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U. A. D. C.. S. H.I)eatb'5 flDot>ern tHanduage Qctics AN INTRODUCTION VULGAR LATIN BY C. PUBLISHERS 1907 by Microsoft® . GRANDGENT Fbofbssor of Romance Languagss in Harvahd University BOSTON. HEATH & Digitized CO.

V^-^5 3J( Copyright. 1907. Digitized by Microsoft® . C. By D. Heath & Co.

PREFACE. Digitized byiUicrosoft® . I hope.— . have tried. "^^HILE this book is intended primarily for students of it will. furthermore. abreast of current scholarship. but with even fulness I fear. not exhaustively. others are cited in the appropriate places in the C. Although it. however. it be of some interest to has been long in the Classical scholars as well. to treat all portions of the subject. somewhat scanty as compared with the other It will be seen that I have continually furnished abundant references for the guidance of those topics. have endeavored to keep I at every stage. Romance making. who wish to look further into special My principal authorities are listed in the Bibliotext. Grandgent. graphy. that the is Syntax — perhaps unavoidably parts. I Philology. H.

7-8 Words used in Classic but not in Vulgar Latin ..... xvii INTRODUCTION i-S VOCABULARY WoBDS. AND Their Meanings.. Adjectives. . Pages MAPS The Roman Empire The Neo-Latin Territory in Europe BIBLIOGRAPHY... 8-9 Synonyms Substitutes. and Pronouns Prefixes used with Verbs Suffixes Suflixes for Suffixes for Verbs Nouns Adverbs iv Digitized 18-23 Suffixes for Adjectives Suffixes for 23-25 25-26 27-28 Change of Suffix by Microsoft® ... ^ . . .. Words used alike in Classic and in Vulgar Latin Words used differently in Classic and in Vulgar Latin . xi x xi xiii-xvi . 6-29 6-12 6 7-8 7 .. Sense Restricted Sense Extended ... ^ . 9 9-10 10 10-12 Ii>-i2 Particles Words used in Vulgar but not in Classic Latin Native Words Foreign Words I2 Uerivation Post-Verbal Prefixes 13-29 Nauru .. with Abbreviations PHONETIC ALPHABET and Other Symbols X. 13 13-16 13-14 14-16 16-28 16-17 Prefixes used with Nouns. ..TABLE OF CONTENTS... .

. .Table of Contents. Compounds v Pages 28-29 28 28 28 28 Nouns . Adjectives Pronouns- Verbs Adverbs Fiepositions 28-29 29 20 Conjunctions SYNTAX Order of Words Use of Words Nou»s and Adjectives Comparison Numerals Pronouns Personal and Possessive Pronouns Demonstratives Interrogatives and Relatives Indefinite . 30-59 30-32 32-41 32-34 33 33-34 34-38 Pronouns 34 35-36 36-37 37-38 38 ^^38-39 Verbs Adverbs Prepositions 39-41 ^ Conjunctions 41 Use of Inflections Cases 42-59 42-48 42-43 43 43-44 Locative Vocative Genitive Dative Ablative 44-4S 45-47 48^ Accusative Fall of Declension Verb-Forms Impersonal Parts Supine 48 48 48-51 48—49 '. Future Active Participle Digitized 49 49 49 by Microsoft® . Gerund Gerundive .

vi Table of Contents. Greek Paroxytones Greek Proparoxytones Other Foreign Words Secondary Stress Unstressed Words 64 64-65 65-66 66 66-67 67-68 68-77 68-70 71-77 Quantity Position Vowel Quantity Vowels in Hiatus Lengthening before Consonants Disappearance of the Old Quantity Development of a New Quantity 72-73 73-75 75-76 76-77 77-104 78-82 82-gi Vowels Greek Vowels Accented Vowels Single Vowels 82-87 82-83 Digitized o by Microsoft® . Illic Ficatum Numerals Greek Words Greek Oxytones . Pages Present Participle Perfect Participle Infinitive 5° 50 5°~5I 51-52 Voice Mood Imperative Subjunctive 52-54 52 5^-54 54-59 54-5^ Tense The Perfect Tenses Future and Conditional 5^59 60-143 60-61 61-68 61-66 61-62 62-63 63 63 64 64-66 PHONOLOGY Syllabication Accent Primary Stress Vowels in Hiatus Compound Verbs Iliac.

11 2-1 14 Palatals Dentals Liquids 114-118 118-121 121-124 121-123 123-124 L R Sibilants 124-126 127-132 132-137 Nasals Labials P Digitized 132-133 by Microsoft® . . e vii Pages 83-84 84 .. Q. before Front Vowels and G before Back Vowels and G Final and before Consonants . ^ »" I o 84 84-85 85-86 H u 86 86-87 87 a Diphthongs te 88-90 88-89 89-90 au eu ce ui Influence of Labials Clerical Latin 90 90 90 91 91 Unaccented Vowels 91-104 in Unaccented Vowels Initial Syllable Hiatus 93-96 96-98 98-99 99-102 102-104 Intertonic Syllable Penult Final Syllable Consonants Latin Consonants Aspirate Gutturals .. 104-143 106-137 106-107 107-114 109-112 112 C and G Q.Table of Contents....

X Liquids. T e. A 138 138 138-139 140 140-141 K. Adjectives Personal Pronouns Possessives Demonstratives Interrogative Indefinite 162-163 163-164 165 165 and Relative Pronouns Pronouns and Adjectives Verbs The Four Conjugations First Conjugation 166-187 166-170 166-167 167 Second Conjugation Third Conjugation Fourth Conjugation Fundamental Changes in 167-170 170 Inflection 170-173 Digitized by Microsoft® . n. Nasals. *. Pages B F V .viii Table of Contents. r. 133-13S 13s i3S-'37 137 137—141 u Greek Consonants B. and Sibilants Z Germanic Consonants 141-143 144-187 144-161 144-147 144 145-146 146-147 MORPHOLOGY NotJNS AND Adjectives Gender Masculine and Feminine Masculine and Neuter Feminine and Neuter Declension of Nouns First Declension 147—156 149-151 Second Declension Third Declension Loss of Declension Declension of Adjectives 151-152 152—156 156 157-158 158-159 159-161 161-165 161-162 Comparison Numerals Pronouns and Pronominai.

Inchoative Venbs ix Pages Present Stems Imperfect Perfect 173-174 174-176 176-177 177-182 » Weak Perfects . Strong Perfects Pluperfect and Future Perfect Perfect Participle 177-180 180-182 183 Personal Mndings 183-185 186-187 189-219 INDEX Digitized by Microsoft® .Table of Contents.

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Quarterly. 1891. -Carnoy: A. Leipzig. mlrovingienne. A. Die Suffixwandlungen im Vulgdrlatein und im vorlittera- im NeufranzSsischen. Claussen. Bon. C. Wiener Studien XIV. : 1902-03. Heraeus. Cooper: F. Romanische Forschungen VII. 1899. Bayard. Cf. Die griechischen Wbrter im Franzosischen. Bausteine: Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie. Le latin d'Espagne d'aprh les inscriptions. BIBLIOGRAPHY WITH ABBREVIATIONS. in Romor nische Forschungen XV. App.Cooper. 1868-70. : Part — — . 1904. Bechtel. Introduction 1899. M. Dottin. Cohn. A volume of mis- Bayard : L. 1890. 1902. Defixionum Tabellae. Mussafia. Vocalismus und Betonung der rischen Franzosisch nach ihren Spuren lateinischen Sprache. Le latin de Grigoire de Tours. W. Carnoy. : Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. G. Mohl... D'Arbois: H. La dlclinaison en Gaule d. 278 ft. Cf.T. Mllanges Boissier 5-9. possibly as early as the third century. S. L. Melanges Renier 301-309. 1901. 1902. d'Arbois de Jubainville. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. Ueber Aussprache. I. 774. Cohn : G. 1905. 1895. AudoUent. Pr.Pipoque Densusianu: O. Silviae Peregrinatio. Dottin: G. Digitized b)microsoft® . Manuel pour servir h Vltude de I'antiquiti celtique. 1872. Chronologie : F. Bonnet. 1906. Word Formation in the Roman Sermo Plebeius. Bechtel: E. 2^ ed. A Latin list of and incorrect spellings. Histoire de la langue roumaine. Densusianu. : correct- Die Appendix Probi. <J la chronologic du latin vulgaire. Le latin de saint Cyprien. Per. I. i). Corssen. (Vol. I. Vol.. 1863 1893 Claussen T. Audollent: A. cellaneous studies issued in honor of A. Archiv : Archiv filr lateinische Lexicographie und Crammatik mit Einschluss des dlteren Mittellateins. 145 ff. ed. New ed. Corssen : W.

Hoppe. Dubois. Hammer. £criture laire. of Vol. 1893. XXVI. P. 2d ed. Cf. Dubois A. W. Made in France in the eighth Reich. Habere mit dem et Infinitiv und die Entstehung des la latiniti de romanischen Futurums. Edon: G. Franz : 1883. Kbrting.. Koschwitz. : Meyer-Liibk'e.: 1900... Facere G. 1904 Haag : O. Franz. Draeger: A. 2d 1878. XIV BlBIJOGRAPHY. ed. Historische Syntax der lateinischen Sprache. I. Eckinger. Die locale Verbreitungfriihester romanischer Lautwandlungen im. W. — 1888- M. 2 1902. : W. Entstehung und Entwickelung des Kirchenlateins. K. Zs. jd or ninth century. 1902. Koff mane. Romanen und Germanen in ihren Wechselbeziehungen. Thielmann. Haag. probably 521 ff. Foerster and E. -Grundriss : G. Hetzer. 3 vols. Paris in Rom. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. Syntax und Siil des Tertullian. Meyer-Liibke. 2d ed. 498. 2d ed. 1890vols. Cassel : II. Grbber. Grundriss der romanischen Philologie. .. 1898. in Archiv saint Jlrome. 1896 — Futurum G. Gl. Die Reichenauer Glossen in Zs. 641 7. Korting: G. G. in the eighth Cf. XXII. 1902. Grammaire des langues romanes.. in France. Keil. 1903. Die Orthographie lateinischer Worter ingriechischen : : Inschriften. Lateinisch-romanisches Wdrterbuch. Kluge. Draeger. Die Latinitdt Fredegars. Etude lexicograpkique grammaticale de Kasseler Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. alten Italien. . Foerster and E. Goelzer. 48. 1892. 1901. 157. Beiheft Gram. La latiniti d'Ennodius. Eckinger T. Kluge F. : : P. 1857-1880.. 569. EinfUhrung in das Studium der romanischen les Sprachwissenschaft. Made. 1884. KofEmane : G. Le developpement de facere dans langues romanes. 1903. Keil: H. Gl. Franz. a: Zur Geschichte des franzosischen 3. Rydberg. ed. W. Rydberg. £E. : century. : : Hammer in Grundriss I^. 1879Digitized by Microsoft® . Hoppe: H. 1894. Koschwitz. £don.. 1901. Reviewed by G. et prononciation du latin savant et du latin popu- 1882. Reichenauer Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. W. H. Einf . Die lateinisch-romanischen Elemente im Althochdeutschen. Grammatici Latini..

1894. Cf. : F. Hilarii Tractatus de Mysteriis et Hymni et S. 1897. : Leipzig. du frangais prilittiraire. Digitized by Microsoft® . Pirson: J. in P. Oliver: A^Oliver. G. Gamurrini. ad 367 ff. Perf. lateinischen und romanischen Lehnworte im Altenglischen : II. lat. Fortsetzung. Pirson. Pogatscher A. Thielmann. : La langue des inscriptions de la Gaule. Cf. Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. 1892. Archiv II. and S. Wolfflin in Archiv IV. Pogatscher. 1869. Olcott. Lebreton J. in Itinera hierosolymitana saculi Written probably in the latter part of the fourth century by an ignorant nun. Les mots latins dans les langues brittoniques. Meyer-Lubke. Spr. J. Regnier: A. Itala und Vulgata. Mohl. Lindsay: W. Perf Per. Neumann Franz Neumann. 1887. Studies in the tions. sit Quillacq : : J. La premiire personne du pluriel en gallo-roman.Bibliography. Etudes sur la langue et la grammaire de Ciciron. Monthly. t^ Verzeichniss der ed.. M. Pass.XXX). 'P. De la latinitl des Sermons de saint Augustin. A. Ronsch. ad loca sancta. : LiteraturblattfUrgermanischeundromanischePhilologie. with special reference to the Latin Sermo Vulgaris. . Neue: Formenlehre der lateinischen Sprache. Olcott : G. Vokalismus der Tonsilben. The Latin Language. Hilarius.S. Pr. Ang^ade. 509: Peregrinatio iiii-viii. Die lateinische Sfrache in den romanischen : Landern. H. 1888. Zur Lautlehre der griechischen. 1892-1902. 1899. Ferotin. Substantives Word Formation of the Latin Inscrip- and Adjectives. Teil. Petite phonltique Phon. 1901. T. E. Loth. I goo. Habere mit dem Part. 372. Quomodo lingua latina usus S. Observations on the Use of Certain Prepositions in to the Petronius with special reference Part. auf Aussprache und Recht- schreibung beziiglichen Eigenthiimlickkeiten in den Inschriften aus Gallia Narbonensis. S. : P. G. 1898. : : Ltblt. 451. Le viritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. in Grundriss V. perhaps from Spain. N. Mohl. : 1 901. Loth J. 1900. 1903. R. Regnier. 1888. Btudes sur le lexique du latin vulgaire. Marchot. Silvia AquitancE Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. J. ed. PI.. Pers. 1905. 1886. 259. xv W. M. De latinitate libelli qui inscriptus est Peregrinatio loca sancta. . Silvice Aquitanm 1898. Geyer.'i>(eue. P. 1901. 1898. Quillacq. Lindsay. Lexique F. See Bechtel. : Roman Sermo Plebeius. Lebreton.

Chemnitz and Leipzig. 564. Romanische Sprachwissenschaft. Spr. 1 856-68. Die rumdnische Sprache.. IV. Wblfflin. I. Quarter- ly. Suchier: H. VII. Die keltische Sprache. Zauner: A. : S. Sittl: K. Som. in Studi Medievali I. Die lokalen Verschiedenkeiten der lateinischen SpracAe. to Works the text. H. Schuchardt. III. und Thurot : Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits de la Biblioth^que nationale et : attires bibliothiques Vol. 453.: E. Windisch. Lateinische und romanische Comparaiion. numbers a year. Sepnlcri : Gregorio A. Charles Thurot. Urbat. Cena Trimalchionis. Zs. 171. Beitrdge zu einer Darstellung der romanischen Elemente im Latein der Historia Francorum des Gregor v. 125. Le alterazioni fonetiche e morfologiche nel latino di Magno e del suo tempo. : Zur Entstehung der romanischen Wortstellung aus der lateinischen. 1885. Waters: W. VI. 1902. 100. : Zeitschrift fiir franzosische Sprache und Litteratur. Tours. 1900. 1903. 424. Quarterly. XQ. Historische 1894. Substrate : G. Der Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. Stolz. E. in Grundriss P. 116. 1890. Seelmann. 422. Zs. 264. Windisch: E. 507. 25. 234. 276. 371. in Grundriss P. Petronius. in 204. Sepulcri. 138. 539. Paris. Halle. : Zeitschrift Jur romanische Philologie. which only occasional reference is made are cited in full in Digitized by Microsoft® . Vok. Tiktin : : H. Suchier. Urbat R. Grober. Archiv I. Bibliography. Grammatik der lateinischen Sprache. II. Stolz: F. 1&&2. 377. Die franzosische und provenzalische Sprache ihre Mundarten.nn&r. Vol. 117. Waters. 1868. ^KvA. 3 vols. V. Romania. : Wolfflin : E. Vulgdrlateinische Substrate romanischer Worter. Four to sLx 1879. Die Ausprache des Latein nach physiologisch-historischen Grundsdtzen. in Grundriss P. 371. Paris.xvi Richter Elise Richter. fr. Tiktin. Notices et Extraits de divers manuscrits latins pour servir A fhistoire des doctrines grammaticales au moyen dge. XII.

. vowel letter shows that the vowel is open. not >• indicates derivation. o = rounded the sound of German = the sound of th in English thin. S =z > the sound of in English i/iis. . (a semicircle) under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is not syllabic. .c = the sound of ch in German ach. q e. =r bilabial /S v. the source standing at the open end of the figure. Digitized by Micrqsoft® xvii . under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is close. whichever way it be turned. (an acute accent) after a consonant letter shows that the consonant is (a dot) • C '^ / (a hook)' under a palatal. J) ii o. SMALL CAPITALS mean that the forms so printed occur in inscriptions (but this indication is used only when for some special reason it seems desirable). the sound of Spanish v and i/i *. = the sound of e in French me.PHONETIC ALPHABET AND OTHER SYMBOLS. := rounded i. = the sound of ng in English long. The other marks and abbreviations employed are so generally accepted as to need no explanation. * (an asterisk) before a word shows that the form attested. the sound of German «. is conjectural.

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Throughout this territory the official language Latin. southern Gaul in 120. in 50. D. j. a little district on the is The Latin tongue was thus extended to many peoples. the Orient. all Italy was subdued south of the Macra and the Rubicon. in adopted by Etruscans and by various n orthern Italy by Ligurians. civilizations. representing different races._ Germanic and others still. I Digitized by Microsoft® . The extent of the Roman Empire on p. and linguistic habits. The Latinization of these peoples was the work of several centuries^: by 272 b. Lat. Venetia cast her lot with Rome in 215. originally the speech of shown by the map was Latium. Illyrians in^sou^hea^emjmd southwestern Italy respectively by and Greeks. Sardinia and Corsica in 238. tEe bri fall "oO^thage in 146. X. forsaken in the third century._Semites. Chronologie . 'See Mohl. beyond the peninsula it spread among Ligurians. Celts. c. pp. Raetia in 15. the in 102-1.AN INTRODUCTION TO VULGAR I. political changes drove it in the rest of the from Great Britain. Sfr.n central j. for the most part. also Meyer-Lubke. Latin language never gained a foothold in Greece. Celts. The and Teutones were destroyed was a province.. Empire it has remained. and Africa. Illyria was absorbed after 167. and quite cut off from the rest of the Latin-speaking world in the sixth. Sicily became a province in 241. Tiber. northern Cim- Gaul Dacia was colonized in 107 A.. Aquitanians. 451-455. Spain was made a province in 197. LATIN.talyjt_was Italic tribes. tribes. and. Africa after Iberians. IHy- _rians .

in the main. but there doubtless were still noticeable differences in pronunciation and even in vocabulary. until the 90-89 B. piimex. kindred At first there was sturdy resistance. c. Kff. The Latin tongue. etc. became more uniform. The map on p. however.2 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Latm. and there was little or no mixture. Europe where Latin in its modern forms is now spoken. of Latium was adopted by tribes using. nevertheless a few native words were kept. It should be remembered. conflict of or less with the native idioms . Africa. moreover. 464. has always been in an unstable condition. elex for The Italian word zavorra by Microsoft® . but especially p^eriods. considerable local dive^ences. Digitized may be Oscan. like every living language. that the language carried effect. [§ 2 until the present day. The Social War. Latin was simply substituted for foreign tongues. and to some degree in the peninsula. The evidence of inscriptions and of grammarians indicates that from the beginning to the end of Roman history speech was constantly changing. ilex are perhaps Umbrian possibly Etruscan Lat. jfor : e. Pomex. The before the Social War. 445. and has been carried thence to Amerand Asia. and their In Italy the language §peech_reflected_their varied origin. and Oscan was used in inscriptions until the first century of our era.^ When Latin conquered. Oscan forms are ligud for and k for lege^ pru for pro^ ni for 'The is S. it blended more languages.'' In the outlying provinces. the resulting geographical dis- crepancies are manifest in early monuments. 2. xi marks the parts of ica. the alteration being most rapid in the earliest and the latest Furthermore. and there must have been a variety of accent. alL southern Italy was under Oscan influence. Chronologie 98-99. Italian nn : for nd.g2eaking peoples_ were not_ homogeneous. had a levelling and speech in Italy ^ See Chronologie 133 and I16-120. Spr. there were at all times.

the earlier acquisitions received a more popular. was constantly developing away from the archaic standard of elegant parlance. Republican and early Imperial times educated speech became highly^ artificial. under the Empire the variations probably came to be no greater than those /the^kter colonies a now to be found in the English of the British Empire. throughout the Republic and the Empire. . drawing away . as It is grew out of early Classic Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . ugper and that of the lower and^coiintry speech. while popular usage tends to quick change. Spr. from the brogue of the country. provinces was not identicial: it represented different chronological stages and different local dialects of jI^aUc^Latin . was completelyTaFinized by the fourth "^ "" of With the beginnings culture and literature there came inevitably a divergence between the language of . Roman territory. not the primitive. . 1 . and is also between city Injatfi. from the consciously polite utterance of cultivated society. Administration and ImiHtary service tended to obliterate distinctions. though affected by all of these. 463-464. Literary influence conservative and refining.^ fields: it continues the Classic. the common idiom. vowel is it Neither the dialect of the slums or of the us of not a few urban and rustic grammarians distinct tell vulgarisms that are not perpetuated in the It is Romance tongues. What wecalTVuIit gar Latin is the speech of the middle classes. more offtcial speech.^ Vulgar Latin naturally developed differently in ^ * Cf Lai. not an independent offshoot of Old Latin: system. _excegting ^reece andthe £entiiry after Christ.t&L. XV-XXX. and from the slang of the lowest quarters of the city..from the everyday language on the other hand. We may say in general that the East. Cf Cooper .the classes.. 3 i\2_ik^_J£X?. 3. %J3] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

seventh century of our era. from about 200 b. YjJgar Lsatijl. Kiibler Archiv VIII. such as articles and prepositions. . inj^e^ixth Jix . Sittl and Hammer. some of which can be ascribed to an inclination to discard those parts of words that are not necessary for their identification (as vetulus when viridis. Spr.enormous development of modifying and determining words. ai almost in is most sharply differentiated from Classic Latin when schools decayed „ . due partly to phonetic but mainly to syntactic causes. progressed. suftseSWe 4. tqa^bout -6oo . vedus). An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. some to a desire for differentiation (which lowers i to e to make it more remote from i ). become virdis. see Lat. in the last few centuries of this epoch. If we compare that the latter find also a gre at sim plification of inflections. We rfote an.4 . period lasts. as far as the levelling inEuence of schot^l and army permitted.ALjUus--poin-t we ~may_ say that Vulgar XiSi^ stops and the . then. until the dialects of distant localities became mutu^ ally unintelligible. c. for African Latin. ^l^ various localities.A-P. we observe certain changes in pronunciation. we shall see was always tending to become more flexible and more explicit. being accelerated and the military organization was broken. B. Furthermore. we may put it.^ any definite date must be arbitrary. . the universal inclination of language to diverge was reinforced by the original habits of the diverse speakers and by such peculiarities of native accent as hacl survived. i6i. 492-497.^ The differentiatign. Digitized by Microsoft® . some to unknown reasons! WEy~" for instance. and the diphthong at is reduced to e). Pirson and Carnoy also.JLQmance languages _begin. Althou. * For a history of the Latin language._jjid an abundant use of prefixes and. roughly The speaking. some to a tendency to assimi^tejmlike adjacent sounds (so ipse is spoken isse.^ Ctassic and VulgarXatin.

the subsequent developments. Archiv XIV.Jists„jof JacQlxacJtjOTmjs. Audollent. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. Foerster and KDfSiiitbdnll>fr. "See 119. 'See W.iSgS. Of ^speciaTvalue are the Peregrinatiqjidjqtasancta.. E. 35. Introduction to Vulgar Latin.— An become^ o. Bechtel. andrmosTim- ^portant o f_all. while au did not in Latin generally. the so-called Glossary of Reichenau. S. Melanges Boissier 5 W. 301 G. 1885. 1902 . * Used by H. 551. 5 universally be came is e. Aussprache des Latein. . 25 ff. a considerable iragment of a description of travel in the East. Beiheft 7. a problem as yet unsolved. F6rotin. 204 if. 4 For the chronology of developments. Zur Sprache der Mulomedicina Chironis in . 455-461. fourth century^. in inscriptions and early manu- ^scripts'. G. Spr. . early and late. A. the occasional lapses in cultivated authors. and W. Zur Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. XXX). Grober. 401. 1866-68. see Stolz. E. . Seelmann. Hetzer in Zs. 1904. the nonClassic forms. 367. Lommatzsch.Mili/BaoilSisches Uebungsbuch. E. Sprachgziellen und Wortquellen des lateiniscken Worierbuchs in Archiv I. the A^endix Probi^ z.' spells by A. some . the distinction of learned and popular words. Schuchardt. Itinera hierosolymitana sceculi mi-viii. see G. Le veritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N.* All of these are to be used with caution.. . Silvia Peregrinatio. possib^'as early as the third century'. ^ Utilized by E.glossaries aDi. 6t. S. P. 55-67. W. and the establishment of unattested Vulgar Latin words. Cf. Zur Mulomedicina Chironis in Archiv XII. 259 M. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. 278. For a brief account of the Latin grammarians. "See P. of the^TConraHcel languages. Herseus. by an uneducated woman (probably a Spanish nun) of the latter good and bad pajt of the. list of spellings. a few texts w ritten by persons of scanty education. Gioixr. Fcerster in Wiener Studien XIV.ijecurring. 1899. in the eighth century. Paris in Melanges Renier 301. Die Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. made in France There is an interesting collection of Defixionum Tabellce. Lot. Ueber die Latinitat der Peregrinatio ad loca sancta in Archiv IV. Meyer-Liibke. and VII. Geyer. 641 K. Wolfflin. Heraeus. Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. Die Appendix Probi. . in Archiv I. ^Cf. 1902. 5* Our sou rces of information' concerning the„ current spoken La tin are^ the statements of grammarians^.

264ff. to speak. — icaccubus — curbus). {damnum — dui)^ in Arckiv: I. ff. suus)'. (Jlagrare —gTttta). so cams. V. see G. Grober. {Hie — lamna)^ So?^' {lacusta — mille)\ IV. Herasus. filius. A. speech of the literary and fashionable classes should differ from that of the common people so Literature inclines to extend it is in all civilized communities. ff. ii6fif. II. mater. 6. dicere. Korting. the vulgar idiom has homely metaphors of its own and numerous specific. reconstructed out of Romance words. bonus. Examples are : 7. (eber III. 422 {pbedire — putidus)-. vacca . 125 {quadraginta — rascu' {reburrus — runcare). vendere. On the other hand. Die Sprache der romiscken Kinderstube in Archiv XIII. 1901. For a thorough discussion of reconstructed forms. viridis. too. bene. 185-203. It is natural that the The the senses of words. 255. 1. [abbreviare buttis). iiyS. yj^ (supplement. 149. For an approximately complete vocabulary. This class includes a great mass of words. si. 2'/$^. see G. forming. altus. audire. polite language. ~ technical words not found in literature. 233 ff. 539 —Jiiicum)^ 424£f. {tabanus — ziruiare). popular use tends to restrict them. . ff. Lateinish-romanisches Worterbuch. in. pater. ff. amare. Digitized b^Wlicrosoft® . ^See Densusianu.) Worter ff. VOCABULARY.iooff. the nucleus of the language. quando.I. Die romische Soldatensprache in Arckiv XH. (sabanum — lare)^ 234 VI. male. 453ff. pants. 138 {hmdus — iticem). puteus. ff. has many poetic figures and many abstract terms unknown to the crowd. WORDS USED ALIKE IN CLASSIC AND VULGAR LATIN. VulgSrlateinische Substrate romanischer . {minacicE — nutrire). longus. W. WORDS AND THEIR MEANINGS.

Bayard 105. Bayard 63-202. Pirson 257-258 . etc. not 'strength'. ingenium := 'trick'. necare = Bon. a word assuming a more or concrete signification {^se : icognatus\=z ' brother-in-law coUocare^ 'put to bed' dominicus =: divinus . of the examples can ». Very many Classic words are used in Vulgar Latin with a different sense: comparare =^h\xy'. 272. 351—352. but there are some examples /(7r^j = 'strong' in all 10. i ^ns— 'chM'. lectio =^ 'dxoifin' machinari='g[mA. perhaps Cf. = 'rebJiKe§. 1 a. focus=^iix&\ paganus= 'pagan'. 235-328.'» Many Pirson 260-262. viaticum = ']ox\xntY'. part'. ro6ur= 'o^. 'authority'. 'text'. etc. Many words kept their literal but lost their metaphorical sense: captio ='a. Capit a ssumed the meaning of fieri potes t: R. Bon. Dubois 185-225.' to^x^a . not 'sophism' nor 'deceit'. collocare= 'go to bed'.11.ct of taking'. orbus—'hXmd'. Hoppe Most 48.. G.^ The general use of a word in an extended sense is not common. WORDS USED DIFFERENTLY AND IN VULGAR LATIN. defi' 9. nor 'best b. 269-270. .. Bon. assume to the old one: Bechtel 137./22J£Sfe 46. Quillacq 54-79. 283. words. Bon. Digitized by Microsoft® . Dubois 220. SENSE RESTRICTED.'. however. tractatus= 'treatise'. nite This happens frequently. non capit prophetam perire. Regnier 24. mulier='-vi\ie'. Archiv XII. etc.'k'. yUloi:^. 243. : senses.. G. hcec eestimare non capit. 8.. se piicare=' go'. Per. new meaning in addition ambulare= 'march'. SENSE EXTENDED. § 10] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and also 'continue'. IN CLASSIC 7 a. be classified under the heads of restriction or extension of meaning. non capit utique videri Deus. 286. 286).

Bayard 83.. Bechtel 144. tamen must have been sed. proles. they were either borDigitized by Microsoft® . Waters Ch. = 'pass Regnier 27 {quadraglnta dies fecit).25. apud. igitur. Bon. is very rich in abstract nouns (G. G. 422 (in area Noe . 3. quia. cum.". replicare= 'reply'. Bechtel 127 {habebat de eo. de. etc.. quod. quoque. . quoad. quidem. 418. Dubois 301-308). etc. etc.. res is used of persons. fletus. Dubois. but most of them are new formations. hand. utrum. unus = 'a'. . Classic ployed at the vulgar speech or went out of use before the earliest Jubere. . [§ n 'go'.loco forsitan quattuor milia. 37. wW«/« = 'miracles' (in imitation of the Greek). ^: moribund. horrescere. the French ilj> a. 66. enim.tes moral obligation.. Dubois 218. Waters Ch. ita. Bon. Bayard 94. Per. G. facere (time)'.). Regnier 29 {in came paucas habet virgines sanctimoniales).per.13. 391-397. 44. monuments of the Romance languages: so funus. at. autem. Pirson 255 ^^l^lj^j^^ ^^^^ habuit serpentes). Unde came to mean 'and so'. although it is common in the Peregrinatio. diu. So various prepositions and conjunctions (as ad. donee. Very many adverbs and conjunctions dis-"~\ I appeared saltern. quomodo) assumed new functions. and quasi. 204. 38. to be sure. vel. 58 {bella res). etc. an. sive. 258 fif. ^2S= 't^he' and 'he'. quin. 328. fascia means a measure of land. quippe. When lost terms were needed for literary or other purposes. Regnier 20. etiam. Bechtel 144. Poetic aurora. Latin words either were not em- II. ergo. postquam. : . satis = 'much'. hamo has the sense of French on. populus «/««^«j= 'common people'. /V/-.8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. nam. Ecclesiastical Latin. terms and some abstract nouns were not needed: frondifer. WORDS USED Numerous all in m CLASSIC BUT NOT IN VULGAR LATIN. Per. del>ere 'mdica. etc. ut.

clerical 9 rowed from Classic or Latin (as nobilis) or replaced by new constructions (as *carrica for onus). cf. senex to vetulus. R. R. SUBSTITUTES. urbs by civitas. Italian. 12. domus by casa. French and Provencal mansio and hospitale. Provengal. avus by *aviolus. *filiaster.§ 13] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. tanti. Dubois 220. ^-j 2 parentes . one often crowded out the other: atrium gave way to cars. ^ Zauner 41-4. Indus to jocus. edere in the main to manducare. French.Va&T* capum) is preserved by Rumanian. ^capitia (<^caput) by Spanish and .*avica. magnus to grandis. mansio. Dubois 212. cur to quare. When Latin had two words nearly synonymous. Among the Romance languages. Portuguese prefer casa. emere by comparare. Sometimes a term was replaced by a word not found in Classic Latin at all: anser-wAs driven out by *auca (<. Occasionally the substitute aliquis yielded in part to res -vi&y was apparently a slang word: nata. Italian.338. 336.. caput to testa''. vitrUus hypatraster. diminutive of avis). R. b. . Portuguese. Olcott XXV. sol According to Olcott XVIII. R. 313. 472 ferre to portare. 272. R. R. ^ * Caput (or rs. Provenjal. hospitale^. 472. to genitores. Some words were replaced by diminutives. ignis hy focus. French. i'^o^^ tot hy quanti. crus gave to gamba. privignus by 13. mansio ( Roman.\ Dubois 209. Digitized ^^^ by Microsoft® . 'dwelling') only in . R. Cf Zauner 41-42. equus to caballus. For mansio. some nouns by derivative adjectives: avis ^ by aucellus. Rjetian. Rumanian.2. . Raetian. humerus by spatula. 337.. Spanish. noverca by *matraster. Italian. . a. testa by Cf. R.. SYWOHYMS. . G.. omnes by toii. nunc by hora. 324. and by villa. Sometimes the survivor was far from a synonym in Classic Latin: discere was displaced hy apprendere. casa occurs only in Italian inscriptions. 345. os to bucca. Bechtel i^o^gena to gabata.

conjunctions. PARTICLES. Gl. c. ut were ousted by functions of an. by subsitution. became *por. Autem. credens. igitur. Many prepositions. Fro. 203.x\naucella. vetus for [§ 15 by *soUculus. infemus. R. etc.). Cf. 472 mane h^ Diminutives were extremely common in late matutinum. Adjectives used as nouns were etc. 403. Latin: G. etc. etsi. schedula. apud-<n2iS partially supplanted by adj cum. Some of these were probably old Digitized by Microsoft® . ex gave to de. pra. R. and Dacia preferred /^r. 121-130 {cereolus. R. 100-107 {arida. in Gaul. 395-396. Italy. G. quando. and other phrases. ^w^ by diurnus. by other words. paucum tempus for haud diu). cuculla. Olcott 250-263 {gemelli._ Cis.). . Bon. 4. 201. quoniam were often replaced by quomodo. Dubois 147 {novellus'). infemus. ergo. ver by vemum tempus. too. 108-121 {brevis. etiam. hiems by hibernum. most part by vetulus. doubtless under the influence of per. dies largely . The place of cum was taken various substitutes. Ab was made unnecessary by de and per. to propter were displaced southern Gaul. which replaced /^r and pro in Spain and to a considerable extent in northern Gaul. yielded to apud. sed. the by quando and other conjunctions. d'lJ way pro and per. utrum were assumed by si. ne. mammula-:=^^zxiA\aoVs\t. WORDS USED IN VULGAR BUT NOT IN CLASSIC LATIN. tamen. frequent also: R. etc. Reich.lo in part An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Occasionally. words were replaced by phrases: diu by longum tempus (Bon. erga.). Densusianu.). 15. quod. appear in Classic Vulgar Latin evidently had many words that do not texts. and adverbs were lost 14. neptilla. 184-185.

gavia (used by Pliny). 154. Densusianu 190. Cyprian to the bishop of Carthage). potis est = potest. etc. Onomatopees et Revue des langues romanes XLIV. atta.adj. gente). (so. *prodis. 151— 152. and f. battalia. 421. 237. 156-157. so not improbably the original of the Romance words mean'find'. as *miaulare. Pirson 243. gent. Neue II. adj. 16. 154. etc. Korting (found in the 7th century). It. pudoris finis. Waters Ch. II. E. tata. sed non genttlis. prode. between genitus and from prodest (cf. Archiv XIII. 186.. adj. Archiv XIII. Some native words are rarely attested. fin. Pirson 244. (Fr. cloppus Densusianu 196.g. Substrate ficatum. Archiv XIII. Archiv XIII. Grammont. 158. A few that must have existed are not attested at all: *refusare. finis honoris > 484. St. Densusianu 196. 234. pappus = 'gra. Audollent 199. from the noun finis in such phrases as honorum finis. mamma.. some were late creations. R. *rettna=: 'rein'. Pr. etc.). although they were doubtless in common use: amma.. . circare = 'hnnV .ndta.§ 17] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ii native terms that do not happen to occur in the works preserved. Herzog in Bausteine e. norma. cf. Likewise words made by ono- matopoea. detached 176-177). bxmca. 97. apparently a cross then m. hoc enim prode fit vobis. and 'go' (cf. trepalium.'. Rom. a. NATIVE WORDS. fine fino). 63. serutinus. Archiv XIII. nonnus. and perhaps those of the words meaning 'gape'. Some of the unattested words were obviously late developments: *finis. SubstrateY. expressifs in M. Archiv XII. fins onors. XVII. Archiv VIII. Digitized by Microsoft® . 17. 106. Archiv XIII. ing 'touch'. Substrate mots. .). 53. *gentis.. 468-469 (^quid enim prode est homini. pa(J>)pa. 151-153. § 405). baro — 'athlete'. It. fuit prode illis. Vr. some Were borrowed from other languages. drappus. tatus. Bayard 179 (applied . (Fr.

numerous verbs in -izare. [§ 19 Late Latin was rich in derivatives. G. Dubois 144.. More came in through the Christian vocabulary: angelus. as allegorizare. prophetare. 44. verging 247 {cata mane mane). Bechtel 95 {cata mansiones.. but a few examples Gl. anathematizare. Reich. prophetizare. *soliculus. sabbatizare. few Celtic terms were adopted. alberca. *vir{t)dura. which affected familiarity with Greek. evangelizare. *coraticum. there are many Greek words in Petronius: hepatia. We find a large number of Greek words. Gram. Gl. Introduction) found their way into Latin: bannus. some made by Christian writers. society. colaphizare. as baptizatio. Cf. G. According to Olcott XIX. dulcor. confessor = 'martyr'. catechiblasphemare . 225. Regnier VIII. Very many Greek terms used by ecclesiastical writers never became popular. scandalizare. zare. thesaurizare . haribergum. hapja. and not a few new derivatives. Pirson 236). haunjan. cata pascha). 224. Waters Ch. R. some of popular creation. vict(u)alia. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. FOREIGN WORDS. 66. This subject chapter. apparently borrowed by popular speech: amygdalum. vertragus. *dulcior = 'sweetness'. schema. colaphus. eunuchizare. 211. such as alauda. Reich. *man{u)aria. diaconissa. will be discussed at length in the following may be given here: post-verbal dolus <dolere. A werra. African Latin was freest in word formation. wfltan 19. folUa. 205-226: anathema. b. §71.. carricare. a distributive preposition. Judaizare. *nivicare. modernus. baptizare. Waters Ch. cf. Some were introduced by fashionable etc. cata. Bon. * abbellire . sagma. *ausare. a few of them on the sense of 'every'. 12 An 18. (cf. dactylus. More Germanic words (of. 226. zelare. Digitized by Microsoft® . Bon.

then prefixes. substantives taken from the roots of verbs). Petronius. 21. pounds . such as gaudimonium (Waters Ch. etc. After the model of cantus — cantare. Regnier etc. in-. ADJECTIVES. and finally composite words. 35. 367. Augustine). which the noun seems to come from the derivative verb. Digitized by Microsoft® .^ PREFIXES USED WITH NOUNS. Vok. Cooper XXX ff.or bi. " Cooper XXXVI. B. (pairs in : VII (blamed by St. 170 .. some of them made with new suffixes (as —icca. who were especially addicted to prepositional compounds with con-. II.* popular speech preserved and This freedom of formation was abused by African authors. a. AND PRONOUNS. I. whereas in reality both come from a primitive verb. Bon. as canere. facility of word formation. 430-693 Densusianu 156-173.§ 22] An Introduction to VulgaW Latin. next suffixes. 22. satire). In strictly Classic texts there appear to be no 20. G. 98. 246-247. Cooper XXXIV. 2. '^ . Bis. Late writings almost all abound in abstract nouns (Cooper 1-2). sub-. See Gram. 1. really living suffixes \ but the lost. —itta)} Petronius shows a fondness for long derivatives. PREFIXES. 130 . POST-VERBAL NOUNS. 13 DERIVATION. bisacutus.was used with some adjectives and appar: ently with a few nouns bisaccium. ' » bimaritus. G. Vulgar Latin is very rich in derivatives and comit has many affectionate diminutives. " Cooper 246-297. which in- the literary language creased.e.* We shall consider first postverbal nouns (i. 61). a fictitious primitive noun was derived from a number of verbs in Vulgar Latin and in the Romance languages so dolus from dolere. XL VI. saltus — saltare.


An Introduction
Ad-, con-, de-,

to Vulgar Latin.


dis—, ex-, in-, re:

and some others were
*adaptus ; commixtius,

occasionally used to form adjectives

G. 160 defamatus ; *disfactus; exsucus; inanimatus ; *replenus.
Cf. G.




Ac-, atque-,

ecce-, eccu-,

met- were used as demonstrative

prefixes to



pronominal adjectives and to adverbs. Eccu— is ecce eum; its origin being forgotten, it was used in

Vulgar Latin as a synonym of ecce. Met, primarily a suffix, came to be used as a prefix through such combinations as semet ipsum, understood as se metipsum. In archaic writings
reinforced demonstratives as eccum, eccam,


ecca, eccillum., eccillam, eccillud, eccistam

are not



Vulgar Latin examples are ac Classic texts they are rare. sic; atque ille-; ecce hie; * eccu iste ; * eccu sic. Substrate VI,





Cf. A.

Kohler, Die Partikel

ecce in

Archiv V,

See §§ 65, 66.



25. Ad-, con—, de-, dis—, ex—, in—, re— were freely used, disbeing mainly a Vulgar Latin prefix: abbreviare, G. 179 * a.d;

cap(i)tare ; adgenuculari, R. 181; adpretiare, R. 181, G. 180;
adpropiare, R. 181, G. 180; adunare, R. 182; confortare, R. 185,

* cominitiare ; complacere, R. 184; deaurare, G. 182 * disjejunare; exaltare, G. 183; excoriare, G. 182; impinguare, G. 181


G. 183; *infurcare; recapitulare, G. 185; *requcerere.
con—, de- lost their special significance;

Ad—, ad— was particularly

favored in Spain, con- in Italy.
ally there

Cf. Lat. Spr. 487.

was a change

of prefix


was used with the

sense of expectare, * convitare sometimes took the place of invitare; dis-

was often substituted

for ex-.


Ab-, contra-, per—, sub-, super supra-, tra trans— were

by Microsoft®

§ 3i]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


used occasionally: * aboculare ; *contrafacere; *perdonare ; subG. 185; * subdudere ; subsannare, R. 199, G. 187; superabundare, G. 187; * super—* suprafacere ; *trabucare ; *transaudire,

annare; transplantare, G. 188.
27. Extra- was sometimes used and 2«/ra— in Italy: * extrabuccare ; 28.
in Italy

and Dacia, infra-

* infraponere ; *intratenere.


e-, ob-, prce-,

pre-, pro-, retro— were apparently

not used to form new verbs in the popular spoken language,
although some of them are occasionally so employed by late
writers: opprobare, G. 184; prcedesiinare, G. 184


prolongare, G. 184.



sometimes replaced by ad—:


> addormire.

Foris and minus came to be used as prefixes in some

Foris was confounded Gaul with the Frankish _;?r- (= ver-) verslahen = Old Fr. See G. Baist, Frdnkisches fir— im altesten Franzosiforbatre. schen in Romanische Forschungen XII, 650; cf. Rom. XXX, For this use of minus, compare the phrase minus est^ 633. caritas in quantum adest in quantum deest, Regnier 109


* minuscredere.






autem minus


Cf. § 245.


Some verbs

take a double prefix

adimplere; coexcitare,

R. 207

(cf. Quintilian, coexercitatus); deexacerbare, R. 207

*deexcitare; *exeligere.




the restoration of the


form of

the primitive verb, was a regular process in Vulgar Latin (cf. §139): aspargo for aspergo is blamed by Velius Longus, £don

Cyprian, Bayard 3; commando is, according to Velius Longus, the usual form, rather than commendo,



used by


S. 60, ifidon

131; consacrati


occur in inscriptions,




Bon. 49°;

^^f^'^i ^30^°





An Introduction
Bon. 490.

to Vulgar Latin.



Computo, 58-64, Bon. 486-493. prdsto seem to cdnsto, consuo, erigo, exeo, infio,

have been regarded as simple verbs

S. 64.

primitive form of prefixes; but this

Late writers were in the habit of restoring the full, was doubtless merely a

matter of spelling, and did not indicate the



In TertuUian, Cyprian, and some others there is generally no assimilation of the prefix other writers, such as

Gregory of Tours, apparently used both assimilated and unassimilated forms. Bayard 12-15: adpetere, conpendium, inproius, obfero, subplanto. Bon. 178-188: adtonitus, conmittere,
inlatus, obprimere, subcuvibere.



in —are; occasionally


Nexhsfrom nouns^ generally end
sometimes in

in -iare or —ire;

which was eventually sup-

planted in Italy and in Gaul by —izare (for pronunciation see

§339)- This last ending came from Greek -dfiv through borrowed words, such as baptizare. For a list of Greek verbs in -i^etv adopted by Christian writers, see R. 248-249 (cf. §19 above); some new formations were used, as catechizare. In early Latin this same ending appears as -issare (attidsso, rhetorisso): see A. Funck, Die Verba auf issare und izare in

Archiv III, 398.


— * dom'nizare;

—plagiare —


oculare; pedinare; plantar.e; potionare; * trepaignire ;



follicare ;

* nivicare ;


Cooper 205-245, Dubois 151-162, Quillacq 41-46, Bonnet 471-474.

"Cf. R. 154-162.

by Microsoft®


§ 36]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

in —are,


Verbs from

and perfect participles e.r\A

—iare, —ire; also in' -icare (cf. albicare), —itare (cf. debilitare,
visitare), —escere


—iscere (cf. canescere, mollescere); possibly


angiistare; *ausare; captivare

confortare ; falsare

gravare ; levare ; * oblltare ; rictare ; Usare ; * abbellire ; tiare ; * captiare ; humiliare ;

— * vanitare —


alleviare; * al-

unire ;


Icetiscere ; vilescere ;

— amari— *blan-




verbs from perfect participles (frequentatives, etc.)

replace the original verbs: adjuvare "> adjutare ; audere'^ausare; canere'^cantare ; uti>usare.

lost their frequentative or inchoative sense







156. in -icqre


Verbs from other verbs end


fodere), —itare (cf. clamitare <,clamare')\ also in -escere, -Iscere
(cf. florescere,

* bullicare

< buUere





inchoative force:

apparescere ;

Vulgar Latin has many old frequentive verbs G. 178-179, Cooper 205. There are some late diminutives in —aculare, —tculare, -uculare, through diminutive nouns or adjecWe find also tives (ci. periculari <,periculum'): * saltlculare. some miscellaneous imitative formations * expaventare (and some others) apparently after the analogy of prasentare * misculare perhaps after maculare.


Greek verbs in -av,

-eiv, etc.,

when taken

into Latin, reg-

KvP€pvav>gubemare ; pXa(r<j}rifidv'>b/asphemare. Cf. Claussen 795. But ^aXS.av>psallere, perhaps through the analogy oifallere: Claussen 796. Germanic verbs in -an or -on regularly passed into the first


in —are:

conjugation in Latin





guidare ; roubon




"jR^etcA. ;

in -jan

went into the fourth
It. guamire. Digitized by Microsofi®


> hatire,


warnjan >

participles H ia (as benevolentia. R. Olcott 176-182. was extended: breviarium. placentia. a neuter plural. Digitized by Microsoft® . The commonest endings -a. too. -alia.. -arius: see Adjectives. Cooper in. as miraUlia. Cooper 1-91. G. was extended: coxale. etc. for nouns and adjectives: liminare. Cf. iCf. * credeniia . -ugo were characteristic of rustic speech: —al. *ducatus. 95. etc. G. *pollicare. -affcum * coraticum. G. apparently. in Italy and Gaul * canalia •< canis. -arium. 79-102. : -anda. -ar.8 — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. bonatus. Olcott 187-189. neuter plural of the gerundive. were used The Christian writers are especially rich Waters Ch. -ago. Cf. was very fond of diminutives: adules- centulus. Quillacq 15-31. 40. * calamarium. Olcott 73-78. 31-37. iio-iii). used to form adjectives and also nouns. Olcott 238-239. -igo. -antia. Waters Ch. 6\. Some go endings. used to — Haag 41 form f eminines nepta. Ch. in a collective sense. 49-52. Cf. -enda. 366. -ens: see Adjectives. -dnus: see Adjectives. was used. Bon. 39. . fragraniia . 453-463. (as viaticum) was extended. e. b. tives. -ans. Bon. -die. -are. were used to form abstract nouns from verbs: Cf. *sperantia. porcellus. Vulgar in deriva- Petronius. essentia. socera. came to be used as a feminine singular: *facienda. -^a. Cf. 95. R. the collective plural -ilia.i in 37. —aria : see -ia. as senatus (common in Petronius. 1 [§ 37 SUFFIXES FOR NOUWS. taurellus. made from present significantid). —ata : see -ta. as a feminine singular with an augmentative and pejorative signification. -entia. 74). especially names of parts of apparel (as bracchiale). Pirson 123. 355. to form nouns from nouns: g. was extended: clericatus. -dtus. Bon. 59. are the following: : Ch. Ch. used to designate a place (as gallinarium). Dubois 99-136. G. as victualia (cf. volatilia. Latin.

1-2 1. Bonica. Portuguese. -Mum. unaccented. XXXV. Gram. etc. Rum. —icius: see Adjectives. -incus or -inguus (as propinguus). Digitized by Microsoft® solingo. avid): neptia.. For -accus. porculus. -tcca (as Bodicca. ramenc . hence an ending -fflWa. 335. Karica) first appears in Africa in feminine proper names. navi- —ceus. was used for many new words: Pr. Pr. and Dacia. etc. vitellus. 283ff. etc. cula. 31-37. It was often attached to words in -arius. from Greek -ia through Christian writers and speakers monarchla. 481. 457. porcellus. navicella. : used (cf . was often used beside -Ulus. consirier. —tea: see Archiv fiir das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Litera: turen CXIV. lavacrum) were occasionally used: *genuculum. manica. R. unaccented. So calamellus. see A. -uc(c)us. —ceus. Thomas. was used beside -cuius: So * domnicellus. as desiderium. XIX. somewhat extended: Old Fr. -occus. = ' nouns (as victoria). perhaps also *-ingus and locally -ancus. and Nouveaux (aise no. etc. to form pi. it was then extended to Spain.). 91-92. Olcott 173-176. See A. —ens: see Adjectives. diminutive. -Tela. philosophia . § 173. and Rumanian: Sp. and came to be used as a diminutive suffix in Spanish. Cf. —ans. -enda : see —anda. XX. 19 -cellus. Horn- —iceus. -ensis: see Adjectives. being used in pet names. —eus: see Adjectives. possibly of Ligurian origin (Rom. Cf. —eum : -ia. -ia. Sardinia. abstract extended *fortia fortia n. mane 76). G. ing in Zs. see —ium. It may have arisen in the first place from a childish pronunciation of -iclus. anellus . 333ff. Pir- son 123. Cf. vitulus. II. diminutive (as castellum). used to form feminines (as avus. cf. -entia : see -antia. It. Les substantifs en -ier et le essais de philologie fran- Rom. wvicella. avicula. which lost its diminutive force: anulus. -crum (as miraculum. XXXI. was probably Cf. Arbonenca. Valinca. animalico . Einf.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 591. -ellus. 170.- -culum. Olcott 131-134. -cius: see Adjectives. -iccus..' *libraria. suffixe -arius. -ia. . was mighty deeds of God Koff'.

Cusanca. Germanissa. Cf. -mentum. adjectives. It. see —tUdo. cf. -men. Cooper 251. -itUdo : —ium. conjectures that have come from the Germanic ending that now appears as in such names as Heinz. (Cooper XLV): *altitia. Fr. -laaa. Sp. Sagitta. etc. especially -mentum : *gubernamentum. like littera beside litera. was used for some nouns and perhaps for adjectives (see -incus above): Pr. § 172. with the -ing. were both are rare in Rumanian -ities especially in the south . fioretto. generally long in the Spanish peninsula and in -Ittus. -mum. used to form nouns from verbs (as certdmen. from the Greek Cf. used to form nouns from adjectives (as munditia -ies). 56-59. -iva : see Olcott 224-226. 251. An It Introduction to Vulgar Latin. grassetto. A. was by Microsoft® . Cf. Einf. Florentinus . (as paffiXurcra. li. -otus. regards -dttus. bonito. Montaninus) originally denoted appurtenance.20 Sp. -monium. but sometimes to form new adjectives to form domnina = 'young lady'. Attitta. Olcott 78-80. etc. -io : 134-136. Olcott 200-204. was used for prophetissa. Nebitta. doucet. vestimenium). -eum (as cafitium. Pirson 226: Julianeta^ Nonnita^ N'onniit Its origin is unknown. -0 {-onem). Raetia. -Uies. XXVIII. serpentinus. *granditia. Zs. -lius. 343. Zimmermann. 22-25. masculine Muritta. forms of -dtus. was probably confounded. Cf. were extended. -issa. Sp. W. in inscriptions in Italy -ittus first appears during the Empire and Dacia. a German patronymic ending. Olcott see -iio. following. -icca. -ttas : see —tas. may have arisen from a childish pronun- ciation of -iclus -a: it may Meyer-Liibke. then smallness. Fr. -tnus (as caninus.. .. It came to be very widely used as a diminutive suffix for nouns. Pirson 228. and also for adjectives. and central and northern Italy. much extended. the i being short in Gaul. especially : diminutive nouns. R. calcaneum) : see G. bacito. as a suffix for proper names: feminine tus. Bonitta^ Caritta^ Julitta^ Livitta^ Suavitta. it was freely used. originally used to indicate a characteristic (as Digitized btbo). —monia: see Olcott 81-82. sometimes in Spain and Gaul. so pythonissd). R. etc. in [§ 37 some regions. —itia. some new formations: ^dukissa. lausenga. Cf. camerlingo. Olcott 123-131. -dttus as alternative Sardinia: nouns. amourette. then resemblance.

-sionem). Cf. viror. St. Substrate IV. G. 83. aggravatio. as collectus. feminine perfect participles with a feminine noun understood. 45-56.fossato. -sorem). 102-106.. are very common in St. Olcott 58-69. 63. *reddita. venuta. *lucor. R. aquilotto. —trix. ostensio. See Archiv V. mensor). narraius: cf. -sio i^tionem. *vendita.. -ittus). : extensa. G. -sorium. R. nativitas . used to denote the agent (as Cf. see —torium. especially in Gaul: dulcor. in 21 commonly employed diminutive: g&lo. —sorium: see —torium. -(orium. and other late writers: abbreviatio. as *annatd). : -or (-orem). casotta. purltas . R. -tus and -j«j were preferred in Dacia (Cooper XLV) collecta. Bayard 19-22. It. *deUta. Cyprian. was employed for many new formations of the same kind.G. Bayard 19-22 (very -tio. in. Cf. ostensor. Cf. etc. trinitas. XIII. then as a general moderate diminutive It. —sor (—torem. trobaire. recubitus . boccone. and were reinforced —ta. —sura: see —ilra. sapor). Pr. beveire. -sus: see —ta. *movita. Cyprian). Olcott 33-51. -tus. as an augmentative or pejorative. used to designate the agent -orium . *sentor. 85- Bayard 24-25. unknown etc. someDigitized by Microsoft® . Olcott 2-23. prensio. revoluUo. Jerome. *flavor. Collin in Archiv XIII. was freely employed :ya/jfi'aj. -sa. andata. —tas {-tdtem). They were considerably used to make abstract nouns from verbs (and —ata was sometimes attached to nouns. Cf. 82-83. e.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Fr. aiglon. origin (cf. was apparently used : first of young animals. 88. were very freely employed (but show few traces in Ru- manian : Cooper XLV) : necdtor. -or {-oreni). used as nouns. 122. *nutritio. used to form abstract nouns (as candor. 44-45. of see -tor. *perdtta. G. 453. lectio.). Olcott 83-87. 88-122. 222. So deitas from deus. —Stus. perfect participles by fourth declension nouns in -tus. R. 55-63. —sor: see -ior. common in St. -tricem. timor. -iita. used to make abstract nouns from adjectives. later -dta. 503-504 {dolor. It. -Sttus. G. i. *flator. C. —sus. G. etc. In Gaul these nouns came to be feminine: Bon. 223. Gaul often as a 56. —tor. Olcott amdtor. used to form from verbs nouns denoting place. 69-82. 475. started perhaps with such forms as defensa. —sa : see —ia. 415. remissa. used to form abstract nouns from verbs (as mansio. potto). —sio : see -ito.

used to form abstract nouns from perfect participles (as censura. Sometimes the genitive or the accusative was taken as a basis. Olcott 194-196. instead of the nominative (Claussen 800-802): iXi^avros'^ elepliantus . from adjectives was extended. missorium. -as in popular words generally > lampa. diminutive (as vitulus). Digitized by Microsoft® . : became -a. boletus. § 171. natatorium. -s-iira. Olcott 51-58. fell popular words either or became -a. tensura. nutritura. -um : Claussen 796. oratorium. mensorium. ^•vir'dura. When Greek nouns were endings were adapted as follows: — borrowed by Latin. There are a few exceptions for special reasons (Claussen 795) cXaiop. payLda'^ -(an in magida. -11. Bon. ixrikiipvWov. influenced by olere. —tus: see -ta. -is. sinape . -e. *certitudo. -tuda (-tiidinem). -ura and -t-ura. later from adjectives also. R. Einf. : in late Latin often replacing -or {fervor > *fervurd) were extended. -tura : see —ura. 88-90. -ov regularly became respectively -us. Cf. reposito- rium.)u~^ gumma. were tended. > p6KLT-qs -I in became -a (Claussen 798-799) : Xa/iirds -7)S. or -i (Claussen 799) TT^Trepi'^ piper. etc. -iita: Cf. cursorium). 197. stricturd). 31-37. 40-45. the -OS. kviuj. -T7)s became -a.: : : 22 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. popular words became -o (Claussen 797) X^wi'> lea. often taking the place of —culum (cubiculum much > accubitorium) (as *C(ssorium. [§ 38 ex- times instrument (as dormitorium. ^pressorium. G. make abstract nouns servitudo. ^6-gy. was used for a few new formations *alaudula. Kbii. see —ta. —a. Cf. used to fortitudd). -aius. gave oleum. -pa cima. instead of -is (Claussen 798) pausis "^pausa. 38. gave : millefolium. -Ala. G. -tus (Claussen 798): rpiiKTijs '^ irucia . pressura. '^planura. -ta or -us. by popular etymology. R. in popular words gave a feminine -ma (Claussen 796-797) > f -pos preceded by a consonant became -fr (Claussen : 797): 'AWfai'5po$>- Alexander. *frig' dura . ornatura. -IS often clvain'^ sinapis. ossulum. Olcott 69-73. mesSee sura. : gummi-s.

and form nouns of occupation (as aquarius. Thomas. aKfnriKot'^ scopulus . The phonetic development of this suffix was apparently Gaul and some other regions the earliest examples are glan: 'Cf. Olcott 226-238. episcopalis. peculiar in — apothecarius *marinarius. used to make from nouns adjectives denoting material (as arenaceus. —anus. tempaccio. Cf. '^passans^ make adjectives and nouns from verbs: credens. *ducaHs. Cooper 92-163 (diminutives. 164-195). K^paffos : "^cerd-sus *cerSsus. *leviarius. mixticius. etc. used also in the masculine to gentarius. G. regalis. were extended (especially in rustic speech: Cooper iii). * setaceus . It. § 39] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -Sris (as singularis) was extended: particularis. popular in Gaul 62 (Hacherece. -arius. Mapa"^ cithara ciihlra. 144. Romanus). present participles (as amans. Bechtel 83. 23 The unaccented vowel of the penult was often changed in conformity with Latin habits (Claussen 802-806) Sl&^oKos'^ diabolus diabulus. 464-467. Olcott 137-173. —artcius. to denote connection. arespecially in the latter function: . Eon. Cf.). c. Wolfflin. -ans. SUFFIXES FOR ADJECTIVES. and adjectives. Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise etc. were extended: *cortilis. used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as Cf. Olcott 215-220. pomarius). pelliceus). Quillacq 32-40. Digitized by Microsoft® . erroneus) were slightly ex- tended: *caroneus. G. imaginarius . decanus. iTTroTiiXij "^spatula. was much extended. *Sicilianus. spontaneus. -iceus -ictus. Olcott 182-187. a combination of —arius — *capiianus. -actus -actus. became and —icius (as sigillaricius). 143. -oneus —onius (as extraneus. Bechtel 83. See E. denoting appurtenance (as paganus. 415. Tuscanus. -ens {-an/em. —dneus -anius. were used freely to ^ currens .. Dubois 136-151. -entem). -tlis. -aceus being employed later as an augmentative and pejorative suffix for adjectives and finally for nouns: chartaceus formaceus .i are the following: 39« The commonest endings : — —abllis see —hilis. -dlis. : see A. poiens). *werrarius. Die Adjectiva auf -icius in Archiv V. was used to form adjectives of place (occasionally time) and nouns of office: biduanus. geniilis). attached to nouns Cf. »?«i/«a»2«.

Gram. —ens : see —ans. *cariierribilis). R. Phon. -tbilis. vallensis. 222. used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as/orenwas greatly extended. however. rare in — -{bUis : see —bilis. and Bausteine 641). Cf. Cf. or -dbilis. fageus. Chairibertus repeatedly used for Charibertus by Fredegarius Haag 7. Zimmermann. or i before the a. 159-160. : tabilis . that -iarius was a. G. timo- Olcott 244-250. -ensis. P. -ier. turrensis. points out that many words have c. Staaff. was slightly extended (but is Rumanian: Cooper XLV). -i [§ 39 glandarius . 155. -er. Rom. Cf.24 deria <i_ An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. postulates -ar(i)us and -er{i)us. : -eus -ius. from verbs (as amabilis. capabilis. 34-36). —iceus —icius: see dcetts. and was much employed rare. Olcott 339-344. the derivative was sometimes used as a noun: panne us . G. pronounced —arius. A. I. Zs. E. in an objective suffix used to make adjectives very common in Christian writers in late Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . adjectives in the popular language: Cf. 109-116. —iero are probably borrowed. by the analogy of the plural -ari.. especially in learned words it is Rumanian (Cooper XLV) acceptabilis . real suffix (cf. R. diligibilis . Olcott 142). e. denoting material (as aureus). Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise 119. too. then —iers. the Proven9al cannot. On the other hand. Italian —aro is easily explained and Italian —iere. Marchot. XXI. § 227. Zs. Thomas. Die Geschichte des lateinischen Suffixes — arius in den romaniscken Sprachen^ and E. Olcott 209-213. indicibilis. Le suffixe -arius dans les langues romanes. 591. Cf. *Frankensis. as -erius or —erus. the derivatives being sometimes employed as nouns * cortensis . and when umlaut affected the a of these. 481 (cf. —ceus -cius : see -iceus. try to derive all the forms from -arius. was much used to : make ratus. papyrius. I. XXVI. querceus. that -iarius and —carius may have established —iers in French. a perfect participle ending (as sceleraius). especially in popular speech. and that this pronunciation spread to the neo-Latin speakers.' exauguratus. i^t. anaiiarius. -bUis. 135-140. — ia (6th century) and sorcerus <C^* sortiarius (8th century) the earliest forms in French and Provenyal are —ers. G. showing that while the French forms may perhaps be derived from -arius and -iarius.^* markensis . G. sis). *pagensis. 137. XXXI. suggests that the Germans in Gaul associated -arius with their proper names in -areis 01 —ari. *faiatus. G. 296 (cf. Zimmermann. -atus. is . Spanish -ero and Italian -aio are perfectly regular.

-ittus: see Nouns. was used especially in words 25 : -icus (as medicus) cus. Dubois 163-171. etc. -inus {as fraxinus) was used for a few adjectives: quercinus. I. was used for -icus in some late words: *Angliscus. 103-106.). donique in cites eight examples of dune. G. 157-158. Ill. -oneus : see —dneus. Possibly *anc is derived from an in the same Substrate II. '*Frankiscus. Tiktin 597.' 40. new formations : *restivus.. -orius: see -iorius. from the Greek cleri- Cf. turn tunc) was apparently used to form dum ce (cf. —sorius: see —tortus —tortus. 467-470. volon. -inus : see Nouns. with the or of sense of -Wlis the gerundive: Pr. 4810. is Archiv I. one of them from Gaul. diminutive (as albulus). punidor. were used for some new formations: defensorius In Provengal and Rumanian -torius was extended. -iscus. —ce -c (as ne nee. SUFFIXES FOR ADVERBS. Digitized by Microsoft® . 552. —s-or H ius (as notare notor notorius. Olcott 220-223. Franz. = + . Bon. sapidus. —Andus (as jocundus) was used in Spanish and Proven9al for a few words Pr.) Cf. made up of -t-or. —ilis: see —dlis. 158. 241. Gram. mansorius. was a favorite with Christian writers. — . § 40] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Rum. G. Cf. way: -e cf. L. Cooper 196-204. -uius (as canutus) was somewhat extended: *camutus. 155 (Tertullian)j *npidus. (C. probably a fusion of Greek -ktkos {Syriscus) and Germanic -isk (Thiudiscus). lo) Pirson 252 IX. -ulus. 193-197 {angelice. censere censor censorius). juratoriH. very common Jerome: G. ? I. dune The usual endings are as follows: — num nunc. -ivus (as nativus) occurs in a few 224-226. G. ~ius : see —eus. -sorius. It was 'Cf. sliglitly -idus (as rapidus) was extended: exsucidus. Cf Olcott . in St. : d. promptulus. etc.

-ones (in Italy also with- out the preposition) came into use Cf. They are rare in St. perhaps after the Vulgar Latin period. in Rumanian.). II. Reich. obstinata mente. are to be found in Petronius 37. 428. Gram. mente was used with any adjective that could make an adverb of manner. 58. etc. male. but rata. * ipsa mente. 689. tarde. mente. -iter: see -ter.). Many such mon speech. 245. a ginocchioni.' cf. Cyprian (Bayard 34-35) and some other : writers. * longa mente. 339- Repetition was used. Cf.26 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. . . [§ 41 preserved in popular speech in bene. noii). caldo. poco. This formation is not common. It. XXXIII. basso.' ' Waters Ch. bocconi. as It. Spr. chiaro. Fr. and occurs also in Romanice. It. adverbs were preserved in comhence other ad- jectives came to be used as adverbs (as W. but was not kept alive in popular Latin. being especially common in St. Zs. *mala mente. jocunda mente. G. Rom. XXIX. 45 . -0 and etc. Jerome. 197-201 infantiliter. Cyprian (Bayard 32-34). -tim was favored by St. Normannice. Gl. longe. Ch. Ch. Ch. soave). Later. modo sic modo sic^ nee sursum nee deorsum non cresco. Then it was employed in a more general sense: pari mente. In the Romance languages mente was sometimes added comment. pure. common in other late writers: clanculo. and in Rumanian nearly all adjectives may be so used (as greii. Digitized by Microsoft® . as sometimes in Classic Latin. whence such formations as Brittanice. adverbial phrases on the model : ad . firma mente. 46. alto. though much used in ecclesiastical Latin (G. a recu230. § SS- 41. : modo modo =^ •only yesterday. 487. *bona mente. Ch. sola mente. Fr. 42. as forti mente. multum. -um generally coincided in pronunciation (multum = multo. Some lons. etc. 337. XXX. Lat. to adverbs: insiememente. now now so. -ter (as brevUer) was not preserved in common speech. forte. however. piano. Many examples so. Adverbs of manner came to be made with the ablative This noun was first used with an adjective to denote a state of mind. etc. for emphatic effect.

Cf. -ix(-icem) consilium * consilium. : ericius *eruius. R. -drius: see Suffixes for Adjectives. famtlia */amtlia. suadela"^ suadHla. 17-28. Pr. R. Cohn 1 51-154. Cohn 180-205. —iilus'^—ellus: aniilus'^ anellus . carnatus *carnutus. —dnus^—dneus: Cohn 160-172. 131. -drius. R. R. Cf. sortcem *sortcem. -^ —iciilus : capUHlus * capttulus . 42. loquela per unum /. tus cauditus. Cf. —cuius !> cHlus : see -tllus.§ 42] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin." —enus'^-inus: "Byzacenus non Byzacinus. -tc-aius *lenficiila. avicUla'^ avicllla. Cohn 213I. Cf. 216. ~or(—drem)'^-ura: calor'^*calura. by Microsoft® . lenHc-Ula Cf. peduculus. Cohn 172-180. Corssen S. Cf. Waters Ch. -ex(-ecem) -ix(-uem) : vervecem berbicem. 321. subterraneus ^ subterranus. 27 CHANGE OF SUFFIX." App. pediculus Cf. —tllus^—ellus: axtlla"^ ascella. cauda- Cohn —Ic'eus —icius ^=. (3) Alteration of a suffix: — Cf.. Digitized Cohn 274-291. extraneus * extranus . cornlciila *cornuula. 460. as are: — The principal types (1) Subsitution of a : rare one -alius — new or common suffix for an old or > -callus : see -tllas. 460. 65. pavoT~^*pavura. The popular language sometimes manuplus for another. etc. e. querela'^ guerilla. 96): "querela. Caper (Keil VII. Cohn = -ix(-icem): Cohn 147-151. Cohn 184. substitutes one suffix for manipulus. etc. 460. Cohn 42— 52. § 195). Cohn -tius'^-itus : vacuus'^*v(lcitus (cf. rancor"^* ran- > > cilra. etc. lanatus lanutus. Cf. (2) Indiscriminate use of two suffixes: — Cf. venenum"^ *veninum. -iceus -icius 184. loquela'^ loquella. -iculus =z -UcJilus : ossiculum ossMculum. Cf. Cohn 219-226. Cohn 41-42. 227. —dtuszzz—ttus=:i—utus: barbatus '^barbutus . Cf. -ilius =^ -ilius : 154-160. Cohn 30-31. 460. -elus"^ -ellus (common in late Latin): camelus'^ camellus.

intra videre. R. 160-170: magnisonans . 'just now'. manu So tenere. omnimodus . a modo. . 4. saine. R. There were many compounds made up of a preposition and an adverb: ab ante. VERBS. 483. d. 231. Bon. bene placitum.. etc. G. were popular. 43. Bechtel loi. 131. in odio^ loco. a longe.. as mortificare: e. 65. Cf. many verbs in -ficare. mentaver) minus pretiare. 121 : Greek etc. Bon. Bon. Cake pistare. Ill. — = . a. But male habitus. in Gl. . late pronunciation of [§ 47 -enus'^-lnus through sagina {Vok. erable) alba spina. Bechtel loi ad semel. bis coctum. 44. ab intus. 203. 484. PRONOUNS. etc. mente habere (> Pr. R. . Reich. 483. genu- G. 426 ad mane. R. medio die. ab olim. i<)i\ 45. 483. a contra. 46. inde fUgere (> Fr. a foras. I. enfuir). medio ADJECTIVES. In church writers there are G. . Bon. HOUWS. avis struthius. 483. Substrate 553-554. etc. -udo i^udtneni)'^ -umen (-iimtnem) : consuetudo *costumen. ij as i: uayijv))'^ 7th century) "^ > Old Fr. —iculus ? ^^'—Hciilus : genuciclum . 47. c. 234. b. G. etc. incus incudo * inciimtnem. 232. Bon. crucifigere. uniunigenitus .28 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. a semel. G. Bechtel loi. a /oris. ad sero. Bechtel loi ad horam 'presently'. Bechtel loi. 191. etc. style. antemittere. Cohn 264-274. 190. Cf. Bechtel loi. ^ranucula. flectere. Digitized by Microsoft® . ADVERBS. /oris mittere. See §§ 24. G. Cohn 226—264. 231. 130-134. cornis. ad subito. Bechtel loi. 194. COMPOUNDS. Acer arbor (> Fr. These compounds generally belonged to the literary G.

G. de intus. CONJUHCTIONS. usque hodie. de forts. Abante. R. de retro. In any case probably a late product. 68. 75. 426. 72. 233. de super. G. 203. Raetian dad from the Oscan da. Some compounds two prepositions: * de ad {y. is de+ab. Bechtel loi. and ad. 40. compounds..8.15.3. 85. R. consist of Bechtel 102. Lat. in contra^ Petronius (Waters Ch. following compounds are of a sic. Per. R. At ubi and ad ubi. 74. Digitized by Microsoft® . 484. Cf. de sursum. Substrate III. de intus. Lexique 38-47.17. in by the ablative or the accusative). Bechtel 102. de sub. Bechtel loi. Haag 75. 437. and some others similar to them. 268. ^ Romance da. de semel. in mane. dad may be it is the result of a fusion rather than a combination of de Some have thought it came from found from the 7th century on he would derive It. still different nature : ac Per. G. Per. 235. were used as prepositions: ab ante. 232. G. per girum zxiA per giro ^ circa. 38) says: Ubi semel res inclinata amici de medio. Bon. f. Mohl. * dabe.19. 484. Bechtel 102. Lat. da. in ante. Bechtel 102. 487.13. de intra. de contra. 23S. d^ ante. et at ubi. Wolfflin. 29 tunc. day-. and Old Sp. 487.— 49] — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bon. ex tunc. 49. 484. 203. Bechtel 102. Bechtel medio. de magis. R. de deorsum. de inter. in hodie. 203. g. Bon. dat and from a southern Latin *dadl. * in semel.). in is Archiv I.28. e contra. de retro. Bechtel 102. 235. de post. 39. Spr. ad — — R. 203. et Per. Bechtel loi. Per. G. Bon. etc. etc. R. It. PREPOSITIONS. E. Sardinian dave. doe. 484-486 (cf. 232. 232. says da . R. 433. in ante. Slightly different intus in. Spr. R.these adverbial Some 40. in contra. Bechtel 102. R. 232.. Bechtel 102. of . is A compound made up of preposition + noun found in: in giro (followed 102. etc. The sic. Lexique 48.

proceeding from the exemplified The modern order is the known to the unknown. is not primarily rhythmic." allow the collocation words of the same part of speech that belong logically in different places. is logical. Ill. Gram. so to speak. the difference being due to a diverse conception of the structure of language: Latin places the modifier before. a crescendo. SYNTAX/ A. byMicrosoft® . The principle. as in Ovid's "In nova fert animus mutatas Neither does it dicere formas /corpora. however. Nevertheless there is really a fundamental difference between the old order and the new: Romance has. Spr. Romance more after the word modified. See Meyer-Liibke. Romance puts the emphasis at the end of the sentence. but psychic. Latin in the middle. Latin to a certain extent a diminuendo movement {^Lat.^ is The Romance order of simpler and more rational than that Classic Latin. Zur Eniwicklung der romanischen Wortsiellitng aus dcr lateinischen. It does not permit the arbitrary- separation of osition noun of it members that belong together. 50. ORDER OF WORDS. from which work most of the matter of Digitized this chapter was taken. such as the prepand the word it governs. by this sentence : The ^ ^ old arrangement " Fabius syptax. The most irrational features of the Classic Latin construction were surely artifical. and were not characteristic of daily speech. as in the "In multis hoc rebus dicere habemus" of Lucretius. for a comprehensive account of Romance See Elise Richter. 1903. 491). or the adjective and the modifies.II.

33. et fuit ibi quadraginta diebus et quadraginta noctibus" i^Per. was always a tendency to put a stressed word followed by an unaccented one. angelus meus praecedet te. hoc peccatum eorum" {Exodus XXXII. There first." The following examples illustrate the later structure: "Mors perfecit tua ut essent et natura montuosa impedita ad rem militarem. it occurs sporadically also in literary authors. while the revolution was in progress. 31 sequatus imperio Hannibalern et virtute et fortuna superiorem vidit. delebo eum de libro meo. not imitated from the Greek. 37. 490). It is indigenous in Latin. in inscriptions and popular writers. in qua filii Israhel commorati sunt his diebus.§ 52] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Classic Latin may be said to represent an in- termediate stage. tu autem vade. especially in Cicero. all cultivated peoples have made it. it is to be found in Latin. and for centuries the ancient and the modern type were used side by side. there was a long struggle." omnia brevia. which independently effected the same transformation. Spr. quod sanctus Moyses ascendit in montem Domini. The modern order was not abruptly substituted for the On the contrary. et due populum istum quo locutus sum Ego autem in die ultionis tibi. Digitized According to Meyer- by Microsoft® . 51 • old.21-24). Petronius has notably short periods and an approach to the new structure. By the fourth century Here is a characteristic passage the new order prevailed. 34). visitabo et : 52. from the earliest texts down . with generally increasing frequency. such as a connective or an atonic pronoun {Lat." "Hasc loca sunt The change constitutes a progress in language . The following is a good sample of the style of the Vulgate: "Cui respondit Dominus Qui peccaverit mihi. from the Peregrinatio : "Hasc est autem vallis ingens et planissima. But until the fourth century the majority of Latin sentences have the old arrangement.

however. voit definite article. R. and sometimes the whole predicate precedes in certain constructions the dependent infinitive may stand before the finite verb (as Pr. Zs. aiutatemi but or m'aiutate .32 Liibke. fortis fortis. Use of In- Repetition writers : for intensive effect is not uncommon . 53. and were attached preferably to the first word in the sentence : . In dependent clauses. malus malus. [§ 55 XXI. which were naturally of less im- portance. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. were always enclitic in Latin. it was in the early stages of the Romance languages It. bonis bonis. 280. Wolfflin 4 bene bene. 313. B.. malum malum. prepositions. precedes its but qui le voit. indefinite article developed out of ille A definite and an and unus. 54- USE OF WORDS. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. : negative and intensive under some circumstances the object may come before the verb. I. the old order survived longer than in independent. and so cf. Many uses of prepoconnected with the loss of inflections: these will be discussed under the Use of Inflections. of inflections. §40.For the simplification flections. Cf. personal pronouns. and adverbs. in late Commodian. Fr. see the 55. In a few other respects the old arrangement lingered and under certain conditions is still preserved . etc. when unstressed. sitions are There were great changes in the functions of pronouns. morir adverbs precede their verb . conjunctions. Digitized by Microsoft® . volgra). noun in all the The Romance languages except Rumanian and Albanian (Zauner 40). vedolo but le non lo vedo.

as Plautus. 415—417). see Morphology. 166-170. Vitruvius. old comparative forms remained. is likely that this device it existed in late Vulgar Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . maxime pessima. etc. this formation came to be popularly regarded as the regular one: magis mirabilem. etc. See Archiv VIII. To avoid ambiguity. common Adverbs. as their precise sense in St.' lepida 57.. cf. 33 COMPARISON. and also for a positive. but no example of has been found. occasionally in : Classic Latin. magis . and in hie estfilius mens carissimus. however. 451. plus formosus in Nemasianus. 56.. the plus and magis constructions were employed more and more to express a distinct comparison plus : miser in Tertullian. Anplus congruus and maxime congruus (Wolfflin 16. b. //wj levior. plus popularis. R. Sepulcri 232 . (Wolfflin 46). plus dulce. The comparative came to be used for a superlative. frequently in late and popular writers • For the forms of numerals. plus felix. etc. (Wolfflin 47). WUMERALS. BOn. as Ovid's inertioratas (Wolfflin 63-68). . toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period. 280). as omnium levior (Wolfflin 68-71). Unus was used as an indefinite article. substitute for the superlative In the Romance languages a was made by prefixing the defiit nite article to the comparative. and the superlative was often really a positive in meaning. (R. From early times certain periphrases were used to emphasize the thiravLS. . Augustine's sancta atque dulcissima (Wolfflin 57-63). etc. prceclarum. in Sidonius Apollinaris (Wolfflin 29). Cf. magis melior. Finally. etc. in Many use.§ 57] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. melius sanus (Wolfflin 16). comparative idea. Commodian. a. Little by little the old comparative and superlative lost 1 from being employed frequently with merely an intensive force (Wolfiflin 83).

G. . Waters Ch. a. PRONOUNS. exinde-='¥x. suus being generally substituted for ejus. PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. Plautus. especially ilk. Ordinal numerals. Petronius. were apparently not century. An . Spr. especially the possessives. 25. see Hoppe Bayard 133. Dubois 333-336b. 58. Idem went out of popular use. 403-404. There was great irregularity in the use of reflexives. [§ 62 una etc. Pseud. Many pronouns developed double forms. according as they were accented or unaccented (as suus and sus): see Morphology. The personal pronouns came into more and more fre- quent use. Ego and common in Petronius. The demonstratives. 26. Per.34 . adeum una sorella. Digitized by Microsoft® . in Classic Latin : 59. except a few of the smallest. 61. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Hoppe 102-103. Regnier 10. Bon. 48. was often replaced by ille and ipse (Bechtel and eventually was preserved in vulgar speech only in 145). Is. . 425 cf. much used in popular speech after the fifth 2. §158. mulier. where it was not recog- 62. Pronouns were much more used than G. DEMONSTRATIVES. 489. 948 accessit unus servus. . tu are very 60. ipse. were employed as personal pro- nouns of the third person. too. . en. . . 580. the combination eccum {^=ecce eum). and 104. R. 408-409. See Lat. The adverb inde : occasionally as a genitive neuter pronoun came to be used nemo inde dubitat. Cf. being replaced by ille For the encroachment of ipse on idem.

I. common The end Plautus.§ 65] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Ascoli. lat." Digitized by Microsoft® . G. Hoppe 104. 424. were confused by late writers (Bayard 132). meaning 'it' or 'that. of the final stage. 646): in Plautus. G. Catalan aqueix. eeeu" was some regions.^- desso). Hie. such combinations being until the probably not reached Vulgar Latin period. 407. Intorno ai continuatori neolatini del "ipsu-" in Arehivio glottologieo italiano XV.' as id ipsum sapite.-- ipse ille. generally invariable. Toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period hie was apparently going out of 63. The last three have left no trace. R. is the fusion of the two parts into one word. came to be used indiscriminately (G. however. R. Franz. too. nized. 2. 2. eeee tu. use. maintains that eceu' was the basis in all the Empire. was perhaps used as a prefix (^Gram. especially in Spain and southern Gaul. 424 (cf. R. Atque. eeee nunc. ille. in id ipsum monastyriu. aquesse. Hie and is. 65. iste ille. by atque or ae (as in ac sic). Mil. eeee ille.). • A combination of two demonstratives was : common in Christian writers iste hie. ille ipse. Pg. there are examples of iste for hie in Caesar's time (Densusianu 178). . 424-425. too. also eeee iste. At any rate. aquese. 3 II. Eeee and eeeum (pronounced eceu) were used as demon- strative prefixes (cf. 25 : " Ubi tu's ? — Eccum. and also as a demonstrative adjective. atque ipse illie est {^Epidicus 91). in id ipsam rem. etc. hie ipse. §24): hie. Franz. Glor. II. as id ipsum velatn. Quillacq 126). iste ipse. eeee we find early eeee ego. 3 II. Bayard 130-132). This last compound was used as a neuter pronoun. and iste 405-406. 303 (discussing Sp. 35 and in the extremely common phrase idipsum (>It. where likewise the id lost its significance. common 64. atque is est (^Stiehus 582). with the exception of the neuter hoe. is ipse. influenced in 1 Cf Plautus.

is.. Examples of the others are by no R. 69. semet ipsum {Philip. Petronius: Waters Ch. Beside ipse. Spr. The ipsemet suffix -met was used also as an intensive prefix. § 60. 391-392. ipse. were used also as definite Ille in this function very common: R. R. . 36 An When iste Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. : the place of the feminine quce it occurs in Christian inscripR. 484). hie.. Bon. 67. means infrequent: hie. the masculine qui tooV in inscriptions. quce as m. 423 {in ipsa multitudine). quod as m. 22). Quillacq 126-127. * accueste. n. R. there was an emphatic form ipsimus (used by This. 66. * accelle. * eccuelle. In Bon. etc. m. f. * ceste. XXX.. by Microsoft® . * accesie. is. ille lost [§ 69 and their distinctive force. people said for ' ' that eccHlle or eccu'ille. were used as personal pronouns of the third person. sg. * eccueste. 423—425. * cue lie. This use of ipse. 276 {qui. guem quis qua very often as n. as f. 391-396 we find qui used as n. it is Furthermore. ' this ' eccHste or eccu'tste. * cueste and * eccelle. Ego met ipse is blamed by Donatus {Lat. pi.. §24.. (395-396). with the prefix met-. hie. Ille. is was probably more literary than popular. tions from the fifth century on Digitized cf. as ace. In popular speech qui was apparently used regularly for . as 69. for * accuelle. 8). INTERROGATIVES AND RELATIVES. The forms were greatly confused by late writers. becoming metipse through such combinations as temet ipsum {Ecclus. . c. : common Audollent 549. 427 (iiirum hujic cujus est zona hcBc). pi. Ille. ipse.). as n. especially ille. as ace.. as n. 68. became * metipsimus. sg. quern for quce. These compounds developed into * ecceste. articles. II. Cf. and pi. is is Cf. pi. * celle. 419-420 {cito proferte mihi stolam illam primam). pi.

55. 37 quam). The principal indefinite pronouns 71- and adjectives used G. There may have been a neuter *alid. alius filius. and f. Omnis and omnia were kept Digitized by Microsoft® . 580.). cata tres Hence *cata anus. Zs. 416. § 19. quid: Archiv I. along the Mediterranean. in Italy. alguem. § 84. Gram. and Dacia: Lat. 25. cepit. Pg. Beiheft 7. 237. d. 51. by Greek merxard Tfth. *nec ente or *ne ente was apparently used as an equivalent for nihil. 415-417. nee unus. Sardinia. 417. cata was probably introduced. 415- in late popular speech are as follows : — aliquanti took the place of aliqui and aliquot: aliquanta oppida aliquis flourished especially in the west: Sp. mDEFHTITE PRONOUNS.. *caf itnus. Snus *aliqu'ilnus * alicUnus. 'some' or 'any. 650. Qualis was kept. omnis: see totus.§ 7i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. sg. etc. II. was employed as a relative pronoun. 528 a. alguien. quern Quid. 485. and some new compounds were made. d. Archiv I. Bon. and was used as an interrogative and The adverb unde came to have occasionally the meaning of French dont (Bon. ^ne ipse icnus. inde came to mean. Some Classic Latin pronouns fell into disuse. The neuter aliquid was more extended aliqui alius : Pr. Jerome. gradually encroached on quod: Bon. chants. 53 {^qui for quce in 70. after the model of id. in certain constructions. This confusion is more frequent in late Latin: St. in Italy. Cf.' > = ^ magis: see plus. Plautus. as a relative. G. moreover. pi. mUltus. Cf. Spr. 178). nemo judical alterum.). Meyer-Liibke. and eventually * de unde. alques. 393. 394 (^qui f. *d'unde. *ne^ps^unus. 390-391. conjectures *ne inde. Haag f. hdmo was used sometimes like French on: Per. nemo was kept nUllus. G. and alter viere confused in common speech: G. in such phrases as cata unum Kaf tva.

. [§ 73 plus and magis were confused: tenetur tanto plus timetur. R. G. quique. tot. 121) and perhaps *tuttus. G. 692. Unde was employed by Microsoft® in the sense of Digitized . is . Claudian. 402-403 ifota tormenta diaboli in me veniant. tantus replaced quot. G. . quanti justi esuriunt. pronounced also tottus (S. ' anything R. tantis lacri- 413-415 qui. being used for quisquis and quicumque (Bayard res and : res nata = ' anyone '. §§ 163. Glor. Cf. § 1 1 7. 427. too. quts. Propertius: Densusianu 179. Bechtel 143. iinus. quisque. Quisque was much extended 135). : 4. ' : (G. talis. also a common pleonastic use of coepi with the in- instead of the perfect: see § 124. «»w. Frequent in late Latin Bon. 338. § 53. This use was common in late Latin: Densusianu 178. VERBS. (2). 409-411). a pleonastic use of debeo. Videri. qualis. Cf. 212. Compare the old is Italian use of dovere. totis horis. Mil. There are examples as early as Drager 104. 336-337. 691-693: commonens ut 72. Cf. 3. persona. for eo: Lat. which" and the ibi 73. 204. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The words referring to the "place in "place into which" were confused. tantus totus. was sometimes used for omnis : Plautus. 488. 345. (St. 403). Spr. quhquis. 109). Jerome. R. custodire debeant. 414. see quantus. 415). ADVERBS. Regnier 108-109 {guanto plus quantus. is often used pleonastically Bayard 99-100. ubi being used for quo. There finitive.38 faucus.

and the old comparative and superlative forms became rarer: see § 56. and others by Microsoft® .14. according to Mohl. . G. Regnier no. is Per. . ggressus de area. and many other 75- Double negation frequent: R. The functions of prepositions were very much extended not found in (Bayard 137-158): see Use 77. meaning 'no'. It apparently has no successors in the Romance languages. . 76. procedit. Dubois 332. 339. 7.). Die amice unde tristis es. Bechtel 105. R.§ 78] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Lexique 43. Plus and magis were used more and more for comparison. 395. occurs occasionally: Dieit unus ex uno angulo: Eeee hie Alius ex alio angulo: Non. aliquid postulare. muri de lapide de adversario vivo de deeimis. 38. Non no. Terence. egredere de ecelesia. G. Cases. and magis for potius: Bayard no. nee de cubiculo . 341 jaspide. 446-447 {nee is fado est. 5. § 74. de utero matris nati sunt sic. Beiheft fore': 157). 39 'where' (Zj. G. multum. cf. Spr. 487. for ne with the subjunctive common: G. Ad for apud occurs Digitized in Plautus. any de. 37. nihil. Plus was often substituted for magis. usurped the place of which also. Totum occurs often as an adverb: places. . Wolfflin 5. PREPOSITIONS. is Ab. Regnier The absolute use of non. were employed as intensives more than in Classic Latin. from the third century ex {Lat. Hoppe 38): de palatio exit. also 'therefore' and 'where84. . sed ecce hie est. R. 435. having been replaced by on. 395-396. Repetition was used for in- tensive effect: satis Seneca. . Bene. semper semper. Hoppe 38 . etc. of Inflections. Regnier in. Hoppe 78. 342 . of the Italic dialects except Latin. Bechtel 105.

Bechtel 106 super anima commendatus. ad post (p. volo pro legentis attendimus locum ilium facilitate abuti sermone vulgato.. 40 An Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. G. and cum for apud in Gregory of Tours. in authors of the second and third centuries. According to F. 343. where ab seems Apud is used for cum by Sulpicius to be used for apud). Hoppe Hoppe ' 41. Digitized by Microsoft® . Bechtel 104.?. and common Fer. had a great vogue country. except in Gaul. am amb. 71) Fr. Bechtel 106. Urbat 27 {tractans apud me metipsum. a new word.^ 79. Pro itself was partially replaced by per (cf. Circa. replaced by ad. 390-392. est oratio. [§ 80 (Oliver 5-6). appo. 343 .. in the Empire. apud. apud is repeatedly found for cum in the Latin writers of Gaul. Severus. Bechtel 105 juxta drachmcB cording to exemplum. as he says. La preposition cum et ses successeurs en gallo-roman in Bausteine 61. ad For the most part apud-^-a. G. § 14). nos. frequently meant 'concerning': frustrati circa veritatem. G. Super sometimes replaced de: fallere vos super hanc rem.27- in late writers (R. Urbat 10): ad ipsum fontem facta cf. Hoppe 37.' and replaced ob and propter : fides pro una muliere perfida. 42. but from ad hoc from Italic Pr. am. also ab una manu pallas altaris tenerem. pro memoria illius. 75-76). and so came cum in that Pro often had the sense of 'for. but was substituted lor'per in other regions (Urbat 34-35)80. not from apud. where it was kept with the sense of cum: Haag 74. cum probably disappeared from actual use in Gaul by the fourth century. but from * (pp. Mohl. Spr. etc. aveCj not from apud + hoc. to supplant a critical period for Gaul. being. 37. Bechtel 103. ' . ' : Juxta often signified acjuxta consuetudinem. and more frequently by later authors: Lat. but Pr. ab he takes from apud. derive the Mohl would Old It. 489. .

430): videte si Ac si frequently did service for potest did. 403-405. in). . Bechtel 119-120. 84. same text (37. 73. 46. Aut cf. R. etc. 398-400. Ut 82. which in late Latin was often reduced to qui or qua (see § 168) frequently took the place of quod: Regnier 111-112. encroaches on quando in the 22. 402. . rm\c\\ used in the sense of that ' : Per. cf. 403. &'took the place of a« and utrum (R. Retro. merely Magis is much employed to indicate a subordinate clause.) seems to be used. he. 13. Tamen in the grinatio. Quod to for very common AudoUent ' £0 quod cdLiae 27. quia. Bayard 161. Quomodo became a great favorite. 431-432. and many other places Bon. etc.. forts. et: Per. and was . aut is sometimes equivalent to et . subtus. Peregrinatio : Qua. ' ' ' Digitized by Microsoft® . with the infinitive «/ is is : not infrequent 549. meaning 'and so' or 'so': 40. . guoniam {^SMddlt&r Jubere. Cur. etc. 'when'. quasi: Per. 334): subtus terram. G. CONJUNCTIONS. 6. 399. vade retro me. Regnier 11 2-1 13. Quando displaced cum in the quod. Quia. 424 {unde inquit Dominus). . and 'wherefore': G. Quod. foras were freely used as prepositions (R. 399. . 445-446. de forts. cf.' § 84] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 83. Regnier often used for ne and num (G. ut : R. Unde sometimes means therefore for but by late writers. 24. 41 81. R. : R. 8. ^. etc. 427—428) are used very often by late writers instead of the accusative and infinitive construction: R. and quoniam : R. temporal sense. 39. 48. Eventually ut was generally discarded. 323. in most cases. Regnier in. Ac sic recurs continually in the Pere49. often supplanting quando. §§ 70. quare sometimes replaced ^«^^and quia: G.

CASES. There is confusion even in Petronius. increasingly took the place of pure case distinctions. of the locative ablative singular in Ttbiiri^ Tivoli . from prepositional the beginning. the locative was replaced by in with the ablative (Hoppe 32 in Alexandria) or by ad with the accusative (Urbat 10). LOCATIVE. of the locative ablative Angers. 86. however. Bianchi With other words. plural in Andecavis > Flntbus > Fimes. 302-326. 378. it generally came to be regarded as an inin Archivio glottologico italiano IX. who occasionally uses the accusative for the dative and the ablative. rare in Classic Latin. 8$. Hence employment arises in late writers a great irregu- of cases^: G. Digitized by Microsoft® . constructions. in the Peregrinatio fit : There find are. Archiv VIII. et sic fit missa ecclesitz. Astis Asti. R. a. USE OF INFLECTIONS. B. We remnants of the locative geni- tive in Agrigentt> Girgenti. Palestina (G. 174-176 .1 42 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Quillacq 96- for African Latin. etc. etc. Arimtnt> Rimini. and the use of cases became more and more 103 restricted. larity in the . When the locative of names of localities was kept. 322). Cf. than in the literary language.. Aquis Acqui Aix. and very often with place names also. remained eventually missa Anastasi. ' " Cf. several examples Bechtel no. only in names of places. The locative. Florentice^ Firenze. for confusion after verbs and adjectives. as time went on. the domi or domo of Cicero becomes in domo in Seneca. [§ 86 C. ut Clusil~^ Chiusi. : > etc. 1. 412-415. In popular speech prepositions were more used. Pirson 169-202. Partsiis > > Parigi Paris.

de nostris bonis. Bechtel 104. the nominative in most words in and such words as had a separate vocative form is like it : tended to discard Plautus. little. Terence Heaut. R. de Deo munus. little by constructions. 528 a. The vocative Classic Latin. GENITIVE. Bon.. Spr. save in set combinations. cited by Draeger I. Cf. sometimes by the dative. .' -P^r.. de coleritieis). 396. In Vulgar Latin the vocative form probably disappeared entirely. lumine. such Horace. de aceto plenum. Sepulcri 217. neminem de prcesentibus. son 197. Bechtel 104. instead of -e. Lat. 628 aliquid de . Pir. etc. de spiritu Moysi. bus gentilibusque multitudo magna (also quidam ex Acts 4. clerici de ipsa ecclesia. as mi 88. possessor de propria terra. 87. 342 numquid Zacchaus de bono habebat. aliquid habet de verecundia discipuli. 396. 481. R.10. occur in mens for mi is very common (Regnier 34). c. partem de istius impudentia. XVII. 396. R. vocatives in -us. IV. terminus de nostra donatione. cf. Oliver 14. abound: expers partis Verr. d.§ 89] An . 487. de oleo. II. Regnier 54. except perhaps in a few set phrases. Cicero. 89. For the partitive genitive we find: nil 53. Archiv I. The genitive. Pirson 194. i. According to Meyer-Liibke. Hoppe 38. de sorore nepus. curator de sacra via. and Livy. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. VOCATIVE. b. Urbat 20. gustabit de meo. Plautus. 6ioff. Hoppe 38. 12. de animalibus. domine. was supplanted by other by the ablative with de (which occurs Examples as early as Plautus). 1. R. 43 variable form we find such locatives used as nominatives : from the third century on Lat. . R. de studentibus. Digitized by Microsoft® . the genitive probably ceased to be really popular. quid de scientia. 426. de pomis =^som& apples. Spr. 39. generally . 40.

matre Capt. The genitive was retained. In late Latin a wrong form was often used a deo honorem in an inscription in Gaul. ad vestram 'I Bechtel 102-103. Livy II. si pecunia most nouns and in the plural of all. DATIVE. illujus. Urbat 12. Spr. ii. however. causa causis. etc. di notte tempore (later di notte tempo). D'Arbois 91-93. and probably in some proper names: lUna dies. g. stable than the genitive: 90. Paoli. The dative was more Lat. ad quern dixit. [§ 90 by the beginning of the third century. XXV. etc. in honore . We it to replace however. L. 13. etc. apparet ad agricolas. illorum. ad me ad Dei officio paratus. 40. a tendency by the accusative with ad: ad carnuficem dabo. some pronouns. 488. 329. in a words that belonged especially to clerical Latin. : Zs. 194. G. 487.. Dominus ad restituit Moysen dicit. = went to the bishop'. a. ange- lorum. G. '^^^ hcec affectionem darem. Bon. Varro. in certain . etc. G. find. 135. de noctis cHjus. S. 1019.. Bechtel 104. C. etc. etc. patiens. Pirson Digitized omne regnum. Cf. loquitur ad Jeremiam.. Fieri. . tempore > It. as early as Plautus. I. the fear of ambiguity naturally fostered this practice and the dative. 1.. IX. Plautus. . 4. in the singular of was identical in substitution became very general 64. IV. inscription of 57 B. alta node silentia. De Re Rustica I. ad id templum data erit. est ministerit.44 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ad me magna nuntiavit. Lat Spr. Spr.. Sepulcri 218. in most of the Empire : ait ad me.. 3513. etc.. D'Arbois 13 alme Maria. True. 329. 341—342 in /undo ilia villa. ad quern promissio facta. Per. form either with the ablative or with the genitive (e. ad propinquos restituit. muro muris. It. mart maribus). fui ad episcopum etc. Bechtel 103. paganorum. Oliver by Microsoft® . Inasmuch as the Plautus. Urbat 12.C. dicens ad eum. ad omnem injuriam im330. in good many set phrases.

gaudet de victus necessitate causatur. de oculis. Bechtel 104. XXX. Regnier 51 . not ad. super was used: imposuerat manus me misericordiam prastare. 393 patrem de regno privavit. ab sceleribus parce. Rumanian has kept the dative. occurs also: ex causa humana salutis. The analytical tendency of speech. reinforced by the analogy of prepositional substitutes for the genitive and dative. Bechtel de contumelia sua. Sometimes super eum. digni de cmlo Castores. 426. De is : Hoppe 14. 92. in the first declension (as case). 56. Regnier . The dative remained in Dacia. St. 35. 641. and lingered rather late Gaul (Za/. tibi. illui tilt. 45 3-4.G. ex infirmitate fatigata. is For de= 'than. 339-342. de te beati sunt.' see Zs. in feminine adjectives (as romine).§ 92] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 335. Ab common : ab omni specie idololatrice intactum. etc. Hoppe 36. Bechtel 105. G. Sepulcri 218. nobilior de obsoletiore matrice. 481). Cf. ab Ariulfi astutia the most frequent erubescens de infamia sua. 392-395. Regnier 54-56. and so in 91. Bechtel 104 (cf. in its original function and also as a genitive. ab a prcemio minorem scriptura sancta commemoratos. etc. de vestra rideat CBmulatione. 34. G. to distinguish its various functions. Cyprian. Hoppe. Digitized by Microsoft® . super. cited by WolfHin $2. esse. ABLATIVE.). Hoppe 33. Spr. Hoppe 33. Sepulcri 218. R. Regnier 54. 337. de se. Hoppe 105). c. de manibus suis. Hoppe Hoppe 34. a came superatur. occidam de lancea. Hoppe 33 . de virgine natus est. de singularitate famosum. except in pronouns {cici.. Bechtel 105. elsewhere it probably disappeared from really popular speech by the end of the Empire. Ex R. de- ceptus. favored the use of prepositions with the ablative. R. ml. 36.

Bechtel 95 . because. Cum cum it was probably not with the accusative is very frequent: cum suos Lat. 488. Ps. in most of the Latin territory. its stead. XXXI. ad diem. Hoppe 33. 5. Sepulcri 218 pugnare ad ursos. cum res nostras. Spr. diem die. of the Empire the ablative plural end form was generally discarded. 94. Bechtel 103-104. Sometimes ad ov per with the accusative is substituted per hoc. The fusion of the two cases was doubtless helped by the fact that certain prepositions might be combined with either accusative or ablative. donum dono. Cf. Regnier 58 Hoppe 31 in maxilla asina delevi mille vires. for the ablative: . in inscriptions. late The use of prepositions became really neccessary in the loss spoken language. and that the ablative and accusative singular were pronounced alike. fructum fructu. .396-397. epistolam. 344-347. Hoppe 31 .. K. sodales. cum Cf. the accusative being used in J 95- There is evidence of the confusion of accusative and first ablative as early as the century. in fif. 347 R. 488. Bechtel 103. 263. The accusative form substituted for the ablative after by Microsoft® Digitized . discenies. the little ablative differed or not at all from the accusative in the : singular of most words causam causa. ferventes. : [§ 95 often found . Rand in is Modem Philology II. 397 . G. but very common before the third. in camo amore Dei 9 in bonis operibus abundetis. etfreno maxillas eorum constringe. D'Arbois footnote 27. per nomen vocavit. in illo die. . caput desecare. quo in tempore. Spr.46 An In is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ad unum gladii ictum 93. R. G. etc. after the fall of final m and the of quantitative distinctions in unaccented syllables. Lat. E. Regnier 60. patrem It is likely that before the patre. in aU words. ad horam sextam aguntur.

. cib fatto. Bechtel 96 de martyrium. R. anno. 406-412. The some fixed expressions. D'Arbois 27 de rigna nostra. ante sole. etc. Waters Ch. Bechtel 99 . . R.... was kept only in etc. Hoppe 40-41 12 examples of in + ace. -juxta aqua ipsa. 406-412. 406-412. 96. R. Bechtel 94—101 venit in civitate sua. ecclesia majore. Bechtel loi. Bechtel 99. Bechtel 97-98 erat in villas. in correct use of in etc. the ablative form very often written for . de eo torrentem. . pari mente. circa Bechtel 95 . ilia. etc. . de ipsas . Bechtel 95 contra ipso loco. in Per. et bene- dicens nos episcopusprofectisumus. etc. puteo.. too.. ecclesia. Bechtel loi. D'Arbois 152. pro nos. 40. 47 other prepositions: a monazonies. probably in some expressions. visa loca sancta omnia {Per. Digitized by Microsoft® . tuos. 406-412. etc. Bechtel 99 lunca. etc. . etc. + abl. 8). luce. — intra civitate sua.. sine fructum. Bechtel loi . Hoppe 40-41 in the Per. its place : Bechtel 09-1 1 o.— — — § 97] — —— — .. Bechtel 96 de actus.. quomodo. . — : pro hoc ipsud.6—412. perhaps in such phrases as It. — — — foras in came conversa. 410. R. etc.. Bechtel xoo\ post morte. post . per valle and 21 other cases of /ifr+abl. the accusative ante cruce. Bechtel 96 de hoc ipsud. . intro spe- — lectione. etc. It is likely. for abl. ablative ist' 97. the nominative absolute took 45. Bechtel 96. generally. Bechtel 100. medium maris. infinem Deus fecit ccelum et terram. .. R. vendere cento soldi. that the ablative absolute survived in a few common 1 like It. however. Bechtel 94 ante sole. ad . — Bechtel 96 — . is three times as common as the + ace.. Bechtel loi — propter populo. Bechtel 94. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 58. such as hora. is Conversely. — prope super civitate hac. . de camem. proper names with as Delia Casa. for ace. Bechtel 95. R.. in popular speech. D'Arbois 70-71 ex fines R. de. 406-412. videbo te in publicum. etc.

G. [§ 103 ACCUSATIVE. sometimes in. Waters Ch. Cf. g. infinitive 102. VERB-FORMS. also is by the ablative Bechtel : 1 08-9. regionem venit. from use. ad isfam Duration of time was expressed by per with the ac- cusative. 328. fui ad ecdesiam. 100. (i) Supine. Regnier 51-52. to Vulgar Latin. consules ad Africam profecti sunt. Clerics. 99.48 An Introduction f. G. 98. Bechtel 103. being recentury on. 327. omatus est. per iotos octo dies etc. by the infinitive: as cum Digitized by Microsoft® . 2. FALL OF DECLENSION. instead of the simple accusative: eamus in forum. By the end of the Vulgar Latin period there probably remained in really popular use (aside from pronouns and a number of set formulas) in Dacia only three cases. Many parts of the verb went out of popular use. After verbs of motion ad was often used. Only the present active and the present and perfect participles were left intact. The supine disappeared from general the first placed. were replaced by other locutions. these obsolete parts were employed by writers with more or less inaccuracy. ^i. however. a. cordance with their idea of correct Latin. in the rest of the Empire only two —a nominative and an accusativenaturally tried to write in ac- ablative. tota autem nocte vicibus dicuntur p salmi. many new tendencies manifested them- IMPERSONAL PARTS. 103. ad Babyloniatn duxit. In the parts that remained selves. Regnier 52. and 101.

432. it The future active participle Vulgar Latin. R. R. Jilius hominis tradendus Cf. however. except when style. hanc Marcion captavit errando.§ io6] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. took the place of a relative cIzms^: faveant mihi pro Cf. 389. necessitas tacere. Future Active Participle. (3) Gerundive. became more and more a fui fugiet Eun. 49 veneris ad bibere. Cf. quomodo potest hie nobis camem dare ad manducare. Digitized by Microsoft® . the supine was preserved: Tiktin 596. : sic legendo. 490. it was probably rare in late was used with esse as a substitute Sometimes. Terence. 2. Spr. Eventually. and Tacitus. conciendo ad se multitudinem. 57. came to be replaced With the exception by the sometimes with a prep- osition: dat manducare. 433-434. potestatem curare. however. 4. the gerundive was discarded.erund infinitive. of the ablative form. G. Hoppe multa vidi sometimes used for a conditional clause cavendo salvi erimus. Gerund. (4) 106. 433. 847-849. ejus nomine pugnaturo. The ablative form of the gerund substitute for the present participle: ita miserrimus tando. as a future passive participle. G. St. 57 179. 363. Draeger II. R. the i. Lat. etc. Hoppe 105. V. 432—433. 490. The ablative gerund was . Augustine. assurgens popu- lando. 386R. The gerundive was used est. 430. Lat. 8. in a literary 388—389. cites Livy. Cap. G. in place of the future: with 388. In Rumanian. Dubois 275. Sermones 225. G.. (2) 104. qui pertransivit benefaciendo et Cf. esse. R. Spr. for the future (as facturus sum). ex- cept in some standing phrases. Densusianu sanando. from the third century on.

but often by a clause in- troduced by quia. The perfect and passive infinitive forms eventually In late writers. 371-373. Late writers. Sometimes it was employed periphrastically with esse: G. 109. (6) Perfect Participle. and as a noun see Derivation. etc. sciens quod — libenter haberetis hcec cognoscere. ut spiritu valeatnon ignoramus. G. G. its use was greatly extended through new methods of forming the passive and the perfect tenses. perspicue exposuit quod ager nesciebat quia Jesus erat. the perfect instead of the present infinitive very common: R. Bon. Regnier 63. Verbs that had no perfect participle were obliged to make one. as will presently be seen. and was used as an : adjective -ans. 371. (5) [§ no Present Participle. The present participle was kept. quod. etc. (7) Infinitive.50 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. no. ut. was replaced by the ablative gerund: see Gerund above. The infinitive + accusative construction was more and third century on: G. Bechtel 112—115. G. 659-671. : Eva vidisse de- G. nemo mentiens plorat. 107. (licent eo quod filii Israhel eas posuerint. quoniam. credidit ei quia esset vere Jilius Dei. by Microsoft® . 375-385. mundus sit. 389. G. however. si ipse est ascendens in ccelos. legitur dixisse Deus. 431-432 {malunt credidisse. G. Suffixes for Adjectives.the was replaced sometimes by the passive.. is disappeared: see Voice and Tense below. scribitur. 385. The perfect participle was kept. however. Writers occasionally substituted 388. de corpore loquor. 383 . etc.). and. 108. wishing to avoid vulgarisms. 377. It more avoided from . often misused the infinitive + accusative: Digitized G. it for a relative clause: it Often. Cf. 371-375.

42. amant ignorare. functions: see Supine bonus et dicere et facere. cited in Lat. 368. G. the infinitive assumed many new and Gerund above. venit aliquis audire. Regnier 73. etc. Cf. Regnier 73. male fecisti dare Spiritum sanctum. see Draeger was made up and. Bon. by Microsoft® . Facere mit dem Infinitiv in Archiv III.. I. Regnier 74 mihi prcecepit hac loqui. some examples may be culled from late writings: denuo factus filius fui. Thielmann. It wias often used as a noun: totum vivere anima carnis est. Regnier 106. 647. 51 111. Bon. Regnier 106. Cf. per velle perdidit bonum posse. Bechtel 117: valeamus assumi.. etc. 430. P. 673. ' 112. timuisti . conjectus in carcerem fuerat. up the classic practice as far as they were Although authors kept able. Regnier Digitized 63. Venantius Fortunatus. to of the perfect participle ern Italy y?^). the other hand. G. G.§ 112] An On Introduction to Vulgar -Latin. permissa est accedere. Hoppe 60 mors salva erit cum fuerit devorata. 366. It took the place of a relative or indirectly interrogative after certain verbs: clause nesciendo qua petere. 363. G. Spr. R. It Hoppe malum tions: replaced the subjunctive with ut and similar construcvadent orare. amatus est came Hence amatus fuit signified he Then a whole passive in2 76ff. of the popular formation . ipsum vivere accedere est. G. Hoppe 42-52: Ninus regnare primus. b. . aliter exprimere non est. facere. VOICE. est. quce legi digna sunt. mean he was loved': flection is loved etc. 370. participle The old passive forms extent. 671-675. to Under the ' influence of carus '. revertitur omnis populus resumere se. Bechtel 117. 490. some the — except the perfect gerundive — gradually + esse (in north- disappeared from ordinary speech. non venit justos vocare. Hoppe 60. 363-370.. non habent unde reddere tibi. Hoppe 61. 177.

(2) Subjunctive. the subjunctive being used for the third person. facit se hora quinta.. etc. 117. who lived in southern Gaul in the fifth century. and also for the first. see c. MOOD. -At the end of the Vulgar Latin period it in popular speech. The subjunctive was limited to fewer functions. XXXII. In the intermediate period the passive was frequently replaced by reflexive and active constructions. very Digitized was probably used. by the indicative (found in Pirminius). se sanare ^= sanari in the 4th century. Gaul. [§ 117 the passive inflection disappeared.52 113. An As Introduction to Vulgar Latin. much as it is used by Microsoft® . Many deponent course. Dubois 275 notes that the forms in -0 are very rare in Ennodius. Regnier 69. verbs are used as active verbs by Petronius. (i) Imperative. re- 116. for the use of 25. and littera scripta est vulgar. Rom. 490. and Dacia by the infinitive: Zat. 114. I'er. Spr. as in the case oi frusirare frustrari. people said littera se scribit and litteram scribunt or litteram scribit homo: ct. being replaced by the indicative in many . 115. followed the same Bonnet 402-413. 55. Even in Classic Latin there is often hesita- tion. scribitur When littera seemed archaic. Bechtel 115 si scire vultis quid facitis. etc. constructions: cum hi omnes tarn excelsi sunt. homo with the force of French on. Bechtel 126. The imperative came to be restricted to the second person singular and plural of the present. Cf. and in Italy. In late vulgar speech mori. irascere irasci. deponent verbs became active. etc. sequi. In negative commands the imperative was often placed by the subjunctive. 455.

489). : cdntdse. G. 431 cites many examtimui ne inter nos bella fuissent orta. Regnier 27-28. 489: examples from the 4th century). in dependent clauses that are not adversa- nor dubitative. 428-430. It apparently began with debuvoluisset. Digitized It was apparently confused with was thus preserved in Spain by Microsoft® . potuisset. Regnier 68-71. ples.iX. exWriters of the third and fourth centuries cept in Sardinia. late writers often put the subjunctive where Classic authors would have put the indicative: G. etc.§ 119] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. § III. etc. On the other hand. 418. R. cf. § 72. while trying to follow the traditional practice.&x facio. ecce Pater fecit Filium nasci de fact. Spr. were less logical and evidently less spontaneous than Classic authors in their employment of the subjunctive. The in the use of it. Spr. Cf. The perfect subjunctive the future perfect indicative. The pluperfect : imperfect subjunctive gradually gave way to the Bellum Africanum {^Lat. as In Rumanian the pluperfect subjunctive has assumed the show uncertainty function of a pluperfect indicative 119. 355-357. Sittl 133-134. •a. 357-362- (118. Sometimes the subjunctive was replaced by deieo with the infinitive: debeant accipi = accipiantur. 53 in the Romance Late writers. in indirect In conditions not contrary to tive discourse and indirect questions. Gregory the Great (Sepulcri 226) and others. its G. used freely for the imperfect by isset. Cf. place was taken by the infinitive: vergine. imperfect subjunctive ultimately went out of use. Sometimes. the indicative was often substituted for the subjunctive: R. and with perthis use is common in the fect infinitives like tacuisse for tacere {Lat. languages.

in Classic Latin. perf. For the imperfect and pluperfect subsee. Tiktin 596.. in legal phraseology. 516. perf. used in the same Part. episcopum invitatum habes. dialects: cf. Plautus. § 117. Part. re- Fart. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. omnis res lictas habeo. scriptum habeo. Densusianu 181. perf. 28.54 An in Italian i. Crescini in d. collocatas habent. § 124. (i) The Perfect Tenses. pecunias magnas 294. 535 is . way with Even adjectives: miserum habere. Fart. Fart. C. De Lollis in Zs. § 119. In the and future perfect indicative great changes took place. ilia omnia missa habeo. In Classic Latin habeo with the perfect participle was used to express a lasting condition: Hannibal quia fessum It was militem praliis operibusque habebat. TENSE. XXIX. perf. for the perfect subjunctive. etc. 619. perf 415. perf 372 . rationes cognitas habeo. 689-691. fect 294-295. yarf«»2 habeo. 690. [§ 122 and Bausteine Cf. 121. junctive. ff. Regnier Cf. however. Bon. or something akin to it: Cato the elder. I. In late Lastin this compound often had simply a peribi vos meaning: metuo enim ne habeam fatigatos. Part. 518-521. however. the mean- ing of this locution began to shift to the perfect. Draeger I. 414-415. future. The present and imperfect and the present subjunctive remained. 423. Digitized Bon. Fart. 376. pluperfect. cf. Draeger 122. in general. Draeger 295. with their old functions. indicative 120. perfect. The . compertum ego habeo. and Rumanian and V. construction very common in Cicero in a sense that closely approaches the perfect: satis . quid Athenis exquisitum habeam. Fart. perf ^11. perf. 405. which led also to thS formation of a new perfect and pluperfect subjunctive. I. see § 118. 537-538. habeo deliberatum. Sallust. by Microsoft® .

sometimes as a conditional. elsewhere . The preterit use occurs in dixerat. In the Spanish peninsula.§ 124] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 70. Some late writers were fond of :\ substituting for Cf. sometimes as a preterit. etc. quas in cerario conditas habeDraeger I. with esse. 124. a compound pluwas constructed Cicero. Old French Sainte Eulalie. however. boltier' in the Old The condiItalian Ritmo Cassinese (^Zs. 620). Regnier 28. 489. On the model of this new the sixth: Part. In the same way a future perfect was made: de Ccesare satis dictum habebo. § 72. XXIX. etc. and in the Italian /ora -Cfueram. 123. in some southern Italian dialects (notably in the Rosa in the fresca aulentissima). and continued to be used. 537. which came down from the Classic Latin use in conditional sentences. in Proven9al. ortaret. but still lingered. perfect bant. was preserved in Spanish. 294. Reich. and to some extent in Italy. perf. with the force of a future indicative or subjunctive. The old pluperfect indicative became rarer. tional function.. the Gl. Fart. furet. pouret. : quam semper cognitam habui. the old perfect meaning was not entirely lost.. 541. which supplanted more and more the original was increasingly confined to its aorist Lat Spr. I [ sometimes with its original sense. The old future perfect was apparently confused with the perfect subjunctive. auret. it 55 In popular speech function: perfect form. Eventually an entire perfect inflection was built up with habere or. it cxpi with an infinitive: Waters Ch. in the case of neuter verbs. si Dominum iratum haberes. transalaret in etc. 543. its vogue began in Gaul in the fifth century. in the Spanish peninsula. Sepulcri 227. perf. The old perfect form remained in popular use. gener ally with the aorist sense. Digitized by Microsoft® .

according to Mohl. Bechtel 90-91. which The Latin mistakes were made in writing: Vok. Bechtel 112. (2) 125. These causes or others made the future unpopular. such as fachabeo dicere. and in the other two. Future and Conditional. I. Old Sp. had some circumlocutions. Furthermore. dormibo forms were kept late {Futurum 161). cum volueris et imus tecum ostendimus tibi. quando 64. Digitized by Microsoft® . The substitution si vis ecce ire became frequent in all sorts of constructions: nam modo pedibus duco vos ibi. § 119. delenda est. PL 141-142. and in Dacia: Sp. the future in the first two conjugations was suggestive of the imperfect. [§ 126 dialects of Italy. was native. which approached the meaning of the future. The old audibo. Sepulcri 225. Regnier viii. 98. gations. Pers. Pr.. pervidet. was liable to confusion with the present subjunctive and indicative. inquis. Bechtel 112.— S6 in An some Introduction to Vulgar Latin. As the tense became rare in speech. jam crastina non eximus. only in Rome and the immediate vicinity. future was not uniform in the four conjuwas used in three of them and prevailed in two. qiiando mutarisi eras. 286 ff. and we find such 126. for the future forms (such periphrases are particularly fre- quent in African church Latin) : (1) The present indicative for the future is common in Cicero in conditional sentences: Lebreton 188-190. The old pluperfect subjunctive was used as an imperfect: see § 118. cantdre. During the Empire there was a strong tendency to substitute these or other constructions Classic Latin turus sum. Sepulcri 225-226. the formation in —bo. errors as respondeam for respondebo (^Futurum 158). in late pronunciation. Cf. cantdro. Draeger I. corrigis. Regnier Cf.

+ + It was 5) Vadere. or Digitized by Microsoft® . bam. Augustine. Velle in this sense was preserved in Dacia. 447-449. Futurum 48 ff. I. 123. 423. Varro. Hoppe 44 nan habent retribuere. Cicero.. . ( ^w^ was a favorite with late nos futuri sumus resurgere.— Servius. St. tantum habeo Lucretius VI. § 129] An The Introduction to Vulgar Latin. mandare habewas very common in late writers: Hoppe 43 filius Dei mori habuit. R. 447 multa habeo dicere. (3) Velk and /^w^ + infinitive were frequent: G. quam evenire haDeus corpus. This habeo construction dare habet finally took the sense of a simple future: Tertullian. Trist. however. Ovid. De Re ut id mihi habeam curare. Cf. . rebus dicere habemus. habes invenire in manibus — tollere habet. 370. The form that prevailed. 449 Regnier 28. . Hoppe 44 it . R. Densusianu 181 in Italy . 57 (2) future participle writers: stc et Bayard 256. i. in multis hoc . it many others. venire + infinitive were used also. I. Rustica 5. et sicnihil tuis. being so used by Cicero and nius. infinitive was another substitute. Hoppe 44-45 . 129. venire habet. Futurum 180. R.. 128. See §§ 105. Jerome. It had become common by the sixth In the early stages of the Romance languages. R. 448 exire habebat. . Cf. the oldest Rumanian future is voiujurd or Jurd vom: Tiktin 599. 28. Regnier 29. 711. as in Sueto- means I. aliter prcedicantur bent. Ad Famil. . ire. frobare non habent. Cf. I. later. G. cui velle habet.. etc. debeo dicere: tibi polliceri. Regnier century. In these senses habes spectare. R. etc. — St. I 127. . was habeo with the dicere ^=:. 106. 447 unde mihi dare habes aquam vivam. (4) Debere kept in Sardinian. infinitive: In Classic Latin habeo habeo quod dicam. videre habetis. nee verba nobis ista did habent. qui nasci habent.

In Classic Latin. garius: Justinianus dicebat 'daras'. [§ 130 possibly in the latest stage of Vulgar Latin. the infinitive came to stand regularly. manifestari habebat. amaturus eram or fui was often used and when amaturus sum was replaced by amare habeo. Cyprian and St. Finally the two words were fused into one. The earliest examples of the Romance future are found in Fredeyet. Haag See Morphology. but this union was not completed until after the beginnings of the Romance literatures. it was natural that amaturus eram should give m way to bam. amare habedicit quod like dixit si possum venire habet. ready for use. fazel-o-he. Spr. separation is common in Old Provencal. Furthermore. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. or conditional. Hoppe 43-45. Digitized by Microsoft® . something like si potuissem venire habebam or habui was called for. On the model of this future. Bayard 256. So it seems to be used by Tertullian. in Classic Latin.. Hilary seem to show a simple conditional use of the compound: quod lex nova dari haberet. there quod was needed a past construction and corresponding to venire habeo. and occurs in Old Italian Pg.— 58 . in place of amassem the conclusion of a conditional sentence. There are sure examples from the fifth century on: Lat. 489. . Quillacq 116. 55. an imperfect of the was constructed. although sometimes with him the meaning borders on a real conditional: non traditus autem traduci habebas. to match such a sentence as venire habebat or habuit. St. new form. Herodes principes sacerdotum ubi nasci habebat Christus interrogat. just before the habeo. addarabo. Bayard 257. etc. and in Portuguese it is not completed Old Sp. The phrase existed. cantare or he cantar. where it was employed with an implication of obligation or necessity. pati haberet. Haag 54. ista civitas esterminari haberet quod esset venturus et 130. though not immutably.

XXVIII. cintareasH. for a discussion of the question. parallel to that of the future: Moris hology. The ')ie origin of the full Rumanian conditional.§ 130] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. of this 59 The development as. 691. not' bvious. Digitized by Microsoft® . Tiktin. Bildung des rumanischen Konditionalis in Zs. see H. form in the Romance languages see in general.

It is likely that in Old Latin the division came before the Digitized by Microsoft® . A single consonant between vowels certainly went with the second po-si-tus. supporting it with purely theoretical considerations. 466. prop-ter. made position an^ attracted the accent: perfSc-tus. sic-cus. all consonant groups. or in a liquid or nasal followed by another consonantin the next syllable. In Vulgar Latin this : combination almost invariably attracts the accent cathidra. PHONOLOGY. al-ter. in the spoken language. It is altogether likely. The group mute + liquid makes position in the older dramaafter the first : : tists : Nsevius accents integrant. that a consonant group. Quintilian 5 recom- mends vdlucres. Lat. 132-151. Spr. 131. however. no-ctem. According to these writers. or in half of a double consonant: a-ni-ma. but to have followed the usage of Greek spelling. The Latin grammarians seem to have given no heed to actual speech. etc. 132. position. fact. The principles of syllabic division are rather difficult to establish. then. as in Italian. in-fans. phdretra. a-mnis. A. They add In point of that etymological considerations often disturb the operation of the rule.III. the syllable always ended in a vowel. and not pirfe-ctus. pro-pter. except a mute + a liquid. S. mit-to. etc. Cf. poets may or may not make tinebrcB. The division of j + consonant they regard as uncertain {a-s- trum)\ doubtless in reality the s was nearly syllabic. was usually divided consonant noc-tem. as in ob-liviscor. it In the Classic I. SYLLABICATION.

13. 133. after the accent on cd- the preceding vowel. delicto. some cases in which the Classic principle fails to operate or the Classic stress has been shifted 135. through the Classic period even after the distinctions of quantity were lost. There seem to be a few exceptions to the rule palpres < pdlpebras. ing to which the accent The falls Classic Latin system — accordis on the penult long. I. but subsequently. when immediately followed by the 136. VOWELS m HIATUS. had become fixed : 6i liquid. ACCENT. The Latin accent was probably from regularly stress accent. Franz. : We — a. We speech a that final have reason to believe that in closely connected consonant was carried over to the next word. inUgram. have seen that Vulgar Latin regularly accents according to the Classic quantitative accentuation. There are. co-liib-ra. the place of the accent was literature began. PRIMARY STRESS. In the earliest stage of the language appar- ently fell on the first syllable: Corssen II. and perhaps : some othfc. cor exsultat = co r-exsultat. became y. The penult vowel before mute + liquid (cf. § 136] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Old Fr. the beginning a it 134. co-lu-bra. Old Fr. if : word began with a vowel B. the accent falling on the e Digitized by Microsoft® . § 132) normally has the stress in Vulgar Latin: cathedra. 30-34. both consonants were carried over lub-ra. and /. if that syllable as early as and remained. colubra. otherwise on the antepenult — developed . 892-906 S. computo. unchanged: bonitatem. however. poltre < *pullitra.. pi. Accented vowel of the penult. both in the literary and in the spoken language.

paries. 468. displtcet>*displdcet. etc. effect diios. battuere being influenced by bdttuo. perdedit. etc. p. parjites^paretes^ C. §31): deficit >* disfdcit. Cf. habMrunf^ * hdb^erunt. Lat Spr. condedit. that suos. etc. COMPOUND VERBS.62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Accented u. S. . 192. re- 139. Lehrbuch der Phonetik. consuere'>*cdns^ere'> cdnsere . suds. presteti. It is possible. II. calefacis. 56. 138. consuere by cdnsuo. etc. adsteti. '/« regularly re-nigat. it was palatalized: \i&xwt f aretes. habuerunt by hdbuit. etc. became e but if the preceding consonant was . itios were sometimes pronounced duds. Sepulcri 213-215. crededi. VI. the accent on the preceding syllable: bat{^t)iiere'>* bdtty^ere'> bdttere .. > putjdlis. provided the composite nature of the formation was understood and the parts were recognized (cf. C. tuds. reiinet > * ret^net. b. L. so parietes" L. 668-670. but * muVeres. 137. Digitized by Microsoft® . imp Itcaf^* imp Heat. tenueram > * tenj^eram. in which the vowel in hiatus is atonic. 1889 (pvte6lis). reddedit. On the same plan new verbs were formed: *de-minat. I. conteneo. tenueram by tenui. O. S. Aside from these cases. tra- addedi. Verbs compounded with prefixes were generally constructed with the accent and the vowel of the simple verb. S. I. hiatus seems to have had no on the accent in Latin. This change X. inclausus. 3714 (paretes). reddtdi "^ reddMi. Gram.. riquirit "^ * requkrit. [§ 139 following vowel: put^olis ~:> mul(eris>muljMs. It was favored also by the analogy of miilier. became w. So 54 .pi(teus. seems to be due to a tendency to shift the stress to the more sonorous of two contiguous vowels: cf. 51. however. when immediately followed by the vowel falling of the penult. dedit. /. Cf § 225. Jespersen. Here the shift was apparently due in each case to analogy.

' Ficatum. Clddat in Revue de philologie fran(aise et de littirature XV. and northern Italy. 42.simple translation of (tvkwtov. n. fecitum. 63 RMpit became being with In felt. Paris in Miscellanea linguistica in onore di Graziadio H. Ficatum. perhaps under the influence of a vulgar *hepdte for hepar. a fusion of ficatum and * sicotum. which was applied by cooks to a liver. *ficotum */dciium. Reetia. Schuchardt in Zs. 140. Ascoli 41 See G. Through this word there came into use the culinary terms /tedium. illic accented their last syllable through the analogy of hdc^ hlc. which should properly have been pronounced sycotum . Priscian says ^^ illic pro mice": S. FICATUM. 'liver'. ficotum. was preferred in and southern Italy. XXV.' c. 141. Ficatum or prevailed in Dacia. Gaul had ficatum and ficatum. 435 L. . *fdcatum. It is found in late Latin in the form sycotum.§ i4i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the composite character of the word although the compound was no longer associated capere. ficatum. d. The adverbs iliac. 515 and XXVIII. .Lic. 235Digitized by Microsoft® . *ftcatum. * redpit. Sardinia preserved both ficatum and ficatum. n-LAc. a cross between /««/«/« was kept in Sicily and in the Spanish peninsula. later. for instance. the simple verbs having become rare or having taken a different sense: legere. cdlligo and some others not even the composite nature was perceived. it probably became *secotum. came to be used only in the sense of 'read. all meaning 'liver. There existed in Greek a word 'figlike'. for some unknown reason. central 2jaA. . a . by a change of suffix. (tdicwtoi/ (Pirson 40).

Somewas preserved.tnginta.poKri'^pardbula. with the Greek > Occasionally the accent was kept by doubling the consonant. G. 337. > ( ^purpura.. irapaT-fi^'^ pirata. Greek Paroxytones. Digitized by Microsoft® . voXvTrovs '^ polypus^ irop(f>vpa /jMyiSa. fj. Tairav6s>* iapinus. Greek oxytones.qumqudginta. e. kTzi<jTo\rj~> epistula —ola. (nraa-it. a. II. Keil V.TKj6. Rydberg . 461. Xa.guadraginta..virahersvigintt. Claussen 809. 144. It. [§ 145 NUMERALS. 69-70. see § 141. (>pMd/a)> It. mdgida. etc. of Greek words was varied. iraXa/ir/ ^pd/ma. may represent popular stress. 4-5 Pirson 97. when by Latin. lines quarranta occurs in a late inscription. sometimes the word was made to conform to the Latin principle. The accentuation times the Greek stress GREEK WORDS. terms borrowed by ear from the Greek. however. Kafxapa^cdmera. 42 ff.64 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. (1) Greek Oxytones. § 134). The shift was probably due to a tendency to differentiate the numerals from one compare the floating accent in English thirteen^ another in Melanges natural : fourteen. S. apparently the first syllable: (2) 145. Ti. Greek paroxytones were mostly accented according to the quantity of the penult: ypa(j>tov>grdp/iium. fdia. Vok. <f>Ld\rj XoXepa > chdlera) > colira. etc. 143..ix. 392.ira. \ were sometimes accented on the antepenult: Consentius mentions a faulty pronunciation triginta.r/xa-vj'^- were stressed according to the Latin system: ^pa-)QiLT^> drdch{u)ma.vr] <f>apiTpa'>p/tdretra ox phar'etra (cf.'i'^ mdc(k)- tna. Wahlund. Cf. tisana. etc. See M. as polifpus. Ihm in Archiv VII. 1 142. Ther\. borrowed Idmpa^s).o^'^ spdstnus. stressed ^vKwrov. Optisdna)':>lt. irapa.

>blasp hernia. 148. phonia. doubtless favored by Cliristian influence.§ 149] ^^ Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. I. (with a KoXa^o^ > cdld- Trpea-ftvrepov > presbyterum new nominative took the prisbyter).'Kav&ov'> balneum..- was at first generally assimilated to p\a. When : the penult was short. penetrated popular speech {(ro<l>ia> sopMa. 65 but it more likely that the Italian forms are book-words with a shifted accent. but their statements are too vague to be of use. 35. The ending -2i2. Cf. Claussen 814-821. Cf. it accent afivcraoi > abyssus. -ia 146.t&o. S. XXXI. Claussen 810— 811.'avfi<l>(ovia>sym- Later a fashionable pronunciation -ia. iKKXtjaia the Latin fiipXla^Mblia. and sophta.<j-(^r]fLux. etc. 42). -eum -ium. —aav sometimes became -ea -ia. 55-56... The endings -aa. A. 42-49. of proparoxytones is The treatment complicated. Late Latin grammarians mention a pro- nunciation of Greek words with the Greek accent (S. by Microsoft® . Thomas in Rom. When : the penult vowel was in position. etc. Kuiv(im&ov> conopeum -eum —ium. a-riirta>s^pia. 'i. -eum: ^a. ylvecTK "^ ginesis.<TTopia> kistdria. Cf.. § 17. Gram. 42£f. > platea platea. 149. The pronunciations melodia. Claussen 813-814. the accent remained un- changed phus. A few early borrowed words perhaps show the Old Latin Cf. Cf. > ec(^c)Usia. kKo. sen 809. Claus- accentuation: Kxnta. KaXafiOi > calamus.cupressus. Claussen 812. 2-3. S. are attested: S.) and produced a new Latin ending -ia. Suffixes for Nouns. etc. Digitized jSawTia-fui > baptisma. raXaxTov > talintum. sometimes —ea.puj<jo%~^* ciiparissosy. Greek Proparoxytones. (3) 147. which was used to form new words: see Derivation.

> sinapi sindpi.Tri. ^\axr<^-i]p. 'ldKioPoi>/dcobus. of Vulgar and from semi-popular Kluge 500. xa/xtvos it : caminus. Troyes. ipr]iuis> eremus eremus : > (Prudentius). Ka. Ne Digitized by Microsoft® . . etc. writes: Beatus iuctor skculi Servile c6rpus fnduit. Bayeux. ayKvpa>dncora. of accented and unaccented fifth Thus Sedulius. [§ 153 'EyKava-Tov.pv6<^vKKov Occasionally the consonant group was simplified and the accent remained : > * became both encdustum and incaustum. apparently took the accent in book-words but not in words learned by ear (S. OTHER FOREIGN WORDS. at the beginning of the century. 152.ov tdolum (both in Prudentius: Lat. 48-49) Ka. 151. Spr. 153. Tricasses'>Yx. Celtic Baiocasses > > Z>urdcasses'^'Px.. 49): Umbrian Fr. we can determine the rhythm Latin. Dreux. Pharo. j3ovTvpov> *se'- biHtyrum (^milius Macer). a-iKlvov^ linum. however. contrary to Latin rules (S. 466). Some words borrowed from other languages kept e.66 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.o%> bldsphemus (Prudentius). Ut cdrne carnem liberdns p^rderit quos c6ndidit. Germanic words were apparently made to conform to Latin types: H'&go HUgun > Hugo Hugdnem > Fr. KpoKohaKoi'^ crocodilus. etc. Hues Hudn. Fisaurum It.T]\ai> camelus -ellus. > 150. their original accent. 2. (T'aia. t^aWtava'^. As far as SECONDARY STRESS. When the penult vowel was long and not in position. it consisted in a tolerably regular alternation syllables. Some words have both pronunciations et8<i)A.ballcena. Dottin 103. judging from phonetic changes late Latin verse.

I.^plach. F\6rentino beside Fvrenze. clirgue while cUr'cum > > > cdlbe while cdlpum > Pr. fell on the second syllable from the tonic: cuptditosus. were used only as enclitics or proclitics. 156. stress. te-videt. *parduldre *pardbuldre : > > > filiiis "^^/ilius. Idcrlmosa. When the secondary stress preceded the tonic. cave-facias. 154. circum-Utora (Quintilian s). Short. colp. felidtatem. especially prepositions and conjunctions. Gdllias. cdlidHs cdldus. dd-tibi. UNSTEESSED WORDS. the root syllable may have received an irregular stress through the analogy of the primitive: * drboricellus. strong. clerc. in Latin as in other lan- guages. pldcttiim'^'Pr. so. and were attached as additional end of other words (S. v€ttovdglia beside vittdria. it and the vowel bearing it was was apparently treated as an accented vowel: * amicUdtem~^'?x. 38-39) dma-me. cdlapMin Pr. as well as some adverbs and pronouns. B\i6logn{no beside Bologna. however. Casdrem. 67 ' The secondary then. it was weak. In many cases the intervening vowel fell out or lost Then the primary and the secondary ac- lost cent were brought together. 155. its syllabic value. but probably the vowel bearing it had more force than a wholly unaccented final vowel: sdcer{>'PY. In late formations e or i in hiatus did not count as a sylla- ble: * cotninitidre.: § 156] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. In some derivatives. syllables to the beginning or had no accent. sdzer. non-dmat. in Italian. amistdt. unemphatic words. Many words. dolorosa. and the secondary was shifted or *pdrauldre. When it followed the tonic. Digitized by Microsoft® . cum Pr. but clmPr.

68 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. did a final consonant Digitized §133): Jffl-/> Fr. 73-79. see Franz. 134. 379-390. . istu' (but iccum istum > eccu'istu'). S. the consonant was final and the next word began with a vowel. part. apparently. 56-57. We must distinguish between the quantity of vowels and the quantity of syllables. perhaps influenced proclitic hy plus. If. Every 'LaXin vowel was by nature either lon^ prshort. became *mais and * mas. par-tern > Fr. and probable that the beginnings of this differentiation go back to Vulgar Latin times : pa-rem > Old Fr. but we may surmise that in common speech it was more marked in stressed than in unstressed vowels. [§ i6o 157. sUay- C. pere. ' I 159. how great the difference was we do not know. position checked it is 160. 1110. For the syllabication of mute + liquid. stressed tended to develop double forms: sua and Cf.5"^ illas and sometimes unstressed and * las. they tended to become monosyllabic: unstressed magis. POSITION. did not prevent the development: pa-trem^Y-ic. sel. 1. In some of the Romance languages the development of the preceding vowel. A syllable was long if it contained ( i ) a long vowel or a diphthong or (2) any vowel + a following consonant. see §§132. If such particles had more than one syllable. the consonant. was doubtless carried over to the next syllable and did not make position: see §133. (cf. QUANTITY. eccum istum > 'cu" p II. however. per. in connected speech. Words sometimes sa. elision. Mute + liquid Neither. 'lu' A 'c'ic dissyllabic beginning with a vowel seems to have regularly lost vldet. by Microsoft® . ecce that vowel: ilium v{det^ hic^ (but ecce hie > ecc'tc) For 158.

doubtless beone with a long vowel + — + a double consonant: brdchium brdcchium . cupola and erat. 162. perhaps litera littera. Sp.. 69 Compare tus. diphthongs and long 112-120): cdssus> formosus. It. 118: mIssit) > causa. Cf. in— 132.* co-pVit. paullum.. cot{t)idie. S. 129. coUo < <icd-r. stupa stuppa. ferro <ifer-rum_. Italian fiero <.fe-rus. however. copa. § 42 ctpus a single consonant. Digitized by Microsoft® . giving Sp. coppa . L. Fr. ii594)>It.§ 163] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 125-126 (Velius Longus and Pompeius). I. j < peccol- lum. had two forms. missit (S. Cf. This did not occur. cetto. which prevailed in Romance. in the contracted endings -dsse -dssem etc. siccus ' '' sicccus. buc{c)lna. especially before the accent: bal{l)cBna. 127). : The The single antiquity of double t is attested by an old inscription Lexique loi. c. cuba. 163. mut{t')ire. S. Early in the Empire caussa ss after vowels was apparently reduced to casus. where we have perhaps only a change of suffix. formossus > > > mtsit. -esse -essem etc. cuopre <. Stolz 222—225. petto pietra<pe-tra. corpo <:_cdr-pus. Many words certainly longing to different Latin dialects. cuor{e) 161. camelus camellus. citto {C. §163. nollo. the other with a short vowel . cedo. is common in Greek and Latin manu- scripts: S. In Latin texts there is much confusion of single and double consonants. Stolz 223-224. cuppa. glossa glosa. hoc erat hocc S. Jiipiter Juppiter. —Isse —tssem etc. ciepa. — fuore <fd-ris. cippus. Similarly one / was lost in mallo. In some words from bad spelling. VIII. as seems to be ves(s)ica.^glut[t)tre.fiel(^e) Kferl. coupe. etc. Cf. It. gluto glutto . (S. cuve.^ ec{c)lesta. cf. Fr. mucus miiccus . this may result merely the case with the doublet czto> S-p. tap{p)ete. pupa puppa. biica bucca . but often it must represent an actual difference in pronunciation. mtllia (but not in mille : Pompeius.

stilla). iota estreine) (>Sp. local ing to F. (> It.5 547. lattrones. 334. there was occasionally a third.^)—* tdtta (> Pr. Lexique 95-98) + Stella (>It. conservdmus Vok.70 An To these Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Leicique 98-104. This doubling indicates in most cases a Accordpronunciation. strenna. I. tenne. Gram. strena (> Old Fr. 612. G. before / and u in the old Italic dialects compare the Italian doubling infabbro. 1. Zs. seemingly a cross between the other two. conservammus. baca bacca. 164. Spr. toda) ¥ totta (Keil V. iConsentius: " per adjectionem litterje io««»! pioioto. etc.488. mist * missi 261 {iubimmus iobemmus). So perhaps Diomedes' Itttera: Fr. frattre. XXVI. § 204(2). [§ 164 may perhaps be added: cdseus * cdsseus bdsium *bassium (>It. jubemmus. XXIV. suppremis. 403. cascio). vowel and the double consonant : angutla (> Sp. Rsetia. suppra. Cf. dialect stella) = (>It.^ + strenna = * strenna (> It. S. prevalent in Africa or in Italy. Stella. was very widespread and prevailed in Italy. Archiv XIV. a consonant was doubled 122. Beside the two forms indicated. strennuor. ^(ji. anguilla). brdca bracca. tota. I. (>It. + anguilla—* angutUa (> It. toiius was used by Pirminius. * According to Lat. messi). Stolz 223. For *iiUius see Digitized by Microsoft® . reviewed by Meyer-Lubke in Ltblt. * butts (<j8oi)tis) *buttis (>It. and a large part of lateinischen See Clara Hiirlimann. anguila) Fr. I. Vok. tennuis. voile. strinna). Sic. cf. Mohl. channe. having both the long. mattrona. botte). Gaul. bascio). 339. In aqua the double con: sonant. bellua. In late Latin inscriptions and manuscripts a consonant was sometimes doubled before r or u: acqua. Die Entwicklung des aqua in den romanischen Sprachen. chdne{<x°-'^) 261. attested by inscriptions and by Christian poets. toute). 485. * stela (>01d esteile: cf." Cf. jubemus lltus littus. ^Stella Vok.

similar to i.. Writers do not clearly distinguish i and i. most of the Empire. 146. there was no such differentiation. in iillus and multus. for the vowels of brief duration the tongue was not in lifted quite so high as for those held longer. all : of later date. III. 175. etc. is made with the tongue lying flat in the bottom of the mouth. (S. 461. etc. long were close gula. mulus Later. the short vowels being open while the sentio. 182). long dis- - tinguished only by duration. (S. 208. about 350 a. II. i ff. 193). Spr. 151. 200-201). In Digitized by Microsoft® . distinguishes two ^-sounds Pompeius. 195. and u were eventin ually differentiated. if the word is used in verse. In open syllables.. I. by 250. In Vok. Za(. and several fifth century grammarians plainly distinguish e from e (S. long and short e. : vendo pinus pi^er. in Vok. 182). solus sqlet. about 480. 176. distinguishes do other grammarians (S. the distinction U was clear by the first century of our era. the same sound in Idtus and Idtus. According to Meyer-Liibke. etc. the evidence of inscriptions. i. in 165. 211). as minses. this nomen and novus. perhaps.. 174. II. as ocsor. which and became e and see §§201. . However may have been. None of the grammarians apparently distinguished « and «.§ i66] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 71 VOWEL QUANTITY. e. as menus. the quantity of the vowel is ' in general easily ascertained. 0. 183-184). 2. 166. until Consentius. secondus. the vowels having. was often used for e in inscriptions (S. in debet and mnum \ \ and minus. for instance. d. Terentianus from q (S. is often used for i in inscriptions. is given the testimony of grammarians. but is used for u in inscriptions. and i for e. in the fifth century (S. i and u were allowed to drop still lower. 211). Originally. 212. from the second century on cs Marius Victorinus. however. and so Maurus. and short vowels were redit. That is. 467. In the case of a. 216-217). cites Tertullian for an e (S.

require a short some Romance forms support Classic luridus. Romance undecim. 93): these preserved their languages. Naturally long vowels. Vowels in hiatus with the last syllable offer difficulties. ^T. although we do find the spellings dius and mius (S. cf. duo>dui = dui. others karessimo. but an inscription has dIctatori (S. is The Classic rule that a vowel before another vowel short is not absolute even for verse. etc. [§ 167 closed syllables and in words not used is by poets the quantity sometimes conOccasionally the in many cases doubtful . in Plautus. Classic i Latin o&ers frtgidus (of. and often shown by subsequent developments in the Romance languages.. 99). 98.72 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. were apparently pronounced also with short u 81-82). VOWELS Ilf HIATUS. languages. with a restora- tion of the V through the plural ova). after u had become (see §§ 165. and in Ennius close vowel in the Romance (S. S. testimony conflicts: some inscriptions have carIssimo. by Microsoft® . then. 105). 101-102). sometimes marked in inscriptions. 93. probably kept their original Naturally short vowels doubtless had development also: deus = deus. but it is sometimes given by gram- marians. frIgida. Aulus Gellius prescribes dictum. at least in part. found in inscrip- tions. plus kept inscriptions (dIes originally long vowel. before u was apparently differentiated into 0: dvum> oum (cf. 105). loir calls for *gltrem h&siA^ gltrem. their Dies. by S. others demand u. so cut. jectured from the etymology. and the practice of poets was not always in accordance with spoken usage. their regular quantity in hiatus. siius'>Digitized spus> sous (S. a. but the i. fut. via— via. proved old inscriptions . nutrire. except Spanish. any a later stage. Fr. 167. (S. 187). and. ultra (S. attested by pIvs piivs. At 208).2^)>oum (and also ovum. etc. Substrate II.

468). 352-355).. 357-390. 250 in these a. The Romance languages. which prolonged the — first syllable: not pejor. b. 341. we should write Troiia also Priscian analyzes pejus. major. hut peijor. 236). Pirson 16). 246-248. LENGTHENING BEFORE CONSONANTS. 82 cf. however. point to open vowels in pejor. 168. cuiius. under the influence of qua and : . maiiorem. spellings as Aiiax. XXV. For a still. Spr. etc. gave {Lat. mai-ius Digitized (£don by Microsoft® . 73 varia- 216. 170. d. 236). it became qua. 207). as Cicero approved of Aiiacem. coiiux. which had begun to assume the functions of quod (see §§69. if we accept the statement of Teren- who says (S. We find in eiius. Troija. Franz.: 236. as in ejus. tions in different countries. inscriptions such S. a II. different theory. into pei-ius. Troja. §217. vowels were lengthened before j. used for quod in late Latin. 1894. Maiiam. Cf. way to Cf. qua{ni).. Horning in Zs. I. Franz. Velius Longus adds that etc. The apparent contradiction disappears tianus Maurus.§ i7o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. J. §208. before a consonant. 104) that the vowels there that is. Quintilian states that Pirson 74. Recherches sur Forigine de la conjonction 'que' et des formes romanes iquivalentes. but the / was doubled was a glide from the vowel to the/. For another see A. According to some grammarians. words were short. Quia. Cicero preferred aiio. with double i (S. Jean- jaquet. ei-ius.(4). 169. see Gram. (S. Maiiam. Fluere was supplanted in popular usage by plovere Fluvia. on the other hand. had a peculiar development from the sixth century on before a vowel it was pronounced qui' and was confused with quid. Troja. 3 II. *pldja. There may have been other special Cf.

beside the old popular *pesare. etc. tions: so pensare./. tion of later date. the evidence of the inscriptions I. 77-78. S. or v). 90. in-: so infantem through indignus. etc.74 171. S. Priscian. But inasmuch as n occurs before /". etc. benegnvs by Microsoft® . coventio. etc. so that the result Digitized was t. but insig- It is altogether likely that the n fell through nasalization If so.- cf. S. (S. According to Meyer-Liibke {Gram. . 172. signum sigillum). remains. n occurred in the middle of many words. Before J. lignum. compounds See S. who wrote in the sixth century. «. 89. 86. conjungere through conducere. not f. Cf §311. for the usage of Cicero and others. nasality disappeared. pugnus. the n being restored only in com- lengthened by compensation: pounds before initial nare. but the length and the close quality of the vowel remained. tferi. sanctus. and some philologists regard the passage in question as still still an interpola54. however. u. as above) are either learned terms or new formaS. however. coxwenire through continere. for inscriptions. pignus. s. Romance and late Vulgar Latin words with ns (except in Cf. all trace of the of the vowel: consul consul cosul cosul. cojugi. and v only at the end of prefixes. Lat. mesis. An Introduction When fell to Vulgar Latin. The Romance is languages. a very late authority. u. call for dtgnus. but only after H had be- come i. 400. t. and the fall was permanent. it was usually restored by the analogy of the full forms con-. the vowel was lengthened. n was followed by a fricative (/. [§ 172 regularly early in Latin. s: cosul.. Spr. /. for inscriptions. regnum. tsula. 467).. 78. 91. (2) Before gn vowels were lengthened according to Priscian and inscriptions mark length in dtgnus. S. (i) Vowels were apparently lengthened before Cf. signum. (cf. tjk: quinque. Archiv XIV. it and the preceding vowel was cesor. sposus. 91).

doubtless equivalent to the benIgnus of C. and were often obliterated. about 250. L. The old quantity itself was It during the Empire. XV. DISAPPEARAHCE OF THE OLD QUANTITY. XII. 311. The was probably greater and more constant in accented than in unaccented vowels. etc. for the most part seems to have disappeared from unstressed syllables by the third or fourth century but confusion The nominative singular -is set in as early as the second. 2153. "miserce dativus est non adverbium.§ 174] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in stressed syllables. Cornu. Buck. through the Latin period and developed further in the Romance languages. I. in the fourth century. and the plural —es were confounded by 150 A. the preservation of quantity in post-tonic Digitized mostly in the third and fourth centuries. resulting from the original quantity. of accent. D. warn against quantitative mistakes: so Servius. remained. (S. difference in quantity 173. they existed at c. Versbau des Commodian in Bausteine 576. (S. in the third or fourth century. prefers to regard such forms as dlgnus. L. tells us that au is short in Other grammarians syllables. 226). The poetry of Commodian. lost. and we find numerous metrical errors in other late poets: cf. in so far as all. J. The distinctions in quality. 722. . This seems a very plausible C. 66). Latin words borrowed by the Britons. as in aut (S. show. however. as due to a vulgar or local pronunciation. through a by Microsoft® . 183—184: bence. in the Classical Review I. which is 75 in C." etc.). XII. 174. 75). and a was often used for e in inscriptions (S. unaccented Terentianus Maurus. in unaccented syllables the distinctions were doubtless weaker. explanation. D. seems to observe quantity in stressed and to neglect it in unstressed syllables. On shift the other hand.

467). for. and based on th|fe situation of the vowel. i?> e 01 i. Latin words borrowed by Old High German indicate a retention of long i and u before the accent: Franz. are distinguished by quality also. 178). Latin words borrowed by the Britons from the second to the fifth century. all other vowels 176. fourth century. Moreover. fructus by Microsoft® . grammarians blame the confusion of cequus and equus (S. but probably the disappearance of the old distinction was not general before the fourth and fifth centuries. too. 65. 225). retain the quantity of vowels that bear the accent: Pogatscher. distinguish by quantity t and i. Latin words in Anglo-Saxon. criticizes Servius. d>ii ox 6 while d>o: Franz. e. Digitized fqrmas fori. and not complete before the end of the sixth. Spr. e and ?. The Latin words in Old High German. 175. in the Roma (S. as aques for eques in 197 (S. Augustine devocalium vel produc- Pompeius and other tione non judicant" (^Lat. tity short: sdncto vales. DEVELOPMENT OF A HEW QUANTITY. d. dixi plicds. Much late poetry disregards quantity altogether. In most of the Empire accented vowels not in position were pronounced long. 106). [§ 176 Loth 72. show the preservation of the quantity of stressed vowels: Loth 64. On the other hand. clares that "Afrae aures de correptione St. entirely diverse from the old.if>« while u and u. 107. It is possible that the quantity of unstressed vowels was better kept in the provinces than in Italy. taken over in the fifth and sixth centuries. and o. but mostly in the third and fourth.76 syllables: An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. vendo vents. / At the end of the Latin period a new system of quangrew up. In accented syllables there are sporadic examples of confusion by the second century.

which in the transition from Latin to the Romance languages re1 77- It is likely that these in sulted in diphthongization in a large part of the Empire. 103—104. ^^/a > Old Fr. nous. Spr. 561-562. and Sicily apparently did not participate in this early breaking. Gram. tre-s. and the conditions of diphthongization were very diverse in different localities. Meyer-Liibke in different in Einf. u. eu. says that the development was and independent in the several Romance languages. cuor. Zimmermann in Zs. southern Gaul. nepotis (A. ca-the-drd te-ni-brds . cqr'^lt. but as posterior to it the fifth century. The vowels most affected were e and q. 178. 77 gule.f>It. and in unaccented ii. cb. nounced new long vowels were promost regions with a circuinflex intonation. dis- appearance of the which it displaced. o. he puts in the fourth and fifth centuries. e. 213). Latin had the vowels au. also u were pronounced open. close. syllables before a labial (as in proommus') a short further- more. beside a. : Niipos. 0. In 419 D. (rets. We and i. /w>01d Fr. We shall see presently Digitized by Microsoft® . perhaps only a blunder. i. he describes it as common to all. ce.§ 178] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 467. all stressed vowels were appar- ently long: tempus. d. t. This pronunciation doubtless sprang up with the old. particularly in northern Gaul: z'f«f. An isolated example. occurs in an inscription made a little before 120 a.q. «^j>Fr. we find vobit for obiit (S. cq/r me-l no-s re-m In Spain and in some parts neisf of Gaul. in £at. XXV. Lombardy. while a was not' affected by q-aawti-ty. goule. have seen (§ 165) ti. d. porta. a. vieni. Portugal. VOWELS. I. the groups that e. 735).

In book-words it was assimilated to Latin e: a. eu (or iu) appears in treuwa (or triuwa). but early in our became t. but popular speech substituted for unfamiliar vowels the sounds of the vernacular. 179. (f>dXayi -> phalanx. as In words of more ji\acr<\>r}fi. the Greek This pronunciation was letters were sounded as in Greek. bottega. bestemmia. The inconsistencies in this substitution arise partly from the different dates at which words were borrowed. 181. (n)Tria~^ sapia. * skivare. a-Ktjvrj'^ sctsna scena. so in some late words. partly from the channel (written or oral) through which they came. seppia. was pronounced a: ^axriM^ Phdsis. In the Germanic vocabulary there is not much to be noted: at in words adopted early apparently became a. iu is found in skiuha?i> ated in some fashion to the Latin system. while au. as *waidanjan~>*wadaniare. Late words often show Digitized do-Ki/Tiys > ascitis. ceu). The history of Greek vowels is very complicated: — GREEK VOWELS. eu (^cduius. popular origin it often had the Greek open sound kKKkfitrU > 182. but also sepia "^ i: It. long or short. eu generallyremained du.78 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. A. The foreign vowels of borrowed words were assimil- In the few Celtic words that were taken over there are no important peculiarities.La > blasphemia > It. Per. and ui (as in cut) was lit. it H era : eclesia.iro6riKTf)~:>apotheca^ It. was in Greek originally a long e.nd ce>e. partly from the various pronunciations of the vowels in the several Greek dialects. doubtless the ideal of people of fashion. 210) that cB>e a. According to Quintilian (£don 64-65). [§ 182 (§§209. which became *trewa. by Microsoft® . and 180.

. Tiov Claussen 854-855. etc.'>- Stephanus Stephanus. It. 79 40.yermo. at least in the principal dialects. li bietal It. apa. /iu(rT^ptov> mistirium. dqga. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: <j><!tKri In popular words it apparently became ^.— § i86] An etc. Neumann etc. cf. Greek dialects. ropvos > tqrnus > It. armeise. In popular words it. KiBpo'i'>cedrus'>In book-words it > Fr. in 186. rprnKTiji'^ Cf. -p-hqra). oo-/x'^ >. Claussen 853-854. menta. sometimes open: eprjfios'^ er'mus er'mus'^ It. regamo. O most dialects was kocjuvo's o. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: > cophinus.v6% > orphanus. crLvaTn> sinapi^ senape. ^(fila-pa^ chrisma> cresima. was assimilated to Latin e: yevans Agenesis. was probably q. In popular words it was sometimes close. open in others. mienta. pxirov > blttum'> It. apparently became I. tapis. /. 184. E was close in some It. opiyavos > became e. '%Ti<^avo'. and occasionally the same word had both pronunciations: a. 185. Digitized by Microsoft® . Claussen 869-870. a. it was In assimilated to Latin t: ^lp. "^-phoca. iKKXriKrCiu "> edisice. 1re7rf. ^^. etc.^ purpura.vri^ovo%'>-* antefona'^ Qi\A Fr. was generally close. I. Pr. Old Fr. but perhaps dialectically q (cf. 183.' It.. <^iKo'i>phtlus. apTepXa-M It. Sp. K6ppi>gummi.p1. op<^a. 80x1^ > dqga> It. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Xpla-ro^'^. t apparently later often e: apOplriKOi > ariAriticus '> It artetico. Cf. ixova<TT'^piov'>raora-n-rj- nastirium. Cf.ix6py7)>amurca. popular words I In book-words later e oz e. ^ia>drrp > boletus.. seems to have had a very open sound. chiosa. Claussen 855-857. but sometimes open. tapit. cedro.Chrlstus Chrestus. tttw^os > It. antiefne. ermo.> piper. even when long. piivOrj^ menta'> It. Christianus Chres- tianus.o'i'> phlmus . irop^vpo. occasion- yXStrira > It. 9.. etc. cresme. pttqcco. orma. ally u: tructa. > artemtsia > Old Fr.

Livius Andronicus In ayKvpa ancora. says: "Burrum semper Ennius. cultivated people adopted for Greek words the Ionic-Attic pronunciation. etc. /iCSos > It. <jTvpai : . Pr. etc.. > ancilia ." "myrta non murta. The App. ''tymum non tu- mum. For some words we find an occasional spelling X.. etc. in the 9th or loth century. > > > buxida {=pyxis) in Theodorus Priscianus and in glosses." '^ tymum non tumum. in which the ^ is a later local development. — > concha. 468. . buxus. AudoUent 536. > > and a few other words the v for some reason became o.. Pirson 39. which is genCicero erally represented. KviJ. . 221. Mva-Ca^ Jfysia Mmsia.8o torno. Digitized by Microsoft® . (S. Pr. u is the spelling in some words. murta. In inscriptions we find misteriis. App. Pr. which subsequently. Towards the end of the Republic. grotta. these probably have nothing to do with KoXvizTpa. etc. Pr. calotta. 221). Spr. Olumpus. — KoKn^o-i^ cqlaphus cojaphus. nunquam Pyrrhum" (S. Zefurus. Marsuas. originally pronounced u.yKvKw. Koyxiy <tt/3o<^os [§ 187 chorda. 'OXvcro-eu? > Ulixes. was unrounded into /. S. In Tp\yTa. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Y was > strqppus. perhaps taken mostly from Doric (Claussen 865). KpvTTTrj > It. by the spelling y. we find: "Marsyas non in others (S. 187. It. Lat." App." "porphyreticum marmor non purpureticum marmor. 'OSuo-o-eta > Odissta. irv^os mullus. Cf. in the case of v. The spelling / occurs sometimes before Augustus 6. Cf. y In the App. later in Attic and became ii. truttna the v storax. 221). which may represent a Greek dialect pronunciation between u and ii: yvpo'i> gyrus gmrus . v regularly was assimilated to Latin u Ionic it jUijXXos 2ig-22i): Pvpara> bursa . KpvTrTy)> crupta . In the older borrowed words." Among the common people the unfamiliar ii was assimilated to i. motto.p-q>cumba. According to Cassiodorus.vt)> was shortened. > It. yppl-q > Claussen 857-860. fivpros busta seems to represent a peculiar local development: cf.

190. oi. probably a local development. > It. Cf. originally cb 188.rihtui. 76-77. For o-vkcutoj/. became ai. giro. if Audollent 535. . e. which to be pronounced as in ^otfio^'^it Phxbus Phebus Sometimes. as in Atas > Aiax. i. J before consonants. toreomatum from Topfxpa. however. 81 has "gyrus non girus. etc. see § 141. may be merely misspellings: Some Romance forms show u: 875-877.• ^ ^generally became ^« E3pos > -£'«''«J'. later ce (as in poina). KS/«i>It. except before vowels. was usually pronounced short. cf. etc. Cf. Pr.§ 192] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the penult was often shortened: Khj. Claussen 01 originally "became came (S. In -eios -eta —tiov. oTJpt-yya which became It. by Microsoft® became 0. Cf. /ceXttJcr/xa > ? It. or z before vowels. 189. M. then. AI timbre. <? In Latin. . MaTa > Maia.> platea. § Kd 223. Cf. It. b. j8u^ai'r6s > It. Tu/iTravov > Fr. 277). Claussen 860-869. Cf. 6r]travp6i> thesaurus.). which came to be proClaussen nounced 871-872. misterii. Digitized as in -Koivr] >poina. Kapa^iuriys'^ paradtsus . etc. > It. amido. f. Cleopatra. 191. /. £/ was doubtless originally pronounced ei in Greek. yrJi/'os — kvkvo%> gesso is e: yvpo% cecino. This i. Such forms Clepatra for as " ermeneumata non erminomata" {App. frequently became qui: The modern Greek pronunciation is represented by some Romance words: afi. if Pirson 39. as in AWiovux > Ethiopia Ethiopia. Claussen 873-875. long. finally. > scilinga.'> w€ipaTyi<s'^ — KA£ki>> Medea.. about the third century. Cf..TSa. A V> au.. 192. from the sixth to the fourth century c. KoXoKvuT-q"^ cologuinta. bisante. cima. later e. tdolum. e. a became Clio. (as in aiyi^'^ tsgis)." giret. cf. «S(i)Xov> pirata. Claussen 872-873. Bechtel etc. ciurma. Frigia. etc.v\ov > It. giro.

volumptczte in Gl. malum « cf. 468 cf. Lat. I. Olcott 33. ACCENTED VOWELS. 468. Like 193. Rome. — For vowels in hiatus. A regularly remained dat-e. 468. « : . Substrate (4) I. I. Beside gravis there was a grevis. 544. <u Claussen 877-878. crepere. which was used elsewhere Lat. for cmmeterium < Koi/tjyTiyptov. etc. and agnetus (for agndtusi) in Fredegarius. ovpavo's'^ Uranus. under the influence of l?vis: Beside GREVE. Substrate II. L. I. a 194. 0. factum. Spr. tantus. L. 441. VI.slus. Reich. vocatio. manus. (5) jiSKav) there was a melum (<i)i.. Claussen 878-879. especially in the north. C. latus. senetus. For nasal vowels. unchanged in the greater part of the Empire: caput. perhaps indicates an ignorant confusion of « ce: KOiixMSia'^ and Cf. N. (6) Beside vacuus there was a vHcuus: vocuam. doubtless originally pronounced ou in Greek. But in Gaul. 171.B.82 as in An iroirjTtji Introduction to Vulgar Latin. In Latin it usually became u: fipovxo's> bruchus. 198. see § 167. ot. 195. used by Petronius and others: Lat. Spr. see § 171. which was used in southern Italy. 1527 d 33. C. Cf. -arius. patrem. it probably had a forward pronunciation tending somewhat toward e: cf. The o was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . Kipaaoi) there must have been a Latin * cerlsus. Doric cf.T\Kov). (i) Some words had a peculiar development: — Beside alacrem the Romance languages seem to postulate alecrem and alej:rem. SINGLE VOWELS. Spr. see § 39. It is possible that dlacer (whence alacrem) > *dlecer (whence alecrem). (2) (3) For the suffix -arius. CKwas then if. Cimiterium cymiterium. Beside cerasus *clra. I. [§ 195 "^-foeta. S. then 'Valuer (whence alicrem alecrem). a. then q. Haag 6. became comcedia. So beside dinia. and Sarthere was a clr^slus. Cf.

This would account for bistia (= bestia) found in late Latin. for —esco 26o£f. S. {Lexique 115). dulcido. vindo. minsam. etc. etc. Long e {% 165). 196. writings: Gregory the Great has crudilitas. filix. Spr. 359-364. 198.. 468. diheto. T is very often used for e in inscriptions and late —ido for —edo. etc. old vocdre. Also Vok. etc.. debet. There is.. 613.: Sepulcri 193-194. vacivus 83 {^vacuus).). and -tsco. as in cinsum. Cf. -Ire. in Studi Medievali Medievali I. became vacdre. for -elis and —His. 466. 328. Republican times. In Sicily. {ficet in the 3d century. I. 189-190.ficit. By a change § which was pronounced remained unchanged in Vulgar Latin. Spr. and conversely ver iox etc. no proof of historical con: nection between the phenomena 197. -elius and —llius. Some of the —esco >-tsco cases are surely due to a §§414-415. I. probably- at least in most re- gions: debere. Carnoy 15 ff. III.: for the confusion of -ere and 6911. 614-615. I. —isco for —esco.. for vindimia instead of vindemia.§ igS] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. however. I. vendere. same region. e. for crisco and other verbs for adimplisti. verus.. conjectures that consonant may have tended to raise e to i. — in -isco for -esco. to u. also for colustra. Calabria. of suffix original. and southern Apulia e In old Oscan. mercedem. vocivus regularly whence by analogy vdcat vScuus became ^vdcitus^ for vocat: Lat. 127 287-289. I. etc. These spellings are due in the main s -¥ to the identity of /and i in late pronunciation: see § 165. Studi A. Sepulcri. iox fistus. Digitized It probably indicates an by Microsoft® . iox co- gnusco and other verbs in —usco for -osco. —esimus. Lat. cf . e became i in late {Lexique 106). which was spoken in nearly the has become i. -isimus for vir. habetis. shift of conjugation: see In Gaul this substitution of it i for e was so very com- mon that must signify something. II.

quiiscit. Lexique 104-105: ficerent. stiva. For the development (i) of diphthongs. remained unchanged: I. viiium. perhaps through association with rtgidus. which was pronounced e (see § 165). see § 229. spelling e for ^ is common from Digitized the third century on frecare. 468. § i66. i pronounced i (§ 165). : by Microsoft® . vinum. later. Vok. which supplanted vester. segolo. see § 177. stiis. became. rigna. 0) . minses. in north- e>ei (verum> Old Fr. piscem. minus. Fngidus. Bon. exit. Long i. venit. rictu. ficit. 8-9: adoliscens. : (3) Beside sicula there was a secula (Lexique Ii9)>-It. this very high Spr. Pirson 2-5: lo-ii: requiiscit. dico. It is interesting to note that Celtic e also became i: Dottin 99. teneo. criscit. Archiv (2) Beside ilex there was an elex. etc. Cf. riges. pronounced / (§ 165). 106-113: minse. Haag 3iiff. etc. Spr. 397. doubtless by the third century and sporadically earlier. etc. habitur. sidibus. vaster. Short e. remained unchanged: bene. ferus. quaginsima. (cf. qulnque (^Substrate (i) 546). veir): Lat. tile. is to be regarded as a new formation on the model of noster rather than as the old form. vexit. etc. (Lexique 119) mentions a rustic speca for spica. quincriscens. I. i. tepiscit. 1 200. minsis.ii(i. Lexique 114. According to Lat. Cf. tris. Cf. except in Spain. audtre. seniscit. Short i. stilla. The 201. ingraviscente. fedilis. mille. tulate (4) stegola Varro seems to pos- something like * steva for For St. e in nearly all the Empire: btbo. circulns. [§ 201 extremely close pronunciation of the e ern Gaul. villa. ferrum. e 199. rigna. delitus. found in Gregory of Tours fur das Studium der neueren Sprachen CXV.84 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. must have become *frtgidus ij^frigdus). Neumann adoliscens. (4). It. festa.

Neumann 23-25. Long 0. i is Bon. like e from e. For ou 203. etc. ceteneris. etc. viduriiis. sene. Haag II. 214. S. pronounced in Vulgar Latin. S. after that they were perhaps isolated: Einf. Spr. solus. semuL. sebe. 468): furma. 463. often used for e (cf. attested also by in- scriptions (S. benivolus. etc.. at least in hora. Calabria. ^/z<^(= minester. trea. as it (§ 165). accepere. -^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. used by Gregory the Great and for ostium others. in Gaul {^Lat. Apulia of e to /. the change For agnusco. sponsus. Digitized by Microsoft® . 463. > ou.. In southern Italy e from i. Spr. 468.. 198): minses. became i: cf. 6 202... Spr. nomen. Pirson 13. In Sicily. etc. is The spelling u for etc. Spr. 469. place. §§ 197. etc. amure. These two islands were taken > from Rome by the Vandals in 458 and added to the African kingdom. Stu^i Medievali 613) is perhaps to be ex- plained in this way. and southern did in old Oscan: cf. see the end of § 197. trebus. karessemo.§203] legare. 200-201.. Quintilian and Varro mention 166) a rustic e for I. forma. Pirson 8-10. S. remained unchanged most regions: colorem. etc. Carnoy 15^-. vea. (i) (2) Beside camtsia there was a camTsia: Substrate I. 202). very common etc. etc. AudoUent 535. (Zat.. 11 7-1 23. Conversely (S.. cognusco. etc. 195. see § 167. R. § 196. (3) Sinister was replaced by sinexter. 468. under the influence of dexter: Lat. etc. R.. zV/z///). 106. The popular ustium I... perhaps through the analogy of semel: Lat. In Sardinia and a part of Corsica this change did not take and both t and i i. minester. 85 menus. Beside simul there was a *sSmul. has become § 196. 541. corregia. «.

namely. S. Lexique 102-104. Italian tutto . There are a few peculiar cases: and Sp. may have come through 6 pronounced ^ (§ 165). but it doubtless slightly This pronunciation may have been due to the historique de langue francaise approached it. ^'formica noxi furmica. locus. The Such a form seems to be attested by the Gl. The rustic Latin funics. tuit. meuble. Fr. remained unchanged most of the Empire: cura. solet. 206. is that of Mohl. Pr. pronounced u (§ 165).. pi. — presumably through Fr. perhaps. mueble postulate Cf. in north- ern Gaul. § 217. sg. forum.. § 198." where tutti is defined as alle. frundes (for fontes. court. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. old Fr. [§ 206 It Bon. sortem. and western was probably formed a little forward of its normal It was certainly not u. the analogy of mSveo. the plural. later. uuela alle. the influence of cuncti on toti. pi. durus. etc. Cf. totto. For the development of diphthongs. (i) > Old." § 177. Grammarians mention the protrusion of the lips: S. see Long u. tutto. una. in But in Gaul. mortem. 216. gluria. forts. U is occasionally used for o in inscriptions: lucus. Cf. cf.86 etc.. *tutti or *tucti: It. tottus (§ 163). frondes) are perhaps connected with Italian yb«fe and other words containing o for 205. Pr. tutt3 . nun. etc. a large part of northern Rsetia it position. Digitized by Microsoft® . Nyrop. tot. Short 0. K. No satisfactory explanation has been proposed the most plausible. became ou or u: cortem 204. 211—212. folia.. q before n + dental. App. remained unchanged: bonus. Italy. Grammaire I. sg. puni. Cassel: " aiatutti. cognusco. in mobilis. Neapolitan sg. some of the Romance forms point to nom. which Haag 13. probably represents a very close sound. or at least to a tutti.. § 187. nullus. pi. (2) Beside totus and *tuttus or *tuctus. pi. 126-130.

and ndra." "turma non iorma" (cf. Digitized Cf. NUptia. jeune call for local q in coliibra. The spelling is common in late documents: "columna non colomna." from nSvus) Lat.§ 2o8] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. (i) (2) The following special cases are to be noted: — Cf. couleuvre. in Latin words borrowed by the Celts « is generally treated like Celtic (murus ".. cubtturn). 517. 469. In Sardinia. perhaps only orthographic: Lat. etc. tonica. Pr. Short the fourth century or earlier. . a pomex: Bon. a part of Corsica. The old spelling for u after v {yoltus. became nSptim: (3) Beside in Zs. etc." "puella non poella"). 467. pronounced u (§ 165). § 217. Spr. 464. u> Spr." from nSvus). Cf. 87 linguistic habits of the Celts: u> t in Great Britain cf. culpa. toneca. Windisch 396-397. (3) There are other local irregularities. due to the analogy of sdror and * nSvia (" bride.> mur) but in a few. Beside angHstia there must have been *angSstia. see § 167. u 208. corso. presumably taken very early.rdus: Substrate III. Pirson 15-17. giila. 617-618. §§ 169. Spr. 136. through the analogy of *nSvius ("bridegroom. and Dacia this u : Lat.. unda. pomice. change did not take place. F. by Microsoft® . Celtic by the second century. Beside luridus there probably was a *l-S. jUvlnis." "formosus noTiformunsus. « > z (cii^a cili. which lasted down into the Empire. Cf. Fr. For qu (i) (2) > qu. Substrate IV. "colubemon colober. App.). Spr. and both u and . fiUvium. Albania. 216). 132-135. ruptus. In place of niirus we find ndrus (R. probably by in most of the Empire: bucca. Bon. Jleuve. 468.. G. 465) and nSra (S. 134. tomolus. > : 207. 217. u. people ssiA plSvere (used by Petronius (4) Instead oi pluere axA pKvia and others) and *pldja: Lat. became. servos. criidus > criz) Loth 67-68. Mohl pumex there was XXVI. covetum (= is Haag 14. etc.

igo. Cf. Carnoy 79-80. such scBpes both forms were preserved. etc. when Varro cited edus for hadus as a rural form. etc. ^ was originally written through the mutual attraction of later e: ccecus. 465. represents the sound better than ai: E is etc. 210. ae 209. b. fifth it cented syllables (as sancte) before the third century. [§ 210 DIPHTHOUGS. 178. 'Sox fenum fcenum. £ for a in dative endings occurs early: Corssen I. 178. preda. in stressed syllables (as questor) may be called regular by the century: S. etc. its and pronounced ai. c.): found early in Campania. 166—168. Neumann 13 (and Fort- mon to Volscian seizung 21-23): famina. Cf. e. In certain words a vulgar and dialect pronunciation com- and Faliscan (Hammer 7. S. qucero. in the first S. century: Einf. cen224. especially in Pompeii (presta. tury. § 78. stressed cb was probably still a diphthong in the city but had become e in rustic Latium. The Pompeius blames the confusion of csquus spelling e for cb was usual in unacfrom the fourth century on. Carnoy It was probably general everywhere by the second 69-84. but two parts it became cb. septum. sepes.. seta. 8). 687 ff. Bechtel Digitized by Microsoft® . some hundred years later e came into the city and pervaded the middle of the provinces: Lat.88 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. preda prceda. quiceti. century on (Carnoy 78): questus (2d century). In Spanish inscriptions e occurs from the first S. The regular change oi ce to e took place largely in Republican times in unaccented syllables. says that cb Terentius Scaurus. by analogy. Hence. spellings as fcecit.. sepes 188. Spr. S. Cf. and equus : S. ccelum. 225. About the first century b. in stressed syllables in the first century of our era and later. 225. came into general use: fenum.

in Portuguese as ou. generally remained in Vulgar*^ Latin: aura. crept was used by the lower classes: Lat.. Lexique 104). its existence in 211. inscriptions of the I St and 2d centuries). Digitized by Microsoft® . Glacus. In C/^j-a. etc. occur inscriptions Carnoy 85. 183-184) and for Greek r) (as scanam.. 8. Pirson 27. etc. I. orum. etc. the dialects of northern \i^?s~\(>\.). Priscian. pronounced du. 304. Dibmedes. Festus cites 95. or possibly (2) they are only orthographic.. 655-663./464. with a for au when an u in the next syllable. in the first it the city. such as occludo: Vok. taurus. original q (i) is proved by the treatment and Spanish it did not become of c in ^ until had broken into uo or ue. Festus. 89 75-76: cedat. oricla". coda. century second century Carnoy 85. Rome. — speak of a rustic or archaic o for au: Corssen fif. Perhaps they represent a provincial pronuncia- tion. In Rumanian and Provengal it was preserved as au. is 223 spellings Cladius. grece. an Au. Clodius : Ham- and Plotus are common in first mer 4. In Umbrian inscriptions we find Latin. Cf. Cf. and 465-466. ostrum. 212..: into Spr. gaudium. Bayard 5. orata. orum. etc. coming through derivatives. etc. toru. Carnoy 85-86 (clusa. Carnoy 100 (cludo in two Sp. in Oscan territory. Hammer central Italy: Chronologie . the earli^est stage of French in Italian causa> chose . Scarus. in general.: § 212] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in place of Latin au: and There are some examples in Pompeii. Pr. where and second centuries B. 162-164. R. are pretty common in various countries Carnoy 86-95. II. Conversely ce was often erroneouslyused for e (S. in the Probus. plostrum Carnoy App. Umbrian and Faliscan had 4-5. Hammer : 15-19. II.C. The f there S. ^^ auris non cotes. Vok. 301 S. Cludo for claudo is common. and others The grammarians : — . where au was normally preserved this pronunciation was used also in the country around So.

became popular: coscus. Cf. S. 216. cxlum. S. later e: coepi. Spr. 228.. Hammer 4)= aut. neuter. ccementa. sodes. Europa. is its and pronounced oi. etc. find amenus. Carnoy 84. 0. In the Per. coles =^ caulis. Cicero used loreola. This rustic and vulgar while the in Romance — which was pronounced — was generally adopted from au was 0. postulated by some Romance forms. 227. mm227. 227. eu. ote. *^^ Cf. codex. Marius Victorinus. Phebus. I. see § 431. CE was originally written through the mutual attraction of presumably 0. oe 215. the intermediate stage Phoebe. hUic. Vulgar Latin in a few words : coda. Umbrian suffoco. " sorex ve\ saurex. The confusion S. (cf. [§ 216 {^Chronologie Conversely. Bechtel 76. eheu. 228. illHi. Lat. by Microsoft® . foces. Classic fauces. of ce and e is mentioned by late grammarians: In late Latin a bad spelling. plodo. oricla. but two parts it became It pcenitet. etc. S. eui~us. Jilodere. au was occasionally used for 160): Festus. Cf. seu). 1890. ui pronounced lii. eu 214. stus. mmrore." Cf. auscu/um . Ola. 293ff. neu. may be that for reflected by the spelling phyeb^ E is attested by inscriptions in the first century ceperint. of our era: Cf. plaudo. Ui. plotus occur also. ce for ce and e. was not preserved in any popular words. heu. Digitized cHi. Eu. cepi. fosnum. II. S. 0. 213. poena.go An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Carnoy 95. was preserved: For the development oifui. IV. we C. pollulum: si audes. L. pronounced eu (as in ceu. * auddere for occtdere. explodo. 464. pcenates. Vok. fcemina. lotus.

in vulgar speech. see §§ N. that f. q. until the reforms of Charlemagne. 579. u ^u (or a and ce ^e. to Vulgar Latin. XXVII. Among unstressed vowels.. After that. A general influence of this kind can hardly be regarded as proved for any combination except ou. in general. Although many examples are cited. see § 167. q. = 0. qt INFLUENCE OP LABIALS. etc. Jluvium'>*flqvium. d. B. became ou: S. e. — 457. juvenis'^*jovenis. La vocal tonka alterata dal contatto d'una consonante labiate in Archivio glottologico italiano XV. au:=q ox au. but did not fall. For a criticism of the theory. dvum~>* ovum. Ascoli. ibid. for the In clerical Latin the vowels were probably pronounced most part as ii). § 134. possibly through a lingering the Old Latin accent: cf. Pieri. until long after the Vulgar Latin period. e. u were lowered one stage labial.§ 219] An Introduction c. UNACCENTED VOWELS. which 217. 218. see G. 476. and then only Digitized in a part of the Empire. CLERICAL LATEff. pluere'^ ployere. a following labial tends to open a vowel: colubra>* colqbra. 219. by Microsoft® . those of the first syllable had most resistance. — vowel by a liquid. except sporadically. La vocal tonka alterata da una consonante labiale in Zs. mobilis'^* mqbilis. p. the evidence is not convincing. — For secondary 153-155. maintains ceding or following even if it by a preq was separated from the to e. influence of The vowels of the final syllable lost much of their distinct- ness. stress. a = a. e=e. I ' According to some philologists. i = i. 2. Osservazioni al precedence lavoro. The discussion is continued by Pieri.

sibi: S. pontufex "^pontifex. jur(^i)go. Lat. > maximus. being sometimes accented. "in here neque e plane nequi i auditur. SUmus. in unaccented .92 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 3 During the Classic period it generally became t: decumus~> decimus. 196-198. "Messala. Agrippa pro sumus simus scripserunt. According to Quintilian I. 466. 203-208. 221. Brutus. S. secondary or the primary 47-48. developed two forms. 9). employed only before labials.. vtr{i)dis. 21-24. syllables. The former was the one generally adopted in Classic Latin. by Microsoft® . see Pirson 41—47. For the confusion of unaccented e and i. etc.. cf. Fredegarius is very uncertain in his use of unstressed vowels: 220. According to Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. U was cf. in moderation. i was certainly distinct from Digitized In final i: sentis. syllables: I. 7. 35 Franz. 2 1 2. In general Latin quantity did not sensibly affect the quality of unstressed vowels. for o and u. and even there the difference must have been small. Quase." In the vulgar speech simus seems to have Cf. siimus -and simus. spelled both with u and with i: Carnoy 65-69. scriptions etc. etc. maxumus quodlubet"^ guodlibet. see Pirson. vetranus: S. Haag 15-24. Spr. [§ 221 Grammarians sibe are testify to the confusion of and u: S. in Classic and Vulgar Latin: cal{i)dus. cal[e)fdcere. found in place of quasi. however. In inscriptions we find such frig{i)daria. iv. forms as infri. bdl{i)neum. 30—36." (Weakest were medial vowels immediately following the stress. (i). This tendency continued. av{^i)dere. 199-200. but simus was favored by Augustus and by some purists of his time (Lindsay 29). Lindsay 25-26. § 419. except in initial syllables. In early Latin there was an inclination to syncope: ar{i)ddrem. dc(^u)lus. ID re vailed in Italy and southern Gaul. etc. In Spanish in- we find maximus. 251.

> distinguere. and u in hiatus with following vowels first lost their syllabic value era. left a. 236. will be treated as consonants. fectf^Vr. Horace. UNACCENTED VOWELS IN HIATUS. Juvenal. Plautus. sometimes short. So it was in qualis. alio." S. a. such as Classic period. facias.." "vacui gon 224. Maiiam not ab. at least in theory. senti. feci. 232. These. abietiItalia counts as three syllables in poets of the ' bus in Virgil. a vowel but lost its syllabic value in early Classic times: acua > aqua. rather late: Velius Longus distinguishes aquam from acuam. fudxis.g. abiete. u followed by a vowel was originally itself. i. Quintilian and Velius Longus cite the spellings Aiiax. 93 stbi. After gutturals.§ 224] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. e. then. Lucretius. Pr. Ovid. Bonnet notes that etc. 234. /"and u followed by a vowel and beginning a syllable were apparently pronounced as consonants from the earliest times.. as approved is by Cicero: S. quem. fluviorutn) are found in Ennius. Otherwise. sente. In Greek transliterations kv for qui (as in cf. Virgil. oKuAas) very common: Eckinger 123-125. and will be out of consideration in the present chapter. used before Joseph. "vacua non vaqua. fes. senttt> It. nocuit. vaqui. Occasional examples (such as dormio. Digitized by Microsoft® . Lucilius. Quintilian says that u and i in uos and iam are not vowels: S. In tibi the final vowel was sometimes long. fis. the u was ap- parently not reduced to a semivowel until the end of the In some other words the syllabic value of u was kept. e. In perfects. Horace. 223. vindemiator'va. however. placuit. probably by the century of our and sporadically earlier. is distinguere qucBro. and Seneca: deorsum in Lucretius. App. 222. §187. qui.

filius'>ftlius'^Jiljus.. as e. Consentius declares that trisyllabic soluit and . 232. it became soef in French. II>'43. [§ 225 early Empire. etc. a great confusion of e and i in hiatus: capriolvs (cf. L. i. in late Latin.:> Digitized by Microsoft® . 3714 (Rome). S. then. and // apparently being contracted into e. I. calciare. abias. lancia. Hence arises. solia. fasiolus. 106. The pronunciation speech by the first u was probably regular in popular . R. "ares veteres pro anVi. Pr. coclia. the / remaining long enough to palatalize the / (the Romance e was doubtless a later analogical development). Bayard 4. Caper. cf- Carnoy 33-35. So alea>alea'^alja. Suavis. likewise eccu'kic> *eccwic. 463. prehcndere 225. mulierem (% 1^6) ". soave in Italian.> mul'erem. four-syllable induruit are barbarisms Caesellius is undecided whether tenuis has three syllables or two: S. "non iamus sed eamus. §136).y Jiliolus>Jiljdlus (§136). In the same vi2. earn {=jani). tenueram > tenweram (§137). aleum. eccu'istay-* ecwista (§65). 187.." KeilVII. App. But the combinations ei -. * de-excito~^* dexctto'^ It. Cf. calcius. desto. palleum. eacit {^=jacei). abiat. 234.sapui > saj>ui> sapwi. ie. vinia. lintium. with a narrowing of the mouth-passage. Audollent 535.94 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. was used as a trisyllable by Sedulius in the fifth century. parieUs {%i2t^)>p aretes. century or before by the third century. in late Latin spelling. Vok. C. at an early date: arietem (^^\-^6)'> are tern (Varro. it was probably a semi-learned word. u6 developed differently. cavia. 00. 06 and u6 into o. exiat.dixisse": Carnoy 43). 103. however. We have. faciebam'>*facebam. the semivowels pre- sumably developed into the fricative consonants y and w: S. VI. ee.. valiat. noxeus. 231-232. etc. Lauriatus." " sobrius per i non per e scribendum. a new y and a new w. Uniamenta. Valerius Probus has parietibus: £don 208. S.

"equs non ecus ". unguo'>ungo {ungo. 2 1 7 ) . Jan{u)arius: Vok. Audollent See §354. tuum'^tum. kept its u: Old Fr. mortuus'^p- cottidie. coquus'^ cocus {App.oSmsiT\& mortus. tdrqueo>*torquo> *tdrco. ho-Tievex. Bayard 7. then *cdpenre *cdp'rtre through the analogy of co. Pr. contin{u)ari. abattas." Keil VII. Febr{u)arius. 106). S. quoi{f)tdie> stingo . S. U often fell irregularly II. Audollent 536). coquo^coco {App. distinguunf> distingunt (ac- cording to Velius Longus. doubtless under the influence of vidua. uncis = unguis. So apparently aruum^* arum. in quum>cum. / after a consonant fell before unaccented i: Velius audit '^ audi. 217-218." Keil VII. z/ after all consonants fell before unaccented u probably by the middle of the first century.. 226. Furthermore. cf. sttnguo > guere non tingere. Spr. vef. equus S. £ruum'>erum {Lat. Pr. some writers use no u in distinguere. — cdhdrtew^ cortem. battuo "^ batto (cf. § 227] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin." " coqus non cocus". consiln'^ consilt. '' coqui non cod. . requebit. Digitized by Microsoft® . duodecim'^ dodecim (Pirson 58: dodece). £don 130). 218) quator — in. ministerW^ ministeri. Carnoy 117. " coquens non cocens". opus. tinguo~^ttngo (Caper. 468-469. Caper. Gl. in late inscriptions.. quteius'> quetus. unguntur. then *prendere through the analogy of reddere and perhaps also of ascendere. inndcuus>inndcus. 472: ero). u before stressed u and 0: 536. 351). the Viduus. Pirson 57 (cf.'K. S. cf. (Pirson 58) quatro (7th century. Reich. Pr. "tin352. . 105.. pendere. fell commoner After gutturals. ungi. > ecus {^App. defendere. hence *cocma). "ungue non unge. Similarly. cooperire"^ coperlre. 227. suus'> sus. qudmddo> comodo. Carnoy 221). quat{t')uor'^quattor (^.and perhaps also ol opera.'). common Carnoy 43). tendere. 95 prendere. before unaccented by the second century: antiquus "> anticus carduus^^cardus. . Velius Longus..

golosus gylosus (ior gulosus). /^22: Jejunus after prefixes lost its first syllable: * dis-junare. (Lat. — Latin /(j/»««j > Classic Jejunus (the original a seems to be preserved in Classic Januarius '^ Jenuarius . Lat. dtrectus generally '> drictus)\ quirttare~>*dritare. 171-1 72. 136. Dionigi. is very often replaced divota. i. INITIAL SYLLABLE. S. Bon. far as As or u. must have existed 229. ce all came to be sounded e. 109. 57. one can judge from spellings and subsequent developments. 135—138. a{u)sculto. l remained i. long or short.. lost before also. and u were finally all pronounced 228. 470) (2) Classic/awKa mimoricB. In a few words the vowel of the initial syllable was an r: *corrStulare^*^roflare. audere. videre. 470): rddicem. Keil VII. 0^ remained p.96 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. (Bcclesia. Caper says "ausculta non asculta. debere. I. necessary to say that Claudii. i: should be spelled with double late words. dolere. Bon. colorem. Some minor peculiarities are to be noted: (i) A after/ apparently tended to become e: Old dialect forms) . plordre. gaudere. but otherwise remained unchanged (cf. in Gallic inscriptions cf. dvitdtem. Bon. I. 223. some Italian (common by i in inscriptions. Farisiis > Parigi. kept It. e For the confusion of Carnoy 17-33. tenere. A(u)gustus. Lat. etc." S. i. Agustus is frequent from the second century on.. movetis. cetdtem. * agurium (cf. valere. '^senatus non sinatus" App. Cf. hibernus. Arunci occurs in manuscripts of Virgil. -n and —ns: Dtonysii>lt.. ridemus. 470): dilevit. frumentum. moniti (for muniti). ce. subinde. and see Audollent 535. b. A(u)runci. Spr. Vok. au became a if there was an accented u in the next syllable. a was pronounced a. > *jenua > Sardinian genna. Digitized by Microsoft® . 11. 223 Pirson 26). Spr. Koffmane no. Pr. d'rectus (^Vok. naufragium. agusias. Julii. Bechtel 76. Spr. it [§ 229 Longus found etc. S. fxddre. E. Some however. Comelii.

This perhaps indicates a close pronunciation cf. Vitruvius. 205) . 3 II. Italian. mcinus vecinus. 131). Franz. Au 230. § 198. cf. nutrire (beside *nqtrire).. etc. Great: dirivare. in late Latin.jaian. cf. 3 II. divmus"^ demnus. e became southern Italy from the fourth to the sixth century RIVOCAVERIT. in very late texts there is frequent confusion of si and sed (Franz. (Bon. (6) O appears as u mfurmica (App. According to Mohl. serori. Pirson 27. serorihus. §§ 69. Pr. (4) / tended to become e. se in Portuguese. and Old Rumanian. Lindsay 40). attested from the sixth 87. JUntfSrus'^jeniperus (Lat. 213. z.for i in 422-424. Rum. century on (Foi.. A form ni for ne is found from early times Pirson 3. L. nise. was kept by analogy in many words : dUrare. also sometimes in serore (Lat. cf. §§ 212. Cf. C. Spr. II. Pr^. Lexique > I04ff. I. : 97 Di.Jaiant. cf. Lat. if there was an accented i in the next syllable:^ dividSre'^*devTdlre. Rom. if i followed. turrente (Bon. Lexique 105-108. salvatico. Proven9al. attested by Servius. putator O is changed to e in retundus (Vok. Reich. Lexique 123. 213): App. Pr. de-. retundatio. Umbrian ate. front vowel (until the seventh century nearly always an ' later e Mohl's view. I. 82). through the influence of the prefix re—. Lexique \2Z-iz6. 470) > Old Fr.§ 23o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. became instead of Digitized by Microsoft® . is that original Latin ei. by dissimilation. so that at the modern a syllabic effect — beginning of a word it had s-chola. fimre'^fenire. which prevailed in Vulgar Latin. cf. mUrare. Old French. the e is perhaps due to the Haag II.. Spr. possibly through confusion with dis-. 126. Lat. Lexique I2z. as in 6' before a consonant was doubtless long and sharp. I was occasionally assimilated to a following accented a : ^gdntem It. so *ot (for aut: cf. oricla. 470.. §111. 127). Vr. XXXV. Spr. 470) and/m?- perus (App. Italian. sdlbatec. salvage. Sfr. is common : in Gregory the etc. Old Genoese zagante. < e In miraUlia the i ap- parently became (5) U and a. sometimes became se. 224 ff. analogy of *que quid^ quod (cf. II. This led to the prefixing of a 2. silvdticus> salvaticus (Gl. Lexique 120. cf. and Spanish. Carnoy (7) 107). Italian sed on the model of ched: si is preserved in French. in manuscripts and inscriptions. : (3) > *jagante > Old Yr. Si. mUtare. in fourth century inscriptions. 470). in vulgar speech was often replaced by (cf. 16^. 225. 234-235) . Bon. Einf.

dil{i)cdtus. strumentum. . spatii. prosthetic vowel earliest occurs in Greek inscriptions. Pirson 59-60. Slementum 6limintum.thus produced was confounded with ex-. Vowels so situated probably became more and more end of the Empire. Bon. Estephanus. cdrr(i)care. cirebellum. is. spectante for expectante. frigiddria frigddria. Digitized by Microsoft® . in the third century (Carnoy 114-116). Bon. ab scandalo. but a was gen231. sp. ischola. hispatii for Bechtel 78. [§ 231 often e) to the s or e when tio vowel preceded first is — in i-schola. S. isiudio. tlie C. etc. B. not frequently. instruo for struo. 3656-. mirabilia. etc. spandere for ex- pandere. 467. splorator. Dubois 1 71-17 2.. ab sceleribus. though iscripta. stantia for instantia. dv{i)idtem. in the fifth it is very common: espiritum. Grammarians took But in no note late until St. 445-446. 148. The The in Latin example probably it is iscolasticus. 445. Spanus. cf. in the seventh century. Pirson 60. Spania. st: ginning with Bon. R.(pronounced w-): expiendido. scalciare for excalceare. written Barcelona in the second century. indistinct towards the erally kept: bdn{i)idtem. dub{i)idre. ^w. S. Dubois 171. spiratio for inspiratio. Koffmane 109. scoriare for excoriare. fourth and found repeatedly. etc.98 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. estatio. exs— (pronounced «-) and /«j-. istare.. 316-319. Vok. of it iscola.. S. — By this term is meant syllable following the secondary and preceding the primary stress. ismaragdus. In some regions they began to fall regularly before the close of the Vulgar Latin period. compardre comperdre. IHTERTONIC SYLLABLE. Spania. 469-470. 317. N. This i came to be regarded as a regular part of the word. Cf. 317 R. and occasionally disappeared. The es-. isperabi. Latin texts ab rather than a was used before words besc. ispose. cdlK^o^cdre. Isidore. II. istatuam. cdp[i)idlis.

Koffmane III. XIV. We find in late Latin much confusion of e and /. dedcavit. R. Cf.. however. c. fall 559. comare for coronare. dixemus. PENULT.. The penult. etc. 467.. the uneducated pronounced 'om'nes beside socerum there was sScrum. meretis. Likewise o and u: ambolare. was apparently very Vulgar Latin. Pir- Franz. of this vowel. uomini). R. Neumann in Zs. : Frigdaria occurs Cf. Cf. pi. vowel preceded by a consonant and followed by a fell in the earlier part of the Vulgar Digitized 233. v^recundia. Substrate IV. 131— 135. (>Pr. 118. etc. etc. Neumann 22. being next to the accent. son 52. Bon.§ 233] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 464. both types The treatment inconsistent often being preserved in the Romance languages: thus while the literary and official world said {h)dmines (>It. d. in Sepulcri 201—202.• anemis. The fall of the vowel of course disturbed the Vulgar Latin rhythm: see § 153. F. insola. vetranus. similarly As far as the general phenomena can be we may say that in popular words in penult tended to (i) fall common speech the vowel of the under the following conditions: — Between any Consonant and a Liquid. stablarius. Pirson 51. in the second century b. omne)\ classified. Mintsterium apparently became minsterium early enough for the n to before the s: see §171. 99 sdcramintum. There was probably a conflict between cultivated and popular pronunciation. separdre seperdre.. 12. and the conditions differed widely in different regions. principle tended to oblit- 232. liquid A weakened and by Microsoft® . etc. 116. Bon. The Vulgar Latin rhythmic erate one of the two post-tonic syllables of proparoxytones. cf. was weaker and more exposed to syncope.

see first consonant -Cvas a palatal. a. were kept distinct vulgar speech: artic{u)lus. both -clus in {^<i—tlo). 1899. A sonant was inclined to bublus. Later they were confused. as in saclum. aunclus. Pr. oclos. Lexique 63. Pr. frdgilis. gracilis.).^-* spatla. Franz. ci. spatula'.loo An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. In some words we find a weakened to e: socro. tum. dc{ii)lus. Die Sprache des Petronius und die Glossen. Juglus. 1 digitum> dicCf. These by Plautus. App. mdsc{u)lus. 57. ins(u)la. 195-196. aspra. e^-16 . 234. masclus. compera. vitulus>veclus.. Oclus and some others occur in Petronius: see W. fecrunt fecru. d. But if the the ^ began to be palatalized (so apparently in 9 I. App. But a few words. Eseram for Isaram. at any rate in some regions: bdjulus. the vowel seems to have been kept. dedro for dederunt. ftsiula>*Jiscla.' For a vowel between a labial and a liquid. 96. (cf. Vok. 16-18. vowel preceded by a labial and followed by a confall early: 235. scaplas. Digitized by Microsoft® . I. cdm{i)tem. Latin originally had the two diminutive endings —clus and -cuius {<i-co-lo).). as in auricula. Pirson 49-50. vic(u)lus. peduclum. comp'tus. frigidus^frigdus. seperat (about 500 A. § 284. amples are found in inscriptions: AudoUent 538. Pirson 51. virginem. bdc{u)lus. both becoming —cuius in Classic Latin.'). App. § 259. escaped this absorption: cni. D. Carnoy 12. vemdc(^u)lus. spec{ii)lum. Cf. Many exI. [§ 235 Latin period: altra. Waters Ch. Lexique 64. hilerus. Heraeus. Pr. (2) Between a Labial and any Consonant. Cceseris. 3 To -clus was assimilated in popular Latin the ending -talus: capitulus"^* capiclus . villus. Pirson 51). anglus. Franz. cltera. which must have been slow in entering the common vocabulary. In vigilafp-* viglat the vowel fell before (2) below. maniplus.stulum> crustlum (found in 18 Cf. felicla. Bon.

offla. caldus. fdbula>*faula *fabla. h6m{i')nes jiiv{e)nis . Ovid. sablum. Franz. frigidus by Microsoft® . Varro. pdp{u)lus. either everywhere or in a large region: drbi^o^rem. virdiaria. 237. pi. ioi tri- dib{i)tum. domnulus. Franz. In d6m(i')nus the mn form may be mane domni. in R. p I. 13. i2ff. * ndvitaf. 238. 467. *navi- > fragus>naufragus). Plautus). Petronius. Plautus. however. Pirson 50. Franz. pi. 44. Varro. nibula. occurs in Lamna Petronius has bublum. domnus in St. but often there were double forms the process began very early audus. Juvenal. the fall When ab or av was brought next to a consonant by it of a following vowel. the older: d6m.Jibla. Plautus (cf. 4th century).. Waters Ch. b{u)la. App. c6l{a)phus {ci. (cf. 13. Horace. fulica fulca. Pirson 51. Koff109. p I. poplus. tremulat.. 44. Pr. pi. merto. KofiEmane iii. Augustine. lardum.^-* nautat . dvidus avunculus"^ aunculus.). per- colopabat. Horace and Vitruvius. Waters Ch. colpus. * cldvido> claudo (cf. 12. Caesar. vdpulo baplo. etc. Digitized different condi§ 233) . gdbata>*gauta *gabta. (3) Between a Liquid and any Consonant. 3 \. generally became au. tdbula>*taula *tabla. the vowel was kept. A vowel preceded by a liquid and followed by a consonant was subject to syncope at all periods: ardus. 236. * dvka "^ auca. Franz. Gl. Ci. . R. Waters Ch. : § 238] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 15 soldus. (4) Miscellaneous. virdis. Martial.{i')nus. f{b{u)la. Plautus. valde. pardbula>*paraula *parabla. Cato. tions: In some words the vowel fell under digitum> dictum. Cf. 56. hdmula. Vegetius. Pliny. Cf. Reich. sablum. . In some words. 15-16 (cf. Franz. 467. Franz. found in glosses. domnicus.

probably late. A vowel preceded by </ or ^ and followed by c seems to have remained longer than most other vowels that fell at all: judico. Pr. Digitized by Microsoft® . c6llocat'>-*colcat. (2). posius. they generi. [§ 241 ^frigdus maxima^ masma. and a number of vowels otherwise placed fell under different conditions in various regions: pdnere'^*ponre. habitus > * abtus.102 An (cf. carcatus. ntHdus>*niiius. 13-14 (ci." Aus and flaus have left no representatives. Reich. The vowels regularly remained through the Vulgar Latin period. Pirson 50. FINAL SYLLABLE. 240. culicet culcet Cf. etc. pers{i)ca. mdnica'>* manca. vindico. Gl. we find "avus non aus. fimina *femna. 239. In the transition from Vulgar Latin to the Romance in so far as languages the vowels in classes (i). e. shortened forms were used in other regions. Through a large part of the Empire -avit>-aut: umphaut is found in Pompeii. dominica-^ * dominca. Pompeii (fridam). about the eighth century. Franz. See Morphology. Cato). tdllere > * tolre. rapidus > > *rapdus. 2d century. Aquitanian. semita'^* senta. sid(^e)cim. they had not fallen already. . and Ligurian territory. frdx(i)nus. but rius is evidently the ancestor of Italian and Spanish rio. medicus. — were — syncopated with some regularity. 241. p I. Some of these In a part of Gaul dmita'^* anta. Suchier 732. App. ally fell. dic{i)mus. All three forms are probably examples of a tri- phonetic reduction that affected certain regions. clericus^*clercus.: = collocat. (3). posturus. except a and in Celtic. cdrrico'^*carco. Later. pi2tidus'^*puttus. Lucretius." "flavus non Jlaus" "rivus non rius. viaticum. Pr. In the App. § Introduction to Vulgar Latin. debita~^* depta. (fricda). 233).

which in Sicily be- came eventually // t remained // was 0. Bechtel 75-76. iv and I. t. for / is frequent in the dative and ablative.Xxa. u was u. tristts. Lexique 118. feci. describes the final vowel of here as neither quite e nor quite Cf. perhaps. corpus. 469). vii. by Microsoft® . but generally they were confounded {Lat. cotidia. The changes in pronunciation led to great confusion in spelling. and i came to be used almost indiscriminately. long or short. facul =facilis. tristem. Cf. ablative. modern must have been often elided or syncopated in the interior of a phrase. fructu. 103 242. §210): apte^aptcB. haber in an inscription. See Franz. Old 'Lz. The App. tanger in manuscripts. morior. E I. 244. but are rather due to a local change of languages. E and a. etc. which became u in Sicily. "bibere non biber". Spr. 243. which left no trace in the Romance famulus. bonds. etc.. tibe. praber. in I. has "barbarus non barbar. Spr. etc. a. Italian. Examples: dmds. bom. So. were all probably sounded e. dmdt.§ 244] An Introduction Final vowels. conder. Quintilian says that Livy wrote sibe and quase. according to the testimony of numerous inscriptions {Lat. autumnal {e). especially e after liquids: Caper. inflection. About the eighth century a probably became ? in northern Gaul. tristes. sentls. It is likely that final vowels were especially ob- scure in Gaul in the sixth and seventh centuries. 469). 41. he i. Neumann 7-8 cites ten cases of e for a: Italice. sancta. Pr. tribunal{e). uxore." "masculus non mascel. famul = A. pradiscer. e. 3 I. mihe. Carnoy45: Digitized dative." These curious forms are probably not the result of a phonetic development. E luce. was naturally pronounced a. were not usually distinguished (cf. in late Latin. vii.. etc. as in to Vulgar Latin." ^^figulus nonfigel. In some localities this and this u were kept distinct.

used as a prefix (cf. Haag 245.. Ill. Phon. of. mares etc.. for the vowels i were B. X. etc. an R. and us for os.. larly common 42. Bon. Carnoy 48 bonus = bonos. Lat. of om for um. E. Bon. 115.. Spr. and um is very common in Per. omnes ^^omnis. as well as frequent instances of ablative in um. Bon. 474. became in Gaul mis-. Neumann 11-13.104 An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. common in Per. M. Sepulcri 229-230./^^. T.. So et it: Bechtel 88-89. Sepulcri 201. In words ofteii used as proclitics final -er. = maris. os The confusion of for us.. §29) as in minus-pretiare. D. and 121. siiper'>-*supre. [§ 246 Es and are continually interchanged: 24. regis ^reges. Cf. I.. Sepulcri 203-204. H. Joannis. also in Gregory the Great. accusative plural G|^l|ii Jilius—Jilios. G. in us was particu128. N. cf. S. Z. 11 1. etc.. it need by Microsoft® . Audollent 535.. 116. 61 examples of u for ablative In Vok. sem- per'^* sempre .. there are between 126 and 563 a. monumento ^= monumentum. 43-44. -re. Minus. 'Im. K. very etc. L. etc. II.. posuet.4 G.r became Carnoy 221. etc. etc. movit. etc. Carnoy 48. I. old letter equivalent to C. 916. C. in etc. Carnoy 13-15. 131 has spoliatur for spoliatot. under the influence of dis-. CONSONANTS. -ro: inter'>*intre. omnes ^ omnis (3d century). Cf. letters The Latin consonant P. -£?. Q. d. Vok. : . V. K.. With and u it was the same. ^and Fwere used both and u and for the consonants/ and v. etc. 246. Bon. •quat{u)or'>quatro. Carnoy 13. Neumann 11-13.. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin period. Os and us were interchanged from the third century on awi' = annos. F. was kept in Digitized some formulas . Bon.. tenit.

nullus. next the Greek. 163. 105 in not be separately considered. passus. consonants are often written single in early inscriptions. lastly the Germanic. terra. 247.§ 248] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Vulgar Latin had a new w and y coming from originally syllabic u. Q V= kw (cf. liquids. and n ceased to be sounded before s. The voicing of intervocalic surds began during the Vulgar Latin period. which will be treated below (§§338-339). h was silent. 319-320). m and n became silent at the end of a word. For w>j and For double forms like of single cipus ctppus. Digitized by Microsoft® . the Celtic need not be separately studied. 158. e. or / in hiatus: see § 224.or ss (S. ^ and g before front vowels were palatalized and were then subject to further alterations. Pirson 88. labials. Pirson 83-91. Double consonants regularly kept after long their long pronun- ciation: annus. fillio. first the native Latin. Bon. the combination Q was generally used only Jf stands for ks. In late spelling there is some confusion and double consonants: anos. Double cf. gutturals. later it represented a different Latin version of Greek t. In words borrowed from Greek and German there were several foreign consonants. dentals. In addition to the above. and thus became identical V. § 223). palatals. which will be discussed after the native ones. Z in Old Latin apparently meant j. vacca. which also changed to /8. nasals. see §§ 162. with The consonants will now be considered in detail. Pirson 85. sibilants. 248. serra. //>/ vowels. sonants The principal developments that affected Latin conmay be summed up as follows: b between vowels was opened into the bilabial fricative /3. see §161.. taken up The Latin consonants will be in the following order: aspirate. For Fredegarius see Haag 39-40.

sometimes does not. Initial h was surely very feeble and often silent during In Cicero's time and in the early Empire there was an attempt to revive it in polite society. and cites "ados ircosque": S. Quintilian says the ancients used h but little. but Cicero's contemporaries much. 266. and both he and Velius Longus declare there is no h \VLprendo: S. 1. first XI. — aspires perperam". 255-256. vehemens. App. 267—268. a. cortis. comprendit. Nigidius Figulus fit to the effect that "rusticus sermo i. honera : Pompeius notes that k sometimes makes position. nil. G. being little or nothing more than a breathed on-glide: S. Probus states that traho is pronounced trao: Lindsay 57. Grammarians say that A is not a letter but a mark There is no trace of Latin k in of aspiration: S.. 264. as in terga fatigamus hasta. as in quisquis honos tumuli: Keil V. 251. Gellius quotes P. Cf. very much as happens in Cockney English to-day: for the would-be elegant chommoda. 266. Gellius says ahenum. S. 263-264. Grammarians felt obliged to discuss in detail the spelling of words with' or without h : S. in such words as sepu/c/irum. Pr. Quintilian commends the spelling deprendere: S." In inscriptions we find such forms as reprehensus aduc. Digitized by Microsoft® . 249.. doubtless the Romance It languages.— io6 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ASPIRATE. etc. 264-265. 262-263. Cf. 117. si speaks of bygone generations as using k very S." see S. vemens: S. Paris in I?om. If -was weak and uncertain at all times in Latin. 266.. mi.e. the Republic. which led to frequent misuse by the ignorant. hinsidias. 399. 263. [§ 251 LATIN CONSONANTS. of "Arrius. 250. "adhuc non aduc. probably disappeared when medial: . incohare are archaic calls Terentius Scaurus and vehemens incorrect.

kw was Before other vowels the regularly kept in most of k. hodio. 351-352. pronounced kw: 0. etc. I. S.§ 254] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. I. Vulgar Latin reduction of que to Digitized qui to ki: Lat. C.. southand Sicily subsequent developments point to a ke. 924. dialects: Quintilian VI. 252.L. of S. In Rome are found: e[redes]. Bechtel 78. the Empire.. But in Dacia. § 226. haram. Cf. hostium. hegit.. and H after the third century it is everywhere more or eres. k.. secuntur. cocus : see §226. C. 350reduced to k by the or second century. E. S. S. S. 82-87. ic. ora. probably earlier in local or vulgar iii. records a pun of Cicero on cogue and quoque. as in eastern Italy. 345-346. Spr. hossa. Cf. the kw was 340-341. cf. = coperta. 107 is dropped in a few inscriptions towards the end of the Republic: arrespex (for haruspex). Sheldon in Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Litera- turel (1892). quooperta cot. ymnus. unless analogy led to a substitution of cociior coqui throvigh. ortus. in quo ante=^inBechtel 78-79. L. Q and C: S. abitat. 351. cottidie. Pr. After h had become pronunciation of medial h as Italian pronunciation of there grew up a school which has persisted in the Latin and has affected some words in silent. by Microsoft® . '^digitus = digitos. 473. 455. 1034. condam. criminately used: abeo. R. OSTIA. anc. Q F was Audollent 536. oe. oratia. R. 264. 265-266... GUTTURALS. 345. Bechtel 77-78. omo. 462-463. heremum. S. too. 341-344. I. 819. less indisetc. choante. 253- C and K did not differ in value except that C some- times did service for dicitos G: App. etc. I. Mens. nichil. b. In Pompeii h is freely omitted. non dicitus". Before u and first however. I. There was some confusion. ospitiutn. 254. etc. Cf. etc. etc. other languages: michi. C. I. L... etc.

destera. Carnoy 159. Lindsay 102. as in * essaexire. Cf. as in cresco. buxus'^* buscus vixit>\iyiC\Ti (i.: see Melanges Wahlund t^^. BissiT BisiT VISIT = vixit. 351. es~ for ex. s: sestus is common in inscriptions. ''cah dicendum. Bechtel 139. but not in syllables etc. extimare for cestimare.. 256. viscit). There are some examples. Carnoy 158. felis. excutere. 352. ^ stood for ks: S. For ks>-)(S. in At about the same time : final ks cojus.before vowels. for some reason. of a metathesis of ks into sk: axilla"^ ascella. Lexique 93). III. etc. "aries non ariex. 353 (cf. exponere. except in mono^prmgnans." Keil VII. 353. On In norththe other hand. gium. etc. App. see § 266. etc. sometimes. S. but this was only local: alesan[der]. first [§ 256 In quinque the w was lost by dissimilation: cinqve. pregiiax became s. /'m«7/« > prixsilla. Caper. found in Spain (so cinqv. The voicing of intervocalic surds doubtless it is early as the fifth century. io8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Vok. Cinqvaginta. S. 353.. in late Latin. By the second reduced to or third century ks before a consonant was 170. to Carnoy have become *laceus: Substrate 255. began as shown by Anglo-Saxon borrow- ings and by such Latin forms as frigare. subornatris. S." In parts of Italy ks between vowels was assimilated into ss by the first century. xanto. Carnoy 157. Fr. 341.: Hence cf. e." "poples noT\ poplex. migat in inscriptions Digitized by Microsoft® . 221. dester. 346. conjus. After a consonant ks early tended to become s: Piautus uses mers for est. I.). mextum for mcestum.. 145. ern Gaul apparently sk regularly became ks. Carnoy 171." "locuples non lucuplex. Carnoy Eckinger 126 (2eorros). 98. S.'' "miles non milex. nasco. cen- inscriptions. merx. So ex-^es. cf. S. Laqueus seems. milex. ubi materia per s. cinctivs. fifth tury. 274. Audollent 537. by analogy..

— — § 258] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. however. cubidus. Rydberg.. G seems to have been attracted sooner than k : in Sardinian we find k before e or i preserved as a stop whiles is not decern. Vok. 472. Densusianu 111-112. p. 257. and Dacia. Dalmatia. into a mediopalatal position k'.. ne121. In Central Sardinia. According to Loth 21-26. * gratis. noghe < nucem. of the cataveris ^^ cadaveris. maintains. but reina. Before the front vowels e and the velar stops k and g were drawn forward. Carnoy 123. crassus + grossus'^grassus. 731. Carnoy eglesia. XXV. in a few words. C and G before Front Vowels. deghe<. etc. Initial c and cr. that t>d'm the fifth century and the beginning of the sixth. 109 and manuscripts.. A. Zs. 474. sigricius ^= secretins. 2d century. kircare. i25ff. etc. immudavit. etc. Zimmermann. Digitized by Microsoft® . Some above examples show that consonants followed by r shared in the voicing. Franz.. siubri. at least as early as the seventh century.. lebra. Haag 27—28. finds in inscriptions some slight evidence of a change of t to d during the Empire. etc. in central and southern Italy. t were voiced in Gaul in the second half of the sixth century. 7th century. Haag 27. . Voicing was not general. and Illyria k' went no further. pontivicatus. kena. kera. became g and gr: *gaveola. there are many examples from the sixth century: Lat. pagandum. found in the 4th century. etc. kelu. occubavit. kima.t least two centuries earlier. 32. early in the Empire or before. Spr. and Dacia the k' stage was apparently kept longer than in most regions: Lat. and in Sicily.g'. I. intervocalic c. Haag 28-29. Spr. southern Italy. gat. etc. in some places perhaps as early as the first century. while c>gz. / 258. on the evidence of inscriptions and manuscripts. (i) Cf. Dalmatia. Cf. 3 I.

iesta. argentum.. Pr. Grammaire des langues ro- I. Thm-ot 77. diriens. = conjugi. Before happened. but is " weak " before other vowels. so *pa{g)e{n)sis. etc.1 1 Some light is thrown on the later clerical pronunciation by a statement in a fragment of a tenth century treatise on Latin pronunciation.. with the following e or i if this vowel was stressed: vi- mag2ster'>*mayister'. Cf. . Genavam.. fmucrrpo. to the effect g has "its own sound " (i.>maester. Vok. Stolz 349. non cakosieis. in nearly all the Empire. II. {g)inti. G' by the fourth century had become had opened into y. 61. After the accent. II. (cf. a part of southwestern Gaul. etc. 250. 460) trienta. that of English g in gem) before e and /. and southwestern Italy remained at the y stage elsewhere the y developed further in the Romance languages. But sometimes : fused with a following i proparoxy tones roitus {=irdgitus z= rogdtus). Spain. Cf. Haag 34 manes 1' . agere = ^ aiere. S. 275.. and portions of Sardinia. Pirson 97 celiens. Pr. S. etc. F.Gi. similarly perhaps the proclitic ma{g)is. Spr. Sicily. Pirson 97 quarranta = qicadraginta.Gi 5. agebat Lat. the regularly remained. D'Arbois 10. Agrientum.. etc.. "calcostegis Neumann 75. Diez. leges. Spr. Troge.e.. Voi. except colliens when analogy forced *colliente. Tragani. 15-16): cf. This y. 3 I. frigidus in most of the Empire had become frigdus {App. 349. and digitus in some places had become dictus {Franz. jSctevTt = viginti. ingens aiebat. 473. in through legit. §233. coi^i. S. 3. re{g)ina. colliens. 461. [§259 259. lenubam = Bon. = Sepulcri 205. 239. vigtlat had become *viglat. Gepte. 473. genarivs.): it its disap- pearance (as in pldngit. this Haag 33. praepalatal clerical and Latin: App. Lat. fused. recoUiendo. II. both in popular and in Gerapolis for HierapoHs. Vok. . when it was intervocalic. and after a consonant. "-frigida non fricda"). Per. 461 . agebat ^ aiebat. maestati. Pirson iniens. genvarivs. Digitized by Microsoft® . no An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.." geiuna= Jejuna. neglienda. 173.

Vok. I. 348 cites fes[it]. paze (6th or 7th cenFrankish tins (German zins') is from fifth borrowed probably in the 595. 123-126. census. everywhere a The next step was the development of an audible glide.. In the school pronunciation of the seventh and eighth centuries c before e and i In the treatise cited in the preceding note. S. 359. 163. 51-53. 1893. of this glide the group then. and in Rom. XXX. apparently as and postpalatal. 151. tury). septrvm. developed into or ts: t's'entu or Speakers were apparently unaware of the phenomenon until the assibilation was complete. duk'ere. S. a short y. see H. and qu. ka. between the k' and the following vowel: k'yentu. Mohl. 1901. Cf. in the Annuaire de I'^cole pratique des 261. in 260. For a discussion of the subject.S^ was palatalized also: crescere. it is stated ts. G. nascere. 348. in Lat. intcitamento: P. articulation: k'entu. 1893. By the fifth century the k' had passed a little further forward and the Through a modification tsentu. in the t's sixth or seventh century. Marchot. consiensia. k'y had become t'y: t'yentu. piscem. Meyer-Liibke in Einf. and Libit. duk'yere. century some writers distinguish Rom. as early as the third ce. G. Vok. 7.§ 26i] An K' Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 21-51 (cf.1 century: F. mediopalatal. XXVI. Fetite phonetique du franfais prelitieraire. and is almost like q before other vowels. 322 P. in the Comptes rendus des seances de I'Academie des Inscriptions. or praepalatal. 1 was probably Digitized by Microsoft® .itury must have had nearly front. I. co{g)ndscere. that c has " its own sound " before c and i. Schuchardt. the earlier grammarians: prsepalatal. Guarnerio in Supplementi aWArchivio glottologico italiano IV (1897). in the fifth century we find bintcente. Cf. 81. . XXXIII. 360. Paris in Journal des savants. Thurot 77. There is no mention of first it by 340. S. etc. Zs. XIV. W. 1900. ffautes-^tudes. fascem. 617). E. In the half of the third ce. dut'yere. .

probably by the end of the seventh century. negare. so * ledlis. frvalitas. see Archiv XV. 262.. so. the proclitic eo for ego. y^ 264. (2) C AND G before Back Vowels. * liamen. Reich. hoc. pagdnus. — mainly. § 256. 3 II. Sfir. I. gustus. see Zs. in the front of the 263. in Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 129 (other examples in manuscripts. see Palatals below. through alliteration. of a word the guttural seems : to have been regularly preserved in Vulgar Latin fac. avste. Occasionally. Franz. ecce htc. Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie [§264 3131!. however. 50). Carnoy 155-160 (who puts the assibilation in the sixth century and earlier). fammi {<ifac mi). gamba>'Ex. S- — — perhaps 349). due. For a possible indication. See. however. the c must have been Digitized lost. *redlis (for XXX. Italian die. Vok. found about the sixth century. of a local assibilation of c as early as the second century. At the end cf. 242-243). For ce. 146. K and g before vowels not formed mouth usually remained unchanged: canis. negdre. But ligdre. and apparently remained under learned or under analogical influence in others: avstvs from the second century on. by Microsoft® . cher.112 An 472. 349. (3) C and G Final and before Consonants. ci.. g'a. dimmi (< die mi). Intervocalic g before the accent fell in many words in all or a part of the Empire. ga in most of that country became k'a. ka. sic. S. Inasmuch as a had in Gaul a front pronunciation (§ 194). pacare. jambe. sic factum). eccu'hdc. too. siffatto {<. Carnoy 127 (cf. realis in Gl. and then developed further: carum>'Fr.

saint. and «'. Spr.. and likewise substituted x^ fo"^ ^^' Suchier 735. I. fata. * exsire . Old ct Windisch 394. LATTVCjE (3OI etc. Spr. Spr. Lat. through assimilation to a following initial consonant: PA iot fac. Cf. "dumecta S. ^^auctor non autor". 113 no doubt. 399). Xf some parts was assimilated into U by the beginning of the fourth century.). App. 215-224. There is reason to believe. A. *viglat (§233). XXV... "sagma by Microsoft® . 348. became um: fraumenta. Festus. Pr." 348. S. that the y was retained very generally in Gaul and perhaps some other regions. 267. — sanctum 268. §650. which seems to have been assimilated first into nt in parts of the Empire. 9 II. 278. = qu. 472. PR/EFETTO. subsequently drawn forward to the praepalatal position santus.^ Ft. sank. inasmuch as their own rf had as x^ from the become ^f (e.e.g. Before another consonant k and g were for the most part kept through the Vulgar Latin period: actus.).) . however. Zs. The resultant phenomena can. 265. Carnoy 172. fleuma. In late texts nee is often written ne before a consonant.. sante. Isidore. regnancte. probably by the century: defuntus. antiqui quasi dumecita appellabant quae nos dumeia. Lat. ( i. however. OTOBRIS (380 A. in Pompeii. 398*fC'X^um>Vx. Gram. fait. see § 255. in the south even in the first century: AVTOR. and there is a confusion of si and sic: Franz. irqyfua. Zaf. "pegma non peuma" Digitized St. be explained otherwise: Irish ocht-n corresponding to Latin octo. 472. Nkt became yt.§268] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. > Fr. For kw 266. in see § 254. eissir. Einf. 476. S.. D. 236-240. The Celts perhaps pronounced the Latin beginning. otogentos. cuntis. Pr. For ks of Italy = x. 735. App. santo. oclus. § 186. frigdus. Gm Pr. D.

[§272 quae corrupte vulgo S. 239). Pirson 75. and subjected to further modifications. 115-116. cunnuscit. 364 a. between in vowels. gaudium. Compare oz^^ hodie (S. being preserved in some. sometimes entirely absorbed by the in Gaul. sauma 269. as calma from Soma occurs in Gl. Cf. followed a consonant. connato. exagium. I. Italian sauma [or salma^ dicitur" (i. ZVNIOK = junior (S. videavi . and also salma. in popular words apparently became r parts of the Empire: fra{g)rare. soma. pi{g)ntia. odium. (S. d. rarest in Dacia. Neu- When y more or y. inte{g)rum. ni{g)rum. Cf. podium. Latin / was pronounced being identical in sound with the consonant that developed out of e and / (§ 224): jam. adjuiare.. Spr. assimilated into n or n in others. Reich. ZACOiJVS = diaconus. Pirson 76. habeam. 327. Haag 34.. t. Gr. etc. of ii was often used: coiiugi. Gn was still variously treated in different regions. ftlia. PALATALS. the after the fall of initial g in gnosco —-into lost in cognatus : word being co~ and Vok. Palatalization was commonest probably were reduced to y in vulgar speech: deorsum. eiius. diumus. rcenante. 324) and zesv =/esu. fageus.. edmus. Lat. renum. that consonant was often less assimilated. 476. similarly the ^ was sometimes etc. venio. 271. madias = maias. audiam. 272. which comes from Koxfrn. aayixa). teneaf. cujus. Carnoy Digitized by Microsoft® . no SCO. 323) and Zovk^la= Julia (Eckinger 80). Dy and^. y.e. in the latter part of the Empire. hodie. Stolz 275. Cf. In cognosco the decomposed — g generally disappeared. Fortsetzung 7. pere{g)rtnum.114 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 270. ajutit =adjutet. Instead i (=/) the spelling mann. conjux.

however. cor- aytos. Audollent 537 zogenes. madio S- 349. writes.§274] ^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. or dz (cf. prandium > It. tilia. fiios. 339): z^s cf. The : dz pronunciation was especially favored after a consonant 273. The reduced forms cf. II. /'. Vok. represented by the spellings Aureia. Reich. "solent Itali dicere ozie pro hodie.. aios = Carnoy 162. Condianus. 34. S. Media. This palatal pronunciation may be 327. between vowels. De. n' before the end of the Empire: ftlius.(4). = maio. 63. S.. Pr. The S. Haag 34. mezzo. 461. melius." S. = dies. y. 321. which was > It. debbio. sapcha. etc. 323. 320. generally prevailed. teneat. Congianus =. Digitized etc. towards the end of the Empire. Carnoy 161. licpioi = Sergius. 216. sacriius—SiaKpiTOi. ridia =! corrigim. : orzo. lated in Vulgar Latin beside abbio. from radius Italian has both raggio — — and razzo. pranzo. Ly. habeo. by Microsoft® .i£=die. another — doubtless more elegant — pronunciation. ny. probably became veniam." S. but medium ^^ > It. and perhaps through slurring due to constant and careless use. appears that the labials were not regularly assimi- sapiam > It. debeo often became *ayo. but it we generally cannot whether t. etc. palea. Z is often used in inscriptions. In most words the vulgar jv prevailed. aggio. means dy. di sine sibilo Isidore letter tell grsecum enim nomen est. § . had poggio. Gl. most of the Empire: 274. probably dz : podium proferenda est. II. His- pania. St. But through the analogy of audio"^* auyo. sappia. video>*veyo. magias ^= maias. 324. deggio. di. Waters Ch. but not everywhere. Servius in Virg. It hordeurh > It. in Yox plUvia a form *pldja was substituted §§ 169. says. Georg. Carnoy 162. 208. in others especially in Italy the cultivated dz. Remidium — Eemigium. It. Corneius. 115 162. *deyo: cf. juria = jurgia. folia. Haag anoget = *inodiaf.

Eckinger 99. see § 277. / 'i'l^^^y. ti.). D. is Pr. avaricia. postea. Pirson 72. termina(an acrostic in Com- ciONES in (2d century). defeniciones (222235 A. as in etiam. ocium. pudicicia. scy. between vowels. also in nuncius." In the treatise published by Thurot (see footnote to § 259). p. tercius.y«j/i«'a (in an edict of Diocletian). Ssy. For rv. collt^t. ocio (389 A. mansionem. Cf.d. D. According to Albinus (S.. Bon. being respectively k'y second and third centuries. I.. For the confusion 276.). 'ApovKiavoi = Aruntianus. etc. somewhat allium. etc. is confused with the spelling c being prescribed in amicicia. Fr. etc. An Introduction ll'g'. Sp. malicia. we are told that ti. the an exception-: cf. malleus.. It. Fr. furthermore. justicia. 321) "benedictio et oratio et talia t debent habere in psenultima syllaba. quatio. d. silentium. S. staacio (601 a. D. Densusianu in. Cf. eAaiov. caseus.). 78. oli. . in the similar in sound. /' [§276 later: were probably reduced to ex-eligit. doubtless became during the VulgHRjatin period /. sty were generally assimilated of sy later: *bassiare. Digitized by Microsoft® .ii6 Lly. Oleum. duricia. foreign words borrowed from Latin oleum indicate the same irregularity. concupiscencia many examples Gaul in the 5th century. unless preceded by s. I'g' to Vulgar Latin. consiensia. leticia. Vok. Stolz 51. tercia.). and ty. 323. modian). is pronounced like c. and hence were often confused: a. Pirson 71 mendatium. . olio.. ci. In later school pronunciation cy and ty were sounded alike. Riquier 131 &nd pitid in popular speech). Cy and ty. isoff. fascia. Spr. Lat. prophetia. Pg. from oleo. oracionem (601 a. servicium. 171 especially common in Gallic inscriptions of the seventh century. huile. 475. non c. see § 296. a sound similar to English sh in ship: basium. were very and t'y (cf.

Digitized by Microsoft® . 1904. * gutteare "> Horning in Zs. t.. Pompeius says the same thing at con- siderable length. 320) says. 320): "/ustitia ex tribus he goes on to state that it is always so when ti is followed by a vowel other than / (as in Tatius. 320). Latetnisches ti und ki im Ru7ndnischen. etc. *cominitiare -ciare. servitium -cium. XXVII. This explains such seemingly anomalous developments 324. sotium. Puscariu. T'y developed sporadically in the second century. "si dicas Titius. etc. et i". later avarttic^-cia.. et plerumque supradictse syllabse in sibilum transeunt. Carnoy 154. 117 spacium. A. gocciare. squarciare. etc. to the substitution of suffixes and to other permanent transfers of words from one class to the other: cf. comenzare chminciare. S. otia. reviewed in Libit. ampittfltru. tercius.: audatia. XXIV. ularly a school pronunciation with etc.vel di^ syllabam sequitur vocalis. (S. 68. 323. etc. locally or in the This similarity or identity of sound led. inicio. regfourth. . cum scribitur.^ k'. Servius in Don. or vice versa: cf. castius). It. 324. spacio.. tertia syllaba sic sonat quasi constet z. §260): crescentsian[vs]. (as injustius. cited by Cassiodorus (S. 64. Cf. Justitii). "lotacismi sunt quotiens post ti. A number of words evidently had a popular pronunciation with f and 277. except in foreign proper names or after j litteris. etc. It. so many ^|ftper names. Audollent 537. either whole Empire. 545. 3d ccntury. Anitius -cius. Vok. am- bicio. Vincentl^us. D. I. conditio. Italienischen und Sardischen.. by the 140 A. into ts (cf. S. but not in otii.§277] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin." Consentius 'For a different explanation of the Italian and Rumanian developments. S. Reich. Carnoy 151-154. tristicia. see S. Cf." Papirius. Gl. zodorys = Theodoras. as * exquartiare-^YX. pinguius sonat et perdit sonum suum et accipit sibilum. in some cases. Hence arose numeroimdouble forms: condicio solacium solatium. speties. MARSIANESSES = J/ar/z'a«^«j'M. adding (S.

320-321. Pirson 71...palagio heside patazzo.'a. 6th century. Exai^les are very numerous: observasione. was easily confused with sy. if the /' was rather weak. as 280. 225 a. 5th century. statio —sio. cf.s or sixth. and -igia beside -ezza from -ztia. see Gutturals. [§281 mentions the assibilation in etiam. Carnoy 154. XXVII. carried into Brittany in the second half of the fifth century. Ztd/t. hence \X?X\2. etc. The in modern French. d.. g'. Isidore in justitia: S. but names in -tiacum. k'. vezzo. Pirson 71. 6th cen- tury. especially in suffixes: —slum. D regularly remained unchanged: Digitized dare. 278. The resulting sibilant was different from came from t'y: faciam'^-lt. 323. perdo. JT'y was assibilated sporadically in the third century. sepsies. glacies. assibilated (e. are Metiacus> Messac). 279. .g. and the ultimate products have become identical in that which many For regions. and many words have palatium preserved it in various regions. 65 Horn. etc. fifth but not regularly until the of t'y -wa. pretium —sium. DENTALS. say t's'y the At aa intermediate stage between ty and ts grouD. hocsies. faccta. etc. judigsium. so facio. placeam.. Cf. 153. " ' by Microsoft® . St. diposisio ^= depositio. 480. S. ratio —sio. But the intermediate stages were similar enough to lead to some confusion. not followed by y. tersio. vitiutrf^lt. dentals were pronounced with the middle of the tongue arched up and the tip touching the gums or teeth. after the assibilation completed: Mapa-w.ii8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. servitium —slum. 301-302. 307. d. Eck- inger 103. =^ Afardanus. Vok. and not 281. Clerical usage for a while doubtless favored sy for ty.vo'. Welsh words borrowed from Latin before the fourth century show no assibilation. XXXV. — — S. modus. as in English : S. 323.l.

476. . 365 aput. attendere) but sometimes *ar Romam (cf. Cf.• Cf. Carnoy 179-180. 31 1. Carnoy 180. became ilium : Haag 29. etc. (2) In a. guoi. the central and southern Italian nn for nd (as quannu for quando) may go back to ancient times Lat. o\d. capud in Gregory the Great. 282. S. at. period. 358-359.. S. dacruma'^ lacrima . id 29. few words d~^r: medidies by dissimilation ^«^«rf««. Raetia. 31 1 Consentius blames " peres pro pedes" S. S. verecvnnvs.. set. So the final consonant eventually often dis- appeared. quo and Haag Illud. part of Sardinia: vt3ere':>*vedere." Cf.. S. Intervocalic d. etc. INQVID. through the analogy of other neuters. // d may have been . ad eos and at ea. Spr.. set. arripere). : (i) Occasionally (/>/. etc. northern Italy. ilium corpus. (3). etc. 365-366. 283. and possibly at the end of a phrase apvd apvt. and a Similarly intervocalic dr. S. § 289. etc. Grammarians warn against the Cf. In proclitics assimilation naturally went further. devocalized before a voiceless : initial consonant. fecit feced.. quid quit. Digitized by Microsoft® . confusion of ad and etc. . App.. it. Liquids. 366-367 Some of the confusion was doubtless due to the fall of both d 365 .. Pr." App. " adif^ non alipes. §283] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Pr. 119 Oscan and Umbrian had nn corresponding to Latin nd: There is some indication that this pronunciation was locally adopted in Latin: agennjE. arVORSVM =r adversum. S. a. 311312 "grundio non grunnio. CO. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin became 6 in Spain. as we may infer from the treatment of the prefix ad~: people probably said not only at te (cf. Carnoy 180. At the end of a word there was hesitation between d and S. and t: see §285.» Sittl 37. The cases seem to be sporadic and due to different special causes. Gaul. If this was the case.

sure examples of the fall in Latin are found in Pompeii tions in Christian relinque. " capitulum non dicendum. peria. valia. Spr. 367. 105. later. and also Spanish and Portuguese show no trace of final / except in monosyllables.). It. final t disappeared early in the Empire in southern and during the Empire in most of Italy and Dacia. Gaul. 367-368. The first ." "vefulus non vedus. 8. partem. In early dialects we find such forms as cvpa. and sclitib. —tulus~^—dus. and Sardinia kept the t late. vixi. 312-313 "Martulus non Marculus" "stlataris sine c littera Caper. Italian (except Sardinian). 8. . Rumanian. its Final nt perhaps lost before consonants: Lat. f^habe). Lat. Spr. Pirson 97. 284. occasionally in Faliscan: Hammer 5." For Cf." capidum. '^ pessulum non pestulum" (hence Italian /ifj'//. northern Italy.: others appear later in the inscrip- Rome and S. dr~> rr: quarranta. Ischia. Raetia. schioppo. ascla. often in Umbrian In Latin. etc. Hammer 28-32. ustulare > Pr. seems to have regularly become d: astula> Pr.120 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. In quadraginta.315. facit. Fredegarius wrote e for cutters — — t et: Haag 29. 472. sitis. sclit. dede: S." "vitulus non vidus. S. posui) occur in Gallic inscriptions. usclar. Italy. .?. 107. f developed: Caper.> *quadro. as ama. but forms without the possibly due to Italian stoneconsonant (as audivi. however. 285. Cf.(from stlis stlitis). [§ 285 either at the same time or became drin Spain and Gaul: quadro'. Tl. in Volscian {fasia=fadat). T usually stloppus remained unchanged : teneo. App. cf. Digitized by Microsoft® . Between j and I z. §234.. 7. So probably insula > * isla > * istla > * isda > Final t fell It. Pr. > *scloppus > . Keil VII. etc.

368. triplicem. Raetia. cf. Cf. inside a phrase. 309. 287. Gaul. pos. with and without either consonant. S. /. Such a spelling as Later this retere for reddere (S. Cf. Priscian I. is preserved in the same regions as Pisaurum. may indicate un- certainty in the use of d and t. 473. In inscriptions we find : dedro and dedrot. and-^J is found: S. est amatus but es' portatus : Lat. When did not fall. According to Velius Longus. Lindsay 124. before a vowel or a voiced consonant. ut Plinio sonum habet: quando geminatur secundo loco Digitized by Microsoft® . Marius Victorinus preferred posquam : S. it was doubtless often Fredegarius voiced. posuerun. L had a convex formation.. 473-474. 324) writes: exilem. Nt. uses capo: Haag 29. LIQUIDS. see §282: capud. in 365. 38 (S. Lat. 288. — 368. 470. (I) L. in general.The Romance languages show forms with nt. §283. tr'p-dr'^dr. and northern § 256. likewise. S. feced. Cicero favored posmeridianus . 306-307. videtur. In Gaul and Spain. Spr. Cf. 473-474. of final t For the confusion inquid are found. Final st. Italy probably in the fifth or sixth century: Inscriptions show a few such forms 309) as amadus. e. d and t. may have lost its t before consonants as post ilium but pos' me. Pos is very common in inscriptions. moreover. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) or *capum.§288] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ^> d in northern Gaul and Spain. Intervocalic was voiced to d in Spain. like d and "Z t (cf. Spr. 121 n. restituerun. § 280): S. 309. posquam in R. Both st and s are represented in the Romance languages. t 286.

also had the thick is famuXus (but not in similis): thus explained the different fate of a in calere^OXd Fr.): S. fiaba. See also Zs. a faulty pronunciation of / particularly prevalent in Africa or 648.d. cauculus in manuscripts. It remained unseems to have fallen in For //>/. 301 a. Eckinger 12. [§ 289 syllabas et Metel-lus. sound — as 50. XXX. see §274. tribunal." heard before a consonant (as in albo. chaloir and gallina~> Old Fr. quando finit nomina vel quando aliquam habet ante se in eadem syllaba sol." Consentius distinguishes the "sonus which he ascribes to initial and double / (as in lana. to the vocalization of / into u: KavKovXaT<o in an edict of Diocletian. (2) There are sporadic examples of the dissimilation of two Ts: Digitized by Microsoft® . zi. sol. consonants. 289. According to H. geline. After consonants. ut exilis. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. II. / regularly changed: luna. Greece: S. from the "pinguis. Have." lectum. 327) blames "coacla pro cloaca" " displicina pro disciplina". see §161. fabula^*flaba'y-\\. this elevation. sporadically by the fourth century but regularly not until the eighth and ninth and later (^Lat. It. plenum.. see §284. Dunkles undhelles 1 im Lateinischen in the Transactions of the American Philological Association / in : > XXIV. flavus. 326. shifted forwards. etc. consonantem. alga. It is likely that / before or after another consonant had a Before thick sound caused by lifting the back of the tongue. mtlle. medium in aliis. Other grammarians blame. 476). /. etc. 325-326. ski. For sl>stl. except before i. etc. (i) Metathesis occurs occasionally: Consentius (S. brought about the palatalization of Spanish and Italian clavem kl'ave > Sp. 494. ille). intervocalic va. in obscure terms. clarus.122 posita. ut lectus. During the Latin period altus. chiave. silva. Vok. Osthoff. this formation led in some regions. An ut il-le. Sfr.. For ly.

while old rss. App. App.s pessica.f It generally resisted In many words. § 292] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. two r's. in about half the Empire in persua. dossum remained unchanged: susum. 328. in early writers tions: dextrosus. 471. introsus. sursum. ac tota r littera sublata est in eo quod rusum .. 243. in most of the Empire in dorsum. so sussum>siisum. although Moreover. deorsum. Spr. reversus. 309. 460-461 Cf. locally in aliorsum. cursus. etc. as xcfloralis. Corssen I. et retrosum. 77. was early reduced to ss: Lat. Bechtel 83: susum very common. pater. R : in Classic trill: and Vulgar Latin was probably a gingival S. 290. Pompejus Magnus et scribebat et dicebat kadamitatem pro calamitate. carrus." Cf. After long vowels the 292. The «>j. has iusu = was Hot consistently carried out everywhere." "cultellum non cuntellum". Velius to Longus says est (S.. "flagellum non frag-ellum.(see § i6r). The principle seems have been that original rs remained. coming from rtt. ndet. Pr. Pr. there was a strong tendency to dissimilate it was only sporadically carried out: in Old in inscriptions Digitized Latin. 8) says: " Gn. Pr. 1593. however. 327. Waters Ch. (i). 460. I. retrorsum. 330): "Dossum per duo s quam per r quidam ut lenius enuntiaverunt.. assimilation versus. "terebra non tekbra". (3) Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. R. in inscrip- S. rusus. —arts after r^-alis. R. IV. diosum. {2)Ji. 307." Russum rusum. suso. S. L. MVNTV for multum. Reich. or praepalatal change 291. C. 330. being probably somewhat hindered by school inIt took place in the whole territory in deorsum and fluence. App. . 123 cf. while susosusu susum. Cf.. § 281. rj > J. we fin(J repeatedly pelegrinus by Microsoft® . susum. Gl. susum occur ha.

orlo. uxo. coliandrum. as frate. 304. cuoto). to y in parts of Italy. : ^ j- Digitized by Microsoft® . 329) says: Pompeius (S. : 294. 38. except in monosyllables. cf. Italian £Occodri//o. albor. \X.'' propio. propietas. "Barbarismus. Italian Carlo. Consentius mentions "perlum -pro prcslum. suora. PELLiGE. 295. S. So Italian per lo '^pello. dietro drieto. corium'^ *coryu (cf. est marmor. among the soaru. seems to have been dental. Ry was probably preserved through the Vulgar Latin it period. corcodrillus. criblare. pellicere. For quatro. [§ 297 also ministorum. 302. Spr. as in pellabor. Classic Latin j was probably ^Iways voiceless and remained so in 297.. plurigo are attested likewise. Waters Ch. 330— 331.) avello. Metathesis is not uncommon S. An intrusive r is found in culcitra. 477. Cf. in most of Italy and Dacia: sdror'. Velius Longus (S. S. 329. 329. cf.It. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. it has left very few traces in the Romance languages. mehtrix. tells 293. The old voiced having become r (S. etc. see § 245. etc. 314-315). propio. 330 notes prancati. with the upper surface of the tongue convex (cf. probably before the end of the Vulgar Latin period. early fall of final r mate. although may have been reduced and possibly *cqyu SIBILAUTS. averlo^ (in Old It. fell. 296.124 (Sittl An 74). perpenna ^ Perferna.z\vax\. Falisci Sittl 11 mentions an in and the Marsi. This assimilation was probably not widespread in Latin.. S. § 280) S. Jlagrare. 329) / us that in elegant speech per before was pronounced pel. merlo. S. 331. mate. Lat. 330. f. 307-308. It. Rum. Cf. quando dico mamor pro eo quod Cf.>. *sempre. Crocodilus appears as corcodilus. perla. cocodrilus." S. Final r. etc.

the forms without Terentio. ossum. D. rexi. also ment of a / in such become voiced sus. nepoti. etc. and the developwords as hiemps." Quintilian also (S. but later it is In the older inscripin the main correctly used until the second century of our era: Lat. ii Umbrian {kumate). but occurs also in -ts and -as. 302-304): this in is 125 Vulgar Latin intervocalic s in (S. At the very end of the Vulgar Latin period. 108): "5 littera hanc habet potestatem. cur- 298. intervocalic s may have nupsi. Digitized by~Microsoft® . corroborative evidence. in Classic Latin s some regions (cf. rarely in -as: bonu. Sittl 27. when -j was partially restored. olim autem politius." tions -s is freely omitted. sumpsi. filio') predominated in (jpntral Italy until the time of Csesar. 8. and often was not is says the loss of —s written. S.) and most popular words it Tuscan is [naso. Cornelio. the nominative singular without s (as Cornelio..§298] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. indicated by the fact that is still generally surd in Spanish [casa. etc. Spr. urps. such as resolvit. ut ubi opus fuerit excludatur de metro. unu. mtsi. pleps.) . Pompeius (Keil V. 361) notes the omission of -s by the ancients. as far as goes. tste. j- ^In the previously cited Latin treatise (see footnote to §259). Cicero (^Lat Spr. etc..^ sex. 471. Final s often fell in ally in Faliscan: Hammer In early 5. who cites UmLatin final s was very weak after and t. etc. This evidently indicates a voicing in late school pronunciation. 471) "subrusticum. Thurot T]^ y between vowels is described as " weak. Ennius and his followers down to Catullus did S. 361-362. furnished by such spellings as maximus. § 256): was generally preserved: causa. and occasionCf. not count -j before a consonant in verse: 355-356. brian PiSAVRESE. however. The omission is commonest in nominative -os or —us. etc. Cf." except in compounds. pieta. but became common by 150 to 200 A. and matrona for matronas. According to Chronologic 175-186.

the In presbyter. 540.before d. Spain. liberio. For assibilaand Palatals. however. filio^filios. 299. but das^lt. transduco and We sometimes Both forms occur Gaul and Spain before / and v : tra (^ns) luce 0. (later tre^. probably owing to the previous linguistic habits of the natives. 471): sentts'^YX. 316). 301. see § 230.. see Gutturals For ss>s.became and sometimes before m and/. Hammer 19-28.(but traduire. /SvTcpos. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. tratransjicio. Spr. morbu ^ morbus. C. but notes that happens at the end of a doubt- only a conventional abbreviation. tra{ns)posuit .«. pronounced and therefore preserved. Audollent In most of Italy.. tion of the prefix /r. final J disappeared for good from the common pronunciation in the second and third centuries. etc. preveire {<. In Gaul. cept in monosyllables {^Lat. It. According to Velius Longus (S. For prosthetic i or e before s + consonant.coming from the prefix ex-.j. tra. It. tempus>lt. jecit. usually preferred tras. see § 161. In Old French pasmer (from spasmus) the ^ was lost probably through confusion with es.126 again. examdtis "> dai. prete. tion. -s. see § 246 and Greek by Microsoft® Consonants. tra{ns')veho. 1938. senti. 539. trei amate. and some other regions. Italy generally favored tra. I. 302. a new nominative constructed from irpeers fell in Italy and elsewhere through the substituva. cords the omission of -s in as this nearly always less was strongly Carnoy 185-206 reline it is many inscriptions. etc.. traducir). IX. 300.(as prabitor) for the unusual initial pres-: hence It. Vx. transtulit.). For sy. tra{ns)misit. Cf. trans. see § 275. Digitized . tempo.*prcebyterum'). L.traduxit. Densusianu 122—123. [§302 and prevailed in central Italy in the third century («<7 Cf.(but trasporre). and probably in Dacia. find. for ejus. For z. tres^OXA.

uncus (cf. — or "« adulterinum"— and also nvncqvam." 305. N. 275). y: combura. probably tives first the pronunciation of these fricabefore changed from bilabial to dentilabial (cf. apertum in principio. changed: meus. by 270. then n. 275) Before liquids the nasal was assimilated cf. n. as between n and ^ (S. 272. § 320) gutterals. regularly venit. mediocre in mediis. The y Cf." sound between m and n: "Omnes fere aiunt inter m eX n litteras mediam vocem quae non abhorreat ab utraque littera sed neutram proprie exprimat. ut mis-." Terentianus Maurus (S. with an arched tongue: S. cor- before s it was Digitized silent [cosul. before dentals. 127 NASALS. 270. before m. see § 245. ut magnus. . comvenio convenio. etc. M and 304. noster. by Microsoft® . minus. imperio. In Classic Latin the nasal naturally took before labials the form of m. Priscian. 269-270. 303.). amat. §§ 171. Cf. 269- {colligo. as / . innocens. etc. «'s in Bononia > It. According to Priscian (S. So Marius Victorinus (S. 275) says that for n the air comes through both nose and mouth. 311). final or followed by a consonant. initial and intervocalic.§ 305] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and v. S. ut templum. and the mouth closure incomplete. rigo. were the preceding vowel obscure and weak in Classic Latin. was dental or gingival. S. is 278). g. Bologna. must have been partly nasalized. described by Nigidius (in Gellius). conduco. iVNCXi. like d and t (§ 280). 275): "iVvero sub convexo palati lingua inhaerente gemino naris et oris The same author describes (S. inquit. contineo. immitto. remained unFor the reduction of There was a dissimilation of two M and n. anguis.: cf. n. S. S. 279-280. comfluo confluo. 275) a spiritu explicabitur. 276. "m obscurum in extremitate dictionum sonat.

and even before dentals not always clear (S. etc. secudo. conplere. innoceti. quen.128 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. S. occubas. S. laterna. iy carne. largely to mere careless- ness in cutting. i senatu." Cf. 278. In the vulgar speech of the Empire the sound before seems to have been indistinct. nunquam. cun duce. [§307 to a following consonant: Final nasals seem to have been adapted. ut nomen. decemter. nom or non fecit. like medial nasals. r/ must have been reinforced.. iferos. exeetc. reliquat. find cun. nomem. quamta. Pirson 92. In both old and late inscriptions the nasal is often omitted altogether before a consonant: Decebris. For the change of rjkt to yt. Carnoy 220). cur regibus. Digitized by Microsoft® . §§171. Cf.. little trace of confusion in the Romance lan- guages. 281-285. The due hesitation and inconsistency in spelling are certainly in part to imperfect articulation.. frequent. 307. etc. nynfis. 306. 275): exempta n "iV quoque plenior in primis sonat et in ultimis partibus syllabarum. Bechtel 81 {forsitam. n. pricipis. as there is § 32. 364. and there was apparently some labials doubt before ^« and qu (S. etc. In inscriptions S. 271-272). Mn seems at one time to have been pronounced m: Quintilian (S. Carnoy 176-177. Priscian (S. 273. de- fuctce. then to nt.. quan floridos. nom paret. tan mulieribus. 272): this is indicated by such spellings as senper. nol lego. plu. etc. forsitam mille. 476. Carnoy 176. see § 267: santa. Spr. cun navibus : Lat. Servius. In late Vulgar Latin m.. we ci. Carnoy 220. 276—277. etc. 286) says: littera "Columnam et consules legimus. santo. 311). locun sanctum. before/ and v there was great uncertainty (cf.. but in great measure also to the mistaken efforts of later writers to restore a real or hypothetical earlier orthography: compare the treatment of prefixes. Cicero advocated cun nobis. S.

Bechtel 80. The omission of -m and Pr. and conversely forms with a superfluous m. passi. 462. terra. Carnoy 166. exilior in mediis. mecu. It is often omitted in inscriptions down c. in the last first two centuries of the Empire the traditional spelling is carefully observed: early and late such forms as dece. cf. etc. septe. jacente. — that 309. Bechtel 107. 129 stamen. In Old Latin it was to weak: 130 B. cal- the early indi- Romance languages. 298. Late inscriptions. mense. Cf. by Microsoft® . for -amn~. to say." Carnoy 166 has Interamico. pride.. 476): Interanniensis. Audollent 539-540. So R. Bechtel 91 Digitized cf. and again in late plebeian inscriptions. (as in puplu). S. damnum. numqua. accedere. abundant examples. 363-364. show a fondness for such spellings as calumpnia. Spr. Between is m and j or / a / generally developed in Latin was unvoiced and denasalized before the surd that followed this / was not always written: sum(J))si. . the latter part of the . Bechtel •]()•. S. S. occa- sionally in Faliscan: Hammer 8. mpn is common in 189. was probably assimilated into nn in central and southern Italy before the Empire was over {Lat. counteracting a previous ten- dency to although slur the group. ut amnis. the wrong use of it are very frequent in the Per. etc. m Final m often fell in Umbrian 5.). and dampnum (cf. oli. on the other hand. dampnare. The Romance languages it point to the preservation of mn. unu are very common. 308. It is likely that this orthography and painful effort to articulate clearly. Bon. Toward the end of the Empire fashion evidently prescribed cates a conscious a distinct pronunciation of mn.. : que ad mo- century of the Republic and the dum. from the first century.§309] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. eoru. 356. umpnia. sum(J>)tus.. ide. App. etc. dormito for dormitum.

Digitized by Microsoft® . cf. Spr. Hammer 32-41. 361): see §305. Cf. S. then (by assimilation) before other consonants.130 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. According to Quintilian is 362).. tan dvrvm.. vowels. in poetry it may be disregarded (cf. In the opinion of Schuchardt. S. very early.. (S. the final S. etc. n of prefixes 274. I. 360. etc. fell Before^. 358). 361): see 305. Final m before vowels seems to have been. etc. Vok. as in coactum. [§ 310 ardente lucemam. 106). AudoUent 537). For further assimilation. Before consonants S. Carnoy 206-221.tenea{m')\ cum. 364Lat. 110-112. 288-292. "/« Siciliam dicendum. it was assimilated (cf. reaches the conclusion that silent at the it became end of polysyllables by the first century. The Romance languages point to a loss of -m in all words but monosyllables: damnu{m). Cato said dice hanc. fix The con— became co— before vowels. cf. coharere. 286). only a weak nasal glide: in circueo it disappears (S. quern (^quen. non is Siciliam": see § 311. cognosco. As the fall of m seems to have been due primarily to a failure to close the lips completely between two it is likely that the nasalization was slight. Caper (Keil VII. etc. 310. scarcely any m audible quantum erat. next before spirants and at the end of a phrase. too. coicere: S. he adds that there in tantum ille. of its assimilation to a § following labial (im bello. 473. 361). of -n in Latin (S. who notes the omission of -m in many inscriptions under all possible conditions. audiendu' st. the precedThe contrary view is maintained by Seelmann. having disappeared very early before vowels. 356-358. from early times. Final n must have been indistinct (S. hors. as in cognatus. but it seems preco- to have been reinforced in Classic speech (S. S. 274. 282. 274). ignotus: is Other- wise there no sure proof of the fall but there is abundant evidence 365). jam. pdssu{ni). Cf. ing vowel was nasalized.

^^ i'^ Greek- ko^ous. etc. R." Before/. For final nt. Such forms are frequent in cojugi (very common). d. after the Vulgar Latin period: Lat. resurges S. Carnoy 177. pes neque mens. 311. S." Cf. It probably fell late. 113-115. . iventa. AudoUent 538. occansio.ifs. App. Stolz 243. etc.. etc. the n was generally restored by analogy (see 171). Cicero preferred foresia. R. 286). toties.. Stolz 243fT./. 273). libes. 281-285. seme{n) in.). Digitized by Microsoft® . cojux. as videns. iferi. This phenomenon was only thority: partially recognized by Classic au—ensimus -^ -esimus.. "ansa non asa" . both forms were used in -e{n)sis (according to Velius Longus. Plautus repeatedly uses mosTerence seems to intend a rhyme in "neque Stolz 243. coventionid. such words as conjux. probably through nasalization of the preceding vowel: see § 171. Pr. cojugi. 461Conversely. was kept in participles. v. if eras. 274. 274. S. trare. 287). prcBgnas repeatedly. Pr." "occasio non occansio." Eunuchus 728. § App. infas.. letter inscriptions: Kki]ix. 131 The Romance languages indicate the disappearance of -n. hortesia. (on a (Capua.. coin of Vespasian's reign). 387 a. Pirson 94. 286) records that "men- sam sine n littera dictam Varro fall ait. covenimus. thensaurus. —iens'^-ies. etc. thensaurus. etc. -onsus>-dsus.§ 31 1] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Quintilian (S. Spr. see § 285. locuplens. quiensces. non. 473. ifer cojectis. with a superfluous n: fidens =-fides. 281-285. 274. iferi. ifra. 285. mesor messor = mensor. except in monosyllables: ndtne{Ti). cosol.. 274. 462. etc. "Hercules non Herculens. Charisius (S. Cf. however. mesis. Before fricatives or spirants n regularly fell.. ifimo. Eckinger 80. ns. "consules exempta n littera legimus. 459. cesor. remasit.. as in vicesimus. inscriptions: cofecisse." In popular speech the times: S. convenio'&ie really new formaThe only sure Romance traces of the loss oin tions: S. mansus. formosus (S. was probably constant from early in/as.

• redemti. opus. and is attested by Martial and possibly by the icse for ipse mentioned by Suetonius. In a part of Gaul capfivus seems to have been pronounced *cayttvus: it may be that in Gallic speech the pt oi this word became yt. 7th century. or perhaps captivus became first *cactivus. and the only Romance words containing ns are learned terms or new formations: mesa. There was some sporadic confusion of/ and b: uvBLlCyE. hut pensare. cf. S. App. pesat. LABIALS. etc. S. 476. S.. scripit. Old Irish secht-n = septem.. corpus. In a part of Italy /j became ss as early as the isse for ipse is first century: found in Pompeii. h. Spr. Before s. Intervocalic / probably became b in the fifth and sixth centuries in Spain. by Microsoft® . 299. Gaul. etc. stubrum. as was the case with Celtic// (Dottin 100. § 256. etc. the fall of n was permanent. Lat. /V likewise br: Abrilis. mesis. 314. Pirson 93. 160. Car- noy 165. (I) P. sposus. Bon. 313. (i) F regularly remained unchanged: pater. 312. tosus. Digitized became Haag862. [§ 314 before these consonants in Latin are Italian /a«/^ and French in Raetia and convent. settembres. and northern Italy: see Cf. Pr..132 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. under the influence of Celtic *cactos (Welsh caetJi) = Latin captus (Loth 35). Pirson 61. "plasta non blasta" " ziziber non ziziper" cannabis and . although at a later date nf became / much of southern France. It. to drop In Italy and perhaps elsewhere there was a tendency / between a consonant and an j- or /. 299. etc. Pirson 60-61: labidem.. canapa. Windisch 394). lebrm. scultor. In central and southern Italy// became the Empire: scritus. Raetia. // probably early in 299.

§ 3i6]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


In northern Gaul intervocalic/ and/r, even in clerical Latin, /8 and ^r by the seventh century: rivaticus, 629 a. d., Vok. I, 128; cavanna, Gl. Reich.
developed through b and br into
'Soxpe,pi, see § 273.
(2) B.


as in


was not



usually ifemained un-


bene, blitum, oblitus.


Oscan and Umbrian, became vim

in Sicily


southern and central Italy, the
as far north as


being found in inscriptions
Cf. nd, § 281.


Lat. Spr. 476.

Before s or tit

likely that b regularly

became /

in Latin,



was often written

b: absens apsens, ab— apsolvere,

plebs pleps, scribsi scripsi, scribtum scriptum, trabs traps, urbs

urps; App. Pr., "celebs non celeps," "labsus non lapsus."

Final b must have been often assimilated to a following

consonant: sud



a. d.,



In the Empire, especially in the second century,
in inscriptions (cf.

and v were much confused


bixit, botu,

vene, etc., S. 240; Baleria, Balerius, Beneria,


Betrubius, Bictor, bos, valneas, Audollent 536; African birtus, bita, boluntas, Vok. I, 98 bivere, very common, Carnoy

140; baluis, Bechteh"78;

vibit, etc.,

R. 456; bobis in Consenany, traces of

Vok. Ill, 68.

In the

Romance languages

there are few,


such an early interchange.

Probably the confusion was mainly

or wholly graphic, being due to the identity in sound of b and v between vowels (§ 318): Lat. Spr. 473; cf. Einf., § 120. The Spanish levelling of initial b and v does not go back to Vulgar Latin (Carnoy 139— 141); the confusion is far commoner in Italian inscriptions than in Spanish or Gallic (Carnoy 142-146). We find also a change of initial v to b va. north Portuguese, Gascon, south Italian, and Old Rumanian.

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Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


After liquids, too, there was a confusion of b and v in inscriptions, b being substituted for v much oftener than v for
b: Nerba, salbum, serbus, solbit, etc.,

240; berbex, Waters

Ch. 57; solbere, repeatedly, Carnoy 140; solbere, etc., R. 455; App. Pr., "alveus non albeus." In all probability v really changed to b after liquids: see V.


remained unchanged.
Intervocalic b opened into

the development apparin the second,

ently began in the


was well along

Oitovin = and was devitvm, provata, etc., Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95; devere, As V also was pronounced j8, a confusion in spelling S. 240. cvrabit, resulted, b and v being used indiscriminately:

completed, at least in Italy, in the third:

ivbentvtis, nobe,

etc., S.

240; i-vwE.nTE.=jubente, 2d century,

£inf. 127, § 120; cabia
vovis, etc.,

— cavea,

Danuvium, Dibona,


Audollent S3^~537j devitum (6th century), lebis, vibi, Carnoy 134-135; annotavimus, lebat, Bechtel 78;


habe:=ave, rogavo, suabitati,

R. 455— 456;



51, Pirson 61-62,



Carnoy 134-136. became contiguous

Cf. V.

to a following consonant,
Cf. V.

was vocalized

into u: *faula, *paraula, *taula, etc.

became /3r and Dacia.

perhaps not until the end of our period, in northern Gaul, Raetia, part of northern Italy,


as in popular speech: *fa§ula, * tabula, etc.

In the early stages of clerical Latin intervocalic b was pronounced Later, perhaps by the

seventh century,

was sounded


In App. Pr. we find " sibilus non


tions " sifilum pro sibilum" ;


comes from some non-Latin Italic dialect few other words. *a^ea, see § 421. (3) For habebam


(S. 300) menPerhaps the form with/ bubulcus =^ It. bifolco, and a

and Priscian



Be, bi probably remained unchanged, at least in most

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§ 322]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


of the Empire: rabies, rubeus, etc.

For the analogical change

of habeo to *ayo, debeo to *deyo, see § 273.

(3) F-


F was

originally bilabial (S. 294-295), but
of the



by the middle


(S, 295): cf. § 305.

It is the old /, apparently, that is described

by Quintilian

296-297) a plain description of the dentilabial y is given by Terentianus Maurus and Marius Victorinus (S. 296).

Grammarians speak

of an alternation of h


fasena^ harena, fircum'^ hircum, habam'^fabam,
Varro, Ling. Lat.

etc., S.

f: fcedus'^hadus, The /"and 300.

the h doubtless belonged to different dialects in early Latin
§ 97, the

according to

This phenomenon can have no connection with the change of initial/to h in Spanish and Gascon.

/for h was Sabine.

of the

It is

probable that intervocalic

y became

v at the end

Vulgar Latin period

256): alevanii

^ elephanti,

paceveci ^pacifici, pontevecem =. poniificem,




was doubtless originally pronounced w; but, losing its velar element, the sound was reduced, probably During the early in the Empire, to the bilabial fricative /8. Empire Greek-letter inscriptions have ov or ^ for v (Ncpoua or Nep/3a) Ov\av!a = Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95 yS for » is common from the first century on, Eckinger 85-91. Velius Longus, in the middle of the second century, says that the u in ualente is pronounced "cum aliqua aspiratione": S. 232. Hence arises a complete confusion of intervocalic b and v








By. CVRABIT, ivbentvtis, etc, Gregory the Great. This leads


240; jubari iox juvari

to a graphic confusion of

initial b

and v

in inscriptions: biginti, bixit, botv, etc. (so



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An Introduction

to Vulgar Latin.
dentilabial v in


Later the bilabial

p became


of the


cf. §


For the substitution Germanic Consonants.
323. After liquids




or w in a few words, see

this state

/3 seems to have closed regularly into b; was preserved in Rumanian (Densusianu 97, 103105), but elsewhere the p ox v was partially restored by school

influence: cerbvs, corbi, cvrbati, ferbeo,
A. D.),
§ 317.

nerba (about 100

serbat, solbit, E. G. Parodi in Horn.




So vervex became *verbex, then berbex: Waters Ch. 57 BERBECES, 2d Century, Einf. 127, § 120 (also in Gl. ReichJ).

Hence came

hesitation in spelling (^ferveo, ferbui, etc.)


inconsistent results in the


languages: corvus^

corbo corvo, Fr. corbeau; curl/US'^

Ft., Pr. corp, Sp. corvo;



nerbo, Fr. neff; servare, servire'^ It. serbare, servire.

Intervocalic w ox fi had a tendency in older Latin, as Umbrian, to disappear between two like vowels: divtnus'^ dinus (cf. Umbrian deivina> deina, Sittl 26), obHviscor> obliscor, si vis'i> sis. Cf. Lindsay 52. Also, at all times, before or after 0: bovis'^bos; devorsum>dedrsum; faor, Pirson 63; moere, AudoUent 539; Noe/u/Spios, Vok. II, 479; noem[bris], S. 241; '^pavor xiOXL paor," App. Pr.; cf. late noembris, noicius, Lindsay 52. "Favilla xion failla" in App. Pr. seems to be




In the above cases the


apparently was only sporadic.

But before an accented o or u, the w ox p fell regularly in most of the Empire: aunculus, Vok. II, 471 (cf. auncli, Pirson 63); FLAONivs, S. 241; *padnem; *padrem.
Furthermore, intervocalic
popular speech before any


ox p regularly disappeared in probably towards the end of the
vIvs, S. 241 {zLJlaus in



-vos>-vus): flavs,

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GREEK CONSONANTS. Keil IV. eccu' ista'>*eccwista. (i) In inscriptions -vs is common in place of -vvs. 137 App. 328. (S) u. and the surds doubtless had a weak. oum in Probus. and sibilants less sharply differentiated been usually remained unchanged in transmission. nasals. ndcui^ nocwi. etc. primitius. and Greek double consonants sometimes became single: vd/xos >nummus. triumphaut. : Cf. 471) and others as aum. is 325. Often. placuit> placwit. the sonants were perhaps not fully voiced. Pirson 63). however. by Microsoft® . Vulgar aucella. B): Classic . Carnoy 128. Fr. voiced explosion: so they were not always distinguished by the Latin ear. Pirson 63. etc. I. gnaus. oum. § 167. hiatus which had not already become w {%% 223224) probably took that sound by the end of the Vulgar Latin 326."^ ec{c)lesia. The Greek liquids.. Pr. after the analogy of a feminine or a plural form ovum (beside oum) through ova. iKKKyfTia. aus. this. Vok.§ 328] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Vva. Claussen 847-851. The ^Vm of C. etc. II. /3 became contiguous to a folwas vocalized into u (cf. is evidently intended for csvum. 113) nous. period: eccu' ktc'. rius. Digitized Cf. 472 (cf. 327- In Greek the surd and the sonant stops must have than in Latin. noum. II. Lindsay 52.:>*eccwic. claudo. When intervocalic a/ or it lowing consonant. cited by Schuchardt (Vok. Single consonants sometimes became double in Latin. rivus (beside rius) through rivi. App. in most cases this probably only graphic: Carnoy 128-131. Before 322. stored. the v was re. vius in Pirson 63). the original Latin w (spelled v) had become |8: § 2. 1. 1220. Audollent 539 (cf. L. naufragus. datius.

toKomtov > talentum. — 329. tt. K. keSjoos > citrus. 347 buxus. 8 regularly ydpov>garum. gamba. timbre. Teodor. b. egloge. etc. v sometimes became b. the conis mentioned by Terentius Scaurus and others. c (S. 138 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. w. Claussen c. bustiola in Gl. rvp. This late such cases as Kafiinj Greek pronunciation perhaps accounts for > Lat. cf. progne. avrpov^ dndron. > conger ganger. Ka. After nasals. Digitized b. § a-iriijXvyya > spelunca. explosives 6. TTvio'i > Kr > 331' g. p. T generally remained c.KO)0(K delta. cf. x 252-253): vop^-ipa^ purpura . 833-838. It.fu > > gumtni. became in Old Latin t.papo^ cammarus gammarus. A. TTuppos burrus. of a change oi r to d there is no example. K6p. t: blcesus. 2S9-26a 332. 7rop<j)vpa. ^iXra^ unvoiced into /. (3) ®. S. T. 259. often became g. KaiPw%>gobius . r. sandal. cin in kvki/os > > cicinus > Old. ph. later inscriptions. advCf. S. old inscriptions.. Reich. [§ 332 (i) B. yoyypoi Cf. Crista. > > . X. however. Pilipus.yfjia> sagma sauma. 330. B. d: l3XauT6i Sometimes. t: xoAa^os > colaphus. y.. "calatus non galatus" {^ KoXadoi). <t>. K. App. — fusion 346. 268): (cf. however. ch: Claussen 823-833. Claussen 838-841. The From the middle of the second century spellings th.v>gubemare. S.p. cecino. g.yKri> andngi. KvPipva.p. Pr. n. Ta\oi'>rr.. S. although KavZiTo? for candidus (Eckinger 98) seems to point in that direction: 'Aicpayas > Acragas Agragas. (2) K. TfL'^um (j-a. nimpa. *. 'Kixpmp6<i'>- lambros.. "> purpura. t regularly came to be pronounced //in Greek: a. we find the People of fashion by Microsoft® . remained b. theywere *Jdcopus (also */dcomus) 'la. k.iravov > Fr.

Certainly as early to be the standard as the fourth century (Lindsay 58) pronunciation: App. X ><?"• Claussen 831." 334. Bonnet 141." "strofa non stropa". Ki^oXoi > It. c. 218. Quintilian (S. Thiestes. but popular speech kept the old t. zio we have a late development of Claussen 833. x^P^ > chorda = corda. Fr. The etc. "amfora /came non ampora. Fitonis. The proper spelling is discussed by gram- marians: S.. f is common later in southern Italy. Fr. pache. In late words ^ regularly appears as/.^o'i^ colaphus = colapus. . In <l>aXKaiva> ballcBna. etc. Thestius. S. Bechtel 79. <f> > b. Theos. Claussen 828.. of.. App. pantaisar. palanca. ut c enuntiatur. caikoluus. iriumpos) in order to be better understood. ut ather. 0. S-p. <jia.Xay^ It. KoKa. 79 (cf. neofiti. p. for new words as well as for old: <TvaOri>spatka— spata. Digitized by Microsoft® .. etheus. 261): dafne occurs in Pompeii. In ^£ros>It. 257-258. phitonissm. '^Theophilus non izofilus": (i) Evidence of a late school pronunciation of 6 as ts is to be found in Thurot 78. S. Fitones in Gl. cathedra.§ 334] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. It is transposed in Fhitonis. so o^-1\kiov for qfficium. cefalo. and some other early adopperhaps the reason is to be sought in a Greek dialect pronunciation: Claussen 829-831. etc. Reich.\os> phaselus faselus . etc. cf. 260. Matheus ''. as in phosit. 256) says there were no aspirate consonants in older Latin. Cicero (S. zampogna. ^ had developed into / in some places (S. . 333" tions. " In principio inquam dictionis nulla prescripta causa variari compellitur. si aspiretur. Thescelus.<^ao-i. d. nothus. By the first century a. 256) speaks of using the old. footnote to § 259): " T quoque. Eckinger 97. 139 undoubtedly tried to imitate the aspirates (Lindsay 54).. 4. cru/x<^o)V4a>It.. 261. unaspirated pronunciation (as pulcros. ut thiara. : letter h is occasionally misused. In hoxri>doga.avTac7La> > Pr. Parthi.

v>psallere spallere. etc. 308. — 339. and Sibilants. In it was represented by jj or s: pAtfl.I40 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 338. Quintilian refers only to the on the Latin pronunciation. sedano.-^ remained unchanged: are.. ^dvr] "^ sona (Plautus). § 272). > nome. : t. The For unfamiliar combination lent itself readily to meta- thesis: i^6X\v. and ^ were regularly > sinapis. 335. too. [§ 339 (4) Liquids. orma. Claussen 845. r. but seems to be referring only to Greek speech S. From Sulla's time on it was written z in The grammarians throw no light Latin: Claussen 841-843. regularly vop. (S) z- Z doubtless had several pronunciations in Greek. Judging from inscriptions. massa. Medentius.'^massa. by Microsoft® . Priscian (Keil II. i/f In ocr/u. have to do with a late Greek change of \ to 336. /8oj«. later j' (cf. by s. unchanged: <j has probably become For npvj^vre. bobansa. Greek letter and the lack of a corresponding Latin one Velius Longus discusses z at length. > exodus. ss. and a few other words.po'i'^ prebiter.. Nasals. but was often replaced. as a simple sound.^ ? > It. The liquids regularly rhetor. or d as in Saguntum. early Latin . cr 337. see below. we probably 8. t. lampas. The nasals.8os /talpos > maurus. (Tivain Of the sibilants. see § 300. priTmp> Rh in remained unchanged: \a/x7ras> common speech was doubtless pronounced In trkXivov like > It. There however. Cf. e^oSos r. it was pronounced in Vulgar Latin dy. and subsequent developments confirm this view: baptizare Digitized was equivalent to bapti{d)yare. among 36) says that the ancients. is sounded sd. some indica: tions that they were weak before consonants > Pr.

zdcones.• frank-iscus>lX. baptidiatus. being had no Latin equivaFurthermore.. Kotflv^ zvnior. z zabulus. Carnoy 163. Lat. and is common in inscriptions (cf. b and k came in after the lents: 8..ta. no peculiarities. cf.§ 34i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . p. giscle. It.). *striban > Pr. re- mained a stop : roubdn it > It. = conjux. I. garba > K It. Conversely. esquena. etc. jart. and its derivatives palatalized In the their k before e and /. Francesco. zaconus. A. seems to have followed a similar course. 68 . Spr. etc. zosum z= deorsum. Pr. 3. zeta = Koffmane 38 Lazis — dixta. 239. A few. resisted front vowels : skena > > Sp. GERMANIC CONSONANTS.= Julia. 69. estribar. of the consonants offer Most treated as in Latin. Carnoy 163). skernon > schernire. rubare. 33. zebus. B between vowels. septuazinta. 22.. and to G. etc. Cf. 141 zelosus to {d)yelosus. geldra. although have participated also in the later Gallic palatalization of g > before a (§ 263): gilda>lt.). Franko seems to have been an early acquisition. Zov\e. *giga>'Pr. riqueza. however. geisla Fr. Ladiis. 457-458- In late inscriptions z for/ is common: zerax = Upa^ (202 S. 473. Vok. I. so *rik-itia > Pr. ZESv. D. zanuari. and w. 340. can scarcely have come in time to share in the early palatalization of Latin g before front vowels (§§ 25811. gerbe. The ending -i{d)yare became very is common: see § The spelling di for z occurs repeatedly: baptidiare found several times in Per. occurring apparently only in words adopted after Latin intervocalic b had become ^ (§ 318). oridium for opvtfi. Vok. Eckinger 80.. Bechtel 79). (90. garto Old Fr. ZABVLLVS. h. is often used for di: . 341. zabulus. corresponding Latin sounds had undergone some modification. R. giga.

Reich. esclate. d and widarlon were replaced in Latin by the It. Sp. hardir. is used before > > initial ch: ab Chilperico. 342. schietto. a time when original Latin fricative w (spelled v) It the purely labial ^ (§ 322). pahso > It.. ardire. different time. It.— 142 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. regions where Latin eschine. gaite. richesse. Kluge 500. gequir. parrjan > Cf. we find Digitized by Microsoft® .gaita. Germanic k was modified in the same way before all front vowels (including a): cf. Hs. Fr. But wahta. trescar. of a At the beginning word it kept its sound in northern Gaul. —jehan > Old It. apcha. 343. tt: pahso > It. cf. hapja'^Yz. spehon~>0\6. jaquir. anca. schivare. bianca^. like Latin ss. prescan Germanic h appeared when Latin h had long been popular speech. Fr. doubtless adopted at a Tr. before a (§ 263). had become was nearer in it sound to Latin u: see § 326. hardjan Old Fr. Old Fr. honte. schiatta. 445 notes that ab. perhaps borrowed at a different date feu. hanche. Pr. so blank-a'^Yx. Fr. nipa The spirants 8 and p t: corresponding stops. sleht > Pr. Pr. hache. rather than a. hau- > > > Pr. — slahta'^-OXA esclet. guiderdone. became Old guatare. It. It. jehir. but in a few it seems to have been sounded kk in the greater part of the Empire: fehu Fr. esguiver. Pr. but apparently was neglected in the rest of the Empire: hanca~^Yx. gecchire. tasso. in the seventh century and later. helme. eschernir. blanche (but It. espiar. Bon. ht were generally treated tasso. skiuhan'^'Fx. In the Gl. 344. [§ 344 c was palatalized. W. Yr. etc. esclata. at Germanic w was a strong velar and labial fricative. silent in Fr. It. — > \X.. Old Sp. It. tarir. Intervocalic h disappeared in most words. espier. Pr. Pr. helm elmo. Fr. Fr. fio .

1899. but Wintrio is spelled Quintrio: Haag 38. Bon. > *wisa guisa. 167 cords Euua. in northwestern Italy. W. Die germanischen Elemente in der franzSsischen und provenzalischen Sprache. See E. 143 re- represented by uu. reuuardent. etc. became gw: warjan>*warire wisa guarire. wa (the interjection). in der franzSsischen Sprache. Through association with Germanic words.:>*wadum. werra > werra guerra. Bruckner. elsewhere. Waltemath. and in the in Rsetia this w apparently remained unchanged Vulgar Latin period. Charakteristik der germanischen Elemente im Italienischen. In extreme northern and eastern Gaul. 1884. Wandali. It is generally written w in Fredegarius. Die frdnkischen Elemente W. Mackel. walde. the /3 of some Latin words was changed to w: vadum +watan'.§ 344] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in uuadius. etc. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . vastare + wost— > *wasiare. 1885. Waddo. through a reinforceit ment of its velar element.

483 . etc. 194. manus. Lat. If words lost their differentiating terminations. dolor. (4) There were some sporadic changes: duos arbores. cf. became feminine (Bon. but there were ( I ) Between masculine and feminine there was not much some important shifts: Feminines of the second declension nearly all became — masculine: fraxinus. 345. GENDER. grex became feminine. abstract nouns in -or. Spr. Bon. Pirion 157. They were grammatical whose observance was a matter of outward form. 346. —urem were of uncertain gender ( Gram. 503-504): (3) color. iomus. pulicem. 461): (2) In Gaul. 293. 483. in the main. Feminines of the fourth declension varied (^Gram. ficus. (5) See also § 351. confusion of gender ensued. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. castaneus for castanea. Hmor. cucullus and cuculla.IV. 504. The three genders of Latin were not. through the analogy of the great majority of abstract terms. MORPHOLOGY. A. I. Bon. ~" confusion. or [I. honor. Spr. -inem. leporem. G. 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . —orem. Lat. Nouns that -icem. sex. had a proparoxytonic accusative in -erem.. II. 464-467): carcerem. n. MASCULINE AND FEMININE. dependent on sex or lack of distinctions. turturem. marginem. fans feminine in late Latin.

tergum —us. collus —um. 46. do^sus (^Mil. Waters Ch. b. MARIS. and also by the fall of final s in that phenomenon occurred (§ 298).§ 348] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. see Archiv VIII. 348. In popular and late Latin this tendency was strong: anteClassic. *ptperem. frigorem. signus. ciner. templus. m. caseum -us. Densusianu 129. G. sulphurem. gladium. murmur. sg. Cf. lignus. 42. fatus. vinus. cornu —um —us. Petronius has thesaurum.guttur.. lactem. 266. maris nom. Plautus. lactem {Bacch. vinus. Varro. For the confusion of masculine Cf. Densusianu 132.. 145 MASCULINE aIiD NEUTER. Petronius. castellus. calus. 39. 348. etc. incipit judicius. etc. *ndminem. 345-349. Glor. 270—272. collus. fcenus. nasuni : —us. n. Conversely we find cinus. cf. 293. 132. and f. 347.. Beside lUmen. piper \h&x& must have been *liiminem. (Za/. 2. II. pectorem. thesaurum. laqueum. Bon. beside pulvis. Audol- lent 545. frenum -i. for ctnis.. . there must have been a *pulvus. These m two genders: filiu{s) — . R. The transition from masculine to neuter was facilitated by the fall of final the regions where changes reduced considerably the distinguishing marks of the (§ 309). ra. balneus. 44). 173. etc. etc.. MAREM.Y. me\_nt]us. R. 507-509. D'Arbois 135. 16). In Classic Latin a number of neuters became masculine balteum -us.. Waters Ch. vasus -um.. m. nomen. Bon. roborem. marmorem. verbus. and neuter in Africa. Spr. m. 483). etc. 41. papaver .. 57. vadum —us. 4. VA. puteum. n. ledus —um.

the early stages of the Neuter adjective forms were used for a similar purpose: in Romance languages we find phrases veniat. etc. luoghi luogora. § 351. gender for nouns was probably not Cf. donum hunc scBCulum. sagma. 349. Cf. est. 348. for instance.. Bon. Archiv III. rivus rivora. m. R. 277. complete until early Romance times. Zs. [§ 351 In the second declension the only difference is in the nominative singular and the nominative and accusative plural. miles. luogo. the characteristic neuter plural inflections came to be -a being regarded as an alternative masculine plural ending: for nervi. 635. 266. popular. but also the collective plural for the singular Digitized by Microsoft® . and 48. Densusianu 132. generally Haag became feminine maris. 351 Classic Latin often used not only the singular for the cf. Thus the masculine and neuter fused. FEMININE AND NEUTER. etc.. hunc vulnere. Petronius writes nervia Waters Ch. id ipsum. generally L. by terra. So pi. perhaps calestem. pointing to such Vulgar Latin constructions as *mihi est grave quod ille non c. 161. illud or ilium. hunc stagnum. influenced f. however.. in Livy: Draeger I. 45 . the : neuter forms were kept to express an indefinite idea hoc. XXX. : if The loss of the neuter became feminine: cyma. hunc verbum. 350. 4). and in Italy and Dacia the distinction disappears even in the nominative singular. give in Italian: sg. etc. quid. Mare. Greek neuters in -ma. quod. mare. Among pronouns.146 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cf. locus. tive h In the third declension the genders are distinguished only in the accusative singular and the nomina- and accusative plural. 386. muro. murus. Nearly all neuters became masculine: os locutus R. / muri mura. plural in a collective sense (as eques.

for instance. For cinus — cinis. hie est iesia. occurs in late Latin. sg. Reich. Lat. few neuter nouns became feminine: For mare and f. fructa. The feminine character of such words was *illcB doubtless reinforced by the use.. rura: cf. 353. frutta. *folia. 63). fusa. membras. rama). Cassel. . 351. see §§ 85-100.. Old Fr. R. Reich. etc. . Aside from these. This formation in -a was extended to many masculine (cf. ne forte et mihi hcec eve- R. Gl. Archiv XIV. For the use of cases.. palpebrum iox palpebra occurs. *pulvus = pulvis. Bon. ardet (cf. crigne < ? *cnnea = crines. ligna. 352. simulaehras. 270. Spr. see § 347. 5-9. see § 349. ligna . 483. § 349) and even to some feminine nouns: digita. Sardinian. Gl. of an to pectora maXch qua pectora : Chronologie \()().% frigora. but many were and southern Italy and Rumania. etc. Spr. D'Arbois 10. ingenias.§ 354] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. armentas. Apulian. It.. the Vulgar Latin period the cases were generally reduced. {z. Convtrstly. 147 marmora. dita. Digitized by Microsoft® .. grada occur in late Latin. 269. in Rumanian y>-««2a < ? *frondia ^frondes. gaudia niat. Lat. 2. DECLENSION OF NOUNS. So the neuter plural forms in -a were preserved in their collective use after the neuter singular forms had disappeared. Draeger I.. In late Latin and early Romance this collective plural —a came to be taken for a feminine singular: tribula sg. 482. gesta. Hence arose such feminine gaudia. Cf. Audollent 548. Gl. . In most of the in central Romance territory the -a forms were kept preserved as plurals only as feminine singulars. By the end of 354. which a new plural was created: brachias. in Greek neuters -ma. cf. marmor. 435. R. etc. for singular forms as *brachia.

The transfer from the fourth to the second began in domus. [§ 356 except in Dacia. R. lacus. fourth declension eventually went over. —a nominative and an accusative- plural following the analogy of the singular. The other declensions generally held their own. whence Italian spene (cf. to two. gelus. 135. lucto. Sp. so friicti.. scaiiazre attested Inter: Denfor -OS. etc. (2) The susianu 133. — the Cf. Fifth declension nouns not in -ies rem. Heraeus in Archiv XIII. gradus. 282-283. 260—262. but there were a few shifts: — (i) For an inflection mama mamdne(^m). 355(i) The number fifth of declensions was reduced to three. as a third declension noun. Digitized by Microsoft® . ablative./ada. All passed over in the greater part of the Empire. beside dia. One result of the intermediate confusion was an accusative plural spelling -us which was very common in Gaul: Bon. spiritus. etc. cornum. transfer of nouns in -ies from the fifth to the first declension began also in Classic Latin: effigies— ia. Bon. fructo fructos. etc. etc. Pr. All the mercatus. 544. passes. 152. Audollent genum.148 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Ada. but -ies was kept in the Spanish peninsula. 550.. see § 359. etc. 270.. speni): W. senatus. G. 337-338. glatz. Sittl in Archiv II. Bechtel 86. spes spent. jusso. 482. K. 356. materies -ia. in southern Italy and Sardinia. went into the third res There was also an inflection spes : spene{m). manos. In Dacia the dative singular was to some extent preserved also: '' § 91. the fourth and being absorbed by the others. Classic Latin and continued in vulgar and late speech: ftcus. sendti. Dies maintained itself. jusso. Spr. being assimilated to the third declension: cf.g/ada. £ai. gustus in Petronius . luxuries —ia. haz. and occasionally in southern Gaul.

where the kept instead. beside coclear fiitre: was codearium. (3) On the other hand. Digitized -s made the accusative plural identical with the singular. Pr. Audolfilia{m). apparently became femus {Gl.). ds>dssum (R. see § 362. etc. / 357. there was an ervus ervoris: Lat. Pr. siren '^ sirena. G.>*rdsum (cf. fonz. It. So a few Latin nouns: juventus or ~tas > Juventa. 280. pyxis '^*buxida. the nominative plural was' by Microsoft® . under the influence of stercus. 280. 259-260). Corpo for corpore occurs in the Per. Reich. fons. R. the first: 367. G. Libit. Beside terminus ~i.) *femdris: cf. lent 546. fall of In Italy and Dacia. the accusative plural form came to be used as a nominative plural. femps. 149 (2) For an inflection Bellus Bellone^m). J where there was only one form. Spr.§ 357] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Fr. cf. This use was due in the main to the analogy of the singular. h&nc& filias filias.) and probably *potesta. Greek nouns 259. by Audollent 416. there was a termen terminis. 280.In countries which did not lose final s {% 298). so apparently ros'. and of feminine nouns of the third declension. G. Beside ervum ervi. Old Fr. likewise tempesta {Gl. vas>va- sum vasus (Waters Ch. Fundus fundi perhaps became fundus *funddris: Old Fr. Fr. : Bechtel 86. which had only one form in the plural: flia So linguas.. a. of the third declension sometimes passed into lampas~^lampada. FIRST DECLENSION. Reich. etc. Puulva for pulvis is recorded adsis '> aisida. but the old forms were retained also. Fimus ftmi. 57). fiens. matres matres. It probably was not common until late Vulgar Latin or early Romance times. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) and *capum -i: XXVII. effondrer. rugiada. 258Dubois 258. 483. arroser.

XXXI. No foreign or dialect influences are needed to explain the practice. pupillabus. It. G. 331. W. Rom. 358. c. rather late.. Les accusatifs en -on et en -ain. affirms that there was a feminine in -a with a plural in -as in Oscan.. See G. 483.. 264). Feb. mamma mammdnis. famulabus. XXXV. Feminine proper names and words denoting persons etc. (R. c. the nominative plural in some parts of Italy SCALAS. Paris.. 206. deabus. etc. too. sa* sacristanis (cf. 150. Chronologie 205-209. Her^us in Zs. MeyerLiibke in Ltblt. fr. Spr. had a similar plural. Celtic. 57 B. [§359 According to Mohl. villabus. D'Arbois 21-24 assumes Celtic influence: hic sunt cartas. liberti LIBERTASQVE. amita *amitdnis (so Juliana Julianenis in Pirson 143). Some masculine person-names in —a had crisia the same declension {Einf. Br^al. Philipon. Salvioni in Rom. Meyer-Liibke expresses doubt whether the is connected with masculine tatani. This feminine inflection left some traces in Gaul. sacristano). often developed. An ablative in -abus is occasionally found: Cassiabus. § 153): barba barbani. 359. —enis. diffusion. filiabus. Africa. Rom. Nice Nicenis. 321. century: feminine -a -ants In Lat. This form left no traces in the Romance languages. 70. filiabus. Journal des savants igoo. filiabus. Both mamani and tatani are found in the third W. or probably under the influence of the consonantal declension of Greek names that was in vogue in schools. W. and also in Latin down to -as was probably old in : B. Dante's Semele. ahimabus. cf. Archiv N\\\. XXV. E. and Digitized by Microsoft® . cf. etc. XXIII. Bon. Dalmatia. Hic qvescvnt dvs mres dvas filias. XXV. 152-153. but they may have helped its the second century . scrivano).. M. p. It. 198. 136. etc. Pupils were taught to inflect Glance Glaucenis.. 171. an inflection in —dnis. Spr. Herseus in Archiv XIII. Raetia.2 01.ISO (i) An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. nom. Pirson 115-116. etc. etc.: hence arose Anna Anndnis or -inis. feminabus. etc. Les accusatifs en -ain. ii. scriba *scribanis (cf.

the masculine where the masculine and neuter partly in Vulgar Latin but mostly in inflection in those countries differed: vinus. Agneti. Rom. §§349. 250. Attane. The plural in -a. -His. XXXV. Joanneni. Salvioni. especially in southern Some masculines took 362. — perhaps under manic influence combined with the analogy of the Latin type Digitized by Microsoft® . (i) 207. Romance. -i La declinazione imparisillaba in -a -dne. XXXV. however. the starting-point of all this inflection was bdrba barbdnis. 351-352. bdrba barbdnis influence of the itself he would ascribe to the synonymous *bdrbo *barb6nis. Andreani. Cf. XXXV. Rom. and -Stis: Aureliati. barbane still exist at both ends of Italy. fructa. etc.) was kept also. 218.: § 362] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. *botula. Cf. barbane. etc.. According to Salvioni. Italy: Fr. 216. rama. 219. -e ^ne -me. 343. Lombard madrane. extent. domnani. they assumed.. from Eugenes. from which it was extended to other nouns of relationship and to proper names. Eugeneti inflection in -dtis. — luna facia *folia luna lune lunas luna{s) facia folia f^i^ facias f'^^i^ folias facia(s) folia{s) In Dacia the dative singular {lune. 214-215. at the beginning of the Romance period. shows that these forms of declenall sion were very common the mediasval Latin documents of parts of Italy. 151 etc. b. In general. etc. etc. 250. G. putain. from 750 on: amitane. etc. -o -6ne. digita. the first declension was reduced to this pattern: 360. this -a. 264. 2l6. Zs. *botella. me -ene. shows that there was also an Cf. Zimmermann. etc. SECOND DECLENSION. R. XXXV. As neuter nouns became masculine. was retained to a considerable and central Italy and Dacia. Dubois 250. (2) A. by the analogy of bracchia. Ger- From the seventh century on. Andreate. also Joannentis. Rom. etc. nonnain. Rom. in ig8. 361. XXVIII. §§ 347-349..

§355. I.152 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Philipon in Rom. 212-213. In general. XXXI. suceroni: Rom. Bellus Belloni. Huon. etc.- ending was often Bon. 198.f. attested in Lucca in 776 {Rom. some pari. 363. 247-249. Giovannoni.. This was 364. 204). turri turre. Cf. G. In the ablative there was considerable confusion of -z and -e in Classic LatiiK OTan mare. So perhaps Italian Donaioni. etc. -« crowded out the rarer which left no sure Digitized by Microsoft® . Paulus or Paulo Pauldne{ni). and possibly Corsican baboni. etc. [§ 365 gulo guldnis. 87. Salvioni in Rom.. Rsetia. § 152). at the beginning of the Romance period. — there developed in Gaul. THIRD DECLENSION. avus avi>avo avonis. spelled In Gaul the accusative -«. Apparently traces. carried further in common speech: cf. II. 365. both in Classic and in Vulgar Latin: -Is. c. the second declension followed this pattern: annu(s) — annu ~o anni anno{s) fa^e(f) fabru —o vinu{s) bracciu *—us fructu(s) vinu -0 vini bracciu —o braccia fructu fructi fructo{s) —o fabri fabro(s) —i —o{s) vmo(s) braccia —a -a The letters enclosed in parentheses were silent in Italy and plural Dacia. XXXV. Vok. See E. Vok. a declension -us (or —o) —dnis for masculine Hugo Hugon was Latinized into Hugo Hugdne{m) (cf. The traces ablative in —e finally triumphed. proper names: 201. etc.). but there are of -l: It. Pirson 133:. 85. hence Pitrus or Pitro Petrdne^m). Firmus Firmonis. cf. and possibly Spain. etc. XXXV. etc. etc. cf. 337-338. In the accusative plural there was still greater confusion of -is and -es {nubes nubls. XXXV. (1). Traces of this inflection are to be seen especially in French and Provengal proper names: Foucon. Italy.

153 Italian pani. heredes. 243). 38). calcis in Venantius Fortunatus. etc.. Varro. R. travis (three times).. lade in Ennius. heredes.• -« Vok. 45. as by Tiktin 565-566. 66. Apuleius. Digitized by Microsoft® .. Prudentius.." App. Petronius (Waters Ch. bovis in Varro. without a change of accent. III. . (^=z. Chronolo- gie 203.. 47). famis. Nouns which added a syllable in the genitive. papilionis (cf. Plautus. 9. dis- 366. divite. Audollent 545-547. 263. nom. Lat. audace. camis in Livy. Pr. aculionis for aculeus). cardonis. "fames non famis. Jovis. etc. "grus non gruis. etc. 62). 263. nubis. in Ennius. D'Arbois 85-88. pedis. Caper. voluntate. Audollent 545-547. etc. etc. Petronius (Waters Ch. urbis. Vok. Petronius (Waters Ch.. etc. GL Reich.. -es.famis. D'Ovidio in critici Raccolta di studii dedicata ad Alessandro JD'Ancona 627). through the analogy of the second declension: see §368. lentis in Priscian. principens antestetis. App. R. Sepulcri 220.. Spr. tended in popular speech to use for the nominative a form in -is. As ~es and ~is came to be pronounced alike before the end to of the Vulgar Latin period (cf.principis). etc..§ 367] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. stips^ stipes. GL Reich. Waters a Ch.. or -e fashioned on the model of the oblique cases: so seeps "> sapes. slirpis in Livy. These forms prevailed in Romance. Pr. superstitis. R.. cf. I. folli tor folks in GL Reich. In the nominative singular the common -^s largely placed the less f requent 244-247. are best explained." Keil VII. perhaps in late popular Latin. victore. Aulus Gellius. 105. Ill.. 481. Rumanian pint. castore. 263. latrone. suis in Prudentius (F. it is futile trace the Romance forms phonetically to one source rather than the other. Haag 45. "nubes non nubis". 116. §§ 174. In Vulgar Latin this formation was extended to words with shift of accent: excellente for excellens in Petronius. Ci. 367. mdis.

Neuters in —n and -s regularly kept their nominative- accusative singular. carpi corpora. see § 347. Rum. In most of the Romance languages (but not Spanish). etc. hence *patri. timp. beside the old forms. however. for *lumine{m). however. etc. too. according . 482). In these countries —ora was used as a plural ending (It. *amantis. which. prcBgnans). new forms on the masculine pattern. no form: homo. [§ 369 These forms.. 369. (also * damantis. made in Italy in the eighth or ninth century. but in Italy and Rumania the old ones. Cassel. etc. but infans (also 368. hence *cani. were kept also {Lat. doubt. so. D'Arbois 85-88. Spr. anni. masculine nouns made over their nominative plural on the model of the second declension. cantdtor. declensions: Neuters in which apparently became by Microsoft® masculine or Digitized . soror.). etc. as *ndmes *ndme(s). (also presentis. 154 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. but there is virtually no evidence that it started so early: in late Latin. etc. except for persons. probably in late Vulgar Latin or early Romance. etc. elifanti is common.. first in cf. The process may have begun in the Vulgar Latin period. being used mainly in the nominative vocative. *ndmine{ni). we find sapienti. which was regarded as the normal masculine type: fllii. Rumanian Tiktin 566. retained names of and and generally preferred the old nominative But names of persons in -ans and -ens usually made over the nominative: parentis. lupi. hence *me(n')si. 367 parentorum is frequent in charters in the Gl. both the second and -r. as nomeiji). and was extended to in Old Italian to the second. servitor. *cdrpes *cdrpe{s). timpuri). corpo. prevailed in Romance. corpus cdrpu(^s). especially those in —ora. For the nominative-accusative plural.). to Bon. they constructed.

A few feminines in -is apparently became neuters in —us. § 347. *pulvus. G. the word shows no trace of d in any of the Romance lan- guages. and so probably goes back to an Old Latin *cdr Classic cor. papaverem. *cdris = Krjp lajpo's. cf. 113. 483. incudtnis : Lat. *piperem. Spr.§ 37i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and passed into the second declension: cf. 155 feminine earlier than the others. the third declension must have gone about as follows {-is and -es having coincided in the pronunciation -w) : — (i) No Change of Accent. Fxn. §356. sulphurem. except Spanish cuerdo.. at the beginning of the Romance period. . were kept also.0. Old Yt. 293. polvo. the open o would possi- bly be explained as due to a cross between this *cor and the Caput became *capu{ni) or capus (Pirson 238). often developed an accusative singular in -e{m) as well as a nominative-accusative plural in -es: I. (3). pulvis whence S-p. sangutne(m) also sanguei^m). PERSONS. Cor apparently made its plural * cores instead of * cordes : according to Mohl. marmorem. But marmor. but the original forms were kept also: cinis ctnus. iticudis > incudo. 371. 348. NO CHANGE OF STEM. etc. pals {It. Bon. polve may come irorapulver). 2. Incus. Zauner 2. Lexique 21-38. In general. 370. Plautus. Sanguis.

.156 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. [§373 change of stem.

however. § was kept to represent a whole idea (cf. 374- Adjectives were declined after the same model as nouns. the neuter adjective forms were less and less used. . the neuter singular. As neuter nouns assumed masculine endings (§ 347). 350). and the neuter plural (as omnia) was doubtless emr ployed from time to time as an indefinite collective.§375] An 3. 157 DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 375" The principal types are: — So ager.

Waters Ch. The type. 46). imbecillis also assumed the -us -a —um inflection in the Latin period so trtstis^tristus. R. miser. magis magls f J Digitized by Microsoft® . see § 56. Cf. App. [§377 (3) Originally *feUce(s) One Gender filis fills fellcla in the Nominative Singular. etc. Densusianu 142. l_ \ !-. etc. : to 4. gracilus.. there was alacris. jac^r passed into the -us ~a —um class. Decllvis. 274.. pauperorum. Romance was: For the new method of comparison. doussa. pauperum. 377. App. not completely evolved in Vulgar Latin. R. Pr. firmis. COMPARISON. celerus. and conversely benignis.— 158 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 275 (^ci. effrenis. prude(s) prude(s) *prudente(s) feUce fellce(s) prudente prudente{s) prudente{s) prudentia prudentia fellceis) fellcla (4) Comparatives apparently did not reconstruct the Nominative Singular: melloif) mellu{s) millu(s) mellore mellore(s) mellora mellSra melidre(s) There was a good deal of confusion of types in Latin times: beside alacer. sublimus. pauperorum. comuna. m. (plus L 1 J ^plus llle-{'^"~. and f. Prcecox developed a feminine pracoca: Neue II. and f. prcestus. m.. Macer. 162. so teeter'^ tetrus. Pr. In the the —us —a Romance languages more adjectives went over -um type Pr.. in376. etc. . Pauper early developed a feminine paupera and later a neuter pauperum: paupera. and there was probably also a feminine * alacra and * alecra.

the Classic Latin comparatives of many common adjectives remained in use: altior. in the clerical language. §254. *Stto). major. nSve. Digitized by Microsoft® . 221). Quattuor became quattor {Archiv VII. etc. pejus. Archiv VII. also ijuatro ^guaitro. dice offer so cinqua- no peculiarities. melius. Six. by dissimilation. 379. is regular. grossior So the adverbs: longius. sordidius. carissimus. Cf. magis. II.§379] '^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. septe (and *sette). 159 However. Scto ( and Cf. see § 225. 65). on the model of dui. as intensives: altissimus. Beside Undece there seems to have been * iindece. "i^. melior. proximus. The old superlatives remained to a considerable extent. of the Vulgar Latin period dui dot {duoT) duo(s) Its inflection at the was probably: doa{s) — end due doe duas doas d'ua{s) dua doa dua doa In early Romance there was doubtless much confusion of the forms. 5. sanctissimus. became cinque {Archiv VII. also as (cf. NUMERALS. attested in the third cen- tury: Archiv IX. pessimus. For dodece. 66) ginta (Archiv Nil. Ihm. minor. (G. 558 (cf. gravior grevior. Vulgdrformen lateinischer Zahlworter auf Inschriften in Archiv VII. minus. pejor. DHo came by dui. Quinque. lows : — The numbers between two and twenty were as fol- Tres probably developed a nominative *irei. It was used indefinite article (§S7) and an indefinite pronoun to be replaced §71). Tredece * See M. 68. (Camoy . 107). levior. 65. 285). vivacius.i 378. longior. an Unus was probably declined like bonus.

became * quattordece (cf.i6o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 69). f^ok. For ducenti. 69. 412) mentions decern et septem. Ryd- berg in Milanges Wahlund 337.. mentioned as a by Consentius. cf. Beside this dice et septe ac") there was *dece ac septe . probably anterior to the fall of faulty pronunciation the g. which account in general for the Italian. et (or ac) sex. and French words. This change of accent apparently occurred everywhere for the subsequent tens: * guadrdinta. trigtnta must assume for Spanish something like * viinti. Zs. trinta: Archiv VII.: G. etc. 392. ii. became viinti. perhaps of the fifth century (Pirson 97. Beside sedece there was *dece SeftendScim. went out of use. Archiv VII. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . triinta (§ 259): ISatvTi occurs in a sixth century document of Ravenna. such as * dui centu. Spr. § 225). G. * sexdinta.and the octo. Rumanian has new formations. XXV. etc. 69). The tens. trinta {yinti. *dece et (or ac) nHve. 380. triginta is. *nondinta *novdinta. so ^dece et (or dcto. II. Cf. etc. Mille was regular. 461.of 70 and 80 were to the type of the others. but Qulndlce is regular. the septucu. in fact. These forms easily contracted into vinti. Centu was regular. 381. trienta. with an opening of the first i and an early shift of accent. Keil V. For its plural it had *dui mille or *dui mtl{l)ia. Archiv VII. * triinta. etc. also unus de viginti. are irregular: regularly § 142. But beside these we Vigtntl. beginning with 20. 400. there were probably new formations.. regularly [§ 381 also Quattuordecim *quatti!rdece. made to conform Outside of the Spanish peninsula is -dinta apparently became -dnta. * octdinta * ottdinta. Priscian (Keil III. *septdinta * settdinta. trecenti. * cinqudinta. * quadrdinta became rr: quarranta Furthermore the dr of found in an inscription. 136.

quintus were generally bonus. 384. demonstrative. as an indefinite neuter. relative. The ablative gave way . the distributive Septimus. B. — For the use of personal pronouns. 67. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. and is were used to supply the lacking pronoun of the third person: cf. eo occurs in manuscripts of the See §263. tile and also hic. I. see § 60. and Catalan ending -enus was employed {septenus ion tertius. remained. to the dative and accusative. The nominative and. N. 161 382. But his reference to Vok. accusative SSs. in northern Italian. and iste. I. and the dative was preserved in personal. The ordinal numerals. ipse. probably not 385. The genitive was usually lost but ciijus was kept.^ ' Meyer-Liibke. 242 is incorrect Digitized by Microsoft® .§ 385] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ipse. Primus. §§6o. after 5th. 262. kept. ? II. were probably not very commonly used: the Romance languages show many new formations. but the end of the Vulgar Latin period. secundus. According to sixth century. until Ego lost its g in all the territory. Examples occur as early as the second century: Franz. B. Spr. and so was the genitive singular and plural of ille. 484. The ordinals were best preserved in Italy. Lat. PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. As the pronouns came to be expressed more and more. inflected like quartus. etc. but some languages have new formations even for these.). nemo inde Regnier no. Provengal. definite genitive: Hoc served in- Inde assumed the function of an dubitat. and interrogative pronouns.

stbi the short i prevailed. •was carried into nobis. Franz. II. On tibi. from the sixth century on. the pattern of stbt. [§ 388 In the last syllable of ttbt. si beside to Lat. found.ording ti. there were formed •. i" 243-244. ^ )86. vobis.1 62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. inflection The was probably reduced to: — . these are and mt<mihi. acof. 484. Spr.

When Ule and ute had a really demonstrative force. ipsi=^ ipse. etc. There was another dative form. 389. having become archaic in peninsula. see §§ 60. . Romance: Old \X. These forms survived ma. nom. Franz. however. articles For their function as and personal pronouns. used by 427. Audollent 302). B. Ipse and isfe followed a similar course ipse however. istius). 244. R. and Cato and on the model of illui (and perhaps of quei). sg. eccu': see § 65. was partially replaced. 283-304. 275. and the Spanish Illius {ipsins. 276. tilt was replaced in part by illHi. 246-260. g II. cf. but it disappeared from late Latin. is 163 g The full inflection found in the sixth century: Franz. 275. — For the use of demonstratives. Through the analogy of cu^us. and the latter is not found in Calabria. definite N. and ipsud for ipsum. sg. sg. leius was abandoned: In the dat. The Old Latin genitive illi {ipsi. used by Apu- and others (Neue II. tilt. and the dat. madre- DEMONSTRATIVES. The inflection of tile developed considerably in popu- lar speech. Quillacq 83). 390. 427. sometimes occurred as a dative: Franz. 3 II. illms gave way to iliajus. illo. qui: Bon. Sardinia. the special forms ipsus for R. we find. R. popular speech. 3.. framed on the model of cf. the m. 114. 277-279. 274. 273. Ille. probably in the sec- ond half of the sixth century. Franz. Franz. II. subsequently went out of use. The former. 9 II. by illi. illi^ille. m. others (Neue Digitized by Microsoft® . was from that. isti). m. being confused with the ablative and the accusative. Franz.§ 390] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in II. there was tllce (or ille). also §392. they came to be compounded usually with the prefix ecc' or Cf. fratelmo. 67-68. Sicily. 275. see §§ 61-68. f. 9 II.. 9 beside II. cut.

illejus. to f. are found after the seventh century: Franz. be used. to Vulgar Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . which. 426. Majorca. In parts of northern Spain and southwestern France illorum seems to have become *illurum.s replaced by tllum: Neue II. When unaccented. illei are found from the sixth century made genitive. 271-272. in Romance. Spr. a part of Catalonia and Gascony. nice. [§ 392 which was used beside ilU and Ulm. through the analogy of illUjus. Cf. these words tended to lose their first syllable (see § 157): tu illam vzdes>*tu 9 II. ipseus. illui. Ille prevailed. R. illui. 276. at the end of the Vulgar Latin forms not was something like kept in Romance) elle elli — this (brackets indicating Ma ellejus elli elle ellei ellu [ellujus] elli \ello\ ellui elli ellu ello elli ella elle ? ellu ello ella ? ellqru elluru elli(s) \ellaru\ ellqru elluru ellqru ^im/) ellais) ello(s) ella 392. was constructed illcejus (illejus). ille. In the on the same pattern (influenced perhaps by guejus). XXVI. It came. did not entirely disappear. Franz. except 177. period. illejus. ipsujus. m. 9 II. Illorum displaced the f. 484: illujus. and some dialects on the south shore of France. 600. Lat. and illis. illui. however. which crowded out illtus. 'la' vede(s). The popular : inflection. furthermore. Cf. illdrum. The 391. Illujus. 619. on: Zs. Ille and ipse were used freely as definite articles from the fourth century on: Densusianu in Sardinia. neuter Uludvia. for the dat.164 An Introduction illcei (illei). vides lei ta ipsam clavem'>-*vede(^s) iu 'sa' clave'] Lui and 281-283.

619. and also of the feminine qum. in common speech. was probably reduced. qui takes the place of quts. In Christian inscriptions from the fifth century on. by the end of the : Vulgar Latin period. N. B. — For the use of these pronouns. Beside ctijus.§ 395] -^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. to something like this qui — . quel: Mohl in Zs. The combined inflection of qui and quis. see cm is found a corresponding feminine quejus. INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS. and the substitution of qui for feminine see §§69-70. 393. quis. 165 4. XXVI.

PI. on the analogy of {*vao). It is entirely possible. THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. sto. I. in Germanic verbs -on and in by Microsoft® . 396.1 66 An Introduction C. *vait date. 398. *vais. — see §§33-35. dant and stant there came Old It. but it seems more likely that they were late Latin formations due to an effort to keep the root vowel distinct from the ending. Italian development due to the analogy of sia: see §419." Lexique 47. For new formations. estau. daun. In the Peregrinatio the second decidedly preponderates over the third (Bechtel 87). being few and Beside do. estou. Lexique 47.nd *stao. Mohl. a. the Eventually Spanish and Portuguese discarded New formations went into the and Sardinian the second. 30. FIRST CONJUGATION. state. dou. dau. "adno non adnao. its 397. that the form is a later. with Umbrian dia. estaun. follicare. the third. the third in Italy.. Digitized — such as abbreviare. " The first conjugation generally held partial. Cf. dao. the first and fourth were least affected. Lexique 47 and Pr. (2). etc. *staunt: Rum. defections into use * dao. Pers. werrizare. would connect these forms with Umbrian stahu. The Italian present subjunctive dia from dare is associated by Mohl. Probus. (see §405): cf. first and fourth. There was some confusion of conjugations. to Vulgar Latin. Pg. *daunta. own. in other texts the third gains at the expense of the second. however. Lexique 47-54. In northern Gaul there may have developed with * stao a * stats and a * stait. [§ 398 VERBS. The second gained most fourth in Gaul. Sicilian in Spain. Pr.

capere * caput. 399. the verb habere. habes. habibai. THIRD CONJUGATION. Lexique 108-109. According to Mohl. Latin there was some confusion between the second conjugation and the third fervere. * hat. roubo?i'>lt. probably through the pronunciation of —eo as —io (see §224): * complire. capere may easily have imitated sapere. Itala. t. respondere (Bechtel 88: responduntur). rubare. While retaining habeo. I. fiorlre (R. V. C. 284). especially in Italy. sapere sapui: sapere was influ- enced. etc). 167 —an (but not -jan) went in the first conjugation: Cf. by habere. The inchoa284). *putrtre. In Vulgar Latin the second lost some verbs to the third in most of the territory: * ardere. luctsco. in Classic : Even miscere (R. 266 ff. Other verbs passed over locally or occasionally: sediiur. 283). Monaci. 10. 8. lugire (R. Habere. at least in Italy. SECOND CONJUGATION. under the influence of dare and stare. Bechtel 88.§402] An Introduction regularly to Vulgar Latin. * has. tive —escere \. 284). b. E. *nocere. adopted the forms *ho or *hao. tondere. 400. third conjugation gave a few verbs to the second. lugere (R. * luctre.. I. L. 20. §36. ^^^^ i^ a peculiarity of ancient Umbrian. sometimes became habtre: Vok. became —iscere: *florisco. guidare. avire in havite. The as cadere *cadui.\i^x\. Luke VI. 1. Some verbs went into the fourth. habent. 1636. * lucere. *impllre. 401. such perhaps 402. and cadere may have followed capere. wttan'^lt. *ridere. *putrisco. *mordere. Crestomazia italiana dei primi secoli I. p. *torcere (for torquere). *hant or * haunt. Digitized by Microsoft® . many become i. Italian dialects in which e does not phonetically and even in early Tuscan (cf. habet. tergere. beginning with those that had a perfect in -ui.

assumed the infinitive forms potere. Gregory and Fredegarius {Pr. strongly influenced by dare and stare. This transition was probably helped by a partial fusion of esse and sedere. {Pr. 403.1 68 An Introduction all to Vulgar Latin. [§ 404 In Spain the third conjugation verbs eventually passed into the second. facere 404. PL 21). and conformed Velte. their inflection more or less to the regular type. Reich. however. a sug- gestion of shortening existed in the monosyllabic imperative Digitized by Microsoft® . framed on the pattern of potestis.poteo is attested ( 1) Potere. D. Pers. potebas Posso for possum is used by in Fredegarius (Haag 60). PL 25). is volemus in the seventh {Pr. voles is found in Volestis. *volere. potebo is found in the Gl. PL in 745 A. PL 21).A facere were associated in old formulas: Lexique 53. Furthermore. The present indicative forms must have been something like this: ^vojeo voje^s) — volimu{s) volemu(s) voleste(s) *volete(s) *vole(i) *vqlen(t) The present subjunctive must have been similarly inflected. GL found in the sixth century (^Lat Spr. is twice used by Fredegarius {Pr. Dare Z. The anomalous posse potui. was discarded in Spain and potebam occur repeatedly in the sixth century 24).-R. Pers. there doubtless existed *fare {Facere 48). velle volui naturally went over to the second conjugation.. Pers. Pers. Pers. The present like this: have been inflected something passu posso foteo *posseo poieis) *pote(i) — indicative must ^poiemu{s) poteste(s) *potete(s) pqssunif) *poten(t) The present subjunctive must have had corresponding forms. Sardinia. PL 2^). 478). {Pr. (2) the Volimus Reich. 'Bt&ide.

XXV. but the present subjunctive retained (see Facere 72. 169 fac (also /a. facio XVIII. 121. Zs. beside factte. 434): — its old inflection *fao . series The one 735). which must have led to *fate present indicative certainly had several being on the pattern of the first con- jugation. Zs. sets of forms.§405] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

St. §404) and helped by the analogy of audire. however. forbire . . 285). beside * sequere. ignire. *soffertre. Bon. marrJan>'Fr. Verbs in -to tended to pass into the fourth conjugation (see. Reich. Dicere. Cf. Germanic verbs in -Jan regularly went into the fourth conjugation in Latin (Kluge 500): furbjan~>\X. (j^^r^i". The fourth conjugation usually held — — marrir. ^. Sepulcri 229. see § 415. Densusianu 148. 427. at least locally: *falllre. common in the Vulgate (R. * capere .to Vulgar Latin.. parrjan^Yv. such as * abbellire. developed a form * dire. ite(s) etc. gemire. 477). occurire. cf. see § 34. 477).lyo present. offeret. Lucretius {Lat. FOURTH CONJUGATION.into this conjuga- FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES Romance only Digitized IN INFLECTION. cuptre. moreover. 286. Lexique 62 ). warnjan'> tion. Plautus. first half of the 7th century. 407. Gl. mortri. * sequlre. It. §416): *caplre. Carnoy 112). tarir. . guarnire. in 408. its own. Spr. Bon. by the analogy of aperire {sufferit. Pirson 148. Some others went over. Pirson 148. * offertre. deferet. and gained some verbs from the others. ^26. §36. R. Of the personal forms of the verb there remained general use in the following tenses of the active voice. Haag 60. Augustine {Lat. [§408 facere fare : — present indicative. For the intrusion of the inchoative -sc. hesiAe. fodiri. vadunif) *vaunt *vant 406. An The vado Introduction. C2X0 fugtre. Spr. For new formations. was influenced by *vao viidimu(s) vddite(s) *vo *vas vadeif) *vait *vat vadeis) *vais imu(s) etc. and *monre. the entire passive inflection having been discarded: the by Microsoft® . Bechtel 90. doubtless suggested by die ( cf fac and *fare. probably in the Vulgar Latin period (cf. d.

in various regions: see §124. etc. esse and the perfect participle: feci"^ habeo factum.. . amaram. See Syntax. some regions the future perfect . as a preterit or a conditional. For amo. reverti"^ reversus sum. §§ 112-114. audiram) was kept. (amaro).. the gerund (especially the ablative case). R. amem. Similar compounds replaced the pluperfect and the future perfect. amando. the present participle. amans. The supine 409. : Deponent verbs became active cf. Of the impersonal forms of the verb there remained: the present active infinitive. operare. In was replaced. and probably in some standing phrases the gerundive. amassem. 289. the deponent for the active inflection of a few verbs: Petronius. pluperfect. mentire.. In the subjunctive the pluperfect was used instead of the Digitized by Microsoft® . 297-302. . For instance: amare. amavi. R. See 410. perfect was kept in its preterit sense. The entire passive inflection -of came to be replaced. and in 171 indicative present. 298 Conversely. the perfect participle. 302-304. the subjunctive present. § 4io] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. towards the end the Vulgar Latin period. rideri. {amandusi). {amarini)\ ama. imperfect. amabam. 388-389. etc. R. and in instance: some regions the perfect the imperative present. The old pluperfect indicative (^amaram. partly by active and reflexive constructions but perfect participle with esse' mainly by a compound of the (m northern Italy fieri): littera ' scriMtur -flittera scripta est (or fit). amatus. perfect. some writers substituted R. The Latin it its perfect sense — §§121-124. R. pluperfect. in the by a compound of habere and the "perfect participle case of neuter verbs. 304. fell into disuse from the first century on. cf. Cf. See Syntax. in the Vulgar Latin period.

In this compound all the various forms of the present indicative of habere were used (see §§273. Crescini in Zs. in Vulgar Latin and Romance. *amar' dben(t). which disappeared everywhere but in Sardinia {facheret. §118. Digitized In Italian we by Microsoft® . but * amar' abut. -dt.172 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. or conditional. C. etc. XXIX.): see Spanish and Portuguese. as in the In these formations the unaccented {Ji)ab— first and second persons plural of the future: * amar' -^{b)a. -ete(s). etc.): amdrem'^amdssem. amd{ve)ro fused with the perThe old future perfect ama. audtrem'^audissem. *amar' -isti.-dben(t) and -d. cridere. with the exception of ero. a form in -ii {amerii). *amar' -dbe(t). * amar" -dbe(s'). It is best preserved in is found also in Old Rumanian There are traces of it in Old Italian. On the model of this new future. an imperfect of the late future. -ds. -dyo. -ds. was crowded out by the present and by new formations. as a future indicative or subjunctive. pdteri. as they came to be regarded as mere endold future. 401): *amar' —dbeo. to correspond to the dissyllabic or monosyllabic -dyo. habemus and habetis eventually. —d. —dbe{t). from the *amar' -abut. which has prevailed in the find. The ings. in regions except Gaul and Raetia. -dnt. —do. . but and Macedonian. De 411. In the first and second persons plural. *amar' —e'te(s). were reduced to -emu{s). -dnt: *amar' —dmu(s). especially by the infinitive combined with the present indicative of habere {amdbo > amar' habeo): see §§125-129. —aunt. etc. &tc. infinitive the perfect of habere (see §130): combined with the imperfect or *amar' ~dbe{b')a{ni) or disappeared. beside -ia from habebam and -dbbi —ibbi from habui. -dbe(s). sometimes confused with the pluperfect indicative and later sometimes with the infinitive {dpriro. —at. came to be made. V. cf. Lollis in Bausteine i . [§411 imperfect. 619.(ye')rim and apparently remained subjunctive fect — — — — more or all less in use.

Clarisco. Virgilius Grammaticus (Sepulcri 194) mentions double forms of inchoative verbs. 414. tene. Beam. the second person plural of the present indicative came to be used: adferte> adferitis. Cf. Savoy. the Landes. French Switzerland. due. tenete. they Pr. crede. etc. to the Romance languages. in Vok.of avere : it is probably due to the analogy of the first person singular of the weak preterit (credit. fae. t—. In some verbs the present subjunctive was used instead of all imperative forms. the Abruzzi. Lyons.. are common in Gregory the Great: Sepulcri 193. The first and third persons were supplied from the present subjunctive. by Microsoft® . vived in the Tyrol. R. 294. dormisco — were extended The and later. or o—. the Grisons. audi. The Latin The inchoative ending -sco was preceded by a-. paresco. e—. 412. etc. Dauphin^. 3. INCHOATIVE VERBS.. pareeer. 413. 3596. except the present. etc. Sardinia. 294. writers sometimes emploved diee. Instead of the plural form. hence crederdt).face: R. For the monosyllabic die. irdisser <irdseere. person singular and plural: credite. lost their inchoative sense. criseere. cf. and Spain Digitized — Sp. types —dsco and —osco were sparingly repre- sented and were not extended in late and popular Latin have bequeathed but few verbs con<Sisser<ico(g)ndseere types —esco and —tseo in the third century — — as — such as and . §426.§414] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. amdte. and a part of Lorraine Only -eseo surneither of these two endings left any trace. second dmd. See § 115. In Veglia. audite. such as caleseo ealisco. I. erubisco. There is some evidence of a confusion of -esco and —uco in Latin. The imperative disappeared. while in Old Italian the ei was sometimes detached and used as a preterit. duce. 173 modern language.

In the present participle this was a regular phonetic development (see §225): audientem^* audente. il in Pr. but in the earliest texts of France. sentiam * sentam. in — It. nor are there any traces of it 415. despereissir. fiorire. There is no direct evidence of this in Latin.. or southern Italian. trated the present subjunctive {Yr. and Rumania we find a type *finisco *finisce(s) ^Jinisce{i) *Jiniscun{t) The ~sc. etc. some regions. / sentieniem > were introduced more less into the indicative and subjunctive: audio * audo. by the by Microsoft® . Spr. / 416. Rom. Many verbs in -io dropped the whenever it was fol- lowed by another vowel. Portuguese. See Archiv Lat. Zs. Elsewhere. partiunt *partunt. northern and central _fimmii(s) finite{s) Italy. 174 An Introduction was preferred For to Vulgar Latin. 4. XXX. The ending -tsco of the present in Spanish. partientem * sentente.. Herzog Bausteine 481. facientem *facente. 465. PRESENT STEMS. \\. finis sant. the e was occasionally lost in the second conjugation: v^deo *vtdo. eventually entered into the formation stem of fourth conjugation verbs. Sardinian.. [§416 florecer. 478. Rastia. see E. although fleurit. Digitized On the other hand. etc. Hence forms without the or > > *partente. 291-294.Jinisse). By the analogy of these. -tsco prevailed fiorisce. * dormo. -esco also in Rumanian. XXIV. 81. the -sc- was carried throughit out the present indicative (Yx. finissez).then generally disappeared from the infinitive Later. tricts also pene- eventually the present participle ( and in some disand the imperfect indicative Fr. finis sais ) I. — Fr. there are traces of -esco. finissons.

plango planxi planctus. 401. Jigo fixi. rego rexi rectus. the second conjugation admitted such f oriris as * habeunt. trdgere. * vtdeunt. etc. to bring it into conformity with the usual third conjugation type. trahere. indicate a * setts some evidence of an alternative * siitis sicmus. actus.. 397. 412. lego lectus. *vkere.§419] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Substrate VI. old esum cited by Varro {Fr. structus. 175 analogy of capiunt. Pers. see § 409. etc. present indicative shows some signs of a tendency its to normalize erratic inflection by making all the forms be- gin with The use.. 419. duco duxi ductus. *fragam. 403-406. etc. etc. etc. dtcere. and Raetian ses point to a * ses beside es. beside the regular habent. and the perfect partivexi vectus on the — analogy of ago tectus. *tragebam. 417. based on the analogy of dico dixi dictus. faciunt. velle dare. The Spanish use of probably later than our period.. vehere developed infinitive vegere are forms *striigere. Considerable alterations use of fieri for esse is (I ) were made in the present indicative and subjunctive. The guttural Fredegarius. 416. tango tactus. The verbs vadere. habere. Italian while there of on the model and Raetian siede. j'ungo Cf. vegere {tragere and used by 34) and a whole present and imperfect inflection with —g—. esse. cingo cinxi cinctus. ungo unxi unctus. facere. posse. Prpvengal ses for Digitized by Microsoft® . Esse was made into *essere. There may have been also *striicere. *trdcere. Old Italian se for e. The verbs struere. Italian sei siete is PL 128) went out of for estis. 418. also Jingo finxi fictus. debere. as *trago. vtdent. stare. tego and probably junxi junctus. pango panxi panctus. Haag was derived from the ciple — struxi and perfect indicative traxi iractus. 131. underwent considerable changes in the present: see §§273. For the sedere for The s.

Pirson Yt^o. 42. iox fit. 5. Lat. may go back to *sei and *sesf for est In the first person plural sumus became sumus and simus (see §220). etc. The endings were -dbam.176 es. 479. Pr. too. 347. -icbam. . see 420. Portugal.. Dalmatia.): cf. Pr. see sead in Vok. Rom. IMPERFECT. Pers. occurs in Italian documents of the eighth century. which existed with esum. XXI. etc. northern Gaul. — sem *sea sis simu{s) sidmu(s) site{s) *jfa(j) sea(t) *sidie[s) set sent *sean{i) For Stat. B. fiam reand Dacia. Old Fr. Provengal esmes<. and Dacia (Pr. Spr. In the third conjugatiqjyg^-jyj^^ Ajgaj^g^ developed into -ebam. Old It. (cf. — For the loss of the imperfect subjunctive. *esmus seems to be a new formation on the analogy of esHs. which -was used.). Spr. would derive it from old esimus. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. semo. that cal influence oifiam. PL 130. and by various purists of the Augustan age (Stolz 58). according to Suetonius. Hence comes an etc. Pers. according to Lat. Siamus. § iiS. sons. sumus. N. which ultimately prevailed: Lexique ^x): fiet is common places sim in northern Italy alternative inflection * siam. etc. The present indicative inflection was doubtless something like this sqm fs est : — sqmu(s) *ses *set} *sest? i^ie(s) semu{s) *esmu{s) *sete(s) *sciie(s)! sqnt (2) In the present subjunctive the analogy of other third conjugation verbs tended to introduce the characteristic vowel a. simus. 135. and the Tyrol (Sp. —ebam. etc. from early times there was a reciproand the Old Latin optative siem. the usual Classic form. somas. sem. II. [§420 usually understood as reflexive forms. Mohl. by Augustus. prevailed in southern Gaul. Italy. It is likely. —ibam. PI. was preferred in Spain. 478..

-tvi). —oleo. developed another form.§423] just as An Introduction -ientem> -entem (see §§ to Vulgar Latin. — being common In the fourth conjugation -iebam and -ibam existed side byside from early times (Neue II. which stressed the characteristic vowel of the fourth conjugation. Spr. WEAK PERFECTS. probably through dissimilation.'Bi. and also a general inclination to omit v between two i's (see § 324). a. prevailed in popular speech. the weak and the strong: the weak comprises the v. -pleo. regularly had a perfect in -evi: deleo. had weak perfects. —Ibam as in munibam — in early Latin and recurring at later periods (Lindsay 491). which in Romance was widely extended.. 445). Habebam. 421. must distinguish two types. etc. the strong includes all Verbs of the first and fourth conjugations generally others. —Ibam. led early. R. We — — neo. 287. sentia. credia. A vowel. affecting all the conjugations but the It is ved^a. and fourth conjugation verbs with strong perfects developed a weak one in Vulgar Latin: pr(sstiti> probably All first j>rcBstavi.perfects in which the v is added to a verb-stem (-dvi. territory except common to nearly all the Romance Rumania: Lat. 6. pronounced a^e^a (cf. For further encroachment of the weak type on thb strong. silevit for siluit occurs also. those of the second and third had mostly all of the second conjugation and Only six verbs strong. Dubois 277-278. *afiea. see §426. 177 22t„ /^i6): faciebam'>-*facebam. and —iebam disappeared: vestibat. to a reduction tendency to keep the stress on the characteristic Digitized by Microsoft® . 2?>q. vieo.fleo. in the fourth conjugation. most of them rare 422. §318). 479. • salui>salivi. 423. -evi. Hence came an alternative ending —ea for -e/ia. first: It. PERFECT.

). carried into the first conjugation.. etc. C.I. redit. petit. etc. mus. speclarait. S. —tt. o-cyvoi. [§424 of —tvtsit to -tstt still early. see Servius ad Aen. Neue III. 446-448. A ular. The A contraction without the . "fumdt -pro fumavit. Densusianu I. 17 (Keil II. Gregory of Tours (Bon. Vok. "cupit pro cupivit. Bayard 60. This -aut prevailed '^'^'^. Densusianu I. the reduction of —ivimus to —Imus and probably *—immus (the lengthening of the m being due to compensation and also. II.. probably to *-aumus: triumphaut in Pompeii. —dvif^dit and -at. 476. petit. -/.'X. -ivistis to —istis. 440). for —ierunt. in the third person singular. etc. to a desire to distinguish the perfect from the present). 452-454. 440. etc. 476. 434 (cf.d.judicat. -dvtmus>-dmus and probably *-dmmus: calcai (Probus). perit. 17 (Keil II. to -aut. Neue III.. (Haag 55). locally. -dvistis. vocitamus. II. 424.. to fall of v. ccelebrasperamus. and the third person plural. servio. in the first and third persons singular *—lrunt: audi." Priscian XII. as in repetimus. Then a contraction of the two vowels gave. perit. denumerat. for —imus. in the first person plural. and.m»'W^ol%tm^ and amdo. Fredegarius (Haag 55).L.Lexique 46. 449. F^/J. 587). and. 152. Fredegarius in -ait is 152. —dverunt to Much later -dvt>-di. in the third person singan alternative form. Spr. —drunt. memoramus. —iverunt to —ierunt. 451. as in lenUt. 241: 65-121 a. rise early to a reduction of —avisti. 479. I. The loss of V. The third person singular found in Old Sardinian: Lat. etc. edificai.— 178 An Introduction and to Vulgar Latin. For -nt. — probai {'Prdhns). later. gave —dsti. —ivit to —iit and *-itt. —dstis. *-iut: It." Priscian XII. see Neue III. 587). -u and *-u. laborait. 216. perhaps. fall of v gave rise. the further reduction of —ivt to which brought about. Bon. dedicait. contraction without the gave rise. see Neue III.

§426] An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Gl. Keil IV. 287. *—desie(s). : and the of the and fourth conjugations so caderunt. descendidit. were : 425. which in Vulgar Latin became —dedi This -dedi ^a. -derun(f). respondidi. preserved in some Old French dialects near Douai: 607. Verbs in —evl doubtless had a similar inflection: *delei. Compounds of dare had a perfect in -dtdi {credidt. in the first XXX. incendederit.. Some other second conjugation verbs apparentlyadopted this perfect: 426. etc. cor-ii. —asfi.. helped by dissimilabecame *-deJ. (am'ei). *-dem(^m)u{s). 288. etc. -isti. In some (It. in Provengal they invaded the also In Dacia. silevit. Lat. of the Romance languages cazif). etc. tended to many other verbs in -d-: prandidi. *-n. 184. from which there came a responding to the —ai first endings *-«'. these endings were carried into other verbs of the third and even the second conjugation first baMi.s ex(see §139): perdedit. prendiderunt. R. Reich. the forms with v were not preserved in Romance. The forms — and fourth conjugations. this -dedi Through the analogy of -di. ~ivi —isti there- -dvi —dsii -dve{t) —df *~ti —ii -i -dut -dit -dt -weif) *-jut *-{it -lit -it -dvimu(s) -dmu{s) *-dmmu(s) *~dumus -dste(s) -immu{s) -4mu(s) *-jmmu(s) -iste(s) -drunit) *-irun{t) With the exception of -ivi in Old Italian. perdidt.. odedere. Pr. delesti. 480. *-ei. etc. 179 *~aumus Jiom.. etc.). fore. tion. pandiderunt. *-det. etc. edediderit with an extra -de-). Spr. *-ejti. descendidi. they apparently did Digitized by Microsoft® . *-desti. vendidl. Hence arose eventually an inflecset of tion *-^«. 479. videderunt (cf. Audollent 544. ascendiderat. R. on the other hand.

pdvi. third conjugations maintained Digitized itself very well: cognovi. salui^ salivi salii *salsi. It. b. dlc-s-i = dixi. conqbbi. but written vi to avoid the doubling of the V. stetti<. or fiwi in Vulgar Latin: cf.. 428. . dare had (beside diedi^dedi) a perfect arose an inflection side -dei -detti. Gram. cf. necui> necavi. etc. under the influence of dejti. (cf. where there was no extended. crevi. and those that have nothing between the root and the personal endings plac-u-i. plaudisti for plausisti. tions: This perfect disappeared from the first and fourth conjugacrepui>*crepavi. bib-i. aperui y^ * aperii *apersi. In the first class the u lost its syllabic value and became w • — : (cf.i8o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. whence and a set of endings -etti. according to Meyer-Liibke. etc. In -ui and —si types were qucesivi'^^ A few weak verbs adopted strong inflections: * quasi. 357. presi. prendesti. In Italy all strong verbs except esse introduced weak endings in the second person singular and the first and second persons plural: It. §326): placwi.. also vincisti. and -ei. etc. the development of the vi indicates that sort. At any rate. Pr.. Reich. etc.. Gl. The -ui type.. wwi. etc. 427. etc it In the second and crevi. §422). — — it was sounded wui. II. moc. 286. etc. STRONG PERFECTS. Through these endings the weak type encroached somewhat on the strong. * stetui. R. the Rumania. -dei. this ending being pronounced wui. by Microsoft® . [§ 428 not develop at In Italy. etc. movi. included from the start not only perfects of the placui but also all perfects in -vi not made from the verb-stem such as cognovi. There are three types those that add s. those that add u to the root. sapivi~^ sapui. crebbi. all.

divisi. whose reduplicative character was no longer Digitized by Microsoft® . > > Cf. cf. however. text sedi>* sedui . i8i It lost gemui{^. —ssi. *franxi. *acce{n)si. * morsi. scripsi 163). 479. 429. posui {>posi). Zimmermann in Archiv XIII. rosi. veni '^aXso *venui. Lat. struxi. vixi. and —xi. Lat. *pe{n)si. * cadui *cadedi. and possibly a few others. texui. z/J« also *vtncui *vinsi. abscd{n)si. frixi. rasi. 130. sparsi. mlsi (also *mzssi. On the other hand it received many additions: Mbi>*Mbui. *attinxi. *mdrsi. vldi'^zlso *vtdui *vtdui. cinxi. 479. which comprised perfects in -si. § perhaps on the model of mtssus. * volsi. tenui. became * sentii. *imptnxi. Lat. § 165. *offersi. XXVIII. Among the -i perfects. — assumed the s. vixi ". 97. sustuli>*tolui * tolsi. Sensi. *redempsi. fixi. excussi. 94. some thirty-five were preserved arsi. ertgo. *pensi. unxi. pressi. A. *cursi. duxi. dixi. defensi. mulsi. etc. Spr. Of the -si class. *punxi. persi. planxi. —stinxi. legi'>-* legui *lexi. *vinsi. pavi.').§ 43o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. *pre{n)si. Lat. R. R. *respd{ti)si. the reduplicative formations were discarded in Vulgar Latin.perfect through having an Cf. traxi. pinxi.> slso *vtscui. *prensi. 430. coxi. texui. Zs. sapivi'^ sapui. *occlsi. *tdlsi. * defe(ji)si. 288. mansi. finxi. molui. movi'. with the exception of dedi and steti (also *j/i?/«2). s in the perfect participle. rexi. cepi^ caput. *rosi. Spr. Spr. * tensi *te{n)si. *copersi. junxi. * occisi. 480. natus sum'^*nacui. *sdlsi. *tanxi. *rdsi. *fusi. *siirsi. cMdi 479 > (so *rectpui). expavi'> expabui. *salsi. risi. In Vulgar Latin there were perhaps some thirty or more new formations: *apersi. 288. — — : clausi. strinxi. Spr. Keil VII. *taxi. *ersi from *lexi. Einf. peperci^-parcui. Haag 56. *fusi. posi. tersi. luxi. torsi. Some of these — * *responsi. *qucBsi. silui {^silevi). tinxi. steti>^\so* stetui. messui(J).

Reich. pupHgi "> *punxi. fuistis > *fustis. vtci > no additions. to Vulgar Latin. legi > * Kxi. In an ( cf . inflection. but circumdavit in Gl. fuisti zxi-di.i82 An Introduction . The prevailing something fui *fosti like this — with some variations. effort it was shortened Vulgar Latin seems to show both H and H. 431. some became weak. fuit *fut. : There may have been through dissimilation. fefelli'>*falii. cepi'^capui. The other Vulgar Latin. R. apparent compounds (cf. generally became *fum(m)us. > *fusti. or *cadedi. prendi > *pre{ n * vinsi. peperci"^ parcui. legi'^* legui. volvi > * volsi. * acce(^ n ) si. pependiy. but in Classic Latin. sedi"^* sedui. 288.). fuerunt became *furunt. fudi > ) si. -i perfects were greatly reduced in to the -a/ or the -si type: number in Some simply disappeared. while compounds of stare tended to follow the regular first Cecidi beconjugation model (Jtrcestili > pnestavi. fui. egi. a form *fdrunt. solvi'^* solsi. In fui the u was originally long. some went over fUgi^ > > *fusi. fregi accendi *franxi. and two more were kept beside new formations feci. was probably foi *fom{m)u(s) *foste(s) foe(t) fue(t) *fgt *fut *forun{t) */urun(t) *f^un{t)} foerun{t)> Digitized by Microsoft® . tetegi'^* taxi * tanxi. 289).*pe{^n)si. veni * venui. vidi * vtdui. *te{n)si. bibi'^*bibui. [§ 431 of dare usually formed their perfect like §426. the simple verb came * cadui R. defendi >• * defe{ n ) si. momordi'> tetendi'>- *mdrsi. There were : *fugii. verti. Two of the old perfects maintained themselves intact. then futm us was often shortened to also. The other reduplicative perfects either disappeared the or passed into si class: cucurri "> * cHrsi . to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout §§423-424).

> vocUus. > Digitized by Microsoft® . 296. -assetis. amessim amessitz. but Pr. prdvttus. delessem. in the first conjugation. aimassions aimassiiz. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Reich. 1S3 PLUPERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT. In some regions a tendency to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout the pluperfect subjunctive led to a change of —assemus. preserved at all. dixero . rogitus. to *—dssimus.: It. Verbs which had no perfect participle were obliged to form one in order to make their passive and their perfect tenses: ferio. alarei. — 433. Spr. etc. R. In the all first conjugation -dtus was preserved and was verbs: /rictus "> fricatus . plicitus"^ plicatus . by the analogy of apertus. Reich. 434. dixhsem. amdssimo amdste. — before Cyprien employed only the shortened forms ss. notes that St. R. Fr. *-dssitis. necius "> necatus . generally fell into disuse: crepitus^ *crepatus. petisset. etc. Lat. 435. tus"^* sonatus. 295. ortaret in Gl. 480. ^ i^"]). so the new alatus. The ending —ttus. delero. fkero. audi{e)ram. Reich. dixeram. : In the third conjugation -dtus disappeared oblatus offertus (^Gl. deleram.). amdssem. Gl. 432. In formations from weak perfects only the contracted forms were used: amdram. cf. copertus. pldcuero. *feritus. habldsemos habldseis. 8. fecissem. cf. ficeram. etc. placutssem. sublatus>* suffertus. audt(^e)ro .§ 435] ^^ 7. secextended to tus'^secatus. sonivetatus. vetitus Nevertheless there were some new formations in —ttus: *levitus. audlsBayard 60-61 sem. Sp. amaro. Reich. PERFECT PARTICIPLE. domitus'> domatus..). When these tenses followed the old types: pldcueram (cf. tonitus'^*tonatus. sublatus (from tollo')'>-tdllttus (^Gl.

The ending -itus tended to disappear (cf. Pirson 152. corres- ponding to -atus and -itus. the other hand. The ending —ictus. It did not al- ways. buius. Digitized by Microsoft® . tollitus. In the fourth conjugation -Itus was preserved and was extended to nearly all verbs: saltus'>*salltus. *vdlvitus (or *vdllus). etc. offered a convenient accented form. minutus. in -itus: gemitus'!. secutus. * levitus. were kept. solutus. ples. perditus *parsus. statutus. In the second conjugation the rare -etus disappeared as a participial ending: completus. but status.. molitus > * molutus. *vidutus. bibitus^* bibutus . On 439. and there were some new formations * solvttus (or *soltus). all periods. * venutus. It was extended to nearly all the verbs that had an -ui perfect: * bibutus. rogitus. belonging to verbs in —uere and tri- —vere {argutus. volutus). Reich. *mdvitus and *mdssus were formed beside *m. *vendutus. A few of these particihowever. and ventus generally became * venutus. were kept only as ad- 438.. submonitus > *submo{n)sus. paritus > *paru> *perdutus *persus. fugitus tus > *fugitus. solitus. — and — as *credutus. vocitus. * habutus.ovutus. *per- in Sicily encroached largely on -itus. sepultus^sepelitus. however. [§ 439 436. remained. pds{i)tus. jectives. *volvitus (or *vdltus) beside volutus. consutus. §435): absconditus'>absco{n)sus . dutus. *parutus. * movitus.184 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Eventually -atus was carried further. entirely displace the old perfect participle: natus was kept beside * nascHtus. however. provitus. *tenutus. venditus>*vendutus. In the third conjugation qumsttus>*gucestus. Apertus and copertus. * solvttus (or *sdltus) beside solutus. 437. old and found in Gl. creditus'>*credutus. sensus'>*sentitus. etc.

§ 441] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 480. Digitized by Microsoft® . punctus. Dubois 282. pictus *pinctus. tersus.. ma{n)sus. fictus finctus. new formations in -sus: On the other hand. Spr. farsus. sirictus *tanctus'!. The ending -tus was kept for some twenty verbs. Reich. oc- casionally with a change of stem: ductus . Spr. Gl. tinctus. ductus. *submo{n)sus. Spr. mistus. sparsus. rosus. tentus > > tus. Salsus.viA. * suffertus. Bechtel 91. *persus. probably replaced -tus by -atus. tactus'i tus. *vdltus About fifteen verbs (cf. R. Lat. §439). *pendutus. Hr- excussus. vtctus~>* vixutus. lectus. -itus. also perhaps *misus by the analogy of mist. *vidutus. te{n)sus. *mossus. *strinctus. Keil VII. There were a few new for- mations in —tus: offertus. frictus "^fricdtus. divisus. Lat. missus.>*farcitus axiAfarsus. *gucestus. stinctus. The ending —sus was defe{n')sus. 441. and perhaps *sdltus. 185 440. generally kept: acce{n')sus . falsus *fallitus. *salsus. cogndtus>*conovutus'i. structus. sectusy^ * tenutus. 480. *vistus. 480. gavisus>*gaudutus . expansus sensus few verbs replaced the old form by one in -itus or -ietus: * expandutus . fractus *franctus. scriptus. nectus>necdtus. risus. 'salted. rectus. pastus'>-*pavutus'i. sus. /ric* surtus for surrectus. mdtus'>*movutus'> &.' maintained itself beside salitus. 295 (very common). ventus'^*venutus and venttus. 94. saltus'^-* salitus and *salsus. sessus > * sedutus. messus'^ metitus. victus'>*vin- cutus and *vinctus. texus * texiisecdtus. wjwj. ex- factus. cretus> *crevutus'>. 295.*mdssus. tus. fusus. or -utus: captus *capttus. pre(n)sus . R. pe{Ti)sus. A > > > * sentttus . also probably * wwclausus. fixus. fusus "^fundutus. sepultus >• sepelitus. dictus. Lat. *parsus. tractus. pressus. Several of these developed also a participle in -utus: etc. to{n)sus. morsus. fartus'. tortus. there were some absco{n)sus.

and doubtless of weak after our period. PL 73-80): — dmo dmaa dmat 446. etc. fez^m. and i came to be pronounced alike (§243). For the reduction of -to to 443. historically considered. then the accent was shifted to the penult *canomus. see §416. Pers. by Microsoft® . forms due to Celtic influence. PL. as t was of the third (cf. 442. This confusion is very frequent in the Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-89. The evidence.1 86 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 53. however. Italian lodi and Rumanian lauzi. e. 445. According to Mohl. 447. Grundriss V. It may be that -s was dropped because it was regarded as a characteristic of the second person. perhaps S. to stress this in ^smiVi: fecimiis>'Pr. whence came the French -ons. PEESONAL ENDINGS. were used in northern Gaul instead of canimus. Pr. does not support this view. are correctly explained by Tiktin 565-566 as 444.. — through the analogy perfects as well. first person plural lost perhaps in the Vulgar Latin period: videmus'>-'St. assumes that in Italy -as and -es became -i. as -s did not fall in this region. and -Isti. [§ 447 9. vezim. etc. analogical formations. not found acceptance. —et and -U. great confusion ensued between -es and —is. from laudas. Pr. Meyer-Liibke. — This theory has In strong perfects the of -tstis first person plural. As unaccented e. In southern and to some extent in northern Gaul the its final s. -imus. There are traces of 47. Pers. 670. -0. inscriptions and elsewhere: Digitized The shift. *amdmu amdtes dmant like * cdnomus. This is not a phonetic phe- nomenon. colliget. its — tended.

Rastia. —die and -^mu(s).). The endings -ent and -unt came to be very is much confused frequent in the (* credent.). 112. as there are in Italian and French remains of the original accentuation. In the present indicative and imperative. absolvent. the con- fusion goes back to early Italic. Furthermore. respon- duntur.j—th& penult assuming the accent. In the perfect. Pers. -ent prevailed in cen. was perhaps viitttmus. Beside second conjugation. in Vulgar Latin this vowel was apparently al450. lingeti. etc. in the For the reduction of —iunt to -unt. for instance. 448. tral and the rest of southern Italy. exient. Pers. §137. viderunt.). Cf. and dicimus. ite in the other conjugations. . there was an ending *-eunt which was (^habeunt. -dte(s). etc. -ent. —^te. in southeastern facitis There are some traces of its preservation French dialects also. — — particularly common in Italy: cf. Dalmatia. 449. facimus. 187 was not universal. the third person plural ending -ere was The ending -erunt. vindett. -imus. Sardinia. in Spain and Portugal. PI. 64. discarded. ways /3 short: debuerunt. sometimes had a short e (e is common in the comic poets. -unt was preferred. became. etc. Rumanian. in Classic Latin. -/»z«(j'). in the sixth or seventh century. Pr. *vidunt. vindem. their interchange Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-90. PI. being attracted by mittimus: Pr. see §416. etc. and a part of southern Italy. helped by the analogy of the future — The shift and -{mu{s). to match —^te(^s). however. —ite generally —Ste(^s). -ite -dmu(s'). The Classic distinction was best kept in Gaul and northern Italy. According to Mohl. and Dacia. due to the analogy of -iunt. ite(s). -ttis.§ 45°] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin.J^kuJ-i n^g^^xd^so^'^i^-i -^--^/^^ . dixerunt. kept the old accent (Tiktin 596): iingem. Virgil wrote tulerunt. 30. etc. dicUis kept their old forms in many regions. §416. accipient.

Digitized by Microsoft® .

) 412 unstressed words 156-8 adgenuculari 25 Accented Vowels see ad horam 47 Vowels adimplere 30 accepere 201 Adjectives acceptabilis 39 comparison 56. 92 beJEore j 222 Accent 134-58 primary 135-52 Greek words 143-50 other foreign words 15 1-2 acer arbor 43 -aceus 37 acia 355 (2) -acius ^y a contra 47 a(c)qua 164 Acqui Z^ Acragas 330 ac si 83 ac sic 24. 244 accented 39. 94-6 aboculare 26 ab olim 47 abs. -I. 34 abbio 273 abbreviare 25 abbreviatio yj shift 136-8. N. 230 = 0*78 ab-25 ab-]> au.1 INDEX. italics to Words printed in Roman type belong to ancient. 77. 93. 240. 383 adnao 397 ace. 47. 82 ace. 194-5 absida 356 (3) absolvent 449 -anus 39 ja-> je. pi. 82. 383 abl.24. 229 231. 98-9. 25 recomposition 139 verbs 423-4.236 ab ante 47. absolute 97 abl.infin. 240. words in modern languages. adjutare 34 ad mane 47 373. 140 iicatum r4i aculionis 367 abeo = habeo 251 224 abias 224 abiat 224 abiete -abilis 39 ab intus 47 abitat 25 1 Ablative 92-7. in -us 244. 94-6 nouns 367 numerals 142 : ace. 377 accipient 449 declension 374-9 accubitorium ^'j numerals 378-82 -accus ^y unus (article) 57 Accusative. 96.23. 243. a 194-5.B. 431. abyssus 149 ac. 243. 228. 355(1) adparescere 34 adpetere 32 Digitized by Microsoft® .— Arabic numerals refer to Paragraphs. 229 (i).229 (i) unaccented 228. 86. adaptus 23 adcap(i)tare 25 433> 447-8. 90. 450 Towels in hiatus addedi 139 136-8 addormire 25 secondary 153-5 adferitis (imper. = abl. 78. 65 accedere(m) 309 accensus 441 -a 37 0181 ab 14. 84 acua aqua 223 -aculare 35 before s + cons. 48 abbellire 18. 231. ad = at 282 ad. 244 (i).=accus. 441 ad 14.28 absconsus 439. 94-6.

281 = aliquot 71 -alis agere ajere 259 aggio 273 aggravatio 37 = 39 alium 224 alius 71 allare 405. alumnu (nom. 83 -an 36 -aj* a f oris 47 agennae -nd.194 = -ago 2>7 Agragas 330 Agrientum 259 agurium 228 agustas 228 36 anangi 331 anathema 19 anathematizare 19 anc 40 anc hanc 251 = allium 274 a longe 47 alques 71 alter 71. 244 aecclesia 228 Eedis 366 ffigis -ale y] alecer 195 (i) Alesander 255 alevanti eleph.281 (i) Eeum = cBvum 324 ^a foras 47 aliquant! 71 aliqui 71 aliquis 13. 435 allegorizare ig alleviare 34 Agneti 359 (2) agnetus -na.) 367 amho 424 amaricare 34 ama(t) 285 ambitare 405 ambolare 232 ambulare 10. 1 78.I go aiio 2. altiare 34 altior yj'] anca 343 ancilia 187 395 Agustus 228 ahenum 250 ai >. 232.286 amantis (nom. 359. 255 188 seliens = eligens 259 =8-175 alicer 195 (i) agques = e. 42 Digitized by Microsoft® . 405 amei 424 amenus 215 amfora 334 amicicia 276 amadus amido 187 amistat 154 amita 239. 14. 71 amnavit 405 amh 424 a mode 47 amourette yj (-ittus) ampitzatru 277 ampora 334 amurca 186 amure 203 amygdalum 19 an II.321 = Alexander alguein 71 alguien 71 -alia 37 38. 359 (i) amitane 359 (i) amitanis 359 amma 16 243. 244 accented 1 74. 187 -ancus 37 (-incus) -anda 37 andare 405 andata 37 (-ta) Andreani 359 (i) Andreate 359 (2) andron 331 anellus 37. 222 alto (adv.175. 210 EEteneris = itineris 201 sequus alid alicunus 71 aliud 71 alio(r)sum 291 = . 233. 178. 435 ad ubi 47 aduc 250 adulescentulus 37 adunare 25 alauda 19 alaudula yj alba spina 43 alberca 19 albeus 317 228. Adverbs 73-5 as 174. = -t. albor = arbor 292 .) 372 adpretiare 25 adpropiare 25 ad semel 47 —aio 39 (-arius) aios =: BjyiQS 272 am 78 ad sero 47 adsteti 139 Aix ajutit = adjutet 272 ad subito 47 adtonitus 32 ad tunc 47 -al37 alacer 195 (i) alare 405.Ethiopia 188 alipes (i) = ad. 209-10 unaccented 174. 178.) 40 aiglon yj (-0) altra 233 altrui Aiiax 222 395 ancora 150.22 Index. 244 -EE = -e 174.243. 209-10.£6 2> e 209 at 188 altissimus 377 altitia 37 Aiax 188.

-dssetis 433 397-8 -are (nouns) y] ares = aries 225 aretem 225 argentum 259 -aria 37 -aricius 39 arida (noun) 13 Assibilation 277-8. 42 participle 435. anemis 232 -aneus 39. 265. 65 at = anta 239 ante 96 antemittere 46 antestetis (nom.) 367 audi audivi 227. 269. 315 Asti 86 astula 284 at II = ar(i)dorem 219 ar(i)dus 237 aries 225.) -assem 161 -^ssemus 433 33.^y anticus 226 antiefne 184 antiphona 184 ariex = -s 255 -aris 39 -aris -alis 292 ^ -arius 39 atque ille 24 atque ipse 65 atque is 65 atrium 12 atta 16. 229 accented 178. 211 -3 unaccented 228. 307. 42 Aorist 124 armeise 184 armentas 352 -aro 39 (-arlus) Aroncianos 276 arrespex r= haruspex 251 Arrius 251 arroser 356 (3) arsi Attane 359 atticissare (i) t^^ attinxi 429 Attitta 37 (-ittus) -attus yj at ubi 48 apcha 343 aperii 428 429 -atus 37 (-ta). 68. 42 angelice 40 angelus 19 191 ascendiderat 426 ascetes 182 ascla apud aqua 14. 310. 359 (i) anus = annos 244 -anus 39. 223 284 aquilotto 37 (-ottus) asculta 228 Angers 86 angliscus 39 angostia 208 (i) anguil(l)a 163 ang(u)Ius 233 angustiare 34 Anicius 276 -ar37 Arbonenca yj (-incus) a semel 47 aspargo 31 aspectare 25 arbor (masc. 440 au 178. 39. 429 apertus 436 arsus 441 artemisia 184 arietico 184 apotheca 182 apothecarius 39 apparescere 35 arthriticus 184 Article 57. 34. 255. 267. 325 aucidere 212 -OS 38 -as -i 443 > audace (nom. 282. 78. 282 aput 282 164. 255 Digitized by Microsoft® .24. 236 (7) apersi 428. 392 artic(u)lus 234 > (7) appo 78 apprendere 12 arvorsum (2) = adversum 281 ApHro 410 apsens 315 apsolvere 315 apte =: -se 244 arvum > aram 2z6 aucellus 13.Index.318 annulare 405 anos = annos 247 ardire 343 -are (infin. 228. 423 audiendu'st 309 = ascella =r axilla 42. 255 -ans39 anser 13 ad 282 -ata 37 (-ta) -aticum yj atque. 211-3. 265 aspra 233 -asse 161 ardente(m) 309 ardere 399 animabus 358 animalico yj (-icca) Anitius 276 Annanis 359 annare 405 annata yj (-ta) Annenis 359 annitare 405 annotavimus -bi. 36. 293. 260-1 Assimilation 229 (3). 229 au o 229 (7) OK 189 auca 13.) 367 -antia . 264.) 346 (4) arb(o)rem 235 arboricellus 153 Aspirates 249-52.

^ benignis 376 benivolus 201 berbeces 323 Bonitta 37 (-ittus) 424 avo avus 362 avus 13 ayo = habeo 273 = berbex (-ix) 42. 339 baptizatio 19 barba -anis 359.) 367 brae (c) a 163 bracchiale 37 = brac(c)hium 163 brachia 352 Digitized by Microsoft® . Balerius Va. 324 Aureia -elia 274 Index.3165 322 bis(s)it coctum 43 bivere blaesus 329 blanche 341 blanka 341 blankizare 34 blaspheraare ig. 14 5 Authorities autor 266 baptizare 19. 359(1) barbane 359(1) barbar 242 barbo -onis 359(1) barbutus 42 baro 16 bassiare 275 = vixit 255 = vi. 333 balneum 146: balneus 347 = bifolco biginti ti 318 (2) = vi.316.236. .316 bixit = vi. 439 Bictor 316 biduanus 39 bieta 184 botu vo. 241 avaricia 276 ^ bas(s)ium 163 basso 40 battaUa 16 battel 426 ba(t)t(u)ere 137. . 324 ausare 18.3171323 bestemmia 182 Betrubius 316 beveire y^ (-tor) bi.212 39 bimaritus 22 bintcente vincente 260 bis.316 bal(i)neum 146. 33. 324 botella 361 bottega 182 b see Labials : baboni 362 bac(c)a 163 bacito yj (-ittus) bac(u)lus 234 Baiocasses 151 bajulus 233 Baleria = Va. = autem 11. 182 autumnal (e) 242 auyo 272-3 avau.316. 322 -bilis = balteum -us 347 bannus 19 baplo 235 baptidiare 339 baptisma 149 Aureliati 359 (2) aurora 11 aus avus 241. 36 blasphemia 146.22 Bononia 303 bonu 298 bonus = -OS 244 bonus bonus 55 bos =:i vos 316.192 aud(i)entem 416 aud(i)o 272-3.316 bianca 341 biber 242 biblia 146 bibui 428 bibutus 438. 219 balneus 347 ballaena 150.316 boccone 37 (-0) bocconi 40 avec 78 avello = -avi ^ = averlo 293 -ai 424 avica 13. 226 Bayeux 151 bel(I)ua 164 blasphemus 150 blasta 312 (i) blitum 184 bob ansa 336 bobis vo. 184 Bologna 303 bonatus 37 (-atus) Bonica 37 (-icca) bon(i)tatem 231 bonito y] (-ittus) = avire 400 -avit -ait -at -aut 241. 162.22 bisaccium 22 bisacutus 22 bisante 187 = = bis Austus 263 aut 174 aut aut 84 -aut -avit 424 . 325 av(i)dere 219 avidus 236 aviolus 13 avis 13 avis struthius 43 Bellus -onis 362 bene 40. 236.316 Bodicca 37 (-icca) boletus 38. 42. 74 bene bene 55 benegnus 172 (2) bene placitum 43 Beneria Ve. 236 avicella 37. 322 botula 361 bovis (nom. 34 ausculum := osc. 416 audivi(t) 2S5 audus 236 -aumus := -avimus 424 aunc(u)lus 234.

356 (3). 356 (3). cf . 42 caroneus 39 carrica 11 car(ri)care 18. 231. 33 cat' cantare 34 unus 71 see Gutturals c for capabilis 39 g 253 cy 276. 330 Byzacinus 42 c : castius 277 castore (nom. 71 cata unus 71 cataveris rr -d. 33. 163 buUicare 35 buplicae = carum 263 casa 12 cal(i)dusi55. 150. 282. 369 caput 13.312 (i) bublus 235 bubukus 318 (2) buc(c)a 12. 402 -C40 caballus 12 capiclus 234.354. 369 cardonis (nom.) 367 224 calcoste(g)is 259 caldo 40 cal(e)facere 219 calefacis 139 calere 288 bruchus 193 pu. 219. 163 Cassiabus358 cas(s)us 161 castaneus 346 (i) castellus camera 145 camerlingo 37 (-ing) caminus 150 camisla 201 (i) (3) 347 butyrum 150 buxida 187. 356 buxus 187. 383 cf.330 (-ium) cerasus 38.Indkx. 195 (3) cerbus 323 cerebellum 231 cereolus 13 cereseus 195 (3) ceresus 38. 278 capere 8. pi. 369 capus 285. 356 (3). 347 calumpnia 307 calura 42 camel(l)us 42. 195 (3) calcaneum carissimus 377 caritabilis calce pistare 46 calciare 224 39 Caritta 37 (-ittus) Digitized by Microsoft® .256 catechizare 19. 284 capire 406 cap(i)talis 231 cauculus 288 cauditus 42 caus(s)a 161 cavia 224 -ce 40 cecino 187.) 367 camutus 39.) 368 cata 19. 234 capitus 440 = cedo 162 cadedi 428 cadere 402 caderunt 426 cadui 428 cselebramus (perf .) 367 cardu(u)s 226 ce(n)sor 311 census 260 centu 381 ceperint 215 cepi 215 = -avi 424 •^•j = ga. 330 cedat caedat 210 cabia =: cavea 318 cactivus 313 cactos 313 capitanus 39 capitium 37 (-ium) capitulus 42. 372.) 424 cedrus 182 cefalo 334 celeps 315 capriolus 224 captiare 34 cslus 347 Cjeseris 233 caesorium 37 caetk 313 captio 9 captivare 34 captivus 313 celerus 376 -cellus 37 Celtic Words 19 capud 282 capui 428 calamarium 37 calamellus 37 calamus 150 calatus calcai capum 285. branca i6 calcis 193 camis (nom. 237 calisco 414 calma 268 calotfa 187 caseum -us 347 Cases85-ioo.) 367 cammarus 330 canalia yj cani (pi. 239 cartas (nom. Buolognino 154 burrus 330 Burrus 187 bursa 187 buscus 255 iusta 187 but(t)is 163 cals 255 casotta 37 (-ottus) cas(s)eus 163 . 285. 163 .) 357 (i) Breaking 177 breviarium 37 brevis 13 Brittanice 40 calcius (nom.

271 colaphizare 19 col(a)p(h)us 19.) 367 clarisco 414 Cla(u)dius 211 (i) cojugi 311. 269 co(g)nosco 43. 276 comitem 235 cima 38. 160 coUus -um 347 239 colober 208 Clio 190 colobra 208 (2). 233 cito 162 citrus cognatus 9. 31. 379 cocodrilus 294 cinsum = ce- 196 cocus 226 coda 212. 233 Comparison 56 comperare 231. 124 coexcitare 30 comedo = quo. 333(1) clericatus 37 cler(i)cus 39.444 Pronunciation coUiget 444 col(lo)care 9. 329 191 ciurma -cius 39 of.1 194 certitude cetto 'r^j Index. 153.) 40 chiave 288 Chilperico 343 ckiosa 185 clergue 154 305. 150. 332 cib Clodius 212 cloppus 16 closa 212 Cludo 211 (2) -clus 234 CO quod 282 colomna 208 coloquinta 187 color (fern. 186. 325 clausi 429 clausus 441 clavem 288 clavido 236. 276. 297\ 318(1). 379. 217 Chiusi 86 cholera 145 chommoda 25 c(h)orda 186.411 Digitized by Microsoft® . 269. 25 concha 186 concupiscencia 276 cohors 12. 311 condam 254 condedit 139 conder(e) 242 condicio 276 conditio 276 civ(i)tas 12. 154. 330.23. 213 codex 213 coemiterium 192 coepi 72. 231. 237. 259*. 370 cinxi 429 cip(p)us 163 circa 80. 332 Chrestus 184 chrisma 184 C(h)ristus 184. 139. 325 colhe 154 coles 213 i6z -ceus 39 Chairibertus 39 (-anus) chaloir 288 Change of Meaning 8-10 coliandrum 292 coUecta 37 (-ta) collectus yj (-ta) colli(g)ens 259 col(li)gere 31. 260^.226 comoedia 192 comparare 8. 130. 231. Clepatra 191 clerc 154 Change of Suffix 42 chan(n)e 163 chartaceus 39 cher 263 chiaro (adv. 310 cognovi 428 cognusco 197 cohaerere 310 computus 235 comuna 376 con. 187 cimiterium 192 cinctius coclearium 356 (3) coclia commando 31 comment 41 commixtius 23 224 254 cinctus 440 cinqua(gi)nta 254. 239 collo Clerical 218. 233 complacere 25 complire 400 cinus 347. coexercitatus 30 cofecisse 311 96 Compound Words 43-9. 332 Conditional 124. claudo 236.) 346 (2) colp 154 colustra 197 = coacla 289 (i) 206 cicinus 330 -cillus ]> -cellus 42 coactum 310 coccodrillo 294 cocens 226 comenzare 276 coininciare 276 cominiciare 276 cominitiare 25. 197. 259. 231 clamantis (nom. -ara 38. 310 coicere 310 coiiugi 271 cojectis 311 . of. 64 comprendit 250 computare 31 circare 16 circueo 309 circumdavit 430 cis 14 cit(h)era. 272. 277. X54. 12. 380 cinque 254.

1 Index. 160 Fourth 407 Fundamental Changes • 408-12 Imperfect 420-1 constare 31 Inchoative Verbs 413-5 consuere 31. 37 crebbi 428 credea 421 crededi 31. 39 credentia 37 (-antia) " connato 269 conobbi 428 conoisser 413 conopeum 146 conovutus 440 conpendium 32 conplere 306 consacrati 31 conservam(m)us 163 consiensia 260. 139 credens (noun) 13. confessor 18 confortare 25. 311 Weak 422-6 conteneo 139 Perfect Participle 434. 34 19s corpo r6o corregia 201 corridije conger 329 Congianus 272 congigi 259 Conjugation 101-30. 226. 275 227 consilium 42 consili corbeau 323 corbi 323 corbo 323 corcodilus 294 corcodrillus 294 cores = corda 369 corium 294 Comeius =-elius 274 Cornelio (nom. 439 crepatus 435 crepavi 428 Crescentsiarius 277 cresco 255 cresima 184 cresme 184 crevi (i) 428 292 crevutus 440 criblare crigTie 35 c'ritare 229 consirier yj (-erium) Consonants Aspirate 249-52 Dentals 280-6 = criz 206 = crocitare 35 Digitized by Microsoft® . 3ro corso 208 Groups 131-2.) 298 cornicula 42 cornu -um-us 347. 254 41 Personal Endings 44250 Pluperfect and Future Perfect 432-3 Present Stems 416-9 Use of Forms 101-30 Conjunctions 82-4 co(n)jus 25.26 contrafacere 26 co(n)ventio 171 convltare 25 coperire 225 copersi 429 Gutturals 253-70 Labials 312-26 Latin 246-8 Letters 246 Liquids 2S7-96 Hasals 303-11 Palatals 271-8 Sibilants 297-302 cortera 203. 244. 355 cor(o)nare 231 corp 323 corpora 369 corpes corpi -ora 369 coi"pore 356 (3) corpo credere 410 credutus 438. co(n)jux 171. 137 Perfect 422-31 consuetudo 42 Strong 427-31 co(n)sul 171. 311 conmittere 32 couleuvre 208 (2) court 203 couvent 311 covenimus 311 coventionid 3x1 covetum coxale coxi 429 = cubitum 208 -^j^j copertus 436 cophinus 186 coque 254 coraticimi 18. 396450 Four Conjugations 396407 First 397-8 Second 399-401 Third 402-6 Double: see Double Consonants Germanic : see Germanic Consonants Greek : see Greek Consonants 272 corrigo 305 corrotulare 229 cors 12. 225 cortensis 39 cortilis cortis 39 250 corvo 323 corvus 323 cosol 311 costumen 42 cosul 305 cot 254 cotes 212 cotidiae 244 cot(t)idie 162.continari 226 contra 96 contra. 255.

196 crocodilus i. 126 (4) debita 37 deb(i)tum 235. (fem. 239 decanus 39 dece(m) 309 decern et (or ac) septem 379 dece(m)bris 306 decemter 306 dec(i)mus 239 Declension 85-100. 383 cuerdo 369 culcitra 294 dau 397 daun 397 234 dave 48 de 14. de.) 349 cymba 187 cymiterium 192 cypressus 150 Second 361-3 Third 364-71 Use of Cases 85-100 376 de contra 47 decumus 220 dede = dedit 285 de deorsum 47 Digitized declLvis Deponent Verbs 113.23. 355-6. 322 currens 39 = Intervocalic 283. 392 de foris 47. 92. 354-76 Adjectives 374-6 Fall of Decl. 286 nd > nn 281 429 cursorium 37 curvus 323 nt 285 St 285 t 284-6 denumer^t 424 deo(r)sum 291. 48 deltas 27 del(i)catus 227 delitus 198 delta 329 de magis 47 de medio 47 deminat 139 Dentals d 272. 25 305 77. 330 cyma38.229 (2) deabus 358 de ad 48 de ante 48 deaurare 23. 81 defuntus 267. 292 Derivation 20-49 descendidi 426 de semel 47 despereifser 414 by Microsoft® . 117. 226 cum (prep. 177 cnpa(t) 285 cupire 406 cupit 423 cup(p)a 163 cupressus 150 cur 12. 100. da 48 dedi 430 (i) 229 crucifigere 46 c'rot'lare dacruma 281 dactylus 19 dedicait 424 ded(i)cavit 231 crudilitas 197 -crum 37 (-culum) crupta 187 crus 13 dad 48 Dafne 334 dai 2<)% dampnum 307 crust(u)lum 234 crypta 187 cubidus cupidus 256 Danuvlum 318 dao397 dare 397 datfus 324 dedro dedrot 285 deexacerbare 30 deexcitare 30 defeniciones 276 defensa 37 (-ta) defensi 429 defensorlus 39 = cuculla 13.o. Definite Article 68. 324 deorsum 224 Cusanca 37 (-^ncus) Wouns 354-73 Shift of Decl. 376 First 357-60 cy 276-8 cy ty277 = cycnus 187.) 14.289 (2) cuoio 296 cuofre 160 cuore 160. -culum -cuius > 37. 72. cumba 187 cun = cum 305 cunnuscit 269 cimtellum =r cul. 25 debbio 273 debeo 273 debere 10. cf. 409 d : see Dentals dy 272 de post 48 deprendere 250 de retro 47. 82 curabit cursi de-^ di. 95. 48. 372-3 de^£-io 273 defna 324 de inter 48 de intro 47 de intus 47. 294 Index. 306 -cellus 42 95 -c(u)lus 42. 78. 234 cum (conj. 88. 48. 285 > -avit 318. 281-3 dy 272 nd nn 281 Final 282. 187.) 82. 346 (4) cucullus -a 346 (4) defensus 441 deferet 406 Dative 90-1.

328 289 (i) Dissimilation 167. (2ddecl. dextro(r)sus 291 deyo 273 dia = dies355 (2). 209-16 209-10 de sub 48 de super 48 de sursum 47 detti 426 de unde 70. and fem. 239 domnani 359 (i) domnicellus 37 domnicus 235 229 (2) diligibilis 39 domnina 37 domnizare 33 domnulus 235 dint-mi 264 divinus 324 dinus = Dionigi 227 Dionysii 227 diosum = deorsum 291 Diphthongization 177 domnus 235 domus 12 355 dume(c)ta 266 dune 40 d'unde 70. 397 dia 397 diabulus 38 diaconissa 19 Dialects 2. 43> distinguere 223.) 367 dub(i)tare 231 ducalis 39 divota 229 (2) dixemus 232 dbd429 dodecim 225 doga 186. accented 165. 421. 195 (6). 238. 229 displacet 139 displicina Doable >Single i6i. dibeto 196 Dibona 318 die 264. 393 deus 167 devere 318 devetis 318 au 21 1-3 eu 214 oe 215 ui 216 diposisio 277 dire 406 directus 229 diri(g)ens 259 dirivare 229 (2) dou 397 Double Consonants 161-4. 355 (2) dietro 292 digita35i. desso 62 dester 255 desto 225 197 donee 11 dont 70 donum (masc. 254. 393 duo 378 duos 138 durare 229 (5) Duration 99 duricia 276 Durocasses 151 duxi 429 (masc. 238. Digitized by Microsoft® .) e 165.) 346 (2) dolor 18. 378 dukissa yj dulcior (noun) 18 — > -dei 426 = dulcor 18.253 dictus 166. 289 (2). 167. 361 digitus 233. 226 dita 351 diu II. etc. 440 dicere divisus 441 divite (nom. 426.) 346(1). 30 . 196-9 (I) .) 349 dormio 224 dormito 309 dormitorium 37 dormo 416 dorsus 347 dossum 291 Diphthongs 36 177. 333 dolor (fem. 292.23. 259 -didi ducatus 37 (-ta) duce due 412 ductus 440 dui 167. 328 Single >Double 164. 303. 259 dignus 172 (2) dilevit domatus 435 domin(i)ca 239 dominicus 9. 229 (4). 37 dies 13. 13 Double Forms 158 Double Negation 75 Double Prefixes 30 doucet 37 (-ittus) doussa 376 drachma 144 drappus 16 d'rectus 229 diurnus 13 divisi Dreux 151 429 drieto 292 406 dicimus 448 dicitis 448 dicitus = -g. 406. 253. 412 dice = die 412 dice(m) 309 disfactus 23 dis(je)junare 25. 247. devitum 318 dexcito 225 cf . 328 devidere 229 (4) devinus 229 (4) dis. 196-9.3 Index. 25 discere 12 disfacit 139 Double 247 = Single 162-3. 177. 21 dolus dictus := digitus 233.

364 -V3S -ea 421 -etv 36 ejus 298 eio = -etbv 146 42 erigere 31.) 368 -Irunt 450 eccam 24 eccas 24 ecce. 73. 263. > e > y 224 e i 229 s (2) edere 13 edificai e prefixed to + cons. 298 elementum 231 elephantus 38 elex -ebam : see -ea 429 eiii 411 ecca 24 = ilex 200 (2) erubisco 414 elifanti (pi. 162. 244 egloge 330 e e 165 > > e > e 165 V 182' ei83 e(g)o 60. 311 -ent -eunt 416.230. 413-4 eschernir 341 emere 12 encaustum 149 Enclitics 156 -enda 37 (-anda) : 24 eschine 341 esclate 343 eccillum 24 ecclstam 24 ec(c)lesia 146.198 e 196-8 Index. -unt 449 es(i)mus 419 (i) -isimus 197 -esimus esmes 419 (l) eccos 24 eccu. 199 n 182 eccu' sic 24 e contra -entia 37 (-antia) -inns 42 -enus > 47 C183 ecus 226 edediderit 426 i eo=:ego 73. 365-6. 6. 229 effrenis 376 eglesia 256 (2). 385 ego-met-ipse 66 et -erem 346 (3) eremus 150 eres 251 190 e-28 -640 -e>-ffi I74>244 -e -ei 411 -eta 146 eiius 271 erga 14 ergo II. 65 ecce iste 24.exs. 14 > -i 244. 242 -elius >• -ilius 197 -ellus 37.538 Esaram 233 -escere 34. 244. eccum 24. s 177. 65. 424 230 e6 > e 225 -edo . 449 -ent >. > 65 > eccu' iste 24. no eoru 309 episcopalis 39 epistula 144 > 196-8 e unacc. 65 ecce ille 24. 429 -erium 37 erminomata 191 ero 411 -ero 39 (-arius) ersi ericius = jacet 224 earn = jam 224 eacit ejus 170.) 450 -ere -ire 197 erodes 251 > effigia 355 (2) eu 214 effondrer 356 (2) i6 >• e 225 unaccented 219. 65 eccu' 'ic 326 eccu' ille 24. 232.24. 62. 243.e 225 = equus 12 equus = sequus 210 -re 245 -er -er 39 (-arius) erable 43 -ere (perf . 385 eo quod 82. 65 ecce ego 65 ecce hie 24.228. 35. 42 elmo 343 illud 201 elud -elus >• -ellus 42 ervum > erum 226 ervus (3d decl. 65 ecce nunc 65 ecce tu 65 eccillam 24 eccillud elimentum 231 -elis >• -ills 197 Elision 157. 328 Endings Personal 442-50 -esco ]> -isco 197 414 enim 11 escupare 255 -ens 39 (-ans) -e(n)simus 311 -e(n)sis39. 182.24.) 356 (2) -i 443 -es -es -is 174. 197. 255 es-7. > = = 444 = ex. 326 espiar 343 "pier 343 Digitized by Microsoft® .> -ido 197 edus haedus 210 e6 >.

= as. (i) = -it 244. 404 fatatus 39 fate fabam 320 404 Eugeneti 359 (2) -eum 37 eunuchizare 19 fab(u)la 236 f ac 264. 14. espiritum 230 exeligit 199 fffinum 209 fffinus esquena 341 esguiver 343 essagium 255 esse 112-4.27 extrabuccare 27 extranus 42 ex tunc 47 ezza 277 f : fallire 430 406 441 34 37 familia 42 famis 366 famTfii 264 famul 242 famulabus 358 fante 311 falsare falsitas fallitus faor 324 farcitus 440 fare 404 farsus 440. 275 faselus 334 fasena 320 (i) f asia = faciat 285 224 fasiolus -etus 437 see Labials (i) fata 266 eu 214 cu 190 fa 264. 77.Index.23. 318 febrarius 226 Eurus 191 -eus39 Euua 344 evangelizare 19 -evi -ei 424 > Evidence 5 ex 14. 95 ex. 440 fascia 10. et 84 Ethiopia 188 etiam 11. 266 = = fait 324 266 fallii -esse 161 -essem 161 essere = esse 419 es(t) 285 estatio 230 estau 397 estaun 397 Estephanus 230 estou 397 estribar 341 esum 419 -et et et at ubi .230. 404 facheret 410 faciam 278 fadas 224 fac(i)ebam 225.230 exstinctus 440 exstinxi 429 exsucidus 39 exsucus 23 extensa 37 extimare 255 extra. 444 49 .= es. 25 ex. 420 face feced feci = fecit 282 fec(e)ru(nt) 233 430 fehu 343 felicla 234 felis25. facienda 37 fem(i)na 239 feminabus 358 > exaltare 25 exaugiu^tus 39 excellente (nom. 419 (i) esse essere 419 esse sedere 402 274 exe(m)plu 306 exiat 224 exient 449 347 fageus 39 failla exinde 60 exire 31. 277 etsi I \ et sic 47 exodus 337 expabui 42S expandutus 441 expaventare 35 explendido 230 exquartiaxe 276 exs. 404 faccia 278 fatus 347 taula 236. 126 (2). 274 facimus 448 404 facitis 448 factum 266 facire Feminine femps 356 femus (3d : see Gender (2) decl. 255 -ex -ix 42 = fac 412 facentem 416 facere 10.) 367 excoriare 25 excussi 429 excussus 441 exeligere 30.) 356 (2) fenire 229 (4) factus 440 fenum 209 ferbeo 323 feritus 242 fascit 209 faedus 320 (i) fcemina 209 f acul 434 ferre 12 ferro 160 Digitized by Microsoft® . . 92.

f:^ forbire 407 frigorem 347 frixl Fimes 86 Final Syllable 240-5 finctus 440 finis (adj. fervere 399 fervura 37 fesit flaba 289 (i) flagrare 292 flaonis flator fractus 440 fragellum 289 (2) fragilis 260 324 324 233 >« 343 fezem 44 fiaba 289 (i) fiam 419 (2) fib(u)la 235 ficatum 16. filix 298 274 = filios T97 fiUio 247 fonte 205 244 fonz 356 (2) foras 81. fragrantia 37 fra(g)rare 270 flavor 37 fletus II Francesco 341 franctus 440 fieuma 268 fleurit 414 ' fictus 197 440 fleuve 208 (2) fioralis Frankensis 39 Frankiscus 39.7 flaus 240. 96 forbatre 2. fiero 160 fiet focus fodiri 8.Index.) 355 (i) fnindes 205 /^343 fiorentino 154 fioretto yj (-ittus) fiorisce \\^ foris- 29 frunza 351 frutta 351 fugii 430 f ugire 406 fugitus 439 fui 431 forisfacere 29 f orismittere 29 fircum 320 (i) Firenze 86 Firmus -onis 362 fir- 46 formaceus 39 formosus 161 formunsus 208 forsitan 305 forte 40 f ortescere ful(i)ca237 fiscla 234 fistula 234 fistus 197 fix! 34 fumAt 424 fundus (3d decl. 259 frigora 351 filius 155.) 17 429 263 Foreign Words 19. 238.419 (2) 400 florisco 400 flovium 208 (2).) 346 (4) filiaster filio(s) fans 356 frigdura 37 Frigia 187 frig(i)dus 166. 141 ficit 2. 231 fons (fem. 406 folia 352 follia (noun) 18 follicare (i) = 259 f rictus 440 frigare 256. cf .) 355 (i) fidens 311 fiele 160 Jiens 356 (2) fieri 112. 256 frenum -us 347 fricatus 435.) 356 fundutus 441 funtes 205 (2) fortia 37 fortis 10 fortis fortis 55 429 fixus 441 fossato 2^1 (-ta) funus II fuore 160 Digitized by Microsoft® .) 346 florecer 292 414 frate 295 Florentinus 37 ficus (2d decl.409.)346(i) fraumenta 268 frecare 201 . 233. 217 fluviorum 224 feces 213 florire fratelmo 38S frat(t)re 164 frax(i)nus 239. 200 (i). 361 fructus (2d decl. 12 419 (2) figel 242 fiios — filios 274 358 (nom. 440 fricda frigida 238. (mc. and fern. 201 filiabus filias 33 (2) frigdaria 219. 341 Franko 341 franxi 429 ficus (I) (masc. see frondifer 11 fnialitas Germanic Words Greek Words foresia 311 foris 81 and finiscere 35 finxi 429 fructa35i. cf.) 357 13 .

furbjan 407 furma 203 furmica 229
genesis 148, 183 Genitive 88-9, 383 genitores 12 genitus 17
gIut(t)o 163




fusa 3; I

gocciare 276 gcerus 187
golosus 228 gonger 329 goule 177


genna 229
gentilis 17


fusus 441

Future 125-9,411
127-9,411 Periphrastic Put. 126 Pres. for Put. 126 (i) Future Perfect 119, 123-4,
410, 423 g: see Gutturals

gentis (adj.) 17

Hew Put.


= jan- 259
37, (i)



genuflectere 46

genum 355
Gepte 259 geguir 343

233 gradlus 376 grada 35.1 gradus 355 (i)
grandis 12
granditia 37 graphium 145 grassetto 37 (-ittus)

= Hier- 259

gabata 13, 236 gabta 236 gaita 343
gaite 343 galatus 330
gallina 288

gerbe 341

Germanic Consonants
b, c,

grassus 257

= Gratis 257

g 341

gravare 34
gravior 377 grece 210

^,^342 h343 W344
Germanic Endings 36 Germanic Words 19,
340-4 Germanissa 37 Gerund 104

gamba 13, 263, 331 gammanis 330
garba 341 garofulum 149 garum 329 gaudia (sg.) 352 gaudimoniuin 20 gaudutus 44 X gauta 236 gaveola 257 gavia 16
gecchire 343 geisla 341 geiuna je- 259 geline 288

Greek Accent 143-50 Ozytones 144
Paroxytones 145-6 Proparoxytones 147-50 Greek Consonants 327-39
ft 7, S 329
K, V,

Gerundive 103
gesso 187 gesta (sg.) 352 gJga 341 gig'i 341

T 330-1

X 332-4 Liquids 335 Hasals 336

I 337


gigantem 229 (3) ginocchioni 40 Giovannoni 362 giret 187
girus 187
giscle 341 glacia 355 (2)

f 338-9
Greek Endings 36, 38, 146 Greek Vowels 180-93 Diphthongs 188-93 Single Vowels 180-7 Greek Words 19, 36, 38,
gre-U 40 grevior 377
grevis 195 (4)

gelus (2d decl.) 355 (i) gemellus 13

gemire 406 gemitus 439

Glacus 211 (i) gladium 347
glanderia 39 glaiz 355 (2) Glauc6 -^nis 359 Glaucu (nom.) 372 glirem 166
glos(s)a 161, 185

gemui 428
gena 13

Gender 345-53 Fem. and Heat. 351-3 Masc. and Pern. 346 Masc. and Heut. 347-50 Heut.Pl.>Fero.Sg.352 Heut.Pron.and Adj. 350

grex (fem.) 346 (4) grossior 377 gratia 187 gruls (nom.) 367 gninnio 281-

gluria 203
glut(t)ire 162

guarire 344 guarnire 36, 407


by Microsoft®

guaiare 343
hab(i)tus 239 h^buerat 137
hocsies 277

gubernamentum 37
gubernare 36, 330
gtterra 344

guidare 36, 398 guiderdone 342 guisa 344
gul0 37
-i -1338, 186, 330 gustus (2d decl.) 355 (i) guttur (masc.) 347


Gutturals 253-70 c c' 258, 260-1 c g 256-7

> >

habutus 438 hache 343 hackerece 39 hffidus 320 (i) hamula 235 hanca 343 handle 343 hant 401 hao 401 hapja 19, 343

hodie 272 hodio 251


hom(i)nes 232, 235 (pi.) 36S
10, 71


honera 251 honor 346 (2) honte 342 hora 12, 185 hordemn 272
horrescere 11
hortesia 311 hospitale 12

haram 251
hardir 343
harena 320 (i) haribergum 19 has 401 hat 401 hatire 36 hatjan 36


g before back vowels hardjan 343

263 c, g before cons. 265-70 c, g final 264 ct 266

hossa 251 hostium 251 Hugo Hflgon

= Hdgo


huile 274

152, 362


> g' 258-9. z6i

humerus r2
humiliare 34

g intervocalic 263

gm 268
gn 172
gr intervocalic 270




152, 362


net 267
Falateilization 258-62

haunitha 342 haunjan 19 haunt 401 havite 400

165, 200-1, etc.

accented 200-1 I 200

haz 355


hegit 251

260 X 255, 266 gylosus 228 gyrus 187


helm 343
keltne 343

h 249-52

hepatia 19 here 219, 244 heredes (sg.) 367 heremum 251 Hiatus 136-8, 222-7

> e 201 e ^ 201 > 165, 200 i>e2oi > > e 165, 201 (cons.) 222 > y 224 -i > -e 224







habam = fabam 320

hlbemus 13
hie 63-4, 67-8 hie ipse 64

habe = ave 318 habe(b)am 421 hiem(p)s 13, 297 habeo 273 hiens = iens 251 habere 10, 121-4, 127-30, hilerus 233
239, 273, 285, 400, 401, 421, 438, 449

(Greek) 184 (Greek) 38 i^ e 225 ii i 227 prefixed to s cons. 230 unaccented 219, 221,228,


> >


hinsidias 251

hireum 320


haber 242 habe(t) 285 habeunt 416, 449 habibat 400
habire 400

= is- ins- 230 hispatii = spatii 230
historia 146

229(3X4), 240, 243, 244 in hiatus 222, 224-5,


> e 229 (4) > a 229 (3)

ho 40 hoc 63,



-ia 37, 146 -(a 37, 146


by Microsoft®

-iamus 224 -are 33, 34
ille 10,

Future Future
125-9, 411

61-8, 389-92

ipse 64





123-4, 410

-ibo 125
-ic 251



-ica 37 -icare 33, 34, 35 -icca 37


390 ille 390 140


(dat.) 390


-iccus 37

> ilium 282, 350
390 390

= suus


Imperfect 120, 420-1 Perfect 121-4, 422-31 Pluperfect 123-4, 410, 432 Present 120, 273, 397, 401, 403-5, 415, 416-9

-icem 42, 346



-iceus 37, 39, 42
-icius 37, 39, 42


induruit 224


ilium illud 282, 350 illurum 390


-inem 346

-iculare 35 -iculus 42

> -ellus 42

infa(n)s 10, 311 i(n)fans 171
inf antiliter
i(n)feri 171,

im = in 310
imaginarius 39

-icus 39

40 219

idem 61, 3C39 id ipsum 62, 350 idolum 150, 190
-idus 39 -i(d)yare 339 i6 e 225


376 immudavit 256 Imperative 115-6, 412 impinguare 25 impinxi 429


infernus 13 Infinitive

-iebam -ebam 225 -ibam 420
-ie(n)s 311



implicat 139 implire 400


> -fmus 447-8 >

in 86, 92, 95, 96, 97
is 310 inanimatus 23 in ante 47, 48 incendiderit 426

lenubam 259
-ier 39 -iere 39

in- 23, 25 in -t- s

as Noun iii Conjugations 396-407 dicere 406 esse 419 facere 404 for Clause for Imperative 116 for Subjunctive iii, 117 for Supine and Gerund




= gesta 259, 352

311 iferi 311
iferos 306, 311

Inchoative Verbs
inclausus 139 incohare 250
in contra 47, 48 incudo 42, 370


103, 104 habere 400 Passive 109 Perfect 109 with habere 125-9, 4^^ posse 403

ifimo 311 if ra 311

Present Active

102, 109


-4gia 2^^
igitur II, 14

with Accusative
inflare 31


incuminem 42
incus 42 -incus 37 inde 60, 71, 384 inde fugere 46

ignire 33 ignis 12


ignotus 310 -igo 37

Forms 345-450 Use 85-130
infra- 27



227, 423


39 -ilius 42 iliac 140

Indefinite Article 57 Indefinite Pronouns: see

infraponere 27


Indicative Conditional 130, 411
for Imperative 116, 412
for Subjunctive 117

infurcare 25

-ing 37

(dat.) 390

390 illsejus 390

ingenium 9 ingens 259 in giro 48


by Microsoft®

-ingus 37 (-incus) in hodie 47
Initial Syllable

62-4, 67-8 ins- liis- 230


— -is = -es 244, 365-6, 444

-iva 37 iventa 311

inlatus 32 in mane 47

-iscere 34, 35


> > -i 423 > -iut > -it 423

-ivum yj
-ivus 39 -ix 42
-izare 33, 34, 339

medio 48

Ischia 284

innoce(n)ti 306 innocus 226
in odio


ischolasticus 230


inprobus 32 inquid 282 in quo ante 254 -inquus 37 (-incus) ins13-230 in semel 47

-isco for -esco 197, iscripta 230


-'{«" 33
izophilus 333
j 271 jacente(m) 309 jacis 244 Jacobus 150, 329

-iscus 39 is ipse 64


ismaragdus 230 isperabi 230 ispose 230
-issa 37 -issare 33

insiemcmenie 41 insola 232 instruo — struo 230 ins(u)la 171, 233, 284 intcitamento 260 inte(g)rum 270 Interamico 307

Jacomus 329
jagante 229 (3)


-isse 161

-issem 161 -issimus 166

jaiant 229 (3) jajunus 229 (i) jambe 263
-jan 36
janarius 226

230 Interanniensis 307 istatuam 230 Interrogatlves see Pro- iste 63-8, 390-2 nouns iste hie 64 Intertonlc Vowel 231 iste ille 64 intra g6 iste ipse 64 intra- 27 istudio 230 intra tenere 27 it id 282 intravidere 46 -it -et 244, 444 intre 245 ita II intro(r)sus 291 Italia 224 intus in 49 Iteilic Tribes i, 2 -inus 37, 42 -itare 34, 35

jaquir 343
jauzei 426 jehan 343 jehir 343
jejunus 229, 229 (i) jeniperus 229 (5)

= =

jenua 229


jenuarius 229 (i) jeuTie 208 (2)
jinipenis 229 (5)

-Inus 39

> -o 416

-itas 37 -ite -Ite


Joanneni 359 (i) Joannentis 359 (2) Joannis 244
jocus 12


ipsa mente 41 ipse 61-8, 390-2



jovenis 208 (2), 217
jovis 367

64 ipsejus 390 ipsimus 66 ipsud 390
ipsujus 390 ipsus 390
iraisser 413 irascere 413

-itia 37, -ities 37


jubari 322



-ittus 37

-itudo 37 -itus 42 (2), 436, 438, 441 -Itus 435, 438-9


jubem(m)us 163 jubenis 318 jubentutis 318, 322 jubere 11
Judaizare 19
judicat 424

-ium 37
-ius 39

126 (5), 405

> -unt 416
by Microsoft®

-ire 33,


judidus 347 judico 239 judigsium 278


juglus 233 Julianenis 359 Julianeta 37 (-ittus)
Julitta 37 (-ittus)

429 Liaison 133, 159 liamen 263
lexi 428,

intervocalic 324

Voicing 314
laborait =:-avit 424

laceus 254
lacte 367

libe(n)s 311

juncxi 305 juniperus 229 (5) junxi 429
Jup(p)iter 163

jurHtortu 39 juria 272 jur(i)go 219
jusso 355 (i)

lactem 347 lacus (2d decl.) 355 (i) ladro yji ladrone 372


298 (nom. pi.) 357


libraria 37 ligare 201,

ligna (sg.) 352


justitia 276,

justius 277

juv(e)nis 235

juventa 356 (3) juvente 318
juxta 81, 96


246, 253

kadamitatem 289

= candidus 330 karessemo 201 Karica 37 (-icca) kaukoulato cal- 288 kleme(n)s 311 kozous = conjux 311, 339


34 lambros 331 lamna 235 lampada 356 (3) lampa(s) 38, 144, 335 lancia 224 la(n)tema 306 lanutus 42 lapsus 315 laqueum 347 ; cf, 254 lardum 237 Latinization i, 2 latrone (nom.) 367 lat(t)rones 164 lattucae 266 Lauriatus 224 lausenga 37 (-ing)
lauzi 443 Lazis Ladiis 339


lignum -us 172
liminare 37


Unguas (nom.) 357
liniamenta 224


133, 159

lintium 224

Liquids Assimilation 293 Dissimilation 292
Fall Fall



Liquid 237

Vowel before

Liquid 233-4 1 287-9 ly274 Metathesis 294 r 290-6
rs 291 ry 296 lit (t) era 163


kumate 298 ky = qui 187, 223



lebat 318

lit(t)us 163

see Liquids

318 lebra 256

Livitta 37 (-ittus) U 1 161


la ilia 392 Labials Assimilation 313 b 315-9 initial 316 intervocalic 318 by, py, vy 273, 319 f 320-1 Fall of Vowel after Labial 235-6 Influence on Vowels 217



Have 2 88



Locative 86
locun 305 locuplens 311 locuplex 255
lodi 443
loir 166

lectus (p.p.) 440 legare 201

leges 259

(nom.) 367

legui 428

lenticula 42

longa mente 41 longe 40
longior 377


longius 377


longum tempus 13
loquella 42 loreola 213

P 3"-4 U326
V 322-s
after liquid 323

levare 34 leviarius 39


Lost Words 11-4
lotus 213

levitus 435,


by Microsoft®

222 Maiiam 222 mais = magis 157.) 424 -men 37 mendatium 276 fern.) 17274 m: see Nasals ma = mea -Ma 38 388 manu tenere 46 Slaps : pp.) = magida = 38. 145 ma(r)mor 292 cf . 259 major 170. manner (fern.) 368 me(n)sis 171. 347. 347. 198. ma(g)is 353 . 297 maxumiis 220 lucus locus 205 ludus 12 lugere 399 lugire 400 = Meanings Change 10 of of Words 7-10 Meaning 8- manos 355 mansi 429 mansio 12 (i) luminem 347 lunae dies S9 mecu 309 Medea 190 Medentius 338 media 272 medianus 39 medicus 239 medio die 43 medio loco 43 medius 272 meletrix 292 melior 377 melius 56.24. cf . 220. 207 (i) luxi 4V 9 luxuria 355 (2) mansorius 39 mansus 441 manuaria iS manuplus 42 manus (masc. 377 luoghi -ora 349 liirdus 207 (i) luridus 166. 349 melum 195 (5) membras 352 memoramus (perf. 359 by Microsoft® . 71. 369 3" . 259 ma(g)ister 259 marmora 351 marmorem 347. 233 lucor 37 lucto 355 (i) maximus 56. 201. 66 mal(l)o i6i malus malus 55 mam(m)a 16. X. 353 me(n)sor 311 56. mam(m)anis 359 matutinus 13 maurus 336 maxime 56 mammula mane 13 13 400 manducare 13 man(i)ca 239 manicd 37 (-icca) maniplus 42.) = and markensls 39 me(n)sa 311 mense(m) 309 mensi (pi.) 244 lucSre 399 lucire Index. 157. 377 mala mente 41 male 40 male habitus 44 malicia 276 malleus 274 mensorium 37 menta 184 -mente 41 mente habere 46 mentire 409 Marsuas 187 Marsyas 187 mas = magis 157 mascel 242 -mentum 37 mentus 347 menus 201 mercatus (2d decl. and 346 (I) fern. 347. 74. 84. 238.) 349 machina 144 machinari 9 macra 376 madias = majas 272 madio majo 272 madrema 388 maestati 259 maester 259 magias majas 272 marem 347 mares = -is 244 marl -e 364 marinarius 39 maris (masc.) 355 (i) meretis 232 meridjes 281 (2) mer(i)to 237 Masculine : see Gender masc(u)las 234 masma = maxima 238 massa 338 mate(r) 295 materia 355 (2) matrona(s) 298 mat(t)rona 164 Digitized mersi=merx 255 Messac 277 messui 428 messura 37 met. xi Marcianus 278 Marculus 284 mare (fern. 369 marrir 407 marrjan 407 Marsianesses 277 magnisonans 44 magnus 12 Maia 188.2o6 luce (dat.

440 muc(c)us 163 muebie 204 (i) mul'erem 225 mulier 9. 439. 294 modernus 18 Metiacus 277 metipse 24.324 Moesia 187 molui 428 molutus 439 255 myrta 187 Mysia 187 mysterium 182. 441 motto 187 movi 428 movit 244 movita37-.439 movitus438. 163. 438 naucella 13 naufragus 325 nautat 236 navicella 37 navitat 236 ne 14. 304-6 171. 298 + Cons. cf. 136 mulieris 136 natus 13. 227 mi(ni)sterium 231 minist(r)onun 292 minor 377 minsis 198. 377 minus. 66 metipsimus 66 metltus 441 207 Mute -t. 217 334 mutare 229 Digitized (5) nepoti(s) 298 ne'ps'unus 71 by Microsoft® . 255.Index. 438. Metathesis 245. 429 = mullus 187 mulsi 429 multum 74 multus 71 muntu = multum 289 (2) necatus 435. 201 minus 201. 83. 289 moc 428 (i). 229 (4). 160 mode modo 40 moere = mov.228 narratus 37 (-ta) -monium 37 mo(n)strare 311 Nasals 303-11 Final or = monumento = -um 244 Mood 1 1 5-9 morbu(s). 231 mis meis 388 mis. 187 meuble 204 (i) meus = mi 87 n: see Nasals mextum — m2estuin mezzo 272 mi r= meus -a 87. 37 raovutus 438. 311 -m -n falls 309 falls 310 mihe 244 milex 255 mille 161. 245 mis. 387 mi = mihi25o. 385 miauiare 17 michi 252 mienia 1S4 migat micat 256 monarchia 37 monasterium 182 -monia 37 monibam 420 moniti n + fricative 171.Liquid mut(t)ire 162 132.311 11 ny 274 nacui 428 nam — mu.245 miscere 399 misculare 35 misera 376 mis(s)i x6i. 75.245 minus credere 29 minus est 29 minus pretiare 46 minutus 10 > mortu(u)s 226 mossus 438. 440. 440 necavi 428 nee ente 71 nee unus 71 ne ente 71 negare 263 negat 256 mur 206 murare 229 (5) muri -a 349 muritta 37 (-ittus) murta 187 Negation 75 negliencia 259 nemo 71 neofiti missorium 37 mis (s) us 441 mistus 440 mixticius 39 mobilis 204 (i).29. 229 (2) Nebitta 37 (-ittus) nebula 235 necare 9 necator 37 mirabilia 37. cf. 381 mn 307 millefolium 38 mil(l)ia 161 mordSre 399 morire 406 moriri 406 n -h fricative ny 274 nasco 255 nascutus 438 nasum -us 347 natatorium 37 nati vitas 37 Morphology 345-45° morsi 429 morsus 441 mortificare 46 mimoriEe 229 (2) minester 201 ministeri(i) 89.

251 nil 250 nimpae 332 nise 229 (4) nitidus 238 nittus 238 Numerals 57-8. 244 u6 o 225 -o 37. offla 235 oi>oe>-e ot nome 336 nomem nomes = nomina 369 Nominative 97. 229 (5) nutritio 37 odedere 426 Odissia 187 oe 215 oefor xand e 215 offeret offerire offers! nutritura 37 nocui 223. nupsi 297 nobe 318 nobilis 11 nobis 318. 197. 203 o (Greek) 192 274 38. 323 nerbo 323 Neroua 322 nervia 349 Neuter nervus 323. 215 omnes = —is 244 onmimodus 44 omnis 12. 40 (Greek) 186 Digitized nora 208 (3) Normannice 40 norus 208 (3) notrire 229 (5) noli 40 -on 36 -ov 38 -iav 38 -ones 40 -oneus 39 by Microsoft® .208 nepta 37 neptia 37 neptilla 13 Index. o 165. 33 nuncquam 305 nunqua(m) 305. Absolute 97 non 203 nona(i)nta 380 75. 177. 328 noembrios 324 noembris 324 noicius 324 nolo 161 ny274 nynfis 306 406 406 429 440 192. 202-5. Nouns 345-73 see Declension and Gender nous 177. 349 see Gender ne 229 (2) ni : = nichil 251 niepos 177 observasione 277 oc 251 occansio 311 occidere 212 occubavit 256 ni(g)rum 270 nihil 71. 79 ob-28 obdormire 28 obferre 32 obliscor 324 oblitare 34 obprimere 32 Nerba3i7. 167. 378-82 occu(m)bas 306 occurire 406 Accent 142 nummus 328 nun = non 203 nunc 12 nuncius 276 -occus 37 ocio 276 ocium 276 octa(gi)nta 380 oc(u)lus 219. 71 o for au 212-3 >oe ]>e 06 > o 225 > omo 251 -omus 446 on 71 ou>. 215 offertus 435. 395 num 83 u ob (Greek) i?5 14.324 nova(i)nta 380 novellus 13 novius 207 (2) noxeus 224 ns 171. 274 > ola 213 oleo 373. 234 306. 311 nubis 366 nulli (gen. 385 nocere 399 nutrire 166. 250. 229 (6). > > 6 165. 22S.) 395 nullus 71. 100. 309 nivicare 18. 205 5 > 9 205 9>uo oi ou|>-gu 167 o u 202 o ou 203 oleum oli 274 274 oli(m) 309 olio nonna 16 nonnita 37 (-ittus) nonnitus 37 (-ittus) nonnus 16 noptiae 207 (2) 177 192.ou 167 unaccented 219. 243. 383 305 accented 202-5 o 202-4 o 197. etc.

Active 106 Put. 278 parsus 439.212 orata ou (Greek) 193 ou 167 9u Ouiouia Vibia 318. 259 pari 364 par(i)etes 136. 337 pagandum 256 paganus 263 pa(g)e(n)sis 39. 229 (7) oridium 339 -orlum 37 -orius 39 orma 186. 409 passos 355 paucum tempus 13 ostentare 34 ostia palma 14. 439 pasmer 300 passans 39 passi(m) 309 sy 275 ty 276-7 ossulum 37 ossum 356 (3) ostensio 37 ostensor 37 vy273 palatium 277 palleum 224 Passive 112-4. 369 papilipnis (nom.) 367 pap(p)a -us 16 papyrius 39 parabula 144. 225 parietibus 224 oratorium 37 orbus 9 palanca 332 palasium 277 Parigi 86. Passive 105. 441 part 160 partentem 416 Participle dy 272 g': omatura 37 orphanus 186 ortaret 432 hor-25i ortus see Gutturals gyz72 J271 ly274 ny 274 Put. Pans 86 Parisiis 272-8. 296 Palatals 271-8. 324 ovum 167.212 aut 213. 322 > = oum 167. 217. 227 pari mente 41 227 Palatalization 258-62. palpebrum 352 pal/ires 134 = hos-25i = ostium 202 ostrum aus. 107. 296 parsi 429 by 273 c': see Gutturals cy 276. 408 Perfect 102. 108. 236 parabulare 155 paradisus 190 paraula 236. 42 feminine 346 (2) -re 245 -or -ura 42 -or hora25i ora oracionem 276 aur.) 349 Present 102.Index. 229 (7) ot ote = aut 213. -omus 39 -o«J446 -o(n)sus 311 otia 277 otobris 266 209 paor 324 papaver (masc.) 347. 104. oze ozie 324 = > > = hodie 272 = hodie 272 = pacific! 321 8. 318 parcui 428 onus II o 225 operare 409 0(5 > otogentos 266 -ottus 37 ophekion = ofBcium 334 opprobare 28 -or 37. parecer 414 parens 10. 202-3 -osco ossiculum 42 ossuculum 43 > ssy 275 sty 275 partunt 416 parutus 438. Ordinal Numerals 382 -orem 346 (3) oricla2i2. 229 (7) pandiderunt 426 paucus 71 paul(l)um 161 Paulus -onis 362 paupera 376 pani 364 panneus 39 pantaisar 332 Digitized = pauperorum 376 pausa 38 pavi 428 by Microsoft® . py 273 ry 296 scy 275 40S Particles 156-8 particularis 39 -OS (Greek) 38 Oscan 2 -usco 197.) 367 parentorum 368 p : see Labials paceveci = oratia = Hor-25i Order of Words 50-3. 12 parentis (nom. 434-41 = orum = aurum 212 orzo 272 OS (masc.

326 plagiare 33 Pronouns persus 439. 208 (4). 208 (4). 426 perdita 37 (-ta) perdqnare 26 perdutus 438. 190 Periphrastic Future 126 perit 423 perlum = prse. 208 (4). 315 plicare 10.) 367 plangit 259 plantare 33 peduclum 234 peduculus 42 pejor 170.Index. 410. 213 plovere 169. 439 pere 160 pere(g)rinus 270 peres pedes 281 (2) Perfect 121-4. 347. pa(v)onem 324 pa(v)orem 324 pavura 42 pavutus 440 paze 260 pectinare 33 perpenna 292 persi 429 pe(r)s(i)ca 239 persona 71 Personal Pronouns: pius 167 placentia 37 plach 154 see placuit 223. 441 Pesaro 151 pessica 291 pessimus y]"] pestio 2S4 pectorem 347 pediculus 42 pedis (nom. 273 plostrum 212 plotus 212. 369 peria(t) 285 poena 192 poeta 192 poggio 272 polippus 145 poUicare yj pollulum 213 pols 370 poltre 134 polve 370 polvo 370 polypus 145 pomex 207 (2) pirata 144. igo plaudisti 426 pestulum 284 petft 423 Petrus -onis 362 peito 160 pleps 297.294 Pisaurese 297 Pisaurum 151 pitocco T85 Digitized pon(e)re 239 pontevecem 321 pontivicatus 256 pontufex 220 poplex 255 pop(u)lus 10. 369 per girum 48 piperem 347. = pr-292 plus 56. 99 per pel 293 per 160 per. 235 by Microsoft® . 311 pensi 429 pensus 441 plodere2i3 ploja 169. 410 432> 433 Pluperfect Penult 232-9 per 14. 96. 74 pluvia 169. 208 (4). 217 pluere 169. 422-31 = phoca 185 Phoebus 192 Phonology 131-344 Phyebae = Phoebe 215 piano 40 pictus 440 pietas 298 pietra 160 pignus 172 (2) pi(g)ritia podium 272 poella 20S Strong 427-31 Weak 422-6 Perfect Participle Participle : 270 see Pilipus 332 pinctus 440 Perfect Subjunctive 119. 183. 217 Pluperfect 118.26 percolopabat 237 > Phebus 192 phiala 145 philosophia yj philus 184 phimus 184 Phitonis 332 phitonissas 332 Subjunctive 433 "8. 79. 123-4. 273 poco 40 perdedit 139. 435 plicatus 435 293 293 pello 293 pendutus 441 pellige pellicere peuma 368 ph: see Greek Consonants phalanx 181 pharetra 145 phaselus 334 Phasis 181 pe(n)sare 171. pinl 365 123-4 pinxi 429 per giro 48 piper 38. pIurigo 123. 93. 377 pejus 377 pelegrinus 292 pellabor 293 planura yj planxi 429 platea 146.

preda 209 Prefixes 21-32 393-4 Personal 60. 387-8 Relative 69-70. 401. 384-6 Possessive 60. 429 Position 160-4 positus 238. 300 presbyterum 148 provitus435. 311 prEEStare 31 prffistavi 422.Index. 393-4 quaKs 70. prolongare 28 q 246. 186. 85-g presbyter 148. 330. 254 qu k.229 (6) puteolis 136 • potebam 403 (i) potebo 403 (i) poteo 403 (i) potere 403 (i) pdteri 410 potestas 356 (3) potionare 33 potis 17 pretium 277 preveire 300 pride (m) 309 primitius 324 principens 367 pri(n)cipis 306 Prixsilla 255 puteum 347 putrire 400 potius 74 pr:e 14 pr£E-28 prjeber(e) 24? prsecoca 376 praeda 209 prsedestinare 28 prsEdiscer(e) 242 pro 14. -^yj pos(t) 96. etc. 395 prandium 272 pranzo 272 pre. 332 purpureticum 1S7 putator = po.439 proximus 377 psallere 36. pos(t)quam 11. 96 provata 318 porphyreticum 187 portare 12 posi posui 428. qu 223. 429 quiestus 436.28 prebiter 300 Interrogative 7o> 69- quadraginta 142. 397. 250 prendiderunt 426 prendo 250 prensi 429 prensio 37 posmeridianus 285 posse 126 (3). 41 5> 416-9 presentis (nom.) 367 pugnus 172 (2) pulvus 347. 79. 394 quamta 306 quan 305 Digitized by Microsoft® . 285 Present 120 for Future 126 ptisana 145 pudicicia 276 (i) Stems 273. 95 pro. 380. 370 punctus 440 puni poni 203 = presium 277 pressi 429 pressorium 37 pressura 37 pressus 441 presta 210 presteti 139 frete 300 punidor 39 punxi 429 pupillabus 358 puplu 309 pup(p)a 163 pure 40 puritas 37 purpura 145. 252. 259 quadra(l)nta 380 qua(9'ro 283 quKSi 426. 439 = 311 prendere 225. 403 (i) Possessives: see Pronouns posso 403 postea 275 (i) prensus 441 Prepositions 76-81. 383-95 Demonstrative 61-8 Indefinite 71. 226. 226. 71. 285 posturus 238 postus 238 Post-Verbal Nouns 21 posueram 285 posuet 244 posui(t) 285 403-5. 440 cf. por 14 porcellus yj pregnax cf. = pr<Egnans 255 Pronunciation 131-344 prophetissa 37 prophetizare 19 propietas 292 propio 292 propter 14. 79. 67. 254 qua 82 > promptulus 39 430 prsstus 376 Pronouns 59-71.28 probai 424 Proclitics 156-8 prodis 17 putrisco 400 puulva 356 (3) Pyrrhus 187 pyxis 187 Progne 330 proles II preefetto 266 prffigna(n)s 255.

168 429 = reddere 286 rasio = ratio 277 ratio 277 retina 17 retro 81 razzo 272 re. no. 71 quare 12. 82 quarranta 142.344 = -bit 318 263 Quantity 159-77.28 retro (r) sum 291 = = redpit 139 recolli(g)endo 259 Recomposition 31.1 Index. 219. 281 quinque 172 Quintrio quippe 1 quique 71 (i). 393 qui quia 82 qui ky 187. 244 quat(t)or 226. 223 quia 82. 355 (2) res nata 13. rectus 440 32. no quooperta = co. 139 requEerit 139 rs see Liquids >• ss 291 requebit 225 res 10. 309 querceus 39 quercinus 39 querel(l)a 42 rama (pi. 71 = quod 282 quum r : > cum 226 repositorium 37 reprehensus 250 requeerere 25. 25 recapitulare 25 retro.23. 139 redempsi 429 redemti 313 Digitized = rectum igS by Microsoft® . 71. 245. 71.quoniam 14. 379 quattordecim 379 quat(t)ro 226. quodlubet 220 regnancte 267 regnum 172 (2) Relatives : see Pronouns reli (n) quat 306 relinque 282. 350. 449 responduntur 449 responsi 429 raggio 272 que(m) 309 quen 305. 71 rabies 319 radius 272 rainante = reg. 200 redft 423 redivit quannu 281 = Win. 379 quel 393 quejus 393 quoque quot quot n Repetition 40. 82. retundus 229 (6) reuuardent 344 139 reve(r)sus 291 reversus sumrz reverti 410 revolutio 37 rexi 297. 82.254 guages 1 74-5 > = quantu(m) 309 quantus 12. 429 rhetor 335 rhetorissare 33 richesse 341 rictu quiaeti 209 quicumque 71 quid 350 quidem 11 recubitus yj (-ta) quiensces 311 quietus 225 quin II quinqua(gi)nta 142. 350 = -it 285 remasit 311 Remidium 272 remissa 37 (-ta) ren^gat 139 renum reg. 380 reculons 40 reddedi 31.269 Vowels in Hiatus 167-9 quomodo 14. 139 retenet 139 retere questor 210 questus 210 quetus 225 qui 69. replenus 23 55. quo 73 quo = quod 282 quoad 11 quod 14. 71. 82. 380 quase 244 quasi 83. 259. 221 Development of New Quantity 176-7 Disappearance of Old Quantity 173-5 Doubtful Quantity 166 Length before Consonants 170-2 Position 160-4 refusare 17 re(g)alis quiritare 229 quis 69. quando 14. 82 comodo 226 Vowel Length 165-77 Words from Other Lan.) 361 ramenc 37 (-incus) rancura 42 ranucula 42 rap(i)dus 239 rasl restitueram 285 restivus 39 resurge(n)s 311 retenere 31. 393 re(g)ina 259 regis -es 244 = quisque 71 quisquis 71 Unaccented Vowels 221 174. 74 12.269 respondere 399. no.

314 rivocaverit 229 (2) sagma 19.268. salivi 428 440 J^= sead sebe salma 268 salsi 428. 398 398 ss 291 36. 347 rogavo = -bo 318 ro(g)itus 259. 441 saltern 11 salticulare 35 secatus 435.) 368 419 (i) sel 160 selinum 150 sappia 272 sapui 426. sauma 26S scabia 355 (2) scsena 182. 367 SiEpia 182 saginae 42 = 284 Sagitta 37 (-ittus) ripidus 39 scloppus 284 scopulus 38 scorlare excor. xi Roman Empire p.) 355 (i) sine 201 sene -sa 37 (-ta) sabbatizare 19 scaplas 234 sablum 233 sacra 376 Sca(u)rus 211 scena 182 (i) = sacramentum 231 359 sacristano 359 sacrista -anis- schema 19 schernire 341 schiatta 343 schietto 343 senex 12 senper 306 semita 239 senta sentam 416 sententem 416 = Digitized by Microsoft® . pi. 34r.) 372 salvage 229 (3) salvatico 229 (3) salvaticus 229 (3) secu(n)do 306 secuntur 254 sed II. 428 satis 74 sem 419 (i) Semele 359 semita 239 semo 419 (i) : see Sibilants final s in ist pers. 429 440 scriptum 315 scri(p)tus 313. 324 rivaticus rip. rubare nibeus 319 sandal 330 sanguem 370 sanh 267 sapcha 272 sapere 402 sedui 428 sedutus 441 signavi 424 segnai = rugiada 356 nira35r ru(r)sum 291 russum 291 rutare 34 s (3) segolo 200 (3) sei sapiam 272 sapidus 39 sapienti (pi.) 349 scripit 312 (i) scrips! 315. 428 = si 229 (4) = sit 419 (2) = sibi 201 ^ 419 (i) roborem 347 robur 9. ssy. (stlis) riges = re. 201 (2) senape 184 senatus (2d decl. 419 roubSn rs > 36.Index. 440 secula 200 (3) Romanice 40 Romanu -pos 38 rosi (nom.) 349 sffipes sepes saeps 209.igS 399 409 sacritus rigna 198 rikitia 341 Jiimini 86 SidxpiTos 272 sseculum (masc. 210 scalciare excalceare 230 scandalizare 19 445 initial s + cons. 14 sed-= se 229 (4) 429 rosum = ros 356 rosus 441 (3) sanctissimus 377 san(c)tus 172 (i). : 429 Romance Territory p. = sa = ipsa 392 semper semper 74 sempre 245 semul 201. x : salsus 440. 230 sy 275 scy. 435 salitus 436. Saguntum 338 saine 42 saini 267 sltlbaiec (fern. 267 sedano 335 sed(e)cim 239 sedere seditur 399 = esse 402.230 scriba -anis 359 = rigueza 341 risi 429 risus 441 rius 241. (3) = 229 salbum3i7 salii scrivano 359 scultor 313 se 422. ridSre rideri 213 schioppo 284 sclitib. sty. 341.

219. 440 ss > 275 solingo 37 (-incus) solo (dat. 184.^'j final s 298. 150.419 (1) sinapis -e -i 38. = secretins 256 347 sonatus 435 sons 419 (i) Sophia 146 -sor 37 sorcerus = sortiarius 39 s^bat 323 serbus 317 Serios Sergius 272 serore so.z\ sofferire sparsus 441 spasmus 144 spat (h) a 332 spat(u)la 12. 387 sozer 154 servicium 276 323 servisium 277 servitium 276. sty.230 = 406 si 14.229 (7) serpentinus 37 = = 428 simus 220. sy. ssy. 244.230 Spania 230 = Spanus 230 sparsi 429 J« 419 sest = est 419 (i) set = est 419 (i) set = sed 282 seta 209 setaceus 39 setis = estis 419 (i) 229 385 (4) settembres 313 seus suus 387 soaru 295 soave 224 sobreus 224 socera 37 soc(e)rum 232. 441 solia 323 224 sentor . soliculus 13. 337 sinatus 228 (-arius) sordidius 377 sorex 42. 244 solacium 276 sola mente 41 solatium 276 solbere 317 spene^SS (2) speni from spes 355 (2) speramus = -avimus 424 sperantia 37 Digitized by Microsoft® . sibl 201. septa (gi)nta 380 septe(m) 309 sidibus = se.ig8 439 siede 419 (1) soma 268 somas 419 (i) sona 2ona 338 septrum 260 septuazinta 339 septum 209 sepulchrum 251 sequere 406 sequire 406 serbare 323 siem 419 (2) siete 419 (i) siffatto 264 siffler 318 (2) sifilus 318 (2) = signum-us 172 sigricius silevit 422. sibi 219. 18 sol(i)dus 237 230 separare seperare 231. 429 sentitus 436. scy.214 senii 298 Index. 213 soricem 42. 38. 277 servitude 37 ses servire = spacium 276 spallere 337 sive II = es 419 (i) (i) skena 341 skern6n 341 skiuhan 343 slahta 343 sleht 343 spandere exp.cons. 182 seppia 182 sepsies 277 z : see Greek Conso- soltus 438. 201 sinexter 201 (3) -sic 37 sirena 356 (3) sis si vis 324 -sorium ^y -sorius 39 soro(r) 295 sous = suus 167. 244. 439. 445 initial s 4.) 395 solsi s 161 429 440 224 sepes 209 sepia 146. soluit sic nants 264 Sicilianus 39 solus 395 solutus 438 solvitus 438. 221. 233 soef 2. (2). 83. si sol 13 = sibi spehon 343 spelunca 329 siam 419 (2) siamus 419 (2) sibe 219. 213 serra = sera 247 serutinus 16 servare 323 sine 95. 385 385 Sibilants 297-302. 233 sepelitus 436. solbit sentia 421 sentii 42S. etc. 234 speca spica 200 (3) = speclarait spectante = -avit 424 = exp.

419 (i) suora 295 sues 138 super 80. 330 talis 71 strlban 341 for Adj.) 367 sulphurem 347. 387-8 submonsus 439. 405.) 367 stlataris 284 stlis 284 stloppus 284 storax 187 stren(n)a 163 stren(n)uor 164 Stress : see Accent stirpis see Dentals ty 276-7 sud=sub3i5 sufferit 406 -ta37 tab(u)la 236 tactus 440 suffertus 435.) 367 Supine 103 sup(p)ra 164 sup(p)remis 164 supra. 90. spes 355 (2) spiritus (2d decl. 430 sietti 426 stetul 426. 38 suis (nom. 332 Syncope 219. 430 steva 200 (3) stilla 419 (i) suus 60. 441 sus(s)um 291 sutis sursi Stephanus 183 steti 426. 440 Suffixes 33-42 Cbange of Suffix 42 talentum 149. = Iniperf. 84 440 440 strinxi 429 strofa 334 stropa 334 stroppus 186 strinctus strictus for Verbs 33-6 Greek Endings 36.230 spoliatur = -or 244 structus 440 straere 417 strugere 417 spo(n)sus 171 spontaneus 39 squarciare 276 ss s 161 strumentum = inst.230 stais stup(p)a 163 suabitati 318 5uadel(l)a 42 suavis 224 Suavitta 37 (-ittus) sub.26 suprafacere 26 supra 245 -sura 37 Surd Sonant: see Voicing = exp. 229. 428. 38 tamen 11.) 349 stahu 397 397 stait 397 stantia= inst. 419 (2) sublimus 376 429 su(r)sum 291 surtus 440 sus = suus 226. 397. 39 for Adv. 41 for Nouns 37. 410 Plup. 40. 415. 428. 231-g Synonyms 12 Syntax 50-130 t : (nom.Index.26 subaudire 26 subcludere 26 stao 397 stare 397 stasio 277 static subcumbere 32 Subjunctive 117-g for Imper. 96 super. 403. 441 subornatris 255 subplantare 32 sy=ty277 sycotum 141 Syllabication 131-3 = Stella = 198 stingo 226 -stinxi 429 stipes stips 367 subsannare 26 Substitution of subterranus 42 subtus 81 suc(c)us 163 suceroni 362 Words 13 symphonia 146. 14. 116 for Indie. 118 Pres.) 355 (i) splorator stnicere 417 215 sumus 220. 117 > 277 status 438 397 staunt 397 stegola zoo stel(l)a 163 siaii (3) Imperfect 118 Perfect 119. 369 sumpsi 29S sumptus 308 tan 306 tanctus 440 tanger(e) 242 tantu(m) 309 tantus 71 tanxl 429 tapinus 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . 388 -sus 37.26 superabundare 26 superfacere 26 superstitis (nom.230 struxi 429 stupescere 35 > staacio 276 stablarius 231 stagnum (masc.

331 timor (fern. 399 trapalium 16 tres 379 tergum -us 347 termen 356 (3) terminaciones 2 76 terra (m) 309 tersi toreomatum 191 -torium 37 -tonus 39 torma = tu.208 tonatus 435 tondere 399 tonica tu.) 346 timoratus 39 Tragani (2) = Traj. 318 taurellus 37 taxi 429 telebra ter. 325. 347 threscan 342 tra. 289 Tricassas 151 trienta 259 tri(g)inta 142.163.26. 343 tata 16 . 343 tharrjan 342. 299 transannare 26 tra(ns)duco 299 tra(ns)jicio 299 260 tra(ns)luceo 299 tra(ns)mitto 299 tempo 298 tempus 13 tenit 244 tinxi 429 -tic n transplantare 26 tra(ns)pono 299 tra(ns)tulo 299 ten(n)uis 164 Titius 277 Tivoli 86 tra(ns)veho 299 traps 315 trasporre 299 travis (nom. 259. 439 tolsi 428. 424 tristus = tres 395 -trix 37 trobaire 37 (-tor) totum (adv. 352 tribuna(l) 242. 299 trabucare 26 tracere 417 tap(p)ete 162 tarde 40 tarir 342. 139 tibi 221.) 367 traxi Tense 120-30 tensi 429 tensura 13 tensus 441 t^nueram 137 tenui 42S tenutus 438. 429 tolui 428 tomolus =: tumu. 71. 385 traducir 299 traduire 299 Tatius 277 tatus 16 taula 236.204(2). -anis 359 = tibi 385 -tiacum 277 tibe 244 ti tractatus 9 tractus 440 tradedit 31. 399 torsi trescar 342 trib(u)la 235. 198 376 triumphaut 241.) 395 tot(t)uS 12. 407 -tas 37 tasso 342.208 tomus 186 torqu(e)o 226. 244.208 tonsus 441 toll(e)re 429 trebus 201 trei = tres 379 298 trei Teodor 332 -ter 40 tardus 276 Terentio = treis 177 tremulat 235 trepaliare 33 = -us 298 tergSre 399 -tor 37 torcere 399 torco 226.259 tragere 417 trahere 417 = tempaccio 39 tempesta 356 (3) templus 347 timpuri 369 tinctus 440 tinge 226 tinguere 226 tins -^^ census trans. 380 trinitas 429 tarsus 441 -Tt\% 38 testa 13 tetrus 376 428 tortus 440 tot 71 tot trinta tris 37 380 taxui 428 204 (2) texutus 440 thahso 342. Theophilus 333 thesaurizare 19 thesaurus -um 189.) 74 tous thensaurus 311 — tuus 387 Trogar=-jae 259 Troja 170 Digitized by Microsoft® .26.2l6 tapis 182 tapit 182 Index.292 -tim 40 timbre 187. 407 theios 333 toto (dat. 440 239 tollitus 435.

315. 378. 438. 403 vendita 37 (-ta) 177 u 165. 440 unire 34 Tuscanus 39 iuito 204 (2) tuttus 204 (2) tuus 226. 42. 14. 84. 297. 356 (3) vea via 201 = vecere = veh-4i7 -e 364 -tus 37 (-ta). -ura 37. 438.) 367 vendutus 438 vene bene 316 = urbs 12. 101-30 Verbs : see Verb Forma verbus 347. 441 uu unacc. 83 ubi 73 -uc(c)us 37 (-icca) -uculare 35 -uculus 42 -utus 39. Troyes 151 tructa 38. u 226 uuadius 344 > -uus > -itus 42 -udo ii > -umen 42 uxo(r) 295 uxore (abl. 243. 206. 187. 187.395 unu(s) 29S unxi 429 U(5 >• o 225 uo unacc. 438.316 -tulus turn = tuum 226. 217 vadere 126 204 (2) -tudo 37 iuii 204 (2) tul£runt 450 tucti > -ellus 42 40 -um vallensis 39 : Unaccented Vowels see valneas = ba. 14. 206-8. 349 * verecundia 231 verecunnus 281 Inflection: > > > utrum II. etc. III -uta 37 (-ta) verbex = vervex 323 Verb Forms see Conjugation Use 72. 387-8 ty 276-7 ty ty > cy 277 > sy 277 uno (dat. 326 u 178. 2c6 u 208 u ii o 165. 220 -ugo 37 (-ago) ui 216 V see Labials vacuus 42 195 (6). 39 (5). 393 undecim 166. 185 trutina 187 tu 60 -ula 37 (-ulus) Ulixes 187 ultra 166 -ulus 37. > -clus 234 388 Vowels unde 10.Index. 284 vedea 421 = ve^ere 283 vef 226 vegere = veh-4i7 uobit = obiit > ve(he)inens 250 vehere 417 vel II velle 126 (3). 244 in hiatus 222-6 uo >• o 226 uu u 226 o 225 u(5 uu u 226 Uranus 193 urbis (nom. 73. 82. 440 ver 13 usque hodie 47 ustium 202 Ut II.) 244 178. 223 : vernac(u)lus 234 vemum tempus 13 ve(r)sus 291 vertragus 19 Digitized by Microsoft® . o 226 vecinus 229 (4) vedus 234. 220 ui 216 unaccented 219.) 429 -unt -ent 449 unus 10. 208 u cons. 192. 285 Valinca 37 (-Incus) .298. 430 urps 297. 440. 367 veni 428. 430 > > -urem 346 (3) veninum 42 venire 126 (5) venitus 436. 206. 222. 379 -undus 39 ungo 226 unguere 226 unicornis 44 unigenitus 44 vaqua = vacua 223 vaqui vacui 223 vastare 344 vanitare 34 = 187 tuos 138 -tura 37 turrensis 39 turri tumum vasus -um 347. 229 (5). 228. 192. 57. 42 accented 206-8 u 206-7 ii>-u 165.315 usare 34 Use Use Use of of Cases 85-100 of Inflections 85-130 Words 54-84 venuta 37 (-ta) venutus 436. 70. 405 vadum 344 -us 347 valde 237 vaUa(t) 224. 71. 440 venui 428.

by Microsoft® . Syl. 218 Diphthongs 209-16 420 vetatus 435 vet(e)ranus 219. 385 Vowels 136-8. 4 Voicing 256-7.195 (6) vocuus Quantity 221 Voice 1 12-4 Vulgar Latin 3. 284 videderunt 426 video 272-3. 430. 428 vixi 255.93 in hiatus 136-8. 428. 286. 358' villabus 358 Vincentzus 277 426 vinctus 440 vincui 428 vincutus 440 vindemiator 224 vindico 239 vindimia 197 vindo = v6. 231 (6) vocatus 435. Vulgar Words 15. Accented 194-218 Digitized 344 344 werrarius 39 werrizare 33 wi^arlon 342 19. 429 vixi(t) 285 . 441 vixutus 440 vobis 385 cf. vinus 347 Clerical Pronun. 428 in words borrowed by other languages 1 74-5 Latin Vowels 178 Position 160-4 videre 72.) 367 warnjan 36. 221 Unaccented 219-45 (6) Vocabulary 6-49 vocatio videunt 416 vidi 428. 297. 228-30 259 34 vi(gi)nti 142. 19 vulnus (masc. 167-9 . 283. 19. 387 vovis vobis 318 cf . 195 vocitus Final Syl.) 349 314.197 -ea 224 vinia vinsi 428. 240-5 in hiatus 222-7 Init. 416 vistus 441 visus 441 vitellus Breaking 177 = 37 vitium 278 vitricus 13 Vowels 179 Close and Open 165 Differentiation 165 Celtic = vit(u)lus 234 vivus 324 vius = German Vowels 179 Greek Vowels 180. + vezem 445 vezzo 278 -vui 428 -vi via 167. 407 volutus 438 wastare 344 = ^ = = volvitus 438. vivacius 377 vixcit = vixit 255 cf. 428. 285.) 367 victualia 18. 440 warjan 344 voluntate (nom. 231 vettovaglia 154 vetulus 12. 441 viduus 226 vieni 177 vig(i)lat 430 Vocative 87 vocitus = vacuus 42. 318 . 239 vibi = bibi 318 iiibit 316 vibit victore (nom. 12. 255. 439 Penult 232-9 vac. 284 vetus 13 video 272-3 veyo virginem 233 vir(i)diaria 237 vir(i)dis 237 vir(i)dura 18. 438. 416. 321 volatilia 37 volemus 403 (2) w (Ger. 380 vilescere villa 10. 430 vido vidutus 438. 429 = vixit 255 cf. 439. Quantity 165-77. 429 vinti 380 vincisti Intert. cf. 285.195 = video 416 vidui = vidi 428. 234. 37 victurias 203 vic(u)lus'234. 165-245 watan werra = . 259.2l8 vervex 323 ves(s)ica 162 vestibat Index. Syl. = vac.285. 428 .) 344 volere velle 403 (2) w (Latin) 224 voles 403 (2) Waddo 344 volestis 403 (2) wadum 344 volimus 403 (2) wahta 343 volon 39 (-undus) walde 344 volsi 429 Wandali 344 voltus 438. 37 viror 37 virtus 10 vlscui visit Influence of Labials 217 Single Vowels 194208 before gn 172 (2) before j 170 before n fricative 171 before nk 172 (i) = = vixi 428. 272-3. 439 voster 199 (i). 13.201 viaticum 8.

339 Digitized by Microsoft® .339 Zefurus 187 zelosus 339 2» 333 Zodorus = Theo.339 = dies 272 = Jesu 272.272. 266 y (Greek) 187 y (Latin) 224 zagante 229 (3) zampogna 332 zanuari = ja. Wintrio 344 wlsa 344 witan 36. 255.Index.339 = dia. 339 zeta = diseta 339 zie = die 272 Zesu zins 260 ziziper 312 (i) X 246. 339 = dia.277 Zogenes = Dio.344 z 246 zabul(l)us zes 219 zacones zaconus ~ dia. 398 Word Order 50-3 wost.272 ymnus 251 zerax = liierax 339 zosuin=deorsum 339 Zouleia= Julia 272.339 zebus = die.

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