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. U. A. D. GRANDGENT Fbofbssor of Romance Languagss in Harvahd University BOSTON. S. PUBLISHERS 1907 by Microsoft® . C. H. HEATH & Digitized CO.I)eatb'5 flDot>ern tHanduage Qctics AN INTRODUCTION VULGAR LATIN BY C.

V^-^5 3J( Copyright. By D. Digitized by Microsoft® . Heath & Co. C. 1907.

however. others are cited in the appropriate places in the C. Digitized byiUicrosoft® . it be of some interest to has been long in the Classical scholars as well.— . Although it. who wish to look further into special My principal authorities are listed in the Bibliotext. to treat all portions of the subject. that the is Syntax — perhaps unavoidably parts. PREFACE. abreast of current scholarship. but with even fulness I fear. H. graphy. somewhat scanty as compared with the other It will be seen that I have continually furnished abundant references for the guidance of those topics. I hope. I Philology. furthermore. Grandgent. have endeavored to keep I at every stage. not exhaustively. Romance making. "^^HILE this book is intended primarily for students of it will. have tried.

. xvii INTRODUCTION i-S VOCABULARY WoBDS.. ... ^ ... . xi x xi xiii-xvi . Sense Restricted Sense Extended .. 6-29 6-12 6 7-8 7 . ... 7-8 Words used in Classic but not in Vulgar Latin . . Adjectives... and Pronouns Prefixes used with Verbs Suffixes Suflixes for Suffixes for Verbs Nouns Adverbs iv Digitized 18-23 Suffixes for Adjectives Suffixes for 23-25 25-26 27-28 Change of Suffix by Microsoft® . . Words used alike in Classic and in Vulgar Latin Words used differently in Classic and in Vulgar Latin .. Pages MAPS The Roman Empire The Neo-Latin Territory in Europe BIBLIOGRAPHY. 9 9-10 10 10-12 Ii>-i2 Particles Words used in Vulgar but not in Classic Latin Native Words Foreign Words I2 Uerivation Post-Verbal Prefixes 13-29 Nauru . with Abbreviations PHONETIC ALPHABET and Other Symbols X... ^ ... 8-9 Synonyms Substitutes. 13 13-16 13-14 14-16 16-28 16-17 Prefixes used with Nouns.. AND Their Meanings.TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Gerund Gerundive . Adjectives Pronouns- Verbs Adverbs Fiepositions 28-29 29 20 Conjunctions SYNTAX Order of Words Use of Words Nou»s and Adjectives Comparison Numerals Pronouns Personal and Possessive Pronouns Demonstratives Interrogatives and Relatives Indefinite .Table of Contents. . Future Active Participle Digitized 49 49 49 by Microsoft® . . 30-59 30-32 32-41 32-34 33 33-34 34-38 Pronouns 34 35-36 36-37 37-38 38 ^^38-39 Verbs Adverbs Prepositions 39-41 ^ Conjunctions 41 Use of Inflections Cases 42-59 42-48 42-43 43 43-44 Locative Vocative Genitive Dative Ablative 44-4S 45-47 48^ Accusative Fall of Declension Verb-Forms Impersonal Parts Supine 48 48 48-51 48—49 '. Compounds v Pages 28-29 28 28 28 28 Nouns .

Pages Present Participle Perfect Participle Infinitive 5° 50 5°~5I 51-52 Voice Mood Imperative Subjunctive 52-54 52 5^-54 54-59 54-5^ Tense The Perfect Tenses Future and Conditional 5^59 60-143 60-61 61-68 61-66 61-62 62-63 63 63 64 64-66 PHONOLOGY Syllabication Accent Primary Stress Vowels in Hiatus Compound Verbs Table of Contents. Illic Ficatum Numerals Greek Words Greek Oxytones . Greek Paroxytones Greek Proparoxytones Other Foreign Words Secondary Stress Unstressed Words 64 64-65 65-66 66 66-67 67-68 68-77 68-70 71-77 Quantity Position Vowel Quantity Vowels in Hiatus Lengthening before Consonants Disappearance of the Old Quantity Development of a New Quantity 72-73 73-75 75-76 76-77 77-104 78-82 82-gi Vowels Greek Vowels Accented Vowels Single Vowels 82-87 82-83 Digitized o by Microsoft® .

. Q. 104-143 106-137 106-107 107-114 109-112 112 C and G Q. e vii Pages 83-84 84 . .. 11 2-1 14 Palatals Dentals Liquids 114-118 118-121 121-124 121-123 123-124 L R Sibilants 124-126 127-132 132-137 Nasals Labials P Digitized 132-133 by Microsoft® .Table of Contents. before Front Vowels and G before Back Vowels and G Final and before Consonants .. ^ »" I o 84 84-85 85-86 H u 86 86-87 87 a Diphthongs te 88-90 88-89 89-90 au eu ce ui Influence of Labials Clerical Latin 90 90 90 91 91 Unaccented Vowels 91-104 in Unaccented Vowels Initial Syllable Hiatus 93-96 96-98 98-99 99-102 102-104 Intertonic Syllable Penult Final Syllable Consonants Latin Consonants Aspirate Gutturals ...

Adjectives Personal Pronouns Possessives Demonstratives Interrogative Indefinite 162-163 163-164 165 165 and Relative Pronouns Pronouns and Adjectives Verbs The Four Conjugations First Conjugation 166-187 166-170 166-167 167 Second Conjugation Third Conjugation Fourth Conjugation Fundamental Changes in 167-170 170 Inflection 170-173 Digitized by Microsoft® . T e. *. Pages B F V . 133-13S 13s i3S-'37 137 137—141 u Greek Consonants B. Nasals. n. and Sibilants Z Germanic Consonants 141-143 144-187 144-161 144-147 144 145-146 146-147 MORPHOLOGY NotJNS AND Adjectives Gender Masculine and Feminine Masculine and Neuter Feminine and Neuter Declension of Nouns First Declension 147—156 149-151 Second Declension Third Declension Loss of Declension Declension of Adjectives 151-152 152—156 156 157-158 158-159 159-161 161-165 161-162 Comparison Numerals Pronouns and Pronominai. r. X Liquids.viii Table of Contents. A 138 138 138-139 140 140-141 K.

Strong Perfects Pluperfect and Future Perfect Perfect Participle 177-180 180-182 183 Personal Mndings 183-185 186-187 189-219 INDEX Digitized by Microsoft® .Table of Contents. Inchoative Venbs ix Pages Present Stems Imperfect Perfect 173-174 174-176 176-177 177-182 » Weak Perfects .

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Histoire de la langue roumaine. AudoUent. 1902. 2^ ed. Le latin de saint Cyprien. Dottin: G. Mussafia. Claussen. Le latin d'Espagne d'aprh les inscriptions. Pr. Chronologie : F. Romanische Forschungen VII. ed.. cellaneous studies issued in honor of A. W. Word Formation in the Roman Sermo Plebeius. 774. App. Cohn. in Romor nische Forschungen XV. Corssen : W. 1899. Cf. Per. Cooper: F. 1904. Carnoy. 1890.. Heraeus. M. Ueber Aussprache. I. 1901. 1902. Manuel pour servir h Vltude de I'antiquiti celtique. Bechtel: E. -Carnoy: A. 1905. Audollent: A. Digitized b)microsoft® . Bechtel. Bausteine: Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie. Die Suffixwandlungen im Vulgdrlatein und im vorlittera- im NeufranzSsischen. 1868-70. possibly as early as the third century. Archiv : Archiv filr lateinische Lexicographie und Crammatik mit Einschluss des dlteren Mittellateins. New ed. Bayard. I. A Latin list of and incorrect spellings. i). Silviae Peregrinatio. Melanges Renier 301-309.Pipoque Densusianu: O. 1906. A. La dlclinaison en Gaule d. (Vol. Die griechischen Wbrter im Franzosischen. : correct- Die Appendix Probi. BIBLIOGRAPHY WITH ABBREVIATIONS. Wiener Studien XIV. Defixionum Tabellae. Cohn : G. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. A volume of mis- Bayard : L. Corssen. Dottin. G. Vocalismus und Betonung der rischen Franzosisch nach ihren Spuren lateinischen Sprache. Leipzig. Bon. Introduction 1899. : Part — — . L. I. Bonnet. 145 ff. 1891. 1863 1893 Claussen T.. mlrovingienne. D'Arbois: H. Vol. <J la chronologic du latin vulgaire. : Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. 1872. Mohl. 278 ft.T. Mllanges Boissier 5-9. : 1902-03. Le latin de Grigoire de Tours. d'Arbois de Jubainville. Densusianu. C. Cf. Quarterly.Cooper. S. 1895.

2 1902. : : Hammer in Grundriss I^. G. Habere mit dem et Infinitiv und die Entstehung des la latiniti de romanischen Futurums.. Reichenauer Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. Cassel : II. Grammaire des langues romanes. Keil: H. of Vol. alten Italien. Historische Syntax der lateinischen Sprache. 1879Digitized by Microsoft® . ed. Grundriss der romanischen Philologie. a: Zur Geschichte des franzosischen 3. . Reviewed by G. Die locale Verbreitungfriihester romanischer Lautwandlungen im. P. 1904 Haag : O. Grammatici Latini. Die Reichenauer Glossen in Zs. 2d ed. Kbrting. Keil. Entstehung und Entwickelung des Kirchenlateins. 1890vols. : : P. Koschwitz. Einf . 1893.. probably 521 ff. Die Latinitdt Fredegars. Korting: G. : Meyer-Liibk'e.. Draeger: A. Foerster and E. W. Draeger. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. Franz. Rydberg. Made in France in the eighth Reich. Lateinisch-romanisches Wdrterbuch. Made. Koff mane. XXII. H. £criture laire. EinfUhrung in das Studium der romanischen les Sprachwissenschaft. 1898. ed. Gl. £E. Romanen und Germanen in ihren Wechselbeziehungen. Kluge F. £don. 1896 — Futurum G. Cf. Dubois. Koschwitz. Edon: G. Eckinger T. Meyer-Liibke. Etude lexicograpkique grammaticale de Kasseler Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. 1857-1880. Eckinger. 1894.. 1901. Haag. 3 vols. XIV BlBIJOGRAPHY. : W. K. in Archiv saint Jlrome. Grbber. 1902. W. Rydberg. Franz : 1883. La latiniti d'Ennodius. 157. 498.. Hammer. Franz. Facere G. 1903. . -Grundriss : G. — 1888- M. I. 2d ed. 1902. Goelzer. Beiheft Gram.. 641 7. KofEmane : G. : century. in France. Die Orthographie lateinischer Worter ingriechischen : : Inschriften. jd or ninth century. Thielmann. in the eighth Cf. Paris in Rom. Le developpement de facere dans langues romanes.: 1900. et prononciation du latin savant et du latin popu- 1882. 1901. W. Kluge. 1903. Foerster and E. Hoppe. Hoppe: H. Die lateinisch-romanischen Elemente im Althochdeutschen. W. XXVI. Dubois A. Zs. Hetzer. 1884.. Gl. 48.. 1892. Syntax und Siil des Tertullian. 2d ed. 569. 2d 1878.

Neue: Formenlehre der lateinischen Sprache. : P. Monthly. Perf. Studies in the tions. Regnier. 1901. M. 1903. Btudes sur le lexique du latin vulgaire. Digitized by Microsoft® . and S.S. A. 509: Peregrinatio iiii-viii. Silvia AquitancE Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. Olcott. Cf. M. : F. 1900. Loth J. 1898. 1892. Observations on the Use of Certain Prepositions in to the Petronius with special reference Part. Ronsch. Loth. in Itinera hierosolymitana saculi Written probably in the latter part of the fourth century by an ignorant nun. Substantives Word Formation of the Latin Inscrip- and Adjectives. 1905. : La langue des inscriptions de la Gaule. Meyer-Lubke. Hilarii Tractatus de Mysteriis et Hymni et S. E. 1887.. PI. I goo. : 1 901. perhaps from Spain. 1888.. Pass. ad loca sancta. 259. xv W. 1899. Pirson. Pogatscher. Lindsay. J. Perf Per. auf Aussprache und Recht- schreibung beziiglichen Eigenthiimlickkeiten in den Inschriften aus Gallia Narbonensis. 1894. Pers. Ferotin. Les mots latins dans les langues brittoniques. Pogatscher A. Vokalismus der Tonsilben. G. Thielmann. 1869. Ang^ade. 1886. Silvice Aquitanm 1898. ad 367 ff. ed. with special reference to the Latin Sermo Vulgaris. Pr. Marchot. sit Quillacq : : J. Mohl. Habere mit dem Part. G. The Latin Language. Mohl. De la latinitl des Sermons de saint Augustin. Cf. Teil. Quillacq. See Bechtel. R. N. Lebreton J. 1892-1902. Regnier: A. De latinitate libelli qui inscriptus est Peregrinatio loca sancta. : LiteraturblattfUrgermanischeundromanischePhilologie. in P. 1888. lat. . Geyer. Itala und Vulgata. du frangais prilittiraire.Bibliography. t^ Verzeichniss der ed. T. Gamurrini. lateinischen und romanischen Lehnworte im Altenglischen : II. S. Zur Lautlehre der griechischen. Spr. 1898. in Grundriss V. 451. Fortsetzung. P. Etudes sur la langue et la grammaire de Ciciron. : Roman Sermo Plebeius. Pirson: J. Lebreton. Oliver: A^Oliver. Die lateinische Sfrache in den romanischen : Landern. Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. Archiv II. Lexique F. 1897. .'i>(eue. La premiire personne du pluriel en gallo-roman. 1901. H. 372. 'P. J. : : Ltblt. Le viritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. Hilarius. Neumann Franz Neumann. Lindsay: W. Wolfflin in Archiv IV.XXX). Olcott : G. Petite phonltique Phon. : Leipzig. Quomodo lingua latina usus S.

Romania. Windisch: E. : Zeitschrift fiir franzosische Sprache und Litteratur. Sittl: K. Grammatik der lateinischen Sprache. 453. Tiktin. Waters. 117. fr. Romanische Sprachwissenschaft. Stolz. 125. Som. 1868. IV. ^KvA. Stolz: F. numbers a year. 1890. Vok. Urbat R. 371. Le alterazioni fonetiche e morfologiche nel latino di Magno e del suo tempo. 1900. Four to sLx 1879. Windisch. 25. VI. Zs. XII. Bibliography. 171. 1903. Schuchardt. Die rumdnische Sprache. 1885. 138. in Grundriss P. in Grundriss P. Halle. 424. Historische 1894. Sepnlcri : Gregorio A. Die lokalen Verschiedenkeiten der lateinischen SpracAe. 264. Waters: W. 100. VII. 1&&2. II. Quarter- ly. 116. : Zur Entstehung der romanischen Wortstellung aus der lateinischen. Petronius. 276. 1 856-68. Cena Trimalchionis.. Substrate : G. Tours. : S. in Studi Medievali I. Zauner: A. Grober. Sepulcri. 234. Archiv I. Die keltische Sprache. to Works the text. Chemnitz and Leipzig. Suchier: H. I. Zs. 377. 3 vols. Vol. Wblfflin. Charles Thurot. Die Ausprache des Latein nach physiologisch-historischen Grundsdtzen. III. Paris. 371. E.xvi Richter Elise Richter. 564. : Wolfflin : E. Der Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. : Zeitschrift Jur romanische Philologie. H. which only occasional reference is made are cited in full in Digitized by Microsoft® . 539. XQ. Beitrdge zu einer Darstellung der romanischen Elemente im Latein der Historia Francorum des Gregor v. Tiktin : : H. Die franzosische und provenzalische Sprache ihre Mundarten. Paris. in 204. 1902. Urbat. Spr. 507.: E.nn&r. und Thurot : Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits de la Biblioth^que nationale et : attires bibliothiques Vol. Quarterly. Lateinische und romanische Comparaiion. in Grundriss P. Notices et Extraits de divers manuscrits latins pour servir A fhistoire des doctrines grammaticales au moyen dge. V. Vulgdrlateinische Substrate romanischer Worter. Seelmann. Suchier. 422.

=r bilabial /S v. whichever way it be turned. SMALL CAPITALS mean that the forms so printed occur in inscriptions (but this indication is used only when for some special reason it seems desirable). . The other marks and abbreviations employed are so generally accepted as to need no explanation. S =z > the sound of in English i/iis. q e. the source standing at the open end of the figure. is conjectural. = the sound of e in French me. the sound of German «. vowel letter shows that the vowel is open. J) ii o.c = the sound of ch in German ach. * (an asterisk) before a word shows that the form attested. = the sound of ng in English long.PHONETIC ALPHABET AND OTHER SYMBOLS. Digitized by Micrqsoft® xvii . the sound of Spanish v and i/i *. (an acute accent) after a consonant letter shows that the consonant is (a dot) • C '^ / (a hook)' under a palatal. (a semicircle) under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is not syllabic. not >• indicates derivation. o = rounded the sound of German = the sound of th in English thin. . under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is close. := rounded i. .

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The extent of the Roman Empire on p. civilizations. Spain was made a province in 197. and quite cut off from the rest of the Latin-speaking world in the sixth. Sicily became a province in 241. also Meyer-Lubke.AN INTRODUCTION TO VULGAR I. Illyrians in^sou^hea^emjmd southwestern Italy respectively by and Greeks. I Digitized by Microsoft® . beyond the peninsula it spread among Ligurians. LATIN. originally the speech of shown by the map was Latium. The Latinization of these peoples was the work of several centuries^: by 272 b. j. for the most part. the Orient. Tiber. Aquitanians. Lat. in 50. Latin language never gained a foothold in Greece.talyjt_was Italic tribes. c. in adopted by Etruscans and by various n orthern Italy by Ligurians. Celts. D. Sfr. Empire it has remained. 'See Mohl.n central j. southern Gaul in 120. political changes drove it in the rest of the from Great Britain. 451-455. X. and linguistic habits. and. IHy- _rians ._Semites. Raetia in 15. tEe bri fall "oO^thage in 146. Venetia cast her lot with Rome in 215. representing different races._ Germanic and others still. tribes. the in 102-1. all Italy was subdued south of the Macra and the Rubicon.. Sardinia and Corsica in 238. northern Cim- Gaul Dacia was colonized in 107 A. Chronologie . Illyria was absorbed after 167. pp. forsaken in the third century. Throughout this territory the official language Latin. a little district on the is The Latin tongue was thus extended to many peoples. The and Teutones were destroyed was a province. Africa after Iberians. and Africa. Celts..

The Latin tongue. Pomex. of Latium was adopted by tribes using. The Social War. Europe where Latin in its modern forms is now spoken. 2. Latin was simply substituted for foreign tongues. has always been in an unstable condition. and has been carried thence to Amerand Asia. and Oscan was used in inscriptions until the first century of our era. became more uniform. like every living language. Italian nn : for nd. there were at all times. and to some degree in the peninsula. kindred At first there was sturdy resistance.g2eaking peoples_ were not_ homogeneous. [§ 2 until the present day. but there doubtless were still noticeable differences in pronunciation and even in vocabulary. had a levelling and speech in Italy ^ See Chronologie 133 and I16-120. and there must have been a variety of accent. elex for The Italian word zavorra by Microsoft® .^ When Latin conquered. nevertheless a few native words were kept. 464. the resulting geographical dis- crepancies are manifest in early monuments. Oscan forms are ligud for and k for lege^ pru for pro^ ni for 'The is S. and there was little or no mixture. it blended more languages. the alteration being most rapid in the earliest and the latest Furthermore.'' In the outlying provinces. Africa. ilex are perhaps Umbrian possibly Etruscan Lat. moreover. considerable local dive^ences. but especially p^eriods. in the main. Kff. Digitized may be Oscan. The evidence of inscriptions and of grammarians indicates that from the beginning to the end of Roman history speech was constantly changing.2 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Spr. jfor : e. and their In Italy the language §peech_reflected_their varied origin. conflict of or less with the native idioms . c. 445. alL southern Italy was under Oscan influence. however. xi marks the parts of ica. that the language carried effect. Latm. The map on p. until the 90-89 B. etc. It should be remembered. Chronologie 98-99. piimex. The before the Social War.

from the everyday language on the other hand. from the brogue of the country.the classes. . throughout the Republic and the Empire. the earlier acquisitions received a more popular. was constantly developing away from the archaic standard of elegant parlance.. 463-464. _excegting ^reece andthe £entiiry after Christ. while popular usage tends to quick change. Literary influence conservative and refining. the common idiom. Roman territory. as It is grew out of early Classic Latin.^ fields: it continues the Classic. under the Empire the variations probably came to be no greater than those /the^kter colonies a now to be found in the English of the British Empire. %J3] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and from the slang of the lowest quarters of the city.. Cf Cooper . Spr. What wecalTVuIit gar Latin is the speech of the middle classes. not an independent offshoot of Old Latin: system. from the consciously polite utterance of cultivated society. . provinces was not identicial: it represented different chronological stages and different local dialects of jI^aUc^Latin . and is also between city Injatfi.t&L. drawing away . more offtcial speech. 3. though affected by all of these. We may say in general that the East. vowel is it Neither the dialect of the slums or of the us of not a few urban and rustic grammarians distinct tell vulgarisms that are not perpetuated in the It is Romance tongues. 3 i\2_ik^_J£X?. Digitized by Microsoft® . was completelyTaFinized by the fourth "^ "" of With the beginnings culture and literature there came inevitably a divergence between the language of . not the primitive.^ Vulgar Latin naturally developed differently in ^ * Cf Lai. XV-XXX. 1 . Republican and early Imperial times educated speech became highly^ artificial. ugper and that of the lower and^coiintry speech. Administration and ImiHtary service tended to obliterate distinctions.

We rfote an. YjJgar Lsatijl.^ Ctassic and VulgarXatin. then.^ The differentiatign. . * For a history of the Latin language. progressed. in the last few centuries of this epoch. tqa^bout -6oo . roughly The speaking. and the diphthong at is reduced to e). the universal inclination of language to diverge was reinforced by the original habits of the diverse speakers and by such peculiarities of native accent as hacl survived. B. i6i. vedus). some to a desire for differentiation (which lowers i to e to make it more remote from i ). some to unknown reasons! WEy~" for instance. some to a tendency to assimi^tejmlike adjacent sounds (so ipse is spoken isse. ^l^ various localities. Furthermore. .seventh century of our era.JLQmance languages _begin. until the dialects of distant localities became mutu^ ally unintelligible. 492-497. being accelerated and the military organization was broken. due partly to phonetic but mainly to syntactic causes. is most sharply differentiated from Classic Latin when schools decayed „ . we may put it. become virdis. Pirson and Carnoy also. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. we observe certain changes in pronunciation. If we compare that the latter find also a gre at sim plification of inflections. see Lat. Sittl and Hammer. we shall see was always tending to become more flexible and more explicit. such as articles and prepositions. suftseSWe 4. Spr.enormous development of modifying and determining words. as far as the levelling inEuence of schot^l and army permitted. Digitized by Microsoft® . Kiibler Archiv VIII.^ any definite date must be arbitrary._jjid an abundant use of prefixes and. ai almost in iCf. from about 200 b. inj^e^ixth Jix .ALjUus--poin-t we ~may_ say that Vulgar XiSi^ stops and the .A-P. Althou. period lasts. some of which can be ascribed to an inclination to discard those parts of words that are not necessary for their identification (as vetulus when viridis.4 . for African Latin.

XXX).. For a brief account of the Latin grammarians. . by an uneducated woman (probably a Spanish nun) of the latter good and bad pajt of the. Fcerster in Wiener Studien XIV.— An become^ o. Le veritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. F6rotin. fourth century^. in Archiv I. Grober. * Used by H. Lommatzsch. Die Appendix Probi. 'See W. Silvia Peregrinatio. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. and W. 301 G. Itinera hierosolymitana sceculi mi-viii. Zur Sprache der Mulomedicina Chironis in . in inscriptions and early manu- ^scripts'. and the establishment of unattested Vulgar Latin words. Die Appendix Probi in Archiv XI.iSgS. E. andrmosTim- ^portant o f_all. 278. a problem as yet unsolved. Of ^speciaTvalue are the Peregrinatiqjidjqtasancta. while au did not in Latin generally. 1899. Bechtel. Introduction to Vulgar Latin.ijecurring. Ueber die Latinitat der Peregrinatio ad loca sancta in Archiv IV. 1866-68. . Sprachgziellen und Wortquellen des lateiniscken Worierbuchs in Archiv I. the A^endix Probi^ z. 55-67.* All of these are to be used with caution. 641 K. Cf. Schuchardt. Audollent. Melanges Boissier 5 W. the nonClassic forms. Foerster and KDfSiiitbdnll>fr. S. . possib^'as early as the third century'. E. S. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. Wolfflin.Mili/BaoilSisches Uebungsbuch. Hetzer in Zs. 401. 35. Gioixr. Archiv XIV. see Stolz. "See 119. 204 if. 4 For the chronology of developments. 455-461. the so-called Glossary of Reichenau. Beiheft 7.Jists„jof JacQlxacJtjOTmjs. see G. of the^TConraHcel languages. some . Herseus. G. in the eighth century. Zur Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. Heraeus. and VII. Meyer-Liibke. 1904. Aussprache des Latein. P. Spr. Zur Mulomedicina Chironis in Archiv XII. Seelmann. the distinction of learned and popular words. list of spellings. a few texts w ritten by persons of scanty education. 259 M. ^Cf. 367. a considerable iragment of a description of travel in the East.' spells by A. ^ Utilized by E.. 1885. 6t. 25 ff. E. 1902. "See P. Lot. made in France There is an interesting collection of Defixionum Tabellce. . the subsequent developments. Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. Geyer. 5* Our sou rces of information' concerning the„ current spoken La tin are^ the statements of grammarians^. . W. early and late.glossaries aDi. the occasional lapses in cultivated authors. 1902 . Paris in Melanges Renier 301. A. 551. 5 universally be came is e.

A. puteus. reconstructed out of Romance words. II.I. 264ff. dicere. 233 ff. For a thorough discussion of reconstructed forms. ff. the vulgar idiom has homely metaphors of its own and numerous specific. 149. {tabanus — ziruiare). [abbreviare buttis). longus. WORDS USED ALIKE IN CLASSIC AND VULGAR LATIN.) Worter ff. {damnum — dui)^ in Arckiv: I. On the other hand. forming. Die Sprache der romiscken Kinderstube in Archiv XIII. ff. suus)'. VulgSrlateinische Substrate romanischer . This class includes a great mass of words. amare. Grober. 255. pants. 1. has many poetic figures and many abstract terms unknown to the crowd. quando. 453ff. 125 {quadraginta — rascu' {reburrus — runcare). si. 138 {hmdus — iticem). 539 —Jiiicum)^ 424£f. ^See Densusianu. vendere. iiyS. the nucleus of the language. speech of the literary and fashionable classes should differ from that of the common people so Literature inclines to extend it is in all civilized communities. Herasus. For an approximately complete vocabulary. so cams. {minacicE — nutrire). ff. bene. 185-203. pater. mater. filius. yj^ (supplement. viridis. — icaccubus — curbus). ~ technical words not found in literature. VOCABULARY. vacca . 2'/$^.iooff. ff. Die romische Soldatensprache in Arckiv XH. Examples are : 7. V. popular use tends to restrict them. ii6fif. too. male. WORDS AND THEIR MEANINGS. to speak. polite language. bonus. Korting. (sabanum — lare)^ 234 VI. altus. 422 {pbedire — putidus)-. (Jlagrare —gTttta). see G. audire. in. . It is natural that the The the senses of words. see G. 1901. W. Lateinish-romanisches Worterbuch. Digitized b^Wlicrosoft® . ff. 6. (eber III. {Hie — lamna)^ So?^' {lacusta — mille)\ IV.

not 'strength'. Bayard 105.. Dubois 220. new meaning in addition ambulare= 'march'. 269-270. G. part'./22J£Sfe 46. Digitized by Microsoft® .'k'. defi' 9. assume to the old one: Bechtel 137. Pirson 257-258 . 283.^ The general use of a word in an extended sense is not common. collocare= 'go to bed'. Quillacq 54-79. mulier='-vi\ie'. perhaps Cf.' to^x^a . tractatus= 'treatise'. yUloi:^. Regnier 24. non capit prophetam perire. WORDS USED DIFFERENTLY AND IN VULGAR LATIN. a word assuming a more or concrete signification {^se : icognatus\=z ' brother-in-law coUocare^ 'put to bed' dominicus =: divinus . etc.. be classified under the heads of restriction or extension of meaning. Capit a ssumed the meaning of fieri potes t: R. focus=^iix&\ paganus= 'pagan'. G. 1 a. . hcec eestimare non capit. but there are some examples /(7r^j = 'strong' in all 10. etc. se piicare=' go'.. 272. Bon. ingenium := 'trick'. 286).'» Many Pirson 260-262. 286. of the examples can ». however. viaticum = ']ox\xntY'. 235-328. Many words kept their literal but lost their metaphorical sense: captio ='a. SENSE RESTRICTED. necare = Bon. 243. Archiv XII. Hoppe Most 48.. Bon. nor 'best b. etc. lectio =^ 'dxoifin' machinari='g[mA. 351—352. not 'sophism' nor 'deceit'. Bayard 63-202. 8. i ^ns— 'chM'. 'authority'. ro6ur= 'o^. 'text'. words. Bon. Very many Classic words are used in Vulgar Latin with a different sense: comparare =^h\xy'.'. = 'rebJiKe§. § 10] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Dubois 185-225. nite This happens frequently. : senses. Per. IN CLASSIC 7 a. orbus—'hXmd'. and also 'continue'. non capit utique videri Deus.ct of taking'.11. SENSE EXTENDED.

: .. . Latin words either were not em- II. Waters Ch. facere (time)'. donee.. When lost terms were needed for literary or other purposes.loco forsitan quattuor milia. So various prepositions and conjunctions (as ad. Classic ployed at the vulgar speech or went out of use before the earliest Jubere. Very many adverbs and conjunctions dis-"~\ I appeared saltern. etc. tamen must have been sed. etc. quod. and quasi.. /V/-. quoad. replicare= 'reply'. G. quoque. wW«/« = 'miracles' (in imitation of the Greek).13. Regnier 20. Bayard 94. but most of them are new formations. ita. monuments of the Romance languages: so funus. Bechtel 127 {habebat de eo. satis = 'much'. ^2S= 't^he' and 'he'. sive. to be sure. Bayard 83. 37. Poetic aurora. Unde came to mean 'and so'. etc. nam. 258 fif. Bon. Bon. Bechtel 144. . is very rich in abstract nouns (G. hamo has the sense of French on. Regnier 29 {in came paucas habet virgines sanctimoniales). unus = 'a'. G. horrescere. fascia means a measure of land. the French ilj> a. igitur. 58 {bella res). Per.25. del>ere 'mdica. Bechtel 144. . fletus. Dubois 301-308). Per. enim. 3. terms and some abstract nouns were not needed: frondifer. populus «/««^«j= 'common people'.tes moral obligation.per. ergo. = 'pass Regnier 27 {quadraglnta dies fecit). autem. ut. at. 44. ^: moribund. WORDS USED Numerous all in m CLASSIC BUT NOT IN VULGAR LATIN. vel. Dubois. Pirson 255 ^^l^lj^j^^ ^^^^ habuit serpentes). de. quippe. diu. an. quia. 38. they were either borDigitized by Microsoft® . etiam. apud. 418. Ecclesiastical Latin. utrum. etc. Waters Ch. 391-397. 422 (in area Noe . cum. quin. 204. [§ n 'go'. etc. although it is common in the Peregrinatio.. quomodo) assumed new functions. 328. postquam.). Dubois 218.8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 66. res is used of persons. proles. hand. quidem.".

272. Italian. . some nouns by derivative adjectives: avis ^ by aucellus.Va&T* capum) is preserved by Rumanian. Olcott XXV. G. Some words were replaced by diminutives. sol According to Olcott XVIII. a. Among the Romance languages. ^ * Caput (or rs. R. 337. emere by comparare. ^-j 2 parentes . os to bucca. For mansio. urbs by civitas. 12. When Latin had two words nearly synonymous. Cf Zauner 41-42.§ 13] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Rjetian. R. R. Italian. *filiaster. Sometimes the survivor was far from a synonym in Classic Latin: discere was displaced hy apprendere. 313. testa by Cf. Portuguese prefer casa. Italian. and by villa. R. Spanish.. mansio. French. . Sometimes a term was replaced by a word not found in Classic Latin at all: anser-wAs driven out by *auca (<. ignis hy focus. edere in the main to manducare. R. ^capitia (<^caput) by Spanish and . SUBSTITUTES. 324. R.*avica. nunc by hora. diminutive of avis). SYWOHYMS. to genitores. mansio ( Roman. 472.. Portuguese. avus by *aviolus. crus gave to gamba.338.. . Occasionally the substitute aliquis yielded in part to res -vi&y was apparently a slang word: nata. Dubois 212. privignus by 13. R. omnes by toii. domus by casa.\ Dubois 209. noverca by *matraster. Dubois 220. Rumanian. vitrUus hypatraster. Digitized ^^^ by Microsoft® . Provengal. b. Provenjal. R. Bechtel i^o^gena to gabata. 'dwelling') only in . tanti. cf. equus to caballus. casa occurs only in Italian inscriptions. French and Provencal mansio and hospitale. hospitale^. ^ Zauner 41-4. senex to vetulus. one often crowded out the other: atrium gave way to cars. caput to testa''. 336. humerus by spatula. 472 ferre to portare. Indus to jocus. i'^o^^ tot hy quanti. . cur to quare. magnus to grandis. French..2. Raetian. clerical 9 rowed from Classic or Latin (as nobilis) or replaced by new constructions (as *carrica for onus). 345.

). appear in Classic Vulgar Latin evidently had many words that do not texts. Autem. and adverbs were lost 14. infemus. G. vetus for [§ 15 by *soUculus. erga. quando. Reich. dies largely . doubtless under the influence of per. Occasionally. 4. quoniam were often replaced by quomodo. utrum were assumed by si. 100-107 {arida. hiems by hibernum. infemus.x\naucella. PARTICLES. etiam. 15. words were replaced by phrases: diu by longum tempus (Bon. pra. 472 mane h^ Diminutives were extremely common in late matutinum. ergo. and other phrases. too. ver by vemum tempus. etc. in Gaul. Cf. R. ut were ousted by functions of an. schedula._ Cis. credens. d'lJ way pro and per. 121-130 {cereolus. Latin: G. 403. 201. which replaced /^r and pro in Spain and to a considerable extent in northern Gaul. the by quando and other conjunctions. ne. quod. mammula-:=^^zxiA\aoVs\t. WORDS USED IN VULGAR BUT NOT IN CLASSIC LATIN.). cuculla. 203. R. to propter were displaced southern Gaul. and Dacia preferred /^r. 108-121 {brevis. ^w^ by diurnus. R.lo in part An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.). The place of cum was taken various substitutes. Some of these were probably old Digitized by Microsoft® . sed. . by subsitution. Ab was made unnecessary by de and per. by other words.). Italy. Fro. tamen. yielded to apud. conjunctions. paucum tempus for haud diu). ex gave to de. Densusianu. Bon. Olcott 250-263 {gemelli. etc. Gl. Dubois 147 {novellus'). Many prepositions. etc. frequent also: R. Adjectives used as nouns were etc. 184-185. apud-<n2iS partially supplanted by adj cum. igitur. 395-396. most part by vetulus. c. neptilla. became *por. etsi.

SubstrateY. A few that must have existed are not attested at all: *refusare. Rom. 151-153. Archiv XIII. cf. Pr. some Were borrowed from other languages. gent. pa(J>)pa. 154. 237. St. Archiv XIII. 63. . 17. 158. Some native words are rarely attested. and f.§ 17] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 106. atta. ii native terms that do not happen to occur in the works preserved.ndta.g. XVII. Bayard 179 (applied . gente). 156-157. a. etc. Densusianu 190. Digitized by Microsoft® .. Grammont. *gentis. 270-271. etc. norma. cloppus Densusianu 196. Likewise words made by ono- matopoea. Archiv XIII. Audollent 199. drappus. although they were doubtless in common use: amma.. Ch. Pirson 243.). Densusianu 196. potis est = potest. Archiv XIII. adj. 468-469 (^quid enim prode est homini. NATIVE WORDS.'. nonnus. II. gavia (used by Pliny). fins onors. Substrate ficatum. 53. 186. . Archiv XIII.. 154. ing 'touch'. Archiv XIII. Vr. § 405). fin. Waters Ch. tata. Herzog in Bausteine e. Substrate V. (Fr. pudoris finis. ( R. tatus.. It. finis honoris > 484. pappus = 'gra. It. Some of the unattested words were obviously late developments: *finis. mots. baro — 'athlete'. 234.adj. *prodis. battalia. expressifs in M. Neue II. E. 97. Archiv VIII. prode. from the noun finis in such phrases as honorum finis. etc. mamma. 421. Archiv XII. 16. Onomatopees et Revue des langues romanes XLIV. between genitus and from prodest (cf. Korting (found in the 7th century). Cyprian to the bishop of Carthage). hoc enim prode fit vobis. fine fino). fuit prode illis. (so. so not improbably the original of the Romance words mean'find'. 151— 152. apparently a cross then m. and 'go' (cf. sed non genttlis. and perhaps those of the words meaning 'gape'. *rettna=: 'rein'. circare = 'hnnV . trepalium. Pirson 244. as *miaulare. detached 176-177).). some were late creations. serutinus.

wfltan 19. verging 247 {cata mane mane). society. *dulcior = 'sweetness'. 44. More Germanic words (of. hapja. some made by Christian writers.. baptizare. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. dulcor. a distributive preposition. Bon.. zare. Digitized by Microsoft® . vertragus. b. cf. a few of them on the sense of 'every'. *soliculus. dactylus. 211. [§ 19 Late Latin was rich in derivatives. colaphus. Regnier VIII. A werra. 226. prophetizare. Very many Greek terms used by ecclesiastical writers never became popular. haunjan. Reich. cata. 66. *nivicare. some of popular creation. which affected familiarity with Greek. vict(u)alia. Gram. folUa. and not a few new derivatives. Judaizare. R. *coraticum. Bon. Waters Ch. §71. scandalizare. schema. will be discussed at length in the following may be given here: post-verbal dolus <dolere. Some were introduced by fashionable etc. confessor = 'martyr'. 224. *man{u)aria. Cf. modernus. This subject chapter. Dubois 144. 205-226: anathema. Gl. Pirson 236). but a few examples Gl. as baptizatio. sabbatizare. anathematizare. 225. According to Olcott XIX. thesaurizare . * abbellire . We find a large number of Greek words. G. alberca. African Latin was freest in word formation. More came in through the Christian vocabulary: angelus. zelare. 12 An 18. Reich. sagma. as allegorizare. Bechtel 95 {cata mansiones. numerous verbs in -izare. *vir{t)dura. such as alauda. Introduction) found their way into Latin: bannus.. cata pascha). colaphizare. evangelizare. few Celtic terms were adopted. apparently borrowed by popular speech: amygdalum. diaconissa. there are many Greek words in Petronius: hepatia. catechiblasphemare . FOREIGN WORDS. carricare. haribergum. G. eunuchizare. *ausare. prophetare. (cf. Waters Ch.

2. pounds . 430-693 Densusianu 156-173. ' » bimaritus. G. a fictitious primitive noun was derived from a number of verbs in Vulgar Latin and in the Romance languages so dolus from dolere. which the noun seems to come from the derivative verb. 1. Cooper XXXIV. Digitized by Microsoft® . Augustine). next suffixes. facility of word formation. —itta)} Petronius shows a fondness for long derivatives. as canere. saltus — saltare. Bon. sub-. POST-VERBAL NOUNS. 61). who were especially addicted to prepositional compounds with con-.or bi. which in- the literary language creased. 21. then prefixes. 130 . etc. a. II. G. ADJECTIVES.e. Vulgar Latin is very rich in derivatives and comit has many affectionate diminutives. 35. " Cooper 246-297.^ PREFIXES USED WITH NOUNS. 98. Regnier etc. and finally composite words. 246-247. '^ . Late writings almost all abound in abstract nouns (Cooper 1-2).§ 22] An Introduction to VulgaW Latin. 13 DERIVATION. Bis. bisacutus. 22.* popular speech preserved and This freedom of formation was abused by African authors.* We shall consider first postverbal nouns (i. Vok. 367. Cooper XXX ff. Petronius.. In strictly Classic texts there appear to be no 20. substantives taken from the roots of verbs). PREFIXES.was used with some adjectives and appar: ently with a few nouns bisaccium. (pairs in : VII (blamed by St. XL VI. really living suffixes \ but the lost. such as gaudimonium (Waters Ch. some of them made with new suffixes (as —icca. AND PRONOUNS. B. After the model of cantus — cantare. I. whereas in reality both come from a primitive verb. satire). See Gram. " Cooper XXXVI. 170 . in-.


An Introduction
Ad-, con-, de-,

to Vulgar Latin.


dis—, ex-, in-, re:

and some others were
*adaptus ; commixtius,

occasionally used to form adjectives

G. 160 defamatus ; *disfactus; exsucus; inanimatus ; *replenus.
Cf. G.




Ac-, atque-,

ecce-, eccu-,

met- were used as demonstrative

prefixes to



pronominal adjectives and to adverbs. Eccu— is ecce eum; its origin being forgotten, it was used in

Vulgar Latin as a synonym of ecce. Met, primarily a suffix, came to be used as a prefix through such combinations as semet ipsum, understood as se metipsum. In archaic writings
reinforced demonstratives as eccum, eccam,


ecca, eccillum., eccillam, eccillud, eccistam

are not



Vulgar Latin examples are ac Classic texts they are rare. sic; atque ille-; ecce hie; * eccu iste ; * eccu sic. Substrate VI,





Cf. A.

Kohler, Die Partikel

ecce in

Archiv V,

See §§ 65, 66.



25. Ad-, con—, de-, dis—, ex—, in—, re— were freely used, disbeing mainly a Vulgar Latin prefix: abbreviare, G. 179 * a.d;

cap(i)tare ; adgenuculari, R. 181; adpretiare, R. 181, G. 180;
adpropiare, R. 181, G. 180; adunare, R. 182; confortare, R. 185,

* cominitiare ; complacere, R. 184; deaurare, G. 182 * disjejunare; exaltare, G. 183; excoriare, G. 182; impinguare, G. 181


G. 183; *infurcare; recapitulare, G. 185; *requcerere.
con—, de- lost their special significance;

Ad—, ad— was particularly

favored in Spain, con- in Italy.
ally there

Cf. Lat. Spr. 487.

was a change

of prefix


was used with the

sense of expectare, * convitare sometimes took the place of invitare; dis-

was often substituted

for ex-.


Ab-, contra-, per—, sub-, super supra-, tra trans— were

by Microsoft®

§ 3i]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


used occasionally: * aboculare ; *contrafacere; *perdonare ; subG. 185; * subdudere ; subsannare, R. 199, G. 187; superabundare, G. 187; * super—* suprafacere ; *trabucare ; *transaudire,

annare; transplantare, G. 188.
27. Extra- was sometimes used and 2«/ra— in Italy: * extrabuccare ; 28.
in Italy

and Dacia, infra-

* infraponere ; *intratenere.


e-, ob-, prce-,

pre-, pro-, retro— were apparently

not used to form new verbs in the popular spoken language,
although some of them are occasionally so employed by late
writers: opprobare, G. 184; prcedesiinare, G. 184


prolongare, G. 184.



sometimes replaced by ad—:


> addormire.

Foris and minus came to be used as prefixes in some

Foris was confounded Gaul with the Frankish _;?r- (= ver-) verslahen = Old Fr. See G. Baist, Frdnkisches fir— im altesten Franzosiforbatre. schen in Romanische Forschungen XII, 650; cf. Rom. XXX, For this use of minus, compare the phrase minus est^ 633. caritas in quantum adest in quantum deest, Regnier 109


* minuscredere.






autem minus


Cf. § 245.


Some verbs

take a double prefix

adimplere; coexcitare,

R. 207

(cf. Quintilian, coexercitatus); deexacerbare, R. 207

*deexcitare; *exeligere.




the restoration of the


form of

the primitive verb, was a regular process in Vulgar Latin (cf. §139): aspargo for aspergo is blamed by Velius Longus, £don

Cyprian, Bayard 3; commando is, according to Velius Longus, the usual form, rather than commendo,



used by


S. 60, ifidon

131; consacrati


occur in inscriptions,




Bon. 49°;

^^f^'^i ^30^°





An Introduction
Bon. 490.

to Vulgar Latin.



Computo, 58-64, Bon. 486-493. prdsto seem to cdnsto, consuo, erigo, exeo, infio,

have been regarded as simple verbs

S. 64.

primitive form of prefixes; but this

Late writers were in the habit of restoring the full, was doubtless merely a

matter of spelling, and did not indicate the



In TertuUian, Cyprian, and some others there is generally no assimilation of the prefix other writers, such as

Gregory of Tours, apparently used both assimilated and unassimilated forms. Bayard 12-15: adpetere, conpendium, inproius, obfero, subplanto. Bon. 178-188: adtonitus, conmittere,
inlatus, obprimere, subcuvibere.



in —are; occasionally


Nexhsfrom nouns^ generally end
sometimes in

in -iare or —ire;

which was eventually sup-

planted in Italy and in Gaul by —izare (for pronunciation see

§339)- This last ending came from Greek -dfiv through borrowed words, such as baptizare. For a list of Greek verbs in -i^etv adopted by Christian writers, see R. 248-249 (cf. §19 above); some new formations were used, as catechizare. In early Latin this same ending appears as -issare (attidsso, rhetorisso): see A. Funck, Die Verba auf issare und izare in

Archiv III, 398.


— * dom'nizare;

—plagiare —


oculare; pedinare; plantar.e; potionare; * trepaignire ;



follicare ;

* nivicare ;


Cooper 205-245, Dubois 151-162, Quillacq 41-46, Bonnet 471-474.

"Cf. R. 154-162.

by Microsoft®


§ 36]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

in —are,


Verbs from

and perfect participles e.r\A

—iare, —ire; also in' -icare (cf. albicare), —itare (cf. debilitare,
visitare), —escere


—iscere (cf. canescere, mollescere); possibly


angiistare; *ausare; captivare

confortare ; falsare

gravare ; levare ; * oblltare ; rictare ; Usare ; * abbellire ; tiare ; * captiare ; humiliare ;

— * vanitare —


alleviare; * al-

unire ;


Icetiscere ; vilescere ;

— amari— *blan-




verbs from perfect participles (frequentatives, etc.)

replace the original verbs: adjuvare "> adjutare ; audere'^ausare; canere'^cantare ; uti>usare.

lost their frequentative or inchoative sense







156. in -icqre


Verbs from other verbs end


fodere), —itare (cf. clamitare <,clamare')\ also in -escere, -Iscere
(cf. florescere,

* bullicare

< buUere





inchoative force:

apparescere ;

Vulgar Latin has many old frequentive verbs G. 178-179, Cooper 205. There are some late diminutives in —aculare, —tculare, -uculare, through diminutive nouns or adjecWe find also tives (ci. periculari <,periculum'): * saltlculare. some miscellaneous imitative formations * expaventare (and some others) apparently after the analogy of prasentare * misculare perhaps after maculare.


Greek verbs in -av,

-eiv, etc.,

when taken

into Latin, reg-

KvP€pvav>gubemare ; pXa(r<j}rifidv'>b/asphemare. Cf. Claussen 795. But ^aXS.av>psallere, perhaps through the analogy oifallere: Claussen 796. Germanic verbs in -an or -on regularly passed into the first


in —are:

conjugation in Latin





guidare ; roubon




"jR^etcA. ;

in -jan

went into the fourth
It. guamire. Digitized by Microsofi®


> hatire,


warnjan >

came to be used as a feminine singular: *facienda. . Cf. 74). socera. Cooper in. Pirson 123. *pollicare. etc. Vulgar in deriva- Petronius. used to designate a place (as gallinarium). too. 366. tives. iio-iii). Cooper 1-91. 39. essentia. —aria : see -ia. to form nouns from nouns: g. Quillacq 15-31. * credeniia . -ago. bonatus. taurellus. -die. -enda. iCf. was used. in a collective sense. R. 1 [§ 37 SUFFIXES FOR NOUWS. * calamarium. *ducatus. 6\. R. -are. in Italy and Gaul * canalia •< canis. Cf. Olcott 73-78. : -anda. Olcott 176-182. Bon. especially names of parts of apparel (as bracchiale). -ugo were characteristic of rustic speech: —al. Bon. Cf. Some go endings. used to — Haag 41 form f eminines nepta. *sperantia. 95. -ens: see Adjectives. -ans. are the following: : Ch. Dubois 99-136. the collective plural -ilia. G. Bon. -ar. Olcott 187-189. 31-37. The commonest endings -a. as senatus (common in Petronius. was extended: breviarium. Ch. used to form adjectives and also nouns. were used The Christian writers are especially rich Waters Ch. porcellus. -arius: see Adjectives. volatilia. made from present significantid). apparently. etc. were used to form abstract nouns from verbs: Cf. Ch.i in 37. e.. G. G. Digitized by Microsoft® .8 — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 40. 79-102. b. was extended: coxale. -affcum * coraticum. -igo. 49-52. Latin. neuter plural of the gerundive. 453-463. fragraniia . Olcott 238-239. was extended: clericatus. Waters Ch. -alia. as a feminine singular with an augmentative and pejorative signification. 95. as victualia (cf. was very fond of diminutives: adules- centulus. -antia. (as viaticum) was extended. placentia. 59. -entia. Cf. for nouns and adjectives: liminare. -dtus. participles H ia (as benevolentia. G. as miraUlia. a neuter plural. -dnus: see Adjectives. —ata : see -ta. 355. -arium. -^a.

as desiderium. -ia. . Bonica. Sardinia. So calamellus. -cius: see Adjectives.. abstract extended *fortia fortia n. and Rumanian: Sp. 283ff. Gram. animalico . G. lavacrum) were occasionally used: *genuculum. Einf. to form pi. —ens: see Adjectives. 481. and Nouveaux (aise no. -uc(c)us. XXXV. —eum : -ia. manica. XIX. which lost its diminutive force: anulus.- -culum. 333ff. § 173. II. It was often attached to words in -arius. ramenc . porcellus. Olcott 131-134. 19 -cellus. somewhat extended: Old Fr. 31-37. -tcca (as Bodicca. and came to be used as a diminutive suffix in Spanish. Horn- —iceus. etc. Cf. Cf. R. Cf. cf. Karica) first appears in Africa in feminine proper names. etc. It. navicella. -ensis: see Adjectives. used to form feminines (as avus. Les substantifs en -ier et le essais de philologie fran- Rom. Valinca. 457. see —ium. —ans. 91-92. Olcott 173-176. avicula. being used in pet names. XXXI. 335. consirier. —eus: see Adjectives. navi- —ceus. was used beside -cuius: So * domnicellus. -incus or -inguus (as propinguus). was often used beside -Ulus. 170. philosophia . wvicella. -ellus. 591. 1-2 1. unaccented. etc. Arbonenca.. -occus. —ceus. unaccented. was used for many new words: Pr.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. hence an ending -fflWa. diminutive (as castellum). For -accus. porculus. it was then extended to Spain. Thomas. It may have arisen in the first place from a childish pronunciation of -iclus.). see A. —tea: see Archiv fiir das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Litera: turen CXIV. Pr. : used (cf . XX. -enda : see —anda. etc.' *libraria. from Greek -ia through Christian writers and speakers monarchla. was mighty deeds of God Koff'. diminutive. vitulus. = ' nouns (as victoria). -entia : see -antia. ing in Zs. possibly of Ligurian origin (Rom. was probably Cf. vitellus. Portuguese. mane 76). cula. Rum. -ia. —icius: see Adjectives. -Mum. Digitized by Microsoft® solingo. Pir- son 123. -crum (as miraculum. -Tela. See A. avid): neptia. -iccus. and Dacia. anellus . perhaps also *-ingus and locally -ancus. suffixe -arius.

Cusanca. 343. used to form nouns from adjectives (as munditia -ies). from the Greek Cf. -iva : see Olcott 224-226. the i being short in Gaul. -otus. Nebitta. Olcott 123-131. were both are rare in Rumanian -ities especially in the south . Sp. serpentinus. Germanissa. especially -mentum : *gubernamentum. Florentinus . —monia: see Olcott 81-82. 56-59. amourette. some new formations: ^dukissa. -mum. so pythonissd). Pirson 228. camerlingo.20 Sp. Sagitta. was probably confounded. it was freely used. -laaa. etc. bonito. —itia. much extended. but sometimes to form new adjectives to form domnina = 'young lady'. Cf. . see —tUdo. was used for some nouns and perhaps for adjectives (see -incus above): Pr. (as paffiXurcra. following. Pirson 226: Julianeta^ Nonnita^ N'onniit Its origin is unknown. Olcott 78-80. *granditia. were extended. Olcott 200-204. etc. fioretto. then resemblance. grassetto. -Uies. Cf. Zs. masculine Muritta. Raetia. as a suffix for proper names: feminine tus. Attitta. An It Introduction to Vulgar Latin. It. regards -dttus. Zimmermann. then smallness. -tnus (as caninus. in [§ 37 some regions. -monium.. W. like littera beside litera. adjectives. Cooper 251. originally used to indicate a characteristic (as Digitized btbo). Fr. (Cooper XLV): *altitia. Einf. may have arisen from a childish pronun- ciation of -iclus -a: it may Meyer-Liibke. doucet. Sp. Bonitta^ Caritta^ Julitta^ Livitta^ Suavitta. was used for prophetissa. conjectures that have come from the Germanic ending that now appears as in such names as Heinz. Montaninus) originally denoted appurtenance. -io : 134-136. R. -men. -dttus as alternative Sardinia: nouns. Cf. a German patronymic ending. Cf. A. generally long in the Spanish peninsula and in -Ittus. R. 251. and central and northern Italy. Olcott see -iio. in inscriptions in Italy -ittus first appears during the Empire and Dacia. bacito. -0 {-onem). forms of -dtus. It came to be very widely used as a diminutive suffix for nouns. cf. vestimenium). § 172. li. used to form nouns from verbs (as certdmen. 22-25. lausenga. -issa. -eum (as cafitium. -ttas : see —tas. was by Microsoft® . with the -ing. -itUdo : —ium. especially : diminutive nouns. -mentum.. etc. -icca. -lius. and also for adjectives. Fr. calcaneum) : see G. sometimes in Spain and Gaul. XXVIII.

beveire. e. etc. was apparently used : first of young animals. remissa. and other late writers: abbreviatio.). as *annatd). used to form from verbs nouns denoting place. and were reinforced —ta. -sionem). used to designate the agent -orium . Cf. were very freely employed (but show few traces in Ru- manian : Cooper XLV) : necdtor. 88-122. was freely employed :ya/jfi'aj. *vendita. It. origin (cf. They were considerably used to make abstract nouns from verbs (and —ata was sometimes attached to nouns. especially in Gaul: dulcor. Pr. aquilotto. Olcott amdtor. as collectus. G. 503-504 {dolor. So deitas from deus. Substrate IV. In Gaul these nouns came to be feminine: Bon.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. C. 85- Bayard 24-25. as an augmentative or pejorative. aiglon. boccone. was employed for many new formations of the same kind. R. —sor (—torem.. Fr. someDigitized by Microsoft® . -tricem. etc. used to make abstract nouns from adjectives. lectio. 453. Olcott 2-23. prensio. -sio i^tionem. used to denote the agent (as Cf. *movita. Cf. -tus. used to form abstract nouns (as candor. 475. XIII. *nutritio. 415. purltas . 88. —sorium: see —torium. ostensor. Olcott 83-87. in. used as nouns. 44-45. 63. nativitas . -Sttus. timor. G. viror. -iita. R. casotta. 223. sapor). —sa : see —ia. feminine perfect participles with a feminine noun understood. common in St. —sus. —Stus. of see -tor. aggravatio. *perdtta. : -or (-orem). 69-82. *flator. *deUta. venuta. trinitas. used to form abstract nouns from verbs (as mansio. -(orium. —tas {-tdtem). andata. perfect participles by fourth declension nouns in -tus. 122. Olcott 58-69. St. Cyprian. -sa.G. Bayard 19-22. —tor. G. i. —trix. -ittus). recubitus . -or {-oreni). unknown etc. —sio : see -ito.. Cf.fossato. 102-106. Gaul often as a 56. Cf. -sorium. in 21 commonly employed diminutive: g&lo. See Archiv V. 45-56. G. —sor: see -ior. -sus: see —ta. *reddita. Cyprian). R. 222. *sentor. G. mensor). are very common in St. —sura: see —ilra. : extensa. started perhaps with such forms as defensa. revoluUo. Olcott 33-51. *lucor. 55-63. later -dta. trobaire. ostensio. narraius: cf. *flavor. R. Collin in Archiv XIII. -tus and -j«j were preferred in Dacia (Cooper XLV) collecta. It. potto). then as a general moderate diminutive It. Jerome. Bayard 19-22 (very -tio. 82-83. see —torium. 83. -sorem).

-as in popular words generally > lampa. 88-90. diminutive (as vitulus). Digitized by Microsoft® . gave oleum. etc. Bon. -IS often clvain'^ sinapis. '^planura. -T7)s became -a. R.: : : 22 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -tura : see —ura. the -OS. nutritura. —a. from adjectives was extended. -tus (Claussen 798): rpiiKTijs '^ irucia . see —ta. kviuj. etc. ossulum. -s-iira. -11. pressura. Kbii. ^6-gy. Cf. 38. boletus. sinape . often taking the place of —culum (cubiculum much > accubitorium) (as *C(ssorium. ^•vir'dura. -Ala. ornatura. tensura. instead of the nominative (Claussen 800-802): iXi^avros'^ elepliantus . -tuda (-tiidinem). were tended. oratorium. used to form abstract nouns from perfect participles (as censura. -e. -um : Claussen 796. fell popular words either or became -a. -aius. was used for a few new formations *alaudula. used to fortitudd). *frig' dura . : became -a. *certitudo. [§ 38 ex- times instrument (as dormitorium. -pa cima. Cf. —tus: see -ta. payLda'^ -(an in magida. ixrikiipvWov. or -i (Claussen 799) TT^Trepi'^ piper. 40-45. Einf. influenced by olere. mesSee sura.)u~^ gumma. G. natatorium. § 171. -ura and -t-ura. popular words became -o (Claussen 797) X^wi'> lea. -is. instead of -is (Claussen 798) pausis "^pausa. There are a few exceptions for special reasons (Claussen 795) cXaiop. -ta or -us. in popular words gave a feminine -ma (Claussen 796-797) > f -pos preceded by a consonant became -fr (Claussen : 797): 'AWfai'5po$>- Alexander. : gummi-s. Olcott 69-73. : in late Latin often replacing -or {fervor > *fervurd) were extended. When Greek nouns were endings were adapted as follows: — borrowed by Latin. Olcott 194-196. 197. -iita: Cf. 31-37. stricturd). Olcott 51-58. ^pressorium. mensorium. missorium. gave : millefolium. reposito- rium. Sometimes the genitive or the accusative was taken as a basis. > p6KLT-qs -I in became -a (Claussen 798-799) : Xa/iirds -7)S. cursorium). -ov regularly became respectively -us. G. later from adjectives also. R. by popular etymology. make abstract nouns servitudo.

. Olcott 226-238. Wolfflin. —artcius. * setaceus . used also in the masculine to gentarius. Quillacq 32-40. were extended: *cortilis. tempaccio. episcopalis. imaginarius . 164-195). pelliceus). -tlis. *ducaHs. -entem). Romanus). The phonetic development of this suffix was apparently Gaul and some other regions the earliest examples are glan: 'Cf. Bechtel 83. -ens {-an/em. -iceus -ictus. It. pomarius). erroneus) were slightly ex- tended: *caroneus. Olcott 182-187. 144. -Sris (as singularis) was extended: particularis. denoting appurtenance (as paganus. attached to nouns Cf. Mapa"^ cithara ciihlra. spontaneus. Digitized by Microsoft® . present participles (as amans. Cooper 92-163 (diminutives. K^paffos : "^cerd-sus *cerSsus. *Sicilianus. -aceus being employed later as an augmentative and pejorative suffix for adjectives and finally for nouns: chartaceus formaceus . geniilis). G. and adjectives. used to make from nouns adjectives denoting material (as arenaceus. Bechtel 83.). was used to form adjectives of place (occasionally time) and nouns of office: biduanus. were extended (especially in rustic speech: Cooper iii). peculiar in — apothecarius *marinarius. »?«i/«a»2«. -actus -actus. Olcott 137-173. 415. a combination of —arius — *capiianus. to denote connection. 143. 23 The unaccented vowel of the penult was often changed in conformity with Latin habits (Claussen 802-806) Sl&^oKos'^ diabolus diabulus. etc. arespecially in the latter function: . aKfnriKot'^ scopulus . Die Adjectiva auf -icius in Archiv V. mixticius. : see A. were used freely to ^ currens . *leviarius. -arius. decanus. 464-467. —dneus -anius. -dlis. Eon. -ans. See E. —anus. -oneus —onius (as extraneus. Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise etc. *werrarius. popular in Gaul 62 (Hacherece. poiens). became and —icius (as sigillaricius). and form nouns of occupation (as aquarius. c. '^passans^ make adjectives and nouns from verbs: credens. Dubois 136-151. G. Cf.i are the following: 39« The commonest endings : — —abllis see —hilis. SUFFIXES FOR ADJECTIVES. Tuscanus. Thomas. § 39] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. regalis. iTTroTiiXij "^spatula. Cf. was much extended. used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as Cf. Olcott 215-220.

used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as/orenwas greatly extended. XXI. —ceus -cius : see -iceus. 591. querceus. capabilis. Marchot. turrensis. and was much employed rare. the derivatives being sometimes employed as nouns * cortensis . suggests that the Germans in Gaul associated -arius with their proper names in -areis 01 —ari. On the other hand. that -iarius was a. G. Cf. denoting material (as aureus). e. then —iers. points out that many words have c. *faiatus. *Frankensis. 135-140. 137. -ier. too. Zimmermann. Cf. the derivative was sometimes used as a noun: panne us . and when umlaut affected the a of these. by the analogy of the plural -ari. or -dbilis. R. 155. R. P. was much used to : make ratus. Chairibertus repeatedly used for Charibertus by Fredegarius Haag 7. —ens : see —ans. I. pronounced —arius. a perfect participle ending (as sceleraius). XXVI. G. Cf. 481 (cf. 296 (cf. the Proven9al cannot. Cf. Phon. or i before the a. and that this pronunciation spread to the neo-Latin speakers. postulates -ar(i)us and -er{i)us.. Le suffixe -arius dans les langues romanes. real suffix (cf. vallensis. Olcott 339-344. that -iarius and —carius may have established —iers in French. E. -ensis. *pagensis. G. diligibilis . and Bausteine 641). especially in learned words it is Rumanian (Cooper XLV) acceptabilis . 34-36). —iero are probably borrowed. : tabilis . XXXI. showing that while the French forms may perhaps be derived from -arius and -iarius. however. -er. G. A.' exauguratus. § 227. -bUis. Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise 119.24 deria <i_ An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. G. —iceus —icius: see dcetts. Staaff. is . Rom. fageus. rare in — -{bUis : see —bilis. sis). — ia (6th century) and sorcerus <C^* sortiarius (8th century) the earliest forms in French and Provenyal are —ers. indicibilis.^* markensis . especially in popular speech. -atus. was slightly extended (but is Rumanian: Cooper XLV). Digitized by Microsoft® . -tbilis. Zs. anaiiarius. Italian —aro is easily explained and Italian —iere. I. 222. *cariierribilis). Thomas. 109-116. Die Geschichte des lateinischen Suffixes — arius in den romaniscken Sprachen^ and E. Olcott 209-213. try to derive all the forms from -arius. -i [§ 39 glandarius . adjectives in the popular language: Cf. from verbs (as amabilis. in an objective suffix used to make adjectives very common in Christian writers in late Latin. as -erius or —erus. Zimmermann. i^t. Spanish -ero and Italian -aio are perfectly regular. Zs. Gram. Olcott 142). 159-160. papyrius. timo- Olcott 244-250. : -eus -ius.

).' 40. Cf Olcott . G. — . donique in cites eight examples of dune. in St. etc. -ittus: see Nouns. -iscus. -ulus. —s-or H ius (as notare notor notorius. 193-197 {angelice. is Archiv I. § 40] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. —ce -c (as ne nee. sliglitly -idus (as rapidus) was extended: exsucidus. sapidus. ? I. dune The usual endings are as follows: — num nunc. one of them from Gaul. 103-106. with the or of sense of -Wlis the gerundive: Pr. Bon. were used for some new formations: defensorius In Provengal and Rumanian -torius was extended. Cooper 196-204. '*Frankiscus. 157-158. -orius: see -iorius. volon. way: -e cf. —Andus (as jocundus) was used in Spanish and Proven9al for a few words Pr. Gram. was used for -icus in some late words: *Angliscus. SUFFIXES FOR ADVERBS. I. Tiktin 597. new formations : *restivus. was a favorite with Christian writers. punidor. : d. L. 241. diminutive (as albulus). -uius (as canutus) was somewhat extended: *camutus. juratoriH. G. 552. promptulus. censere censor censorius). very common Jerome: G. Possibly *anc is derived from an in the same Substrate II. Franz. 467-470. = + . -oneus : see —dneus. lo) Pirson 252 IX. —sorius: see —tortus —tortus. Digitized by Microsoft® . Rum. -inus {as fraxinus) was used for a few adjectives: quercinus. Ill. 155 (Tertullian)j *npidus. 158. mansorius. -sorius. etc. turn tunc) was apparently used to form dum ce (cf. was used especially in words 25 : -icus (as medicus) cus.. It was 'Cf. ~ius : see —eus. Olcott 220-223. probably a fusion of Greek -ktkos {Syriscus) and Germanic -isk (Thiudiscus). from the Greek cleri- Cf. —ilis: see —dlis. 4810.) Cf. Dubois 163-171. G. Cf. (C. made up of -t-or. -ivus (as nativus) occurs in a few 224-226. -inus : see Nouns.

337. 42. Some lons. Jerome. Cyprian (Bayard 32-34). common in other late writers: clanculo. They are rare in St. alto. are to be found in Petronius 37. Adverbs of manner came to be made with the ablative This noun was first used with an adjective to denote a state of mind. -um generally coincided in pronunciation (multum = multo. XXX. 197-201 infantiliter. adverbial phrases on the model : ad .). G. etc. bocconi. now now so.' cf. as forti mente. -iter: see -ter. It. a recu230. 339- Repetition was used. XXIX. II. obstinata mente. caldo. § SS- 41. Fr. Ch. and occurs also in Romanice. -tim was favored by St. [§ 41 preserved in popular speech in bene. whence such formations as Brittanice. etc. Normannice. Ch. 487. Cf. 45 . as sometimes in Classic Latin. for emphatic effect. Ch.). but rata. mente. Digitized by Microsoft® . Later. Many such mon speech. Zs. Then it was employed in a more general sense: pari mente. It. being especially common in St. poco. jocunda mente. chiaro. and in Rumanian nearly all adjectives may be so used (as greii. however. to adverbs: insiememente. 46. *mala mente. etc. This formation is not common. mente was used with any adjective that could make an adverb of manner. tarde. noii). multum. Reich. but was not kept alive in popular Latin. adverbs were preserved in comhence other ad- jectives came to be used as adverbs (as W. 428. Rom. Gl. pure. XXXIII. basso. 689. *bona mente. perhaps after the Vulgar Latin period. soave).26 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. . a ginocchioni. -ones (in Italy also with- out the preposition) came into use Cf. Lat. * ipsa mente. Ch. piano. Cyprian (Bayard 34-35) and some other : writers. firma mente. forte. * longa mente. 58. Many examples so. . sola mente. as It. -ter (as brevUer) was not preserved in common speech. Fr. 245. male. Spr. Gram. -0 and etc. modo sic modo sic^ nee sursum nee deorsum non cresco. longe. though much used in ecclesiastical Latin (G. in Rumanian.' ' Waters Ch. In the Romance languages mente was sometimes added comment. : modo modo =^ •only yesterday.

e. venenum"^ *veninum. sortcem *sortcem. cauda- Cohn —Ic'eus —icius ^=. etc. lanatus lanutus. carnatus *carnutus. 460. Cohn 1 51-154. Cohn 219-226. Digitized Cohn 274-291. Cf. R." App. -drius: see Suffixes for Adjectives. The popular language sometimes manuplus for another. Cohn 42— 52. 460. -tc-aius *lenficiila. 42. by Microsoft® . R. extraneus * extranus . —iilus'^—ellus: aniilus'^ anellus . 460. Cf. (3) Alteration of a suffix: — Cf. Cf. (2) Indiscriminate use of two suffixes: — Cf." —enus'^-inus: "Byzacenus non Byzacinus. 27 CHANGE OF SUFFIX. Cf. subterraneus ^ subterranus. loquela per unum /. Cohn 213I. Cohn 30-31. Cohn 184. Cohn = -ix(-icem): Cohn 147-151. -iculus =z -UcJilus : ossiculum ossMculum. -drius. Waters Ch. 131. 227. Caper (Keil VII. -iceus -icius 184. Cohn -tius'^-itus : vacuus'^*v(lcitus (cf. 65.§ 42] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cohn 172-180. -elus"^ -ellus (common in late Latin): camelus'^ camellus. etc. Cf. —cuius !> cHlus : see -tllus. Cf. suadela"^ suadHla. rancor"^* ran- > > cilra. ~or(—drem)'^-ura: calor'^*calura. loquela'^ loquella. : ericius *eruius. Cohn 41-42. Corssen S. -ix(-icem) consilium * consilium. substitutes one suffix for manipulus. 460. as are: — The principal types (1) Subsitution of a : rare one -alius — new or common suffix for an old or > -callus : see -tllas. Cf. pavoT~^*pavura. Cohn 180-205. querela'^ guerilla. 17-28. R. peduculus. 96): "querela. § 195). etc. 216. —dnus^—dneus: Cohn 160-172. -ex(-ecem) -ix(-uem) : vervecem berbicem. lenHc-Ula Cf. Cf. —dtuszzz—ttus=:i—utus: barbatus '^barbutus . -ilius =^ -ilius : 154-160. tus cauditus.. -^ —iciilus : capUHlus * capttulus . 321. famtlia */amtlia. cornlciila *cornuula. pediculus Cf. R. Pr. —tllus^—ellus: axtlla"^ ascella. avicUla'^ avicllla.

Bon. 484. 4. . etc. mentaver) minus pretiare. Cake pistare. incus incudo * inciimtnem. Reich. Bechtel loi. R. -udo i^udtneni)'^ -umen (-iimtnem) : consuetudo *costumen. a longe. late pronunciation of [§ 47 -enus'^-lnus through sagina {Vok. —iculus ? ^^'—Hciilus : genuciclum .. inde fUgere (> Fr. c. as mortificare: e. uniunigenitus . 483. Bechtel loi. G. . in Gl. d. Bechtel loi ad semel. etc. HOUWS. PRONOUNS. G. bene placitum. COMPOUNDS. Acer arbor (> Fr. R. VERBS. flectere. ^ranucula. 191. etc. 483. 232. Bon. avis struthius. /oris mittere. a /oris. 'just now'. 231. 203. 426 ad mane.. 130-134. R. ab olim. . a foras. erable) alba spina. bis coctum. Cf. enfuir). saine. 46. intra videre. 47. Cohn 226—264. Bechtel loi ad horam 'presently'. Bon. a. 43. i<)i\ 45. a modo. ADVERBS. R. 483. were popular. omnimodus . 131. ab intus. 234. style. See §§ 24. Bon. b. 231. There were many compounds made up of a preposition and an adverb: ab ante. G. genu- G. 190. Cf.28 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. manu So tenere. I. in odio^ loco. ij as i: uayijv))'^ 7th century) "^ > Old Fr. Bon. G. 121 : Greek etc. Substrate 553-554. But male habitus. antemittere. mente habere (> Pr. a semel. — = . etc. crucifigere. Bechtel loi. Digitized by Microsoft® . Bechtel loi. ad subito. 160-170: magnisonans . These compounds generally belonged to the literary G. In church writers there are G. etc. many verbs in -ficare. medio die. Cohn 264-274. Ill. . 65. cornis. a contra. 194. Bechtel loi. 44. medio ADJECTIVES. ad sero. 483.

R. G.13. 75. ^ Romance da. Bon. in is Archiv I. Bon. dat and from a southern Latin *dadl. 484. ad — — R. Raetian dad from the Oscan da. de magis. still different nature : ac Per. 484. 72. de intus. Bechtel loi. Per. is de+ab. da. Bechtel 102. * in semel. Lat. Spr. Spr. R. 268. Lexique 38-47. R. de intus. 233. G. de retro. Bon. Bechtel 102. de intra. R. in contra^ Petronius (Waters Ch. e contra. 235. were used as prepositions: ab ante. doe. 232. et Per. 484. and some others similar to them. compounds.— 49] — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 203. et at ubi. 23S. says da . Slightly different intus in. 85. Bechtel loi.these adverbial Some 40. ex tunc. in hodie. CONJUHCTIONS. de deorsum. Wolfflin.. In any case probably a late product. At ubi and ad ubi. 68. Cf. 203. de sursum.17. PREPOSITIONS. Per. Sardinian dave. * dabe. in ante. 426. 39. usque hodie. etc. de retro. 203. following compounds are of a sic. 487. Mohl.28. G. in ante.15. and ad. R. 232. Some compounds two prepositions: * de ad {y. de sub. etc. R. 232. 29 tunc. and Old Sp. 203. Digitized by Microsoft® . The sic. 49. Abante. Haag 75. de inter. R. Per. 487. de contra. 232. Bon.3. Lexique 48.. de semel. 38) says: Ubi semel res inclinata amici de medio. R. consist of Bechtel 102. Bechtel loi. Bechtel 102.). etc. d^ ante. Bechtel 102. Bechtel medio. Lat. 235.19. dad may be it is the result of a fusion rather than a combination of de Some have thought it came from found from the 7th century on he would derive It. Bechtel 102. Bechtel 102. 437. is A compound made up of preposition + noun found in: in giro (followed 102. per girum zxiA per giro ^ circa. G. in by the ablative or the accusative). Substrate III. 74. 433. day-. de post. f. de forts. de super. 40. Bechtel 102. g. in mane.8. G. in contra. It. of . E. 484-486 (cf.

but psychic. See Meyer-Liibke. for a comprehensive account of Romance See Elise Richter. 50. is logical. and were not characteristic of daily speech. Spr.^ is The Romance order of simpler and more rational than that Classic Latin. Zur Eniwicklung der romanischen Wortsiellitng aus dcr lateinischen. proceeding from the exemplified The modern order is the known to the unknown. however. SYNTAX/ A. ORDER OF WORDS. by this sentence : The ^ ^ old arrangement " Fabius syptax. such as the prepand the word it governs. so to speak. is not primarily rhythmic. the difference being due to a diverse conception of the structure of language: Latin places the modifier before. Gram. Nevertheless there is really a fundamental difference between the old order and the new: Romance has. a crescendo. The principle." allow the collocation words of the same part of speech that belong logically in different places. 491). The most irrational features of the Classic Latin construction were surely artifical. Ill. 1903. byMicrosoft® . Romance more after the word modified. Latin in the middle. It does not permit the arbitrary- separation of osition noun of it members that belong together. Latin to a certain extent a diminuendo movement {^Lat. Romance puts the emphasis at the end of the sentence.II. from which work most of the matter of Digitized this chapter was taken. as in the "In multis hoc rebus dicere habemus" of Lucretius. or the adjective and the modifies. as in Ovid's "In nova fert animus mutatas Neither does it dicere formas /corpora.

there was a long struggle. especially in Cicero. quod sanctus Moyses ascendit in montem Domini. with generally increasing frequency. There first. in inscriptions and popular writers. from the earliest texts down . 490). and for centuries the ancient and the modern type were used side by side. Petronius has notably short periods and an approach to the new structure. et fuit ibi quadraginta diebus et quadraginta noctibus" i^Per. 51 • old.21-24). was always a tendency to put a stressed word followed by an unaccented one. hoc peccatum eorum" {Exodus XXXII. But until the fourth century the majority of Latin sentences have the old arrangement. 37. such as a connective or an atonic pronoun {Lat. The modern order was not abruptly substituted for the On the contrary. It is indigenous in Latin. delebo eum de libro meo. Classic Latin may be said to represent an in- termediate stage.§ 52] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin." "Hasc loca sunt The change constitutes a progress in language ." The following examples illustrate the later structure: "Mors perfecit tua ut essent et natura montuosa impedita ad rem militarem. in qua filii Israhel commorati sunt his diebus. which independently effected the same transformation. tu autem vade. from the Peregrinatio : "Hasc est autem vallis ingens et planissima. visitabo et : 52. 33. while the revolution was in progress. it occurs sporadically also in literary authors. not imitated from the Greek. By the fourth century Here is a characteristic passage the new order prevailed. all cultivated peoples have made it." omnia brevia. 34). Digitized According to Meyer- by Microsoft® . it is to be found in Latin. angelus meus praecedet te. The following is a good sample of the style of the Vulgate: "Cui respondit Dominus Qui peccaverit mihi. Spr. 31 sequatus imperio Hannibalern et virtute et fortuna superiorem vidit. et due populum istum quo locutus sum Ego autem in die ultionis tibi.

vedolo but le non lo vedo. of inflections. B. bonis bonis. Fr. which were naturally of less im- portance. when unstressed. I. voit definite article. [§ 55 XXI. fortis fortis. see the 55. and so cf. morir adverbs precede their verb . the old order survived longer than in independent. Wolfflin 4 bene bene. and were attached preferably to the first word in the sentence : . 280. noun in all the The Romance languages except Rumanian and Albanian (Zauner 40). malum malum. precedes its but qui le voit. Many uses of prepoconnected with the loss of inflections: these will be discussed under the Use of Inflections. In a few other respects the old arrangement lingered and under certain conditions is still preserved . NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. Zs.32 Liibke. prepositions.. Use of In- Repetition writers : for intensive effect is not uncommon . aiutatemi but or m'aiutate . and sometimes the whole predicate precedes in certain constructions the dependent infinitive may stand before the finite verb (as Pr. In dependent clauses. etc. Cf. R. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. however. were always enclitic in Latin. 313. : negative and intensive under some circumstances the object may come before the verb. 54- USE OF WORDS. sitions are There were great changes in the functions of pronouns. personal pronouns. volgra).For the simplification flections. §40. Digitized by Microsoft® . in late Commodian. it was in the early stages of the Romance languages It. 53. malus malus. and adverbs. conjunctions. indefinite article developed out of ille A definite and an and unus.

magis . . melius sanus (Wolfflin 16). Digitized by Microsoft® . //wj levior.. and also for a positive. but no example of has been found. Cf. plus popularis. Sepulcri 232 . maxime pessima. in Many use. common Adverbs. etc. magis melior. Anplus congruus and maxime congruus (Wolfflin 16. Vitruvius. 415—417). a. substitute for the superlative In the Romance languages a was made by prefixing the defiit nite article to the comparative. plus felix. R. old comparative forms remained. prceclarum. toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period. as Plautus. From early times certain periphrases were used to emphasize the thiravLS. frequently in late and popular writers • For the forms of numerals.. 451. .§ 57] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 280). To avoid ambiguity. see Morphology. and in hie estfilius mens carissimus. however.' lepida 57. WUMERALS. is likely that this device it existed in late Vulgar Latin. 33 COMPARISON. b. BOn. etc. as Ovid's inertioratas (Wolfflin 63-68). as their precise sense in St. as omnium levior (Wolfflin 68-71). 166-170. plus formosus in Nemasianus. Finally. Unus was used as an indefinite article. in Sidonius Apollinaris (Wolfflin 29). etc. (Wolfflin 47). etc. cf. plus dulce. and the superlative was often really a positive in meaning. the plus and magis constructions were employed more and more to express a distinct comparison plus : miser in Tertullian. comparative idea. 56. (R. Augustine's sancta atque dulcissima (Wolfflin 57-63). Commodian. etc. (Wolfflin 46). Little by little the old comparative and superlative lost 1 from being employed frequently with merely an intensive force (Wolfiflin 83). See Archiv VIII. occasionally in : Classic Latin. The comparative came to be used for a superlative. this formation came to be popularly regarded as the regular one: magis mirabilem.

en. Digitized by Microsoft® . There was great irregularity in the use of reflexives. 25. . Ego and common in Petronius. G. Petronius. in Classic Latin : 59. Is. according as they were accented or unaccented (as suus and sus): see Morphology. where it was not recog- 62. the combination eccum {^=ecce eum). PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. Per. 48. Dubois 333-336b. too. . . The personal pronouns came into more and more fre- quent use. . being replaced by ille For the encroachment of ipse on idem. tu are very 60. and 104. 26. [§ 62 una etc. exinde-='¥x. see Hoppe Bayard 133. ipse. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The demonstratives. See Lat. Idem went out of popular use. Hoppe 102-103. Regnier 10. Many pronouns developed double forms. 58. 580. . were apparently not century. 425 cf. §158. 408-409. was often replaced by ille and ipse (Bechtel and eventually was preserved in vulgar speech only in 145). especially ilk. Plautus. 948 accessit unus servus. The adverb inde : occasionally as a genitive neuter pronoun came to be used nemo inde dubitat. 489. adeum una sorella. Pronouns were much more used than G. 403-404. suus being generally substituted for ejus. much used in popular speech after the fifth 2. Bon. Cf. a. PRONOUNS. Spr. 61. Pseud. . An . DEMONSTRATIVES. were employed as personal pro- nouns of the third person.34 . mulier. R. except a few of the smallest. Ordinal numerals. Waters Ch. especially the possessives.

Eeee and eeeum (pronounced eceu) were used as demon- strative prefixes (cf. eeee tu. G. meaning 'it' or 'that. in id ipsam rem. such combinations being until the probably not reached Vulgar Latin period. and iste 405-406. with the exception of the neuter hoe. Ascoli. Toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period hie was apparently going out of 63. Mil. common 64. R. atque is est (^Stiehus 582). eeeu" was some regions. influenced in 1 Cf Plautus. atque ipse illie est {^Epidicus 91). iste ipse. 424-425. Atque. • A combination of two demonstratives was : common in Christian writers iste hie. R. maintains that eceu' was the basis in all the Empire. R. in id ipsum monastyriu. ille ipse.). Franz. eeee nunc. Intorno ai continuatori neolatini del "ipsu-" in Arehivio glottologieo italiano XV. nized. This last compound was used as a neuter pronoun. aquesse.^- desso). is the fusion of the two parts into one word. 25 : " Ubi tu's ? — Eccum. The last three have left no trace. 3 II. 3 II. where likewise the id lost its significance. Catalan aqueix. §24): hie.-- ipse ille.' as id ipsum sapite. lat. was perhaps used as a prefix (^Gram. 65. 303 (discussing Sp. Hie. also eeee iste. I. by atque or ae (as in ac sic). 407. were confused by late writers (Bayard 132)." Digitized by Microsoft® . generally invariable. 646): in Plautus. 2. common The end Plautus. aquese. etc. ille. 424. . Glor. Bayard 130-132). G. came to be used indiscriminately (G. there are examples of iste for hie in Caesar's time (Densusianu 178). Pg. Quillacq 126). 35 and in the extremely common phrase idipsum (>It. especially in Spain and southern Gaul. too. however. 2. of the final stage. eeee ille. hie ipse. At any rate. as id ipsum velatn. is ipse.§ 65] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. eeee we find early eeee ego. iste ille. use. and also as a demonstrative adjective. too. Hie and is. 424 (cf. II. Franz. Hoppe 104.

484). Ego met ipse is blamed by Donatus {Lat. 36 An When iste Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The forms were greatly confused by late writers. pi. the masculine qui tooV in inscriptions. In Bon. §24. . Petronius: Waters Ch. ' this ' eccHste or eccu'tste. means infrequent: hie. as ace.. 391-396 we find qui used as n. 66. and pi.. * celle. sg. This use of ipse. 423—425. were used also as definite Ille in this function very common: R. 419-420 {cito proferte mihi stolam illam primam). pi. became * metipsimus. * eccuelle. 67. with the prefix met-. Cf. were used as personal pronouns of the third person. especially ille. quod as m. c. as ace. ille lost [§ 69 and their distinctive force. m. Beside ipse. semet ipsum {Philip. 276 {qui. * accelle. (395-396). hie. Ille.). as f. * cue lie. II. it is Furthermore. as 69. sg. In popular speech qui was apparently used regularly for . * cueste and * eccelle. etc. These compounds developed into * ecceste. : common Audollent 549. is. f. Spr.. by Microsoft® . is. 423 {in ipsa multitudine). . R. is was probably more literary than popular. becoming metipse through such combinations as temet ipsum {Ecclus.. Bon. pi.. ipse. 391-392. as n. * ceste. 427 (iiirum hujic cujus est zona hcBc). * accueste.. guem quis qua very often as n. 69. tions from the fifth century on Digitized cf. : the place of the feminine quce it occurs in Christian inscripR. 68. R. * eccueste. Quillacq 126-127. 8). XXX. as n. quern for quce. The ipsemet suffix -met was used also as an intensive prefix. quce as m. INTERROGATIVES AND RELATIVES. pi. for * accuelle. ipse.. articles. 22). * accesie. n. hie. Ille. people said for ' ' that eccHlle or eccu'ille. there was an emphatic form ipsimus (used by This. Examples of the others are by no R. is is Cf. § 60.

and eventually * de unde. This confusion is more frequent in late Latin: St. *caf itnus. alques. Cf. etc. *d'unde. The principal indefinite pronouns 71- and adjectives used G. 393. and some new compounds were made. 580. Pg. *nec ente or *ne ente was apparently used as an equivalent for nihil. inde came to mean. Archiv I. Some Classic Latin pronouns fell into disuse. was employed as a relative pronoun. 25. quid: Archiv I. Cf. quern Quid. 528 a. in certain constructions. and was used as an interrogative and The adverb unde came to have occasionally the meaning of French dont (Bon. d. Jerome. 178). Gram. 485. nee unus. Spr. mDEFHTITE PRONOUNS. in Italy. gradually encroached on quod: Bon. alguem. chants.' > = ^ magis: see plus. Bon. as a relative. cata tres Hence *cata anus. 394 (^qui f. cata was probably introduced.. hdmo was used sometimes like French on: Per. There may have been a neuter *alid. 37 quam). in such phrases as cata unum Kaf tva. omnis: see totus. G. § 84. 55. Meyer-Liibke. in Italy. and f. alius filius.§ 7i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. d. 650.). *ne^ps^unus. 53 {^qui for quce in 70. moreover. 390-391. and Dacia: Lat. 415- in late popular speech are as follows : — aliquanti took the place of aliqui and aliquot: aliquanta oppida aliquis flourished especially in the west: Sp. Snus *aliqu'ilnus * alicUnus. Beiheft 7. mUltus. Omnis and omnia were kept Digitized by Microsoft® . 416. conjectures *ne inde. II. by Greek merxard Tfth. nemo was kept nUllus. § 19. 51. alguien. Haag f. along the Mediterranean. G.). Sardinia. 'some' or 'any. nemo judical alterum. cepit. Qualis was kept. pi. Plautus. sg. Zs. after the model of id. and alter viere confused in common speech: G. 415-417. 237. 417. The neuter aliquid was more extended aliqui alius : Pr. ^ne ipse icnus.

G. 427. 121) and perhaps *tuttus. There finitive. qualis. 692. a pleonastic use of debeo. § 53. (2). Bechtel 143. 414. [§ 73 plus and magis were confused: tenetur tanto plus timetur. iinus. which" and the ibi 73. 409-411). custodire debeant. ubi being used for quo. «»w. tantis lacri- 413-415 qui. Claudian. totis horis. is often used pleonastically Bayard 99-100. too. (St. tantus totus. 403). Propertius: Densusianu 179. . Regnier 108-109 {guanto plus quantus. 204. 402-403 ifota tormenta diaboli in me veniant. 691-693: commonens ut 72. is . 212. Cf. 109). VERBS. : 4. quique. talis. Frequent in late Latin Bon. being used for quisquis and quicumque (Bayard res and : res nata = ' anyone '. tot. also a common pleonastic use of coepi with the in- instead of the perfect: see § 124. There are examples as early as Drager 104. G. . Unde was employed by Microsoft® in the sense of Digitized . quanti justi esuriunt. 415). quhquis. was sometimes used for omnis : Plautus. § 1 1 7. Glor.38 faucus. Jerome. ' : (G. quts. Cf. for eo: Lat. Cf. This use was common in late Latin: Densusianu 178. R. Quisque was much extended 135). An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. §§ 163. G. Videri. tantus replaced quot. quisque. 3. 345. ADVERBS. 338. Compare the old is Italian use of dovere. 488. The words referring to the "place in "place into which" were confused. ' anything R. pronounced also tottus (S. 336-337. Spr. R. see quantus. Mil. persona.

and magis for potius: Bayard no. for ne with the subjunctive common: G. 342 . and others by Microsoft® . Regnier no. 395. of Inflections. nee de cubiculo . Terence.§ 78] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The functions of prepositions were very much extended not found in (Bayard 137-158): see Use 77. G.14. . having been replaced by on. Die amice unde tristis es. muri de lapide de adversario vivo de deeimis. nihil. PREPOSITIONS. cf. also 'therefore' and 'where84. Totum occurs often as an adverb: places. 341 jaspide. 446-447 {nee is fado est. were employed as intensives more than in Classic Latin. Wolfflin 5. 7. any de. R. meaning 'no'. G. 487. Bene. § 74. sed ecce hie est. Plus was often substituted for magis. according to Mohl. Regnier in. and the old comparative and superlative forms became rarer: see § 56. aliquid postulare. . Bechtel 105. . 395-396. . R. Regnier The absolute use of non. 39 'where' (Zj. Beiheft fore': 157). and many other 75- Double negation frequent: R. 5. 37. 76. Hoppe 78. usurped the place of which also. Spr. . procedit. Ad for apud occurs Digitized in Plautus.). 339. Cases. 435. 38. Hoppe 38): de palatio exit. It apparently has no successors in the Romance languages. de utero matris nati sunt sic. etc. of the Italic dialects except Latin. occurs occasionally: Dieit unus ex uno angulo: Eeee hie Alius ex alio angulo: Non. Repetition was used for in- tensive effect: satis Seneca. G. is Ab. Bechtel 105. Non no. ggressus de area. semper semper. Lexique 43. multum. Hoppe 38 . . Dubois 332. is Per. from the third century ex {Lat. egredere de ecelesia. Plus and magis were used more and more for comparison.

a new word. Mohl. ' . apud is repeatedly found for cum in the Latin writers of Gaul.. and common Fer. G. pro memoria illius. cum probably disappeared from actual use in Gaul by the fourth century. but Pr. 390-392. in the Empire. est oratio. and cum for apud in Gregory of Tours. also ab una manu pallas altaris tenerem.?. [§ 80 (Oliver 5-6). and more frequently by later authors: Lat. to supplant a critical period for Gaul. Severus. La preposition cum et ses successeurs en gallo-roman in Bausteine 61.^ 79. apud. G. ad For the most part apud-^-a. in authors of the second and third centuries. Bechtel 104. Super sometimes replaced de: fallere vos super hanc rem. appo. derive the Mohl would Old It. ab he takes from apud. Hoppe 37. ad post (p. where ab seems Apud is used for cum by Sulpicius to be used for apud). but was substituted lor'per in other regions (Urbat 34-35)80. Bechtel 106 super anima commendatus. aveCj not from apud + hoc. Spr. Bechtel 103. as he says. but from ad hoc from Italic Pr. am amb. Bechtel 106.' and replaced ob and propter : fides pro una muliere perfida. being. 40 An Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. and so came cum in that Pro often had the sense of 'for. nos. § 14). 489. not from apud. etc. where it was kept with the sense of cum: Haag 74. except in Gaul. 42. 343. . According to F. Digitized by Microsoft® . 75-76). Urbat 10): ad ipsum fontem facta cf. frequently meant 'concerning': frustrati circa veritatem.27- in late writers (R. ' : Juxta often signified acjuxta consuetudinem. Circa. Pro itself was partially replaced by per (cf. Bechtel 105 juxta drachmcB cording to exemplum. replaced by ad. had a great vogue country. G. Urbat 27 {tractans apud me metipsum.. am. 71) Fr. Hoppe Hoppe ' 41. 343 . 37. volo pro legentis attendimus locum ilium facilitate abuti sermone vulgato. but from * (pp.

8. Quando displaced cum in the quod. Ut 82. Ac sic recurs continually in the Pere49. 83. . forts. etc. Regnier 11 2-1 13. etc. in most cases. Quia. . which in late Latin was often reduced to qui or qua (see § 168) frequently took the place of quod: Regnier 111-112. merely Magis is much employed to indicate a subordinate clause. Tamen in the grinatio. 48. and was . 39. ut : R. vade retro me. 399. and 'wherefore': G. cf. Unde sometimes means therefore for but by late writers. G. 6. and quoniam : R. 445-446.. . Peregrinatio : Qua.' § 84] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. he. 427—428) are used very often by late writers instead of the accusative and infinitive construction: R. . encroaches on quando in the 22. 403. Eventually ut was generally discarded. 398-400. Bechtel 119-120. 399. 46. rm\c\\ used in the sense of that ' : Per. subtus. cf. same text (37. Quomodo became a great favorite. Quod. aut is sometimes equivalent to et . 402. Quod to for very common AudoUent ' £0 quod cdLiae 27. in). &'took the place of a« and utrum (R. etc. foras were freely used as prepositions (R. ^. . 403-405.) seems to be used. ' ' ' Digitized by Microsoft® . 'when'. 41 81. Regnier often used for ne and num (G. 13. Cur. R. 334): subtus terram. CONJUNCTIONS. often supplanting quando. 323. 24. temporal sense. 430): videte si Ac si frequently did service for potest did. Bayard 161. quia. : R. §§ 70. Retro. 424 {unde inquit Dominus). 84. and many other places Bon. de forts. 73. 431-432. Regnier in. quasi: Per. with the infinitive «/ is is : not infrequent 549. R. meaning 'and so' or 'so': 40. Aut cf. et: Per. guoniam {^SMddlt&r Jubere. etc. quare sometimes replaced ^«^^and quia: G.

it generally came to be regarded as an inin Archivio glottologico italiano IX. B. Astis Asti. The locative. 8$. than in the literary language. rare in Classic Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . LOCATIVE. as time went on. in the Peregrinatio fit : There find are. When the locative of names of localities was kept. Cf. increasingly took the place of pure case distinctions. [§ 86 C. Bianchi With other words. ut Clusil~^ Chiusi. Aquis Acqui Aix. the locative was replaced by in with the ablative (Hoppe 32 in Alexandria) or by ad with the accusative (Urbat 10). There is confusion even in Petronius. etc. Florentice^ Firenze. and very often with place names also. Pirson 169-202. several examples Bechtel no. Hence employment arises in late writers a great irregu- of cases^: G. for confusion after verbs and adjectives. USE OF INFLECTIONS. remained eventually missa Anastasi. et sic fit missa ecclesitz. and the use of cases became more and more 103 restricted. constructions. from prepositional the beginning. 378. who occasionally uses the accusative for the dative and the ablative. CASES. only in names of places. a. the domi or domo of Cicero becomes in domo in Seneca. of the locative ablative Angers. of the locative ablative singular in Ttbiiri^ Tivoli . Arimtnt> Rimini. 322). Partsiis > > Parigi Paris. In popular speech prepositions were more used. etc. Quillacq 96- for African Latin. 174-176 . 412-415.. Archiv VIII. however. ' " Cf. 302-326. 1. : > etc.1 42 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. We remnants of the locative geni- tive in Agrigentt> Girgenti. plural in Andecavis > Flntbus > Fimes. 86. Palestina (G. R. larity in the .

R. cited by Draeger I. abound: expers partis Verr. The genitive. de animalibus. . Urbat 20. 396. de spiritu Moysi. Pir.' -P^r. quid de scientia. IV. XVII. Cicero. i. little. de oleo. little by constructions. 342 numquid Zacchaus de bono habebat. 87. Lat. 426. R. 628 aliquid de . except perhaps in a few set phrases. Bon.10. de nostris bonis. instead of -e. For the partitive genitive we find: nil 53. Plautus. 487. such Horace. Bechtel 104. domine. Spr. Regnier 54. clerici de ipsa ecclesia. Oliver 14. 6ioff. as mi 88. 43 variable form we find such locatives used as nominatives : from the third century on Lat. 396. The vocative Classic Latin. 528 a. sometimes by the dative. partem de istius impudentia. gustabit de meo. 481. II. 1. Archiv I. was supplanted by other by the ablative with de (which occurs Examples as early as Plautus). de sorore nepus. 40. d. In Vulgar Latin the vocative form probably disappeared entirely. curator de sacra via. Sepulcri 217. terminus de nostra donatione. 12. 89. Hoppe 38. the genitive probably ceased to be really popular. vocatives in -us. 39. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. aliquid habet de verecundia discipuli. bus gentilibusque multitudo magna (also quidam ex Acts 4. occur in mens for mi is very common (Regnier 34). lumine. R. According to Meyer-Liibke. . R.. etc. VOCATIVE. c. de studentibus. Terence Heaut. GENITIVE. Digitized by Microsoft® .§ 89] An . Spr. neminem de prcesentibus. Bechtel 104. de aceto plenum.. possessor de propria terra. generally . and Livy. cf. de pomis =^som& apples. save in set combinations. b. Hoppe 38. the nominative in most words in and such words as had a separate vocative form is like it : tended to discard Plautus. de coleritieis). R. son 197. de Deo munus. Pirson 194. 396.

in honore . muro muris. S. mart maribus).fr. Dominus ad restituit Moysen dicit. fui ad episcopum etc. 194. etc. G. D'Arbois 13 alme Maria. IX.C. 13. a tendency by the accusative with ad: ad carnuficem dabo. Sepulcri 218. = went to the bishop'. causa causis. ad id templum data erit. loquitur ad Jeremiam. some pronouns. etc. 1019. Spr. paganorum. alta node silentia. Pirson Digitized omne regnum.. De Re Rustica I. etc. however. find. Capt. etc. g. Livy II. D'Arbois 91-93. ad propinquos restituit. matre mece. DATIVE. si pecunia most nouns and in the plural of all. as early as Plautus. in the singular of was identical in substitution became very general 64.. di notte tempore (later di notte tempo). ad omnem injuriam im330. etc. '^^^ hcec affectionem darem. de noctis cHjus. . and probably in some proper names: lUna dies. Per. patiens. illorum. Plautus. in good many set phrases. Oliver by Microsoft® . Paoli... illujus. inscription of 57 B. C. 3513. in certain . Lat Spr. [§ 90 by the beginning of the third century. etc. XXV. It. 40. ad vestram 'I Bechtel 102-103. Urbat 12. Bechtel 103.44 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Urbat 12. ange- lorum. 341—342 in /undo ilia villa.. 488.. 4. tempore > It. the fear of ambiguity naturally fostered this practice and the dative. apparet ad agricolas. Bechtel 104. G. Spr. Inasmuch as the Plautus. I. stable than the genitive: 90. Bon. in most of the Empire : ait ad me. 135. True. In late Latin a wrong form was often used a deo honorem in an inscription in Gaul. a. 329. Varro. L. . 487. The dative was more Lat. IV. ii. G. 1. ad me ad Dei officio paratus. ad quern dixit. : Zs. ad quern promissio facta. etc. ad me magna nuntiavit. in a words that belonged especially to clerical Latin. We it to replace however. dicens ad eum. The genitive was retained.. est ministerit. Fieri. 329. Cf. form either with the ablative or with the genitive (e.

Regnier 51 . super was used: imposuerat manus me misericordiam prastare. nobilior de obsoletiore matrice. de virgine natus est. 339-342. De is : Hoppe 14. de oculis. 393 patrem de regno privavit. 36. St. to distinguish its various functions. Regnier 54. Sometimes super eum. de te beati sunt. Hoppe 105). reinforced by the analogy of prepositional substitutes for the genitive and dative. c. de se. Sepulcri 218. 45 3-4. de singularitate famosum. etc. ab Ariulfi astutia the most frequent erubescens de infamia sua. Hoppe 33 . Hoppe 33. occurs also: ex causa humana salutis. The dative remained in Dacia. de vestra rideat CBmulatione. 56. de manibus suis. 392-395. 481). de- ceptus. Sepulcri 218.G. G. esse. tibi.§ 92] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. is For de= 'than. in its original function and also as a genitive. Hoppe Hoppe 34. The analytical tendency of speech. ABLATIVE. cited by WolfHin $2. ab sceleribus parce. except in pronouns {cici. R. XXX. 35. a came superatur. 337. 335. Ex R. favored the use of prepositions with the ablative. super. Hoppe 36. 92. elsewhere it probably disappeared from really popular speech by the end of the Empire. Bechtel 104. illui tilt. occidam de lancea. digni de cmlo Castores. Rumanian has kept the dative. Bechtel 105. Regnier 54-56. Ab common : ab omni specie idololatrice intactum. Cyprian. R. etc. 641. ab a prcemio minorem scriptura sancta commemoratos. ml.' see Zs.). 34. not ad. Regnier . Digitized by Microsoft® . ex infirmitate fatigata. Bechtel de contumelia sua. 426. Cf. in the first declension (as case). Bechtel 104 (cf. Spr. G. and lingered rather late Gaul (Za/. gaudet de victus necessitate causatur.. and so in 91. Bechtel 105. in feminine adjectives (as romine). Hoppe 33. Hoppe.

Regnier 60. etfreno maxillas eorum constringe. 344-347. and that the ablative and accusative singular were pronounced alike. Ps. 5. 263. discenies. R. 347 R. late The use of prepositions became really neccessary in the loss spoken language. Hoppe 31 .46 An In is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. per nomen vocavit. Spr. Cf. its stead. The fusion of the two cases was doubtless helped by the fact that certain prepositions might be combined with either accusative or ablative. G. Cum cum it was probably not with the accusative is very frequent: cum suos Lat. in camo amore Dei 9 in bonis operibus abundetis. but very common before the third. caput desecare. in illo die. because. ad diem. fructum fructu. in most of the Latin territory. patrem It is likely that before the patre. 397 . quo in tempore. Bechtel 103. XXXI. . epistolam. donum dono. Rand in is Modem Philology II. Sepulcri 218 pugnare ad ursos. Spr. in inscriptions. Regnier 58 Hoppe 31 in maxilla asina delevi mille vires. etc. K. Hoppe 33. G. Bechtel 103-104. cum res nostras. the accusative being used in J 95- There is evidence of the confusion of accusative and first ablative as early as the century. Sometimes ad ov per with the accusative is substituted per hoc. after the fall of final m and the of quantitative distinctions in unaccented syllables. Lat. D'Arbois footnote 27. ad unum gladii ictum 93. The accusative form substituted for the ablative after by Microsoft® Digitized . : [§ 95 often found .396-397.. the little ablative differed or not at all from the accusative in the : singular of most words causam causa. diem die. sodales. cum Cf. in fif. . of the Empire the ablative plural end form was generally discarded. in aU words. Bechtel 95 . E. 488. ferventes. ad horam sextam aguntur. 94. 488. for the ablative: .

. Bechtel loi . R. intro spe- — lectione. 40. its place : Bechtel 09-1 1 o. Hoppe 40-41 12 examples of in + ace. 406-412. that the ablative absolute survived in a few common 1 like It. 58. de ipsas . generally. 406-412. visa loca sancta omnia {Per. Waters Ch. Bechtel 95 contra ipso loco. 47 other prepositions: a monazonies. sine fructum. R. D'Arbois 70-71 ex fines R. — Bechtel 96 — . -juxta aqua ipsa. Bechtel loi. Bechtel xoo\ post morte. Digitized by Microsoft® . vendere cento soldi. however. probably in some expressions. 406-412.. de camem. Hoppe 40-41 in the Per. was kept only in etc. in correct use of in etc. Bechtel 96 de martyrium. too. etc.. Bechtel 94 ante sole. etc.. . de.. quomodo. .. R. for abl. etc. per valle and 21 other cases of /ifr+abl. ilia.. Bechtel loi. R. . . etc. Bechtel 96. 406-412. — prope super civitate hac. Bechtel 97-98 erat in villas. tuos.. Bechtel 99 lunca. 406-412. Bechtel 96 de actus. . 96. R. post . etc. . the accusative ante cruce.. ad . D'Arbois 152.— — — § 97] — —— — . de eo torrentem. Bechtel loi — propter populo. pari mente. etc. for ace. such as hora. ablative ist' 97. pro nos. infinem Deus fecit ccelum et terram. Bechtel 95. Bechtel 94—101 venit in civitate sua. — intra civitate sua. in Per. D'Arbois 27 de rigna nostra. puteo. is three times as common as the + ace. proper names with as Delia Casa. circa Bechtel 95 . An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in popular speech. ante sole. anno. . . Bechtel 96 de hoc ipsud. etc. the ablative form very often written for . 410. the nominative absolute took 45. ecclesia majore.. ecclesia. — : pro hoc ipsud. It is likely. Bechtel 99 .. videbo te in publicum. etc. is Conversely. + abl. medium maris. cib fatto.. . etc. R. 8). The some fixed expressions. Bechtel 100. luce. Bechtel 99. perhaps in such phrases as It. Bechtel 94. — — — foras in came conversa. et bene- dicens nos episcopusprofectisumus.6—412.

regionem venit. by the infinitive: as cum Digitized by Microsoft® . VERB-FORMS. per iotos octo dies etc. Waters Ch. 98. Many parts of the verb went out of popular use. 103. instead of the simple accusative: eamus in forum. 328. were replaced by other locutions. tota autem nocte vicibus dicuntur p salmi. infinitive 102. 99. Regnier 52. (i) Supine. Clerics. in the rest of the Empire only two —a nominative and an accusativenaturally tried to write in ac- ablative. [§ 103 ACCUSATIVE. also is by the ablative Bechtel : 1 08-9. a. ad isfam Duration of time was expressed by per with the ac- cusative. and 101. many new tendencies manifested them- IMPERSONAL PARTS. After verbs of motion ad was often used. Bechtel 103. 327. consules ad Africam profecti sunt. sometimes in. ad Babyloniatn duxit. from use. fui ad ecdesiam. to Vulgar Latin. however. these obsolete parts were employed by writers with more or less inaccuracy. omatus est. ^i. g. G.48 An Introduction f. FALL OF DECLENSION. Only the present active and the present and perfect participles were left intact. In the parts that remained selves. Cf. Regnier 51-52. The supine disappeared from general the first placed. G. By the end of the Vulgar Latin period there probably remained in really popular use (aside from pronouns and a number of set formulas) in Dacia only three cases. cordance with their idea of correct Latin. being recentury on. 2. 100.

363. Gerund. 432. R. Sermones 225. cites Livy. the supine was preserved: Tiktin 596. became more and more a fui fugiet Eun. Draeger II. 433-434. necessitas tacere. Hoppe multa vidi sometimes used for a conditional clause cavendo salvi erimus. except when style. Future Active Participle. the gerundive was discarded. 4.§ io6] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The ablative gerund was . as a future passive participle. from the third century on. Digitized by Microsoft® . it was probably rare in late was used with esse as a substitute Sometimes. St. esse. Dubois 275. Eventually. in place of the future: with 388. Lat.erund infinitive. 490. however. (2) 104. 847-849. : sic legendo. Cf. 430. in a literary 388—389. G. hanc Marcion captavit errando. 386R. G. ex- cept in some standing phrases. 433. took the place of a relative cIzms^: faveant mihi pro Cf. potestatem curare. G. (3) Gerundive. The gerundive was used est. of the ablative form. 490. quomodo potest hie nobis camem dare ad manducare. Hoppe 105. 2. Terence. assurgens popu- lando. ejus nomine pugnaturo. however. Jilius hominis tradendus Cf. In Rumanian. the i. (4) 106. conciendo ad se multitudinem. 49 veneris ad bibere.. The ablative form of the gerund substitute for the present participle: ita miserrimus tando. Augustine. R. 8. 389. V. it The future active participle Vulgar Latin. R. 57 179. etc. Lat. for the future (as facturus sum). R. Spr. qui pertransivit benefaciendo et Cf. 432—433. and Tacitus. Densusianu sanando. 57. Cap. Spr. G. came to be replaced With the exception by the sometimes with a prep- osition: dat manducare.

(6) Perfect Participle. Sometimes it was employed periphrastically with esse: G. and as a noun see Derivation. The perfect and passive infinitive forms eventually In late writers. quoniam. perspicue exposuit quod ager nesciebat quia Jesus erat. Bechtel 112—115. 109.. legitur dixisse Deus. 375-385. by Microsoft® . (7) Infinitive. G. Verbs that had no perfect participle were obliged to make one. 383 . no. 371-373. is disappeared: see Voice and Tense below.the was replaced sometimes by the passive. 107. and was used as an : adjective -ans. etc. The infinitive + accusative construction was more and third century on: G. (licent eo quod filii Israhel eas posuerint. si ipse est ascendens in ccelos. however. but often by a clause in- troduced by quia. however. sciens quod — libenter haberetis hcec cognoscere. quod. as will presently be seen. Cf. Bon. 659-671. Regnier 63. de corpore loquor. G. 108. Writers occasionally substituted 388. credidit ei quia esset vere Jilius Dei. The present participle was kept. nemo mentiens plorat. etc. 389.50 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. often misused the infinitive + accusative: Digitized G. the perfect instead of the present infinitive very common: R. it for a relative clause: it Often. (5) [§ no Present Participle. G. mundus sit. and. ut spiritu valeatnon ignoramus. : Eva vidisse de- G. G. It more avoided from . The perfect participle was kept. G. 371. 377. scribitur. Suffixes for Adjectives. 371-375. its use was greatly extended through new methods of forming the passive and the perfect tenses. 385.). wishing to avoid vulgarisms. 431-432 {malunt credidisse. Late writers. ut. etc. was replaced by the ablative gerund: see Gerund above.

Regnier 73. facere. Bechtel 117: valeamus assumi. ipsum vivere accedere est. 430. G. . Hoppe 60 mors salva erit cum fuerit devorata. ' 112. est. Regnier 74 mihi prcecepit hac loqui. amant ignorare. the infinitive assumed many new and Gerund above. aliter exprimere non est. permissa est accedere. of the popular formation . see Draeger was made up and. R.. non habent unde reddere tibi. G. amatus est came Hence amatus fuit signified he Then a whole passive in2 76ff. timuisti . 370. cited in Lat.§ 112] An On Introduction to Vulgar -Latin. Spr. Thielmann.. the other hand. etc. Regnier 106. revertitur omnis populus resumere se. quce legi digna sunt. 177. I. per velle perdidit bonum posse. P. functions: see Supine bonus et dicere et facere. etc. conjectus in carcerem fuerat. G. Bon. Hoppe 42-52: Ninus regnare primus. by Microsoft® . 363. Regnier 73. It wias often used as a noun: totum vivere anima carnis est. Bon. to of the perfect participle ern Italy y?^). mean he was loved': flection is loved etc. participle The old passive forms extent. 671-675. b. 647. 51 111. Facere mit dem Infinitiv in Archiv III. Cf. G. It Hoppe malum tions: replaced the subjunctive with ut and similar construcvadent orare. non venit justos vocare. 490. Hoppe 61. some examples may be culled from late writings: denuo factus filius fui. G. Hoppe 60.. Cf. some the — except the perfect gerundive — gradually + esse (in north- disappeared from ordinary speech. 673. 366. male fecisti dare Spiritum sanctum. Regnier 106. venit aliquis audire. 363-370. VOICE. It took the place of a relative or indirectly interrogative after certain verbs: clause nesciendo qua petere. up the classic practice as far as they were Although authors kept able. to Under the ' influence of carus '. Bechtel 117. 368. 42. Regnier Digitized 63. Venantius Fortunatus.

[§ 117 the passive inflection disappeared. An As Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. and in Italy. for the use of 25. Many deponent course. homo with the force of French on. 490. scribitur When littera seemed archaic. Rom. who lived in southern Gaul in the fifth century. Dubois 275 notes that the forms in -0 are very rare in Ennodius. The subjunctive was limited to fewer functions. 114. verbs are used as active verbs by Petronius. sequi. XXXII. MOOD. re- 116. and also for the first. being replaced by the indicative in many .52 113. deponent verbs became active. see c. -At the end of the Vulgar Latin period it in popular speech. In negative commands the imperative was often placed by the subjunctive. very Digitized was probably used. I'er. irascere irasci. 55. (i) Imperative. 455. much as it is used by Microsoft® . (2) Subjunctive. and Dacia by the infinitive: Zat. followed the same Bonnet 402-413. people said littera se scribit and litteram scribunt or litteram scribit homo: ct. by the indicative (found in Pirminius). facit se hora quinta. Even in Classic Latin there is often hesita- tion. se sanare ^= sanari in the 4th century. the subjunctive being used for the third person.. as in the case oi frusirare frustrari. In late vulgar speech mori. The imperative came to be restricted to the second person singular and plural of the present. constructions: cum hi omnes tarn excelsi sunt. etc. and littera scripta est vulgar. Bechtel 126. 115. etc. etc. 117. In the intermediate period the passive was frequently replaced by reflexive and active constructions. Regnier 69. Bechtel 115 si scire vultis quid facitis. Spr. Gaul.

Sometimes. languages. G. in indirect In conditions not contrary to tive discourse and indirect questions. Sittl 133-134. used freely for the imperfect by isset. its G. Regnier 27-28. On the other hand.iX. Spr. The in the use of it. exWriters of the third and fourth centuries cept in Sardinia. § III. ples. 431 cites many examtimui ne inter nos bella fuissent orta. •a. 489). and with perthis use is common in the fect infinitives like tacuisse for tacere {Lat. Sometimes the subjunctive was replaced by deieo with the infinitive: debeant accipi = accipiantur. etc. The pluperfect : imperfect subjunctive gradually gave way to the Bellum Africanum {^Lat. cf. etc. the indicative was often substituted for the subjunctive: R. 418. Digitized It was apparently confused with was thus preserved in Spain by Microsoft® . as In Rumanian the pluperfect subjunctive has assumed the show uncertainty function of a pluperfect indicative 119. § 72.§ 119] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The perfect subjunctive the future perfect indicative. imperfect subjunctive ultimately went out of use. were less logical and evidently less spontaneous than Classic authors in their employment of the subjunctive. It apparently began with debuvoluisset. ecce Pater fecit Filium nasci de fact. 355-357.&x facio. Spr. Cf. 489: examples from the 4th century). : cdntdse. Gregory the Great (Sepulcri 226) and others. Regnier 68-71. 357-362- (118. place was taken by the infinitive: vergine. Cf. in dependent clauses that are not adversa- nor dubitative. 53 in the Romance Late writers. late writers often put the subjunctive where Classic authors would have put the indicative: G. R. potuisset. while trying to follow the traditional practice. 428-430.

in legal phraseology. I. Sallust. quid Athenis exquisitum habeam. Part. way with Even adjectives: miserum habere. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. XXIX. Draeger 122. 537-538. Tiktin 596.54 An in Italian i. Fart. 690. The . Fart. cf. pluperfect. § 119. Digitized Bon. perf. 121. 376. 414-415. ilia omnia missa habeo. In late Lastin this compound often had simply a peribi vos meaning: metuo enim ne habeam fatigatos. perfect. omnis res lictas habeo. compertum ego habeo. TENSE. 423. perf 372 . 405. and Rumanian and V. Fart. In the and future perfect indicative great changes took place. scriptum habeo. § 124. fect 294-295. De Lollis in Zs. (i) The Perfect Tenses. 518-521. perf. perf 415. rationes cognitas habeo. 689-691. however. 28. indicative 120. 619. Regnier Cf. I. in Classic Latin. re- Fart. used in the same Part. or something akin to it: Cato the elder. junctive. Draeger 295. for the perfect subjunctive. with their old functions. ff. in general. collocatas habent. § 117. Part. dialects: cf. Crescini in d. perf. habeo deliberatum. Densusianu 181. perf.. perf. In Classic Latin habeo with the perfect participle was used to express a lasting condition: Hannibal quia fessum It was militem praliis operibusque habebat. The present and imperfect and the present subjunctive remained. 535 is . episcopum invitatum habes. by Microsoft® . Plautus. which led also to thS formation of a new perfect and pluperfect subjunctive. however. perf ^11. Bon. the mean- ing of this locution began to shift to the perfect. pecunias magnas 294. construction very common in Cicero in a sense that closely approaches the perfect: satis . For the imperfect and pluperfect subsee. yarf«»2 habeo. 516. Fart. Draeger I. see § 118. [§ 122 and Bausteine Cf. future. C.

543. pouret. The old future perfect was apparently confused with the perfect subjunctive. in the case of neuter verbs. tional function. The preterit use occurs in dixerat. Sepulcri 227. : quam semper cognitam habui. etc. 620). its vogue began in Gaul in the fifth century. with esse. The old perfect form remained in popular use. perf. and continued to be used. the old perfect meaning was not entirely lost. boltier' in the Old The condiItalian Ritmo Cassinese (^Zs. in the Spanish peninsula. transalaret in etc. ortaret. sometimes as a conditional. Regnier 28.. The old pluperfect indicative became rarer. auret. 294. § 72. with the force of a future indicative or subjunctive. sometimes as a preterit. In the same way a future perfect was made: de Ccesare satis dictum habebo. in some southern Italian dialects (notably in the Rosa in the fresca aulentissima). perfect bant. but still lingered. Fart. 537. 541. a compound pluwas constructed Cicero. si Dominum iratum haberes. 70.. I [ sometimes with its original sense. which came down from the Classic Latin use in conditional sentences. 124. was preserved in Spanish. and to some extent in Italy.§ 124] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Reich. 489. etc. Eventually an entire perfect inflection was built up with habere or. gener ally with the aorist sense. Some late writers were fond of :\ substituting for Cf. perf. On the model of this new perfect. elsewhere . in Proven9al. it cxpi with an infinitive: Waters Ch. XXIX. Digitized by Microsoft® . it 55 In popular speech function: perfect form. and in the Italian /ora -Cfueram. quas in cerario conditas habeDraeger the sixth: Part. In the Spanish peninsula. furet. 123. which supplanted more and more the original was increasingly confined to its aorist Lat Spr. however. the Gl. Old French Sainte Eulalie.

dormibo forms were kept late {Futurum 161). qiiando mutarisi eras. The old pluperfect subjunctive was used as an imperfect: see § 118. Sepulcri 225. and we find such 126. I. such as fachabeo dicere. [§ 126 dialects of Italy. Bechtel 90-91. Pers. cum volueris et imus tecum ostendimus tibi.— S6 in An some Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Old Sp. only in Rome and the immediate vicinity. These causes or others made the future unpopular. Furthermore. was liable to confusion with the present subjunctive and indicative. Sepulcri 225-226. Regnier viii. delenda est. jam crastina non eximus. Cf. PL 141-142. Future and Conditional. 98. was native. cantdre. corrigis. errors as respondeam for respondebo (^Futurum 158). quando 64. Pr. gations. the future in the first two conjugations was suggestive of the imperfect. in late pronunciation. 286 ff. The old audibo. according to Mohl. The substitution si vis ecce ire became frequent in all sorts of constructions: nam modo pedibus duco vos ibi. and in the other two. and in Dacia: Sp. which The Latin mistakes were made in writing: Vok. Digitized by Microsoft® . Draeger I. future was not uniform in the four conjuwas used in three of them and prevailed in two. During the Empire there was a strong tendency to substitute these or other constructions Classic Latin turus sum. Bechtel 112. had some circumlocutions.. inquis. pervidet. the formation in —bo. Regnier Cf. (2) 125. Bechtel 112. § 119. which approached the meaning of the future. for the future forms (such periphrases are particularly fre- quent in African church Latin) : (1) The present indicative for the future is common in Cicero in conditional sentences: Lebreton 188-190. cantdro. As the tense became rare in speech.

( ^w^ was a favorite with late nos futuri sumus resurgere. i. Velle in this sense was preserved in Dacia.. De Re ut id mihi habeam curare. Ad Famil. The form that prevailed. . qui nasci habent. 447-449. — St. I 127. mandare habewas very common in late writers: Hoppe 43 filius Dei mori habuit. Futurum 180. + + It was 5) Vadere. Varro. . tantum habeo Lucretius VI. Futurum 48 ff. Densusianu 181 in Italy . 106. R. Hoppe 44-45 . ire. 448 exire habebat. . however. infinitive was another substitute. 447 multa habeo dicere. I. (4) Debere kept in Sardinian. etc. frobare non habent. 423. as in Sueto- means I. 449 Regnier 28. infinitive: In Classic Latin habeo habeo quod dicam. it many others. debeo dicere: tibi polliceri. § 129] An The Introduction to Vulgar Latin. See §§ 105. Cicero. 123. rebus dicere habemus. 370. venire + infinitive were used also. Regnier 29. In these senses habes spectare. Rustica 5. This habeo construction dare habet finally took the sense of a simple future: Tertullian. or Digitized by Microsoft® . 28. I. 711. Trist. videre habetis. 57 (2) future participle writers: stc et Bayard 256. bam. . Hoppe 44 nan habent retribuere. St.. being so used by Cicero and nius. (3) Velk and /^w^ + infinitive were frequent: G. 129. I. G. 128. in multis hoc . venire habet. was habeo with the dicere ^=:. R. R.— Servius. etc. It had become common by the sixth In the early stages of the Romance languages. 447 unde mihi dare habes aquam vivam. Cf. Hoppe 44 it . Cf. Jerome.. R. aliter prcedicantur bent. et sicnihil tuis. R. the oldest Rumanian future is voiujurd or Jurd vom: Tiktin 599. . Augustine. nee verba nobis ista did habent. Cf. . quam evenire haDeus corpus. habes invenire in manibus — tollere habet. cui velle habet. Ovid. Regnier century. later.

Quillacq 116. 489.— 58 . cantare or he cantar. The earliest examples of the Romance future are found in Fredeyet. Furthermore. ista civitas esterminari haberet quod esset venturus et 130. just before the habeo. although sometimes with him the meaning borders on a real conditional: non traditus autem traduci habebas. in place of amassem the conclusion of a conditional sentence. addarabo. garius: Justinianus dicebat 'daras'. new form. and occurs in Old Italian Pg. Finally the two words were fused into one.. In Classic Latin. 55. St. Hoppe 43-45. Bayard 257. Digitized by Microsoft® . or conditional. but this union was not completed until after the beginnings of the Romance literatures. manifestari habebat. an imperfect of the was constructed. etc. amare habedicit quod like dixit si possum venire habet. Cyprian and St. The phrase existed. amaturus eram or fui was often used and when amaturus sum was replaced by amare habeo. So it seems to be used by Tertullian. There are sure examples from the fifth century on: Lat. where it was employed with an implication of obligation or necessity. On the model of this future. Haag 54. the infinitive came to stand regularly. Spr. Haag See Morphology. fazel-o-he. to match such a sentence as venire habebat or habuit. ready for use. though not immutably. in Classic Latin. [§ 130 possibly in the latest stage of Vulgar Latin. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bayard 256. it was natural that amaturus eram should give m way to bam. and in Portuguese it is not completed Old Sp. pati haberet. something like si potuissem venire habebam or habui was called for. Hilary seem to show a simple conditional use of the compound: quod lex nova dari haberet. separation is common in Old Provencal. . there quod was needed a past construction and corresponding to venire habeo. Herodes principes sacerdotum ubi nasci habebat Christus interrogat.

form in the Romance languages see in general. of this 59 The development as. see H.§ 130] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. not' bvious. parallel to that of the future: Moris hology. Digitized by Microsoft® . Tiktin. 691. XXVIII. for a discussion of the question. cintareasH. The ')ie origin of the full Rumanian conditional. Bildung des rumanischen Konditionalis in Zs.

al-ter. The principles of syllabic division are rather difficult to establish. all consonant groups. a-mnis. A. sic-cus. except a mute + a liquid. It is altogether likely. 132. 131. in-fans. in the spoken language. Quintilian 5 recom- mends vdlucres. was usually divided consonant noc-tem. Lat. supporting it with purely theoretical considerations. prop-ter. The group mute + liquid makes position in the older dramaafter the first : : tists : Nsevius accents integrant. or in half of a double consonant: a-ni-ma. that a consonant group. 466. S. and not pirfe-ctus. made position an^ attracted the accent: perfSc-tus. etc.III. It is likely that in Old Latin the division came before the Digitized by Microsoft® . as in Italian. Cf. poets may or may not make tinebrcB. 132-151. however. Spr. The division of j + consonant they regard as uncertain {a-s- trum)\ doubtless in reality the s was nearly syllabic. The Latin grammarians seem to have given no heed to actual speech. pro-pter. etc. They add In point of that etymological considerations often disturb the operation of the rule. position. mit-to. In Vulgar Latin this : combination almost invariably attracts the accent cathidra. but to have followed the usage of Greek spelling. SYLLABICATION. then. it In the Classic I. or in a liquid or nasal followed by another consonantin the next syllable. A single consonant between vowels certainly went with the second po-si-tus. no-ctem. as in ob-liviscor. According to these writers. PHONOLOGY. the syllable always ended in a vowel. phdretra. fact.

became y. computo. VOWELS m HIATUS. : We — a. ing to which the accent The falls Classic Latin system — accordis on the penult long. poltre < *pullitra. if that syllable as early as and remained. PRIMARY STRESS. had become fixed : 6i liquid. when immediately followed by the 136. delicto. I. colubra. but subsequently. through the Classic period even after the distinctions of quantity were lost. § 136] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the beginning a it 134. some cases in which the Classic principle fails to operate or the Classic stress has been shifted 135. however. if : word began with a vowel B. 892-906 S. after the accent on cd- the preceding vowel. 13. unchanged: bonitatem. both consonants were carried over lub-ra. In the earliest stage of the language appar- ently fell on the first syllable: Corssen II. The penult vowel before mute + liquid (cf. Franz. There seem to be a few exceptions to the rule palpres < pdlpebras. § 132) normally has the stress in Vulgar Latin: cathedra. otherwise on the antepenult — developed . Old Fr. Accented vowel of the penult. have seen that Vulgar Latin regularly accents according to the Classic quantitative accentuation. the place of the accent was literature began. The Latin accent was probably from regularly stress accent. both in the literary and in the spoken language. We speech a that final have reason to believe that in closely connected consonant was carried over to the next word. cor exsultat = co r-exsultat. the accent falling on the e Digitized by Microsoft® . and /. pi. ACCENT. co-lu-bra. There are. inUgram. and perhaps : some othfc.. co-liib-ra. 133. Old Fr. 30-34.

It was favored also by the analogy of miilier. [§ 139 following vowel: put^olis ~:> mul(eris>muljMs. Cf. habMrunf^ * hdb^erunt. but * muVeres. inclausus. consuere'>*cdns^ere'> cdnsere . §31): deficit >* disfdcit. adsteti. Cf § 225.pi(teus. that suos. Lat Spr. So 54 . battuere being influenced by bdttuo. C. condedit. became e but if the preceding consonant was . L. Here the shift was apparently due in each case to analogy. etc. Aside from these cases. re- 139.. '/« regularly re-nigat. Jespersen. I. Lehrbuch der Phonetik. 138. reiinet > * ret^net. tenueram > * tenj^eram. 3714 (paretes). it was palatalized: \i&xwt f aretes. displtcet>*displdcet. however. VI. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . 468. S. S. p. S. suds. /.. so parietes" L. O. perdedit. This change X. imp Itcaf^* imp Heat. etc. conteneo. 192. COMPOUND VERBS. I. Verbs compounded with prefixes were generally constructed with the accent and the vowel of the simple verb. Sepulcri 213-215. etc. consuere by cdnsuo. crededi. when immediately followed by the vowel falling of the penult. etc. effect diios. tenueram by tenui. became w. dedit. the accent on the preceding syllable: bat{^t)iiere'>* bdtty^ere'> bdttere . hiatus seems to have had no on the accent in Latin. habuerunt by hdbuit. riquirit "^ * requkrit. parjites^paretes^ C. provided the composite nature of the formation was understood and the parts were recognized (cf. itios were sometimes pronounced duds. 668-670. II. Gram. paries. reddedit. calefacis. reddtdi "^ reddMi. 51. presteti. > putjdlis. 1889 (pvte6lis).62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. tuds. b. tra- addedi. Accented u. 137. seems to be due to a tendency to shift the stress to the more sonorous of two contiguous vowels: cf. . On the same plan new verbs were formed: *de-minat. 56. It is possible. in which the vowel in hiatus is atonic.

n-LAc. the simple verbs having become rare or having taken a different sense: legere. Ascoli 41 See G. Reetia. 42.' Ficatum. Schuchardt in Zs. Ficatum. Paris in Miscellanea linguistica in onore di Graziadio H.Lic. (tdicwtoi/ (Pirson 40). ficotum. 63 RMpit became being with In felt. which was applied by cooks to a liver. and northern Italy. n. for instance. XXV. it probably became *secotum. later. was preferred in and southern Italy. *ficotum */dciium. 'liver'. which should properly have been pronounced sycotum . . 235Digitized by Microsoft® . a cross between /««/«/« was kept in Sicily and in the Spanish peninsula. fecitum. Ficatum or prevailed in Dacia. for some unknown reason. Sardinia preserved both ficatum and ficatum. Through this word there came into use the culinary terms /tedium. FICATUM.simple translation of (tvkwtov. 141. Priscian says ^^ illic pro mice": S. Clddat in Revue de philologie fran(aise et de littirature XV. * redpit. all meaning 'liver. central 2jaA. a . *fdcatum. the composite character of the word although the compound was no longer associated capere. *ftcatum. d. Gaul had ficatum and ficatum. came to be used only in the sense of 'read. The adverbs iliac. by a change of suffix.' c. perhaps under the influence of a vulgar *hepdte for hepar. It is found in late Latin in the form sycotum. cdlligo and some others not even the composite nature was perceived. ficatum.§ i4i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 435 L. . 515 and XXVIII. a fusion of ficatum and * sicotum. 140. There existed in Greek a word 'figlike'. illic accented their last syllable through the analogy of hdc^ hlc. .

etc.tnginta. 144. \ were sometimes accented on the antepenult: Consentius mentions a faulty pronunciation triginta. e. stressed ^vKwrov. <f>Ld\rj XoXepa > chdlera) > colira. § 134). 461. It. fdia. tisana.poKri'^pardbula.. 69-70. Kafxapa^cdmera. a. Greek Paroxytones. irapa. 42 ff. of Greek words was varied. 392. with the Greek > Occasionally the accent was kept by doubling the consonant.. (nraa-it. II. irapaT-fi^'^ pirata. mdgida. iraXa/ir/ ^pd/ma. as polifpus. 1 142. Digitized by Microsoft® . voXvTrovs '^ polypus^ irop(f>vpa /jMyiSa. 337. apparently the first syllable: (2) 145. may represent popular stress. 143.vr] <f>apiTpa'>p/tdretra ox phar'etra (cf. Ihm in Archiv VII. kTzi<jTo\rj~> epistula —ola. lines quarranta occurs in a late inscription. Vok. 4-5 Pirson 97. see § 141. etc. Tairav6s>* iapinus. Wahlund. Ther\. (>pMd/a)> It.TKj6. > ( ^purpura. sometimes the word was made to conform to the Latin principle. Greek oxytones. Claussen 809. G. Rydberg . The shift was probably due to a tendency to differentiate the numerals from one compare the floating accent in English thirteen^ another in Melanges natural : fourteen. terms borrowed by ear from the Greek. Xa. etc. [§ 145 NUMERALS. fj. The accentuation times the Greek stress GREEK WORDS.qumqudginta. (1) Greek Oxytones. Greek paroxytones were mostly accented according to the quantity of the penult: ypa(j>tov>grdp/iium.64 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. however.r/xa-vj'^- were stressed according to the Latin system: ^pa-)QiLT^> drdch{u)ma.virahersvigintt. Cf. borrowed Idmpa^s). Somewas preserved..'i'^ mdc(k)- tna. See M. Keil V. S.ix. Ti. when by Latin.ira. Optisdna)':>lt.guadraginta.o^'^ spdstnus.

-ia 146. S. etc. A few early borrowed words perhaps show the Old Latin Cf. —aav sometimes became -ea -ia.>blasp hernia. sen 809. but their statements are too vague to be of use. phonia. The ending -2i2. 2-3. which was used to form new words: see Derivation.. raXaxTov > talintum. Cf. The endings -aa. Digitized jSawTia-fui > baptisma. Claussen 814-821. are attested: S.cupressus. Claus- accentuation: Kxnta. by Microsoft® . and sophta. 'i.<j-(^r]fLux. (3) 147. iKKXtjaia the Latin fiipXla^Mblia. Greek Proparoxytones.. etc. it accent afivcraoi > abyssus.. 35. Claussen 810— 811. I. Suffixes for Nouns. doubtless favored by Cliristian influence. Late Latin grammarians mention a pro- nunciation of Greek words with the Greek accent (S. 55-56.t&o. S. the accent remained un- changed phus. Kuiv(im&ov> conopeum -eum —ium.'avfi<l>(ovia>sym- Later a fashionable pronunciation -ia. ylvecTK "^ ginesis. 65 but it more likely that the Italian forms are book-words with a shifted accent. Cf. The pronunciations melodia. Cf.) and produced a new Latin ending -ia. XXXI. > ec(^c)Usia. sometimes —ea. penetrated popular speech {(ro<l>ia> sopMa. 149. of proparoxytones is The treatment complicated. § 17. -eum -ium.- was at first generally assimilated to p\a.puj<jo%~^* ciiparissosy. When : the penult vowel was in position.§ 149] ^^ Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. Claussen 812. 148. KaXafiOi > calamus. A. 42£f.'Kav&ov'> balneum. > platea platea. (with a KoXa^o^ > cdld- Trpea-ftvrepov > presbyterum new nominative took the prisbyter). Claussen 813-814. a-riirta>s^pia.<TTopia> kistdria. etc. kKo. Gram. When : the penult was short. Cf. 42).. Thomas in Rom. 42-49. -eum: ^a.

became both encdustum and incaustum. j3ovTvpov> *se'- biHtyrum (^milius Macer). Hues Hudn. we can determine the rhythm Latin. Ka.ov tdolum (both in Prudentius: Lat. judging from phonetic changes late Latin verse. ayKvpa>dncora. apparently took the accent in book-words but not in words learned by ear (S. of Vulgar and from semi-popular Kluge Some words have both pronunciations et8<i)A.o%> bldsphemus (Prudentius). Ut cdrne carnem liberdns p^rderit quos c6ndidit.Tri. Dreux. ipr]iuis> eremus eremus : > (Prudentius). Pharo. t^aWtava'^. Troyes. etc. 466). 49): Umbrian Fr. [§ 153 'EyKava-Tov.T]\ai> camelus -ellus. 152.. 2. As far as SECONDARY STRESS. of accented and unaccented fifth Thus Sedulius. etc.ballcena. contrary to Latin rules (S. Celtic Baiocasses > > Z>urdcasses'^'Px. Dottin 103.pv6<^vKKov Occasionally the consonant group was simplified and the accent remained : > * garofulum. When the penult vowel was long and not in position. it consisted in a tolerably regular alternation syllables. at the beginning of the century. xa/xtvos it : caminus. 48-49) Ka. Bayeux. (T'aia. their original accent. writes: Beatus iuctor skculi Servile c6rpus fnduit. Germanic words were apparently made to conform to Latin types: H'&go HUgun > Hugo Hugdnem > Fr. Some words borrowed from other languages kept e. OTHER FOREIGN WORDS. .66 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Fisaurum It. 'ldKioPoi>/dcobus. Tricasses'>Yx. Ne Digitized by Microsoft® . however. ^\axr<^-i]p. 153. 151. > 150. a-iKlvov^ linum. KpoKohaKoi'^ crocodilus. Spr.> sinapi sindpi.

unemphatic words. and were attached as additional end of other words (S. clerc. so. in Italian. When it followed the tonic. were used only as enclitics or proclitics. however.: § 156] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. it was weak. te-videt. syllables to the beginning or had no accent. Many words. and the secondary was shifted or *pdrauldre. non-dmat. 38-39) dma-me. circum-Utora (Quintilian s). the root syllable may have received an irregular stress through the analogy of the primitive: * drboricellus. in Latin as in other lan- guages. 154. but probably the vowel bearing it had more force than a wholly unaccented final vowel: sdcer{>'PY.^plach. amistdt. In many cases the intervening vowel fell out or lost Then the primary and the secondary ac- lost cent were brought together. cdlidHs cdldus. 67 ' The secondary then. clirgue while cUr'cum > > > cdlbe while cdlpum > Pr. v€ttovdglia beside vittdria. cdlapMin Pr. B\i6logn{no beside Bologna. *parduldre *pardbuldre : > > > filiiis "^^/ilius. In some derivatives. UNSTEESSED WORDS. colp. but clmPr. stress. pldcttiim'^'Pr. dd-tibi. strong. F\6rentino beside Fvrenze. especially prepositions and conjunctions. Short. fell on the second syllable from the tonic: cuptditosus. felidtatem. its syllabic value. cave-facias. dolorosa. Casdrem. In late formations e or i in hiatus did not count as a sylla- ble: * cotninitidre. 155. I. as well as some adverbs and pronouns. 156. sdzer. it and the vowel bearing it was was apparently treated as an accented vowel: * amicUdtem~^'?x. Idcrlmosa. cum Pr. Gdllias. When the secondary stress preceded the tonic. Digitized by Microsoft® .

how great the difference was we do not know. POSITION. sel. 134. elision. ' I 159. by Microsoft® . sUay- C. Words sometimes sa. pere. and probable that the beginnings of this differentiation go back to Vulgar Latin times : pa-rem > Old Fr. 1110. perhaps influenced proclitic hy plus. 73-79. istu' (but iccum istum > eccu'istu'). . became *mais and * mas. ecce that vowel: ilium v{det^ hic^ (but ecce hie > ecc'tc) For 158. Mute + liquid Neither. eccum istum > 'cu" p II. in connected speech. par-tern > Fr. If. 'lu' A 'c'ic dissyllabic beginning with a vowel seems to have regularly lost vldet. did not prevent the development: pa-trem^Y-ic. per. apparently. For the syllabication of mute + liquid.5"^ illas and sometimes unstressed and * las. however. stressed tended to develop double forms: sua and Cf. S. the consonant was final and the next word began with a vowel. the consonant. In some of the Romance languages the development of the preceding vowel. Every 'LaXin vowel was by nature either lon^ prshort. A syllable was long if it contained ( i ) a long vowel or a diphthong or (2) any vowel + a following consonant. If such particles had more than one syllable. see Franz. position checked it is 160. QUANTITY. 379-390. part. 56-57. they tended to become monosyllabic: unstressed magis. 1. did a final consonant Digitized §133): Jffl-/> Fr. see §§132. (cf. [§ i6o 157. but we may surmise that in common speech it was more marked in stressed than in unstressed vowels. was doubtless carried over to the next syllable and did not make position: see §133.68 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. We must distinguish between the quantity of vowels and the quantity of syllables.

125-126 (Velius Longus and Pompeius). in the contracted endings -dsse -dssem etc. hoc erat hocc S. the other with a short vowel . Italian fiero <. cf. cetto. : The The single antiquity of double t is attested by an old inscription Lexique loi. 118: mIssit) > causa. giving Sp. copa. In Latin texts there is much confusion of single and double consonants. this may result merely the case with the doublet czto> S-p. mut{t')ire. etc. cuopre <.. S. biica bucca .^glut[t)tre. It. cippus. Stolz 223-224. Digitized by Microsoft® . Fr. diphthongs and long 112-120): cdssus> formosus. in— 132. Fr.§ 163] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. glossa glosa. which prevailed in Romance. — fuore <fd-ris. gluto glutto . Stolz 222—225. -esse -essem etc. Many words certainly longing to different Latin dialects. Early in the Empire caussa ss after vowels was apparently reduced to casus. especially before the accent: bal{l)cBna. Cf. I. cuor{e) 161. Cf. 127).^ ec{c)lesta. doubtless beone with a long vowel + — + a double consonant: brdchium brdcchium . is common in Greek and Latin manu- scripts: S. camelus camellus. missit (S. 129. cupola and erat. coupe. siccus ' '' sicccus. coppa . perhaps litera littera. ciepa. cedo. tap{p)ete. citto {C. Jiipiter Juppiter. mtllia (but not in mille : Pompeius. as seems to be ves(s)ica. where we have perhaps only a change of suffix. stupa stuppa. had two forms. cuppa. 162.fe-rus. however. §163. In some words from bad spelling.* co-pVit. mucus miiccus . Cf.. buc{c)lna. coUo < <icd-r. This did not occur.fiel(^e) Kferl. petto pietra<pe-tra. cot{t)idie. paullum. ferro <ifer-rum_. formossus > > > mtsit. corpo <:_cdr-pus. S. pupa puppa. cuve. (S. ii594)>It. 69 Compare tus. § 42 ctpus a single consonant. 163. nollo. L. VIII. cuba. but often it must represent an actual difference in pronunciation. —Isse —tssem etc. Sp. It. j < peccol- lum. Similarly one / was lost in mallo. c.

mattrona. there was occasionally a third. 164. Sic. bascio).^ + strenna = * strenna (> It. toute). 485. 1. before / and u in the old Italic dialects compare the Italian doubling infabbro. a consonant was doubled 122. brdca bracca. botte). I. (> It. messi). etc.5 547. bellua. jubemus lltus littus. baca bacca. frattre.^)—* tdtta (> Pr. Lexique 95-98) + Stella (>It. Stolz 223. reviewed by Meyer-Lubke in Ltblt. G. Cf. § 204(2). 334. jubemmus. ^Stella Vok. toda) ¥ totta (Keil V. 612. dialect stella) = (>It. strenna. lattrones. prevalent in Africa or in Italy. S. tenne. ^(ji. Vok. strennuor. strinna). cf. * butts (<j8oi)tis) *buttis (>It. Rsetia. 403. Spr." Cf. (>It. tota. suppremis. Gaul. Zs. conservdmus Vok. I. cascio). XXIV. conservammus. toiius was used by Pirminius. strena (> Old Fr. was very widespread and prevailed in Italy. stilla). seemingly a cross between the other two. Mohl. For *iiUius see Digitized by Microsoft® . tennuis. In aqua the double con: sonant. chdne{<x°-'^) 261. In late Latin inscriptions and manuscripts a consonant was sometimes doubled before r or u: acqua. channe. suppra. anguilla). [§ 164 may perhaps be added: cdseus * cdsseus bdsium *bassium (>It.488. voile. Stella. * stela (>01d esteile: cf. mist * missi 261 {iubimmus iobemmus). + anguilla—* angutUa (> It. This doubling indicates in most cases a Accordpronunciation. * According to Lat. attested by inscriptions and by Christian poets. having both the long. Beside the two forms indicated. I. and a large part of lateinischen See Clara Hiirlimann. So perhaps Diomedes' Itttera: Fr. local ing to F. Archiv XIV. iota estreine) (>Sp. 339. Leicique 98-104. Die Entwicklung des aqua in den romanischen Sprachen. anguila) Fr. vowel and the double consonant : angutla (> Sp.70 An To these Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Gram. iConsentius: " per adjectionem litterje io««»! pioioto. XXVI.

Spr. That is. the evidence of inscriptions. this nomen and novus. however. Terentianus from q (S. but is used for u in inscriptions. However may have been. the quantity of the vowel is ' in general easily ascertained. 211). which and became e and see §§201.. all : of later date. 195. i ff. II.§ i66] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. e.. long dis- - tinguished only by duration. 146. from the second century on cs Marius Victorinus. there was no such differentiation.. mulus Later. etc. etc. and short vowels were redit. Za(. the same sound in Idtus and Idtus. and so Maurus. in debet and mnum \ \ and minus. 176. 193). 208. for instance. (S. distinguishes two ^-sounds Pompeius. II. 175. is often used for i in inscriptions. 71 VOWEL QUANTITY. by 250. In Digitized by Microsoft® . about 480. until Consentius. 211). the short vowels being open while the sentio. . 467. 0. secondus. is given the testimony of grammarians. etc. and i for e. the distinction U was clear by the first century of our era. similar to i. in iillus and multus. about 350 a. as menus. In the case of a. 216-217). None of the grammarians apparently distinguished « and «. 151. solus sqlet. was often used for e in inscriptions (S. long and short e. is made with the tongue lying flat in the bottom of the mouth. 183-184). 461. 166. Writers do not clearly distinguish i and i. 182). and several fifth century grammarians plainly distinguish e from e (S. : vendo pinus pi^er. in 165. In Vok. 200-201). According to Meyer-Liibke. most of the Empire. III. perhaps. in the fifth century (S. for the vowels of brief duration the tongue was not in lifted quite so high as for those held longer. 182). i. distinguishes do other grammarians (S. 2. i and u were allowed to drop still lower. In open syllables. 174. as ocsor. 212. I. cites Tertullian for an e (S. (S. Originally. long were close gula. in Vok. if the word is used in verse. d. the vowels having. as minses. and u were eventin ually differentiated.

At 208). attested by pIvs piivs. testimony conflicts: some inscriptions have carIssimo. proved old inscriptions . any a later stage. 105). but the i. ultra (S. except Spanish. in Plautus. frIgida. 99). their regular quantity in hiatus. etc. but it is sometimes given by gram- marians. etc. their Dies. Naturally long vowels.72 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. siius'>Digitized spus> sous (S. Fr. 167. [§ 167 closed syllables and in words not used is by poets the quantity sometimes conOccasionally the in many cases doubtful . is The Classic rule that a vowel before another vowel short is not absolute even for verse. found in inscrip- tions. by Microsoft® . 187). others karessimo. sometimes marked in inscriptions. probably kept their original Naturally short vowels doubtless had development also: deus = deus. jectured from the etymology. via— via. 98. plus kept inscriptions (dIes originally long vowel. were apparently pronounced also with short u 81-82). and in Ennius close vowel in the Romance (S. and the practice of poets was not always in accordance with spoken usage. require a short some Romance forms support Classic luridus. VOWELS Ilf HIATUS. after u had become (see §§ 165. 101-102).. loir calls for *gltrem h&siA^ gltrem. S. 93): these preserved their languages. ^T. Romance undecim. duo>dui = dui. and often shown by subsequent developments in the Romance languages. fut. Aulus Gellius prescribes dictum. before u was apparently differentiated into 0: dvum> oum (cf. others demand u. Classic i Latin o&ers frtgidus (of. Substrate II. then. 105). nutrire. Vowels in hiatus with the last syllable offer difficulties. cf. languages. 93. at least in part. a. but an inscription has dIctatori (S. although we do find the spellings dius and mius (S. by S. (S. with a restora- tion of the V through the plural ova). and. so cut.2^)>oum (and also ovum.

Fluere was supplanted in popular usage by plovere Fluvia. with double i (S. maiiorem. had a peculiar development from the sixth century on before a vowel it was pronounced qui' and was confused with quid. 170. a II.: 236. we should write Troiia also Priscian analyzes pejus. Spr. however. 3 II. We find in eiius. mai-ius Digitized (£don by Microsoft® . as Cicero approved of Aiiacem. under the influence of qua and : . gave {Lat. 246-248. Pirson 16). major. coiiux.(4). 73 varia- 216. ei-ius. which had begun to assume the functions of quod (see §§69. inscriptions such S. §208.§ i7o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. before a consonant. words were short. different theory. XXV. but the / was doubled was a glide from the vowel to the/. into pei-ius. (S. §217. on the other hand. Recherches sur Forigine de la conjonction 'que' et des formes romanes iquivalentes. Quintilian states that Pirson 74. I. which prolonged the — first syllable: not pejor. Franz. Franz. There may have been other special Cf. 341. 357-390. vowels were lengthened before j. Troja. 236). 236). 352-355). used for quod in late Latin. Cf. LENGTHENING BEFORE CONSONANTS. The Romance languages. etc. *pldja. spellings as Aiiax. 1894. According to some grammarians. Jean- jaquet. Troija. way to Cf. For another see A. if we accept the statement of Teren- who says (S. cuiius. as in ejus. For a still. Troja. tions in different countries. 168. 207). Velius Longus adds that etc. Quia. 169.. qua{ni). Maiiam. 82 cf. Maiiam. 104) that the vowels there that is. it became qua. 250 in these a. see Gram. Cicero preferred aiio. J. Horning in Zs. d. b. point to open vowels in pejor. hut peijor.. The apparent contradiction disappears tianus Maurus. 468).

the vowel was lengthened. «. who wrote in the sixth century. 89. for inscriptions. the evidence of the inscriptions I. /. etc. etc. and some philologists regard the passage in question as still still an interpola54. The Romance is languages. tferi. 467). Romance and late Vulgar Latin words with ns (except in Cf. Priscian. compounds See S. Lat. Cf §311. tion of later date. etc. [§ 172 regularly early in Latin. conjungere through conducere..- cf. remains. and v only at the end of prefixes. 172. 400. mesis. S. Archiv XIV. u. in-: so infantem through indignus. the n being restored only in com- lengthened by compensation: pounds before initial nare. (i) Vowels were apparently lengthened before Cf. (2) Before gn vowels were lengthened according to Priscian and inscriptions mark length in dtgnus. and the fall was permanent. sposus.. (cf. as above) are either learned terms or new formaS. n occurred in the middle of many words. nasality disappeared. t. all trace of the of the vowel: consul consul cosul cosul. for inscriptions. tjk: quinque. however. coxwenire through continere. 77-78. s: cosul. An Introduction When fell to Vulgar Latin. 78. but the length and the close quality of the vowel remained. tsula. pignus. sanctus.74 171. pugnus. Spr. regnum. According to Meyer-Liibke {Gram. call for dtgnus. Before J. 86./. so that the result Digitized was t. but insig- It is altogether likely that the n fell through nasalization If so. 91). lignum. (S. but only after H had be- come i. S. cojugi. s. coventio. signum sigillum). 90. it was usually restored by the analogy of the full forms con-. it and the preceding vowel was cesor. etc. however. a very late authority. 91. not f. beside the old popular *pesare. n was followed by a fricative (/. S. S. tions: so pensare. benegnvs by Microsoft® . u. or v). signum. . for the usage of Cicero and others. But inasmuch as n occurs before /".

This seems a very plausible C. which is 75 in C. warn against quantitative mistakes: so Servius. about 250. however. L. through a by Microsoft® . and were often obliterated. in so far as all. 2153. Buck. seems to observe quantity in stressed and to neglect it in unstressed syllables. 311.). (S. Latin words borrowed by the Britons. doubtless equivalent to the benIgnus of C. show. lost.§ 174] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. XII. J. XII. in stressed syllables. tells us that au is short in Other grammarians syllables. of accent. "miserce dativus est non adverbium. in the fourth century. The was probably greater and more constant in accented than in unaccented vowels. D. explanation. they existed at c. and a was often used for e in inscriptions (S. the preservation of quantity in post-tonic Digitized mostly in the third and fourth centuries. prefers to regard such forms as dlgnus. as in aut (S. On shift the other hand. 174. . L. for the most part seems to have disappeared from unstressed syllables by the third or fourth century but confusion The nominative singular -is set in as early as the second. etc. remained. in the Classical Review I. resulting from the original quantity. The poetry of Commodian. Versbau des Commodian in Bausteine 576. as due to a vulgar or local pronunciation. I. difference in quantity 173. D. DISAPPEARAHCE OF THE OLD QUANTITY. Cornu. unaccented Terentianus Maurus. 722. in unaccented syllables the distinctions were doubtless weaker. The distinctions in quality." etc. in the third or fourth century. and the plural —es were confounded by 150 A. 66). 75). 183—184: bence. through the Latin period and developed further in the Romance languages. and we find numerous metrical errors in other late poets: cf. XV. The old quantity itself was It during the Empire. 226). (S.

too. distinguish by quantity t and i. 65. taken over in the fifth and sixth centuries. e and ?. fourth century. criticizes Servius. Moreover. retain the quantity of vowels that bear the accent: Pogatscher. but mostly in the third and fourth. all other vowels 176. d. are distinguished by quality also. Digitized fqrmas fori. In most of the Empire accented vowels not in position were pronounced long. 467). / At the end of the Latin period a new system of quangrew up. i?> e 01 i. in the Roma (S. as aques for eques in 197 (S. fructus by Microsoft® .if>« while u and u. vendo vents. 225). Spr. 175. and based on th|fe situation of the vowel. On the other hand. for. [§ 176 Loth 72. dixi plicds. entirely diverse from the old. It is possible that the quantity of unstressed vowels was better kept in the provinces than in Italy. The Latin words in Old High German. DEVELOPMENT OF A HEW QUANTITY. 106). 178). clares that "Afrae aures de correptione St. In accented syllables there are sporadic examples of confusion by the second century. e. Much late poetry disregards quantity altogether. Augustine devocalium vel produc- Pompeius and other tione non judicant" (^Lat. 107. d>ii ox 6 while d>o: Franz. Latin words in Anglo-Saxon. Latin words borrowed by Old High German indicate a retention of long i and u before the accent: Franz. Latin words borrowed by the Britons from the second to the fifth century. grammarians blame the confusion of cequus and equus (S. but probably the disappearance of the old distinction was not general before the fourth and fifth centuries. and o. show the preservation of the quantity of stressed vowels: Loth 64. and not complete before the end of the sixth.76 syllables: An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. tity short: sdncto vales.

d. a. Meyer-Liibke in different in Einf. I. 103—104. the groups that e.f>It. Spr. ca-the-drd te-ni-brds . cb. nounced new long vowels were promost regions with a circuinflex intonation. also ui. perhaps only a blunder. We shall see presently Digitized by Microsoft® . cqr'^lt. and the conditions of diphthongization were very diverse in different localities. close. XXV. beside a. cq/r me-l no-s re-m In Spain and in some parts neisf of Gaul. Lombardy. Latin had the vowels au. which in the transition from Latin to the Romance languages re1 77- It is likely that these in sulted in diphthongization in a large part of the Empire. : Niipos. ^^/a > Old Fr. ce. we find vobit for obiit (S. 735). o. have seen (§ 165) ti. d. syllables before a labial (as in proommus') a short further- more. (rets. i. goule. eu. 467. This pronunciation doubtless sprang up with the old. southern Gaul. Zimmermann in Zs. 0. VOWELS. in £at. 213). nepotis (A. dis- appearance of the which it displaced. vieni. he describes it as common to all. porta. In 419 D. and Sicily apparently did not participate in this early breaking. and in unaccented ii. u. says that the development was and independent in the several Romance languages. /w>01d Fr. e. he puts in the fourth and fifth centuries.q. «^j>Fr. t. Portugal. all stressed vowels were appar- ently long: tempus. occurs in an inscription made a little before 120 a. Gram. nous. 77 gule. 561-562. u were pronounced open. particularly in northern Gaul: z'f«f. The vowels most affected were e and q. We and i.§ 178] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. but as posterior to it the fifth century. while a was not' affected by q-aawti-ty. cuor. An isolated example. tre-s.

The inconsistencies in this substitution arise partly from the different dates at which words were borrowed. but also sepia "^ i: It. and ui (as in cut) was lit. and 180. Late words often show Digitized do-Ki/Tiys > ascitis. it H era : eclesia. (f>dXayi -> phalanx. ceu). so in some late words. 210) that cB>e a. while au. In the Germanic vocabulary there is not much to be noted: at in words adopted early apparently became a. 181. by Microsoft® . In book-words it was assimilated to Latin e: a. 179. A. was in Greek originally a long e. partly from the various pronunciations of the vowels in the several Greek dialects. eu generallyremained du. (n)Tria~^ sapia. bottega. bestemmia. long or short. was pronounced a: ^axriM^ Phdsis. popular origin it often had the Greek open sound kKKkfitrU > 182. eu (^cduius. a-Ktjvrj'^ sctsna scena.iro6riKTf)~:>apotheca^ It. Per. eu (or iu) appears in treuwa (or triuwa). [§ 182 (§§209. but early in our became t.La > blasphemia > It. iu is found in skiuha?i> ated in some fashion to the Latin system. as *waidanjan~>*wadaniare. which became *trewa. doubtless the ideal of people of fashion.78 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. as In words of more ji\acr<\>r}fi. partly from the channel (written or oral) through which they came. The history of Greek vowels is very complicated: — GREEK VOWELS. The foreign vowels of borrowed words were assimil- In the few Celtic words that were taken over there are no important peculiarities. but popular speech substituted for unfamiliar vowels the sounds of the vernacular.nd ce>e. seppia. the Greek This pronunciation was letters were sounded as in Greek. According to Quintilian (£don 64-65). * skivare.

mienta. -p-hqra). etc. iKKXriKrCiu "> edisice. it was In assimilated to Latin t: ^lp.Chrlstus Chrestus. irop^vpo. ^^. cf.. > artemtsia > Old Fr. orma.— § i86] An etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . Xpla-ro^'^. but perhaps dialectically q (cf. oo-/x'^ >. tttw^os > It. chiosa. regamo. rprnKTiji'^ Cf. tapis.ix6py7)>amurca. Sp. was generally close. was probably q. Greek dialects. Neumann etc. and occasionally the same word had both pronunciations: a. 80x1^ > dqga> It.o'i'> phlmus . In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: > cophinus. apparently became I. popular words I In book-words later e oz e. Old Fr. 9. /iu(rT^ptov> mistirium. ermo. 79 40. <^iKo'i>phtlus. cedro. 185. '%Ti<^avo'.> piper. a. 183. In popular words it was sometimes close. open in others. pxirov > blttum'> It.' It. Cf. I. t apparently later often e: apOplriKOi > ariAriticus '> It artetico. Pr.. armeise.'>- Stephanus Stephanus.. etc. Christianus Chres- tianus. It. etc. In popular words it. at least in the principal dialects. seems to have had a very open sound.^ purpura. li bietal It. menta. ^ia>drrp > boletus. 184. ropvos > tqrnus > It. antiefne. crLvaTn> sinapi^ senape.yermo. apa. pttqcco. "^-phoca. in 186. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. but sometimes open. was assimilated to Latin e: yevans Agenesis.p1. occasion- yXStrira > It.. op<^a. K6ppi>gummi. piivOrj^ menta'> It. O most dialects was kocjuvo's o. dqga. ^(fila-pa^ chrisma> cresima. ally u: tructa. Claussen 853-854. Tiov Claussen 854-855. E was close in some It. tapit. apTepXa-M It.v6% > orphanus. sometimes open: eprjfios'^ er'mus er'mus'^ It. Cf. KiBpo'i'>cedrus'>In book-words it > Fr. Claussen 869-870. Claussen 855-857. 1re7rf.vri^ovo%'>-* antefona'^ Qi\A Fr. cresme. /. even when long. opiyavos > became e. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: <j><!tKri In popular words it apparently became ^. ixova<TT'^piov'>raora-n-rj- nastirium.

etc. — KoKn^o-i^ cqlaphus cojaphus. Pr. Marsuas. > ancilia . Koyxiy <tt/3o<^os [§ 187 chorda. was unrounded into /. calotta.. AudoUent 536. cultivated people adopted for Greek words the Ionic-Attic pronunciation.vt)> was shortened. Cf. Cf. perhaps taken mostly from Doric (Claussen 865)." Among the common people the unfamiliar ii was assimilated to i. <jTvpai : . > > and a few other words the v for some reason became o. buxus. S. Digitized by Microsoft® . nunquam Pyrrhum" (S. In inscriptions we find misteriis. . grotta. these probably have nothing to do with KoXvizTpa. murta. — > concha. Pirson 39. KpvTrTy)> crupta . Towards the end of the Republic.yKvKw. Pr. 187. etc." "porphyreticum marmor non purpureticum marmor. etc. . Pr. KpvTTTrj > It. etc. Spr. Mva-Ca^ Jfysia Mmsia. > It." App. (S. irv^os mullus. In Tp\yTa. we find: "Marsyas non in others (S.p-q>cumba. which may represent a Greek dialect pronunciation between u and ii: yvpo'i> gyrus gmrus . in the case of v." '^ tymum non tumum. originally pronounced u. App. later in Attic and became ii.8o torno. which subsequently. which is genCicero erally represented. KviJ. yppl-q > Claussen 857-860. Pr. In the older borrowed words. /iCSos > It. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in the 9th or loth century. Zefurus. The App. v regularly was assimilated to Latin u Ionic it jUijXXos 2ig-22i): Pvpara> bursa . > > > buxida {=pyxis) in Theodorus Priscianus and in glosses. 468. The spelling / occurs sometimes before Augustus 6. For some words we find an occasional spelling X. says: "Burrum semper Ennius." "myrta non murta. 221). According to Cassiodorus. It. Y was > strqppus. y In the App.. motto. 221.. 'OXvcro-eu? > Ulixes. 'OSuo-o-eta > Odissta. 221). fivpros busta seems to represent a peculiar local development: cf. in which the ^ is a later local development. truttna the v storax. ''tymum non tu- mum. by the spelling y. Lat. Olumpus. Livius Andronicus In ayKvpa ancora. u is the spelling in some words.

Cleopatra.'> w€ipaTyi<s'^ — KA£ki>> Medea.. giro. 81 has "gyrus non girus. M. . misterii. long. Such forms Clepatra for as " ermeneumata non erminomata" {App. became ai. finally. however. Claussen 873-875. Cf. Kapa^iuriys'^ paradtsus .• ^ ^generally became ^« E3pos > -£'«''«J'. tdolum. § Kd 223. which to be pronounced as in ^otfio^'^it Phxbus Phebus Sometimes. Pr. <? In Latin. Frigia. Cf. /.> platea. originally cb 188.. It. which came to be proClaussen nounced 871-872.TSa. yrJi/'os — kvkvo%> gesso is e: yvpo% cecino.. (as in aiyi^'^ tsgis). etc. i. In -eios -eta —tiov. 192. 189. if Pirson 39. except before vowels. later ce (as in poina). was usually pronounced short. /ceXttJcr/xa > ? It. Cf. cima. frequently became qui: The modern Greek pronunciation is represented by some Romance words: afi.). the penult was often shortened: Khj. «S(i)Xov> pirata. from the sixth to the fourth century c. Cf. etc. A V> au. bisante. 190. about the third century. 6r]travp6i> thesaurus. cf. Cf. then. as in Atas > Aiax. KoXoKvuT-q"^ cologuinta. probably a local development. 76-77. Tu/iTravov > Fr. e. MaTa > Maia." giret. Claussen 872-873. Claussen 01 originally "became came (S. cf. . a became Clio. Cf. 191. if Audollent 535. AI timbre. f. j8u^ai'r6s > It. > scilinga.rihtui. > It. or z before vowels. 277). Digitized as in -Koivr] >poina. by Microsoft® became 0. as in AWiovux > Ethiopia Ethiopia. etc. later e.v\ov > It. £/ was doubtless originally pronounced ei in Greek. see § 141. oi. ciurma. toreomatum from Topfxpa. giro. > It. For o-vkcutoj/. e. This i. Claussen 860-869.§ 192] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. b. J before consonants. KS/«i>It. may be merely misspellings: Some Romance forms show u: 875-877. etc. Bechtel etc. amido. oTJpt-yya which became It.

ot. it probably had a forward pronunciation tending somewhat toward e: cf. So beside dinia. 544. 198. It is possible that dlacer (whence alacrem) > *dlecer (whence alecrem). I. I.T\Kov). I. Spr. [§ 195 "^-foeta. Haag 6. ovpavo's'^ Uranus. senetus. C. 441. In Latin it usually became u: fipovxo's> bruchus. Like 193. see § 167. C. « : . Beside cerasus *clra. Cf. Beside gravis there was a grevis. (i) Some words had a peculiar development: — Beside alacrem the Romance languages seem to postulate alecrem and alej:rem. Cimiterium cymiterium.slus. — For vowels in hiatus. L. But in Gaul. (2) (3) For the suffix -arius. then 'Valuer (whence alicrem alecrem). Kipaaoi) there must have been a Latin * cerlsus. a. S. became comcedia. The o was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . 195. For nasal vowels. which was used in southern Italy. patrem. 468 cf. malum « cf.82 as in An iroirjTtji Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -arius. Spr. N. for cmmeterium < Koi/tjyTiyptov. I. etc. factum. doubtless originally pronounced ou in Greek. latus. Doric cf. see § 171. manus. then q. crepere. ACCENTED VOWELS. Substrate II. and agnetus (for agndtusi) in Fredegarius. L. tantus. SINGLE VOWELS. A regularly remained dat-e. Lat. which was used elsewhere Lat. perhaps indicates an ignorant confusion of « ce: KOiixMSia'^ and Cf. Olcott 33. 1527 d 33. (5) jiSKav) there was a melum (<i)i. (6) Beside vacuus there was a vHcuus: vocuam. under the influence of l?vis: Beside GREVE.. see § 39. Cf. CKwas then if. Substrate (4) I. volumptczte in Gl.B. <u Claussen 877-878. and Sarthere was a clr^slus. unchanged in the greater part of the Empire: caput. Rome. a 194. VI. 0. vocatio. used by Petronius and others: Lat. Reich. Claussen 878-879. 468. Spr. 468. especially in the north. 171.

became vacdre. {ficet in the 3d century. Spr. Long e {% 165). Republican times... Studi A. 613. for —esco 26o£f. I. S. iox fistus. of suffix original. no proof of historical con: nection between the phenomena 197. however. By a change § which was pronounced remained unchanged in Vulgar Latin. Cf. old vocdre. etc. Spr. 189-190. Calabria. and -tsco. -Ire. shift of conjugation: see In Gaul this substitution of it i for e was so very com- mon that must signify something. etc. III.: for the confusion of -ere and 6911. for crisco and other verbs for adimplisti. etc. same region. There is. 614-615. probably- at least in most re- gions: debere. dulcido. In Sicily. I. This would account for bistia (= bestia) found in late Latin. vocivus regularly whence by analogy vdcat vScuus became ^vdcitus^ for vocat: Lat. I. —esimus. cf . vindo. I. Also Vok. etc. Some of the —esco >-tsco cases are surely due to a §§414-415. — in -isco for -esco. {Lexique 115). These spellings are due in the main s -¥ to the identity of /and i in late pronunciation: see § 165. Digitized It probably indicates an by Microsoft® . -elius and —llius..). I. 196. in Studi Medievali Medievali I. T is very often used for e in inscriptions and late —ido for —edo. 328. to u. -isimus for vir. for -elis and —His.§ igS] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. e became i in late {Lexique 106). 359-364. 468. mercedem. vacivus 83 {^vacuus). and conversely ver iox etc. etc. habetis. verus. and southern Apulia e In old Oscan. —isco for —esco.. Lat. conjectures that consonant may have tended to raise e to i. 198. vendere. iox co- gnusco and other verbs in —usco for -osco. 466. debet. II. for vindimia instead of vindemia. also for colustra. writings: Gregory the Great has crudilitas. Sepulcri.ficit. minsam. diheto.: Sepulcri 193-194. filix. as in cinsum. 127 287-289. Carnoy 15 ff. e. which was spoken in nearly the has become i.

which supplanted vester. found in Gregory of Tours fur das Studium der neueren Sprachen CXV. It. ferrum. I. vaster. 1 200. tris. e in nearly all the Empire: btbo. : by Microsoft® . (cf. rictu. remained unchanged: bene. later. tile. Cf. Cf. Vok. Long i. Pirson 2-5: lo-ii: requiiscit. audtre. ferus. Spr. minus. seniscit. 0) . Short e. Short i. villa. is to be regarded as a new formation on the model of noster rather than as the old form. (4). etc. in north- e>ei (verum> Old Fr. Neumann adoliscens. It is interesting to note that Celtic e also became i: Dottin 99.ii(i. stiva. Bon. criscit. delitus. tepiscit. sidibus. ingraviscente. stilla. etc. quaginsima. festa. i pronounced i (§ 165). piscem. venit. spelling e for ^ is common from Digitized the third century on frecare. vexit. minsis. exit. qulnque (^Substrate (i) 546). this very high Spr. must have become *frtgidus ij^frigdus). etc. viiium. Archiv (2) Beside ilex there was an elex. became. stiis. Cf. 397. except in Spain. Lexique 114. segolo. etc. vinum. For the development (i) of diphthongs. rigna. fedilis. remained unchanged: I. veir): Lat. see § 229. ficit. [§ 201 extremely close pronunciation of the e ern Gaul. quincriscens. which was pronounced e (see § 165). : (3) Beside sicula there was a secula (Lexique Ii9)>-It. tulate (4) stegola Varro seems to pos- something like * steva for For St. mille. According to Lat.84 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. teneo. § i66. quiiscit. pronounced / (§ 165). Haag 3iiff. circulns. doubtless by the third century and sporadically earlier. 468. see § 177. 8-9: adoliscens. The 201. riges. perhaps through association with rtgidus. habitur. dico. Lexique 104-105: ficerent. rigna. (Lexique 119) mentions a rustic speca for spica. i. Fngidus. e 199. 106-113: minse. minses.

. see the end of § 197. sponsus. etc. 463. Beside simul there was a *sSmul. used by Gregory the Great and for ostium others. Long 0. Spr. AudoUent 535. etc. perhaps through the analogy of semel: Lat. i is Bon. see § 167. 200-201.. Spr. § 196. zV/z///). vea. 195. pronounced in Vulgar Latin. -^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. (3) Sinister was replaced by sinexter. after that they were perhaps isolated: Einf. karessemo. nomen. 11 7-1 23. trebus. etc. Spr. the change For agnusco.. etc. For ou 203. often used for e (cf. Apulia of e to /. and southern did in old Oscan: cf. 198): minses. R. ^/z<^(= minester. under the influence of dexter: Lat.. cognusco. 106. 214. sebe. etc. semuL. Pirson 13. 202)... > ou. 468): furma. is The spelling u for etc. etc. amure.. like e from e. Haag II. ceteneris. benivolus.. S. Spr. Neumann 23-25. etc. R. In Sicily. corregia. Digitized by Microsoft® . 541. 463. accepere. (Zat. In southern Italy e from i. etc. place. Pirson 8-10. trea.. has become § 196. S. 6 202. remained unchanged most regions: colorem. Calabria. Stu^i Medievali 613) is perhaps to be ex- plained in this way. Carnoy 15^-. as it (§ 165). minester. attested also by in- scriptions (S. 468. «. (i) (2) Beside camtsia there was a camTsia: Substrate I. became i: cf. Quintilian and Varro mention 166) a rustic e for I. In Sardinia and a part of Corsica this change did not take and both t and i i. etc. Conversely (S. §§ 197. in Gaul {^Lat. 468. The popular ustium I. 469. very common etc. These two islands were taken > from Rome by the Vandals in 458 and added to the African kingdom. solus. sene.§203] legare.. at least in hora. S. viduriiis.. forma. 85 menus.

For the development of diphthongs. nullus. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. frondes) are perhaps connected with Italian yb«fe and other words containing o for 205. tot. Cf. gluria. S. etc. in But in Gaul. nun. mortem. [§ 206 It Bon. Neapolitan sg. the plural. perhaps. There are a few peculiar cases: and Sp. solet. Italian tutto . Digitized by Microsoft® . Fr. App. uuela alle. folia. — presumably through Fr. Pr. a large part of northern Rsetia it position. tottus (§ 163). the analogy of mSveo. remained unchanged: bonus. tuit. in north- ern Gaul. una. 211—212. cognusco. § 187. forts. forum. etc." § 177. § 217. sg.. pi. Cassel: " aiatutti. Grammarians mention the protrusion of the lips: S. frundes (for fontes. 126-130. puni. No satisfactory explanation has been proposed the most plausible. may have come through 6 pronounced ^ (§ 165). *tutti or *tucti: It. and western was probably formed a little forward of its normal It was certainly not u. sg. is that of Mohl. Grammaire I. Cf. tutt3 . pi. sortem. The Such a form seems to be attested by the Gl. Pr. (i) > Old.. locus. but it doubtless slightly This pronunciation may have been due to the historique de langue francaise approached it. old Fr. Short 0.. U is occasionally used for o in inscriptions: lucus.. the influence of cuncti on toti. Lexique 102-104. Nyrop. some of the Romance forms point to nom. or at least to a tutti. K. became ou or u: cortem 204. 216." where tutti is defined as alle. see Long u. probably represents a very close sound. court. namely.. later. durus. ^'formica noxi furmica. in mobilis. pi. The rustic Latin funics. remained unchanged most of the Empire: cura. which Haag 13.86 etc. pi. cf. totto. 206. Italy. meuble. pronounced u (§ 165). tutto. (2) Beside totus and *tuttus or *tuctus. mueble postulate Cf. § 198. q before n + dental.

tomolus. Windisch 396-397. by Microsoft® . which lasted down into the Empire. The spelling is common in late documents: "columna non colomna..§ 2o8] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. became nSptim: (3) Beside in Zs. Beside angHstia there must have been *angSstia. 87 linguistic habits of the Celts: u> t in Great Britain cf. In place of niirus we find ndrus (R. Spr. Fr. jUvlnis.. 467." "formosus noTiformunsus. Beside luridus there probably was a *l-S. 617-618. 464. G." "turma non iorma" (cf. §§ 169. 216). unda. 217. tonica. Mohl pumex there was XXVI. perhaps only orthographic: Lat. The old spelling for u after v {yoltus. Cf. 468. due to the analogy of sdror and * nSvia (" bride. pronounced u (§ 165). a part of Corsica. etc.> mur) but in a few. Bon. etc. 517. 469. F. > : 207. Cf. probably by in most of the Empire: bucca. (3) There are other local irregularities. pomice. Short the fourth century or earlier. Pirson 15-17. u 208. ruptus. and ndra.). and Dacia this u : Lat. Pr. a pomex: Bon. Spr. giila. Spr. u> Spr. App." from nSvus). in Latin words borrowed by the Celts « is generally treated like Celtic (murus ". 134. cubtturn). NUptia. through the analogy of *nSvius ("bridegroom. fiUvium. criidus > criz) Loth 67-68. 132-135. Substrate IV. jeune call for local q in coliibra. § 217. « > z (cii^a cili. Jleuve. (i) (2) The following special cases are to be noted: — Cf. became. u. corso. Celtic by the second century. Albania." "puella non poella"). covetum (= is Haag 14. 465) and nSra (S. change did not take place. toneca. culpa. For qu (i) (2) > qu. presumably taken very early. people ssiA plSvere (used by Petronius (4) Instead oi pluere axA pKvia and others) and *pldja: Lat. servos. "colubemon colober. 136.rdus: Substrate III.. . In Sardinia. Digitized Cf. couleuvre. see § 167." from nSvus) Lat. and both u and . etc.

§ 78. The regular change oi ce to e took place largely in Republican times in unaccented syllables. Bechtel Digitized by Microsoft® . cen224. especially in Pompeii (presta. sepes. in stressed syllables (as questor) may be called regular by the century: S. e. fifth it cented syllables (as sancte) before the third century. spellings as fcecit.. £ for a in dative endings occurs early: Corssen I. such scBpes both forms were preserved. b. Cf. by analogy.88 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and equus : S. 687 ff. etc. its and pronounced ai. septum. etc. sepes 188. quiceti. stressed cb was probably still a diphthong in the city but had become e in rustic Latium. century on (Carnoy 78): questus (2d century). Hence. igo. century: Einf. came into general use: fenum. represents the sound better than ai: E is etc. Carnoy 79-80. 'Sox fenum fcenum. Cf. The Pompeius blames the confusion of csquus spelling e for cb was usual in unacfrom the fourth century on. preda prceda. In Spanish inscriptions e occurs from the first S. Spr. qucero. S. Cf. 465.. says that cb Terentius Scaurus. S. Carnoy It was probably general everywhere by the second 69-84. but two parts it became cb. c. 225. when Varro cited edus for hadus as a rural form. 178. ae 209. seta. About the first century b. Neumann 13 (and Fort- mon to Volscian seizung 21-23): famina. 225. ccelum. some hundred years later e came into the city and pervaded the middle of the provinces: Lat. in the first S. 210. [§ 210 DIPHTHOUGS. In certain words a vulgar and dialect pronunciation com- and Faliscan (Hammer 7. tury. preda. etc. 166—168. 178. in stressed syllables in the first century of our era and later.): found early in Campania. 8). ^ was originally written through the mutual attraction of later e: ccecus.

304. is 223 spellings Cladius. II. In Rumanian and Provengal it was preserved as au. 89 75-76: cedat. Dibmedes. etc. 212. Glacus. — speak of a rustic or archaic o for au: Corssen fif. etc. where au was normally preserved this pronunciation was used also in the country around So. coming through derivatives. plostrum Carnoy App. Perhaps they represent a provincial pronuncia- tion. In Umbrian inscriptions we find Latin. Scarus. R. pronounced du. In C/^j-a. Festus cites 95. Umbrian and Faliscan had 4-5. and 465-466. grece. such as occludo: Vok. orum. Vok. the earli^est stage of French in Italian causa> chose . Cf. inscriptions of the I St and 2d centuries). Priscian. Lexique 104). Digitized by Microsoft® . Bayard 5. taurus. ^^ auris non cotes. its existence in 211.: § 212] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.C. crept was used by the lower classes: Lat.. in Portuguese as ou. gaudium. Cludo for claudo is common. 8. Clodius : Ham- and Plotus are common in first mer 4. orum. 301 S.. etc. century second century Carnoy 85... Carnoy 85-86 (clusa. Hammer : 15-19. in Oscan territory. coda. II./464. in general. original q (i) is proved by the treatment and Spanish it did not become of c in ^ until had broken into uo or ue. the dialects of northern \i^?s~\(>\. toru. oricla". Carnoy 100 (cludo in two Sp. or possibly (2) they are only orthographic. 162-164. Rome. The f there S. an Au.: into Spr. etc. etc. ostrum. in the Probus. in place of Latin au: and There are some examples in Pompeii. Festus.). Conversely ce was often erroneouslyused for e (S. are pretty common in various countries Carnoy 86-95. 655-663. orata. Hammer central Italy: Chronologie . Pirson 27. I. and others The grammarians : — . occur inscriptions Carnoy 85. generally remained in Vulgar*^ Latin: aura. in the first it the city. where and second centuries B. 183-184) and for Greek r) (as scanam. with a for au when an u in the next syllable. Cf. Pr.

Ui. Vok. poena. etc. later e: coepi. fosnum. oricla. Umbrian suffoco. foces. L. Carnoy 84. " sorex ve\ saurex. *^^ Cf. S. of our era: Cf. is its and pronounced oi. S. sodes. pollulum: si audes. CE was originally written through the mutual attraction of presumably 0. ui pronounced lii. postulated by some Romance forms. stus. lotus. auscu/um . pcenates. neuter. Ola. explodo. Bechtel 76. I. S. find amenus. etc. but two parts it became It pcenitet. seu). illHi. au was occasionally used for 160): Festus. Cicero used loreola. plodo. Cf. we C. Classic fauces. 1890. see § 431. ote. This rustic and vulgar while the in Romance — which was pronounced — was generally adopted from au was 0. 464. fcemina. Cf. Carnoy 95. eu 214. IV. 213. 0. the intermediate stage Phoebe. Hammer 4)= aut. of ce and e is mentioned by late grammarians: In late Latin a bad spelling. 227. eheu. oe 215. 228. mm227. Marius Victorinus. S. cxlum. The confusion S. 0. eui~us. * auddere for occtdere. ccementa. pronounced eu (as in ceu." Cf. Spr. (cf. coles =^ caulis. mmrore. neu. became popular: coscus. codex. plotus occur also. Vulgar Latin in a few words : coda.go An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cepi. Phebus. Eu. heu. Digitized cHi. was not preserved in any popular words. 227. by Microsoft® . 216. In the Per. 228. Europa. plaudo. ce for ce and e. [§ 216 {^Chronologie Conversely. 293ff. was preserved: For the development oifui. Jilodere. hUic.. may be that for reflected by the spelling phyeb^ E is attested by inscriptions in the first century ceperint. II. Lat. eu.

by Microsoft® . q. Ascoli. became ou: S. I ' According to some philologists. u were lowered one stage labial. — 457.§ 219] An Introduction c. UNACCENTED VOWELS. XXVII. 476. until the reforms of Charlemagne. see § 167. — For secondary 153-155. a = a. etc. p. Although many examples are cited. see G. 219. Jluvium'>*flqvium. mobilis'^* mqbilis. After that. except sporadically. e. = 0. The discussion is continued by Pieri. maintains ceding or following even if it by a preq was separated from the to e. those of the first syllable had most resistance. § 134. in general. au:=q ox au. q. e. for the In clerical Latin the vowels were probably pronounced most part as ii). that f. e=e. La vocal tonka alterata dal contatto d'una consonante labiate in Archivio glottologico italiano XV. and then only Digitized in a part of the Empire. Osservazioni al precedence lavoro. A general influence of this kind can hardly be regarded as proved for any combination except ou. juvenis'^*jovenis. d.. 2. 579. which 217. possibly through a lingering the Old Latin accent: cf. a following labial tends to open a vowel: colubra>* colqbra. 218. La vocal tonka alterata da una consonante labiale in Zs. For a criticism of the theory. influence of The vowels of the final syllable lost much of their distinct- ness. i = i. ibid. see §§ N. qt INFLUENCE OP LABIALS. Pieri. u ^u (or a and ce ^e. but did not fall. to Vulgar Latin. pluere'^ ployere. in vulgar speech. CLERICAL LATEff. dvum~>* ovum. Among unstressed vowels. the evidence is not convincing. stress. — vowel by a liquid. B. until long after the Vulgar Latin period.

> maximus. pontufex "^pontifex. SUmus. The former was the one generally adopted in Classic Latin. ID re vailed in Italy and southern Gaul. Fredegarius is very uncertain in his use of unstressed vowels: 220. 251. in moderation. av{^i)dere. 9). Agrippa pro sumus simus scripserunt. siimus -and simus. U was cf. being sometimes accented. [§ 221 Grammarians sibe are testify to the confusion of and u: S. 35 Franz. In Spanish in- we find maximus. (i).92 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. iv.. jur(^i)go. 466. Quase. developed two forms. 7. forms as infri. etc. dc(^u)lus. by Microsoft® . In general Latin quantity did not sensibly affect the quality of unstressed vowels. in unaccented . 30—36. "Messala. 221. 203-208. § 419. maxumus quodlubet"^ guodlibet. sibi: S. 199-200. except in initial syllables. however. cal[e)fdcere. found in place of quasi. for o and u. Haag 15-24. Spr.. For the confusion of unaccented e and i. 2 1 2. employed only before labials. syllables: I." In the vulgar speech simus seems to have Cf. Brutus. and even there the difference must have been small. 196-198. see Pirson 41—47. in Classic and Vulgar Latin: cal{i)dus. bdl{i)neum. etc. Lindsay 25-26. "in here neque e plane nequi i auditur. see Pirson. etc. scriptions etc. In inscriptions we find such frig{i)daria. 21-24. cf. In early Latin there was an inclination to syncope: ar{i)ddrem. S. vetranus: S. vtr{i)dis. spelled both with u and with i: Carnoy 65-69. i was certainly distinct from Digitized In final i: sentis. syllables. This tendency continued. but simus was favored by Augustus and by some purists of his time (Lindsay 29)." (Weakest were medial vowels immediately following the stress. 3 During the Classic period it generally became t: decumus~> decimus. According to Quintilian I. secondary or the primary 47-48. According to Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. Lat.

Occasional examples (such as dormio. then. Pr. and Seneca: deorsum in Lucretius. at least in theory. as approved is by Cicero: S. however. In tibi the final vowel was sometimes long. alio. Quintilian says that u and i in uos and iam are not vowels: S. vaqui. > distinguere. fudxis. senti. a vowel but lost its syllabic value in early Classic times: acua > aqua. §187. Ovid.§ 224] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the u was ap- parently not reduced to a semivowel until the end of the In some other words the syllabic value of u was kept. will be treated as consonants. In perfects. oKuAas) very common: Eckinger 123-125. a. 222. So it was in qualis. rather late: Velius Longus distinguishes aquam from acuam. Lucretius. is distinguere qucBro. After gutturals. In Greek transliterations kv for qui (as in cf. e. Otherwise. App. abietiItalia counts as three syllables in poets of the ' bus in Virgil. left a. quem. 236. qui. used before Joseph. vindemiator'va. such as Classic period. Maiiam not ab. Quintilian and Velius Longus cite the spellings Aiiax." "vacui gon 224. Digitized by Microsoft® .g. 223. abiete. UNACCENTED VOWELS IN HIATUS.. These. Lucilius. 234. Horace. 93 stbi. sente. fectf^Vr. e. and will be out of consideration in the present chapter. u followed by a vowel was originally itself. facias. /"and u followed by a vowel and beginning a syllable were apparently pronounced as consonants from the earliest times. fluviorutn) are found in Ennius. i. Virgil. 232. fis. feci. sometimes short.. Horace. "vacua non vaqua. nocuit." S. probably by the century of our and sporadically earlier. and u in hiatus with following vowels first lost their syllabic value era. senttt> It. Bonnet notes that etc. Plautus. fes. placuit. Juvenal.

then. abiat. S. Consentius declares that trisyllabic soluit and . lintium.dixisse": Carnoy 43). it became soef in French. soave in Italian. the semivowels pre- sumably developed into the fricative consonants y and w: S. earn {=jani). * de-excito~^* dexctto'^ It. etc. "non iamus sed eamus. abias. Hence arises. 106. 3714 (Rome). So alea>alea'^alja. Suavis. App.y Jiliolus>Jiljdlus (§136). desto. 463. noxeus. i. Lauriatus. §136). with a narrowing of the mouth-passage. II>'43. in late Latin.. Vok. exiat. aleum. mulierem (% 1^6) ". a great confusion of e and i in hiatus: capriolvs (cf. 06 and u6 into o. L. C. u6 developed differently.filius'>ftlius'^Jiljus." " sobrius per i non per e scribendum. the / remaining long enough to palatalize the / (the Romance e was doubtless a later analogical development). etc. In the same vi2. parieUs {%i2t^)>p aretes.> mul'erem.. cf- Carnoy 33-35. a new y and a new w. palleum. VI. 231-232. as e. ie. four-syllable induruit are barbarisms Caesellius is undecided whether tenuis has three syllables or two: S. R.:> Digitized by Microsoft® . fasiolus. 234. But the combinations ei -. likewise eccu'kic> *eccwic. tenueram > tenweram (§137). at an early date: arietem (^^\-^6)'> are tern (Varro. cavia. faciebam'>*facebam. was used as a trisyllable by Sedulius in the fifth century. I.sapui > saj>ui> sapwi. Caper. however. "ares veteres pro anVi. 187. We have. in late Latin spelling.94 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. vinia. Valerius Probus has parietibus: £don 208. prehcndere 225. calcius. Cf. solia. coclia. Pr. eccu'istay-* ecwista (§65). lancia. Uniamenta. it was probably a semi-learned word. century or before by the third century. [§ 225 early Empire. valiat. S. 00. calciare. The pronunciation speech by the first u was probably regular in popular . 103. eacit {^=jacei). 232. ee. and // apparently being contracted into e. Bayard 4.." KeilVII. Audollent 535.

z/ after all consonants fell before unaccented u probably by the middle of the first century. quteius'> quetus. U often fell irregularly II. Audollent 536). quat{t')uor'^quattor (^. qudmddo> comodo. " coquens non cocens". Spr. So apparently aruum^* arum. vef. Pr. doubtless under the influence of vidua. duodecim'^ dodecim (Pirson 58: dodece). ministerW^ ministeri. Furthermore.. tinguo~^ttngo (Caper. quoi{f)tdie> stingo . Gl. battuo "^ batto (cf. Carnoy 117. defendere. fell commoner After gutturals. Reich. abattas. before unaccented by the second century: antiquus "> anticus carduus^^cardus.. 472: ero). in late inscriptions. cf. Jan{u)arius: Vok. common Carnoy 43). tdrqueo>*torquo> *tdrco. then *prendere through the analogy of reddere and perhaps also of ascendere. S. the Viduus. £don 130). equus S. coquo^coco {App. sttnguo > guere non tingere. uncis = unguis. u before stressed u and 0: 536. some writers use no u in distinguere. Pr..').oSmsiT\& mortus. S. 2 1 7 ) . requebit. 226. 106). cooperire"^ coperlre. unguo'>ungo {ungo. . . Audollent See §354. Similarly. 217-218. inndcuus>inndcus. Carnoy 221). consiln'^ consilt.. tuum'^tum. "equs non ecus ". Velius Longus. kept its u: Old Fr." Keil VII. ungi. Pirson 57 (cf. '' coqui non cod. suus'> sus. Febr{u)arius." Keil VII. unguntur. > ecus {^App. contin{u)ari. then *cdpenre *cdp'rtre through the analogy of co. hence *cocma). in quum>cum. (Pirson 58) quatro (7th century. Digitized by Microsoft® . cf. £ruum'>erum {Lat. tendere.'K.and perhaps also ol opera. S. 468-469. 227. "tin352. § 227] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. mortuus'^p- cottidie. coquus'^ cocus {App. opus. distinguunf> distingunt (ac- cording to Velius Longus. Bayard 7. ho-Tievex. Caper. pendere. . 105. "ungue non unge. — cdhdrtew^ cortem. / after a consonant fell before unaccented i: Velius audit '^ audi. 95 prendere. Pr." " coqus non cocus". 218) quator — in. 351).

Keil VII. agusias. Spr. valere. au became a if there was an accented u in the next syllable. gaudere. Bon. 171-1 72. Arunci occurs in manuscripts of Virgil. tenere. lost before also. a{u)sculto. but otherwise remained unchanged (cf. must have existed 229. fxddre. S. Julii. Lat. 109. Caper says "ausculta non asculta. some Italian (common by i in inscriptions. -n and —ns: Dtonysii>lt. one can judge from spellings and subsequent developments. naufragium. 57. I. i. etc. i: should be spelled with double late words. and u were finally all pronounced 228. audere. it [§ 229 Longus found etc. Farisiis > Parigi. moniti (for muniti). Koffmane no. necessary to say that Claudii. Comelii. l remained i. '^senatus non sinatus" App. ridemus. a was pronounced a. Digitized by Microsoft® . cetdtem. * agurium (cf. (Lat. A(u)gustus. S. 470): rddicem. in Gallic inscriptions cf. frumentum. ce. e For the confusion of Carnoy 17-33. kept It. plordre. Some minor peculiarities are to be noted: (i) A after/ apparently tended to become e: Old dialect forms) . b. is very often replaced divota. dtrectus generally '> drictus)\ quirttare~>*dritare. > *jenua > Sardinian genna.. subinde. 223 Pirson 26). colorem. 11. Spr. videre.. and see Audollent 535. Dionigi. (Bcclesia. dolere." S. dvitdtem. Pr. INITIAL SYLLABLE. Some however. 223. far as As or u. Lat. I. Bon. hibernus. Cf. A(u)runci. /^22: Jejunus after prefixes lost its first syllable: * dis-junare.96 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 135—138. i. Vok. debere. In a few words the vowel of the initial syllable was an r: *corrStulare^*^roflare. 470): dilevit. 136. movetis. Bechtel 76. Bon. golosus gylosus (ior gulosus). long or short. Spr. E.. 0^ remained p. Agustus is frequent from the second century on. — Latin /(j/»««j > Classic Jejunus (the original a seems to be preserved in Classic Januarius '^ Jenuarius . ce all came to be sounded e. 470) (2) Classic/awKa mimoricB. d'rectus (^Vok.

Lexique 120. I. in very late texts there is frequent confusion of si and sed (Franz. nutrire (beside *nqtrire). This perhaps indicates a close pronunciation cf. nise. 470) > Old Fr. through the influence of the prefix re—. by dissimilation. 16^. and Old Rumanian. serorihus. de-. if there was an accented i in the next syllable:^ dividSre'^*devTdlre. possibly through confusion with dis-. the e is perhaps due to the Haag II. Si. II. 3 II. cf. JUntfSrus'^jeniperus (Lat. Italian. Lexique 123. cf. e became southern Italy from the fourth to the sixth century RIVOCAVERIT.. cf. A form ni for ne is found from early times Pirson 3. Vitruvius. 234-235) . §111.for i in 422-424. salvatico. 82). Cf. if i followed. C. 205) . Pr. § 198. which prevailed in Vulgar Latin. : 97 Di. §§ 69. Bon. 131). in manuscripts and inscriptions. Vr. 213.. is that original Latin ei. < e In miraUlia the i ap- parently became (5) U and a. etc. is common : in Gregory the etc. Rom. also sometimes in serore (Lat. front vowel (until the seventh century nearly always an ' later e Mohl's view. in fourth century inscriptions. Lat. divmus"^ demnus. 225. I was occasionally assimilated to a following accented a : ^gdntem It. Carnoy (7) 107). attested from the sixth 87. L. and Spanish. 224 ff. Lexique > I04ff. XXXV. 126. analogy of *que quid^ quod (cf. se in Portuguese. Great: dirivare. 213): App.§ 23o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. z. According to Mohl. so *ot (for aut: cf. Umbrian ate. Sfr. century on (Foi. Spr.jaian. mUtare. : (3) > *jagante > Old Yr. (Bon. fimre'^fenire. sdlbatec. Reich. Lexique \2Z-iz6. 127). so that at the modern a syllabic effect — beginning of a word it had s-chola. Italian. Lindsay 40).. Pr^. Spr. in late Latin. was kept by analogy in many words : dUrare. silvdticus> salvaticus (Gl. Au 230. in vulgar speech was often replaced by (cf. as in 6' before a consonant was doubtless long and sharp. turrente (Bon. Old Genoese zagante. retundatio. 470). Spr. cf. mUrare. cf. Pr. serori. II. cf. Lat.Jaiant. Franz. Einf. Italian sed on the model of ched: si is preserved in French. Proven9al. Lexique 105-108. Pirson 27. 470. 3 II. sometimes became se. This led to the prefixing of a 2. salvage. oricla. Lexique I2z. Rum. putator O is changed to e in retundus (Vok. 470) and/m?- perus (App. Old French. mcinus vecinus. became instead of Digitized by Microsoft® . I. §§ 212. (6) O appears as u mfurmica (App. attested by Servius. (4) / tended to become e.

Estephanus. Koffmane 109. strumentum. Spania.thus produced was confounded with ex-. cdp[i)idlis.. Bon. Slementum 6limintum. This i came to be regarded as a regular part of the word. The The in Latin example probably it is iscolasticus. splorator. is. prosthetic vowel earliest occurs in Greek inscriptions. ^w. cirebellum. sp. 317. mirabilia. istatuam. cdlK^o^cdre. S. in the third century (Carnoy 114-116). fourth and found repeatedly. dv{i)idtem. isiudio. frigiddria frigddria. ispose. in the fifth it is very common: espiritum. Pirson 60. dub{i)idre. but a was gen231. cf. spandere for ex- pandere. Isidore. Bon. Spanus. isperabi. The es-. Cf.(pronounced w-): expiendido. ischola. ab sceleribus. st: ginning with Bon. — By this term is meant syllable following the secondary and preceding the primary stress. IHTERTONIC SYLLABLE. R. 445-446. compardre comperdre. though iscripta. and occasionally disappeared. S. hispatii for Bechtel 78. indistinct towards the erally kept: bdn{i)idtem. spiratio for inspiratio. Pirson 59-60. stantia for instantia. cdrr(i)care. B. N. tlie C. Dubois 1 71-17 2. . of it iscola. scoriare for excoriare. Digitized by Microsoft® . ismaragdus. etc. [§ 231 often e) to the s or e when tio vowel preceded first is — in i-schola. 148. in the seventh century. 469-470. instruo for struo. spectante for expectante. estatio. S. istare. etc. spatii. written Barcelona in the second century. 3656-. Grammarians took But in no note late until St. not frequently. Latin texts ab rather than a was used before words besc. etc. 445. ab scandalo. Vowels so situated probably became more and more end of the Empire. Vok. 316-319. dil{i)cdtus. Spania. II. scalciare for excalceare. In some regions they began to fall regularly before the close of the Vulgar Latin period. 467..98 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 317 R. Dubois 171.. exs— (pronounced «-) and /«j-.

pi. in the second century b. The fall of the vowel of course disturbed the Vulgar Latin rhythm: see § 153. principle tended to oblit- 232. Neumann 22. etc. vowel preceded by a consonant and followed by a fell in the earlier part of the Vulgar Digitized 233. Pir- Franz. 467. dixemus. (>Pr. Mintsterium apparently became minsterium early enough for the n to before the s: see §171. was apparently very Vulgar Latin. v^recundia. meretis. being next to the accent. R. 131— 135. however.• anemis. separdre seperdre. c. Pirson 51. Likewise o and u: ambolare. 464. fall 559. son 52.. : Frigdaria occurs Cf. stablarius. PENULT. There was probably a conflict between cultivated and popular pronunciation. Cf. 116. Neumann in Zs.§ 233] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The penult. d. etc. of this vowel. Bon. omne)\ classified. in Sepulcri 201—202.. comare for coronare. The Vulgar Latin rhythmic erate one of the two post-tonic syllables of proparoxytones.. similarly As far as the general phenomena can be we may say that in popular words in penult tended to (i) fall common speech the vowel of the under the following conditions: — Between any Consonant and a Liquid. was weaker and more exposed to syncope. XIV. cf. We find in late Latin much confusion of e and /. 12. F. 118. Cf. R. liquid A weakened and by Microsoft® .. the uneducated pronounced 'om'nes beside socerum there was sScrum. dedcavit. vetranus. etc. both types The treatment inconsistent often being preserved in the Romance languages: thus while the literary and official world said {h)dmines (>It. Substrate IV. uomini). and the conditions differed widely in different regions. Koffmane III. etc. 99 sdcramintum. Bon. insola.

App. dc{ii)lus. Lexique 64. both becoming —cuius in Classic Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . gracilis.. ins(u)la. 3 To -clus was assimilated in popular Latin the ending -talus: capitulus"^* capiclus . In vigilafp-* viglat the vowel fell before (2) below. mdsc{u)lus. escaped this absorption: cni. Cceseris. vemdc(^u)lus. A sonant was inclined to bublus. amples are found in inscriptions: AudoUent 538.). a. (cf. hilerus. Latin originally had the two diminutive endings —clus and -cuius {<i-co-lo). 1 digitum> dicCf. Cf. D. Pr. tum. Many exI. Oclus and some others occur in Petronius: see W. at any rate in some regions: bdjulus. spec{ii)lum. 16-18. spatula'. bdc{u)lus. as in saclum. masclus. Waters Ch. comp'tus.). In some words we find a weakened to e: socro. both -clus in {^<i—tlo). oclos.'). peduclum. Franz. frigidus^frigdus. 234.stulum> crustlum (found in 18 Cf. ci. I. Carnoy 12. compera. Pr. fecrunt fecru. Eseram for Isaram. frdgilis. aunclus. e^-16 . the vowel seems to have been kept. Pirson 51). seperat (about 500 A. 57. aspra. Pr. as in auricula. But if the the ^ began to be palatalized (so apparently in 9 I. App. vic(u)lus. § 284. 1899. anglus.^-* spatla. Lexique 63. Heraeus. villus. (2) Between a Labial and any Consonant. d. vitulus>veclus. Die Sprache des Petronius und die Glossen. Later they were confused. [§ 235 Latin period: altra. which must have been slow in entering the common vocabulary. Franz. 96. scaplas. But a few words. These by Plautus.loo An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Juglus. § 259. vowel preceded by a labial and followed by a confall early: 235. see first consonant -Cvas a palatal. Bon. Vok. maniplus. cltera.' For a vowel between a labial and a liquid. App. 195-196. felicla. Pirson 51. dedro for dederunt. Pirson 49-50. were kept distinct vulgar speech: artic{u)lus. cdm{i)tem. virginem. ftsiula>*Jiscla.

ioi tri- dib{i)tum. but often there were double forms the process began very early audus. Pr. Franz. * cldvido> claudo (cf. 44.Jibla. p I. Franz. Plautus (cf. Pliny. gdbata>*gauta *gabta. found in glosses. 4th century). 15 soldus. A vowel preceded by a liquid and followed by a consonant was subject to syncope at all periods: ardus. Caesar. f{b{u)la. 467. hdmula. Plautus. Petronius. Ovid. either everywhere or in a large region: drbi^o^rem. poplus. R.. Franz. p I. . 44. 237. vdpulo baplo. Pirson 51.{i')nus. the vowel was kept. pardbula>*paraula *parabla. Waters Ch. Juvenal. Cato. 56. 467. : § 238] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. c6l{a)phus {ci. caldus. (3) Between a Liquid and any Consonant. Vegetius. occurs in Lamna Petronius has bublum. Plautus). Varro. dvidus avunculus"^ aunculus. Waters Ch. Franz. Koff109. pi. Digitized different condi§ 233) . In some words. pdp{u)lus. offla. tdbula>*taula *tabla. 13.). 3 \. 15-16 (cf. 236. sablum. tremulat. Martial. tions: In some words the vowel fell under digitum> dictum. (4) Miscellaneous. Franz. h6m{i')nes jiiv{e)nis . the older: d6m. * ndvitaf. App. fulica fulca. frigidus by Microsoft® . i2ff. Horace. merto. generally became au. virdiaria. in R. per- colopabat. valde. In d6m(i')nus the mn form may be mane domni. KofiEmane iii. Ci. sablum. domnulus. Augustine. (cf. Varro. however. domnicus. Cf.^-* nautat . b{u)la. Reich. etc. Plautus. Pirson 50. the fall When ab or av was brought next to a consonant by it of a following vowel. *navi- > fragus>naufragus). Gl. * dvka "^ auca. 13. virdis. 12. fdbula>*faula *fabla. Franz. Cf. 238.. Waters Ch. lardum. nibula. . colpus. domnus in St. Horace and Vitruvius. pi. pi.

e. (fricda). fimina *femna. App. tdllere > * tolre. (2). 239. semita'^* senta. Gl. Pompeii (fridam). frdx(i)nus. All three forms are probably examples of a tri- phonetic reduction that affected certain regions. Aquitanian. carcatus. viaticum. See Morphology. debita~^* depta. and Ligurian territory.: = collocat. . except a and in Celtic. — were — syncopated with some regularity. medicus. about the eighth century. FINAL SYLLABLE. posius. vindico. [§ 241 ^frigdus maxima^ masma. 233). § Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 13-14 (ci. clericus^*clercus. 2d century. (3). Pirson 50. Reich. ntHdus>*niiius. cdrrico'^*carco.102 An (cf. Through a large part of the Empire -avit>-aut: umphaut is found in Pompeii. Pr." "flavus non Jlaus" "rivus non rius. Lucretius. they generi. posturus. shortened forms were used in other regions. Suchier 732. culicet culcet Cf. ally fell." Aus and flaus have left no representatives. Later. they had not fallen already. pi2tidus'^*puttus. 240. rapidus > > *rapdus. Pr. habitus > * abtus. 241. etc. pers{i)ca. A vowel preceded by </ or ^ and followed by c seems to have remained longer than most other vowels that fell at all: judico. In the App. sid(^e)cim. Franz. we find "avus non aus. In the transition from Vulgar Latin to the Romance in so far as languages the vowels in classes (i). but rius is evidently the ancestor of Italian and Spanish rio. Some of these In a part of Gaul dmita'^* anta. The vowels regularly remained through the Vulgar Latin period. c6llocat'>-*colcat. Digitized by Microsoft® . dic{i)mus. p I. and a number of vowels otherwise placed fell under different conditions in various regions: pdnere'^*ponre. Cato). mdnica'>* manca. probably late. dominica-^ * dominca.

t. autumnal {e). u was u. The changes in pronunciation led to great confusion in spelling. ablative.. fructu. vii. feci. pradiscer. inflection. etc. 243. has "barbarus non barbar. by Microsoft® . facul =facilis. but generally they were confounded {Lat. uxore. and i came to be used almost indiscriminately. tristts. which left no trace in the Romance famulus. 469). It is likely that final vowels were especially ob- scure in Gaul in the sixth and seventh centuries. modern must have been often elided or syncopated in the interior of a phrase. The App. Italian. praber. Spr. according to the testimony of numerous inscriptions {Lat. 103 242. e. haber in an inscription. he i. sancta. "bibere non biber". describes the final vowel of here as neither quite e nor quite Cf. 41. dmdt. Bechtel 75-76. Neumann 7-8 cites ten cases of e for a: Italice. E I. Cf. as in to Vulgar Latin. sentls." These curious forms are probably not the result of a phonetic development. In some localities this and this u were kept distinct. morior. conder. bonds. 3 I. bom. tristem. See Franz. long or short. vii. in late Latin. iv and I. About the eighth century a probably became ? in northern Gaul. tristes. etc. which became u in Sicily. but are rather due to a local change of languages. etc. So. were not usually distinguished (cf.. 244. tanger in manuscripts." "masculus non mascel. for / is frequent in the dative and ablative. in I. perhaps. tibe. especially e after liquids: Caper. Pr. 469). mihe.Xxa.§ 244] An Introduction Final vowels. E and a. Spr. Examples: dmds. Old 'Lz." ^^figulus nonfigel. was naturally pronounced a. Lexique 118. famul = A. cotidia. which in Sicily be- came eventually // t remained // was 0. tribunal{e). §210): apte^aptcB. E luce. Carnoy45: Digitized dative. Quintilian says that Livy wrote sibe and quase. corpus. a. were all probably sounded e. etc.

X. etc. 61 examples of u for ablative In Vok. E. posuet. it need by Microsoft® . mares etc. 246. old letter equivalent to C. L. N. I. C.. I. Sepulcri 203-204. omnes ^ omnis (3d century). etc. etc. II. Vok. of. 115. Bon. Carnoy 13. letters The Latin consonant P. -ro: inter'>*intre.104 An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. D. Cf. So et it: Bechtel 88-89. Cf... in etc. §29) as in minus-pretiare. 'Im. Carnoy 48. omnes ^^omnis. movit. in us was particu128. regis ^reges. very etc.. etc. V. K. Bon. common in Per. Bon.. of om for um.r became Carnoy 221. as well as frequent instances of ablative in um. H. Neumann 11-13. 11 1. K. used as a prefix (cf. siiper'>-*supre. With and u it was the same. : . 43-44.. = maris. S. cf. [§ 246 Es and are continually interchanged: 24. •quat{u)or'>quatro. Q. an R. -re. G. Sepulcri 229-230. Bon. and um is very common in Per. sem- per'^* sempre . was kept in Digitized some formulas . Carnoy 48 bonus = bonos. 116. there are between 126 and 563 a./^^.. F. Ill. Neumann 11-13. os The confusion of for us. larly common 42. for the vowels i were B. In words ofteii used as proclitics final -er. Haag 245.. became in Gaul mis-. d. Sepulcri 201. Phon. -£?. 131 has spoliatur for spoliatot. ^and Fwere used both and u and for the consonants/ and v. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin period.. Lat. accusative plural G|^l|ii Jilius—Jilios. tenit.. etc. M. Spr. Audollent 535. also in Gregory the Great.. 474. Z. T. Bon. and 121.. Carnoy 13-15.. CONSONANTS. etc. 916. Minus.. Joannis. etc. under the influence of dis-.4 G. and us for os. Os and us were interchanged from the third century on awi' = annos. monumento ^= monumentum.

319-320).. Bon. For Fredegarius see Haag 39-40. e. h was silent. liquids. nasals. m and n became silent at the end of a word. terra. next the Greek. gutturals. fillio. first the native Latin. 163. The voicing of intervocalic surds began during the Vulgar Latin period. taken up The Latin consonants will be in the following order: aspirate. Pirson 83-91. For w>j and For double forms like of single cipus ctppus. Digitized by Microsoft® . 105 in not be separately considered. lastly the Germanic. sibilants. serra. and thus became identical V. //>/ vowels. which will be discussed after the native ones. 247. palatals. Double cf. which also changed to /8. In addition to the above. see §§ 162. Pirson 85. Q V= kw (cf. § 223). 248. and n ceased to be sounded before s. passus. Z in Old Latin apparently meant j. see §161.§ 248] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. In words borrowed from Greek and German there were several foreign consonants. vacca. the Celtic need not be separately studied. sonants The principal developments that affected Latin conmay be summed up as follows: b between vowels was opened into the bilabial fricative /3. labials. later it represented a different Latin version of Greek t. with The consonants will now be considered in detail. Pirson 88. consonants are often written single in early inscriptions. nullus.or ss (S. or / in hiatus: see § 224. dentals. Double consonants regularly kept after long their long pronun- ciation: annus. which will be treated below (§§338-339). 158. Vulgar Latin had a new w and y coming from originally syllabic u. the combination Q was generally used only Jf stands for ks. In late spelling there is some confusion and double consonants: anos. ^ and g before front vowels were palatalized and were then subject to further alterations.

267—268. 263-264. ASPIRATE. 255-256. the Republic.. first XI. Gellius quotes P. incohare are archaic calls Terentius Scaurus and vehemens incorrect. Gellius says ahenum. 399. Quintilian commends the spelling deprendere: S. as in terga fatigamus hasta. Probus states that traho is pronounced trao: Lindsay 57.. 266. — aspires perperam". being little or nothing more than a breathed on-glide: S. very much as happens in Cockney English to-day: for the would-be elegant chommoda. Paris in I?om.e. honera : Pompeius notes that k sometimes makes position. 1." In inscriptions we find such forms as reprehensus aduc. Pr. 266. Initial h was surely very feeble and often silent during In Cicero's time and in the early Empire there was an attempt to revive it in polite society. App. of "Arrius. etc. 264. 263. 266. vehemens. in such words as sepu/c/irum. cortis. Nigidius Figulus fit to the effect that "rusticus sermo i. 250. but Cicero's contemporaries much. "adhuc non aduc. [§ 251 LATIN CONSONANTS. 249. Cf. probably disappeared when medial: . Quintilian says the ancients used h but little. sometimes does not. and cites "ados ircosque": S.— io6 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. a. nil. hinsidias. as in quisquis honos tumuli: Keil V. G. If -was weak and uncertain at all times in Latin." see S. 251. comprendit. and both he and Velius Longus declare there is no h \VLprendo: S. Grammarians say that A is not a letter but a mark There is no trace of Latin k in of aspiration: S. Grammarians felt obliged to discuss in detail the spelling of words with' or without h : S.. si speaks of bygone generations as using k very S. which led to frequent misuse by the ignorant. 264-265. mi. 262-263. Digitized by Microsoft® . doubtless the Romance It languages. 117. S. vemens: S.

455. Sheldon in Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Litera- turel (1892). 254. ymnus. etc. Vulgar Latin reduction of que to Digitized qui to ki: Lat. b. Pr.. k. omo. 341-344. Bechtel 78. L. hegit. C. Q F was Audollent 536. E. 265-266. Before u and first however. heremum. nichil. records a pun of Cicero on cogue and quoque. etc.. S. ic. 107 is dropped in a few inscriptions towards the end of the Republic: arrespex (for haruspex). R. ora. hossa. etc. unless analogy led to a substitution of cociior coqui throvigh. hodio. Cf. by Microsoft® . as in eastern Italy. etc. kw was Before other vowels the regularly kept in most of k. haram. 351-352. quooperta cot. GUTTURALS. S. I. 345-346. = coperta. less indisetc. 82-87. Cf. 345. condam. dialects: Quintilian VI. In Pompeii h is freely omitted. Cf. southand Sicily subsequent developments point to a ke. abitat. of S. S. ortus. secuntur. ospitiutn. etc.. I. non dicitus". 253- C and K did not differ in value except that C some- times did service for dicitos G: App.. 264. 1034.§ 254] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. pronounced kw: 0. in quo ante=^inBechtel 78-79. choante. 252. Spr. 473. OSTIA. cocus : see §226. the kw was 340-341. criminately used: abeo. L. Mens. Q and C: S. 462-463. C. There was some confusion. I.. etc. '^digitus = digitos. cf.L. 924. I. § 226. and H after the third century it is everywhere more or eres. Bechtel 77-78.. C. too.. I. I. other languages: michi. But in Dacia. probably earlier in local or vulgar iii. 819. 351. oratia. In Rome are found: e[redes]. 350reduced to k by the or second century. the Empire. hostium. cottidie.. anc. After h had become pronunciation of medial h as Italian pronunciation of there grew up a school which has persisted in the Latin and has affected some words in silent. S. R. oe. S.

see § 266. /'m«7/« > prixsilla. S. By the second reduced to or third century ks before a consonant was 170. 353. Bechtel 139. of a metathesis of ks into sk: axilla"^ ascella. S. 221. s: sestus is common in inscriptions. BissiT BisiT VISIT = vixit. III. Cf. es~ for ex. There are some examples. cinctivs. felis. 256. Lindsay 102. I. io8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. excutere. "aries non ariex. but this was only local: alesan[der]. as in cresco. to Carnoy have become *laceus: Substrate 255. sometimes. except in mono^prmgnans. e. began as shown by Anglo-Saxon borrow- ings and by such Latin forms as frigare.: see Melanges Wahlund t^^. in At about the same time : final ks cojus." Keil VII. Carnoy 157. On In norththe other hand." In parts of Italy ks between vowels was assimilated into ss by the first century. 346. found in Spain (so cinqv..'' "miles non milex. fifth tury. cen- inscriptions. extimare for cestimare.. 352. S. Vok. 145. ern Gaul apparently sk regularly became ks. xanto. conjus." "poples noT\ poplex.: Hence cf. in late Latin. S. So ex-^es. viscit). Audollent 537. Carnoy 171. as in * essaexire." "locuples non lucuplex. nasco. by analogy.. 341. etc. 351. S. 274. Laqueus seems. App. 353. exponere. migat in inscriptions Digitized by Microsoft® .). for some reason. Carnoy 159. ubi materia per s. etc. first [§ 256 In quinque the w was lost by dissimilation: cinqve. Carnoy Eckinger 126 (2eorros).before vowels. mextum for mcestum. merx. etc. Fr.. Lexique 93). 353 (cf. For ks>-)(S. destera. After a consonant ks early tended to become s: Piautus uses mers for est. cf. ''cah dicendum. milex. dester. pregiiax became s. gium. buxus'^* buscus vixit>\iyiC\Ti (i. but not in syllables etc. subornatris. Cinqvaginta. The voicing of intervocalic surds doubtless it is early as the fifth century. Carnoy 158. ^ stood for ks: S. 353. Caper.

In Central Sardinia. . (i) Cf. Digitized by Microsoft® . Spr. on the evidence of inscriptions and manuscripts. 7th century. Carnoy 123. etc. while c>gz. and Dacia. kima. in a few words. into a mediopalatal position k'. Haag 28-29. however. but reina. Densusianu 111-112. in some places perhaps as early as the first century. at least as early as the seventh century. G seems to have been attracted sooner than k : in Sardinian we find k before e or i preserved as a stop whiles is not decern. Spr.g'.. etc. gat. lebra. southern Italy. I. kelu. 257. and in Sicily. Initial c and cr. Zs. 474. crassus + grossus'^grassus. p. Before the front vowels e and the velar stops k and g were drawn forward. noghe < nucem. 472. 2d century.. / 258. pagandum. C and G before Front Vowels. in central and southern Italy. Haag 27. there are many examples from the sixth century: Lat.. Carnoy eglesia. t were voiced in Gaul in the second half of the sixth century. intervocalic c. kircare. Dalmatia. i25ff. According to Loth 21-26. maintains. etc. Voicing was not general. finds in inscriptions some slight evidence of a change of t to d during the Empire. 109 and manuscripts. Zimmermann. found in the 4th century. early in the Empire or before. Franz. A. and Dacia the k' stage was apparently kept longer than in most regions: Lat. immudavit. * gratis. pontivicatus.. etc. Some above examples show that consonants followed by r shared in the voicing. 32. sigricius ^= secretins. XXV. deghe<. Haag 27—28. Dalmatia. and Illyria k' went no further. kena. occubavit.t least two centuries earlier. Cf. kera. of the cataveris ^^ cadaveris. etc. became g and gr: *gaveola. 3 I.— — § 258] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. Rydberg. siubri. Vok. cubidus. that t>d'm the fifth century and the beginning of the sixth. ne121. 731. etc.

fused. This y. 3 I. re{g)ina. = conjugi. II. praepalatal clerical and Latin: App. = Sepulcri 205. §233. leges. agebat Lat. After the accent. Thm-ot 77. jSctevTt = viginti. 461 . that of English g in gem) before e and /. Agrientum. and digitus in some places had become dictus {Franz. neglienda. 239. Haag 34 manes 1' . Tragani. 275. 173. S. Pirson 97 celiens. II. this Haag 33. Genavam. Cf.>maester. vigtlat had become *viglat. etc. Pr. Digitized by Microsoft® . except colliens when analogy forced *colliente. 473. diriens. frigidus in most of the Empire had become frigdus {App. Pirson 97 quarranta = qicadraginta. etc. and southwestern Italy remained at the y stage elsewhere the y developed further in the Romance languages. Pr.. etc. {g)inti. coi^i. but is " weak " before other vowels. similarly perhaps the proclitic ma{g)is. S. and after a consonant. (cf.): it its disap- pearance (as in pldngit. Diez. fmucrrpo.. 15-16): cf. genvarivs. 461. Lat. Gepte. Before happened. But sometimes : fused with a following i proparoxy tones roitus {=irdgitus z= rogdtus). 3. Voi. . genarivs. the regularly remained. lenubam = Bon. II. [§259 259. D'Arbois 10. no An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. S. Troge. Vok.. both in popular and in Gerapolis for HierapoHs. argentum. a part of southwestern Gaul. so *pa{g)e{n)sis. Per. 349. maestati. iesta. 460) trienta. Cf. Grammaire des langues ro- I. non cakosieis. Pirson iniens. 61.Gi 5. recoUiendo.. and portions of Sardinia. in through legit. Spr.. . etc. Vok. G' by the fourth century had become had opened into y. F... 473. agere = ^ aiere. "-frigida non fricda"). agebat ^ aiebat. 250.1 1 Some light is thrown on the later clerical pronunciation by a statement in a fragment of a tenth century treatise on Latin pronunciation. Spr. in nearly all the Empire. Stolz 349. colliens.. when it was intervocalic. "calcostegis Neumann 75. Sicily.e. with the following e or i if this vowel was stressed: vi- mag2ster'>*mayister'. ingens aiebat." geiuna= Jejuna.Gi. to the effect g has "its own sound " (i. Spain.

census. k'y had become t'y: t'yentu. There is no mention of first it by 340. 163. in 260. Meyer-Liibke in Einf. . Guarnerio in Supplementi aWArchivio glottologico italiano IV (1897). Zs.S^ was palatalized also: crescere. see H. 21-51 (cf. etc. Vok. piscem. paze (6th or 7th cenFrankish tins (German zins') is from fifth borrowed probably in the 595. 1900. ffautes-^tudes. 617). Paris in Journal des savants. century some writers distinguish Rom. and Libit. 51-53. For a discussion of the subject. I. and in Rom. as early as the third ce. 360. between the k' and the following vowel: k'yentu. Cf. of this glide the group then. it is stated ts.. 348 cites fes[it]. S. E. and is almost like q before other vowels. apparently as and postpalatal. 1901. in Lat. Cf. I. duk'yere. Marchot. ka. nascere.§ 26i] An K' Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Mohl. Schuchardt. that c has " its own sound " before c and i.1 century: F. 322 P. tury). fascem. 1 was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . everywhere a The next step was the development of an audible glide. S. XXVI. 348. Thurot 77. or praepalatal. XXX. 81. Vok. By the fifth century the k' had passed a little further forward and the Through a modification tsentu. 7. 1893. dut'yere. septrvm. Fetite phonetique du franfais prelitieraire. developed into or ts: t's'entu or Speakers were apparently unaware of the phenomenon until the assibilation was complete.itury must have had nearly front. in the Annuaire de I'^cole pratique des 261. . 151. consiensia. a short y. and qu. in the t's sixth or seventh century. in the fifth century we find bintcente. S. XIV. G. G. In the half of the third ce. In the school pronunciation of the seventh and eighth centuries c before e and i In the treatise cited in the preceding note. duk'ere. mediopalatal. intcitamento: P. W. articulation: k'entu. 359. XXXIII. co{g)ndscere. 123-126. in the Comptes rendus des seances de I'Academie des Inscriptions. 1893. the earlier grammarians: prsepalatal.

and then developed further: carum>'Fr. Sfir. by Microsoft® . and apparently remained under learned or under analogical influence in others: avstvs from the second century on. 242-243). dimmi (< die mi). Vok. Franz. For ce. Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie [§264 3131!. ci. too. 3 II. due. Reich. hoc. however. in the front of the 263. — mainly. the c must have been Digitized lost. (3) C and G Final and before Consonants. § 256. At the end cf. jambe. fammi {<ifac mi). of a local assibilation of c as early as the second century. Intervocalic g before the accent fell in many words in all or a part of the Empire. sic. realis in Gl. Carnoy 155-160 (who puts the assibilation in the sixth century and earlier).. ecce htc.. *redlis (for XXX. cher. S. 262. frvalitas. see Zs. through alliteration. Italian die. of a word the guttural seems : to have been regularly preserved in Vulgar Latin fac. But ligdre. 50). see Palatals below. in Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ka. gustus. See. I. * liamen. however. so * ledlis. y^ 264. 146. siffatto {<. Occasionally. 349. the proclitic eo for ego. S- — — perhaps 349). ga in most of that country became k'a.112 An 472. Carnoy 127 (cf. For a possible indication. (2) C AND G before Back Vowels. gamba>'Ex. pacare. sic factum). 129 (other examples in manuscripts. see Archiv XV. probably by the end of the seventh century. so. g'a. avste. eccu'hdc. K and g before vowels not formed mouth usually remained unchanged: canis. negdre. negare. Inasmuch as a had in Gaul a front pronunciation (§ 194). found about the sixth century. pagdnus.

subsequently drawn forward to the praepalatal position santus. I. App. in Pompeii. 113 no doubt. "sagma by Microsoft® . In late texts nee is often written ne before a consonant. The resultant phenomena can.g. Old ct Windisch 394. and likewise substituted x^ fo"^ ^^' Suchier 735. otogentos. sank. eissir." 348. Gm Pr. Carnoy 172. regnancte. Before another consonant k and g were for the most part kept through the Vulgar Latin period: actus. Zaf. 472. irqyfua. Zs. Cf. and «'.) . 278.. PR/EFETTO.e. The Celts perhaps pronounced the Latin beginning.. — sanctum 268. Xf some parts was assimilated into U by the beginning of the fourth century.). 265. 267. 215-224. 472.. S. cuntis. became um: fraumenta. > Fr. OTOBRIS (380 A. Isidore. which seems to have been assimilated first into nt in parts of the Empire. and there is a confusion of si and sic: Franz. 399). see § 255. 735. probably by the century: defuntus. XXV. Spr. fata. Pr.. saint. inasmuch as their own rf had as x^ from the become ^f (e. = qu. ( i. There is reason to believe. § 186. ^^auctor non autor". * exsire . fait. D. Lat. frigdus.).^ Ft. LATTVCjE (3OI etc. through assimilation to a following initial consonant: PA iot fac. Einf. 348. *viglat (§233). Pr. 476. Spr. however. For kw 266. Spr. For ks of Italy = x. oclus. 236-240. be explained otherwise: Irish ocht-n corresponding to Latin octo. antiqui quasi dumecita appellabant quae nos dumeia.. in see § 254. "dumecta S. S. A. 9 II. fleuma. Nkt became yt. Lat. App. in the south even in the first century: AVTOR. §650. santo. sante. D. however. "pegma non peuma" Digitized St. that the y was retained very generally in Gaul and perhaps some other regions.§268] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. 398*fC'X^um>Vx. Gram. Festus.

audiam. gaudium. as calma from Soma occurs in Gl. Cf. Haag 34. eiius. (S. Pirson 75. 324) and zesv =/esu. odium. In cognosco the decomposed — g generally disappeared. Lat. adjuiare.. sometimes entirely absorbed by the in Gaul. Neu- When y more or y. Dy and^. in popular words apparently became r parts of the Empire: fra{g)rare. Gn was still variously treated in different regions. soma. Reich. 272. conjux. I. habeam. fageus. and subjected to further modifications. 239). pi{g)ntia.e. ZVNIOK = junior (S. 270. cujus. renum. followed a consonant.114 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. y. etc. assimilated into n or n in others. no SCO. t. podium. 323) and Zovk^la= Julia (Eckinger 80). that consonant was often less assimilated. madias = maias. in the latter part of the Empire. Palatalization was commonest probably were reduced to y in vulgar speech: deorsum. 476. exagium. teneaf. and also salma. of ii was often used: coiiugi. between in vowels. 115-116. rcenante. pere{g)rtnum. ni{g)rum. Compare oz^^ hodie (S. venio. Fortsetzung 7. ZACOiJVS = diaconus. cunnuscit.. d. 364 a.. connato. being preserved in some. ajutit =adjutet. aayixa). Carnoy Digitized by Microsoft® . Stolz 275. inte{g)rum. Latin / was pronounced being identical in sound with the consonant that developed out of e and / (§ 224): jam. the after the fall of initial g in gnosco —-into lost in cognatus : word being co~ and Vok. videavi . which comes from Koxfrn. 327. [§272 quae corrupte vulgo S. Cf. Spr. Pirson 76. Italian sauma [or salma^ dicitur" (i. rarest in Dacia. sauma 269. PALATALS. Instead i (=/) the spelling mann. 271. diumus. ftlia. edmus. similarly the ^ was sometimes etc. hodie. Cf. Gr.

324. had poggio. 321. Digitized etc. His- pania. = maio. Ly. licpioi = Sergius. De. however. Waters Ch. aggio. generally prevailed. madio S- 349. The S. Servius in Virg. tilia. The : dz pronunciation was especially favored after a consonant 273. 115 162." S. ridia =! corrigim. in others especially in Italy the cultivated dz. which was > It. means dy. debbio. *deyo: cf. 320. 34. towards the end of the Empire. habeo. juria = jurgia. = dies. In most words the vulgar jv prevailed. 63. melius.i£=die. sacriius—SiaKpiTOi. writes. This palatal pronunciation may be 327. "solent Itali dicere ozie pro hodie. folia. Vok. di sine sibilo Isidore letter tell grsecum enim nomen est. etc. teneat. Pr. 339): z^s cf. but it we generally cannot whether t. n' before the end of the Empire: ftlius. 208. Condianus.. Haag 34. video>*veyo. Georg. Congianus =. probably dz : podium proferenda est. pranzo. and perhaps through slurring due to constant and careless use. : orzo. Haag anoget = *inodiaf. Remidium — Eemigium. Audollent 537 zogenes." S. fiios. 461. mezzo. St. Media. It hordeurh > It. II. appears that the labials were not regularly assimi- sapiam > It. y. S. di.(4).. lated in Vulgar Latin beside abbio. Gl. prandium > It. but not everywhere. probably became veniam. Carnoy 161. etc. debeo often became *ayo. Reich. S. Corneius. in Yox plUvia a form *pldja was substituted §§ 169. cor- aytos. sappia. says. another — doubtless more elegant — pronunciation. Z is often used in inscriptions. by Microsoft® . or dz (cf. magias ^= maias. between vowels.§274] ^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. II. but medium ^^ > It. It. The reduced forms cf. But through the analogy of audio"^* auyo. 323. § . Carnoy 162. /'. represented by the spellings Aureia. palea. 216. ny. deggio. aios = Carnoy 162. most of the Empire: 274. sapcha. from radius Italian has both raggio — — and razzo.

malicia. foreign words borrowed from Latin oleum indicate the same irregularity. fascia. justicia. in the similar in sound.. avaricia. Bon.). etc. Pg. etc. being respectively k'y second and third centuries. S. Stolz 51. between vowels. isoff. concupiscencia many examples Gaul in the 5th century. ti. It. ocio (389 A. quatio.).. I. In later school pronunciation cy and ty were sounded alike. ci. . Ssy. Pirson 72. tercia. consiensia. D. d. and hence were often confused: a. from oleo.). doubtless became during the VulgHRjatin period /. eAaiov. Digitized by Microsoft® . a sound similar to English sh in ship: basium. sty were generally assimilated of sy later: *bassiare. scy. . 475. oracionem (601 a. servicium. is pronounced like c. p.d. Densusianu in. D.). termina(an acrostic in Com- ciONES in (2d century). 'ApovKiavoi = Aruntianus. 323. An Introduction ll'g'. we are told that ti. 321) "benedictio et oratio et talia t debent habere in psenultima syllaba. D. defeniciones (222235 A. 171 especially common in Gallic inscriptions of the seventh century. see § 296. malleus. modian). also in nuncius. and ty. / 'i'l^^^y. oli. is Pr. Pirson 71 mendatium. According to Albinus (S. somewhat allium.. mansionem. duricia. non c. silentium. Riquier 131 &nd pitid in popular speech). Cf. is confused with the spelling c being prescribed in amicicia. caseus. Spr. prophetia. For rv. 78. tercius. unless preceded by s. Fr. Cy and ty. Sp. collt^t. leticia. pudicicia.ii6 Lly. were very and t'y (cf. Oleum.y«j/i«'a (in an edict of Diocletian). Cf. Vok.. olio. postea. I'g' to Vulgar Latin." In the treatise published by Thurot (see footnote to § 259). huile. furthermore. as in etiam. see § 277. staacio (601 a. the an exception-: cf. Fr. /' [§276 later: were probably reduced to ex-eligit. ocium. Eckinger 99. etc. For the confusion 276. Lat.

regfourth. MARSIANESSES = J/ar/z'a«^«j'M. conditio. castius). Pompeius says the same thing at con- siderable length. so many ^|ftper names. I. 324. to the substitution of suffixes and to other permanent transfers of words from one class to the other: cf. It. 323. etc. "lotacismi sunt quotiens post ti. etc. Reich. see S. etc.. 68. (S. adding (S. Vok. Puscariu. "si dicas Titius. cited by Cassiodorus (S. Anitius -cius. am- bicio. except in foreign proper names or after j litteris. ampittfltru. Carnoy 151-154. or vice versa: cf.vel di^ syllabam sequitur vocalis.^ k'. et i". ularly a school pronunciation with etc. servitium -cium. Carnoy 154. but not in otii. reviewed in Libit.. 3d ccntury. otia. Vincentl^us. S. XXIV. etc. It. * gutteare "> Horning in Zs. zodorys = Theodoras. Audollent 537. Hence arose numeroimdouble forms: condicio solacium solatium.. pinguius sonat et perdit sonum suum et accipit sibilum. *cominitiare -ciare.§277] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. as * exquartiare-^YX.. Cf. 320): "/ustitia ex tribus he goes on to state that it is always so when ti is followed by a vowel other than / (as in Tatius.: audatia." Papirius. squarciare. later avarttic^-cia. S." Consentius 'For a different explanation of the Italian and Rumanian developments. comenzare chminciare. et plerumque supradictse syllabse in sibilum transeunt. tertia syllaba sic sonat quasi constet z. 1904. 545. either whole Empire. 64. Latetnisches ti und ki im Ru7ndnischen. This explains such seemingly anomalous developments 324. Justitii). tercius. Servius in Don. 320) says. speties. in some cases. by the 140 A. 320). D. etc. A number of words evidently had a popular pronunciation with f and 277. sotium. cum scribitur. Italienischen und Sardischen. spacio. Gl. inicio. tristicia. (as injustius. S. T'y developed sporadically in the second century. Digitized by Microsoft® . into ts (cf. §260): crescentsian[vs]. A. 117 spacium. locally or in the This similarity or identity of sound led. Cf. XXVII. . t. gocciare.

307. Isidore in justitia: S. 480.g. " ' by Microsoft® .ii8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. as 280. etc. say t's'y the At aa intermediate stage between ty and ts grouD. etc. cf. Welsh words borrowed from Latin before the fourth century show no assibilation. tersio. 6th century. 323. . 153. g'. The resulting sibilant was different from came from t'y: faciam'^-lt. 5th century. placeam. DENTALS. 6th cen- tury. — — S. and not 281. 320-321. XXVII.'a. modus. 225 a. assibilated (e.. statio —sio. S. if the /' was rather weak. are Metiacus> Messac). 65 Horn. as in English : S. vitiutrf^lt. JT'y was assibilated sporadically in the third century. judigsium. and many words have palatium preserved it in various regions. was easily confused with sy.. and -igia beside -ezza from -ztia. Clerical usage for a while doubtless favored sy for ty. XXXV.vo'. 301-302. especially in suffixes: —slum. St. Pirson 71. 278. d. diposisio ^= depositio. not followed by y. hocsies. after the assibilation completed: Mapa-w. 323. Carnoy 154. and the ultimate products have become identical in that which many For regions. servitium —slum. vezzo. 279. Ztd/t. perdo. fifth but not regularly until the of t'y -wa. D regularly remained unchanged: Digitized dare. But the intermediate stages were similar enough to lead to some confusion. The in modern French. but names in -tiacum. Cf.palagio heside patazzo. Exai^les are very numerous: observasione.. so facio. pretium —sium. sepsies. d. see Gutturals.l. faccta. Eck- inger 103. =^ Afardanus. [§281 mentions the assibilation in etiam. carried into Brittany in the second half of the fifth century. k'.. Vok. etc. glacies.s or sixth. ratio —sio. dentals were pronounced with the middle of the tongue arched up and the tip touching the gums or teeth. hence \X?X\2. Pirson 71.

CO. as we may infer from the treatment of the prefix ad~: people probably said not only at te (cf. §283] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. etc. At the end of a word there was hesitation between d and S. In proclitics assimilation naturally went further. . . If this was the case. arVORSVM =r adversum. ilium corpus. Cf. confusion of ad and etc. 366-367 Some of the confusion was doubtless due to the fall of both d 365 . a.. Pr. part of Sardinia: vt3ere':>*vedere. capud in Gregory the Great. northern Italy. attendere) but sometimes *ar Romam (cf. Liquids. § 289. 282. : (i) Occasionally (/>/." App. So the final consonant eventually often dis- appeared. 31 1. verecvnnvs.. Pr. few words d~^r: medidies by dissimilation ^«^«rf««..» Sittl 37. Carnoy 180. Carnoy 179-180. S. 365-366. fecit feced. App. Carnoy 180. the central and southern Italian nn for nd (as quannu for quando) may go back to ancient times Lat. quid quit. o\d. set. and possibly at the end of a phrase apvd apvt. Raetia. S. devocalized before a voiceless : initial consonant. 311312 "grundio non grunnio.• Cf. 358-359. Digitized by Microsoft® . 31 1 Consentius blames " peres pro pedes" S. quo and Haag Illud.. 283. ad eos and at ea.. at. // d may have been . (2) In a. it. etc. 119 Oscan and Umbrian had nn corresponding to Latin nd: There is some indication that this pronunciation was locally adopted in Latin: agennjE.. S. Intervocalic d. " adif^ non alipes. and a Similarly intervocalic dr. The cases seem to be sporadic and due to different special causes. Grammarians warn against the Cf. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin became 6 in Spain. S. guoi. and t: see §285." Cf. id 29. through the analogy of other neuters. (3). set. period. Spr. INQVID. dacruma'^ lacrima . etc. 365 aput. arripere). S. became ilium : Haag 29. 476. S.. etc. Gaul.

" capidum.: others appear later in the inscrip- Rome and S. seems to have regularly become d: astula> Pr. 312-313 "Martulus non Marculus" "stlataris sine c littera Caper. Tl." "vefulus non vedus. [§ 285 either at the same time or became drin Spain and Gaul: quadro'." "vitulus non vidus.?. . Spr. Pirson 97. Fredegarius wrote e for cutters — — t et: Haag 29. occasionally in Faliscan: Hammer 5. Rumanian. its Final nt perhaps lost before consonants: Lat. 367. Italian (except Sardinian). In early dialects we find such forms as cvpa. schioppo. vixi. however. dr~> rr: quarranta. Italy. . In quadraginta. Spr. but forms without the possibly due to Italian stoneconsonant (as audivi. and sclitib.> *quadro.(from stlis stlitis). and Sardinia kept the t late. final t disappeared early in the Empire in southern and during the Empire in most of Italy and Dacia. Keil VII. usclar. and also Spanish and Portuguese show no trace of final / except in monosyllables. 107. later. peria. f^habe). facit. in Volscian {fasia=fadat). 105. ustulare > Pr. §234. Pr. often in Umbrian In Latin. The first . ascla. sclit.). Ischia. '^ pessulum non pestulum" (hence Italian /ifj'//. 8. valia. So probably insula > * isla > * istla > * isda > Final t fell It. posui) occur in Gallic inscriptions. " capitulum non dicendum. It. sitis. 7. etc." For Cf. Gaul. Between j and I z.315. 8. etc.. App. > *scloppus > . northern Italy.120 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 284. 285. S. dede: S. 367-368. —tulus~^—dus. Cf. cf. T usually stloppus remained unchanged : teneo. Hammer 28-32. as ama. 472. sure examples of the fall in Latin are found in Pompeii tions in Christian relinque. Raetia. f developed: Caper. Digitized by Microsoft® . Lat. partem.

may indicate un- certainty in the use of d and t. moreover. cf. videtur. Cf. Pos is very common in inscriptions. S. est amatus but es' portatus : Lat. Gaul. Intervocalic was voiced to d in Spain. before a vowel or a voiced consonant.. like d and "Z t (cf. 473-474. Nt. posuerun. L had a convex formation. Such a spelling as Later this retere for reddere (S. 368. Marius Victorinus preferred posquam : S. 306-307. and northern § 256. inside a phrase. 38 (S. may have lost its t before consonants as post ilium but pos' me. In Gaul and Spain. in 365.The Romance languages show forms with nt. Cf. 309. posquam in R. In inscriptions we find : dedro and dedrot. likewise. Spr. Final st. 288. S. and-^J is found: S. 470. 473-474. Lat. Italy probably in the fifth or sixth century: Inscriptions show a few such forms 309) as amadus. restituerun. Cicero favored posmeridianus . ^> d in northern Gaul and Spain. of final t For the confusion inquid are found. 473. 324) writes: exilem. Both st and s are represented in the Romance languages. tr'p-dr'^dr. /. it was doubtless often Fredegarius voiced. t 286. triplicem. 287. § 280): S. ut Plinio sonum habet: quando geminatur secundo loco Digitized by Microsoft® . Cf. e. When did not fall. LIQUIDS. 309.§288] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. with and without either consonant. 121 n. §283. Priscian I. in general. Raetia. — 368. pos. uses capo: Haag 29. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) or *capum. (I) L. see §282: capud. According to Velius Longus. Lindsay 124. d and t. is preserved in the same regions as Pisaurum. feced. Spr.

etc. medium in aliis. It is likely that / before or after another consonant had a Before thick sound caused by lifting the back of the tongue. Dunkles undhelles 1 im Lateinischen in the Transactions of the American Philological Association / in : > XXIV. this formation led in some regions. ille). plenum. / regularly changed: luna. ski." Consentius distinguishes the "sonus which he ascribes to initial and double / (as in lana. Have. /. 326. sol. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. silva.122 posita. quando finit nomina vel quando aliquam habet ante se in eadem syllaba sol. clarus. (2) There are sporadic examples of the dissimilation of two Ts: Digitized by Microsoft® . chiave. consonantem. ut lectus. (i) Metathesis occurs occasionally: Consentius (S. Eckinger 12. fabula^*flaba'y-\\. 289.): S. except before i. a faulty pronunciation of / particularly prevalent in Africa or 648. cauculus in manuscripts. For sl>stl. tribunal. During the Latin period altus. also had the thick is famuXus (but not in similis): thus explained the different fate of a in calere^OXd Fr. intervocalic va." lectum. [§ 289 syllabas et Metel-lus. flavus. mtlle. see §284. consonants. According to H. 476). etc. zi. It.. etc. from the "pinguis. After consonants. Sfr. II. geline. fiaba. in obscure terms. See also Zs. sound — as 50. brought about the palatalization of Spanish and Italian clavem kl'ave > Sp. chaloir and gallina~> Old Fr. Vok. 301 a. 494. 325-326. shifted forwards. sporadically by the fourth century but regularly not until the eighth and ninth and later (^Lat. to the vocalization of / into u: KavKovXaT<o in an edict of Diocletian. Other grammarians blame. see §161. 327) blames "coacla pro cloaca" " displicina pro disciplina". XXX.d. see §274." heard before a consonant (as in albo. this elevation. Osthoff. An ut il-le.. It remained unseems to have fallen in For //>/. alga. For ly. ut exilis. Greece: S.

ndet." "cultellum non cuntellum". C. MVNTV for multum. deorsum. et retrosum.." Cf.s pessica. After long vowels the 292. although Moreover." Russum rusum.f It generally resisted In many words. 243. 330. coming from rtt.. I. Pompejus Magnus et scribebat et dicebat kadamitatem pro calamitate. Velius to Longus says est (S. there was a strong tendency to dissimilate it was only sporadically carried out: in Old in inscriptions Digitized Latin. rj > J. IV. 123 cf. in inscrip- S. (3) Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. susum. being probably somewhat hindered by school inIt took place in the whole territory in deorsum and fluence. in early writers tions: dextrosus. diosum. Bechtel 83: susum very common. we fin(J repeatedly pelegrinus by Microsoft® .. "flagellum non frag-ellum. Pr. Cf. —arts after r^-alis. App. carrus. cursus. introsus. 77. rusus. two r's. The principle seems have been that original rs remained. Gl. ac tota r littera sublata est in eo quod rusum . while old rss.. 8) says: " Gn. App. in most of the Empire in dorsum. 460. suso. has iusu = was Hot consistently carried out everywhere. . susum occur ha. reversus. {2)Ji. Reich. however. 309. S. The «>j. R : in Classic trill: and Vulgar Latin was probably a gingival S. 471. assimilation versus. "terebra non tekbra". so sussum>siisum. 330): "Dossum per duo s quam per r quidam ut lenius enuntiaverunt. Waters Ch. R. sursum. was early reduced to ss: Lat. L. 307. App. while susosusu susum. locally in aliorsum. 328. Pr. etc. 460-461 Cf. dossum remained unchanged: susum.(see § i6r). pater. 290. 1593. § 281. retrorsum. § 292] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. as xcfloralis. or praepalatal change 291. Corssen I. Spr. 327. Pr. R. (i). in about half the Empire in persua.

pellicere. Cf. Cf. with the upper surface of the tongue convex (cf. see § 245. Rum. : 294. Jlagrare. 330— 331. merlo. tells 293. cocodrilus. etc. mehtrix. S. Metathesis is not uncommon S. except in monosyllables. Italian Carlo. although may have been reduced and possibly *cqyu SIBILAUTS. cf. perla. 304. 302. dietro drieto. Ry was probably preserved through the Vulgar Latin it period.. to y in parts of Italy. So Italian per lo '^pello. 329) says: Pompeius (S. "Barbarismus. propio. uxo. averlo^ (in Old It. 329. seems to have been dental. 307-308. Consentius mentions "perlum -pro prcslum. probably before the end of the Vulgar Latin period. S. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 330. f. S. Lat. corium'^ *coryu (cf. 329) / us that in elegant speech per before was pronounced pel. § 280) S. For quatro. est marmor. albor. suora. Final r. It. orlo. Velius Longus (S. 331. Crocodilus appears as corcodilus. S. perpenna ^ Perferna. \X." S. as in pellabor. fell. in most of Italy and Dacia: sdror'. quando dico mamor pro eo quod Cf.'' propio. coliandrum. Spr. 38. Falisci Sittl 11 mentions an in and the Marsi. cuoto). *sempre. 314-315). PELLiGE.z\vax\. Classic Latin j was probably ^Iways voiceless and remained so in 297. propietas. etc. : ^ j- Digitized by Microsoft® . corcodrillus.) avello. early fall of final r mate. among the soaru. The old voiced having become r (S. An intrusive r is found in culcitra.>. as frate. Italian £Occodri//o. 477. 330 notes prancati.124 (Sittl An 74). cf. Waters Ch. 329. criblare. This assimilation was probably not widespread in Latin. plurigo are attested likewise. it has left very few traces in the Romance languages. [§ 297 also ministorum.. mate.It. etc. 296. 295.

8. This evidently indicates a voicing in late school pronunciation. etc. cur- 298. j- ^In the previously cited Latin treatise (see footnote to §259). Pompeius (Keil V. Cornelio.) and most popular words it Tuscan is [naso. brian PiSAVRESE. corroborative evidence.) . and the developwords as hiemps.^ sex. mtsi. not count -j before a consonant in verse: 355-356. 471. the nominative singular without s (as Cornelio. According to Chronologic 175-186. Cicero (^Lat Spr. 108): "5 littera hanc habet potestatem. § 256): was generally preserved: causa. pleps. Cf. intervocalic s may have nupsi. furnished by such spellings as maximus. Digitized by~Microsoft® . Sittl 27. when -j was partially restored. 361-362. filio') predominated in (jpntral Italy until the time of Csesar.. indicated by the fact that is still generally surd in Spanish [casa. 471) "subrusticum. sumpsi. but became common by 150 to 200 A. rarely in -as: bonu. who cites UmLatin final s was very weak after and t. At the very end of the Vulgar Latin period. Ennius and his followers down to Catullus did S. in Classic Latin s some regions (cf. Spr. Thurot T]^ y between vowels is described as " weak. and matrona for matronas. the forms without Terentio. ut ubi opus fuerit excludatur de metro." tions -s is freely omitted. such as resolvit.. olim autem politius. 302-304): this in is 125 Vulgar Latin intervocalic s in (S. and occasionCf. rexi. The omission is commonest in nominative -os or —us. etc. but later it is In the older inscripin the main correctly used until the second century of our era: Lat. D. urps. ossum. but occurs also in -ts and -as. however. nepoti. etc. tste. etc. etc. and often was not is says the loss of —s written." except in compounds. pieta.§298] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. as far as goes. Final s often fell in ally in Faliscan: Hammer In early 5." Quintilian also (S. ii Umbrian {kumate). unu. also ment of a / in such become voiced sus. S. 361) notes the omission of -s by the ancients.

316). For sy. It. transtulit. tempus>lt. trans. 302. Densusianu 122—123. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. but notes that happens at the end of a doubt- only a conventional abbreviation. cords the omission of -s in as this nearly always less was strongly Carnoy 185-206 reline it is many inscriptions. 471): sentts'^YX. Cf.traduxit.(as prabitor) for the unusual initial pres-: hence It. and probably in Dacia. tion. C. transduco and We sometimes Both forms occur Gaul and Spain before / and v : tra (^ns) luce 0. In Gaul. filio^filios. I. etc. For assibilaand Palatals.became and sometimes before m and/. tra{ns)misit. morbu ^ morbus. and some other regions. see § 246 and Greek by Microsoft® Consonants. Hammer 19-28. pronounced and therefore preserved. however. For prosthetic i or e before s + consonant.coming from the prefix ex-. for ejus. tratransjicio. examdtis "> dai.(but traduire. probably owing to the previous linguistic habits of the natives.). [§302 and prevailed in central Italy in the third century («<7 Cf. see § 275. IX. tra{ns')veho. Audollent In most of Italy. 300. For z. Spr. a new nominative constructed from irpeers fell in Italy and elsewhere through the substituva. L. In Old French pasmer (from spasmus) the ^ was lost probably through confusion with es. jecit. Digitized . 540. tra. /SvTcpos. 299. According to Velius Longus (S. final J disappeared for good from the common pronunciation in the second and third centuries. 539.*prcebyterum'). see Gutturals For ss>s. etc.. 301. tres^OXA. see § 230.«. preveire {<. senti. see § 161. prete. usually preferred tras. the In presbyter.126 again. -s.. cept in monosyllables {^Lat. Italy generally favored tra. trei amate. tempo. (later tre^. tion of the prefix /r. traducir). Vx. Spain. find.before d. liberio. It.j.(but trasporre). but das^lt. tra{ns)posuit .. 1938.

S. 269- {colligo. inquit. S. n. n. by Microsoft® . innocens. with an arched tongue: S. ut umbra. 276.§ 305] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. before m. ut magnus. immitto.: mis-. 272. and v. 275) says that for n the air comes through both nose and mouth. etc. final or followed by a consonant. 303. like d and t (§ 280). noster. apertum in principio. contineo. changed: meus. conduco. by 270. must have been partly nasalized. 275) a spiritu explicabitur. 269-270. described by Nigidius (in Gellius)." sound between m and n: "Omnes fere aiunt inter m eX n litteras mediam vocem quae non abhorreat ab utraque littera sed neutram proprie exprimat. . see § 245." Terentianus Maurus (S. 311). and the mouth closure incomplete. The y Cf. 127 NASALS. Cf. minus. was dental or gingival. regularly venit. then n. S. — or "« adulterinum"— and also nvncqvam. «'s in Bononia > It. M and 304. Priscian. ut templum. amat. comfluo confluo. were the preceding vowel obscure and weak in Classic Latin.). rigo. comvenio convenio. "m obscurum in extremitate dictionum sonat." 305. In Classic Latin the nasal naturally took before labials the form of m. y: combura. is 278). g. imperio. cor- before s it was Digitized silent [cosul. initial and intervocalic. § 320) gutterals. mediocre in mediis. uncus (cf. §§ 171. So Marius Victorinus (S. 270. iVNCXi. as / . 275) Before liquids the nasal was assimilated cf. Bologna. anguis. S. as between n and ^ (S. 275): "iVvero sub convexo palati lingua inhaerente gemino naris et oris The same author describes (S. etc. According to Priscian (S. probably tives first the pronunciation of these fricabefore changed from bilabial to dentilabial (cf. 279-280. remained unFor the reduction of There was a dissimilation of two M and n. before dentals. 275). N.

locun sanctum. cur regibus.128 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 271-272). etc.. etc. and there was apparently some labials doubt before ^« and qu (S. etc. i senatu. Servius. In the vulgar speech of the Empire the sound before seems to have been indistinct. nom paret.. 272): this is indicated by such spellings as senper. santo. §§171. Priscian (S. see § 267: santa. cun navibus : Lat. Spr. de- fuctce. S. Carnoy 220). Cicero advocated cun nobis.. exeetc. quamta. In late Vulgar Latin m. Carnoy 220. For the change of rjkt to yt. 278. then to nt. Carnoy 176-177. 306. Digitized by Microsoft® . ut nomen. cun duce.. 476. little trace of confusion in the Romance lan- guages. 281-285. 307. decemter. largely to mere careless- ness in cutting. secudo. The due hesitation and inconsistency in spelling are certainly in part to imperfect articulation. tan mulieribus. Carnoy 176. iferos. we ci. nunquam.." Cf. plu. quan floridos. reliquat. innoceti. nol lego. find cun. 286) says: littera "Columnam et consules legimus. S. occubas. laterna. like medial nasals. In inscriptions S. etc. Bechtel 81 {forsitam. 364. nynfis. as there is § 32. nomem. but in great measure also to the mistaken efforts of later writers to restore a real or hypothetical earlier orthography: compare the treatment of prefixes. conplere. Cf. iy carne. [§307 to a following consonant: Final nasals seem to have been adapted. etc. nom or non fecit.. quen. Pirson 92. Mn seems at one time to have been pronounced m: Quintilian (S. forsitam mille. pricipis. n. frequent. In both old and late inscriptions the nasal is often omitted altogether before a consonant: Decebris. 273. 275): exempta n "iV quoque plenior in primis sonat et in ultimis partibus syllabarum. 311). before/ and v there was great uncertainty (cf. 276—277. r/ must have been reinforced. and even before dentals not always clear (S. S.

. to say. Bechtel 91 Digitized cf. mpn is common in 189. : que ad mo- century of the Republic and the dum. etc. Audollent 539-540. for -amn~. S. in the last first two centuries of the Empire the traditional spelling is carefully observed: early and late such forms as dece.. umpnia. (as in puplu)." Carnoy 166 has Interamico. on the other hand. Toward the end of the Empire fashion evidently prescribed cates a conscious a distinct pronunciation of mn. The Romance languages it point to the preservation of mn. was probably assimilated into nn in central and southern Italy before the Empire was over {Lat. passi. ide. terra. S. oli. etc. It is often omitted in inscriptions down c. etc. mecu.§309] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. S. . abundant examples. m Final m often fell in Umbrian 5. mense. numqua. Bon. Spr. Bechtel 107. by Microsoft® . 476): Interanniensis. counteracting a previous ten- dency to although slur the group.. It is likely that this orthography and painful effort to articulate clearly. 356. damnum. 129 stamen. The omission of -m and Pr. Cf. dormito for dormitum. the latter part of the . cal- the early indi- Romance languages. 462. unu are very common. Bechtel 80. App. ut amnis. In Old Latin it was to weak: 130 B. Bechtel •]()•. etc. and conversely forms with a superfluous m. occa- sionally in Faliscan: Hammer 8. 363-364. 308.). exilior in mediis. pride. septe. So R. dampnare. eoru. the wrong use of it are very frequent in the Per. 298. show a fondness for such spellings as calumpnia. — that 309. jacente. accedere. Between is m and j or / a / generally developed in Latin was unvoiced and denasalized before the surd that followed this / was not always written: sum(J))si. Late inscriptions. and again in late plebeian inscriptions. cf. Carnoy 166. sum(J>)tus. from the first century. and dampnum (cf.

S. 360. pdssu{ni). non is Siciliam": see § 311. 282. cf. who notes the omission of -m in many inscriptions under all possible conditions.. tan dvrvm. Cf. 356-358. as in coactum. from early times. having disappeared very early before vowels. 106). etc. too.tenea{m')\ cum. Final m before vowels seems to have been. Vok. vowels. cf. Caper (Keil VII. of its assimilation to a § following labial (im bello. audiendu' st. fix The con— became co— before vowels. Cato said dice hanc. but it seems preco- to have been reinforced in Classic speech (S. n of prefixes 274. the precedThe contrary view is maintained by Seelmann. only a weak nasal glide: in circueo it disappears (S. of -n in Latin (S.. reaches the conclusion that silent at the it became end of polysyllables by the first century. it was assimilated (cf. I. According to Quintilian is 362). (S. Hammer 32-41. AudoUent 537). ing vowel was nasalized. 286). scarcely any m audible quantum erat. Spr. [§ 310 ardente lucemam. very early. In the opinion of Schuchardt. Before consonants S. cognosco. in poetry it may be disregarded (cf. 274). 288-292.. fell Before^. next before spirants and at the end of a phrase. 473. S. For further assimilation. 310. 110-112. "/« Siciliam dicendum. 361). The Romance languages point to a loss of -m in all words but monosyllables: damnu{m). he adds that there in tantum ille.130 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. 274. then (by assimilation) before other consonants. ignotus: is Other- wise there no sure proof of the fall but there is abundant evidence 365). 364Lat. the final S. Final n must have been indistinct (S. As the fall of m seems to have been due primarily to a failure to close the lips completely between two it is likely that the nasalization was slight. quern (^quen. S. Cf. 361): see 305. 358). coharere. etc. hors. jam. as in cognatus. 361): see §305. Carnoy 206-221. coicere: S. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® .

probably through nasalization of the preceding vowel: see § 171. 461Conversely.. 131 The Romance languages indicate the disappearance of -n. ^^ i'^ Greek- ko^ous.. Spr. as in vicesimus. v. Cf. For final nt. convenio'&ie really new formaThe only sure Romance traces of the loss oin tions: S. 273). etc.. coin of Vespasian's reign). Stolz 243. libes. 459. seme{n) in. ifimo. "consules exempta n littera legimus. iferi. Pirson 94. ns. 287)./. cojugi. etc. remasit. ifra. see § 285. thensaurus. Eckinger 80. covenimus.." Before/. with a superfluous n: fidens =-fides. Plautus repeatedly uses mosTerence seems to intend a rhyme in "neque Stolz 243. coventionid. etc. Pr. 274. ifer cojectis. infas. 462." Cf. Quintilian (S. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc.ifs. locuplens. 387 a. such words as conjux. —iens'^-ies. "Hercules non Herculens.). 286). mesor messor = mensor. 274. resurges S. iventa. (on a (Capua. hortesia. cesor. This phenomenon was only thority: partially recognized by Classic au—ensimus -^ -esimus. AudoUent 538. 274. both forms were used in -e{n)sis (according to Velius Longus. App. non." In popular speech the times: S. S. Before fricatives or spirants n regularly fell. Carnoy 177.§ 31 1] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. however. R. 274. 113-115. iferi.. 281-285. 311. cosol. the n was generally restored by analogy (see 171). -onsus>-dsus. was kept in participles. quiensces. Charisius (S. formosus (S. Such forms are frequent in cojugi (very common). Cicero preferred foresia. occansio. trare. It probably fell late. § App." "occasio non occansio. letter inscriptions: Kki]ix.. Pr. pes neque mens. mesis. 285. cojux. mansus." Eunuchus 728. 281-285. etc. . inscriptions: cofecisse. was probably constant from early in/as. toties. d. 473. R. S. prcBgnas repeatedly. 286) records that "men- sam sine n littera dictam Varro fall ait. except in monosyllables: ndtne{Ti). "ansa non asa" . Stolz 243fT. if eras. after the Vulgar Latin period: Lat.. as videns. etc. thensaurus..

299. 476. and northern Italy: see Cf. pesat. // probably early in 299. hut pensare. Raetia. scripit.• redemti. Gaul. Pirson 60-61: labidem. etc. settembres.132 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. In a part of Gaul capfivus seems to have been pronounced *cayttvus: it may be that in Gallic speech the pt oi this word became yt. opus. tosus. scultor. Old Irish secht-n = septem. mesis. S. canapa. Car- noy 165. (I) P. Lat. by Microsoft® . App. corpus. S. In a part of Italy /j became ss as early as the isse for ipse is first century: found in Pompeii. Pirson 93. as was the case with Celtic// (Dottin 100. It. 313.. Pirson 61. to drop In Italy and perhaps elsewhere there was a tendency / between a consonant and an j- or /. 7th century. Bon. There was some sporadic confusion of/ and b: uvBLlCyE. and is attested by Martial and possibly by the icse for ipse mentioned by Suetonius. LABIALS. etc.. Intervocalic / probably became b in the fifth and sixth centuries in Spain. 314. cf. the fall of n was permanent.. 160. Pr. etc. In central and southern Italy// became the Empire: scritus. [§ 314 before these consonants in Latin are Italian /a«/^ and French in Raetia and convent. Spr. Digitized became Haag862. 299. stubrum. and the only Romance words containing ns are learned terms or new formations: mesa. § 256. etc. sposus.. under the influence of Celtic *cactos (Welsh caetJi) = Latin captus (Loth 35). /V likewise br: Abrilis. Windisch 394). 312. S. or perhaps captivus became first *cactivus. Before s. (i) F regularly remained unchanged: pater. h. lebrm. although at a later date nf became / much of southern France. "plasta non blasta" " ziziber non ziziper" cannabis and .

§ 3i6]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


In northern Gaul intervocalic/ and/r, even in clerical Latin, /8 and ^r by the seventh century: rivaticus, 629 a. d., Vok. I, 128; cavanna, Gl. Reich.
developed through b and br into
'Soxpe,pi, see § 273.
(2) B.


as in


was not



usually ifemained un-


bene, blitum, oblitus.


Oscan and Umbrian, became vim

in Sicily


southern and central Italy, the
as far north as


being found in inscriptions
Cf. nd, § 281.


Lat. Spr. 476.

Before s or tit

likely that b regularly

became /

in Latin,



was often written

b: absens apsens, ab— apsolvere,

plebs pleps, scribsi scripsi, scribtum scriptum, trabs traps, urbs

urps; App. Pr., "celebs non celeps," "labsus non lapsus."

Final b must have been often assimilated to a following

consonant: sud



a. d.,



In the Empire, especially in the second century,
in inscriptions (cf.

and v were much confused


bixit, botu,

vene, etc., S. 240; Baleria, Balerius, Beneria,


Betrubius, Bictor, bos, valneas, Audollent 536; African birtus, bita, boluntas, Vok. I, 98 bivere, very common, Carnoy

140; baluis, Bechteh"78;

vibit, etc.,

R. 456; bobis in Consenany, traces of

Vok. Ill, 68.

In the

Romance languages

there are few,


such an early interchange.

Probably the confusion was mainly

or wholly graphic, being due to the identity in sound of b and v between vowels (§ 318): Lat. Spr. 473; cf. Einf., § 120. The Spanish levelling of initial b and v does not go back to Vulgar Latin (Carnoy 139— 141); the confusion is far commoner in Italian inscriptions than in Spanish or Gallic (Carnoy 142-146). We find also a change of initial v to b va. north Portuguese, Gascon, south Italian, and Old Rumanian.

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Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


After liquids, too, there was a confusion of b and v in inscriptions, b being substituted for v much oftener than v for
b: Nerba, salbum, serbus, solbit, etc.,

240; berbex, Waters

Ch. 57; solbere, repeatedly, Carnoy 140; solbere, etc., R. 455; App. Pr., "alveus non albeus." In all probability v really changed to b after liquids: see V.


remained unchanged.
Intervocalic b opened into

the development apparin the second,

ently began in the


was well along

Oitovin = and was devitvm, provata, etc., Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95; devere, As V also was pronounced j8, a confusion in spelling S. 240. cvrabit, resulted, b and v being used indiscriminately:

completed, at least in Italy, in the third:

ivbentvtis, nobe,

etc., S.

240; i-vwE.nTE.=jubente, 2d century,

£inf. 127, § 120; cabia
vovis, etc.,

— cavea,

Danuvium, Dibona,


Audollent S3^~537j devitum (6th century), lebis, vibi, Carnoy 134-135; annotavimus, lebat, Bechtel 78;


habe:=ave, rogavo, suabitati,

R. 455— 456;



51, Pirson 61-62,



Carnoy 134-136. became contiguous

Cf. V.

to a following consonant,
Cf. V.

was vocalized

into u: *faula, *paraula, *taula, etc.

became /3r and Dacia.

perhaps not until the end of our period, in northern Gaul, Raetia, part of northern Italy,


as in popular speech: *fa§ula, * tabula, etc.

In the early stages of clerical Latin intervocalic b was pronounced Later, perhaps by the

seventh century,

was sounded


In App. Pr. we find " sibilus non


tions " sifilum pro sibilum" ;


comes from some non-Latin Italic dialect few other words. *a^ea, see § 421. (3) For habebam


(S. 300) menPerhaps the form with/ bubulcus =^ It. bifolco, and a

and Priscian



Be, bi probably remained unchanged, at least in most

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§ 322]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


of the Empire: rabies, rubeus, etc.

For the analogical change

of habeo to *ayo, debeo to *deyo, see § 273.

(3) F-


F was

originally bilabial (S. 294-295), but
of the



by the middle


(S, 295): cf. § 305.

It is the old /, apparently, that is described

by Quintilian

296-297) a plain description of the dentilabial y is given by Terentianus Maurus and Marius Victorinus (S. 296).

Grammarians speak

of an alternation of h


fasena^ harena, fircum'^ hircum, habam'^fabam,
Varro, Ling. Lat.

etc., S.

f: fcedus'^hadus, The /"and 300.

the h doubtless belonged to different dialects in early Latin
§ 97, the

according to

This phenomenon can have no connection with the change of initial/to h in Spanish and Gascon.

/for h was Sabine.

of the

It is

probable that intervocalic

y became

v at the end

Vulgar Latin period

256): alevanii

^ elephanti,

paceveci ^pacifici, pontevecem =. poniificem,




was doubtless originally pronounced w; but, losing its velar element, the sound was reduced, probably During the early in the Empire, to the bilabial fricative /8. Empire Greek-letter inscriptions have ov or ^ for v (Ncpoua or Nep/3a) Ov\av!a = Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95 yS for » is common from the first century on, Eckinger 85-91. Velius Longus, in the middle of the second century, says that the u in ualente is pronounced "cum aliqua aspiratione": S. 232. Hence arises a complete confusion of intervocalic b and v








By. CVRABIT, ivbentvtis, etc, Gregory the Great. This leads


240; jubari iox juvari

to a graphic confusion of

initial b

and v

in inscriptions: biginti, bixit, botv, etc. (so



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An Introduction

to Vulgar Latin.
dentilabial v in


Later the bilabial

p became


of the


cf. §


For the substitution Germanic Consonants.
323. After liquids




or w in a few words, see

this state

/3 seems to have closed regularly into b; was preserved in Rumanian (Densusianu 97, 103105), but elsewhere the p ox v was partially restored by school

influence: cerbvs, corbi, cvrbati, ferbeo,
A. D.),
§ 317.

nerba (about 100

serbat, solbit, E. G. Parodi in Horn.




So vervex became *verbex, then berbex: Waters Ch. 57 BERBECES, 2d Century, Einf. 127, § 120 (also in Gl. ReichJ).

Hence came

hesitation in spelling (^ferveo, ferbui, etc.)


inconsistent results in the


languages: corvus^

corbo corvo, Fr. corbeau; curl/US'^

Ft., Pr. corp, Sp. corvo;



nerbo, Fr. neff; servare, servire'^ It. serbare, servire.

Intervocalic w ox fi had a tendency in older Latin, as Umbrian, to disappear between two like vowels: divtnus'^ dinus (cf. Umbrian deivina> deina, Sittl 26), obHviscor> obliscor, si vis'i> sis. Cf. Lindsay 52. Also, at all times, before or after 0: bovis'^bos; devorsum>dedrsum; faor, Pirson 63; moere, AudoUent 539; Noe/u/Spios, Vok. II, 479; noem[bris], S. 241; '^pavor xiOXL paor," App. Pr.; cf. late noembris, noicius, Lindsay 52. "Favilla xion failla" in App. Pr. seems to be




In the above cases the


apparently was only sporadic.

But before an accented o or u, the w ox p fell regularly in most of the Empire: aunculus, Vok. II, 471 (cf. auncli, Pirson 63); FLAONivs, S. 241; *padnem; *padrem.
Furthermore, intervocalic
popular speech before any


ox p regularly disappeared in probably towards the end of the
vIvs, S. 241 {zLJlaus in



-vos>-vus): flavs,

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1. Single consonants sometimes became double in Latin. and the surds doubtless had a weak. etc. 137 App. primitius. (S) u. Fr. Vva. 471) and others as aum. Pr. etc."^ ec{c)lesia. Pirson 63. noum.. nasals. When intervocalic a/ or it lowing consonant. Claussen 847-851. the v was re. is evidently intended for csvum. naufragus. eccu' ista'>*eccwista. the sonants were perhaps not fully voiced. 327- In Greek the surd and the sonant stops must have than in Latin. after the analogy of a feminine or a plural form ovum (beside oum) through ova. II. hiatus which had not already become w {%% 223224) probably took that sound by the end of the Vulgar Latin 326. in most cases this probably only graphic: Carnoy 128-131. : Cf. triumphaut. datius. stored. Lindsay 52. placuit> placwit. 113) nous. The Greek liquids. voiced explosion: so they were not always distinguished by the Latin ear. is 325. I.§ 328] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. aus. The ^Vm of C. Vok. Carnoy 128. Before 322. by Microsoft® . oum in Probus. Often. /3 became contiguous to a folwas vocalized into u (cf. the original Latin w (spelled v) had become |8: § 2. etc. 472 (cf. B): Classic . Vulgar aucella. GREEK CONSONANTS. cited by Schuchardt (Vok. rivus (beside rius) through rivi. Digitized Cf. (i) In inscriptions -vs is common in place of -vvs.:>*eccwic. period: eccu' ktc'. this. 328. oum. iKKKyfTia. § 167. and sibilants less sharply differentiated been usually remained unchanged in transmission. claudo. Audollent 539 (cf. however. vius in Pirson 63). L. II. App. and Greek double consonants sometimes became single: vd/xos >nummus. Keil IV. Pirson 63). rius. ndcui^ nocwi. gnaus. 1220.

t: xoAa^os > colaphus.. 833-838. — 329. old inscriptions. however. we find the People of fashion by Microsoft® . toKomtov > talentum. x 252-253): vop^-ipa^ purpura .papo^ cammarus gammarus. p. b. cecino. Crista. advCf. cin in kvki/os > > cicinus > Old. t: blcesus. KaiPw%>gobius . Reich. Ta\oi'>rr. theywere *Jdcopus (also */dcomus) 'la. tt. TTuppos burrus.v>gubemare. Digitized b. explosives 6. ph. cf. keSjoos > citrus. became in Old Latin t. 138 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. "> purpura. w. 268): (cf. k. n. ch: Claussen 823-833. > > . progne. S. the conis mentioned by Terentius Scaurus and others. <t>. K6p. TfL'^um (j-a. Pr.p. After nasals. of a change oi r to d there is no example. Claussen 838-841. K. nimpa. bustiola in Gl. Ka. later inscriptions.yKri> andngi. 2S9-26a 332. S. — fusion 346. B. y. r. however. rvp.. Teodor. Claussen c. v sometimes became b. X. (2) K. c (S. egloge. d: l3XauT6i Sometimes. although KavZiTo? for candidus (Eckinger 98) seems to point in that direction: 'Aicpayas > Acragas Agragas. yoyypoi Cf. remained b. *. sandal. 347 buxus. 8 regularly ydpov>garum. g.fu > > gumtni. The From the middle of the second century spellings th. gamba. This late such cases as Kafiinj Greek pronunciation perhaps accounts for > Lat. App. avrpov^ dndron. It. [§ 332 (i) B.KO)0(K delta. S. TTvio'i > Kr > 331' g. S. "calatus non galatus" {^ KoXadoi). 'Kixpmp6<i'>- lambros. KvPipva. 330.p. 7rop<j)vpa. > conger ganger. § a-iriijXvyya > spelunca. T. timbre.iravov > Fr. etc. 259. K. ^iXra^ unvoiced into /. cf. often became g.. t regularly came to be pronounced //in Greek: a. (3) ®.yfjia> sagma sauma. Pilipus. A. T generally remained c. etc.

pantaisar. In hoxri>doga. The proper spelling is discussed by gram- marians: S. 333" tions. 261): dafne occurs in Pompeii. zio we have a late development of Claussen 833.avTac7La> > Pr. . KoKa. cf. iriumpos) in order to be better understood. unaspirated pronunciation (as pulcros. nothus. 257-258. 139 undoubtedly tried to imitate the aspirates (Lindsay 54). Bonnet 141." 334. so o^-1\kiov for qfficium. '^Theophilus non izofilus": (i) Evidence of a late school pronunciation of 6 as ts is to be found in Thurot 78.§ 334] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. phitonissm. "amfora /came non ampora. Reich. Thestius. cru/x<^o)V4a>It. Certainly as early to be the standard as the fourth century (Lindsay 58) pronunciation: App. <jia. p. 256) speaks of using the old.Xay^ It. 218. c. f is common later in southern Italy. 4. In <l>aXKaiva> ballcBna. <f> > b. ut c enuntiatur. caikoluus. Matheus ''. ^ had developed into / in some places (S. 0. Cicero (S. Quintilian (S. In late words ^ regularly appears as/. " In principio inquam dictionis nulla prescripta causa variari compellitur. d.\os> phaselus faselus . pache. Claussen 828. Fr.. App. Parthi. In ^£ros>It. The etc.. etc. but popular speech kept the old t. 261. ut ather. X ><?"• Claussen 831. Thescelus. zampogna. Ki^oXoi > It. Fitonis. si aspiretur.^o'i^ colaphus = colapus. S. Fitones in Gl. Thiestes. 256) says there were no aspirate consonants in older Latin. etheus. Fr. etc. as in phosit. 260. ut thiara. By the first century a. cefalo. x^P^ > chorda = corda. and some other early adopperhaps the reason is to be sought in a Greek dialect pronunciation: Claussen 829-831. Bechtel 79. .. Eckinger 97. Theos.. for new words as well as for old: <TvaOri>spatka— spata. neofiti. S-p. etc. cathedra. Digitized by Microsoft® ." "strofa non stropa". of. footnote to § 259): " T quoque.. : letter h is occasionally misused.<^ao-i. 79 (cf. S.. It is transposed in Fhitonis. palanca.

^dvr] "^ sona (Plautus). e^oSos r. but was often replaced. early Latin .. see below. [§ 339 (4) Liquids.I40 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and a few other words. : t. among 36) says that the ancients. Nasals. Priscian (Keil II. The For unfamiliar combination lent itself readily to meta- thesis: i^6X\v. 335. too. > exodus. as a simple sound. and ^ were regularly > sinapis. and Sibilants. and subsequent developments confirm this view: baptizare Digitized was equivalent to bapti{d)yare.. lampas. priTmp> Rh in remained unchanged: \a/x7ras> common speech was doubtless pronounced In trkXivov like > It.8os /talpos > maurus.v>psallere spallere.'^massa. Greek letter and the lack of a corresponding Latin one Velius Longus discusses z at length. by s. orma. — 339. some indica: tions that they were weak before consonants > Pr. Claussen 845. ss. but seems to be referring only to Greek speech S. etc. sedano. Quintilian refers only to the on the Latin pronunciation. or d as in Saguntum. unchanged: <j has probably become For npvj^vre. § 272). i/f In ocr/u. is sounded sd.-^ remained unchanged: are. by Microsoft® . r. Medentius. The liquids regularly rhetor.po'i'^ prebiter. 308. Judging from inscriptions. t. From Sulla's time on it was written z in The grammarians throw no light Latin: Claussen 841-843. regularly vop. (S) z- Z doubtless had several pronunciations in Greek. > nome. later j' (cf. Cf. /8oj«. 338. (Tivain Of the sibilants. we probably 8. it was pronounced in Vulgar Latin dy. The nasals. cr 337. In it was represented by jj or s: pAtfl. see § 300. bobansa. have to do with a late Greek change of \ to 336. massa.^ ? > It. There however.

and w. septuazinta.. Bechtel 79). zdcones. Vok. 3.§ 34i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. A few. *striban > Pr. although have participated also in the later Gallic palatalization of g > before a (§ 263): gilda>lt. p. (90. Cf. ZESv. garba > K It. A. GERMANIC CONSONANTS. etc.ta. etc. garto Old Fr. and its derivatives palatalized In the their k before e and /. baptidiatus. Franko seems to have been an early acquisition. and to G. 457-458- In late inscriptions z for/ is common: zerax = Upa^ (202 S. ZABVLLVS. 69. estribar. Zov\e. seems to have followed a similar course. zaconus. rubare.). being had no Latin equivaFurthermore. 473.. zanuari. zeta = Koffmane 38 Lazis — dixta.. zosum z= deorsum. zebus. I. re- mained a stop : roubdn it > It. etc. D. R. riqueza.• frank-iscus>lX. Spr. h. Lat. resisted front vowels : skena > > Sp. occurring apparently only in words adopted after Latin intervocalic b had become ^ (§ 318). esquena. can scarcely have come in time to share in the early palatalization of Latin g before front vowels (§§ 25811.). zabulus. giscle. Carnoy 163. z zabulus. *giga>'Pr. Pr. Conversely. giga. 341. gerbe. 340. cf. Carnoy 163). no peculiarities. however. geisla Fr. 33. of the consonants offer Most treated as in Latin. Eckinger 80. jart. Digitized by Microsoft® . B between vowels. so *rik-itia > Pr.= Julia. I. 239. Francesco. Kotflv^ zvnior. is often used for di: . 22. and is common in inscriptions (cf. geldra. corresponding Latin sounds had undergone some modification. It. The ending -i{d)yare became very is common: see § The spelling di for z occurs repeatedly: baptidiare found several times in Per. Vok.. skernon > schernire. = conjux. Ladiis. 68 . b and k came in after the lents: 8. oridium for opvtfi. 141 zelosus to {d)yelosus.

prescan Germanic h appeared when Latin h had long been popular speech. we find Digitized by Microsoft® . It. espier. Pr. Sp. hardjan Old Fr. silent in Fr. 445 notes that ab. Old Sp. esclata. nipa The spirants 8 and p t: corresponding stops. different time. gaite. richesse. Kluge 500. trescar. Intervocalic h disappeared in most words. Pr. hau- > > > Pr. Pr. Fr. is used before > > initial ch: ab Chilperico. [§ 344 c was palatalized. Hs.— 142 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. It. In the Gl. — slahta'^-OXA esclet. schietto. tt: pahso > It.. esclate. so blank-a'^Yx. tasso. eschernir. ardire. spehon~>0\6. like Latin ss. pahso > It. gequir. of a At the beginning word it kept its sound in northern Gaul. Fr.. Reich.gaita. espiar. jaquir. rather than a. guiderdone. apcha. doubtless adopted at a Tr. Bon. bianca^. d and widarlon were replaced in Latin by the It. but apparently was neglected in the rest of the Empire: hanca~^Yx. Fr. — > \X. before a (§ 263). jehir. blanche (but It. in the seventh century and later. Pr. schivare. W. parrjan > Cf. Yr. It. regions where Latin eschine. It. hache. hardir. helme. sleht > Pr. schiatta. helm elmo. became Old guatare. gecchire. Germanic k was modified in the same way before all front vowels (including a): cf. 342. perhaps borrowed at a different date feu. ht were generally treated tasso. at Germanic w was a strong velar and labial fricative. a time when original Latin fricative w (spelled v) It the purely labial ^ (§ 322). honte. hanche. Pr. fio . Fr. but in a few it seems to have been sounded kk in the greater part of the Empire: fehu Fr. etc. skiuhan'^'Fx. —jehan > Old It. esguiver. tarir. Old Fr. It. 343. cf. Fr. hapja'^Yz. 344. had become was nearer in it sound to Latin u: see § 326. anca. But wahta.

Waddo. Bruckner. in uuadius. 143 re- represented by uu. 1899. through a reinforceit ment of its velar element. Die germanischen Elemente in der franzSsischen und provenzalischen Sprache. vastare + wost— > *wasiare. and in the in Rsetia this w apparently remained unchanged Vulgar Latin period. werra > werra guerra. 1884. the /3 of some Latin words was changed to w: vadum +watan'. Wandali. W. Mackel. Waltemath. etc. wa (the interjection). etc. in der franzSsischen Sprache. In extreme northern and eastern Gaul. but Wintrio is spelled Quintrio: Haag 38. 167 cords Euua. See E. reuuardent. 1885. Die frdnkischen Elemente W. elsewhere. Charakteristik der germanischen Elemente im Italienischen. Bon. Digitized by Microsoft® . in northwestern Italy. It is generally written w in Fredegarius. etc. Through association with Germanic words.:>*wadum. > *wisa guisa. walde.§ 344] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. became gw: warjan>*warire wisa guarire.

grex became feminine. had a proparoxytonic accusative in -erem.IV. They were grammatical whose observance was a matter of outward form. Lat. 504. n. marginem. manus. etc. Spr. became feminine (Bon. (5) See also § 351. The three genders of Latin were not. —urem were of uncertain gender ( Gram. castaneus for castanea. G. -inem. through the analogy of the great majority of abstract terms. in the main. 464-467): carcerem. abstract nouns in -or. 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . but there were ( I ) Between masculine and feminine there was not much some important shifts: Feminines of the second declension nearly all became — masculine: fraxinus. MORPHOLOGY. Bon. pulicem. cucullus and cuculla. dolor. 345. Lat. Nouns that -icem. dependent on sex or lack of distinctions. I. iomus. cf. MASCULINE AND FEMININE. ficus. leporem. 194. fans feminine in late Latin. 346. A. Pirion 157. —orem. 483 . or [I. honor. If words lost their differentiating terminations. Hmor. 483. 461): (2) In Gaul. Feminines of the fourth declension varied (^Gram. sex. II. 293. GENDER. 503-504): (3) color.. turturem. Spr. Bon. confusion of gender ensued. (4) There were some sporadic changes: duos arbores. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. ~" confusion.

etc.. Glor. do^sus (^Mil. Cf. 348. Bon. caseum -us. 39. me\_nt]us. piper \h&x& must have been *liiminem.. frigorem. cf.. sg. fcenus. for ctnis. VA. and neuter in Africa. n. 2. Waters Ch. Conversely we find cinus. Densusianu 129. there must have been a *pulvus. papaver . beside pulvis.. 145 MASCULINE aIiD NEUTER. Spr. signus. 42. 44). These m two genders: filiu{s) — . 270—272. Waters Ch. cornu —um —us. G. D'Arbois 135. sulphurem. nomen. lignus. maris nom. and also by the fall of final s in that phenomenon occurred (§ 298). etc. 57. 347. vasus -um. laqueum. thesaurum. marmorem. The transition from masculine to neuter was facilitated by the fall of final the regions where changes reduced considerably the distinguishing marks of the (§ 309). Audol- lent 545. lactem... murmur. vadum —us. 4. vinus. fatus. (Za/. In Classic Latin a number of neuters became masculine balteum -us.§ 348] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Varro. 16). ciner. pectorem. MAREM. balneus. templus. gladium. nasuni : —us. see Archiv VIII. In popular and late Latin this tendency was strong: anteClassic. MARIS. n.Y. II. incipit judicius. Densusianu 132. Petronius has thesaurum. tergum —us. etc.guttur. 483). 173. etc. puteum.. collus —um. *ndminem. 41. R. and f. calus. 507-509. 345-349.. Beside lUmen. roborem. 46. . collus. verbus. 293. Petronius. *ptperem. 132. lactem {Bacch. b. castellus. m. R. 348. 266. vinus. Bon. m. m. ra. Plautus. ledus —um. etc. frenum -i. For the confusion of masculine Cf.

murus. tive h In the third declension the genders are distinguished only in the accusative singular and the nomina- and accusative plural. for instance. etc. donum hunc scBCulum. Among pronouns. hunc verbum. 277. the early stages of the Neuter adjective forms were used for a similar purpose: in Romance languages we find phrases veniat..146 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. pointing to such Vulgar Latin constructions as *mihi est grave quod ille non c. [§ 351 In the second declension the only difference is in the nominative singular and the nominative and accusative plural. by terra. Nearly all neuters became masculine: os locutus R. hunc vulnere. plural in a collective sense (as eques. est.. luoghi luogora. : if The loss of the neuter became feminine: cyma. however.. generally Haag became feminine maris. but also the collective plural for the singular Digitized by Microsoft® . 348. id ipsum. cf. 386. hunc stagnum. and in Italy and Dacia the distinction disappears even in the nominative singular. Petronius writes nervia Waters Ch. R. Bon. 635. 351 Classic Latin often used not only the singular for the cf. Thus the masculine and neuter fused. Mare. etc. m. the characteristic neuter plural inflections came to be -a being regarded as an alternative masculine plural ending: for nervi. gender for nouns was probably not Cf. illud or ilium. 350. in Livy: Draeger I. Densusianu 132. generally L. quod. and 48. 45 . § 351. So pi. quid. rivus rivora. complete until early Romance times. perhaps calestem. 161. locus. 349. give in Italian: sg. mare. luogo. / muri mura. the : neuter forms were kept to express an indefinite idea hoc. popular. sagma. influenced f. 4). 266. XXX. etc. Archiv III. Greek neuters in -ma. Zs. FEMININE AND NEUTER. Cf. muro. miles.

The feminine character of such words was *illcB doubtless reinforced by the use. *folia. Reich. ligna. grada occur in late Latin. in Greek neuters -ma. R. Gl. Aside from these. Spr.% frigora. *pulvus = pulvis. So the neuter plural forms in -a were preserved in their collective use after the neuter singular forms had disappeared. D'Arbois 10. for singular forms as *brachia. 2.. Sardinian. Audollent 548. simulaehras. For cinus — cinis. see § 347. 435. . in Rumanian y>-««2a < ? *frondia ^frondes. 5-9. This formation in -a was extended to many masculine (cf. ne forte et mihi hcec eve- R. Draeger I. Spr. palpebrum iox palpebra occurs. Apulian. see §§ 85-100. etc. dita. Old Fr. Cassel. Gl. 269. 483. ardet (cf. fructa. marmor. 482. 351. For the use of cases. Hence arose such feminine gaudia. Lat. Cf. cf.. membras. Gl. few neuter nouns became feminine: For mare and f.. DECLENSION OF NOUNS. armentas. etc. 353. Convtrstly. {z. Reich.§ 354] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . for instance. of an to pectora maXch qua pectora : Chronologie \()(). In most of the in central Romance territory the -a forms were kept preserved as plurals only as feminine singulars. the Vulgar Latin period the cases were generally reduced. ingenias. 147 marmora. which a new plural was created: brachias. hie est iesia. rura: cf. . It. Lat. fusa.. gesta. R. § 349) and even to some feminine nouns: digita. gaudia niat. ligna . .. By the end of 354. crigne < ? *cnnea = crines. frutta. Bon. but many were and southern Italy and Rumania. see § 349. 352. etc. occurs in late Latin.. 270. Archiv XIV. 63). In late Latin and early Romance this collective plural —a came to be taken for a feminine singular: tribula sg. sg. rama).

being assimilated to the third declension: cf. Pr./ada. glatz. lucto. (2) The susianu 133. passes. Ada. 544. whence Italian spene (cf. etc. 270. haz. All the mercatus.. Sittl in Archiv II. [§ 356 except in Dacia. so friicti. 482. etc. R. sendti. 550. Fifth declension nouns not in -ies rem. Dies maintained itself. materies -ia. Bechtel 86. 260—262. luxuries —ia. gelus. —a nominative and an accusative- plural following the analogy of the singular.g/ada. In Dacia the dative singular was to some extent preserved also: '' § 91. Heraeus in Archiv XIII. 355(i) The number fifth of declensions was reduced to three. fructo fructos. jusso. cornum. Audollent genum. transfer of nouns in -ies from the fifth to the first declension began also in Classic Latin: effigies— ia. — the Cf. as a third declension noun. spes spent. Bon. but -ies was kept in the Spanish peninsula. All passed over in the greater part of the Empire. Spr. The transfer from the fourth to the second began in domus. scaiiazre attested Inter: Denfor -OS. in southern Italy and Sardinia. but there were a few shifts: — (i) For an inflection mama mamdne(^m). to two. spiritus..148 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 337-338. manos. 135. Classic Latin and continued in vulgar and late speech: ftcus. 282-283. 152. the fourth and being absorbed by the others. £ai. One result of the intermediate confusion was an accusative plural spelling -us which was very common in Gaul: Bon. senatus. G. went into the third res There was also an inflection spes : spene{m). see § 359. etc. speni): W. jusso.. etc. and occasionally in southern Gaul. fourth declension eventually went over. gustus in Petronius . 356. etc. ablative. K. lacus. The other declensions generally held their own. Sp. gradus. beside dia. Digitized by Microsoft® .

). lent 546. but the old forms were retained also. G.) *femdris: cf. Libit. Fimus ftmi.. siren '^ sirena. a. fall of In Italy and Dacia. 149 (2) For an inflection Bellus Bellone^m). / 357. G. Fr. This use was due in the main to the analogy of the singular. Reich. So a few Latin nouns: juventus or ~tas > Juventa. and of feminine nouns of the third declension. there was an ervus ervoris: Lat. 259-260). Audolfilia{m). apparently became femus {Gl. Pr. Reich. so apparently ros'. Digitized -s made the accusative plural identical with the singular. the accusative plural form came to be used as a nominative plural. Beside terminus ~i. 258Dubois 258. pyxis '^*buxida. Old Fr. the nominative plural was' by Microsoft® . 280. there was a termen terminis. Pr. J where there was only one form. vas>va- sum vasus (Waters Ch. likewise tempesta {Gl. ds>dssum (R. Greek nouns 259. fonz. the first: 367. 280. R. h&nc& filias filias. Corpo for corpore occurs in the Per. FIRST DECLENSION. : Bechtel 86. arroser. matres matres. Spr. beside coclear fiitre: was codearium. cf. femps. fons. Beside ervum ervi. of the third declension sometimes passed into lampas~^lampada. 280.In countries which did not lose final s {% 298). under the influence of stercus. see § 362.) and probably *potesta. It probably was not common until late Vulgar Latin or early Romance times. fiens. Fr. Puulva for pulvis is recorded adsis '> aisida. (3) On the other hand. effondrer. 57). G. where the kept instead. which had only one form in the plural: flia So linguas. etc. rugiada. by Audollent 416. It. 483. etc. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) and *capum -i: XXVII. Fundus fundi perhaps became fundus *funddris: Old Fr.>*rdsum (cf.§ 357] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

359. Raetia. and also in Latin down to -as was probably old in : B. Hic qvescvnt dvs mres dvas filias. Rom. D'Arbois 21-24 assumes Celtic influence: hic sunt cartas. 331... No foreign or dialect influences are needed to explain the practice. Archiv N\\\.. Rom. nom. 57 B. famulabus. Dalmatia. Celtic. 358. or probably under the influence of the consonantal declension of Greek names that was in vogue in schools. Both mamani and tatani are found in the third W. 264). feminabus.ISO (i) An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. E. XXXV. MeyerLiibke in Ltblt. sa* sacristanis (cf. Paris. 206. Feminine proper names and words denoting persons etc. M. the nominative plural in some parts of Italy SCALAS.. Pirson 115-116. often developed. This form left no traces in the Romance languages. c.: hence arose Anna Anndnis or -inis. etc. rather late. pupillabus. etc. XXV. century: feminine -a -ants In Lat. c. etc. It. had a similar plural. liberti LIBERTASQVE. Chronologie 205-209. ahimabus. It. An ablative in -abus is occasionally found: Cassiabus. Dante's Semele. filiabus. W. scrivano). affirms that there was a feminine in -a with a plural in -as in Oscan. deabus. 198. but they may have helped its the second century . Salvioni in Rom. etc. XXIII. too. Some masculine person-names in —a had crisia the same declension {Einf. cf. 136. (R. an inflection in —dnis. Herseus in Archiv XIII. Feb. Philipon. etc. Les accusatifs en -on et en -ain. ii. amita *amitdnis (so Juliana Julianenis in Pirson 143). Africa. 150. etc. fr. 483. scriba *scribanis (cf. cf. Spr. 70.. [§359 According to Mohl. filiabus. Br^al. W. —enis. See G. villabus. 321. Les accusatifs en -ain. Her^us in Zs. Meyer-Liibke expresses doubt whether the is connected with masculine tatani. Bon. filiabus. Nice Nicenis. Journal des savants igoo. 171. and Digitized by Microsoft® . Pupils were taught to inflect Glance Glaucenis.2 01. mamma mammdnis. § 153): barba barbani. diffusion. 152-153. XXXI. p. sacristano). XXV. This feminine inflection left some traces in Gaul. Spr.. G.

etc. Rom. 151 etc. G. however. According to Salvioni. shows that these forms of declenall sion were very common the mediasval Latin documents of parts of Italy. and -Stis: Aureliati. -His. Cf. was retained to a considerable and central Italy and Dacia. Andreani. Zs. etc. from Eugenes. 264. Zimmermann. 218. by the analogy of bracchia.: § 362] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -o -6ne. 219. SECOND DECLENSION. *botula. from which it was extended to other nouns of relationship and to proper names. b. extent. Salvioni. Romance. 250. especially in southern Some masculines took 362. XXXV. -i La declinazione imparisillaba in -a -dne. 2l6. putain. etc. etc. this -a. etc. also Joannentis. 250. 361. Rom. at the beginning of the Romance period. The plural in -a. barbane still exist at both ends of Italy. XXXV. from 750 on: amitane. in ig8. Ger- From the seventh century on. Lombard madrane. Rom. Agneti. §§349. 216. nonnain.) was kept also. Dubois 250. §§ 347-349. Attane. R. — perhaps under manic influence combined with the analogy of the Latin type Digitized by Microsoft® . (i) 207. domnani. *botella. XXXV. -e ^ne -me. the first declension was reduced to this pattern: 360. In general. etc. etc. XXVIII. the masculine where the masculine and neuter partly in Vulgar Latin but mostly in inflection in those countries differed: vinus. they assumed. As neuter nouns became masculine.. barbane. 343. rama. the starting-point of all this inflection was bdrba barbdnis. (2) A. digita. me -ene. Andreate. shows that there was also an Cf. — luna facia *folia luna lune lunas luna{s) facia folia f^i^ facias f'^^i^ folias facia(s) folia{s) In Dacia the dative singular {lune. Rom. bdrba barbdnis influence of the itself he would ascribe to the synonymous *bdrbo *barb6nis. Joanneni. Cf. 214-215. XXXV. Eugeneti inflection in -dtis.. 351-352.. fructa. Italy: Fr.

152 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 212-213. Philipon in Rom. spelled In Gaul the accusative -«. 87. XXXV. carried further in common speech: cf. § 152). Apparently traces. Italy. avus avi>avo avonis. So perhaps Italian Donaioni. suceroni: Rom. turri turre.. etc. etc. II. etc. Vok.- ending was often Bon. XXXI. 365. c. I. Firmus Firmonis. -« crowded out the rarer which left no sure Digitized by Microsoft® .f. the second declension followed this pattern: annu(s) — annu ~o anni anno{s) fa^e(f) fabru —o vinu{s) bracciu *—us fructu(s) vinu -0 vini bracciu —o braccia fructu fructi fructo{s) —o fabri fabro(s) —i —o{s) vmo(s) braccia —a -a The letters enclosed in parentheses were silent in Italy and plural Dacia. 204). some pari. (1). etc. and possibly Spain. a declension -us (or —o) —dnis for masculine Hugo Hugon was Latinized into Hugo Hugdne{m) (cf. XXXV. Traces of this inflection are to be seen especially in French and Provengal proper names: Foucon. and possibly Corsican baboni. proper names: 201. cf. 198. The traces ablative in —e finally triumphed. In the accusative plural there was still greater confusion of -is and -es {nubes nubls. cf. 247-249. This was 364. 337-338. Paulus or Paulo Pauldne{ni). at the beginning of the Romance period. etc. In the ablative there was considerable confusion of -z and -e in Classic LatiiK OTan mare. G. but there are of -l: It. Rsetia. See E. Pirson 133:. Vok.). Huon. Bellus Belloni. Giovannoni. — there developed in Gaul. etc. XXXV. Salvioni in Rom. [§ 365 gulo guldnis. 85. attested in Lucca in 776 {Rom. etc. §355. hence Pitrus or Pitro Petrdne^m).. both in Classic and in Vulgar Latin: -Is. THIRD DECLENSION. Cf. 363. In general.

Digitized by Microsoft® . 47). These forms prevailed in Romance. Apuleius. Petronius (Waters Ch. Petronius (Waters Ch. R. Haag 45.. voluntate. Caper.. etc. 481. 9. divite. 153 Italian pani. travis (three times). in Ennius.. urbis. calcis in Venantius Fortunatus. "fames non famis. Aulus Gellius. Ill. etc. (^=z. etc. Ci. Chronolo- gie 203. Pr. tended in popular speech to use for the nominative a form in -is. audace. §§ 174. lade in Ennius. or -e fashioned on the model of the oblique cases: so seeps "> sapes. App.. 263. victore. "grus non gruis. 45.." Keil VII. 66. 263. aculionis for aculeus). Nouns which added a syllable in the genitive. 116. cf.. slirpis in Livy. nom. lentis in Priscian. -es. dis- 366.famis. Sepulcri 220.. etc. Plautus. In the nominative singular the common -^s largely placed the less f requent 244-247. perhaps in late popular Latin.. 62). are best explained. folli tor folks in GL Reich. Spr.. nubis. Lat. 243). GL Reich. through the analogy of the second declension: see §368. Rumanian pint. Prudentius. stips^ stipes." App. Vok. bovis in Varro. Pr.. Waters a Ch. III. etc. suis in Prudentius (F. 367. D'Ovidio in critici Raccolta di studii dedicata ad Alessandro JD'Ancona 627). famis. without a change of accent. Varro. GL Reich. latrone.§ 367] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. As ~es and ~is came to be pronounced alike before the end to of the Vulgar Latin period (cf. "nubes non nubis". Audollent 545-547. Audollent 545-547. etc. mdis. as by Tiktin 565-566. heredes. 263. castore. heredes.. 105. R. Petronius (Waters Ch. superstitis. principens antestetis. . 38).. etc. R.principis). pedis. D'Arbois 85-88. Jovis. camis in Livy. it is futile trace the Romance forms phonetically to one source rather than the other. I. In Vulgar Latin this formation was extended to words with shift of accent: excellente for excellens in Petronius. cardonis. papilionis (cf.• -« Vok.

hence *me(n')si. 367 parentorum is frequent in charters in the Gl. but in Italy and Rumania the old ones. and was extended to in Old Italian to the second. etc.). carpi corpora. being used mainly in the nominative vocative. hence *cani. servitor. For the nominative-accusative plural. cantdtor. as *ndmes *ndme(s). etc. corpus cdrpu(^s). made in Italy in the eighth or ninth century. according . Cassel. probably in late Vulgar Latin or early Romance. especially those in —ora. prevailed in Romance. so. however. D'Arbois 85-88. beside the old forms. but infans (also 368.. corpo. masculine nouns made over their nominative plural on the model of the second declension. but there is virtually no evidence that it started so early: in late Latin. no form: homo. for *lumine{m). The process may have begun in the Vulgar Latin period. *ndmine{ni). we find sapienti. 482). Rumanian Tiktin 566. hence *patri. lupi. prcBgnans). Rum. etc. however. 369. both the second and -r. etc. new forms on the masculine pattern. Neuters in —n and -s regularly kept their nominative- accusative singular. In these countries —ora was used as a plural ending (It. which. etc. retained names of and and generally preferred the old nominative But names of persons in -ans and -ens usually made over the nominative: parentis. first in cf.). as nomeiji). declensions: Neuters in which apparently became by Microsoft® masculine or Digitized . timp. were kept also {Lat. (also presentis. too. anni. elifanti is common. Spr. timpuri). soror. *amantis. which was regarded as the normal masculine type: fllii. to Bon. In most of the Romance languages (but not Spanish). see § 347. etc. doubt. (also * damantis.. they constructed. except for persons. 154 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. *cdrpes *cdrpe{s). [§ 369 These forms.

*cdris = Krjp lajpo's.§ 37i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. pulvis whence S-p. polvo. often developed an accusative singular in -e{m) as well as a nominative-accusative plural in -es: I. A few feminines in -is apparently became neuters in —us. the third declension must have gone about as follows {-is and -es having coincided in the pronunciation -w) : — (i) No Change of Accent. polve may come irorapulver). In general.. Plautus. but the original forms were kept also: cinis ctnus. Lexique 21-38. 348. Fxn. etc.0. *pulvus. the open o would possi- bly be explained as due to a cross between this *cor and the Caput became *capu{ni) or capus (Pirson 238). papaverem. 370. pals {It. But marmor. NO CHANGE OF STEM. sangutne(m) also sanguei^m). Zauner 2. 2. and passed into the second declension: cf. Cor apparently made its plural * cores instead of * cordes : according to Mohl. §356. 293. 371. 483. Old Yt. 113. (3). incudtnis : Lat. § 347. sulphurem. Incus. 155 feminine earlier than the others. . Bon. iticudis > incudo. Spr. at the beginning of the Romance period. were kept also. PERSONS. marmorem. cf. G. except Spanish cuerdo. and so probably goes back to an Old Latin *cdr Classic cor. Sanguis. *piperem. the word shows no trace of d in any of the Romance lan- guages.

156 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. [§373 change of stem. .

and the neuter plural (as omnia) was doubtless emr ployed from time to time as an indefinite collective. . 350). Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 157 DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. the neuter singular. however. the neuter adjective forms were less and less used. As neuter nouns assumed masculine endings (§ 347). 374- Adjectives were declined after the same model as nouns. 375" The principal types are: — So ager.§375] An 3. § was kept to represent a whole idea (cf.

377. gracilus. pauperorum.. magis magls f J Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. 46). celerus. R. Romance was: For the new method of comparison. Decllvis. Waters Ch. . : to 4. see § 56. COMPARISON. prcestus. not completely evolved in Vulgar Latin.. (plus L 1 J ^plus llle-{'^"~. Pr.— 158 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. m. imbecillis also assumed the -us -a —um inflection in the Latin period so trtstis^tristus. Densusianu 142. m. etc. [§377 (3) Originally *feUce(s) One Gender filis fills fellcla in the Nominative Singular. so teeter'^ tetrus. there was alacris. 275 (^ci. l_ \ !-. Macer. App. miser. In the the —us —a Romance languages more adjectives went over -um type Pr. and conversely benignis. R.. Pauper early developed a feminine paupera and later a neuter pauperum: paupera. 274. effrenis. and f. Cf. sublimus. Prcecox developed a feminine pracoca: Neue II. firmis. etc. prude(s) prude(s) *prudente(s) feUce fellce(s) prudente prudente{s) prudente{s) prudentia prudentia fellceis) fellcla (4) Comparatives apparently did not reconstruct the Nominative Singular: melloif) mellu{s) millu(s) mellore mellore(s) mellora mellSra melidre(s) There was a good deal of confusion of types in Latin times: beside alacer. 162. App. and f.. doussa. jac^r passed into the -us ~a —um class. pauperorum. and there was probably also a feminine * alacra and * alecra. in376. pauperum. comuna. The type. Pr.

Digitized by Microsoft® . an Unus was probably declined like bonus. 107). (G. by dissimilation. sanctissimus. levior. lows : — The numbers between two and twenty were as fol- Tres probably developed a nominative *irei. see § 225. carissimus. gravior grevior. 558 (cf. NUMERALS. (Camoy . also as (cf. major. also ijuatro ^guaitro. sordidius. attested in the third cen- tury: Archiv IX. pejus. 68. Vulgdrformen lateinischer Zahlworter auf Inschriften in Archiv VII. of the Vulgar Latin period dui dot {duoT) duo(s) Its inflection at the was probably: doa{s) — end due doe duas doas d'ua{s) dua doa dua doa In early Romance there was doubtless much confusion of the forms. It was used indefinite article (§S7) and an indefinite pronoun to be replaced §71). pessimus.i 378. For dodece. Ihm. etc. 5. nSve. minor. the Classic Latin comparatives of many common adjectives remained in use: altior. II. in the clerical language. DHo came by dui. Quinque. The old superlatives remained to a considerable extent. 65. 66) ginta (Archiv Nil. 221). dice offer so cinqua- no peculiarities. 285). Six. *Stto). Tredece * See M. Archiv VII. "i^. minus. grossior So the adverbs: longius. Scto ( and Cf. as intensives: altissimus. became cinque {Archiv VII. 65). on the model of dui. is regular. magis. proximus. Cf. vivacius. melior. melius. longior. pejor. Beside Undece there seems to have been * iindece. 379.§379] '^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. §254. septe (and *sette). 159 However. Quattuor became quattor {Archiv VII.

Digitized by Microsoft® . These forms easily contracted into vinti. et (or ac) For ducenti. beginning with 20. 412) mentions decern et septem. there were probably new formations. Archiv VII. made to conform Outside of the Spanish peninsula is -dinta apparently became -dnta. perhaps of the fifth century (Pirson 97..i6o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Archiv VII. f^ok. Keil V. 136. which account in general for the Italian. § 225). *septdinta * settdinta. also unus de viginti. 400. But beside these we Vigtntl. etc. and French words. Beside sedece there was *dece SeftendScim. triinta (§ 259): ISatvTi occurs in a sixth century document of Ravenna. regularly [§ 381 also Quattuordecim *quatti!rdece. * octdinta * ottdinta. trinta {yinti. so ^dece et (or dcto. XXV. mentioned as a by Consentius. 69. probably anterior to the fall of faulty pronunciation the g. Ryd- berg in Milanges Wahlund 337. 392. with an opening of the first i and an early shift of accent. 380. but Qulndlce is regular. *dece et (or ac) nHve. are irregular: regularly § 142.of 70 and 80 were to the type of the others. trinta: Archiv VII. Mille was regular. in fact. 69). II. trigtnta must assume for Spanish something like * viinti. This change of accent apparently occurred everywhere for the subsequent tens: * guadrdinta. * quadrdinta became rr: quarranta Furthermore the dr of found in an inscription. Spr. * sexdinta. Beside this dice et septe ac") there was *dece ac septe . The tens. Cf. went out of use. Zs. Priscian (Keil III. * triinta. such as * dui centu. trecenti. 461. the septucu.. 381. Provengal. ii. became * quattordece (cf. became viinti. triginta is.: G. etc. etc.and the octo. G. 69). etc. trienta. * cinqudinta. Centu was regular. Rumanian has new formations. cf. etc. For its plural it had *dui mille or *dui mtl{l)ia. *nondinta *novdinta.

ipse. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. accusative SSs. and so was the genitive singular and plural of ille. eo occurs in manuscripts of the See §263. The ablative gave way . Provengal. after 5th. But his reference to Vok. in northern Italian. but some languages have new formations even for these.). ? II. to the dative and accusative. and Catalan ending -enus was employed {septenus ion tertius.^ ' Meyer-Liibke. relative.§ 385] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. — For the use of personal pronouns. see § 60. Spr. quintus were generally bonus. I. Lat. the distributive Septimus. but the end of the Vulgar Latin period. and is were used to supply the lacking pronoun of the third person: cf. definite genitive: Hoc served in- Inde assumed the function of an dubitat. I. Primus. demonstrative. as an indefinite neuter. inflected like quartus. B. until Ego lost its g in all the territory. §§6o. etc. and the dative was preserved in personal. The genitive was usually lost but ciijus was kept. probably not 385. As the pronouns came to be expressed more and more. B. ipse. The ordinal numerals. were probably not very commonly used: the Romance languages show many new formations. kept. PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. N. secundus. 242 is incorrect Digitized by Microsoft® . 484. 161 382. tile and also hic. The ordinals were best preserved in Italy. According to sixth century. Examples occur as early as the second century: Franz. remained. and iste. 384. 67. and interrogative pronouns. The nominative and. nemo inde Regnier no. 262.

these are and mt<mihi. there were formed •. Franz. stbi the short i prevailed. si beside to Lat. Spr.1 62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. II. vobis. ^ )86. •was carried into nobis. found. acof. inflection The was probably reduced to: — .ording ti. i" 243-244. from the sixth century on. the pattern of stbt. 484. [§ 388 In the last syllable of ttbt. On tibi.

and ipsud for ipsum. Quillacq 83). II. in II. fratelmo. Franz. see §§ 60. cut. etc. see §§ 61-68.. ipsi=^ ipse. tilt. m. These forms survived ma. f. 427. R. probably in the sec- ond half of the sixth century. cf. Sicily. B. articles For their function as and personal pronouns. framed on the model of cf. 275. Through the analogy of cu^us. subsequently went out of use. and the Spanish Illius {ipsins. nom. Franz. the m. There was another dative form. The inflection of tile developed considerably in popu- lar speech. sometimes occurred as a dative: Franz. R. isti). 273. 276. 246-260. — For the use of demonstratives. The Old Latin genitive illi {ipsi. leius was abandoned: In the dat. Sardinia. 114. sg. tilt was replaced in part by illHi. eccu': see § 65. others (Neue Digitized by Microsoft® . however. istius). 275. Romance: Old \X. When Ule and ute had a really demonstrative force. they came to be compounded usually with the prefix ecc' or Cf. . is 163 g The full inflection found in the sixth century: Franz. 275. Audollent 302). illi^ille. and Cato and on the model of illui (and perhaps of quei). definite N. The former. also §392. having become archaic in peninsula..§ 390] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. was partially replaced. qui: Bon. used by Apu- and others (Neue II. m. there was tllce (or ille). 3. 390. 389. 9 beside II. 283-304. but it disappeared from late Latin. popular speech. the special forms ipsus for R. and the latter is not found in Calabria. illms gave way to iliajus. g II. 244. 3 II. we find. Franz. and the dat. by illi. sg. sg. Ipse and isfe followed a similar course ipse however. 274. Franz. was from that. illo. Ille. madre- DEMONSTRATIVES. 67-68. 9 II. being confused with the ablative and the accusative. 9 II. 277-279. used by 427.

276. in Romance. In parts of northern Spain and southwestern France illorum seems to have become *illurum. except 177. R. illui. which. illejus. illdrum. and illis. illui. Majorca. and some dialects on the south shore of France. ipsujus. Ille prevailed. to f. neuter Uludvia.164 An Introduction illcei (illei). on: Zs. When unaccented. ipseus.s replaced by tllum: Neue II. 271-272. [§ 392 which was used beside ilU and Ulm. to Vulgar Latin. period. a part of Catalonia and Gascony. at the end of the Vulgar Latin forms not was something like kept in Romance) elle elli — this (brackets indicating Ma ellejus elli elle ellei ellu [ellujus] elli \ello\ ellui elli ellu ello elli ella elle ? ellu ello ella ? ellqru elluru elli(s) \ellaru\ ellqru elluru ellqru ^im/) ellais) ello(s) ella 392. nice. did not entirely disappear. In the on the same pattern (influenced perhaps by guejus). Illujus. are found after the seventh century: Franz. It came. Franz. The popular : inflection. illejus. 484: illujus. be used. however. 426. Ille and ipse were used freely as definite articles from the fourth century on: Densusianu in Sardinia. Lat. Digitized by Microsoft® . Cf. Illorum displaced the f. ille. was constructed illcejus (illejus). furthermore. through the analogy of illUjus. Spr. 'la' vede(s). m. illei are found from the sixth century made genitive. 619. 600. 9 II. which crowded out illtus. vides lei ta ipsam clavem'>-*vede(^s) iu 'sa' clave'] Lui and 281-283. illui. these words tended to lose their first syllable (see § 157): tu illam vzdes>*tu 9 II. The 391. for the dat. Cf. XXVI.

and also of the feminine qum. N. The combined inflection of qui and quis. — For the use of these pronouns. and the substitution of qui for feminine see §§69-70. to something like this qui — . was probably reduced. in common speech.§ 395] -^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 165 4. by the end of the : Vulgar Latin period. quis. qui takes the place of quts. Beside ctijus. In Christian inscriptions from the fifth century on. B. INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS. quel: Mohl in Zs. see cm is found a corresponding feminine quejus. 393. XXVI. 619.

to Vulgar Latin. follicare. the third in Italy. dau. (2). *vais. Italian development due to the analogy of sia: see §419. estou. Lexique 47. dant and stant there came Old It..1 66 An Introduction C. estau. In the Peregrinatio the second decidedly preponderates over the third (Bechtel 87). (see §405): cf. first and fourth. The second gained most fourth in Gaul. defections into use * dao. PI. I. Sicilian in Spain. in Germanic verbs -on and in by Microsoft® . The Italian present subjunctive dia from dare is associated by Mohl. Cf. state. *staunt: Rum. a. *daunta. werrizare. Probus. 398. For new formations. Digitized — such as abbreviare. the first and fourth were least affected. It is entirely possible. own. Pers. however. — see §§33-35. Pr. dao. Lexique 47-54. in other texts the third gains at the expense of the second. sto. daun. THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. etc. with Umbrian dia. that the form is a later. on the analogy of {*vao). Pg. the Eventually Spanish and Portuguese discarded New formations went into the and Sardinian the second. estaun. would connect these forms with Umbrian stahu." Lexique 47. "adno non adnao.nd *stao. Mohl. FIRST CONJUGATION. 30. its 397. Lexique 47 and Pr. being few and Beside do. the third. There was some confusion of conjugations. [§ 398 VERBS. In northern Gaul there may have developed with * stao a * stats and a * stait. but it seems more likely that they were late Latin formations due to an effort to keep the root vowel distinct from the ending. *vait date. 396. dou. " The first conjugation generally held partial.

at least in Italy. sapere sapui: sapere was influ- enced. ^^^^ i^ a peculiarity of ancient Umbrian. 8. *impllre. third conjugation gave a few verbs to the second. I. SECOND CONJUGATION. adopted the forms *ho or *hao. V. guidare. became —iscere: *florisco. under the influence of dare and stare. 399. THIRD CONJUGATION. 401. Luke VI. I. habes. beginning with those that had a perfect in -ui. by habere. Monaci. The inchoa284). §36. 284). tondere. etc). *nocere. *putrtre. Habere. capere * caput. avire in havite. 400. C. probably through the pronunciation of —eo as —io (see §224): * complire. in Classic : Even miscere (R. luctsco. capere may easily have imitated sapere. 284). Itala. respondere (Bechtel 88: responduntur). fiorlre (R. Some verbs went into the fourth. wttan'^lt. E. especially in Italy. habent. * has. Italian dialects in which e does not phonetically and even in early Tuscan (cf.. many become i. the verb habere. tergere. 1636. 167 —an (but not -jan) went in the first conjugation: Cf. * lucere. and cadere may have followed capere. 10. 1. According to Mohl. *ridere. The as cadere *cadui. habibai. lugere (R. *hant or * haunt. t. *mordere. tive —escere \. * hat. Digitized by Microsoft® . 20. such perhaps 402. In Vulgar Latin the second lost some verbs to the third in most of the territory: * ardere. lugire (R. roubo?i'>lt.\i^x\. b. sometimes became habtre: Vok. habet. 283). Lexique 108-109. Other verbs passed over locally or occasionally: sediiur.§402] An Introduction regularly to Vulgar Latin. 266 ff. While retaining habeo. p. L. Latin there was some confusion between the second conjugation and the third fervere. *torcere (for torquere). Bechtel 88. rubare. * luctre. Crestomazia italiana dei primi secoli I. *putrisco.

strongly influenced by dare and stare.A facere were associated in old formulas: Lexique 53. 403. The anomalous posse potui. PL 25). and conformed Velte. Gregory and Fredegarius {Pr. Pers. potebas Posso for possum is used by in Fredegarius (Haag 60). Pers. PL 21). PL 2^).poteo is attested ( 1) Potere. The present indicative forms must have been something like this: ^vojeo voje^s) — volimu{s) volemu(s) voleste(s) *volete(s) *vole(i) *vqlen(t) The present subjunctive must have been similarly inflected. their inflection more or less to the regular type. {Pr. (2) the Volimus Reich. potebo is found in the Gl. voles is found in Volestis.1 68 An Introduction all to Vulgar Latin. framed on the pattern of potestis. Sardinia. 478). 'Bt&ide. D. Pers. PL 21). Pers. PL in 745 A. there doubtless existed *fare {Facere 48). The present like this: have been inflected something passu posso foteo *posseo poieis) *pote(i) — indicative must ^poiemu{s) poteste(s) *potete(s) pqssunif) *poten(t) The present subjunctive must have had corresponding forms.. is volemus in the seventh {Pr. Dare Z. Pers. a sug- gestion of shortening existed in the monosyllabic imperative Digitized by Microsoft® . This transition was probably helped by a partial fusion of esse and sedere. was discarded in Spain and potebam occur repeatedly in the sixth century 24). facere 404. *volere. Furthermore. however. [§ 404 In Spain the third conjugation verbs eventually passed into the second. Reich. is twice used by Fredegarius {Pr. assumed the infinitive forms potere.-R. velle volui naturally went over to the second conjugation. GL found in the sixth century (^Lat Spr. {Pr.

which must have led to *fate present indicative certainly had several being on the pattern of the first con- jugation. 121.§405] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Zs. but the present subjunctive retained (see Facere 72. facio XVIII. Zs. 434): — its old inflection *fao . beside factte. 169 fac (also /a. XXV. series The one 735). sets of forms.

occurire. . ^26. fodiri. developed a form * dire. Cf. 286. forbire . parrjan^Yv. see § 415. guarnire. §416): *caplre. Dicere. Lexique 62 ). Spr. vadunif) *vaunt *vant 406. The fourth conjugation usually held — — marrir. ite(s) etc. * Vulgar Latin. Reich. It. hesiAe. at least locally: *falllre. . St. For the intrusion of the inchoative -sc. Augustine {Lat. An The vado Introduction. the entire passive inflection having been discarded: the by Microsoft® . however. Sepulcri 229. Carnoy 112). * capere . 477). 407. and gained some verbs from the others. Germanic verbs in -Jan regularly went into the fourth conjugation in Latin (Kluge 500): furbjan~>\X. * offertre. (j^^r^i". ^. first half of the 7th century. gemire. For new formations.into this conjuga- FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES Romance only Digitized IN INFLECTION. ignire. see § 34. deferet. Lucretius {Lat. Of the personal forms of the verb there remained general use in the following tenses of the active voice. Pirson 148. Pirson 148.lyo present. offeret. and *monre. Haag 60. beside * sequere. Spr. §36. Verbs in -to tended to pass into the fourth conjugation (see. such as * abbellire. cuptre. common in the Vulgate (R. its own. warnjan'> tion.. by the analogy of aperire {sufferit. mortri. d. Bechtel 90. Bon. in 408. [§408 facere fare : — present indicative. C2X0 fugtre. marrJan>'Fr. R. was influenced by *vao viidimu(s) vddite(s) *vo *vas vadeif) *vait *vat vadeis) *vais imu(s) etc. 285). moreover. tarir. 427. 477). probably in the Vulgar Latin period (cf. FOURTH CONJUGATION. doubtless suggested by die ( cf fac and *fare. Densusianu 148. Some others went over. * sequlre. Plautus. §404) and helped by the analogy of audire. cf. Gl. Bon.

The entire passive inflection -of came to be replaced. Of the impersonal forms of the verb there remained: the present active infinitive. 302-304. . {amarini)\ ama. {amandusi). etc. and probably in some standing phrases the gerundive. cf. reverti"^ reversus sum. imperfect. (amaro). amatus. as a preterit or a conditional. amaram. See Syntax. pluperfect. 388-389. amando. in the by a compound of habere and the "perfect participle case of neuter verbs. the perfect participle. in various regions: see §124. §§ 112-114. . In was replaced. See 410. perfect. The supine 409. mentire. the present participle. perfect was kept in its preterit sense. the gerund (especially the ablative case). the deponent for the active inflection of a few verbs: Petronius. fell into disuse from the first century on. R. R. and in instance: some regions the perfect the imperative present. amabam. In the subjunctive the pluperfect was used instead of the Digitized by Microsoft® .. amassem. some regions the future perfect . § 4io] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. operare.. 298 Conversely. rideri. in the Vulgar Latin period. amem. 304. R. and in 171 indicative present. The Latin it its perfect sense — §§121-124.. Similar compounds replaced the pluperfect and the future perfect. 297-302. amans. For amo. See Syntax. partly by active and reflexive constructions but perfect participle with esse' mainly by a compound of the (m northern Italy fieri): littera ' scriMtur -flittera scripta est (or fit). pluperfect. audiram) was kept. Cf. esse and the perfect participle: feci"^ habeo factum. etc. the subjunctive present. : Deponent verbs became active cf. The old pluperfect indicative (^amaram. R. 289. For instance: amare. some writers substituted R. amavi. towards the end the Vulgar Latin period.

It is best preserved in is found also in Old Rumanian There are traces of it in Old Italian. but and Macedonian. as a future indicative or subjunctive. -dyo. Digitized In Italian we by Microsoft® . The ings. XXIX. * amar" -dbe(s'). etc. pdteri. came to be made. -dt. infinitive the perfect of habere (see §130): combined with the imperfect or *amar' ~dbe{b')a{ni) or disappeared. which disappeared everywhere but in Sardinia {facheret. —at. cf. etc. in Vulgar Latin and Romance. to correspond to the dissyllabic or monosyllabic -dyo. §118. -dnt. as in the In these formations the unaccented {Ji)ab— first and second persons plural of the future: * amar' -^{b)a. In this compound all the various forms of the present indicative of habere were used (see §§273. Crescini in Zs. *amar' dben(t). -ds. -ete(s). V. —do. 619. a form in -ii {amerii). . *amar' -dbe(t). an imperfect of the late future. was crowded out by the present and by new formations. —dbe{t). but * amar' abut. *amar' —e'te(s). etc. -dnt: *amar' —dmu(s). as they came to be regarded as mere endold future. &tc. sometimes confused with the pluperfect indicative and later sometimes with the infinitive {dpriro. -ds. amd{ve)ro fused with the perThe old future perfect ama. from the *amar' -abut. cridere. with the exception of ero. C. habemus and habetis eventually. 401): *amar' —dbeo.-dben(t) and -d. or conditional. In the first and second persons plural. De 411. especially by the infinitive combined with the present indicative of habere {amdbo > amar' habeo): see §§125-129. —d. On the model of this new future. audtrem'^audissem. [§411 imperfect.): amdrem'^amdssem.): see Spanish and Portuguese. in regions except Gaul and Raetia. -dbe(s).172 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. were reduced to -emu{s). Lollis in Bausteine i . beside -ia from habebam and -dbbi —ibbi from habui. —aunt. *amar' -isti.(ye')rim and apparently remained subjunctive fect — — — — more or all less in use. which has prevailed in the find.

lost their inchoative sense. crede. except the present. 3596. French Switzerland. Savoy. cf. etc. Virgilius Grammaticus (Sepulcri 194) mentions double forms of inchoative verbs. Clarisco. fae. 173 modern language. Dauphin^. 294. For the monosyllabic die. tene. The Latin The inchoative ending -sco was preceded by a-. audi. duce.§414] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. e—. pareeer. and Spain Digitized — Sp. or o—. vived in the Tyrol. 414. due. 294. amdte. I. 412. are common in Gregory the Great: Sepulcri 193. etc. In some verbs the present subjunctive was used instead of all imperative forms. audite. dormisco — were extended The and later. in Vok. INCHOATIVE VERBS. the Landes. person singular and plural: credite. hence crederdt). tenete. Cf. such as caleseo ealisco. There is some evidence of a confusion of -esco and —uco in Latin. criseere. etc.of avere : it is probably due to the analogy of the first person singular of the weak preterit (credit.. they Pr. See § 115. second dmd. the second person plural of the present indicative came to be used: adferte> adferitis. types —dsco and —osco were sparingly repre- sented and were not extended in late and popular Latin have bequeathed but few verbs con<Sisser<ico(g)ndseere types —esco and —tseo in the third century — — as — such as and . by Microsoft® . t—. the Grisons. Beam. Sardinia. The first and third persons were supplied from the present subjunctive. 413.face: R. R. the Abruzzi. §426. while in Old Italian the ei was sometimes detached and used as a preterit. The imperative disappeared. Instead of the plural form. In Veglia. and a part of Lorraine Only -eseo surneither of these two endings left any trace. 3. irdisser <irdseere. writers sometimes emploved diee. paresco. to the Romance languages. Lyons. erubisco..

Herzog Bausteine 481. or southern Italian. partientem * sentente.. Hence forms without the or > > *partente. Portuguese. tricts also pene- eventually the present participle ( and in some disand the imperfect indicative Fr. trated the present subjunctive {Yr. See Archiv Lat. by the by Microsoft® . [§416 florecer. see E. 465. the e was occasionally lost in the second conjugation: v^deo *vtdo. despereissir. 81. eventually entered into the formation stem of fourth conjugation verbs. 478. etc.Jinisse).. fiorire. Digitized On the other hand. 174 An Introduction was preferred For to Vulgar Latin. 4. partiunt *partunt. but in the earliest texts of France. although fleurit. PRESENT STEMS. there are traces of -esco. nor are there any traces of it 415. in — It. Zs. Rastia. and Rumania we find a type *finisco *finisce(s) ^Jinisce{i) *Jiniscun{t) The ~sc. 291-294. Rom. By the analogy of these. some regions. finis sais ) I. / 416. XXIV. Spr. — Fr. etc. -esco also in Rumanian. / sentieniem > were introduced more less into the indicative and subjunctive: audio * audo. Many verbs in -io dropped the whenever it was fol- lowed by another vowel. facientem *facente. The ending -tsco of the present in Spanish. * dormo. XXX. In the present participle this was a regular phonetic development (see §225): audientem^* audente. finissons. Sardinian. There is no direct evidence of this in Latin.. finissez). the -sc- was carried throughit out the present indicative (Yx. northern and central _fimmii(s) finite{s) Italy. il in Pr. \\. finis sant.then generally disappeared from the infinitive Later. sentiam * sentam. -tsco prevailed fiorisce. Elsewhere.

old esum cited by Varro {Fr.. underwent considerable changes in the present: see §§273. etc. Italian sei siete is PL 128) went out of for estis. and the perfect partivexi vectus on the — analogy of ago tectus. debere. as *trago. 397. posse. *tragebam. structus. trdgere. etc. the second conjugation admitted such f oriris as * habeunt. Substrate VI. Jigo fixi. beside the regular habent. There may have been also *striicere. lego lectus. 131. Considerable alterations use of fieri for esse is (I ) were made in the present indicative and subjunctive. 416. esse.§419] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Pers. The guttural Fredegarius. tango tactus. dtcere. 412. 418. Esse was made into *essere. based on the analogy of dico dixi dictus. For the sedere for The s. indicate a * setts some evidence of an alternative * siitis sicmus. The verbs vadere. vegere {tragere and used by 34) and a whole present and imperfect inflection with —g—. pango panxi panctus. to bring it into conformity with the usual third conjugation type. cingo cinxi cinctus. Prpvengal ses for Digitized by Microsoft® . Old Italian se for e. 401. etc. velle dare. faciunt. facere. habere. 403-406. The verbs struere. stare. 417. also Jingo finxi fictus. vehere developed infinitive vegere are forms *striigere. *vkere. present indicative shows some signs of a tendency its to normalize erratic inflection by making all the forms be- gin with The use.. 175 analogy of capiunt. duco duxi ductus.. Haag was derived from the ciple — struxi and perfect indicative traxi iractus. etc. and Raetian ses point to a * ses beside es. trahere. *fragam. Italian while there of on the model and Raetian siede. etc. rego rexi rectus. * vtdeunt. tego and probably junxi junctus. ungo unxi unctus. The Spanish use of probably later than our period. *trdcere. actus. 419. see § 409. plango planxi planctus. j'ungo Cf. vtdent.

5.): cf. [§420 usually understood as reflexive forms. Old Fr. Pirson Yt^o. 478. 42. etc. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. semo. B. according to Suetonius. from early times there was a reciproand the Old Latin optative siem. Spr. which -was used. Provengal esmes<. Portugal. sem. — For the loss of the imperfect subjunctive. Lat. 347. The present indicative inflection was doubtless something like this sqm fs est : — sqmu(s) *ses *set} *sest? i^ie(s) semu{s) *esmu{s) *sete(s) *sciie(s)! sqnt (2) In the present subjunctive the analogy of other third conjugation verbs tended to introduce the characteristic vowel a. etc. In the third conjugatiqjyg^-jyj^^ Ajgaj^g^ developed into -ebam. -icbam. sons. It is likely. Pr. IMPERFECT. and by various purists of the Augustan age (Stolz 58). northern Gaul. — sem *sea sis simu{s) sidmu(s) site{s) *jfa(j) sea(t) *sidie[s) set sent *sean{i) For Stat. occurs in Italian documents of the eighth century. Rom. 479. The endings were -dbam. Old It. Pers.176 es. Pr. and Dacia (Pr.). simus. Pers. somas. by Augustus. 135. Dalmatia. II. see 420. was preferred in Spain. XXI. PI. according to Lat.. fiam reand Dacia. N. and the Tyrol (Sp. . Siamus. would derive it from old esimus. the usual Classic form. (cf. Italy. that cal influence oifiam.. —ibam. —ebam. which existed with esum. prevailed in southern Gaul. Spr. iox fit. which ultimately prevailed: Lexique ^x): fiet is common places sim in northern Italy alternative inflection * siam. etc. Mohl. PL 130. Hence comes an etc. *esmus seems to be a new formation on the analogy of esHs. etc. too. see sead in Vok. sumus. may go back to *sei and *sesf for est In the first person plural sumus became sumus and simus (see §220). § iiS.

affecting all the conjugations but the It is ved^a. 287. led early. -pleo. a. probably through dissimilation. prevailed in popular speech. A vowel. must distinguish two types. 6. — being common In the fourth conjugation -iebam and -ibam existed side byside from early times (Neue II. territory except common to nearly all the Romance Rumania: Lat. and fourth conjugation verbs with strong perfects developed a weak one in Vulgar Latin: pr(sstiti> probably All first j>rcBstavi. We — — neo.fleo. PERFECT. —Ibam. and —iebam disappeared: vestibat. first: It.perfects in which the v is added to a verb-stem (-dvi.'Bi. —oleo. 177 22t„ /^i6): faciebam'>-*facebam. Habebam. credia. the weak and the strong: the weak comprises the v. Dubois 277-278. etc. most of them rare 422. R. For further encroachment of the weak type on thb strong. the strong includes all Verbs of the first and fourth conjugations generally others. which in Romance was widely extended. developed another form. —Ibam as in munibam — in early Latin and recurring at later periods (Lindsay 491). -evi. pronounced a^e^a (cf. 421. §318). vieo. had weak perfects. in the fourth conjugation. see §426. Spr.. sentia. and also a general inclination to omit v between two i's (see § 324).§423] just as An Introduction -ientem> -entem (see §§ to Vulgar Latin. WEAK PERFECTS. • salui>salivi. those of the second and third had mostly all of the second conjugation and Only six verbs strong. -tvi). which stressed the characteristic vowel of the fourth conjugation. 479. silevit for siluit occurs also. regularly had a perfect in -evi: deleo. to a reduction tendency to keep the stress on the characteristic Digitized by Microsoft® . 2?>q. Hence came an alternative ending —ea for -e/ia. 445). *afiea. 423.

587). 451.. laborait.— 178 An Introduction and to Vulgar Latin. fall of v gave rise. vocitamus. as in lenUt. —iverunt to —ierunt. carried into the first conjugation.judicat. —dverunt to Much later -dvt>-di. Spr. see Neue III. to -aut. locally. gave —dsti. 476. contraction without the gave rise. The A contraction without the . in the first person plural. The loss of V. 587). The third person singular found in Old Sardinian: Lat.d. in the first and third persons singular *—lrunt: audi. 449. memoramus. dedicait.. "cupit pro cupivit. Fredegarius in -ait is 152.'X." Priscian XII. —dvif^dit and -at. the further reduction of —ivt to which brought about..I. mus. for —ierunt. petit.. For -nt. 476. and the third person plural. — probai {'Prdhns). -dvistis. etc. Densusianu I. -ivistis to —istis. redit. -/. to fall of v. —tt. perit. 17 (Keil II. 452-454. 440). —drunt. in the third person singan alternative form. Then a contraction of the two vowels gave.). ccelebrasperamus. perhaps. see Servius ad Aen. in the third person singular. Densusianu I. Gregory of Tours (Bon. Neue III. and. rise early to a reduction of —avisti. 434 (cf. II. Vok.L. —ivit to —iit and *-itt. II. —dstis. servio. perit. 440. later. Fredegarius (Haag 55). to a desire to distinguish the perfect from the present). petit. as in repetimus. -u and *-u. 216. 152. A ular. for —imus. (Haag 55). etc. speclarait. denumerat. edificai. F^/J. I. *-iut: It. and. see Neue III.m»'W^ol%tm^ and amdo. Bayard 60. etc. This -aut prevailed '^'^'^. "fumdt -pro fumavit. etc. Neue III. 17 (Keil II. the reduction of —ivimus to —Imus and probably *—immus (the lengthening of the m being due to compensation and also. Bon." Priscian XII. [§424 of —tvtsit to -tstt still early. probably to *-aumus: triumphaut in Pompeii. -dvtmus>-dmus and probably *-dmmus: calcai (Probus). 479. 446-448. C.Lexique 46. S. o-cyvoi. 424. etc. 241: 65-121 a.

which in Vulgar Latin became —dedi This -dedi ^a. from which there came a responding to the —ai first endings *-«'. 184. 480. 479. 179 *~aumus Jiom. etc. incendederit. Gl. Keil IV. etc. Compounds of dare had a perfect in -dtdi {credidt. Hence arose eventually an inflecset of tion *-^«. -derun(f). delesti.s ex(see §139): perdedit. -isti. these endings were carried into other verbs of the third and even the second conjugation first baMi. of the Romance languages cazif). *-n. *-dem(^m)u{s). cor-ii. (am'ei). Verbs in —evl doubtless had a similar inflection: *delei. helped by dissimilabecame *-deJ. edediderit with an extra -de-). descendidit. in Provengal they invaded the also In Dacia. Some other second conjugation verbs apparentlyadopted this perfect: 426. perdidt. *—desie(s). —asfi.. on the other hand. In some (It. they apparently did Digitized by Microsoft® . respondidi. vendidl. etc. ~ivi —isti there- -dvi —dsii -dve{t) —df *~ti —ii -i -dut -dit -dt -weif) *-jut *-{it -lit -it -dvimu(s) -dmu{s) *-dmmu(s) *~dumus -dste(s) -immu{s) -4mu(s) *-jmmu(s) -iste(s) -drunit) *-irun{t) With the exception of -ivi in Old Italian. 288. *-ejti. Pr. etc. Lat. pandiderunt. ascendiderat. etc. were : 425. fore. Audollent 544. 287. R. silevit. prendiderunt. in the first XXX. descendidi. *-ei. videderunt (cf. The forms — and fourth conjugations. the forms with v were not preserved in Romance. : and the of the and fourth conjugations so caderunt. tended to many other verbs in -d-: prandidi. *-desti. tion... R. preserved in some Old French dialects near Douai: 607. odedere. Reich. this -dedi Through the analogy of -di. *-det.)..§426] An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Spr. etc.

moc. 428. this ending being pronounced wui. etc. salui^ salivi salii *salsi. but written vi to avoid the doubling of the V. Through these endings the weak type encroached somewhat on the strong. 286. In the first class the u lost its syllabic value and became w • — : (cf. etc. In -ui and —si types were qucesivi'^^ A few weak verbs adopted strong inflections: * quasi.. pdvi. under the influence of dejti. included from the start not only perfects of the placui but also all perfects in -vi not made from the verb-stem such as cognovi. (cf. etc. At any rate. etc. 357. where there was no extended. It. prendesti. In Italy all strong verbs except esse introduced weak endings in the second person singular and the first and second persons plural: It. STRONG PERFECTS.. the development of the vi indicates that sort. the Rumania. b.. aperui y^ * aperii *apersi. . conqbbi. Pr. * stetui. — — it was sounded wui.. II. those that add u to the root. 427. etc. stetti<. whence and a set of endings -etti. cf. Gl. and -ei. Reich.i8o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and those that have nothing between the root and the personal endings plac-u-i. all. tions: This perfect disappeared from the first and fourth conjugacrepui>*crepavi. etc. sapivi~^ sapui. etc it In the second and crevi. plaudisti for plausisti. also vincisti. or fiwi in Vulgar Latin: cf.. -dei. dlc-s-i = dixi. [§ 428 not develop at In Italy. dare had (beside diedi^dedi) a perfect arose an inflection side -dei -detti. third conjugations maintained Digitized itself very well: cognovi. crevi. There are three types those that add s. §326): placwi. §422). wwi. crebbi. etc. necui> necavi. Gram. movi. according to Meyer-Liibke. bib-i. by Microsoft® . The -ui type. presi. R.

cepi^ caput. torsi. defensi. strinxi. 97. Spr. * defe(ji)si. the reduplicative formations were discarded in Vulgar Latin. natus sum'^*nacui. Zs. i8i It lost gemui{^. s in the perfect participle.§ 43o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. *pe{n)si. Lat. Spr. *qucBsi. — — : clausi. XXVIII. 94. steti>^\so* stetui. R. Among the -i perfects. 130. *occlsi. 288. *attinxi. > > Cf. § 165. veni '^aXso *venui. rexi.perfect through having an Cf. tenui. risi.'). * volsi. divisi. *imptnxi. and —xi. etc. molui. § perhaps on the model of mtssus. *sdlsi. — assumed the s. legi'>-* legui *lexi. *franxi. *offersi. 479. persi. —stinxi. Some of these — * *responsi. *copersi. *siirsi. R. *taxi. posui {>posi). 429. * cadui *cadedi. rosi. In Vulgar Latin there were perhaps some thirty or more new formations: *apersi. *rosi. Of the -si class. ertgo. * tensi *te{n)si. pressi. sustuli>*tolui * tolsi. *tanxi. cMdi 479 > (so *rectpui). mlsi (also *mzssi. posi. Lat. however. Keil VII. Spr. sparsi. text sedi>* sedui . texui. *salsi. *pre{n)si. Einf. dixi. whose reduplicative character was no longer Digitized by Microsoft® . On the other hand it received many additions: Mbi>*Mbui. 479. 480. excussi. some thirty-five were preserved arsi. vixi. tersi. Sensi. *respd{ti)si. became * sentii. Lat. unxi. traxi. frixi. * morsi. abscd{n)si. fixi. *ersi from *lexi. *tdlsi. movi'. z/J« also *vtncui *vinsi. finxi. *redempsi. which comprised perfects in -si. mulsi. messui(J). vixi ". Haag 56. duxi. and possibly a few others. *vinsi. expavi'> expabui. pavi. with the exception of dedi and steti (also *j/i?/«2). *cursi. Zimmermann in Archiv XIII. coxi. pinxi. scripsi 163). *prensi. cf. vldi'^zlso *vtdui *vtdui. silui {^silevi). *fusi. Lat. *punxi. tinxi. —ssi. mansi. luxi. *mdrsi. *acce{n)si. cinxi. rasi. texui. sapivi'^ sapui. struxi. *fusi. * occisi. A. *pensi. *rdsi. Spr.> slso *vtscui. 430. 288. peperci^-parcui. planxi. junxi.

Two of the old perfects maintained themselves intact. cepi'^capui. to Vulgar Latin. fuisti zxi-di. R. peperci"^ parcui. fregi accendi *franxi. some became weak. but in Classic Latin. Reich. The prevailing something fui *fosti like this — with some variations. The other Vulgar Latin. solvi'^* solsi. a form *fdrunt. prendi > *pre{ n * vinsi. fuerunt became *furunt.). fuistis > *fustis. to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout §§423-424). vidi * vtdui. but circumdavit in Gl. * acce(^ n ) si. was probably foi *fom{m)u(s) *foste(s) foe(t) fue(t) *fgt *fut *forun{t) */urun(t) *f^un{t)} foerun{t)> Digitized by Microsoft® . then futm us was often shortened to also. defendi >• * defe{ n ) si.i82 An Introduction . pependiy. or *cadedi. momordi'> tetendi'>- *mdrsi. and two more were kept beside new formations feci. some went over fUgi^ > > *fusi. The other reduplicative perfects either disappeared the or passed into si class: cucurri "> * cHrsi . 431. tetegi'^* taxi * tanxi. *te{n)si. legi > * Kxi. veni * venui. fuit *fut. inflection. egi. the simple verb came * cadui R. generally became *fum(m)us. fudi > ) si. volvi > * volsi. while compounds of stare tended to follow the regular first Cecidi beconjugation model (Jtrcestili > pnestavi. [§ 431 of dare usually formed their perfect like §426.*pe{^n)si. 289). legi'^* legui. vtci > no additions. sedi"^* sedui. There were : *fugii. verti. fui. effort it was shortened Vulgar Latin seems to show both H and H. : There may have been through dissimilation. bibi'^*bibui. fefelli'>*falii. 288. -i perfects were greatly reduced in to the -a/ or the -si type: number in Some simply disappeared. apparent compounds (cf. In an ( cf . > *fusti. pupHgi "> *punxi. In fui the u was originally long.

aimassions aimassiiz. audi{e)ram. plicitus"^ plicatus . 295. R. deleram. PERFECT PARTICIPLE. dixeram.. Verbs which had no perfect participle were obliged to form one in order to make their passive and their perfect tenses: ferio. in the first conjugation. secextended to tus'^secatus. 432. When these tenses followed the old types: pldcueram (cf. etc. cf. Reich. etc. — 433. prdvttus. ortaret in Gl.§ 435] ^^ 7. delero. 296. audt(^e)ro . sonivetatus. In some regions a tendency to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout the pluperfect subjunctive led to a change of —assemus. In the all first conjugation -dtus was preserved and was verbs: /rictus "> fricatus . Fr. cf. Reich. 8. notes that St. preserved at all. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. rogitus. habldsemos habldseis. generally fell into disuse: crepitus^ *crepatus. > vocUus. fecissem. domitus'> domatus. Lat. Reich. *-dssitis. alarei. -assetis. — before Cyprien employed only the shortened forms ss. fkero.). to *—dssimus. etc. : In the third conjugation -dtus disappeared oblatus offertus (^Gl. dixero . tus"^* sonatus. by the analogy of apertus. ficeram. placutssem. tonitus'^*tonatus. dixhsem. amdssem. amessim amessitz. > Digitized by Microsoft® . Gl. 435. 434. copertus. so the new alatus. sublatus>* suffertus. 1S3 PLUPERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT. pldcuero. amaro. petisset. Reich. but Pr. *feritus.: It.). delessem. sublatus (from tollo')'>-tdllttus (^Gl. In formations from weak perfects only the contracted forms were used: amdram. R. necius "> necatus . ^ i^"]). Sp. vetitus Nevertheless there were some new formations in —ttus: *levitus. amdssimo amdste. Spr. audlsBayard 60-61 sem. 480. The ending —ttus.

statutus. *vidutus. *parutus.184 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. — and — as *credutus.. On 439. It was extended to nearly all the verbs that had an -ui perfect: * bibutus. ples. however. molitus > * molutus. In the second conjugation the rare -etus disappeared as a participial ending: completus. rogitus. * movitus. It did not al- ways. solutus. Reich. and there were some new formations * solvttus (or *soltus). remained. but status. all periods. perditus *parsus. venditus>*vendutus. entirely displace the old perfect participle: natus was kept beside * nascHtus. *tenutus. were kept. creditus'>*credutus. *vdlvitus (or *vdllus). jectives. The ending -itus tended to disappear (cf. *mdvitus and *mdssus were formed beside *m. The ending —ictus. minutus. tollitus. solitus. fugitus tus > *fugitus. bibitus^* bibutus . [§ 439 436. submonitus > *submo{n)sus. consutus. however. sepultus^sepelitus. * levitus. Pirson 152. offered a convenient accented form. and ventus generally became * venutus. corres- ponding to -atus and -itus. provitus. * solvttus (or *sdltus) beside solutus. Eventually -atus was carried further. were kept only as ad- 438. the other hand. *per- in Sicily encroached largely on -itus. *volvitus (or *vdltus) beside volutus. In the fourth conjugation -Itus was preserved and was extended to nearly all verbs: saltus'>*salltus. A few of these particihowever. buius. Digitized by Microsoft® . pds{i)tus. * habutus. paritus > *paru> *perdutus *persus.. secutus. §435): absconditus'>absco{n)sus .ovutus. old and found in Gl. Apertus and copertus. *vendutus. etc. 437. sensus'>*sentitus. dutus. * venutus. etc. in -itus: gemitus'!. volutus). In the third conjugation qumsttus>*gucestus. belonging to verbs in —uere and tri- —vere {argutus. vocitus.

fictus finctus. Lat. The ending —sus was defe{n')sus. Spr. pressus. *salsus. te{n)sus. sirictus *tanctus'!. Bechtel 91. lectus. *parsus. victus'>*vin- cutus and *vinctus.viA. 441. tersus. saltus'^-* salitus and *salsus. /ric* surtus for surrectus. Digitized by Microsoft® . also perhaps *misus by the analogy of mist. tus. fartus'. to{n)sus. wjwj. pre(n)sus . there were some absco{n)sus. Lat. -itus. 185 440. *gucestus. cogndtus>*conovutus'i. generally kept: acce{n')sus . ductus. morsus. §439). pastus'>-*pavutus'i. or -utus: captus *capttus. *vistus. also probably * wwclausus. Spr. *vidutus. tentus > > tus. A > > > * sentttus . Dubois 282. The ending -tus was kept for some twenty verbs. tractus. *vdltus About fifteen verbs (cf. tactus'i tus. 480.' maintained itself beside salitus. sparsus. 295. punctus. dictus. *pendutus. fusus. R. fractus *franctus. texus * texiisecdtus. *persus. Hr- excussus. structus. missus. falsus *fallitus. messus'^ metitus. * suffertus. Salsus. Keil VII. probably replaced -tus by -atus. 480.. and perhaps *sdltus.*mdssus. Lat. risus. expansus sensus few verbs replaced the old form by one in -itus or -ietus: * expandutus . farsus. fusus "^fundutus. 295 (very common). frictus "^fricdtus.§ 441] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. stinctus. Spr. sectusy^ * tenutus. nectus>necdtus. gavisus>*gaudutus . Several of these developed also a participle in -utus: etc. pictus *pinctus. oc- casionally with a change of stem: ductus . cretus> *crevutus'>. Reich. R. rectus. ventus'^*venutus and venttus. ma{n)sus. tinctus. scriptus. divisus. 480. pe{Ti)sus. rosus. mdtus'>*movutus'> &. sepultus >• sepelitus. *mossus. 94. tortus. There were a few new for- mations in —tus: offertus. ex- factus. vtctus~>* vixutus. sus. Gl. new formations in -sus: On the other hand. fixus. sessus > * sedutus. *submo{n)sus. 'salted. *strinctus.>*farcitus axiAfarsus. mistus.

from laudas. then the accent was shifted to the penult *canomus.. vezim. and -Isti. — This theory has In strong perfects the of -tstis first person plural. This is not a phonetic phe- nomenon. forms due to Celtic influence. [§ 447 9. —et and -U. 445. assumes that in Italy -as and -es became -i. as t was of the third (cf. Italian lodi and Rumanian lauzi. its — tended. see §416. In southern and to some extent in northern Gaul the its final s. first person plural lost perhaps in the Vulgar Latin period: videmus'>-'St. not found acceptance. as -s did not fall in this region. by Microsoft® . inscriptions and elsewhere: Digitized The shift. however. etc. *amdmu amdtes dmant like * cdnomus. and i came to be pronounced alike (§243). etc. were used in northern Gaul instead of canimus. As unaccented e. 442. PEESONAL ENDINGS. PL. Pr. — through the analogy perfects as well. perhaps S. fez^m. -imus. There are traces of 47. 670. Meyer-Liibke. This confusion is very frequent in the Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-89. Pers. For the reduction of -to to 443. 53. -0. The evidence. analogical formations. whence came the French -ons. It may be that -s was dropped because it was regarded as a characteristic of the second person. Pers. great confusion ensued between -es and —is.1 86 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Grundriss V. and doubtless of weak after our period. Pr. historically considered. e. According to Mohl. are correctly explained by Tiktin 565-566 as 444. colliget. to stress this in ^smiVi: fecimiis>'Pr. does not support this view. 447. PL 73-80): — dmo dmaa dmat 446.

The Classic distinction was best kept in Gaul and northern Italy. etc. Beside second conjugation. PI. -/»z«(j'). the con- fusion goes back to early Italic. was perhaps viitttmus. Sardinia. Rumanian. etc. 187 was not universal. 448. Pers. *vidunt. Furthermore.j—th& penult assuming the accent.). In the present indicative and imperative. as there are in Italian and French remains of the original accentuation. in southeastern facitis There are some traces of its preservation French dialects also. Rastia. According to Mohl. -ent prevailed in cen. 64. sometimes had a short e (e is common in the comic poets. vindem. in the For the reduction of —iunt to -unt.). . Pr. in the sixth or seventh century. viderunt. discarded. ite in the other conjugations. -ent. -ttis. Dalmatia. being attracted by mittimus: Pr. Pers. in Vulgar Latin this vowel was apparently al450. and Dacia. in Classic Latin. lingeti. ite(s). however. -unt was preferred. in Spain and Portugal. §137. —ite generally —Ste(^s). — — particularly common in Italy: cf. -dte(s). In the perfect. became. absolvent. for instance. and a part of southern Italy. to match —^te(^s). 449. —^te. Virgil wrote tulerunt. etc. dicUis kept their old forms in many regions. -imus. tral and the rest of southern Italy. due to the analogy of -iunt. exient. and dicimus. see §416. —die and -^mu(s). their interchange Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-90. there was an ending *-eunt which was (^habeunt. 30. the third person plural ending -ere was The ending -erunt. 112.). Cf. PI. §416. etc.J^kuJ-i n^g^^xd^so^'^i^-i -^--^/^^ . kept the old accent (Tiktin 596): iingem. The endings -ent and -unt came to be very is much confused frequent in the (* credent.§ 45°] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ways /3 short: debuerunt. facimus. -ite -dmu(s'). vindett. dixerunt. helped by the analogy of the future — The shift and -{mu{s). etc. respon- duntur. accipient.

Digitized by Microsoft® .

italics to Words printed in Roman type belong to ancient. 243. 244 (i). -I. 47.23. N. adaptus 23 adcap(i)tare 25 433> 447-8. = abl. 96. 78. 441 ad 14. 229 231.B. 450 Towels in hiatus addedi 139 136-8 addormire 25 secondary 153-5 adferitis (imper. a 194-5.24. 383 adnao 397 ace. 377 accipient 449 declension 374-9 accubitorium ^'j numerals 378-82 -accus ^y unus (article) 57 Accusative.— Arabic numerals refer to Paragraphs. 228. 98-9. 92 beJEore j 222 Accent 134-58 primary 135-52 Greek words 143-50 other foreign words 15 1-2 acer arbor 43 -aceus 37 acia 355 (2) -acius ^y a contra 47 a(c)qua 164 Acqui Z^ Acragas 330 ac si 83 ac sic 24. 231. 243. 90. abyssus 149 ac.236 ab ante 47. 355(1) adparescere 34 adpetere 32 Digitized by Microsoft® .229 (i) unaccented 228.1 INDEX. ad = at 282 ad. pi. 94-6 aboculare 26 ab olim 47 abs. 383 abl. 82. 244 accented 39.=accus. 194-5 absida 356 (3) absolvent 449 -anus 39 ja-> je. 84 acua aqua 223 -aculare 35 before s + cons.) 412 unstressed words 156-8 adgenuculari 25 Accented Vowels see ad horam 47 Vowels adimplere 30 accepere 201 Adjectives acceptabilis 39 comparison 56. 230 = 0*78 ab-25 ab-]> au. 229 (i). 140 iicatum r4i aculionis 367 abeo = habeo 251 224 abias 224 abiat 224 abiete -abilis 39 ab intus 47 abitat 25 1 Ablative 92-7. 240. 240. in -us 244. 65 accedere(m) 309 accensus 441 -a 37 0181 ab 14. 34 abbio 273 abbreviare 25 abbreviatio yj shift 136-8. 82 ace. 93. 48 abbellire 18. 94-6 nouns 367 numerals 142 : ace. 86. adjutare 34 ad mane 47 373. 77. absolute 97 abl.28 absconsus 439. 94-6.infin. words in modern languages. 431. 25 recomposition 139 verbs 423-4.

321 = Alexander alguein 71 alguien 71 -alia 37 38. 255 188 seliens = eligens 259 =8-175 alicer 195 (i) agques = e. 210 EEteneris = itineris 201 sequus alid alicunus 71 aliud 71 alio(r)sum 291 = .243.) 367 amho 424 amaricare 34 ama(t) 285 ambitare 405 ambolare 232 ambulare 10. 435 ad ubi 47 aduc 250 adulescentulus 37 adunare 25 alauda 19 alaudula yj alba spina 43 alberca 19 albeus 317 228. 1 78. altiare 34 altior yj'] anca 343 ancilia 187 395 Agustus 228 ahenum 250 ai >.I go aiio 2. 359 (i) amitane 359 (i) amitanis 359 amma 16 243. 244 -EE = -e 174. 244 accented 1 74.286 amantis (nom. 42 Digitized by Microsoft® . 405 amei 424 amenus 215 amfora 334 amicicia 276 amadus amido 187 amistat 154 amita 239. 209-10. 187 -ancus 37 (-incus) -anda 37 andare 405 andata 37 (-ta) Andreani 359 (i) Andreate 359 (2) andron 331 anellus 37. Adverbs 73-5 as 174. 233. 359.22 Index.194 = -ago 2>7 Agragas 330 Agrientum 259 agurium 228 agustas 228 36 anangi 331 anathema 19 anathematizare 19 anc 40 anc hanc 251 = allium 274 a longe 47 alques 71 alter 71. 83 -an 36 -aj* a f oris 47 agennae -nd. 209-10 unaccented 174. 178. albor = arbor 292 . 71 amnavit 405 amh 424 a mode 47 amourette yj (-ittus) ampitzatru 277 ampora 334 amurca 186 amure 203 amygdalum 19 an II. 232. alumnu (nom. 222 alto (adv.Ethiopia 188 alipes (i) = ad. 435 allegorizare ig alleviare 34 Agneti 359 (2) agnetus -na. 244 aecclesia 228 Eedis 366 ffigis -ale y] alecer 195 (i) Alesander 255 alevanti eleph.) 40 aiglon yj (-0) altra 233 altrui Aiiax 222 395 ancora 150.) 372 adpretiare 25 adpropiare 25 ad semel 47 —aio 39 (-arius) aios =: BjyiQS 272 am 78 ad sero 47 adsteti 139 Aix ajutit = adjutet 272 ad subito 47 adtonitus 32 ad tunc 47 -al37 alacer 195 (i) alare 405. 178. = -t.281 = aliquot 71 -alis agere ajere 259 aggio 273 aggravatio 37 = 39 alium 224 alius 71 allare 405. 14.175.281 (i) Eeum = cBvum 324 ^a foras 47 aliquant! 71 aliqui 71 aliquis 13.£6 2> e 209 at 188 altissimus 377 altitia 37 Aiax 188.

282. 255 -ans39 anser 13 ad 282 -ata 37 (-ta) -aticum yj atque. 36. anemis 232 -aneus 39. 293. 359 (i) anus = annos 244 -anus 39. 325 aucidere 212 -OS 38 -as -i 443 > audace (nom. 269. 65 at = anta 239 ante 96 antemittere 46 antestetis (nom. 260-1 Assimilation 229 (3). 211-3.) 346 (4) arb(o)rem 235 arboricellus 153 Aspirates 249-52. 78. 228.24. -dssetis 433 397-8 -are (nouns) y] ares = aries 225 aretem 225 argentum 259 -aria 37 -aricius 39 arida (noun) 13 Assibilation 277-8. 34.318 annulare 405 anos = annos 247 ardire 343 -are (infin. 68. 315 Asti 86 astula 284 at II = ar(i)dorem 219 ar(i)dus 237 aries 225. 267. 42 participle 435. 229 accented 178. 307. 42 angelice 40 angelus 19 191 ascendiderat 426 ascetes 182 ascla apud aqua 14. 265 aspra 233 -asse 161 ardente(m) 309 ardere 399 animabus 358 animalico yj (-icca) Anitius 276 Annanis 359 annare 405 annata yj (-ta) Annenis 359 annitare 405 annotavimus -bi.) -assem 161 -^ssemus 433 33. 282 aput 282 164. 310.Index.) 367 audi audivi 227.) 367 -antia . 265. 211 -3 unaccented 228. 223 284 aquilotto 37 (-ottus) asculta 228 Angers 86 angliscus 39 angostia 208 (i) anguil(l)a 163 ang(u)Ius 233 angustiare 34 Anicius 276 -ar37 Arbonenca yj (-incus) a semel 47 aspargo 31 aspectare 25 arbor (masc. 423 audiendu'st 309 = ascella =r axilla 42. 255 Digitized by Microsoft® . 42 Aorist 124 armeise 184 armentas 352 -aro 39 (-arlus) Aroncianos 276 arrespex r= haruspex 251 Arrius 251 arroser 356 (3) arsi Attane 359 atticissare (i) t^^ attinxi 429 Attitta 37 (-ittus) -attus yj at ubi 48 apcha 343 aperii 428 429 -atus 37 (-ta). 392 artic(u)lus 234 > (7) appo 78 apprendere 12 arvorsum (2) = adversum 281 ApHro 410 apsens 315 apsolvere 315 apte =: -se 244 arvum > aram 2z6 aucellus 13. 440 au 178. 229 au o 229 (7) OK 189 auca 13. 39. 429 apertus 436 arsus 441 artemisia 184 arietico 184 apotheca 182 apothecarius 39 apparescere 35 arthriticus 184 Article 57.^y anticus 226 antiefne 184 antiphona 184 ariex = -s 255 -aris 39 -aris -alis 292 ^ -arius 39 atque ille 24 atque ipse 65 atque is 65 atrium 12 atta 16. 236 (7) apersi 428. 255. 264.

316 bixit = vi.22 bisaccium 22 bisacutus 22 bisante 187 = = bis Austus 263 aut 174 aut aut 84 -aut -avit 424 . 324 Aureia -elia 274 Index. 322 -bilis = balteum -us 347 bannus 19 baplo 235 baptidiare 339 baptisma 149 Aureliati 359 (2) aurora 11 aus avus 241.) 367 brae (c) a 163 bracchiale 37 = brac(c)hium 163 brachia 352 Digitized by Microsoft® .316 boccone 37 (-0) bocconi 40 avec 78 avello = -avi ^ = averlo 293 -ai 424 avica 13. = autem 11. 182 autumnal (e) 242 auyo 272-3 avau. 325 av(i)dere 219 avidus 236 aviolus 13 avis 13 avis struthius 43 Bellus -onis 362 bene 40.22 Bononia 303 bonu 298 bonus = -OS 244 bonus bonus 55 bos =:i vos 316. 33. 42. 236 avicella 37.316 Bodicca 37 (-icca) boletus 38. 184 Bologna 303 bonatus 37 (-atus) Bonica 37 (-icca) bon(i)tatem 231 bonito y] (-ittus) = avire 400 -avit -ait -at -aut 241. 219 balneus 347 ballaena 150. ^ benignis 376 benivolus 201 berbeces 323 Bonitta 37 (-ittus) 424 avo avus 362 avus 13 ayo = habeo 273 = berbex (-ix) 42. Balerius Va. 324 botella 361 bottega 182 b see Labials : baboni 362 bac(c)a 163 bacito yj (-ittus) bac(u)lus 234 Baiocasses 151 bajulus 233 Baleria = Va.316 bianca 341 biber 242 biblia 146 bibui 428 bibutus 438. 339 baptizatio 19 barba -anis 359.3171323 bestemmia 182 Betrubius 316 beveire y^ (-tor) bi.316. 439 Bictor 316 biduanus 39 bieta 184 botu vo. 226 Bayeux 151 bel(I)ua 164 blasphemus 150 blasta 312 (i) blitum 184 bob ansa 336 bobis vo. 14 5 Authorities autor 266 baptizare 19. 36 blasphemia 146. 241 avaricia 276 ^ bas(s)ium 163 basso 40 battaUa 16 battel 426 ba(t)t(u)ere 137. 34 ausculum := osc. .192 aud(i)entem 416 aud(i)o 272-3. 324 ausare 18.236. 359(1) barbane 359(1) barbar 242 barbo -onis 359(1) barbutus 42 baro 16 bassiare 275 = vixit 255 = vi.316 bal(i)neum 146. 322 botula 361 bovis (nom.3165 322 bis(s)it coctum 43 bivere blaesus 329 blanche 341 blanka 341 blankizare 34 blaspheraare ig. 416 audivi(t) 2S5 audus 236 -aumus := -avimus 424 aunc(u)lus 234. 333 balneum 146: balneus 347 = bifolco biginti ti 318 (2) = vi. 74 bene bene 55 benegnus 172 (2) bene placitum 43 Beneria Ve.212 39 bimaritus 22 bintcente vincente 260 bis. 162. . 236.316.

163 buUicare 35 buplicae = carum 263 casa 12 cal(i)dusi55. 284 capire 406 cap(i)talis 231 cauculus 288 cauditus 42 caus(s)a 161 cavia 224 -ce 40 cecino 187.) 367 224 calcoste(g)is 259 caldo 40 cal(e)facere 219 calefacis 139 calere 288 bruchus 193 pu. 330 cedat caedat 210 cabia =: cavea 318 cactivus 313 cactos 313 capitanus 39 capitium 37 (-ium) capitulus 42. branca i6 calcis 193 camis (nom. 237 calisco 414 calma 268 calotfa 187 caseum -us 347 Cases85-ioo. 33. 285. 369 capus 285. Buolognino 154 burrus 330 Burrus 187 bursa 187 buscus 255 iusta 187 but(t)is 163 cals 255 casotta 37 (-ottus) cas(s)eus 163 . 356 (3). 372. 150. 195 (3) calcaneum carissimus 377 caritabilis calce pistare 46 calciare 224 39 Caritta 37 (-ittus) Digitized by Microsoft® .) 367 camutus 39.) 367 cardu(u)s 226 ce(n)sor 311 census 260 centu 381 ceperint 215 cepi 215 = -avi 424 •^•j = ga. 195 (3) cerbus 323 cerebellum 231 cereolus 13 cereseus 195 (3) ceresus 38.) 368 cata 19. 231. 163 Cassiabus358 cas(s)us 161 castaneus 346 (i) castellus camera 145 camerlingo 37 (-ing) caminus 150 camisla 201 (i) (3) 347 butyrum 150 buxida 187. 330 Byzacinus 42 c : castius 277 castore (nom. 234 capitus 440 = cedo 162 cadedi 428 cadere 402 caderunt 426 cadui 428 cselebramus (perf . 42 caroneus 39 carrica 11 car(ri)care 18. cf .) 357 (i) Breaking 177 breviarium 37 brevis 13 Brittanice 40 calcius (nom.312 (i) bublus 235 bubukus 318 (2) buc(c)a 12. 239 cartas (nom. 402 -C40 caballus 12 capiclus 234.256 catechizare 19. 219. 33 cat' cantare 34 unus 71 see Gutturals c for capabilis 39 g 253 cy 276. pi. 163 . 383 cf. 278 capere 8. 369 caput 13. 356 buxus 187. 282. 356 (3). 71 cata unus 71 cataveris rr -d.Indkx.330 (-ium) cerasus 38.) 367 cammarus 330 canalia yj cani (pi.) 424 cedrus 182 cefalo 334 celeps 315 capriolus 224 captiare 34 cslus 347 Cjeseris 233 caesorium 37 caetk 313 captio 9 captivare 34 captivus 313 celerus 376 -cellus 37 Celtic Words 19 capud 282 capui 428 calamarium 37 calamellus 37 calamus 150 calatus calcai capum 285.354. 356 (3). 347 calumpnia 307 calura 42 camel(l)us 42. 369 cardonis (nom.

332 Chrestus 184 chrisma 184 C(h)ristus 184. 12. of. coexercitatus 30 cofecisse 311 96 Compound Words 43-9.411 Digitized by Microsoft® . 259*. 64 comprendit 250 computare 31 circare 16 circueo 309 circumdavit 430 cis 14 cit(h)era. 276. 217 Chiusi 86 cholera 145 chommoda 25 c(h)orda 186. 231 clamantis (nom. 150. 380 cinque 254. 332 Conditional 124. -ara 38. 213 codex 213 coemiterium 192 coepi 72. Clepatra 191 clerc 154 Change of Suffix 42 chan(n)e 163 chartaceus 39 cher 263 chiaro (adv. 197. 154. 311 condam 254 condedit 139 conder(e) 242 condicio 276 conditio 276 civ(i)tas 12.226 comoedia 192 comparare 8. 333(1) clericatus 37 cler(i)cus 39. 329 191 ciurma -cius 39 of. 187 cimiterium 192 cinctius coclearium 356 (3) coclia commando 31 comment 41 commixtius 23 224 254 cinctus 440 cinqua(gi)nta 254. 124 coexcitare 30 comedo = quo. 379. 233 Comparison 56 comperare 231. 332 cib Clodius 212 cloppus 16 closa 212 Cludo 211 (2) -clus 234 CO quod 282 colomna 208 coloquinta 187 color (fern. 272. 130.23. claudo 236. 310 cognovi 428 cognusco 197 cohaerere 310 computus 235 comuna 376 con. 269 co(g)nosco 43. 237.) 367 clarisco 414 Cla(u)dius 211 (i) cojugi 311. 379 cocodrilus 294 cinsum = ce- 196 cocus 226 coda 212. 233 complacere 25 complire 400 cinus 347. 277. 231.) 40 chiave 288 Chilperico 343 ckiosa 185 clergue 154 305. 370 cinxi 429 cip(p)us 163 circa 80. 271 colaphizare 19 col(a)p(h)us 19. 25 concha 186 concupiscencia 276 cohors 12. 325 clausi 429 clausus 441 clavem 288 clavido 236. 153.1 194 certitude cetto 'r^j Index. X54. 160 coUus -um 347 239 colober 208 Clio 190 colobra 208 (2).) 346 (2) colp 154 colustra 197 = coacla 289 (i) 206 cicinus 330 -cillus ]> -cellus 42 coactum 310 coccodrillo 294 cocens 226 comenzare 276 coininciare 276 cominiciare 276 cominitiare 25. 330. 31. 297\ 318(1). 231. 269. 186. 276 comitem 235 cima 38. 260^. 239 collo Clerical 218. 325 colhe 154 coles 213 i6z -ceus 39 Chairibertus 39 (-anus) chaloir 288 Change of Meaning 8-10 coliandrum 292 coUecta 37 (-ta) collectus yj (-ta) colli(g)ens 259 col(li)gere 31.444 Pronunciation coUiget 444 col(lo)care 9. 310 coicere 310 coiiugi 271 cojectis 311 . 139. 233 cito 162 citrus cognatus 9. 259.

39 credentia 37 (-antia) " connato 269 conobbi 428 conoisser 413 conopeum 146 conovutus 440 conpendium 32 conplere 306 consacrati 31 conservam(m)us 163 consiensia 260. 254 41 Personal Endings 44250 Pluperfect and Future Perfect 432-3 Present Stems 416-9 Use of Forms 101-30 Conjunctions 82-4 co(n)jus 25. 139 credens (noun) 13. confessor 18 confortare 25. 37 crebbi 428 credea 421 crededi 31. 311 conmittere 32 couleuvre 208 (2) court 203 couvent 311 covenimus 311 coventionid 3x1 covetum coxale coxi 429 = cubitum 208 -^j^j copertus 436 cophinus 186 coque 254 coraticimi 18.1 Index. 311 Weak 422-6 conteneo 139 Perfect Participle 434. 225 cortensis 39 cortilis cortis 39 250 corvo 323 corvus 323 cosol 311 costumen 42 cosul 305 cot 254 cotes 212 cotidiae 244 cot(t)idie 162. 355 cor(o)nare 231 corp 323 corpora 369 corpes corpi -ora 369 coi"pore 356 (3) corpo credere 410 credutus 438. 396450 Four Conjugations 396407 First 397-8 Second 399-401 Third 402-6 Double: see Double Consonants Germanic : see Germanic Consonants Greek : see Greek Consonants 272 corrigo 305 corrotulare 229 cors 12. 34 19s corpo r6o corregia 201 corridije conger 329 Congianus 272 congigi 259 Conjugation 101-30. 137 Perfect 422-31 consuetudo 42 Strong 427-31 co(n)sul 171. 160 Fourth 407 Fundamental Changes • 408-12 Imperfect 420-1 constare 31 Inchoative Verbs 413-5 consuere 31.continari 226 contra 96 contra. co(n)jux 171. 275 227 consilium 42 consili corbeau 323 corbi 323 corbo 323 corcodilus 294 corcodrillus 294 cores = corda 369 corium 294 Comeius =-elius 274 Cornelio (nom. 226. 3ro corso 208 Groups 131-2. 439 crepatus 435 crepavi 428 Crescentsiarius 277 cresco 255 cresima 184 cresme 184 crevi (i) 428 292 crevutus 440 criblare crigTie 35 c'ritare 229 consirier yj (-erium) Consonants Aspirate 249-52 Dentals 280-6 = criz 206 = crocitare 35 Digitized by Microsoft® .26 contrafacere 26 co(n)ventio 171 convltare 25 coperire 225 copersi 429 Gutturals 253-70 Labials 312-26 Latin 246-8 Letters 246 Liquids 2S7-96 Hasals 303-11 Palatals 271-8 Sibilants 297-302 cortera 203.) 298 cornicula 42 cornu -um-us 347. 255. 244.

239 decanus 39 dece(m) 309 decern et (or ac) septem 379 dece(m)bris 306 decemter 306 dec(i)mus 239 Declension 85-100. 234 cum (conj. 372-3 de^£-io 273 defna 324 de inter 48 de intro 47 de intus 47. 376 First 357-60 cy 276-8 cy ty277 = cycnus 187. 292 Derivation 20-49 descendidi 426 de semel 47 despereifser 414 by Microsoft® . 81 defuntus 267. 294 Index. 88. 281-3 dy 272 nd nn 281 Final 282. Definite Article 68. de. 392 de foris 47. 306 -cellus 42 95 -c(u)lus 42. 25 debbio 273 debeo 273 debere 10. 48. 72. (fem. 48 deltas 27 del(i)catus 227 delitus 198 delta 329 de magis 47 de medio 47 deminat 139 Dentals d 272.) 349 cymba 187 cymiterium 192 cypressus 150 Second 361-3 Third 364-71 Use of Cases 85-100 376 de contra 47 decumus 220 dede = dedit 285 de deorsum 47 Digitized declLvis Deponent Verbs 113. da 48 dedi 430 (i) 229 crucifigere 46 c'rot'lare dacruma 281 dactylus 19 dedicait 424 ded(i)cavit 231 crudilitas 197 -crum 37 (-culum) crupta 187 crus 13 dad 48 Dafne 334 dai 2<)% dampnum 307 crust(u)lum 234 crypta 187 cubidus cupidus 256 Danuvlum 318 dao397 dare 397 datfus 324 dedro dedrot 285 deexacerbare 30 deexcitare 30 defeniciones 276 defensa 37 (-ta) defensi 429 defensorlus 39 = cuculla 13.23.o. cumba 187 cun = cum 305 cunnuscit 269 cimtellum =r cul. 78. 126 (4) debita 37 deb(i)tum 235. 324 deorsum 224 Cusanca 37 (-^ncus) Wouns 354-73 Shift of Decl. 82 curabit cursi de-^ di.196 crocodilus i. 92. 330 cyma38. 187. 285 > -avit 318. 117. 409 d : see Dentals dy 272 de post 48 deprendere 250 de retro 47.289 (2) cuoio 296 cuofre 160 cuore 160. 226 cum (prep. 286 nd > nn 281 429 cursorium 37 curvus 323 nt 285 St 285 t 284-6 denumer^t 424 deo(r)sum 291. 383 cuerdo 369 culcitra 294 dau 397 daun 397 234 dave 48 de 14. 177 cnpa(t) 285 cupire 406 cupit 423 cup(p)a 163 cupressus 150 cur 12. cf.) 82.) 14.229 (2) deabus 358 de ad 48 de ante 48 deaurare 23. 25 305 77. 322 currens 39 = Intervocalic 283. 100. 355-6. -culum -cuius > 37. 95. 48. 346 (4) cucullus -a 346 (4) defensus 441 deferet 406 Dative 90-1. 354-76 Adjectives 374-6 Fall of Decl.

196-9. 333 dolor (fem. 13 Double Forms 158 Double Negation 75 Double Prefixes 30 doucet 37 (-ittus) doussa 376 drachma 144 drappus 16 d'rectus 229 diurnus 13 divisi Dreux 151 429 drieto 292 406 dicimus 448 dicitis 448 dicitus = -g.) 349 dormio 224 dormito 309 dormitorium 37 dormo 416 dorsus 347 dossum 291 Diphthongs 36 177. 238. 355 (2) dietro 292 digita35i.) 367 dub(i)tare 231 ducalis 39 divota 229 (2) dixemus 232 dbd429 dodecim 225 doga 186. 406. (2ddecl.) 346(1). 292. 440 dicere divisus 441 divite (nom. 238. 259 dignus 172 (2) dilevit domatus 435 domin(i)ca 239 dominicus 9. 397 dia 397 diabulus 38 diaconissa 19 Dialects 2. 196-9 (I) . dextro(r)sus 291 deyo 273 dia = dies355 (2). desso 62 dester 255 desto 225 197 donee 11 dont 70 donum (masc. 426. 253. 25 discere 12 disfacit 139 Double 247 = Single 162-3. 289 (2). 239 domnani 359 (i) domnicellus 37 domnicus 235 229 (2) diligibilis 39 domnina 37 domnizare 33 domnulus 235 dint-mi 264 divinus 324 dinus = Dionigi 227 Dionysii 227 diosum = deorsum 291 Diphthongization 177 domnus 235 domus 12 355 dume(c)ta 266 dune 40 d'unde 70. 361 digitus 233. 21 dolus dictus := digitus 233. and fem. 393 deus 167 devere 318 devetis 318 au 21 1-3 eu 214 oe 215 ui 216 diposisio 277 dire 406 directus 229 diri(g)ens 259 dirivare 229 (2) dou 397 Double Consonants 161-4. 226 dita 351 diu II. accented 165. 328 289 (i) Dissimilation 167. 167.23. 254. 328 Single >Double 164. 259 -didi ducatus 37 (-ta) duce due 412 ductus 440 dui 167. 247.) e 165. 229 displacet 139 displicina Doable >Single i6i. 37 dies 13. 421.3 Index. 378 dukissa yj dulcior (noun) 18 — > -dei 426 = dulcor 18. 43> distinguere 223. 177.) 346 (2) dolor 18. 30 . 229 (4). devitum 318 dexcito 225 cf . etc. 195 (6). Digitized by Microsoft® . 328 devidere 229 (4) devinus 229 (4) dis. 209-16 209-10 de sub 48 de super 48 de sursum 47 detti 426 de unde 70.253 dictus 166. 303. dibeto 196 Dibona 318 die 264. 412 dice = die 412 dice(m) 309 disfactus 23 dis(je)junare 25. 393 duo 378 duos 138 durare 229 (5) Duration 99 duricia 276 Durocasses 151 duxi 429 (masc.

244 egloge 330 e e 165 > > e > e 165 V 182' ei83 e(g)o 60. 162. 311 -ent -eunt 416. eccum 24. 199 n 182 eccu' sic 24 e contra -entia 37 (-antia) -inns 42 -enus > 47 C183 ecus 226 edediderit 426 i eo=:ego 73. 255 es-7. 326 espiar 343 "pier 343 Digitized by Microsoft® . 385 eo quod 82. 243.228.198 e 196-8 Index. 263. 65 eccu' 'ic 326 eccu' ille 24. no eoru 309 episcopalis 39 epistula 144 > 196-8 e unacc. > e > y 224 e i 229 s (2) edere 13 edificai e prefixed to + cons.) 450 -ere -ire 197 erodes 251 > effigia 355 (2) eu 214 effondrer 356 (2) i6 >• e 225 unaccented 219. 242 -elius >• -ilius 197 -ellus 37.e 225 = equus 12 equus = sequus 210 -re 245 -er -er 39 (-arius) erable 43 -ere (perf . 65 ecce iste 24. 35. 65 ecce ille 24. 229 effrenis 376 eglesia 256 (2). 14 > -i 244.24. 42 elmo 343 illud 201 elud -elus >• -ellus 42 ervum > erum 226 ervus (3d decl. 413-4 eschernir 341 emere 12 encaustum 149 Enclitics 156 -enda 37 (-anda) : 24 eschine 341 esclate 343 eccillum 24 ecclstam 24 ec(c)lesia 146.230. 244.538 Esaram 233 -escere 34. 449 -ent >. 364 -V3S -ea 421 -etv 36 ejus 298 eio = -etbv 146 42 erigere 31. -unt 449 es(i)mus 419 (i) -isimus 197 -esimus esmes 419 (l) eccos 24 eccu.) 368 -Irunt 450 eccam 24 eccas 24 ecce. 429 -erium 37 erminomata 191 ero 411 -ero 39 (-arius) ersi ericius = jacet 224 earn = jam 224 eacit ejus 170.24.) 356 (2) -i 443 -es -es -is 174. 298 elementum 231 elephantus 38 elex -ebam : see -ea 429 eiii 411 ecca 24 = ilex 200 (2) erubisco 414 elifanti (pi. 328 Endings Personal 442-50 -esco ]> -isco 197 414 enim 11 escupare 255 -ens 39 (-ans) -e(n)simus 311 -e(n)sis39.exs. 365-6. 197. 232. 424 230 e6 > e 225 -edo .> -ido 197 edus haedus 210 e6 >. s 177. 182. 73. > 65 > eccu' iste 24. > = = 444 = ex. 62. 65. 65 ecce nunc 65 ecce tu 65 eccillam 24 eccillud elimentum 231 -elis >• -ills 197 Elision 157. 6. 385 ego-met-ipse 66 et -erem 346 (3) eremus 150 eres 251 190 e-28 -640 -e>-ffi I74>244 -e -ei 411 -eta 146 eiius 271 erga 14 ergo II. 65 ecce ego 65 ecce hie 24.

= es. 77. facienda 37 fem(i)na 239 feminabus 358 > exaltare 25 exaugiu^tus 39 excellente (nom. 420 face feced feci = fecit 282 fec(e)ru(nt) 233 430 fehu 343 felicla 234 felis25. espiritum 230 exeligit 199 fffinum 209 fffinus esquena 341 esguiver 343 essagium 255 esse 112-4.230 exstinctus 440 exstinxi 429 exsucidus 39 exsucus 23 extensa 37 extimare 255 extra. 95 ex. 404 fatatus 39 fate fabam 320 404 Eugeneti 359 (2) -eum 37 eunuchizare 19 fab(u)la 236 f ac 264. 274 facimus 448 404 facitis 448 factum 266 facire Feminine femps 356 femus (3d : see Gender (2) decl. 14. 404 facheret 410 faciam 278 fadas 224 fac(i)ebam 225. 404 faccia 278 fatus 347 taula 236. 419 (i) esse essere 419 esse sedere 402 274 exe(m)plu 306 exiat 224 exient 449 347 fageus 39 failla exinde 60 exire 31. 126 (2). .230. 318 febrarius 226 Eurus 191 -eus39 Euua 344 evangelizare 19 -evi -ei 424 > Evidence 5 ex 14. 255 -ex -ix 42 = fac 412 facentem 416 facere 10. 277 etsi I \ et sic 47 exodus 337 expabui 42S expandutus 441 expaventare 35 explendido 230 exquartiaxe 276 exs.23. 92. (i) = -it 244. 266 = = fait 324 266 fallii -esse 161 -essem 161 essere = esse 419 es(t) 285 estatio 230 estau 397 estaun 397 Estephanus 230 estou 397 estribar 341 esum 419 -et et et at ubi . et 84 Ethiopia 188 etiam 11.) 356 (2) fenire 229 (4) factus 440 fenum 209 ferbeo 323 feritus 242 fascit 209 faedus 320 (i) fcemina 209 f acul 434 ferre 12 ferro 160 Digitized by Microsoft® . 444 49 . 25 ex. 440 fascia 10.27 extrabuccare 27 extranus 42 ex tunc 47 ezza 277 f : fallire 430 406 441 34 37 familia 42 famis 366 famTfii 264 famul 242 famulabus 358 fante 311 falsare falsitas fallitus faor 324 farcitus 440 fare 404 farsus 440.Index.= as. 275 faselus 334 fasena 320 (i) f asia = faciat 285 224 fasiolus -etus 437 see Labials (i) fata 266 eu 214 cu 190 fa 264.) 367 excoriare 25 excussi 429 excussus 441 exeligere 30.

) 346 florecer 292 414 frate 295 Florentinus 37 ficus (2d decl. 96 forbatre 2. 256 frenum -us 347 fricatus 435. 238. and fern. fiero 160 fiet focus fodiri 8.7 flaus 240.) 356 fundutus 441 funtes 205 (2) fortia 37 fortis 10 fortis fortis 55 429 fixus 441 fossato 2^1 (-ta) funus II fuore 160 Digitized by Microsoft® . 361 fructus (2d decl. fragrantia 37 fra(g)rare 270 flavor 37 fletus II Francesco 341 franctus 440 fieuma 268 fleurit 414 ' fictus 197 440 fleuve 208 (2) fioralis Frankensis 39 Frankiscus 39.) 346 (4) filiaster filio(s) fans 356 frigdura 37 Frigia 187 frig(i)dus 166. 217 fluviorum 224 feces 213 florire fratelmo 38S frat(t)re 164 frax(i)nus 239.Index.) 355 (i) fnindes 205 /^343 fiorentino 154 fioretto yj (-ittus) fiorisce \\^ foris- 29 frunza 351 frutta 351 fugii 430 f ugire 406 fugitus 439 fui 431 forisfacere 29 f orismittere 29 fircum 320 (i) Firenze 86 Firmus -onis 362 fir- 46 formaceus 39 formosus 161 formunsus 208 forsitan 305 forte 40 f ortescere ful(i)ca237 fiscla 234 fistula 234 fistus 197 fix! 34 fumAt 424 fundus (3d decl. cf. 231 fons (fem. 406 folia 352 follia (noun) 18 follicare (i) = 259 f rictus 440 frigare 256.) 355 (i) fidens 311 fiele 160 Jiens 356 (2) fieri 112. 233. 141 ficit 2. 12 419 (2) figel 242 fiios — filios 274 358 (nom. (mc.f:^ forbire 407 frigorem 347 frixl Fimes 86 Final Syllable 240-5 finctus 440 finis (adj. see frondifer 11 fnialitas Germanic Words Greek Words foresia 311 foris 81 and finiscere 35 finxi 429 fructa35i. cf . fervere 399 fervura 37 fesit flaba 289 (i) flagrare 292 flaonis flator fractus 440 fragellum 289 (2) fragilis 260 324 324 233 >« 343 fezem 44 fiaba 289 (i) fiam 419 (2) fib(u)la 235 ficatum 16.419 (2) 400 florisco 400 flovium 208 (2). 201 filiabus filias 33 (2) frigdaria 219. 341 Franko 341 franxi 429 ficus (I) (masc. 259 frigora 351 filius 155. 440 fricda frigida 238. filix 298 274 = filios T97 fiUio 247 fonte 205 244 fonz 356 (2) foras 81.409. 200 (i).) 17 429 263 Foreign Words 19.)346(i) fraumenta 268 frecare 201 .) 357 13 .

furbjan 407 furma 203 furmica 229
genesis 148, 183 Genitive 88-9, 383 genitores 12 genitus 17
gIut(t)o 163




fusa 3; I

gocciare 276 gcerus 187
golosus 228 gonger 329 goule 177


genna 229
gentilis 17


fusus 441

Future 125-9,411
127-9,411 Periphrastic Put. 126 Pres. for Put. 126 (i) Future Perfect 119, 123-4,
410, 423 g: see Gutturals

gentis (adj.) 17

Hew Put.


= jan- 259
37, (i)



genuflectere 46

genum 355
Gepte 259 geguir 343

233 gradlus 376 grada 35.1 gradus 355 (i)
grandis 12
granditia 37 graphium 145 grassetto 37 (-ittus)

= Hier- 259

gabata 13, 236 gabta 236 gaita 343
gaite 343 galatus 330
gallina 288

gerbe 341

Germanic Consonants
b, c,

grassus 257

= Gratis 257

g 341

gravare 34
gravior 377 grece 210

^,^342 h343 W344
Germanic Endings 36 Germanic Words 19,
340-4 Germanissa 37 Gerund 104

gamba 13, 263, 331 gammanis 330
garba 341 garofulum 149 garum 329 gaudia (sg.) 352 gaudimoniuin 20 gaudutus 44 X gauta 236 gaveola 257 gavia 16
gecchire 343 geisla 341 geiuna je- 259 geline 288

Greek Accent 143-50 Ozytones 144
Paroxytones 145-6 Proparoxytones 147-50 Greek Consonants 327-39
ft 7, S 329
K, V,

Gerundive 103
gesso 187 gesta (sg.) 352 gJga 341 gig'i 341

T 330-1

X 332-4 Liquids 335 Hasals 336

I 337


gigantem 229 (3) ginocchioni 40 Giovannoni 362 giret 187
girus 187
giscle 341 glacia 355 (2)

f 338-9
Greek Endings 36, 38, 146 Greek Vowels 180-93 Diphthongs 188-93 Single Vowels 180-7 Greek Words 19, 36, 38,
gre-U 40 grevior 377
grevis 195 (4)

gelus (2d decl.) 355 (i) gemellus 13

gemire 406 gemitus 439

Glacus 211 (i) gladium 347
glanderia 39 glaiz 355 (2) Glauc6 -^nis 359 Glaucu (nom.) 372 glirem 166
glos(s)a 161, 185

gemui 428
gena 13

Gender 345-53 Fem. and Heat. 351-3 Masc. and Pern. 346 Masc. and Heut. 347-50 Heut.Pl.>Fero.Sg.352 Heut.Pron.and Adj. 350

grex (fem.) 346 (4) grossior 377 gratia 187 gruls (nom.) 367 gninnio 281-

gluria 203
glut(t)ire 162

guarire 344 guarnire 36, 407


by Microsoft®

guaiare 343
hab(i)tus 239 h^buerat 137
hocsies 277

gubernamentum 37
gubernare 36, 330
gtterra 344

guidare 36, 398 guiderdone 342 guisa 344
gul0 37
-i -1338, 186, 330 gustus (2d decl.) 355 (i) guttur (masc.) 347


Gutturals 253-70 c c' 258, 260-1 c g 256-7

> >

habutus 438 hache 343 hackerece 39 hffidus 320 (i) hamula 235 hanca 343 handle 343 hant 401 hao 401 hapja 19, 343

hodie 272 hodio 251


hom(i)nes 232, 235 (pi.) 36S
10, 71


honera 251 honor 346 (2) honte 342 hora 12, 185 hordemn 272
horrescere 11
hortesia 311 hospitale 12

haram 251
hardir 343
harena 320 (i) haribergum 19 has 401 hat 401 hatire 36 hatjan 36


g before back vowels hardjan 343

263 c, g before cons. 265-70 c, g final 264 ct 266

hossa 251 hostium 251 Hugo Hflgon

= Hdgo


huile 274

152, 362


> g' 258-9. z6i

humerus r2
humiliare 34

g intervocalic 263

gm 268
gn 172
gr intervocalic 270




152, 362


net 267
Falateilization 258-62

haunitha 342 haunjan 19 haunt 401 havite 400

165, 200-1, etc.

accented 200-1 I 200

haz 355


hegit 251

260 X 255, 266 gylosus 228 gyrus 187


helm 343
keltne 343

h 249-52

hepatia 19 here 219, 244 heredes (sg.) 367 heremum 251 Hiatus 136-8, 222-7

> e 201 e ^ 201 > 165, 200 i>e2oi > > e 165, 201 (cons.) 222 > y 224 -i > -e 224







habam = fabam 320

hlbemus 13
hie 63-4, 67-8 hie ipse 64

habe = ave 318 habe(b)am 421 hiem(p)s 13, 297 habeo 273 hiens = iens 251 habere 10, 121-4, 127-30, hilerus 233
239, 273, 285, 400, 401, 421, 438, 449

(Greek) 184 (Greek) 38 i^ e 225 ii i 227 prefixed to s cons. 230 unaccented 219, 221,228,


> >


hinsidias 251

hireum 320


haber 242 habe(t) 285 habeunt 416, 449 habibat 400
habire 400

= is- ins- 230 hispatii = spatii 230
historia 146

229(3X4), 240, 243, 244 in hiatus 222, 224-5,


> e 229 (4) > a 229 (3)

ho 40 hoc 63,



-ia 37, 146 -(a 37, 146


by Microsoft®

-iamus 224 -are 33, 34
ille 10,

Future Future
125-9, 411

61-8, 389-92

ipse 64





123-4, 410

-ibo 125
-ic 251



-ica 37 -icare 33, 34, 35 -icca 37


390 ille 390 140


(dat.) 390


-iccus 37

> ilium 282, 350
390 390

= suus


Imperfect 120, 420-1 Perfect 121-4, 422-31 Pluperfect 123-4, 410, 432 Present 120, 273, 397, 401, 403-5, 415, 416-9

-icem 42, 346



-iceus 37, 39, 42
-icius 37, 39, 42


induruit 224


ilium illud 282, 350 illurum 390


-inem 346

-iculare 35 -iculus 42

> -ellus 42

infa(n)s 10, 311 i(n)fans 171
inf antiliter
i(n)feri 171,

im = in 310
imaginarius 39

-icus 39

40 219

idem 61, 3C39 id ipsum 62, 350 idolum 150, 190
-idus 39 -i(d)yare 339 i6 e 225


376 immudavit 256 Imperative 115-6, 412 impinguare 25 impinxi 429


infernus 13 Infinitive

-iebam -ebam 225 -ibam 420
-ie(n)s 311



implicat 139 implire 400


> -fmus 447-8 >

in 86, 92, 95, 96, 97
is 310 inanimatus 23 in ante 47, 48 incendiderit 426

lenubam 259
-ier 39 -iere 39

in- 23, 25 in -t- s

as Noun iii Conjugations 396-407 dicere 406 esse 419 facere 404 for Clause for Imperative 116 for Subjunctive iii, 117 for Supine and Gerund




= gesta 259, 352

311 iferi 311
iferos 306, 311

Inchoative Verbs
inclausus 139 incohare 250
in contra 47, 48 incudo 42, 370


103, 104 habere 400 Passive 109 Perfect 109 with habere 125-9, 4^^ posse 403

ifimo 311 if ra 311

Present Active

102, 109


-4gia 2^^
igitur II, 14

with Accusative
inflare 31


incuminem 42
incus 42 -incus 37 inde 60, 71, 384 inde fugere 46

ignire 33 ignis 12


ignotus 310 -igo 37

Forms 345-450 Use 85-130
infra- 27



227, 423


39 -ilius 42 iliac 140

Indefinite Article 57 Indefinite Pronouns: see

infraponere 27


Indicative Conditional 130, 411
for Imperative 116, 412
for Subjunctive 117

infurcare 25

-ing 37

(dat.) 390

390 illsejus 390

ingenium 9 ingens 259 in giro 48


by Microsoft®

-ingus 37 (-incus) in hodie 47
Initial Syllable

62-4, 67-8 ins- liis- 230


— -is = -es 244, 365-6, 444

-iva 37 iventa 311

inlatus 32 in mane 47

-iscere 34, 35


> > -i 423 > -iut > -it 423

-ivum yj
-ivus 39 -ix 42
-izare 33, 34, 339

medio 48

Ischia 284

innoce(n)ti 306 innocus 226
in odio


ischolasticus 230


inprobus 32 inquid 282 in quo ante 254 -inquus 37 (-incus) ins13-230 in semel 47

-isco for -esco 197, iscripta 230


-'{«" 33
izophilus 333
j 271 jacente(m) 309 jacis 244 Jacobus 150, 329

-iscus 39 is ipse 64


ismaragdus 230 isperabi 230 ispose 230
-issa 37 -issare 33

insiemcmenie 41 insola 232 instruo — struo 230 ins(u)la 171, 233, 284 intcitamento 260 inte(g)rum 270 Interamico 307

Jacomus 329
jagante 229 (3)


-isse 161

-issem 161 -issimus 166

jaiant 229 (3) jajunus 229 (i) jambe 263
-jan 36
janarius 226

230 Interanniensis 307 istatuam 230 Interrogatlves see Pro- iste 63-8, 390-2 nouns iste hie 64 Intertonlc Vowel 231 iste ille 64 intra g6 iste ipse 64 intra- 27 istudio 230 intra tenere 27 it id 282 intravidere 46 -it -et 244, 444 intre 245 ita II intro(r)sus 291 Italia 224 intus in 49 Iteilic Tribes i, 2 -inus 37, 42 -itare 34, 35

jaquir 343
jauzei 426 jehan 343 jehir 343
jejunus 229, 229 (i) jeniperus 229 (5)

= =

jenua 229


jenuarius 229 (i) jeuTie 208 (2)
jinipenis 229 (5)

-Inus 39

> -o 416

-itas 37 -ite -Ite


Joanneni 359 (i) Joannentis 359 (2) Joannis 244
jocus 12


ipsa mente 41 ipse 61-8, 390-2



jovenis 208 (2), 217
jovis 367

64 ipsejus 390 ipsimus 66 ipsud 390
ipsujus 390 ipsus 390
iraisser 413 irascere 413

-itia 37, -ities 37


jubari 322



-ittus 37

-itudo 37 -itus 42 (2), 436, 438, 441 -Itus 435, 438-9


jubem(m)us 163 jubenis 318 jubentutis 318, 322 jubere 11
Judaizare 19
judicat 424

-ium 37
-ius 39

126 (5), 405

> -unt 416
by Microsoft®

-ire 33,


judidus 347 judico 239 judigsium 278


juglus 233 Julianenis 359 Julianeta 37 (-ittus)
Julitta 37 (-ittus)

429 Liaison 133, 159 liamen 263
lexi 428,

intervocalic 324

Voicing 314
laborait =:-avit 424

laceus 254
lacte 367

libe(n)s 311

juncxi 305 juniperus 229 (5) junxi 429
Jup(p)iter 163

jurHtortu 39 juria 272 jur(i)go 219
jusso 355 (i)

lactem 347 lacus (2d decl.) 355 (i) ladro yji ladrone 372


298 (nom. pi.) 357


libraria 37 ligare 201,

ligna (sg.) 352


justitia 276,

justius 277

juv(e)nis 235

juventa 356 (3) juvente 318
juxta 81, 96


246, 253

kadamitatem 289

= candidus 330 karessemo 201 Karica 37 (-icca) kaukoulato cal- 288 kleme(n)s 311 kozous = conjux 311, 339


34 lambros 331 lamna 235 lampada 356 (3) lampa(s) 38, 144, 335 lancia 224 la(n)tema 306 lanutus 42 lapsus 315 laqueum 347 ; cf, 254 lardum 237 Latinization i, 2 latrone (nom.) 367 lat(t)rones 164 lattucae 266 Lauriatus 224 lausenga 37 (-ing)
lauzi 443 Lazis Ladiis 339


lignum -us 172
liminare 37


Unguas (nom.) 357
liniamenta 224


133, 159

lintium 224

Liquids Assimilation 293 Dissimilation 292
Fall Fall



Liquid 237

Vowel before

Liquid 233-4 1 287-9 ly274 Metathesis 294 r 290-6
rs 291 ry 296 lit (t) era 163


kumate 298 ky = qui 187, 223



lebat 318

lit(t)us 163

see Liquids

318 lebra 256

Livitta 37 (-ittus) U 1 161


la ilia 392 Labials Assimilation 313 b 315-9 initial 316 intervocalic 318 by, py, vy 273, 319 f 320-1 Fall of Vowel after Labial 235-6 Influence on Vowels 217



Have 2 88



Locative 86
locun 305 locuplens 311 locuplex 255
lodi 443
loir 166

lectus (p.p.) 440 legare 201

leges 259

(nom.) 367

legui 428

lenticula 42

longa mente 41 longe 40
longior 377


longius 377


longum tempus 13
loquella 42 loreola 213

P 3"-4 U326
V 322-s
after liquid 323

levare 34 leviarius 39


Lost Words 11-4
lotus 213

levitus 435,


by Microsoft®

349 melum 195 (5) membras 352 memoramus (perf. 207 (i) luxi 4V 9 luxuria 355 (2) mansorius 39 mansus 441 manuaria iS manuplus 42 manus (masc.) 424 -men 37 mendatium 276 fern. 377 luoghi -ora 349 liirdus 207 (i) luridus 166. xi Marcianus 278 Marculus 284 mare (fern. 233 lucor 37 lucto 355 (i) maximus 56.) 17274 m: see Nasals ma = mea -Ma 38 388 manu tenere 46 Slaps : pp. X.2o6 luce (dat. mam(m)anis 359 matutinus 13 maurus 336 maxime 56 mammula mane 13 13 400 manducare 13 man(i)ca 239 manicd 37 (-icca) maniplus 42.) 368 me(n)sis 171. 259 ma(g)ister 259 marmora 351 marmorem 347. 222 Maiiam 222 mais = magis 157. 145 ma(r)mor 292 cf . cf . 377 mala mente 41 male 40 male habitus 44 malicia 276 malleus 274 mensorium 37 menta 184 -mente 41 mente habere 46 mentire 409 Marsuas 187 Marsyas 187 mas = magis 157 mascel 242 -mentum 37 mentus 347 menus 201 mercatus (2d decl.) = and markensls 39 me(n)sa 311 mense(m) 309 mensi (pi. 347. 71. 347. ma(g)is 353 . 347.24. 66 mal(l)o i6i malus malus 55 mam(m)a 16. 84. 359 by Microsoft® . 297 maxumiis 220 lucus locus 205 ludus 12 lugere 399 lugire 400 = Meanings Change 10 of of Words 7-10 Meaning 8- manos 355 mansi 429 mansio 12 (i) luminem 347 lunae dies S9 mecu 309 Medea 190 Medentius 338 media 272 medianus 39 medicus 239 medio die 43 medio loco 43 medius 272 meletrix 292 melior 377 melius 56. 74. 238. 369 3" .) 355 (i) meretis 232 meridjes 281 (2) mer(i)to 237 Masculine : see Gender masc(u)las 234 masma = maxima 238 massa 338 mate(r) 295 materia 355 (2) matrona(s) 298 mat(t)rona 164 Digitized mersi=merx 255 Messac 277 messui 428 messura 37 met. 157. 353 me(n)sor 311 56. 201.) 349 machina 144 machinari 9 macra 376 madias = majas 272 madio majo 272 madrema 388 maestati 259 maester 259 magias majas 272 marem 347 mares = -is 244 marl -e 364 marinarius 39 maris (masc. 198. and 346 (I) fern.) 244 lucSre 399 lucire Index. 369 marrir 407 marrjan 407 Marsianesses 277 magnisonans 44 magnus 12 Maia 188. 259 major 170. manner (fern.) = magida = 38. 220.

439.29. 217 334 mutare 229 Digitized (5) nepoti(s) 298 ne'ps'unus 71 by Microsoft® . 37 raovutus 438. 429 = mullus 187 mulsi 429 multum 74 multus 71 muntu = multum 289 (2) necatus 435. 381 mn 307 millefolium 38 mil(l)ia 161 mordSre 399 morire 406 moriri 406 n -h fricative ny 274 nasco 255 nascutus 438 nasum -us 347 natatorium 37 nati vitas 37 Morphology 345-45° morsi 429 morsus 441 mortificare 46 mimoriEe 229 (2) minester 201 ministeri(i) 89.324 Moesia 187 molui 428 molutus 439 255 myrta 187 Mysia 187 mysterium 182.311 11 ny 274 nacui 428 nam — mu. 227 mi(ni)sterium 231 minist(r)onun 292 minor 377 minsis 198. 163. 438 naucella 13 naufragus 325 nautat 236 navicella 37 navitat 236 ne 14. 440 muc(c)us 163 muebie 204 (i) mul'erem 225 mulier 9. 245 mis. 387 mi = mihi25o. 385 miauiare 17 michi 252 mienia 1S4 migat micat 256 monarchia 37 monasterium 182 -monia 37 monibam 420 moniti n + fricative 171. 304-6 171. 75. 231 mis meis 388 mis.228 narratus 37 (-ta) -monium 37 mo(n)strare 311 Nasals 303-11 Final or = monumento = -um 244 Mood 1 1 5-9 morbu(s).Liquid mut(t)ire 162 132. 311 -m -n falls 309 falls 310 mihe 244 milex 255 mille 161. 289 moc 428 (i). 438. 441 motto 187 movi 428 movit 244 movita37-.245 minus credere 29 minus est 29 minus pretiare 46 minutus 10 > mortu(u)s 226 mossus 438. 255. 298 + Cons. 440. 377 minus. 136 mulieris 136 natus 13. 83. 201 minus 201. 440 necavi 428 nee ente 71 nee unus 71 ne ente 71 negare 263 negat 256 mur 206 murare 229 (5) muri -a 349 muritta 37 (-ittus) murta 187 Negation 75 negliencia 259 nemo 71 neofiti missorium 37 mis (s) us 441 mistus 440 mixticius 39 mobilis 204 (i). 229 (4).Index. 294 modernus 18 Metiacus 277 metipse 24.439 movitus438.245 miscere 399 misculare 35 misera 376 mis(s)i x6i. 66 metipsimus 66 metltus 441 207 Mute -t. 229 (2) Nebitta 37 (-ittus) nebula 235 necare 9 necator 37 mirabilia 37. 160 mode modo 40 moere = mov. cf. Metathesis 245. 187 meuble 204 (i) meus = mi 87 n: see Nasals mextum — m2estuin mezzo 272 mi r= meus -a 87. cf.

309 nivicare 18. 167. 203 o (Greek) 192 274 38. > > 6 165.324 nova(i)nta 380 novellus 13 novius 207 (2) noxeus 224 ns 171. 79 ob-28 obdormire 28 obferre 32 obliscor 324 oblitare 34 obprimere 32 Nerba3i7.) 395 nullus 71. 385 nocere 399 nutrire 166. 197. 251 nil 250 nimpae 332 nise 229 (4) nitidus 238 nittus 238 Numerals 57-8. 229 (5) nutritio 37 odedere 426 Odissia 187 oe 215 oefor xand e 215 offeret offerire offers! nutritura 37 nocui 223. 202-5. 177. 215 omnes = —is 244 onmimodus 44 omnis 12. offla 235 oi>oe>-e ot nome 336 nomem nomes = nomina 369 Nominative 97. nupsi 297 nobe 318 nobilis 11 nobis 318. 40 (Greek) 186 Digitized nora 208 (3) Normannice 40 norus 208 (3) notrire 229 (5) noli 40 -on 36 -ov 38 -iav 38 -ones 40 -oneus 39 by Microsoft® . 328 noembrios 324 noembris 324 noicius 324 nolo 161 ny274 nynfis 306 406 406 429 440 192. 383 305 accented 202-5 o 202-4 o 197. 250. 100. 274 > ola 213 oleo 373. 311 nubis 366 nulli (gen. 234 306. 349 see Gender ne 229 (2) ni : = nichil 251 niepos 177 observasione 277 oc 251 occansio 311 occidere 212 occubavit 256 ni(g)rum 270 nihil 71. 229 (6). Nouns 345-73 see Declension and Gender nous 177. 243. 22S. 33 nuncquam 305 nunqua(m) 305. 205 5 > 9 205 9>uo oi ou|>-gu 167 o u 202 o ou 203 oleum oli 274 274 oli(m) 309 olio nonna 16 nonnita 37 (-ittus) nonnitus 37 (-ittus) nonnus 16 noptiae 207 (2) 177 192. 378-82 occu(m)bas 306 occurire 406 Accent 142 nummus 328 nun = non 203 nunc 12 nuncius 276 -occus 37 ocio 276 ocium 276 octa(gi)nta 380 oc(u)lus 219.ou 167 unaccented 219. 215 offertus 435. 395 num 83 u ob (Greek) i?5 14. Absolute 97 non 203 nona(i)nta 380 75.208 nepta 37 neptia 37 neptilla 13 Index. o 165. 71 o for au 212-3 >oe ]>e 06 > o 225 > omo 251 -omus 446 on 71 ou>. 244 u6 o 225 -o 37. etc. 323 nerbo 323 Neroua 322 nervia 349 Neuter nervus 323.

) 349 Present 102. 229 (7) oridium 339 -orlum 37 -orius 39 orma 186.) 367 pap(p)a -us 16 papyrius 39 parabula 144. 369 papilipnis (nom. 296 Palatals 271-8. parecer 414 parens 10. 42 feminine 346 (2) -re 245 -or -ura 42 -or hora25i ora oracionem 276 aur.212 orata ou (Greek) 193 ou 167 9u Ouiouia Vibia 318. 278 parsus 439. Passive 105. 259 pari 364 par(i)etes 136. Ordinal Numerals 382 -orem 346 (3) oricla2i2.) 367 parentorum 368 p : see Labials paceveci = oratia = Hor-25i Order of Words 50-3. py 273 ry 296 scy 275 40S Particles 156-8 particularis 39 -OS (Greek) 38 Oscan 2 -usco 197. 296 parsi 429 by 273 c': see Gutturals cy 276.212 aut 213.) 347. 202-3 -osco ossiculum 42 ossuculum 43 > ssy 275 sty 275 partunt 416 parutus 438. oze ozie 324 = > > = hodie 272 = hodie 272 = pacific! 321 8. 236 parabulare 155 paradisus 190 paraula 236. 227 pari mente 41 227 Palatalization 258-62. 229 (7) ot ote = aut 213. Active 106 Put. 225 parietibus 224 oratorium 37 orbus 9 palanca 332 palasium 277 Parigi 86. 217. -omus 39 -o«J446 -o(n)sus 311 otia 277 otobris 266 209 paor 324 papaver (masc. 322 > = oum 167. 104. palpebrum 352 pal/ires 134 = hos-25i = ostium 202 ostrum aus. 318 parcui 428 onus II o 225 operare 409 0(5 > otogentos 266 -ottus 37 ophekion = ofBcium 334 opprobare 28 -or 37. 439 pasmer 300 passans 39 passi(m) 309 sy 275 ty 276-7 ossulum 37 ossum 356 (3) ostensio 37 ostensor 37 vy273 palatium 277 palleum 224 Passive 112-4. 229 (7) pandiderunt 426 paucus 71 paul(l)um 161 Paulus -onis 362 paupera 376 pani 364 panneus 39 pantaisar 332 Digitized = pauperorum 376 pausa 38 pavi 428 by Microsoft® . 409 passos 355 paucum tempus 13 ostentare 34 ostia palma 14. 434-41 = orum = aurum 212 orzo 272 OS (masc. 337 pagandum 256 paganus 263 pa(g)e(n)sis 39. 107. 108. 408 Perfect 102.Index. Pans 86 Parisiis 272-8. 441 part 160 partentem 416 Participle dy 272 g': omatura 37 orphanus 186 ortaret 432 hor-25i ortus see Gutturals gyz72 J271 ly274 ny 274 Put. 324 ovum 167. 12 parentis (nom.

377 pejus 377 pelegrinus 292 pellabor 293 planura yj planxi 429 platea 146. 369 peria(t) 285 poena 192 poeta 192 poggio 272 polippus 145 poUicare yj pollulum 213 pols 370 poltre 134 polve 370 polvo 370 polypus 145 pomex 207 (2) pirata 144. 190 Periphrastic Future 126 perit 423 perlum = prse. 99 per pel 293 per 160 per. 123-4. = pr-292 plus 56. pinl 365 123-4 pinxi 429 per giro 48 piper 38. 326 plagiare 33 Pronouns persus 439. 79.) 367 plangit 259 plantare 33 peduclum 234 peduculus 42 pejor 170. 311 pensi 429 pensus 441 plodere2i3 ploja 169. pIurigo 123. 213 plovere 169. 208 (4). 422-31 = phoca 185 Phoebus 192 Phonology 131-344 Phyebae = Phoebe 215 piano 40 pictus 440 pietas 298 pietra 160 pignus 172 (2) pi(g)ritia podium 272 poella 20S Strong 427-31 Weak 422-6 Perfect Participle Participle : 270 see Pilipus 332 pinctus 440 Perfect Subjunctive 119.294 Pisaurese 297 Pisaurum 151 pitocco T85 Digitized pon(e)re 239 pontevecem 321 pontivicatus 256 pontufex 220 poplex 255 pop(u)lus 10. 273 plostrum 212 plotus 212. 208 (4). igo plaudisti 426 pestulum 284 petft 423 Petrus -onis 362 peito 160 pleps 297. 208 (4). pa(v)onem 324 pa(v)orem 324 pavura 42 pavutus 440 paze 260 pectinare 33 perpenna 292 persi 429 pe(r)s(i)ca 239 persona 71 Personal Pronouns: pius 167 placentia 37 plach 154 see placuit 223.26 percolopabat 237 > Phebus 192 phiala 145 philosophia yj philus 184 phimus 184 Phitonis 332 phitonissas 332 Subjunctive 433 "8. 183. 347. 235 by Microsoft® . 217 Pluperfect 118. 435 plicatus 435 293 293 pello 293 pendutus 441 pellige pellicere peuma 368 ph: see Greek Consonants phalanx 181 pharetra 145 phaselus 334 Phasis 181 pe(n)sare 171. 369 per girum 48 piperem 347.Index. 96. 315 plicare 10. 426 perdita 37 (-ta) perdqnare 26 perdutus 438. 273 poco 40 perdedit 139. 410 432> 433 Pluperfect Penult 232-9 per 14. 93. 217 pluere 169. 208 (4). 441 Pesaro 151 pessica 291 pessimus y]"] pestio 2S4 pectorem 347 pediculus 42 pedis (nom. 410. 439 pere 160 pere(g)rinus 270 peres pedes 281 (2) Perfect 121-4. 74 pluvia 169.

96 provata 318 porphyreticum 187 portare 12 posi posui 428. 300 presbyterum 148 provitus435. 71. 401. 252. 370 punctus 440 puni poni 203 = presium 277 pressi 429 pressorium 37 pressura 37 pressus 441 presta 210 presteti 139 frete 300 punidor 39 punxi 429 pupillabus 358 puplu 309 pup(p)a 163 pure 40 puritas 37 purpura 145. 440 cf. pos(t)quam 11. 380. por 14 porcellus yj pregnax cf.28 prebiter 300 Interrogative 7o> 69- quadraginta 142. etc. 429 quiestus 436. = pr<Egnans 255 Pronunciation 131-344 prophetissa 37 prophetizare 19 propietas 292 propio 292 propter 14. 250 prendiderunt 426 prendo 250 prensi 429 prensio 37 posmeridianus 285 posse 126 (3).439 proximus 377 psallere 36. 332 purpureticum 1S7 putator = po. 311 prEEStare 31 prffistavi 422. qu 223. 429 Position 160-4 positus 238. 259 quadra(l)nta 380 qua(9'ro 283 quKSi 426.Index. 226. 254 qua 82 > promptulus 39 430 prsstus 376 Pronouns 59-71. 67. 79. 394 quamta 306 quan 305 Digitized by Microsoft® . 41 5> 416-9 presentis (nom. 85-g presbyter 148. 403 (i) Possessives: see Pronouns posso 403 postea 275 (i) prensus 441 Prepositions 76-81.229 (6) puteolis 136 • potebam 403 (i) potebo 403 (i) poteo 403 (i) potere 403 (i) pdteri 410 potestas 356 (3) potionare 33 potis 17 pretium 277 preveire 300 pride (m) 309 primitius 324 principens 367 pri(n)cipis 306 Prixsilla 255 puteum 347 putrire 400 potius 74 pr:e 14 pr£E-28 prjeber(e) 24? prsecoca 376 praeda 209 prsedestinare 28 prsEdiscer(e) 242 pro 14. preda 209 Prefixes 21-32 393-4 Personal 60. 285 Present 120 for Future 126 ptisana 145 pudicicia 276 (i) Stems 273. 383-95 Demonstrative 61-8 Indefinite 71. prolongare 28 q 246. 395 prandium 272 pranzo 272 pre. 384-6 Possessive 60. 439 = 311 prendere 225. 387-8 Relative 69-70. 226.) 367 pugnus 172 (2) pulvus 347. 79. 397. 186.28 probai 424 Proclitics 156-8 prodis 17 putrisco 400 puulva 356 (3) Pyrrhus 187 pyxis 187 Progne 330 proles II preefetto 266 prffigna(n)s 255. 285 posturus 238 postus 238 Post-Verbal Nouns 21 posueram 285 posuet 244 posui(t) 285 403-5. 95 pro. -^yj pos(t) 96. 393-4 quaKs 70. 254 qu k. 330.

350 = -it 285 remasit 311 Remidium 272 remissa 37 (-ta) ren^gat 139 renum reg.) 361 ramenc 37 (-incus) rancura 42 ranucula 42 rap(i)dus 239 rasl restitueram 285 restivus 39 resurge(n)s 311 retenere 31. 449 responduntur 449 responsi 429 raggio 272 que(m) 309 quen 305.1 Index. 71. 393 re(g)ina 259 regis -es 244 = quisque 71 quisquis 71 Unaccented Vowels 221 174. 74 12. rectus 440 32. 259. no. 350. retundus 229 (6) reuuardent 344 139 reve(r)sus 291 reversus sumrz reverti 410 revolutio 37 rexi 297. replenus 23 55. 71. 281 quinque 172 Quintrio quippe 1 quique 71 (i).344 = -bit 318 263 Quantity 159-77. 380 quase 244 quasi 83.23. 139 redempsi 429 redemti 313 Digitized = rectum igS by Microsoft® . 355 (2) res nata 13. quodlubet 220 regnancte 267 regnum 172 (2) Relatives : see Pronouns reli (n) quat 306 relinque 282.254 guages 1 74-5 > = quantu(m) 309 quantus 12. 309 querceus 39 quercinus 39 querel(l)a 42 rama (pi. no. 82. 71 quare 12. 82. 244 quat(t)or 226. 223 quia 82. 200 redft 423 redivit quannu 281 = Win. 380 reculons 40 reddedi 31. 245. 71 = quod 282 quum r : > cum 226 repositorium 37 reprehensus 250 requeerere 25. 71.quoniam 14. 139 requEerit 139 rs see Liquids >• ss 291 requebit 225 res 10. 393 qui quia 82 qui ky 187.269 respondere 399. 219. quo 73 quo = quod 282 quoad 11 quod 14. 379 quel 393 quejus 393 quoque quot quot n Repetition 40. 71 rabies 319 radius 272 rainante = reg. 82 quarranta 142. 82 comodo 226 Vowel Length 165-77 Words from Other Lan. 139 retenet 139 retere questor 210 questus 210 quetus 225 qui 69. 429 rhetor 335 rhetorissare 33 richesse 341 rictu quiaeti 209 quicumque 71 quid 350 quidem 11 recubitus yj (-ta) quiensces 311 quietus 225 quin II quinqua(gi)nta 142.28 retro (r) sum 291 = = redpit 139 recolli(g)endo 259 Recomposition 31.269 Vowels in Hiatus 167-9 quomodo 14. no quooperta = co. quando 14. 379 quattordecim 379 quat(t)ro 226. 221 Development of New Quantity 176-7 Disappearance of Old Quantity 173-5 Doubtful Quantity 166 Length before Consonants 170-2 Position 160-4 refusare 17 re(g)alis quiritare 229 quis 69. 25 recapitulare 25 retro. 82. 168 429 = reddere 286 rasio = ratio 277 ratio 277 retina 17 retro 81 razzo 272 re.

) 372 salvage 229 (3) salvatico 229 (3) salvaticus 229 (3) secu(n)do 306 secuntur 254 sed II. ridSre rideri 213 schioppo 284 sclitib. pi. 419 roubSn rs > 36. ssy. 230 sy 275 scy.268. 267 sedano 335 sed(e)cim 239 sedere seditur 399 = esse 402. 34r. 367 SiEpia 182 saginae 42 = 284 Sagitta 37 (-ittus) ripidus 39 scloppus 284 scopulus 38 scorlare excor.igS 399 409 sacritus rigna 198 rikitia 341 Jiimini 86 SidxpiTos 272 sseculum (masc. (stlis) riges = re. rubare nibeus 319 sandal 330 sanguem 370 sanh 267 sapcha 272 sapere 402 sedui 428 sedutus 441 signavi 424 segnai = rugiada 356 nira35r ru(r)sum 291 russum 291 rutare 34 s (3) segolo 200 (3) sei sapiam 272 sapidus 39 sapienti (pi. 341. sauma 26S scabia 355 (2) scsena 182.) 349 scripit 312 (i) scrips! 315. 201 (2) senape 184 senatus (2d decl.Index.) 368 419 (i) sel 160 selinum 150 sappia 272 sapui 426. 440 secula 200 (3) Romanice 40 Romanu -pos 38 rosi (nom. : 429 Romance Territory p. (3) = 229 salbum3i7 salii scrivano 359 scultor 313 se 422.) 349 sffipes sepes saeps 209. salivi 428 440 J^= sead sebe salma 268 salsi 428. 428 = si 229 (4) = sit 419 (2) = sibi 201 ^ 419 (i) roborem 347 robur 9. sty. 441 saltern 11 salticulare 35 secatus 435.) 355 (i) sine 201 sene -sa 37 (-ta) sabbatizare 19 scaplas 234 sablum 233 sacra 376 Sca(u)rus 211 scena 182 (i) = sacramentum 231 359 sacristano 359 sacrista -anis- schema 19 schernire 341 schiatta 343 schietto 343 senex 12 senper 306 semita 239 senta sentam 416 sententem 416 = Digitized by Microsoft® .230 scriba -anis 359 = rigueza 341 risi 429 risus 441 rius 241. 429 440 scriptum 315 scri(p)tus 313. x : salsus 440.314 rivocaverit 229 (2) sagma 19. 435 salitus 436. 347 rogavo = -bo 318 ro(g)itus 259. 210 scalciare excalceare 230 scandalizare 19 445 initial s + cons. 324 rivaticus rip. xi Roman Empire p. 428 satis 74 sem 419 (i) Semele 359 semita 239 semo 419 (i) : see Sibilants final s in ist pers. 398 398 ss 291 36. = sa = ipsa 392 semper semper 74 sempre 245 semul 201. 14 sed-= se 229 (4) 429 rosum = ros 356 rosus 441 (3) sanctissimus 377 san(c)tus 172 (i). Saguntum 338 saine 42 saini 267 sltlbaiec (fern.

ssy.z\ sofferire sparsus 441 spasmus 144 spat (h) a 332 spat(u)la 12. 244 solacium 276 sola mente 41 solatium 276 solbere 317 spene^SS (2) speni from spes 355 (2) speramus = -avimus 424 sperantia 37 Digitized by Microsoft® . 233 sepelitus 436. 38.) 395 solsi s 161 429 440 224 sepes 209 sepia 146. 244. etc.ig8 439 siede 419 (1) soma 268 somas 419 (i) sona 2ona 338 septrum 260 septuazinta 339 septum 209 sepulchrum 251 sequere 406 sequire 406 serbare 323 siem 419 (2) siete 419 (i) siffatto 264 siffler 318 (2) sifilus 318 (2) = signum-us 172 sigricius silevit 422. = secretins 256 347 sonatus 435 sons 419 (i) Sophia 146 -sor 37 sorcerus = sortiarius 39 s^bat 323 serbus 317 Serios Sergius 272 serore so. 337 sinatus 228 (-arius) sordidius 377 sorex 42. 439. sibi 219. 244. 213 soricem 42. 441 solia 323 224 sentor . 445 initial s 4. si sol 13 = sibi spehon 343 spelunca 329 siam 419 (2) siamus 419 (2) sibe 219. solbit sentia 421 sentii 42S.230 Spania 230 = Spanus 230 sparsi 429 J« 419 sest = est 419 (i) set = est 419 (i) set = sed 282 seta 209 setaceus 39 setis = estis 419 (i) 229 385 (4) settembres 313 seus suus 387 soaru 295 soave 224 sobreus 224 socera 37 soc(e)rum 232. 233 soef 2.cons. 385 385 Sibilants 297-302. 387 sozer 154 servicium 276 323 servisium 277 servitium 276. 213 serra = sera 247 serutinus 16 servare 323 sine 95. sty. septa (gi)nta 380 septe(m) 309 sidibus = se.214 senii 298 Index. 440 ss > 275 solingo 37 (-incus) solo (dat. (2). 18 sol(i)dus 237 230 separare seperare 231. 219. 221. 83. 182 seppia 182 sepsies 277 z : see Greek Conso- soltus 438. 201 sinexter 201 (3) -sic 37 sirena 356 (3) sis si vis 324 -sorium ^y -sorius 39 soro(r) 295 sous = suus 167. 184. 277 servitude 37 ses servire = spacium 276 spallere 337 sive II = es 419 (i) (i) skena 341 skern6n 341 skiuhan 343 slahta 343 sleht 343 spandere exp. soliculus 13. sy.230 = 406 si 14.^'j final s 298. 429 sentitus 436.419 (1) sinapis -e -i 38. 234 speca spica 200 (3) = speclarait spectante = -avit 424 = exp. sibl 201. scy. 150.229 (7) serpentinus 37 = = 428 simus 220. soluit sic nants 264 Sicilianus 39 solus 395 solutus 438 solvitus 438.

116 for Indie. 419 (i) suora 295 sues 138 super 80. 41 for Nouns 37.) 367 stlataris 284 stlis 284 stloppus 284 storax 187 stren(n)a 163 stren(n)uor 164 Stress : see Accent stirpis see Dentals ty 276-7 sud=sub3i5 sufferit 406 -ta37 tab(u)la 236 tactus 440 suffertus 435.26 suprafacere 26 supra 245 -sura 37 Surd Sonant: see Voicing = exp. 428. = Iniperf. 40. 430 steva 200 (3) stilla 419 (i) suus 60.26 superabundare 26 superfacere 26 superstitis (nom. 330 talis 71 strlban 341 for Adj. 38 suis (nom. 84 440 440 strinxi 429 strofa 334 stropa 334 stroppus 186 strinctus strictus for Verbs 33-6 Greek Endings 36. 415. 403. spes 355 (2) spiritus (2d decl. 39 for Adv. 332 Syncope 219.) 367 Supine 103 sup(p)ra 164 sup(p)remis 164 supra.26 subaudire 26 subcludere 26 stao 397 stare 397 stasio 277 static subcumbere 32 Subjunctive 117-g for Imper. 38 tamen 11. 441 sus(s)um 291 sutis sursi Stephanus 183 steti 426. 405. 117 > 277 status 438 397 staunt 397 stegola zoo stel(l)a 163 siaii (3) Imperfect 118 Perfect 119. 397. 14. 229. 369 sumpsi 29S sumptus 308 tan 306 tanctus 440 tanger(e) 242 tantu(m) 309 tantus 71 tanxl 429 tapinus 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . 118 Pres. 441 subornatris 255 subplantare 32 sy=ty277 sycotum 141 Syllabication 131-3 = Stella = 198 stingo 226 -stinxi 429 stipes stips 367 subsannare 26 Substitution of subterranus 42 subtus 81 suc(c)us 163 suceroni 362 Words 13 symphonia 146.) 367 sulphurem 347. 231-g Synonyms 12 Syntax 50-130 t : (nom. 90.Index. 387-8 submonsus 439. 96 super. 430 sietti 426 stetul 426. 419 (2) sublimus 376 429 su(r)sum 291 surtus 440 sus = suus 226. 440 Suffixes 33-42 Cbange of Suffix 42 talentum 149.230 struxi 429 stupescere 35 > staacio 276 stablarius 231 stagnum (masc.230 stais stup(p)a 163 suabitati 318 5uadel(l)a 42 suavis 224 Suavitta 37 (-ittus) sub. 410 Plup. 428. 388 -sus 37.) 355 (i) splorator stnicere 417 215 sumus 220.230 spoliatur = -or 244 structus 440 straere 417 strugere 417 spo(n)sus 171 spontaneus 39 squarciare 276 ss s 161 strumentum = inst.) 349 stahu 397 397 stait 397 stantia= inst.

) 74 tous thensaurus 311 — tuus 387 Trogar=-jae 259 Troja 170 Digitized by Microsoft® .) 346 timoratus 39 Tragani (2) = Traj. 318 taurellus 37 taxi 429 telebra ter. -anis 359 = tibi 385 -tiacum 277 tibe 244 ti tractatus 9 tractus 440 tradedit 31.) 395 tot(t)uS 12. 299 transannare 26 tra(ns)duco 299 tra(ns)jicio 299 260 tra(ns)luceo 299 tra(ns)mitto 299 tempo 298 tempus 13 tenit 244 tinxi 429 -tic n transplantare 26 tra(ns)pono 299 tra(ns)tulo 299 ten(n)uis 164 Titius 277 Tivoli 86 tra(ns)veho 299 traps 315 trasporre 299 travis (nom. Theophilus 333 thesaurizare 19 thesaurus -um 189.) 367 traxi Tense 120-30 tensi 429 tensura 13 tensus 441 t^nueram 137 tenui 42S tenutus 438. 352 tribuna(l) 242. 244.259 tragere 417 trahere 417 = tempaccio 39 tempesta 356 (3) templus 347 timpuri 369 tinctus 440 tinge 226 tinguere 226 tins -^^ census trans. 139 tibi 221. 343 tharrjan 342. 299 trabucare 26 tracere 417 tap(p)ete 162 tarde 40 tarir 342.163. 331 timor (fern. 198 376 triumphaut 241. 399 trapalium 16 tres 379 tergum -us 347 termen 356 (3) terminaciones 2 76 terra (m) 309 tersi toreomatum 191 -torium 37 -tonus 39 torma = tu. 380 trinitas 429 tarsus 441 -Tt\% 38 testa 13 tetrus 376 428 tortus 440 tot 71 tot trinta tris 37 380 taxui 428 204 (2) texutus 440 thahso 342.208 tonsus 441 toll(e)re 429 trebus 201 trei = tres 379 298 trei Teodor 332 -ter 40 tardus 276 Terentio = treis 177 tremulat 235 trepaliare 33 = -us 298 tergSre 399 -tor 37 torcere 399 torco 226. 347 threscan 342 tra. 407 theios 333 toto (dat. 439 tolsi 428. 440 239 tollitus 435. 424 tristus = tres 395 -trix 37 trobaire 37 (-tor) totum (adv.292 -tim 40 timbre 187.2l6 tapis 182 tapit 182 Index.208 tonatus 435 tondere 399 tonica tu. 325. 289 Tricassas 151 trienta 259 tri(g)inta 142. 259. 429 tolui 428 tomolus =: tumu.208 tomus 186 torqu(e)o 226. 407 -tas 37 tasso 342. 399 torsi trescar 342 trib(u)la 385 traducir 299 traduire 299 Tatius 277 tatus 16 taula 236. 71. 343 tata 16 .

379 -undus 39 ungo 226 unguere 226 unicornis 44 unigenitus 44 vaqua = vacua 223 vaqui vacui 223 vastare 344 vanitare 34 = 187 tuos 138 -tura 37 turrensis 39 turri tumum vasus -um 347. 356 (3) vea via 201 = vecere = veh-4i7 -e 364 -tus 37 (-ta). 206. 405 vadum 344 -us 347 valde 237 vaUa(t) 224.) 244 178.395 unu(s) 29S unxi 429 U(5 >• o 225 uo unacc. 14. 192. 403 vendita 37 (-ta) 177 u 165. 82. 440 ver 13 usque hodie 47 ustium 202 Ut II. 285 Valinca 37 (-Incus) . 192. 440 unire 34 Tuscanus 39 iuito 204 (2) tuttus 204 (2) tuus 226. 430 > > -urem 346 (3) veninum 42 venire 126 (5) venitus 436. 222. 438. 187. 440. 217 vadere 126 204 (2) -tudo 37 iuii 204 (2) tul£runt 450 tucti > -ellus 42 40 -um vallensis 39 : Unaccented Vowels see valneas = ba. 229 (5). 220 ui 216 unaccented 219. 206. 223 : vernac(u)lus 234 vemum tempus 13 ve(r)sus 291 vertragus 19 Digitized by Microsoft® . 208 u cons. 349 * verecundia 231 verecunnus 281 Inflection: > > > utrum II. 185 trutina 187 tu 60 -ula 37 (-ulus) Ulixes 187 ultra 166 -ulus 37.) 367 vendutus 438 vene bene 316 = urbs 12. 39 (5).316 -tulus turn = tuum 226. 206-8. etc. 101-30 Verbs : see Verb Forma verbus 347. 2c6 u 208 u ii o 165. u 226 uuadius 344 > -uus > -itus 42 -udo ii > -umen 42 uxo(r) 295 uxore (abl. > -clus 234 388 Vowels unde 10. -ura 37. 244 in hiatus 222-6 uo >• o 226 uu u 226 o 225 u(5 uu u 226 Uranus 193 urbis (nom. 83 ubi 73 -uc(c)us 37 (-icca) -uculare 35 -uculus 42 -utus 39. 387-8 ty 276-7 ty ty > cy 277 > sy 277 uno (dat. 84. 315. 297. 393 undecim 166.315 usare 34 Use Use Use of of Cases 85-100 of Inflections 85-130 Words 54-84 venuta 37 (-ta) venutus 436. 284 vedea 421 = ve^ere 283 vef 226 vegere = veh-4i7 uobit = obiit > ve(he)inens 250 vehere 417 vel II velle 126 (3). 441 uu unacc. 73.298. 438. 326 u 178. 378. III -uta 37 (-ta) verbex = vervex 323 Verb Forms see Conjugation Use 72. 430 urps 297. 71. 220 -ugo 37 (-ago) ui 216 V see Labials vacuus 42 195 (6). 228. 440 venui 428. 57. 187. Troyes 151 tructa 38. 243. o 226 vecinus 229 (4) vedus 234.Index.) 429 -unt -ent 449 unus 10. 14. 42. 70. 367 veni 428. 438. 42 accented 206-8 u 206-7 ii>-u 165.

2l8 vervex 323 ves(s)ica 162 vestibat Index.195 = video 416 vidui = vidi 428. by Microsoft® . cf. Syl. 416. vinus 347 Clerical Pronun. 428. + vezem 445 vezzo 278 -vui 428 -vi via 167. 430 vido vidutus 438. 428 in words borrowed by other languages 1 74-5 Latin Vowels 178 Position 160-4 videre 72. 37 victurias 203 vic(u)lus'234. 284 videderunt 426 video 272-3. 439 voster 199 (i). 441 vixutus 440 vobis 385 cf. 285. 234. 407 volutus 438 wastare 344 = ^ = = volvitus 438. 240-5 in hiatus 222-7 Init. 439 Penult 232-9 vac. 285. 428. Quantity 165-77. 428 .) 367 warnjan 36.197 -ea 224 vinia vinsi 428. 387 vovis vobis 318 cf . 165-245 watan werra = . 439. 286.) 349 314. 13. 430. 385 Vowels 136-8. 358' villabus 358 Vincentzus 277 426 vinctus 440 vincui 428 vincutus 440 vindemiator 224 vindico 239 vindimia 197 vindo = v6.195 (6) vocuus Quantity 221 Voice 1 12-4 Vulgar Latin 3. = vac. Accented 194-218 Digitized 344 344 werrarius 39 werrizare 33 wi^arlon 342 19. 380 vilescere villa 10.201 viaticum 8.) 367 victualia 18. 167-9 . 259. 239 vibi = bibi 318 iiibit 316 vibit victore (nom. vivacius 377 vixcit = vixit 255 cf. 429 vinti 380 vincisti Intert. 218 Diphthongs 209-16 420 vetatus 435 vet(e)ranus 219. 438. 441 viduus 226 vieni 177 vig(i)lat 430 Vocative 87 vocitus = vacuus 42. 12. Syl. 428 vixi 255. 255. 4 Voicing 256-7. 283. 272-3. Vulgar Words 15. 231 (6) vocatus 435. 37 viror 37 virtus 10 vlscui visit Influence of Labials 217 Single Vowels 194208 before gn 172 (2) before j 170 before n fricative 171 before nk 172 (i) = = vixi 428. 440 warjan 344 voluntate (nom.93 in hiatus 136-8. 19.285. 228-30 259 34 vi(gi)nti 142. 19 vulnus (masc. 231 vettovaglia 154 vetulus 12. 416 vistus 441 visus 441 vitellus Breaking 177 = 37 vitium 278 vitricus 13 Vowels 179 Close and Open 165 Differentiation 165 Celtic = vit(u)lus 234 vivus 324 vius = German Vowels 179 Greek Vowels 180. 221 Unaccented 219-45 (6) Vocabulary 6-49 vocatio videunt 416 vidi 428. 297. 318 . 195 vocitus Final Syl. 429 = vixit 255 cf. 321 volatilia 37 volemus 403 (2) w (Ger. 284 vetus 13 video 272-3 veyo virginem 233 vir(i)diaria 237 vir(i)dis 237 vir(i)dura 18.) 344 volere velle 403 (2) w (Latin) 224 voles 403 (2) Waddo 344 volestis 403 (2) wadum 344 volimus 403 (2) wahta 343 volon 39 (-undus) walde 344 volsi 429 Wandali 344 voltus 438. 429 vixi(t) 285 .

266 y (Greek) 187 y (Latin) 224 zagante 229 (3) zampogna 332 zanuari = ja. 255. 339 zeta = diseta 339 zie = die 272 Zesu zins 260 ziziper 312 (i) X 246.339 = dia. 339 = dia.277 Zogenes = Dio. 398 Word Order 50-3 wost. Wintrio 344 wlsa 344 witan 36.272 ymnus 251 zerax = liierax 339 zosuin=deorsum 339 Zouleia= Julia 272.339 zebus = die. 339 Digitized by Microsoft® .339 Zefurus 187 zelosus 339 2» 333 Zodorus = Theo.Index.272.344 z 246 zabul(l)us zes 219 zacones zaconus ~ dia.339 = dies 272 = Jesu 272.

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

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