cur- 298. Sittl 27. 471. ossum.. The omission is commonest in nominative -os or —us. brian PiSAVRESE. j- ^In the previously cited Latin treatise (see footnote to §259). 8. § 256): was generally preserved: causa. At the very end of the Vulgar Latin period. etc. such as resolvit. 108): "5 littera hanc habet potestatem. not count -j before a consonant in verse: 355-356. rarely in -as: bonu. 471) "subrusticum. tste. corroborative evidence. filio') predominated in (jpntral Italy until the time of Csesar. etc. Cicero (^Lat Spr. Final s often fell in ally in Faliscan: Hammer In early 5. mtsi. and occasionCf. in Classic Latin s some regions (cf. furnished by such spellings as maximus.) . Pompeius (Keil V.^ sex. This evidently indicates a voicing in late school pronunciation. 302-304): this in is 125 Vulgar Latin intervocalic s in (S. who cites UmLatin final s was very weak after and t. 361) notes the omission of -s by the ancients. etc. ii Umbrian {kumate). but later it is In the older inscripin the main correctly used until the second century of our era: Lat. ut ubi opus fuerit excludatur de metro. According to Chronologic 175-186. and the developwords as hiemps. etc. 361-362. Cf. intervocalic s may have nupsi. Thurot T]^ y between vowels is described as " weak.

Densusianu 122—123. filio^filios. It. a new nominative constructed from irpeers fell in Italy and elsewhere through the substituva. 300. Spain. tion of the prefix /r. but notes that happens at the end of a doubt- only a conventional abbreviation.became and sometimes before m and/. 1938. etc. traducir). For prosthetic i or e before s + consonant. trei amate. see § 161. but das^lt. Spr. Vx. In Gaul. It.*prcebyterum'). Digitized . and some other regions. jecit.traduxit. /SvTcpos. tion. tra{ns)misit. trans. 540. tra{ns')veho. etc. however. I. liberio. prete. transduco and We sometimes Both forms occur Gaul and Spain before / and v : tra (^ns) luce 0. probably owing to the previous linguistic habits of the natives.j. (later tre^.coming from the prefix ex-. tra{ns)posuit . An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. see Gutturals For ss>s. usually preferred tras. IX. Cf.(but traduire. For z. transtulit. 539. morbu ^ morbus. In Old French pasmer (from spasmus) the ^ was lost probably through confusion with es. tratransjicio.«. Italy generally favored tra. -s. cords the omission of -s in as this nearly always less was strongly Carnoy 185-206 reline it is many inscriptions. [§302 and prevailed in central Italy in the third century («<7 Cf....). final J disappeared for good from the common pronunciation in the second and third centuries. tempo. tempus>lt. L. 316).before d.126 again. see § 246 and Greek by Microsoft® Consonants. cept in monosyllables {^Lat. Hammer 19-28. 471): sentts'^YX. C.(as prabitor) for the unusual initial pres-: hence It. For sy. For assibilaand Palatals. 302.(but trasporre). tres^OXA. 301. see § 275. 299. senti. According to Velius Longus (S. the In presbyter. tra. find. pronounced and therefore preserved. preveire {<. examdtis "> dai. for ejus. Audollent In most of Italy. see § 230. and probably in Dacia.

with an arched tongue: S. «'s in Bononia > It. So Marius Victorinus (S. by Microsoft® . noster. . remained unFor the reduction of There was a dissimilation of two M and n. n. S. 275). Priscian. was dental or gingival. must have been partly nasalized. amat. ut templum. M and 304. as between n and ^ (S. inquit. ut umbra. 276. 127 NASALS. cor- before s it was Digitized silent [cosul. ut magnus.: cf. as / . 311). 303.§ 305] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. like d and t (§ 280). etc. uncus (cf. before dentals. n. contineo. The y Cf. 275) says that for n the air comes through both nose and mouth. immitto. regularly venit. mis-. imperio. S. y: combura. 275) a spiritu explicabitur. 272. probably tives first the pronunciation of these fricabefore changed from bilabial to dentilabial (cf. changed: meus." Terentianus Maurus (S. apertum in principio. 275): "iVvero sub convexo palati lingua inhaerente gemino naris et oris The same author describes (S. initial and intervocalic." sound between m and n: "Omnes fere aiunt inter m eX n litteras mediam vocem quae non abhorreat ab utraque littera sed neutram proprie exprimat. Cf. 275) Before liquids the nasal was assimilated cf. and the mouth closure incomplete. then n. comfluo confluo. mediocre in mediis. S. S. §§ 171. iVNCXi. before m. rigo. In Classic Latin the nasal naturally took before labials the form of m. N." 305. — or "« adulterinum"— and also nvncqvam. by 270. According to Priscian (S.). were the preceding vowel obscure and weak in Classic Latin. etc. final or followed by a consonant. and v. "m obscurum in extremitate dictionum sonat. 279-280. conduco. see § 245. described by Nigidius (in Gellius). innocens. comvenio convenio. Bologna. § 320) gutterals. is 278). 270. minus. anguis. 269- {colligo. 269-270.

. 278. Bechtel 81 {forsitam. 306. secudo. quamta. S. Digitized by Microsoft® . occubas.128 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Carnoy 220). 276—277. 271-272). de- fuctce. S. In the vulgar speech of the Empire the sound before seems to have been indistinct. nynfis. conplere. nomem. plu. then to nt. before/ and v there was great uncertainty (cf. n. nom paret. Carnoy 176. innoceti. Cicero advocated cun nobis. tan mulieribus.. quen. santo. like medial nasals. Priscian (S. etc. we ci. cun duce.. cur regibus. 272): this is indicated by such spellings as senper. Spr. Pirson 92. frequent. forsitam mille. nol lego. 364. iferos. etc. [§307 to a following consonant: Final nasals seem to have been adapted. cun navibus : Lat." Cf. 286) says: littera "Columnam et consules legimus. S. pricipis.. etc. For the change of rjkt to yt.. Carnoy 220. laterna. decemter. find cun. etc. Mn seems at one time to have been pronounced m: Quintilian (S. §§171. 476. Carnoy 176-177. see § 267: santa. i senatu. 275): exempta n "iV quoque plenior in primis sonat et in ultimis partibus syllabarum. iy carne. and there was apparently some labials doubt before ^« and qu (S. but in great measure also to the mistaken efforts of later writers to restore a real or hypothetical earlier orthography: compare the treatment of prefixes. etc. quan floridos. Servius. little trace of confusion in the Romance lan- guages. as there is § 32. r/ must have been reinforced. and even before dentals not always clear (S.. ut nomen. largely to mere careless- ness in cutting. The due hesitation and inconsistency in spelling are certainly in part to imperfect articulation. 273. reliquat. nom or non fecit. In inscriptions S. In late Vulgar Latin m. exeetc. 281-285. nunquam. locun sanctum. 311). Cf. 307. In both old and late inscriptions the nasal is often omitted altogether before a consonant: Decebris.

and dampnum (cf. Bechtel 107. Carnoy 166. 363-364. Late inscriptions. The Romance languages it point to the preservation of mn. mpn is common in 189. passi. — that 309. occa- sionally in Faliscan: Hammer 8. the latter part of the .). umpnia. Bechtel 80.. Between is m and j or / a / generally developed in Latin was unvoiced and denasalized before the surd that followed this / was not always written: sum(J))si. 308. eoru. 462.. The omission of -m and Pr. mense. from the first century. Cf. It is likely that this orthography and painful effort to articulate clearly. App. and again in late plebeian inscriptions.§309] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. exilior in mediis. dormito for dormitum. by Microsoft® . So R. Bechtel •]()•. etc. cf. Bechtel 91 Digitized cf. 476): Interanniensis. on the other hand. cal- the early indi- Romance languages. ut amnis. Toward the end of the Empire fashion evidently prescribed cates a conscious a distinct pronunciation of mn. mecu. etc. ide. septe. sum(J>)tus. Audollent 539-540." Carnoy 166 has Interamico. S. oli. (as in puplu). was probably assimilated into nn in central and southern Italy before the Empire was over {Lat. . S. to say. jacente. etc. in the last first two centuries of the Empire the traditional spelling is carefully observed: early and late such forms as dece. numqua. Bon. the wrong use of it are very frequent in the Per. abundant examples. In Old Latin it was to weak: 130 B.. S. dampnare. accedere. show a fondness for such spellings as calumpnia. unu are very common. etc. Spr. damnum. and conversely forms with a superfluous m. 298. for -amn~. m Final m often fell in Umbrian 5. : que ad mo- century of the Republic and the dum. pride. It is often omitted in inscriptions down c. terra. 356. counteracting a previous ten- dency to although slur the group. 129 stamen.

vowels. Vok. it was assimilated (cf. jam. cognosco. from early times. S. but it seems preco- to have been reinforced in Classic speech (S. non is Siciliam": see § 311. of its assimilation to a § following labial (im bello. 361): see 305. very early. Cato said dice hanc. 274. etc. 286). ignotus: is Other- wise there no sure proof of the fall but there is abundant evidence 365). scarcely any m audible quantum erat. According to Quintilian is 362). in poetry it may be disregarded (cf. [§ 310 ardente lucemam. ing vowel was nasalized. 288-292. coicere: S. pdssu{ni). as in coactum. In the opinion of Schuchardt. having disappeared very early before vowels. as in cognatus. 473. Hammer 32-41. the final S. then (by assimilation) before other consonants. AudoUent 537). audiendu' st. he adds that there in tantum ille. etc. 106). too. the precedThe contrary view is maintained by Seelmann. (S. As the fall of m seems to have been due primarily to a failure to close the lips completely between two it is likely that the nasalization was slight. S. Cf. reaches the conclusion that silent at the it became end of polysyllables by the first century.tenea{m')\ cum. Final m before vowels seems to have been. "/« Siciliam dicendum. Cf. next before spirants and at the end of a phrase. 361): see §305. etc. fell Before^. of -n in Latin (S. S. 360.. Caper (Keil VII. 364Lat. Carnoy 206-221. hors. 361). 358). cf. quern (^quen.130 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. For further assimilation. Before consonants S. cf. The Romance languages point to a loss of -m in all words but monosyllables: damnu{m). etc. 282. Spr.. coharere. I. fix The con— became co— before vowels. only a weak nasal glide: in circueo it disappears (S. who notes the omission of -m in many inscriptions under all possible conditions. tan dvrvm. 310. Digitized by Microsoft® . 274). 110-112. n of prefixes 274.. 356-358. Final n must have been indistinct (S.

Plautus repeatedly uses mosTerence seems to intend a rhyme in "neque Stolz 243. ifer cojectis. was kept in participles. iferi. trare. Eckinger 80. after the Vulgar Latin period: Lat. Pirson 94. This phenomenon was only thority: partially recognized by Classic au—ensimus -^ -esimus. formosus (S. etc. as in vicesimus. ifimo. § App. iventa. cosol.. ns. coventionid. etc. ifra. 274. d. Pr. etc. —iens'^-ies. pes neque mens. (on a (Capua. 274. cesor. prcBgnas repeatedly. etc. non. It probably fell late. thensaurus. Charisius (S. mesis. Before fricatives or spirants n regularly fell. with a superfluous n: fidens =-fides. Pr. 285. probably through nasalization of the preceding vowel: see § 171. inscriptions: cofecisse. 387 a. 287). S. 459. hortesia. 113-115. 281-285." "occasio non occansio. etc. libes.). "consules exempta n littera legimus.." Eunuchus 728. 281-285. For final nt. infas. Cf. 131 The Romance languages indicate the disappearance of -n. -onsus>-dsus. 286). Quintilian (S. "Hercules non Herculens." Before/.. Stolz 243. Digitized by Microsoft® . 473. Cicero preferred foresia. S. "ansa non asa" . cojugi. quiensces. App. 274." In popular speech the times: S./. v. both forms were used in -e{n)sis (according to Velius Longus. 461Conversely. except in monosyllables: ndtne{Ti).. 311. locuplens. mansus. resurges S. toties. etc. covenimus. if eras. remasit. R. occansio. such words as conjux.. thensaurus. mesor messor = mensor..ifs.§ 31 1] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. R. Carnoy 177. convenio'&ie really new formaThe only sure Romance traces of the loss oin tions: S. the n was generally restored by analogy (see 171). ^^ i'^ Greek- ko^ous. Such forms are frequent in cojugi (very common). 462. seme{n) in. Spr. see § 285. cojux. iferi. Stolz 243fT. 274. as videns. coin of Vespasian's reign)." Cf. letter inscriptions: Kki]ix. 286) records that "men- sam sine n littera dictam Varro fall ait.. however. . 273). was probably constant from early in/as. AudoUent 538..

App. lebrm. under the influence of Celtic *cactos (Welsh caetJi) = Latin captus (Loth 35).. Raetia. Pirson 61. the fall of n was permanent.. Gaul.132 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Lat. pesat. etc. 312. settembres. There was some sporadic confusion of/ and b: uvBLlCyE. tosus. by Microsoft® . LABIALS. etc. S. scultor. [§ 314 before these consonants in Latin are Italian /a«/^ and French in Raetia and convent.. Spr. mesis. /V likewise br: Abrilis. or perhaps captivus became first *cactivus. In a part of Gaul capfivus seems to have been pronounced *cayttvus: it may be that in Gallic speech the pt oi this word became yt. 160. canapa. stubrum. corpus. S. to drop In Italy and perhaps elsewhere there was a tendency / between a consonant and an j- or /. and northern Italy: see Cf. S. 299. "plasta non blasta" " ziziber non ziziper" cannabis and .. In a part of Italy /j became ss as early as the isse for ipse is first century: found in Pompeii. 314. Pirson 60-61: labidem. and the only Romance words containing ns are learned terms or new formations: mesa. Car- noy 165. Intervocalic / probably became b in the fifth and sixth centuries in Spain. § 256.• redemti. 313. h. opus. (i) F regularly remained unchanged: pater. hut pensare. (I) P. etc. 476. as was the case with Celtic// (Dottin 100. etc. Pirson 93. It. although at a later date nf became / much of southern France. In central and southern Italy// became the Empire: scritus. sposus. Bon. // probably early in 299. Old Irish secht-n = septem. Before s. Digitized became Haag862. Windisch 394). and is attested by Martial and possibly by the icse for ipse mentioned by Suetonius. cf. Pr. 299. 7th century. scripit.

§ 3i6]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


In northern Gaul intervocalic/ and/r, even in clerical Latin, /8 and ^r by the seventh century: rivaticus, 629 a. d., Vok. I, 128; cavanna, Gl. Reich.
developed through b and br into
'Soxpe,pi, see § 273.
(2) B.


as in


was not



usually ifemained un-


bene, blitum, oblitus.


Oscan and Umbrian, became vim

in Sicily


southern and central Italy, the
as far north as


being found in inscriptions
Cf. nd, § 281.


Lat. Spr. 476.

Before s or tit

likely that b regularly

became /

in Latin,



was often written

b: absens apsens, ab— apsolvere,

plebs pleps, scribsi scripsi, scribtum scriptum, trabs traps, urbs

urps; App. Pr., "celebs non celeps," "labsus non lapsus."

Final b must have been often assimilated to a following

consonant: sud



a. d.,



In the Empire, especially in the second century,
in inscriptions (cf.

and v were much confused


bixit, botu,

vene, etc., S. 240; Baleria, Balerius, Beneria,


Betrubius, Bictor, bos, valneas, Audollent 536; African birtus, bita, boluntas, Vok. I, 98 bivere, very common, Carnoy

140; baluis, Bechteh"78;

vibit, etc.,

R. 456; bobis in Consenany, traces of

Vok. Ill, 68.

In the

Romance languages

there are few,


such an early interchange.

Probably the confusion was mainly

or wholly graphic, being due to the identity in sound of b and v between vowels (§ 318): Lat. Spr. 473; cf. Einf., § 120. The Spanish levelling of initial b and v does not go back to Vulgar Latin (Carnoy 139— 141); the confusion is far commoner in Italian inscriptions than in Spanish or Gallic (Carnoy 142-146). We find also a change of initial v to b va. north Portuguese, Gascon, south Italian, and Old Rumanian.

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Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


After liquids, too, there was a confusion of b and v in inscriptions, b being substituted for v much oftener than v for
b: Nerba, salbum, serbus, solbit, etc.,

240; berbex, Waters

Ch. 57; solbere, repeatedly, Carnoy 140; solbere, etc., R. 455; App. Pr., "alveus non albeus." In all probability v really changed to b after liquids: see V.


remained unchanged.
Intervocalic b opened into

the development apparin the second,

ently began in the


was well along

Oitovin = and was devitvm, provata, etc., Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95; devere, As V also was pronounced j8, a confusion in spelling S. 240. cvrabit, resulted, b and v being used indiscriminately:

completed, at least in Italy, in the third:

ivbentvtis, nobe,

etc., S.

240; i-vwE.nTE.=jubente, 2d century,

£inf. 127, § 120; cabia
vovis, etc.,

— cavea,

Danuvium, Dibona,


Audollent S3^~537j devitum (6th century), lebis, vibi, Carnoy 134-135; annotavimus, lebat, Bechtel 78;


habe:=ave, rogavo, suabitati,

R. 455— 456;



51, Pirson 61-62,



Carnoy 134-136. became contiguous

Cf. V.

to a following consonant,
Cf. V.

was vocalized

into u: *faula, *paraula, *taula, etc.

became /3r and Dacia.

perhaps not until the end of our period, in northern Gaul, Raetia, part of northern Italy,


as in popular speech: *fa§ula, * tabula, etc.

In the early stages of clerical Latin intervocalic b was pronounced Later, perhaps by the

seventh century,

was sounded


In App. Pr. we find " sibilus non


tions " sifilum pro sibilum" ;


comes from some non-Latin Italic dialect few other words. *a^ea, see § 421. (3) For habebam


(S. 300) menPerhaps the form with/ bubulcus =^ It. bifolco, and a

and Priscian



Be, bi probably remained unchanged, at least in most

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§ 322]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


of the Empire: rabies, rubeus, etc.

For the analogical change

of habeo to *ayo, debeo to *deyo, see § 273.

(3) F-


F was

originally bilabial (S. 294-295), but
of the



by the middle


(S, 295): cf. § 305.

It is the old /, apparently, that is described

by Quintilian

296-297) a plain description of the dentilabial y is given by Terentianus Maurus and Marius Victorinus (S. 296).

Grammarians speak

of an alternation of h


fasena^ harena, fircum'^ hircum, habam'^fabam,
Varro, Ling. Lat.

etc., S.

f: fcedus'^hadus, The /"and 300.

the h doubtless belonged to different dialects in early Latin
§ 97, the

according to

This phenomenon can have no connection with the change of initial/to h in Spanish and Gascon.

/for h was Sabine.

of the

It is

probable that intervocalic

y became

v at the end

Vulgar Latin period

256): alevanii

^ elephanti,

paceveci ^pacifici, pontevecem =. poniificem,




was doubtless originally pronounced w; but, losing its velar element, the sound was reduced, probably During the early in the Empire, to the bilabial fricative /8. Empire Greek-letter inscriptions have ov or ^ for v (Ncpoua or Nep/3a) Ov\av!a = Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95 yS for » is common from the first century on, Eckinger 85-91. Velius Longus, in the middle of the second century, says that the u in ualente is pronounced "cum aliqua aspiratione": S. 232. Hence arises a complete confusion of intervocalic b and v








By. CVRABIT, ivbentvtis, etc, Gregory the Great. This leads


240; jubari iox juvari

to a graphic confusion of

initial b

and v

in inscriptions: biginti, bixit, botv, etc. (so



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An Introduction

to Vulgar Latin.
dentilabial v in


Later the bilabial

p became


of the


cf. §


For the substitution Germanic Consonants.
323. After liquids




or w in a few words, see

this state

/3 seems to have closed regularly into b; was preserved in Rumanian (Densusianu 97, 103105), but elsewhere the p ox v was partially restored by school

influence: cerbvs, corbi, cvrbati, ferbeo,
A. D.),
§ 317.

nerba (about 100

serbat, solbit, E. G. Parodi in Horn.




So vervex became *verbex, then berbex: Waters Ch. 57 BERBECES, 2d Century, Einf. 127, § 120 (also in Gl. ReichJ).

Hence came

hesitation in spelling (^ferveo, ferbui, etc.)


inconsistent results in the


languages: corvus^

corbo corvo, Fr. corbeau; curl/US'^

Ft., Pr. corp, Sp. corvo;



nerbo, Fr. neff; servare, servire'^ It. serbare, servire.

Intervocalic w ox fi had a tendency in older Latin, as Umbrian, to disappear between two like vowels: divtnus'^ dinus (cf. Umbrian deivina> deina, Sittl 26), obHviscor> obliscor, si vis'i> sis. Cf. Lindsay 52. Also, at all times, before or after 0: bovis'^bos; devorsum>dedrsum; faor, Pirson 63; moere, AudoUent 539; Noe/u/Spios, Vok. II, 479; noem[bris], S. 241; '^pavor xiOXL paor," App. Pr.; cf. late noembris, noicius, Lindsay 52. "Favilla xion failla" in App. Pr. seems to be




In the above cases the


apparently was only sporadic.

But before an accented o or u, the w ox p fell regularly in most of the Empire: aunculus, Vok. II, 471 (cf. auncli, Pirson 63); FLAONivs, S. 241; *padnem; *padrem.
Furthermore, intervocalic
popular speech before any


ox p regularly disappeared in probably towards the end of the
vIvs, S. 241 {zLJlaus in



-vos>-vus): flavs,

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Vulgar aucella. primitius. the sonants were perhaps not fully voiced. period: eccu' ktc'. oum in Probus. Carnoy 128. Before 322. Vok. Pirson 63). The ^Vm of C. hiatus which had not already become w {%% 223224) probably took that sound by the end of the Vulgar Latin 326.. Audollent 539 (cf. 327- In Greek the surd and the sonant stops must have than in Latin. ndcui^ nocwi. cited by Schuchardt (Vok. II. Pr. after the analogy of a feminine or a plural form ovum (beside oum) through ova. vius in Pirson 63). : Cf. naufragus. Digitized Cf."^ ec{c)lesia. B): Classic . Single consonants sometimes became double in Latin. this.:>*eccwic. and the surds doubtless had a weak. Lindsay 52. Fr. App. iKKKyfTia. claudo. etc. however. is evidently intended for csvum. the original Latin w (spelled v) had become |8: § 2. Keil IV. rivus (beside rius) through rivi. (S) u. noum. nasals. II.§ 328] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The Greek liquids. is 325. the v was re. stored. (i) In inscriptions -vs is common in place of -vvs. and Greek double consonants sometimes became single: vd/xos >nummus. Pirson 63. by Microsoft® . 137 App. rius. voiced explosion: so they were not always distinguished by the Latin ear. triumphaut. aus. Often. 1220. § 167. eccu' ista'>*eccwista. /3 became contiguous to a folwas vocalized into u (cf. L. and sibilants less sharply differentiated been usually remained unchanged in transmission. Claussen 847-851. gnaus. Vva. etc. GREEK CONSONANTS. 471) and others as aum. oum. placuit> placwit. 472 (cf. I. etc. When intervocalic a/ or it lowing consonant. 113) nous. datius. in most cases this probably only graphic: Carnoy 128-131. 1. 328.

rvp. TfL'^um (j-a. c. keSjoos > citrus. progne. [§ 332 (i) B. egloge. 330. K. theywere *Jdcopus (also */dcomus) 'la. later inscriptions. T. yoyypoi Cf. remained b. S. Teodor. 138 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ph. however. 2S9-26a 332. cf. 347 buxus. App.v>gubemare. B. 7rop<j)vpa. y. although KavZiTo? for candidus (Eckinger 98) seems to point in that direction: 'Aicpayas > Acragas Agragas. ch: Claussen 823-833.iravov > Fr. 8 regularly ydpov>garum. "calatus non galatus" {^ KoXadoi). Pilipus. KvPipva. Claussen c.KO)0(K delta. however.p. r. old inscriptions. b.yKri> andngi. advCf. tt. "> purpura. — 329. The From the middle of the second century spellings th. It. often became g. S.p. This late such cases as Kafiinj Greek pronunciation perhaps accounts for > Lat. explosives 6. Pr.fu > > gumtni.. *. 259. t: xoAa^os > colaphus. X. cecino. v sometimes became b. > conger ganger. g. Crista. (2) K. toKomtov > talentum. S. t: blcesus. etc. Ta\oi'>rr. t regularly came to be pronounced //in Greek: a. of a change oi r to d there is no example. K. TTuppos burrus. n. sandal.. TTvio'i > Kr > 331' g. — fusion 346. T generally remained c. etc.papo^ cammarus gammarus. <t>. bustiola in Gl. § a-iriijXvyya > spelunca. gamba. became in Old Latin t. p. k. ^iXra^ unvoiced into /. (3) ®. cin in kvki/os > > cicinus > Old. A. cf. avrpov^ dndron. w. Digitized b.. nimpa.yfjia> sagma sauma. > > . x 252-253): vop^-ipa^ purpura . After nasals. d: l3XauT6i Sometimes. Reich. the conis mentioned by Terentius Scaurus and others. 833-838. Claussen 838-841. c (S. S. we find the People of fashion by Microsoft® .. 268): (cf. KaiPw%>gobius . timbre. K6p. 'Kixpmp6<i'>- lambros.

"amfora /came non ampora. Fr. Matheus ''. 260. Reich. ^ had developed into / in some places (S. Fitones in Gl. The etc. 79 (cf. p. Theos. as in phosit. pantaisar. 256) speaks of using the old. Bechtel 79. In ^£ros>It.. etc. '^Theophilus non izofilus": (i) Evidence of a late school pronunciation of 6 as ts is to be found in Thurot 78. ut thiara. so o^-1\kiov for qfficium. ut c enuntiatur. and some other early adopperhaps the reason is to be sought in a Greek dialect pronunciation: Claussen 829-831. etheus.. The proper spelling is discussed by gram- marians: S. X ><?"• Claussen 831. . cefalo. S. d. In late words ^ regularly appears as/. Certainly as early to be the standard as the fourth century (Lindsay 58) pronunciation: App. 333" tions. S-p. Fitonis. Cicero (S. 261): dafne occurs in Pompeii. 261. Thiestes. 0. c.^o'i^ colaphus = colapus. . but popular speech kept the old t. <jia. 218. Parthi. S.. ut ather.§ 334] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. palanca. zampogna. x^P^ > chorda = corda. neofiti. In hoxri>doga. App. Eckinger 97.avTac7La> > Pr." "strofa non stropa". cf. Thescelus. zio we have a late development of Claussen 833. f is common later in southern Italy.. unaspirated pronunciation (as pulcros. " In principio inquam dictionis nulla prescripta causa variari compellitur. phitonissm.Xay^ It. 4. In <l>aXKaiva> ballcBna. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. etc. By the first century a. iriumpos) in order to be better understood. of. Bonnet 141. 139 undoubtedly tried to imitate the aspirates (Lindsay 54). <f> > b. si aspiretur. Quintilian (S." 334. Thestius.. caikoluus. Claussen 828. KoKa.\os> phaselus faselus . cru/x<^o)V4a>It. 257-258. It is transposed in Fhitonis. footnote to § 259): " T quoque. pache. 256) says there were no aspirate consonants in older Latin. Fr. Ki^oXoi > It. for new words as well as for old: <TvaOri>spatka— spata. nothus.. : letter h is occasionally misused.<^ao-i. cathedra.

i/f In ocr/u.'^massa.I40 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. have to do with a late Greek change of \ to 336. and subsequent developments confirm this view: baptizare Digitized was equivalent to bapti{d)yare. ^dvr] "^ sona (Plautus). Medentius. There however. Priscian (Keil II. 335. later j' (cf.8os /talpos > maurus. cr 337. see below. (Tivain Of the sibilants. : t. Nasals. [§ 339 (4) Liquids. early Latin . r. or d as in Saguntum. orma. by Microsoft® . Greek letter and the lack of a corresponding Latin one Velius Longus discusses z at length. unchanged: <j has probably become For npvj^vre. and ^ were regularly > sinapis. see § 300.^ ? > It. Judging from inscriptions. is sounded sd. Quintilian refers only to the on the Latin pronunciation. massa. by s. regularly vop. but was often replaced. (S) z- Z doubtless had several pronunciations in Greek. among 36) says that the ancients. as a simple sound. Claussen 845. /8oj«. 338. priTmp> Rh in remained unchanged: \a/x7ras> common speech was doubtless pronounced In trkXivov like > It. § 272). The For unfamiliar combination lent itself readily to meta- thesis: i^6X\v. The liquids regularly rhetor. Cf. From Sulla's time on it was written z in The grammarians throw no light Latin: Claussen 841-843. some indica: tions that they were weak before consonants > Pr. too. sedano. e^oSos r. t. In it was represented by jj or s: pAtfl.po'i'^ prebiter.v>psallere spallere. and a few other words. we probably 8. it was pronounced in Vulgar Latin dy.. bobansa. 308. etc.-^ remained unchanged: are. The nasals.. > nome. ss. — 339. but seems to be referring only to Greek speech S. lampas. and Sibilants. > exodus.

Ladiis. GERMANIC CONSONANTS. B between vowels. Cf. R. b and k came in after the lents: 8. *giga>'Pr. Bechtel 79).. zosum z= deorsum. Eckinger 80. occurring apparently only in words adopted after Latin intervocalic b had become ^ (§ 318). rubare. ZABVLLVS. h. The ending -i{d)yare became very is common: see § The spelling di for z occurs repeatedly: baptidiare found several times in Per. being had no Latin equivaFurthermore. 22. no peculiarities. septuazinta. I. gerbe. etc. cf. oridium for opvtfi. etc. zaconus. *striban > Pr. Digitized by Microsoft® . skernon > schernire. 341. 68 . etc. Carnoy 163). so *rik-itia > Pr. z zabulus. 457-458- In late inscriptions z for/ is common: zerax = Upa^ (202 S.). zanuari. Kotflv^ zvnior. A. Spr. of the consonants offer Most treated as in Latin. Pr. 340. however. 69. I. 141 zelosus to {d)yelosus. zebus. is often used for di: . D.). Conversely. 33. = conjux.. esquena. A few. zdcones. and w. can scarcely have come in time to share in the early palatalization of Latin g before front vowels (§§ 25811. geisla Fr. ZESv.= Julia. and to G. Zov\e.• frank-iscus>lX..ta. estribar. although have participated also in the later Gallic palatalization of g > before a (§ 263): gilda>lt. 473. garto Old Fr. Francesco. Franko seems to have been an early acquisition. resisted front vowels : skena > > Sp. and its derivatives palatalized In the their k before e and /. riqueza.. 239. seems to have followed a similar course. re- mained a stop : roubdn it > It. zabulus. It. Lat. jart. Vok. garba > K It. corresponding Latin sounds had undergone some modification. 3. p. Vok. geldra.§ 34i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Carnoy 163. giga. zeta = Koffmane 38 Lazis — dixta. (90. giscle. baptidiatus. and is common in inscriptions (cf.

hau- > > > Pr. 445 notes that ab. esclate. Yr. like Latin ss. hardir. but apparently was neglected in the rest of the Empire: hanca~^Yx. of a At the beginning word it kept its sound in northern Gaul. Fr. Fr. hanche. honte. But wahta. spehon~>0\6. blanche (but It. Fr. apcha. espiar. regions where Latin eschine. tt: pahso > It. 343. jaquir. cf. a time when original Latin fricative w (spelled v) It the purely labial ^ (§ 322). d and widarlon were replaced in Latin by the It. at Germanic w was a strong velar and labial fricative. prescan Germanic h appeared when Latin h had long been popular speech. It. Kluge 500. W. Bon. nipa The spirants 8 and p t: corresponding stops. esclata. Reich. doubtless adopted at a Tr. silent in Fr. schiatta. sleht > Pr. Pr. trescar. In the Gl. helme. — > \X. became Old guatare. schivare. helm elmo. —jehan > Old It. perhaps borrowed at a different date feu. 342.. Pr. ht were generally treated tasso. is used before > > initial ch: ab Chilperico. tasso. parrjan > Cf. in the seventh century and later. Old Sp. Germanic k was modified in the same way before all front vowels (including a): cf. but in a few it seems to have been sounded kk in the greater part of the Empire: fehu Fr. Pr. schietto. bianca^. fio . jehir.— 142 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. gaite. rather than a. Hs. It. esguiver. Fr. Fr. eschernir. gecchire. richesse. gequir. [§ 344 c was palatalized. Pr. Intervocalic h disappeared in most words. 344. so blank-a'^Yx. we find Digitized by Microsoft® . guiderdone. ardire. Sp. It. hapja'^Yz. different time. espier. It. anca. before a (§ 263). It. had become was nearer in it sound to Latin u: see § 326.gaita. pahso > It. — slahta'^-OXA esclet.. tarir. skiuhan'^'Fx. hardjan Old Fr. hache. Old Fr. etc. Pr.

W. 143 re- represented by uu. etc. in uuadius. 1885. etc. Waddo. but Wintrio is spelled Quintrio: Haag 38. > *wisa guisa. reuuardent. Charakteristik der germanischen Elemente im Italienischen. walde. Bon.:>*wadum. Wandali. Digitized by Microsoft® . Waltemath. through a reinforceit ment of its velar element. Die germanischen Elemente in der franzSsischen und provenzalischen Sprache. the /3 of some Latin words was changed to w: vadum +watan'. Die frdnkischen Elemente W. See E. etc. in northwestern Italy. It is generally written w in Fredegarius. 1884. 1899. became gw: warjan>*warire wisa guarire. and in the in Rsetia this w apparently remained unchanged Vulgar Latin period.§ 344] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. elsewhere. In extreme northern and eastern Gaul. werra > werra guerra. vastare + wost— > *wasiare. Bruckner. wa (the interjection). 167 cords Euua. Through association with Germanic words. Mackel. in der franzSsischen Sprache.

etc.IV. turturem. n. II. in the main. 503-504): (3) color. 461): (2) In Gaul. —urem were of uncertain gender ( Gram. through the analogy of the great majority of abstract terms. abstract nouns in -or. -inem. 293. but there were ( I ) Between masculine and feminine there was not much some important shifts: Feminines of the second declension nearly all became — masculine: fraxinus. Spr. manus. 483 . MASCULINE AND FEMININE. or [I. 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . grex became feminine. I. cucullus and cuculla. leporem. The three genders of Latin were not. 504. G. Lat. (4) There were some sporadic changes: duos arbores. 345. honor. 346. cf. fans feminine in late Latin. Feminines of the fourth declension varied (^Gram. 194. marginem. Nouns that -icem. Spr. Hmor. (5) See also § 351. pulicem. —orem. castaneus for castanea. Bon. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. MORPHOLOGY. dolor. They were grammatical whose observance was a matter of outward form. became feminine (Bon. sex. iomus. ficus. A.. had a proparoxytonic accusative in -erem. ~" confusion. Lat. dependent on sex or lack of distinctions. confusion of gender ensued. If words lost their differentiating terminations. GENDER. Bon. Pirion 157. 464-467): carcerem. 483.

483). 173. Waters Ch. . etc. 16). and also by the fall of final s in that phenomenon occurred (§ 298). collus —um. etc. 348. Audol- lent 545. nasuni : —us. 145 MASCULINE aIiD NEUTER. thesaurum. verbus. Bon. balneus. vadum —us. 345-349. b. Petronius. Beside lUmen. lignus. Bon. 46.§ 348] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. vasus -um. piper \h&x& must have been *liiminem. 132. G. caseum -us. maris nom. collus. see Archiv VIII. vinus. etc.guttur. calus. for ctnis. incipit judicius. D'Arbois 135. *ptperem. templus. laqueum. 41. and neuter in Africa. VA. do^sus (^Mil. gladium. 507-509. ledus —um. Cf. signus. there must have been a *pulvus. ciner. n. tergum —us. me\_nt]us. Petronius has thesaurum. 57. The transition from masculine to neuter was facilitated by the fall of final the regions where changes reduced considerably the distinguishing marks of the (§ 309). roborem. In popular and late Latin this tendency was strong: anteClassic. cornu —um —us. Glor.. lactem. sg. frigorem. 39.. Spr. m. Densusianu 129. 2. 270—272. 348.. vinus.. beside pulvis. etc. nomen. n.Y. These m two genders: filiu{s) — . Conversely we find cinus. 42. etc. pectorem. II. puteum. ra. 347.. castellus. lactem {Bacch.. *ndminem. m. marmorem. fatus. 266. R. 44). murmur.. For the confusion of masculine Cf. R. Waters Ch. sulphurem. Densusianu 132. In Classic Latin a number of neuters became masculine balteum -us. frenum -i. papaver .. fcenus. cf. MAREM. Varro. MARIS. (Za/. 293. m. Plautus. 4. and f.

etc. R. hunc verbum. Bon. Greek neuters in -ma. 161. luoghi luogora. plural in a collective sense (as eques. donum hunc scBCulum. XXX. 386. Densusianu 132. quid. rivus rivora. quod. for instance. however. FEMININE AND NEUTER. sagma. est. locus. but also the collective plural for the singular Digitized by Microsoft® . m. by terra. the early stages of the Neuter adjective forms were used for a similar purpose: in Romance languages we find phrases veniat. Zs. Cf. gender for nouns was probably not Cf. illud or ilium. 4). etc. 351 Classic Latin often used not only the singular for the cf. cf. Archiv III. muro. id ipsum. luogo. 45 . : if The loss of the neuter became feminine: cyma. 266. miles. Petronius writes nervia Waters Ch. influenced f. and 48. popular. tive h In the third declension the genders are distinguished only in the accusative singular and the nomina- and accusative plural. Nearly all neuters became masculine: os locutus R. complete until early Romance times. perhaps calestem. 350... 635.. mare. § 351. So pi. 349. the : neuter forms were kept to express an indefinite idea hoc. hunc stagnum.146 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the characteristic neuter plural inflections came to be -a being regarded as an alternative masculine plural ending: for nervi. give in Italian: sg. generally L. Thus the masculine and neuter fused. etc. pointing to such Vulgar Latin constructions as *mihi est grave quod ille non c. [§ 351 In the second declension the only difference is in the nominative singular and the nominative and accusative plural. 348. 277. Among pronouns. generally Haag became feminine maris. in Livy: Draeger I. murus. hunc vulnere. / muri mura. Mare. and in Italy and Dacia the distinction disappears even in the nominative singular.

ligna . Draeger I. Hence arose such feminine gaudia. This formation in -a was extended to many masculine (cf. fructa. ligna. palpebrum iox palpebra occurs. R.. Digitized by Microsoft® . armentas. Sardinian. For the use of cases. Reich.. Archiv XIV. marmor. 147 marmora. By the end of 354. Lat. It. for instance. etc. Gl. in Greek neuters -ma. rama). few neuter nouns became feminine: For mare and f. occurs in late Latin. etc. Aside from these. . membras. Cf. Gl.. Lat. Gl. 353. see §§ 85-100. 351. gaudia niat. Old Fr.. For cinus — cinis. 269.. sg. *pulvus = pulvis. So the neuter plural forms in -a were preserved in their collective use after the neuter singular forms had disappeared.% frigora. etc. 482. 63). Bon. ingenias. hie est iesia. . 270. 352. ardet (cf. The feminine character of such words was *illcB doubtless reinforced by the use. see § 349. dita. Apulian. fusa. crigne < ? *cnnea = crines. In most of the in central Romance territory the -a forms were kept preserved as plurals only as feminine singulars. *folia.§ 354] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 2. 483. which a new plural was created: brachias. {z. Spr. DECLENSION OF NOUNS. Cassel. the Vulgar Latin period the cases were generally reduced.. rura: cf. see § 347. Audollent 548. Convtrstly. for singular forms as *brachia. 435. R. 5-9. grada occur in late Latin. but many were and southern Italy and Rumania. . § 349) and even to some feminine nouns: digita. Spr. In late Latin and early Romance this collective plural —a came to be taken for a feminine singular: tribula sg. of an to pectora maXch qua pectora : Chronologie \()(). Reich. D'Arbois 10. simulaehras. frutta. in Rumanian y>-««2a < ? *frondia ^frondes. cf. ne forte et mihi hcec eve- R. gesta.

to two. see § 359. The other declensions generally held their own. 282-283. etc./ada. R. —a nominative and an accusative- plural following the analogy of the singular. 355(i) The number fifth of declensions was reduced to three. G. lucto. etc. 337-338. gelus. Pr. ablative. £ai. Sp. 544. but -ies was kept in the Spanish peninsula. as a third declension noun. luxuries —ia. 135. glatz. being assimilated to the third declension: cf. fructo fructos. whence Italian spene (cf. passes. In Dacia the dative singular was to some extent preserved also: '' § 91. All passed over in the greater part of the Empire. Bon. fourth declension eventually went over. 270. gradus. scaiiazre attested Inter: Denfor -OS. manos. 356. materies -ia. and occasionally in southern Gaul. Fifth declension nouns not in -ies rem. cornum. Spr. Heraeus in Archiv XIII. Sittl in Archiv II. Classic Latin and continued in vulgar and late speech: ftcus. One result of the intermediate confusion was an accusative plural spelling -us which was very common in Gaul: Bon. All the mercatus. went into the third res There was also an inflection spes : spene{m). so friicti. Ada.g/ada.. spes spent. 550.148 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 152. jusso. 260—262. Audollent genum. gustus in Petronius . senatus. sendti. K. in southern Italy and Sardinia. the fourth and being absorbed by the others. spiritus. lacus. Bechtel 86. Dies maintained itself. Digitized by Microsoft® . haz. — the Cf. speni): W. transfer of nouns in -ies from the fifth to the first declension began also in Classic Latin: effigies— ia.. beside dia. (2) The susianu 133. but there were a few shifts: — (i) For an inflection mama mamdne(^m). etc. etc. The transfer from the fourth to the second began in domus. jusso. 482. etc.. [§ 356 except in Dacia.

Beside ervum ervi. see § 362. the first: 367. fons. J where there was only one form. Audolfilia{m). where the kept instead. rugiada. there was an ervus ervoris: Lat. apparently became femus {Gl. Greek nouns 259. / 357. matres matres. G. fonz. : Bechtel 86. Reich. G. 258Dubois 258. Reich. so apparently ros'. cf. the nominative plural was' by Microsoft® . by Audollent 416. and of feminine nouns of the third declension. etc. Corpo for corpore occurs in the Per. siren '^ sirena. the accusative plural form came to be used as a nominative plural. R. 280. Fundus fundi perhaps became fundus *funddris: Old Fr. femps. etc. Puulva for pulvis is recorded adsis '> aisida. beside coclear fiitre: was codearium.). 280. This use was due in the main to the analogy of the singular. Beside terminus ~i. Spr. pyxis '^*buxida. It. which had only one form in the plural: flia So linguas.>*rdsum (cf. lent 546. there was a termen terminis.. vas>va- sum vasus (Waters Ch. of the third declension sometimes passed into lampas~^lampada. but the old forms were retained also. ds>dssum (R. Fr. arroser. 280. (3) On the other hand.) *femdris: cf. 259-260).In countries which did not lose final s {% 298). Libit. 483. likewise tempesta {Gl. Fr. FIRST DECLENSION. It probably was not common until late Vulgar Latin or early Romance times. effondrer. Pr. 57). Caput became capus (Pirson 238) and *capum -i: XXVII. Fimus ftmi. So a few Latin nouns: juventus or ~tas > Juventa. fiens. h&nc& filias filias. 149 (2) For an inflection Bellus Bellone^m). Digitized -s made the accusative plural identical with the singular.§ 357] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.) and probably *potesta. under the influence of stercus. Pr. G. fall of In Italy and Dacia. a. Old Fr.

had a similar plural. It. M. G. An ablative in -abus is occasionally found: Cassiabus. famulabus. Br^al. amita *amitdnis (so Juliana Julianenis in Pirson 143). c. etc. an inflection in —dnis. Africa. Spr. scrivano). 57 B. Bon. 198. This feminine inflection left some traces in Gaul. etc. 358. 331. Pirson 115-116. D'Arbois 21-24 assumes Celtic influence: hic sunt cartas. Spr. XXXI..: hence arose Anna Anndnis or -inis. Pupils were taught to inflect Glance Glaucenis. Raetia.. but they may have helped its the second century . § 153): barba barbani. sa* sacristanis (cf.. filiabus. Dante's Semele. cf. Philipon. fr. etc. 206. Herseus in Archiv XIII. c. Nice Nicenis.. diffusion. rather late. 136. Journal des savants igoo. nom. 359. villabus. Chronologie 205-209. deabus. 171. feminabus. Salvioni in Rom. MeyerLiibke in Ltblt. Meyer-Liibke expresses doubt whether the is connected with masculine tatani. —enis. scriba *scribanis (cf. cf. This form left no traces in the Romance languages. W. Her^us in Zs. the nominative plural in some parts of Italy SCALAS. sacristano). ii. Paris. (R. Les accusatifs en -on et en -ain. too. [§359 According to Mohl. Archiv N\\\. No foreign or dialect influences are needed to explain the practice. Feb. Celtic. affirms that there was a feminine in -a with a plural in -as in Oscan. 483. E. century: feminine -a -ants In Lat. W. Rom. It. pupillabus. Rom. XXV. XXV. Feminine proper names and words denoting persons etc. Dalmatia. etc. 321. 70. XXXV. liberti LIBERTASQVE. etc. and also in Latin down to -as was probably old in : B. and Digitized by Microsoft® . filiabus. Hic qvescvnt dvs mres dvas filias. etc.ISO (i) An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Some masculine person-names in —a had crisia the same declension {Einf. often developed. 264). ahimabus. See G. or probably under the influence of the consonantal declension of Greek names that was in vogue in schools. Both mamani and tatani are found in the third W.2 01. 150. XXIII. filiabus. Les accusatifs en -ain. mamma mammdnis. p. 152-153...

-i La declinazione imparisillaba in -a -dne. Salvioni. extent. at the beginning of the Romance period. etc. the starting-point of all this inflection was bdrba barbdnis. — perhaps under manic influence combined with the analogy of the Latin type Digitized by Microsoft® . Rom. Attane. XXXV. bdrba barbdnis influence of the itself he would ascribe to the synonymous *bdrbo *barb6nis. XXXV. digita. putain. the masculine where the masculine and neuter partly in Vulgar Latin but mostly in inflection in those countries differed: vinus. Dubois 250. The plural in -a. they assumed. -o -6ne. Cf. however. 218. Joanneni. by the analogy of bracchia. Andreani. rama. 214-215.) was kept also. In general. Eugeneti inflection in -dtis. from which it was extended to other nouns of relationship and to proper names. barbane still exist at both ends of Italy. especially in southern Some masculines took 362. also Joannentis.: § 362] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. the first declension was reduced to this pattern: 360. Rom. §§ 347-349. G. in ig8.. 219. from 750 on: amitane. Italy: Fr. and -Stis: Aureliati. SECOND DECLENSION. Zs. barbane. XXVIII. this -a. -His. etc. nonnain. b. was retained to a considerable and central Italy and Dacia.. Romance. Rom. 2l6. from Eugenes. Ger- From the seventh century on. etc. Agneti. 361. 250. domnani. *botula. me -ene. etc. shows that these forms of declenall sion were very common the mediasval Latin documents of parts of Italy. shows that there was also an Cf. XXXV. XXXV. Andreate. 216. R. 343. etc. 264. (2) A. -e ^ne -me. Cf. — luna facia *folia luna lune lunas luna{s) facia folia f^i^ facias f'^^i^ folias facia(s) folia{s) In Dacia the dative singular {lune.. fructa. 151 etc. As neuter nouns became masculine. 250. Rom. Zimmermann. *botella. According to Salvioni. etc. §§349. (i) 207. Lombard madrane. 351-352.

Vok. etc. etc. This was 364. Bellus Belloni. avus avi>avo avonis. — there developed in Gaul. etc. and possibly Spain. I. Paulus or Paulo Pauldne{ni). etc.f. -« crowded out the rarer which left no sure Digitized by Microsoft® . Cf. Firmus Firmonis. carried further in common speech: cf. §355. II. THIRD DECLENSION. 198. at the beginning of the Romance period. Giovannoni. The traces ablative in —e finally triumphed. In general. 247-249. 85. c. spelled In Gaul the accusative -«. Apparently traces. cf. In the accusative plural there was still greater confusion of -is and -es {nubes nubls. XXXV. XXXV. G. Salvioni in Rom. the second declension followed this pattern: annu(s) — annu ~o anni anno{s) fa^e(f) fabru —o vinu{s) bracciu *—us fructu(s) vinu -0 vini bracciu —o braccia fructu fructi fructo{s) —o fabri fabro(s) —i —o{s) vmo(s) braccia —a -a The letters enclosed in parentheses were silent in Italy and plural Dacia. hence Pitrus or Pitro Petrdne^m). So perhaps Italian Donaioni. proper names: 201. Pirson 133:. 363. Philipon in Rom. a declension -us (or —o) —dnis for masculine Hugo Hugon was Latinized into Hugo Hugdne{m) (cf. XXXV. See E. § 152). etc.- ending was often Bon. Traces of this inflection are to be seen especially in French and Provengal proper names: Foucon. (1). and possibly Corsican baboni.152 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. Rsetia. 365.. 204). etc. both in Classic and in Vulgar Latin: -Is. XXXI. Italy. turri turre. suceroni: Rom.). 87. [§ 365 gulo guldnis. 212-213.. some pari. 337-338. cf. Vok. In the ablative there was considerable confusion of -z and -e in Classic LatiiK OTan mare. attested in Lucca in 776 {Rom. but there are of -l: It. Huon.

etc. (^=z.. slirpis in Livy. etc.. calcis in Venantius Fortunatus. voluntate. lade in Ennius. Spr. 9. GL Reich. I. nubis. D'Ovidio in critici Raccolta di studii dedicata ad Alessandro JD'Ancona 627). Ci. pedis. cf. Nouns which added a syllable in the genitive.. lentis in Priscian. Audollent 545-547.. cardonis. "grus non gruis. 367. perhaps in late popular Latin. audace.• -« Vok. nom. stips^ stipes. 263. "nubes non nubis". without a change of accent." App. famis. 47). R. suis in Prudentius (F. heredes. are best explained.. R. etc. Prudentius.. or -e fashioned on the model of the oblique cases: so seeps "> sapes. -es. R. 263. 66. folli tor folks in GL Reich. Lat. divite. III. etc. through the analogy of the second declension: see §368. Audollent 545-547. 105. As ~es and ~is came to be pronounced alike before the end to of the Vulgar Latin period (cf. Waters a Ch. Petronius (Waters Ch. Rumanian pint. 62). Jovis. it is futile trace the Romance forms phonetically to one source rather than the other... etc. Petronius (Waters Ch. Petronius (Waters Ch. Ill. Pr. principens antestetis. 481. 38). §§ 174. 153 Italian pani. Plautus. These forms prevailed in Romance. superstitis. heredes. Apuleius. GL Reich. victore. Aulus Gellius. etc. urbis. Varro. aculionis for aculeus). App. D'Arbois 85-88. as by Tiktin 565-566.§ 367] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Haag 45. Sepulcri 220. 116.famis." Keil VII. In the nominative singular the common -^s largely placed the less f requent 244-247. Digitized by Microsoft® . Caper. 243). travis (three times). . Vok. castore. dis- 366.. tended in popular speech to use for the nominative a form in -is.principis). in Ennius. Pr. camis in Livy. In Vulgar Latin this formation was extended to words with shift of accent: excellente for excellens in Petronius. mdis. "fames non famis. 45.. bovis in Varro.. etc. Chronolo- gie 203.. papilionis (cf. latrone. 263.

they constructed. Cassel. were kept also {Lat. for *lumine{m). 367 parentorum is frequent in charters in the Gl. but infans (also 368. anni. elifanti is common. first in cf. made in Italy in the eighth or ninth century. For the nominative-accusative plural. [§ 369 These forms. carpi corpora. we find sapienti. etc. (also presentis. 482). lupi.. as nomeiji). to Bon. masculine nouns made over their nominative plural on the model of the second declension. *cdrpes *cdrpe{s). Spr. hence *patri.). see § 347. (also * damantis. Rumanian Tiktin 566. both the second and -r. cantdtor. according . being used mainly in the nominative vocative. The process may have begun in the Vulgar Latin period. which was regarded as the normal masculine type: fllii. *ndmine{ni). however. timpuri). retained names of and and generally preferred the old nominative But names of persons in -ans and -ens usually made over the nominative: parentis. etc. etc. no form: homo. *amantis. servitor. too.). however. and was extended to in Old Italian to the second. Neuters in —n and -s regularly kept their nominative- accusative singular. doubt. 369. etc. corpus cdrpu(^s). Rum. so. prevailed in Romance. new forms on the masculine pattern. prcBgnans). especially those in —ora. D'Arbois 85-88.. hence *me(n')si. declensions: Neuters in which apparently became by Microsoft® masculine or Digitized . beside the old forms. probably in late Vulgar Latin or early Romance. but in Italy and Rumania the old ones. soror. as *ndmes *ndme(s). timp. In most of the Romance languages (but not Spanish). which. corpo. In these countries —ora was used as a plural ending (It. but there is virtually no evidence that it started so early: in late Latin. hence *cani. except for persons. etc. etc. 154 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

the third declension must have gone about as follows {-is and -es having coincided in the pronunciation -w) : — (i) No Change of Accent. Lexique 21-38.§ 37i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 2. but the original forms were kept also: cinis ctnus. But marmor. NO CHANGE OF STEM. incudtnis : Lat. 370. polvo. (3). Spr. marmorem. Incus. Plautus. Zauner 2. at the beginning of the Romance period. cf. polve may come irorapulver). . sangutne(m) also sanguei^m). *pulvus. 293. the open o would possi- bly be explained as due to a cross between this *cor and the Caput became *capu{ni) or capus (Pirson 238). 348. except Spanish cuerdo. Old Yt. 113. 371. Sanguis. pulvis whence S-p. PERSONS. G. often developed an accusative singular in -e{m) as well as a nominative-accusative plural in -es: I. 483. etc. A few feminines in -is apparently became neuters in —us. and so probably goes back to an Old Latin *cdr Classic cor. §356. were kept also. and passed into the second declension: cf.0. pals {It. § 347. *piperem. iticudis > incudo. *cdris = Krjp lajpo's.. Cor apparently made its plural * cores instead of * cordes : according to Mohl. the word shows no trace of d in any of the Romance lan- guages. In general. Bon. 155 feminine earlier than the others. sulphurem. Fxn. papaverem.

.156 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. [§373 change of stem.

157 DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES.§375] An 3. 375" The principal types are: — So ager. the neuter adjective forms were less and less used. 350). and the neuter plural (as omnia) was doubtless emr ployed from time to time as an indefinite collective. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. . § was kept to represent a whole idea (cf. however. As neuter nouns assumed masculine endings (§ 347). the neuter singular. 374- Adjectives were declined after the same model as nouns.

R. and conversely benignis. magis magls f J Digitized by Microsoft® . Romance was: For the new method of comparison. [§377 (3) Originally *feUce(s) One Gender filis fills fellcla in the Nominative Singular. prcestus. 46).. imbecillis also assumed the -us -a —um inflection in the Latin period so trtstis^tristus. pauperorum. R. m. miser. l_ \ !-. etc. pauperorum. : to 4. Waters Ch. Macer. and f. prude(s) prude(s) *prudente(s) feUce fellce(s) prudente prudente{s) prudente{s) prudentia prudentia fellceis) fellcla (4) Comparatives apparently did not reconstruct the Nominative Singular: melloif) mellu{s) millu(s) mellore mellore(s) mellora mellSra melidre(s) There was a good deal of confusion of types in Latin times: beside alacer. effrenis. jac^r passed into the -us ~a —um class.. App. gracilus. etc. and there was probably also a feminine * alacra and * alecra. in376. 274. comuna. The type. Pr. Prcecox developed a feminine pracoca: Neue II.— 158 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. doussa. App. celerus. etc. 377. m. Densusianu 142. not completely evolved in Vulgar Latin. Pauper early developed a feminine paupera and later a neuter pauperum: paupera. so teeter'^ tetrus. COMPARISON. firmis. 162. sublimus. pauperum. Pr. . there was alacris. 275 (^ci. see § 56. (plus L 1 J ^plus llle-{'^"~. Cf. and f.. Decllvis. In the the —us —a Romance languages more adjectives went over -um type Pr.

i 378. grossior So the adverbs: longius. is regular. 107). 558 (cf. septe (and *sette). longior. minus. §254. 221). 285). Cf. sordidius. Scto ( and Cf. see § 225. It was used indefinite article (§S7) and an indefinite pronoun to be replaced §71). in the clerical language. the Classic Latin comparatives of many common adjectives remained in use: altior. *Stto). DHo came by dui. major. magis. melior. became cinque {Archiv VII. minor. pejus. Beside Undece there seems to have been * iindece. by dissimilation. pessimus. (Camoy . also as (cf. attested in the third cen- tury: Archiv IX. "i^. carissimus. Six. For dodece. of the Vulgar Latin period dui dot {duoT) duo(s) Its inflection at the was probably: doa{s) — end due doe duas doas d'ua{s) dua doa dua doa In early Romance there was doubtless much confusion of the forms. Vulgdrformen lateinischer Zahlworter auf Inschriften in Archiv VII. levior. etc. NUMERALS. The old superlatives remained to a considerable extent. Quattuor became quattor {Archiv VII. sanctissimus. 65. gravior grevior. pejor. lows : — The numbers between two and twenty were as fol- Tres probably developed a nominative *irei. II. Tredece * See M. melius. an Unus was probably declined like bonus. Ihm. 66) ginta (Archiv Nil. dice offer so cinqua- no peculiarities. Quinque. (G. on the model of dui. nSve. proximus. Digitized by Microsoft® . 68. vivacius. as intensives: altissimus. 379.§379] '^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 159 However. also ijuatro ^guaitro. 5. 65). Archiv VII.

trigtnta must assume for Spanish something like * viinti. regularly [§ 381 also Quattuordecim *quatti!rdece. 461. et (or ac) sex. *dece et (or ac) nHve. * cinqudinta. Beside sedece there was *dece SeftendScim. Ryd- berg in Milanges Wahlund 337. trinta {yinti. with an opening of the first i and an early shift of accent. 381. *nondinta *novdinta.i6o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Mille was regular. triginta is. trecenti. * octdinta * ottdinta. etc. ii.and the octo. are irregular: regularly § 142. etc. 69). 400. Centu was regular. trinta: Archiv VII. made to conform Outside of the Spanish peninsula is -dinta apparently became -dnta. 136.. II. * triinta. perhaps of the fifth century (Pirson 97. and French words. probably anterior to the fall of faulty pronunciation the g. * quadrdinta became rr: quarranta Furthermore the dr of found in an inscription. there were probably new formations. For its plural it had *dui mille or *dui mtl{l)ia. so ^dece et (or dcto. Zs. 69). *septdinta * settdinta. became * quattordece (cf. etc. f^ok. beginning with 20. § 225). Provengal. mentioned as a by Consentius. But beside these we Vigtntl. the septucu. etc. 380.. G. Beside this dice et septe ac") there was *dece ac septe . became viinti. cf. in fact. went out of use. 412) mentions decern et septem. The tens. etc. Spr. also unus de viginti. These forms easily contracted into vinti.: G. which account in general for the Italian. trienta. For ducenti. Archiv VII. Rumanian has new formations. but Qulndlce is regular. This change of accent apparently occurred everywhere for the subsequent tens: * guadrdinta. Digitized by Microsoft® . Cf. such as * dui centu. Keil V.of 70 and 80 were to the type of the others. triinta (§ 259): ISatvTi occurs in a sixth century document of Ravenna. Priscian (Keil III. * sexdinta. 392. XXV. Archiv VII.

demonstrative. N. I. 484. relative. quintus were generally bonus. until Ego lost its g in all the territory. eo occurs in manuscripts of the See §263. were probably not very commonly used: the Romance languages show many new formations. see § 60. The genitive was usually lost but ciijus was kept. kept. inflected like quartus. the distributive Septimus.). tile and also hic. definite genitive: Hoc served in- Inde assumed the function of an dubitat. ipse. ipse. and Catalan ending -enus was employed {septenus ion tertius. §§6o. Primus. Provengal. but the end of the Vulgar Latin period.^ ' Meyer-Liibke. The ordinal numerals. The ablative gave way . 242 is incorrect Digitized by Microsoft® . and iste. B. etc. ? II. probably not 385. According to sixth century. and the dative was preserved in personal. B. but some languages have new formations even for these. 67. as an indefinite neuter. 161 382. accusative SSs. Spr. PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. Lat. and so was the genitive singular and plural of ille. I. — For the use of personal pronouns. Examples occur as early as the second century: Franz. and is were used to supply the lacking pronoun of the third person: cf. nemo inde Regnier no.§ 385] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. As the pronouns came to be expressed more and more. remained. But his reference to Vok. in northern Italian. after 5th. and interrogative pronouns. secundus. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. to the dative and accusative. 384. The nominative and. 262. The ordinals were best preserved in Italy.

II. acof. ^ )86. si beside to Lat.1 62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. vobis. the pattern of stbt. [§ 388 In the last syllable of ttbt. there were formed •. •was carried into nobis. 484. Spr. i" 243-244.ording ti. from the sixth century on. On tibi. found. inflection The was probably reduced to: — . stbi the short i prevailed. Franz. these are and mt<mihi.

Ille. 276. 273. we find. Through the analogy of cu^us. see §§ 61-68. the m. and ipsud for ipsum. but it disappeared from late Latin. illi^ille. 389. 3. cut. illo. 9 II. B. tilt was replaced in part by illHi. definite N. 9 beside II. fratelmo. in II. isti). Franz. 283-304. articles For their function as and personal pronouns. others (Neue Digitized by Microsoft® . and the Spanish Illius {ipsins. These forms survived ma. There was another dative form. 3 II. illms gave way to iliajus. 275. ipsi=^ ipse. by illi. see §§ 60. and the dat. also §392. Sardinia. Romance: Old \X. probably in the sec- ond half of the sixth century. The former. Franz.§ 390] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Franz. When Ule and ute had a really demonstrative force. 114. 67-68. 274. sg. 275. sometimes occurred as a dative: Franz. nom. cf.. sg. sg. 427. and Cato and on the model of illui (and perhaps of quei). The Old Latin genitive illi {ipsi. — For the use of demonstratives. 246-260. was partially replaced. m. they came to be compounded usually with the prefix ecc' or Cf. 277-279. there was tllce (or ille). is 163 g The full inflection found in the sixth century: Franz. m. II. tilt. R. however. Ipse and isfe followed a similar course ipse however. 275. was from that. eccu': see § 65. 244. the special forms ipsus for R. and the latter is not found in Calabria. used by Apu- and others (Neue II. istius). The inflection of tile developed considerably in popu- lar speech. etc. g II.. Audollent 302). Quillacq 83). R. framed on the model of cf. madre- DEMONSTRATIVES. having become archaic in peninsula. . Sicily. qui: Bon. popular speech. f. 9 II. subsequently went out of use. being confused with the ablative and the accusative. Franz. 390. leius was abandoned: In the dat. used by 427.

and some dialects on the south shore of France. which. Lat. Franz. neuter Uludvia. on: Zs. did not entirely disappear. Cf. Ille prevailed. which crowded out illtus. 'la' vede(s). illui. When unaccented. XXVI. vides lei ta ipsam clavem'>-*vede(^s) iu 'sa' clave'] Lui and 281-283. It came. however. illdrum. illejus. 426. In parts of northern Spain and southwestern France illorum seems to have become *illurum. Digitized by Microsoft® . 619.164 An Introduction illcei (illei). Spr. ipseus. these words tended to lose their first syllable (see § 157): tu illam vzdes>*tu 9 II. [§ 392 which was used beside ilU and Ulm. illui. Cf. Majorca. furthermore. The popular : inflection.s replaced by tllum: Neue II. ille. illejus. except 177. ipsujus. be used. at the end of the Vulgar Latin forms not was something like kept in Romance) elle elli — this (brackets indicating Ma ellejus elli elle ellei ellu [ellujus] elli \ello\ ellui elli ellu ello elli ella elle ? ellu ello ella ? ellqru elluru elli(s) \ellaru\ ellqru elluru ellqru ^im/) ellais) ello(s) ella 392. in Romance. illui. nice. Illorum displaced the f. illei are found from the sixth century made genitive. 276. 271-272. m. was constructed illcejus (illejus). for the dat. 484: illujus. 600. to Vulgar Latin. to f. through the analogy of illUjus. and illis. Illujus. R. Ille and ipse were used freely as definite articles from the fourth century on: Densusianu in Sardinia. period. 9 II. are found after the seventh century: Franz. The 391. a part of Catalonia and Gascony. In the on the same pattern (influenced perhaps by guejus).

see cm is found a corresponding feminine quejus. by the end of the : Vulgar Latin period. B. quis. to something like this qui — . The combined inflection of qui and quis. was probably reduced. 165 4. 619. N. INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS. and also of the feminine qum. in common speech. 393. — For the use of these pronouns. Beside ctijus. quel: Mohl in Zs. qui takes the place of quts. XXVI.§ 395] -^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. In Christian inscriptions from the fifth century on. and the substitution of qui for feminine see §§69-70.

(see §405): cf. the third. however. dou. follicare. In the Peregrinatio the second decidedly preponderates over the third (Bechtel 87). Mohl. 30. Sicilian in Spain. the third in Italy. THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. state. Italian development due to the analogy of sia: see §419. *daunta. Pg. estou. a. " The first conjugation generally held partial. For new formations. Pr..nd *stao. [§ 398 VERBS. etc." Lexique 47. its 397. to Vulgar Latin. the first and fourth were least affected. It is entirely possible. In northern Gaul there may have developed with * stao a * stats and a * stait. but it seems more likely that they were late Latin formations due to an effort to keep the root vowel distinct from the ending. with Umbrian dia. dao. There was some confusion of conjugations. on the analogy of {*vao). *vait date. Probus. PI. *staunt: Rum. I. own. sto. Lexique 47 and Pr. estaun. Digitized — such as abbreviare. dant and stant there came Old It. in other texts the third gains at the expense of the second. werrizare. The Italian present subjunctive dia from dare is associated by Mohl. dau. defections into use * dao. — see §§33-35. that the form is a later. 398. estau. "adno non adnao. daun. Lexique 47. Lexique 47-54. Pers. being few and Beside do. FIRST CONJUGATION. The second gained most fourth in Gaul. *vais.1 66 An Introduction C. 396. would connect these forms with Umbrian stahu. (2). first and fourth. the Eventually Spanish and Portuguese discarded New formations went into the and Sardinian the second. in Germanic verbs -on and in by Microsoft® . Cf.

*torcere (for torquere). p. 266 ff. guidare. lugire (R. the verb habere. *putrisco. 1636. became —iscere: *florisco. Bechtel 88. under the influence of dare and stare. b. Other verbs passed over locally or occasionally: sediiur. 283). habent. 400. tive —escere \.§402] An Introduction regularly to Vulgar Latin. Luke VI. I. especially in Italy. *hant or * haunt. etc). capere may easily have imitated sapere. many become i. beginning with those that had a perfect in -ui. t.\i^x\. Habere. *ridere. and cadere may have followed capere. §36. habes. * has. *putrtre. rubare. wttan'^lt. third conjugation gave a few verbs to the second. lugere (R. * luctre. such perhaps 402. The as cadere *cadui. 284). habet. sometimes became habtre: Vok. THIRD CONJUGATION. ^^^^ i^ a peculiarity of ancient Umbrian. Digitized by Microsoft® . by habere. habibai. 401. Itala. V. In Vulgar Latin the second lost some verbs to the third in most of the territory: * ardere. While retaining habeo. The inchoa284). luctsco. SECOND CONJUGATION. Italian dialects in which e does not phonetically and even in early Tuscan (cf. Crestomazia italiana dei primi secoli I. Latin there was some confusion between the second conjugation and the third fervere. * hat. sapere sapui: sapere was influ- enced. L. Monaci. adopted the forms *ho or *hao. fiorlre (R. capere * caput. * lucere. According to Mohl. 284). at least in Italy. *nocere. 8. I. 20. roubo?i'>lt. respondere (Bechtel 88: responduntur). tergere. avire in havite. *mordere. probably through the pronunciation of —eo as —io (see §224): * complire. E. C. 1. *impllre. Lexique 108-109. 167 —an (but not -jan) went in the first conjugation: Cf. tondere. 10. in Classic : Even miscere (R. Some verbs went into the fourth. 399..

velle volui naturally went over to the second conjugation. potebo is found in the Gl. potebas Posso for possum is used by in Fredegarius (Haag 60). and conformed Velte. The present indicative forms must have been something like this: ^vojeo voje^s) — volimu{s) volemu(s) voleste(s) *volete(s) *vole(i) *vqlen(t) The present subjunctive must have been similarly inflected.poteo is attested ( 1) Potere.. PL 21). {Pr. PL 2^). Sardinia. Pers. Dare Z.1 68 An Introduction all to Vulgar Latin. however. Pers. their inflection more or less to the regular type. strongly influenced by dare and stare. framed on the pattern of potestis. 'Bt&ide. [§ 404 In Spain the third conjugation verbs eventually passed into the second. Reich. is volemus in the seventh {Pr. Pers.A facere were associated in old formulas: Lexique 53. 478). The anomalous posse potui. a sug- gestion of shortening existed in the monosyllabic imperative Digitized by Microsoft® . *volere. 403. is twice used by Fredegarius {Pr. was discarded in Spain and potebam occur repeatedly in the sixth century 24). Furthermore. This transition was probably helped by a partial fusion of esse and sedere. Pers.-R. (2) the Volimus Reich. voles is found in Volestis. GL found in the sixth century (^Lat Spr. Pers. PL 21). The present like this: have been inflected something passu posso foteo *posseo poieis) *pote(i) — indicative must ^poiemu{s) poteste(s) *potete(s) pqssunif) *poten(t) The present subjunctive must have had corresponding forms. facere 404. PL in 745 A. Gregory and Fredegarius {Pr. PL 25). {Pr. D. assumed the infinitive forms potere. there doubtless existed *fare {Facere 48).

facio XVIII. 121. XXV. series The one 735).§405] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. sets of forms. which must have led to *fate present indicative certainly had several being on the pattern of the first con- jugation. Zs. beside factte. 434): — its old inflection *fao . 169 fac (also /a. but the present subjunctive retained (see Facere 72. Zs.

see § 415. deferet. . the entire passive inflection having been discarded: the by Microsoft® . * offertre. beside * sequere. Augustine {Lat. §416): *caplre. Bon. The fourth conjugation usually held — — marrir. Germanic verbs in -Jan regularly went into the fourth conjugation in Latin (Kluge 500): furbjan~>\X. ignire. Haag 60. Dicere. tarir. and gained some verbs from the others. doubtless suggested by die ( cf fac and *fare. 477). Reich. . Plautus.. Verbs in -to tended to pass into the fourth conjugation (see. Pirson 148. warnjan'> tion.into this conjuga- FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES Romance only Digitized IN INFLECTION. Lexique 62 ). [§408 facere fare : — present indicative. 427. Bechtel 90. Bon. hesiAe. 477). Sepulcri 229. mortri. forbire . * sequlre. marrJan>'Fr. cf. parrjan^Yv. such as * abbellire. occurire. Carnoy 112). at least locally: *falllre. 285). moreover. probably in the Vulgar Latin period (cf. For the intrusion of the inchoative -sc. Spr. (j^^r^i". however. C2X0 fugtre. its own. §404) and helped by the analogy of audire. Lucretius {Lat. Of the personal forms of the verb there remained general use in the following tenses of the active voice. in 408. R. developed a form * dire. fodiri. offeret. St. * capere . Vulgar Latin. d. Some others went over. guarnire. by the analogy of aperire {sufferit. *soffertre. ite(s) etc. ^26. common in the Vulgate (R. For new formations. FOURTH CONJUGATION. Spr. was influenced by *vao viidimu(s) vddite(s) *vo *vas vadeif) *vait *vat vadeis) *vais imu(s) etc. §36. ^.lyo present. An The vado Introduction. vadunif) *vaunt *vant 406. 286. Densusianu 148. 407. first half of the 7th century. Gl. Pirson 148. see § 34. Cf. gemire. and *monre. cuptre.

388-389. and in instance: some regions the perfect the imperative present. in various regions: see §124. towards the end the Vulgar Latin period. {amarini)\ ama. cf.. For instance: amare. The Latin it its perfect sense — §§121-124. and probably in some standing phrases the gerundive. and in 171 indicative present. R. amem. R. amando. operare. See Syntax. the deponent for the active inflection of a few verbs: Petronius. In the subjunctive the pluperfect was used instead of the Digitized by Microsoft® . amans. amatus.. mentire. fell into disuse from the first century on. the present participle. Similar compounds replaced the pluperfect and the future perfect. perfect.. Of the impersonal forms of the verb there remained: the present active infinitive. reverti"^ reversus sum. § 4io] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the gerund (especially the ablative case). pluperfect. etc. The entire passive inflection -of came to be replaced. imperfect. rideri. {amandusi). 304. In was replaced. as a preterit or a conditional. See 410. 298 Conversely. For amo. (amaro). §§ 112-114. partly by active and reflexive constructions but perfect participle with esse' mainly by a compound of the (m northern Italy fieri): littera ' scriMtur -flittera scripta est (or fit). : Deponent verbs became active cf. 289. in the Vulgar Latin period. amaram. some regions the future perfect . 302-304. amabam. Cf. etc. the subjunctive present. R. audiram) was kept. the perfect participle. The supine 409. in the by a compound of habere and the "perfect participle case of neuter verbs. some writers substituted R. . 297-302. amassem. amavi. R. . See Syntax. pluperfect. perfect was kept in its preterit sense. esse and the perfect participle: feci"^ habeo factum. The old pluperfect indicative (^amaram.

. [§411 imperfect.): amdrem'^amdssem. On the model of this new future. -dbe(s). &tc. -ete(s). Crescini in Zs. but * amar' abut. In this compound all the various forms of the present indicative of habere were used (see §§273. which has prevailed in the find. * amar" -dbe(s'). C. sometimes confused with the pluperfect indicative and later sometimes with the infinitive {dpriro. In the first and second persons plural. It is best preserved in is found also in Old Rumanian There are traces of it in Old Italian. 619. audtrem'^audissem. an imperfect of the late future. -dnt.(ye')rim and apparently remained subjunctive fect — — — — more or all less in use. The ings. Lollis in Bausteine i . infinitive the perfect of habere (see §130): combined with the imperfect or *amar' ~dbe{b')a{ni) or disappeared. cridere. was crowded out by the present and by new formations. which disappeared everywhere but in Sardinia {facheret. habemus and habetis eventually. —dbe{t). in Vulgar Latin and Romance. -dyo. V. XXIX. a form in -ii {amerii). etc. pdteri. etc. -ds. came to be made. —at. Digitized In Italian we by Microsoft® . 401): *amar' —dbeo. *amar' -isti.-dben(t) and -d. in regions except Gaul and Raetia. *amar' —e'te(s). to correspond to the dissyllabic or monosyllabic -dyo. but and Macedonian. —d. cf. -ds. beside -ia from habebam and -dbbi —ibbi from habui. -dt. §118. as in the In these formations the unaccented {Ji)ab— first and second persons plural of the future: * amar' -^{b)a. -dnt: *amar' —dmu(s).172 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. as they came to be regarded as mere endold future. —aunt. with the exception of ero. —do. *amar' -dbe(t). especially by the infinitive combined with the present indicative of habere {amdbo > amar' habeo): see §§125-129.): see Spanish and Portuguese. as a future indicative or subjunctive. from the *amar' -abut. amd{ve)ro fused with the perThe old future perfect ama. or conditional. were reduced to -emu{s). De 411. *amar' dben(t). etc.

413. 3. Virgilius Grammaticus (Sepulcri 194) mentions double forms of inchoative verbs. irdisser <irdseere. paresco. etc. tenete. fae. The imperative disappeared. the Abruzzi. Instead of the plural form. French Switzerland. while in Old Italian the ei was sometimes detached and used as a preterit. For the monosyllabic die. INCHOATIVE VERBS. such as caleseo ealisco. Beam.. etc. are common in Gregory the Great: Sepulcri 193. types —dsco and —osco were sparingly repre- sented and were not extended in late and popular Latin have bequeathed but few verbs con<Sisser<ico(g)ndseere types —esco and —tseo in the third century — — as — such as and .face: R. audi. 294. the Grisons. Clarisco. or o—. criseere. e—.. the Landes. 173 modern language. 414. pareeer. second dmd. and Spain Digitized — Sp. vived in the Tyrol. audite. amdte. There is some evidence of a confusion of -esco and —uco in Latin. duce. erubisco. in Vok. lost their inchoative sense. In some verbs the present subjunctive was used instead of all imperative forms.of avere : it is probably due to the analogy of the first person singular of the weak preterit (credit. See § 115. Lyons. tene. writers sometimes emploved diee. The first and third persons were supplied from the present subjunctive. to the Romance languages. 3596. 294. Sardinia. the second person plural of the present indicative came to be used: adferte> adferitis. due. dormisco — were extended The and later. by Microsoft® . I. Cf. The Latin The inchoative ending -sco was preceded by a-. etc.§414] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cf. hence crederdt). Savoy. and a part of Lorraine Only -eseo surneither of these two endings left any trace. they Pr. R. 412. person singular and plural: credite. except the present. §426. t—. crede. In Veglia. Dauphin^.

PRESENT STEMS.. although fleurit. facientem *facente. 81. — Fr. some regions. by the by Microsoft® . or southern Italian. \\. Rastia. 291-294. Zs. finis sant. there are traces of -esco. / 416. despereissir. and Rumania we find a type *finisco *finisce(s) ^Jinisce{i) *Jiniscun{t) The ~sc. the e was occasionally lost in the second conjugation: v^deo *vtdo. but in the earliest texts of France. tricts also pene- eventually the present participle ( and in some disand the imperfect indicative Fr. etc. In the present participle this was a regular phonetic development (see §225): audientem^* audente. see E. Rom. There is no direct evidence of this in Latin. XXIV.then generally disappeared from the infinitive Later. By the analogy of these. Hence forms without the or > > *partente. finis sais ) I. XXX. The ending -tsco of the present in Spanish. [§416 florecer. Herzog Bausteine 481. Elsewhere. Spr. etc. 4. the -sc- was carried throughit out the present indicative (Yx. finissons. -esco also in Rumanian. sentiam * sentam. -tsco prevailed fiorisce. nor are there any traces of it 415. * dormo.. eventually entered into the formation stem of fourth conjugation verbs. Digitized On the other hand. Many verbs in -io dropped the whenever it was fol- lowed by another vowel. 465. 478.. fiorire. / sentieniem > were introduced more less into the indicative and subjunctive: audio * audo. Sardinian. partientem * sentente.Jinisse). Portuguese. in — It. 174 An Introduction was preferred For to Vulgar Latin. il in Pr. northern and central _fimmii(s) finite{s) Italy. trated the present subjunctive {Yr. finissez). See Archiv Lat. partiunt *partunt.

. faciunt. j'ungo Cf. 397. cingo cinxi cinctus. duco duxi ductus. rego rexi rectus. and Raetian ses point to a * ses beside es. The guttural Fredegarius. present indicative shows some signs of a tendency its to normalize erratic inflection by making all the forms be- gin with The use. actus. * vtdeunt. ungo unxi unctus. Jigo fixi. The verbs struere. trdgere. and the perfect partivexi vectus on the — analogy of ago tectus. also Jingo finxi fictus. Prpvengal ses for Digitized by Microsoft® . see § 409. Pers.. etc. The Spanish use of probably later than our period. vegere {tragere and used by 34) and a whole present and imperfect inflection with —g—. Italian sei siete is PL 128) went out of for estis. structus. Substrate VI. tego and probably junxi junctus. pango panxi panctus. habere. The verbs vadere. facere. debere. etc. old esum cited by Varro {Fr. beside the regular habent. 416. 418. lego lectus. indicate a * setts some evidence of an alternative * siitis sicmus. *tragebam. velle dare. 417.§419] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Old Italian se for e. Italian while there of on the model and Raetian siede. Esse was made into *essere. stare. based on the analogy of dico dixi dictus. esse. as *trago. 412. posse. 175 analogy of capiunt. 403-406. 419. trahere. *trdcere. the second conjugation admitted such f oriris as * habeunt. plango planxi planctus. to bring it into conformity with the usual third conjugation type.. underwent considerable changes in the present: see §§273. There may have been also *striicere. For the sedere for The s. dtcere. 131. 401. tango tactus. Considerable alterations use of fieri for esse is (I ) were made in the present indicative and subjunctive. Haag was derived from the ciple — struxi and perfect indicative traxi iractus. *fragam. *vkere. etc. etc. etc. vehere developed infinitive vegere are forms *striigere. vtdent.

Provengal esmes<. B. and Dacia (Pr. by Augustus. northern Gaul. see sead in Vok. It is likely. fiam reand Dacia. The present indicative inflection was doubtless something like this sqm fs est : — sqmu(s) *ses *set} *sest? i^ie(s) semu{s) *esmu{s) *sete(s) *sciie(s)! sqnt (2) In the present subjunctive the analogy of other third conjugation verbs tended to introduce the characteristic vowel a. see 420. Siamus. sem. that cal influence oifiam. sumus. 42. II.): cf. Old It. iox fit. Old Fr. 135. etc. somas.. -icbam. from early times there was a reciproand the Old Latin optative siem. too. In the third conjugatiqjyg^-jyj^^ Ajgaj^g^ developed into -ebam. etc. 347. Hence comes an etc. Mohl. was preferred in Spain. which existed with esum. and by various purists of the Augustan age (Stolz 58). 5. which -was used. 479. Pers. — For the loss of the imperfect subjunctive. 478. N. XXI. Lat. Pirson Yt^o. prevailed in southern Gaul. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. — sem *sea sis simu{s) sidmu(s) site{s) *jfa(j) sea(t) *sidie[s) set sent *sean{i) For Stat. etc. (cf. PL 130.176 es. § iiS.). sons. Portugal. the usual Classic form. semo. Pr. IMPERFECT. *esmus seems to be a new formation on the analogy of esHs. The endings were -dbam. —ibam. Dalmatia. Pers. simus. PI. —ebam. [§420 usually understood as reflexive forms. Spr. Spr. would derive it from old esimus. according to Suetonius. Pr. . according to Lat. occurs in Italian documents of the eighth century. Italy. may go back to *sei and *sesf for est In the first person plural sumus became sumus and simus (see §220).. which ultimately prevailed: Lexique ^x): fiet is common places sim in northern Italy alternative inflection * siam. and the Tyrol (Sp. etc. Rom.

led early. —Ibam as in munibam — in early Latin and recurring at later periods (Lindsay 491). Dubois 277-278. pronounced a^e^a (cf. Hence came an alternative ending —ea for -e/ia. -evi. 2?>q. 421. silevit for siluit occurs also. —Ibam. which stressed the characteristic vowel of the fourth conjugation..perfects in which the v is added to a verb-stem (-dvi. sentia. which in Romance was widely extended. those of the second and third had mostly all of the second conjugation and Only six verbs strong. and also a general inclination to omit v between two i's (see § 324). vieo. Habebam. 177 22t„ /^i6): faciebam'>-*facebam. —oleo. developed another form. WEAK PERFECTS. 6. first: It. the weak and the strong: the weak comprises the v. had weak perfects. A vowel. see §426. prevailed in popular speech. 479. 445). -tvi). must distinguish two types. 287. affecting all the conjugations but the It is ved^a. a. etc. most of them rare 422.'Bi. regularly had a perfect in -evi: deleo. • salui>salivi.§423] just as An Introduction -ientem> -entem (see §§ to Vulgar Latin. PERFECT. §318). Spr. probably through dissimilation. the strong includes all Verbs of the first and fourth conjugations generally others. -pleo. and fourth conjugation verbs with strong perfects developed a weak one in Vulgar Latin: pr(sstiti> probably All first j>rcBstavi. For further encroachment of the weak type on thb strong. 423. — being common In the fourth conjugation -iebam and -ibam existed side byside from early times (Neue II. We — — neo. *afiea. and —iebam disappeared: vestibat. in the fourth conjugation. R.fleo. to a reduction tendency to keep the stress on the characteristic Digitized by Microsoft® . territory except common to nearly all the Romance Rumania: Lat. credia.

dedicait. -dvistis. perit. denumerat. The A contraction without the .. contraction without the gave rise.). Neue III. 434 (cf. (Haag 55). in the third person singan alternative form. perhaps. see Neue III.m»'W^ol%tm^ and amdo. servio. ccelebrasperamus. Spr. F^/J. later. to a desire to distinguish the perfect from the present).. memoramus. etc. 587). Densusianu I. mus. and. 446-448.'X. Then a contraction of the two vowels gave. —tt.— 178 An Introduction and to Vulgar Latin. edificai. Bayard 60. the further reduction of —ivt to which brought about. The third person singular found in Old Sardinian: Lat.. vocitamus. etc. -/. The loss of V. rise early to a reduction of —avisti. Vok. Bon. 476. to fall of v. 587). C. in the first and third persons singular *—lrunt: audi. 479. *-iut: It. probably to *-aumus: triumphaut in Pompeii.judicat. see Neue III. Neue III. 424. laborait. 451. — probai {'Prdhns). 452-454. [§424 of —tvtsit to -tstt still early." Priscian XII. S. —iverunt to —ierunt. 449. This -aut prevailed '^'^'^. Fredegarius (Haag 55). Gregory of Tours (Bon. see Servius ad Aen. -ivistis to —istis. as in repetimus. the reduction of —ivimus to —Imus and probably *—immus (the lengthening of the m being due to compensation and also. etc. I. 440.I. gave —dsti. -dvtmus>-dmus and probably *-dmmus: calcai (Probus).L. 216.d. in the third person singular. —drunt. -u and *-u. perit. Fredegarius in -ait is 152. —dstis. 17 (Keil II. for —imus. redit.. etc. fall of v gave rise. 440). 241: 65-121 a. II." Priscian XII. Densusianu I. "fumdt -pro fumavit.Lexique 46. o-cyvoi. speclarait. A ular. petit. and the third person plural. for —ierunt. For -nt. —dverunt to Much later -dvt>-di. II. 152. etc. in the first person plural. carried into the first conjugation. as in lenUt. to -aut. "cupit pro cupivit. —ivit to —iit and *-itt. locally. 476. petit. 17 (Keil II. and. —dvif^dit and -at.

*-desti. -derun(f). R. ~ivi —isti there- -dvi —dsii -dve{t) —df *~ti —ii -i -dut -dit -dt -weif) *-jut *-{it -lit -it -dvimu(s) -dmu{s) *-dmmu(s) *~dumus -dste(s) -immu{s) -4mu(s) *-jmmu(s) -iste(s) -drunit) *-irun{t) With the exception of -ivi in Old Italian.§426] An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. helped by dissimilabecame *-deJ. Audollent 544. etc. respondidi. Pr. which in Vulgar Latin became —dedi This -dedi ^a. in the first XXX. R. 184. were : 425. descendidi. Spr. tended to many other verbs in -d-: prandidi. Compounds of dare had a perfect in -dtdi {credidt. 480. Reich. 179 *~aumus Jiom. cor-ii. videderunt (cf. *-det. of the Romance languages cazif). fore. odedere.. on the other hand. Verbs in —evl doubtless had a similar inflection: *delei. -isti. in Provengal they invaded the also In Dacia. ascendiderat. incendederit. etc. The forms — and fourth conjugations.. pandiderunt. (am'ei). tion. etc. In some (It. descendidit. vendidl. *-dem(^m)u{s). *-ejti. prendiderunt. from which there came a responding to the —ai first endings *-«'. 288. Some other second conjugation verbs apparentlyadopted this perfect: 426. Lat. perdidt. etc. : and the of the and fourth conjugations so caderunt. edediderit with an extra -de-).). —asfi. silevit.s ex(see §139): perdedit. this -dedi Through the analogy of -di. Hence arose eventually an inflecset of tion *-^«.. 287. 479. etc. Keil IV. they apparently did Digitized by Microsoft® . the forms with v were not preserved in Romance. *-n. *—desie(s).. *-ei. these endings were carried into other verbs of the third and even the second conjugation first baMi. etc. delesti. Gl. preserved in some Old French dialects near Douai: 607.

. b. according to Meyer-Liibke. In Italy all strong verbs except esse introduced weak endings in the second person singular and the first and second persons plural: It.. or fiwi in Vulgar Latin: cf. this ending being pronounced wui. bib-i. — — it was sounded wui. etc. plaudisti for plausisti. under the influence of dejti. salui^ salivi salii *salsi. (cf. included from the start not only perfects of the placui but also all perfects in -vi not made from the verb-stem such as cognovi. by Microsoft® . all. crebbi. Reich. II. etc. [§ 428 not develop at In Italy. * stetui.. sapivi~^ sapui. §326): placwi. dlc-s-i = dixi. . Through these endings the weak type encroached somewhat on the strong. crevi. 427. movi. There are three types those that add s. etc it In the second and crevi. §422). R. etc. In the first class the u lost its syllabic value and became w • — : (cf. necui> necavi. wwi. also vincisti. tions: This perfect disappeared from the first and fourth conjugacrepui>*crepavi. At any rate. Pr.i8o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. presi. Gram. the development of the vi indicates that sort.. etc. pdvi. STRONG PERFECTS. In -ui and —si types were qucesivi'^^ A few weak verbs adopted strong inflections: * quasi. etc. but written vi to avoid the doubling of the V. etc. dare had (beside diedi^dedi) a perfect arose an inflection side -dei -detti. aperui y^ * aperii *apersi. and those that have nothing between the root and the personal endings plac-u-i. etc. 286. and -ei. 357. conqbbi. third conjugations maintained Digitized itself very well: cognovi. -dei. whence and a set of endings -etti.. moc. those that add u to the root. Gl. prendesti. where there was no extended. stetti<. cf. 428. It. The -ui type. the Rumania.

479. *attinxi. legi'>-* legui *lexi. Some of these — * *responsi. expavi'> expabui. *pre{n)si. *franxi. torsi. § perhaps on the model of mtssus. Among the -i perfects. whose reduplicative character was no longer Digitized by Microsoft® . pinxi. became * sentii. *sdlsi. XXVIII. cf. *punxi. which comprised perfects in -si. *prensi. vixi. Sensi. Lat. planxi. molui. *vinsi. 480. duxi. *tdlsi. *rosi. 479. sparsi. texui. junxi. —ssi. *qucBsi. sustuli>*tolui * tolsi. 94. 288. * occisi. tinxi. tenui. *acce{n)si. rexi. scripsi 163). *pensi. * tensi *te{n)si. tersi. z/J« also *vtncui *vinsi. some thirty-five were preserved arsi.§ 43o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. *fusi. *fusi. divisi. *siirsi. finxi. peperci^-parcui. pavi. natus sum'^*nacui. cinxi. * morsi. *imptnxi. R. mulsi. unxi. cMdi 479 > (so *rectpui). coxi. * defe(ji)si. 288. abscd{n)si. silui {^silevi). luxi. traxi. Lat. *copersi. *tanxi. persi. Zs. fixi. Lat. § 165. *ersi from *lexi. *mdrsi. pressi. posi. dixi. Spr. *redempsi. frixi. Lat. with the exception of dedi and steti (also *j/i?/«2). sapivi'^ sapui. A. —stinxi. — — : clausi. texui. Einf.perfect through having an Cf. movi'. posui {>posi). messui(J). *rdsi. In Vulgar Latin there were perhaps some thirty or more new formations: *apersi. and possibly a few others. *taxi. struxi. Of the -si class. Spr. *offersi. strinxi. the reduplicative formations were discarded in Vulgar Latin. steti>^\so* stetui. cepi^ caput. — assumed the s. *salsi. 97. text sedi>* sedui . Spr. defensi. *respd{ti)si. Zimmermann in Archiv XIII. Spr. rosi. Keil VII. mlsi (also *mzssi. Haag 56. R. * volsi. *pe{n)si. 130.> slso *vtscui.'). * cadui *cadedi. veni '^aXso *venui. ertgo. rasi. *cursi. vldi'^zlso *vtdui *vtdui. > > Cf. *occlsi. s in the perfect participle. risi. i8i It lost gemui{^. however. 430. 429. excussi. etc. vixi ". On the other hand it received many additions: Mbi>*Mbui. and —xi. mansi.

was probably foi *fom{m)u(s) *foste(s) foe(t) fue(t) *fgt *fut *forun{t) */urun(t) *f^un{t)} foerun{t)> Digitized by Microsoft® . apparent compounds (cf. 289). 431. fudi > ) si. pupHgi "> *punxi. effort it was shortened Vulgar Latin seems to show both H and H. -i perfects were greatly reduced in to the -a/ or the -si type: number in Some simply disappeared. generally became *fum(m)us. The other Vulgar Latin. legi > * Kxi. while compounds of stare tended to follow the regular first Cecidi beconjugation model (Jtrcestili > pnestavi. solvi'^* solsi. inflection. the simple verb came * cadui R. In an ( cf . some became weak. momordi'> tetendi'>- *mdrsi. defendi >• * defe{ n ) si. to Vulgar Latin. then futm us was often shortened to also. fui. to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout §§423-424). The other reduplicative perfects either disappeared the or passed into si class: cucurri "> * cHrsi . [§ 431 of dare usually formed their perfect like §426. tetegi'^* taxi * tanxi. vtci > no additions. prendi > *pre{ n * vinsi. fuerunt became *furunt. sedi"^* sedui. R. bibi'^*bibui. but circumdavit in Gl. and two more were kept beside new formations feci. some went over fUgi^ > > *fusi. *te{n)si. volvi > * volsi. legi'^* legui.*pe{^n)si. > *fusti. In fui the u was originally long. veni * venui. Reich. * acce(^ n ) si. There were : *fugii. vidi * vtdui. but in Classic Latin.i82 An Introduction . fuisti zxi-di. a form *fdrunt. The prevailing something fui *fosti like this — with some variations. peperci"^ parcui. fuistis > *fustis.). fuit *fut. pependiy. 288. : There may have been through dissimilation. egi. verti. fregi accendi *franxi. fefelli'>*falii. cepi'^capui. or *cadedi. Two of the old perfects maintained themselves intact.

*-dssitis. — before Cyprien employed only the shortened forms ss. 8. sublatus (from tollo')'>-tdllttus (^Gl. amessim amessitz. dixero . prdvttus. Reich. cf. Reich. In some regions a tendency to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout the pluperfect subjunctive led to a change of —assemus. fkero. cf. 434. to *—dssimus. 432. sublatus>* suffertus. alarei. necius "> necatus . amaro. > Digitized by Microsoft® . dixhsem. Gl. deleram. petisset. copertus. amdssimo amdste. Sp. 295. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. notes that St. by the analogy of apertus. When these tenses followed the old types: pldcueram (cf. Lat.). in the first conjugation. Fr. ortaret in Gl. so the new alatus. R. *feritus. 480. placutssem. 1S3 PLUPERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT. audi{e)ram. PERFECT PARTICIPLE. rogitus. > vocUus. In formations from weak perfects only the contracted forms were used: amdram. dixeram. delero. audt(^e)ro . aimassions aimassiiz. Verbs which had no perfect participle were obliged to form one in order to make their passive and their perfect tenses: ferio. pldcuero. Reich. Spr.: It. fecissem. sonivetatus. amdssem.§ 435] ^^ 7. delessem. — 433. ficeram. preserved at all. but Pr. secextended to tus'^secatus. tonitus'^*tonatus. -assetis. tus"^* sonatus. The ending —ttus. habldsemos habldseis. In the all first conjugation -dtus was preserved and was verbs: /rictus "> fricatus . plicitus"^ plicatus . Reich. ^ i^"]).. 435. etc. : In the third conjugation -dtus disappeared oblatus offertus (^Gl. vetitus Nevertheless there were some new formations in —ttus: *levitus. etc.). etc. audlsBayard 60-61 sem. generally fell into disuse: crepitus^ *crepatus. domitus'> domatus. R. 296.

and ventus generally became * venutus. corres- ponding to -atus and -itus. however. provitus. * venutus. statutus. * solvttus (or *sdltus) beside solutus. sepultus^sepelitus. molitus > * molutus. fugitus tus > *fugitus. were kept. secutus.. sensus'>*sentitus. It did not al- ways. In the third conjugation qumsttus>*gucestus. entirely displace the old perfect participle: natus was kept beside * nascHtus. paritus > *paru> *perdutus *persus. and there were some new formations * solvttus (or *soltus). ples. vocitus. rogitus. *vidutus. *tenutus. remained. *parutus. 437. In the fourth conjugation -Itus was preserved and was extended to nearly all verbs: saltus'>*salltus. buius. all periods. however. venditus>*vendutus. *vdlvitus (or *vdllus). In the second conjugation the rare -etus disappeared as a participial ending: completus. It was extended to nearly all the verbs that had an -ui perfect: * bibutus.184 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. — and — as *credutus. §435): absconditus'>absco{n)sus . * levitus. creditus'>*credutus. The ending —ictus.. solitus. etc. bibitus^* bibutus . A few of these particihowever. On 439. belonging to verbs in —uere and tri- —vere {argutus. The ending -itus tended to disappear (cf. Reich. tollitus. *vendutus. but status. dutus. consutus. solutus. offered a convenient accented form. *volvitus (or *vdltus) beside volutus. *per- in Sicily encroached largely on -itus. volutus). Eventually -atus was carried further. submonitus > *submo{n)sus. pds{i)tus. minutus. * movitus. in -itus: gemitus'!. * habutus. old and found in Gl. [§ 439 436. Digitized by Microsoft® . *mdvitus and *mdssus were formed beside *m. etc.ovutus. jectives. were kept only as ad- 438. perditus *parsus. Apertus and copertus. Pirson 152. the other hand.

saltus'^-* salitus and *salsus. mdtus'>*movutus'> &. * suffertus. *gucestus. pastus'>-*pavutus'i. tortus. also probably * wwclausus. 480. tractus. frictus "^fricdtus. sus. A > > > * sentttus . 480. to{n)sus. *vistus. The ending —sus was defe{n')sus.*mdssus. *vdltus About fifteen verbs (cf. or -utus: captus *capttus. R. 94. Bechtel 91.§ 441] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. fusus "^fundutus. 295. fusus. dictus. There were a few new for- mations in —tus: offertus. victus'>*vin- cutus and *vinctus. tinctus. divisus. ventus'^*venutus and venttus.viA. sepultus >• sepelitus.. rosus. /ric* surtus for surrectus. also perhaps *misus by the analogy of mist. fixus.' maintained itself beside salitus. Spr. probably replaced -tus by -atus. wjwj. generally kept: acce{n')sus . fractus *franctus. stinctus. and perhaps *sdltus. Gl. farsus. *pendutus. pressus. 185 440. Spr. sparsus. 'salted. tersus. *persus. fictus finctus. The ending -tus was kept for some twenty verbs. messus'^ metitus. vtctus~>* vixutus. *salsus. texus * texiisecdtus. rectus. Lat. §439). tus. R. *submo{n)sus. scriptus. 295 (very common). mistus. Salsus.>*farcitus axiAfarsus. cogndtus>*conovutus'i. gavisus>*gaudutus . 441. nectus>necdtus. new formations in -sus: On the other hand. sirictus *tanctus'!. pe{Ti)sus. *strinctus. risus. sessus > * sedutus. Digitized by Microsoft® . Lat. pre(n)sus . Several of these developed also a participle in -utus: etc. there were some absco{n)sus. Keil VII. ma{n)sus. sectusy^ * tenutus. Lat. Dubois 282. 480. tentus > > tus. pictus *pinctus. -itus. punctus. falsus *fallitus. missus. ex- factus. cretus> *crevutus'>. Hr- excussus. *mossus. morsus. structus. fartus'. expansus sensus few verbs replaced the old form by one in -itus or -ietus: * expandutus . *parsus. oc- casionally with a change of stem: ductus . Spr. lectus. Reich. te{n)sus. tactus'i tus. ductus. *vidutus.

Meyer-Liibke. 670. 53. 442. e. Pr. great confusion ensued between -es and —is. forms due to Celtic influence. It may be that -s was dropped because it was regarded as a characteristic of the second person. This confusion is very frequent in the Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-89. This is not a phonetic phe- nomenon. *amdmu amdtes dmant like * cdnomus. 445. analogical formations. and doubtless of weak after our period. were used in northern Gaul instead of canimus. There are traces of 47. The evidence. are correctly explained by Tiktin 565-566 as 444.1 86 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and i came to be pronounced alike (§243). [§ 447 9. then the accent was shifted to the penult *canomus. inscriptions and elsewhere: Digitized The shift. as -s did not fall in this region. however. — This theory has In strong perfects the of -tstis first person plural. Italian lodi and Rumanian lauzi. assumes that in Italy -as and -es became -i. -imus. to stress this in ^smiVi: fecimiis>'Pr. According to Mohl. For the reduction of -to to 443. its — tended. does not support this view. Pr. as t was of the third (cf. Pers. etc. —et and -U. etc. — through the analogy perfects as well. and -Isti. 447. Pers. first person plural lost perhaps in the Vulgar Latin period: videmus'>-'St. vezim. perhaps S. historically considered. colliget. PEESONAL ENDINGS. whence came the French -ons. -0. PL 73-80): — dmo dmaa dmat 446. from laudas. not found acceptance. fez^m. see §416. In southern and to some extent in northern Gaul the its final s. Grundriss V. As unaccented e.. PL. by Microsoft® .

became. —^te. in Spain and Portugal. *vidunt.J^kuJ-i n^g^^xd^so^'^i^-i -^--^/^^ . . as there are in Italian and French remains of the original accentuation. -ite -dmu(s'). for instance. absolvent. Pers. ways /3 short: debuerunt. lingeti. Sardinia. and Dacia. etc.j—th& penult assuming the accent. Pers. Virgil wrote tulerunt. helped by the analogy of the future — The shift and -{mu{s). 64. in the sixth or seventh century. etc. their interchange Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-90. in Classic Latin. Dalmatia. -ent prevailed in cen. -unt was preferred. see §416. in the For the reduction of —iunt to -unt. 448. §137. vindett.). —ite generally —Ste(^s). the con- fusion goes back to early Italic. Furthermore. The endings -ent and -unt came to be very is much confused frequent in the (* credent. According to Mohl. In the perfect. tral and the rest of southern Italy. facimus. kept the old accent (Tiktin 596): iingem. Beside second conjugation. dicUis kept their old forms in many regions. -ttis. dixerunt. respon- duntur. 30. -imus. vindem. accipient. 187 was not universal. Cf.). discarded. -ent. — — particularly common in Italy: cf. Rumanian. ite(s).). however. and dicimus. PI. In the present indicative and imperative. in Vulgar Latin this vowel was apparently al450. the third person plural ending -ere was The ending -erunt. and a part of southern Italy. there was an ending *-eunt which was (^habeunt. -/»z«(j'). exient. due to the analogy of -iunt. being attracted by mittimus: Pr. ite in the other conjugations. PI. to match —^te(^s). etc. etc. -dte(s). The Classic distinction was best kept in Gaul and northern Italy. was perhaps viitttmus. in southeastern facitis There are some traces of its preservation French dialects also. Rastia. —die and -^mu(s). §416.§ 45°] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 112. etc. Pr. 449. viderunt. sometimes had a short e (e is common in the comic poets.

Digitized by Microsoft® .

1 INDEX. 240. N. 47. italics to Words printed in Roman type belong to ancient.236 ab ante 47. 229 231. abyssus 149 ac. -I. 94-6 nouns 367 numerals 142 : ace. 25 recomposition 139 verbs 423-4. 140 iicatum r4i aculionis 367 abeo = habeo 251 224 abias 224 abiat 224 abiete -abilis 39 ab intus 47 abitat 25 1 Ablative 92-7. absolute 97 abl. words in modern languages. in -us 244. 90. 229 (i). 240.28 absconsus 439. 94-6. 98-9. 441 ad 14. 93. 383 abl. 243. 228. 78. 244 accented 39.) 412 unstressed words 156-8 adgenuculari 25 Accented Vowels see ad horam 47 Vowels adimplere 30 accepere 201 Adjectives acceptabilis 39 comparison 56. 77.=accus. 383 adnao 397 ace. 355(1) adparescere 34 adpetere 32 Digitized by Microsoft® . 86.24. 231.B. pi. 431. 34 abbio 273 abbreviare 25 abbreviatio yj shift 136-8.229 (i) unaccented 228. 84 acua aqua 223 -aculare 35 before s + cons. 82 ace. 65 accedere(m) 309 accensus 441 -a 37 0181 ab 14. 82. 48 abbellire 18. 194-5 absida 356 (3) absolvent 449 -anus 39 ja-> je.infin. ad = at 282 ad. adjutare 34 ad mane 47 373. = abl.— Arabic numerals refer to Paragraphs. 92 beJEore j 222 Accent 134-58 primary 135-52 Greek words 143-50 other foreign words 15 1-2 acer arbor 43 -aceus 37 acia 355 (2) -acius ^y a contra 47 a(c)qua 164 Acqui Z^ Acragas 330 ac si 83 ac sic 24. 94-6 aboculare 26 ab olim 47 abs. 244 (i). adaptus 23 adcap(i)tare 25 433> 447-8. 243. 230 = 0*78 ab-25 ab-]> au. 96. 450 Towels in hiatus addedi 139 136-8 addormire 25 secondary 153-5 adferitis (imper.23. 377 accipient 449 declension 374-9 accubitorium ^'j numerals 378-82 -accus ^y unus (article) 57 Accusative. a 194-5.

210 EEteneris = itineris 201 sequus alid alicunus 71 aliud 71 alio(r)sum 291 = . 209-10 unaccented 174.243.Ethiopia 188 alipes (i) = ad.I go aiio 2. alumnu (nom. 244 accented 1 74.281 (i) Eeum = cBvum 324 ^a foras 47 aliquant! 71 aliqui 71 aliquis 13.) 372 adpretiare 25 adpropiare 25 ad semel 47 —aio 39 (-arius) aios =: BjyiQS 272 am 78 ad sero 47 adsteti 139 Aix ajutit = adjutet 272 ad subito 47 adtonitus 32 ad tunc 47 -al37 alacer 195 (i) alare 405.286 amantis (nom.) 40 aiglon yj (-0) altra 233 altrui Aiiax 222 395 ancora 150.22 Index. 14. 359.321 = Alexander alguein 71 alguien 71 -alia 37 38. 359 (i) amitane 359 (i) amitanis 359 amma 16 243. 244 aecclesia 228 Eedis 366 ffigis -ale y] alecer 195 (i) Alesander 255 alevanti eleph.175. 435 allegorizare ig alleviare 34 Agneti 359 (2) agnetus -na. 83 -an 36 -aj* a f oris 47 agennae -nd.) 367 amho 424 amaricare 34 ama(t) 285 ambitare 405 ambolare 232 ambulare 10. 178.194 = -ago 2>7 Agragas 330 Agrientum 259 agurium 228 agustas 228 36 anangi 331 anathema 19 anathematizare 19 anc 40 anc hanc 251 = allium 274 a longe 47 alques 71 alter 71. Adverbs 73-5 as 174. = -t. 244 -EE = -e 174.£6 2> e 209 at 188 altissimus 377 altitia 37 Aiax 188. 232. 187 -ancus 37 (-incus) -anda 37 andare 405 andata 37 (-ta) Andreani 359 (i) Andreate 359 (2) andron 331 anellus 37. 178. 1 78. albor = arbor 292 . 222 alto (adv.281 = aliquot 71 -alis agere ajere 259 aggio 273 aggravatio 37 = 39 alium 224 alius 71 allare 405. 233. 42 Digitized by Microsoft® . 435 ad ubi 47 aduc 250 adulescentulus 37 adunare 25 alauda 19 alaudula yj alba spina 43 alberca 19 albeus 317 228. 209-10. 255 188 seliens = eligens 259 =8-175 alicer 195 (i) agques = e. altiare 34 altior yj'] anca 343 ancilia 187 395 Agustus 228 ahenum 250 ai >. 405 amei 424 amenus 215 amfora 334 amicicia 276 amadus amido 187 amistat 154 amita 239. 71 amnavit 405 amh 424 a mode 47 amourette yj (-ittus) ampitzatru 277 ampora 334 amurca 186 amure 203 amygdalum 19 an II.

39.) 367 -antia . 42 angelice 40 angelus 19 191 ascendiderat 426 ascetes 182 ascla apud aqua 14. 307. 269.) 367 audi audivi 227. 255. 42 participle 435. 211-3. 310. 68. 255 -ans39 anser 13 ad 282 -ata 37 (-ta) -aticum yj atque. 325 aucidere 212 -OS 38 -as -i 443 > audace (nom. 236 (7) apersi 428.) -assem 161 -^ssemus 433 33. 429 apertus 436 arsus 441 artemisia 184 arietico 184 apotheca 182 apothecarius 39 apparescere 35 arthriticus 184 Article 57. 42 Aorist 124 armeise 184 armentas 352 -aro 39 (-arlus) Aroncianos 276 arrespex r= haruspex 251 Arrius 251 arroser 356 (3) arsi Attane 359 atticissare (i) t^^ attinxi 429 Attitta 37 (-ittus) -attus yj at ubi 48 apcha 343 aperii 428 429 -atus 37 (-ta). -dssetis 433 397-8 -are (nouns) y] ares = aries 225 aretem 225 argentum 259 -aria 37 -aricius 39 arida (noun) 13 Assibilation 277-8.^y anticus 226 antiefne 184 antiphona 184 ariex = -s 255 -aris 39 -aris -alis 292 ^ -arius 39 atque ille 24 atque ipse 65 atque is 65 atrium 12 atta 16. 78. 34.) 346 (4) arb(o)rem 235 arboricellus 153 Aspirates 249-52.Index. 264. 229 accented 178.318 annulare 405 anos = annos 247 ardire 343 -are (infin. 423 audiendu'st 309 = ascella =r axilla 42. 282. 36. 255 Digitized by Microsoft® .24. 265. 293. 282 aput 282 164. 267. 229 au o 229 (7) OK 189 auca 13. 392 artic(u)lus 234 > (7) appo 78 apprendere 12 arvorsum (2) = adversum 281 ApHro 410 apsens 315 apsolvere 315 apte =: -se 244 arvum > aram 2z6 aucellus 13. anemis 232 -aneus 39. 265 aspra 233 -asse 161 ardente(m) 309 ardere 399 animabus 358 animalico yj (-icca) Anitius 276 Annanis 359 annare 405 annata yj (-ta) Annenis 359 annitare 405 annotavimus -bi. 315 Asti 86 astula 284 at II = ar(i)dorem 219 ar(i)dus 237 aries 225. 211 -3 unaccented 228. 228. 65 at = anta 239 ante 96 antemittere 46 antestetis (nom. 359 (i) anus = annos 244 -anus 39. 260-1 Assimilation 229 (3). 223 284 aquilotto 37 (-ottus) asculta 228 Angers 86 angliscus 39 angostia 208 (i) anguil(l)a 163 ang(u)Ius 233 angustiare 34 Anicius 276 -ar37 Arbonenca yj (-incus) a semel 47 aspargo 31 aspectare 25 arbor (masc. 440 au 178.

42.3171323 bestemmia 182 Betrubius 316 beveire y^ (-tor) bi. 324 botella 361 bottega 182 b see Labials : baboni 362 bac(c)a 163 bacito yj (-ittus) bac(u)lus 234 Baiocasses 151 bajulus 233 Baleria = Va. 33. 236.192 aud(i)entem 416 aud(i)o 272-3. 241 avaricia 276 ^ bas(s)ium 163 basso 40 battaUa 16 battel 426 ba(t)t(u)ere 137.) 367 brae (c) a 163 bracchiale 37 = brac(c)hium 163 brachia 352 Digitized by Microsoft® . 162. 74 bene bene 55 benegnus 172 (2) bene placitum 43 Beneria Ve. . .316 bixit = vi.316 bianca 341 biber 242 biblia 146 bibui 428 bibutus 438. 439 Bictor 316 biduanus 39 bieta 184 botu vo.316 Bodicca 37 (-icca) boletus 38. 34 ausculum := osc. 322 -bilis = balteum -us 347 bannus 19 baplo 235 baptidiare 339 baptisma 149 Aureliati 359 (2) aurora 11 aus avus 241. 324 Aureia -elia 274 Index. 219 balneus 347 ballaena 150.316 boccone 37 (-0) bocconi 40 avec 78 avello = -avi ^ = averlo 293 -ai 424 avica 13. 36 blasphemia 146. 182 autumnal (e) 242 auyo 272-3 avau. 184 Bologna 303 bonatus 37 (-atus) Bonica 37 (-icca) bon(i)tatem 231 bonito y] (-ittus) = avire 400 -avit -ait -at -aut 241. 14 5 Authorities autor 266 baptizare 19.3165 322 bis(s)it coctum 43 bivere blaesus 329 blanche 341 blanka 341 blankizare 34 blaspheraare ig. 322 botula 361 bovis (nom. 226 Bayeux 151 bel(I)ua 164 blasphemus 150 blasta 312 (i) blitum 184 bob ansa 336 bobis vo.22 Bononia 303 bonu 298 bonus = -OS 244 bonus bonus 55 bos =:i vos 316.316 bal(i)neum 146.22 bisaccium 22 bisacutus 22 bisante 187 = = bis Austus 263 aut 174 aut aut 84 -aut -avit 424 .316. 333 balneum 146: balneus 347 = bifolco biginti ti 318 (2) = vi. 359(1) barbane 359(1) barbar 242 barbo -onis 359(1) barbutus 42 baro 16 bassiare 275 = vixit 255 = vi. ^ benignis 376 benivolus 201 berbeces 323 Bonitta 37 (-ittus) 424 avo avus 362 avus 13 ayo = habeo 273 = berbex (-ix) 42.316. = autem 11.236. 339 baptizatio 19 barba -anis 359. 324 ausare 18. 325 av(i)dere 219 avidus 236 aviolus 13 avis 13 avis struthius 43 Bellus -onis 362 bene 40.212 39 bimaritus 22 bintcente vincente 260 bis. 416 audivi(t) 2S5 audus 236 -aumus := -avimus 424 aunc(u)lus 234. 236 avicella 37. Balerius Va.

cf . 219. 231. 278 capere 8. 369 capus 285. 330 cedat caedat 210 cabia =: cavea 318 cactivus 313 cactos 313 capitanus 39 capitium 37 (-ium) capitulus 42. 234 capitus 440 = cedo 162 cadedi 428 cadere 402 caderunt 426 cadui 428 cselebramus (perf . 347 calumpnia 307 calura 42 camel(l)us 42. 239 cartas (nom.354.Indkx. 383 cf. branca i6 calcis 193 camis (nom.) 368 cata 19. 42 caroneus 39 carrica 11 car(ri)care 18. 369 caput 13. 195 (3) cerbus 323 cerebellum 231 cereolus 13 cereseus 195 (3) ceresus 38. 71 cata unus 71 cataveris rr -d. 163 . Buolognino 154 burrus 330 Burrus 187 bursa 187 buscus 255 iusta 187 but(t)is 163 cals 255 casotta 37 (-ottus) cas(s)eus 163 . pi. 402 -C40 caballus 12 capiclus 234. 282.) 367 cammarus 330 canalia yj cani (pi. 356 (3). 33 cat' cantare 34 unus 71 see Gutturals c for capabilis 39 g 253 cy 276. 372.) 424 cedrus 182 cefalo 334 celeps 315 capriolus 224 captiare 34 cslus 347 Cjeseris 233 caesorium 37 caetk 313 captio 9 captivare 34 captivus 313 celerus 376 -cellus 37 Celtic Words 19 capud 282 capui 428 calamarium 37 calamellus 37 calamus 150 calatus calcai capum 285. 285. 150.330 (-ium) cerasus 38. 195 (3) calcaneum carissimus 377 caritabilis calce pistare 46 calciare 224 39 Caritta 37 (-ittus) Digitized by Microsoft® . 330 Byzacinus 42 c : castius 277 castore (nom. 163 buUicare 35 buplicae = carum 263 casa 12 cal(i)dusi55.256 catechizare 19.312 (i) bublus 235 bubukus 318 (2) buc(c)a 12.) 367 cardu(u)s 226 ce(n)sor 311 census 260 centu 381 ceperint 215 cepi 215 = -avi 424 •^•j = ga. 356 buxus 187. 33. 356 (3).) 367 camutus 39. 369 cardonis (nom.) 367 224 calcoste(g)is 259 caldo 40 cal(e)facere 219 calefacis 139 calere 288 bruchus 193 pu.) 357 (i) Breaking 177 breviarium 37 brevis 13 Brittanice 40 calcius (nom. 163 Cassiabus358 cas(s)us 161 castaneus 346 (i) castellus camera 145 camerlingo 37 (-ing) caminus 150 camisla 201 (i) (3) 347 butyrum 150 buxida 187. 237 calisco 414 calma 268 calotfa 187 caseum -us 347 Cases85-ioo. 356 (3). 284 capire 406 cap(i)talis 231 cauculus 288 cauditus 42 caus(s)a 161 cavia 224 -ce 40 cecino 187.

186. 150. 231 clamantis (nom. 277.411 Digitized by Microsoft® . 330. 239 collo Clerical 218. 213 codex 213 coemiterium 192 coepi 72.226 comoedia 192 comparare 8. 233 cito 162 citrus cognatus 9. 197.1 194 certitude cetto 'r^j Index. 187 cimiterium 192 cinctius coclearium 356 (3) coclia commando 31 comment 41 commixtius 23 224 254 cinctus 440 cinqua(gi)nta 254. 379. 297\ 318(1). 325 colhe 154 coles 213 i6z -ceus 39 Chairibertus 39 (-anus) chaloir 288 Change of Meaning 8-10 coliandrum 292 coUecta 37 (-ta) collectus yj (-ta) colli(g)ens 259 col(li)gere 31. 130. 139. 269. 325 clausi 429 clausus 441 clavem 288 clavido 236.) 367 clarisco 414 Cla(u)dius 211 (i) cojugi 311. 310 cognovi 428 cognusco 197 cohaerere 310 computus 235 comuna 376 con. 31. 217 Chiusi 86 cholera 145 chommoda 25 c(h)orda 186. 259. 311 condam 254 condedit 139 conder(e) 242 condicio 276 conditio 276 civ(i)tas 12. 332 cib Clodius 212 cloppus 16 closa 212 Cludo 211 (2) -clus 234 CO quod 282 colomna 208 coloquinta 187 color (fern. 124 coexcitare 30 comedo = quo. 370 cinxi 429 cip(p)us 163 circa 80. 154. 329 191 ciurma -cius 39 of. 233 complacere 25 complire 400 cinus 347. 12. 332 Chrestus 184 chrisma 184 C(h)ristus 184. -ara 38. 271 colaphizare 19 col(a)p(h)us 19. 237. 276. 231.23. 269 co(g)nosco 43. claudo 236. 259*. Clepatra 191 clerc 154 Change of Suffix 42 chan(n)e 163 chartaceus 39 cher 263 chiaro (adv. X54. 260^. 333(1) clericatus 37 cler(i)cus 39.) 40 chiave 288 Chilperico 343 ckiosa 185 clergue 154 305. 25 concha 186 concupiscencia 276 cohors 12. 380 cinque 254. 379 cocodrilus 294 cinsum = ce- 196 cocus 226 coda 212. 231. 310 coicere 310 coiiugi 271 cojectis 311 . 233 Comparison 56 comperare 231. of. 160 coUus -um 347 239 colober 208 Clio 190 colobra 208 (2). 272. coexercitatus 30 cofecisse 311 96 Compound Words 43-9.444 Pronunciation coUiget 444 col(lo)care 9.) 346 (2) colp 154 colustra 197 = coacla 289 (i) 206 cicinus 330 -cillus ]> -cellus 42 coactum 310 coccodrillo 294 cocens 226 comenzare 276 coininciare 276 cominiciare 276 cominitiare 25. 153. 64 comprendit 250 computare 31 circare 16 circueo 309 circumdavit 430 cis 14 cit(h)era. 332 Conditional 124. 276 comitem 235 cima 38.

39 credentia 37 (-antia) " connato 269 conobbi 428 conoisser 413 conopeum 146 conovutus 440 conpendium 32 conplere 306 consacrati 31 conservam(m)us 163 consiensia 260. 275 227 consilium 42 consili corbeau 323 corbi 323 corbo 323 corcodilus 294 corcodrillus 294 cores = corda 369 corium 294 Comeius =-elius 274 Cornelio (nom.continari 226 contra 96 contra. 34 19s corpo r6o corregia 201 corridije conger 329 Congianus 272 congigi 259 Conjugation 101-30. confessor 18 confortare 25. 355 cor(o)nare 231 corp 323 corpora 369 corpes corpi -ora 369 coi"pore 356 (3) corpo credere 410 credutus 438. 311 conmittere 32 couleuvre 208 (2) court 203 couvent 311 covenimus 311 coventionid 3x1 covetum coxale coxi 429 = cubitum 208 -^j^j copertus 436 cophinus 186 coque 254 coraticimi 18.26 contrafacere 26 co(n)ventio 171 convltare 25 coperire 225 copersi 429 Gutturals 253-70 Labials 312-26 Latin 246-8 Letters 246 Liquids 2S7-96 Hasals 303-11 Palatals 271-8 Sibilants 297-302 cortera 203. 311 Weak 422-6 conteneo 139 Perfect Participle 434. 439 crepatus 435 crepavi 428 Crescentsiarius 277 cresco 255 cresima 184 cresme 184 crevi (i) 428 292 crevutus 440 criblare crigTie 35 c'ritare 229 consirier yj (-erium) Consonants Aspirate 249-52 Dentals 280-6 = criz 206 = crocitare 35 Digitized by Microsoft® .1 Index. 254 41 Personal Endings 44250 Pluperfect and Future Perfect 432-3 Present Stems 416-9 Use of Forms 101-30 Conjunctions 82-4 co(n)jus 25.) 298 cornicula 42 cornu -um-us 347. 3ro corso 208 Groups 131-2. 139 credens (noun) 13. 226. 255. 37 crebbi 428 credea 421 crededi 31. 137 Perfect 422-31 consuetudo 42 Strong 427-31 co(n)sul 171. 160 Fourth 407 Fundamental Changes • 408-12 Imperfect 420-1 constare 31 Inchoative Verbs 413-5 consuere 31. 225 cortensis 39 cortilis cortis 39 250 corvo 323 corvus 323 cosol 311 costumen 42 cosul 305 cot 254 cotes 212 cotidiae 244 cot(t)idie 162. 244. co(n)jux 171. 396450 Four Conjugations 396407 First 397-8 Second 399-401 Third 402-6 Double: see Double Consonants Germanic : see Germanic Consonants Greek : see Greek Consonants 272 corrigo 305 corrotulare 229 cors 12.

72. 100. 117. 78. 372-3 de^£-io 273 defna 324 de inter 48 de intro 47 de intus 47.) 349 cymba 187 cymiterium 192 cypressus 150 Second 361-3 Third 364-71 Use of Cases 85-100 376 de contra 47 decumus 220 dede = dedit 285 de deorsum 47 Digitized declLvis Deponent Verbs 113. 48. 285 > -avit 318. 25 debbio 273 debeo 273 debere 10. 281-3 dy 272 nd nn 281 Final 282. 324 deorsum 224 Cusanca 37 (-^ncus) Wouns 354-73 Shift of Decl. 88. 187. 322 currens 39 = Intervocalic 283. da 48 dedi 430 (i) 229 crucifigere 46 c'rot'lare dacruma 281 dactylus 19 dedicait 424 ded(i)cavit 231 crudilitas 197 -crum 37 (-culum) crupta 187 crus 13 dad 48 Dafne 334 dai 2<)% dampnum 307 crust(u)lum 234 crypta 187 cubidus cupidus 256 Danuvlum 318 dao397 dare 397 datfus 324 dedro dedrot 285 deexacerbare 30 deexcitare 30 defeniciones 276 defensa 37 (-ta) defensi 429 defensorlus 39 = cuculla 13. 294 Index. 48 deltas 27 del(i)catus 227 delitus 198 delta 329 de magis 47 de medio 47 deminat 139 Dentals d 272. 234 cum (conj. Definite Article 68. (fem. 81 defuntus 267. de. 126 (4) debita 37 deb(i)tum 235.) 14. cumba 187 cun = cum 305 cunnuscit 269 cimtellum =r cul. 48. 82 curabit cursi de-^ di. 346 (4) cucullus -a 346 (4) defensus 441 deferet 406 Dative 90-1. 292 Derivation 20-49 descendidi 426 de semel 47 despereifser 414 by Microsoft® .196 crocodilus i. 95. cf.229 (2) deabus 358 de ad 48 de ante 48 deaurare 23.o. 409 d : see Dentals dy 272 de post 48 deprendere 250 de retro 47. 354-76 Adjectives 374-6 Fall of Decl. 355-6. 376 First 357-60 cy 276-8 cy ty277 = cycnus 187. 306 -cellus 42 95 -c(u)lus 42.23. 392 de foris 47. 383 cuerdo 369 culcitra 294 dau 397 daun 397 234 dave 48 de 14. 25 305 77. 177 cnpa(t) 285 cupire 406 cupit 423 cup(p)a 163 cupressus 150 cur 12.289 (2) cuoio 296 cuofre 160 cuore 160. 239 decanus 39 dece(m) 309 decern et (or ac) septem 379 dece(m)bris 306 decemter 306 dec(i)mus 239 Declension 85-100. 226 cum (prep. -culum -cuius > 37. 330 cyma38. 286 nd > nn 281 429 cursorium 37 curvus 323 nt 285 St 285 t 284-6 denumer^t 424 deo(r)sum 291. 92.) 82.

) e 165.) 346(1).23.) 349 dormio 224 dormito 309 dormitorium 37 dormo 416 dorsus 347 dossum 291 Diphthongs 36 177. 406. 177. 30 .) 346 (2) dolor 18. devitum 318 dexcito 225 cf .253 dictus 166. 397 dia 397 diabulus 38 diaconissa 19 Dialects 2. desso 62 dester 255 desto 225 197 donee 11 dont 70 donum (masc. 440 dicere divisus 441 divite (nom. Digitized by Microsoft® . 226 dita 351 diu II. 209-16 209-10 de sub 48 de super 48 de sursum 47 detti 426 de unde 70. 254.) 367 dub(i)tare 231 ducalis 39 divota 229 (2) dixemus 232 dbd429 dodecim 225 doga 186. 229 displacet 139 displicina Doable >Single i6i. 393 duo 378 duos 138 durare 229 (5) Duration 99 duricia 276 Durocasses 151 duxi 429 (masc. 259 dignus 172 (2) dilevit domatus 435 domin(i)ca 239 dominicus 9. 393 deus 167 devere 318 devetis 318 au 21 1-3 eu 214 oe 215 ui 216 diposisio 277 dire 406 directus 229 diri(g)ens 259 dirivare 229 (2) dou 397 Double Consonants 161-4. 21 dolus dictus := digitus 233. 167. dibeto 196 Dibona 318 die 264. 253. 259 -didi ducatus 37 (-ta) duce due 412 ductus 440 dui 167. 355 (2) dietro 292 digita35i. 13 Double Forms 158 Double Negation 75 Double Prefixes 30 doucet 37 (-ittus) doussa 376 drachma 144 drappus 16 d'rectus 229 diurnus 13 divisi Dreux 151 429 drieto 292 406 dicimus 448 dicitis 448 dicitus = -g. 412 dice = die 412 dice(m) 309 disfactus 23 dis(je)junare 25. and fem. 239 domnani 359 (i) domnicellus 37 domnicus 235 229 (2) diligibilis 39 domnina 37 domnizare 33 domnulus 235 dint-mi 264 divinus 324 dinus = Dionigi 227 Dionysii 227 diosum = deorsum 291 Diphthongization 177 domnus 235 domus 12 355 dume(c)ta 266 dune 40 d'unde 70. 238. 25 discere 12 disfacit 139 Double 247 = Single 162-3.3 Index. (2ddecl. 292. 238. dextro(r)sus 291 deyo 273 dia = dies355 (2). 43> distinguere 223. 289 (2). etc. 421. 328 Single >Double 164. 426. 37 dies 13. 378 dukissa yj dulcior (noun) 18 — > -dei 426 = dulcor 18. accented 165. 195 (6). 328 289 (i) Dissimilation 167. 328 devidere 229 (4) devinus 229 (4) dis. 229 (4). 303. 196-9. 247. 333 dolor (fem. 196-9 (I) . 361 digitus 233.

> = = 444 = ex. 182. s 177. 65 ecce ego 65 ecce hie 24. -unt 449 es(i)mus 419 (i) -isimus 197 -esimus esmes 419 (l) eccos 24 eccu. 42 elmo 343 illud 201 elud -elus >• -ellus 42 ervum > erum 226 ervus (3d decl. 326 espiar 343 "pier 343 Digitized by Microsoft® .e 225 = equus 12 equus = sequus 210 -re 245 -er -er 39 (-arius) erable 43 -ere (perf . 385 eo quod 82. 6. 35. 311 -ent -eunt 416. 197. > e > y 224 e i 229 s (2) edere 13 edificai e prefixed to + cons. 65. 162.198 e 196-8 Index. 65 ecce ille 24. 65 ecce nunc 65 ecce tu 65 eccillam 24 eccillud elimentum 231 -elis >• -ills 197 Elision 157. 298 elementum 231 elephantus 38 elex -ebam : see -ea 429 eiii 411 ecca 24 = ilex 200 (2) erubisco 414 elifanti (pi. no eoru 309 episcopalis 39 epistula 144 > 196-8 e unacc. 232. 243.230. > 65 > eccu' iste 24. 255 es-7.exs.24. 413-4 eschernir 341 emere 12 encaustum 149 Enclitics 156 -enda 37 (-anda) : 24 eschine 341 esclate 343 eccillum 24 ecclstam 24 ec(c)lesia 146. 328 Endings Personal 442-50 -esco ]> -isco 197 414 enim 11 escupare 255 -ens 39 (-ans) -e(n)simus 311 -e(n)sis39. 365-6.> -ido 197 edus haedus 210 e6 >.24. 244 egloge 330 e e 165 > > e > e 165 V 182' ei83 e(g)o 60. 62. 65 eccu' 'ic 326 eccu' ille 24. 449 -ent >. 424 230 e6 > e 225 -edo . 199 n 182 eccu' sic 24 e contra -entia 37 (-antia) -inns 42 -enus > 47 C183 ecus 226 edediderit 426 i eo=:ego 73.228.538 Esaram 233 -escere 34. 364 -V3S -ea 421 -etv 36 ejus 298 eio = -etbv 146 42 erigere 31. 229 effrenis 376 eglesia 256 (2). 385 ego-met-ipse 66 et -erem 346 (3) eremus 150 eres 251 190 e-28 -640 -e>-ffi I74>244 -e -ei 411 -eta 146 eiius 271 erga 14 ergo II. 14 > -i 244.) 450 -ere -ire 197 erodes 251 > effigia 355 (2) eu 214 effondrer 356 (2) i6 >• e 225 unaccented 219. 73.) 356 (2) -i 443 -es -es -is 174.) 368 -Irunt 450 eccam 24 eccas 24 ecce. 429 -erium 37 erminomata 191 ero 411 -ero 39 (-arius) ersi ericius = jacet 224 earn = jam 224 eacit ejus 170. eccum 24. 263. 242 -elius >• -ilius 197 -ellus 37. 244. 65 ecce iste 24.

440 fascia 10. 274 facimus 448 404 facitis 448 factum 266 facire Feminine femps 356 femus (3d : see Gender (2) decl. et 84 Ethiopia 188 etiam 11. 318 febrarius 226 Eurus 191 -eus39 Euua 344 evangelizare 19 -evi -ei 424 > Evidence 5 ex 14. 404 faccia 278 fatus 347 taula 236. (i) = -it 244. 14.) 367 excoriare 25 excussi 429 excussus 441 exeligere 30. 404 fatatus 39 fate fabam 320 404 Eugeneti 359 (2) -eum 37 eunuchizare 19 fab(u)la 236 f ac 264. 275 faselus 334 fasena 320 (i) f asia = faciat 285 224 fasiolus -etus 437 see Labials (i) fata 266 eu 214 cu 190 fa 264.230.) 356 (2) fenire 229 (4) factus 440 fenum 209 ferbeo 323 feritus 242 fascit 209 faedus 320 (i) fcemina 209 f acul 434 ferre 12 ferro 160 Digitized by Microsoft® . .Index.230 exstinctus 440 exstinxi 429 exsucidus 39 exsucus 23 extensa 37 extimare 255 extra. 404 facheret 410 faciam 278 fadas 224 fac(i)ebam 225. 25 ex. espiritum 230 exeligit 199 fffinum 209 fffinus esquena 341 esguiver 343 essagium 255 esse 112-4. 420 face feced feci = fecit 282 fec(e)ru(nt) 233 430 fehu 343 felicla 234 felis25. 419 (i) esse essere 419 esse sedere 402 274 exe(m)plu 306 exiat 224 exient 449 347 fageus 39 failla exinde 60 exire 31.= es. facienda 37 fem(i)na 239 feminabus 358 > exaltare 25 exaugiu^tus 39 excellente (nom.23. 277 etsi I \ et sic 47 exodus 337 expabui 42S expandutus 441 expaventare 35 explendido 230 exquartiaxe 276 exs. 95 ex. 126 (2). 266 = = fait 324 266 fallii -esse 161 -essem 161 essere = esse 419 es(t) 285 estatio 230 estau 397 estaun 397 Estephanus 230 estou 397 estribar 341 esum 419 -et et et at ubi .27 extrabuccare 27 extranus 42 ex tunc 47 ezza 277 f : fallire 430 406 441 34 37 familia 42 famis 366 famTfii 264 famul 242 famulabus 358 fante 311 falsare falsitas fallitus faor 324 farcitus 440 fare 404 farsus 440. 92.= as. 444 49 . 77. 255 -ex -ix 42 = fac 412 facentem 416 facere 10.

) 17 429 263 Foreign Words 19. 440 fricda frigida 238. 200 (i). fervere 399 fervura 37 fesit flaba 289 (i) flagrare 292 flaonis flator fractus 440 fragellum 289 (2) fragilis 260 324 324 233 >« 343 fezem 44 fiaba 289 (i) fiam 419 (2) fib(u)la 235 ficatum 16. 256 frenum -us 347 fricatus 435. 233.419 (2) 400 florisco 400 flovium 208 (2).) 356 fundutus 441 funtes 205 (2) fortia 37 fortis 10 fortis fortis 55 429 fixus 441 fossato 2^1 (-ta) funus II fuore 160 Digitized by Microsoft® . 238. fiero 160 fiet focus fodiri 8. 96 forbatre 2.) 355 (i) fnindes 205 /^343 fiorentino 154 fioretto yj (-ittus) fiorisce \\^ foris- 29 frunza 351 frutta 351 fugii 430 f ugire 406 fugitus 439 fui 431 forisfacere 29 f orismittere 29 fircum 320 (i) Firenze 86 Firmus -onis 362 fir- 46 formaceus 39 formosus 161 formunsus 208 forsitan 305 forte 40 f ortescere ful(i)ca237 fiscla 234 fistula 234 fistus 197 fix! 34 fumAt 424 fundus (3d decl.7 flaus 240. 217 fluviorum 224 feces 213 florire fratelmo 38S frat(t)re 164 frax(i)nus 239.) 355 (i) fidens 311 fiele 160 Jiens 356 (2) fieri 112.409.Index. cf. see frondifer 11 fnialitas Germanic Words Greek Words foresia 311 foris 81 and finiscere 35 finxi 429 fructa35i. fragrantia 37 fra(g)rare 270 flavor 37 fletus II Francesco 341 franctus 440 fieuma 268 fleurit 414 ' fictus 197 440 fleuve 208 (2) fioralis Frankensis 39 Frankiscus 39. 361 fructus (2d decl. 259 frigora 351 filius 155.) 357 13 . 406 folia 352 follia (noun) 18 follicare (i) = 259 f rictus 440 frigare 256. filix 298 274 = filios T97 fiUio 247 fonte 205 244 fonz 356 (2) foras 81. 141 ficit 2.f:^ forbire 407 frigorem 347 frixl Fimes 86 Final Syllable 240-5 finctus 440 finis (adj.) 346 florecer 292 414 frate 295 Florentinus 37 ficus (2d decl. 341 Franko 341 franxi 429 ficus (I) (masc. 12 419 (2) figel 242 fiios — filios 274 358 (nom. cf . and fern.) 346 (4) filiaster filio(s) fans 356 frigdura 37 Frigia 187 frig(i)dus 166.)346(i) fraumenta 268 frecare 201 . (mc. 201 filiabus filias 33 (2) frigdaria 219. 231 fons (fem.

furbjan 407 furma 203 furmica 229
genesis 148, 183 Genitive 88-9, 383 genitores 12 genitus 17
gIut(t)o 163




fusa 3; I

gocciare 276 gcerus 187
golosus 228 gonger 329 goule 177


genna 229
gentilis 17


fusus 441

Future 125-9,411
127-9,411 Periphrastic Put. 126 Pres. for Put. 126 (i) Future Perfect 119, 123-4,
410, 423 g: see Gutturals

gentis (adj.) 17

Hew Put.


= jan- 259
37, (i)



genuflectere 46

genum 355
Gepte 259 geguir 343

233 gradlus 376 grada 35.1 gradus 355 (i)
grandis 12
granditia 37 graphium 145 grassetto 37 (-ittus)

= Hier- 259

gabata 13, 236 gabta 236 gaita 343
gaite 343 galatus 330
gallina 288

gerbe 341

Germanic Consonants
b, c,

grassus 257

= Gratis 257

g 341

gravare 34
gravior 377 grece 210

^,^342 h343 W344
Germanic Endings 36 Germanic Words 19,
340-4 Germanissa 37 Gerund 104

gamba 13, 263, 331 gammanis 330
garba 341 garofulum 149 garum 329 gaudia (sg.) 352 gaudimoniuin 20 gaudutus 44 X gauta 236 gaveola 257 gavia 16
gecchire 343 geisla 341 geiuna je- 259 geline 288

Greek Accent 143-50 Ozytones 144
Paroxytones 145-6 Proparoxytones 147-50 Greek Consonants 327-39
ft 7, S 329
K, V,

Gerundive 103
gesso 187 gesta (sg.) 352 gJga 341 gig'i 341

T 330-1

X 332-4 Liquids 335 Hasals 336

I 337


gigantem 229 (3) ginocchioni 40 Giovannoni 362 giret 187
girus 187
giscle 341 glacia 355 (2)

f 338-9
Greek Endings 36, 38, 146 Greek Vowels 180-93 Diphthongs 188-93 Single Vowels 180-7 Greek Words 19, 36, 38,
gre-U 40 grevior 377
grevis 195 (4)

gelus (2d decl.) 355 (i) gemellus 13

gemire 406 gemitus 439

Glacus 211 (i) gladium 347
glanderia 39 glaiz 355 (2) Glauc6 -^nis 359 Glaucu (nom.) 372 glirem 166
glos(s)a 161, 185

gemui 428
gena 13

Gender 345-53 Fem. and Heat. 351-3 Masc. and Pern. 346 Masc. and Heut. 347-50 Heut.Pl.>Fero.Sg.352 Heut.Pron.and Adj. 350

grex (fem.) 346 (4) grossior 377 gratia 187 gruls (nom.) 367 gninnio 281-

gluria 203
glut(t)ire 162

guarire 344 guarnire 36, 407


by Microsoft®

guaiare 343
hab(i)tus 239 h^buerat 137
hocsies 277

gubernamentum 37
gubernare 36, 330
gtterra 344

guidare 36, 398 guiderdone 342 guisa 344
gul0 37
-i -1338, 186, 330 gustus (2d decl.) 355 (i) guttur (masc.) 347


Gutturals 253-70 c c' 258, 260-1 c g 256-7

> >

habutus 438 hache 343 hackerece 39 hffidus 320 (i) hamula 235 hanca 343 handle 343 hant 401 hao 401 hapja 19, 343

hodie 272 hodio 251


hom(i)nes 232, 235 (pi.) 36S
10, 71


honera 251 honor 346 (2) honte 342 hora 12, 185 hordemn 272
horrescere 11
hortesia 311 hospitale 12

haram 251
hardir 343
harena 320 (i) haribergum 19 has 401 hat 401 hatire 36 hatjan 36


g before back vowels hardjan 343

263 c, g before cons. 265-70 c, g final 264 ct 266

hossa 251 hostium 251 Hugo Hflgon

= Hdgo


huile 274

152, 362


> g' 258-9. z6i

humerus r2
humiliare 34

g intervocalic 263

gm 268
gn 172
gr intervocalic 270




152, 362


net 267
Falateilization 258-62

haunitha 342 haunjan 19 haunt 401 havite 400

165, 200-1, etc.

accented 200-1 I 200

haz 355


hegit 251

260 X 255, 266 gylosus 228 gyrus 187


helm 343
keltne 343

h 249-52

hepatia 19 here 219, 244 heredes (sg.) 367 heremum 251 Hiatus 136-8, 222-7

> e 201 e ^ 201 > 165, 200 i>e2oi > > e 165, 201 (cons.) 222 > y 224 -i > -e 224







habam = fabam 320

hlbemus 13
hie 63-4, 67-8 hie ipse 64

habe = ave 318 habe(b)am 421 hiem(p)s 13, 297 habeo 273 hiens = iens 251 habere 10, 121-4, 127-30, hilerus 233
239, 273, 285, 400, 401, 421, 438, 449

(Greek) 184 (Greek) 38 i^ e 225 ii i 227 prefixed to s cons. 230 unaccented 219, 221,228,


> >


hinsidias 251

hireum 320


haber 242 habe(t) 285 habeunt 416, 449 habibat 400
habire 400

= is- ins- 230 hispatii = spatii 230
historia 146

229(3X4), 240, 243, 244 in hiatus 222, 224-5,


> e 229 (4) > a 229 (3)

ho 40 hoc 63,



-ia 37, 146 -(a 37, 146


by Microsoft®

-iamus 224 -are 33, 34
ille 10,

Future Future
125-9, 411

61-8, 389-92

ipse 64





123-4, 410

-ibo 125
-ic 251



-ica 37 -icare 33, 34, 35 -icca 37


390 ille 390 140


(dat.) 390


-iccus 37

> ilium 282, 350
390 390

= suus


Imperfect 120, 420-1 Perfect 121-4, 422-31 Pluperfect 123-4, 410, 432 Present 120, 273, 397, 401, 403-5, 415, 416-9

-icem 42, 346



-iceus 37, 39, 42
-icius 37, 39, 42


induruit 224


ilium illud 282, 350 illurum 390


-inem 346

-iculare 35 -iculus 42

> -ellus 42

infa(n)s 10, 311 i(n)fans 171
inf antiliter
i(n)feri 171,

im = in 310
imaginarius 39

-icus 39

40 219

idem 61, 3C39 id ipsum 62, 350 idolum 150, 190
-idus 39 -i(d)yare 339 i6 e 225


376 immudavit 256 Imperative 115-6, 412 impinguare 25 impinxi 429


infernus 13 Infinitive

-iebam -ebam 225 -ibam 420
-ie(n)s 311



implicat 139 implire 400


> -fmus 447-8 >

in 86, 92, 95, 96, 97
is 310 inanimatus 23 in ante 47, 48 incendiderit 426

lenubam 259
-ier 39 -iere 39

in- 23, 25 in -t- s

as Noun iii Conjugations 396-407 dicere 406 esse 419 facere 404 for Clause for Imperative 116 for Subjunctive iii, 117 for Supine and Gerund




= gesta 259, 352

311 iferi 311
iferos 306, 311

Inchoative Verbs
inclausus 139 incohare 250
in contra 47, 48 incudo 42, 370


103, 104 habere 400 Passive 109 Perfect 109 with habere 125-9, 4^^ posse 403

ifimo 311 if ra 311

Present Active

102, 109


-4gia 2^^
igitur II, 14

with Accusative
inflare 31


incuminem 42
incus 42 -incus 37 inde 60, 71, 384 inde fugere 46

ignire 33 ignis 12


ignotus 310 -igo 37

Forms 345-450 Use 85-130
infra- 27



227, 423


39 -ilius 42 iliac 140

Indefinite Article 57 Indefinite Pronouns: see

infraponere 27


Indicative Conditional 130, 411
for Imperative 116, 412
for Subjunctive 117

infurcare 25

-ing 37

(dat.) 390

390 illsejus 390

ingenium 9 ingens 259 in giro 48


by Microsoft®

-ingus 37 (-incus) in hodie 47
Initial Syllable

62-4, 67-8 ins- liis- 230


— -is = -es 244, 365-6, 444

-iva 37 iventa 311

inlatus 32 in mane 47

-iscere 34, 35


> > -i 423 > -iut > -it 423

-ivum yj
-ivus 39 -ix 42
-izare 33, 34, 339

medio 48

Ischia 284

innoce(n)ti 306 innocus 226
in odio


ischolasticus 230


inprobus 32 inquid 282 in quo ante 254 -inquus 37 (-incus) ins13-230 in semel 47

-isco for -esco 197, iscripta 230


-'{«" 33
izophilus 333
j 271 jacente(m) 309 jacis 244 Jacobus 150, 329

-iscus 39 is ipse 64


ismaragdus 230 isperabi 230 ispose 230
-issa 37 -issare 33

insiemcmenie 41 insola 232 instruo — struo 230 ins(u)la 171, 233, 284 intcitamento 260 inte(g)rum 270 Interamico 307

Jacomus 329
jagante 229 (3)


-isse 161

-issem 161 -issimus 166

jaiant 229 (3) jajunus 229 (i) jambe 263
-jan 36
janarius 226

230 Interanniensis 307 istatuam 230 Interrogatlves see Pro- iste 63-8, 390-2 nouns iste hie 64 Intertonlc Vowel 231 iste ille 64 intra g6 iste ipse 64 intra- 27 istudio 230 intra tenere 27 it id 282 intravidere 46 -it -et 244, 444 intre 245 ita II intro(r)sus 291 Italia 224 intus in 49 Iteilic Tribes i, 2 -inus 37, 42 -itare 34, 35

jaquir 343
jauzei 426 jehan 343 jehir 343
jejunus 229, 229 (i) jeniperus 229 (5)

= =

jenua 229


jenuarius 229 (i) jeuTie 208 (2)
jinipenis 229 (5)

-Inus 39

> -o 416

-itas 37 -ite -Ite


Joanneni 359 (i) Joannentis 359 (2) Joannis 244
jocus 12


ipsa mente 41 ipse 61-8, 390-2



jovenis 208 (2), 217
jovis 367

64 ipsejus 390 ipsimus 66 ipsud 390
ipsujus 390 ipsus 390
iraisser 413 irascere 413

-itia 37, -ities 37


jubari 322



-ittus 37

-itudo 37 -itus 42 (2), 436, 438, 441 -Itus 435, 438-9


jubem(m)us 163 jubenis 318 jubentutis 318, 322 jubere 11
Judaizare 19
judicat 424

-ium 37
-ius 39

126 (5), 405

> -unt 416
by Microsoft®

-ire 33,


judidus 347 judico 239 judigsium 278


juglus 233 Julianenis 359 Julianeta 37 (-ittus)
Julitta 37 (-ittus)

429 Liaison 133, 159 liamen 263
lexi 428,

intervocalic 324

Voicing 314
laborait =:-avit 424

laceus 254
lacte 367

libe(n)s 311

juncxi 305 juniperus 229 (5) junxi 429
Jup(p)iter 163

jurHtortu 39 juria 272 jur(i)go 219
jusso 355 (i)

lactem 347 lacus (2d decl.) 355 (i) ladro yji ladrone 372


298 (nom. pi.) 357


libraria 37 ligare 201,

ligna (sg.) 352


justitia 276,

justius 277

juv(e)nis 235

juventa 356 (3) juvente 318
juxta 81, 96


246, 253

kadamitatem 289

= candidus 330 karessemo 201 Karica 37 (-icca) kaukoulato cal- 288 kleme(n)s 311 kozous = conjux 311, 339


34 lambros 331 lamna 235 lampada 356 (3) lampa(s) 38, 144, 335 lancia 224 la(n)tema 306 lanutus 42 lapsus 315 laqueum 347 ; cf, 254 lardum 237 Latinization i, 2 latrone (nom.) 367 lat(t)rones 164 lattucae 266 Lauriatus 224 lausenga 37 (-ing)
lauzi 443 Lazis Ladiis 339


lignum -us 172
liminare 37


Unguas (nom.) 357
liniamenta 224


133, 159

lintium 224

Liquids Assimilation 293 Dissimilation 292
Fall Fall



Liquid 237

Vowel before

Liquid 233-4 1 287-9 ly274 Metathesis 294 r 290-6
rs 291 ry 296 lit (t) era 163


kumate 298 ky = qui 187, 223



lebat 318

lit(t)us 163

see Liquids

318 lebra 256

Livitta 37 (-ittus) U 1 161


la ilia 392 Labials Assimilation 313 b 315-9 initial 316 intervocalic 318 by, py, vy 273, 319 f 320-1 Fall of Vowel after Labial 235-6 Influence on Vowels 217



Have 2 88



Locative 86
locun 305 locuplens 311 locuplex 255
lodi 443
loir 166

lectus (p.p.) 440 legare 201

leges 259

(nom.) 367

legui 428

lenticula 42

longa mente 41 longe 40
longior 377


longius 377


longum tempus 13
loquella 42 loreola 213

P 3"-4 U326
V 322-s
after liquid 323

levare 34 leviarius 39


Lost Words 11-4
lotus 213

levitus 435,


by Microsoft®

X.) 355 (i) meretis 232 meridjes 281 (2) mer(i)to 237 Masculine : see Gender masc(u)las 234 masma = maxima 238 massa 338 mate(r) 295 materia 355 (2) matrona(s) 298 mat(t)rona 164 Digitized mersi=merx 255 Messac 277 messui 428 messura 37 met. 233 lucor 37 lucto 355 (i) maximus 56. 353 me(n)sor 311 56. 84.) 424 -men 37 mendatium 276 fern. 201. 207 (i) luxi 4V 9 luxuria 355 (2) mansorius 39 mansus 441 manuaria iS manuplus 42 manus (masc. manner (fern.24. 347.) 349 machina 144 machinari 9 macra 376 madias = majas 272 madio majo 272 madrema 388 maestati 259 maester 259 magias majas 272 marem 347 mares = -is 244 marl -e 364 marinarius 39 maris (masc.) 368 me(n)sis 171. ma(g)is 353 .2o6 luce (dat. 198. 71. 359 by Microsoft® . cf . 259 major 170. 377 luoghi -ora 349 liirdus 207 (i) luridus 166.) 17274 m: see Nasals ma = mea -Ma 38 388 manu tenere 46 Slaps : pp. 297 maxumiis 220 lucus locus 205 ludus 12 lugere 399 lugire 400 = Meanings Change 10 of of Words 7-10 Meaning 8- manos 355 mansi 429 mansio 12 (i) luminem 347 lunae dies S9 mecu 309 Medea 190 Medentius 338 media 272 medianus 39 medicus 239 medio die 43 medio loco 43 medius 272 meletrix 292 melior 377 melius 56. 222 Maiiam 222 mais = magis 157. 369 marrir 407 marrjan 407 Marsianesses 277 magnisonans 44 magnus 12 Maia 188.) = magida = 38. xi Marcianus 278 Marculus 284 mare (fern. 369 3" . and 346 (I) fern.) = and markensls 39 me(n)sa 311 mense(m) 309 mensi (pi. 74. 347. 377 mala mente 41 male 40 male habitus 44 malicia 276 malleus 274 mensorium 37 menta 184 -mente 41 mente habere 46 mentire 409 Marsuas 187 Marsyas 187 mas = magis 157 mascel 242 -mentum 37 mentus 347 menus 201 mercatus (2d decl. 66 mal(l)o i6i malus malus 55 mam(m)a 16. 157.) 244 lucSre 399 lucire Index. 145 ma(r)mor 292 cf . 220. 238. 349 melum 195 (5) membras 352 memoramus (perf. 347. mam(m)anis 359 matutinus 13 maurus 336 maxime 56 mammula mane 13 13 400 manducare 13 man(i)ca 239 manicd 37 (-icca) maniplus 42. 259 ma(g)ister 259 marmora 351 marmorem 347.

440.324 Moesia 187 molui 428 molutus 439 255 myrta 187 Mysia 187 mysterium 182.Index. 75.Liquid mut(t)ire 162 132. 294 modernus 18 Metiacus 277 metipse 24. Metathesis 245. 136 mulieris 136 natus 13. 438. 385 miauiare 17 michi 252 mienia 1S4 migat micat 256 monarchia 37 monasterium 182 -monia 37 monibam 420 moniti n + fricative 171. 231 mis meis 388 mis. 217 334 mutare 229 Digitized (5) nepoti(s) 298 ne'ps'unus 71 by Microsoft® .245 minus credere 29 minus est 29 minus pretiare 46 minutus 10 > mortu(u)s 226 mossus 438. 66 metipsimus 66 metltus 441 207 Mute -t. 245 mis. 227 mi(ni)sterium 231 minist(r)onun 292 minor 377 minsis 198. 438 naucella 13 naufragus 325 nautat 236 navicella 37 navitat 236 ne 14. 83.311 11 ny 274 nacui 428 nam — mu. cf. 440 muc(c)us 163 muebie 204 (i) mul'erem 225 mulier 9. 229 (4). 37 raovutus 438.228 narratus 37 (-ta) -monium 37 mo(n)strare 311 Nasals 303-11 Final or = monumento = -um 244 Mood 1 1 5-9 morbu(s). 201 minus 201. 163. 387 mi = mihi25o. 440 necavi 428 nee ente 71 nee unus 71 ne ente 71 negare 263 negat 256 mur 206 murare 229 (5) muri -a 349 muritta 37 (-ittus) murta 187 Negation 75 negliencia 259 nemo 71 neofiti missorium 37 mis (s) us 441 mistus 440 mixticius 39 mobilis 204 (i). 160 mode modo 40 moere = mov. 429 = mullus 187 mulsi 429 multum 74 multus 71 muntu = multum 289 (2) necatus 435. 298 + Cons. 304-6 171. 187 meuble 204 (i) meus = mi 87 n: see Nasals mextum — m2estuin mezzo 272 mi r= meus -a 87.29. cf.439 movitus438. 439. 229 (2) Nebitta 37 (-ittus) nebula 235 necare 9 necator 37 mirabilia 37. 289 moc 428 (i). 311 -m -n falls 309 falls 310 mihe 244 milex 255 mille 161.245 miscere 399 misculare 35 misera 376 mis(s)i x6i. 255. 381 mn 307 millefolium 38 mil(l)ia 161 mordSre 399 morire 406 moriri 406 n -h fricative ny 274 nasco 255 nascutus 438 nasum -us 347 natatorium 37 nati vitas 37 Morphology 345-45° morsi 429 morsus 441 mortificare 46 mimoriEe 229 (2) minester 201 ministeri(i) 89. 441 motto 187 movi 428 movit 244 movita37-. 377 minus.

229 (6). 79 ob-28 obdormire 28 obferre 32 obliscor 324 oblitare 34 obprimere 32 Nerba3i7. 100. 311 nubis 366 nulli (gen. 385 nocere 399 nutrire 166. nupsi 297 nobe 318 nobilis 11 nobis 318. 229 (5) nutritio 37 odedere 426 Odissia 187 oe 215 oefor xand e 215 offeret offerire offers! nutritura 37 nocui 223. Nouns 345-73 see Declension and Gender nous 177. 244 u6 o 225 -o 37. 234 306. Absolute 97 non 203 nona(i)nta 380 75. 215 omnes = —is 244 onmimodus 44 omnis 12. 383 305 accented 202-5 o 202-4 o 197. 250. 202-5.324 nova(i)nta 380 novellus 13 novius 207 (2) noxeus 224 ns 171. 243. 215 offertus 435. o 165. 177. 203 o (Greek) 192 274 38. 40 (Greek) 186 Digitized nora 208 (3) Normannice 40 norus 208 (3) notrire 229 (5) noli 40 -on 36 -ov 38 -iav 38 -ones 40 -oneus 39 by Microsoft® . 395 num 83 u ob (Greek) i?5 14. 349 see Gender ne 229 (2) ni : = nichil 251 niepos 177 observasione 277 oc 251 occansio 311 occidere 212 occubavit 256 ni(g)rum 270 nihil 71. 205 5 > 9 205 9>uo oi ou|>-gu 167 o u 202 o ou 203 oleum oli 274 274 oli(m) 309 olio nonna 16 nonnita 37 (-ittus) nonnitus 37 (-ittus) nonnus 16 noptiae 207 (2) 177 192.208 nepta 37 neptia 37 neptilla 13 Index. etc. 251 nil 250 nimpae 332 nise 229 (4) nitidus 238 nittus 238 Numerals 57-8.ou 167 unaccented 219. 167. > > 6 165. 22S. 328 noembrios 324 noembris 324 noicius 324 nolo 161 ny274 nynfis 306 406 406 429 440 192.) 395 nullus 71. 197. 323 nerbo 323 Neroua 322 nervia 349 Neuter nervus 323. 274 > ola 213 oleo 373. offla 235 oi>oe>-e ot nome 336 nomem nomes = nomina 369 Nominative 97. 378-82 occu(m)bas 306 occurire 406 Accent 142 nummus 328 nun = non 203 nunc 12 nuncius 276 -occus 37 ocio 276 ocium 276 octa(gi)nta 380 oc(u)lus 219. 309 nivicare 18. 71 o for au 212-3 >oe ]>e 06 > o 225 > omo 251 -omus 446 on 71 ou>. 33 nuncquam 305 nunqua(m) 305.

Active 106 Put. Passive 105.Index. -omus 39 -o«J446 -o(n)sus 311 otia 277 otobris 266 209 paor 324 papaver (masc. 12 parentis (nom. 439 pasmer 300 passans 39 passi(m) 309 sy 275 ty 276-7 ossulum 37 ossum 356 (3) ostensio 37 ostensor 37 vy273 palatium 277 palleum 224 Passive 112-4. 225 parietibus 224 oratorium 37 orbus 9 palanca 332 palasium 277 Parigi 86. 369 papilipnis (nom. 227 pari mente 41 227 Palatalization 258-62. 278 parsus 439. Pans 86 Parisiis 272-8.212 aut 213. 441 part 160 partentem 416 Participle dy 272 g': omatura 37 orphanus 186 ortaret 432 hor-25i ortus see Gutturals gyz72 J271 ly274 ny 274 Put.) 367 parentorum 368 p : see Labials paceveci = oratia = Hor-25i Order of Words 50-3.) 349 Present 102. 337 pagandum 256 paganus 263 pa(g)e(n)sis 39. 108. 434-41 = orum = aurum 212 orzo 272 OS (masc. 104. Ordinal Numerals 382 -orem 346 (3) oricla2i2. 259 pari 364 par(i)etes 136. parecer 414 parens 10. oze ozie 324 = > > = hodie 272 = hodie 272 = pacific! 321 8.212 orata ou (Greek) 193 ou 167 9u Ouiouia Vibia 318. 229 (7) oridium 339 -orlum 37 -orius 39 orma 186. 296 parsi 429 by 273 c': see Gutturals cy 276. py 273 ry 296 scy 275 40S Particles 156-8 particularis 39 -OS (Greek) 38 Oscan 2 -usco 197. 42 feminine 346 (2) -re 245 -or -ura 42 -or hora25i ora oracionem 276 aur. 408 Perfect 102. 202-3 -osco ossiculum 42 ossuculum 43 > ssy 275 sty 275 partunt 416 parutus 438. 318 parcui 428 onus II o 225 operare 409 0(5 > otogentos 266 -ottus 37 ophekion = ofBcium 334 opprobare 28 -or 37. 107. palpebrum 352 pal/ires 134 = hos-25i = ostium 202 ostrum aus. 236 parabulare 155 paradisus 190 paraula 236.) 347.) 367 pap(p)a -us 16 papyrius 39 parabula 144. 324 ovum 167. 217. 229 (7) ot ote = aut 213. 229 (7) pandiderunt 426 paucus 71 paul(l)um 161 Paulus -onis 362 paupera 376 pani 364 panneus 39 pantaisar 332 Digitized = pauperorum 376 pausa 38 pavi 428 by Microsoft® . 296 Palatals 271-8. 409 passos 355 paucum tempus 13 ostentare 34 ostia palma 14. 322 > = oum 167.

183. 213 plovere 169. 99 per pel 293 per 160 per. 208 (4). 123-4. 96. = pr-292 plus 56. 315 plicare 10. 208 (4). 273 poco 40 perdedit 139. 435 plicatus 435 293 293 pello 293 pendutus 441 pellige pellicere peuma 368 ph: see Greek Consonants phalanx 181 pharetra 145 phaselus 334 Phasis 181 pe(n)sare 171.26 percolopabat 237 > Phebus 192 phiala 145 philosophia yj philus 184 phimus 184 Phitonis 332 phitonissas 332 Subjunctive 433 "8. pinl 365 123-4 pinxi 429 per giro 48 piper 38. 326 plagiare 33 Pronouns persus 439. 190 Periphrastic Future 126 perit 423 perlum = prse. 439 pere 160 pere(g)rinus 270 peres pedes 281 (2) Perfect 121-4. igo plaudisti 426 pestulum 284 petft 423 Petrus -onis 362 peito 160 pleps 297. 79.Index. pIurigo 123. 369 peria(t) 285 poena 192 poeta 192 poggio 272 polippus 145 poUicare yj pollulum 213 pols 370 poltre 134 polve 370 polvo 370 polypus 145 pomex 207 (2) pirata 144. 369 per girum 48 piperem 347. 217 pluere 169. 208 (4). 426 perdita 37 (-ta) perdqnare 26 perdutus 438. 410 432> 433 Pluperfect Penult 232-9 per 14. 311 pensi 429 pensus 441 plodere2i3 ploja 169. 422-31 = phoca 185 Phoebus 192 Phonology 131-344 Phyebae = Phoebe 215 piano 40 pictus 440 pietas 298 pietra 160 pignus 172 (2) pi(g)ritia podium 272 poella 20S Strong 427-31 Weak 422-6 Perfect Participle Participle : 270 see Pilipus 332 pinctus 440 Perfect Subjunctive 119. pa(v)onem 324 pa(v)orem 324 pavura 42 pavutus 440 paze 260 pectinare 33 perpenna 292 persi 429 pe(r)s(i)ca 239 persona 71 Personal Pronouns: pius 167 placentia 37 plach 154 see placuit 223. 441 Pesaro 151 pessica 291 pessimus y]"] pestio 2S4 pectorem 347 pediculus 42 pedis (nom. 410. 217 Pluperfect 118. 208 (4). 235 by Microsoft® .294 Pisaurese 297 Pisaurum 151 pitocco T85 Digitized pon(e)re 239 pontevecem 321 pontivicatus 256 pontufex 220 poplex 255 pop(u)lus 10. 74 pluvia 169. 93.) 367 plangit 259 plantare 33 peduclum 234 peduculus 42 pejor 170. 273 plostrum 212 plotus 212. 347. 377 pejus 377 pelegrinus 292 pellabor 293 planura yj planxi 429 platea 146.

330. 252. 439 = 311 prendere 225. 67. 226. prolongare 28 q 246.Index. -^yj pos(t) 96. 387-8 Relative 69-70. 96 provata 318 porphyreticum 187 portare 12 posi posui 428.439 proximus 377 psallere 36. 79. 393-4 quaKs 70. 311 prEEStare 31 prffistavi 422. 95 pro. 71. = pr<Egnans 255 Pronunciation 131-344 prophetissa 37 prophetizare 19 propietas 292 propio 292 propter 14. preda 209 Prefixes 21-32 393-4 Personal 60. 226.28 probai 424 Proclitics 156-8 prodis 17 putrisco 400 puulva 356 (3) Pyrrhus 187 pyxis 187 Progne 330 proles II preefetto 266 prffigna(n)s 255. 380.229 (6) puteolis 136 • potebam 403 (i) potebo 403 (i) poteo 403 (i) potere 403 (i) pdteri 410 potestas 356 (3) potionare 33 potis 17 pretium 277 preveire 300 pride (m) 309 primitius 324 principens 367 pri(n)cipis 306 Prixsilla 255 puteum 347 putrire 400 potius 74 pr:e 14 pr£E-28 prjeber(e) 24? prsecoca 376 praeda 209 prsedestinare 28 prsEdiscer(e) 242 pro 14. 250 prendiderunt 426 prendo 250 prensi 429 prensio 37 posmeridianus 285 posse 126 (3). 429 Position 160-4 positus 238. 384-6 Possessive 60. 397. qu 223. 79. pos(t)quam 11. por 14 porcellus yj pregnax cf.) 367 pugnus 172 (2) pulvus 347. etc. 440 cf. 254 qu k. 403 (i) Possessives: see Pronouns posso 403 postea 275 (i) prensus 441 Prepositions 76-81. 401. 383-95 Demonstrative 61-8 Indefinite 71.28 prebiter 300 Interrogative 7o> 69- quadraginta 142. 370 punctus 440 puni poni 203 = presium 277 pressi 429 pressorium 37 pressura 37 pressus 441 presta 210 presteti 139 frete 300 punidor 39 punxi 429 pupillabus 358 puplu 309 pup(p)a 163 pure 40 puritas 37 purpura 145. 394 quamta 306 quan 305 Digitized by Microsoft® . 429 quiestus 436. 186. 332 purpureticum 1S7 putator = po. 285 posturus 238 postus 238 Post-Verbal Nouns 21 posueram 285 posuet 244 posui(t) 285 403-5. 300 presbyterum 148 provitus435. 285 Present 120 for Future 126 ptisana 145 pudicicia 276 (i) Stems 273. 395 prandium 272 pranzo 272 pre. 41 5> 416-9 presentis (nom. 85-g presbyter 148. 254 qua 82 > promptulus 39 430 prsstus 376 Pronouns 59-71. 259 quadra(l)nta 380 qua(9'ro 283 quKSi 426.

71 = quod 282 quum r : > cum 226 repositorium 37 reprehensus 250 requeerere 25. 139 retenet 139 retere questor 210 questus 210 quetus 225 qui 69. 350. 200 redft 423 redivit quannu 281 = Win. 281 quinque 172 Quintrio quippe 1 quique 71 (i). retundus 229 (6) reuuardent 344 139 reve(r)sus 291 reversus sumrz reverti 410 revolutio 37 rexi 297. 221 Development of New Quantity 176-7 Disappearance of Old Quantity 173-5 Doubtful Quantity 166 Length before Consonants 170-2 Position 160-4 refusare 17 re(g)alis quiritare 229 quis 69. 379 quel 393 quejus 393 quoque quot quot n Repetition 40. 380 reculons 40 reddedi 31. replenus 23 55. 223 quia 82. 379 quattordecim 379 quat(t)ro 226. 350 = -it 285 remasit 311 Remidium 272 remissa 37 (-ta) ren^gat 139 renum reg. no. 309 querceus 39 quercinus 39 querel(l)a 42 rama (pi. 139 redempsi 429 redemti 313 Digitized = rectum igS by Microsoft® . 82.) 361 ramenc 37 (-incus) rancura 42 ranucula 42 rap(i)dus 239 rasl restitueram 285 restivus 39 resurge(n)s 311 retenere 31. 71 rabies 319 radius 272 rainante = reg. 71. no quooperta = co. 71. 259. rectus 440 32.28 retro (r) sum 291 = = redpit 139 recolli(g)endo 259 Recomposition 31. 168 429 = reddere 286 rasio = ratio 277 ratio 277 retina 17 retro 81 razzo 272 re. 355 (2) res nata 13.quoniam 14. 449 responduntur 449 responsi 429 raggio 272 que(m) 309 quen 305. 393 re(g)ina 259 regis -es 244 = quisque 71 quisquis 71 Unaccented Vowels 221 174.23. 219.269 Vowels in Hiatus 167-9 quomodo 14. quodlubet 220 regnancte 267 regnum 172 (2) Relatives : see Pronouns reli (n) quat 306 relinque 282.1 Index. 74 12. 71. 71 quare 12. 139 requEerit 139 rs see Liquids >• ss 291 requebit 225 res 10. 82. 82 quarranta 142. 393 qui quia 82 qui ky 187.344 = -bit 318 263 Quantity 159-77. 380 quase 244 quasi 83.269 respondere 399. quo 73 quo = quod 282 quoad 11 quod 14. no. 429 rhetor 335 rhetorissare 33 richesse 341 rictu quiaeti 209 quicumque 71 quid 350 quidem 11 recubitus yj (-ta) quiensces 311 quietus 225 quin II quinqua(gi)nta 142. 244 quat(t)or 226. 25 recapitulare 25 retro. quando 14. 245.254 guages 1 74-5 > = quantu(m) 309 quantus 12. 82. 82 comodo 226 Vowel Length 165-77 Words from Other Lan.

(3) = 229 salbum3i7 salii scrivano 359 scultor 313 se 422.igS 399 409 sacritus rigna 198 rikitia 341 Jiimini 86 SidxpiTos 272 sseculum (masc. 428 satis 74 sem 419 (i) Semele 359 semita 239 semo 419 (i) : see Sibilants final s in ist pers.) 372 salvage 229 (3) salvatico 229 (3) salvaticus 229 (3) secu(n)do 306 secuntur 254 sed II. 347 rogavo = -bo 318 ro(g)itus 259. (stlis) riges = re. 419 roubSn rs > 36. 230 sy 275 scy. 14 sed-= se 229 (4) 429 rosum = ros 356 rosus 441 (3) sanctissimus 377 san(c)tus 172 (i).) 349 scripit 312 (i) scrips! 315. 201 (2) senape 184 senatus (2d decl.) 349 sffipes sepes saeps 209.314 rivocaverit 229 (2) sagma 19. Saguntum 338 saine 42 saini 267 sltlbaiec (fern. 441 saltern 11 salticulare 35 secatus 435.) 355 (i) sine 201 sene -sa 37 (-ta) sabbatizare 19 scaplas 234 sablum 233 sacra 376 Sca(u)rus 211 scena 182 (i) = sacramentum 231 359 sacristano 359 sacrista -anis- schema 19 schernire 341 schiatta 343 schietto 343 senex 12 senper 306 semita 239 senta sentam 416 sententem 416 = Digitized by Microsoft® . 429 440 scriptum 315 scri(p)tus 313. pi. 428 = si 229 (4) = sit 419 (2) = sibi 201 ^ 419 (i) roborem 347 robur 9. xi Roman Empire p.) 368 419 (i) sel 160 selinum 150 sappia 272 sapui 426. 440 secula 200 (3) Romanice 40 Romanu -pos 38 rosi (nom. sauma 26S scabia 355 (2) scsena 182. 324 rivaticus rip. 34r. salivi 428 440 J^= sead sebe salma 268 salsi 428. 398 398 ss 291 36. ssy. 210 scalciare excalceare 230 scandalizare 19 445 initial s + cons. sty. 267 sedano 335 sed(e)cim 239 sedere seditur 399 = esse 402. 367 SiEpia 182 saginae 42 = 284 Sagitta 37 (-ittus) ripidus 39 scloppus 284 scopulus 38 scorlare excor. rubare nibeus 319 sandal 330 sanguem 370 sanh 267 sapcha 272 sapere 402 sedui 428 sedutus 441 signavi 424 segnai = rugiada 356 nira35r ru(r)sum 291 russum 291 rutare 34 s (3) segolo 200 (3) sei sapiam 272 sapidus 39 sapienti (pi. : 429 Romance Territory p.Index. 435 salitus 436.230 scriba -anis 359 = rigueza 341 risi 429 risus 441 rius 241. x : salsus 440. 341.268. = sa = ipsa 392 semper semper 74 sempre 245 semul 201. ridSre rideri 213 schioppo 284 sclitib.

scy. 277 servitude 37 ses servire = spacium 276 spallere 337 sive II = es 419 (i) (i) skena 341 skern6n 341 skiuhan 343 slahta 343 sleht 343 spandere exp. 233 sepelitus 436. 445 initial s 4. soluit sic nants 264 Sicilianus 39 solus 395 solutus 438 solvitus 438.229 (7) serpentinus 37 = = 428 simus 220. 244. = secretins 256 347 sonatus 435 sons 419 (i) Sophia 146 -sor 37 sorcerus = sortiarius 39 s^bat 323 serbus 317 Serios Sergius 272 serore so.) 395 solsi s 161 429 440 224 sepes 209 sepia 146.z\ sofferire sparsus 441 spasmus 144 spat (h) a 332 spat(u)la 12.ig8 439 siede 419 (1) soma 268 somas 419 (i) sona 2ona 338 septrum 260 septuazinta 339 septum 209 sepulchrum 251 sequere 406 sequire 406 serbare 323 siem 419 (2) siete 419 (i) siffatto 264 siffler 318 (2) sifilus 318 (2) = signum-us 172 sigricius silevit 422. 439.230 Spania 230 = Spanus 230 sparsi 429 J« 419 sest = est 419 (i) set = est 419 (i) set = sed 282 seta 209 setaceus 39 setis = estis 419 (i) 229 385 (4) settembres 313 seus suus 387 soaru 295 soave 224 sobreus 224 socera 37 soc(e)rum 232. 213 soricem 42. 219. 221. 38.cons. 337 sinatus 228 (-arius) sordidius 377 sorex 42. etc. 18 sol(i)dus 237 230 separare seperare 231. 182 seppia 182 sepsies 277 z : see Greek Conso- soltus 438. 201 sinexter 201 (3) -sic 37 sirena 356 (3) sis si vis 324 -sorium ^y -sorius 39 soro(r) 295 sous = suus 167. sibi 219.230 = 406 si 14. soliculus 13. si sol 13 = sibi spehon 343 spelunca 329 siam 419 (2) siamus 419 (2) sibe 219. 244 solacium 276 sola mente 41 solatium 276 solbere 317 spene^SS (2) speni from spes 355 (2) speramus = -avimus 424 sperantia 37 Digitized by Microsoft® . sibl 201. 184.419 (1) sinapis -e -i 38. 441 solia 323 224 sentor . 213 serra = sera 247 serutinus 16 servare 323 sine 95. sy. 429 sentitus 436. 233 soef 2. septa (gi)nta 380 septe(m) 309 sidibus = se. solbit sentia 421 sentii 42S. ssy.^'j final s 298. 385 385 Sibilants 297-302. 387 sozer 154 servicium 276 323 servisium 277 servitium 276. sty. 244. (2).214 senii 298 Index. 150. 234 speca spica 200 (3) = speclarait spectante = -avit 424 = exp. 83. 440 ss > 275 solingo 37 (-incus) solo (dat.

84 440 440 strinxi 429 strofa 334 stropa 334 stroppus 186 strinctus strictus for Verbs 33-6 Greek Endings 36.) 355 (i) splorator stnicere 417 215 sumus 220.26 superabundare 26 superfacere 26 superstitis (nom. 419 (2) sublimus 376 429 su(r)sum 291 surtus 440 sus = suus 226.230 spoliatur = -or 244 structus 440 straere 417 strugere 417 spo(n)sus 171 spontaneus 39 squarciare 276 ss s 161 strumentum = inst. spes 355 (2) spiritus (2d decl. 38 tamen 11. 231-g Synonyms 12 Syntax 50-130 t : (nom. 332 Syncope 219. 90.230 struxi 429 stupescere 35 > staacio 276 stablarius 231 stagnum (masc. 387-8 submonsus 439.230 stais stup(p)a 163 suabitati 318 5uadel(l)a 42 suavis 224 Suavitta 37 (-ittus) sub. 430 sietti 426 stetul 426.) 349 stahu 397 397 stait 397 stantia= inst. 415. 428. 229. 419 (i) suora 295 sues 138 super 80. 39 for Adv. 441 sus(s)um 291 sutis sursi Stephanus 183 steti 426.) 367 stlataris 284 stlis 284 stloppus 284 storax 187 stren(n)a 163 stren(n)uor 164 Stress : see Accent stirpis see Dentals ty 276-7 sud=sub3i5 sufferit 406 -ta37 tab(u)la 236 tactus 440 suffertus 435.) 367 sulphurem 347. 96 super. 38 suis (nom. 388 -sus 37.26 subaudire 26 subcludere 26 stao 397 stare 397 stasio 277 static subcumbere 32 Subjunctive 117-g for Imper. 403. 397.Index. 116 for Indie.26 suprafacere 26 supra 245 -sura 37 Surd Sonant: see Voicing = exp.) 367 Supine 103 sup(p)ra 164 sup(p)remis 164 supra. 441 subornatris 255 subplantare 32 sy=ty277 sycotum 141 Syllabication 131-3 = Stella = 198 stingo 226 -stinxi 429 stipes stips 367 subsannare 26 Substitution of subterranus 42 subtus 81 suc(c)us 163 suceroni 362 Words 13 symphonia 146. 330 talis 71 strlban 341 for Adj. 440 Suffixes 33-42 Cbange of Suffix 42 talentum 149. 410 Plup. 428. 405. 41 for Nouns 37. 430 steva 200 (3) stilla 419 (i) suus 60. 14. 117 > 277 status 438 397 staunt 397 stegola zoo stel(l)a 163 siaii (3) Imperfect 118 Perfect 119. 118 Pres. = Iniperf. 40. 369 sumpsi 29S sumptus 308 tan 306 tanctus 440 tanger(e) 242 tantu(m) 309 tantus 71 tanxl 429 tapinus 144 Digitized by Microsoft® .

399 trapalium 16 tres 379 tergum -us 347 termen 356 (3) terminaciones 2 76 terra (m) 309 tersi toreomatum 191 -torium 37 -tonus 39 torma = tu. 71. 331 timor (fern. -anis 359 = tibi 385 -tiacum 277 tibe 244 ti tractatus 9 tractus 440 tradedit 31.292 -tim 40 timbre 187.2l6 tapis 182 tapit 182 Index.) 74 tous thensaurus 311 — tuus 387 Trogar=-jae 259 Troja 170 Digitized by Microsoft® .259 tragere 417 trahere 417 = tempaccio 39 tempesta 356 (3) templus 347 timpuri 369 tinctus 440 tinge 226 tinguere 226 tins -^^ census trans. 299 transannare 26 tra(ns)duco 299 tra(ns)jicio 299 260 tra(ns)luceo 299 tra(ns)mitto 299 tempo 298 tempus 13 tenit 244 tinxi 429 -tic n transplantare 26 tra(ns)pono 299 tra(ns)tulo 299 ten(n)uis 164 Titius 277 Tivoli 86 tra(ns)veho 299 traps 315 trasporre 299 travis (nom.204(2). 407 theios 333 toto (dat.) 346 timoratus 39 Tragani (2) = Traj. 318 taurellus 37 taxi 429 telebra ter. 347 threscan 342 tra. 407 -tas 37 tasso 342. 380 trinitas 429 tarsus 441 -Tt\% 38 testa 13 tetrus 376 428 tortus 440 tot 71 tot trinta tris 37 380 taxui 428 204 (2) texutus 440 thahso 342.208 tonsus 441 toll(e)re 429 trebus 201 trei = tres 379 298 trei Teodor 332 -ter 40 tardus 276 Terentio = treis 177 tremulat 235 trepaliare 33 = -us 298 tergSre 399 -tor 37 torcere 399 torco 226.163. 440 239 tollitus 435. 424 tristus = tres 395 -trix 37 trobaire 37 (-tor) totum (adv.26. 289 Tricassas 151 trienta 259 tri(g)inta 142. 198 376 triumphaut 241.208 tomus 186 torqu(e)o 226. 325. 139 tibi 221.) 367 traxi Tense 120-30 tensi 429 tensura 13 tensus 441 t^nueram 137 tenui 42S tenutus 438.208 tonatus 435 tondere 399 tonica tu. 299 trabucare 26 tracere 417 tap(p)ete 162 tarde 40 tarir 342. 259.) 395 tot(t)uS 12. 343 tharrjan 342. 399 torsi trescar 342 trib(u)la 235. 352 tribuna(l) 242. 244. Theophilus 333 thesaurizare 19 thesaurus -um 189.26. 439 tolsi 428. 343 tata 16 . 385 traducir 299 traduire 299 Tatius 277 tatus 16 taula 236. 429 tolui 428 tomolus =: tumu.

244 in hiatus 222-6 uo >• o 226 uu u 226 o 225 u(5 uu u 226 Uranus 193 urbis (nom. 220 ui 216 unaccented 219. 430 urps 297.316 -tulus turn = tuum 226. 206-8. 14. > -clus 234 388 Vowels unde 10. 387-8 ty 276-7 ty ty > cy 277 > sy 277 uno (dat. 220 -ugo 37 (-ago) ui 216 V see Labials vacuus 42 195 (6). 84. 356 (3) vea via 201 = vecere = veh-4i7 -e 364 -tus 37 (-ta). 57. 378. 187. 2c6 u 208 u ii o 165. 326 u 178. 440 venui 428. 228. 284 vedea 421 = ve^ere 283 vef 226 vegere = veh-4i7 uobit = obiit > ve(he)inens 250 vehere 417 vel II velle 126 (3). III -uta 37 (-ta) verbex = vervex 323 Verb Forms see Conjugation Use 72. 440 unire 34 Tuscanus 39 iuito 204 (2) tuttus 204 (2) tuus 226. 315. 187. 71. 367 veni 428.298. 42. 393 undecim 166. 379 -undus 39 ungo 226 unguere 226 unicornis 44 unigenitus 44 vaqua = vacua 223 vaqui vacui 223 vastare 344 vanitare 34 = 187 tuos 138 -tura 37 turrensis 39 turri tumum vasus -um 347. -ura 37. 349 * verecundia 231 verecunnus 281 Inflection: > > > utrum II. 430 > > -urem 346 (3) veninum 42 venire 126 (5) venitus 436. Troyes 151 tructa 38. 70. 403 vendita 37 (-ta) 177 u 165.) 367 vendutus 438 vene bene 316 = urbs 12. 101-30 Verbs : see Verb Forma verbus 347. 217 vadere 126 204 (2) -tudo 37 iuii 204 (2) tul£runt 450 tucti > -ellus 42 40 -um vallensis 39 : Unaccented Vowels see valneas = ba. 440. 82. 438. 222.Index. o 226 vecinus 229 (4) vedus 234. 223 : vernac(u)lus 234 vemum tempus 13 ve(r)sus 291 vertragus 19 Digitized by Microsoft® . 185 trutina 187 tu 60 -ula 37 (-ulus) Ulixes 187 ultra 166 -ulus 37. etc.) 429 -unt -ent 449 unus 10.315 usare 34 Use Use Use of of Cases 85-100 of Inflections 85-130 Words 54-84 venuta 37 (-ta) venutus 436. 243. 285 Valinca 37 (-Incus) .) 244 178. 438. 297. 14. 42 accented 206-8 u 206-7 ii>-u 165. 39 (5). 73. 208 u cons. 192. 206.395 unu(s) 29S unxi 429 U(5 >• o 225 uo unacc. 441 uu unacc. u 226 uuadius 344 > -uus > -itus 42 -udo ii > -umen 42 uxo(r) 295 uxore (abl. 440 ver 13 usque hodie 47 ustium 202 Ut II. 229 (5). 438. 192. 405 vadum 344 -us 347 valde 237 vaUa(t) 224. 206. 83 ubi 73 -uc(c)us 37 (-icca) -uculare 35 -uculus 42 -utus 39.

429 vinti 380 vincisti Intert. 284 videderunt 426 video 272-3. vinus 347 Clerical Pronun. 416 vistus 441 visus 441 vitellus Breaking 177 = 37 vitium 278 vitricus 13 Vowels 179 Close and Open 165 Differentiation 165 Celtic = vit(u)lus 234 vivus 324 vius = German Vowels 179 Greek Vowels 180. 440 warjan 344 voluntate (nom. 321 volatilia 37 volemus 403 (2) w (Ger. 239 vibi = bibi 318 iiibit 316 vibit victore (nom. 240-5 in hiatus 222-7 Init. 439 voster 199 (i). 228-30 259 34 vi(gi)nti 142. Syl. by Microsoft® . 429 = vixit 255 cf. 430. 441 vixutus 440 vobis 385 cf. Syl. 428 . 430 vido vidutus 438.) 344 volere velle 403 (2) w (Latin) 224 voles 403 (2) Waddo 344 volestis 403 (2) wadum 344 volimus 403 (2) wahta 343 volon 39 (-undus) walde 344 volsi 429 Wandali 344 voltus 438.197 -ea 224 vinia vinsi 428.) 349 314. 285. 255. 428 vixi 255. 407 volutus 438 wastare 344 = ^ = = volvitus 438.201 viaticum 8. 318 . 428 in words borrowed by other languages 1 74-5 Latin Vowels 178 Position 160-4 videre 72. 439 Penult 232-9 vac. 231 (6) vocatus 435.) 367 victualia 18. 221 Unaccented 219-45 (6) Vocabulary 6-49 vocatio videunt 416 vidi 428. 13.2l8 vervex 323 ves(s)ica 162 vestibat Index. 416. vivacius 377 vixcit = vixit 255 cf. + vezem 445 vezzo 278 -vui 428 -vi via 167. 19 vulnus (masc. 283. 286. 387 vovis vobis 318 cf . Vulgar Words 15. 195 vocitus Final Syl.195 = video 416 vidui = vidi 428. 231 vettovaglia 154 vetulus 12. Quantity 165-77. 272-3. 259. 385 Vowels 136-8. 358' villabus 358 Vincentzus 277 426 vinctus 440 vincui 428 vincutus 440 vindemiator 224 vindico 239 vindimia 197 vindo = v6. 165-245 watan werra = . 284 vetus 13 video 272-3 veyo virginem 233 vir(i)diaria 237 vir(i)dis 237 vir(i)dura 18.) 367 warnjan 36. 285. 380 vilescere villa 10.285.195 (6) vocuus Quantity 221 Voice 1 12-4 Vulgar Latin 3. 218 Diphthongs 209-16 420 vetatus 435 vet(e)ranus 219.93 in hiatus 136-8. 439. 428. 438. 12. cf. 167-9 . 234. 441 viduus 226 vieni 177 vig(i)lat 430 Vocative 87 vocitus = vacuus 42. 4 Voicing 256-7. 428. 429 vixi(t) 285 . 37 victurias 203 vic(u)lus'234. 297. 37 viror 37 virtus 10 vlscui visit Influence of Labials 217 Single Vowels 194208 before gn 172 (2) before j 170 before n fricative 171 before nk 172 (i) = = vixi 428. Accented 194-218 Digitized 344 344 werrarius 39 werrizare 33 wi^arlon 342 19. 19. = vac.

Wintrio 344 wlsa 344 witan 36. 255. 339 Digitized by Microsoft® .272 ymnus 251 zerax = liierax 339 zosuin=deorsum 339 Zouleia= Julia 272.277 Zogenes = Dio. 266 y (Greek) 187 y (Latin) 224 zagante 229 (3) zampogna 332 zanuari = ja.344 z 246 zabul(l)us zes 219 zacones zaconus ~ dia.339 = dies 272 = Jesu 272. 339 zeta = diseta 339 zie = die 272 Zesu zins 260 ziziper 312 (i) X 246.272.339 zebus = die. 398 Word Order 50-3 wost.339 = dia.339 Zefurus 187 zelosus 339 2» 333 Zodorus = Theo. 339 = dia.Index.

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .