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U. PUBLISHERS 1907 by Microsoft® . C. HEATH & Digitized CO. H. GRANDGENT Fbofbssor of Romance Languagss in Harvahd University BOSTON.I)eatb'5 flDot>ern tHanduage Qctics AN INTRODUCTION VULGAR LATIN BY C. A.. D. S.

Heath & Co. 1907. Digitized by Microsoft® .V^-^5 3J( Copyright. C. By D.

somewhat scanty as compared with the other It will be seen that I have continually furnished abundant references for the guidance of those topics. it be of some interest to has been long in the Classical scholars as well. furthermore. to treat all portions of the subject. graphy. abreast of current scholarship. others are cited in the appropriate places in the C. Digitized byiUicrosoft® . but with even fulness I fear. PREFACE. not exhaustively. that the is Syntax — perhaps unavoidably parts. however. "^^HILE this book is intended primarily for students of it will. I hope. have tried. who wish to look further into special My principal authorities are listed in the Bibliotext. I Philology. H. Romance making.— . Grandgent. have endeavored to keep I at every stage. Although it.

Words used alike in Classic and in Vulgar Latin Words used differently in Classic and in Vulgar Latin . and Pronouns Prefixes used with Verbs Suffixes Suflixes for Suffixes for Verbs Nouns Adverbs iv Digitized 18-23 Suffixes for Adjectives Suffixes for 23-25 25-26 27-28 Change of Suffix by Microsoft® . xi x xi xiii-xvi ..TABLE OF CONTENTS..... with Abbreviations PHONETIC ALPHABET and Other Symbols X. Adjectives. .. ^ . 6-29 6-12 6 7-8 7 ..... 8-9 Synonyms Substitutes. . . .. Pages MAPS The Roman Empire The Neo-Latin Territory in Europe BIBLIOGRAPHY. Sense Restricted Sense Extended .. xvii INTRODUCTION i-S VOCABULARY WoBDS. 7-8 Words used in Classic but not in Vulgar Latin ... AND Their Meanings... 9 9-10 10 10-12 Ii>-i2 Particles Words used in Vulgar but not in Classic Latin Native Words Foreign Words I2 Uerivation Post-Verbal Prefixes 13-29 Nauru .. . 13 13-16 13-14 14-16 16-28 16-17 Prefixes used with Nouns. ^ .

Gerund Gerundive .Table of Contents. Adjectives Pronouns- Verbs Adverbs Fiepositions 28-29 29 20 Conjunctions SYNTAX Order of Words Use of Words Nou»s and Adjectives Comparison Numerals Pronouns Personal and Possessive Pronouns Demonstratives Interrogatives and Relatives Indefinite . Compounds v Pages 28-29 28 28 28 28 Nouns . 30-59 30-32 32-41 32-34 33 33-34 34-38 Pronouns 34 35-36 36-37 37-38 38 ^^38-39 Verbs Adverbs Prepositions 39-41 ^ Conjunctions 41 Use of Inflections Cases 42-59 42-48 42-43 43 43-44 Locative Vocative Genitive Dative Ablative 44-4S 45-47 48^ Accusative Fall of Declension Verb-Forms Impersonal Parts Supine 48 48 48-51 48—49 '. . . Future Active Participle Digitized 49 49 49 by Microsoft® .

Greek Paroxytones Greek Proparoxytones Other Foreign Words Secondary Stress Unstressed Words 64 64-65 65-66 66 66-67 67-68 68-77 68-70 71-77 Quantity Position Vowel Quantity Vowels in Hiatus Lengthening before Consonants Disappearance of the Old Quantity Development of a New Quantity 72-73 73-75 75-76 76-77 77-104 78-82 82-gi Vowels Greek Vowels Accented Vowels Single Vowels 82-87 82-83 Digitized o by Microsoft® .vi Table of Contents. Illic Ficatum Numerals Greek Words Greek Oxytones . Pages Present Participle Perfect Participle Infinitive 5° 50 5°~5I 51-52 Voice Mood Imperative Subjunctive 52-54 52 5^-54 54-59 54-5^ Tense The Perfect Tenses Future and Conditional 5^59 60-143 60-61 61-68 61-66 61-62 62-63 63 63 64 64-66 PHONOLOGY Syllabication Accent Primary Stress Vowels in Hiatus Compound Verbs Iliac.

before Front Vowels and G before Back Vowels and G Final and before Consonants . Q. 104-143 106-137 106-107 107-114 109-112 112 C and G Q.... . ^ »" I o 84 84-85 85-86 H u 86 86-87 87 a Diphthongs te 88-90 88-89 89-90 au eu ce ui Influence of Labials Clerical Latin 90 90 90 91 91 Unaccented Vowels 91-104 in Unaccented Vowels Initial Syllable Hiatus 93-96 96-98 98-99 99-102 102-104 Intertonic Syllable Penult Final Syllable Consonants Latin Consonants Aspirate Gutturals .. 11 2-1 14 Palatals Dentals Liquids 114-118 118-121 121-124 121-123 123-124 L R Sibilants 124-126 127-132 132-137 Nasals Labials P Digitized 132-133 by Microsoft® . e vii Pages 83-84 84 .Table of Contents..

T e. Pages B F V . *.viii Table of Contents. Adjectives Personal Pronouns Possessives Demonstratives Interrogative Indefinite 162-163 163-164 165 165 and Relative Pronouns Pronouns and Adjectives Verbs The Four Conjugations First Conjugation 166-187 166-170 166-167 167 Second Conjugation Third Conjugation Fourth Conjugation Fundamental Changes in 167-170 170 Inflection 170-173 Digitized by Microsoft® . 133-13S 13s i3S-'37 137 137—141 u Greek Consonants B. and Sibilants Z Germanic Consonants 141-143 144-187 144-161 144-147 144 145-146 146-147 MORPHOLOGY NotJNS AND Adjectives Gender Masculine and Feminine Masculine and Neuter Feminine and Neuter Declension of Nouns First Declension 147—156 149-151 Second Declension Third Declension Loss of Declension Declension of Adjectives 151-152 152—156 156 157-158 158-159 159-161 161-165 161-162 Comparison Numerals Pronouns and Pronominai. A 138 138 138-139 140 140-141 K. r. Nasals. X Liquids. n.

Strong Perfects Pluperfect and Future Perfect Perfect Participle 177-180 180-182 183 Personal Mndings 183-185 186-187 189-219 INDEX Digitized by Microsoft® .Table of Contents. Inchoative Venbs ix Pages Present Stems Imperfect Perfect 173-174 174-176 176-177 177-182 » Weak Perfects .

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Claussen. Digitized b)microsoft® . Carnoy. Cohn : G. Le latin de Grigoire de Tours. A Latin list of and incorrect spellings. 1890. Mllanges Boissier 5-9. D'Arbois: H. 1905. A volume of mis- Bayard : L. S. in Romor nische Forschungen XV. Die Suffixwandlungen im Vulgdrlatein und im vorlittera- im NeufranzSsischen. G. Per. Bausteine: Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie. Vol. I. W. I. Wiener Studien XIV.. L. : Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. -Carnoy: A. Leipzig. Corssen. La dlclinaison en Gaule d. 1891. Archiv : Archiv filr lateinische Lexicographie und Crammatik mit Einschluss des dlteren Mittellateins. Le latin d'Espagne d'aprh les inscriptions. Mussafia. 2^ ed. A. Cooper: F. Cohn. Cf. <J la chronologic du latin vulgaire. : 1902-03. Cf. Bonnet. Corssen : W. Die griechischen Wbrter im Franzosischen. M. : Part — — . mlrovingienne. i). Melanges Renier 301-309. Bechtel. Defixionum Tabellae. C. 774. I. Chronologie : F. 1904. 1899. New ed. Romanische Forschungen VII. Heraeus. cellaneous studies issued in honor of A. 278 ft. : correct- Die Appendix Probi. 1902. AudoUent. Densusianu. Le latin de saint Cyprien. Manuel pour servir h Vltude de I'antiquiti celtique. Ueber Aussprache.. 1906. 1895. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. 145 ff.. Audollent: A. Silviae Peregrinatio. Vocalismus und Betonung der rischen Franzosisch nach ihren Spuren lateinischen Sprache. ed. Bechtel: E. BIBLIOGRAPHY WITH ABBREVIATIONS. possibly as early as the third century. Bayard.T. 1863 1893 Claussen T. d'Arbois de Jubainville. Pr. 1902.Cooper. Word Formation in the Roman Sermo Plebeius. Histoire de la langue roumaine. 1872. 1868-70. Dottin. Dottin: G. (Vol. Quarterly. Bon. Introduction 1899. Mohl. 1901.Pipoque Densusianu: O. App.

W. Romanen und Germanen in ihren Wechselbeziehungen. Hoppe: H. 2d 1878. XXII. Grundriss der romanischen Philologie. Rydberg. . Kluge F. Foerster and E.. Grammaire des langues romanes. Zs. : century. XXVI. Goelzer. Draeger. 2d ed. Haag. 1896 — Futurum G. KofEmane : G. Hetzer. Dubois. et prononciation du latin savant et du latin popu- 1882.. XIV BlBIJOGRAPHY. Franz. Dubois A. Korting: G. 2d ed. Die lateinisch-romanischen Elemente im Althochdeutschen. Foerster and E. Made in France in the eighth Reich. Entstehung und Entwickelung des Kirchenlateins.. 1890vols. Keil: H. Facere G. 1903. : : Hammer in Grundriss I^. 1884. 1892. ed. -Grundriss : G. Historische Syntax der lateinischen Sprache. Kluge. 2 1902.. 1904 Haag : O. £don. 157. : : P. Gl. H. Cassel : II. Koschwitz. 1903. Keil. Gl. 1857-1880. Lateinisch-romanisches Wdrterbuch. in Archiv saint Jlrome. 1894. in France. 569. W. Meyer-Liibke.. G. Kbrting. Thielmann. Einf . Rydberg. in the eighth Cf. Franz : 1883. Cf. of Vol. Draeger: A. EinfUhrung in das Studium der romanischen les Sprachwissenschaft. 1893. Franz. Eckinger. 498.. W. Habere mit dem et Infinitiv und die Entstehung des la latiniti de romanischen Futurums. Edon: G. Le developpement de facere dans langues romanes... Reviewed by G. Reichenauer Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. Koff mane. — 1888- M. 1901. Hammer. P. . 1898. a: Zur Geschichte des franzosischen 3. K. Die Latinitdt Fredegars. 1901. Made. 48. 1902. Koschwitz. Grbber. 1879Digitized by Microsoft® . I. 1902. Die locale Verbreitungfriihester romanischer Lautwandlungen im. 641 7. Beiheft Gram.: 1900. : W. ed. probably 521 ff. 3 vols. 2d ed. £E. alten Italien. W. Eckinger T. Hoppe. Syntax und Siil des Tertullian. Die Orthographie lateinischer Worter ingriechischen : : Inschriften. Grammatici Latini. : Meyer-Liibk'e. £criture laire. Etude lexicograpkique grammaticale de Kasseler Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. La latiniti d'Ennodius. Paris in Rom. jd or ninth century. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. Die Reichenauer Glossen in Zs.

Pass. Pers. 1897. 1900. J. Lexique F. with special reference to the Latin Sermo Vulgaris. Pirson. Olcott : G. Olcott. Geyer. See Bechtel. E. lateinischen und romanischen Lehnworte im Altenglischen : II. 1899. G. Gamurrini. Quomodo lingua latina usus S. Pirson: J. Lindsay: W.XXX). Substantives Word Formation of the Latin Inscrip- and Adjectives. Fortsetzung. : : Ltblt. De latinitate libelli qui inscriptus est Peregrinatio loca sancta. Neumann Franz Neumann. 1892. G. Spr. . sit Quillacq : : J. T. PI. 1898.'i>(eue. Mohl. Thielmann.. Neue: Formenlehre der lateinischen Sprache. xv W. Pogatscher A.S. Cf. 372. in Itinera hierosolymitana saculi Written probably in the latter part of the fourth century by an ignorant nun. Vokalismus der Tonsilben. Pogatscher. : Leipzig. 1901. H. Le viritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. Mohl. 1892-1902. Perf Per. lat. Quillacq. in Grundriss V. A. Ang^ade. Hilarii Tractatus de Mysteriis et Hymni et S. in P. 1898. Oliver: A^Oliver. 509: Peregrinatio iiii-viii. 451. and S. Silvice Aquitanm 1898. du frangais prilittiraire. Pr. 'P. Lebreton J. auf Aussprache und Recht- schreibung beziiglichen Eigenthiimlickkeiten in den Inschriften aus Gallia Narbonensis. Archiv II. The Latin Language.. Meyer-Lubke.Bibliography. I goo. 1905. Observations on the Use of Certain Prepositions in to the Petronius with special reference Part. Loth J. Ferotin. Ronsch. Habere mit dem Part. . Studies in the tions. Hilarius. 1888. 1894. Silvia AquitancE Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. : P. 1887. Regnier. : F. 1888. M. M. Teil. Regnier: A. Etudes sur la langue et la grammaire de Ciciron. : Roman Sermo Plebeius. ad 367 ff. Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. Zur Lautlehre der griechischen. : LiteraturblattfUrgermanischeundromanischePhilologie. Perf. Wolfflin in Archiv IV. Btudes sur le lexique du latin vulgaire. J. S. Marchot. N. 1869. Petite phonltique Phon. P. ad loca sancta. 259. Die lateinische Sfrache in den romanischen : Landern. 1903. De la latinitl des Sermons de saint Augustin. Lebreton. Loth. La premiire personne du pluriel en gallo-roman. Cf. R. 1901. 1886. : La langue des inscriptions de la Gaule. t^ Verzeichniss der ed. Monthly. Itala und Vulgata. Lindsay. Digitized by Microsoft® . perhaps from Spain. Les mots latins dans les langues brittoniques. ed. : 1 901.

138. Suchier. 116. 125. 1890. 1902. Spr. 1&&2.nn&r. in Grundriss P. Zs. in Studi Medievali I. Grammatik der lateinischen Sprache. Beitrdge zu einer Darstellung der romanischen Elemente im Latein der Historia Francorum des Gregor v. IV. 1885. Wblfflin. 424. 3 vols. Der Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. Sepulcri. VII. 371. Zs. XII. Seelmann. numbers a year. 234. Bibliography. VI. Vok. III. Petronius. Chemnitz and Leipzig. 117. 371. Paris. Le alterazioni fonetiche e morfologiche nel latino di Magno e del suo tempo. V. Zauner: A. Quarter- ly. Windisch: E. to Works the text. Vulgdrlateinische Substrate romanischer Worter. 1868. which only occasional reference is made are cited in full in Digitized by Microsoft® . 539. 1900. ^KvA. 453. I. XQ. Waters. Sittl: K. : Zur Entstehung der romanischen Wortstellung aus der lateinischen. H. Archiv I. Schuchardt. Substrate : G. Halle. Urbat. Die rumdnische Sprache. E. Windisch. 422. Som. Tours. 264. Four to sLx 1879. Quarterly. Grober. Cena Trimalchionis. 1 856-68. Notices et Extraits de divers manuscrits latins pour servir A fhistoire des doctrines grammaticales au moyen dge. Stolz: F. und Thurot : Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits de la Biblioth^que nationale et : attires bibliothiques Vol. 25. Romania. Die keltische Sprache. fr. : Zeitschrift fiir franzosische Sprache und Litteratur. Tiktin : : H. Charles Thurot. Lateinische und romanische Comparaiion. : Wolfflin : E. Paris. in 204. Vol. Die franzosische und provenzalische Sprache ihre Mundarten. 507. in Grundriss P. 276. Waters: W. Suchier: H. Die lokalen Verschiedenkeiten der lateinischen SpracAe. Die Ausprache des Latein nach physiologisch-historischen Grundsdtzen. : Zeitschrift Jur romanische Philologie. 377.. 171. Romanische Sprachwissenschaft. Sepnlcri : Gregorio A.: E. II. in Grundriss P. 1903. : S. 100. Urbat R. Tiktin.xvi Richter Elise Richter. Stolz. 564. Historische 1894.

. = the sound of e in French me. = the sound of ng in English long. The other marks and abbreviations employed are so generally accepted as to need no explanation. under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is close.PHONETIC ALPHABET AND OTHER SYMBOLS. vowel letter shows that the vowel is open. J) ii o. the source standing at the open end of the figure. q e. is conjectural. * (an asterisk) before a word shows that the form attested. the sound of German «. . S =z > the sound of in English i/iis. . =r bilabial /S v. Digitized by Micrqsoft® xvii . not >• indicates derivation. o = rounded the sound of German = the sound of th in English thin. whichever way it be turned. (an acute accent) after a consonant letter shows that the consonant is (a dot) • C '^ / (a hook)' under a palatal. SMALL CAPITALS mean that the forms so printed occur in inscriptions (but this indication is used only when for some special reason it seems desirable).c = the sound of ch in German ach. the sound of Spanish v and i/i *. (a semicircle) under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is not syllabic. := rounded i.

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Spain was made a province in 197. in adopted by Etruscans and by various n orthern Italy by Ligurians. and linguistic habits. Africa after Iberians. IHy- _rians . tEe bri fall "oO^thage in 146. civilizations. Celts. a little district on the is The Latin tongue was thus extended to many peoples. the Orient.AN INTRODUCTION TO VULGAR I._ Germanic and others still. The Latinization of these peoples was the work of several centuries^: by 272 b. Sardinia and Corsica in 238. X. The extent of the Roman Empire on p. originally the speech of shown by the map was Latium. I Digitized by Microsoft® . LATIN. the in 102-1. 'See Mohl. Sfr. pp. Aquitanians. Illyrians in^sou^hea^emjmd southwestern Italy respectively by and Greeks.. and quite cut off from the rest of the Latin-speaking world in the sixth. for the most part. in 50._Semites. Empire it has remained. Latin language never gained a foothold in Greece.n central j. Raetia in 15. j. and. Illyria was absorbed after 167. Throughout this territory the official language Latin. 451-455. tribes. political changes drove it in the rest of the from Great Britain.talyjt_was Italic tribes. Sicily became a province in 241. all Italy was subdued south of the Macra and the Rubicon. Celts. The and Teutones were destroyed was a province. representing different races. c. Lat. also Meyer-Lubke. Chronologie . D. Venetia cast her lot with Rome in 215. and Africa. northern Cim- Gaul Dacia was colonized in 107 A. beyond the peninsula it spread among Ligurians.. Tiber. forsaken in the third century. southern Gaul in 120.

considerable local dive^ences. moreover. Europe where Latin in its modern forms is now spoken. Spr. it blended more languages. and to some degree in the peninsula. nevertheless a few native words were kept. became more uniform. the resulting geographical dis- crepancies are manifest in early monuments. piimex. there were at all times. Africa. however. The before the Social War. The evidence of inscriptions and of grammarians indicates that from the beginning to the end of Roman history speech was constantly changing. Digitized may be Oscan. Italian nn : for nd. 464. Kff. but there doubtless were still noticeable differences in pronunciation and even in vocabulary. the alteration being most rapid in the earliest and the latest Furthermore. c. kindred At first there was sturdy resistance. The map on p. has always been in an unstable condition.2 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Latm. Pomex. alL southern Italy was under Oscan influence. but especially p^eriods. and has been carried thence to Amerand Asia. ilex are perhaps Umbrian possibly Etruscan Lat. [§ 2 until the present day. Chronologie 98-99.g2eaking peoples_ were not_ homogeneous. 2. 445. until the 90-89 B. etc. had a levelling and speech in Italy ^ See Chronologie 133 and I16-120. and Oscan was used in inscriptions until the first century of our era. The Social War. of Latium was adopted by tribes using. Oscan forms are ligud for and k for lege^ pru for pro^ ni for 'The is S. conflict of or less with the native idioms . elex for The Italian word zavorra by Microsoft® . that the language carried effect.^ When Latin conquered.'' In the outlying provinces. like every living language. in the main. and there must have been a variety of accent. and their In Italy the language §peech_reflected_their varied origin. and there was little or no mixture. xi marks the parts of ica. jfor : e. The Latin tongue. It should be remembered. Latin was simply substituted for foreign tongues.

t&L. 463-464. vowel is it Neither the dialect of the slums or of the us of not a few urban and rustic grammarians distinct tell vulgarisms that are not perpetuated in the It is Romance tongues. Republican and early Imperial times educated speech became highly^ artificial. throughout the Republic and the Empire. . ugper and that of the lower and^coiintry speech. Cf Cooper . _excegting ^reece andthe £entiiry after Christ. 3 i\2_ik^_J£X?. What wecalTVuIit gar Latin is the speech of the middle classes.from the everyday language on the other hand. Digitized by Microsoft® . Roman territory. 1 .. 3. under the Empire the variations probably came to be no greater than those /the^kter colonies a now to be found in the English of the British Empire. from the consciously polite utterance of cultivated society. %J3] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. was completelyTaFinized by the fourth "^ "" of With the beginnings culture and literature there came inevitably a divergence between the language of . . the common idiom. and from the slang of the lowest quarters of the city.the classes. not the primitive. Spr. the earlier acquisitions received a more popular. from the brogue of the country. drawing away . and is also between city Injatfi. while popular usage tends to quick change. as It is grew out of early Classic Latin. provinces was not identicial: it represented different chronological stages and different local dialects of jI^aUc^Latin .. We may say in general that the East. not an independent offshoot of Old Latin: system. more offtcial speech. though affected by all of these. XV-XXX.^ Vulgar Latin naturally developed differently in ^ * Cf Lai. Administration and ImiHtary service tended to obliterate distinctions. was constantly developing away from the archaic standard of elegant parlance. Literary influence conservative and refining.^ fields: it continues the Classic.

some to unknown reasons! WEy~" for instance. for African Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . If we compare that the latter find also a gre at sim plification of inflections. vedus).4 .^ The differentiatign.seventh century of our era. from about 200 b. until the dialects of distant localities became mutu^ ally unintelligible. as far as the levelling inEuence of schot^l and army is most sharply differentiated from Classic Latin when schools decayed „ . the universal inclination of language to diverge was reinforced by the original habits of the diverse speakers and by such peculiarities of native accent as hacl survived. roughly The speaking. some of which can be ascribed to an inclination to discard those parts of words that are not necessary for their identification (as vetulus when viridis. Sittl and Hammer.JLQmance languages _begin. such as articles and prepositions. we observe certain changes in pronunciation. we may put it. 492-497. period lasts. B. become virdis. Spr. due partly to phonetic but mainly to syntactic causes. tqa^bout -6oo . * For a history of the Latin language. Althou.^ any definite date must be arbitrary. suftseSWe 4. progressed. some to a tendency to assimi^tejmlike adjacent sounds (so ipse is spoken isse.A-P. . ai almost in iCf. inj^e^ixth Jix .ALjUus--poin-t we ~may_ say that Vulgar XiSi^ stops and the . Furthermore. see Lat. We rfote an. . then. we shall see was always tending to become more flexible and more explicit. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and the diphthong at is reduced to e). YjJgar Lsatijl.enormous development of modifying and determining words. Pirson and Carnoy also. being accelerated and the military organization was broken. in the last few centuries of this epoch. i6i._jjid an abundant use of prefixes and. Kiibler Archiv VIII. ^l^ various localities. c. some to a desire for differentiation (which lowers i to e to make it more remote from i ).^ Ctassic and VulgarXatin.

* Used by H. Grober. F6rotin. E. some . A.glossaries aDi. Seelmann. For a brief account of the Latin grammarians. 401. 551. and VII. 367. 55-67. Cf. by an uneducated woman (probably a Spanish nun) of the latter good and bad pajt of the. the occasional lapses in cultivated authors. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. "See P. 455-461. see G. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. 1904. Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. and the establishment of unattested Vulgar Latin words. Hetzer in Zs. Lot. of the^TConraHcel languages. a considerable iragment of a description of travel in the East. Itinera hierosolymitana sceculi mi-viii. Die Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. early and late. Audollent.. Wolfflin. Beiheft 7. ^Cf. W. Geyer. S. Silvia Peregrinatio. 5 universally be came is e.iSgS. E. 301 G. Paris in Melanges Renier 301. the subsequent developments. the so-called Glossary of Reichenau. the distinction of learned and popular words. possib^'as early as the third century'. Le veritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. 'See W. in the eighth century. Herseus. Ueber die Latinitat der Peregrinatio ad loca sancta in Archiv IV. . see Stolz. list of spellings. andrmosTim- ^portant o f_all. 1902. Schuchardt. Fcerster in Wiener Studien XIV. Spr. XXX). 1902 . Heraeus.. 5* Our sou rces of information' concerning the„ current spoken La tin are^ the statements of grammarians^. 1899. . 4 For the chronology of developments. Aussprache des Latein. fourth century^. 25 ff. Of ^speciaTvalue are the Peregrinatiqjidjqtasancta. in inscriptions and early manu- ^scripts'. 278. 1866-68. 35. Zur Sprache der Mulomedicina Chironis in .* All of these are to be used with caution. "See 119.Jists„jof JacQlxacJtjOTmjs. in Archiv I. P. 1885. . . 641 K. Sprachgziellen und Wortquellen des lateiniscken Worierbuchs in Archiv I. the nonClassic forms. a few texts w ritten by persons of scanty education. ^ Utilized by E.Mili/BaoilSisches Uebungsbuch. Archiv XIV.' spells by A. G.ijecurring. and W. the A^endix Probi^ z. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. Gioixr. Die Appendix Probi. E.— An become^ o. Foerster and KDfSiiitbdnll>fr. Bechtel. . 259 M. while au did not in Latin generally. a problem as yet unsolved. Melanges Boissier 5 W. Zur Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. made in France There is an interesting collection of Defixionum Tabellce. Lommatzsch. Zur Mulomedicina Chironis in Archiv XII. 204 if. 6t. Meyer-Liibke. S.

puteus. the vulgar idiom has homely metaphors of its own and numerous specific. vendere. 149. ff. W. si. forming. ff. Herasus. VOCABULARY.iooff. 453ff. {tabanus — ziruiare). It is natural that the The the senses of words. Digitized b^Wlicrosoft® . — icaccubus — curbus). . (Jlagrare —gTttta). This class includes a great mass of words. speech of the literary and fashionable classes should differ from that of the common people so Literature inclines to extend it is in all civilized communities. (sabanum — lare)^ 234 VI. ~ technical words not found in literature. ^See Densusianu. dicere. filius. Korting. {minacicE — nutrire). altus. pants. viridis. {damnum — dui)^ in Arckiv: I.) Worter ff. reconstructed out of Romance words. popular use tends to restrict them. Lateinish-romanisches Worterbuch. 125 {quadraginta — rascu' {reburrus — runcare). longus. so cams. Die romische Soldatensprache in Arckiv XH. polite language. suus)'. too. 255. see G. mater. Examples are : 7. yj^ (supplement. WORDS AND THEIR MEANINGS. amare. ff. see G. has many poetic figures and many abstract terms unknown to the crowd. quando. vacca . 422 {pbedire — putidus)-. male. the nucleus of the language. audire. On the other hand. 539 —Jiiicum)^ 424£f. 1901. V. {Hie — lamna)^ So?^' {lacusta — mille)\ IV. For a thorough discussion of reconstructed forms. iiyS. Grober. 185-203. 2'/$^. Die Sprache der romiscken Kinderstube in Archiv XIII. ff. 233 ff. ii6fif. in. 264ff. 1. 6. bene. For an approximately complete vocabulary. (eber III. II. to speak. WORDS USED ALIKE IN CLASSIC AND VULGAR LATIN. pater. bonus. VulgSrlateinische Substrate romanischer . A.I. [abbreviare buttis). ff. 138 {hmdus — iticem).

269-270. SENSE RESTRICTED. nite This happens frequently. hcec eestimare non capit. ro6ur= 'o^. new meaning in addition ambulare= 'march'. SENSE EXTENDED. collocare= 'go to bed'. 283. tractatus= 'treatise'. 'text'. 8. nor 'best b. part'. IN CLASSIC 7 a.'. etc.' to^x^a .. WORDS USED DIFFERENTLY AND IN VULGAR LATIN. however. 286. etc. Quillacq 54-79. non capit prophetam perire. 286). Dubois 185-225. . = 'rebJiKe§. : senses. ingenium := 'trick'. Very many Classic words are used in Vulgar Latin with a different sense: comparare =^h\xy'. se piicare=' go'. Bon. Capit a ssumed the meaning of fieri potes t: R.. yUloi:^. G. § 10] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. non capit utique videri Deus. not 'sophism' nor 'deceit'.. Per. lectio =^ 'dxoifin' machinari='g[mA. Bayard 105. 351—352.'» Many Pirson 260-262. viaticum = ']ox\xntY'. 235-328. Digitized by Microsoft® . assume to the old one: Bechtel 137. orbus—'hXmd'. necare = Bon. a word assuming a more or concrete signification {^se : icognatus\=z ' brother-in-law coUocare^ 'put to bed' dominicus =: divinus ../22J£Sfe 46. Many words kept their literal but lost their metaphorical sense: captio ='a.11. Archiv XII. of the examples can ». 243. Bon. 272. Regnier 24. Bayard 63-202. not 'strength'. and also 'continue'. 1 a. focus=^iix&\ paganus= 'pagan'. mulier='-vi\ie'.^ The general use of a word in an extended sense is not common. but there are some examples /(7r^j = 'strong' in all 10. Pirson 257-258 .ct of taking'. words. 'authority'. Hoppe Most 48. Bon. etc. Dubois 220.'k'. perhaps Cf. G. i ^ns— 'chM'. be classified under the heads of restriction or extension of meaning. defi' 9.

When lost terms were needed for literary or other purposes. populus «/««^«j= 'common people'. apud. Bon. etc. and quasi. tamen must have been sed.. 391-397. Regnier 29 {in came paucas habet virgines sanctimoniales). wW«/« = 'miracles' (in imitation of the Greek). G. res is used of persons. Latin words either were not em- II. sive. 38. satis = 'much'. . Poetic aurora.. Dubois.tes moral obligation. 204.loco forsitan quattuor milia.8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. [§ n 'go'. 58 {bella res).". . replicare= 'reply'. 44. quomodo) assumed new functions. 418. terms and some abstract nouns were not needed: frondifer. Dubois 218. . Per.. Bechtel 127 {habebat de eo. ut. ^2S= 't^he' and 'he'. vel. proles. quippe. although it is common in the Peregrinatio. unus = 'a'. So various prepositions and conjunctions (as ad. utrum. Unde came to mean 'and so'. Bayard 83. ^: moribund. is very rich in abstract nouns (G. de. Per. they were either borDigitized by Microsoft® .). cum. Pirson 255 ^^l^lj^j^^ ^^^^ habuit serpentes). horrescere. etc. etc. an. fascia means a measure of land. Bon. Bechtel 144. Bechtel 144. quoque. Waters Ch. Waters Ch. hamo has the sense of French on. 258 fif. del>ere 'mdica. fletus. etiam. quoad. quod. Regnier 20. : .. donee. Very many adverbs and conjunctions dis-"~\ I appeared saltern. quia. /V/-. 37. ergo. hand. monuments of the Romance languages: so funus. Bayard 94. enim. Dubois 301-308). igitur. autem. etc. ita.per. G. Classic ployed at the vulgar speech or went out of use before the earliest Jubere. = 'pass Regnier 27 {quadraglnta dies fecit).13.25. nam. WORDS USED Numerous all in m CLASSIC BUT NOT IN VULGAR LATIN. Ecclesiastical Latin. but most of them are new formations. 66. etc. 3. diu. at. 328. quin. 422 (in area Noe . the French ilj> a. quidem. postquam. to be sure. facere (time)'.

§ 13] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. senex to vetulus. b. domus by casa. French. R.2. R. . some nouns by derivative adjectives: avis ^ by aucellus.. tanti. Dubois 212. . Sometimes the survivor was far from a synonym in Classic Latin: discere was displaced hy apprendere. R. Sometimes a term was replaced by a word not found in Classic Latin at all: anser-wAs driven out by *auca (<. R. Indus to jocus. crus gave to gamba. Italian. French. 345. 272. Rjetian. vitrUus hypatraster.. *filiaster. testa by Cf. one often crowded out the other: atrium gave way to cars. SYWOHYMS. ^ * Caput (or rs. Portuguese prefer casa. 337. a. 472. to genitores. 12. Italian. G. noverca by *matraster. omnes by toii. mansio ( Roman. For mansio. Occasionally the substitute aliquis yielded in part to res -vi&y was apparently a slang word: nata. magnus to grandis. Olcott XXV. Italian. clerical 9 rowed from Classic or Latin (as nobilis) or replaced by new constructions (as *carrica for onus). R. casa occurs only in Italian inscriptions. SUBSTITUTES. 472 ferre to portare. Portuguese. Among the Romance languages. privignus by 13.338. Provenjal. Provengal. Digitized ^^^ by Microsoft® . 'dwelling') only in . avus by *aviolus. Rumanian. . diminutive of avis). . Cf Zauner 41-42. ^capitia (<^caput) by Spanish and . os to bucca.Va&T* capum) is preserved by Rumanian. and by villa. humerus by spatula.*avica. ignis hy focus. ^-j 2 parentes . cf. i'^o^^ tot hy quanti. R. Dubois 220. equus to caballus. Spanish. sol According to Olcott XVIII. R. 313. emere by comparare.. 336.\ Dubois 209. hospitale^. French and Provencal mansio and hospitale. cur to quare. R. edere in the main to manducare. nunc by hora. Raetian. caput to testa''. Some words were replaced by diminutives. Bechtel i^o^gena to gabata. ^ Zauner 41-4. mansio. When Latin had two words nearly synonymous.. 324. urbs by civitas.

hiems by hibernum. which replaced /^r and pro in Spain and to a considerable extent in northern Gaul. mammula-:=^^zxiA\aoVs\t. ergo. quod.). . schedula. sed. paucum tempus for haud diu). igitur. to propter were displaced southern Gaul. 4. vetus for [§ 15 by *soUculus. doubtless under the influence of per. etsi. R. neptilla. cuculla. WORDS USED IN VULGAR BUT NOT IN CLASSIC LATIN. appear in Classic Vulgar Latin evidently had many words that do not texts. 395-396. etiam. tamen. R. G. Fro. frequent also: R. Ab was made unnecessary by de and per. most part by vetulus. credens. d'lJ way pro and per. ex gave to de. PARTICLES. and other phrases. Densusianu. etc. 403. 201. R. pra.). erga. Adjectives used as nouns were etc. apud-<n2iS partially supplanted by adj cum. ^w^ by diurnus. 121-130 {cereolus. 472 mane h^ Diminutives were extremely common in late matutinum. the by quando and other conjunctions. ne. Some of these were probably old Digitized by Microsoft® . 184-185. words were replaced by phrases: diu by longum tempus (Bon.x\naucella. quando. 203.). dies largely ._ Cis. etc. quoniam were often replaced by quomodo. c. became *por. Many prepositions. etc. 108-121 {brevis. utrum were assumed by si. ut were ousted by functions of an. conjunctions.). Olcott 250-263 {gemelli. too. 100-107 {arida. by other words. Occasionally. infemus. The place of cum was taken various substitutes. infemus. ver by vemum tempus. and adverbs were lost 14. yielded to apud. 15. Cf. by subsitution. and Dacia preferred /^r. Reich. Italy. Autem. Latin: G.lo in part An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Gl. in Gaul. Dubois 147 {novellus'). Bon.

Archiv XIII.. 63. some were late creations. some Were borrowed from other languages. battalia. E. 106. Digitized by Microsoft® . mots. between genitus and from prodest (cf.. expressifs in M. and perhaps those of the words meaning 'gape'. 151— 152. 154. potis est = potest. nonnus. Archiv VIII.§ 17] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Korting (found in the 7th century). Substrate ficatum. 186. bxmca. Some native words are rarely attested. (so. norma. § 405). It. Waters Ch. fins onors. hoc enim prode fit vobis. mamma. Pr. Archiv XII. Archiv XIII. Herzog in Bausteine e.). .. finis honoris > 484. cf. serutinus. sed non genttlis. XVII. Densusianu 196. *prodis. ing 'touch'. Substrate V. gent. 156-157. Archiv XIII. Rom. ii native terms that do not happen to occur in the works preserved. atta. . 151-153. Bayard 179 (applied . Pirson 244. pappus = 'gra. Cyprian to the bishop of Carthage). 154. Densusianu 190. 97. 53. (Fr. etc. circare = 'hnnV .by St. detached 176-177). Archiv XIII. and f. 16. although they were doubtless in common use: amma. II. R. 270-271. Archiv XIII. Likewise words made by ono- matopoea. 158. tata. and 'go' (cf. Onomatopees et Revue des langues romanes XLIV. 237. Audollent 199. fine fino). from the noun finis in such phrases as honorum finis. adj. 17. pa(J>)pa. gente). tatus. gavia (used by Pliny). so not improbably the original of the Romance words mean'find'. Ch. *gentis. drappus. fin. adj. Vr. 421. (Fr. etc. *rettna=: 'rein'. cloppus Densusianu 196. pudoris finis. SubstrateY. Pirson 243. trepalium. NATIVE WORDS. as *miaulare.'. etc. prode.). baro — 'athlete'. It. Some of the unattested words were obviously late developments: *finis. Grammont.ndta.adj. Archiv XIII. apparently a cross then m. A few that must have existed are not attested at all: *refusare. Neue II. 468-469 (^quid enim prode est homini. fuit prode illis.

apparently borrowed by popular speech: amygdalum. [§ 19 Late Latin was rich in derivatives. a distributive preposition. colaphizare. A werra. *man{u)aria. More came in through the Christian vocabulary: angelus. Bon. *dulcior = 'sweetness'. some made by Christian writers. some of popular creation. vict(u)alia. 211. cf. Waters Ch. b. eunuchizare. According to Olcott XIX. alberca.. *vir{t)dura. Introduction) found their way into Latin: bannus. We find a large number of Greek words. will be discussed at length in the following may be given here: post-verbal dolus <dolere. evangelizare. prophetizare. and not a few new derivatives. More Germanic words (of. cata pascha). G. *nivicare. 226. Cf.. schema. Regnier VIII. African Latin was freest in word formation. 44. Bon. *coraticum. diaconissa. haribergum. Gl. Reich. *ausare. catechiblasphemare . vertragus. thesaurizare . G. §71. *soliculus. 12 An 18. there are many Greek words in Petronius: hepatia. Digitized by Microsoft® . such as alauda. haunjan. as allegorizare. a few of them on the sense of 'every'. dactylus. R. zelare. verging 247 {cata mane mane). 205-226: anathema. dulcor. colaphus. confessor = 'martyr'. numerous verbs in -izare. 66. carricare. Judaizare. folUa. Dubois 144. Some were introduced by fashionable etc. 224.. (cf. anathematizare. Very many Greek terms used by ecclesiastical writers never became popular. 225. Waters Ch. wfltan 19. zare. scandalizare. sagma. prophetare. cata. * abbellire . Reich. as baptizatio. FOREIGN WORDS. Pirson 236). This subject chapter. Gram. baptizare. sabbatizare. but a few examples Gl. society. few Celtic terms were adopted. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. which affected familiarity with Greek. hapja. modernus. Bechtel 95 {cata mansiones.

See Gram. ' » bimaritus. 246-247.^ PREFIXES USED WITH NOUNS. POST-VERBAL NOUNS. B. —itta)} Petronius shows a fondness for long derivatives. which the noun seems to come from the derivative verb.or bi.e. Digitized by Microsoft® . 130 . 367.§ 22] An Introduction to VulgaW Latin. next suffixes. 2. some of them made with new suffixes (as —icca.. 13 DERIVATION. satire). PREFIXES. as canere. then prefixes. really living suffixes \ but the lost. 98. facility of word formation. (pairs in : VII (blamed by St. Augustine). whereas in reality both come from a primitive verb. After the model of cantus — cantare. bisacutus. in-. a fictitious primitive noun was derived from a number of verbs in Vulgar Latin and in the Romance languages so dolus from dolere. and finally composite words. substantives taken from the roots of verbs). Petronius. 61). G. sub-. Regnier etc. In strictly Classic texts there appear to be no 20. Vok. Bon. " Cooper 246-297. Bis. etc. XL VI. Late writings almost all abound in abstract nouns (Cooper 1-2). such as gaudimonium (Waters Ch. G. I. 170 . Vulgar Latin is very rich in derivatives and comit has many affectionate diminutives. a. Cooper XXXIV. 1. 430-693 Densusianu 156-173. Cooper XXX ff. who were especially addicted to prepositional compounds with con-. pounds . II. '^ . 21. saltus — saltare.was used with some adjectives and appar: ently with a few nouns bisaccium. 22. 35. which in- the literary language creased. ADJECTIVES.* popular speech preserved and This freedom of formation was abused by African authors. " Cooper XXXVI. AND PRONOUNS.* We shall consider first postverbal nouns (i.


An Introduction
Ad-, con-, de-,

to Vulgar Latin.


dis—, ex-, in-, re:

and some others were
*adaptus ; commixtius,

occasionally used to form adjectives

G. 160 defamatus ; *disfactus; exsucus; inanimatus ; *replenus.
Cf. G.




Ac-, atque-,

ecce-, eccu-,

met- were used as demonstrative

prefixes to



pronominal adjectives and to adverbs. Eccu— is ecce eum; its origin being forgotten, it was used in

Vulgar Latin as a synonym of ecce. Met, primarily a suffix, came to be used as a prefix through such combinations as semet ipsum, understood as se metipsum. In archaic writings
reinforced demonstratives as eccum, eccam,


ecca, eccillum., eccillam, eccillud, eccistam

are not



Vulgar Latin examples are ac Classic texts they are rare. sic; atque ille-; ecce hie; * eccu iste ; * eccu sic. Substrate VI,





Cf. A.

Kohler, Die Partikel

ecce in

Archiv V,

See §§ 65, 66.



25. Ad-, con—, de-, dis—, ex—, in—, re— were freely used, disbeing mainly a Vulgar Latin prefix: abbreviare, G. 179 * a.d;

cap(i)tare ; adgenuculari, R. 181; adpretiare, R. 181, G. 180;
adpropiare, R. 181, G. 180; adunare, R. 182; confortare, R. 185,

* cominitiare ; complacere, R. 184; deaurare, G. 182 * disjejunare; exaltare, G. 183; excoriare, G. 182; impinguare, G. 181


G. 183; *infurcare; recapitulare, G. 185; *requcerere.
con—, de- lost their special significance;

Ad—, ad— was particularly

favored in Spain, con- in Italy.
ally there

Cf. Lat. Spr. 487.

was a change

of prefix


was used with the

sense of expectare, * convitare sometimes took the place of invitare; dis-

was often substituted

for ex-.


Ab-, contra-, per—, sub-, super supra-, tra trans— were

by Microsoft®

§ 3i]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


used occasionally: * aboculare ; *contrafacere; *perdonare ; subG. 185; * subdudere ; subsannare, R. 199, G. 187; superabundare, G. 187; * super—* suprafacere ; *trabucare ; *transaudire,

annare; transplantare, G. 188.
27. Extra- was sometimes used and 2«/ra— in Italy: * extrabuccare ; 28.
in Italy

and Dacia, infra-

* infraponere ; *intratenere.


e-, ob-, prce-,

pre-, pro-, retro— were apparently

not used to form new verbs in the popular spoken language,
although some of them are occasionally so employed by late
writers: opprobare, G. 184; prcedesiinare, G. 184


prolongare, G. 184.



sometimes replaced by ad—:


> addormire.

Foris and minus came to be used as prefixes in some

Foris was confounded Gaul with the Frankish _;?r- (= ver-) verslahen = Old Fr. See G. Baist, Frdnkisches fir— im altesten Franzosiforbatre. schen in Romanische Forschungen XII, 650; cf. Rom. XXX, For this use of minus, compare the phrase minus est^ 633. caritas in quantum adest in quantum deest, Regnier 109


* minuscredere.






autem minus


Cf. § 245.


Some verbs

take a double prefix

adimplere; coexcitare,

R. 207

(cf. Quintilian, coexercitatus); deexacerbare, R. 207

*deexcitare; *exeligere.




the restoration of the


form of

the primitive verb, was a regular process in Vulgar Latin (cf. §139): aspargo for aspergo is blamed by Velius Longus, £don

Cyprian, Bayard 3; commando is, according to Velius Longus, the usual form, rather than commendo,



used by


S. 60, ifidon

131; consacrati


occur in inscriptions,




Bon. 49°;

^^f^'^i ^30^°





An Introduction
Bon. 490.

to Vulgar Latin.



Computo, 58-64, Bon. 486-493. prdsto seem to cdnsto, consuo, erigo, exeo, infio,

have been regarded as simple verbs

S. 64.

primitive form of prefixes; but this

Late writers were in the habit of restoring the full, was doubtless merely a

matter of spelling, and did not indicate the



In TertuUian, Cyprian, and some others there is generally no assimilation of the prefix other writers, such as

Gregory of Tours, apparently used both assimilated and unassimilated forms. Bayard 12-15: adpetere, conpendium, inproius, obfero, subplanto. Bon. 178-188: adtonitus, conmittere,
inlatus, obprimere, subcuvibere.



in —are; occasionally


Nexhsfrom nouns^ generally end
sometimes in

in -iare or —ire;

which was eventually sup-

planted in Italy and in Gaul by —izare (for pronunciation see

§339)- This last ending came from Greek -dfiv through borrowed words, such as baptizare. For a list of Greek verbs in -i^etv adopted by Christian writers, see R. 248-249 (cf. §19 above); some new formations were used, as catechizare. In early Latin this same ending appears as -issare (attidsso, rhetorisso): see A. Funck, Die Verba auf issare und izare in

Archiv III, 398.


— * dom'nizare;

—plagiare —


oculare; pedinare; plantar.e; potionare; * trepaignire ;



follicare ;

* nivicare ;


Cooper 205-245, Dubois 151-162, Quillacq 41-46, Bonnet 471-474.

"Cf. R. 154-162.

by Microsoft®


§ 36]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

in —are,


Verbs from

and perfect participles e.r\A

—iare, —ire; also in' -icare (cf. albicare), —itare (cf. debilitare,
visitare), —escere


—iscere (cf. canescere, mollescere); possibly


angiistare; *ausare; captivare

confortare ; falsare

gravare ; levare ; * oblltare ; rictare ; Usare ; * abbellire ; tiare ; * captiare ; humiliare ;

— * vanitare —


alleviare; * al-

unire ;


Icetiscere ; vilescere ;

— amari— *blan-




verbs from perfect participles (frequentatives, etc.)

replace the original verbs: adjuvare "> adjutare ; audere'^ausare; canere'^cantare ; uti>usare.

lost their frequentative or inchoative sense







156. in -icqre


Verbs from other verbs end


fodere), —itare (cf. clamitare <,clamare')\ also in -escere, -Iscere
(cf. florescere,

* bullicare

< buUere





inchoative force:

apparescere ;

Vulgar Latin has many old frequentive verbs G. 178-179, Cooper 205. There are some late diminutives in —aculare, —tculare, -uculare, through diminutive nouns or adjecWe find also tives (ci. periculari <,periculum'): * saltlculare. some miscellaneous imitative formations * expaventare (and some others) apparently after the analogy of prasentare * misculare perhaps after maculare.


Greek verbs in -av,

-eiv, etc.,

when taken

into Latin, reg-

KvP€pvav>gubemare ; pXa(r<j}rifidv'>b/asphemare. Cf. Claussen 795. But ^aXS.av>psallere, perhaps through the analogy oifallere: Claussen 796. Germanic verbs in -an or -on regularly passed into the first


in —are:

conjugation in Latin





guidare ; roubon




"jR^etcA. ;

in -jan

went into the fourth
It. guamire. Digitized by Microsofi®


> hatire,


warnjan >

Pirson 123. *pollicare. -igo. was extended: coxale. *ducatus. Digitized by Microsoft® . (as viaticum) was extended. in Italy and Gaul * canalia •< canis. The commonest endings -a. Latin. R. 79-102. G. was used. came to be used as a feminine singular: *facienda. Olcott 187-189. etc. made from present significantid). -arius: see Adjectives. -dtus. 453-463. iio-iii). G. Cooper 1-91. 59. essentia. -entia. taurellus. Olcott 238-239.. etc. were used to form abstract nouns from verbs: Cf. -ugo were characteristic of rustic speech: —al. bonatus. Cf. 39. 355. used to form adjectives and also nouns. was extended: clericatus. Olcott 73-78. iCf. were used The Christian writers are especially rich Waters Ch. 31-37. participles H ia (as benevolentia. 1 [§ 37 SUFFIXES FOR NOUWS. * credeniia .i in 37. -enda. 74). for nouns and adjectives: liminare. used to designate a place (as gallinarium). are the following: : Ch. *sperantia. the collective plural -ilia. 40. Quillacq 15-31. porcellus. Ch. fragraniia . apparently. -alia. Olcott 176-182. b. used to — Haag 41 form f eminines nepta. Ch. 95. as victualia (cf. * calamarium. -ans. -ens: see Adjectives. Bon. 49-52. R. -ago. Bon. e. as miraUlia. -antia. was extended: breviarium. especially names of parts of apparel (as bracchiale). placentia. -are. Vulgar in deriva- Petronius. Waters Ch. neuter plural of the gerundive. : -anda. Cf. in a collective sense. —ata : see -ta. . was very fond of diminutives: adules- centulus. tives. Dubois 99-136. 6\. 366. -ar. Cf. as a feminine singular with an augmentative and pejorative signification. -die. Some go endings. —aria : see -ia. Cooper in. Bon. a neuter plural.8 — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -arium. too. Cf. -^a. 95. G. socera. as senatus (common in Petronius. G. volatilia. -affcum * coraticum. to form nouns from nouns: g. -dnus: see Adjectives.

was mighty deeds of God Koff'. 283ff. and came to be used as a diminutive suffix in Spanish. being used in pet names. it was then extended to Spain. = ' nouns (as victoria). —tea: see Archiv fiir das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Litera: turen CXIV. 31-37.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. animalico . Portuguese. Karica) first appears in Africa in feminine proper names. It may have arisen in the first place from a childish pronunciation of -iclus. porculus. was often used beside -Ulus. Digitized by Microsoft® solingo. -incus or -inguus (as propinguus). See A. XIX.. hence an ending -fflWa. was probably Cf. anellus . It was often attached to words in -arius. wvicella. -iccus.- -culum. —icius: see Adjectives. used to form feminines (as avus. Les substantifs en -ier et le essais de philologie fran- Rom. -Tela. § 173. So calamellus. Horn- —iceus. suffixe -arius. ing in Zs. from Greek -ia through Christian writers and speakers monarchla. -cius: see Adjectives. and Nouveaux (aise no. Olcott 173-176. and Rumanian: Sp. 333ff. to form pi. —ens: see Adjectives. Bonica. G. was used beside -cuius: So * domnicellus. —ceus. -uc(c)us. lavacrum) were occasionally used: *genuculum. Thomas. Cf. -entia : see -antia. XXXV. perhaps also *-ingus and locally -ancus. II. vitulus. diminutive (as castellum). 335. Cf. mane 76). It. was used for many new words: Pr. Arbonenca. -ellus. Valinca. XX. somewhat extended: Old Fr. avid): neptia. 1-2 1. etc. R. —eum : -ia. Gram. and Dacia. Olcott 131-134. 19 -cellus. -enda : see —anda.' *libraria. Cf. which lost its diminutive force: anulus. : used (cf . For -accus. etc. -Mum. —eus: see Adjectives. —ans. -tcca (as Bodicca. see —ium. abstract extended *fortia fortia n. as desiderium. Einf. consirier. Sardinia. 91-92. ramenc . see A. philosophia . -crum (as miraculum. manica. 457. -ia. 481. -ia. -ensis: see Adjectives. unaccented.. Pir- son 123. -occus. etc. vitellus. . cf. 170. cula. navi- —ceus. unaccented.). etc. porcellus. possibly of Ligurian origin (Rom. diminutive. XXXI. 591. navicella. Pr. Rum. avicula.

it was freely used. (Cooper XLV): *altitia. —itia. -monium. etc. but sometimes to form new adjectives to form domnina = 'young lady'. Bonitta^ Caritta^ Julitta^ Livitta^ Suavitta. a German patronymic ending. An It Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 22-25. Cooper 251. Attitta. and central and northern Italy. -men. in inscriptions in Italy -ittus first appears during the Empire and Dacia. -tnus (as caninus. conjectures that have come from the Germanic ending that now appears as in such names as Heinz. calcaneum) : see G. with the -ing. were extended. Einf. were both are rare in Rumanian -ities especially in the south . was by Microsoft® . -itUdo : —ium. bonito. It came to be very widely used as a diminutive suffix for nouns. -io : 134-136. as a suffix for proper names: feminine tus. cf. Sp. then resemblance. Fr. may have arisen from a childish pronun- ciation of -iclus -a: it may Meyer-Liibke. was probably confounded. -otus. camerlingo. sometimes in Spain and Gaul. Cusanca. some new formations: ^dukissa. -ttas : see —tas. Cf. Olcott 123-131. li. the i being short in Gaul. regards -dttus. R. -laaa. following. Zimmermann. -icca. and also for adjectives. Olcott 200-204. -mentum. doucet. 56-59. serpentinus.20 Sp. etc. § 172. Nebitta. -mum. forms of -dtus. Montaninus) originally denoted appurtenance. Germanissa. Olcott 78-80. generally long in the Spanish peninsula and in -Ittus. A. -issa. W. 251. especially : diminutive nouns.. originally used to indicate a characteristic (as Digitized btbo). XXVIII. *granditia. lausenga. adjectives. Pirson 228. was used for prophetissa. Cf. -lius. used to form nouns from verbs (as certdmen. Cf. .. -Uies. R. much extended. Raetia. was used for some nouns and perhaps for adjectives (see -incus above): Pr. Sagitta. bacito. It. —monia: see Olcott 81-82. (as paffiXurcra. -eum (as cafitium. masculine Muritta. 343. -0 {-onem). in [§ 37 some regions. Sp. grassetto. Olcott see -iio. especially -mentum : *gubernamentum. Pirson 226: Julianeta^ Nonnita^ N'onniit Its origin is unknown. amourette. like littera beside litera. -iva : see Olcott 224-226. see —tUdo. etc. Fr. from the Greek Cf. Zs. so pythonissd). -dttus as alternative Sardinia: nouns. used to form nouns from adjectives (as munditia -ies). Florentinus . then smallness. vestimenium). fioretto. Cf.

Collin in Archiv XIII. later -dta. Bayard 19-22. —sa : see —ia. -tus and -j«j were preferred in Dacia (Cooper XLV) collecta. 102-106. 45-56. andata. Substrate IV. R. trobaire. Olcott 58-69.G. —sus. G. used to denote the agent (as Cf. Olcott amdtor. *lucor. *reddita. 415. *nutritio. C. etc. G. -sus: see —ta. *vendita. and were reinforced —ta. remissa. —sura: see —ilra. -(orium. *perdtta. *flator. 44-45. G. ostensor. XIII. *deUta. : -or (-orem). used to form abstract nouns (as candor. especially in Gaul: dulcor. *flavor. Pr. origin (cf. —sio : see -ito. —trix. aiglon. R. as an augmentative or pejorative. So deitas from deus. beveire. i. used as nouns. 88-122. —sorium: see —torium. are very common in St. casotta. G. 88. aquilotto. were very freely employed (but show few traces in Ru- manian : Cooper XLV) : necdtor. boccone. as collectus. Olcott 83-87. someDigitized by Microsoft® . 82-83. Gaul often as a 56. St. timor. recubitus . aggravatio. 223. 475.fossato. -tus. -iita. see —torium. sapor). R.. -sorium. It. —tas {-tdtem). and other late writers: abbreviatio. feminine perfect participles with a feminine noun understood. Cf. -ittus). -tricem. purltas . 122. —sor (—torem. 55-63. —tor. G. See Archiv V. used to designate the agent -orium . was apparently used : first of young animals. : extensa. etc. started perhaps with such forms as defensa. *movita. e. Olcott 2-23. —Stus. then as a general moderate diminutive It. used to make abstract nouns from adjectives. 222. used to form abstract nouns from verbs (as mansio. Fr. In Gaul these nouns came to be feminine: Bon. unknown etc. —sor: see -ior. narraius: cf. lectio. was freely employed :ya/jfi'aj. prensio. Jerome. potto). Olcott 33-51. Cf. trinitas. ostensio. in.). R. 453. Cf.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. venuta. -Sttus. -sio i^tionem. mensor). -sionem). 63. -or {-oreni). It. Cyprian). 69-82. perfect participles by fourth declension nouns in -tus. used to form from verbs nouns denoting place. nativitas . was employed for many new formations of the same kind. *sentor. 503-504 {dolor. of see -tor. Bayard 19-22 (very -tio. Cyprian. 85- Bayard 24-25. They were considerably used to make abstract nouns from verbs (and —ata was sometimes attached to nouns. in 21 commonly employed diminutive: g&lo. Cf. as *annatd).. -sa. revoluUo. -sorem). 83. common in St. viror.

G. -ura and -t-ura. 88-90. the -OS. ^•vir'dura. influenced by olere. ixrikiipvWov. missorium. Einf. etc. -as in popular words generally > lampa. *certitudo. 38. Bon. ornatura. -aius. mensorium. -tuda (-tiidinem). —tus: see -ta. : became -a. -um : Claussen 796. ossulum. gave oleum. 31-37. from adjectives was extended. nutritura. payLda'^ -(an in magida. R. : gummi-s.: : : 22 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. later from adjectives also. [§ 38 ex- times instrument (as dormitorium. Olcott 69-73. -T7)s became -a. 197. instead of -is (Claussen 798) pausis "^pausa. cursorium). popular words became -o (Claussen 797) X^wi'> lea. Olcott 194-196. § 171. etc. -ta or -us. boletus. stricturd). fell popular words either or became -a. ^pressorium. > p6KLT-qs -I in became -a (Claussen 798-799) : Xa/iirds -7)S. natatorium. often taking the place of —culum (cubiculum much > accubitorium) (as *C(ssorium. —a. kviuj. diminutive (as vitulus). make abstract nouns servitudo. Sometimes the genitive or the accusative was taken as a basis. Kbii. were tended. by popular etymology. G. instead of the nominative (Claussen 800-802): iXi^avros'^ elepliantus . : in late Latin often replacing -or {fervor > *fervurd) were extended. pressura. oratorium. There are a few exceptions for special reasons (Claussen 795) cXaiop. gave : millefolium. R. 40-45. Olcott 51-58. used to fortitudd). -iita: Cf. see —ta.)u~^ gumma. -Ala. -is. -ov regularly became respectively -us. ^6-gy. -pa cima. used to form abstract nouns from perfect participles (as censura. -IS often clvain'^ sinapis. -tura : see —ura. Cf. sinape . tensura. -tus (Claussen 798): rpiiKTijs '^ irucia . reposito- rium. -11. *frig' dura . in popular words gave a feminine -ma (Claussen 796-797) > f -pos preceded by a consonant became -fr (Claussen : 797): 'AWfai'5po$>- Alexander. Cf. -e. or -i (Claussen 799) TT^Trepi'^ piper. mesSee sura. -s-iira. Digitized by Microsoft® . '^planura. When Greek nouns were endings were adapted as follows: — borrowed by Latin. was used for a few new formations *alaudula.

144. -iceus -ictus. Eon. It. Quillacq 32-40.). and form nouns of occupation (as aquarius. -oneus —onius (as extraneus. were extended (especially in rustic speech: Cooper iii). -arius. The phonetic development of this suffix was apparently Gaul and some other regions the earliest examples are glan: 'Cf. Olcott 215-220.i are the following: 39« The commonest endings : — —abllis see —hilis. popular in Gaul 62 (Hacherece. Bechtel 83. : see A. G. 415. 143. —dneus -anius. -Sris (as singularis) was extended: particularis. SUFFIXES FOR ADJECTIVES. K^paffos : "^cerd-sus *cerSsus.. 164-195). and adjectives. to denote connection. Cooper 92-163 (diminutives. etc. became and —icius (as sigillaricius). regalis. spontaneus. *leviarius. *ducaHs. mixticius. aKfnriKot'^ scopulus . Mapa"^ cithara ciihlra. -entem). -aceus being employed later as an augmentative and pejorative suffix for adjectives and finally for nouns: chartaceus formaceus . episcopalis. peculiar in — apothecarius *marinarius. iTTroTiiXij "^spatula. Romanus). was much extended. Tuscanus. Cf. —anus. Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise etc. * setaceus . *werrarius. geniilis). Cf. -ans. -actus -actus. pomarius). 23 The unaccented vowel of the penult was often changed in conformity with Latin habits (Claussen 802-806) Sl&^oKos'^ diabolus diabulus. decanus. was used to form adjectives of place (occasionally time) and nouns of office: biduanus. Olcott 226-238. tempaccio. -dlis. Digitized by Microsoft® . Thomas. were used freely to ^ currens . c. poiens). Bechtel 83. § 39] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. a combination of —arius — *capiianus. used also in the masculine to gentarius. -ens {-an/em. G. used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as Cf. 464-467. Dubois 136-151. Olcott 137-173. attached to nouns Cf. '^passans^ make adjectives and nouns from verbs: credens. pelliceus). denoting appurtenance (as paganus. »?«i/«a»2«. *Sicilianus. Die Adjectiva auf -icius in Archiv V. used to make from nouns adjectives denoting material (as arenaceus. See E. imaginarius . present participles (as amans. Olcott 182-187. Wolfflin. —artcius. -tlis. arespecially in the latter function: . erroneus) were slightly ex- tended: *caroneus. were extended: *cortilis.

try to derive all the forms from -arius. and was much employed rare. and Bausteine 641). the derivatives being sometimes employed as nouns * cortensis . a perfect participle ending (as sceleraius). Italian —aro is easily explained and Italian —iere. E. turrensis. papyrius. G. : tabilis . the Proven9al cannot. from verbs (as amabilis. suggests that the Germans in Gaul associated -arius with their proper names in -areis 01 —ari. diligibilis . real suffix (cf.^* markensis . querceus. -atus. : -eus -ius. by the analogy of the plural -ari. G. 159-160. 155. was slightly extended (but is Rumanian: Cooper XLV). — ia (6th century) and sorcerus <C^* sortiarius (8th century) the earliest forms in French and Provenyal are —ers. especially in learned words it is Rumanian (Cooper XLV) acceptabilis . Marchot. Chairibertus repeatedly used for Charibertus by Fredegarius Haag 7. -er. -ier. *pagensis. and when umlaut affected the a of these. Staaff. 135-140. -bUis. e. Thomas. the derivative was sometimes used as a noun: panne us . indicibilis. —ens : see —ans. adjectives in the popular language: Cf. P. and that this pronunciation spread to the neo-Latin speakers. 481 (cf. R. —ceus -cius : see -iceus. Die Geschichte des lateinischen Suffixes — arius in den romaniscken Sprachen^ and E. *faiatus. Phon. points out that many words have c. then —iers. rare in — -{bUis : see —bilis. Gram. Cf. as -erius or —erus. 296 (cf. —iero are probably borrowed. Zimmermann. was much used to : make ratus. Spanish -ero and Italian -aio are perfectly regular. XXI. showing that while the French forms may perhaps be derived from -arius and -iarius. I. A. 591. especially in popular speech. Cf. however. G. -tbilis. *cariierribilis). that -iarius and —carius may have established —iers in French. postulates -ar(i)us and -er{i)us. Zs. 222. *Frankensis. XXXI. denoting material (as aureus). § 227. Olcott 209-213. Digitized by Microsoft® . sis).24 deria <i_ An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. —iceus —icius: see dcetts. Cf. On the other hand. capabilis. Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise 119. XXVI. Zs. -ensis. Olcott 142). or -dbilis. is . i^t. in an objective suffix used to make adjectives very common in Christian writers in late Latin. G. 137. R. Le suffixe -arius dans les langues romanes. Cf. pronounced —arius. -i [§ 39 glandarius . Zimmermann. I. fageus. used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as/orenwas greatly extended.' exauguratus. Olcott 339-344. timo- Olcott 244-250. 34-36). or i before the a. anaiiarius. too. G. vallensis. 109-116. Rom. that -iarius was a..

was used especially in words 25 : -icus (as medicus) cus. I. punidor. turn tunc) was apparently used to form dum ce (cf. very common Jerome: G. Digitized by Microsoft® . '*Frankiscus. Cooper 196-204.' 40. juratoriH. Tiktin 597. Cf Olcott . G. —ce -c (as ne nee. Rum. volon. is Archiv I. etc. (C. Dubois 163-171.) Cf. —Andus (as jocundus) was used in Spanish and Proven9al for a few words Pr. sliglitly -idus (as rapidus) was extended: exsucidus. 155 (Tertullian)j *npidus. Possibly *anc is derived from an in the same Substrate II. 467-470. ~ius : see —eus. G. 158. Cf. Ill. Bon. diminutive (as albulus). -ittus: see Nouns. -sorius. SUFFIXES FOR ADVERBS. 103-106. Olcott 220-223. was used for -icus in some late words: *Angliscus. -oneus : see —dneus. -ivus (as nativus) occurs in a few 224-226. probably a fusion of Greek -ktkos {Syriscus) and Germanic -isk (Thiudiscus). was a favorite with Christian writers. 4810. —s-or H ius (as notare notor notorius. — . -iscus. made up of -t-or. dune The usual endings are as follows: — num nunc. 193-197 {angelice. : d. ? I. were used for some new formations: defensorius In Provengal and Rumanian -torius was extended. —sorius: see —tortus —tortus. from the Greek cleri- Cf. G. in St. new formations : *restivus. —ilis: see —dlis. = + . L. etc. 241. sapidus. promptulus. lo) Pirson 252 IX. donique in cites eight examples of dune. -orius: see -iorius. Franz. -ulus.). censere censor censorius). -inus : see Nouns. -inus {as fraxinus) was used for a few adjectives: quercinus. § 40] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 552. mansorius. -uius (as canutus) was somewhat extended: *camutus. Gram. way: -e cf.. 157-158. with the or of sense of -Wlis the gerundive: Pr. It was 'Cf. one of them from Gaul.

This formation is not common. Reich. a recu230. mente was used with any adjective that could make an adverb of manner. -0 and etc. 339- Repetition was used. 428. bocconi. being especially common in St.). Ch. as It. 46. in Rumanian. Spr.' ' Waters Ch. Some lons. common in other late writers: clanculo.26 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 45 . In the Romance languages mente was sometimes added comment. § SS- 41. * longa mente. 487. . but rata. as sometimes in Classic Latin. pure. *bona mente. now now so. Fr. are to be found in Petronius 37. Gram. perhaps after the Vulgar Latin period. obstinata mente. It. mente. 245. They are rare in St. Ch. Fr. Zs. Many such mon speech. caldo. Ch. adverbial phrases on the model : ad . -tim was favored by St. Adverbs of manner came to be made with the ablative This noun was first used with an adjective to denote a state of mind. Normannice. poco. however. 689. multum. XXXIII. and occurs also in Romanice. . G. noii). Digitized by Microsoft® . jocunda mente.' cf. etc. II. adverbs were preserved in comhence other ad- jectives came to be used as adverbs (as W. XXX. a ginocchioni. Jerome. Then it was employed in a more general sense: pari mente. though much used in ecclesiastical Latin (G. chiaro. 58. etc. sola mente. XXIX.). etc. 337. Gl. alto. 197-201 infantiliter. for emphatic effect. 42. -iter: see -ter. Ch. -ter (as brevUer) was not preserved in common speech. as forti mente. Many examples so. Lat. Cf. piano. Cyprian (Bayard 32-34). It. Cyprian (Bayard 34-35) and some other : writers. *mala mente. : modo modo =^ •only yesterday. and in Rumanian nearly all adjectives may be so used (as greii. whence such formations as Brittanice. to adverbs: insiememente. -ones (in Italy also with- out the preposition) came into use Cf. Rom. longe. Later. tarde. basso. [§ 41 preserved in popular speech in bene. * ipsa mente. forte. firma mente. but was not kept alive in popular Latin. modo sic modo sic^ nee sursum nee deorsum non cresco. male. soave). -um generally coincided in pronunciation (multum = multo.

: ericius *eruius. extraneus * extranus . ~or(—drem)'^-ura: calor'^*calura. -ilius =^ -ilius : 154-160. —cuius !> cHlus : see -tllus. cornlciila *cornuula. famtlia */amtlia. Cohn 184. 65. Digitized Cohn 274-291. loquela'^ loquella. 460. loquela per unum /. R. subterraneus ^ subterranus. -drius. —tllus^—ellus: axtlla"^ ascella. 131. -elus"^ -ellus (common in late Latin): camelus'^ camellus. 216. —dtuszzz—ttus=:i—utus: barbatus '^barbutus . suadela"^ suadHla. —iilus'^—ellus: aniilus'^ anellus . Cohn 213I. Cohn 219-226. 460. 42. as are: — The principal types (1) Subsitution of a : rare one -alius — new or common suffix for an old or > -callus : see -tllas. 460. -tc-aius *lenficiila. —dnus^—dneus: Cohn 160-172. 460." —enus'^-inus: "Byzacenus non Byzacinus. Cf. cauda- Cohn —Ic'eus —icius ^=. Cf. Cohn 172-180. 321. R. venenum"^ *veninum. R. sortcem *sortcem. etc. Cf. R. 27 CHANGE OF SUFFIX. querela'^ guerilla. etc. Cf. Cohn 42— 52. -iculus =z -UcJilus : ossiculum ossMculum. Waters Ch. tus cauditus. Pr. 17-28. etc. carnatus *carnutus. Cohn 1 51-154. -ex(-ecem) -ix(-uem) : vervecem berbicem." App. pediculus Cf. -^ —iciilus : capUHlus * capttulus . The popular language sometimes manuplus for another. Caper (Keil VII. peduculus. 96): "querela. Cf.. by Microsoft® . (2) Indiscriminate use of two suffixes: — Cf. avicUla'^ avicllla. Cf. -iceus -icius 184. (3) Alteration of a suffix: — Cf. § 195). Cohn -tius'^-itus : vacuus'^*v(lcitus (cf. Cohn 30-31. rancor"^* ran- > > cilra. -ix(-icem) consilium * consilium. lanatus lanutus. Cohn 180-205. Corssen S. Cohn 41-42. Cf. pavoT~^*pavura. Cf. 227. substitutes one suffix for manipulus. lenHc-Ula Cf. -drius: see Suffixes for Adjectives. Cohn = -ix(-icem): Cohn 147-151. e.§ 42] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

medio ADJECTIVES. ad subito. many verbs in -ficare. b. uniunigenitus . There were many compounds made up of a preposition and an adverb: ab ante. R. These compounds generally belonged to the literary G. Bechtel loi. Bechtel loi ad horam 'presently'. See §§ 24. I. genu- G. etc. 43. G. style. /oris mittere. a longe. 47. —iculus ? ^^'—Hciilus : genuciclum . i<)i\ 45. Bon. enfuir). Cf. 4. ij as i: uayijv))'^ 7th century) "^ > Old Fr. PRONOUNS. Cake pistare. In church writers there are G. flectere. . 234. 483. Bechtel loi. G. 121 : Greek etc. R. d. Cf. COMPOUNDS. Bechtel loi ad semel. a /oris. 46. etc. as mortificare: e. mentaver) minus pretiare. ADVERBS. Cohn 226—264. mente habere (> Pr. a. 130-134. Bon. erable) alba spina. But male habitus. in Gl. . ab intus. 65. etc. crucifigere. 191. Bechtel loi. cornis. 231. 483. antemittere. 'just now'. G. a foras. 484. 232. 194. a contra. 483. 203. Bon. ^ranucula. manu So tenere. 426 ad mane. were popular. etc. 44. 483. late pronunciation of [§ 47 -enus'^-lnus through sagina {Vok. in odio^ loco. VERBS. Ill. medio die. — = . 160-170: magnisonans . bis coctum.. c. a modo. a semel. Bon. ad sero. inde fUgere (> Fr.28 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bon. HOUWS. R. 131. G. Bechtel loi.. R. ab olim. Bechtel loi. . Cohn 264-274. Acer arbor (> Fr. Substrate 553-554. intra videre. -udo i^udtneni)'^ -umen (-iimtnem) : consuetudo *costumen. Reich. saine. bene placitum. incus incudo * inciimtnem. Digitized by Microsoft® . omnimodus . avis struthius. . 190. etc. 231.

232. R. dad may be it is the result of a fusion rather than a combination of de Some have thought it came from found from the 7th century on he would derive It.8. and ad. Lexique 48. 484. R. per girum zxiA per giro ^ circa. 433. Cf. Some compounds two prepositions: * de ad {y. R. 39. of . de retro. de forts. Digitized by Microsoft® . f. usque hodie. Bon. 75. CONJUHCTIONS.19. 203. day-. still different nature : ac Per. de intra. Bon. consist of Bechtel 102. etc. Bechtel loi. In any case probably a late product. 203. Bechtel 102. 487. The sic. g. ex tunc. 68. ad — — R.17. Bechtel 102. Spr.. compounds.these adverbial Some 40. 40. ^ Romance da. Slightly different intus in. Bon. de retro. de intus. 49. 235. Raetian dad from the Oscan da. Sardinian dave. et Per. de sub. etc. 232. in ante. Lat. PREPOSITIONS. R. et at ubi. 484. in by the ablative or the accusative). 29 tunc. de inter. de sursum. Per. is de+ab. and some others similar to them. Bechtel 102. 426. dat and from a southern Latin *dadl. Bechtel medio. E. 268. da.3. Substrate III. de magis. 38) says: Ubi semel res inclinata amici de medio. is A compound made up of preposition + noun found in: in giro (followed 102. d^ ante. 85. says da . R. 232. 235. G. G. Bechtel 102. Bechtel loi. 437. R. Per.15.13. At ubi and ad ubi. 484-486 (cf. R. Bechtel 102. 203. * in semel. R. Bechtel 102. G. in mane. de deorsum. Bon. Abante. 203. de post. Spr. Bechtel 102. e contra. in ante. Bechtel loi. * dabe.28. de contra. Lexique 38-47. Haag 75. de super. were used as prepositions: ab ante. in is Archiv I. 487.. in hodie. 72.— 49] — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Wolfflin. and Old Sp. 23S. de intus. following compounds are of a sic. etc. doe. G. in contra. Lat. Per. Mohl. 232. 484. 233. G. in contra^ Petronius (Waters Ch. 74.). de semel. It.

however. 491). The principle. It does not permit the arbitrary- separation of osition noun of it members that belong together. and were not characteristic of daily speech. Ill. is logical. byMicrosoft® . a crescendo." allow the collocation words of the same part of speech that belong logically in different places. or the adjective and the modifies. SYNTAX/ A.II. as in Ovid's "In nova fert animus mutatas Neither does it dicere formas /corpora. 50. by this sentence : The ^ ^ old arrangement " Fabius syptax. Gram. Spr. is not primarily rhythmic. as in the "In multis hoc rebus dicere habemus" of Lucretius. Nevertheless there is really a fundamental difference between the old order and the new: Romance has. the difference being due to a diverse conception of the structure of language: Latin places the modifier before. Latin in the middle. See Meyer-Liibke.^ is The Romance order of simpler and more rational than that Classic Latin. 1903. such as the prepand the word it governs. but psychic. from which work most of the matter of Digitized this chapter was taken. Romance puts the emphasis at the end of the sentence. Latin to a certain extent a diminuendo movement {^Lat. ORDER OF WORDS. The most irrational features of the Classic Latin construction were surely artifical. for a comprehensive account of Romance See Elise Richter. Zur Eniwicklung der romanischen Wortsiellitng aus dcr lateinischen. so to speak. Romance more after the word modified. proceeding from the exemplified The modern order is the known to the unknown.

" "Hasc loca sunt The change constitutes a progress in language . not imitated from the Greek. from the earliest texts down . visitabo et : 52. while the revolution was in progress. quod sanctus Moyses ascendit in montem Domini. with generally increasing frequency. Spr. 31 sequatus imperio Hannibalern et virtute et fortuna superiorem vidit. 51 • old. 490). delebo eum de libro meo. in inscriptions and popular writers. It is indigenous in Latin. et fuit ibi quadraginta diebus et quadraginta noctibus" i^Per. which independently effected the same transformation. angelus meus praecedet te. there was a long struggle. and for centuries the ancient and the modern type were used side by side. The following is a good sample of the style of the Vulgate: "Cui respondit Dominus Qui peccaverit mihi.21-24). By the fourth century Here is a characteristic passage the new order prevailed. such as a connective or an atonic pronoun {Lat. There first. Digitized According to Meyer- by Microsoft® . hoc peccatum eorum" {Exodus XXXII. Petronius has notably short periods and an approach to the new structure. from the Peregrinatio : "Hasc est autem vallis ingens et planissima. in qua filii Israhel commorati sunt his diebus. all cultivated peoples have made it. tu autem vade. especially in Cicero." omnia brevia. it occurs sporadically also in literary authors. But until the fourth century the majority of Latin sentences have the old arrangement. et due populum istum quo locutus sum Ego autem in die ultionis tibi. The modern order was not abruptly substituted for the On the contrary.§ 52] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. it is to be found in Latin." The following examples illustrate the later structure: "Mors perfecit tua ut essent et natura montuosa impedita ad rem militarem. was always a tendency to put a stressed word followed by an unaccented one. Classic Latin may be said to represent an in- termediate stage. 34). 37. 33.

fortis fortis.. personal pronouns. Wolfflin 4 bene bene. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. malus malus. §40. morir adverbs precede their verb . Cf. vedolo but le non lo vedo. bonis bonis. malum malum. however. of inflections. 53. Digitized by Microsoft® . see the 55. 313. conjunctions. which were naturally of less im- portance. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. the old order survived longer than in independent. when unstressed. 280. in late Commodian. R. volgra). Use of In- Repetition writers : for intensive effect is not uncommon . In dependent clauses. sitions are There were great changes in the functions of pronouns. : negative and intensive under some circumstances the object may come before the verb. it was in the early stages of the Romance languages It. aiutatemi but or m'aiutate . etc. indefinite article developed out of ille A definite and an and unus. voit definite article. Fr. In a few other respects the old arrangement lingered and under certain conditions is still preserved . prepositions. B. noun in all the The Romance languages except Rumanian and Albanian (Zauner 40).For the simplification flections. [§ 55 XXI.32 Liibke. were always enclitic in Latin. and were attached preferably to the first word in the sentence : . Many uses of prepoconnected with the loss of inflections: these will be discussed under the Use of Inflections. Zs. and sometimes the whole predicate precedes in certain constructions the dependent infinitive may stand before the finite verb (as Pr. and so cf. and adverbs. precedes its but qui le voit. 54- USE OF WORDS. I.

' lepida 57. 280). To avoid ambiguity. in Many use. 166-170. BOn. Anplus congruus and maxime congruus (Wolfflin 16. melius sanus (Wolfflin 16). plus popularis. (R. in Sidonius Apollinaris (Wolfflin 29). Little by little the old comparative and superlative lost 1 from being employed frequently with merely an intensive force (Wolfiflin 83). a. Unus was used as an indefinite article. this formation came to be popularly regarded as the regular one: magis mirabilem. magis . (Wolfflin 46). etc. See Archiv VIII. R. toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period. . Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. magis melior. 415—417). cf. and also for a positive. Commodian. prceclarum. //wj levior. 33 COMPARISON. common Adverbs. old comparative forms remained. Augustine's sancta atque dulcissima (Wolfflin 57-63).. and in hie estfilius mens carissimus. plus formosus in Nemasianus. and the superlative was often really a positive in meaning. (Wolfflin 47). Cf. Finally. the plus and magis constructions were employed more and more to express a distinct comparison plus : miser in Tertullian. as omnium levior (Wolfflin 68-71). see Morphology. WUMERALS. etc. b. etc. maxime pessima.. occasionally in : Classic Latin. The comparative came to be used for a superlative. plus dulce. as their precise sense in St. as Plautus. substitute for the superlative In the Romance languages a was made by prefixing the defiit nite article to the comparative.§ 57] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. is likely that this device it existed in late Vulgar Latin. but no example of has been found. etc. . 451. however. Vitruvius. Sepulcri 232 . comparative idea. plus felix. From early times certain periphrases were used to emphasize the thiravLS. as Ovid's inertioratas (Wolfflin 63-68). 56. frequently in late and popular writers • For the forms of numerals.

being replaced by ille For the encroachment of ipse on idem. Is. see Hoppe Bayard 133. PRONOUNS. and 104. 61. . much used in popular speech after the fifth 2. . Many pronouns developed double forms. 425 cf. [§ 62 una etc. . 25. suus being generally substituted for ejus. Bon. Per. the combination eccum {^=ecce eum). Hoppe 102-103. . Idem went out of popular use. exinde-='¥x. Waters Ch. adeum una sorella. 948 accessit unus servus. especially the possessives. 403-404. PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 489. 48. The adverb inde : occasionally as a genitive neuter pronoun came to be used nemo inde dubitat. 26. especially ilk. Ordinal numerals. The personal pronouns came into more and more fre- quent use. . Dubois 333-336b. R. were apparently not century. Pronouns were much more used than G. too. Petronius. in Classic Latin : 59. G. Ego and common in Petronius. Pseud. There was great irregularity in the use of reflexives. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. except a few of the smallest. §158. An . DEMONSTRATIVES. Digitized by Microsoft® . 580. Regnier 10. a. Spr. See Lat.34 . 58. Cf. Plautus. according as they were accented or unaccented (as suus and sus): see Morphology. en. was often replaced by ille and ipse (Bechtel and eventually was preserved in vulgar speech only in 145). ipse. were employed as personal pro- nouns of the third person. . The demonstratives. mulier. tu are very 60. 408-409. where it was not recog- 62.

Bayard 130-132). aquesse. and iste 405-406.). 65.^- desso). aquese. too. where likewise the id lost its significance. by atque or ae (as in ac sic). Atque. eeeu" was some regions. 424-425. Hie and is. 2. meaning 'it' or 'that. 3 II. • A combination of two demonstratives was : common in Christian writers iste hie. common 64. 3 II. iste ipse. . lat. too. as id ipsum velatn. there are examples of iste for hie in Caesar's time (Densusianu 178). Toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period hie was apparently going out of 63. I. Quillacq 126). At any rate. 424 (cf. eeee tu. Franz. maintains that eceu' was the basis in all the Empire. The last three have left no trace. influenced in 1 Cf Plautus. eeee we find early eeee ego. in id ipsum monastyriu. was perhaps used as a prefix (^Gram. ille ipse. with the exception of the neuter hoe. R. in id ipsam rem. Ascoli. etc. G. Mil. iste ille. came to be used indiscriminately (G. use. 303 (discussing Sp. Catalan aqueix. such combinations being until the probably not reached Vulgar Latin period. and also as a demonstrative adjective. 2. is the fusion of the two parts into one word. atque ipse illie est {^Epidicus 91). II. especially in Spain and southern Gaul. eeee nunc. also eeee iste." Digitized by Microsoft® . Glor. ille. §24): hie. were confused by late writers (Bayard 132). generally invariable. atque is est (^Stiehus 582). 407. however. 25 : " Ubi tu's ? — Eccum.§ 65] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 35 and in the extremely common phrase idipsum (>It. Pg. R. Hie. G.' as id ipsum sapite. hie ipse. 424. nized. eeee ille. 646): in Plautus. is ipse. R. Franz. common The end Plautus. Hoppe 104. Eeee and eeeum (pronounced eceu) were used as demon- strative prefixes (cf.-- ipse ille. This last compound was used as a neuter pronoun. of the final stage. Intorno ai continuatori neolatini del "ipsu-" in Arehivio glottologieo italiano XV.

by Microsoft® . §24. Quillacq 126-127. In Bon. 69.. ille lost [§ 69 and their distinctive force. hie. . * celle. Ille. as 69. II. is. 67. R. 22). pi. c. : the place of the feminine quce it occurs in Christian inscripR.). Bon. Examples of the others are by no R. XXX. as ace. sg. as f. as ace. n. ' this ' eccHste or eccu'tste. sg. hie.. * accueste. etc. Beside ipse.. * eccueste. (395-396). ipse. : common Audollent 549. 423—425. means infrequent: hie.. becoming metipse through such combinations as temet ipsum {Ecclus. 276 {qui. quce as m. 391-396 we find qui used as n. Petronius: Waters Ch. Ego met ipse is blamed by Donatus {Lat. INTERROGATIVES AND RELATIVES. Spr. § 60. Ille. * eccuelle. for * accuelle. is was probably more literary than popular. quern for quce. ipse. . * ceste. * accelle. m. 68. became * metipsimus. guem quis qua very often as n. Cf. there was an emphatic form ipsimus (used by This. 419-420 {cito proferte mihi stolam illam primam). as n. and pi. * cueste and * eccelle. 427 (iiirum hujic cujus est zona hcBc). it is Furthermore. f. * cue lie. people said for ' ' that eccHlle or eccu'ille. This use of ipse. pi. the masculine qui tooV in inscriptions. 66. as n. 8). 423 {in ipsa multitudine). pi. with the prefix met-. The ipsemet suffix -met was used also as an intensive prefix. quod as m. 36 An When iste Introduction to Vulgar Latin. semet ipsum {Philip. 391-392. is.. The forms were greatly confused by late writers. especially ille. were used also as definite Ille in this function very common: R. is is Cf. pi.. were used as personal pronouns of the third person. R. articles. 484). In popular speech qui was apparently used regularly for . tions from the fifth century on Digitized cf.. * accesie. These compounds developed into * ecceste.

and eventually * de unde. 25. There may have been a neuter *alid. Haag f. pi. was employed as a relative pronoun. quid: Archiv I. This confusion is more frequent in late Latin: St. 485.. and some new compounds were made.' > = ^ magis: see plus. Bon. 390-391. Cf. Some Classic Latin pronouns fell into disuse. G. in such phrases as cata unum Kaf tva. *d'unde. by Greek merxard Tfth. 415-417. 'some' or 'any.§ 7i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. *nec ente or *ne ente was apparently used as an equivalent for nihil. Zs. and f. mDEFHTITE PRONOUNS. G. 55. 417. 237. § 19. Archiv I. 528 a.). *ne^ps^unus. d. Spr. chants. alques. Qualis was kept. Omnis and omnia were kept Digitized by Microsoft® . in certain constructions. 580. inde came to mean. and Dacia: Lat.). after the model of id. and was used as an interrogative and The adverb unde came to have occasionally the meaning of French dont (Bon. conjectures *ne inde. mUltus. Pg. Sardinia. Gram. Snus *aliqu'ilnus * alicUnus. as a relative. 416. 51. § 84. II. cata tres Hence *cata anus. hdmo was used sometimes like French on: Per. in Italy. *caf itnus. Jerome. 650. 53 {^qui for quce in 70. Cf. The principal indefinite pronouns 71- and adjectives used G. and alter viere confused in common speech: G. alguien. alguem. etc. 415- in late popular speech are as follows : — aliquanti took the place of aliqui and aliquot: aliquanta oppida aliquis flourished especially in the west: Sp. 178). cepit. Meyer-Liibke. moreover. gradually encroached on quod: Bon. ^ne ipse icnus. 393. The neuter aliquid was more extended aliqui alius : Pr. alius filius. nemo was kept nUllus. 37 quam). 394 (^qui f. Plautus. sg. omnis: see totus. along the Mediterranean. Beiheft 7. quern Quid. cata was probably introduced. in Italy. nemo judical alterum. nee unus. d.

Frequent in late Latin Bon. Cf. Compare the old is Italian use of dovere. 336-337. There are examples as early as Drager 104. Cf. Glor. VERBS. 409-411). was sometimes used for omnis : Plautus. ' : (G. 204. iinus. is often used pleonastically Bayard 99-100. is . 414. : 4. «»w. a pleonastic use of debeo. persona. 691-693: commonens ut 72. Bechtel 143. for eo: Lat. Mil. § 53. 121) and perhaps *tuttus. quanti justi esuriunt. 345. 402-403 ifota tormenta diaboli in me veniant. 692. Propertius: Densusianu 179. ' anything R. quisque. which" and the ibi 73. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. totis horis. also a common pleonastic use of coepi with the in- instead of the perfect: see § 124. Unde was employed by Microsoft® in the sense of Digitized . quhquis. Spr. (2). Claudian. quique. R. G. see quantus. Quisque was much extended 135). 415). Regnier 108-109 {guanto plus quantus. tantus replaced quot. too. being used for quisquis and quicumque (Bayard res and : res nata = ' anyone '. There finitive. This use was common in late Latin: Densusianu 178. ADVERBS. . . 3. 403). 338. §§ 163. Videri. custodire debeant. The words referring to the "place in "place into which" were confused. 109). Cf. [§ 73 plus and magis were confused: tenetur tanto plus timetur. R. talis. tot. (St. G. ubi being used for quo. § 1 1 7. tantus totus. 427. qualis. 488. tantis lacri- 413-415 qui. quts.38 faucus. 212. G. Jerome. pronounced also tottus (S.

sed ecce hie est. 76. having been replaced by on. R. . G. . 341 jaspide. 339. etc. and magis for potius: Bayard no. for ne with the subjunctive common: G. G. . of the Italic dialects except Latin. Regnier in. and others by Microsoft® . is Ab. Beiheft fore': 157). § 74. nee de cubiculo . . 342 . nihil.). according to Mohl. ggressus de area. Repetition was used for in- tensive effect: satis Seneca. 435. cf. 38. aliquid postulare. . occurs occasionally: Dieit unus ex uno angulo: Eeee hie Alius ex alio angulo: Non. . and the old comparative and superlative forms became rarer: see § 56. de utero matris nati sunt sic. and many other 75- Double negation frequent: R. usurped the place of which also. Bene. Hoppe 38 . 5. G. 395-396. PREPOSITIONS. Regnier The absolute use of non. 395. Totum occurs often as an adverb: places. of Inflections. 37. also 'therefore' and 'where84. Bechtel 105. Hoppe 78. R. The functions of prepositions were very much extended not found in (Bayard 137-158): see Use 77. Dubois 332. It apparently has no successors in the Romance languages. 487. Non no. Wolfflin 5.§ 78] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cases. is Per. semper semper. were employed as intensives more than in Classic Latin. meaning 'no'. Hoppe 38): de palatio exit. 7. Bechtel 105. Spr. Plus was often substituted for magis. any de. procedit. Ad for apud occurs Digitized in Plautus. Die amice unde tristis es. from the third century ex {Lat. Lexique 43. Terence. multum. Plus and magis were used more and more for comparison. 39 'where' (Zj.14. muri de lapide de adversario vivo de deeimis. 446-447 {nee is fado est. egredere de ecelesia. Regnier no.

in the Empire. Spr. where ab seems Apud is used for cum by Sulpicius to be used for apud). Bechtel 103. etc.27- in late writers (R. and more frequently by later authors: Lat. and cum for apud in Gregory of Tours. . ab he takes from apud. aveCj not from apud + hoc. According to F. G. est oratio. being. ' : Juxta often signified acjuxta consuetudinem. Severus. § 14). and common Fer. and so came cum in that Pro often had the sense of 'for. apud. in authors of the second and third centuries. [§ 80 (Oliver 5-6). volo pro legentis attendimus locum ilium facilitate abuti sermone vulgato. 71) Fr. but from * (pp. G. also ab una manu pallas altaris tenerem. Mohl. appo. 75-76).. but was substituted lor'per in other regions (Urbat 34-35)80.. had a great vogue country. 42. 489. replaced by ad. La preposition cum et ses successeurs en gallo-roman in Bausteine 61. to supplant a critical period for Gaul. Digitized by Microsoft® . ad For the most part apud-^-a. Bechtel 104. frequently meant 'concerning': frustrati circa veritatem. ad post (p. am amb. 343. 37. 390-392. pro memoria illius. 40 An Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. Bechtel 106.?. derive the Mohl would Old It. Hoppe Hoppe ' 41. Super sometimes replaced de: fallere vos super hanc rem. G. cum probably disappeared from actual use in Gaul by the fourth century.^ 79. but Pr. but from ad hoc from Italic Pr. Hoppe 37. apud is repeatedly found for cum in the Latin writers of Gaul. a new word. am. Urbat 10): ad ipsum fontem facta cf. Urbat 27 {tractans apud me metipsum. Pro itself was partially replaced by per (cf. Bechtel 105 juxta drachmcB cording to exemplum.' and replaced ob and propter : fides pro una muliere perfida. except in Gaul. where it was kept with the sense of cum: Haag 74. ' . Bechtel 106 super anima commendatus. 343 . as he says. Circa. not from apud. nos.

: R. cf. foras were freely used as prepositions (R. Quomodo became a great favorite. 399. in most cases. he. 399. and many other places Bon. ^. 84. 8. etc. Cur. Quia. in). . Aut cf. and was . &'took the place of a« and utrum (R. rm\c\\ used in the sense of that ' : Per. quia. Quod. Bechtel 119-120. 48. . Regnier in.) seems to be used. Regnier often used for ne and num (G. §§ 70. etc. 13. vade retro me. aut is sometimes equivalent to et . R. Bayard 161. 403. 445-446. G. 24. Tamen in the grinatio. etc. 39. 83. etc. with the infinitive «/ is is : not infrequent 549. de forts. often supplanting quando. and 'wherefore': G. Quod to for very common AudoUent ' £0 quod cdLiae 27. temporal sense. Eventually ut was generally discarded. . 430): videte si Ac si frequently did service for potest did. encroaches on quando in the 22. ' ' ' Digitized by Microsoft® . quare sometimes replaced ^«^^and quia: G. Quando displaced cum in the quod. subtus. Unde sometimes means therefore for but by late writers. 'when'. same text (37. meaning 'and so' or 'so': 40. quasi: Per. 73. 431-432. ut : R. 398-400. Ac sic recurs continually in the Pere49. 427—428) are used very often by late writers instead of the accusative and infinitive construction: R. . 323. et: Per. 41 81. 46. 6. CONJUNCTIONS. R. Peregrinatio : Qua. Retro. Ut 82.. guoniam {^SMddlt&r Jubere. forts.' § 84] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 402. 334): subtus terram. cf. and quoniam : R. which in late Latin was often reduced to qui or qua (see § 168) frequently took the place of quod: Regnier 111-112. merely Magis is much employed to indicate a subordinate clause. 403-405. Regnier 11 2-1 13. . 424 {unde inquit Dominus).

1. ut Clusil~^ Chiusi. R. Astis Asti. the domi or domo of Cicero becomes in domo in Seneca. 8$. Hence employment arises in late writers a great irregu- of cases^: G. rare in Classic Latin. : > etc. increasingly took the place of pure case distinctions. USE OF INFLECTIONS. several examples Bechtel no. it generally came to be regarded as an inin Archivio glottologico italiano IX. only in names of places. who occasionally uses the accusative for the dative and the ablative. constructions.. of the locative ablative singular in Ttbiiri^ Tivoli . plural in Andecavis > Flntbus > Fimes. ' " Cf. Palestina (G. Aquis Acqui Aix. in the Peregrinatio fit : There find are. than in the literary language. remained eventually missa Anastasi. In popular speech prepositions were more used. 86. 322). 412-415. etc. When the locative of names of localities was kept. etc. Bianchi With other words. Partsiis > > Parigi Paris. Archiv VIII. Cf. Florentice^ Firenze. a. There is confusion even in Petronius. et sic fit missa ecclesitz. and the use of cases became more and more 103 restricted. however. 302-326. the locative was replaced by in with the ablative (Hoppe 32 in Alexandria) or by ad with the accusative (Urbat 10). LOCATIVE. Arimtnt> Rimini. as time went on. of the locative ablative Angers. [§ 86 C.1 42 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The locative. larity in the . Pirson 169-202. We remnants of the locative geni- tive in Agrigentt> Girgenti. and very often with place names also. from prepositional the beginning. CASES. 378. 174-176 . Digitized by Microsoft® . B. for confusion after verbs and adjectives. Quillacq 96- for African Latin.

' -P^r. de pomis =^som& apples. R. Spr. 481. Oliver 14. Hoppe 38. i. For the partitive genitive we find: nil 53. 40.. 89. little by constructions. such Horace. Pir. possessor de propria terra. neminem de prcesentibus. clerici de ipsa ecclesia. 528 a. 1. Bechtel 104. de coleritieis). The vocative Classic Latin. abound: expers partis Verr. R. 6ioff. VOCATIVE. 342 numquid Zacchaus de bono habebat. lumine. bus gentilibusque multitudo magna (also quidam ex Acts 4. de studentibus. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. de nostris bonis. 396. as mi 88. 628 aliquid de . 396. 396. de Deo munus. de aceto plenum. Terence Heaut. except perhaps in a few set phrases. Lat. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . de oleo. little.10. d. Cf. Pirson 194. The genitive. 426. the genitive probably ceased to be really popular. de sorore nepus. the nominative in most words in and such words as had a separate vocative form is like it : tended to discard Plautus. Bechtel 104. b. de spiritu Moysi. cited by Draeger I. c. Cicero. son 197. save in set combinations. Sepulcri 217. sometimes by the dative. XVII. was supplanted by other by the ablative with de (which occurs Examples as early as Plautus). GENITIVE. instead of -e. 12. 487. Plautus. . Bon. terminus de nostra donatione. de animalibus. R. 43 variable form we find such locatives used as nominatives : from the third century on Lat. 87. cf. vocatives in -us. Hoppe 38. R. generally . IV. curator de sacra via. quid de scientia. domine. Regnier 54. In Vulgar Latin the vocative form probably disappeared entirely. Spr. . gustabit de meo. II. partem de istius impudentia. Archiv I. aliquid habet de verecundia discipuli. Urbat 20. According to Meyer-Liibke. 39. occur in mens for mi is very common (Regnier 34).§ 89] An .. R. and Livy.

L. Urbat 12.. Paoli. form either with the ablative or with the genitive (e. in honore . fui ad episcopum etc. etc. in most of the Empire : ait ad me. as early as Plautus. est ministerit. D'Arbois 13 alme Maria. Fieri. ad propinquos restituit. apparet ad agricolas. Plautus. 487. etc. '^^^ hcec affectionem darem. 329. IV. tempore > It. 194. = went to the bishop'. paganorum. Bon. G. loquitur ad Jeremiam. It. 341—342 in /undo ilia villa. Spr.44 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. S. Lat a tendency by the accusative with ad: ad carnuficem dabo. the fear of ambiguity naturally fostered this practice and the dative.. In late Latin a wrong form was often used a deo honorem in an inscription in Gaul. g.C. Per. Cf. illujus. : Zs. illorum. a. Spr. Bechtel 104.. in certain .. 488. ad me ad Dei officio paratus. True. and probably in some proper names: lUna dies. di notte tempore (later di notte tempo). ad id templum data erit. Bechtel 103. IX. Varro. in the singular of was identical in substitution became very general 64. 40. Urbat 12.. [§ 90 by the beginning of the third century. ad quern promissio facta. . De Re Rustica I. 4. find. 1. in a words that belonged especially to clerical Latin. G. We it to replace however. muro muris. XXV. mart maribus). de noctis cHjus. matre mece. The dative was more Lat. ad quern dixit. some pronouns. Oliver by Microsoft® . .. ad omnem injuriam im330. 1019. causa causis. however. ad me magna nuntiavit. The genitive was retained. etc. Sepulcri 218. ad vestram 'I Bechtel 102-103. alta node silentia. stable than the genitive: 90. DATIVE. inscription of 57 B. in good many set phrases. etc. Pirson Digitized omne regnum. etc. 13. I. Inasmuch as the Plautus. dicens ad eum.. Livy II. ange- lorum. 329. etc. D'Arbois 91-93. patiens. 135. si pecunia most nouns and in the plural of all. Dominus ad restituit Moysen dicit. G. 3513. etc. Capt. C. ii.

gaudet de victus necessitate causatur. XXX. Sepulcri 218. 56. c. de te beati sunt. in feminine adjectives (as romine). ml. 335. esse. cited by WolfHin $2. reinforced by the analogy of prepositional substitutes for the genitive and dative. Regnier 51 . Cyprian. Bechtel 104 (cf. to distinguish its various functions. and so in 91. Cf. a came superatur. The dative remained in Dacia. Regnier 54-56. 34. Hoppe. de vestra rideat CBmulatione. elsewhere it probably disappeared from really popular speech by the end of the Empire. ABLATIVE. digni de cmlo Castores. ex infirmitate fatigata. etc. 392-395. Bechtel 104. Hoppe 36. 426. Hoppe 105). ab sceleribus parce. 337. De is : Hoppe 14. Spr. tibi. 92. 45 3-4. Ex R.' see Zs. 35. de manibus suis.§ 92] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. Sepulcri 218. Hoppe 33. 339-342. 393 patrem de regno privavit. ab Ariulfi astutia the most frequent erubescens de infamia sua. is For de= 'than. de- ceptus. R. de singularitate famosum. Hoppe 33. Regnier .. not ad. G. occurs also: ex causa humana salutis. super. in its original function and also as a genitive. Bechtel 105. R. St. G. illui tilt. occidam de lancea. Bechtel 105. de virgine natus est. Bechtel de contumelia sua. in the first declension (as case). Regnier 54. Hoppe Hoppe 34.G. and lingered rather late Gaul (Za/. super was used: imposuerat manus me misericordiam prastare. Rumanian has kept the dative. Ab common : ab omni specie idololatrice intactum. 36. favored the use of prepositions with the ablative. The analytical tendency of speech. ab a prcemio minorem scriptura sancta commemoratos. Sometimes super eum. 641. nobilior de obsoletiore matrice. de oculis. 481).). Digitized by Microsoft® . Hoppe 33 . de se. except in pronouns {cici.

quo in tempore. Sepulcri 218 pugnare ad ursos. of the Empire the ablative plural end form was generally discarded. Bechtel 103. ad unum gladii ictum 93. in illo die. sodales. 488. : [§ 95 often found .. patrem It is likely that before the patre. fructum fructu. but very common before the third. Hoppe 31 . and that the ablative and accusative singular were pronounced alike. Ps. 397 . Bechtel 95 . Regnier 60. XXXI. K. 344-347. Bechtel 103-104. in inscriptions.46 An In is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 488. Cum cum it was probably not with the accusative is very frequent: cum suos Lat. E. after the fall of final m and the of quantitative distinctions in unaccented syllables. Regnier 58 Hoppe 31 in maxilla asina delevi mille vires. G. The fusion of the two cases was doubtless helped by the fact that certain prepositions might be combined with either accusative or ablative. D'Arbois footnote 27. donum dono. Hoppe 33. in camo amore Dei 9 in bonis operibus abundetis. R. diem die. 94. Spr. The accusative form substituted for the ablative after by Microsoft® Digitized . in fif. Sometimes ad ov per with the accusative is substituted per hoc. the accusative being used in J 95- There is evidence of the confusion of accusative and first ablative as early as the century. for the ablative: . late The use of prepositions became really neccessary in the loss spoken language. 347 R. Cf. in most of the Latin territory. caput desecare.396-397. per nomen vocavit. 263. 5. cum res nostras. epistolam. the little ablative differed or not at all from the accusative in the : singular of most words causam causa. in aU words. G. etfreno maxillas eorum constringe. ferventes. ad diem. . discenies. because. . ad horam sextam aguntur. etc. Spr. cum Cf. its stead. Rand in is Modem Philology II. Lat.

etc. Bechtel 99. Bechtel xoo\ post morte. etc. proper names with as Delia Casa. . . Bechtel 95 contra ipso loco.. — intra civitate sua. in popular speech. medium maris. probably in some expressions. etc. its place : Bechtel 09-1 1 o. Hoppe 40-41 12 examples of in + ace. R. 410. is three times as common as the + ace. de camem. R. Bechtel 97-98 erat in villas. . D'Arbois 27 de rigna nostra.. the ablative form very often written for . . — Bechtel 96 — .. in Per. 406-412. the accusative ante cruce. Waters Ch. intro spe- — lectione. such as hora. . Bechtel 96 de hoc ipsud. cib fatto. 8). was kept only in etc. 406-412. 406-412. circa Bechtel 95 . infinem Deus fecit ccelum et terram. for abl. . 40. etc. ecclesia. de. too.. pari mente. Bechtel 96 de martyrium. et bene- dicens nos episcopusprofectisumus. Bechtel loi . however. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. sine fructum. Bechtel 95. per valle and 21 other cases of /ifr+abl. . Bechtel loi. quomodo. 406-412. puteo. 58. etc. ad .. perhaps in such phrases as It. de ipsas . -juxta aqua ipsa. — prope super civitate hac. Bechtel 96 de actus. — : pro hoc ipsud. 47 other prepositions: a monazonies. etc. for ace. D'Arbois 152. in correct use of in etc.. R. is Conversely. vendere cento soldi. tuos. . Bechtel 94 ante sole. Bechtel 96. Bechtel 94. Bechtel loi — propter populo. de eo torrentem.. luce. anno. + abl. 406-412. etc. ante sole. etc.6—412. R. Digitized by Microsoft® ... etc. Bechtel 100. that the ablative absolute survived in a few common 1 like It. Bechtel loi. — — — foras in came conversa. D'Arbois 70-71 ex fines R. ilia. . generally. R. R. ablative ist' 97. the nominative absolute took 45. pro nos. Bechtel 99 lunca. Bechtel 99 .. videbo te in publicum. Bechtel 94—101 venit in civitate sua.. visa loca sancta omnia {Per. The some fixed expressions.. It is likely. 96. ecclesia majore.— — — § 97] — —— — . Hoppe 40-41 in the Per. post .

99. G. VERB-FORMS. these obsolete parts were employed by writers with more or less inaccuracy. By the end of the Vulgar Latin period there probably remained in really popular use (aside from pronouns and a number of set formulas) in Dacia only three cases.48 An Introduction f. Bechtel 103. ^i. by the infinitive: as cum Digitized by Microsoft® . from use. Regnier 51-52. however. instead of the simple accusative: eamus in forum. to Vulgar Latin. (i) Supine. g. also is by the ablative Bechtel : 1 08-9. After verbs of motion ad was often used. In the parts that remained selves. 328. 103. cordance with their idea of correct Latin. were replaced by other locutions. sometimes in. ad Babyloniatn duxit. Regnier 52. tota autem nocte vicibus dicuntur p salmi. in the rest of the Empire only two —a nominative and an accusativenaturally tried to write in ac- ablative. [§ 103 ACCUSATIVE. omatus est. ad isfam Duration of time was expressed by per with the ac- cusative. G. 100. regionem venit. and 101. The supine disappeared from general the first placed. fui ad ecdesiam. infinitive 102. Many parts of the verb went out of popular use. Clerics. 98. many new tendencies manifested them- IMPERSONAL PARTS. a. Waters Ch. Cf. FALL OF DECLENSION. per iotos octo dies etc. 2. Only the present active and the present and perfect participles were left intact. being recentury on. consules ad Africam profecti sunt. 327.

The gerundive was used est.. 490. Densusianu sanando. St. as a future passive participle. 57. The ablative gerund was . in a literary 388—389.erund infinitive. In Rumanian. necessitas tacere. conciendo ad se multitudinem. cites Livy. ejus nomine pugnaturo. Future Active Participle. the supine was preserved: Tiktin 596. Gerund. The ablative form of the gerund substitute for the present participle: ita miserrimus tando. and Tacitus. however. G. 363. 490. for the future (as facturus sum). ex- cept in some standing phrases. 389. (4) 106. G. Lat. 433. R. : sic legendo. (3) Gerundive. quomodo potest hie nobis camem dare ad manducare.§ io6] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. came to be replaced With the exception by the sometimes with a prep- osition: dat manducare. 386R. Digitized by Microsoft® . qui pertransivit benefaciendo et Cf. Jilius hominis tradendus Cf. Eventually. Lat. 432—433. became more and more a fui fugiet Eun. it was probably rare in late was used with esse as a substitute Sometimes. 8. 433-434. the i. G. V. 432. R. potestatem curare. 2. from the third century on. 49 veneris ad bibere. in place of the future: with 388. Hoppe 105. 4. Draeger II. (2) 104. R. except when style. 57 179. however. hanc Marcion captavit errando. it The future active participle Vulgar Latin. Dubois 275. Augustine. Cap. etc. Cf. 847-849. R. Spr. assurgens popu- lando. Terence. esse. Hoppe multa vidi sometimes used for a conditional clause cavendo salvi erimus. G. 430. took the place of a relative cIzms^: faveant mihi pro Cf. the gerundive was discarded. Spr. of the ablative form. Sermones 225.

385. Cf. G. Writers occasionally substituted 388. nemo mentiens plorat. and. 383 . 375-385.). : Eva vidisse de- G. no. credidit ei quia esset vere Jilius Dei. 371. was replaced by the ablative gerund: see Gerund above. Late writers. (licent eo quod filii Israhel eas posuerint. perspicue exposuit quod ager nesciebat quia Jesus erat.the was replaced sometimes by the passive.. 659-671. Suffixes for Adjectives. (5) [§ no Present Participle. quoniam. the perfect instead of the present infinitive very common: R. etc. scribitur. is disappeared: see Voice and Tense below. Sometimes it was employed periphrastically with esse: G. Bon. ut.50 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The perfect and passive infinitive forms eventually In late writers. quod. etc. by Microsoft® . G. mundus sit. however. 431-432 {malunt credidisse. and was used as an : adjective -ans. its use was greatly extended through new methods of forming the passive and the perfect tenses. 109. but often by a clause in- troduced by quia. G. sciens quod — libenter haberetis hcec cognoscere. etc. wishing to avoid vulgarisms. The present participle was kept. 371-373. 377. 389. (7) Infinitive. as will presently be seen. The perfect participle was kept. ut spiritu valeatnon ignoramus. often misused the infinitive + accusative: Digitized G. Regnier 63. it for a relative clause: it Often. si ipse est ascendens in ccelos. however. de corpore loquor. Verbs that had no perfect participle were obliged to make one. (6) Perfect Participle. It more avoided from . 371-375. 108. G. and as a noun see Derivation. 107. Bechtel 112—115. G. The infinitive + accusative construction was more and third century on: G. legitur dixisse Deus.

. 370. etc. Bon. amant ignorare. non habent unde reddere tibi. Regnier 106. Cf. Bechtel 117: valeamus assumi. Hoppe 42-52: Ninus regnare primus. It Hoppe malum tions: replaced the subjunctive with ut and similar construcvadent orare. Venantius Fortunatus. amatus est came Hence amatus fuit signified he Then a whole passive in2 76ff. revertitur omnis populus resumere se. 42. G. male fecisti dare Spiritum sanctum. participle The old passive forms extent. Thielmann. est. some examples may be culled from late writings: denuo factus filius fui. Bon.. It wias often used as a noun: totum vivere anima carnis est. of the popular formation . P. etc. Regnier 73. mean he was loved': flection is loved etc. non venit justos vocare. G. 363. b. to of the perfect participle ern Italy y?^). some the — except the perfect gerundive — gradually + esse (in north- disappeared from ordinary speech. R. facere.§ 112] An On Introduction to Vulgar -Latin. 363-370. Spr.. 368. I. Regnier Digitized 63. 673. to Under the ' influence of carus '. ipsum vivere accedere est. 430. per velle perdidit bonum posse. 647. Regnier 74 mihi prcecepit hac loqui. conjectus in carcerem fuerat. cited in Lat. the infinitive assumed many new and Gerund above. ' 112. G. Regnier 106. VOICE. Cf. permissa est accedere. 671-675. Facere mit dem Infinitiv in Archiv III. the other hand. Hoppe 60. G. 177. 51 111. . venit aliquis audire. see Draeger was made up and. aliter exprimere non est. G. Bechtel 117. Regnier 73. timuisti . quce legi digna sunt. up the classic practice as far as they were Although authors kept able. 366. It took the place of a relative or indirectly interrogative after certain verbs: clause nesciendo qua petere. Hoppe 61. Hoppe 60 mors salva erit cum fuerit devorata. functions: see Supine bonus et dicere et facere. 490. by Microsoft® .

Cf. Regnier 69. Spr. 490. and also for the first. etc. MOOD. etc. [§ 117 the passive inflection disappeared. scribitur When littera seemed archaic. Even in Classic Latin there is often hesita- tion. Bechtel 115 si scire vultis quid facitis. facit se hora quinta. and littera scripta est vulgar. as in the case oi frusirare frustrari. In late vulgar speech mori. constructions: cum hi omnes tarn excelsi sunt. deponent verbs became active. very Digitized was probably used. Rom. and Dacia by the infinitive: Zat. Gaul. see c. being replaced by the indicative in many . the subjunctive being used for the third person. 114. people said littera se scribit and litteram scribunt or litteram scribit homo: ct. An As Introduction to Vulgar Latin. In the intermediate period the passive was frequently replaced by reflexive and active constructions. verbs are used as active verbs by Petronius. Many deponent course. for the use of 25. I'er. sequi. homo with the force of French on. followed the same Bonnet 402-413. etc. 115. se sanare ^= sanari in the 4th century. The imperative came to be restricted to the second person singular and plural of the present. In negative commands the imperative was often placed by the subjunctive. 117. who lived in southern Gaul in the fifth century. (2) Subjunctive. re- 116.52 113. The subjunctive was limited to fewer functions. and in Italy. Dubois 275 notes that the forms in -0 are very rare in Ennodius. Bechtel 126. -At the end of the Vulgar Latin period it in popular speech. (i) Imperative.. by the indicative (found in Pirminius). 55. irascere irasci. much as it is used by Microsoft® . XXXII. 455.

On the other hand. It apparently began with debuvoluisset. cf. ples. 489: examples from the 4th century). Gregory the Great (Sepulcri 226) and others. 418. § III. 431 cites many examtimui ne inter nos bella fuissent orta. Regnier 68-71. languages. late writers often put the subjunctive where Classic authors would have put the indicative: G. § 72.iX. were less logical and evidently less spontaneous than Classic authors in their employment of the subjunctive. as In Rumanian the pluperfect subjunctive has assumed the show uncertainty function of a pluperfect indicative 119. The in the use of it. Cf. Sittl 133-134. ecce Pater fecit Filium nasci de fact. : cdntdse.&x facio. in indirect In conditions not contrary to tive discourse and indirect questions. and with perthis use is common in the fect infinitives like tacuisse for tacere {Lat. Spr. Sometimes the subjunctive was replaced by deieo with the infinitive: debeant accipi = accipiantur. 428-430. Cf.§ 119] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The pluperfect : imperfect subjunctive gradually gave way to the Bellum Africanum {^Lat. exWriters of the third and fourth centuries cept in Sardinia. Sometimes. Regnier 27-28. Spr. 355-357. The perfect subjunctive the future perfect indicative. in dependent clauses that are not adversa- nor dubitative. place was taken by the infinitive: vergine. R. G. its G. the indicative was often substituted for the subjunctive: R. etc. Digitized It was apparently confused with was thus preserved in Spain by Microsoft® . used freely for the imperfect by isset. potuisset. 357-362- (118. •a. 489). etc. while trying to follow the traditional practice. 53 in the Romance Late writers. imperfect subjunctive ultimately went out of use.

Fart. however. perf. In the and future perfect indicative great changes took place. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. for the perfect subjunctive. § 117. however. 690. scriptum habeo. Crescini in d. [§ 122 and Bausteine Cf. Densusianu 181. In late Lastin this compound often had simply a peribi vos meaning: metuo enim ne habeam fatigatos. episcopum invitatum habes. by Microsoft® . 423. compertum ego habeo. perf. ff. perf.54 An in Italian i. I. I. 405. C. The present and imperfect and the present subjunctive remained. 689-691. perf. pluperfect. and Rumanian and V. Digitized Bon. in legal phraseology. perf 415. 518-521. collocatas habent. 28. 516. indicative 120. perfect. yarf«»2 habeo. future. The . § 124. Sallust. re- Fart.. habeo deliberatum. perf. Draeger 122. Part. or something akin to it: Cato the elder. For the imperfect and pluperfect subsee. the mean- ing of this locution began to shift to the perfect. 414-415. ilia omnia missa habeo. TENSE. Bon. Fart. perf ^11. in general. omnis res lictas habeo. Plautus. cf. § 119. pecunias magnas 294. 535 is . 537-538. Fart. (i) The Perfect Tenses. In Classic Latin habeo with the perfect participle was used to express a lasting condition: Hannibal quia fessum It was militem praliis operibusque habebat. XXIX. perf 372 . way with Even adjectives: miserum habere. Tiktin 596. fect 294-295. junctive. Regnier Cf. quid Athenis exquisitum habeam. used in the same Part. see § 118. etc. Draeger I. 376. 619. which led also to thS formation of a new perfect and pluperfect subjunctive. 121. with their old functions. Draeger 295. rationes cognitas habeo. construction very common in Cicero in a sense that closely approaches the perfect: satis . Part. Fart. in Classic Latin. dialects: cf. De Lollis in Zs.

and continued to be used. a compound pluwas constructed Cicero. however. auret. tional function. The old future perfect was apparently confused with the perfect subjunctive.. and to some extent in Italy. I [ sometimes with its original sense. which came down from the Classic Latin use in conditional sentences. perfect bant. The preterit use occurs in the sixth: Part. quas in cerario conditas habeDraeger I. transalaret in etc. In the same way a future perfect was made: de Ccesare satis dictum habebo. etc. it cxpi with an infinitive: Waters Ch. was preserved in Spanish. On the model of this new perfect. The old pluperfect indicative became rarer. sometimes as a conditional.. but still lingered. Eventually an entire perfect inflection was built up with habere or. with esse. ortaret. sometimes as a preterit. which supplanted more and more the original was increasingly confined to its aorist Lat Spr. 124. 620). the old perfect meaning was not entirely lost. 543. its vogue began in Gaul in the fifth century. 70. in some southern Italian dialects (notably in the Rosa in the fresca aulentissima). gener ally with the aorist sense. Regnier 28. in the case of neuter verbs. Fart. in the Spanish peninsula. 123. pouret. Some late writers were fond of :\ substituting for Cf. etc. furet. it 55 In popular speech function: perfect form. The old perfect form remained in popular use. with the force of a future indicative or subjunctive.§ 124] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 489. boltier' in the Old The condiItalian Ritmo Cassinese (^Zs. the Gl. Digitized by Microsoft® . Old French Sainte Eulalie. Sepulcri 227. in Proven9al. 294. elsewhere . XXIX. and in the Italian /ora -Cfueram. Reich. 541. si Dominum iratum haberes. perf. : quam semper cognitam habui. § 72. perf. In the Spanish peninsula. 537.

The old pluperfect subjunctive was used as an imperfect: see § 118. 98. Future and Conditional. gations. was native. had some circumlocutions. Furthermore. qiiando mutarisi eras. which The Latin mistakes were made in writing: Vok. Digitized by Microsoft® .. corrigis. Bechtel 112. Pr. PL 141-142. and we find such 126. Draeger I. Regnier Cf. the formation in —bo. These causes or others made the future unpopular. Bechtel 112. for the future forms (such periphrases are particularly fre- quent in African church Latin) : (1) The present indicative for the future is common in Cicero in conditional sentences: Lebreton 188-190. cum volueris et imus tecum ostendimus tibi. cantdre. Pers. future was not uniform in the four conjuwas used in three of them and prevailed in two. Sepulcri 225. As the tense became rare in speech. pervidet. 286 ff. § 119. During the Empire there was a strong tendency to substitute these or other constructions Classic Latin turus sum. only in Rome and the immediate vicinity. and in Dacia: Sp. Old Sp. was liable to confusion with the present subjunctive and indicative. delenda est. which approached the meaning of the future. the future in the first two conjugations was suggestive of the imperfect. cantdro. The old audibo. jam crastina non eximus.— S6 in An some Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. inquis. dormibo forms were kept late {Futurum 161). (2) 125. in late pronunciation. errors as respondeam for respondebo (^Futurum 158). Bechtel 90-91. according to Mohl. such as fachabeo dicere. [§ 126 dialects of Italy. Regnier viii. The substitution si vis ecce ire became frequent in all sorts of constructions: nam modo pedibus duco vos ibi. quando 64. Sepulcri 225-226. I. and in the other two.

I. 447 unde mihi dare habes aquam vivam. . I. Ad Famil. qui nasci habent. however. tantum habeo Lucretius VI. quam evenire haDeus corpus. Regnier 29. Cf. 447-449. . Augustine. The form that prevailed. infinitive was another substitute. In these senses habes spectare. it many others. 128.. venire habet. cui velle habet. R. See §§ 105. Ovid. Cf. This habeo construction dare habet finally took the sense of a simple future: Tertullian.. Cf. the oldest Rumanian future is voiujurd or Jurd vom: Tiktin 599. Regnier century. (3) Velk and /^w^ + infinitive were frequent: G. 449 Regnier 28. 370. 447 multa habeo dicere. videre habetis. Velle in this sense was preserved in Dacia. ( ^w^ was a favorite with late nos futuri sumus resurgere. infinitive: In Classic Latin habeo habeo quod dicam. G. was habeo with the dicere ^=:. Rustica 5. 423. It had become common by the sixth In the early stages of the Romance languages. et sicnihil tuis. bam. (4) Debere kept in Sardinian. Varro. + + It was 5) Vadere.— Servius. being so used by Cicero and nius. etc. 28. or Digitized by Microsoft® . Hoppe 44-45 . . De Re ut id mihi habeam curare. Futurum 48 ff. 448 exire habebat. aliter prcedicantur bent. I. I 127. R. Jerome. venire + infinitive were used also. 711. habes invenire in manibus — tollere habet. 57 (2) future participle writers: stc et Bayard 256. Trist. . . rebus dicere habemus. i. as in Sueto- means I. 123. . — St. Cicero.. 106. debeo dicere: tibi polliceri. Hoppe 44 it . Hoppe 44 nan habent retribuere. R. 129. Densusianu 181 in Italy . R. nee verba nobis ista did habent. R. St. etc. § 129] An The Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ire. Futurum 180. mandare habewas very common in late writers: Hoppe 43 filius Dei mori habuit. in multis hoc . later. frobare non habent.

Bayard 257.. Furthermore. something like si potuissem venire habebam or habui was called for. where it was employed with an implication of obligation or necessity. ista civitas esterminari haberet quod esset venturus et 130. amare habedicit quod like dixit si possum venire habet. pati haberet. or conditional. addarabo. and in Portuguese it is not completed Old Sp. and occurs in Old Italian Pg. In Classic Latin. the infinitive came to stand regularly. [§ 130 possibly in the latest stage of Vulgar Latin. On the model of this future. although sometimes with him the meaning borders on a real conditional: non traditus autem traduci habebas. Hoppe 43-45. Digitized by Microsoft® .— 58 . fazel-o-he. Haag See Morphology. The earliest examples of the Romance future are found in Fredeyet. The phrase existed. etc. to match such a sentence as venire habebat or habuit. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. though not immutably. Herodes principes sacerdotum ubi nasci habebat Christus interrogat. 489. There are sure examples from the fifth century on: Lat. ready for use. garius: Justinianus dicebat 'daras'. it was natural that amaturus eram should give m way to bam. but this union was not completed until after the beginnings of the Romance literatures. . 55. So it seems to be used by Tertullian. Bayard 256. manifestari habebat. St. Cyprian and St. there quod was needed a past construction and corresponding to venire habeo. in Classic Latin. cantare or he cantar. new form. just before the habeo. Quillacq 116. in place of amassem the conclusion of a conditional sentence. Spr. an imperfect of the was constructed. Haag 54. amaturus eram or fui was often used and when amaturus sum was replaced by amare habeo. Hilary seem to show a simple conditional use of the compound: quod lex nova dari haberet. Finally the two words were fused into one. separation is common in Old Provencal.

Tiktin. cintareasH. of this 59 The development as. Bildung des rumanischen Konditionalis in Zs. not' bvious. 691. XXVIII. see H. form in the Romance languages see in general. The ')ie origin of the full Rumanian conditional. for a discussion of the question.§ 130] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . parallel to that of the future: Moris hology.

etc. Cf. mit-to. the syllable always ended in a vowel. The group mute + liquid makes position in the older dramaafter the first : : tists : Nsevius accents integrant. 132-151. in-fans. The Latin grammarians seem to have given no heed to actual speech. in the spoken language. was usually divided consonant noc-tem. sic-cus. S. etc. it In the Classic I. position. or in a liquid or nasal followed by another consonantin the next syllable. fact. The division of j + consonant they regard as uncertain {a-s- trum)\ doubtless in reality the s was nearly syllabic. Quintilian 5 recom- mends vdlucres. made position an^ attracted the accent: perfSc-tus. 466. that a consonant group. as in Italian. 132. PHONOLOGY. but to have followed the usage of Greek spelling. all consonant groups.III. It is likely that in Old Latin the division came before the Digitized by Microsoft® . A. as in ob-liviscor. In Vulgar Latin this : combination almost invariably attracts the accent cathidra. pro-pter. phdretra. A single consonant between vowels certainly went with the second po-si-tus. poets may or may not make tinebrcB. a-mnis. and not pirfe-ctus. then. or in half of a double consonant: a-ni-ma. supporting it with purely theoretical considerations. According to these writers. al-ter. The principles of syllabic division are rather difficult to establish. SYLLABICATION. It is altogether likely. They add In point of that etymological considerations often disturb the operation of the rule. prop-ter. 131. however. except a mute + a liquid. Lat. Spr. no-ctem.

There seem to be a few exceptions to the rule palpres < pdlpebras. both consonants were carried over lub-ra. co-lu-bra. Accented vowel of the penult. have seen that Vulgar Latin regularly accents according to the Classic quantitative accentuation. poltre < *pullitra. unchanged: bonitatem. after the accent on cd- the preceding vowel. if that syllable as early as and remained. inUgram. § 136] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. There are. 133. pi. VOWELS m HIATUS. the place of the accent was literature began. both in the literary and in the spoken language. but subsequently. colubra. : We — a. Old Fr. I. otherwise on the antepenult — developed . through the Classic period even after the distinctions of quantity were lost. cor exsultat = co r-exsultat. 892-906 S. the accent falling on the e Digitized by Microsoft® . when immediately followed by the 136. and perhaps : some othfc. ing to which the accent The falls Classic Latin system — accordis on the penult long. some cases in which the Classic principle fails to operate or the Classic stress has been shifted 135. and /. PRIMARY STRESS. however. 13. computo. 30-34. delicto. the beginning a it 134. § 132) normally has the stress in Vulgar Latin: cathedra. Franz. ACCENT. The penult vowel before mute + liquid (cf. if : word began with a vowel B. We speech a that final have reason to believe that in closely connected consonant was carried over to the next word. co-liib-ra. The Latin accent was probably from regularly stress accent. Old Fr. became y. had become fixed : 6i liquid. In the earliest stage of the language appar- ently fell on the first syllable: Corssen II.

668-670.. 51. 138. Digitized by Microsoft® . displtcet>*displdcet. itios were sometimes pronounced duds. VI. paries. calefacis. presteti. that suos. Aside from these cases. COMPOUND VERBS. however. etc. Gram. consuere by cdnsuo. dedit. §31): deficit >* disfdcit. C. habuerunt by hdbuit. habMrunf^ * hdb^erunt. tenueram by tenui. re- 139. became w. tuds. S. Jespersen. > putjdlis. the accent on the preceding syllable: bat{^t)iiere'>* bdtty^ere'> bdttere . suds. Verbs compounded with prefixes were generally constructed with the accent and the vowel of the simple verb. Lat Spr. reddedit. 468. reiinet > * ret^net. consuere'>*cdns^ere'> cdnsere . Cf § 225. so parietes" L.pi(teus. effect diios. Lehrbuch der Phonetik. when immediately followed by the vowel falling of the penult. It is possible. On the same plan new verbs were formed: *de-minat. in which the vowel in hiatus is atonic. 192. condedit. 56. p. 1889 (pvte6lis). tenueram > * tenj^eram. imp Itcaf^* imp Heat. /. 137. crededi.62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. hiatus seems to have had no on the accent in Latin. Accented u. it was palatalized: \i&xwt f aretes. became e but if the preceding consonant was . etc. II. parjites^paretes^ C. riquirit "^ * requkrit. . It was favored also by the analogy of miilier. b. S. provided the composite nature of the formation was understood and the parts were recognized (cf. Here the shift was apparently due in each case to analogy. seems to be due to a tendency to shift the stress to the more sonorous of two contiguous vowels: cf. L. adsteti. reddtdi "^ reddMi. perdedit. I. Sepulcri 213-215. O. inclausus.. etc. This change X. tra- addedi. Cf. [§ 139 following vowel: put^olis ~:> mul(eris>muljMs. conteneo. I. '/« regularly re-nigat. battuere being influenced by bdttuo. 3714 (paretes). but * muVeres. S. etc. etc. So 54 .

simple translation of (tvkwtov. by a change of suffix. illic accented their last syllable through the analogy of hdc^ hlc. perhaps under the influence of a vulgar *hepdte for hepar. a fusion of ficatum and * sicotum. was preferred in and southern Italy.Lic. 515 and XXVIII. the simple verbs having become rare or having taken a different sense: legere. 235Digitized by Microsoft® . * redpit. the composite character of the word although the compound was no longer associated capere. Paris in Miscellanea linguistica in onore di Graziadio H. d. Through this word there came into use the culinary terms /tedium. and northern Italy. which should properly have been pronounced sycotum .' Ficatum. Schuchardt in Zs. came to be used only in the sense of 'read. all meaning 'liver. Ficatum or prevailed in Dacia. ficatum. Priscian says ^^ illic pro mice": S. for some unknown reason.§ i4i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. fecitum. . which was applied by cooks to a liver.' c. Reetia. later. There existed in Greek a word 'figlike'. central 2jaA. Clddat in Revue de philologie fran(aise et de littirature XV. *ftcatum. 63 RMpit became being with In felt. cdlligo and some others not even the composite nature was perceived. (tdicwtoi/ (Pirson 40). 435 L. Ascoli 41 See G. XXV. n. 140. The adverbs iliac. *ficotum */dciium. 42. . for instance. a cross between /««/«/« was kept in Sicily and in the Spanish peninsula. . n-LAc. Sardinia preserved both ficatum and ficatum. ficotum. it probably became *secotum. FICATUM. It is found in late Latin in the form sycotum. a . Gaul had ficatum and ficatum. *fdcatum. Ficatum. 'liver'. 141.

Ti. Keil V. Greek oxytones.'i'^ mdc(k)- tna. \ were sometimes accented on the antepenult: Consentius mentions a faulty pronunciation triginta. when by Latin. a. Wahlund. > ( ^purpura. G. II. 337. lines quarranta occurs in a late inscription. Vok. 392. irapa. It. Greek paroxytones were mostly accented according to the quantity of the penult: ypa(j>tov>grdp/iium. Claussen 809. (>pMd/a)> It. may represent popular stress. The accentuation times the Greek stress GREEK WORDS. Tairav6s>* iapinus. see § 141. 143. apparently the first syllable: (2) 145. Kafxapa^cdmera. iraXa/ir/ ^pd/ma. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. of Greek words was varied. S.o^'^ spdstnus. 461. as polifpus. with the Greek > Occasionally the accent was kept by doubling the consonant. Somewas preserved. tisana. 42 ff. 1 142.ix. Ihm in Archiv VII. kTzi<jTo\rj~> epistula —ola. [§ 145 NUMERALS.. fdia.64 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.virahersvigintt. terms borrowed by ear from the Greek. The shift was probably due to a tendency to differentiate the numerals from one compare the floating accent in English thirteen^ another in Melanges natural : fourteen. etc. sometimes the word was made to conform to the Latin principle. fj.ira.. voXvTrovs '^ polypus^ irop(f>vpa /jMyiSa. borrowed Idmpa^s). § 134). Ther\.. stressed ^vKwrov. (nraa-it. Rydberg .r/xa-vj'^- were stressed according to the Latin system: ^pa-)QiLT^> drdch{u)ma. etc. irapaT-fi^'^ pirata.qumqudginta. Xa. however.guadraginta.vr] <f>apiTpa'>p/tdretra ox phar'etra (cf. See M.TKj6. Greek Paroxytones. 144.tnginta. 69-70. <f>Ld\rj XoXepa > chdlera) > colira.poKri'^pardbula. Cf. mdgida. 4-5 Pirson 97. Optisdna)':>lt. e. (1) Greek Oxytones.

Kuiv(im&ov> conopeum -eum —ium. (with a KoXa^o^ > cdld- Trpea-ftvrepov > presbyterum new nominative took the prisbyter).t&o. which was used to form new words: see Derivation. Claussen 810— 811. The pronunciations melodia. etc. penetrated popular speech {(ro<l>ia> sopMa. 149.cupressus. kKo. S. Cf. doubtless favored by Cliristian influence. -eum: ^a. Thomas in Rom. iKKXtjaia the Latin fiipXla^Mblia. When : the penult was short. but their statements are too vague to be of use. The endings -aa. by Microsoft® . The ending -2i2. § 17.<j-(^r]fLux.- was at first generally assimilated to p\a. Suffixes for Nouns.. the accent remained un- changed phus. S. of proparoxytones is The treatment complicated.'Kav&ov'> balneum. > ec(^c)Usia. Gram. When : the penult vowel was in position.) and produced a new Latin ending -ia. sometimes —ea. Claus- accentuation: Kxnta. -eum -ium. Claussen 813-814. ylvecTK "^ ginesis. KaXafiOi > calamus. 35. Cf. are attested: S. 'i. Cf. etc. 42£f. 55-56.§ 149] ^^ Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. 148. sen 809.>blasp hernia. and sophta. it accent afivcraoi > abyssus. A. phonia. —aav sometimes became -ea -ia. Claussen 812. a-riirta>s^pia. 42)..'avfi<l>(ovia>sym- Later a fashionable pronunciation -ia. etc. -ia 146. Late Latin grammarians mention a pro- nunciation of Greek words with the Greek accent (S.. A few early borrowed words perhaps show the Old Latin Cf.<TTopia> kistdria. Cf.puj<jo%~^* ciiparissosy. Greek Proparoxytones. 65 but it more likely that the Italian forms are book-words with a shifted accent. raXaxTov > talintum. > platea platea. (3) 147. 2-3. XXXI. Claussen 814-821. Digitized jSawTia-fui > baptisma. 42-49. I..

Dreux. Ne Digitized by Microsoft® . Hues Hudn. When the penult vowel was long and not in position. Germanic words were apparently made to conform to Latin types: H'&go HUgun > Hugo Hugdnem > Fr. t^aWtava'^. As far as SECONDARY STRESS. xa/xtvos it : caminus. at the beginning of the century.ov tdolum (both in Prudentius: Lat. 48-49) Ka. Fisaurum It. Some words borrowed from other languages kept e.> sinapi sindpi. 153. 152. Dottin 103. Ut cdrne carnem liberdns p^rderit quos c6ndidit. we can determine the rhythm of accented and unaccented fifth Thus Sedulius. it consisted in a tolerably regular alternation syllables. ayKvpa>dncora.66 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. . however. (T'aia. > 150.Tri. apparently took the accent in book-words but not in words learned by ear (S. judging from phonetic changes late Latin verse.T]\ai> camelus -ellus. contrary to Latin rules (S. Troyes.ballcena. Pharo. 466). ipr]iuis> eremus eremus : > (Prudentius). Celtic Baiocasses > > Z>urdcasses'^'Px. a-iKlvov^ linum.. of Vulgar and from semi-popular Kluge 500. 49): Umbrian Fr. etc. ^\axr<^-i]p. KpoKohaKoi'^ crocodilus. Spr.o%> bldsphemus (Prudentius). their original accent.pv6<^vKKov Occasionally the consonant group was simplified and the accent remained : > * garofulum. j3ovTvpov> *se'- biHtyrum (^milius Macer). 'ldKioPoi>/dcobus. [§ 153 'EyKava-Tov. 2. OTHER FOREIGN WORDS. etc. Some words have both pronunciations et8<i)A. became both encdustum and incaustum. Tricasses'>Yx. 151. Ka. writes: Beatus iuctor skculi Servile c6rpus fnduit. Bayeux.

pldcttiim'^'Pr. were used only as enclitics or proclitics.^plach. in Italian. cave-facias. Short. it and the vowel bearing it was was apparently treated as an accented vowel: * amicUdtem~^'?x. 154. When it followed the tonic. but clmPr. unemphatic words. 38-39) dma-me. stress. Many words. Digitized by Microsoft® . v€ttovdglia beside vittdria.: § 156] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and were attached as additional end of other words (S. but probably the vowel bearing it had more force than a wholly unaccented final vowel: sdcer{>'PY. in Latin as in other lan- guages. non-dmat. sdzer. 156. Idcrlmosa. the root syllable may have received an irregular stress through the analogy of the primitive: * drboricellus. 155. syllables to the beginning or had no accent. amistdt. In some derivatives. Gdllias. cdlidHs cdldus. and the secondary was shifted or *pdrauldre. strong. circum-Utora (Quintilian s). In late formations e or i in hiatus did not count as a sylla- ble: * cotninitidre. colp. fell on the second syllable from the tonic: cuptditosus. however. cdlapMin Pr. its syllabic value. clirgue while cUr'cum > > > cdlbe while cdlpum > Pr. UNSTEESSED WORDS. so. felidtatem. cum Pr. Casdrem. te-videt. especially prepositions and conjunctions. as well as some adverbs and pronouns. clerc. B\i6logn{no beside Bologna. *parduldre *pardbuldre : > > > filiiis "^^/ilius. When the secondary stress preceded the tonic. dd-tibi. dolorosa. In many cases the intervening vowel fell out or lost Then the primary and the secondary ac- lost cent were brought together. it was weak. I. 67 ' The secondary then. F\6rentino beside Fvrenze.

how great the difference was we do not know. ' I 159. istu' (but iccum istum > eccu'istu'). part. A syllable was long if it contained ( i ) a long vowel or a diphthong or (2) any vowel + a following consonant. We must distinguish between the quantity of vowels and the quantity of syllables. In some of the Romance languages the development of the preceding vowel. stressed tended to develop double forms: sua and Cf. 1110. see §§132. . did not prevent the development: pa-trem^Y-ic.68 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 'lu' A 'c'ic dissyllabic beginning with a vowel seems to have regularly lost vldet. par-tern > Fr. sel. For the syllabication of mute + liquid. in connected speech. position checked it is 160. 56-57. perhaps influenced proclitic hy plus. did a final consonant Digitized §133): Jffl-/> Fr. (cf. If. 1. became *mais and * mas. apparently. eccum istum > 'cu" p II. POSITION. [§ i6o 157. by Microsoft® . elision. 73-79. ecce that vowel: ilium v{det^ hic^ (but ecce hie > ecc'tc) For 158. they tended to become monosyllabic: unstressed magis. the consonant. pere. 134. Every 'LaXin vowel was by nature either lon^ prshort. If such particles had more than one syllable. S. QUANTITY. see Franz. and probable that the beginnings of this differentiation go back to Vulgar Latin times : pa-rem > Old Fr. was doubtless carried over to the next syllable and did not make position: see §133. however. per.5"^ illas and sometimes unstressed and * las. Words sometimes sa. the consonant was final and the next word began with a vowel. but we may surmise that in common speech it was more marked in stressed than in unstressed vowels. Mute + liquid Neither. sUay- C. 379-390.

129. especially before the accent: bal{l)cBna. Many words certainly longing to different Latin dialects. 162. as seems to be ves(s)ica. § 42 ctpus a single consonant.. Stolz 223-224. L. in the contracted endings -dsse -dssem etc. j < peccol- lum. however. Italian fiero <. this may result merely the case with the doublet czto> S-p. mtllia (but not in mille : Pompeius. cedo. — fuore <fd-ris. It. cot{t)idie. glossa glosa. ferro <ifer-rum_.§ 163] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Stolz 222—225. hoc erat hocc S. Fr. but often it must represent an actual difference in pronunciation. the other with a short vowel . VIII. stupa stuppa. coUo < <icd-r. cippus. paullum. Sp. ciepa. camelus camellus. coppa . buc{c)lna. in— 132. cuppa. is common in Greek and Latin manu- scripts: S. cetto. -esse -essem etc. cf. formossus > > > mtsit. c. gluto glutto . where we have perhaps only a change of suffix. doubtless beone with a long vowel + — + a double consonant: brdchium brdcchium . mut{t')ire. siccus ' '' sicccus.. S. nollo. Cf.* co-pVit.^glut[t)tre.fiel(^e) Kferl. had two forms. giving Sp. missit (S. Jiipiter Juppiter. copa. biica bucca . Similarly one / was lost in mallo. I. tap{p)ete. 69 Compare tus. Digitized by Microsoft® .fe-rus. diphthongs and long 112-120): cdssus> formosus. mucus miiccus . In Latin texts there is much confusion of single and double consonants. 118: mIssit) > causa. cuor{e) 161. : The The single antiquity of double t is attested by an old inscription Lexique loi. corpo <:_cdr-pus. Fr. cuba. which prevailed in Romance. cuve. Cf. This did not occur. coupe. 127). perhaps litera littera. cuopre <. Cf. —Isse —tssem etc. ii594)>It. It. S. Early in the Empire caussa ss after vowels was apparently reduced to casus. pupa puppa. In some words from bad spelling. petto pietra<pe-tra. 163.^ ec{c)lesta. citto {C. 125-126 (Velius Longus and Pompeius). (S. cupola and erat. etc. §163.

there was occasionally a third. Rsetia. iota estreine) (>Sp. 1. suppremis. In late Latin inscriptions and manuscripts a consonant was sometimes doubled before r or u: acqua. G. * stela (>01d esteile: cf. Leicique 98-104. This doubling indicates in most cases a Accordpronunciation. chdne{<x°-'^) 261. [§ 164 may perhaps be added: cdseus * cdsseus bdsium *bassium (>It.^ + strenna = * strenna (> It. Vok. ^Stella Vok. 164. prevalent in Africa or in Italy. strenna. suppra. XXVI. In aqua the double con: sonant. messi). vowel and the double consonant : angutla (> Sp. I. conservammus. Spr. brdca bracca.5 547. conservdmus Vok. stilla). cf. For *iiUius see Digitized by Microsoft® ." Cf. reviewed by Meyer-Lubke in Ltblt. Gram. voile. tota. § 204(2). toda) ¥ totta (Keil V. Die Entwicklung des aqua in den romanischen Sprachen. lattrones. So perhaps Diomedes' Itttera: Fr. I. before / and u in the old Italic dialects compare the Italian doubling infabbro. mist * missi 261 {iubimmus iobemmus). anguilla). mattrona. I. 339. having both the long. (>It. Sic. anguila) Fr. strennuor. baca bacca. * butts (<j8oi)tis) *buttis (>It. Lexique 95-98) + Stella (>It. toiius was used by Pirminius. strinna). 403. XXIV. tenne. jubemus lltus littus. frattre. Cf. iConsentius: " per adjectionem litterje io««»! pioioto. Mohl. (> It. tennuis. Stella. 612. ^(ji. cascio). Archiv XIV. * According to Lat. and a large part of lateinischen See Clara Hiirlimann. + anguilla—* angutUa (> It. dialect stella) = (>It. was very widespread and prevailed in Italy. etc. channe. Beside the two forms indicated.70 An To these Introduction to Vulgar Latin. local ing to F. bascio).488. 485. jubemmus. strena (> Old Fr. seemingly a cross between the other two.^)—* tdtta (> Pr. toute). Zs. attested by inscriptions and by Christian poets. S. Gaul. a consonant was doubled 122. bellua. botte). Stolz 223. 334.

. 212. Originally. (S. by 250. In open syllables. most of the Empire. and i for e. there was no such differentiation. 182). I. 193). distinguishes do other grammarians (S. : vendo pinus pi^er. but is used for u in inscriptions. i and u were allowed to drop still lower. 176. 195. is made with the tongue lying flat in the bottom of the mouth. 151. mulus Later. for the vowels of brief duration the tongue was not in lifted quite so high as for those held longer. is often used for i in inscriptions. as minses. That is. However may have been. 211). long were close gula. 175. about 480.. in Vok. in iillus and multus. 174. cites Tertullian for an e (S. etc. 0. the same sound in Idtus and Idtus. in the fifth century (S. distinguishes two ^-sounds Pompeius. in 165. 216-217).§ i66] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 2. . i. and several fifth century grammarians plainly distinguish e from e (S. 467. was often used for e in inscriptions (S. and u were eventin ually differentiated. 208. 461. the vowels having. long and short e. perhaps. 211). solus sqlet. In the case of a. According to Meyer-Liibke. II.. secondus. III. 182). Terentianus from q (S. 166. from the second century on cs Marius Victorinus. In Digitized by Microsoft® . similar to i. long dis- - tinguished only by duration. is given the testimony of grammarians. e. as menus. etc. about 350 a. and short vowels were redit. for instance. which and became e and see §§201. (S. if the word is used in verse. Za(. etc. the evidence of inscriptions. II. d. 183-184). 146. the short vowels being open while the sentio. until Consentius. In Vok. however. Writers do not clearly distinguish i and i. Spr. 200-201). in debet and mnum \ \ and minus. as ocsor. i ff. the distinction U was clear by the first century of our era. 71 VOWEL QUANTITY. the quantity of the vowel is ' in general easily ascertained. all : of later date. None of the grammarians apparently distinguished « and «. this nomen and novus. and so Maurus.

^T. Classic i Latin o&ers frtgidus (of. (S. Romance undecim. by Microsoft® . loir calls for *gltrem h&siA^ gltrem. except Spanish. after u had become (see §§ 165. with a restora- tion of the V through the plural ova). Fr. then. languages. found in inscrip- tions. by S. [§ 167 closed syllables and in words not used is by poets the quantity sometimes conOccasionally the in many cases doubtful . 101-102). 98. sometimes marked in inscriptions. but it is sometimes given by gram- marians. via— via. any a later stage. before u was apparently differentiated into 0: dvum> oum (cf. etc. and in Ennius close vowel in the Romance (S. S. VOWELS Ilf HIATUS. at least in part. jectured from the etymology. others karessimo. and the practice of poets was not always in accordance with spoken usage. but the i. were apparently pronounced also with short u 81-82). attested by pIvs piivs. nutrire. their Dies. At 208). plus kept inscriptions (dIes originally long vowel. ultra (S. 93): these preserved their languages. probably kept their original Naturally short vowels doubtless had development also: deus = deus. Substrate II. Aulus Gellius prescribes dictum. Vowels in hiatus with the last syllable offer difficulties. a. their regular quantity in hiatus. etc. 105).2^)>oum (and also ovum. is The Classic rule that a vowel before another vowel short is not absolute even for verse. although we do find the spellings dius and mius (S. 99). in Plautus. 105). 187).72 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. require a short some Romance forms support Classic luridus. Naturally long vowels. 167.. frIgida. so cut. but an inscription has dIctatori (S. testimony conflicts: some inscriptions have carIssimo. and often shown by subsequent developments in the Romance languages. 93. and. others demand u. siius'>Digitized spus> sous (S. duo>dui = dui. proved old inscriptions . cf. fut.

Pirson 16). For another see A.. Horning in Zs.: 236. way to Cf. Fluere was supplanted in popular usage by plovere Fluvia. Cf. 357-390. 341. 1894. Troja. Quia. inscriptions such S. We find in eiius. before a consonant. as in ejus. 250 in these a. into pei-ius. 170. 207). Franz. According to some grammarians. different theory. etc. Maiiam. Troja. 468). point to open vowels in pejor. For a still. Quintilian states that Pirson 74. Spr. gave {Lat. 352-355). as Cicero approved of Aiiacem. b. words were short. qua{ni). hut peijor. 73 varia- 216. 236). it became qua. Troija. coiiux. d. with double i (S. vowels were lengthened before j. maiiorem. cuiius. Velius Longus adds that etc. 168. (S. The apparent contradiction disappears tianus Maurus. 236). we should write Troiia also Priscian analyzes pejus. Cicero preferred aiio. spellings as Aiiax. but the / was doubled was a glide from the vowel to the/. had a peculiar development from the sixth century on before a vowel it was pronounced qui' and was confused with quid. 104) that the vowels there that is. §208.. There may have been other special Cf. which had begun to assume the functions of quod (see §§69. §217. The Romance languages. Maiiam. Jean- jaquet. under the influence of qua and : . 246-248. ei-ius. XXV. LENGTHENING BEFORE CONSONANTS. Recherches sur Forigine de la conjonction 'que' et des formes romanes iquivalentes. tions in different countries. 82 cf. a II. I. if we accept the statement of Teren- who says (S. major. however. J.§ i7o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. mai-ius Digitized (£don by Microsoft® . used for quod in late Latin. 3 II. on the other hand. *pldja. which prolonged the — first syllable: not pejor. see Gram.(4). Franz. 169.

Romance and late Vulgar Latin words with ns (except in Cf. who wrote in the sixth century. Archiv XIV. or v). a very late authority. n was followed by a fricative (/. (i) Vowels were apparently lengthened before Cf. mesis. 89. in-: so infantem through indignus. it and the preceding vowel was cesor. S. coventio. Spr. . u. coxwenire through continere. but insig- It is altogether likely that the n fell through nasalization If so. 467). pugnus. An Introduction When fell to Vulgar Latin. etc. for inscriptions. but only after H had be- come i. for inscriptions. (S. nasality disappeared. and the fall was permanent. 400. 78. so that the result Digitized was t. 90. (2) Before gn vowels were lengthened according to Priscian and inscriptions mark length in dtgnus.74 171.- cf. sanctus. all trace of the of the vowel: consul consul cosul cosul. lignum. Lat. and some philologists regard the passage in question as still still an interpola54. signum. compounds See S. But inasmuch as n occurs before /". however. S. regnum. tions: so pensare. «. tsula. According to Meyer-Liibke {Gram. /. however. as above) are either learned terms or new formaS. but the length and the close quality of the vowel remained.. for the usage of Cicero and others. the n being restored only in com- lengthened by compensation: pounds before initial nare. 77-78. tion of later date. s. conjungere through conducere. etc. it was usually restored by the analogy of the full forms con-. remains. 172. 91). 91. and v only at the end of prefixes. u. not f. the vowel was lengthened. benegnvs by Microsoft® . pignus. sposus. The Romance is languages. [§ 172 regularly early in Latin. S. Priscian. the evidence of the inscriptions I. call for dtgnus./. etc. tferi. cojugi. Before J. (cf. 86. tjk: quinque. s: cosul. Cf §311. signum sigillum). etc. t. beside the old popular *pesare. n occurred in the middle of many words.. S.

as due to a vulgar or local pronunciation. XII. unaccented Terentianus Maurus. and a was often used for e in inscriptions (S. through the Latin period and developed further in the Romance languages. (S. seems to observe quantity in stressed and to neglect it in unstressed syllables. L. The distinctions in quality. in stressed syllables. as in aut (S. remained. doubtless equivalent to the benIgnus of C. for the most part seems to have disappeared from unstressed syllables by the third or fourth century but confusion The nominative singular -is set in as early as the second. 75). L. Latin words borrowed by the Britons. warn against quantitative mistakes: so Servius. about 250. through a by Microsoft® . show. The old quantity itself was It during the Empire. This seems a very plausible C. and were often obliterated. Buck. D. 66). in the Classical Review I. "miserce dativus est non adverbium. resulting from the original quantity. 311. which is 75 in C. DISAPPEARAHCE OF THE OLD QUANTITY. XV. difference in quantity 173. prefers to regard such forms as dlgnus." etc. D. 183—184: bence. they existed at c. in the fourth century. 174. XII. The poetry of Commodian. . in the third or fourth century. lost. in unaccented syllables the distinctions were doubtless weaker. of accent. The was probably greater and more constant in accented than in unaccented vowels. Versbau des Commodian in Bausteine 576.§ 174] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 722. On shift the other hand. Cornu. in so far as all. etc. explanation. (S. 2153. 226). J. however.). tells us that au is short in Other grammarians syllables. and the plural —es were confounded by 150 A. the preservation of quantity in post-tonic Digitized mostly in the third and fourth centuries. I. and we find numerous metrical errors in other late poets: cf.

[§ 176 Loth 72. 175. show the preservation of the quantity of stressed vowels: Loth 64. distinguish by quantity t and i. entirely diverse from the old. and not complete before the end of the sixth. as aques for eques in 197 (S. fructus by Microsoft® . for. Spr. Much late poetry disregards quantity altogether. but probably the disappearance of the old distinction was not general before the fourth and fifth centuries. are distinguished by quality also. e and ?. grammarians blame the confusion of cequus and equus (S. DEVELOPMENT OF A HEW QUANTITY. i?> e 01 i. too. retain the quantity of vowels that bear the accent: Pogatscher. but mostly in the third and fourth. It is possible that the quantity of unstressed vowels was better kept in the provinces than in Italy. tity short: sdncto vales. 225). Latin words in Anglo-Saxon.if>« while u and u. Moreover. 106). criticizes Servius. fourth century. In accented syllables there are sporadic examples of confusion by the second century. Augustine devocalium vel produc- Pompeius and other tione non judicant" (^Lat. clares that "Afrae aures de correptione St. d>ii ox 6 while d>o: Franz. On the other hand.76 syllables: An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. In most of the Empire accented vowels not in position were pronounced long. 107. / At the end of the Latin period a new system of quangrew up. taken over in the fifth and sixth centuries. dixi plicds. Latin words borrowed by Old High German indicate a retention of long i and u before the accent: Franz. all other vowels 176. 65. and o. vendo vents. e. and based on th|fe situation of the vowel. 178). 467). Latin words borrowed by the Britons from the second to the fifth century. The Latin words in Old High German. d. in the Roma (S. Digitized fqrmas fori.

nepotis (A.f>It. I. 561-562. also ui. goule. occurs in an inscription made a little before 120 a. Meyer-Liibke in different in Einf. The vowels most affected were e and q. all stressed vowels were appar- ently long: tempus. porta. An isolated example.q. tre-s. close. he describes it as common to all. XXV. nous. Latin had the vowels au. in £at. cuor. cb. i. (rets. d. vieni. u. 213). dis- appearance of the which it displaced. nounced new long vowels were promost regions with a circuinflex intonation. We and i. 103—104. In 419 D. beside a. 467. /w>01d Fr. eu. 0. «^j>Fr. says that the development was and independent in the several Romance languages. u were pronounced open. particularly in northern Gaul: z'f«f. have seen (§ 165) ti. and in unaccented ii. : Niipos. Zimmermann in Zs. a. 178. o.§ 178] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. perhaps only a blunder. southern Gaul. Portugal. cqr'^lt. and the conditions of diphthongization were very diverse in different localities. t. but as posterior to it the fifth century. we find vobit for obiit (S. Spr. ^^/a > Old Fr. while a was not' affected by q-aawti-ty. ce. he puts in the fourth and fifth centuries. 735). and Sicily apparently did not participate in this early breaking. 77 gule. syllables before a labial (as in proommus') a short further- more. VOWELS. the groups that e. e. ca-the-drd te-ni-brds . which in the transition from Latin to the Romance languages re1 77- It is likely that these in sulted in diphthongization in a large part of the Empire. Gram. Lombardy. This pronunciation doubtless sprang up with the old. We shall see presently Digitized by Microsoft® . cq/r me-l no-s re-m In Spain and in some parts neisf of Gaul.

and 180. The inconsistencies in this substitution arise partly from the different dates at which words were borrowed.iro6riKTf)~:>apotheca^ It. a-Ktjvrj'^ sctsna scena. long or short. seppia. (f>dXayi -> phalanx. 210) that cB>e a. so in some late words. A. it H era : eclesia. ceu). [§ 182 (§§209. Late words often show Digitized do-Ki/Tiys > ascitis. 179.La > blasphemia > It. and ui (as in cut) was lit. as *waidanjan~>*wadaniare. popular origin it often had the Greek open sound kKKkfitrU > 182. by Microsoft® . iu is found in skiuha?i> ated in some fashion to the Latin system. as In words of more ji\acr<\>r}fi. the Greek This pronunciation was letters were sounded as in Greek. * skivare. partly from the various pronunciations of the vowels in the several Greek dialects. eu (^cduius. but popular speech substituted for unfamiliar vowels the sounds of the vernacular. eu generallyremained du. partly from the channel (written or oral) through which they came. while au. bestemmia. but early in our became t. was in Greek originally a long e. doubtless the ideal of people of fashion. which became *trewa. The foreign vowels of borrowed words were assimil- In the few Celtic words that were taken over there are no important peculiarities. 181. The history of Greek vowels is very complicated: — GREEK VOWELS. bottega.nd ce>e. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin e: a. According to Quintilian (£don 64-65). was pronounced a: ^axriM^ Phdsis. Per. but also sepia "^ i: It. In the Germanic vocabulary there is not much to be noted: at in words adopted early apparently became a. eu (or iu) appears in treuwa (or triuwa).78 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. (n)Tria~^ sapia.

Claussen 855-857. It. tttw^os > It. ermo. Pr.p1. occasion- yXStrira > It. t apparently later often e: apOplriKOi > ariAriticus '> It artetico. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: <j><!tKri In popular words it apparently became ^. antiefne. <^iKo'i>phtlus. 184. ropvos > tqrnus > It. opiyavos > became e.— § i86] An etc. Sp.. crLvaTn> sinapi^ senape. open in others. chiosa. ^ia>drrp > boletus. ^^. tapis. /iu(rT^ptov> mistirium. 183. li bietal It. armeise. it was In assimilated to Latin t: ^lp.. cedro. dqga. mienta. in 186. Greek dialects. > artemtsia > Old Fr. seems to have had a very open sound. "^-phoca. iKKXriKrCiu "> edisice. cf.. and occasionally the same word had both pronunciations: a. apparently became I. menta. E was close in some It. In popular words it. Cf. Tiov Claussen 854-855. Claussen 869-870. Old Fr. I. cresme. 1re7rf. Introduction to Vulgar Latin.' It.^ purpura. regamo. even when long. rprnKTiji'^ Cf.> piper.v6% > orphanus.ix6py7)>amurca. 80x1^ > dqga> It. orma. pttqcco. Cf. 9. Neumann etc. ixova<TT'^piov'>raora-n-rj- nastirium.'>- Stephanus Stephanus. a. was assimilated to Latin e: yevans Agenesis. ^(fila-pa^ chrisma> cresima.Chrlstus Chrestus. Christianus Chres- tianus. irop^vpo.o'i'> phlmus . etc.yermo. op<^a. K6ppi>gummi. Claussen 853-854.vri^ovo%'>-* antefona'^ Qi\A Fr. 79 40. Digitized by Microsoft® . oo-/x'^ >. but sometimes open. O most dialects was kocjuvo's o. piivOrj^ menta'> It. apa. but perhaps dialectically q (cf. at least in the principal dialects. sometimes open: eprjfios'^ er'mus er'mus'^ It. /. tapit. In popular words it was sometimes close. -p-hqra). popular words I In book-words later e oz e. 185. was generally close. pxirov > blttum'> It. '%Ti<^avo'. KiBpo'i'>cedrus'>In book-words it > Fr. Xpla-ro^'^. apTepXa-M It. ally u: tructa. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: > cophinus.. etc. was probably q. etc.

" "porphyreticum marmor non purpureticum marmor. Livius Andronicus In ayKvpa ancora. > ancilia . In inscriptions we find misteriis. murta. — > concha. Pirson 39. KpvTTTrj > It. Lat. AudoUent 536. 221. irv^os mullus. we find: "Marsyas non in others (S. was unrounded into /. . > It. <jTvpai : . For some words we find an occasional spelling X. 'OXvcro-eu? > Ulixes. Cf. ''tymum non tu- mum. perhaps taken mostly from Doric (Claussen 865). originally pronounced u. etc. y In the App. According to Cassiodorus. Pr. in which the ^ is a later local development. fivpros busta seems to represent a peculiar local development: cf. 468. Y was > strqppus. > > and a few other words the v for some reason became o. Pr. The App. > > > buxida {=pyxis) in Theodorus Priscianus and in glosses. u is the spelling in some words. 'OSuo-o-eta > Odissta. App.vt)> was shortened. Zefurus. S. nunquam Pyrrhum" (S. later in Attic and became ii.p-q>cumba." '^ tymum non tumum. motto.. KviJ. v regularly was assimilated to Latin u Ionic it jUijXXos 2ig-22i): Pvpara> bursa . Towards the end of the Republic.8o torno. which is genCicero erally represented. In Tp\yTa. Digitized by Microsoft® . cultivated people adopted for Greek words the Ionic-Attic pronunciation. Cf. Koyxiy <tt/3o<^os [§ 187 chorda. Mva-Ca^ Jfysia Mmsia. /iCSos > It. in the 9th or loth century." App. . KpvTrTy)> crupta . Pr. etc. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. which may represent a Greek dialect pronunciation between u and ii: yvpo'i> gyrus gmrus . 221). which subsequently. Olumpus. Spr. etc. yppl-q > Claussen 857-860.yKvKw. In the older borrowed words. It. etc." Among the common people the unfamiliar ii was assimilated to i. 221). truttna the v storax. grotta. says: "Burrum semper Ennius. Pr. The spelling / occurs sometimes before Augustus 6.. 187. buxus. (S. by the spelling y. Marsuas." "myrta non murta. — KoKn^o-i^ cqlaphus cojaphus. these probably have nothing to do with KoXvizTpa.. in the case of v. calotta.

81 has "gyrus non girus. the penult was often shortened: Khj. etc. § Kd 223. 6r]travp6i> thesaurus. b. Cf. Cf. In -eios -eta —tiov. 190. later e. by Microsoft® became 0.• ^ ^generally became ^« E3pos > -£'«''«J'. A V> au. KoXoKvuT-q"^ cologuinta. as in Atas > Aiax.> platea. which to be pronounced as in ^otfio^'^it Phxbus Phebus Sometimes. Claussen 01 originally "became came (S. /. Claussen 873-875. . 277).§ 192] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. which came to be proClaussen nounced 871-872. became ai. frequently became qui: The modern Greek pronunciation is represented by some Romance words: afi. Claussen 872-873.. j8u^ai'r6s > It. cf. later ce (as in poina).TSa.v\ov > It. .'> w€ipaTyi<s'^ — KA£ki>> Medea. tdolum. Cf. bisante. 191. then. f. Claussen 860-869. was usually pronounced short. > It. from the sixth to the fourth century c. Kapa^iuriys'^ paradtsus . etc. £/ was doubtless originally pronounced ei in Greek. see § 141.. cima. giro. as in AWiovux > Ethiopia Ethiopia. (as in aiyi^'^ tsgis). etc. 189. however. yrJi/'os — kvkvo%> gesso is e: yvpo% cecino. originally cb 188. Cf. MaTa > Maia. if Pirson 39." giret. a became Clio. Cleopatra.rihtui. or z before vowels. i. It. Bechtel etc. AI timbre.. Digitized as in -Koivr] >poina. giro. > scilinga. toreomatum from Topfxpa. > It.). M. <? In Latin. Cf. e. «S(i)Xov> pirata. Frigia. e. 192. amido. Pr. may be merely misspellings: Some Romance forms show u: 875-877. KS/«i>It. oi. This i. Tu/iTravov > Fr. long. about the third century. For o-vkcutoj/. /ceXttJcr/xa > ? It. except before vowels. cf. Cf. ciurma. probably a local development. oTJpt-yya which became It. 76-77. J before consonants. etc. if Audollent 535. finally. Such forms Clepatra for as " ermeneumata non erminomata" {App. misterii.

which was used in southern Italy. 441. ovpavo's'^ Uranus. latus. see § 167. 544. then q. crepere. I. under the influence of l?vis: Beside GREVE. see § 171. SINGLE VOWELS. Cf. Beside gravis there was a grevis. patrem. L. manus. Doric cf. [§ 195 "^-foeta. « : . malum « cf. volumptczte in Gl. The o was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . 195. (2) (3) For the suffix -arius. C.. Spr. (i) Some words had a peculiar development: — Beside alacrem the Romance languages seem to postulate alecrem and alej:rem. 468. Rome. (6) Beside vacuus there was a vHcuus: vocuam. and agnetus (for agndtusi) in Fredegarius. 468 cf. <u Claussen 877-878. I. Spr. Reich.B. Haag 6. For nasal vowels. 0. -arius.slus. ot. which was used elsewhere Lat. VI. 1527 d 33.T\Kov). Lat. 171. Cf. — For vowels in hiatus. especially in the north. Substrate II. N. (5) jiSKav) there was a melum (<i)i. A regularly remained dat-e. 468. Kipaaoi) there must have been a Latin * cerlsus. Like 193. vocatio. So beside dinia. for cmmeterium < Koi/tjyTiyptov. I. used by Petronius and others: Lat. In Latin it usually became u: fipovxo's> bruchus. senetus. S. became comcedia. unchanged in the greater part of the Empire: caput. It is possible that dlacer (whence alacrem) > *dlecer (whence alecrem). then 'Valuer (whence alicrem alecrem). C. Spr. a. I. perhaps indicates an ignorant confusion of « ce: KOiixMSia'^ and Cf. L. Olcott 33.82 as in An iroirjTtji Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 198. But in Gaul. Beside cerasus *clra. a 194. ACCENTED VOWELS. tantus. etc. factum. Substrate (4) I. it probably had a forward pronunciation tending somewhat toward e: cf. and Sarthere was a clr^slus. see § 39. Claussen 878-879. Cimiterium cymiterium. doubtless originally pronounced ou in Greek. CKwas then if.

for crisco and other verbs for adimplisti.: Sepulcri 193-194. -isimus for vir. vindo. vocivus regularly whence by analogy vdcat vScuus became ^vdcitus^ for vocat: Lat. and conversely ver iox etc. minsam. 359-364. as in cinsum. Calabria. etc. also for colustra. I.§ igS] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. for —esco 26o£f. dulcido. S. By a change § which was pronounced remained unchanged in Vulgar Latin. vendere. — in -isco for -esco. {Lexique 115). These spellings are due in the main s -¥ to the identity of /and i in late pronunciation: see § 165.: for the confusion of -ere and 6911. Lat. -elius and —llius. and -tsco. etc. 468. —isco for —esco.. and southern Apulia e In old Oscan.. filix. for vindimia instead of vindemia. T is very often used for e in inscriptions and late —ido for —edo. Also Vok. habetis.. became vacdre. however. I. etc. old vocdre. Spr.. which was spoken in nearly the has become i. 613. Some of the —esco >-tsco cases are surely due to a §§414-415. Studi A. 127 287-289. Republican times. to u. In Sicily. shift of conjugation: see In Gaul this substitution of it i for e was so very com- mon that must signify something. writings: Gregory the Great has crudilitas. —esimus. iox co- gnusco and other verbs in —usco for -osco. -Ire. debet. 466. 196. no proof of historical con: nection between the phenomena 197. 328. vacivus 83 {^vacuus). There is. I. e became i in late {Lexique 106). same region. of suffix original. I. cf . This would account for bistia (= bestia) found in late Latin. etc. conjectures that consonant may have tended to raise e to i. e. III. for -elis and —His. etc.ficit. in Studi Medievali Medievali I. {ficet in the 3d century. 198. Spr. Sepulcri.. 614-615. mercedem. Digitized It probably indicates an by Microsoft® . iox fistus. Carnoy 15 ff. I.). Long e {% 165). probably- at least in most re- gions: debere. II. diheto. Cf. 189-190. verus.

Cf. seniscit. remained unchanged: bene. Long i. Bon. veir): Lat. piscem. 106-113: minse.ii(i. (cf. : (3) Beside sicula there was a secula (Lexique Ii9)>-It. i. tile. For the development (i) of diphthongs. Spr. (4). etc. Short i. remained unchanged: I. 0) . must have become *frtgidus ij^frigdus). criscit. minsis. quiiscit. Haag 3iiff. According to Lat. minses. mille. 397. vaster. Vok. 468. ingraviscente. audtre. became. Lexique 104-105: ficerent. is to be regarded as a new formation on the model of noster rather than as the old form. see § 229. in north- e>ei (verum> Old Fr. Cf. quincriscens. Cf. Lexique 114. [§ 201 extremely close pronunciation of the e ern Gaul. teneo. which supplanted vester. ferrum. 1 200. spelling e for ^ is common from Digitized the third century on frecare. later. see § 177. It. this very high Spr. Archiv (2) Beside ilex there was an elex. tris. delitus. exit. venit. viiium. minus. Pirson 2-5: lo-ii: requiiscit. Short e. e 199. villa. perhaps through association with rtgidus. habitur. (Lexique 119) mentions a rustic speca for spica. pronounced / (§ 165). except in Spain. which was pronounced e (see § 165). segolo. ficit. vexit. 8-9: adoliscens. stilla. ferus. doubtless by the third century and sporadically earlier. Fngidus. sidibus. dico. : by Microsoft® . qulnque (^Substrate (i) 546). Neumann adoliscens. It is interesting to note that Celtic e also became i: Dottin 99. quaginsima. tulate (4) stegola Varro seems to pos- something like * steva for For St. rictu. fedilis. etc. found in Gregory of Tours fur das Studium der neueren Sprachen CXV. tepiscit. The 201.84 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. rigna. riges. etc. vinum. etc. rigna. festa. stiis. i pronounced i (§ 165). e in nearly all the Empire: btbo. I. § i66. circulns. stiva.

In southern Italy e from i. forma. ^/z<^(= minester... Digitized by Microsoft® . Spr. Spr. place. 202). viduriiis. These two islands were taken > from Rome by the Vandals in 458 and added to the African kingdom. Pirson 8-10. §§ 197. solus. etc. at least in hora. sene. 195. Haag II. ceteneris. (i) (2) Beside camtsia there was a camTsia: Substrate I. Quintilian and Varro mention 166) a rustic e for I.. 214. > ou. AudoUent 535. 541. Spr. i is Bon. accepere. see § 167. (Zat. 463. as it (§ 165). Calabria.. 106. amure.. Beside simul there was a *sSmul. 468): furma. 85 menus... etc. Pirson 13. has become § 196. in Gaul {^Lat. Long 0. «.§203] legare. attested also by in- scriptions (S. karessemo. Stu^i Medievali 613) is perhaps to be ex- plained in this way. R. often used for e (cf. pronounced in Vulgar Latin. 6 202. Conversely (S. Apulia of e to /. sebe. In Sicily. Carnoy 15^-. 198): minses. (3) Sinister was replaced by sinexter. For ou 203. after that they were perhaps isolated: Einf. etc.. etc. the change For agnusco. used by Gregory the Great and for ostium others. like e from e. R. trebus. etc.. S. nomen. etc. § 196. 11 7-1 23. S. zV/z///). vea. 468. Spr. trea. corregia. very common etc. etc. 468. minester. In Sardinia and a part of Corsica this change did not take and both t and i i. and southern did in old Oscan: cf.. etc. became i: cf. is The spelling u for etc. benivolus. under the influence of dexter: Lat. The popular ustium I. Neumann 23-25. -^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. 200-201. S. sponsus. 469. perhaps through the analogy of semel: Lat. cognusco. remained unchanged most regions: colorem. see the end of § 197. semuL. 463. etc.

pi. forts. etc. sg. — presumably through Fr. 211—212. frondes) are perhaps connected with Italian yb«fe and other words containing o for 205. pi. § 187. old Fr.86 etc. tot. Italian tutto . the influence of cuncti on toti. Fr. uuela alle. namely. Cf. una. pi. which Haag 13. folia. and western was probably formed a little forward of its normal It was certainly not u. remained unchanged: bonus. U is occasionally used for o in inscriptions: lucus. The Such a form seems to be attested by the Gl. § 217.. App. Neapolitan sg. pronounced u (§ 165). remained unchanged most of the Empire: cura. is that of Mohl. tottus (§ 163). cognusco. some of the Romance forms point to nom. court." § 177.. sortem. forum. 126-130. 206. Pr. cf. q before n + dental. mortem. Cassel: " aiatutti. Short 0. durus. locus. later. § 198. may have come through 6 pronounced ^ (§ 165). Pr. mueble postulate Cf. tutt3 . the plural. solet. [§ 206 It Bon. in mobilis. probably represents a very close sound. nullus. Grammarians mention the protrusion of the lips: S. The rustic Latin funics. sg. Nyrop. K. but it doubtless slightly This pronunciation may have been due to the historique de langue francaise approached it. or at least to a tutti. S. Grammaire I. meuble. For the development of diphthongs. ^'formica noxi furmica. became ou or u: cortem 204. (i) > Old. the analogy of mSveo. tuit. There are a few peculiar cases: and Sp. (2) Beside totus and *tuttus or *tuctus. nun.. see Long u. No satisfactory explanation has been proposed the most plausible. Digitized by Microsoft® . frundes (for fontes. totto. perhaps. pi. in north- ern Gaul. Cf. *tutti or *tucti: It.. in But in Gaul." where tutti is defined as alle. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. Lexique 102-104. puni. gluria. 216.. tutto. a large part of northern Rsetia it position. Italy.

change did not take place. 469. Fr. § 217.rdus: Substrate III. etc. in Latin words borrowed by the Celts « is generally treated like Celtic (murus ". 134.. Celtic by the second century. For qu (i) (2) > qu. F. probably by in most of the Empire: bucca. > : 207. Spr. servos. §§ 169. tonica. became nSptim: (3) Beside in Zs. Albania. 468. tomolus. u> Spr. Digitized Cf. Beside luridus there probably was a *l-S. fiUvium. 132-135. a part of Corsica. presumably taken very early. etc. covetum (= is Haag 14. u. etc. 617-618. jUvlnis. Cf. Pirson 15-17. and ndra. Spr. and Dacia this u : Lat. became. 216). people ssiA plSvere (used by Petronius (4) Instead oi pluere axA pKvia and others) and *pldja: Lat. Cf." from nSvus) Lat. criidus > criz) Loth 67-68. and both u and . giila. u 208. pomice. "colubemon colober. due to the analogy of sdror and * nSvia (" bride. 465) and nSra (S. toneca. a pomex: Bon. culpa. cubtturn). « > z (cii^a cili.). couleuvre. which lasted down into the Empire. Pr. 517. 136. . (i) (2) The following special cases are to be noted: — Cf. Short the fourth century or earlier. G. perhaps only orthographic: Lat. jeune call for local q in coliibra." "turma non iorma" (cf. 464." from nSvus). Beside angHstia there must have been *angSstia. Mohl pumex there was XXVI. Spr. 87 linguistic habits of the Celts: u> t in Great Britain cf. The old spelling for u after v {yoltus. In Sardinia. 217. 467. App." "puella non poella"). The spelling is common in late documents: "columna non colomna. Bon. NUptia. corso. Jleuve. through the analogy of *nSvius ("bridegroom. see § 167." "formosus noTiformunsus. pronounced u (§ 165). (3) There are other local irregularities. In place of niirus we find ndrus (R. by Microsoft® .§ 2o8] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin... ruptus. Windisch 396-397. unda. Substrate IV.> mur) but in a few.

etc. spellings as fcecit. when Varro cited edus for hadus as a rural form. Neumann 13 (and Fort- mon to Volscian seizung 21-23): famina. seta. quiceti. qucero. in stressed syllables in the first century of our era and later. century on (Carnoy 78): questus (2d century). c. by analogy. Cf. [§ 210 DIPHTHOUGS.88 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. in the first S. 178. 225. such scBpes both forms were preserved. sepes. century: Einf. came into general use: fenum. Cf. especially in Pompeii (presta. 'Sox fenum fcenum. says that cb Terentius Scaurus. 225. ccelum.): found early in Campania. ae 209. Carnoy It was probably general everywhere by the second 69-84. Cf. The regular change oi ce to e took place largely in Republican times in unaccented syllables. stressed cb was probably still a diphthong in the city but had become e in rustic Latium. preda prceda. igo. § 78. Carnoy 79-80. preda. 166—168. tury. sepes 188. Bechtel Digitized by Microsoft® . and equus : S.. in stressed syllables (as questor) may be called regular by the century: S. some hundred years later e came into the city and pervaded the middle of the provinces: Lat. b. septum. e. etc. S. cen224. ^ was originally written through the mutual attraction of later e: ccecus. 687 ff. but two parts it became cb. About the first century b. Hence. 178. In certain words a vulgar and dialect pronunciation com- and Faliscan (Hammer 7. fifth it cented syllables (as sancte) before the third century. its and pronounced ai. 210. Spr. In Spanish inscriptions e occurs from the first S. £ for a in dative endings occurs early: Corssen I. 465. represents the sound better than ai: E is etc. The Pompeius blames the confusion of csquus spelling e for cb was usual in unacfrom the fourth century on. S. 8). etc.

R. Carnoy 85-86 (clusa. Festus. etc.. grece. orata. 212. generally remained in Vulgar*^ Latin: aura. such as occludo: Vok. 8. where and second centuries B. in place of Latin au: and There are some examples in Pompeii. an Au. inscriptions of the I St and 2d centuries). 162-164. or possibly (2) they are only orthographic. Clodius : Ham- and Plotus are common in first mer 4. toru. 89 75-76: cedat. 655-663. Digitized by Microsoft® . plostrum Carnoy App. Pirson 27. II. is 223 spellings Cladius. original q (i) is proved by the treatment and Spanish it did not become of c in ^ until had broken into uo or ue. 304. in general.. — speak of a rustic or archaic o for au: Corssen fif. in the Probus. are pretty common in various countries Carnoy 86-95. coda.: § 212] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. In Rumanian and Provengal it was preserved as au. pronounced du. the dialects of northern \i^?s~\(>\.C. In Umbrian inscriptions we find Latin. the earli^est stage of French in Italian causa> chose . Conversely ce was often erroneouslyused for e (S. oricla". II. Lexique 104). Pr.). and others The grammarians : — . Hammer central Italy: Chronologie .. in the first it the city. Dibmedes. Hammer : 15-19. etc.. in Oscan territory. 183-184) and for Greek r) (as scanam. coming through derivatives. in Portuguese as ou. Cludo for claudo is common. where au was normally preserved this pronunciation was used also in the country around So. The f there S. Cf. ^^ auris non cotes.: into Spr. its existence in 211. Carnoy 100 (cludo in two Sp. orum. In C/^j-a. Festus cites 95. Glacus. crept was used by the lower classes: Lat. etc./464. taurus. I. Cf. Vok. occur inscriptions Carnoy 85. Perhaps they represent a provincial pronuncia- tion. orum. with a for au when an u in the next syllable. gaudium. century second century Carnoy 85. ostrum. and 465-466. 301 S. etc. Priscian. Rome. Bayard 5. etc. Scarus. Umbrian and Faliscan had 4-5.

228. IV. neuter. Vok. Carnoy 95. S. Cf. Umbrian suffoco. * auddere for occtdere. was preserved: For the development oifui. plodo. lotus. we C. S. ce for ce and e. eheu. Spr. stus. 227. cxlum. II. 464. hUic.. mm227. Cicero used loreola. This rustic and vulgar while the in Romance — which was pronounced — was generally adopted from au was 0. I. The confusion S. became popular: coscus. find amenus. ccementa. mmrore. Carnoy 84. " sorex ve\ saurex. by Microsoft® . pronounced eu (as in ceu. (cf. coles =^ caulis. CE was originally written through the mutual attraction of presumably 0. later e: coepi. eui~us. pollulum: si audes. 216. of ce and e is mentioned by late grammarians: In late Latin a bad spelling. eu. etc. 0. cepi." Cf. 228. postulated by some Romance forms. plotus occur also. Vulgar Latin in a few words : coda. Classic fauces. fcemina. seu). Hammer 4)= aut. sodes. S. In the Per. Ui. ote. foces. Europa. L. Cf. see § 431. the intermediate stage Phoebe. S. 293ff. was not preserved in any popular words. oricla. illHi. [§ 216 {^Chronologie Conversely. 1890. au was occasionally used for 160): Festus. explodo. fosnum. may be that for reflected by the spelling phyeb^ E is attested by inscriptions in the first century ceperint. Lat. oe 215. pcenates.go An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 227. Marius Victorinus. ui pronounced lii. is its and pronounced oi. of our era: Cf. Eu. poena. 213. Bechtel 76. neu. heu. Digitized cHi. eu 214. Phebus. Ola. 0. *^^ Cf. auscu/um . etc. Jilodere. codex. but two parts it became It pcenitet. plaudo.

a following labial tends to open a vowel: colubra>* colqbra. which 217. Jluvium'>*flqvium. except sporadically. maintains ceding or following even if it by a preq was separated from the to e. The discussion is continued by Pieri. see G. qt INFLUENCE OP LABIALS. 2.. 476. influence of The vowels of the final syllable lost much of their distinct- ness. for the In clerical Latin the vowels were probably pronounced most part as ii). For a criticism of the theory. 218. — vowel by a liquid. B. in vulgar speech. 219. au:=q ox au. became ou: S. u were lowered one stage labial. until the reforms of Charlemagne. p. d. A general influence of this kind can hardly be regarded as proved for any combination except ou. q. e. I ' According to some philologists. the evidence is not convincing. Although many examples are cited. and then only Digitized in a part of the Empire. § 134. i = i. see § 167. UNACCENTED VOWELS. Pieri. until long after the Vulgar Latin period. q. in general. by Microsoft® . CLERICAL LATEff. stress. = 0. La vocal tonka alterata dal contatto d'una consonante labiate in Archivio glottologico italiano XV. etc. a = a. 579. ibid. but did not fall.§ 219] An Introduction c. Ascoli. dvum~>* ovum. that f. Among unstressed vowels. La vocal tonka alterata da una consonante labiale in Zs. possibly through a lingering the Old Latin accent: cf. — For secondary 153-155. XXVII. Osservazioni al precedence lavoro. to Vulgar Latin. mobilis'^* mqbilis. u ^u (or a and ce ^e. — 457. e=e. see §§ N. those of the first syllable had most resistance. juvenis'^*jovenis. After that. e. pluere'^ ployere.

In general Latin quantity did not sensibly affect the quality of unstressed vowels. § 419. scriptions etc. cal[e)fdcere. According to Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. syllables: I. > maximus. U was cf. syllables. sibi: S. bdl{i)neum. Spr. In Spanish in- we find maximus. except in initial syllables. see Pirson. Fredegarius is very uncertain in his use of unstressed vowels: 220. maxumus quodlubet"^ guodlibet.92 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. vetranus: S. 251. i was certainly distinct from Digitized In final i: sentis. cf... Quase." In the vulgar speech simus seems to have Cf. For the confusion of unaccented e and i. 203-208. in moderation. ID re vailed in Italy and southern Gaul. This tendency continued. employed only before labials. spelled both with u and with i: Carnoy 65-69. "in here neque e plane nequi i auditur. for o and u. "Messala. see Pirson 41—47. jur(^i)go." (Weakest were medial vowels immediately following the stress. in Classic and Vulgar Latin: cal{i)dus. and even there the difference must have been small. etc. found in place of quasi. vtr{i)dis. etc. however. forms as infri. Agrippa pro sumus simus scripserunt. 2 1 2. Haag 15-24. dc(^u)lus. 466. by Microsoft® . pontufex "^pontifex. being sometimes accented. 21-24. but simus was favored by Augustus and by some purists of his time (Lindsay 29). iv. (i). The former was the one generally adopted in Classic Latin. 7. S. According to Quintilian I. In early Latin there was an inclination to syncope: ar{i)ddrem. etc. In inscriptions we find such frig{i)daria. SUmus. siimus -and simus. 221. 3 During the Classic period it generally became t: decumus~> decimus. 30—36. 35 Franz. in unaccented . 9). Lat. 199-200. secondary or the primary 47-48. Brutus. [§ 221 Grammarians sibe are testify to the confusion of and u: S. 196-198. Lindsay 25-26. av{^i)dere. developed two forms.

Horace. Bonnet notes that etc. vaqui. sente. fectf^Vr. and u in hiatus with following vowels first lost their syllabic value era. facias. Maiiam not ab. abietiItalia counts as three syllables in poets of the ' bus in Virgil. vindemiator'va. Pr. probably by the century of our and sporadically earlier. alio. used before Joseph. is distinguere qucBro. e. fluviorutn) are found in Ennius. Horace. such as Classic period. Lucilius. quem..g. In Greek transliterations kv for qui (as in cf. Juvenal. Occasional examples (such as dormio. senttt> It. however. nocuit. In perfects. a. a vowel but lost its syllabic value in early Classic times: acua > aqua. 234. 222. feci." S. 236. then. 232. 223. senti. the u was ap- parently not reduced to a semivowel until the end of the In some other words the syllabic value of u was kept. App. "vacua non vaqua." "vacui gon 224. 93 stbi. In tibi the final vowel was sometimes long. at least in theory. rather late: Velius Longus distinguishes aquam from acuam. e. Lucretius. fes. as approved is by Cicero: S. qui. oKuAas) very common: Eckinger 123-125. will be treated as consonants. These. Virgil. So it was in qualis. UNACCENTED VOWELS IN HIATUS. > distinguere. and will be out of consideration in the present chapter. Plautus.. u followed by a vowel was originally itself. Ovid.§ 224] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. After gutturals. placuit. abiete. sometimes short. Digitized by Microsoft® . Otherwise. Quintilian and Velius Longus cite the spellings Aiiax. fis. §187. i. left a. Quintilian says that u and i in uos and iam are not vowels: S. fudxis. and Seneca: deorsum in Lucretius. /"and u followed by a vowel and beginning a syllable were apparently pronounced as consonants from the earliest times.

"ares veteres pro anVi. 232. vinia. i. ee. valiat. I.. Suavis. abias. at an early date: arietem (^^\-^6)'> are tern (Varro. cavia. Uniamenta. it was probably a semi-learned word. C. mulierem (% 1^6) ". as e. ie. parieUs {%i2t^)>p aretes. Caper.sapui > saj>ui> sapwi. palleum.94 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. u6 developed differently. We have. it became soef in French. in late Latin spelling. S." KeilVII. 06 and u6 into o. however. Audollent 535. exiat. in late Latin. calciare. §136). eccu'istay-* ecwista (§65). 3714 (Rome).:> Digitized by Microsoft® . * de-excito~^* dexctto'^ It. prehcndere 225. S. App.. four-syllable induruit are barbarisms Caesellius is undecided whether tenuis has three syllables or two: S. a great confusion of e and i in hiatus: capriolvs (cf. soave in Italian. L. earn {=jani). likewise eccu'kic> *eccwic. 231-232. then.dixisse": Carnoy 43). [§ 225 early Empire. So alea>alea'^alja. Hence arises. II>'43. century or before by the third century. 103. "non iamus sed eamus.y Jiliolus>Jiljdlus (§136). the semivowels pre- sumably developed into the fricative consonants y and w: S. 106. 463. R. coclia. with a narrowing of the mouth-passage. The pronunciation speech by the first u was probably regular in popular . aleum. the / remaining long enough to palatalize the / (the Romance e was doubtless a later analogical development). Vok. abiat. etc. and // apparently being contracted into e. tenueram > tenweram (§137). Valerius Probus has parietibus: £don 208.filius'>ftlius'^Jiljus.> mul'erem. was used as a trisyllable by Sedulius in the fifth century. noxeus. 00. faciebam'>*facebam. solia. VI. But the combinations ei -. 234. Cf. lancia. a new y and a new w. Pr. Consentius declares that trisyllabic soluit and . 187.. calcius. lintium. desto. Lauriatus." " sobrius per i non per e scribendum. fasiolus. eacit {^=jacei). Bayard 4. etc. In the same vi2. cf- Carnoy 33-35.

/ after a consonant fell before unaccented i: Velius audit '^ audi. . Febr{u)arius.'K." Keil VII.. 226. S. £don 130). Pr. equus S. Carnoy 221). '' coqui non cod. ho-Tievex. Audollent 536). Carnoy 117. u before stressed u and 0: 536. opus. coquus'^ cocus {App. > ecus {^App. 106). ministerW^ ministeri. quat{t')uor'^quattor (^. ungi. Digitized by Microsoft® . quoi{f)tdie> stingo . Spr. Jan{u)arius: Vok. qudmddo> comodo. So apparently aruum^* arum. pendere. " coquens non cocens". Pr." " coqus non cocus". hence *cocma). unguo'>ungo {ungo.oSmsiT\& mortus. 2 1 7 ) . cf. (Pirson 58) quatro (7th century.. suus'> sus. some writers use no u in distinguere.'). before unaccented by the second century: antiquus "> anticus carduus^^cardus. 218) quator — in. defendere. duodecim'^ dodecim (Pirson 58: dodece). then *prendere through the analogy of reddere and perhaps also of ascendere. tdrqueo>*torquo> *tdrco. 95 prendere. requebit. battuo "^ batto (cf. kept its u: Old Fr. mortuus'^p- cottidie.and perhaps also ol opera. sttnguo > guere non tingere. Velius Longus. then *cdpenre *cdp'rtre through the analogy of co. cooperire"^ coperlre. 472: ero). 351). U often fell irregularly II. § 227] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. tendere." Keil VII. "tin352. vef. inndcuus>inndcus. Reich. 468-469. £ruum'>erum {Lat. "ungue non unge. — cdhdrtew^ cortem. Bayard 7. Audollent See §354. S. Pr. in quum>cum. "equs non ecus ". S. Pirson 57 (cf. fell commoner After gutturals. coquo^coco {App. in late inscriptions. unguntur. distinguunf> distingunt (ac- cording to Velius Longus. consiln'^ consilt. 227. the Viduus. contin{u)ari. tuum'^tum. tinguo~^ttngo (Caper. cf. z/ after all consonants fell before unaccented u probably by the middle of the first century. abattas. common Carnoy 43).. 217-218. 105. quteius'> quetus. Furthermore. doubtless under the influence of vidua. . Gl.. . Caper. Similarly. uncis = unguis.

Bechtel 76. agusias. ce all came to be sounded e. long or short. Julii. cetdtem. far as As or u. 223 Pirson 26). ce. S. Arunci occurs in manuscripts of Virgil. Bon.96 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Some however. A(u)runci. 0^ remained p. debere. — Latin /(j/»««j > Classic Jejunus (the original a seems to be preserved in Classic Januarius '^ Jenuarius ." S. 57. movetis. * agurium (cf. Spr. e For the confusion of Carnoy 17-33. is very often replaced divota. 470): rddicem. au became a if there was an accented u in the next syllable. Cf. E. Bon. but otherwise remained unchanged (cf. (Lat. 136. d'rectus (^Vok. and see Audollent 535. some Italian (common by i in inscriptions. (Bcclesia. Dionigi. Koffmane no. i: should be spelled with double late words. i. necessary to say that Claudii. lost before also. moniti (for muniti). Comelii. Spr. kept It. In a few words the vowel of the initial syllable was an r: *corrStulare^*^roflare. etc. /^22: Jejunus after prefixes lost its first syllable: * dis-junare. plordre. Spr.. 171-1 72. gaudere. colorem. '^senatus non sinatus" App. Caper says "ausculta non asculta. > *jenua > Sardinian genna. tenere. 223. I. ridemus. Some minor peculiarities are to be noted: (i) A after/ apparently tended to become e: Old dialect forms) . dvitdtem. one can judge from spellings and subsequent developments. i. l remained i. Pr. dolere. hibernus. A(u)gustus. valere.. INITIAL SYLLABLE. videre. frumentum. S. fxddre. must have existed 229. 470): dilevit. 11. Lat. Vok. -n and —ns: Dtonysii>lt. Bon. 470) (2) Classic/awKa mimoricB. Keil VII. Lat. Digitized by Microsoft® .. dtrectus generally '> drictus)\ quirttare~>*dritare. golosus gylosus (ior gulosus). subinde. a was pronounced a. a{u)sculto. Farisiis > Parigi. in Gallic inscriptions cf. b. it [§ 229 Longus found etc. and u were finally all pronounced 228. Agustus is frequent from the second century on. audere. I. 109. 135—138. naufragium.

cf. This led to the prefixing of a 2. Umbrian ate. : 97 Di. A form ni for ne is found from early times Pirson 3. mcinus vecinus. putator O is changed to e in retundus (Vok.. analogy of *que quid^ quod (cf.Jaiant. § 198. serorihus. sdlbatec. Pr. II. Vitruvius.. Spr. 213): App. Carnoy (7) 107). JUntfSrus'^jeniperus (Lat. 82). Einf. cf. 3 II. 224 ff. (4) / tended to become e. L. Pr.for i in 422-424. as in 6' before a consonant was doubtless long and sharp. in fourth century inscriptions. Lexique \2Z-iz6. Pr^. e became southern Italy from the fourth to the sixth century RIVOCAVERIT. attested by Servius.. Reich. by dissimilation.. 470) > Old Fr. Italian. also sometimes in serore (Lat. century on (Foi. in vulgar speech was often replaced by (cf. Lexique 123. serori. This perhaps indicates a close pronunciation cf. Old French. cf. sometimes became se. Great: dirivare. 234-235) . Old Genoese zagante. Franz. attested from the sixth 87. 127). the e is perhaps due to the Haag II. in late Latin. 131). 205) . divmus"^ demnus. C. II. is that original Latin ei. 3 II. (6) O appears as u mfurmica (App. Lindsay 40). nutrire (beside *nqtrire). became instead of Digitized by Microsoft® . §§ 69. in very late texts there is frequent confusion of si and sed (Franz. < e In miraUlia the i ap- parently became (5) U and a. nise. §111. if i followed. Pirson 27. 470. oricla. Lexique I2z. According to Mohl. salvage. 470) and/m?- perus (App. I. 16^. mUtare. Vr. (Bon. silvdticus> salvaticus (Gl. Spr. I was occasionally assimilated to a following accented a : ^gdntem It. and Spanish. 126. so *ot (for aut: cf. possibly through confusion with dis-. Lat. se in Portuguese. Rum. which prevailed in Vulgar Latin. Italian. Lat. Sfr. 213. in manuscripts and inscriptions. mUrare. fimre'^fenire. retundatio. turrente (Bon. Bon. 225. XXXV. and Old Rumanian. de-. was kept by analogy in many words : dUrare. Si. Proven9al. Lexique > I04ff. z. cf.jaian. cf. Italian sed on the model of ched: si is preserved in French. : (3) > *jagante > Old Yr. etc. is common : in Gregory the etc. so that at the modern a syllabic effect — beginning of a word it had s-chola. Lexique 120. salvatico. §§ 212.§ 23o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. if there was an accented i in the next syllable:^ dividSre'^*devTdlre. Spr. Lexique 105-108. Cf. Au 230. front vowel (until the seventh century nearly always an ' later e Mohl's view. I. through the influence of the prefix re—. Rom. cf. 470).

Koffmane 109. is. etc. S. etc. The The in Latin example probably it is iscolasticus. stantia for instantia. Pirson 59-60. cdlK^o^cdre.thus produced was confounded with ex-. hispatii for Bechtel 78. IHTERTONIC SYLLABLE. B. though iscripta. This i came to be regarded as a regular part of the word. ^w. N. Vowels so situated probably became more and more end of the Empire. II. Cf. written Barcelona in the second century. [§ 231 often e) to the s or e when tio vowel preceded first is — in i-schola. of it iscola. 316-319. cf. indistinct towards the erally kept: bdn{i)idtem. st: ginning with Bon. frigiddria frigddria. ab sceleribus. compardre comperdre. Digitized by Microsoft® . Vok. 148. istare. S. fourth and found repeatedly. Spanus. in the fifth it is very common: espiritum.98 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 317. spatii. S. spiratio for inspiratio. scoriare for excoriare.. R. Slementum 6limintum. . cirebellum. Isidore. dub{i)idre. 467. but a was gen231. ismaragdus. 445-446. strumentum. isiudio. estatio. ischola. Dubois 171. sp. istatuam. scalciare for excalceare. in the third century (Carnoy 114-116). 445. dil{i)cdtus.(pronounced w-): expiendido. Spania. mirabilia. — By this term is meant syllable following the secondary and preceding the primary stress. and occasionally disappeared. Dubois 1 71-17 2. 3656-. ispose. Bon. 317 R.. Estephanus. etc. Grammarians took But in no note late until St. isperabi. splorator. ab scandalo. in the seventh century. spandere for ex- pandere. dv{i)idtem. spectante for expectante. prosthetic vowel earliest occurs in Greek inscriptions. cdp[i)idlis. not frequently. Latin texts ab rather than a was used before words besc. exs— (pronounced «-) and /«j-. tlie C. Spania. In some regions they began to fall regularly before the close of the Vulgar Latin period. Pirson 60. 469-470. The es-. cdrr(i)care.. instruo for struo. Bon.

. separdre seperdre. Cf. stablarius. vowel preceded by a consonant and followed by a fell in the earlier part of the Vulgar Digitized 233. omne)\ classified. (>Pr.. the uneducated pronounced 'om'nes beside socerum there was sScrum. dedcavit. principle tended to oblit- 232. PENULT. insola. 467. being next to the accent. Pirson 51. of this vowel. The fall of the vowel of course disturbed the Vulgar Latin rhythm: see § 153. 99 sdcramintum. vetranus.• anemis. Likewise o and u: ambolare. was weaker and more exposed to syncope. uomini). comare for coronare. etc. dixemus. in the second century b. Cf. : Frigdaria occurs Cf. etc. 464. There was probably a conflict between cultivated and popular pronunciation. The Vulgar Latin rhythmic erate one of the two post-tonic syllables of proparoxytones. cf. Bon. both types The treatment inconsistent often being preserved in the Romance languages: thus while the literary and official world said {h)dmines (>It. v^recundia. in Sepulcri 201—202. Pir- Franz. The penult. d. 131— 135. Bon. and the conditions differed widely in different regions.. liquid A weakened and by Microsoft® .. etc. R. 118. F. Mintsterium apparently became minsterium early enough for the n to before the s: see §171. We find in late Latin much confusion of e and /. son 52. Neumann 22. however. similarly As far as the general phenomena can be we may say that in popular words in penult tended to (i) fall common speech the vowel of the under the following conditions: — Between any Consonant and a Liquid. was apparently very Vulgar Latin. Neumann in Zs. c. R.§ 233] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. XIV. Koffmane III. 12. meretis. fall 559. etc. pi. 116. Substrate IV.

Digitized by Microsoft® . App. Eseram for Isaram. bdc{u)lus. Later they were confused. In some words we find a weakened to e: socro. Die Sprache des Petronius und die Glossen. Carnoy 12. at any rate in some regions: bdjulus. cdm{i)tem. frdgilis.). escaped this absorption: cni. But a few words. vowel preceded by a labial and followed by a confall early: 235. Waters Ch. ins(u)la. D. scaplas. gracilis. (cf. vemdc(^u)lus. 234. both -clus in {^<i—tlo). § 284. the vowel seems to have been kept. felicla. dc{ii)lus. 1 digitum> dicCf. I. Latin originally had the two diminutive endings —clus and -cuius {<i-co-lo). maniplus. dedro for dederunt. Juglus. Bon.' For a vowel between a labial and a liquid. App. 16-18. Lexique 63. tum. see first consonant -Cvas a palatal. In vigilafp-* viglat the vowel fell before (2) below. compera. App. frigidus^frigdus. fecrunt fecru. as in auricula. Vok. Pr. Lexique 64. mdsc{u)lus. d.stulum> crustlum (found in 18 Cf. villus. virginem. peduclum. hilerus. ftsiula>*Jiscla. 96. These by Plautus. aunclus. comp'tus. Cceseris. ci. which must have been slow in entering the common vocabulary.).^-* spatla. spatula'. 195-196. a. anglus. seperat (about 500 A. vitulus>veclus. spec{ii)lum. [§ 235 Latin period: altra. Many exI. Cf. e^-16 . masclus.'). cltera. Pirson 51. Pr. Oclus and some others occur in Petronius: see W. Franz. as in saclum. Pirson 49-50.. Heraeus. But if the the ^ began to be palatalized (so apparently in 9 I. Franz. Pr. 1899. both becoming —cuius in Classic Latin. vic(u)lus. were kept distinct vulgar speech: artic{u)lus. 3 To -clus was assimilated in popular Latin the ending -talus: capitulus"^* capiclus . amples are found in inscriptions: AudoUent 538. § 259. (2) Between a Labial and any Consonant.loo An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 57. oclos. A sonant was inclined to bublus. Pirson 51). aspra.

Martial. In some words. virdis.Jibla. pi. frigidus by Microsoft® . either everywhere or in a large region: drbi^o^rem. Waters Ch. Ci. (cf. Pirson 50. colpus.{i')nus. Plautus (cf. ioi tri- dib{i)tum. but often there were double forms the process began very early audus. virdiaria. domnus in St. Augustine. pardbula>*paraula *parabla. Pr. generally became au. : § 238] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 56. nibula. Waters Ch. Plautus. Digitized different condi§ 233) . in R. 44. Koff109. Plautus. fulica fulca. the older: d6m. merto. R. * cldvido> claudo (cf. Juvenal. In d6m(i')nus the mn form may be mane domni. fdbula>*faula *fabla. Franz. Caesar. 15 soldus. gdbata>*gauta *gabta. Cato. Plautus).. p I.. occurs in Lamna Petronius has bublum. 467. pdp{u)lus. lardum. Vegetius. Ovid. per- colopabat. Waters Ch. i2ff. Horace. *navi- > fragus>naufragus). Franz. Pirson 51. Reich. sablum. 12. found in glosses. * ndvitaf. b{u)la. * dvka "^ auca. Horace and Vitruvius. Varro. poplus. Petronius. sablum. Cf. however. 13. the vowel was kept. tdbula>*taula *tabla. pi. Franz. . Franz. App. 238. 467. etc. (3) Between a Liquid and any Consonant. A vowel preceded by a liquid and followed by a consonant was subject to syncope at all periods: ardus. Gl. f{b{u)la. KofiEmane iii. (4) Miscellaneous. tremulat.^-* nautat . h6m{i')nes jiiv{e)nis . Franz.). caldus. Pliny. 13. . Varro. hdmula. 15-16 (cf. Cf. tions: In some words the vowel fell under digitum> dictum. p I. offla. vdpulo baplo. 4th century). 236. domnulus. the fall When ab or av was brought next to a consonant by it of a following vowel. dvidus avunculus"^ aunculus. pi. 237. domnicus. c6l{a)phus {ci. valde. Franz. 44. 3 \.

tdllere > * tolre. App. carcatus. and a number of vowels otherwise placed fell under different conditions in various regions: pdnere'^*ponre. Suchier 732. posturus. ally fell. sid(^e)cim. (2). dic{i)mus.: = collocat.102 An (cf. vindico. All three forms are probably examples of a tri- phonetic reduction that affected certain regions. 233). — were — syncopated with some regularity. Later. (fricda). rapidus > > *rapdus. . A vowel preceded by </ or ^ and followed by c seems to have remained longer than most other vowels that fell at all: judico. Pr. etc." Aus and flaus have left no representatives. viaticum. 13-14 (ci. The vowels regularly remained through the Vulgar Latin period. they generi. In the transition from Vulgar Latin to the Romance in so far as languages the vowels in classes (i). about the eighth century. medicus. Aquitanian. Franz. Reich. See Morphology. debita~^* depta. Pompeii (fridam). 239. they had not fallen already. habitus > * abtus. cdrrico'^*carco. probably late. 240. ntHdus>*niiius. Gl. Through a large part of the Empire -avit>-aut: umphaut is found in Pompeii. § Introduction to Vulgar Latin. pi2tidus'^*puttus. Pirson 50. clericus^*clercus. dominica-^ * dominca. except a and in Celtic. Cato). Digitized by Microsoft® . and Ligurian territory. c6llocat'>-*colcat. 241. e. Lucretius. Pr. posius. shortened forms were used in other regions. [§ 241 ^frigdus maxima^ masma. culicet culcet Cf. FINAL SYLLABLE. we find "avus non aus. 2d century. pers{i)ca. Some of these In a part of Gaul dmita'^* anta. In the App. (3). frdx(i)nus. p I. semita'^* senta. mdnica'>* manca." "flavus non Jlaus" "rivus non rius. fimina *femna. but rius is evidently the ancestor of Italian and Spanish rio.

469). he i. Bechtel 75-76. 41. uxore. tristts. dmdt. autumnal {e). were not usually distinguished (cf. sancta. In some localities this and this u were kept distinct. Old 'Lz. So. Pr. §210): apte^aptcB. sentls. tribunal{e). was naturally pronounced a. iv and I. by Microsoft® . pradiscer. conder. etc. vii. u was u. "bibere non biber". vii. for / is frequent in the dative and ablative. etc.. especially e after liquids: Caper. It is likely that final vowels were especially ob- scure in Gaul in the sixth and seventh centuries. E I. which became u in Sicily. The App. has "barbarus non barbar. Cf. Carnoy45: Digitized dative. Italian. 244. E and a. bonds. 243. which in Sicily be- came eventually // t remained // was 0. cotidia. tristem. See Franz. a." ^^figulus nonfigel. 3 I. haber in an inscription." These curious forms are probably not the result of a phonetic development. describes the final vowel of here as neither quite e nor quite Cf. etc. praber. The changes in pronunciation led to great confusion in spelling. Neumann 7-8 cites ten cases of e for a: Italice. t. but generally they were confounded {Lat. inflection. Spr. feci. tristes. as in to Vulgar Latin.§ 244] An Introduction Final vowels.. ablative. mihe. according to the testimony of numerous inscriptions {Lat. but are rather due to a local change of languages. and i came to be used almost indiscriminately. Examples: dmds. long or short. famul = A. morior. facul =facilis. perhaps. Spr. E luce. Quintilian says that Livy wrote sibe and quase. were all probably sounded e. which left no trace in the Romance famulus. corpus. Lexique 118. modern must have been often elided or syncopated in the interior of a phrase. e. tibe. in I. bom. 103 242. About the eighth century a probably became ? in northern Gaul. in late Latin. fructu." "masculus non mascel.Xxa. 469). tanger in manuscripts. etc.

I. In words ofteii used as proclitics final -er. movit. Lat. H. d. in etc. etc. it need by Microsoft® . Bon. letters The Latin consonant P. V. etc. Cf. os The confusion of for us. siiper'>-*supre. monumento ^= monumentum. etc. Cf. I. 116.. II. Bon. also in Gregory the Great. very etc. Minus. = maris. was kept in Digitized some formulas .r became Carnoy 221. M. Phon.. F./^^... 11 1. accusative plural G|^l|ii Jilius—Jilios. cf. etc. So et it: Bechtel 88-89. 916. Joannis. of. Neumann 11-13. E. became in Gaul mis-. old letter equivalent to C.. Ill. and us for os. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin period. Spr. Carnoy 13. §29) as in minus-pretiare. C. Haag 245. Vok. Carnoy 13-15. as well as frequent instances of ablative in um. -re. mares etc. Q. under the influence of dis-. regis ^reges.. larly common 42. of om for um. sem- per'^* sempre . D. posuet. Sepulcri 203-204. an R. omnes ^ omnis (3d century). common in Per. ^and Fwere used both and u and for the consonants/ and v. there are between 126 and 563 a. Sepulcri 229-230. Neumann 11-13.. 'Im. used as a prefix (cf. [§ 246 Es and are continually interchanged: 24. X.. K. and 121. Os and us were interchanged from the third century on awi' = annos.. 115. 131 has spoliatur for spoliatot. N. : .. etc. -ro: inter'>*intre. T. Carnoy 48. Bon. for the vowels i were B. Carnoy 48 bonus = bonos. L.. 61 examples of u for ablative In Vok. Bon.4 G.. Z. CONSONANTS.. •quat{u)or'>quatro. With and u it was the same. etc. S.104 An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. 43-44. omnes ^^omnis. Audollent 535. K. in us was particu128. tenit. 246. Sepulcri 201. and um is very common in Per. Bon.. -£?. G. 474.

158. e. vacca.§ 248] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. liquids. Pirson 83-91. gutturals. In late spelling there is some confusion and double consonants: anos. terra. see §161.or ss (S. the combination Q was generally used only Jf stands for ks. see §§ 162. later it represented a different Latin version of Greek t. dentals. Bon. Double cf. Q V= kw (cf. nasals. In addition to the above. which will be treated below (§§338-339). and thus became identical V. 319-320). nullus. or / in hiatus: see § 224. Double consonants regularly kept after long their long pronun- ciation: annus. Pirson 85. The voicing of intervocalic surds began during the Vulgar Latin period. lastly the Germanic. passus. Vulgar Latin had a new w and y coming from originally syllabic u. § 223). which will be discussed after the native ones. the Celtic need not be separately studied. which also changed to /8. palatals. sibilants. ^ and g before front vowels were palatalized and were then subject to further alterations. 248. labials. serra. 247. Digitized by Microsoft® . 163. 105 in not be separately considered. fillio. For Fredegarius see Haag 39-40. //>/ vowels.. Z in Old Latin apparently meant j. For w>j and For double forms like of single cipus ctppus. taken up The Latin consonants will be in the following order: aspirate. Pirson 88. consonants are often written single in early inscriptions. with The consonants will now be considered in detail. and n ceased to be sounded before s. In words borrowed from Greek and German there were several foreign consonants. m and n became silent at the end of a word. sonants The principal developments that affected Latin conmay be summed up as follows: b between vowels was opened into the bilabial fricative /3. next the Greek. h was silent. first the native Latin.

App. of "Arrius. nil. 251. first XI. si speaks of bygone generations as using k very S. "adhuc non aduc. and both he and Velius Longus declare there is no h \VLprendo: S. probably disappeared when medial: . a. mi. [§ 251 LATIN CONSONANTS. vehemens. honera : Pompeius notes that k sometimes makes position. Grammarians felt obliged to discuss in detail the spelling of words with' or without h : S.. in such words as sepu/c/irum. Quintilian says the ancients used h but little. etc. incohare are archaic calls Terentius Scaurus and vehemens incorrect. 117. which led to frequent misuse by the ignorant. S.e. doubtless the Romance It languages. ASPIRATE.. hinsidias." see S. 399. Grammarians say that A is not a letter but a mark There is no trace of Latin k in of aspiration: S. 255-256. 249. the Republic. Gellius says ahenum. G. very much as happens in Cockney English to-day: for the would-be elegant chommoda. 1. but Cicero's contemporaries much. Initial h was surely very feeble and often silent during In Cicero's time and in the early Empire there was an attempt to revive it in polite society. 263. 250. Gellius quotes P. Cf.— io6 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Probus states that traho is pronounced trao: Lindsay 57. 263-264. as in terga fatigamus hasta. 266. 264. Nigidius Figulus fit to the effect that "rusticus sermo i. vemens: S." In inscriptions we find such forms as reprehensus aduc. 267—268. Pr. and cites "ados ircosque": S. 264-265. sometimes does not. being little or nothing more than a breathed on-glide: S. — aspires perperam". as in quisquis honos tumuli: Keil V. 262-263. If -was weak and uncertain at all times in Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . Quintilian commends the spelling deprendere: S.. 266. cortis. 266. Paris in I?om. comprendit. Cf.

k. 924. Cf. § 226. R. = coperta. other languages: michi. haram. But in Dacia. records a pun of Cicero on cogue and quoque. I.. choante. oe. etc. southand Sicily subsequent developments point to a ke. S. 265-266. '^digitus = digitos.. In Rome are found: e[redes]. Sheldon in Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Litera- turel (1892). as in eastern Italy. 351. E. less indisetc. the kw was 340-341. etc. in quo ante=^inBechtel 78-79.. 341-344. 351-352. abitat. non dicitus". b. etc. 252. cf. Mens. 455. 253- C and K did not differ in value except that C some- times did service for dicitos G: App. I. Bechtel 78. hossa. C. 345. hostium. I. I. kw was Before other vowels the regularly kept in most of k. unless analogy led to a substitution of cociior coqui throvigh.. 1034. GUTTURALS. R. I. L. hegit. cocus : see §226. After h had become pronunciation of medial h as Italian pronunciation of there grew up a school which has persisted in the Latin and has affected some words in silent. oratia. I. and H after the third century it is everywhere more or eres. In Pompeii h is freely omitted. cottidie. the Empire. pronounced kw: 0. of S. C.L. S. Bechtel 77-78. ymnus. Spr. ortus. OSTIA. 819. by Microsoft® . There was some confusion.. Before u and first however. Cf. L. S. 462-463. ora. 350reduced to k by the or second century. etc. Q and C: S. etc. heremum. dialects: Quintilian VI. too. S. 82-87.. 107 is dropped in a few inscriptions towards the end of the Republic: arrespex (for haruspex). quooperta cot. 473.§ 254] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 345-346. 264. secuntur. criminately used: abeo. S. Pr. C. Vulgar Latin reduction of que to Digitized qui to ki: Lat. ic.. hodio. condam. anc.. probably earlier in local or vulgar iii. omo. nichil. 254. Q F was Audollent 536. etc. Cf. ospitiutn.

" Keil VII. mextum for mcestum. to Carnoy have become *laceus: Substrate 255. Cf. Laqueus seems. Lexique 93).. as in cresco. felis. s: sestus is common in inscriptions. Carnoy 158. etc. So ex-^es. in late Latin. S. III.: see Melanges Wahlund t^^. found in Spain (so cinqv. Fr. Lindsay 102. nasco.'' "miles non milex. For ks>-)(S. etc. conjus.. in At about the same time : final ks cojus. On In norththe other hand. 341. 353 (cf. sometimes." In parts of Italy ks between vowels was assimilated into ss by the first century. es~ for ex. By the second reduced to or third century ks before a consonant was 170. gium. S.: Hence cf.. 353. 256. S. Carnoy Eckinger 126 (2eorros). extimare for cestimare. except in mono^prmgnans.). After a consonant ks early tended to become s: Piautus uses mers for est." "locuples non lucuplex. 353. /'m«7/« > excutere. etc. merx. 98. ubi materia per s. 352. of a metathesis of ks into sk: axilla"^ ascella. Bechtel 139. S. first [§ 256 In quinque the w was lost by dissimilation: cinqve. began as shown by Anglo-Saxon borrow- ings and by such Latin forms as frigare. see § 266. 221. Carnoy 159. but this was only local: alesan[der]. Vok. buxus'^* buscus vixit>\iyiC\Ti (i. for some reason. subornatris. but not in syllables etc. milex. viscit). Audollent 537. "aries non ariex. as in * essaexire. destera. 274. exponere. dester. Carnoy 171. cf. BissiT BisiT VISIT = vixit. xanto. 145. 353. 346. e. cinctivs. cen- inscriptions. io8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. pregiiax became s. I. 351. Cinqvaginta. Carnoy 157.. Caper. There are some examples. migat in inscriptions Digitized by Microsoft® . by analogy. fifth tury. App. ''cah dicendum. ^ stood for ks: S.before vowels." "poples noT\ poplex. S. ern Gaul apparently sk regularly became ks. The voicing of intervocalic surds doubtless it is early as the fifth century.

Haag 27. early in the Empire or before. kima. Digitized by Microsoft® . became g and gr: *gaveola. pagandum. of the cataveris ^^ cadaveris. sigricius ^= secretins. ne121. C and G before Front Vowels. 32. 472. Carnoy eglesia. but reina. 3 I. Haag 27—28. 2d century. 7th century. According to Loth 21-26. Franz.. Dalmatia. 474. and Dacia the k' stage was apparently kept longer than in most regions: Lat. Rydberg. 257. immudavit. / 258. Spr. etc. occubavit. intervocalic c. In Central Sardinia. XXV. . 109 and manuscripts. i25ff. crassus + grossus'^grassus. there are many examples from the sixth century: Lat. etc. kena. t were voiced in Gaul in the second half of the sixth century. Spr.. Haag 28-29. * gratis. Before the front vowels e and the velar stops k and g were drawn forward. and Dacia. Cf. kircare. A. kera.. and Illyria k' went no further. lebra. p.. deghe<. Vok. Voicing was not general. in some places perhaps as early as the first century.t least two centuries earlier. noghe < nucem. finds in inscriptions some slight evidence of a change of t to d during the Empire.g'. Initial c and cr.. Dalmatia. (i) Cf. maintains. Zs. found in the 4th century. etc. southern Italy. siubri. I. Some above examples show that consonants followed by r shared in the voicing.— — § 258] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. that t>d'm the fifth century and the beginning of the sixth. in a few words. and in Sicily. cubidus. on the evidence of inscriptions and manuscripts. while c>gz. etc. at least as early as the seventh century. etc. gat. pontivicatus. G seems to have been attracted sooner than k : in Sardinian we find k before e or i preserved as a stop whiles is not decern. 731. however. Densusianu 111-112. Carnoy 123. kelu. into a mediopalatal position k'. etc. in central and southern Italy. Zimmermann.

Genavam. colliens. Spr. 349. maestati. non cakosieis. frigidus in most of the Empire had become frigdus {App. 15-16): cf. diriens.. to the effect g has "its own sound " (i. genarivs. Pirson 97 celiens. "calcostegis Neumann 75. and digitus in some places had become dictus {Franz. 275. Spain. genvarivs. Cf.. a part of southwestern Gaul. "-frigida non fricda"). etc. and portions of Sardinia.>maester. neglienda. D'Arbois 10. ingens aiebat. 3 I. agebat Lat.. II. Thm-ot 77. 460) trienta. iesta. except colliens when analogy forced *colliente. agebat ^ aiebat. Cf. §233. Voi. Pr. both in popular and in Gerapolis for HierapoHs. . After the accent. = conjugi. that of English g in gem) before e and /. Grammaire des langues ro- I. G' by the fourth century had become had opened into y. and southwestern Italy remained at the y stage elsewhere the y developed further in the Romance languages. so *pa{g)e{n)sis. II. 239.. II. when it was intervocalic. = Sepulcri 205. Agrientum. re{g)ina..): it its disap- pearance (as in pldngit. this Haag 33. . the regularly remained. fused. This y. etc. 473. 61. etc. S. Troge. Vok. Pirson 97 quarranta = qicadraginta. lenubam = Bon. {g)inti. S. 473. etc. Vok. in through legit.. Per. 461 . with the following e or i if this vowel was stressed: vi- mag2ster'>*mayister'. Lat. Haag 34 manes 1' .Gi 5. no An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. (cf. 250. but is " weak " before other vowels.Gi." geiuna= Jejuna. Digitized by Microsoft® . Pr. Gepte... 173. recoUiendo. leges. and after a consonant.1 1 Some light is thrown on the later clerical pronunciation by a statement in a fragment of a tenth century treatise on Latin pronunciation. [§259 259. F. 461. Spr. jSctevTt = viginti. vigtlat had become *viglat. Sicily. Pirson iniens.e. in nearly all the Empire. Diez. similarly perhaps the proclitic ma{g)is. argentum. Stolz 349. Before happened. fmucrrpo. But sometimes : fused with a following i proparoxy tones roitus {=irdgitus z= rogdtus). Tragani. coi^i. 3. agere = ^ aiere. praepalatal clerical and Latin: App. S.

articulation: k'entu. 1893. Zs. see H. a short y. century some writers distinguish Rom. S. in Lat. Vok. k'y had become t'y: t'yentu. and is almost like q before other vowels. paze (6th or 7th cenFrankish tins (German zins') is from fifth borrowed probably in the 595. Vok. everywhere a The next step was the development of an audible glide. consiensia. 21-51 (cf. G. apparently as and postpalatal. By the fifth century the k' had passed a little further forward and the Through a modification tsentu. XIV. ffautes-^tudes. it is stated ts. in the Annuaire de I'^cole pratique des 261. 51-53. and qu. intcitamento: P. ka. In the school pronunciation of the seventh and eighth centuries c before e and i In the treatise cited in the preceding note. 617). 7. For a discussion of the subject. and Libit. in the fifth century we find bintcente. . 81. Paris in Journal des savants. 1900. Marchot. and in Rom. between the k' and the following vowel: k'yentu. Mohl. co{g)ndscere.1 century: F. 322 P. Guarnerio in Supplementi aWArchivio glottologico italiano IV (1897). mediopalatal. piscem. nascere. S.. Meyer-Liibke in Einf. I. 1 was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . 1893. in the Comptes rendus des seances de I'Academie des Inscriptions. the earlier grammarians: prsepalatal. Cf. in the t's sixth or seventh century. in 260. S. Thurot 77. of this glide the group then. census. In the half of the third ce. duk'yere. fascem. 1901. 151.itury must have had nearly front. developed into or ts: t's'entu or Speakers were apparently unaware of the phenomenon until the assibilation was complete. Fetite phonetique du franfais prelitieraire. 359. 360. E. 348. XXVI. etc. 348 cites fes[it]. septrvm.§ 26i] An K' Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. dut'yere. G. that c has " its own sound " before c and i. 123-126. I. W. as early as the third ce. XXX. There is no mention of first it by 340. or praepalatal. Schuchardt. tury). XXXIII. 163. duk'ere. .S^ was palatalized also: crescere.

Occasionally. so * ledlis. realis in Gl. 349. ci. hoc. g'a. negare. siffatto {<. and apparently remained under learned or under analogical influence in others: avstvs from the second century on.. For a possible indication. through alliteration. Carnoy 155-160 (who puts the assibilation in the sixth century and earlier). 242-243). pagdnus. of a local assibilation of c as early as the second century. found about the sixth century. avste. in the front of the 263. K and g before vowels not formed mouth usually remained unchanged: canis. eccu'hdc. due. by Microsoft® . Vok. see Palatals below. too. ga in most of that country became k'a. *redlis (for XXX. But ligdre. I. 262. See. pacare. § 256. At the end cf. 146. gamba>'Ex.112 An 472. in Introduction to Vulgar Latin. (3) C and G Final and before Consonants. (2) C AND G before Back Vowels. ecce htc. sic factum). the proclitic eo for ego. frvalitas. Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie [§264 3131!. ka. — mainly. and then developed further: carum>'Fr. however. Sfir. jambe. 3 II.. Carnoy 127 (cf. * liamen. S. Intervocalic g before the accent fell in many words in all or a part of the Empire. of a word the guttural seems : to have been regularly preserved in Vulgar Latin fac. y^ 264. S- — — perhaps 349). however. 129 (other examples in manuscripts. gustus. the c must have been Digitized lost. Italian die. Franz. cher. fammi {<ifac mi). see Zs. For ce. Reich. negdre. 50). Inasmuch as a had in Gaul a front pronunciation (§ 194). dimmi (< die mi). sic. see Archiv XV. probably by the end of the seventh century. so.

Festus. in Pompeii.. fait. Isidore. Pr. Gram. The resultant phenomena can. There is reason to believe. became um: fraumenta. irqyfua.. Spr. and there is a confusion of si and sic: Franz. 113 no doubt. santo. S. which seems to have been assimilated first into nt in parts of the Empire. Spr. I. sante. that the y was retained very generally in Gaul and perhaps some other regions. Lat.) . OTOBRIS (380 A. 278. eissir. 735. ( i. 348. Pr. frigdus. Nkt became yt. Xf some parts was assimilated into U by the beginning of the fourth century. §650. in the south even in the first century: AVTOR. etc.. For kw 266. LATTVCjE (3OI etc. otogentos. 9 II. "pegma non peuma" Digitized St. in see § 254. see § 255. ^^auctor non autor". A. 399). = qu. Einf. saint.e.§268] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. * exsire . through assimilation to a following initial consonant: PA iot fac. Cf. however. "dumecta S. For ks of Italy = x. and likewise substituted x^ fo"^ ^^' Suchier 735. regnancte. antiqui quasi dumecita appellabant quae nos dumeia. Before another consonant k and g were for the most part kept through the Vulgar Latin period: actus. 215-224. In late texts nee is often written ne before a consonant. Zs. 265. 398*fC'X^um>Vx. fleuma..g. Zaf.). sank. probably by the century: defuntus.^ Ft. XXV. 472. *viglat (§233). D. § 186. inasmuch as their own rf had as x^ from the become ^f (e. App. Lat. Spr. PR/EFETTO. Old ct Windisch 394. however. 472. cuntis." 348. be explained otherwise: Irish ocht-n corresponding to Latin octo. fata. Gm Pr. and «'. 476. oclus. App. subsequently drawn forward to the praepalatal position santus.. 236-240. Carnoy 172. D. > Fr. 267. The Celts perhaps pronounced the Latin beginning.). S. — sanctum 268. "sagma by Microsoft® .

teneaf. audiam. exagium. pere{g)rtnum. t. In cognosco the decomposed — g generally disappeared. podium. cunnuscit. Neu- When y more or y. Haag 34. Reich. Palatalization was commonest probably were reduced to y in vulgar speech: deorsum. Spr. Instead i (=/) the spelling mann. in popular words apparently became r parts of the Empire: fra{g)rare. in the latter part of the Empire. odium. soma. connato. ajutit =adjutet.e. no SCO. that consonant was often less assimilated. venio. videavi . sometimes entirely absorbed by the in Gaul. y. Latin / was pronounced being identical in sound with the consonant that developed out of e and / (§ 224): jam. assimilated into n or n in others. cujus. which comes from Koxfrn. hodie. of ii was often used: coiiugi. Fortsetzung 7. 324) and zesv =/esu. Gr. Compare oz^^ hodie (S. ni{g)rum. Lat. habeam. fageus. inte{g)rum.. Pirson 75. Carnoy Digitized by Microsoft® . diumus. 323) and Zovk^la= Julia (Eckinger 80).. Stolz 275. madias = maias. and subjected to further modifications. ftlia. d. Gn was still variously treated in different regions. etc. ZVNIOK = junior (S. and also salma.. (S. I. 271. the after the fall of initial g in gnosco —-into lost in cognatus : word being co~ and Vok. as calma from Soma occurs in Gl. 239). gaudium. Italian sauma [or salma^ dicitur" (i. pi{g)ntia. 272. 270. followed a consonant. renum. adjuiare. Dy and^. rarest in Dacia. edmus. ZACOiJVS = diaconus. Pirson 76. 115-116. being preserved in some. 364 a. sauma 269. aayixa). conjux. similarly the ^ was sometimes etc. between in vowels. Cf. PALATALS. Cf. Cf. 327. [§272 quae corrupte vulgo S. 476. eiius. rcenante.114 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

but not everywhere. but it we generally cannot whether t. Corneius. This palatal pronunciation may be 327. habeo. Haag 34. etc. Servius in Virg. which was > It. 339): z^s cf. from radius Italian has both raggio — — and razzo. but medium ^^ > It. The reduced forms cf. teneat. Carnoy 162. 324. Remidium — Eemigium. debbio. It hordeurh > It. by Microsoft® . 208. etc. Congianus =. juria = jurgia.§274] ^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. ridia =! corrigim.(4). di. sapcha. represented by the spellings Aureia. But through the analogy of audio"^* auyo. magias ^= maias. 34. melius. deggio. and perhaps through slurring due to constant and careless use. The : dz pronunciation was especially favored after a consonant 273. towards the end of the Empire. in others especially in Italy the cultivated dz." S. Carnoy 161. aggio. cor- aytos. ny. St. S. another — doubtless more elegant — pronunciation. probably became veniam. 115 162. S. y. debeo often became *ayo. says. Vok. Reich. "solent Itali dicere ozie pro hodie. di sine sibilo Isidore letter tell grsecum enim nomen est. In most words the vulgar jv prevailed. mezzo. fiios. had poggio. sappia. however. II. Haag anoget = *inodiaf. = maio. means dy. in Yox plUvia a form *pldja was substituted §§ 169. It. Condianus. folia. : orzo. prandium > It. madio S- 349. Gl. video>*veyo. pranzo. Georg. probably dz : podium proferenda est. Ly. 320. Digitized etc. sacriius—SiaKpiTOi. appears that the labials were not regularly assimi- sapiam > It. licpioi = Sergius. tilia. § . 323. = dies. 321. Audollent 537 zogenes. 461. /'. Z is often used in inscriptions. 63. II. between vowels. 216.." S. Media.i£=die. or dz (cf. Waters Ch. generally prevailed. De. *deyo: cf. n' before the end of the Empire: ftlius. most of the Empire: 274. Pr. aios = Carnoy 162. lated in Vulgar Latin beside abbio. His- pania. The S. palea. writes.

we are told that ti.. Pirson 71 mendatium. malleus. Pirson 72. isoff. pudicicia. and ty. . is Pr.. duricia. I'g' to Vulgar Latin. Cf. Ssy.). eAaiov. According to Albinus (S. concupiscencia many examples Gaul in the 5th century.). Eckinger 99. malicia. somewhat allium. were very and t'y (cf. tercia. 171 especially common in Gallic inscriptions of the seventh century. avaricia. scy. ci. D. collt^t. mansionem. is confused with the spelling c being prescribed in amicicia. non c. 321) "benedictio et oratio et talia t debent habere in psenultima syllaba. An Introduction ll'g'. and hence were often confused: a.). unless preceded by s. is pronounced like c. ti. from oleo. furthermore. the an exception-: cf. etc. D. as in etiam. foreign words borrowed from Latin oleum indicate the same irregularity." In the treatise published by Thurot (see footnote to § 259). Cf. see § 277. Fr. being respectively k'y second and third centuries. fascia. prophetia. For rv. oracionem (601 a.ii6 Lly. 323. defeniciones (222235 A. . etc. I. /' [§276 later: were probably reduced to ex-eligit. a sound similar to English sh in ship: basium. Vok. tercius. Stolz 51. consiensia. sty were generally assimilated of sy later: *bassiare. modian). see § 296. termina(an acrostic in Com- ciONES in (2d century). D.y«j/i«'a (in an edict of Diocletian). 475.. 78. d. p. oli. Digitized by Microsoft® . S. Fr. in the similar in sound. also in nuncius. In later school pronunciation cy and ty were sounded alike. Oleum. staacio (601 a. Cy and ty. doubtless became during the VulgHRjatin period /. For the confusion 276.d. justicia. huile.. Pg. Sp. Riquier 131 &nd pitid in popular speech). Densusianu in. / 'i'l^^^y. silentium. servicium.). Bon. quatio. etc. leticia. Lat. ocio (389 A. ocium. caseus. postea. It. 'ApovKiavoi = Aruntianus. olio. between vowels. Spr.

see S. Reich. XXIV. into ts (cf. but not in otii. Hence arose numeroimdouble forms: condicio solacium solatium. cum scribitur. reviewed in Libit. spacio. sotium.. Anitius -cius.^ k'. Carnoy 154. except in foreign proper names or after j litteris. Audollent 537. pinguius sonat et perdit sonum suum et accipit sibilum. tristicia. 68. A. Cf. et i". in some cases. 117 spacium. 320). *cominitiare -ciare. 324. MARSIANESSES = J/ar/z'a«^«j'M. t. Digitized by Microsoft® . Servius in Don. (S. (as injustius. "si dicas Titius. gocciare.. later avarttic^-cia. Vok. Gl. Italienischen und Sardischen. 323. otia." Papirius. 320) says. servitium -cium. comenzare chminciare. It. et plerumque supradictse syllabse in sibilum transeunt. 3d ccntury. "lotacismi sunt quotiens post ti." Consentius 'For a different explanation of the Italian and Rumanian developments. conditio. castius). speties. tercius. A number of words evidently had a popular pronunciation with f and 277..vel di^ syllabam sequitur vocalis. etc. inicio. etc. Latetnisches ti und ki im Ru7ndnischen. cited by Cassiodorus (S. Vincentl^us. etc. to the substitution of suffixes and to other permanent transfers of words from one class to the other: cf. as * exquartiare-^YX. S.§277] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. * gutteare "> Horning in Zs. tertia syllaba sic sonat quasi constet z. ularly a school pronunciation with etc. etc. 320): "/ustitia ex tribus he goes on to state that it is always so when ti is followed by a vowel other than / (as in Tatius. D. ampittfltru. T'y developed sporadically in the second century. by the 140 A. squarciare.: audatia. locally or in the This similarity or identity of sound led. XXVII. . S. etc. It. 545. regfourth. or vice versa: cf. S. so many ^|ftper names. Cf. Puscariu. am- bicio. I. This explains such seemingly anomalous developments 324.. §260): crescentsian[vs]. 64. Justitii). Pompeius says the same thing at con- siderable length. Carnoy 151-154. adding (S. zodorys = Theodoras. either whole Empire. 1904.

d. but names in -tiacum. 225 a. fifth but not regularly until the of t'y -wa. etc. vitiutrf^lt. Cf. was easily confused with sy. The resulting sibilant was different from came from t'y: faciam'^-lt.'a. Pirson 71. and many words have palatium preserved it in various regions.. etc. etc. Pirson 71. — — S. XXVII. perdo. Ztd/t. judigsium. so facio. Isidore in justitia: S.vo'. pretium —sium. DENTALS. tersio.ii8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and not 281. and -igia beside -ezza from -ztia. and the ultimate products have become identical in that which many For regions. cf. sepsies.g. JT'y was assibilated sporadically in the third century. k'. St.. 65 Horn. D regularly remained unchanged: Digitized dare. ratio —sio. modus. are Metiacus> Messac). 279. 320-321. Welsh words borrowed from Latin before the fourth century show no assibilation. [§281 mentions the assibilation in etiam. carried into Brittany in the second half of the fifth century. vezzo. not followed by y. glacies. S. 480. assibilated (e. Carnoy 154. Exai^les are very numerous: observasione. 6th century. d. 323. if the /' was rather weak. " ' by Microsoft® . 278. 6th cen- tury. especially in suffixes: —slum. Vok. 301-302. hence \X?X\2. say t's'y the At aa intermediate stage between ty and ts grouD. Eck- inger 103. 153. Clerical usage for a while doubtless favored sy for ty. =^ Afardanus. faccta. placeam.l. 307. after the assibilation completed: Mapa-w. XXXV. .s or sixth. 323. dentals were pronounced with the middle of the tongue arched up and the tip touching the gums or teeth. servitium —slum. But the intermediate stages were similar enough to lead to some confusion. The in modern French.. see Gutturals. as in English : S.. statio —sio.palagio heside patazzo. g'. hocsies. 5th century. diposisio ^= depositio. as 280.

Digitized by Microsoft® . 283.. a.." Cf. verecvnnvs. Carnoy 180. S. 282. guoi. // d may have been . Spr. period. If this was the case. 365 aput. 366-367 Some of the confusion was doubtless due to the fall of both d 365 . At the end of a word there was hesitation between d and S. 119 Oscan and Umbrian had nn corresponding to Latin nd: There is some indication that this pronunciation was locally adopted in Latin: agennjE. ilium corpus. confusion of ad and etc.. fecit feced. etc. set. attendere) but sometimes *ar Romam (cf. 311312 "grundio non grunnio. .. became ilium : Haag 29. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin became 6 in Spain. Raetia. etc. and possibly at the end of a phrase apvd apvt. dacruma'^ lacrima ." App. at. S. §283] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. part of Sardinia: vt3ere':>*vedere. it. INQVID. § 289. etc. . few words d~^r: medidies by dissimilation ^«^«rf««. o\d. In proclitics assimilation naturally went further.. etc. set. S. quid quit. The cases seem to be sporadic and due to different special causes. ad eos and at ea. Pr. S. (3). arVORSVM =r adversum. 476. Carnoy 180. : (i) Occasionally (/>/. " adif^ non alipes. 358-359.. arripere).. So the final consonant eventually often dis- appeared. etc. S. northern Italy. and a Similarly intervocalic dr. 31 1 Consentius blames " peres pro pedes" S. S. App.» Sittl 37. capud in Gregory the Great. (2) In a. Pr. devocalized before a voiceless : initial consonant. CO. Intervocalic d. through the analogy of other neuters. the central and southern Italian nn for nd (as quannu for quando) may go back to ancient times Lat. Cf.• Cf. Gaul. 31 1. quo and Haag Illud. Liquids. Grammarians warn against the Cf. and t: see §285. 365-366. as we may infer from the treatment of the prefix ad~: people probably said not only at te (cf. id 29. Carnoy 179-180.

and sclitib. etc. > *scloppus > . sitis. In quadraginta. It. Hammer 28-32." capidum. Raetia. as ama. Spr. Keil VII. and also Spanish and Portuguese show no trace of final / except in monosyllables. 105. later. App. 284. .). So probably insula > * isla > * istla > * isda > Final t fell It. schioppo. Italian (except Sardinian). and Sardinia kept the t late. Between j and I z. Pirson 97. Ischia. however. in Volscian {fasia=fadat). usclar. In early dialects we find such forms as cvpa." For Cf. f^habe). Fredegarius wrote e for cutters — — t et: Haag 29. Spr.> *quadro. 367. cf. T usually stloppus remained unchanged : teneo.120 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. vixi. but forms without the possibly due to Italian stoneconsonant (as audivi. sure examples of the fall in Latin are found in Pompeii tions in Christian relinque. dr~> rr: quarranta. its Final nt perhaps lost before consonants: Lat." "vefulus non vedus. Cf. ustulare > Pr. occasionally in Faliscan: Hammer 5. Rumanian. peria. Digitized by Microsoft® . 285. —tulus~^—dus. 7. partem. facit. Tl. ascla.315. §234. 367-368. Lat. often in Umbrian In Latin. '^ pessulum non pestulum" (hence Italian /ifj'//. S. Italy.. The first . 107. f developed: Caper.?. dede: S. Pr. . [§ 285 either at the same time or became drin Spain and Gaul: quadro'. sclit. 8. 312-313 "Martulus non Marculus" "stlataris sine c littera Caper.(from stlis stlitis). valia. posui) occur in Gallic inscriptions." "vitulus non vidus.: others appear later in the inscrip- Rome and S. seems to have regularly become d: astula> Pr. final t disappeared early in the Empire in southern and during the Empire in most of Italy and Dacia. 472. etc. Gaul. northern Italy. " capitulum non dicendum. 8.

473-474. Cicero favored posmeridianus .. L had a convex formation. Final st. and northern § 256. moreover. may indicate un- certainty in the use of d and t. Lat. pos. triplicem. posquam in R. Cf. t 286. Such a spelling as Later this retere for reddere (S. Nt. — 368. and-^J is found: S. est amatus but es' portatus : Lat. with and without either consonant. d and t. 473. may have lost its t before consonants as post ilium but pos' me. Gaul. LIQUIDS. /. cf. Spr. Raetia. Priscian I. Cf. Pos is very common in inscriptions. When did not fall. it was doubtless often Fredegarius voiced. like d and "Z t (cf. 121 n. Lindsay 124. 287. videtur. S. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) or *capum. 306-307. ut Plinio sonum habet: quando geminatur secundo loco Digitized by Microsoft® . In Gaul and Spain. 324) writes: exilem. likewise. uses capo: Haag 29. Marius Victorinus preferred posquam : S. § 280): S. Cf. of final t For the confusion inquid are found. restituerun. Both st and s are represented in the Romance languages. 368. Intervocalic was voiced to d in Spain. tr'p-dr'^dr.§288] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in general. In inscriptions we find : dedro and dedrot. S. §283. Spr. feced. inside a phrase. 309. see §282: capud. 38 (S. ^> d in northern Gaul and Spain.The Romance languages show forms with nt. in 365. 288. According to Velius Longus. e. posuerun. Italy probably in the fifth or sixth century: Inscriptions show a few such forms 309) as amadus. 470. (I) L. is preserved in the same regions as Pisaurum. 473-474. before a vowel or a voiced consonant. 309.

clarus. consonants. According to H. ut exilis. chaloir and gallina~> Old Fr. 289. Dunkles undhelles 1 im Lateinischen in the Transactions of the American Philological Association / in : > XXIV. Sfr. Eckinger 12. silva. For sl>stl. alga. For ly. ut lectus.122 posita. etc. medium in aliis. sound — as 50. plenum. / regularly changed: luna. intervocalic va. see §284. 476). ille).d. chiave. II.): S. geline. 326. a faulty pronunciation of / particularly prevalent in Africa or 648. sol. see §274. fiaba. tribunal. also had the thick is famuXus (but not in similis): thus explained the different fate of a in calere^OXd Fr. this elevation. It is likely that / before or after another consonant had a Before thick sound caused by lifting the back of the tongue. /. zi. etc. ski. After consonants. 301 a. Osthoff." Consentius distinguishes the "sonus which he ascribes to initial and double / (as in lana. 494. mtlle. It. (i) Metathesis occurs occasionally: Consentius (S. (2) There are sporadic examples of the dissimilation of two Ts: Digitized by Microsoft® . 327) blames "coacla pro cloaca" " displicina pro disciplina". in obscure terms. Have.. It remained unseems to have fallen in For //>/. this formation led in some regions. Vok. except before i. cauculus in manuscripts. quando finit nomina vel quando aliquam habet ante se in eadem syllaba sol. to the vocalization of / into u: KavKovXaT<o in an edict of Diocletian. see §161. An ut il-le. 325-326. Greece: S. sporadically by the fourth century but regularly not until the eighth and ninth and later (^Lat." heard before a consonant (as in albo. fabula^*flaba'y-\\. shifted forwards. etc. XXX. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Other grammarians blame. consonantem. [§ 289 syllabas et Metel-lus. brought about the palatalization of Spanish and Italian clavem kl'ave > Sp.. from the "pinguis. See also Zs." lectum. During the Latin period altus. flavus.

in early writers tions: dextrosus. dossum remained unchanged: susum. was early reduced to ss: Lat. ndet. After long vowels the 292. Gl. pater. 290.. two r's. R : in Classic trill: and Vulgar Latin was probably a gingival S. in most of the Empire in dorsum. App. (3) Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. 8) says: " Gn. 328. in inscrip- S. there was a strong tendency to dissimilate it was only sporadically carried out: in Old in inscriptions Digitized Latin. sursum.. susum. The «>j. C. S. R. rj > J. while old rss. etc. susum occur ha. introsus. while susosusu susum.(see § i6r). Cf. being probably somewhat hindered by school inIt took place in the whole territory in deorsum and fluence. et retrosum. App. locally in aliorsum. IV. 330. reversus. Velius to Longus says est (S. 243.. Pr. (i). so sussum>siisum. Pr." Cf. as xcfloralis. 309. L. cursus. 330): "Dossum per duo s quam per r quidam ut lenius enuntiaverunt. in about half the Empire in persua. Waters Ch. "flagellum non frag-ellum. {2)Ji. Spr.. —arts after r^-alis. has iusu = was Hot consistently carried out everywhere. The principle seems have been that original rs remained. deorsum. Bechtel 83: susum very common. Corssen I. . 327.s pessica. MVNTV for multum. Pr. suso. Reich. assimilation versus. diosum. although Moreover. "terebra non tekbra". § 281." "cultellum non cuntellum". ac tota r littera sublata est in eo quod rusum . Pompejus Magnus et scribebat et dicebat kadamitatem pro calamitate. 460-461 Cf. rusus. § 292] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 1593. retrorsum. R.f It generally resisted In many words. we fin(J repeatedly pelegrinus by Microsoft® . carrus. 307. coming from rtt. 77. App." Russum rusum. 471. I. however. 460. 123 cf. or praepalatal change 291.

dietro drieto. merlo. mehtrix. [§ 297 also ministorum. 329." S. Italian Carlo. coliandrum. Final r. mate. fell. The old voiced having become r (S. : 294. albor.z\vax\. probably before the end of the Vulgar Latin period. propietas. For quatro. Metathesis is not uncommon S. S. averlo^ (in Old It. tells 293. Ry was probably preserved through the Vulgar Latin it period.>. 331. Falisci Sittl 11 mentions an in and the Marsi. etc.) avello. cocodrilus. 307-308. with the upper surface of the tongue convex (cf. 329. pellicere. 296. 329) says: Pompeius (S. So Italian per lo '^pello. except in monosyllables. Crocodilus appears as corcodilus. 304. perla. Classic Latin j was probably ^Iways voiceless and remained so in 297. cf. cuoto). orlo. 329) / us that in elegant speech per before was pronounced pel. as in pellabor. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Spr. f. Jlagrare. in most of Italy and Dacia: sdror'.It. Waters Ch. : ^ j- Digitized by Microsoft® . early fall of final r mate. Cf. 314-315). uxo.124 (Sittl An 74). perpenna ^ Perferna. *sempre. Consentius mentions "perlum -pro prcslum. etc. 330. PELLiGE. 477.. § 280) S. corcodrillus. criblare. although may have been reduced and possibly *cqyu SIBILAUTS. Velius Longus (S. Rum. It. This assimilation was probably not widespread in Latin. etc. plurigo are attested likewise. Italian £Occodri//o. est marmor. 330 notes prancati. S. among the soaru. as frate.. S. S. An intrusive r is found in culcitra. corium'^ *coryu (cf. 302. to y in parts of Italy. see § 245. cf. Lat. 330— 331. propio. it has left very few traces in the Romance languages.'' propio. Cf. seems to have been dental. 38. "Barbarismus. suora. 295. quando dico mamor pro eo quod Cf. \X.

etc. the forms without Terentio. 361) notes the omission of -s by the ancients. indicated by the fact that is still generally surd in Spanish [casa. Pompeius (Keil V. ii Umbrian {kumate).) and most popular words it Tuscan is [naso. Ennius and his followers down to Catullus did S. 302-304): this in is 125 Vulgar Latin intervocalic s in (S. who cites UmLatin final s was very weak after and t. unu. furnished by such spellings as maximus. Thurot T]^ y between vowels is described as " weak. This evidently indicates a voicing in late school pronunciation. intervocalic s may have nupsi.§298] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 361-362. cur- 298. ut ubi opus fuerit excludatur de metro. etc. Digitized by~Microsoft® . but occurs also in -ts and -as. Final s often fell in ally in Faliscan: Hammer In early 5. brian PiSAVRESE. Spr." except in compounds. and matrona for matronas. j- ^In the previously cited Latin treatise (see footnote to §259). 471. ossum. 108): "5 littera hanc habet potestatem. etc. but later it is In the older inscripin the main correctly used until the second century of our era: Lat. S.^ sex. in Classic Latin s some regions (cf. tste. corroborative evidence.. olim autem politius. pleps. 8. rarely in -as: bonu. not count -j before a consonant in verse: 355-356.) .. but became common by 150 to 200 A. when -j was partially restored. also ment of a / in such become voiced sus. At the very end of the Vulgar Latin period. and occasionCf. D. Cicero (^Lat Spr. pieta. sumpsi. however. 471) "subrusticum. such as resolvit. rexi. Sittl 27. etc. Cornelio. and often was not is says the loss of —s written. nepoti. filio') predominated in (jpntral Italy until the time of Csesar. urps. The omission is commonest in nominative -os or —us." Quintilian also (S." tions -s is freely omitted. the nominative singular without s (as Cornelio. Cf. and the developwords as hiemps. etc. mtsi. as far as goes. According to Chronologic 175-186. § 256): was generally preserved: causa.

see § 230. find.coming from the prefix ex-. Digitized . I. transduco and We sometimes Both forms occur Gaul and Spain before / and v : tra (^ns) luce 0. traducir).(but trasporre). 302. 316). tion of the prefix /r.«. morbu ^ morbus. (later tre^. tempo. transtulit. tion.(as prabitor) for the unusual initial pres-: hence It. tra{ns')veho.before d. 299.. filio^filios. Densusianu 122—123. Hammer 19-28. In Old French pasmer (from spasmus) the ^ was lost probably through confusion with es.). usually preferred tras. Cf. 300. For z.traduxit. however. cept in monosyllables {^Lat. tempus>lt. tres^OXA. IX. a new nominative constructed from irpeers fell in Italy and elsewhere through the substituva. For prosthetic i or e before s + consonant.(but traduire. pronounced and therefore preserved.j. Audollent In most of Italy. tra{ns)posuit . An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. see § 246 and Greek by Microsoft® Consonants. 1938. and some other regions.126 again. In Gaul. the In presbyter. Spain. It. Italy generally favored tra. -s. Spr. /SvTcpos. tratransjicio. and probably in Dacia. see Gutturals For ss>s. but das^lt. but notes that happens at the end of a doubt- only a conventional abbreviation.. liberio. 471): sentts'^YX. tra{ns)misit. 539. 301. trei amate. C. see § 275. etc. L. examdtis "> dai.*prcebyterum'). etc. trans. prete. for ejus. It. 540.. Vx. According to Velius Longus (S. senti.became and sometimes before m and/. preveire {<. tra. final J disappeared for good from the common pronunciation in the second and third centuries. [§302 and prevailed in central Italy in the third century («<7 Cf. jecit. see § 161. cords the omission of -s in as this nearly always less was strongly Carnoy 185-206 reline it is many inscriptions. For assibilaand Palatals. For sy. probably owing to the previous linguistic habits of the natives.

ut umbra. — or "« adulterinum"— and also nvncqvam. etc. regularly venit. by Microsoft® . must have been partly nasalized. and the mouth closure incomplete. then n. etc. noster. immitto. 127 NASALS. were the preceding vowel obscure and weak in Classic Latin. 275). iVNCXi. According to Priscian (S. final or followed by a consonant. 303. Bologna. «'s in Bononia > It. changed: meus. 275) Before liquids the nasal was assimilated cf. as between n and ^ (S. § 320) gutterals. mediocre in mediis. innocens. So Marius Victorinus (S." 305. n. S. ut templum. uncus (cf. 275) a spiritu explicabitur. S. N. remained unFor the reduction of There was a dissimilation of two M and n. with an arched tongue: S.: cf. g. probably tives first the pronunciation of these fricabefore changed from bilabial to dentilabial (cf. 272. . before dentals. rigo. is 278). described by Nigidius (in Gellius). imperio. S. inquit.). amat. §§ 171. before m. conduco. contineo. 275) says that for n the air comes through both nose and mouth. by 270. ut magnus. 275): "iVvero sub convexo palati lingua inhaerente gemino naris et oris The same author describes (S. see § 245." Terentianus Maurus (S. initial and intervocalic. Cf. 269- {colligo. minus. The y Cf. y: combura. 311). In Classic Latin the nasal naturally took before labials the form of m. n. apertum in principio. comvenio convenio. 269-270. "m obscurum in extremitate dictionum sonat. was dental or gingival. S." sound between m and n: "Omnes fere aiunt inter m eX n litteras mediam vocem quae non abhorreat ab utraque littera sed neutram proprie exprimat. and v. 270. 279-280. M and 304. like d and t (§ 280). comfluo confluo. as / .to mis-.§ 305] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. anguis. 276. cor- before s it was Digitized silent [cosul. Priscian.

§§171. exeetc. etc. In both old and late inscriptions the nasal is often omitted altogether before a consonant: Decebris. etc. frequent. find cun. we ci. nom or non fecit. see § 267: santa.. and there was apparently some labials doubt before ^« and qu (S. Cf. nynfis. Carnoy 176-177.. quan floridos. before/ and v there was great uncertainty (cf. iy carne. secudo. Bechtel 81 {forsitam. tan mulieribus. cun duce. nomem. etc. occubas. 311). For the change of rjkt to yt. quen. 476. 272): this is indicated by such spellings as senper. 273. etc.. like medial nasals. Priscian (S. laterna. 307. cur regibus. In inscriptions S. 278. quamta. locun sanctum. and even before dentals not always clear (S. Cicero advocated cun nobis. as there is § 32. 276—277. [§307 to a following consonant: Final nasals seem to have been adapted. 364. decemter. 271-272). santo. nunquam. S. plu.. cun navibus : Lat. conplere.. The due hesitation and inconsistency in spelling are certainly in part to imperfect articulation. 306. nom paret. 286) says: littera "Columnam et consules legimus. forsitam mille. Pirson 92. iferos. 281-285. S. little trace of confusion in the Romance lan- guages.. Carnoy 176. de- fuctce. nol lego. 275): exempta n "iV quoque plenior in primis sonat et in ultimis partibus syllabarum. r/ must have been reinforced." Cf. but in great measure also to the mistaken efforts of later writers to restore a real or hypothetical earlier orthography: compare the treatment of prefixes. innoceti. n. Carnoy 220. Digitized by Microsoft® . reliquat. pricipis. In late Vulgar Latin m. i senatu. Mn seems at one time to have been pronounced m: Quintilian (S. largely to mere careless- ness in cutting. Carnoy 220). ut nomen. etc.128 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Spr. S. then to nt. In the vulgar speech of the Empire the sound before seems to have been indistinct. Servius.

— that 309. cf. Late inscriptions. Bechtel 80. App. abundant examples. unu are very common. cal- the early indi- Romance languages. passi.. etc. It is often omitted in inscriptions down c.. the latter part of the . 308. umpnia.. was probably assimilated into nn in central and southern Italy before the Empire was over {Lat. The Romance languages it point to the preservation of mn. Between is m and j or / a / generally developed in Latin was unvoiced and denasalized before the surd that followed this / was not always written: sum(J))si. occa- sionally in Faliscan: Hammer 8. from the first century. Bechtel •]()•. terra. 363-364. So R. It is likely that this orthography and painful effort to articulate clearly. S. mpn is common in 189. mecu. dampnare. . show a fondness for such spellings as calumpnia. septe. S. in the last first two centuries of the Empire the traditional spelling is carefully observed: early and late such forms as dece. m Final m often fell in Umbrian 5. to say. damnum. sum(J>)tus. jacente. 462. and again in late plebeian inscriptions. eoru. Carnoy 166. on the other hand. and conversely forms with a superfluous m. counteracting a previous ten- dency to although slur the group. etc. The omission of -m and Pr. : que ad mo- century of the Republic and the dum. pride. Bon. exilior in mediis. Bechtel 91 Digitized cf. Toward the end of the Empire fashion evidently prescribed cates a conscious a distinct pronunciation of mn. 129 stamen. ut amnis. for -amn~. 356. and dampnum (cf. Spr. Bechtel 107.§309] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. (as in puplu). mense. etc. ide. S. oli. dormito for dormitum." Carnoy 166 has Interamico. the wrong use of it are very frequent in the Per. Cf.). 298. In Old Latin it was to weak: 130 B. Audollent 539-540. accedere. etc. 476): Interanniensis. by Microsoft® . numqua.

hors. of -n in Latin (S. fix The con— became co— before vowels. 274). ing vowel was nasalized. Caper (Keil VII. For further assimilation. etc. 282.. then (by assimilation) before other consonants. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . next before spirants and at the end of a phrase. the precedThe contrary view is maintained by Seelmann. etc. 356-358. 473. having disappeared very early before vowels. 358). from early times. as in coactum. quern (^quen. but it seems preco- to have been reinforced in Classic speech (S. S.tenea{m')\ cum. ignotus: is Other- wise there no sure proof of the fall but there is abundant evidence 365). 361): see 305. cf. 110-112. scarcely any m audible quantum erat. 106). Vok. Cf. 360. too. of its assimilation to a § following labial (im bello. cognosco. it was assimilated (cf. only a weak nasal glide: in circueo it disappears (S. Final m before vowels seems to have been. 364Lat. reaches the conclusion that silent at the it became end of polysyllables by the first century. fell Before^. he adds that there in tantum ille. pdssu{ni). very early. S. AudoUent 537). coharere. Before consonants S. 310. etc. I. "/« Siciliam dicendum. as in cognatus. Spr. Carnoy 206-221. Hammer 32-41.130 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. vowels. As the fall of m seems to have been due primarily to a failure to close the lips completely between two it is likely that the nasalization was slight. (S. In the opinion of Schuchardt. non is Siciliam": see § 311. 361): see §305. 288-292. Cf. cf. 286). tan dvrvm. According to Quintilian is 362). who notes the omission of -m in many inscriptions under all possible conditions. in poetry it may be disregarded (cf. Final n must have been indistinct (S. Cato said dice hanc. [§ 310 ardente lucemam. n of prefixes 274.. audiendu' st. coicere: S.. jam. 274. S. 361). The Romance languages point to a loss of -m in all words but monosyllables: damnu{m). the final S.

286). the n was generally restored by analogy (see 171). mesor messor = mensor. § App. thensaurus.). if eras." Cf. It probably fell late.. 274. 387 a. occansio. was kept in participles. R. etc. ifimo." "occasio non occansio. etc. after the Vulgar Latin period: Lat. 274." Eunuchus 728. libes. convenio'&ie really new formaThe only sure Romance traces of the loss oin tions: S. prcBgnas repeatedly. cojugi. trare. Such forms are frequent in cojugi (very common). Digitized by Microsoft® . App. 285. —iens'^-ies. with a superfluous n: fidens =-fides. inscriptions: cofecisse. coin of Vespasian's reign). Plautus repeatedly uses mosTerence seems to intend a rhyme in "neque Stolz 243. v. iventa.. letter inscriptions: Kki]ix. (on a (Capua." Before/. Cicero preferred foresia.. covenimus. quiensces. etc. hortesia. For final nt. was probably constant from early in/as. Carnoy 177. 311. "Hercules non Herculens. mesis. cesor. Stolz 243fT. both forms were used in -e{n)sis (according to Velius Longus.. ifer cojectis. thensaurus. "ansa non asa" . formosus (S. 281-285./. 461Conversely. mansus. toties. . -onsus>-dsus. 274. 281-285. see § 285. Pirson 94.. "consules exempta n littera legimus." In popular speech the times: S. Spr. probably through nasalization of the preceding vowel: see § 171. Before fricatives or spirants n regularly fell. locuplens. etc. except in monosyllables: ndtne{Ti). 287). 273). 113-115. Cf. iferi. Eckinger 80. as in vicesimus. AudoUent 538. iferi. S. seme{n) in..ifs. ns. resurges S. Pr. Quintilian (S. pes neque mens. cosol. 274. such words as conjux. 462.. coventionid.. cojux. Pr. R. 131 The Romance languages indicate the disappearance of -n. 286) records that "men- sam sine n littera dictam Varro fall ait. Charisius (S. as videns. however. 473. This phenomenon was only thority: partially recognized by Classic au—ensimus -^ -esimus. non.§ 31 1] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. remasit. d. ^^ i'^ Greek- ko^ous. infas. S. etc. etc. ifra. 459. Stolz 243.

313. [§ 314 before these consonants in Latin are Italian /a«/^ and French in Raetia and convent. App. (I) P.• redemti. Digitized became Haag862. stubrum. Gaul. hut pensare. Lat. the fall of n was permanent. There was some sporadic confusion of/ and b: uvBLlCyE. and the only Romance words containing ns are learned terms or new formations: mesa. (i) F regularly remained unchanged: pater. In a part of Gaul capfivus seems to have been pronounced *cayttvus: it may be that in Gallic speech the pt oi this word became yt. Spr. LABIALS... S. Pr. It. Old Irish secht-n = septem. 314. In a part of Italy /j became ss as early as the isse for ipse is first century: found in Pompeii. tosus. as was the case with Celtic// (Dottin 100. // probably early in 299. 476. etc. to drop In Italy and perhaps elsewhere there was a tendency / between a consonant and an j- or /. by Microsoft® . opus. Raetia. although at a later date nf became / much of southern France. 299. S. pesat. and is attested by Martial and possibly by the icse for ipse mentioned by Suetonius. Pirson 60-61: labidem. corpus. sposus. Bon. /V likewise br: Abrilis. lebrm. and northern Italy: see Cf. 312. § 256. 299. Pirson 93. under the influence of Celtic *cactos (Welsh caetJi) = Latin captus (Loth 35).. 160. Intervocalic / probably became b in the fifth and sixth centuries in Spain.. S. Windisch 394). etc. cf. etc. settembres. mesis. scultor. "plasta non blasta" " ziziber non ziziper" cannabis and . Before s. Car- noy 165. h. 7th century. Pirson 61. canapa. scripit. etc. or perhaps captivus became first *cactivus. In central and southern Italy// became the Empire: scritus.132 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

§ 3i6]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


In northern Gaul intervocalic/ and/r, even in clerical Latin, /8 and ^r by the seventh century: rivaticus, 629 a. d., Vok. I, 128; cavanna, Gl. Reich.
developed through b and br into
'Soxpe,pi, see § 273.
(2) B.


as in


was not



usually ifemained un-


bene, blitum, oblitus.


Oscan and Umbrian, became vim

in Sicily


southern and central Italy, the
as far north as


being found in inscriptions
Cf. nd, § 281.


Lat. Spr. 476.

Before s or tit

likely that b regularly

became /

in Latin,



was often written

b: absens apsens, ab— apsolvere,

plebs pleps, scribsi scripsi, scribtum scriptum, trabs traps, urbs

urps; App. Pr., "celebs non celeps," "labsus non lapsus."

Final b must have been often assimilated to a following

consonant: sud



a. d.,



In the Empire, especially in the second century,
in inscriptions (cf.

and v were much confused


bixit, botu,

vene, etc., S. 240; Baleria, Balerius, Beneria,


Betrubius, Bictor, bos, valneas, Audollent 536; African birtus, bita, boluntas, Vok. I, 98 bivere, very common, Carnoy

140; baluis, Bechteh"78;

vibit, etc.,

R. 456; bobis in Consenany, traces of

Vok. Ill, 68.

In the

Romance languages

there are few,


such an early interchange.

Probably the confusion was mainly

or wholly graphic, being due to the identity in sound of b and v between vowels (§ 318): Lat. Spr. 473; cf. Einf., § 120. The Spanish levelling of initial b and v does not go back to Vulgar Latin (Carnoy 139— 141); the confusion is far commoner in Italian inscriptions than in Spanish or Gallic (Carnoy 142-146). We find also a change of initial v to b va. north Portuguese, Gascon, south Italian, and Old Rumanian.

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Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


After liquids, too, there was a confusion of b and v in inscriptions, b being substituted for v much oftener than v for
b: Nerba, salbum, serbus, solbit, etc.,

240; berbex, Waters

Ch. 57; solbere, repeatedly, Carnoy 140; solbere, etc., R. 455; App. Pr., "alveus non albeus." In all probability v really changed to b after liquids: see V.


remained unchanged.
Intervocalic b opened into

the development apparin the second,

ently began in the


was well along

Oitovin = and was devitvm, provata, etc., Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95; devere, As V also was pronounced j8, a confusion in spelling S. 240. cvrabit, resulted, b and v being used indiscriminately:

completed, at least in Italy, in the third:

ivbentvtis, nobe,

etc., S.

240; i-vwE.nTE.=jubente, 2d century,

£inf. 127, § 120; cabia
vovis, etc.,

— cavea,

Danuvium, Dibona,


Audollent S3^~537j devitum (6th century), lebis, vibi, Carnoy 134-135; annotavimus, lebat, Bechtel 78;


habe:=ave, rogavo, suabitati,

R. 455— 456;



51, Pirson 61-62,



Carnoy 134-136. became contiguous

Cf. V.

to a following consonant,
Cf. V.

was vocalized

into u: *faula, *paraula, *taula, etc.

became /3r and Dacia.

perhaps not until the end of our period, in northern Gaul, Raetia, part of northern Italy,


as in popular speech: *fa§ula, * tabula, etc.

In the early stages of clerical Latin intervocalic b was pronounced Later, perhaps by the

seventh century,

was sounded


In App. Pr. we find " sibilus non


tions " sifilum pro sibilum" ;


comes from some non-Latin Italic dialect few other words. *a^ea, see § 421. (3) For habebam


(S. 300) menPerhaps the form with/ bubulcus =^ It. bifolco, and a

and Priscian



Be, bi probably remained unchanged, at least in most

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§ 322]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


of the Empire: rabies, rubeus, etc.

For the analogical change

of habeo to *ayo, debeo to *deyo, see § 273.

(3) F-


F was

originally bilabial (S. 294-295), but
of the



by the middle


(S, 295): cf. § 305.

It is the old /, apparently, that is described

by Quintilian

296-297) a plain description of the dentilabial y is given by Terentianus Maurus and Marius Victorinus (S. 296).

Grammarians speak

of an alternation of h


fasena^ harena, fircum'^ hircum, habam'^fabam,
Varro, Ling. Lat.

etc., S.

f: fcedus'^hadus, The /"and 300.

the h doubtless belonged to different dialects in early Latin
§ 97, the

according to

This phenomenon can have no connection with the change of initial/to h in Spanish and Gascon.

/for h was Sabine.

of the

It is

probable that intervocalic

y became

v at the end

Vulgar Latin period

256): alevanii

^ elephanti,

paceveci ^pacifici, pontevecem =. poniificem,




was doubtless originally pronounced w; but, losing its velar element, the sound was reduced, probably During the early in the Empire, to the bilabial fricative /8. Empire Greek-letter inscriptions have ov or ^ for v (Ncpoua or Nep/3a) Ov\av!a = Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95 yS for » is common from the first century on, Eckinger 85-91. Velius Longus, in the middle of the second century, says that the u in ualente is pronounced "cum aliqua aspiratione": S. 232. Hence arises a complete confusion of intervocalic b and v








By. CVRABIT, ivbentvtis, etc, Gregory the Great. This leads


240; jubari iox juvari

to a graphic confusion of

initial b

and v

in inscriptions: biginti, bixit, botv, etc. (so



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An Introduction

to Vulgar Latin.
dentilabial v in


Later the bilabial

p became


of the


cf. §


For the substitution Germanic Consonants.
323. After liquids




or w in a few words, see

this state

/3 seems to have closed regularly into b; was preserved in Rumanian (Densusianu 97, 103105), but elsewhere the p ox v was partially restored by school

influence: cerbvs, corbi, cvrbati, ferbeo,
A. D.),
§ 317.

nerba (about 100

serbat, solbit, E. G. Parodi in Horn.




So vervex became *verbex, then berbex: Waters Ch. 57 BERBECES, 2d Century, Einf. 127, § 120 (also in Gl. ReichJ).

Hence came

hesitation in spelling (^ferveo, ferbui, etc.)


inconsistent results in the


languages: corvus^

corbo corvo, Fr. corbeau; curl/US'^

Ft., Pr. corp, Sp. corvo;



nerbo, Fr. neff; servare, servire'^ It. serbare, servire.

Intervocalic w ox fi had a tendency in older Latin, as Umbrian, to disappear between two like vowels: divtnus'^ dinus (cf. Umbrian deivina> deina, Sittl 26), obHviscor> obliscor, si vis'i> sis. Cf. Lindsay 52. Also, at all times, before or after 0: bovis'^bos; devorsum>dedrsum; faor, Pirson 63; moere, AudoUent 539; Noe/u/Spios, Vok. II, 479; noem[bris], S. 241; '^pavor xiOXL paor," App. Pr.; cf. late noembris, noicius, Lindsay 52. "Favilla xion failla" in App. Pr. seems to be




In the above cases the


apparently was only sporadic.

But before an accented o or u, the w ox p fell regularly in most of the Empire: aunculus, Vok. II, 471 (cf. auncli, Pirson 63); FLAONivs, S. 241; *padnem; *padrem.
Furthermore, intervocalic
popular speech before any


ox p regularly disappeared in probably towards the end of the
vIvs, S. 241 {zLJlaus in



-vos>-vus): flavs,

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§ 328] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ndcui^ nocwi. in most cases this probably only graphic: Carnoy 128-131. hiatus which had not already become w {%% 223224) probably took that sound by the end of the Vulgar Latin 326. stored. and Greek double consonants sometimes became single: vd/xos >nummus. 472 (cf. datius. 1220. When intervocalic a/ or it lowing consonant.:>*eccwic. Often. noum."^ ec{c)lesia. is evidently intended for csvum. after the analogy of a feminine or a plural form ovum (beside oum) through ova. placuit> placwit. (S) u. gnaus. Pirson 63. II. GREEK CONSONANTS. triumphaut. /3 became contiguous to a folwas vocalized into u (cf. The Greek liquids. eccu' ista'>*eccwista. etc. voiced explosion: so they were not always distinguished by the Latin ear. 1. vius in Pirson 63). Pr. however. etc. Vok. Carnoy 128. Keil IV. II. claudo. etc. Pirson 63). Audollent 539 (cf. rius. App. Digitized Cf. nasals. Vulgar aucella.. § 167. this. 137 App. 471) and others as aum. B): Classic . Single consonants sometimes became double in Latin. I. Before 322. Fr. L. : Cf. oum. primitius. Vva. aus. The ^Vm of C. Claussen 847-851. (i) In inscriptions -vs is common in place of -vvs. 328. the sonants were perhaps not fully voiced. iKKKyfTia. the original Latin w (spelled v) had become |8: § 2. Lindsay 52. the v was re. 327- In Greek the surd and the sonant stops must have than in Latin. and sibilants less sharply differentiated been usually remained unchanged in transmission. naufragus. 113) nous. is 325. period: eccu' ktc'. rivus (beside rius) through rivi. oum in Probus. by Microsoft® . cited by Schuchardt (Vok. and the surds doubtless had a weak.

however.yfjia> sagma sauma. TfL'^um (j-a. p. although KavZiTo? for candidus (Eckinger 98) seems to point in that direction: 'Aicpayas > Acragas Agragas. After nasals. Ta\oi'>rr. d: l3XauT6i 268): (cf. *. B. ^iXra^ unvoiced into /. Ka. keSjoos > citrus. § a-iriijXvyya > spelunca. old inscriptions. TTvio'i > Kr > 331' g. egloge. x 252-253): vop^-ipa^ purpura . b.yKri> andngi. toKomtov > talentum. Pr. v sometimes became b. (2) K. etc. K. It. This late such cases as Kafiinj Greek pronunciation perhaps accounts for > Lat. KvPipva. cf.. Digitized b. ch: Claussen 823-833.fu > > gumtni.. The From the middle of the second century spellings th. theywere *Jdcopus (also */dcomus) 'la. t: blcesus. often became g.. w. — 329. K. 2S9-26a 332. T. S.p. n. Pilipus. avrpov^ dndron. later inscriptions. 259. Claussen c. S. tt. cin in kvki/os > > cicinus > Old. <t>. (3) ®. > > . we find the People of fashion by Microsoft® . explosives 6. etc.iravov > Fr. c. advCf. yoyypoi Cf.. sandal. "> purpura. remained b. KaiPw%>gobius . X.v>gubemare. 330. 8 regularly ydpov>garum. Reich. however. > conger ganger. App. TTuppos burrus. the conis mentioned by Terentius Scaurus and others. 7rop<j)vpa. 'Kixpmp6<i'>- lambros. of a change oi r to d there is no example. t regularly came to be pronounced //in Greek: a. A. 833-838. timbre. T generally remained c. became in Old Latin t. S. Teodor. c (S.KO)0(K delta. progne. cf. cecino. nimpa. bustiola in Gl. Crista. g. ph. 138 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. k. r. Claussen 838-841. — fusion 346. S. y. [§ 332 (i) B. t: xoAa^os > colaphus. gamba. "calatus non galatus" {^ KoXadoi).papo^ cammarus gammarus.p. 347 buxus. rvp. K6p.

cathedra. Thiestes. . X ><?"• Claussen 831. The etc. d. App." 334. f is common later in southern Italy. cru/x<^o)V4a>It. of. c. 260.. p. " In principio inquam dictionis nulla prescripta causa variari compellitur. etc. <f> > b. Quintilian (S. Fr. nothus. etc. so o^-1\kiov for qfficium. <jia. pache. 0. Eckinger 97. The proper spelling is discussed by gram- marians: S. 218. Ki^oXoi > It. footnote to § 259): " T quoque.. '^Theophilus non izofilus": (i) Evidence of a late school pronunciation of 6 as ts is to be found in Thurot 78. palanca. S. iriumpos) in order to be better understood. x^P^ > chorda = corda. In ^£ros>It. caikoluus. for new words as well as for old: <TvaOri>spatka— spata. 257-258. etheus. Thestius. and some other early adopperhaps the reason is to be sought in a Greek dialect pronunciation: Claussen 829-831. Theos." "strofa non stropa". etc. 333" tions. zampogna. Fr. Matheus ''. Bonnet 141. Thescelus. Parthi. 139 undoubtedly tried to imitate the aspirates (Lindsay 54). By the first century a. cf. ut ather. S. Fitones in Gl. neofiti. ut thiara. Bechtel 79. 4. phitonissm. KoKa.<^ao-i...avTac7La> > Pr. It is transposed in Fhitonis. unaspirated pronunciation (as pulcros. "amfora /came non ampora. but popular speech kept the old t. Fitonis.^o'i^ colaphus = colapus. 261): dafne occurs in Pompeii. 256) speaks of using the old. ^ had developed into / in some places (S. si aspiretur. pantaisar. In hoxri>doga. Certainly as early to be the standard as the fourth century (Lindsay 58) pronunciation: App. In <l>aXKaiva> ballcBna. 79 (cf. zio we have a late development of Claussen 833. Cicero (S. : letter h is occasionally misused. Reich.. S-p. Digitized by Microsoft® .. cefalo. 256) says there were no aspirate consonants in older Latin. .§ 334] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.Xay^ It.\os> phaselus faselus . 261. Claussen 828. ut c enuntiatur. as in phosit. In late words ^ regularly appears as/.

lampas. — 339. it was pronounced in Vulgar Latin dy. (Tivain Of the sibilants. Judging from inscriptions.I40 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. but seems to be referring only to Greek speech S. priTmp> Rh in remained unchanged: \a/x7ras> common speech was doubtless pronounced In trkXivov like > It. is sounded sd. 338. unchanged: <j has probably become For npvj^vre.^ ? > It. but was often replaced. as a simple sound. Claussen 845. Nasals. among 36) says that the ancients. and a few other words. bobansa. From Sulla's time on it was written z in The grammarians throw no light Latin: Claussen 841-843. 335.po'i'^ prebiter. Medentius. and Sibilants. by Microsoft® .8os /talpos > maurus. Priscian (Keil II. The nasals. 308. see below. later j' (cf. have to do with a late Greek change of \ to 336. /8oj«. by s.'^massa. : t. and subsequent developments confirm this view: baptizare Digitized was equivalent to bapti{d)yare. [§ 339 (4) Liquids. Cf. sedano. or d as in Saguntum. see § 300. r. too. etc. > exodus. The liquids regularly rhetor.-^ remained unchanged: are. e^oSos r. some indica: tions that they were weak before consonants > Pr.. § 272). orma. ss. > nome. In it was represented by jj or s: pAtfl. and ^ were regularly > sinapis. early Latin . Quintilian refers only to the on the Latin pronunciation. The For unfamiliar combination lent itself readily to meta- thesis: i^6X\v. t. There however. cr 337. (S) z- Z doubtless had several pronunciations in Greek.. massa.v>psallere spallere. i/f In ocr/u. we probably 8. ^dvr] "^ sona (Plautus). regularly vop. Greek letter and the lack of a corresponding Latin one Velius Longus discusses z at length.

*striban > Pr. no peculiarities. 341. geisla Fr. A. baptidiatus. GERMANIC CONSONANTS. B between vowels. = conjux. Digitized by Microsoft® . 68 . riqueza. I.§ 34i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.). It. Eckinger 80. can scarcely have come in time to share in the early palatalization of Latin g before front vowels (§§ 25811. and w. zaconus. zdcones. occurring apparently only in words adopted after Latin intervocalic b had become ^ (§ 318). 3. Spr. seems to have followed a similar course. Carnoy 163. zebus. Zov\e. 33. R. z zabulus. estribar. although have participated also in the later Gallic palatalization of g > before a (§ 263): gilda>lt. etc. oridium for opvtfi. re- mained a stop : roubdn it > It. Vok. etc. 340.= Julia. cf. Bechtel 79). however. Vok. Kotflv^ zvnior. A few.ta. being had no Latin equivaFurthermore. p. ZESv.. and to G. jart. 457-458- In late inscriptions z for/ is common: zerax = Upa^ (202 S. Francesco. so *rik-itia > Pr. gerbe. zosum z= deorsum. corresponding Latin sounds had undergone some modification. ZABVLLVS. Carnoy 163). h. giscle. Ladiis. resisted front vowels : skena > > Sp. (90. 141 zelosus to {d)yelosus. 239. 22.• frank-iscus>lX. zanuari. rubare. etc..). b and k came in after the lents: 8. 473. esquena. I. garba > K It. zeta = Koffmane 38 Lazis — dixta. septuazinta. skernon > schernire. Conversely. giga. The ending -i{d)yare became very is common: see § The spelling di for z occurs repeatedly: baptidiare found several times in Per.. Cf. garto Old Fr. and is common in inscriptions (cf. of the consonants offer Most treated as in Latin. is often used for di: . geldra. D. and its derivatives palatalized In the their k before e and /. Lat. Franko seems to have been an early acquisition. *giga>'Pr. zabulus. Pr.. 69.

ht were generally treated tasso. tasso. Pr. regions where Latin eschine. 343. espier. had become was nearer in it sound to Latin u: see § 326. W. Hs. tarir. of a At the beginning word it kept its sound in northern Gaul. Germanic k was modified in the same way before all front vowels (including a): cf.gaita. but apparently was neglected in the rest of the Empire: hanca~^Yx. doubtless adopted at a Tr. d and widarlon were replaced in Latin by the It. Old Sp. hapja'^Yz. hardir. sleht > Pr. but in a few it seems to have been sounded kk in the greater part of the Empire: fehu Fr.. — > \X. In the Gl. Fr. — slahta'^-OXA esclet. at Germanic w was a strong velar and labial fricative. Pr. gecchire. perhaps borrowed at a different date feu. parrjan > Cf. Fr. tt: pahso > It. honte. —jehan > Old It. Old Fr. a time when original Latin fricative w (spelled v) It the purely labial ^ (§ 322). Fr. eschernir. Bon. like Latin ss. skiuhan'^'Fx. etc. Sp. cf. so blank-a'^Yx. we find Digitized by Microsoft® . esclata. Pr. ardire. hanche. It. hau- > > > Pr. jehir. silent in Fr. different time. jaquir. [§ 344 c was palatalized. helm elmo. 342. spehon~>0\6. Pr. trescar. Fr. It. schiatta.. 344. anca. guiderdone. esclate. nipa The spirants 8 and p t: corresponding stops. gaite. schivare. Fr. schietto. rather than a. fio . bianca^.— 142 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. But wahta. It. prescan Germanic h appeared when Latin h had long been popular speech. before a (§ 263). esguiver. 445 notes that ab. gequir. hardjan Old Fr. It. became Old guatare. helme. Intervocalic h disappeared in most words. Yr. hache. blanche (but It. espiar. It. Pr. pahso > It. Reich. Kluge 500. apcha. is used before > > initial ch: ab Chilperico. in the seventh century and later. richesse.

1884. elsewhere. etc. in northwestern Italy. Die frdnkischen Elemente W. etc. Waltemath. Digitized by Microsoft® . vastare + wost— > *wasiare. but Wintrio is spelled Quintrio: Haag 38. wa (the interjection). 1885. Through association with Germanic words. Wandali. W. Mackel. in uuadius. It is generally written w in Fredegarius.§ 344] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bruckner. through a reinforceit ment of its velar element. walde. became gw: warjan>*warire wisa guarire. Waddo. See E.:>*wadum. Die germanischen Elemente in der franzSsischen und provenzalischen Sprache. 143 re- represented by uu. 1899. Charakteristik der germanischen Elemente im Italienischen. Bon. werra > werra guerra. etc. 167 cords Euua. reuuardent. > *wisa guisa. the /3 of some Latin words was changed to w: vadum +watan'. in der franzSsischen Sprache. and in the in Rsetia this w apparently remained unchanged Vulgar Latin period. In extreme northern and eastern Gaul.

dolor. Bon. Lat. They were grammatical whose observance was a matter of outward form. I. or [I. (4) There were some sporadic changes: duos arbores. Pirion 157. MORPHOLOGY. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. leporem. marginem. fans feminine in late Latin. MASCULINE AND FEMININE..IV. (5) See also § 351. pulicem. 503-504): (3) color. Lat. —orem. If words lost their differentiating terminations. 504. 293. 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . iomus. The three genders of Latin were not. 461): (2) In Gaul. —urem were of uncertain gender ( Gram. ficus. -inem. GENDER. cucullus and cuculla. Feminines of the fourth declension varied (^Gram. Nouns that -icem. Bon. sex. 483 . but there were ( I ) Between masculine and feminine there was not much some important shifts: Feminines of the second declension nearly all became — masculine: fraxinus. etc. Hmor. G. Spr. ~" confusion. A. cf. in the main. honor. grex became feminine. had a proparoxytonic accusative in -erem. turturem. 464-467): carcerem. became feminine (Bon. through the analogy of the great majority of abstract terms. 345. abstract nouns in -or. confusion of gender ensued. 346. 194. n. dependent on sex or lack of distinctions. II. Spr. castaneus for castanea. 483. manus.

lignus. etc. ciner. frenum -i. 348. b. In Classic Latin a number of neuters became masculine balteum -us. 46. The transition from masculine to neuter was facilitated by the fall of final the regions where changes reduced considerably the distinguishing marks of the (§ 309). maris nom. sg. Varro. incipit judicius. see Archiv VIII. tergum —us. me\_nt]us. thesaurum. 16). MAREM. m. For the confusion of masculine Cf.. 483). collus. collus —um. roborem. n. R. These m two genders: filiu{s) — . Waters Ch. puteum. ra. piper \h&x& must have been *liiminem. Conversely we find cinus. etc. verbus. cf. cornu —um —us. and also by the fall of final s in that phenomenon occurred (§ 298).Y. etc. there must have been a *pulvus. etc. 345-349. castellus. fatus. signus. nasuni : —us. 41. balneus. 42. papaver . and neuter in Africa. Petronius has thesaurum. laqueum. marmorem. Beside lUmen. 2. m. Waters Ch. ledus —um.. MARIS. 44). vadum —us. . calus. Glor. gladium. pectorem. Spr. 270—272. vinus. sulphurem. 507-509. 347. *ptperem. frigorem. Plautus. n. II..§ 348] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. caseum -us.. etc. G. lactem {Bacch. m. 173. VA. Densusianu 129. Densusianu 132. beside pulvis. D'Arbois 135. 348. and f. vinus. (Za/. Cf.. murmur. Bon.. 132. Bon. 293. 145 MASCULINE aIiD NEUTER. vasus -um. In popular and late Latin this tendency was strong: anteClassic. Audol- lent 545. do^sus (^Mil.guttur. fcenus. R.. 39. 4. 57. Petronius. lactem.. *ndminem. 266. nomen. for ctnis. templus.

Among pronouns. give in Italian: sg. but also the collective plural for the singular Digitized by Microsoft® . 4). etc. hunc vulnere. hunc verbum. id ipsum. rivus rivora. sagma. generally Haag became feminine maris. : if The loss of the neuter became feminine: cyma. murus.146 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. m. tive h In the third declension the genders are distinguished only in the accusative singular and the nomina- and accusative plural. and in Italy and Dacia the distinction disappears even in the nominative singular. 351 Classic Latin often used not only the singular for the cf. Nearly all neuters became masculine: os locutus R. in Livy: Draeger I. for instance.. 386. quid. quod. gender for nouns was probably not Cf. est. the : neuter forms were kept to express an indefinite idea hoc. 349. / muri mura. by terra. FEMININE AND NEUTER. 45 . 161. generally L. hunc stagnum. illud or ilium. 350. muro. cf. So pi. complete until early Romance times. etc. Densusianu 132. § 351. etc. 277. the characteristic neuter plural inflections came to be -a being regarded as an alternative masculine plural ending: for nervi. Greek neuters in -ma. luoghi luogora. mare. Zs. [§ 351 In the second declension the only difference is in the nominative singular and the nominative and accusative plural. and 48.. Cf. 635. 348. Thus the masculine and neuter fused. miles.. perhaps calestem. Petronius writes nervia Waters Ch. Bon. donum hunc scBCulum. pointing to such Vulgar Latin constructions as *mihi est grave quod ille non c. 266. luogo. the early stages of the Neuter adjective forms were used for a similar purpose: in Romance languages we find phrases veniat. R. popular. Archiv III. locus. plural in a collective sense (as eques. influenced f. XXX. however. Mare.

for singular forms as *brachia. Cf. gesta. Aside from these. 269.. Spr. dita. see § 349. occurs in late Latin. 482. *folia. hie est iesia. Lat. 353. Archiv XIV. § 349) and even to some feminine nouns: digita. fructa. sg. for instance. Reich. 63).. This formation in -a was extended to many masculine (cf. Gl. 352. 351. fusa. rama). Hence arose such feminine gaudia. in Rumanian y>-««2a < ? *frondia ^frondes. ligna . rura: cf. etc. frutta. ingenias. Bon. 435. The feminine character of such words was *illcB doubtless reinforced by the use. membras. palpebrum iox palpebra occurs. Spr. {z. DECLENSION OF NOUNS. Old Fr. . So the neuter plural forms in -a were preserved in their collective use after the neuter singular forms had disappeared. Gl. Convtrstly.§ 354] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. marmor. 483. gaudia niat. which a new plural was created: brachias.% frigora. 5-9. Reich. Apulian. R. For the use of cases. see §§ 85-100. ardet (cf. etc. 2. grada occur in late Latin. ne forte et mihi hcec eve- R. Draeger I.. the Vulgar Latin period the cases were generally reduced. In late Latin and early Romance this collective plural —a came to be taken for a feminine singular: tribula sg. etc. *pulvus = pulvis. . Gl. in Greek neuters -ma. few neuter nouns became feminine: For mare and f. 270. armentas. of an to pectora maXch qua pectora : Chronologie \()(). D'Arbois 10.. Audollent 548. Digitized by Microsoft® . simulaehras. By the end of 354. Lat. ligna. . For cinus — cinis. see § 347. cf. Sardinian. R. It. but many were and southern Italy and Rumania.. In most of the in central Romance territory the -a forms were kept preserved as plurals only as feminine singulars. 147 marmora. crigne < ? *cnnea = crines. Cassel.

Digitized by Microsoft® . passes. ablative. haz. fructo fructos.148 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. went into the third res There was also an inflection spes : spene{m). £ai. 356. lacus. beside dia. (2) The susianu 133. and occasionally in southern Gaul. gradus. etc. Ada. scaiiazre attested Inter: Denfor -OS. etc. fourth declension eventually went over. 550. lucto. Spr. to two. speni): W. but -ies was kept in the Spanish peninsula. Heraeus in Archiv XIII.g/ada. 135. R. 482. Sp. 260—262. Bechtel 86. whence Italian spene (cf. gelus./ada.. in southern Italy and Sardinia. so friicti. gustus in Petronius . see § 359. etc. transfer of nouns in -ies from the fifth to the first declension began also in Classic Latin: effigies— ia. The other declensions generally held their own.. etc. jusso. spiritus. glatz. spes spent. 152. One result of the intermediate confusion was an accusative plural spelling -us which was very common in Gaul: Bon. luxuries —ia. Sittl in Archiv II. senatus. materies -ia. 544. All the mercatus. The transfer from the fourth to the second began in domus.. 270. Dies maintained itself. 282-283. [§ 356 except in Dacia. Bon. 337-338. G. but there were a few shifts: — (i) For an inflection mama mamdne(^m). Pr. 355(i) The number fifth of declensions was reduced to three. the fourth and being absorbed by the others. sendti. jusso. being assimilated to the third declension: cf. as a third declension noun. manos. Fifth declension nouns not in -ies rem. —a nominative and an accusative- plural following the analogy of the singular. K. etc. Audollent genum. cornum. All passed over in the greater part of the Empire. — the Cf. Classic Latin and continued in vulgar and late speech: ftcus. In Dacia the dative singular was to some extent preserved also: '' § 91.

It probably was not common until late Vulgar Latin or early Romance times. Reich. there was an ervus ervoris: Lat. arroser. ds>dssum (R. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) and *capum -i: XXVII.In countries which did not lose final s {% 298). Audolfilia{m). etc.) *femdris: cf. apparently became femus {Gl. Fundus fundi perhaps became fundus *funddris: Old Fr. the accusative plural form came to be used as a nominative plural. fons. fonz. Pr. This use was due in the main to the analogy of the singular. : Bechtel 86. so apparently ros'. Puulva for pulvis is recorded adsis '> aisida. / 357. 258Dubois 258. there was a termen terminis. 483.§ 357] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. likewise tempesta {Gl. cf. Pr. siren '^ sirena. matres matres. 280. but the old forms were retained also. Digitized -s made the accusative plural identical with the singular. lent 546. etc. G. Libit. 57). Fimus ftmi. G. under the influence of stercus. 280. vas>va- sum vasus (Waters Ch. beside coclear fiitre: was codearium. Spr. rugiada.>*rdsum (cf. by Audollent 416.). So a few Latin nouns: juventus or ~tas > Juventa.) and probably *potesta. see § 362. and of feminine nouns of the third declension. G. which had only one form in the plural: flia So linguas. h&nc& filias filias. Beside terminus ~i. the nominative plural was' by Microsoft® . femps. a. Greek nouns 259. It. Reich. Old Fr. where the kept instead. Fr. J where there was only one form. R. fall of In Italy and Dacia. (3) On the other hand. 149 (2) For an inflection Bellus Bellone^m). Corpo for corpore occurs in the Per. fiens. Fr. pyxis '^*buxida. the first: 367. Beside ervum ervi. 280. effondrer. FIRST DECLENSION.. 259-260). of the third declension sometimes passed into lampas~^lampada.

Raetia. It. Les accusatifs en -ain. Paris. amita *amitdnis (so Juliana Julianenis in Pirson 143). W. 321. Pirson 115-116. Spr. 136. filiabus. XXXI. Some masculine person-names in —a had crisia the same declension {Einf. etc. Les accusatifs en -on et en -ain. Nice Nicenis. 198. etc.ISO (i) An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. See G. Meyer-Liibke expresses doubt whether the is connected with masculine tatani. cf. had a similar plural. deabus. [§359 According to Mohl. This feminine inflection left some traces in Gaul. but they may have helped its the second century .. Her^us in Zs. 359. 483. filiabus. etc. and Digitized by Microsoft® . E. It. mamma mammdnis. 358.. M. Br^al. Dalmatia. 150. etc. and also in Latin down to -as was probably old in : B. nom. Dante's Semele. too. Feminine proper names and words denoting persons etc. feminabus. Salvioni in Rom. sa* sacristanis (cf. 264). or probably under the influence of the consonantal declension of Greek names that was in vogue in schools. c.. XXIII. No foreign or dialect influences are needed to explain the practice. Both mamani and tatani are found in the third W. famulabus. MeyerLiibke in Ltblt. ii. Archiv N\\\. ahimabus. Hic qvescvnt dvs mres dvas filias. Celtic. diffusion. etc. etc. filiabus. sacristano). 70. 331. § 153): barba barbani. An ablative in -abus is occasionally found: Cassiabus. c. pupillabus.: hence arose Anna Anndnis or -inis. villabus. 57 B. Rom. (R.2 01. cf. scriba *scribanis (cf. liberti LIBERTASQVE. W. p. fr.. Africa. Bon. often developed. XXV. Philipon. 152-153. This form left no traces in the Romance languages. D'Arbois 21-24 assumes Celtic influence: hic sunt cartas.. rather late. Chronologie 205-209. Spr. Herseus in Archiv XIII. the nominative plural in some parts of Italy SCALAS. —enis. affirms that there was a feminine in -a with a plural in -as in Oscan. Feb. 206. Pupils were taught to inflect Glance Glaucenis. century: feminine -a -ants In Lat. scrivano). an inflection in —dnis. G. XXV.. Rom. 171. Journal des savants igoo. XXXV.

Eugeneti inflection in -dtis. §§ 347-349. shows that these forms of declenall sion were very common the mediasval Latin documents of parts of Italy. Romance. 250. Italy: Fr. bdrba barbdnis influence of the itself he would ascribe to the synonymous *bdrbo *barb6nis. 250. from 750 on: amitane. Lombard madrane. XXXV. Zimmermann. from Eugenes. XXVIII. in ig8. Rom. the starting-point of all this inflection was bdrba barbdnis. Dubois 250. Salvioni. 264. they assumed. According to Salvioni. Rom. *botula. extent..: § 362] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. §§349. 218. etc. domnani. nonnain. Zs. 2l6. this -a. XXXV. also Joannentis. XXXV.. G. putain. Joanneni. Cf. -His. The plural in -a. XXXV. etc. etc.. 343. Andreate. -e ^ne -me. Ger- From the seventh century on. barbane. (i) 207. and -Stis: Aureliati. 151 etc. the masculine where the masculine and neuter partly in Vulgar Latin but mostly in inflection in those countries differed: vinus. by the analogy of bracchia. especially in southern Some masculines took 362. at the beginning of the Romance period. Agneti. *botella. etc. etc. Rom. -i La declinazione imparisillaba in -a -dne. 216. SECOND DECLENSION. Attane. etc. In general. barbane still exist at both ends of Italy. etc. me -ene. 361. shows that there was also an Cf. Rom. -o -6ne. (2) A. was retained to a considerable and central Italy and Dacia. — luna facia *folia luna lune lunas luna{s) facia folia f^i^ facias f'^^i^ folias facia(s) folia{s) In Dacia the dative singular {lune. fructa. As neuter nouns became masculine. R. 351-352. 219. digita.) was kept also. rama. b. the first declension was reduced to this pattern: 360. however. — perhaps under manic influence combined with the analogy of the Latin type Digitized by Microsoft® . from which it was extended to other nouns of relationship and to proper names. Andreani. 214-215.

-« crowded out the rarer which left no sure Digitized by Microsoft® .. suceroni: Rom. Philipon in Rom. spelled In Gaul the accusative -«. Giovannoni. and possibly Corsican baboni. 204). II. Vok. at the beginning of the Romance period. cf. G. some pari. [§ 365 gulo guldnis. Salvioni in Rom. §355. XXXV. See E. both in Classic and in Vulgar Latin: -Is. (1). 87. The traces ablative in —e finally triumphed. but there are of -l: It. etc. Huon. Paulus or Paulo Pauldne{ni). Vok.. and possibly Spain. § 152). etc. 198. Firmus Firmonis. 363. I. Rsetia. XXXI. So perhaps Italian Donaioni.152 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. In the ablative there was considerable confusion of -z and -e in Classic LatiiK OTan mare. proper names: 201. hence Pitrus or Pitro Petrdne^m). 365. XXXV. — there developed in Gaul. the second declension followed this pattern: annu(s) — annu ~o anni anno{s) fa^e(f) fabru —o vinu{s) bracciu *—us fructu(s) vinu -0 vini bracciu —o braccia fructu fructi fructo{s) —o fabri fabro(s) —i —o{s) vmo(s) braccia —a -a The letters enclosed in parentheses were silent in Italy and plural Dacia. THIRD DECLENSION. cf. In general. carried further in common speech: cf. 212-213. Traces of this inflection are to be seen especially in French and Provengal proper names: Foucon. a declension -us (or —o) —dnis for masculine Hugo Hugon was Latinized into Hugo Hugdne{m) (cf. XXXV. etc. In the accusative plural there was still greater confusion of -is and -es {nubes nubls. etc. turri turre.f. 337-338. avus avi>avo avonis. attested in Lucca in 776 {Rom. Bellus Belloni. c. Cf. etc. etc. Italy.).- ending was often Bon. This was 364. etc. Pirson 133:. Apparently traces. 247-249. 85.

famis. latrone. Haag 45. Caper. voluntate. folli tor folks in GL Reich.. urbis.. Waters a Ch.principis). perhaps in late popular Latin. pedis.. Ill. are best explained. Aulus Gellius. GL Reich. etc... without a change of accent. Lat. Nouns which added a syllable in the genitive. In the nominative singular the common -^s largely placed the less f requent 244-247.. GL Reich. calcis in Venantius Fortunatus. As ~es and ~is came to be pronounced alike before the end to of the Vulgar Latin period (cf. I. Spr. Sepulcri 220. papilionis (cf. or -e fashioned on the model of the oblique cases: so seeps "> sapes. 367. suis in Prudentius (F. "nubes non nubis". R. 45." Keil VII. principens antestetis. tended in popular speech to use for the nominative a form in -is. Ci. 263. 66. lade in Ennius. travis (three times). D'Arbois 85-88. App. superstitis. These forms prevailed in Romance. Audollent 545-547. slirpis in Livy. §§ 174. 481. D'Ovidio in critici Raccolta di studii dedicata ad Alessandro JD'Ancona 627).. "grus non gruis. famis. etc.. etc. nom. 62). 243). III. 153 Italian pani. camis in Livy. In Vulgar Latin this formation was extended to words with shift of accent: excellente for excellens in Petronius. -es. divite. aculionis for aculeus). (^=z. audace.. cardonis. stips^ stipes. 263. lentis in Priscian. R. 263. nubis. Jovis. Vok. etc. R. cf. dis- 366. Petronius (Waters Ch. Rumanian pint.. castore. etc. 47). Petronius (Waters Ch. etc. mdis. bovis in Varro. 9. victore. in Ennius.§ 367] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 38). Pr.• -« Vok. Apuleius. it is futile trace the Romance forms phonetically to one source rather than the other. Audollent 545-547.. Petronius (Waters Ch. Plautus.. Prudentius. Chronolo- gie 203. . as by Tiktin 565-566. Pr. Digitized by Microsoft® . "fames non famis. 116. Varro. etc. through the analogy of the second declension: see §368. 105. heredes." App. heredes.

probably in late Vulgar Latin or early Romance. to Bon. corpo. too. according . first in cf. servitor. but there is virtually no evidence that it started so early: in late Latin. *cdrpes *cdrpe{s). however. anni. (also presentis. hence *patri. *ndmine{ni). etc. etc. etc. see § 347. 154 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. retained names of and and generally preferred the old nominative But names of persons in -ans and -ens usually made over the nominative: parentis. [§ 369 These forms. timpuri). *amantis. for *lumine{m). In most of the Romance languages (but not Spanish).. Cassel. so. (also * damantis. prevailed in Romance. doubt. In these countries —ora was used as a plural ending (It. Rum. 369. Spr. prcBgnans). but in Italy and Rumania the old ones.). Rumanian Tiktin 566.. which was regarded as the normal masculine type: fllii. soror. as *ndmes *ndme(s). The process may have begun in the Vulgar Latin period. D'Arbois 85-88. Neuters in —n and -s regularly kept their nominative- accusative singular.). however. made in Italy in the eighth or ninth century. 482). 367 parentorum is frequent in charters in the Gl. corpus cdrpu(^s). they constructed. being used mainly in the nominative vocative. and was extended to in Old Italian to the second. no form: homo. especially those in —ora. as nomeiji). but infans (also 368. hence *cani. etc. timp. declensions: Neuters in which apparently became by Microsoft® masculine or Digitized . we find sapienti. cantdtor. masculine nouns made over their nominative plural on the model of the second declension. except for persons. new forms on the masculine pattern. both the second and -r. etc. hence *me(n')si. lupi. carpi corpora. elifanti is common. were kept also {Lat. which. For the nominative-accusative plural. beside the old forms.

cf. the third declension must have gone about as follows {-is and -es having coincided in the pronunciation -w) : — (i) No Change of Accent. § 347. Plautus. (3). G. sangutne(m) also sanguei^m). polvo. the open o would possi- bly be explained as due to a cross between this *cor and the Caput became *capu{ni) or capus (Pirson 238). But marmor. 293.§ 37i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 113.0. Cor apparently made its plural * cores instead of * cordes : according to Mohl. *pulvus. PERSONS. Spr. polve may come irorapulver). 155 feminine earlier than the others. etc. Lexique 21-38. the word shows no trace of d in any of the Romance lan- guages. . and so probably goes back to an Old Latin *cdr Classic cor. and passed into the second declension: cf. §356. 371. were kept also. 2. Incus. pulvis whence S-p. *cdris = Krjp lajpo's. at the beginning of the Romance period. except Spanish cuerdo. Zauner 2. incudtnis : Lat. Fxn. Old Yt. marmorem. 370. Sanguis. 348. Bon. *piperem. NO CHANGE OF STEM.. 483. often developed an accusative singular in -e{m) as well as a nominative-accusative plural in -es: I. In general. sulphurem. papaverem. A few feminines in -is apparently became neuters in —us. iticudis > incudo. but the original forms were kept also: cinis ctnus. pals {It.

.156 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. [§373 change of stem.

157 DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. § was kept to represent a whole idea (cf. and the neuter plural (as omnia) was doubtless emr ployed from time to time as an indefinite collective. the neuter adjective forms were less and less used. Introduction to Vulgar Latin.§375] An 3. 375" The principal types are: — So ager. . 350). the neuter singular. As neuter nouns assumed masculine endings (§ 347). however. 374- Adjectives were declined after the same model as nouns.

magis magls f J Digitized by Microsoft® . Romance was: For the new method of comparison. and there was probably also a feminine * alacra and * alecra. firmis. m.. miser. 377. Pr. [§377 (3) Originally *feUce(s) One Gender filis fills fellcla in the Nominative Singular. gracilus. COMPARISON. Macer. pauperum. imbecillis also assumed the -us -a —um inflection in the Latin period so trtstis^tristus. Decllvis. see § 56. R. The type. : to 4. so teeter'^ tetrus. pauperorum. pauperorum. R. 275 (^ci. l_ \ !-. jac^r passed into the -us ~a —um class.. Densusianu 142. Cf. . in376. doussa. Pauper early developed a feminine paupera and later a neuter pauperum: paupera. App. etc. celerus. comuna.. m. prude(s) prude(s) *prudente(s) feUce fellce(s) prudente prudente{s) prudente{s) prudentia prudentia fellceis) fellcla (4) Comparatives apparently did not reconstruct the Nominative Singular: melloif) mellu{s) millu(s) mellore mellore(s) mellora mellSra melidre(s) There was a good deal of confusion of types in Latin times: beside alacer.— 158 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Waters Ch. not completely evolved in Vulgar Latin. 46). etc. and f.. Pr. and conversely benignis. etc. prcestus. In the the —us —a Romance languages more adjectives went over -um type Pr. 162. effrenis. there was alacris. Prcecox developed a feminine pracoca: Neue II. App. and f. (plus L 1 J ^plus llle-{'^"~. 274. sublimus.

nSve. Six. 65. DHo came by dui. pessimus. Tredece * See M. "i^. sanctissimus. 159 However. NUMERALS. proximus. the Classic Latin comparatives of many common adjectives remained in use: altior. 285). pejus. 68. sordidius. grossior So the adverbs: longius. magis. II. Scto ( and Cf. For dodece. dice offer so cinqua- no peculiarities. by dissimilation. gravior grevior. melior. pejor. as intensives: altissimus. (Camoy . of the Vulgar Latin period dui dot {duoT) duo(s) Its inflection at the was probably: doa{s) — end due doe duas doas d'ua{s) dua doa dua doa In early Romance there was doubtless much confusion of the forms. The old superlatives remained to a considerable extent. an Unus was probably declined like bonus. 221). levior. Vulgdrformen lateinischer Zahlworter auf Inschriften in Archiv VII. 5. Beside Undece there seems to have been * iindece. etc. carissimus. melius. see § 225.§379] '^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. *Stto). Cf. 65). Quattuor became quattor {Archiv VII. vivacius. also as (cf. Archiv VII. Quinque. attested in the third cen- tury: Archiv IX. It was used indefinite article (§S7) and an indefinite pronoun to be replaced §71). 379.i 378. lows : — The numbers between two and twenty were as fol- Tres probably developed a nominative *irei. minus. septe (and *sette). also ijuatro ^guaitro. 107). longior. became cinque {Archiv VII. in the clerical language. Digitized by Microsoft® . Ihm. is regular. on the model of dui. (G. minor. §254. major. 66) ginta (Archiv Nil. 558 (cf.

beginning with 20. also unus de viginti. * sexdinta. became * quattordece (cf. trienta.and the octo. trigtnta must assume for Spanish something like * viinti. Digitized by Microsoft® . became viinti. with an opening of the first i and an early shift of accent. 461. XXV. 400. Ryd- berg in Milanges Wahlund 337. The tens.: G. so ^dece et (or dcto. there were probably new formations. etc. Rumanian has new formations.i6o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. G. * quadrdinta became rr: quarranta Furthermore the dr of found in an inscription. * octdinta * ottdinta. trinta: Archiv VII. etc. For its plural it had *dui mille or *dui mtl{l)ia. This change of accent apparently occurred everywhere for the subsequent tens: * guadrdinta. § 225). in fact. and French words. These forms easily contracted into vinti. triginta is. For ducenti. etc. etc.of 70 and 80 were to the type of the others. 69. But beside these we Vigtntl. such as * dui centu. 69). mentioned as a by Consentius. 136. Provengal. 380. Priscian (Keil III. trinta {yinti. Centu was regular. 381. which account in general for the Italian. Spr. the septucu. probably anterior to the fall of faulty pronunciation the g. II. made to conform Outside of the Spanish peninsula is -dinta apparently became -dnta. * triinta. *dece et (or ac) nHve. 412) mentions decern et septem. are irregular: regularly § 142. regularly [§ 381 also Quattuordecim *quatti!rdece. Beside this dice et septe ac") there was *dece ac septe . Archiv VII. triinta (§ 259): ISatvTi occurs in a sixth century document of Ravenna. trecenti. 69). * cinqudinta. ii.. *nondinta *novdinta. went out of use. Archiv VII. etc.. *septdinta * settdinta. Cf. et (or ac) sex. Mille was regular. Beside sedece there was *dece SeftendScim. f^ok. perhaps of the fifth century (Pirson 97. but Qulndlce is regular. cf. Keil V. 392.

in northern Italian. Lat. inflected like quartus. The ordinals were best preserved in Italy.). N. relative. the distributive Septimus. 67. see § 60. ? II. etc. but some languages have new formations even for these. Spr. to the dative and accusative. I. B. quintus were generally bonus. PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. The nominative and. — For the use of personal pronouns. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. and interrogative pronouns. B. According to sixth century. But his reference to Vok. 384. §§6o. and Catalan ending -enus was employed {septenus ion tertius. remained. and so was the genitive singular and plural of ille. as an indefinite neuter. and is were used to supply the lacking pronoun of the third person: cf.§ 385] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. but the end of the Vulgar Latin period. ipse. Provengal. after 5th. 242 is incorrect Digitized by Microsoft® . probably not 385. and the dative was preserved in personal. eo occurs in manuscripts of the See §263. were probably not very commonly used: the Romance languages show many new formations. As the pronouns came to be expressed more and more. secundus. The ablative gave way . 161 382. definite genitive: Hoc served in- Inde assumed the function of an dubitat. The ordinal numerals. until Ego lost its g in all the territory. and iste. ipse. tile and also hic. Examples occur as early as the second century: Franz. The genitive was usually lost but ciijus was kept. Primus. nemo inde Regnier no. 262. 484.^ ' Meyer-Liibke. I. accusative SSs. kept. demonstrative.

On tibi. i" 243-244. acof. these are and mt<mihi.1 62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. II. [§ 388 In the last syllable of ttbt.ording ti. •was carried into nobis. there were formed •. Franz. vobis. from the sixth century on. inflection The was probably reduced to: — . stbi the short i prevailed. 484. the pattern of stbt. found. Spr. ^ )86. si beside to Lat.

used by Apu- and others (Neue II. These forms survived ma. 3. m. Sardinia. fratelmo. 274. sg. ipsi=^ ipse. eccu': see § 65. g II. The Old Latin genitive illi {ipsi. is 163 g The full inflection found in the sixth century: Franz. . nom. illms gave way to iliajus. etc. f. popular speech. 283-304. tilt was replaced in part by illHi. Ille. sg. in II. 390.. Audollent 302). 9 beside II. articles For their function as and personal pronouns. Ipse and isfe followed a similar course ipse however. R. Franz. The former. Franz. istius). When Ule and ute had a really demonstrative force. was partially replaced. 244. R. 246-260. the m. m. 114. subsequently went out of use. and Cato and on the model of illui (and perhaps of quei).. — For the use of demonstratives. Romance: Old \X. Sicily. 277-279. sg. we find. framed on the model of cf. illi^ille. by illi. Franz. having become archaic in peninsula. Through the analogy of cu^us. and the Spanish Illius {ipsins. see §§ 61-68. being confused with the ablative and the accusative. 275. sometimes occurred as a dative: Franz. 9 II. Quillacq 83). however. tilt. cf. used by 427. and the dat. 389. and ipsud for ipsum. probably in the sec- ond half of the sixth century. 3 II. the special forms ipsus for R. 275. others (Neue Digitized by Microsoft® . see §§ 60. illo. Franz. but it disappeared from late Latin. The inflection of tile developed considerably in popu- lar speech. and the latter is not found in Calabria. B. was from that. leius was abandoned: In the dat. There was another dative form. 9 II. 67-68. II. qui: Bon. isti). definite N. 276. also §392. madre- DEMONSTRATIVES. 427. they came to be compounded usually with the prefix ecc' or Cf. cut. 273. there was tllce (or ille).§ 390] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 275.

furthermore. ille. The popular : inflection. 9 II. 426. which crowded out illtus. 619. The 391. Digitized by Microsoft® . did not entirely disappear. 484: illujus. to Vulgar Latin. Cf. Spr. illui. illejus. these words tended to lose their first syllable (see § 157): tu illam vzdes>*tu 9 II. 'la' vede(s). illejus. Illujus. neuter Uludvia. Franz. ipsujus. at the end of the Vulgar Latin forms not was something like kept in Romance) elle elli — this (brackets indicating Ma ellejus elli elle ellei ellu [ellujus] elli \ello\ ellui elli ellu ello elli ella elle ? ellu ello ella ? ellqru elluru elli(s) \ellaru\ ellqru elluru ellqru ^im/) ellais) ello(s) ella 392. and some dialects on the south shore of France. XXVI. ipseus. and illis. When unaccented. Majorca. on: Zs. In the on the same pattern (influenced perhaps by guejus). period. was constructed illcejus (illejus). to f. except 177. Ille and ipse were used freely as definite articles from the fourth century on: Densusianu in Sardinia. Illorum displaced the f. are found after the seventh century: Franz. in Romance. 600. [§ 392 which was used beside ilU and Ulm. be used. 276. m. illei are found from the sixth century made genitive. R. illui. nice.164 An Introduction illcei (illei). 271-272. In parts of northern Spain and southwestern France illorum seems to have become *illurum. Cf. Ille prevailed. however. Lat. vides lei ta ipsam clavem'>-*vede(^s) iu 'sa' clave'] Lui and 281-283. It came. which. a part of Catalonia and Gascony. illui. for the dat. through the analogy of illUjus.s replaced by tllum: Neue II. illdrum.

in common speech. XXVI. 619. quis. N. In Christian inscriptions from the fifth century on.§ 395] -^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. B. qui takes the place of quts. — For the use of these pronouns. 393. The combined inflection of qui and quis. and the substitution of qui for feminine see §§69-70. INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS. was probably reduced. Beside ctijus. 165 4. quel: Mohl in Zs. by the end of the : Vulgar Latin period. and also of the feminine qum. to something like this qui — . see cm is found a corresponding feminine quejus.

— see §§33-35. 398. Lexique 47 and Pr. FIRST CONJUGATION. Italian development due to the analogy of sia: see §419. Pg. with Umbrian dia. *staunt: Rum.. dau. defections into use * dao. estau. first and fourth. 30. (2). " The first conjugation generally held partial. The Italian present subjunctive dia from dare is associated by Mohl. but it seems more likely that they were late Latin formations due to an effort to keep the root vowel distinct from the ending. Probus. There was some confusion of conjugations. 396. Digitized — such as abbreviare. etc. state. Lexique 47-54. THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. *vait date. that the form is a later. Mohl. For new formations. would connect these forms with Umbrian stahu.1 66 An Introduction C. Sicilian in Spain. (see §405): cf. daun. "adno non adnao. however. dao. the first and fourth were least affected. In the Peregrinatio the second decidedly preponderates over the third (Bechtel 87). to Vulgar Latin. its 397. I." Lexique 47. The second gained most fourth in Gaul. Lexique 47. sto. *vais. own. Cf. Pers. a. in Germanic verbs -on and in by Microsoft® . In northern Gaul there may have developed with * stao a * stats and a * stait. the Eventually Spanish and Portuguese discarded New formations went into the and Sardinian the second. werrizare. in other texts the third gains at the expense of the second. dant and stant there came Old It. [§ 398 VERBS. estou. PI. the third. follicare. dou. estaun. being few and Beside do.nd *stao. on the analogy of {*vao). the third in Italy. *daunta. It is entirely possible. Pr.

Digitized by Microsoft® . * hat. lugere (R. 283). probably through the pronunciation of —eo as —io (see §224): * complire. *putrisco. sapere sapui: sapere was influ- enced. According to Mohl. The as cadere *cadui. * has. I. 284). rubare. tive —escere \. The inchoa284). * lucere. SECOND CONJUGATION. * luctre. luctsco. V. p. capere may easily have imitated sapere. 266 ff. 167 —an (but not -jan) went in the first conjugation: Cf. In Vulgar Latin the second lost some verbs to the third in most of the territory: * ardere. *putrtre. tergere. Italian dialects in which e does not phonetically and even in early Tuscan (cf. especially in Italy. lugire (R. at least in Italy. t. Luke VI. roubo?i'>lt. avire in havite.§402] An Introduction regularly to Vulgar Latin. *nocere. many become i. such perhaps 402. under the influence of dare and stare. beginning with those that had a perfect in -ui. Monaci. habent. third conjugation gave a few verbs to the second. Itala. *impllre. adopted the forms *ho or *hao. §36. Latin there was some confusion between the second conjugation and the third fervere. 399. the verb habere. *ridere. habes. THIRD CONJUGATION. 400. I. and cadere may have followed capere. Some verbs went into the fourth. by habere. 20. b. capere * caput.. etc). became —iscere: *florisco. C. Other verbs passed over locally or occasionally: sediiur. *hant or * haunt. 1. *mordere. ^^^^ i^ a peculiarity of ancient Umbrian. Crestomazia italiana dei primi secoli I. wttan'^lt. 401. respondere (Bechtel 88: responduntur). L. E. 8. habibai. Habere. Bechtel 88. habet. 1636. in Classic : Even miscere (R. Lexique 108-109. *torcere (for torquere). 284). 10. tondere. fiorlre (R. sometimes became habtre: Vok. guidare.\i^x\. While retaining habeo.

{Pr.-R. Pers. [§ 404 In Spain the third conjugation verbs eventually passed into the second. PL in 745 A. The present indicative forms must have been something like this: ^vojeo voje^s) — volimu{s) volemu(s) voleste(s) *volete(s) *vole(i) *vqlen(t) The present subjunctive must have been similarly inflected. velle volui naturally went over to the second conjugation. a sug- gestion of shortening existed in the monosyllabic imperative Digitized by Microsoft® . framed on the pattern of potestis. The present like this: have been inflected something passu posso foteo *posseo poieis) *pote(i) — indicative must ^poiemu{s) poteste(s) *potete(s) pqssunif) *poten(t) The present subjunctive must have had corresponding forms. PL 25). {Pr. Pers. and conformed Velte.poteo is attested ( 1) Potere. 403. D.1 68 An Introduction all to Vulgar Latin. Dare Z. *volere.. Pers. Furthermore. strongly influenced by dare and stare. Gregory and Fredegarius {Pr. there doubtless existed *fare {Facere 48). GL found in the sixth century (^Lat Spr. is twice used by Fredegarius {Pr. The anomalous posse potui. Sardinia. was discarded in Spain and potebam occur repeatedly in the sixth century 24). PL 2^). (2) the Volimus Reich. potebas Posso for possum is used by in Fredegarius (Haag 60). facere 404. Pers. Pers. voles is found in Volestis. Reich. 'Bt&ide. however. their inflection more or less to the regular type. This transition was probably helped by a partial fusion of esse and sedere. is volemus in the seventh {Pr. 478). PL 21). potebo is found in the Gl. PL 21).A facere were associated in old formulas: Lexique 53. assumed the infinitive forms potere.

beside factte. but the present subjunctive retained (see Facere 72. XXV. which must have led to *fate present indicative certainly had several being on the pattern of the first con- jugation. Zs. facio XVIII.§405] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Zs. 169 fac (also /a. series The one 735). sets of forms. 434): — its old inflection *fao . 121.

to Vulgar Latin. Sepulcri 229. Dicere. ite(s) etc. FOURTH CONJUGATION. mortri. 407. Haag 60. Spr. 286. Densusianu 148. gemire. common in the Vulgate (R. d. . marrJan>'Fr. at least locally: *falllre. Verbs in -to tended to pass into the fourth conjugation (see. Reich. It. 285). * capere . see § 415. . was influenced by *vao viidimu(s) vddite(s) *vo *vas vadeif) *vait *vat vadeis) *vais imu(s) etc. §404) and helped by the analogy of audire. tarir. Plautus. St. deferet. guarnire. vadunif) *vaunt *vant 406. §416): *caplre. 427. (j^^r^i". 477). first half of the 7th century. the entire passive inflection having been discarded: the by Microsoft® . developed a form * dire. The fourth conjugation usually held — — marrir. Gl. occurire. Carnoy 112). Bon. forbire . * sequlre. Bechtel 90.. parrjan^Yv. its own. warnjan'> tion.into this conjuga- FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES Romance only Digitized IN INFLECTION. fodiri. 477). cf. R.lyo present. C2X0 fugtre. ^26. see § 34. beside * sequere. §36. *soffertre. [§408 facere fare : — present indicative. moreover. ^. hesiAe. Spr. For new formations. in 408. however. doubtless suggested by die ( cf fac and *fare. Augustine {Lat. For the intrusion of the inchoative -sc. Lexique 62 ). Germanic verbs in -Jan regularly went into the fourth conjugation in Latin (Kluge 500): furbjan~>\X. by the analogy of aperire {sufferit. cuptre. and *monre. Bon. probably in the Vulgar Latin period (cf. such as * abbellire. offeret. Lucretius {Lat. Some others went over. * offertre. Pirson 148. and gained some verbs from the others. Pirson 148. Cf. Of the personal forms of the verb there remained general use in the following tenses of the active voice. ignire. An The vado Introduction.

fell into disuse from the first century on. reverti"^ reversus sum. etc. : Deponent verbs became active cf. and in instance: some regions the perfect the imperative present. 289. perfect was kept in its preterit sense. 297-302. etc. In was replaced. towards the end the Vulgar Latin period. in the Vulgar Latin period. See Syntax. 298 Conversely. rideri. amando. some writers substituted R. See Syntax. amavi. R. as a preterit or a conditional.. In the subjunctive the pluperfect was used instead of the Digitized by Microsoft® . {amandusi). 304. and in 171 indicative present. . some regions the future perfect .. in various regions: see §124. operare. audiram) was kept. For amo. 302-304. § 4io] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. R. . in the by a compound of habere and the "perfect participle case of neuter verbs.. cf. §§ 112-114. amatus. {amarini)\ ama. mentire. Similar compounds replaced the pluperfect and the future perfect. amem. For instance: amare. the gerund (especially the ablative case). The old pluperfect indicative (^amaram. perfect. the perfect participle. The Latin it its perfect sense — §§121-124. the present participle. the subjunctive present. The supine 409. The entire passive inflection -of came to be replaced. partly by active and reflexive constructions but perfect participle with esse' mainly by a compound of the (m northern Italy fieri): littera ' scriMtur -flittera scripta est (or fit). R. pluperfect. esse and the perfect participle: feci"^ habeo factum. the deponent for the active inflection of a few verbs: Petronius. 388-389. Of the impersonal forms of the verb there remained: the present active infinitive. pluperfect. imperfect. and probably in some standing phrases the gerundive. amans. amaram. amassem. R. See 410. (amaro). amabam.

with the exception of ero. pdteri. Digitized In Italian we by Microsoft® . XXIX. Lollis in Bausteine i . audtrem'^audissem. Crescini in Zs. -ds. De 411. —aunt. beside -ia from habebam and -dbbi —ibbi from habui. which has prevailed in the find. *amar' —e'te(s). In this compound all the various forms of the present indicative of habere were used (see §§273. In the first and second persons plural. *amar' -isti. as they came to be regarded as mere endold future. infinitive the perfect of habere (see §130): combined with the imperfect or *amar' ~dbe{b')a{ni) or disappeared. -ete(s). as a future indicative or subjunctive. cridere. V.-dben(t) and -d. 619. It is best preserved in is found also in Old Rumanian There are traces of it in Old Italian. or conditional. especially by the infinitive combined with the present indicative of habere {amdbo > amar' habeo): see §§125-129. -dt. cf.(ye')rim and apparently remained subjunctive fect — — — — more or all less in use. -dbe(s). C. were reduced to -emu{s). etc. etc. —do. *amar' dben(t). 401): *amar' —dbeo. * amar" -dbe(s'). §118.): amdrem'^amdssem. to correspond to the dissyllabic or monosyllabic -dyo. in regions except Gaul and Raetia. On the model of this new future. &tc. -dyo. amd{ve)ro fused with the perThe old future perfect ama. a form in -ii {amerii). etc. sometimes confused with the pluperfect indicative and later sometimes with the infinitive {dpriro. from the *amar' -abut. -dnt: *amar' —dmu(s). The ings. —at. -dnt.172 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. . but and Macedonian. but * amar' abut. -ds. came to be made. *amar' -dbe(t).): see Spanish and Portuguese. in Vulgar Latin and Romance. as in the In these formations the unaccented {Ji)ab— first and second persons plural of the future: * amar' -^{b)a. —d. [§411 imperfect. an imperfect of the late future. was crowded out by the present and by new formations. —dbe{t). habemus and habetis eventually. which disappeared everywhere but in Sardinia {facheret.

Cf. Instead of the plural form. Beam. crede. fae. types —dsco and —osco were sparingly repre- sented and were not extended in late and popular Latin have bequeathed but few verbs con<Sisser<ico(g)ndseere types —esco and —tseo in the third century — — as — such as and . audite. to the Romance languages. amdte. There is some evidence of a confusion of -esco and —uco in Latin. etc. For the monosyllabic die. criseere. t—. Sardinia. irdisser <irdseere. paresco. audi. lost their inchoative sense..§414] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. I. person singular and plural: credite. §426. Savoy. e—. vived in the Tyrol. Lyons. 3596. tenete. The Latin The inchoative ending -sco was preceded by a-. etc. In Veglia. they Pr. French Switzerland. The first and third persons were supplied from the present subjunctive. in Vok. 294. etc. 3. hence crederdt). tene. and Spain Digitized — Sp. cf. 413.of avere : it is probably due to the analogy of the first person singular of the weak preterit (credit. second dmd. writers sometimes emploved diee. 414. dormisco — were extended The and later. 412. the Grisons. except the present. by Microsoft® . the Abruzzi. are common in Gregory the Great: Sepulcri 193. The imperative disappeared. 173 modern language. such as caleseo ealisco. Dauphin^. duce. In some verbs the present subjunctive was used instead of all imperative forms. while in Old Italian the ei was sometimes detached and used as a preterit. INCHOATIVE VERBS. the Landes. See § 115.face: R.. erubisco. Virgilius Grammaticus (Sepulcri 194) mentions double forms of inchoative verbs. or o—. pareeer. and a part of Lorraine Only -eseo surneither of these two endings left any trace. R. Clarisco. the second person plural of the present indicative came to be used: adferte> adferitis. 294. due.

eventually entered into the formation stem of fourth conjugation verbs. 478. / sentieniem > were introduced more less into the indicative and subjunctive: audio * audo. there are traces of -esco.. sentiam * sentam. * dormo. \\. and Rumania we find a type *finisco *finisce(s) ^Jinisce{i) *Jiniscun{t) The ~sc. finissons. 174 An Introduction was preferred For to Vulgar Latin. tricts also pene- eventually the present participle ( and in some disand the imperfect indicative Fr. The ending -tsco of the present in Spanish. 4. See Archiv Lat. but in the earliest texts of France. or southern Italian. Portuguese. By the analogy of these. etc. partientem * sentente. trated the present subjunctive {Yr. fiorire.then generally disappeared from the infinitive Later. etc. / 416. — Fr. despereissir. Many verbs in -io dropped the whenever it was fol- lowed by another vowel.Jinisse). In the present participle this was a regular phonetic development (see §225): audientem^* audente. by the by Microsoft® . 81. the -sc- was carried throughit out the present indicative (Yx. finis sais ) I. -esco also in Rumanian. partiunt *partunt. Herzog Bausteine 481. nor are there any traces of it 415. Zs. some regions. see E. -tsco prevailed fiorisce. the e was occasionally lost in the second conjugation: v^deo *vtdo. 291-294. finissez). Hence forms without the or > > *partente. in — It. Spr. Sardinian. finis sant. PRESENT STEMS. facientem *facente. northern and central _fimmii(s) finite{s) Italy. Elsewhere. il in Pr.. 465. There is no direct evidence of this in Latin. Rastia. XXIV. Digitized On the other hand. [§416 florecer. XXX. although fleurit.. Rom.

Esse was made into *essere. *trdcere. plango planxi planctus. 131. The Spanish use of probably later than our period. duco duxi ductus. habere. and Raetian ses point to a * ses beside es. There may have been also *striicere. cingo cinxi cinctus.. etc. beside the regular habent. vtdent. 412. posse. faciunt. based on the analogy of dico dixi dictus. etc. facere. 401. Italian sei siete is PL 128) went out of for estis. etc. trahere. Haag was derived from the ciple — struxi and perfect indicative traxi iractus. 403-406. rego rexi rectus. indicate a * setts some evidence of an alternative * siitis sicmus.. ungo unxi unctus. * vtdeunt. Considerable alterations use of fieri for esse is (I ) were made in the present indicative and subjunctive. The verbs struere. the second conjugation admitted such f oriris as * habeunt. Old Italian se for e.§419] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. to bring it into conformity with the usual third conjugation type. and the perfect partivexi vectus on the — analogy of ago tectus. 175 analogy of capiunt. also Jingo finxi fictus. 419. *vkere. old esum cited by Varro {Fr. esse. etc. stare. as *trago. underwent considerable changes in the present: see §§273. tego and probably junxi junctus. Prpvengal ses for Digitized by Microsoft® . pango panxi panctus. trdgere. The verbs vadere. dtcere. The guttural Fredegarius. vegere {tragere and used by 34) and a whole present and imperfect inflection with —g—. structus. lego lectus. For the sedere for The s. Pers. *tragebam. *fragam. velle dare.. tango tactus. 417. 397. present indicative shows some signs of a tendency its to normalize erratic inflection by making all the forms be- gin with The use. j'ungo Cf. 416. etc. 418. Jigo fixi. actus. see § 409. debere. Substrate VI. Italian while there of on the model and Raetian siede. vehere developed infinitive vegere are forms *striigere.

which existed with esum. Spr. Dalmatia. sem.): cf. which -was used. Pr. Pr. Mohl. —ebam. occurs in Italian documents of the eighth century. see 420. 5. B. was preferred in Spain. XXI. The present indicative inflection was doubtless something like this sqm fs est : — sqmu(s) *ses *set} *sest? i^ie(s) semu{s) *esmu{s) *sete(s) *sciie(s)! sqnt (2) In the present subjunctive the analogy of other third conjugation verbs tended to introduce the characteristic vowel a. Pirson Yt^o. PL 130. 347. —ibam. northern Gaul.). Pers. Siamus. 135. — sem *sea sis simu{s) sidmu(s) site{s) *jfa(j) sea(t) *sidie[s) set sent *sean{i) For Stat. Old It..176 es. . etc. and the Tyrol (Sp. PI. see sead in Vok. etc. Spr. fiam reand Dacia. Provengal esmes<. -icbam. and by various purists of the Augustan age (Stolz 58). the usual Classic form. and Dacia (Pr. too. iox fit. The endings were -dbam. § iiS.. N. 42. Old Fr. Portugal. *esmus seems to be a new formation on the analogy of esHs. which ultimately prevailed: Lexique ^x): fiet is common places sim in northern Italy alternative inflection * siam. sons. [§420 usually understood as reflexive forms. Rom. sumus. may go back to *sei and *sesf for est In the first person plural sumus became sumus and simus (see §220). simus. etc. — For the loss of the imperfect subjunctive. In the third conjugatiqjyg^-jyj^^ Ajgaj^g^ developed into -ebam. II. from early times there was a reciproand the Old Latin optative siem. semo. Pers. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. IMPERFECT. would derive it from old esimus. according to Suetonius. Italy. somas. Lat. 478. that cal influence oifiam. Hence comes an etc. etc. It is likely. according to Lat. (cf. by Augustus. 479. prevailed in southern Gaul.

§318). —Ibam as in munibam — in early Latin and recurring at later periods (Lindsay 491).'Bi. developed another form. prevailed in popular speech. a. the weak and the strong: the weak comprises the v. etc. the strong includes all Verbs of the first and fourth conjugations generally others. Dubois 277-278. Hence came an alternative ending —ea for -e/ia. • salui>salivi. pronounced a^e^a (cf. 6. to a reduction tendency to keep the stress on the characteristic Digitized by Microsoft® . vieo. regularly had a perfect in -evi: deleo. see §426. which stressed the characteristic vowel of the fourth conjugation. 445). which in Romance was widely extended. Spr. —oleo. — being common In the fourth conjugation -iebam and -ibam existed side byside from early times (Neue II. Habebam. -tvi). 479. 423. led early. credia. affecting all the conjugations but the It is ved^a. those of the second and third had mostly all of the second conjugation and Only six verbs strong. in the fourth conjugation. 421. -pleo. and also a general inclination to omit v between two i's (see § 324). -evi. must distinguish two types.§423] just as An Introduction -ientem> -entem (see §§ to Vulgar Latin.. For further encroachment of the weak type on thb strong. and fourth conjugation verbs with strong perfects developed a weak one in Vulgar Latin: pr(sstiti> probably All first j>rcBstavi. 2?>q.fleo. territory except common to nearly all the Romance Rumania: Lat. We — — neo. first: It. sentia. —Ibam. and —iebam disappeared: vestibat. A vowel. 287. silevit for siluit occurs also. 177 22t„ /^i6): faciebam'>-*facebam.perfects in which the v is added to a verb-stem (-dvi. had weak perfects. PERFECT. R. WEAK PERFECTS. *afiea. most of them rare 422. probably through dissimilation.

the further reduction of —ivt to which brought about. 476.. -u and *-u. 452-454." Priscian XII. contraction without the gave rise. petit. (Haag 55). Vok. 434 (cf. perit. Gregory of Tours (Bon. C. F^/J. Bon. perit. 479. and. petit. -/. for —imus. see Servius ad Aen. 424. to -aut. I. and. to a desire to distinguish the perfect from the present). II. —dstis. 476. etc. laborait.. 440. carried into the first conjugation. etc. as in lenUt. memoramus. The third person singular found in Old Sardinian: Lat.— 178 An Introduction and to Vulgar Latin. 449. etc. 17 (Keil II. edificai. 17 (Keil II. This -aut prevailed '^'^'^. etc. —drunt. —dverunt to Much later -dvt>-di. — probai {'Prdhns). mus. 216. 587). "fumdt -pro fumavit. II. ccelebrasperamus. fall of v gave rise. probably to *-aumus: triumphaut in Pompeii. etc. redit. gave —dsti.d.. dedicait. Bayard 60. 241: 65-121 a. 440). —dvif^dit and -at." Priscian XII. in the third person singular.'X. Densusianu I. rise early to a reduction of —avisti. -ivistis to —istis.L. Fredegarius (Haag 55). to fall of v. The loss of V. For -nt.judicat. the reduction of —ivimus to —Imus and probably *—immus (the lengthening of the m being due to compensation and also. denumerat. Neue III. as in repetimus. 451. in the third person singan alternative form. *-iut: It. vocitamus. Fredegarius in -ait is 152. -dvtmus>-dmus and probably *-dmmus: calcai (Probus).Lexique 46.I. see Neue III. 152. see Neue III. 446-448. The A contraction without the . locally. Then a contraction of the two vowels gave. S. Neue III. 587). in the first and third persons singular *—lrunt: audi. later. servio. "cupit pro cupivit. in the first person plural. o-cyvoi. and the third person plural. speclarait.). —iverunt to —ierunt. —tt. Spr. [§424 of —tvtsit to -tstt still early. for —ierunt. -dvistis. Densusianu I. —ivit to —iit and *-itt..m»'W^ol%tm^ and amdo. A ular. perhaps.

they apparently did Digitized by Microsoft® . *-det. -derun(f). in the first XXX. (am'ei). Some other second conjugation verbs apparentlyadopted this perfect: 426. Spr. descendidi.. descendidit. were : 425. : and the of the and fourth conjugations so caderunt. in Provengal they invaded the also In Dacia. tended to many other verbs in -d-: prandidi. incendederit. perdidt. 479. fore. etc. preserved in some Old French dialects near Douai: 607. which in Vulgar Latin became —dedi This -dedi ^a. *-ei.. on the other hand. 184. Keil IV. delesti. *-ejti. *—desie(s). -isti. the forms with v were not preserved in Romance. etc.§426] An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin.s ex(see §139): perdedit. this -dedi Through the analogy of -di. ascendiderat. R. from which there came a responding to the —ai first endings *-«'. etc. Compounds of dare had a perfect in -dtdi {credidt. Pr. 179 *~aumus Jiom. helped by dissimilabecame *-deJ.. respondidi. *-n. vendidl. *-desti. Reich. cor-ii. —asfi. these endings were carried into other verbs of the third and even the second conjugation first baMi. 287. In some (It. Verbs in —evl doubtless had a similar inflection: *delei. of the Romance languages cazif). etc. silevit. Lat.). edediderit with an extra -de-). Gl. etc. The forms — and fourth conjugations. odedere. tion. 288. pandiderunt.. Hence arose eventually an inflecset of tion *-^«. Audollent 544. R. prendiderunt. *-dem(^m)u{s). videderunt (cf. etc. ~ivi —isti there- -dvi —dsii -dve{t) —df *~ti —ii -i -dut -dit -dt -weif) *-jut *-{it -lit -it -dvimu(s) -dmu{s) *-dmmu(s) *~dumus -dste(s) -immu{s) -4mu(s) *-jmmu(s) -iste(s) -drunit) *-irun{t) With the exception of -ivi in Old Italian. 480.

b. by Microsoft® . those that add u to the root. dare had (beside diedi^dedi) a perfect arose an inflection side -dei -detti. and those that have nothing between the root and the personal endings plac-u-i. etc. whence and a set of endings -etti. etc it In the second and crevi. It. third conjugations maintained Digitized itself very well: cognovi. sapivi~^ sapui. plaudisti for plausisti. and -ei. etc. also vincisti. [§ 428 not develop at In Italy. II. Gl. this ending being pronounced wui. Gram. conqbbi. — — it was sounded wui. There are three types those that add s. crebbi.. The -ui type. etc. 427. according to Meyer-Liibke. STRONG PERFECTS. (cf. Through these endings the weak type encroached somewhat on the strong.. etc. In Italy all strong verbs except esse introduced weak endings in the second person singular and the first and second persons plural: It. etc. under the influence of dejti. stetti<. 357. included from the start not only perfects of the placui but also all perfects in -vi not made from the verb-stem such as cognovi. R. §422). etc. 286. presi. crevi. cf. moc. At any rate. movi. In the first class the u lost its syllabic value and became w • — : (cf. Reich. all. §326): placwi. but written vi to avoid the doubling of the V... pdvi. wwi. the development of the vi indicates that sort. bib-i. * stetui. where there was no extended.. . dlc-s-i = dixi. 428. etc. salui^ salivi salii *salsi. aperui y^ * aperii *apersi. or fiwi in Vulgar Latin: cf. In -ui and —si types were qucesivi'^^ A few weak verbs adopted strong inflections: * quasi. prendesti. -dei. necui> necavi. tions: This perfect disappeared from the first and fourth conjugacrepui>*crepavi. Pr.i8o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the Rumania.

molui. Spr. legi'>-* legui *lexi. *franxi. *copersi. *punxi. cinxi. — assumed the s. some thirty-five were preserved arsi.perfect through having an Cf. peperci^-parcui. finxi. pressi. R. *occlsi. 130. abscd{n)si. —stinxi. *rosi. i8i It lost gemui{^. 97. *fusi. Spr. Lat. traxi. expavi'> expabui. *offersi. persi. *attinxi. messui(J). * volsi. *salsi. tersi.'). *qucBsi. In Vulgar Latin there were perhaps some thirty or more new formations: *apersi. mulsi. sustuli>*tolui * tolsi. § perhaps on the model of mtssus. 288. Haag 56.§ 43o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. *pensi. natus sum'^*nacui. Keil VII. posui {>posi). texui. R. posi. XXVIII. ertgo. *pe{n)si. Spr. s in the perfect participle. however. rasi. strinxi. 479. 480. vixi. vixi ". excussi. Of the -si class. frixi. tinxi. which comprised perfects in -si. *imptnxi. *vinsi. 479. texui. > > Cf. cf. with the exception of dedi and steti (also *j/i?/«2). *mdrsi. *prensi. *tdlsi. veni '^aXso *venui. *ersi from *lexi. risi. divisi. On the other hand it received many additions: Mbi>*Mbui. *fusi. mlsi (also *mzssi. Lat. struxi. Some of these — * *responsi. Among the -i perfects. A. steti>^\so* stetui. sapivi'^ sapui. *respd{ti)si. Lat. — — : clausi. junxi. 94. —ssi. * defe(ji)si. * tensi *te{n)si. 430. and possibly a few others. unxi. became * sentii. movi'. *siirsi. vldi'^zlso *vtdui *vtdui. *acce{n)si. the reduplicative formations were discarded in Vulgar Latin. coxi. fixi. torsi. etc. *tanxi. planxi. Spr. mansi. Einf. text sedi>* sedui . sparsi. *sdlsi. scripsi 163). *taxi. dixi. *rdsi. Zs. rexi. duxi. and —xi. 288. cepi^ caput. * cadui *cadedi. tenui. whose reduplicative character was no longer Digitized by Microsoft® . luxi. * morsi. Zimmermann in Archiv XIII. *cursi. rosi. Sensi. defensi. *redempsi. pinxi. z/J« also *vtncui *vinsi. 429. cMdi 479 > (so *rectpui). pavi. * occisi.> slso *vtscui. *pre{n)si. § 165. silui {^silevi). Lat.

vidi * vtdui. fudi > ) si. fregi accendi *franxi. but in Classic Latin. veni * venui. egi. pupHgi "> *punxi. fefelli'>*falii. legi'^* legui. then futm us was often shortened to also. In an ( cf . volvi > * volsi. The prevailing something fui *fosti like this — with some variations. > *fusti. 431. vtci > no additions.*pe{^n)si. fuistis > *fustis. -i perfects were greatly reduced in to the -a/ or the -si type: number in Some simply disappeared. cepi'^capui. *te{n)si. Two of the old perfects maintained themselves intact. prendi > *pre{ n * vinsi. a form *fdrunt. some became weak. The other Vulgar Latin. fuerunt became *furunt. verti. fuisti zxi-di. 289). fuit *fut. bibi'^*bibui. [§ 431 of dare usually formed their perfect like §426. defendi >• * defe{ n ) si. or *cadedi. solvi'^* solsi. to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout §§423-424). momordi'> tetendi'>- *mdrsi. sedi"^* sedui. R. to Vulgar Latin. pependiy.). Reich. and two more were kept beside new formations feci. : There may have been through dissimilation. legi > * Kxi. fui. tetegi'^* taxi * tanxi. There were : *fugii. The other reduplicative perfects either disappeared the or passed into si class: cucurri "> * cHrsi . was probably foi *fom{m)u(s) *foste(s) foe(t) fue(t) *fgt *fut *forun{t) */urun(t) *f^un{t)} foerun{t)> Digitized by Microsoft® . but circumdavit in Gl. * acce(^ n ) si. effort it was shortened Vulgar Latin seems to show both H and H. In fui the u was originally long. peperci"^ parcui. apparent compounds (cf. some went over fUgi^ > > *fusi.i82 An Introduction . while compounds of stare tended to follow the regular first Cecidi beconjugation model (Jtrcestili > pnestavi. the simple verb came * cadui R. 288. generally became *fum(m)us. inflection.

— 433. *feritus. dixhsem.: It. Lat.. to *—dssimus. 434. delessem. delero. rogitus. 296. prdvttus. placutssem. When these tenses followed the old types: pldcueram (cf. domitus'> domatus. fecissem. vetitus Nevertheless there were some new formations in —ttus: *levitus. cf. — before Cyprien employed only the shortened forms ss. > Digitized by Microsoft® . dixero . cf. In some regions a tendency to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout the pluperfect subjunctive led to a change of —assemus. secextended to tus'^secatus. but Pr. R. sublatus (from tollo')'>-tdllttus (^Gl. sonivetatus. Verbs which had no perfect participle were obliged to form one in order to make their passive and their perfect tenses: ferio. 432. In the all first conjugation -dtus was preserved and was verbs: /rictus "> fricatus . 8. : In the third conjugation -dtus disappeared oblatus offertus (^Gl. audlsBayard 60-61 sem.). copertus. Sp. amdssimo amdste. Reich. pldcuero.). amessim amessitz. Reich. etc. plicitus"^ plicatus . 435. aimassions aimassiiz. audi{e)ram. alarei. Reich. so the new alatus. petisset. amdssem. Reich. audt(^e)ro . 1S3 PLUPERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT. sublatus>* suffertus. 480. preserved at all. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. tonitus'^*tonatus. generally fell into disuse: crepitus^ *crepatus.§ 435] ^^ 7. PERFECT PARTICIPLE. deleram. Fr. habldsemos habldseis. R. etc. ^ i^"]). > vocUus. necius "> necatus . tus"^* sonatus. Spr. fkero. The ending —ttus. *-dssitis. Gl. dixeram. notes that St. in the first conjugation. In formations from weak perfects only the contracted forms were used: amdram. ortaret in Gl. by the analogy of apertus. ficeram. amaro. -assetis. 295. etc.

*tenutus. The ending -itus tended to disappear (cf. jectives. the other hand. [§ 439 436. consutus. §435): absconditus'>absco{n)sus . volutus). In the third conjugation qumsttus>*gucestus. Digitized by Microsoft® . *per- in Sicily encroached largely on -itus. * habutus. molitus > * molutus. — and — as *credutus. minutus. old and found in Gl. Reich. *vidutus. belonging to verbs in —uere and tri- —vere {argutus. offered a convenient accented form. and ventus generally became * venutus. Apertus and copertus.. On 439. sensus'>*sentitus. submonitus > *submo{n)sus. fugitus tus > *fugitus. solitus. It was extended to nearly all the verbs that had an -ui perfect: * bibutus. rogitus. and there were some new formations * solvttus (or *soltus). corres- ponding to -atus and -itus. but status. 437. buius. paritus > *paru> *perdutus *persus. ples. secutus. sepultus^sepelitus. dutus.ovutus. * movitus. provitus. venditus>*vendutus. entirely displace the old perfect participle: natus was kept beside * nascHtus. pds{i)tus. *mdvitus and *mdssus were formed beside *m. all periods. however. * solvttus (or *sdltus) beside solutus. solutus. A few of these particihowever. *vdlvitus (or *vdllus). Eventually -atus was carried further. It did not al- ways. tollitus. etc. In the fourth conjugation -Itus was preserved and was extended to nearly all verbs: saltus'>*salltus. were kept. were kept only as ad- 438. In the second conjugation the rare -etus disappeared as a participial ending: completus. *volvitus (or *vdltus) beside volutus. perditus *parsus. vocitus. Pirson 152. creditus'>*credutus. The ending —ictus. etc. in -itus: gemitus'!. * levitus. statutus. * venutus. however. bibitus^* bibutus .184 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. *parutus.. *vendutus. remained.

fusus. tinctus. * suffertus. probably replaced -tus by -atus. *salsus. ductus. 94. Spr. *strinctus. pastus'>-*pavutus'i. gavisus>*gaudutus . 441. Bechtel 91. ma{n)sus. Spr. oc- casionally with a change of stem: ductus . §439). sirictus *tanctus'!. mdtus'>*movutus'> &. Hr- excussus. Lat. Lat. farsus. *mossus. wjwj. divisus. and perhaps *sdltus. stinctus. dictus. falsus *fallitus. pe{Ti)sus. tentus > > tus. 480. 185 440. R. fractus *franctus. sectusy^ * tenutus. *submo{n)sus.viA. also perhaps *misus by the analogy of mist.§ 441] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.>*farcitus axiAfarsus. fictus finctus. expansus sensus few verbs replaced the old form by one in -itus or -ietus: * expandutus . Keil VII. The ending —sus was defe{n')sus. pictus *pinctus. Several of these developed also a participle in -utus: etc. punctus. cretus> *crevutus'>. Spr. A > > > * sentttus . scriptus. cogndtus>*conovutus'i. Digitized by Microsoft® . Reich. The ending -tus was kept for some twenty verbs. *pendutus. pre(n)sus . there were some absco{n)sus. risus. *vdltus About fifteen verbs (cf. *persus. ventus'^*venutus and venttus. te{n)sus. frictus "^fricdtus. generally kept: acce{n')sus . 'salted. 480. fusus "^fundutus. 480. There were a few new for- mations in —tus: offertus. tersus. *vistus. texus * texiisecdtus. messus'^ metitus. Lat. mistus. -itus. rosus. structus. pressus. fixus. tactus'i tus. *vidutus. 295 (very common). sepultus >• sepelitus. sessus > * sedutus. Gl. /ric* surtus for surrectus.*mdssus. ex- factus. to{n)sus. Dubois 282. saltus'^-* salitus and *salsus. sus. lectus. Salsus. nectus>necdtus.' maintained itself beside salitus. *gucestus. tractus. tus. *parsus. or -utus: captus *capttus.. tortus. 295. new formations in -sus: On the other hand. rectus. also probably * wwclausus. missus. morsus. R. vtctus~>* vixutus. sparsus. victus'>*vin- cutus and *vinctus. fartus'.

great confusion ensued between -es and —is. 442. 445. historically considered. For the reduction of -to to 443. as t was of the third (cf. then the accent was shifted to the penult *canomus. and doubtless of weak after our period. As unaccented e. etc. etc. to stress this in ^smiVi: fecimiis>'Pr. see §416. — through the analogy perfects as well. The evidence. as -s did not fall in this region. Pr. from laudas. fez^m. by Microsoft® . and i came to be pronounced alike (§243). Meyer-Liibke. analogical formations. and -Isti. According to Mohl. Italian lodi and Rumanian lauzi. There are traces of 47. Pr. PL. e. does not support this view. Grundriss V. 53. first person plural lost perhaps in the Vulgar Latin period: videmus'>-'St. 670.. It may be that -s was dropped because it was regarded as a characteristic of the second person. Pers. perhaps S. its — tended. [§ 447 9. assumes that in Italy -as and -es became -i. — This theory has In strong perfects the of -tstis first person plural. In southern and to some extent in northern Gaul the its final s. This confusion is very frequent in the Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-89. forms due to Celtic influence. PL 73-80): — dmo dmaa dmat 446. 447. *amdmu amdtes dmant like * cdnomus. —et and -U. colliget.1 86 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. inscriptions and elsewhere: Digitized The shift. vezim. are correctly explained by Tiktin 565-566 as 444. PEESONAL ENDINGS. whence came the French -ons. -0. -imus. not found acceptance. Pers. were used in northern Gaul instead of canimus. This is not a phonetic phe- nomenon. however.

—die and -^mu(s). discarded. In the perfect. due to the analogy of -iunt. was perhaps viitttmus. vindem. and a part of southern Italy. in the For the reduction of —iunt to -unt. and dicimus. Beside second conjugation. respon- duntur. -/»z«(j'). the third person plural ending -ere was The ending -erunt. etc.j—th& penult assuming the accent. Sardinia. facimus. -dte(s). dicUis kept their old forms in many regions. in the sixth or seventh century.). Pr.). 30. for instance. 187 was not universal. 449. vindett. their interchange Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-90. accipient. Pers. The endings -ent and -unt came to be very is much confused frequent in the (* credent. —^te. see §416. etc. in Spain and Portugal. Rastia. ways /3 short: debuerunt. and Dacia. . -ttis. 448. etc. viderunt. Dalmatia. According to Mohl. however. In the present indicative and imperative.J^kuJ-i n^g^^xd^so^'^i^-i -^--^/^^ . *vidunt. PI. §416. became. Pers. there was an ending *-eunt which was (^habeunt. to match —^te(^s). kept the old accent (Tiktin 596): iingem. dixerunt. Furthermore. -unt was preferred. as there are in Italian and French remains of the original accentuation. -ite -dmu(s'). lingeti. The Classic distinction was best kept in Gaul and northern Italy. in Classic Latin. exient.). 64.§ 45°] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in southeastern facitis There are some traces of its preservation French dialects also. being attracted by mittimus: Pr. -ent prevailed in cen. — — particularly common in Italy: cf. PI. Rumanian. the con- fusion goes back to early Italic. etc. ite in the other conjugations. —ite generally —Ste(^s). §137. in Vulgar Latin this vowel was apparently al450. 112. helped by the analogy of the future — The shift and -{mu{s). -ent. Cf. ite(s). Virgil wrote tulerunt. sometimes had a short e (e is common in the comic poets. etc. absolvent. -imus. tral and the rest of southern Italy.

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absolute 97 abl. 82 ace. 84 acua aqua 223 -aculare 35 before s + cons. 96.28 absconsus 439. 140 iicatum r4i aculionis 367 abeo = habeo 251 224 abias 224 abiat 224 abiete -abilis 39 ab intus 47 abitat 25 1 Ablative 92-7. 194-5 absida 356 (3) absolvent 449 -anus 39 ja-> je. 93. 240. 228. 229 (i). words in modern languages. a 194-5. ad = at 282 ad. italics to Words printed in Roman type belong to ancient. 229 231.— Arabic numerals refer to Paragraphs. abyssus 149 ac.infin. 47. 441 ad 14. 92 beJEore j 222 Accent 134-58 primary 135-52 Greek words 143-50 other foreign words 15 1-2 acer arbor 43 -aceus 37 acia 355 (2) -acius ^y a contra 47 a(c)qua 164 Acqui Z^ Acragas 330 ac si 83 ac sic 24. in -us 244.) 412 unstressed words 156-8 adgenuculari 25 Accented Vowels see ad horam 47 Vowels adimplere 30 accepere 201 Adjectives acceptabilis 39 comparison 56. 77. 25 recomposition 139 verbs 423-4. 98-9. 383 adnao 397 ace. 230 = 0*78 ab-25 ab-]> au. adjutare 34 ad mane 47 373. N.229 (i) unaccented 228. 94-6. 450 Towels in hiatus addedi 139 136-8 addormire 25 secondary 153-5 adferitis (imper. 355(1) adparescere 34 adpetere 32 Digitized by Microsoft® . 383 abl. 90. 377 accipient 449 declension 374-9 accubitorium ^'j numerals 378-82 -accus ^y unus (article) 57 Accusative.1 INDEX. 82. 243. 94-6 aboculare 26 ab olim 47 abs. = abl. 86. 94-6 nouns 367 numerals 142 : ace. 240.24.236 ab ante 47. 65 accedere(m) 309 accensus 441 -a 37 0181 ab 14. 231. 431. 244 (i).23. 48 abbellire 18. pi.B. 244 accented 39. -I. 243. 78. adaptus 23 adcap(i)tare 25 433> 447-8.=accus. 34 abbio 273 abbreviare 25 abbreviatio yj shift 136-8.

210 EEteneris = itineris 201 sequus alid alicunus 71 aliud 71 alio(r)sum 291 = . 83 -an 36 -aj* a f oris 47 agennae -nd.243. 232. 187 -ancus 37 (-incus) -anda 37 andare 405 andata 37 (-ta) Andreani 359 (i) Andreate 359 (2) andron 331 anellus 37. 255 188 seliens = eligens 259 =8-175 alicer 195 (i) agques = e.I go aiio 2. 209-10 unaccented 174. 244 aecclesia 228 Eedis 366 ffigis -ale y] alecer 195 (i) Alesander 255 alevanti eleph.) 367 amho 424 amaricare 34 ama(t) 285 ambitare 405 ambolare 232 ambulare 10. 359. 244 -EE = -e 174. 1 78.321 = Alexander alguein 71 alguien 71 -alia 37 38. 209-10. 42 Digitized by Microsoft® .286 amantis (nom.281 = aliquot 71 -alis agere ajere 259 aggio 273 aggravatio 37 = 39 alium 224 alius 71 allare 405.) 372 adpretiare 25 adpropiare 25 ad semel 47 —aio 39 (-arius) aios =: BjyiQS 272 am 78 ad sero 47 adsteti 139 Aix ajutit = adjutet 272 ad subito 47 adtonitus 32 ad tunc 47 -al37 alacer 195 (i) alare 405. 14. 71 amnavit 405 amh 424 a mode 47 amourette yj (-ittus) ampitzatru 277 ampora 334 amurca 186 amure 203 amygdalum 19 an II. alumnu (nom. Adverbs 73-5 as 174.) 40 aiglon yj (-0) altra 233 altrui Aiiax 222 395 ancora 150.£6 2> e 209 at 188 altissimus 377 altitia 37 Aiax 188. = -t. 435 allegorizare ig alleviare 34 Agneti 359 (2) agnetus -na.Ethiopia 188 alipes (i) = ad. 233.194 = -ago 2>7 Agragas 330 Agrientum 259 agurium 228 agustas 228 36 anangi 331 anathema 19 anathematizare 19 anc 40 anc hanc 251 = allium 274 a longe 47 alques 71 alter 71.22 Index. albor = arbor 292 . 178. 435 ad ubi 47 aduc 250 adulescentulus 37 adunare 25 alauda 19 alaudula yj alba spina 43 alberca 19 albeus 317 228. 244 accented 1 74. 178. 405 amei 424 amenus 215 amfora 334 amicicia 276 amadus amido 187 amistat 154 amita 239.175. 222 alto (adv. altiare 34 altior yj'] anca 343 ancilia 187 395 Agustus 228 ahenum 250 ai >. 359 (i) amitane 359 (i) amitanis 359 amma 16 243.281 (i) Eeum = cBvum 324 ^a foras 47 aliquant! 71 aliqui 71 aliquis 13.

440 au 178. 236 (7) apersi 428. 36. 265. 315 Asti 86 astula 284 at II = ar(i)dorem 219 ar(i)dus 237 aries 225. 42 Aorist 124 armeise 184 armentas 352 -aro 39 (-arlus) Aroncianos 276 arrespex r= haruspex 251 Arrius 251 arroser 356 (3) arsi Attane 359 atticissare (i) t^^ attinxi 429 Attitta 37 (-ittus) -attus yj at ubi 48 apcha 343 aperii 428 429 -atus 37 (-ta).) 346 (4) arb(o)rem 235 arboricellus 153 Aspirates 249-52. 325 aucidere 212 -OS 38 -as -i 443 > audace (nom. 267.24.) -assem 161 -^ssemus 433 33. 282 aput 282 164. 264. 269. anemis 232 -aneus 39. 229 accented 178. 255. 39. 78. 429 apertus 436 arsus 441 artemisia 184 arietico 184 apotheca 182 apothecarius 39 apparescere 35 arthriticus 184 Article 57. 228. 310. 260-1 Assimilation 229 (3). 68.Index. 293. 34. 359 (i) anus = annos 244 -anus 39. 223 284 aquilotto 37 (-ottus) asculta 228 Angers 86 angliscus 39 angostia 208 (i) anguil(l)a 163 ang(u)Ius 233 angustiare 34 Anicius 276 -ar37 Arbonenca yj (-incus) a semel 47 aspargo 31 aspectare 25 arbor (masc. 307.) 367 -antia . 255 Digitized by Microsoft® .) 367 audi audivi 227.^y anticus 226 antiefne 184 antiphona 184 ariex = -s 255 -aris 39 -aris -alis 292 ^ -arius 39 atque ille 24 atque ipse 65 atque is 65 atrium 12 atta 16. 42 angelice 40 angelus 19 191 ascendiderat 426 ascetes 182 ascla apud aqua 14. 255 -ans39 anser 13 ad 282 -ata 37 (-ta) -aticum yj atque. 265 aspra 233 -asse 161 ardente(m) 309 ardere 399 animabus 358 animalico yj (-icca) Anitius 276 Annanis 359 annare 405 annata yj (-ta) Annenis 359 annitare 405 annotavimus -bi. 65 at = anta 239 ante 96 antemittere 46 antestetis (nom. 42 participle 435. 211 -3 unaccented 228. 229 au o 229 (7) OK 189 auca 13. 282. 392 artic(u)lus 234 > (7) appo 78 apprendere 12 arvorsum (2) = adversum 281 ApHro 410 apsens 315 apsolvere 315 apte =: -se 244 arvum > aram 2z6 aucellus 13. 211-3. -dssetis 433 397-8 -are (nouns) y] ares = aries 225 aretem 225 argentum 259 -aria 37 -aricius 39 arida (noun) 13 Assibilation 277-8. 423 audiendu'st 309 = ascella =r axilla 42.318 annulare 405 anos = annos 247 ardire 343 -are (infin.

212 39 bimaritus 22 bintcente vincente 260 bis. .316 bal(i)neum 146.3171323 bestemmia 182 Betrubius 316 beveire y^ (-tor) bi.316 Bodicca 37 (-icca) boletus 38. 333 balneum 146: balneus 347 = bifolco biginti ti 318 (2) = vi. 219 balneus 347 ballaena 150. 42. 324 Aureia -elia 274 Index. 339 baptizatio 19 barba -anis 359.192 aud(i)entem 416 aud(i)o 272-3. 33.) 367 brae (c) a 163 bracchiale 37 = brac(c)hium 163 brachia 352 Digitized by Microsoft® .316. 226 Bayeux 151 bel(I)ua 164 blasphemus 150 blasta 312 (i) blitum 184 bob ansa 336 bobis vo.22 Bononia 303 bonu 298 bonus = -OS 244 bonus bonus 55 bos =:i vos 316. 324 botella 361 bottega 182 b see Labials : baboni 362 bac(c)a 163 bacito yj (-ittus) bac(u)lus 234 Baiocasses 151 bajulus 233 Baleria = Va. 322 -bilis = balteum -us 347 bannus 19 baplo 235 baptidiare 339 baptisma 149 Aureliati 359 (2) aurora 11 aus avus 241. 184 Bologna 303 bonatus 37 (-atus) Bonica 37 (-icca) bon(i)tatem 231 bonito y] (-ittus) = avire 400 -avit -ait -at -aut 241. . 416 audivi(t) 2S5 audus 236 -aumus := -avimus 424 aunc(u)lus 234. 359(1) barbane 359(1) barbar 242 barbo -onis 359(1) barbutus 42 baro 16 bassiare 275 = vixit 255 = vi.316 bixit = vi. 74 bene bene 55 benegnus 172 (2) bene placitum 43 Beneria Ve. 36 blasphemia 146. ^ benignis 376 benivolus 201 berbeces 323 Bonitta 37 (-ittus) 424 avo avus 362 avus 13 ayo = habeo 273 = berbex (-ix) 42. 182 autumnal (e) 242 auyo 272-3 avau.22 bisaccium 22 bisacutus 22 bisante 187 = = bis Austus 263 aut 174 aut aut 84 -aut -avit 424 . Balerius Va. 236 avicella 37. 14 5 Authorities autor 266 baptizare 19.316 bianca 341 biber 242 biblia 146 bibui 428 bibutus 438.316 boccone 37 (-0) bocconi 40 avec 78 avello = -avi ^ = averlo 293 -ai 424 avica 13. 34 ausculum := osc. 236. 439 Bictor 316 biduanus 39 bieta 184 botu vo. 162. 241 avaricia 276 ^ bas(s)ium 163 basso 40 battaUa 16 battel 426 ba(t)t(u)ere 137.236. 325 av(i)dere 219 avidus 236 aviolus 13 avis 13 avis struthius 43 Bellus -onis 362 bene 40. = autem 11. 324 ausare 18.316. 322 botula 361 bovis (nom.3165 322 bis(s)it coctum 43 bivere blaesus 329 blanche 341 blanka 341 blankizare 34 blaspheraare ig.

) 367 camutus 39.354.) 367 cammarus 330 canalia yj cani (pi. 383 cf. 33 cat' cantare 34 unus 71 see Gutturals c for capabilis 39 g 253 cy 276. 163 Cassiabus358 cas(s)us 161 castaneus 346 (i) castellus camera 145 camerlingo 37 (-ing) caminus 150 camisla 201 (i) (3) 347 butyrum 150 buxida 187. 347 calumpnia 307 calura 42 camel(l)us 42. 42 caroneus 39 carrica 11 car(ri)care 18. 163 .) 367 cardu(u)s 226 ce(n)sor 311 census 260 centu 381 ceperint 215 cepi 215 = -avi 424 •^•j = ga.) 424 cedrus 182 cefalo 334 celeps 315 capriolus 224 captiare 34 cslus 347 Cjeseris 233 caesorium 37 caetk 313 captio 9 captivare 34 captivus 313 celerus 376 -cellus 37 Celtic Words 19 capud 282 capui 428 calamarium 37 calamellus 37 calamus 150 calatus calcai capum 285. 402 -C40 caballus 12 capiclus 234. 195 (3) calcaneum carissimus 377 caritabilis calce pistare 46 calciare 224 39 Caritta 37 (-ittus) Digitized by Microsoft® . 231. 285.) 367 224 calcoste(g)is 259 caldo 40 cal(e)facere 219 calefacis 139 calere 288 bruchus 193 pu. 33. 150. 369 caput 13. 234 capitus 440 = cedo 162 cadedi 428 cadere 402 caderunt 426 cadui 428 cselebramus (perf . 372. 237 calisco 414 calma 268 calotfa 187 caseum -us 347 Cases85-ioo. 71 cata unus 71 cataveris rr -d. 163 buUicare 35 buplicae = carum 263 casa 12 cal(i)dusi55. 219. cf . branca i6 calcis 193 camis (nom. 195 (3) cerbus 323 cerebellum 231 cereolus 13 cereseus 195 (3) ceresus 38. 356 (3). 369 capus 285. 282. 369 cardonis (nom. 284 capire 406 cap(i)talis 231 cauculus 288 cauditus 42 caus(s)a 161 cavia 224 -ce 40 cecino 187. 356 (3). 356 (3).330 (-ium) cerasus 38.) 357 (i) Breaking 177 breviarium 37 brevis 13 Brittanice 40 calcius (nom. 330 cedat caedat 210 cabia =: cavea 318 cactivus 313 cactos 313 capitanus 39 capitium 37 (-ium) capitulus 42. 356 buxus 187.256 catechizare 19.) 368 cata 19.312 (i) bublus 235 bubukus 318 (2) buc(c)a 12. 330 Byzacinus 42 c : castius 277 castore (nom.Indkx. pi. Buolognino 154 burrus 330 Burrus 187 bursa 187 buscus 255 iusta 187 but(t)is 163 cals 255 casotta 37 (-ottus) cas(s)eus 163 . 278 capere 8. 239 cartas (nom.

197.23. of. -ara 38. 297\ 318(1). 31. 233 complacere 25 complire 400 cinus 347. 150. 186. 311 condam 254 condedit 139 conder(e) 242 condicio 276 conditio 276 civ(i)tas 12. 379 cocodrilus 294 cinsum = ce- 196 cocus 226 coda 212. 272. 153. 276 comitem 235 cima 38. 160 coUus -um 347 239 colober 208 Clio 190 colobra 208 (2). 25 concha 186 concupiscencia 276 cohors 12. 276. 379. 325 colhe 154 coles 213 i6z -ceus 39 Chairibertus 39 (-anus) chaloir 288 Change of Meaning 8-10 coliandrum 292 coUecta 37 (-ta) collectus yj (-ta) colli(g)ens 259 col(li)gere 31. 259. 330. 271 colaphizare 19 col(a)p(h)us 19.1 194 certitude cetto 'r^j Index. 213 codex 213 coemiterium 192 coepi 72. 233 cito 162 citrus cognatus 9. 329 191 ciurma -cius 39 of.444 Pronunciation coUiget 444 col(lo)care 9. 154.) 40 chiave 288 Chilperico 343 ckiosa 185 clergue 154 305. 269 co(g)nosco 43.) 367 clarisco 414 Cla(u)dius 211 (i) cojugi 311. 310 cognovi 428 cognusco 197 cohaerere 310 computus 235 comuna 376 con. 64 comprendit 250 computare 31 circare 16 circueo 309 circumdavit 430 cis 14 cit(h)era. 277. X54. claudo 236. 124 coexcitare 30 comedo = quo. 187 cimiterium 192 cinctius coclearium 356 (3) coclia commando 31 comment 41 commixtius 23 224 254 cinctus 440 cinqua(gi)nta 254. 239 collo Clerical 218. 332 cib Clodius 212 cloppus 16 closa 212 Cludo 211 (2) -clus 234 CO quod 282 colomna 208 coloquinta 187 color (fern. 139. 130. 332 Chrestus 184 chrisma 184 C(h)ristus 184. 260^. 380 cinque 254.411 Digitized by Microsoft® . 231. 259*. 325 clausi 429 clausus 441 clavem 288 clavido 236.226 comoedia 192 comparare 8.) 346 (2) colp 154 colustra 197 = coacla 289 (i) 206 cicinus 330 -cillus ]> -cellus 42 coactum 310 coccodrillo 294 cocens 226 comenzare 276 coininciare 276 cominiciare 276 cominitiare 25. 231 clamantis (nom. 310 coicere 310 coiiugi 271 cojectis 311 . coexercitatus 30 cofecisse 311 96 Compound Words 43-9. 231. Clepatra 191 clerc 154 Change of Suffix 42 chan(n)e 163 chartaceus 39 cher 263 chiaro (adv. 237. 12. 370 cinxi 429 cip(p)us 163 circa 80. 269. 217 Chiusi 86 cholera 145 chommoda 25 c(h)orda 186. 233 Comparison 56 comperare 231. 333(1) clericatus 37 cler(i)cus 39. 332 Conditional 124.

co(n)jux 171. 311 Weak 422-6 conteneo 139 Perfect Participle 434. 254 41 Personal Endings 44250 Pluperfect and Future Perfect 432-3 Present Stems 416-9 Use of Forms 101-30 Conjunctions 82-4 co(n)jus 25. 137 Perfect 422-31 consuetudo 42 Strong 427-31 co(n)sul 171.26 contrafacere 26 co(n)ventio 171 convltare 25 coperire 225 copersi 429 Gutturals 253-70 Labials 312-26 Latin 246-8 Letters 246 Liquids 2S7-96 Hasals 303-11 Palatals 271-8 Sibilants 297-302 cortera 203. 255. 355 cor(o)nare 231 corp 323 corpora 369 corpes corpi -ora 369 coi"pore 356 (3) corpo credere 410 credutus 438. 139 credens (noun) 13.) 298 cornicula 42 cornu -um-us 347.continari 226 contra 96 contra. 275 227 consilium 42 consili corbeau 323 corbi 323 corbo 323 corcodilus 294 corcodrillus 294 cores = corda 369 corium 294 Comeius =-elius 274 Cornelio (nom. 37 crebbi 428 credea 421 crededi 31. 160 Fourth 407 Fundamental Changes • 408-12 Imperfect 420-1 constare 31 Inchoative Verbs 413-5 consuere 31. 396450 Four Conjugations 396407 First 397-8 Second 399-401 Third 402-6 Double: see Double Consonants Germanic : see Germanic Consonants Greek : see Greek Consonants 272 corrigo 305 corrotulare 229 cors 12. 311 conmittere 32 couleuvre 208 (2) court 203 couvent 311 covenimus 311 coventionid 3x1 covetum coxale coxi 429 = cubitum 208 -^j^j copertus 436 cophinus 186 coque 254 coraticimi 18. 225 cortensis 39 cortilis cortis 39 250 corvo 323 corvus 323 cosol 311 costumen 42 cosul 305 cot 254 cotes 212 cotidiae 244 cot(t)idie 162. 39 credentia 37 (-antia) " connato 269 conobbi 428 conoisser 413 conopeum 146 conovutus 440 conpendium 32 conplere 306 consacrati 31 conservam(m)us 163 consiensia 260.1 Index. confessor 18 confortare 25. 3ro corso 208 Groups 131-2. 244. 226. 439 crepatus 435 crepavi 428 Crescentsiarius 277 cresco 255 cresima 184 cresme 184 crevi (i) 428 292 crevutus 440 criblare crigTie 35 c'ritare 229 consirier yj (-erium) Consonants Aspirate 249-52 Dentals 280-6 = criz 206 = crocitare 35 Digitized by Microsoft® . 34 19s corpo r6o corregia 201 corridije conger 329 Congianus 272 congigi 259 Conjugation 101-30.

25 debbio 273 debeo 273 debere 10. cumba 187 cun = cum 305 cunnuscit 269 cimtellum =r cul. 239 decanus 39 dece(m) 309 decern et (or ac) septem 379 dece(m)bris 306 decemter 306 dec(i)mus 239 Declension 85-100. 281-3 dy 272 nd nn 281 Final 282. 100. 126 (4) debita 37 deb(i)tum 235. 346 (4) cucullus -a 346 (4) defensus 441 deferet 406 Dative 90-1. 48 deltas 27 del(i)catus 227 delitus 198 delta 329 de magis 47 de medio 47 deminat 139 Dentals d 272. 82 curabit cursi de-^ di. 355-6. 48.23. 306 -cellus 42 95 -c(u)lus 42. 95. 294 Index. da 48 dedi 430 (i) 229 crucifigere 46 c'rot'lare dacruma 281 dactylus 19 dedicait 424 ded(i)cavit 231 crudilitas 197 -crum 37 (-culum) crupta 187 crus 13 dad 48 Dafne 334 dai 2<)% dampnum 307 crust(u)lum 234 crypta 187 cubidus cupidus 256 Danuvlum 318 dao397 dare 397 datfus 324 dedro dedrot 285 deexacerbare 30 deexcitare 30 defeniciones 276 defensa 37 (-ta) defensi 429 defensorlus 39 = cuculla 13.289 (2) cuoio 296 cuofre 160 cuore 160. de. 372-3 de^£-io 273 defna 324 de inter 48 de intro 47 de intus 47. 376 First 357-60 cy 276-8 cy ty277 = cycnus 187. 72. 48. 92. 285 > -avit 318.229 (2) deabus 358 de ad 48 de ante 48 deaurare 23. cf. 392 de foris 47.o. 354-76 Adjectives 374-6 Fall of Decl. 383 cuerdo 369 culcitra 294 dau 397 daun 397 234 dave 48 de 14. 409 d : see Dentals dy 272 de post 48 deprendere 250 de retro 47. (fem.) 14.) 82.) 349 cymba 187 cymiterium 192 cypressus 150 Second 361-3 Third 364-71 Use of Cases 85-100 376 de contra 47 decumus 220 dede = dedit 285 de deorsum 47 Digitized declLvis Deponent Verbs 113. 286 nd > nn 281 429 cursorium 37 curvus 323 nt 285 St 285 t 284-6 denumer^t 424 deo(r)sum 291. 330 cyma38. Definite Article 68. 177 cnpa(t) 285 cupire 406 cupit 423 cup(p)a 163 cupressus 150 cur 12. 292 Derivation 20-49 descendidi 426 de semel 47 despereifser 414 by Microsoft® . 78. 117. 322 currens 39 = Intervocalic 283. 81 defuntus 267. -culum -cuius > 37. 187. 226 cum (prep. 234 cum (conj. 25 305 77. 88. 324 deorsum 224 Cusanca 37 (-^ncus) Wouns 354-73 Shift of Decl.196 crocodilus i.

desso 62 dester 255 desto 225 197 donee 11 dont 70 donum (masc. 440 dicere divisus 441 divite (nom. 30 . Digitized by Microsoft® . 247. 393 duo 378 duos 138 durare 229 (5) Duration 99 duricia 276 Durocasses 151 duxi 429 (masc.3 Index. 253. 333 dolor (fem. 328 289 (i) Dissimilation 167. 259 dignus 172 (2) dilevit domatus 435 domin(i)ca 239 dominicus 9. accented 165. 397 dia 397 diabulus 38 diaconissa 19 Dialects 2. 43> distinguere 223. 289 (2). 238. 426. and fem. 259 -didi ducatus 37 (-ta) duce due 412 ductus 440 dui 167. 406. 226 dita 351 diu II. dibeto 196 Dibona 318 die 264. 254. 412 dice = die 412 dice(m) 309 disfactus 23 dis(je)junare 25. 361 digitus 233. 21 dolus dictus := digitus 233. 393 deus 167 devere 318 devetis 318 au 21 1-3 eu 214 oe 215 ui 216 diposisio 277 dire 406 directus 229 diri(g)ens 259 dirivare 229 (2) dou 397 Double Consonants 161-4.) 346 (2) dolor 18. 328 Single >Double 164.) 367 dub(i)tare 231 ducalis 39 divota 229 (2) dixemus 232 dbd429 dodecim 225 doga 186. 303. 209-16 209-10 de sub 48 de super 48 de sursum 47 detti 426 de unde 70. 167. 355 (2) dietro 292 digita35i. 421. 196-9. 229 displacet 139 displicina Doable >Single i6i. 195 (6).) 346(1). 292. 238. 196-9 (I) . 239 domnani 359 (i) domnicellus 37 domnicus 235 229 (2) diligibilis 39 domnina 37 domnizare 33 domnulus 235 dint-mi 264 divinus 324 dinus = Dionigi 227 Dionysii 227 diosum = deorsum 291 Diphthongization 177 domnus 235 domus 12 355 dume(c)ta 266 dune 40 d'unde 70. dextro(r)sus 291 deyo 273 dia = dies355 (2). 229 (4). 177.253 dictus 166.) e 165. 37 dies 13. 378 dukissa yj dulcior (noun) 18 — > -dei 426 = dulcor 18. (2ddecl.) 349 dormio 224 dormito 309 dormitorium 37 dormo 416 dorsus 347 dossum 291 Diphthongs 36 177. 13 Double Forms 158 Double Negation 75 Double Prefixes 30 doucet 37 (-ittus) doussa 376 drachma 144 drappus 16 d'rectus 229 diurnus 13 divisi Dreux 151 429 drieto 292 406 dicimus 448 dicitis 448 dicitus = -g.23. etc. 25 discere 12 disfacit 139 Double 247 = Single 162-3. devitum 318 dexcito 225 cf . 328 devidere 229 (4) devinus 229 (4) dis.

162. -unt 449 es(i)mus 419 (i) -isimus 197 -esimus esmes 419 (l) eccos 24 eccu. 298 elementum 231 elephantus 38 elex -ebam : see -ea 429 eiii 411 ecca 24 = ilex 200 (2) erubisco 414 elifanti (pi. > e > y 224 e i 229 s (2) edere 13 edificai e prefixed to + cons. 263. 244. 255 es-7. 65 ecce ego 65 ecce hie 24. eccum 24. 35.24. 242 -elius >• -ilius 197 -ellus 37.) 368 -Irunt 450 eccam 24 eccas 24 ecce.538 Esaram 233 -escere 34. 6. 232. 62. 328 Endings Personal 442-50 -esco ]> -isco 197 414 enim 11 escupare 255 -ens 39 (-ans) -e(n)simus 311 -e(n)sis39. 429 -erium 37 erminomata 191 ero 411 -ero 39 (-arius) ersi ericius = jacet 224 earn = jam 224 eacit ejus 170.exs. 182. 197. no eoru 309 episcopalis 39 epistula 144 > 196-8 e unacc.) 450 -ere -ire 197 erodes 251 > effigia 355 (2) eu 214 effondrer 356 (2) i6 >• e 225 unaccented 219. 65 eccu' 'ic 326 eccu' ille 24. > = = 444 = ex. 73. > 65 > eccu' iste 24.24. 364 -V3S -ea 421 -etv 36 ejus 298 eio = -etbv 146 42 erigere 31. 65 ecce iste 24. s 177.) 356 (2) -i 443 -es -es -is 174.228. 424 230 e6 > e 225 -edo . 311 -ent -eunt 416. 385 eo quod 82. 65 ecce ille 24. 385 ego-met-ipse 66 et -erem 346 (3) eremus 150 eres 251 190 e-28 -640 -e>-ffi I74>244 -e -ei 411 -eta 146 eiius 271 erga 14 ergo II. 229 effrenis 376 eglesia 256 (2).> -ido 197 edus haedus 210 e6 >. 65. 42 elmo 343 illud 201 elud -elus >• -ellus 42 ervum > erum 226 ervus (3d decl. 199 n 182 eccu' sic 24 e contra -entia 37 (-antia) -inns 42 -enus > 47 C183 ecus 226 edediderit 426 i eo=:ego 73. 449 -ent >. 14 > -i 244. 326 espiar 343 "pier 343 Digitized by Microsoft® . 243.198 e 196-8 Index. 365-6. 65 ecce nunc 65 ecce tu 65 eccillam 24 eccillud elimentum 231 -elis >• -ills 197 Elision 157.e 225 = equus 12 equus = sequus 210 -re 245 -er -er 39 (-arius) erable 43 -ere (perf .230. 244 egloge 330 e e 165 > > e > e 165 V 182' ei83 e(g)o 60. 413-4 eschernir 341 emere 12 encaustum 149 Enclitics 156 -enda 37 (-anda) : 24 eschine 341 esclate 343 eccillum 24 ecclstam 24 ec(c)lesia 146.

404 faccia 278 fatus 347 taula 236.230 exstinctus 440 exstinxi 429 exsucidus 39 exsucus 23 extensa 37 extimare 255 extra. 25 ex. 274 facimus 448 404 facitis 448 factum 266 facire Feminine femps 356 femus (3d : see Gender (2) decl. .) 356 (2) fenire 229 (4) factus 440 fenum 209 ferbeo 323 feritus 242 fascit 209 faedus 320 (i) fcemina 209 f acul 434 ferre 12 ferro 160 Digitized by Microsoft® . 419 (i) esse essere 419 esse sedere 402 274 exe(m)plu 306 exiat 224 exient 449 347 fageus 39 failla exinde 60 exire 31. 126 (2). et 84 Ethiopia 188 etiam 11. 277 etsi I \ et sic 47 exodus 337 expabui 42S expandutus 441 expaventare 35 explendido 230 exquartiaxe 276 exs. 420 face feced feci = fecit 282 fec(e)ru(nt) 233 430 fehu 343 felicla 234 felis25. 318 febrarius 226 Eurus 191 -eus39 Euua 344 evangelizare 19 -evi -ei 424 > Evidence 5 ex 14. (i) = -it 244. 255 -ex -ix 42 = fac 412 facentem 416 facere 10. 404 facheret 410 faciam 278 fadas 224 fac(i)ebam 225.= es.= as. 266 = = fait 324 266 fallii -esse 161 -essem 161 essere = esse 419 es(t) 285 estatio 230 estau 397 estaun 397 Estephanus 230 estou 397 estribar 341 esum 419 -et et et at ubi .) 367 excoriare 25 excussi 429 excussus 441 exeligere 30.23. 92.27 extrabuccare 27 extranus 42 ex tunc 47 ezza 277 f : fallire 430 406 441 34 37 familia 42 famis 366 famTfii 264 famul 242 famulabus 358 fante 311 falsare falsitas fallitus faor 324 farcitus 440 fare 404 farsus 440. 275 faselus 334 fasena 320 (i) f asia = faciat 285 224 fasiolus -etus 437 see Labials (i) fata 266 eu 214 cu 190 fa 264.Index. facienda 37 fem(i)na 239 feminabus 358 > exaltare 25 exaugiu^tus 39 excellente (nom. 444 49 . 404 fatatus 39 fate fabam 320 404 Eugeneti 359 (2) -eum 37 eunuchizare 19 fab(u)la 236 f ac 264. 14. 440 fascia 10. 95 ex. espiritum 230 exeligit 199 fffinum 209 fffinus esquena 341 esguiver 343 essagium 255 esse 112-4. 77.230.

fiero 160 fiet focus fodiri 8. 233. 231 fons (fem.)346(i) fraumenta 268 frecare 201 . 361 fructus (2d decl.) 356 fundutus 441 funtes 205 (2) fortia 37 fortis 10 fortis fortis 55 429 fixus 441 fossato 2^1 (-ta) funus II fuore 160 Digitized by Microsoft® . see frondifer 11 fnialitas Germanic Words Greek Words foresia 311 foris 81 and finiscere 35 finxi 429 fructa35i. and fern.) 355 (i) fnindes 205 /^343 fiorentino 154 fioretto yj (-ittus) fiorisce \\^ foris- 29 frunza 351 frutta 351 fugii 430 f ugire 406 fugitus 439 fui 431 forisfacere 29 f orismittere 29 fircum 320 (i) Firenze 86 Firmus -onis 362 fir- 46 formaceus 39 formosus 161 formunsus 208 forsitan 305 forte 40 f ortescere ful(i)ca237 fiscla 234 fistula 234 fistus 197 fix! 34 fumAt 424 fundus (3d decl. filix 298 274 = filios T97 fiUio 247 fonte 205 244 fonz 356 (2) foras 81. 96 forbatre 2.f:^ forbire 407 frigorem 347 frixl Fimes 86 Final Syllable 240-5 finctus 440 finis (adj.419 (2) 400 florisco 400 flovium 208 (2). 259 frigora 351 filius 155. 256 frenum -us 347 fricatus 435.) 357 13 .409.Index. cf.) 346 florecer 292 414 frate 295 Florentinus 37 ficus (2d decl.) 17 429 263 Foreign Words 19. 238. fervere 399 fervura 37 fesit flaba 289 (i) flagrare 292 flaonis flator fractus 440 fragellum 289 (2) fragilis 260 324 324 233 >« 343 fezem 44 fiaba 289 (i) fiam 419 (2) fib(u)la 235 ficatum 16. 141 ficit 2. 341 Franko 341 franxi 429 ficus (I) (masc. fragrantia 37 fra(g)rare 270 flavor 37 fletus II Francesco 341 franctus 440 fieuma 268 fleurit 414 ' fictus 197 440 fleuve 208 (2) fioralis Frankensis 39 Frankiscus 39. 12 419 (2) figel 242 fiios — filios 274 358 (nom. 201 filiabus filias 33 (2) frigdaria 219.) 346 (4) filiaster filio(s) fans 356 frigdura 37 Frigia 187 frig(i)dus 166.7 flaus 240. (mc.) 355 (i) fidens 311 fiele 160 Jiens 356 (2) fieri 112. 440 fricda frigida 238. 217 fluviorum 224 feces 213 florire fratelmo 38S frat(t)re 164 frax(i)nus 239. 406 folia 352 follia (noun) 18 follicare (i) = 259 f rictus 440 frigare 256. cf . 200 (i).

furbjan 407 furma 203 furmica 229
genesis 148, 183 Genitive 88-9, 383 genitores 12 genitus 17
gIut(t)o 163




fusa 3; I

gocciare 276 gcerus 187
golosus 228 gonger 329 goule 177


genna 229
gentilis 17


fusus 441

Future 125-9,411
127-9,411 Periphrastic Put. 126 Pres. for Put. 126 (i) Future Perfect 119, 123-4,
410, 423 g: see Gutturals

gentis (adj.) 17

Hew Put.


= jan- 259
37, (i)



genuflectere 46

genum 355
Gepte 259 geguir 343

233 gradlus 376 grada 35.1 gradus 355 (i)
grandis 12
granditia 37 graphium 145 grassetto 37 (-ittus)

= Hier- 259

gabata 13, 236 gabta 236 gaita 343
gaite 343 galatus 330
gallina 288

gerbe 341

Germanic Consonants
b, c,

grassus 257

= Gratis 257

g 341

gravare 34
gravior 377 grece 210

^,^342 h343 W344
Germanic Endings 36 Germanic Words 19,
340-4 Germanissa 37 Gerund 104

gamba 13, 263, 331 gammanis 330
garba 341 garofulum 149 garum 329 gaudia (sg.) 352 gaudimoniuin 20 gaudutus 44 X gauta 236 gaveola 257 gavia 16
gecchire 343 geisla 341 geiuna je- 259 geline 288

Greek Accent 143-50 Ozytones 144
Paroxytones 145-6 Proparoxytones 147-50 Greek Consonants 327-39
ft 7, S 329
K, V,

Gerundive 103
gesso 187 gesta (sg.) 352 gJga 341 gig'i 341

T 330-1

X 332-4 Liquids 335 Hasals 336

I 337


gigantem 229 (3) ginocchioni 40 Giovannoni 362 giret 187
girus 187
giscle 341 glacia 355 (2)

f 338-9
Greek Endings 36, 38, 146 Greek Vowels 180-93 Diphthongs 188-93 Single Vowels 180-7 Greek Words 19, 36, 38,
gre-U 40 grevior 377
grevis 195 (4)

gelus (2d decl.) 355 (i) gemellus 13

gemire 406 gemitus 439

Glacus 211 (i) gladium 347
glanderia 39 glaiz 355 (2) Glauc6 -^nis 359 Glaucu (nom.) 372 glirem 166
glos(s)a 161, 185

gemui 428
gena 13

Gender 345-53 Fem. and Heat. 351-3 Masc. and Pern. 346 Masc. and Heut. 347-50 Heut.Pl.>Fero.Sg.352 Heut.Pron.and Adj. 350

grex (fem.) 346 (4) grossior 377 gratia 187 gruls (nom.) 367 gninnio 281-

gluria 203
glut(t)ire 162

guarire 344 guarnire 36, 407


by Microsoft®

guaiare 343
hab(i)tus 239 h^buerat 137
hocsies 277

gubernamentum 37
gubernare 36, 330
gtterra 344

guidare 36, 398 guiderdone 342 guisa 344
gul0 37
-i -1338, 186, 330 gustus (2d decl.) 355 (i) guttur (masc.) 347


Gutturals 253-70 c c' 258, 260-1 c g 256-7

> >

habutus 438 hache 343 hackerece 39 hffidus 320 (i) hamula 235 hanca 343 handle 343 hant 401 hao 401 hapja 19, 343

hodie 272 hodio 251


hom(i)nes 232, 235 (pi.) 36S
10, 71


honera 251 honor 346 (2) honte 342 hora 12, 185 hordemn 272
horrescere 11
hortesia 311 hospitale 12

haram 251
hardir 343
harena 320 (i) haribergum 19 has 401 hat 401 hatire 36 hatjan 36


g before back vowels hardjan 343

263 c, g before cons. 265-70 c, g final 264 ct 266

hossa 251 hostium 251 Hugo Hflgon

= Hdgo


huile 274

152, 362


> g' 258-9. z6i

humerus r2
humiliare 34

g intervocalic 263

gm 268
gn 172
gr intervocalic 270




152, 362


net 267
Falateilization 258-62

haunitha 342 haunjan 19 haunt 401 havite 400

165, 200-1, etc.

accented 200-1 I 200

haz 355


hegit 251

260 X 255, 266 gylosus 228 gyrus 187


helm 343
keltne 343

h 249-52

hepatia 19 here 219, 244 heredes (sg.) 367 heremum 251 Hiatus 136-8, 222-7

> e 201 e ^ 201 > 165, 200 i>e2oi > > e 165, 201 (cons.) 222 > y 224 -i > -e 224







habam = fabam 320

hlbemus 13
hie 63-4, 67-8 hie ipse 64

habe = ave 318 habe(b)am 421 hiem(p)s 13, 297 habeo 273 hiens = iens 251 habere 10, 121-4, 127-30, hilerus 233
239, 273, 285, 400, 401, 421, 438, 449

(Greek) 184 (Greek) 38 i^ e 225 ii i 227 prefixed to s cons. 230 unaccented 219, 221,228,


> >


hinsidias 251

hireum 320


haber 242 habe(t) 285 habeunt 416, 449 habibat 400
habire 400

= is- ins- 230 hispatii = spatii 230
historia 146

229(3X4), 240, 243, 244 in hiatus 222, 224-5,


> e 229 (4) > a 229 (3)

ho 40 hoc 63,



-ia 37, 146 -(a 37, 146


by Microsoft®

-iamus 224 -are 33, 34
ille 10,

Future Future
125-9, 411

61-8, 389-92

ipse 64





123-4, 410

-ibo 125
-ic 251



-ica 37 -icare 33, 34, 35 -icca 37


390 ille 390 140


(dat.) 390


-iccus 37

> ilium 282, 350
390 390

= suus


Imperfect 120, 420-1 Perfect 121-4, 422-31 Pluperfect 123-4, 410, 432 Present 120, 273, 397, 401, 403-5, 415, 416-9

-icem 42, 346



-iceus 37, 39, 42
-icius 37, 39, 42


induruit 224


ilium illud 282, 350 illurum 390


-inem 346

-iculare 35 -iculus 42

> -ellus 42

infa(n)s 10, 311 i(n)fans 171
inf antiliter
i(n)feri 171,

im = in 310
imaginarius 39

-icus 39

40 219

idem 61, 3C39 id ipsum 62, 350 idolum 150, 190
-idus 39 -i(d)yare 339 i6 e 225


376 immudavit 256 Imperative 115-6, 412 impinguare 25 impinxi 429


infernus 13 Infinitive

-iebam -ebam 225 -ibam 420
-ie(n)s 311



implicat 139 implire 400


> -fmus 447-8 >

in 86, 92, 95, 96, 97
is 310 inanimatus 23 in ante 47, 48 incendiderit 426

lenubam 259
-ier 39 -iere 39

in- 23, 25 in -t- s

as Noun iii Conjugations 396-407 dicere 406 esse 419 facere 404 for Clause for Imperative 116 for Subjunctive iii, 117 for Supine and Gerund




= gesta 259, 352

311 iferi 311
iferos 306, 311

Inchoative Verbs
inclausus 139 incohare 250
in contra 47, 48 incudo 42, 370


103, 104 habere 400 Passive 109 Perfect 109 with habere 125-9, 4^^ posse 403

ifimo 311 if ra 311

Present Active

102, 109


-4gia 2^^
igitur II, 14

with Accusative
inflare 31


incuminem 42
incus 42 -incus 37 inde 60, 71, 384 inde fugere 46

ignire 33 ignis 12


ignotus 310 -igo 37

Forms 345-450 Use 85-130
infra- 27



227, 423


39 -ilius 42 iliac 140

Indefinite Article 57 Indefinite Pronouns: see

infraponere 27


Indicative Conditional 130, 411
for Imperative 116, 412
for Subjunctive 117

infurcare 25

-ing 37

(dat.) 390

390 illsejus 390

ingenium 9 ingens 259 in giro 48


by Microsoft®

-ingus 37 (-incus) in hodie 47
Initial Syllable

62-4, 67-8 ins- liis- 230


— -is = -es 244, 365-6, 444

-iva 37 iventa 311

inlatus 32 in mane 47

-iscere 34, 35


> > -i 423 > -iut > -it 423

-ivum yj
-ivus 39 -ix 42
-izare 33, 34, 339

medio 48

Ischia 284

innoce(n)ti 306 innocus 226
in odio


ischolasticus 230


inprobus 32 inquid 282 in quo ante 254 -inquus 37 (-incus) ins13-230 in semel 47

-isco for -esco 197, iscripta 230


-'{«" 33
izophilus 333
j 271 jacente(m) 309 jacis 244 Jacobus 150, 329

-iscus 39 is ipse 64


ismaragdus 230 isperabi 230 ispose 230
-issa 37 -issare 33

insiemcmenie 41 insola 232 instruo — struo 230 ins(u)la 171, 233, 284 intcitamento 260 inte(g)rum 270 Interamico 307

Jacomus 329
jagante 229 (3)


-isse 161

-issem 161 -issimus 166

jaiant 229 (3) jajunus 229 (i) jambe 263
-jan 36
janarius 226

230 Interanniensis 307 istatuam 230 Interrogatlves see Pro- iste 63-8, 390-2 nouns iste hie 64 Intertonlc Vowel 231 iste ille 64 intra g6 iste ipse 64 intra- 27 istudio 230 intra tenere 27 it id 282 intravidere 46 -it -et 244, 444 intre 245 ita II intro(r)sus 291 Italia 224 intus in 49 Iteilic Tribes i, 2 -inus 37, 42 -itare 34, 35

jaquir 343
jauzei 426 jehan 343 jehir 343
jejunus 229, 229 (i) jeniperus 229 (5)

= =

jenua 229


jenuarius 229 (i) jeuTie 208 (2)
jinipenis 229 (5)

-Inus 39

> -o 416

-itas 37 -ite -Ite


Joanneni 359 (i) Joannentis 359 (2) Joannis 244
jocus 12


ipsa mente 41 ipse 61-8, 390-2



jovenis 208 (2), 217
jovis 367

64 ipsejus 390 ipsimus 66 ipsud 390
ipsujus 390 ipsus 390
iraisser 413 irascere 413

-itia 37, -ities 37


jubari 322



-ittus 37

-itudo 37 -itus 42 (2), 436, 438, 441 -Itus 435, 438-9


jubem(m)us 163 jubenis 318 jubentutis 318, 322 jubere 11
Judaizare 19
judicat 424

-ium 37
-ius 39

126 (5), 405

> -unt 416
by Microsoft®

-ire 33,


judidus 347 judico 239 judigsium 278


juglus 233 Julianenis 359 Julianeta 37 (-ittus)
Julitta 37 (-ittus)

429 Liaison 133, 159 liamen 263
lexi 428,

intervocalic 324

Voicing 314
laborait =:-avit 424

laceus 254
lacte 367

libe(n)s 311

juncxi 305 juniperus 229 (5) junxi 429
Jup(p)iter 163

jurHtortu 39 juria 272 jur(i)go 219
jusso 355 (i)

lactem 347 lacus (2d decl.) 355 (i) ladro yji ladrone 372


298 (nom. pi.) 357


libraria 37 ligare 201,

ligna (sg.) 352


justitia 276,

justius 277

juv(e)nis 235

juventa 356 (3) juvente 318
juxta 81, 96


246, 253

kadamitatem 289

= candidus 330 karessemo 201 Karica 37 (-icca) kaukoulato cal- 288 kleme(n)s 311 kozous = conjux 311, 339


34 lambros 331 lamna 235 lampada 356 (3) lampa(s) 38, 144, 335 lancia 224 la(n)tema 306 lanutus 42 lapsus 315 laqueum 347 ; cf, 254 lardum 237 Latinization i, 2 latrone (nom.) 367 lat(t)rones 164 lattucae 266 Lauriatus 224 lausenga 37 (-ing)
lauzi 443 Lazis Ladiis 339


lignum -us 172
liminare 37


Unguas (nom.) 357
liniamenta 224


133, 159

lintium 224

Liquids Assimilation 293 Dissimilation 292
Fall Fall



Liquid 237

Vowel before

Liquid 233-4 1 287-9 ly274 Metathesis 294 r 290-6
rs 291 ry 296 lit (t) era 163


kumate 298 ky = qui 187, 223



lebat 318

lit(t)us 163

see Liquids

318 lebra 256

Livitta 37 (-ittus) U 1 161


la ilia 392 Labials Assimilation 313 b 315-9 initial 316 intervocalic 318 by, py, vy 273, 319 f 320-1 Fall of Vowel after Labial 235-6 Influence on Vowels 217



Have 2 88



Locative 86
locun 305 locuplens 311 locuplex 255
lodi 443
loir 166

lectus (p.p.) 440 legare 201

leges 259

(nom.) 367

legui 428

lenticula 42

longa mente 41 longe 40
longior 377


longius 377


longum tempus 13
loquella 42 loreola 213

P 3"-4 U326
V 322-s
after liquid 323

levare 34 leviarius 39


Lost Words 11-4
lotus 213

levitus 435,


by Microsoft®

) = and markensls 39 me(n)sa 311 mense(m) 309 mensi (pi.) 424 -men 37 mendatium 276 fern. 359 by Microsoft® . 297 maxumiis 220 lucus locus 205 ludus 12 lugere 399 lugire 400 = Meanings Change 10 of of Words 7-10 Meaning 8- manos 355 mansi 429 mansio 12 (i) luminem 347 lunae dies S9 mecu 309 Medea 190 Medentius 338 media 272 medianus 39 medicus 239 medio die 43 medio loco 43 medius 272 meletrix 292 melior 377 melius 56. 233 lucor 37 lucto 355 (i) maximus 56. 201.) 349 machina 144 machinari 9 macra 376 madias = majas 272 madio majo 272 madrema 388 maestati 259 maester 259 magias majas 272 marem 347 mares = -is 244 marl -e 364 marinarius 39 maris (masc.) = magida = 38. xi Marcianus 278 Marculus 284 mare (fern. 377 mala mente 41 male 40 male habitus 44 malicia 276 malleus 274 mensorium 37 menta 184 -mente 41 mente habere 46 mentire 409 Marsuas 187 Marsyas 187 mas = magis 157 mascel 242 -mentum 37 mentus 347 menus 201 mercatus (2d decl. cf . 347. X. 259 ma(g)ister 259 marmora 351 marmorem 347. 198.) 17274 m: see Nasals ma = mea -Ma 38 388 manu tenere 46 Slaps : pp. 347. 66 mal(l)o i6i malus malus 55 mam(m)a 16. 349 melum 195 (5) membras 352 memoramus (perf. ma(g)is 353 .2o6 luce (dat. 71.24. 369 marrir 407 marrjan 407 Marsianesses 277 magnisonans 44 magnus 12 Maia 188. manner (fern. mam(m)anis 359 matutinus 13 maurus 336 maxime 56 mammula mane 13 13 400 manducare 13 man(i)ca 239 manicd 37 (-icca) maniplus 42. 84. 369 3" . 347. 353 me(n)sor 311 56.) 368 me(n)sis 171. 222 Maiiam 222 mais = magis 157. 377 luoghi -ora 349 liirdus 207 (i) luridus 166. 238. 207 (i) luxi 4V 9 luxuria 355 (2) mansorius 39 mansus 441 manuaria iS manuplus 42 manus (masc.) 355 (i) meretis 232 meridjes 281 (2) mer(i)to 237 Masculine : see Gender masc(u)las 234 masma = maxima 238 massa 338 mate(r) 295 materia 355 (2) matrona(s) 298 mat(t)rona 164 Digitized mersi=merx 255 Messac 277 messui 428 messura 37 met. and 346 (I) fern. 145 ma(r)mor 292 cf . 157.) 244 lucSre 399 lucire Index. 220. 259 major 170. 74.

298 + Cons.311 11 ny 274 nacui 428 nam — mu. 75. 429 = mullus 187 mulsi 429 multum 74 multus 71 muntu = multum 289 (2) necatus 435. 255. 163. 231 mis meis 388 mis. 311 -m -n falls 309 falls 310 mihe 244 milex 255 mille 161. 227 mi(ni)sterium 231 minist(r)onun 292 minor 377 minsis 198. 187 meuble 204 (i) meus = mi 87 n: see Nasals mextum — m2estuin mezzo 272 mi r= meus -a 87. 385 miauiare 17 michi 252 mienia 1S4 migat micat 256 monarchia 37 monasterium 182 -monia 37 monibam 420 moniti n + fricative 171.439 movitus438. 66 metipsimus 66 metltus 441 207 Mute -t. 229 (4).Liquid mut(t)ire 162 132. 377 minus. 381 mn 307 millefolium 38 mil(l)ia 161 mordSre 399 morire 406 moriri 406 n -h fricative ny 274 nasco 255 nascutus 438 nasum -us 347 natatorium 37 nati vitas 37 Morphology 345-45° morsi 429 morsus 441 mortificare 46 mimoriEe 229 (2) minester 201 ministeri(i) 89. 37 raovutus 438. 439. cf. 294 modernus 18 Metiacus 277 metipse 24.29. 438 naucella 13 naufragus 325 nautat 236 navicella 37 navitat 236 ne 14. 245 mis. 438.324 Moesia 187 molui 428 molutus 439 255 myrta 187 Mysia 187 mysterium 182. 440. 160 mode modo 40 moere = mov. 136 mulieris 136 natus 13. 440 necavi 428 nee ente 71 nee unus 71 ne ente 71 negare 263 negat 256 mur 206 murare 229 (5) muri -a 349 muritta 37 (-ittus) murta 187 Negation 75 negliencia 259 nemo 71 neofiti missorium 37 mis (s) us 441 mistus 440 mixticius 39 mobilis 204 (i). 229 (2) Nebitta 37 (-ittus) nebula 235 necare 9 necator 37 mirabilia 37. cf. 441 motto 187 movi 428 movit 244 movita37-. 289 moc 428 (i). 83.228 narratus 37 (-ta) -monium 37 mo(n)strare 311 Nasals 303-11 Final or = monumento = -um 244 Mood 1 1 5-9 morbu(s). 217 334 mutare 229 Digitized (5) nepoti(s) 298 ne'ps'unus 71 by Microsoft® . 440 muc(c)us 163 muebie 204 (i) mul'erem 225 mulier 9.245 miscere 399 misculare 35 misera 376 mis(s)i x6i. 304-6 171. 201 minus 201.245 minus credere 29 minus est 29 minus pretiare 46 minutus 10 > mortu(u)s 226 mossus 438.Index. 387 mi = mihi25o. Metathesis 245.

Absolute 97 non 203 nona(i)nta 380 75. 100. 274 > ola 213 oleo 373. 215 offertus 435. 22S. 33 nuncquam 305 nunqua(m) 305. 383 305 accented 202-5 o 202-4 o 197. 167. 79 ob-28 obdormire 28 obferre 32 obliscor 324 oblitare 34 obprimere 32 Nerba3i7. 71 o for au 212-3 >oe ]>e 06 > o 225 > omo 251 -omus 446 on 71 ou>. 215 omnes = —is 244 onmimodus 44 omnis 12. 378-82 occu(m)bas 306 occurire 406 Accent 142 nummus 328 nun = non 203 nunc 12 nuncius 276 -occus 37 ocio 276 ocium 276 octa(gi)nta 380 oc(u)lus 219. 244 u6 o 225 -o 37. 177. 323 nerbo 323 Neroua 322 nervia 349 Neuter nervus 323. 234 306. 251 nil 250 nimpae 332 nise 229 (4) nitidus 238 nittus 238 Numerals 57-8. 395 num 83 u ob (Greek) i?5 14. 250. 197. 243. 385 nocere 399 nutrire 166. 202-5.) 395 nullus 71. 349 see Gender ne 229 (2) ni : = nichil 251 niepos 177 observasione 277 oc 251 occansio 311 occidere 212 occubavit 256 ni(g)rum 270 nihil 71. Nouns 345-73 see Declension and Gender nous 177.324 nova(i)nta 380 novellus 13 novius 207 (2) noxeus 224 ns 171. 309 nivicare 18. 40 (Greek) 186 Digitized nora 208 (3) Normannice 40 norus 208 (3) notrire 229 (5) noli 40 -on 36 -ov 38 -iav 38 -ones 40 -oneus 39 by Microsoft® . > > 6 165.208 nepta 37 neptia 37 neptilla 13 Index.ou 167 unaccented 219. 311 nubis 366 nulli (gen. etc. offla 235 oi>oe>-e ot nome 336 nomem nomes = nomina 369 Nominative 97. nupsi 297 nobe 318 nobilis 11 nobis 318. o 165. 229 (6). 203 o (Greek) 192 274 38. 205 5 > 9 205 9>uo oi ou|>-gu 167 o u 202 o ou 203 oleum oli 274 274 oli(m) 309 olio nonna 16 nonnita 37 (-ittus) nonnitus 37 (-ittus) nonnus 16 noptiae 207 (2) 177 192. 328 noembrios 324 noembris 324 noicius 324 nolo 161 ny274 nynfis 306 406 406 429 440 192. 229 (5) nutritio 37 odedere 426 Odissia 187 oe 215 oefor xand e 215 offeret offerire offers! nutritura 37 nocui 223.

oze ozie 324 = > > = hodie 272 = hodie 272 = pacific! 321 8. 259 pari 364 par(i)etes 136. Pans 86 Parisiis 272-8. parecer 414 parens 10.Index. 318 parcui 428 onus II o 225 operare 409 0(5 > otogentos 266 -ottus 37 ophekion = ofBcium 334 opprobare 28 -or 37. 229 (7) ot ote = aut 213. 236 parabulare 155 paradisus 190 paraula 236. 439 pasmer 300 passans 39 passi(m) 309 sy 275 ty 276-7 ossulum 37 ossum 356 (3) ostensio 37 ostensor 37 vy273 palatium 277 palleum 224 Passive 112-4. 296 parsi 429 by 273 c': see Gutturals cy 276. 337 pagandum 256 paganus 263 pa(g)e(n)sis 39. 229 (7) pandiderunt 426 paucus 71 paul(l)um 161 Paulus -onis 362 paupera 376 pani 364 panneus 39 pantaisar 332 Digitized = pauperorum 376 pausa 38 pavi 428 by Microsoft® . 408 Perfect 102. 104. 217. 202-3 -osco ossiculum 42 ossuculum 43 > ssy 275 sty 275 partunt 416 parutus 438. 296 Palatals 271-8. 434-41 = orum = aurum 212 orzo 272 OS (masc. 369 papilipnis (nom.212 orata ou (Greek) 193 ou 167 9u Ouiouia Vibia 318. Active 106 Put. 12 parentis (nom. 322 > = oum 167. 108. 409 passos 355 paucum tempus 13 ostentare 34 ostia palma 14. 42 feminine 346 (2) -re 245 -or -ura 42 -or hora25i ora oracionem 276 aur. Passive 105.) 347. Ordinal Numerals 382 -orem 346 (3) oricla2i2. palpebrum 352 pal/ires 134 = hos-25i = ostium 202 ostrum aus. 225 parietibus 224 oratorium 37 orbus 9 palanca 332 palasium 277 Parigi 86.) 367 pap(p)a -us 16 papyrius 39 parabula 144.212 aut 213. py 273 ry 296 scy 275 40S Particles 156-8 particularis 39 -OS (Greek) 38 Oscan 2 -usco 197. 107. 324 ovum 167. 229 (7) oridium 339 -orlum 37 -orius 39 orma 186.) 367 parentorum 368 p : see Labials paceveci = oratia = Hor-25i Order of Words 50-3. 441 part 160 partentem 416 Participle dy 272 g': omatura 37 orphanus 186 ortaret 432 hor-25i ortus see Gutturals gyz72 J271 ly274 ny 274 Put.) 349 Present 102. 278 parsus 439. -omus 39 -o«J446 -o(n)sus 311 otia 277 otobris 266 209 paor 324 papaver (masc. 227 pari mente 41 227 Palatalization 258-62.

74 pluvia 169. 347. 93. igo plaudisti 426 pestulum 284 petft 423 Petrus -onis 362 peito 160 pleps 297. 99 per pel 293 per 160 per. 183. pinl 365 123-4 pinxi 429 per giro 48 piper 38. 235 by Microsoft® . 213 plovere 169. 190 Periphrastic Future 126 perit 423 perlum = prse. 208 (4). 369 peria(t) 285 poena 192 poeta 192 poggio 272 polippus 145 poUicare yj pollulum 213 pols 370 poltre 134 polve 370 polvo 370 polypus 145 pomex 207 (2) pirata 144. 439 pere 160 pere(g)rinus 270 peres pedes 281 (2) Perfect 121-4. 96. 217 pluere 169. 410. 435 plicatus 435 293 293 pello 293 pendutus 441 pellige pellicere peuma 368 ph: see Greek Consonants phalanx 181 pharetra 145 phaselus 334 Phasis 181 pe(n)sare 171. 208 (4).) 367 plangit 259 plantare 33 peduclum 234 peduculus 42 pejor 170. 273 poco 40 perdedit 139. 123-4.Index. 217 Pluperfect 118. 426 perdita 37 (-ta) perdqnare 26 perdutus 438. 315 plicare 10. pIurigo 123.294 Pisaurese 297 Pisaurum 151 pitocco T85 Digitized pon(e)re 239 pontevecem 321 pontivicatus 256 pontufex 220 poplex 255 pop(u)lus 10. pa(v)onem 324 pa(v)orem 324 pavura 42 pavutus 440 paze 260 pectinare 33 perpenna 292 persi 429 pe(r)s(i)ca 239 persona 71 Personal Pronouns: pius 167 placentia 37 plach 154 see placuit 223. 369 per girum 48 piperem 347. 410 432> 433 Pluperfect Penult 232-9 per 14.26 percolopabat 237 > Phebus 192 phiala 145 philosophia yj philus 184 phimus 184 Phitonis 332 phitonissas 332 Subjunctive 433 "8. 326 plagiare 33 Pronouns persus 439. 377 pejus 377 pelegrinus 292 pellabor 293 planura yj planxi 429 platea 146. 273 plostrum 212 plotus 212. 441 Pesaro 151 pessica 291 pessimus y]"] pestio 2S4 pectorem 347 pediculus 42 pedis (nom. 208 (4). 422-31 = phoca 185 Phoebus 192 Phonology 131-344 Phyebae = Phoebe 215 piano 40 pictus 440 pietas 298 pietra 160 pignus 172 (2) pi(g)ritia podium 272 poella 20S Strong 427-31 Weak 422-6 Perfect Participle Participle : 270 see Pilipus 332 pinctus 440 Perfect Subjunctive 119. = pr-292 plus 56. 208 (4). 79. 311 pensi 429 pensus 441 plodere2i3 ploja 169.

= pr<Egnans 255 Pronunciation 131-344 prophetissa 37 prophetizare 19 propietas 292 propio 292 propter 14.) 367 pugnus 172 (2) pulvus 347. 330.229 (6) puteolis 136 • potebam 403 (i) potebo 403 (i) poteo 403 (i) potere 403 (i) pdteri 410 potestas 356 (3) potionare 33 potis 17 pretium 277 preveire 300 pride (m) 309 primitius 324 principens 367 pri(n)cipis 306 Prixsilla 255 puteum 347 putrire 400 potius 74 pr:e 14 pr£E-28 prjeber(e) 24? prsecoca 376 praeda 209 prsedestinare 28 prsEdiscer(e) 242 pro 14. 439 = 311 prendere 225. 401. qu 223. 41 5> 416-9 presentis (nom. 394 quamta 306 quan 305 Digitized by Microsoft® . 387-8 Relative 69-70.Index. 259 quadra(l)nta 380 qua(9'ro 283 quKSi 426. 85-g presbyter 148. 383-95 Demonstrative 61-8 Indefinite 71. 429 quiestus 436. 403 (i) Possessives: see Pronouns posso 403 postea 275 (i) prensus 441 Prepositions 76-81. 79. por 14 porcellus yj pregnax cf. 393-4 quaKs 70.28 probai 424 Proclitics 156-8 prodis 17 putrisco 400 puulva 356 (3) Pyrrhus 187 pyxis 187 Progne 330 proles II preefetto 266 prffigna(n)s 255. 440 cf. preda 209 Prefixes 21-32 393-4 Personal 60. 429 Position 160-4 positus 238. 226. 250 prendiderunt 426 prendo 250 prensi 429 prensio 37 posmeridianus 285 posse 126 (3). 71. 252. pos(t)quam 11. -^yj pos(t) 96. 300 presbyterum 148 provitus435. 67. 95 pro. prolongare 28 q 246. 384-6 Possessive 60. 311 prEEStare 31 prffistavi 422. 370 punctus 440 puni poni 203 = presium 277 pressi 429 pressorium 37 pressura 37 pressus 441 presta 210 presteti 139 frete 300 punidor 39 punxi 429 pupillabus 358 puplu 309 pup(p)a 163 pure 40 puritas 37 purpura 145. 254 qua 82 > promptulus 39 430 prsstus 376 Pronouns 59-71. 285 Present 120 for Future 126 ptisana 145 pudicicia 276 (i) Stems 273. 79. 186.28 prebiter 300 Interrogative 7o> 69- quadraginta 142. 395 prandium 272 pranzo 272 pre. 96 provata 318 porphyreticum 187 portare 12 posi posui 428. etc. 332 purpureticum 1S7 putator = po. 226. 285 posturus 238 postus 238 Post-Verbal Nouns 21 posueram 285 posuet 244 posui(t) 285 403-5.439 proximus 377 psallere 36. 397. 254 qu k. 380.

replenus 23 55. 139 redempsi 429 redemti 313 Digitized = rectum igS by Microsoft® .28 retro (r) sum 291 = = redpit 139 recolli(g)endo 259 Recomposition 31. 82. 429 rhetor 335 rhetorissare 33 richesse 341 rictu quiaeti 209 quicumque 71 quid 350 quidem 11 recubitus yj (-ta) quiensces 311 quietus 225 quin II quinqua(gi)nta 142. 74 12. 139 retenet 139 retere questor 210 questus 210 quetus 225 qui 69. 309 querceus 39 quercinus 39 querel(l)a 42 rama (pi.) 361 ramenc 37 (-incus) rancura 42 ranucula 42 rap(i)dus 239 rasl restitueram 285 restivus 39 resurge(n)s 311 retenere 31. 82. 380 quase 244 quasi 83. 350. 393 re(g)ina 259 regis -es 244 = quisque 71 quisquis 71 Unaccented Vowels 221 174.1 Index. quando 14.quoniam 14. 139 requEerit 139 rs see Liquids >• ss 291 requebit 225 res 10. 71. 449 responduntur 449 responsi 429 raggio 272 que(m) 309 quen 305. quodlubet 220 regnancte 267 regnum 172 (2) Relatives : see Pronouns reli (n) quat 306 relinque 282. no quooperta = co. 168 429 = reddere 286 rasio = ratio 277 ratio 277 retina 17 retro 81 razzo 272 re. 82 quarranta 142. 71. 221 Development of New Quantity 176-7 Disappearance of Old Quantity 173-5 Doubtful Quantity 166 Length before Consonants 170-2 Position 160-4 refusare 17 re(g)alis quiritare 229 quis 69. 25 recapitulare 25 retro.269 respondere 399. 379 quel 393 quejus 393 quoque quot quot n Repetition 40. 245. quo 73 quo = quod 282 quoad 11 quod 14. 71 rabies 319 radius 272 rainante = reg. 82. 71. 393 qui quia 82 qui ky 187. 379 quattordecim 379 quat(t)ro 226. 281 quinque 172 Quintrio quippe 1 quique 71 (i).23. 223 quia 82. 82 comodo 226 Vowel Length 165-77 Words from Other Lan. 259. 380 reculons 40 reddedi 31.344 = -bit 318 263 Quantity 159-77. 355 (2) res nata 13. 350 = -it 285 remasit 311 Remidium 272 remissa 37 (-ta) ren^gat 139 renum reg.269 Vowels in Hiatus 167-9 quomodo 14. 219. 71 = quod 282 quum r : > cum 226 repositorium 37 reprehensus 250 requeerere 25. retundus 229 (6) reuuardent 344 139 reve(r)sus 291 reversus sumrz reverti 410 revolutio 37 rexi 297. no.254 guages 1 74-5 > = quantu(m) 309 quantus 12. 244 quat(t)or 226. no. rectus 440 32. 200 redft 423 redivit quannu 281 = Win. 71 quare 12.

) 349 scripit 312 (i) scrips! 315. ridSre rideri 213 schioppo 284 sclitib. sty.) 368 419 (i) sel 160 selinum 150 sappia 272 sapui 426.268. 201 (2) senape 184 senatus (2d decl. (3) = 229 salbum3i7 salii scrivano 359 scultor 313 se 422. 428 satis 74 sem 419 (i) Semele 359 semita 239 semo 419 (i) : see Sibilants final s in ist pers. salivi 428 440 J^= sead sebe salma 268 salsi 428. 341. 347 rogavo = -bo 318 ro(g)itus 259. : 429 Romance Territory p. ssy. rubare nibeus 319 sandal 330 sanguem 370 sanh 267 sapcha 272 sapere 402 sedui 428 sedutus 441 signavi 424 segnai = rugiada 356 nira35r ru(r)sum 291 russum 291 rutare 34 s (3) segolo 200 (3) sei sapiam 272 sapidus 39 sapienti (pi. 324 rivaticus rip. = sa = ipsa 392 semper semper 74 sempre 245 semul 201. 428 = si 229 (4) = sit 419 (2) = sibi 201 ^ 419 (i) roborem 347 robur 9.Index. 419 roubSn rs > 36. (stlis) riges = re. 441 saltern 11 salticulare 35 secatus 435. 14 sed-= se 229 (4) 429 rosum = ros 356 rosus 441 (3) sanctissimus 377 san(c)tus 172 (i). 435 salitus 436.230 scriba -anis 359 = rigueza 341 risi 429 risus 441 rius 241.igS 399 409 sacritus rigna 198 rikitia 341 Jiimini 86 SidxpiTos 272 sseculum (masc. 367 SiEpia 182 saginae 42 = 284 Sagitta 37 (-ittus) ripidus 39 scloppus 284 scopulus 38 scorlare excor.) 349 sffipes sepes saeps 209. 440 secula 200 (3) Romanice 40 Romanu -pos 38 rosi (nom. sauma 26S scabia 355 (2) scsena 182. 210 scalciare excalceare 230 scandalizare 19 445 initial s + cons.) 355 (i) sine 201 sene -sa 37 (-ta) sabbatizare 19 scaplas 234 sablum 233 sacra 376 Sca(u)rus 211 scena 182 (i) = sacramentum 231 359 sacristano 359 sacrista -anis- schema 19 schernire 341 schiatta 343 schietto 343 senex 12 senper 306 semita 239 senta sentam 416 sententem 416 = Digitized by Microsoft® . pi. 429 440 scriptum 315 scri(p)tus 313. x : salsus 440.314 rivocaverit 229 (2) sagma 19. Saguntum 338 saine 42 saini 267 sltlbaiec (fern. 398 398 ss 291 36. 230 sy 275 scy.) 372 salvage 229 (3) salvatico 229 (3) salvaticus 229 (3) secu(n)do 306 secuntur 254 sed II. xi Roman Empire p. 34r. 267 sedano 335 sed(e)cim 239 sedere seditur 399 = esse 402.

337 sinatus 228 (-arius) sordidius 377 sorex 42. 150. 429 sentitus 436. soluit sic nants 264 Sicilianus 39 solus 395 solutus 438 solvitus 438.214 senii 298 Index. (2). 83. = secretins 256 347 sonatus 435 sons 419 (i) Sophia 146 -sor 37 sorcerus = sortiarius 39 s^bat 323 serbus 317 Serios Sergius 272 serore so. 441 solia 323 224 sentor .^'j final s 298.z\ sofferire sparsus 441 spasmus 144 spat (h) a 332 spat(u)la 12. 182 seppia 182 sepsies 277 z : see Greek Conso- soltus 438. scy. 221. solbit sentia 421 sentii 42S.230 = 406 si 14. 38. sy. 440 ss > 275 solingo 37 (-incus) solo (dat. 201 sinexter 201 (3) -sic 37 sirena 356 (3) sis si vis 324 -sorium ^y -sorius 39 soro(r) 295 sous = suus 167. 184. 439. 213 soricem 42. 219. 385 385 Sibilants 297-302.419 (1) sinapis -e -i 38. sibi 219. si sol 13 = sibi spehon 343 spelunca 329 siam 419 (2) siamus 419 (2) sibe 219. 18 sol(i)dus 237 230 separare seperare 231. 233 soef 2. 213 serra = sera 247 serutinus 16 servare 323 sine 95.cons. sty. 244. 244 solacium 276 sola mente 41 solatium 276 solbere 317 spene^SS (2) speni from spes 355 (2) speramus = -avimus 424 sperantia 37 Digitized by Microsoft® . septa (gi)nta 380 septe(m) 309 sidibus = se. 233 sepelitus 436. 234 speca spica 200 (3) = speclarait spectante = -avit 424 = exp. 445 initial s 4.230 Spania 230 = Spanus 230 sparsi 429 J« 419 sest = est 419 (i) set = est 419 (i) set = sed 282 seta 209 setaceus 39 setis = estis 419 (i) 229 385 (4) settembres 313 seus suus 387 soaru 295 soave 224 sobreus 224 socera 37 soc(e)rum 232.229 (7) serpentinus 37 = = 428 simus 220. 277 servitude 37 ses servire = spacium 276 spallere 337 sive II = es 419 (i) (i) skena 341 skern6n 341 skiuhan 343 slahta 343 sleht 343 spandere exp. sibl 201.) 395 solsi s 161 429 440 224 sepes 209 sepia 146. 244. ssy. 387 sozer 154 servicium 276 323 servisium 277 servitium 276. etc. soliculus 13.ig8 439 siede 419 (1) soma 268 somas 419 (i) sona 2ona 338 septrum 260 septuazinta 339 septum 209 sepulchrum 251 sequere 406 sequire 406 serbare 323 siem 419 (2) siete 419 (i) siffatto 264 siffler 318 (2) sifilus 318 (2) = signum-us 172 sigricius silevit 422.

230 stais stup(p)a 163 suabitati 318 5uadel(l)a 42 suavis 224 Suavitta 37 (-ittus) sub. 403. 387-8 submonsus 439. 440 Suffixes 33-42 Cbange of Suffix 42 talentum 149. 430 sietti 426 stetul 426. 410 Plup.) 367 sulphurem 347. 118 Pres. 397. 41 for Nouns 37. 90. 428.) 367 Supine 103 sup(p)ra 164 sup(p)remis 164 supra. 330 talis 71 strlban 341 for Adj. 332 Syncope 219. 405. 231-g Synonyms 12 Syntax 50-130 t : (nom.26 superabundare 26 superfacere 26 superstitis (nom.Index.) 349 stahu 397 397 stait 397 stantia= inst. 388 -sus 37.) 355 (i) splorator stnicere 417 215 sumus 220. 96 super. 441 subornatris 255 subplantare 32 sy=ty277 sycotum 141 Syllabication 131-3 = Stella = 198 stingo 226 -stinxi 429 stipes stips 367 subsannare 26 Substitution of subterranus 42 subtus 81 suc(c)us 163 suceroni 362 Words 13 symphonia 146.26 suprafacere 26 supra 245 -sura 37 Surd Sonant: see Voicing = exp.230 struxi 429 stupescere 35 > staacio 276 stablarius 231 stagnum (masc.) 367 stlataris 284 stlis 284 stloppus 284 storax 187 stren(n)a 163 stren(n)uor 164 Stress : see Accent stirpis see Dentals ty 276-7 sud=sub3i5 sufferit 406 -ta37 tab(u)la 236 tactus 440 suffertus 435.230 spoliatur = -or 244 structus 440 straere 417 strugere 417 spo(n)sus 171 spontaneus 39 squarciare 276 ss s 161 strumentum = inst. 441 sus(s)um 291 sutis sursi Stephanus 183 steti 426. 14. 229. 419 (i) suora 295 sues 138 super 80. 39 for Adv. 415. 419 (2) sublimus 376 429 su(r)sum 291 surtus 440 sus = suus 226. = Iniperf. 428. 40. 430 steva 200 (3) stilla 419 (i) suus 60. 38 tamen 11. 38 suis (nom. 369 sumpsi 29S sumptus 308 tan 306 tanctus 440 tanger(e) 242 tantu(m) 309 tantus 71 tanxl 429 tapinus 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . 117 > 277 status 438 397 staunt 397 stegola zoo stel(l)a 163 siaii (3) Imperfect 118 Perfect 119. spes 355 (2) spiritus (2d decl. 116 for Indie. 84 440 440 strinxi 429 strofa 334 stropa 334 stroppus 186 strinctus strictus for Verbs 33-6 Greek Endings 36.26 subaudire 26 subcludere 26 stao 397 stare 397 stasio 277 static subcumbere 32 Subjunctive 117-g for Imper.

331 timor (fern.) 367 traxi Tense 120-30 tensi 429 tensura 13 tensus 441 t^nueram 137 tenui 42S tenutus 438.) 395 tot(t)uS 12.) 74 tous thensaurus 311 — tuus 387 Trogar=-jae 259 Troja 170 Digitized by Microsoft® .208 tonsus 441 toll(e)re 429 trebus 201 trei = tres 379 298 trei Teodor 332 -ter 40 tardus 276 Terentio = treis 177 tremulat 235 trepaliare 33 = -us 298 tergSre 399 -tor 37 torcere 399 torco 226. 343 tata 16 . 440 239 tollitus 435. 318 taurellus 37 taxi 429 telebra ter.259 tragere 417 trahere 417 = tempaccio 39 tempesta 356 (3) templus 347 timpuri 369 tinctus 440 tinge 226 tinguere 226 tins -^^ census trans.292 -tim 40 timbre 187. Theophilus 333 thesaurizare 19 thesaurus -um 189. 347 threscan 342 tra.208 tonatus 435 tondere 399 tonica tu. 299 trabucare 26 tracere 417 tap(p)ete 162 tarde 40 tarir 342. 399 trapalium 16 tres 379 tergum -us 347 termen 356 (3) terminaciones 2 76 terra (m) 309 tersi toreomatum 191 -torium 37 -tonus 39 torma = tu.2l6 tapis 182 tapit 182 Index. 139 tibi 221.) 346 timoratus 39 Tragani (2) = Traj. 424 tristus = tres 395 -trix 37 trobaire 37 (-tor) totum (adv. -anis 359 = tibi 385 -tiacum 277 tibe 244 ti tractatus 9 tractus 440 tradedit 31. 429 tolui 428 tomolus =: tumu.204(2). 299 transannare 26 tra(ns)duco 299 tra(ns)jicio 299 260 tra(ns)luceo 299 tra(ns)mitto 299 tempo 298 tempus 13 tenit 244 tinxi 429 -tic n transplantare 26 tra(ns)pono 299 tra(ns)tulo 299 ten(n)uis 164 Titius 277 Tivoli 86 tra(ns)veho 299 traps 315 trasporre 299 travis (nom.26. 439 tolsi 428. 385 traducir 299 traduire 299 Tatius 277 tatus 16 taula 236. 343 tharrjan 342.26. 407 theios 333 toto (dat. 244. 259. 71. 289 Tricassas 151 trienta 259 tri(g)inta 142.163. 407 -tas 37 tasso 342. 325. 399 torsi trescar 342 trib(u)la 235. 198 376 triumphaut 241. 352 tribuna(l) 242.208 tomus 186 torqu(e)o 226. 380 trinitas 429 tarsus 441 -Tt\% 38 testa 13 tetrus 376 428 tortus 440 tot 71 tot trinta tris 37 380 taxui 428 204 (2) texutus 440 thahso 342.

387-8 ty 276-7 ty ty > cy 277 > sy 277 uno (dat. -ura 37. 367 veni 428. 440 ver 13 usque hodie 47 ustium 202 Ut II. 430 urps 297. 244 in hiatus 222-6 uo >• o 226 uu u 226 o 225 u(5 uu u 226 Uranus 193 urbis (nom. 438.) 429 -unt -ent 449 unus 10. 438. 206. 14. III -uta 37 (-ta) verbex = vervex 323 Verb Forms see Conjugation Use 72. 73. 192. 220 -ugo 37 (-ago) ui 216 V see Labials vacuus 42 195 (6). 430 > > -urem 346 (3) veninum 42 venire 126 (5) venitus 436.) 367 vendutus 438 vene bene 316 = urbs 12. 192. 229 (5). 315. 378. 440 unire 34 Tuscanus 39 iuito 204 (2) tuttus 204 (2) tuus 226. 438. 208 u cons. 326 u 178. 39 (5). 222. 206. 71.) 244 178. 70. Troyes 151 tructa 38. 206-8. 243. 83 ubi 73 -uc(c)us 37 (-icca) -uculare 35 -uculus 42 -utus 39. 14. 101-30 Verbs : see Verb Forma verbus 347. > -clus 234 388 Vowels unde 10.316 -tulus turn = tuum 226. 349 * verecundia 231 verecunnus 281 Inflection: > > > utrum II. 356 (3) vea via 201 = vecere = veh-4i7 -e 364 -tus 37 (-ta). 440. 187. 403 vendita 37 (-ta) 177 u 165. 405 vadum 344 -us 347 valde 237 vaUa(t) 224. 228. 220 ui 216 unaccented 219. 42 accented 206-8 u 206-7 ii>-u 165. 441 uu unacc. 185 trutina 187 tu 60 -ula 37 (-ulus) Ulixes 187 ultra 166 -ulus 37. u 226 uuadius 344 > -uus > -itus 42 -udo ii > -umen 42 uxo(r) 295 uxore (abl. 297. 82. 440 venui 428. 379 -undus 39 ungo 226 unguere 226 unicornis 44 unigenitus 44 vaqua = vacua 223 vaqui vacui 223 vastare 344 vanitare 34 = 187 tuos 138 -tura 37 turrensis 39 turri tumum vasus -um 347. etc.395 unu(s) 29S unxi 429 U(5 >• o 225 uo unacc.315 usare 34 Use Use Use of of Cases 85-100 of Inflections 85-130 Words 54-84 venuta 37 (-ta) venutus 436.298. 2c6 u 208 u ii o 165. 42. 217 vadere 126 204 (2) -tudo 37 iuii 204 (2) tul£runt 450 tucti > -ellus 42 40 -um vallensis 39 : Unaccented Vowels see valneas = ba. o 226 vecinus 229 (4) vedus 234. 57. 393 undecim 166. 84. 285 Valinca 37 (-Incus) .Index. 187. 223 : vernac(u)lus 234 vemum tempus 13 ve(r)sus 291 vertragus 19 Digitized by Microsoft® . 284 vedea 421 = ve^ere 283 vef 226 vegere = veh-4i7 uobit = obiit > ve(he)inens 250 vehere 417 vel II velle 126 (3).

259. 37 victurias 203 vic(u)lus'234. 195 vocitus Final Syl. 385 Vowels 136-8. 285.2l8 vervex 323 ves(s)ica 162 vestibat Index. vivacius 377 vixcit = vixit 255 cf. 167-9 . 240-5 in hiatus 222-7 Init. 416. 234. 439 Penult 232-9 vac. Syl. 37 viror 37 virtus 10 vlscui visit Influence of Labials 217 Single Vowels 194208 before gn 172 (2) before j 170 before n fricative 171 before nk 172 (i) = = vixi 428. 439 voster 199 (i). vinus 347 Clerical Pronun. 4 Voicing 256-7. 441 viduus 226 vieni 177 vig(i)lat 430 Vocative 87 vocitus = vacuus 42. by Microsoft® . Vulgar Words 15. 440 warjan 344 voluntate (nom. 407 volutus 438 wastare 344 = ^ = = volvitus 438. 284 vetus 13 video 272-3 veyo virginem 233 vir(i)diaria 237 vir(i)dis 237 vir(i)dura 18. cf. 416 vistus 441 visus 441 vitellus Breaking 177 = 37 vitium 278 vitricus 13 Vowels 179 Close and Open 165 Differentiation 165 Celtic = vit(u)lus 234 vivus 324 vius = German Vowels 179 Greek Vowels 180. 255. 318 . 231 (6) vocatus 435. 441 vixutus 440 vobis 385 cf.) 367 victualia 18. 283. 428 . 380 vilescere villa 10. 321 volatilia 37 volemus 403 (2) w (Ger. Syl. 12.93 in hiatus 136-8. 231 vettovaglia 154 vetulus 12.) 349 314. 358' villabus 358 Vincentzus 277 426 vinctus 440 vincui 428 vincutus 440 vindemiator 224 vindico 239 vindimia 197 vindo = v6. 429 vinti 380 vincisti Intert. + vezem 445 vezzo 278 -vui 428 -vi via 167. 387 vovis vobis 318 cf . 285. 428. 430 vido vidutus 438. 272-3. 429 = vixit 255 cf. 228-30 259 34 vi(gi)nti 142. 428 in words borrowed by other languages 1 74-5 Latin Vowels 178 Position 160-4 videre 72. 429 vixi(t) 285 . 13. 284 videderunt 426 video 272-3. 19 vulnus (masc.201 viaticum 8. 239 vibi = bibi 318 iiibit 316 vibit victore (nom. 165-245 watan werra = .195 (6) vocuus Quantity 221 Voice 1 12-4 Vulgar Latin 3. 430. 297.) 367 warnjan 36. 286. = vac. 428. 438.285. 428 vixi 255. Accented 194-218 Digitized 344 344 werrarius 39 werrizare 33 wi^arlon 342 19. 439.197 -ea 224 vinia vinsi 428. 221 Unaccented 219-45 (6) Vocabulary 6-49 vocatio videunt 416 vidi 428. 218 Diphthongs 209-16 420 vetatus 435 vet(e)ranus 219.195 = video 416 vidui = vidi 428.) 344 volere velle 403 (2) w (Latin) 224 voles 403 (2) Waddo 344 volestis 403 (2) wadum 344 volimus 403 (2) wahta 343 volon 39 (-undus) walde 344 volsi 429 Wandali 344 voltus 438. 19. Quantity 165-77.

339 Zefurus 187 zelosus 339 2» 333 Zodorus = Theo.339 = dies 272 = Jesu 272. Wintrio 344 wlsa 344 witan 36. 255.339 zebus = die. 339 = dia.272 ymnus 251 zerax = liierax 339 zosuin=deorsum 339 Zouleia= Julia 272.344 z 246 zabul(l)us zes 219 zacones zaconus ~ dia. 339 Digitized by Microsoft® .339 = dia. 339 zeta = diseta 339 zie = die 272 Zesu zins 260 ziziper 312 (i) X 246. 398 Word Order 50-3 wost.Index.277 Zogenes = Dio.272. 266 y (Greek) 187 y (Latin) 224 zagante 229 (3) zampogna 332 zanuari = ja.

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