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D. U. C. H. GRANDGENT Fbofbssor of Romance Languagss in Harvahd University BOSTON. HEATH & Digitized CO. PUBLISHERS 1907 by Microsoft® .I)eatb'5 flDot>ern tHanduage Qctics AN INTRODUCTION VULGAR LATIN BY C. A.. S.

C. By D. 1907.V^-^5 3J( Copyright. Heath & Co. Digitized by Microsoft® .

others are cited in the appropriate places in the C. Digitized byiUicrosoft® .— . abreast of current scholarship. Romance making. it be of some interest to has been long in the Classical scholars as well. somewhat scanty as compared with the other It will be seen that I have continually furnished abundant references for the guidance of those topics. but with even fulness I fear. to treat all portions of the subject. not exhaustively. have endeavored to keep I at every stage. however. I Philology. Although it. "^^HILE this book is intended primarily for students of it will. furthermore. who wish to look further into special My principal authorities are listed in the Bibliotext. have tried. I hope. that the is Syntax — perhaps unavoidably parts. H. Grandgent. PREFACE. graphy.

... Words used alike in Classic and in Vulgar Latin Words used differently in Classic and in Vulgar Latin .. xi x xi xiii-xvi .. 8-9 Synonyms Substitutes. ^ .. and Pronouns Prefixes used with Verbs Suffixes Suflixes for Suffixes for Verbs Nouns Adverbs iv Digitized 18-23 Suffixes for Adjectives Suffixes for 23-25 25-26 27-28 Change of Suffix by Microsoft® . 13 13-16 13-14 14-16 16-28 16-17 Prefixes used with Nouns... AND Their Meanings. . . ..TABLE OF CONTENTS.... Sense Restricted Sense Extended .. with Abbreviations PHONETIC ALPHABET and Other Symbols X.. xvii INTRODUCTION i-S VOCABULARY WoBDS.. . ^ .. 9 9-10 10 10-12 Ii>-i2 Particles Words used in Vulgar but not in Classic Latin Native Words Foreign Words I2 Uerivation Post-Verbal Prefixes 13-29 Nauru . Pages MAPS The Roman Empire The Neo-Latin Territory in Europe BIBLIOGRAPHY. 6-29 6-12 6 7-8 7 . . Adjectives.. 7-8 Words used in Classic but not in Vulgar Latin .

Table of Contents. Gerund Gerundive . Adjectives Pronouns- Verbs Adverbs Fiepositions 28-29 29 20 Conjunctions SYNTAX Order of Words Use of Words Nou»s and Adjectives Comparison Numerals Pronouns Personal and Possessive Pronouns Demonstratives Interrogatives and Relatives Indefinite . Compounds v Pages 28-29 28 28 28 28 Nouns . Future Active Participle Digitized 49 49 49 by Microsoft® . . . 30-59 30-32 32-41 32-34 33 33-34 34-38 Pronouns 34 35-36 36-37 37-38 38 ^^38-39 Verbs Adverbs Prepositions 39-41 ^ Conjunctions 41 Use of Inflections Cases 42-59 42-48 42-43 43 43-44 Locative Vocative Genitive Dative Ablative 44-4S 45-47 48^ Accusative Fall of Declension Verb-Forms Impersonal Parts Supine 48 48 48-51 48—49 '.

Illic Ficatum Numerals Greek Words Greek Oxytones . Pages Present Participle Perfect Participle Infinitive 5° 50 5°~5I 51-52 Voice Mood Imperative Subjunctive 52-54 52 5^-54 54-59 54-5^ Tense The Perfect Tenses Future and Conditional 5^59 60-143 60-61 61-68 61-66 61-62 62-63 63 63 64 64-66 PHONOLOGY Syllabication Accent Primary Stress Vowels in Hiatus Compound Verbs Iliac. Greek Paroxytones Greek Proparoxytones Other Foreign Words Secondary Stress Unstressed Words 64 64-65 65-66 66 66-67 67-68 68-77 68-70 71-77 Quantity Position Vowel Quantity Vowels in Hiatus Lengthening before Consonants Disappearance of the Old Quantity Development of a New Quantity 72-73 73-75 75-76 76-77 77-104 78-82 82-gi Vowels Greek Vowels Accented Vowels Single Vowels 82-87 82-83 Digitized o by Microsoft® .vi Table of Contents.

. Q. before Front Vowels and G before Back Vowels and G Final and before Consonants ..Table of Contents. ^ »" I o 84 84-85 85-86 H u 86 86-87 87 a Diphthongs te 88-90 88-89 89-90 au eu ce ui Influence of Labials Clerical Latin 90 90 90 91 91 Unaccented Vowels 91-104 in Unaccented Vowels Initial Syllable Hiatus 93-96 96-98 98-99 99-102 102-104 Intertonic Syllable Penult Final Syllable Consonants Latin Consonants Aspirate Gutturals . . e vii Pages 83-84 84 .. 104-143 106-137 106-107 107-114 109-112 112 C and G Q.. 11 2-1 14 Palatals Dentals Liquids 114-118 118-121 121-124 121-123 123-124 L R Sibilants 124-126 127-132 132-137 Nasals Labials P Digitized 132-133 by Microsoft® ..

Adjectives Personal Pronouns Possessives Demonstratives Interrogative Indefinite 162-163 163-164 165 165 and Relative Pronouns Pronouns and Adjectives Verbs The Four Conjugations First Conjugation 166-187 166-170 166-167 167 Second Conjugation Third Conjugation Fourth Conjugation Fundamental Changes in 167-170 170 Inflection 170-173 Digitized by Microsoft® . r. Nasals. Pages B F V . A 138 138 138-139 140 140-141 K. *. n. and Sibilants Z Germanic Consonants 141-143 144-187 144-161 144-147 144 145-146 146-147 MORPHOLOGY NotJNS AND Adjectives Gender Masculine and Feminine Masculine and Neuter Feminine and Neuter Declension of Nouns First Declension 147—156 149-151 Second Declension Third Declension Loss of Declension Declension of Adjectives 151-152 152—156 156 157-158 158-159 159-161 161-165 161-162 Comparison Numerals Pronouns and Pronominai. 133-13S 13s i3S-'37 137 137—141 u Greek Consonants B.viii Table of Contents. T e. X Liquids.

Inchoative Venbs ix Pages Present Stems Imperfect Perfect 173-174 174-176 176-177 177-182 » Weak Perfects . Strong Perfects Pluperfect and Future Perfect Perfect Participle 177-180 180-182 183 Personal Mndings 183-185 186-187 189-219 INDEX Digitized by Microsoft® .Table of Contents.

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Mussafia. BIBLIOGRAPHY WITH ABBREVIATIONS. M. (Vol. Cf. Cooper: F. Romanische Forschungen VII. 1891. 1895. possibly as early as the third century. 774. Densusianu. Mohl. Bayard. Bon. Histoire de la langue roumaine. 1868-70. 1902. ed. W. 1899. A volume of mis- Bayard : L. : Part — — . Corssen.Pipoque Densusianu: O. in Romor nische Forschungen XV. Vocalismus und Betonung der rischen Franzosisch nach ihren Spuren lateinischen Sprache. Cohn : G. Vol. <J la chronologic du latin vulgaire. C. G. 1902. 1901. Pr. I. 145 ff. Dottin: G. Introduction 1899. -Carnoy: A. i). Claussen. Cf. 1872. Bechtel: E. AudoUent.. Chronologie : F. Carnoy. Cohn. A. 2^ ed. Quarterly. Le latin de saint Cyprien. Heraeus. Defixionum Tabellae.T. I. Per. Bonnet. Digitized b)microsoft® . Audollent: A. Dottin. 278 ft. cellaneous studies issued in honor of A. Bechtel. Die Suffixwandlungen im Vulgdrlatein und im vorlittera- im NeufranzSsischen. : 1902-03. A Latin list of and incorrect spellings. New ed. Wiener Studien XIV. Le latin d'Espagne d'aprh les inscriptions. 1905. mlrovingienne. d'Arbois de Jubainville. Ueber Aussprache. 1904. Silviae Peregrinatio. Corssen : W. Le latin de Grigoire de Tours. Melanges Renier 301-309. D'Arbois: H. Mllanges Boissier 5-9. 1906. Leipzig. : Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum.. App. Archiv : Archiv filr lateinische Lexicographie und Crammatik mit Einschluss des dlteren Mittellateins.Cooper. : correct- Die Appendix Probi. La dlclinaison en Gaule d. L. Die griechischen Wbrter im Franzosischen. I. Word Formation in the Roman Sermo Plebeius. Bausteine: Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. Manuel pour servir h Vltude de I'antiquiti celtique. 1863 1893 Claussen T.. S. 1890.

in Archiv saint Jlrome. Koschwitz. Dubois A. K. . Hetzer. Foerster and E. Dubois. 498.. Lateinisch-romanisches Wdrterbuch. Rydberg. 3 vols. Franz : 1883. 1857-1880. Die lateinisch-romanischen Elemente im Althochdeutschen. XIV BlBIJOGRAPHY. 1879Digitized by Microsoft® . KofEmane : G. 2d ed. Eckinger T.. : : P. Die locale Verbreitungfriihester romanischer Lautwandlungen im.. 157. Hoppe. Die Reichenauer Glossen in Zs. XXVI. W. Grammatici Latini. 1904 Haag : O. Gl. : W. Meyer-Liibke. probably 521 ff. alten Italien. Reichenauer Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. in France. P. Reviewed by G. Draeger: A. 2d 1878.: 1900. Kluge. 48. 1896 — Futurum G. Facere G. Franz. . a: Zur Geschichte des franzosischen 3.. Edon: G.. Beiheft Gram. Grundriss der romanischen Philologie. Koschwitz. W. Made in France in the eighth Reich. Draeger. EinfUhrung in das Studium der romanischen les Sprachwissenschaft. W. Habere mit dem et Infinitiv und die Entstehung des la latiniti de romanischen Futurums. Syntax und Siil des Tertullian. La latiniti d'Ennodius. : Meyer-Liibk'e. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. Hoppe: H. 569. Grbber. Thielmann. Grammaire des langues romanes. — 1888- M. in the eighth Cf. : : Hammer in Grundriss I^. Kbrting. ed. 1892. Goelzer. Keil: H. Historische Syntax der lateinischen Sprache. £criture laire. Cassel : II. 641 7. G. Die Orthographie lateinischer Worter ingriechischen : : Inschriften. Cf. Gl. Eckinger. Korting: G. 1902. £don. W. -Grundriss : G. Hammer.. jd or ninth century. 1902.. Einf . 1898. 2d ed. Made. Foerster and E. Le developpement de facere dans langues romanes. H. Paris in Rom.. 2d ed. I. Keil. 1890vols. Zs. Entstehung und Entwickelung des Kirchenlateins. : century. Kluge F. £E. XXII. Haag. Romanen und Germanen in ihren Wechselbeziehungen. et prononciation du latin savant et du latin popu- 1882. Etude lexicograpkique grammaticale de Kasseler Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. 1894. Rydberg. of Vol. ed. Die Latinitdt Fredegars. Koff mane. 1901. 1903. 1884. 2 1902. 1893. 1901. 1903. Franz.

. 1901. Substantives Word Formation of the Latin Inscrip- and Adjectives. perhaps from Spain. Lebreton. Loth. 1892-1902. 1886. du frangais prilittiraire. PI. Geyer. Oliver: A^Oliver. Mohl. Neue: Formenlehre der lateinischen Sprache. Pirson. G. Itala und Vulgata. R. Quomodo lingua latina usus S. N.. 1869. P. : Leipzig. 1900. 259. Archiv II. Lindsay. Silvice Aquitanm 1898. : LiteraturblattfUrgermanischeundromanischePhilologie. ad loca sancta.Bibliography. : : Ltblt. Cf. Mohl. Monthly. Studies in the tions. E. 1901. 'P. : P. Pogatscher A. Thielmann. Olcott. Meyer-Lubke. J. Quillacq. Lexique F. 1888. Lindsay: W. with special reference to the Latin Sermo Vulgaris. Pirson: J. Pass. lateinischen und romanischen Lehnworte im Altenglischen : II. Gamurrini. : 1 901. Fortsetzung. Le viritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. H. Marchot. 1899. Ferotin. 1903. : F.XXX). Teil.S. Silvia AquitancE Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. xv W. 451. Pogatscher. De la latinitl des Sermons de saint Augustin. M.'i>(eue. t^ Verzeichniss der ed. J. G. Observations on the Use of Certain Prepositions in to the Petronius with special reference Part. Die lateinische Sfrache in den romanischen : Landern. . Neumann Franz Neumann. Cf. . Olcott : G. Zur Lautlehre der griechischen. Vokalismus der Tonsilben. 509: Peregrinatio iiii-viii. 1888. 1894. and S. Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. La premiire personne du pluriel en gallo-roman. Hilarii Tractatus de Mysteriis et Hymni et S. Perf Per. Spr. Regnier: A. I goo. Les mots latins dans les langues brittoniques. De latinitate libelli qui inscriptus est Peregrinatio loca sancta. in Itinera hierosolymitana saculi Written probably in the latter part of the fourth century by an ignorant nun. Regnier. See Bechtel. Pers. Loth J. Etudes sur la langue et la grammaire de Ciciron. Petite phonltique Phon. S. 1897. M. : La langue des inscriptions de la Gaule. : Roman Sermo Plebeius. auf Aussprache und Recht- schreibung beziiglichen Eigenthiimlickkeiten in den Inschriften aus Gallia Narbonensis. T. Btudes sur le lexique du latin vulgaire. Ronsch. 1892. Digitized by Microsoft® . Wolfflin in Archiv IV. Habere mit dem Part. sit Quillacq : : J. Ang^ade. in P. ed. 372. Pr. Hilarius. lat. 1905. A. 1898. 1887. The Latin Language. Lebreton J. in Grundriss V. ad 367 ff. Perf. 1898.

453. 371. Stolz: F. Vok. 138. 125. XII. Quarter- ly. Wblfflin. Die rumdnische Sprache. VII. : Wolfflin : E. Substrate : G. Som. Waters. Spr. H. : Zur Entstehung der romanischen Wortstellung aus der lateinischen. 234. 1885. Bibliography. Archiv I. : S. 422. Charles Thurot. 1&&2. Quarterly. 1900. in Studi Medievali I. Notices et Extraits de divers manuscrits latins pour servir A fhistoire des doctrines grammaticales au moyen dge. 116. 117.. Die lokalen Verschiedenkeiten der lateinischen SpracAe. Urbat R. 276. Romanische Sprachwissenschaft. Windisch. Sepulcri. 539. Tiktin. Halle. fr. Vulgdrlateinische Substrate romanischer Worter. Zauner: A. Paris. 25. in 204. Suchier: H. Grammatik der lateinischen Sprache. which only occasional reference is made are cited in full in Digitized by Microsoft® . in Grundriss P. Tours. 1902. II. 507. XQ. VI. Four to sLx 1879. Stolz. 424. Vol.: E. Der Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. ^KvA. 371. E. Suchier. 1890. 564. Die Ausprache des Latein nach physiologisch-historischen Grundsdtzen. Historische 1894. Seelmann. Beitrdge zu einer Darstellung der romanischen Elemente im Latein der Historia Francorum des Gregor v. Romania. 3 vols. : Zeitschrift fiir franzosische Sprache und Litteratur. 171. IV. 1903. numbers a year. und Thurot : Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits de la Biblioth^que nationale et : attires bibliothiques Vol. Sittl: K.xvi Richter Elise Richter. Tiktin : : H. Zs. Sepnlcri : Gregorio A. Windisch: E. Lateinische und romanische Comparaiion. V. Schuchardt. in Grundriss P. 1 856-68. Grober. Zs. in Grundriss P. 100. Die keltische Sprache. Paris. 1868.nn&r. Urbat. Petronius. Chemnitz and Leipzig. III. I. 377. Cena Trimalchionis. Die franzosische und provenzalische Sprache ihre Mundarten. 264. Le alterazioni fonetiche e morfologiche nel latino di Magno e del suo tempo. Waters: W. to Works the text. : Zeitschrift Jur romanische Philologie.

the source standing at the open end of the figure. (a semicircle) under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is not syllabic. whichever way it be turned. SMALL CAPITALS mean that the forms so printed occur in inscriptions (but this indication is used only when for some special reason it seems desirable). the sound of Spanish v and i/i *.PHONETIC ALPHABET AND OTHER SYMBOLS. S =z > the sound of in English i/iis. q e. . = the sound of ng in English long. not >• indicates derivation. The other marks and abbreviations employed are so generally accepted as to need no explanation. o = rounded the sound of German = the sound of th in English thin. . . the sound of German «. =r bilabial /S v. (an acute accent) after a consonant letter shows that the consonant is (a dot) • C '^ / (a hook)' under a palatal. under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is close. J) ii o.c = the sound of ch in German ach. = the sound of e in French me. := rounded i. * (an asterisk) before a word shows that the form attested. vowel letter shows that the vowel is open. is conjectural. Digitized by Micrqsoft® xvii .

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the in 102-1. forsaken in the third century. Illyrians in^sou^hea^emjmd southwestern Italy respectively by and Greeks. political changes drove it in the rest of the from Great Britain. and quite cut off from the rest of the Latin-speaking world in the sixth. Latin language never gained a foothold in Greece. for the most part. in adopted by Etruscans and by various n orthern Italy by Ligurians. Tiber. tribes. The and Teutones were destroyed was a province. The extent of the Roman Empire on p. c. Sfr. Sicily became a province in 241. Lat. IHy- _rians . Empire it has remained. civilizations. pp.AN INTRODUCTION TO VULGAR I. D. the Orient. X. 451-455. Celts. and. Illyria was absorbed after 167. beyond the peninsula it spread among Ligurians. Raetia in 15.talyjt_was Italic tribes. in 50. all Italy was subdued south of the Macra and the Rubicon. Celts. 'See Mohl. Africa after Iberians.. and linguistic habits.. northern Cim- Gaul Dacia was colonized in 107 A. and Africa. Aquitanians. Venetia cast her lot with Rome in 215._Semites. tEe bri fall "oO^thage in 146. Chronologie . also Meyer-Lubke.n central j. originally the speech of shown by the map was Latium. Spain was made a province in 197. Throughout this territory the official language Latin. j. I Digitized by Microsoft® . LATIN. southern Gaul in 120._ Germanic and others still. representing different races. Sardinia and Corsica in 238. a little district on the is The Latin tongue was thus extended to many peoples. The Latinization of these peoples was the work of several centuries^: by 272 b.

xi marks the parts of ica. It should be remembered. became more uniform. has always been in an unstable condition. Europe where Latin in its modern forms is now spoken. there were at all times. [§ 2 until the present day. kindred At first there was sturdy resistance. Chronologie 98-99. ilex are perhaps Umbrian possibly Etruscan Lat. c. and Oscan was used in inscriptions until the first century of our era. that the language carried effect. moreover. and has been carried thence to Amerand Asia. The Social War. Digitized may be Oscan. The map on p. The Latin tongue. piimex. considerable local dive^ences.g2eaking peoples_ were not_ homogeneous. 2. nevertheless a few native words were kept. conflict of or less with the native idioms . Italian nn : for nd.^ When Latin conquered. Kff. until the 90-89 B. and to some degree in the peninsula. however.2 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in the main. Pomex. jfor : e.'' In the outlying provinces. Spr. Latm. and there must have been a variety of accent. etc. 464. like every living language. Africa. elex for The Italian word zavorra by Microsoft® . it blended more languages. alL southern Italy was under Oscan influence. the alteration being most rapid in the earliest and the latest Furthermore. but there doubtless were still noticeable differences in pronunciation and even in vocabulary. had a levelling and speech in Italy ^ See Chronologie 133 and I16-120. The evidence of inscriptions and of grammarians indicates that from the beginning to the end of Roman history speech was constantly changing. The before the Social War. of Latium was adopted by tribes using. but especially p^eriods. Latin was simply substituted for foreign tongues. Oscan forms are ligud for and k for lege^ pru for pro^ ni for 'The is S. and there was little or no mixture. 445. and their In Italy the language §peech_reflected_their varied origin. the resulting geographical dis- crepancies are manifest in early monuments.

and from the slang of the lowest quarters of the city. . Roman territory. What wecalTVuIit gar Latin is the speech of the middle classes. was constantly developing away from the archaic standard of elegant parlance. while popular usage tends to quick change. 463-464. . ugper and that of the lower and^coiintry speech.t&L. and is also between city Injatfi. Cf Cooper . not the primitive. though affected by all of these. %J3] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. not an independent offshoot of Old Latin: system. Literary influence conservative and refining. more offtcial speech. 3. Republican and early Imperial times educated speech became highly^ artificial. Administration and ImiHtary service tended to obliterate distinctions.the classes. Spr. drawing away . provinces was not identicial: it represented different chronological stages and different local dialects of jI^aUc^Latin .from the everyday language on the other hand. from the brogue of the country. the earlier acquisitions received a more popular. from the consciously polite utterance of cultivated society. Digitized by Microsoft® . _excegting ^reece andthe £entiiry after Christ. vowel is it Neither the dialect of the slums or of the us of not a few urban and rustic grammarians distinct tell vulgarisms that are not perpetuated in the It is Romance tongues. under the Empire the variations probably came to be no greater than those /the^kter colonies a now to be found in the English of the British Empire. throughout the Republic and the Empire. XV-XXX. as It is grew out of early Classic Latin.. was completelyTaFinized by the fourth "^ "" of With the beginnings culture and literature there came inevitably a divergence between the language of . We may say in general that the East.^ fields: it continues the Classic.^ Vulgar Latin naturally developed differently in ^ * Cf Lai. 1 .. 3 i\2_ik^_J£X?. the common idiom.

An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. period lasts. ^l^ various localities. some to unknown reasons! WEy~" for instance. If we compare that the latter find also a gre at sim plification of inflections. We rfote an. is most sharply differentiated from Classic Latin when schools decayed „ . and the diphthong at is reduced to e).^ The differentiatign. some to a tendency to assimi^tejmlike adjacent sounds (so ipse is spoken isse.4 .enormous development of modifying and determining words. progressed. . Sittl and Hammer. then. roughly The speaking. the universal inclination of language to diverge was reinforced by the original habits of the diverse speakers and by such peculiarities of native accent as hacl survived.JLQmance languages _begin. * For a history of the Latin language. ai almost in iCf. as far as the levelling inEuence of schot^l and army permitted. we shall see was always tending to become more flexible and more explicit. being accelerated and the military organization was broken. see Lat. from about 200 b. we observe certain changes in pronunciation. we may put it._jjid an abundant use of prefixes and. due partly to phonetic but mainly to syntactic causes.^ any definite date must be arbitrary.^ Ctassic and VulgarXatin. Spr. i6i. YjJgar Lsatijl.A-P. become virdis. until the dialects of distant localities became mutu^ ally unintelligible. c. Kiibler Archiv VIII. inj^e^ixth Jix . . 492-497. Furthermore. B. some to a desire for differentiation (which lowers i to e to make it more remote from i ). some of which can be ascribed to an inclination to discard those parts of words that are not necessary for their identification (as vetulus when viridis. Pirson and Carnoy also. such as articles and prepositions. for African Latin. tqa^bout -6oo . vedus).seventh century of our era. in the last few centuries of this epoch.ALjUus--poin-t we ~may_ say that Vulgar XiSi^ stops and the . Digitized by Microsoft® . suftseSWe 4.

278. . in inscriptions and early manu- ^scripts'. Le veritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. 5 universally be came is e. E. and W. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. 35. Spr. while au did not in Latin generally. ^ Utilized by E. XXX). Grober. Zur Sprache der Mulomedicina Chironis in . Sprachgziellen und Wortquellen des lateiniscken Worierbuchs in Archiv I. list of spellings. Schuchardt. 301 G. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Lommatzsch. of the^TConraHcel languages. 455-461. Die Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. 367. Seelmann. Foerster and KDfSiiitbdnll>fr. the so-called Glossary of Reichenau. possib^'as early as the third century'. 25 ff. 1885. 55-67. 1904. 1899. Lot.iSgS. 6t. by an uneducated woman (probably a Spanish nun) of the latter good and bad pajt of the. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. Ueber die Latinitat der Peregrinatio ad loca sancta in Archiv IV. a problem as yet unsolved. E. . a considerable iragment of a description of travel in the East. 4 For the chronology of developments. Archiv XIV.glossaries aDi. G.. early and late. fourth century^. in Archiv I. 641 K. Of ^speciaTvalue are the Peregrinatiqjidjqtasancta. the subsequent developments. Silvia Peregrinatio. Itinera hierosolymitana sceculi mi-viii. Aussprache des Latein. a few texts w ritten by persons of scanty education. A. see G. Herseus. the occasional lapses in cultivated authors. andrmosTim- ^portant o f_all. For a brief account of the Latin grammarians. Cf. Melanges Boissier 5 W. the nonClassic forms. the distinction of learned and popular words. W. "See P.ijecurring. P. Die Appendix Probi. Fcerster in Wiener Studien XIV. 259 M.Jists„jof JacQlxacJtjOTmjs. E. . 5* Our sou rces of information' concerning the„ current spoken La tin are^ the statements of grammarians^. S. Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. 1902 . 1866-68. 401.Mili/BaoilSisches Uebungsbuch. F6rotin.* All of these are to be used with caution. Beiheft 7. 1902. the A^endix Probi^ z. ^Cf. . see Stolz. Bechtel. Gioixr. Zur Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. and VII. Meyer-Liibke. made in France There is an interesting collection of Defixionum Tabellce. S. Geyer. 551. Audollent. 'See W. and the establishment of unattested Vulgar Latin words.— An become^ o. "See 119. . 204 if. Hetzer in Zs. * Used by H. some . Paris in Melanges Renier 301.. Zur Mulomedicina Chironis in Archiv XII. Wolfflin.' spells by A. in the eighth century. Heraeus.

Korting. (Jlagrare —gTttta). bene. has many poetic figures and many abstract terms unknown to the crowd. ff.iooff. mater. forming. ff. 138 {hmdus — iticem). (sabanum — lare)^ 234 VI. 149. {Hie — lamna)^ So?^' {lacusta — mille)\ IV. viridis. This class includes a great mass of words. suus)'. 255. It is natural that the The the senses of words. On the other hand. WORDS USED ALIKE IN CLASSIC AND VULGAR LATIN. see G. 125 {quadraginta — rascu' {reburrus — runcare). vendere. 6. Grober. 185-203.I. dicere. longus. the nucleus of the language. {minacicE — nutrire). Die Sprache der romiscken Kinderstube in Archiv XIII. VulgSrlateinische Substrate romanischer . 2'/$^. {tabanus — ziruiare). polite language. W. to speak. speech of the literary and fashionable classes should differ from that of the common people so Literature inclines to extend it is in all civilized communities. 264ff. puteus. filius. Lateinish-romanisches Worterbuch. si. altus. quando. vacca . (eber III. ff. {damnum — dui)^ in Arckiv: I. Herasus. Examples are : 7. see G. V. Digitized b^Wlicrosoft® . audire. pants. too. For a thorough discussion of reconstructed forms. 453ff. pater.) Worter ff. . so cams. — icaccubus — curbus). yj^ (supplement. ff. bonus. A. 233 ff. 539 —Jiiicum)^ 424£f. For an approximately complete vocabulary. ~ technical words not found in literature. Die romische Soldatensprache in Arckiv XH. amare. ff. popular use tends to restrict them. 1. in. male. ii6fif. VOCABULARY. the vulgar idiom has homely metaphors of its own and numerous specific. 1901. 422 {pbedire — putidus)-. ^See Densusianu. iiyS. II. [abbreviare buttis). reconstructed out of Romance words. WORDS AND THEIR MEANINGS.

11. 1 a. 283. § 10] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and also 'continue'. collocare= 'go to bed'. hcec eestimare non capit. assume to the old one: Bechtel 137. part'. new meaning in addition ambulare= 'march'. 'authority'.ct of taking'.'» Many Pirson 260-262.' to^x^a . 243. Per. orbus—'hXmd'.'. nite This happens frequently. 8. 235-328. etc. WORDS USED DIFFERENTLY AND IN VULGAR LATIN. i ^ns— 'chM'. : senses. of the examples can ». Very many Classic words are used in Vulgar Latin with a different sense: comparare =^h\xy'./22J£Sfe 46. Digitized by Microsoft® . 'text'. etc. Quillacq 54-79. = 'rebJiKe§. . defi' 9. not 'sophism' nor 'deceit'. non capit prophetam perire. a word assuming a more or concrete signification {^se : icognatus\=z ' brother-in-law coUocare^ 'put to bed' dominicus =: divinus . yUloi:^. SENSE EXTENDED. Capit a ssumed the meaning of fieri potes t: R. mulier='-vi\ie'. non capit utique videri Deus. G. words. Archiv XII. not 'strength'. G. necare = Bon.^ The general use of a word in an extended sense is not common.. however. Dubois 185-225. tractatus= 'treatise'. nor 'best b. Many words kept their literal but lost their metaphorical sense: captio ='a. ro6ur= 'o^. SENSE RESTRICTED. Bayard 105. lectio =^ 'dxoifin' machinari='g[mA. Bayard 63-202. focus=^iix&\ paganus= 'pagan'. 269-270. be classified under the heads of restriction or extension of meaning. perhaps Cf. viaticum = ']ox\xntY'. Dubois 220. 286).. 351—352. 286. 272. Bon. Hoppe Most 48. but there are some examples /(7r^j = 'strong' in all 10. etc. Regnier 24. Bon. Bon. se piicare=' go'. ingenium := 'trick'.. IN CLASSIC 7 a.'k'. Pirson 257-258 ..

391-397. unus = 'a'. etc. = 'pass Regnier 27 {quadraglnta dies fecit). the French ilj> a. G. diu. Pirson 255 ^^l^lj^j^^ ^^^^ habuit serpentes). del>ere 'mdica. Poetic aurora. [§ n 'go'. Ecclesiastical Latin. quia. etc. 37. /V/-. autem. 418. they were either borDigitized by Microsoft® . sive. etc. donee. Regnier 29 {in came paucas habet virgines sanctimoniales). wW«/« = 'miracles' (in imitation of the Greek). Bayard 94.. quippe. de. at. Latin words either were not em- II. WORDS USED Numerous all in m CLASSIC BUT NOT IN VULGAR LATIN. Unde came to mean 'and so'. Bon. quod. Waters Ch. ergo.loco forsitan quattuor milia. satis = 'much'. ut. ita. tamen must have been sed. 3. replicare= 'reply'. ^: moribund. Dubois. Waters Ch. monuments of the Romance languages: so funus. populus «/««^«j= 'common people'. and quasi.per. Regnier 20. ^2S= 't^he' and 'he'. quoque. Dubois 301-308). hamo has the sense of French on. Classic ployed at the vulgar speech or went out of use before the earliest Jubere. Bon. Bayard 83. . G. terms and some abstract nouns were not needed: frondifer. proles.. horrescere. 204. etc. fletus. 38. quin.. Very many adverbs and conjunctions dis-"~\ I appeared saltern. etc. Per.". Per. igitur. res is used of persons. is very rich in abstract nouns (G. enim.25. to be sure. postquam.tes moral obligation. So various prepositions and conjunctions (as ad. Bechtel 144. apud. facere (time)'. .13.8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 422 (in area Noe . nam. quoad. fascia means a measure of land. 258 fif. although it is common in the Peregrinatio.). cum. 66. Bechtel 127 {habebat de eo. vel. 58 {bella res). utrum. : . quomodo) assumed new functions. but most of them are new formations. 328. When lost terms were needed for literary or other purposes. an. quidem. hand. 44. Dubois 218. . etiam. Bechtel 144..

urbs by civitas. French. and by villa. testa by Cf. Rjetian. 12. Provengal. Cf Zauner 41-42. Italian. Sometimes a term was replaced by a word not found in Classic Latin at all: anser-wAs driven out by *auca (<.. 472 ferre to portare. ^ * Caput (or rs. os to bucca. Dubois 220.§ 13] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Digitized ^^^ by Microsoft® . 272. edere in the main to manducare. G. mansio ( Roman. casa occurs only in Italian inscriptions. *filiaster. privignus by 13. ^capitia (<^caput) by Spanish and . sol According to Olcott XVIII. domus by casa. cf. caput to testa''. equus to caballus. R. magnus to grandis. i'^o^^ tot hy quanti. Dubois 212. Italian. Sometimes the survivor was far from a synonym in Classic Latin: discere was displaced hy apprendere.*avica. Rumanian. senex to vetulus.\ Dubois 209. tanti. ^-j 2 parentes . Portuguese. 324. Provenjal. . ^ Zauner 41-4. b. 'dwelling') only in . Occasionally the substitute aliquis yielded in part to res -vi&y was apparently a slang word: nata. SYWOHYMS. to genitores. hospitale^. cur to quare.Va&T* capum) is preserved by Rumanian. vitrUus hypatraster. humerus by spatula. Indus to jocus. For mansio.338. clerical 9 rowed from Classic or Latin (as nobilis) or replaced by new constructions (as *carrica for onus). one often crowded out the other: atrium gave way to cars. 313. Spanish. . nunc by hora. ignis hy focus. Italian. emere by comparare. crus gave to gamba. 336. Bechtel i^o^gena to gabata. avus by *aviolus. R.. mansio. . When Latin had two words nearly synonymous. R. R.2. noverca by *matraster.. Raetian. R. diminutive of avis). a. Portuguese prefer casa. . 345. French. omnes by toii. R. SUBSTITUTES. R. 472. Olcott XXV. Some words were replaced by diminutives.. Among the Romance languages. some nouns by derivative adjectives: avis ^ by aucellus. 337. R. French and Provencal mansio and hospitale.

mammula-:=^^zxiA\aoVs\t. Adjectives used as nouns were etc. 121-130 {cereolus. quoniam were often replaced by quomodo. credens. and other phrases. 108-121 {brevis. Dubois 147 {novellus'). Ab was made unnecessary by de and per. 403. Autem. G. R. Gl. ex gave to de. Olcott 250-263 {gemelli. infemus. to propter were displaced southern Gaul. Reich. quando. etsi. Bon. d'lJ way pro and per. the by quando and other conjunctions. vetus for [§ 15 by *soUculus. conjunctions. Occasionally. quod. infemus. Cf. ne. R. dies largely .). too. most part by vetulus. sed. igitur. became *por. R. utrum were assumed by si. Many prepositions.). apud-<n2iS partially supplanted by adj cum. in Gaul. doubtless under the influence of per. 184-185. ut were ousted by functions of an. hiems by hibernum. PARTICLES. which replaced /^r and pro in Spain and to a considerable extent in northern Gaul.). Latin: G. paucum tempus for haud diu).x\naucella. by subsitution. Italy.).lo in part An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 472 mane h^ Diminutives were extremely common in late matutinum. 395-396. Fro. by other words. tamen. frequent also: R. neptilla. etc. erga. words were replaced by phrases: diu by longum tempus (Bon. 203._ Cis. etc. and adverbs were lost 14. WORDS USED IN VULGAR BUT NOT IN CLASSIC LATIN. 4. ^w^ by diurnus. c. and Dacia preferred /^r. cuculla. . 15. etc. yielded to apud. Some of these were probably old Digitized by Microsoft® . etiam. 201. pra. schedula. The place of cum was taken various substitutes. appear in Classic Vulgar Latin evidently had many words that do not texts. ergo. ver by vemum tempus. Densusianu. 100-107 {arida.

Vr. and 'go' (cf. NATIVE WORDS. Pirson 243. It. a. St. detached 176-177).. baro — 'athlete'. etc. 17. Grammont. . gent. atta.g. sed non genttlis. 156-157. fins onors. adj. apparently a cross then m. and perhaps those of the words meaning 'gape'. Archiv XIII. expressifs in M. 468-469 (^quid enim prode est homini. although they were doubtless in common use: amma. Pirson 244. pudoris finis. 158. 151-153. (so. Archiv XIII. some were late creations. Archiv XIII. gente). hoc enim prode fit vobis. fine fino). A few that must have existed are not attested at all: *refusare. circare = 'hnnV . 186. nonnus.). Onomatopees et Revue des langues romanes XLIV. Archiv XIII. Waters Ch. 63. XVII. Archiv VIII. 151—'. Densusianu 190. some Were borrowed from other languages. (Fr. ing 'touch'. Archiv XII. etc. *prodis. 154. Rom. fin. Densusianu 196. R. etc. Neue II. pa(J>)pa. 421. 234. trepalium. § 405). Substrate ficatum. prode. and f.). fuit prode illis.adj.. serutinus. from the noun finis in such phrases as honorum finis. Audollent 199. tatus. as *miaulare. battalia. 237. E. cf. It. Herzog in Bausteine e. *rettna=: 'rein'. mamma. Likewise words made by ono- matopoea. 97. cloppus Densusianu 196.§ 17] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Archiv XIII. Substrate V. 154. pappus = 'gra. bxmca. mots. 106. 16. Korting (found in the 7th century). Ch. Bayard 179 (applied . finis honoris > 484. potis est = potest.. Archiv XIII. 53. *gentis. (Fr. . SubstrateY. adj. tata.ndta. Some native words are rarely attested. ii native terms that do not happen to occur in the works preserved. Cyprian to the bishop of Carthage). norma. gavia (used by Pliny). so not improbably the original of the Romance words mean'find'. between genitus and from prodest (cf.. Pr. drappus. Some of the unattested words were obviously late developments: *finis. Digitized by Microsoft® .

scandalizare. This subject chapter. some made by Christian writers. §71. prophetizare. G. will be discussed at length in the following may be given here: post-verbal dolus <dolere. Regnier VIII. dactylus. prophetare. Cf. colaphizare. (cf. * abbellire . 205-226: anathema. as baptizatio. numerous verbs in -izare. wfltan 19. haribergum. African Latin was freest in word formation. evangelizare. *soliculus. Very many Greek terms used by ecclesiastical writers never became popular. cata pascha). Waters Ch. which affected familiarity with Greek. Digitized by Microsoft® .. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. carricare. 225. [§ 19 Late Latin was rich in derivatives. Reich. schema. *nivicare. baptizare. verging 247 {cata mane mane).. colaphus. Gl. Reich.. some of popular creation. We find a large number of Greek words. alberca. *ausare. cf. society. haunjan. Bon. 12 An 18. sagma. More came in through the Christian vocabulary: angelus. such as alauda. According to Olcott XIX. b. vict(u)alia. but a few examples Gl. diaconissa. Introduction) found their way into Latin: bannus. vertragus. Pirson 236). eunuchizare. 211. R. hapja. Waters Ch. 66. few Celtic terms were adopted. as allegorizare. Dubois 144. catechiblasphemare . folUa. 226. thesaurizare . Bechtel 95 {cata mansiones. 224. dulcor. Bon. there are many Greek words in Petronius: hepatia. *dulcior = 'sweetness'. cata. Judaizare. apparently borrowed by popular speech: amygdalum. A werra. confessor = 'martyr'. zelare. modernus. Some were introduced by fashionable etc. a distributive preposition. sabbatizare. FOREIGN WORDS. 44. and not a few new derivatives. anathematizare. More Germanic words (of. zare. Gram. *vir{t)dura. G. *man{u)aria. a few of them on the sense of 'every'. *coraticum.

Bon. 170 .was used with some adjectives and appar: ently with a few nouns bisaccium. B. sub-. XL VI. pounds . saltus — saltare. 430-693 Densusianu 156-173. 130 . really living suffixes \ but the lost. substantives taken from the roots of verbs). a. Vok. '^ . Regnier etc. 98. POST-VERBAL NOUNS.^ PREFIXES USED WITH NOUNS. which the noun seems to come from the derivative verb. After the model of cantus — cantare. bisacutus.e. who were especially addicted to prepositional compounds with con-. as canere.* popular speech preserved and This freedom of formation was abused by African authors. G. —itta)} Petronius shows a fondness for long derivatives. PREFIXES. II. a fictitious primitive noun was derived from a number of verbs in Vulgar Latin and in the Romance languages so dolus from dolere. Digitized by Microsoft® . Augustine). and finally composite words. etc. ADJECTIVES. 2. facility of word formation.. 22. 246-247. 367. next suffixes. such as gaudimonium (Waters Ch. 35. Vulgar Latin is very rich in derivatives and comit has many affectionate diminutives. 21. Cooper XXX ff. 1.* We shall consider first postverbal nouns (i. G. See Gram. ' » bimaritus. In strictly Classic texts there appear to be no 20. which in- the literary language creased. in-.or bi. 13 DERIVATION. Late writings almost all abound in abstract nouns (Cooper 1-2). " Cooper 246-297.§ 22] An Introduction to VulgaW Latin. I. then prefixes. whereas in reality both come from a primitive verb. Petronius. some of them made with new suffixes (as —icca. AND PRONOUNS. 61). (pairs in : VII (blamed by St. Bis. satire). Cooper XXXIV. " Cooper XXXVI.


An Introduction
Ad-, con-, de-,

to Vulgar Latin.


dis—, ex-, in-, re:

and some others were
*adaptus ; commixtius,

occasionally used to form adjectives

G. 160 defamatus ; *disfactus; exsucus; inanimatus ; *replenus.
Cf. G.




Ac-, atque-,

ecce-, eccu-,

met- were used as demonstrative

prefixes to



pronominal adjectives and to adverbs. Eccu— is ecce eum; its origin being forgotten, it was used in

Vulgar Latin as a synonym of ecce. Met, primarily a suffix, came to be used as a prefix through such combinations as semet ipsum, understood as se metipsum. In archaic writings
reinforced demonstratives as eccum, eccam,


ecca, eccillum., eccillam, eccillud, eccistam

are not



Vulgar Latin examples are ac Classic texts they are rare. sic; atque ille-; ecce hie; * eccu iste ; * eccu sic. Substrate VI,





Cf. A.

Kohler, Die Partikel

ecce in

Archiv V,

See §§ 65, 66.



25. Ad-, con—, de-, dis—, ex—, in—, re— were freely used, disbeing mainly a Vulgar Latin prefix: abbreviare, G. 179 * a.d;

cap(i)tare ; adgenuculari, R. 181; adpretiare, R. 181, G. 180;
adpropiare, R. 181, G. 180; adunare, R. 182; confortare, R. 185,

* cominitiare ; complacere, R. 184; deaurare, G. 182 * disjejunare; exaltare, G. 183; excoriare, G. 182; impinguare, G. 181


G. 183; *infurcare; recapitulare, G. 185; *requcerere.
con—, de- lost their special significance;

Ad—, ad— was particularly

favored in Spain, con- in Italy.
ally there

Cf. Lat. Spr. 487.

was a change

of prefix


was used with the

sense of expectare, * convitare sometimes took the place of invitare; dis-

was often substituted

for ex-.


Ab-, contra-, per—, sub-, super supra-, tra trans— were

by Microsoft®

§ 3i]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


used occasionally: * aboculare ; *contrafacere; *perdonare ; subG. 185; * subdudere ; subsannare, R. 199, G. 187; superabundare, G. 187; * super—* suprafacere ; *trabucare ; *transaudire,

annare; transplantare, G. 188.
27. Extra- was sometimes used and 2«/ra— in Italy: * extrabuccare ; 28.
in Italy

and Dacia, infra-

* infraponere ; *intratenere.


e-, ob-, prce-,

pre-, pro-, retro— were apparently

not used to form new verbs in the popular spoken language,
although some of them are occasionally so employed by late
writers: opprobare, G. 184; prcedesiinare, G. 184


prolongare, G. 184.



sometimes replaced by ad—:


> addormire.

Foris and minus came to be used as prefixes in some

Foris was confounded Gaul with the Frankish _;?r- (= ver-) verslahen = Old Fr. See G. Baist, Frdnkisches fir— im altesten Franzosiforbatre. schen in Romanische Forschungen XII, 650; cf. Rom. XXX, For this use of minus, compare the phrase minus est^ 633. caritas in quantum adest in quantum deest, Regnier 109


* minuscredere.






autem minus


Cf. § 245.


Some verbs

take a double prefix

adimplere; coexcitare,

R. 207

(cf. Quintilian, coexercitatus); deexacerbare, R. 207

*deexcitare; *exeligere.




the restoration of the


form of

the primitive verb, was a regular process in Vulgar Latin (cf. §139): aspargo for aspergo is blamed by Velius Longus, £don

Cyprian, Bayard 3; commando is, according to Velius Longus, the usual form, rather than commendo,



used by


S. 60, ifidon

131; consacrati


occur in inscriptions,




Bon. 49°;

^^f^'^i ^30^°





An Introduction
Bon. 490.

to Vulgar Latin.



Computo, 58-64, Bon. 486-493. prdsto seem to cdnsto, consuo, erigo, exeo, infio,

have been regarded as simple verbs

S. 64.

primitive form of prefixes; but this

Late writers were in the habit of restoring the full, was doubtless merely a

matter of spelling, and did not indicate the



In TertuUian, Cyprian, and some others there is generally no assimilation of the prefix other writers, such as

Gregory of Tours, apparently used both assimilated and unassimilated forms. Bayard 12-15: adpetere, conpendium, inproius, obfero, subplanto. Bon. 178-188: adtonitus, conmittere,
inlatus, obprimere, subcuvibere.



in —are; occasionally


Nexhsfrom nouns^ generally end
sometimes in

in -iare or —ire;

which was eventually sup-

planted in Italy and in Gaul by —izare (for pronunciation see

§339)- This last ending came from Greek -dfiv through borrowed words, such as baptizare. For a list of Greek verbs in -i^etv adopted by Christian writers, see R. 248-249 (cf. §19 above); some new formations were used, as catechizare. In early Latin this same ending appears as -issare (attidsso, rhetorisso): see A. Funck, Die Verba auf issare und izare in

Archiv III, 398.


— * dom'nizare;

—plagiare —


oculare; pedinare; plantar.e; potionare; * trepaignire ;



follicare ;

* nivicare ;


Cooper 205-245, Dubois 151-162, Quillacq 41-46, Bonnet 471-474.

"Cf. R. 154-162.

by Microsoft®


§ 36]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

in —are,


Verbs from

and perfect participles e.r\A

—iare, —ire; also in' -icare (cf. albicare), —itare (cf. debilitare,
visitare), —escere


—iscere (cf. canescere, mollescere); possibly


angiistare; *ausare; captivare

confortare ; falsare

gravare ; levare ; * oblltare ; rictare ; Usare ; * abbellire ; tiare ; * captiare ; humiliare ;

— * vanitare —


alleviare; * al-

unire ;


Icetiscere ; vilescere ;

— amari— *blan-




verbs from perfect participles (frequentatives, etc.)

replace the original verbs: adjuvare "> adjutare ; audere'^ausare; canere'^cantare ; uti>usare.

lost their frequentative or inchoative sense







156. in -icqre


Verbs from other verbs end


fodere), —itare (cf. clamitare <,clamare')\ also in -escere, -Iscere
(cf. florescere,

* bullicare

< buUere





inchoative force:

apparescere ;

Vulgar Latin has many old frequentive verbs G. 178-179, Cooper 205. There are some late diminutives in —aculare, —tculare, -uculare, through diminutive nouns or adjecWe find also tives (ci. periculari <,periculum'): * saltlculare. some miscellaneous imitative formations * expaventare (and some others) apparently after the analogy of prasentare * misculare perhaps after maculare.


Greek verbs in -av,

-eiv, etc.,

when taken

into Latin, reg-

KvP€pvav>gubemare ; pXa(r<j}rifidv'>b/asphemare. Cf. Claussen 795. But ^aXS.av>psallere, perhaps through the analogy oifallere: Claussen 796. Germanic verbs in -an or -on regularly passed into the first


in —are:

conjugation in Latin





guidare ; roubon




"jR^etcA. ;

in -jan

went into the fourth
It. guamire. Digitized by Microsofi®


> hatire,


warnjan >

Bon. Cf. Waters Ch. in Italy and Gaul * canalia •< canis. 79-102. was extended: breviarium. for nouns and adjectives: liminare. G. Ch. to form nouns from nouns: g. G. 366. -die. -ugo were characteristic of rustic speech: —al. came to be used as a feminine singular: *facienda. iCf. 95. * calamarium. Digitized by Microsoft® . 6\. Quillacq 15-31. was extended: coxale. 40. tives. the collective plural -ilia. essentia. fragraniia . -dnus: see Adjectives. -ago. Olcott 187-189. 1 [§ 37 SUFFIXES FOR NOUWS. Cooper in. —aria : see -ia. Cf.. Olcott 73-78. 49-52. as a feminine singular with an augmentative and pejorative signification. -arium. used to form adjectives and also nouns. 31-37. made from present significantid). Vulgar in deriva- Petronius. e. 39. apparently. (as viaticum) was extended. etc. Cooper 1-91. taurellus. as victualia (cf. -ens: see Adjectives. especially names of parts of apparel (as bracchiale). iio-iii). Latin. Bon. etc. Cf. volatilia. too. Cf.8 — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. as senatus (common in Petronius. b. used to designate a place (as gallinarium). 59. -ar. neuter plural of the gerundive. a neuter plural. —ata : see -ta. Some go endings. socera. -igo. placentia. -^a. : -anda. as miraUlia. Pirson 123. -are. used to — Haag 41 form f eminines nepta. R. -alia. *ducatus. Olcott 176-182. *pollicare. were used The Christian writers are especially rich Waters Ch. Dubois 99-136. participles H ia (as benevolentia. The commonest endings -a. -affcum * coraticum. R. G. G. bonatus. Ch. -arius: see Adjectives. in a collective sense. 95.i in 37. were used to form abstract nouns from verbs: Cf. 74). Olcott 238-239. was extended: clericatus. -dtus. -enda. -entia. -antia. 355. * credeniia . porcellus. was used. 453-463. Bon. was very fond of diminutives: adules- centulus. -ans. are the following: : Ch. *sperantia. .

91-92. § 173. 481. -Tela. Rum. etc. which lost its diminutive force: anulus. it was then extended to Spain. used to form feminines (as avus. diminutive. wvicella. suffixe -arius. XIX. Cf. and came to be used as a diminutive suffix in Spanish. was probably Cf. : used (cf . 1-2 1. XX. cf. -ellus. porculus. consirier. It. Bonica. -incus or -inguus (as propinguus). hence an ending -fflWa. —ens: see Adjectives. -Mum. was used for many new words: Pr. see —ium. 170. Horn- —iceus. and Nouveaux (aise no.. etc. 19 -cellus. unaccented. was mighty deeds of God Koff'. cula. philosophia . Thomas. 335. Cf. —ans. porcellus. diminutive (as castellum). etc. Cf. 283ff. as desiderium. possibly of Ligurian origin (Rom. = ' nouns (as victoria). lavacrum) were occasionally used: *genuculum. -tcca (as Bodicca. —tea: see Archiv fiir das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Litera: turen CXIV. —eum : -ia. See A. R. was used beside -cuius: So * domnicellus. -entia : see -antia. etc. -ia. —icius: see Adjectives. . -enda : see —anda. Olcott 131-134. Einf. 591. navicella. -uc(c)us. navi- —ceus. unaccented. For -accus. II. -ia. mane 76). 31-37. from Greek -ia through Christian writers and speakers monarchla. was often used beside -Ulus.- -culum. Les substantifs en -ier et le essais de philologie fran- Rom. 457. Karica) first appears in Africa in feminine proper names. XXXI. -ensis: see Adjectives. avicula. -crum (as miraculum. So calamellus. abstract extended *fortia fortia n. —eus: see Adjectives. see A. XXXV. and Dacia. avid): neptia. It may have arisen in the first place from a childish pronunciation of -iclus. Pr.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. being used in pet names. 333ff. It was often attached to words in -arius. -occus. ing in Zs. -cius: see Adjectives. Gram. to form pi. manica. perhaps also *-ingus and locally -ancus. —ceus. Digitized by Microsoft® solingo. somewhat extended: Old Fr. G. Arbonenca.). Olcott 173-176. ramenc . and Rumanian: Sp. Sardinia.' *libraria. vitulus. animalico . Portuguese. -iccus. Valinca.. Pir- son 123. vitellus. anellus .

in inscriptions in Italy -ittus first appears during the Empire and Dacia. Sp. Zs. the i being short in Gaul. -ttas : see —tas. (as paffiXurcra. Nebitta. Cf. W. etc. R. some new formations: ^dukissa. Cooper 251. a German patronymic ending. -io : 134-136. from the Greek Cf. -0 {-onem). lausenga. Cf. doucet. It. Fr. Einf. -Uies. Raetia. so pythonissd). A. XXVIII. as a suffix for proper names: feminine tus. -eum (as cafitium. 22-25. was used for some nouns and perhaps for adjectives (see -incus above): Pr. An It Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Olcott 78-80. like littera beside litera. -lius. it was freely used. -mentum. were extended. —itia. Pirson 226: Julianeta^ Nonnita^ N'onniit Its origin is unknown. . vestimenium). much extended. § 172. -laaa. R.20 Sp. Sp. It came to be very widely used as a diminutive suffix for nouns. Pirson 228. Cf. -iva : see Olcott 224-226. Germanissa. regards -dttus. Cf. Florentinus . Sagitta. li. -monium. following. —monia: see Olcott 81-82. may have arisen from a childish pronun- ciation of -iclus -a: it may Meyer-Liibke. Zimmermann. Olcott 200-204. Fr. were both are rare in Rumanian -ities especially in the south . generally long in the Spanish peninsula and in -Ittus. was by Microsoft® . and also for adjectives. but sometimes to form new adjectives to form domnina = 'young lady'. -issa. -mum. with the -ing. in [§ 37 some regions. Attitta. originally used to indicate a characteristic (as Digitized btbo). was probably confounded. etc. then resemblance.. 251. 56-59. bacito. -tnus (as caninus. (Cooper XLV): *altitia. and central and northern Italy. fioretto. -itUdo : —ium. see —tUdo. grassetto. serpentinus. calcaneum) : see G. adjectives. used to form nouns from verbs (as certdmen. sometimes in Spain and Gaul. conjectures that have come from the Germanic ending that now appears as in such names as Heinz. forms of -dtus. etc. Olcott see -iio. Cusanca.. amourette. *granditia. 343. Olcott 123-131. used to form nouns from adjectives (as munditia -ies). cf. -icca. bonito. Montaninus) originally denoted appurtenance. camerlingo. masculine Muritta. especially -mentum : *gubernamentum. -dttus as alternative Sardinia: nouns. -otus. was used for prophetissa. Bonitta^ Caritta^ Julitta^ Livitta^ Suavitta. especially : diminutive nouns. -men. then smallness.

someDigitized by Microsoft® . 88-122. remissa. used as nouns. -tus.G. i. 475. —sorium: see —torium. C. are very common in St. trinitas. —tor. trobaire. —sa : see —ia. —sura: see —ilra. common in St. recubitus . etc. G. revoluUo. as collectus. Cyprian). R. aggravatio. *flator. : extensa. Substrate IV. —sor: see -ior. in 21 commonly employed diminutive: g&lo. Olcott 83-87. ostensor. mensor). Bayard 19-22 (very -tio. 415. started perhaps with such forms as defensa. nativitas . andata. Cyprian. as *annatd). —Stus. They were considerably used to make abstract nouns from verbs (and —ata was sometimes attached to nouns. 122. Olcott 33-51. used to make abstract nouns from adjectives. Pr. 503-504 {dolor. Cf. as an augmentative or pejorative. Olcott 58-69. -tus and -j«j were preferred in Dacia (Cooper XLV) collecta. 82-83. -sus: see —ta. 88. Olcott 2-23. aiglon. 45-56. boccone. Cf. *nutritio.. sapor). Collin in Archiv XIII. feminine perfect participles with a feminine noun understood. viror. was employed for many new formations of the same kind. It. 69-82. of see -tor. lectio. *vendita. 85- Bayard 24-25.fossato. see —torium. 44-45. aquilotto. *flavor. -or {-oreni). —sus. etc. 63. casotta. -sorium. -tricem. especially in Gaul: dulcor. So deitas from deus. St. -iita. used to denote the agent (as Cf. was apparently used : first of young animals. Jerome. beveire. ostensio. perfect participles by fourth declension nouns in -tus. R. unknown etc. —sor (—torem. In Gaul these nouns came to be feminine: Bon. Fr. R. G. used to designate the agent -orium . -ittus).). Gaul often as a 56. narraius: cf. -sionem). used to form abstract nouns from verbs (as mansio. potto). It. 222. was freely employed :ya/jfi'aj. Bayard 19-22. -sa. —sio : see -ito. and other late writers: abbreviatio. G. *deUta. timor. 453. and were reinforced —ta. e. -Sttus.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. R. 83. XIII. purltas . origin (cf. Olcott amdtor. used to form abstract nouns (as candor. then as a general moderate diminutive It. Cf. G. Cf. —tas {-tdtem). later -dta. —trix. used to form from verbs nouns denoting place. in. 55-63. 223. -sio i^tionem. G. See Archiv V. venuta. -(orium. *perdtta. *sentor. *reddita. were very freely employed (but show few traces in Ru- manian : Cooper XLV) : necdtor. *movita.. *lucor. 102-106. -sorem). prensio. : -or (-orem).

used to form abstract nouns from perfect participles (as censura. *frig' dura . ixrikiipvWov. reposito- rium. —a. -ura and -t-ura. -as in popular words generally > lampa. [§ 38 ex- times instrument (as dormitorium. etc. make abstract nouns servitudo. -pa cima. often taking the place of —culum (cubiculum much > accubitorium) (as *C(ssorium. '^planura. Bon. tensura. Kbii. There are a few exceptions for special reasons (Claussen 795) cXaiop. : became -a. Einf. 38. -tus (Claussen 798): rpiiKTijs '^ irucia . Olcott 194-196. instead of the nominative (Claussen 800-802): iXi^avros'^ elepliantus . ornatura. Cf. later from adjectives also.)u~^ gumma. Cf. Digitized by Microsoft® . G. sinape . -ta or -us. cursorium). R. 31-37. gave oleum. natatorium. ossulum. influenced by olere. -s-iira. by popular etymology. fell popular words either or became -a. stricturd). in popular words gave a feminine -ma (Claussen 796-797) > f -pos preceded by a consonant became -fr (Claussen : 797): 'AWfai'5po$>- Alexander. used to fortitudd). *certitudo. pressura. popular words became -o (Claussen 797) X^wi'> lea. -11. > p6KLT-qs -I in became -a (Claussen 798-799) : Xa/iirds -7)S. Olcott 69-73. -aius. mensorium. G. R. oratorium. -ov regularly became respectively -us. instead of -is (Claussen 798) pausis "^pausa. or -i (Claussen 799) TT^Trepi'^ piper.: : : 22 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Olcott 51-58. missorium. -e. gave : millefolium. § 171. ^6-gy. from adjectives was extended. -IS often clvain'^ sinapis. the -OS. —tus: see -ta. ^pressorium. ^•vir'dura. mesSee sura. 88-90. Sometimes the genitive or the accusative was taken as a basis. 197. nutritura. etc. When Greek nouns were endings were adapted as follows: — borrowed by Latin. -Ala. was used for a few new formations *alaudula. : gummi-s. kviuj. -tuda (-tiidinem). boletus. were tended. : in late Latin often replacing -or {fervor > *fervurd) were extended. 40-45. -iita: Cf. see —ta. -T7)s became -a. -is. payLda'^ -(an in magida. diminutive (as vitulus). -tura : see —ura. -um : Claussen 796.

Olcott 137-173. Mapa"^ cithara ciihlra. Dubois 136-151. were extended: *cortilis. -ans. '^passans^ make adjectives and nouns from verbs: credens. —artcius. —anus. -ens {-an/em. Die Adjectiva auf -icius in Archiv V. present participles (as amans. -tlis. and adjectives. pelliceus). —dneus -anius. Romanus). 144. -iceus -ictus. -oneus —onius (as extraneus. § 39] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. K^paffos : "^cerd-sus *cerSsus. Olcott 182-187. used also in the masculine to gentarius. * setaceus . popular in Gaul 62 (Hacherece. tempaccio. »?«i/«a»2«. denoting appurtenance (as paganus. peculiar in — apothecarius *marinarius. decanus. attached to nouns Cf. were extended (especially in rustic speech: Cooper iii). became and —icius (as sigillaricius).. Cooper 92-163 (diminutives. Olcott 215-220. -entem). spontaneus. were used freely to ^ currens . used to make from nouns adjectives denoting material (as arenaceus. 164-195). G. was much extended. Bechtel 83. 143. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . Eon. *leviarius. 464-467. Thomas. *werrarius. and form nouns of occupation (as aquarius. arespecially in the latter function: . -aceus being employed later as an augmentative and pejorative suffix for adjectives and finally for nouns: chartaceus formaceus . -actus -actus. Cf. G. Quillacq 32-40. -dlis. Wolfflin. Bechtel 83. The phonetic development of this suffix was apparently Gaul and some other regions the earliest examples are glan: 'Cf. SUFFIXES FOR ADJECTIVES. was used to form adjectives of place (occasionally time) and nouns of office: biduanus. See E. aKfnriKot'^ scopulus . Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise etc. used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as Cf. It. a combination of —arius — *capiianus. c.).i are the following: 39« The commonest endings : — —abllis see —hilis. mixticius. episcopalis. Olcott 226-238. -Sris (as singularis) was extended: particularis. : see A. 415. imaginarius . Tuscanus. poiens). *ducaHs. to denote connection. 23 The unaccented vowel of the penult was often changed in conformity with Latin habits (Claussen 802-806) Sl&^oKos'^ diabolus diabulus. -arius. pomarius). regalis. iTTroTiiXij "^spatula. geniilis). *Sicilianus. Cf. erroneus) were slightly ex- tended: *caroneus.

—iero are probably borrowed.' exauguratus. XXI. a perfect participle ending (as sceleraius). 137. and when umlaut affected the a of these. Marchot. that -iarius and —carius may have established —iers in French. Gram. : tabilis . Rom. —ceus -cius : see -iceus. used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as/orenwas greatly extended. querceus. — ia (6th century) and sorcerus <C^* sortiarius (8th century) the earliest forms in French and Provenyal are —ers. points out that many words have c. is . especially in learned words it is Rumanian (Cooper XLV) acceptabilis . -er. *faiatus. Chairibertus repeatedly used for Charibertus by Fredegarius Haag 7. fageus. pronounced —arius. from verbs (as amabilis. the derivatives being sometimes employed as nouns * cortensis . Zs. : -eus -ius. Zs. showing that while the French forms may perhaps be derived from -arius and -iarius. *cariierribilis). G. Cf. Italian —aro is easily explained and Italian —iere. 481 (cf. indicibilis. Zimmermann. and was much employed rare.^* markensis . and that this pronunciation spread to the neo-Latin speakers. E. the derivative was sometimes used as a noun: panne us . -bUis. Staaff. try to derive all the forms from -arius. I. e. Spanish -ero and Italian -aio are perfectly regular. G. Cf. 109-116. 159-160. that -iarius was a. denoting material (as aureus). Cf. Digitized by Microsoft® . real suffix (cf. was much used to : make ratus. 222. Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise 119. capabilis. Die Geschichte des lateinischen Suffixes — arius in den romaniscken Sprachen^ and E. diligibilis . then —iers. timo- Olcott 244-250. R. 591. G. A. was slightly extended (but is Rumanian: Cooper XLV). Zimmermann. R. *pagensis. On the other hand. turrensis. too. Olcott 142). as -erius or —erus. Le suffixe -arius dans les langues romanes. I. -ier. Cf. —iceus —icius: see dcetts. G. and Bausteine 641). especially in popular speech. postulates -ar(i)us and -er{i)us. -atus. i^t. adjectives in the popular language: Cf. vallensis. suggests that the Germans in Gaul associated -arius with their proper names in -areis 01 —ari. Olcott 209-213. Phon. § 227. 155. in an objective suffix used to make adjectives very common in Christian writers in late Latin. -tbilis. G.. by the analogy of the plural -ari. or i before the a. or -dbilis. sis).24 deria <i_ An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. papyrius. rare in — -{bUis : see —bilis. however. -i [§ 39 glandarius . 135-140. Thomas. XXXI. the Proven9al cannot. anaiiarius. *Frankensis. P. —ens : see —ans. XXVI. 296 (cf. Olcott 339-344. 34-36). -ensis.

— . 193-197 {angelice. dune The usual endings are as follows: — num nunc. —ce -c (as ne nee.). volon. L. Possibly *anc is derived from an in the same Substrate II. promptulus. Cf Olcott . : d. -ittus: see Nouns. Dubois 163-171. 467-470. —sorius: see —tortus —tortus. (C. G. —Andus (as jocundus) was used in Spanish and Proven9al for a few words Pr. -ivus (as nativus) occurs in a few 224-226. probably a fusion of Greek -ktkos {Syriscus) and Germanic -isk (Thiudiscus).' 40. diminutive (as albulus). etc. was used for -icus in some late words: *Angliscus.) Cf. from the Greek cleri- Cf. way: -e cf. Franz. juratoriH. censere censor censorius). 155 (Tertullian)j *npidus. ~ius : see —eus. 157-158. —s-or H ius (as notare notor notorius. lo) Pirson 252 IX. 103-106. is Archiv I. -ulus. one of them from Gaul. -iscus. sapidus. etc. donique in cites eight examples of dune. Bon. sliglitly -idus (as rapidus) was extended: exsucidus. Tiktin 597. § 40] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. Olcott 220-223. = + . SUFFIXES FOR ADVERBS. was used especially in words 25 : -icus (as medicus) cus. punidor. I. 158. '*Frankiscus. mansorius. in St. Cf. with the or of sense of -Wlis the gerundive: Pr. was a favorite with Christian writers. 4810. G. It was 'Cf. -inus : see Nouns. new formations : *restivus. Digitized by Microsoft® . very common Jerome: G. Rum. Gram. -orius: see -iorius. -sorius. -inus {as fraxinus) was used for a few adjectives: quercinus. made up of -t-or. G. turn tunc) was apparently used to form dum ce (cf. —ilis: see —dlis. were used for some new formations: defensorius In Provengal and Rumanian -torius was extended. -uius (as canutus) was somewhat extended: *camutus. 552. ? I. Cooper 196-204. 241. Ill. -oneus : see —dneus.

Zs. -0 and etc. Some lons. adverbial phrases on the model : ad . Adverbs of manner came to be made with the ablative This noun was first used with an adjective to denote a state of mind. Many such mon speech. longe. pure. 245. Ch. however. mente was used with any adjective that could make an adverb of manner.). -ones (in Italy also with- out the preposition) came into use Cf. Then it was employed in a more general sense: pari mente. for emphatic effect. -tim was favored by St. Fr. as sometimes in Classic Latin. soave). It. alto. noii).). *bona mente. 689. 45 . in Rumanian. etc. [§ 41 preserved in popular speech in bene. Jerome. now now so. They are rare in St. common in other late writers: clanculo. Fr. XXXIII. Ch. Ch. . multum. bocconi. Cyprian (Bayard 34-35) and some other : writers. Many examples so. 428. and occurs also in Romanice. *mala mente. but rata. a ginocchioni. Cf. etc. poco. adverbs were preserved in comhence other ad- jectives came to be used as adverbs (as W. Reich. This formation is not common. piano. sola mente. Rom. XXIX. II. are to be found in Petronius 37. Digitized by Microsoft® . to adverbs: insiememente. Ch. 487.' ' Waters Ch. but was not kept alive in popular Latin. It. 337. forte. and in Rumanian nearly all adjectives may be so used (as greii. 339- Repetition was used. as It. being especially common in St. . male. * longa mente. firma mente. * ipsa mente. Cyprian (Bayard 32-34). G. jocunda mente. Later.26 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. obstinata mente. § SS- 41. mente. -iter: see -ter. a recu230.' cf. whence such formations as Brittanice. 197-201 infantiliter. as forti mente. 46. though much used in ecclesiastical Latin (G. : modo modo =^ •only yesterday. Spr. tarde. 58. Gl. perhaps after the Vulgar Latin period. caldo. etc. Lat. In the Romance languages mente was sometimes added comment. chiaro. -ter (as brevUer) was not preserved in common speech. XXX. 42. modo sic modo sic^ nee sursum nee deorsum non cresco. -um generally coincided in pronunciation (multum = multo. basso. Normannice. Gram.

sortcem *sortcem. Cohn 219-226. R. 216. —iilus'^—ellus: aniilus'^ anellus . tus cauditus. Cohn -tius'^-itus : vacuus'^*v(lcitus (cf. Pr. The popular language sometimes manuplus for another. Caper (Keil VII. Cf. extraneus * extranus . substitutes one suffix for manipulus. (3) Alteration of a suffix: — Cf.§ 42] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cohn 1 51-154. Cohn 180-205. Cohn 41-42.. —cuius !> cHlus : see -tllus. —dtuszzz—ttus=:i—utus: barbatus '^barbutus ." —enus'^-inus: "Byzacenus non Byzacinus. pediculus Cf. famtlia */amtlia. -elus"^ -ellus (common in late Latin): camelus'^ camellus. peduculus. R. (2) Indiscriminate use of two suffixes: — Cf. -tc-aius *lenficiila. subterraneus ^ subterranus. Cf. suadela"^ suadHla. pavoT~^*pavura. Cf. -drius: see Suffixes for Adjectives. Waters Ch. 17-28. —tllus^—ellus: axtlla"^ ascella. 227. e. Cf. 321. rancor"^* ran- > > cilra. 131. -iceus -icius 184. Digitized Cohn 274-291. as are: — The principal types (1) Subsitution of a : rare one -alius — new or common suffix for an old or > -callus : see -tllas. by Microsoft® . etc. Cohn 213I. -ex(-ecem) -ix(-uem) : vervecem berbicem. lenHc-Ula Cf. Cf. venenum"^ *veninum. § 195). R. —dnus^—dneus: Cohn 160-172. loquela'^ loquella. cornlciila *cornuula. Corssen S. avicUla'^ avicllla. 27 CHANGE OF SUFFIX. 460. Cf. Cohn 30-31. 96): "querela. -ix(-icem) consilium * consilium. Cohn 172-180. 65." App. Cohn 42— 52. querela'^ guerilla. Cohn = -ix(-icem): Cohn 147-151. 42. etc. -iculus =z -UcJilus : ossiculum ossMculum. Cf. cauda- Cohn —Ic'eus —icius ^=. -ilius =^ -ilius : 154-160. Cohn 184. 460. lanatus lanutus. R. carnatus *carnutus. ~or(—drem)'^-ura: calor'^*calura. etc. 460. 460. Cf. loquela per unum /. : ericius *eruius. -^ —iciilus : capUHlus * capttulus . -drius.

b. many verbs in -ficare. 426 ad mane. COMPOUNDS. Acer arbor (> Fr. ^ranucula. ad sero. — = . In church writers there are G. etc. Bon. a /oris. . ADVERBS. flectere. There were many compounds made up of a preposition and an adverb: ab ante. etc. 4. R. late pronunciation of [§ 47 -enus'^-lnus through sagina {Vok. —iculus ? ^^'—Hciilus : genuciclum . R.28 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 'just now'. G. . bene placitum. medio die. These compounds generally belonged to the literary G. 484. 483. 231. a longe. a. ad subito. crucifigere. 483. 47. as mortificare: e. 46.. PRONOUNS. Bechtel loi. a contra. 483.. a modo. Bon. were popular. antemittere. inde fUgere (> Fr. Cohn 226—264. . enfuir). etc. But male habitus. G. 65. cornis. 43. Reich. ab olim. -udo i^udtneni)'^ -umen (-iimtnem) : consuetudo *costumen. style. in Gl. I. 131. 44. 160-170: magnisonans . erable) alba spina. a foras. manu So tenere. etc. Ill. ab intus. 232. Bon. 234. Substrate 553-554. 191. mente habere (> Pr. G. VERBS. . incus incudo * inciimtnem. /oris mittere. See §§ 24. Cf. 194. 130-134. in odio^ loco. Bechtel loi. medio ADJECTIVES. intra videre. i<)i\ 45. 203. Bechtel loi ad horam 'presently'. Bechtel loi. Cohn 264-274. Bon. Bechtel loi ad semel. saine. d. 483. Digitized by Microsoft® . bis coctum. 121 : Greek etc. Cf. G. a semel. Bon. uniunigenitus . mentaver) minus pretiare. 190. R. ij as i: uayijv))'^ 7th century) "^ > Old Fr. avis struthius. omnimodus . Bechtel loi. etc. HOUWS. 231. c. R. genu- G. Cake pistare. Bechtel loi.

doe. in ante. 437. de intus. Bon. Bechtel 102. is A compound made up of preposition + noun found in: in giro (followed 102. in contra. de post. usque hodie. Slightly different intus in. Spr. Bechtel 102. 268. Bon. in by the ablative or the accusative). Bechtel 102. 484. ^ Romance da. of . * dabe. da. Abante. de magis. in mane. The sic. 203. still different nature : ac Per. R. day-. Bechtel 102. CONJUHCTIONS. dat and from a southern Latin *dadl. R. 233. G. 232.17. 49. 29 tunc. per girum zxiA per giro ^ circa. 235. Lexique 38-47. At ubi and ad ubi. Per. R. R. 484. It.— 49] — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.8. 74. E. 85. Bechtel medio. 203. Bechtel 102.. says da . de inter. de intra. in ante. 487. G. Wolfflin.). Lexique 48. de forts. f. Bechtel loi. Bechtel 102. R. Substrate III. in hodie. Bechtel loi. Cf. Bechtel 102. 232. Some compounds two prepositions: * de ad {y. Per. 75. G. e contra.. 203. ex tunc. de contra. g. de sursum. 68. Bon. Lat. Raetian dad from the Oscan da. 232. de super.13. * in semel. G. 23S. Digitized by Microsoft® . following compounds are of a sic. and some others similar to them. 235. in is Archiv I.19. et Per. Spr. Mohl. R. and Old Sp. etc. R. 232. G.3. consist of Bechtel 102. Per. 487. Sardinian dave. Bon. 39. de intus. is de+ab. In any case probably a late product. 203. 433. 38) says: Ubi semel res inclinata amici de medio. Haag 75. de sub. de semel. ad — — R. 72. etc.28. 484-486 (cf. Lat. dad may be it is the result of a fusion rather than a combination of de Some have thought it came from found from the 7th century on he would derive It.these adverbial Some 40. compounds. et at ubi. and ad. 40. were used as prepositions: ab ante. R. Bechtel loi. 426. 484. in contra^ Petronius (Waters Ch. etc. d^ ante. de retro. de retro. PREPOSITIONS. de deorsum.15.

Ill. It does not permit the arbitrary- separation of osition noun of it members that belong together. from which work most of the matter of Digitized this chapter was taken. 50. by this sentence : The ^ ^ old arrangement " Fabius syptax. Latin in the middle. a crescendo. so to speak. SYNTAX/ A. is not primarily rhythmic. the difference being due to a diverse conception of the structure of language: Latin places the modifier before. or the adjective and the modifies. is logical. and were not characteristic of daily speech. byMicrosoft® . Zur Eniwicklung der romanischen Wortsiellitng aus dcr lateinischen.^ is The Romance order of simpler and more rational than that Classic Latin. such as the prepand the word it governs. The principle. Latin to a certain extent a diminuendo movement {^Lat. Romance puts the emphasis at the end of the sentence. See Meyer-Liibke." allow the collocation words of the same part of speech that belong logically in different places. but psychic. 491). as in the "In multis hoc rebus dicere habemus" of Lucretius. ORDER OF WORDS. proceeding from the exemplified The modern order is the known to the unknown. Romance more after the word modified. however. as in Ovid's "In nova fert animus mutatas Neither does it dicere formas /corpora.II. Gram. The most irrational features of the Classic Latin construction were surely artifical. Nevertheless there is really a fundamental difference between the old order and the new: Romance has. for a comprehensive account of Romance See Elise Richter. Spr. 1903.

visitabo et : 52. But until the fourth century the majority of Latin sentences have the old arrangement. 37. and for centuries the ancient and the modern type were used side by side. 490). The following is a good sample of the style of the Vulgate: "Cui respondit Dominus Qui peccaverit mihi. hoc peccatum eorum" {Exodus XXXII." "Hasc loca sunt The change constitutes a progress in language . it occurs sporadically also in literary authors. et due populum istum quo locutus sum Ego autem in die ultionis tibi." The following examples illustrate the later structure: "Mors perfecit tua ut essent et natura montuosa impedita ad rem militarem. Petronius has notably short periods and an approach to the new structure." omnia brevia. 34). The modern order was not abruptly substituted for the On the contrary. angelus meus praecedet te. Digitized According to Meyer- by Microsoft® . Spr. tu autem vade. from the earliest texts down . there was a long struggle. was always a tendency to put a stressed word followed by an unaccented one. By the fourth century Here is a characteristic passage the new order prevailed. such as a connective or an atonic pronoun {Lat. all cultivated peoples have made it.§ 52] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. it is to be found in Latin. 31 sequatus imperio Hannibalern et virtute et fortuna superiorem vidit. quod sanctus Moyses ascendit in montem Domini. 33. et fuit ibi quadraginta diebus et quadraginta noctibus" i^Per. from the Peregrinatio : "Hasc est autem vallis ingens et planissima.21-24). There first. while the revolution was in progress. in inscriptions and popular writers. which independently effected the same transformation. especially in Cicero. with generally increasing frequency. delebo eum de libro meo. Classic Latin may be said to represent an in- termediate stage. It is indigenous in Latin. 51 • old. not imitated from the Greek. in qua filii Israhel commorati sunt his diebus.

53. : negative and intensive under some circumstances the object may come before the verb. malum malum. personal pronouns. etc. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. I. In dependent clauses. bonis bonis. it was in the early stages of the Romance languages It. and adverbs. which were naturally of less im- portance. Zs. precedes its but qui le voit. Cf. noun in all the The Romance languages except Rumanian and Albanian (Zauner 40). aiutatemi but or m'aiutate . voit definite article.. vedolo but le non lo vedo. volgra). [§ 55 XXI. see the 55. Fr. malus malus. 54- USE OF WORDS. R. 313.For the simplification flections. the old order survived longer than in independent.32 Liibke. and so cf. 280. B. indefinite article developed out of ille A definite and an and unus. sitions are There were great changes in the functions of pronouns. Wolfflin 4 bene bene. In a few other respects the old arrangement lingered and under certain conditions is still preserved . prepositions. conjunctions. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. §40. fortis fortis. and sometimes the whole predicate precedes in certain constructions the dependent infinitive may stand before the finite verb (as Pr. in late Commodian. were always enclitic in Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . Many uses of prepoconnected with the loss of inflections: these will be discussed under the Use of Inflections. Use of In- Repetition writers : for intensive effect is not uncommon . however. of inflections. and were attached preferably to the first word in the sentence : . when unstressed. morir adverbs precede their verb .

BOn. The comparative came to be used for a superlative. See Archiv VIII. as Plautus. common Adverbs. substitute for the superlative In the Romance languages a was made by prefixing the defiit nite article to the comparative. see Morphology. To avoid ambiguity. occasionally in : Classic Latin.. in Many use. prceclarum. 33 COMPARISON. in Sidonius Apollinaris (Wolfflin 29). Augustine's sancta atque dulcissima (Wolfflin 57-63). plus dulce. comparative idea. 451. Cf. and also for a positive. magis .. . Finally. as omnium levior (Wolfflin 68-71). etc. WUMERALS. R. (Wolfflin 47). . frequently in late and popular writers • For the forms of numerals. (R. 56. but no example of has been found. melius sanus (Wolfflin 16). etc. the plus and magis constructions were employed more and more to express a distinct comparison plus : miser in Tertullian. cf. as their precise sense in St. From early times certain periphrases were used to emphasize the thiravLS.§ 57] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. is likely that this device it existed in late Vulgar Latin. b. //wj levior. Little by little the old comparative and superlative lost 1 from being employed frequently with merely an intensive force (Wolfiflin 83). Commodian. and the superlative was often really a positive in meaning. etc. a. toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period. Vitruvius. (Wolfflin 46). 280). magis melior. etc. as Ovid's inertioratas (Wolfflin 63-68). plus felix. maxime pessima.' lepida 57. Anplus congruus and maxime congruus (Wolfflin 16. 415—417). plus formosus in Nemasianus. old comparative forms remained. Unus was used as an indefinite article. 166-170. Sepulcri 232 . plus popularis. this formation came to be popularly regarded as the regular one: magis mirabilem. and in hie estfilius mens carissimus. however. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc.

suus being generally substituted for ejus. R. 403-404. Spr. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. where it was not recog- 62. mulier. . . DEMONSTRATIVES. Digitized by Microsoft® . . Waters Ch. see Hoppe Bayard 133. The adverb inde : occasionally as a genitive neuter pronoun came to be used nemo inde dubitat. adeum una sorella. Per. See Lat. and 104. . being replaced by ille For the encroachment of ipse on idem. 48. §158. 58. 26. were apparently not century. Ego and common in Petronius. according as they were accented or unaccented (as suus and sus): see Morphology. Pseud. 948 accessit unus servus. G. Is. . especially the possessives. much used in popular speech after the fifth 2. was often replaced by ille and ipse (Bechtel and eventually was preserved in vulgar speech only in 145). Cf. ipse. Hoppe 102-103. . especially ilk. too. Dubois 333-336b. There was great irregularity in the use of reflexives.34 . a. 425 cf. 61. An . 25. en. 408-409. Ordinal numerals. PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. Many pronouns developed double forms. tu are very 60. were employed as personal pro- nouns of the third person. the combination eccum {^=ecce eum). PRONOUNS. exinde-='¥x. Petronius. The personal pronouns came into more and more fre- quent use. 580. Bon. The demonstratives. Plautus. in Classic Latin : 59. Pronouns were much more used than G. except a few of the smallest. 489. [§ 62 una etc. Regnier 10. Idem went out of popular use.

Eeee and eeeum (pronounced eceu) were used as demon- strative prefixes (cf. Bayard 130-132). II. iste ipse. 2. hie ipse. 424. • A combination of two demonstratives was : common in Christian writers iste hie. eeee we find early eeee ego. G. Atque. Hie. as id ipsum velatn. Franz. 3 II. 303 (discussing Sp.-- ipse ille. in id ipsum monastyriu. iste ille.). such combinations being until the probably not reached Vulgar Latin period.^- desso). Franz. eeee nunc. however. ille ipse.' as id ipsum sapite. ille. Pg. influenced in 1 Cf Plautus. eeee ille. R." Digitized by Microsoft® . Hoppe 104. atque ipse illie est {^Epidicus 91). The last three have left no trace. R. Ascoli. 646): in Plautus. meaning 'it' or 'that. where likewise the id lost its significance. eeee tu. 424 (cf. etc. Glor. of the final stage. 35 and in the extremely common phrase idipsum (>It. also eeee iste. 407. maintains that eceu' was the basis in all the Empire. 2. is the fusion of the two parts into one word. with the exception of the neuter hoe. too. G. I. aquesse. by atque or ae (as in ac sic). common 64. R. Mil. Quillacq 126). This last compound was used as a neuter pronoun. Intorno ai continuatori neolatini del "ipsu-" in Arehivio glottologieo italiano XV. there are examples of iste for hie in Caesar's time (Densusianu 178). and also as a demonstrative adjective. is ipse. came to be used indiscriminately (G. especially in Spain and southern Gaul. were confused by late writers (Bayard 132). use. Catalan aqueix. too. and iste 405-406. §24): hie. was perhaps used as a prefix (^Gram. common The end Plautus. nized. generally invariable. lat. . 25 : " Ubi tu's ? — Eccum. At any rate. Hie and is. 3 II. 424-425. 65. in id ipsam rem. aquese. Toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period hie was apparently going out of 63. atque is est (^Stiehus 582). eeeu" was some regions.§ 65] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

* accesie.. n. c. pi. Examples of the others are by no R. * eccuelle. These compounds developed into * ecceste. * eccueste. 8). is. ipse. R. Ego met ipse is blamed by Donatus {Lat. 68. 427 (iiirum hujic cujus est zona hcBc). were used as personal pronouns of the third person. is. hie. means infrequent: hie. 69. and pi. as 69. § 60. people said for ' ' that eccHlle or eccu'ille. it is Furthermore. Ille. Petronius: Waters Ch. pi. §24. . the masculine qui tooV in inscriptions. as n. etc.). becoming metipse through such combinations as temet ipsum {Ecclus. as f. as ace. * cue lie. by Microsoft® .. as n. Ille. Cf. R. articles. tions from the fifth century on Digitized cf. The ipsemet suffix -met was used also as an intensive prefix. 22). 484). : common Audollent 549. f. 36 An When iste Introduction to Vulgar Latin. * celle.. 423 {in ipsa multitudine). * accueste. ' this ' eccHste or eccu'tste. 391-396 we find qui used as n. (395-396). INTERROGATIVES AND RELATIVES. is is Cf.. with the prefix met-. 276 {qui. : the place of the feminine quce it occurs in Christian inscripR. The forms were greatly confused by late writers. were used also as definite Ille in this function very common: R. 67. * cueste and * eccelle. quod as m. II. quce as m. In popular speech qui was apparently used regularly for . Quillacq 126-127. for * accuelle. ipse. sg. guem quis qua very often as n. quern for quce. semet ipsum {Philip. pi. became * metipsimus. m. there was an emphatic form ipsimus (used by This. is was probably more literary than popular. sg. pi.. 391-392. 423—425. Bon.. * accelle. ille lost [§ 69 and their distinctive force. as ace. 419-420 {cito proferte mihi stolam illam primam). This use of ipse. Spr. 66. especially ille. Beside ipse. In Bon. hie. . * ceste. XXX..

quid: Archiv I. Pg. 393.. 390-391. 37 quam). Spr. Haag f. cata was probably introduced. alius filius. The neuter aliquid was more extended aliqui alius : Pr. Beiheft 7. nemo was kept nUllus. pi. Plautus. mDEFHTITE PRONOUNS. 580. and f. chants. 415-417. *ne^ps^unus. alguien. § 19.§ 7i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. omnis: see totus. was employed as a relative pronoun. Sardinia. hdmo was used sometimes like French on: Per. 25. Zs. 416. etc. mUltus. nemo judical alterum. and was used as an interrogative and The adverb unde came to have occasionally the meaning of French dont (Bon. 650. 51. Snus *aliqu'ilnus * alicUnus. d. 415- in late popular speech are as follows : — aliquanti took the place of aliqui and aliquot: aliquanta oppida aliquis flourished especially in the west: Sp.). There may have been a neuter *alid. nee unus. d. Meyer-Liibke.). *caf itnus. alguem. inde came to mean. 55. The principal indefinite pronouns 71- and adjectives used G.' > = ^ magis: see plus. by Greek merxard Tfth. G. in Italy. Cf. Qualis was kept. *d'unde. 417. 53 {^qui for quce in 70. Cf. moreover. quern Quid. gradually encroached on quod: Bon. 485. § 84. Bon. and eventually * de unde. G. II. 237. Archiv I. 394 (^qui f. Some Classic Latin pronouns fell into disuse. and alter viere confused in common speech: G. and some new compounds were made. and Dacia: Lat. 528 a. cepit. in such phrases as cata unum Kaf tva. cata tres Hence *cata anus. after the model of id. This confusion is more frequent in late Latin: St. alques. 178). conjectures *ne inde. along the Mediterranean. as a relative. ^ne ipse icnus. in Italy. *nec ente or *ne ente was apparently used as an equivalent for nihil. Gram. 'some' or 'any. Omnis and omnia were kept Digitized by Microsoft® . Jerome. in certain constructions. sg.

for eo: Lat. 338. too. 414. custodire debeant. (St. § 53. R. There finitive. was sometimes used for omnis : Plautus. R. Compare the old is Italian use of dovere. qualis. VERBS. Jerome. ' : (G. a pleonastic use of debeo. 427. 121) and perhaps *tuttus. . G. The words referring to the "place in "place into which" were confused. being used for quisquis and quicumque (Bayard res and : res nata = ' anyone '. Quisque was much extended 135). G. Claudian. which" and the ibi 73. 415). «»w. Mil. is often used pleonastically Bayard 99-100. quts. quisque.38 faucus. tot. . tantis lacri- 413-415 qui. tantus replaced quot. Cf. quhquis. 402-403 ifota tormenta diaboli in me veniant. ' anything R. Propertius: Densusianu 179. 409-411). Cf. totis horis. 336-337. Unde was employed by Microsoft® in the sense of Digitized . Glor. There are examples as early as Drager 104. Frequent in late Latin Bon. : 4. 212. 691-693: commonens ut 72. 3. Videri. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bechtel 143. quique. tantus totus. G. 204. (2). talis. is . also a common pleonastic use of coepi with the in- instead of the perfect: see § 124. persona. 345. see quantus. pronounced also tottus (S. 403). Regnier 108-109 {guanto plus quantus. This use was common in late Latin: Densusianu 178. § 1 1 7. quanti justi esuriunt. 488. 109). Spr. iinus. Cf. 692. [§ 73 plus and magis were confused: tenetur tanto plus timetur. §§ 163. ubi being used for quo. ADVERBS.

395-396. Wolfflin 5. and many other 75- Double negation frequent: R. 39 'where' (Zj. Bene. etc. and others by Microsoft® .§ 78] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Die amice unde tristis es. and magis for potius: Bayard no. § 74. were employed as intensives more than in Classic Latin. procedit. Terence. The functions of prepositions were very much extended not found in (Bayard 137-158): see Use 77. G. PREPOSITIONS. egredere de ecelesia. also 'therefore' and 'where84. Hoppe 38): de palatio exit. . Bechtel 105. multum. G. usurped the place of which also. R. It apparently has no successors in the Romance languages. Regnier no. nee de cubiculo . . semper semper. Bechtel 105. muri de lapide de adversario vivo de deeimis. having been replaced by on. Dubois 332. ggressus de area. Regnier in. Totum occurs often as an adverb: places. is Ab. is Per. . Plus was often substituted for magis. de utero matris nati sunt sic.14. . 339. Beiheft fore': 157). R. 38. sed ecce hie est. any de. of the Italic dialects except Latin. 341 jaspide. G. from the third century ex {Lat. Hoppe 78. of Inflections. occurs occasionally: Dieit unus ex uno angulo: Eeee hie Alius ex alio angulo: Non. aliquid postulare. Non no. Cases. 487. 435. cf. meaning 'no'. Regnier The absolute use of non. and the old comparative and superlative forms became rarer: see § 56. according to Mohl. Spr. 37. 5. Hoppe 38 . 7. 76. Ad for apud occurs Digitized in Plautus. . 342 . for ne with the subjunctive common: G. nihil. 446-447 {nee is fado est. Lexique 43. . Plus and magis were used more and more for comparison. 395. Repetition was used for in- tensive effect: satis Seneca.).

Bechtel 104. and more frequently by later authors: Lat.^ 79. 343 . frequently meant 'concerning': frustrati circa veritatem. 71) Fr. derive the Mohl would Old It. 40 An Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. replaced by ad. and common Fer. Bechtel 103.. 343. apud is repeatedly found for cum in the Latin writers of Gaul. nos.. G. appo. G. Super sometimes replaced de: fallere vos super hanc rem. Pro itself was partially replaced by per (cf. where it was kept with the sense of cum: Haag 74. 37. Bechtel 106 super anima commendatus. est oratio. ' . 42.' and replaced ob and propter : fides pro una muliere perfida. Urbat 10): ad ipsum fontem facta cf. aveCj not from apud + hoc. ad post (p. 390-392. ' : Juxta often signified acjuxta consuetudinem. am amb. Urbat 27 {tractans apud me metipsum.?. [§ 80 (Oliver 5-6). ad For the most part apud-^-a. According to F. . pro memoria illius. am. La preposition cum et ses successeurs en gallo-roman in Bausteine 61. Mohl. had a great vogue country. Bechtel 105 juxta drachmcB cording to exemplum. 489. but was substituted lor'per in other regions (Urbat 34-35)80. to supplant a critical period for Gaul. but from * (pp. as he says. a new word. 75-76). Spr. Circa. Hoppe 37. ab he takes from apud. G.27- in late writers (R. in the Empire. but from ad hoc from Italic Pr. Severus. § 14). and cum for apud in Gregory of Tours. but Pr. etc. not from apud. and so came cum in that Pro often had the sense of 'for. being. Hoppe Hoppe ' 41. except in Gaul. Digitized by Microsoft® . volo pro legentis attendimus locum ilium facilitate abuti sermone vulgato. also ab una manu pallas altaris tenerem. Bechtel 106. apud. where ab seems Apud is used for cum by Sulpicius to be used for apud). in authors of the second and third centuries. cum probably disappeared from actual use in Gaul by the fourth century.

431-432. and many other places Bon. CONJUNCTIONS. Bayard 161. 445-446. with the infinitive «/ is is : not infrequent 549. he. often supplanting quando. : R. Quod to for very common AudoUent ' £0 quod cdLiae 27. temporal sense. Regnier 11 2-1 13. Aut cf. subtus. et: Per. ^. and quoniam : R. and was . Quando displaced cum in the quod. 399. 13. Regnier often used for ne and num (G. guoniam {^SMddlt&r Jubere. 83. de forts. foras were freely used as prepositions (R. G. in). cf. Tamen in the grinatio. . meaning 'and so' or 'so': 40. Cur. . etc. ut : R.) seems to be used. 8. Ac sic recurs continually in the Pere49. 403-405. 323. 46. R. 48. quia. 73. etc. 24. and 'wherefore': G. Quomodo became a great favorite. vade retro me. Peregrinatio : Qua. encroaches on quando in the 22. which in late Latin was often reduced to qui or qua (see § 168) frequently took the place of quod: Regnier 111-112. ' ' ' Digitized by Microsoft® . 334): subtus terram. &'took the place of a« and utrum (R. 39. . quare sometimes replaced ^«^^and quia: G. Regnier in. etc. 41 81. 398-400.' § 84] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 403. 427—428) are used very often by late writers instead of the accusative and infinitive construction: R. Eventually ut was generally discarded. rm\c\\ used in the sense of that ' : Per. merely Magis is much employed to indicate a subordinate clause. quasi: Per. 430): videte si Ac si frequently did service for potest did. Quod. forts. etc. 424 {unde inquit Dominus). Bechtel 119-120.. §§ 70. Ut 82. Retro. 84. R. . 'when'. same text (37. 6. in most cases. Quia. cf. Unde sometimes means therefore for but by late writers. . 399. 402. aut is sometimes equivalent to et .

In popular speech prepositions were more used. 322). who occasionally uses the accusative for the dative and the ablative. constructions. 8$. from prepositional the beginning. et sic fit missa ecclesitz. and very often with place names also. 86. in the Peregrinatio fit : There find are. of the locative ablative singular in Ttbiiri^ Tivoli . Arimtnt> Rimini. as time went on. ' " Cf. [§ 86 C. Astis Asti. a. B. Digitized by Microsoft® . LOCATIVE. CASES. plural in Andecavis > Flntbus > Fimes.. Archiv VIII. Bianchi With other words. ut Clusil~^ Chiusi. When the locative of names of localities was kept. R. We remnants of the locative geni- tive in Agrigentt> Girgenti. 174-176 . Cf. the domi or domo of Cicero becomes in domo in Seneca. Palestina (G. it generally came to be regarded as an inin Archivio glottologico italiano IX. only in names of places. 412-415.1 42 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. : > etc. than in the literary language. rare in Classic Latin. Quillacq 96- for African Latin. Aquis Acqui Aix. however. Pirson 169-202. larity in the . etc. There is confusion even in Petronius. the locative was replaced by in with the ablative (Hoppe 32 in Alexandria) or by ad with the accusative (Urbat 10). Hence employment arises in late writers a great irregu- of cases^: G. several examples Bechtel no. Florentice^ Firenze. 302-326. and the use of cases became more and more 103 restricted. 1. The locative. USE OF INFLECTIONS. 378. of the locative ablative Angers. remained eventually missa Anastasi. etc. Partsiis > > Parigi Paris. for confusion after verbs and adjectives. increasingly took the place of pure case distinctions.

son 197. 6ioff. de animalibus. 1. XVII. de nostris bonis. Digitized by Microsoft® .10. vocatives in -us. domine. curator de sacra via. b.§ 89] An .' -P^r. Lat. Archiv I. i. terminus de nostra donatione. . Pirson 194. Sepulcri 217. 342 numquid Zacchaus de bono habebat. except perhaps in a few set phrases. the nominative in most words in and such words as had a separate vocative form is like it : tended to discard Plautus. partem de istius impudentia. R. d. cited by Draeger I. II. Bon. bus gentilibusque multitudo magna (also quidam ex Acts 4. R. . save in set combinations. Cicero. VOCATIVE. was supplanted by other by the ablative with de (which occurs Examples as early as Plautus). In Vulgar Latin the vocative form probably disappeared entirely. Spr. 487. Oliver 14. such Horace. occur in mens for mi is very common (Regnier 34). Hoppe 38. generally . neminem de prcesentibus. as mi 88. gustabit de meo. Hoppe 38. 89. 396. little by constructions. Pir. clerici de ipsa ecclesia. The vocative Classic Latin. 39. de Deo munus. lumine. GENITIVE. 396. 40.. 87. Urbat 20. 43 variable form we find such locatives used as nominatives : from the third century on Lat. sometimes by the dative. de oleo. possessor de propria terra. Plautus. R. R. For the partitive genitive we find: nil 53. R. 12. The genitive. Terence Heaut. de aceto plenum. 481. 396. little. Bechtel 104. Spr. de coleritieis). and Livy. 628 aliquid de . Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cf. de pomis =^som& apples. abound: expers partis Verr. de spiritu Moysi. c. quid de scientia. Cf. Bechtel 104. instead of -e.. de studentibus. IV. According to Meyer-Liibke. Regnier 54. the genitive probably ceased to be really popular. 528 a. aliquid habet de verecundia discipuli. de sorore nepus. etc. 426.

est ministerit. : Zs. The dative was more Lat. form either with the ablative or with the genitive (e. Plautus. 329. D'Arbois 13 alme Maria. causa causis. 194. in a words that belonged especially to clerical Latin. L. illorum. g. in certain . Capt. 1019. = went to the bishop'. a tendency by the accusative with ad: ad carnuficem dabo. in honore . etc. ad me ad Dei officio paratus. Bon. The genitive was retained. etc.. Pirson Digitized omne regnum. etc. 40.. 329. a. fui ad episcopum etc. di notte tempore (later di notte tempo). '^^^ hcec affectionem darem. Dominus ad restituit Moysen dicit. find. ad me magna nuntiavit. stable than the genitive: 90. Inasmuch as the Plautus. 341—342 in /undo ilia villa. ad propinquos restituit. paganorum. Lat Spr. inscription of 57 B. illujus. etc. We it to replace in most of the Empire : ait ad me. Fieri. Urbat 12.. the fear of ambiguity naturally fostered this practice and the dative. matre mece. Spr.44 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. DATIVE.C. tempore > It. . and probably in some proper names: lUna dies. as early as Plautus. Cf. etc. XXV. Oliver by Microsoft® .. however. In late Latin a wrong form was often used a deo honorem in an inscription in Gaul. True. Livy II.. Urbat 12. 488. dicens ad eum.. [§ 90 by the beginning of the third century. It. G. ii. IV. etc. ad omnem injuriam im330. S. I. alta node silentia. Spr. 487. in the singular of was identical in substitution became very general 64. si pecunia most nouns and in the plural of all. 13. 3513. ad vestram 'I Bechtel 102-103. 135. C. ad quern dixit. in good many set phrases. IX. Paoli. De Re Rustica I. loquitur ad Jeremiam. G. muro muris. 1. mart maribus). some pronouns. ad id templum data erit. 4. . Bechtel 103. etc. Bechtel 104. ange- lorum. Per. apparet ad agricolas. de noctis cHjus. Varro. G. D'Arbois 91-93. patiens.. Sepulcri 218. ad quern promissio facta.

335. Bechtel 105. The dative remained in Dacia. Cf. Hoppe 33 .G. c. de oculis. R. de te beati sunt. not ad. to distinguish its various functions. Hoppe 105). G. de singularitate famosum.§ 92] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Sepulcri 218. Ex R. Sometimes super eum. XXX. occurs also: ex causa humana salutis. super. 92. Hoppe 36. ABLATIVE. Bechtel 104 (cf. de manibus suis. 35. Cyprian. de se. esse. The analytical tendency of speech. de- ceptus. 56. R. 34. elsewhere it probably disappeared from really popular speech by the end of the Empire. 641. Sepulcri 218. Hoppe. 339-342. G. nobilior de obsoletiore matrice.). Ab common : ab omni specie idololatrice intactum. 426. ab Ariulfi astutia the most frequent erubescens de infamia sua. in its original function and also as a genitive. illui tilt. except in pronouns {cici. Regnier 54. Bechtel de contumelia sua. 393 patrem de regno privavit. Bechtel 105. ex infirmitate fatigata. in the first declension (as case). 481). Bechtel 104.' see Zs. Hoppe 33. Regnier . and so in 91. cited by WolfHin $2. super was used: imposuerat manus me misericordiam prastare. ab a prcemio minorem scriptura sancta commemoratos. digni de cmlo Castores. 337. tibi. a came superatur. Hoppe Hoppe 34. ab sceleribus parce. etc. occidam de lancea. St. is For de= 'than. favored the use of prepositions with the ablative. 392-395. and lingered rather late Gaul (Za/. gaudet de victus necessitate causatur. Hoppe 33. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. Regnier 54-56. reinforced by the analogy of prepositional substitutes for the genitive and dative. 45 3-4.. de virgine natus est. ml. in feminine adjectives (as romine). Regnier 51 . Rumanian has kept the dative. De is : Hoppe 14. Spr. de vestra rideat CBmulatione. 36.

in most of the Latin territory. Bechtel 103. epistolam. G. per nomen vocavit. 397 . in fif. after the fall of final m and the of quantitative distinctions in unaccented syllables. its stead. XXXI. sodales. 94. ad horam sextam aguntur. 5. Sepulcri 218 pugnare ad ursos. D'Arbois footnote 27.46 An In is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the accusative being used in J 95- There is evidence of the confusion of accusative and first ablative as early as the century. Hoppe 33. in inscriptions. ad unum gladii ictum 93. for the ablative: . 488. Rand in is Modem Philology II. Spr. Lat. The accusative form substituted for the ablative after by Microsoft® Digitized . K. 347 R. in illo die. late The use of prepositions became really neccessary in the loss spoken language. the little ablative differed or not at all from the accusative in the : singular of most words causam causa. R. but very common before the third. G. 263. ad diem. Bechtel 95 . discenies. etfreno maxillas eorum constringe. Bechtel 103-104. quo in tempore. . diem die. and that the ablative and accusative singular were pronounced alike. The fusion of the two cases was doubtless helped by the fact that certain prepositions might be combined with either accusative or ablative. 488. Spr. in camo amore Dei 9 in bonis operibus abundetis. cum Cf. : [§ 95 often found . patrem It is likely that before the patre. because. caput desecare. etc. Sometimes ad ov per with the accusative is substituted per hoc. donum dono. Hoppe 31 .. Cf. . Regnier 58 Hoppe 31 in maxilla asina delevi mille vires. ferventes. in aU words. Ps. 344-347. E. Cum cum it was probably not with the accusative is very frequent: cum suos Lat. of the Empire the ablative plural end form was generally discarded.396-397. cum res nostras. Regnier 60. fructum fructu.

sine fructum. quomodo. Bechtel 97-98 erat in villas. Bechtel 99 . R. Digitized by Microsoft® . 406-412. pro nos. 406-412.6—412. etc. Hoppe 40-41 in the Per.. 40. . that the ablative absolute survived in a few common 1 like It.. however. de ipsas . post .. . in popular speech. ecclesia majore. .. such as hora. Bechtel loi. ablative ist' 97. Bechtel xoo\ post morte. tuos. etc. ad . ecclesia. Waters Ch. R. . .. was kept only in etc. R. puteo. 58.. R. D'Arbois 27 de rigna nostra. The some fixed expressions. Bechtel 96 de hoc ipsud. Bechtel 95 contra ipso loco. Bechtel 94—101 venit in civitate sua. -juxta aqua ipsa.. is three times as common as the + ace. etc. etc. 410. is Conversely. D'Arbois 152. ante sole. R. Bechtel loi — propter populo. in Per. Bechtel 96 de actus. Bechtel 100. medium maris. Bechtel 95. Bechtel 99 lunca. pari mente. 47 other prepositions: a monazonies. — : pro hoc ipsud. It is likely. de. . + abl. luce. per valle and 21 other cases of /ifr+abl. ilia. vendere cento soldi. the nominative absolute took 45. anno.— — — § 97] — —— — . for abl. 8). etc.. Hoppe 40-41 12 examples of in + ace. de camem. 406-412. 406-412. perhaps in such phrases as It.. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. 406-412. et bene- dicens nos episcopusprofectisumus. Bechtel 99. etc. — prope super civitate hac. infinem Deus fecit ccelum et terram. the accusative ante cruce. R. generally. intro spe- — lectione. for ace. — — — foras in came conversa. Bechtel 94. — intra civitate sua. D'Arbois 70-71 ex fines R. 96. Bechtel 96 de martyrium. . circa Bechtel 95 .. probably in some expressions. Bechtel loi. videbo te in publicum. Bechtel loi . . its place : Bechtel 09-1 1 o. Bechtel 94 ante sole. the ablative form very often written for ... etc. visa loca sancta omnia {Per. — Bechtel 96 — . proper names with as Delia Casa. Bechtel 96. in correct use of in etc. . de eo torrentem. too. etc. cib fatto.

By the end of the Vulgar Latin period there probably remained in really popular use (aside from pronouns and a number of set formulas) in Dacia only three cases. After verbs of motion ad was often used. omatus est. 327. 328. Regnier 51-52. were replaced by other locutions. g. tota autem nocte vicibus dicuntur p salmi. and 101. 98. Waters Ch. G. The supine disappeared from general the first placed. 103. fui ad ecdesiam. Clerics. FALL OF DECLENSION. In the parts that remained selves. in the rest of the Empire only two —a nominative and an accusativenaturally tried to write in ac- ablative. these obsolete parts were employed by writers with more or less inaccuracy. 99. instead of the simple accusative: eamus in forum. ad isfam Duration of time was expressed by per with the ac- cusative. by the infinitive: as cum Digitized by Microsoft® . to Vulgar Latin. Only the present active and the present and perfect participles were left intact. ad Babyloniatn duxit. G. ^i. cordance with their idea of correct Latin. (i) Supine. Many parts of the verb went out of popular use. 2. however. a. also is by the ablative Bechtel : 1 08-9. sometimes in. Bechtel 103.48 An Introduction f. 100. [§ 103 ACCUSATIVE. per iotos octo dies etc. regionem venit. Regnier 52. infinitive 102. many new tendencies manifested them- IMPERSONAL PARTS. being recentury on. Cf. from use. consules ad Africam profecti sunt. VERB-FORMS.

G. the i. in place of the future: with 388.. 490. Lat. it The future active participle Vulgar Latin. and Tacitus. Hoppe 105. ex- cept in some standing phrases. the gerundive was discarded. R. necessitas tacere. 433-434. St. as a future passive participle. The ablative gerund was . Lat. Cf. 847-849. from the third century on. cites Livy. Eventually. Hoppe multa vidi sometimes used for a conditional clause cavendo salvi erimus. it was probably rare in late was used with esse as a substitute Sometimes. 2. Spr. Gerund. 490. however. 433. the supine was preserved: Tiktin 596. 49 veneris ad bibere. Future Active Participle.erund infinitive. Digitized by Microsoft® . Draeger II. In Rumanian. etc. G. except when style. of the ablative form.§ io6] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. R. took the place of a relative cIzms^: faveant mihi pro Cf. The gerundive was used est. 389. in a literary 388—389. 432. 57 179. esse. conciendo ad se multitudinem. (3) Gerundive. : sic legendo. R. 57. quomodo potest hie nobis camem dare ad manducare. ejus nomine pugnaturo. Dubois 275. however. for the future (as facturus sum). 386R. Spr. G. Densusianu sanando. (2) 104. Jilius hominis tradendus Cf. qui pertransivit benefaciendo et Cf. came to be replaced With the exception by the sometimes with a prep- osition: dat manducare. The ablative form of the gerund substitute for the present participle: ita miserrimus tando. 432—433. 430. Cap. V. 8. (4) 106. G. hanc Marcion captavit errando. Sermones 225. potestatem curare. 363. 4. became more and more a fui fugiet Eun. assurgens popu- lando. Augustine. R. Terence.

mundus sit. is disappeared: see Voice and Tense below.. sciens quod — libenter haberetis hcec cognoscere. de corpore loquor. (7) Infinitive. The perfect and passive infinitive forms eventually In late writers. the perfect instead of the present infinitive very common: R. si ipse est ascendens in ccelos. 371-375. G. but often by a clause in- troduced by quia. The infinitive + accusative construction was more and third century on: G. it for a relative clause: it Often. Sometimes it was employed periphrastically with esse: G. however. 375-385. The perfect participle was kept. Writers occasionally substituted 388.the was replaced sometimes by the passive. scribitur. no. 431-432 {malunt credidisse. wishing to avoid vulgarisms. (5) [§ no Present Participle. : Eva vidisse de- G. and as a noun see Derivation. G. was replaced by the ablative gerund: see Gerund above. nemo mentiens plorat. G. G. Verbs that had no perfect participle were obliged to make one. 371-373. etc. however. 371.50 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. its use was greatly extended through new methods of forming the passive and the perfect tenses. ut. credidit ei quia esset vere Jilius Dei. perspicue exposuit quod ager nesciebat quia Jesus erat. It more avoided from . by Microsoft® . 383 . and was used as an : adjective -ans. Bon. 659-671. 389. ut spiritu valeatnon ignoramus. The present participle was kept. etc. and. Late writers. legitur dixisse Deus. (licent eo quod filii Israhel eas posuerint. quoniam. quod. as will presently be seen. 377. (6) Perfect Participle. 107. often misused the infinitive + accusative: Digitized G. Regnier 63. 385. 109.). Suffixes for Adjectives. Cf. G. etc. Bechtel 112—115. 108.

conjectus in carcerem fuerat. timuisti . It Hoppe malum tions: replaced the subjunctive with ut and similar construcvadent orare. Regnier Digitized 63. venit aliquis audire. 671-675. aliter exprimere non est. Hoppe 60. non venit justos vocare. It wias often used as a noun: totum vivere anima carnis est. quce legi digna sunt. . some the — except the perfect gerundive — gradually + esse (in north- disappeared from ordinary speech. Facere mit dem Infinitiv in Archiv III. 363. ipsum vivere accedere est. 363-370. etc. Regnier 106. It took the place of a relative or indirectly interrogative after certain verbs: clause nesciendo qua petere. G. 370. Regnier 73. see Draeger was made up and. Regnier 74 mihi prcecepit hac loqui. Regnier 73. to of the perfect participle ern Italy y?^). G. G. 647. Bechtel 117. of the popular formation . cited in Lat. 366. male fecisti dare Spiritum sanctum. 42. VOICE. Hoppe 61. b. 430. etc. Regnier 106. per velle perdidit bonum posse.§ 112] An On Introduction to Vulgar -Latin.. facere. Bon. up the classic practice as far as they were Although authors kept able. permissa est accedere. amatus est came Hence amatus fuit signified he Then a whole passive in2 76ff.. some examples may be culled from late writings: denuo factus filius fui. 673. G. the other hand. by Microsoft® . Bon. ' 112. non habent unde reddere tibi. Cf. P. Cf. Thielmann. est. Hoppe 42-52: Ninus regnare primus. 368. Venantius Fortunatus. G. Hoppe 60 mors salva erit cum fuerit devorata. to Under the ' influence of carus '. 490. 51 111. amant ignorare. mean he was loved': flection is loved etc. R.. Bechtel 117: valeamus assumi. Spr. I. participle The old passive forms extent. the infinitive assumed many new and Gerund above. functions: see Supine bonus et dicere et facere. revertitur omnis populus resumere se. 177.

-At the end of the Vulgar Latin period it in popular speech. I'er. etc. Cf. and in Italy. The imperative came to be restricted to the second person singular and plural of the present. Gaul. 455. as in the case oi frusirare frustrari. etc. An As Introduction to Vulgar Latin. by the indicative (found in Pirminius). Regnier 69. Rom. Even in Classic Latin there is often hesita- tion. [§ 117 the passive inflection disappeared. for the use of 25. and littera scripta est vulgar. MOOD. who lived in southern Gaul in the fifth century. XXXII. much as it is used by Microsoft® . sequi. (2) Subjunctive. see c. Many deponent course. 117. people said littera se scribit and litteram scribunt or litteram scribit homo: ct. deponent verbs became active. and also for the first. constructions: cum hi omnes tarn excelsi sunt. very Digitized was probably used. In the intermediate period the passive was frequently replaced by reflexive and active constructions. being replaced by the indicative in many . Spr. and Dacia by the infinitive: Zat. 55. scribitur When littera seemed archaic. In negative commands the imperative was often placed by the subjunctive. 490. the subjunctive being used for the third person. etc.. Bechtel 126. followed the same Bonnet 402-413. (i) Imperative.52 113. Bechtel 115 si scire vultis quid facitis. Dubois 275 notes that the forms in -0 are very rare in Ennodius. re- 116. The subjunctive was limited to fewer functions. homo with the force of French on. facit se hora quinta. In late vulgar speech mori. irascere irasci. verbs are used as active verbs by Petronius. 114. 115. se sanare ^= sanari in the 4th century.

late writers often put the subjunctive where Classic authors would have put the indicative: G. 53 in the Romance Late writers. were less logical and evidently less spontaneous than Classic authors in their employment of the subjunctive. cf. The in the use of it. 431 cites many examtimui ne inter nos bella fuissent orta. its G. Digitized It was apparently confused with was thus preserved in Spain by Microsoft® . Regnier 68-71. the indicative was often substituted for the subjunctive: R. used freely for the imperfect by isset.§ 119] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. The pluperfect : imperfect subjunctive gradually gave way to the Bellum Africanum {^Lat. 489). Sometimes. 489: examples from the 4th century). potuisset. G. and with perthis use is common in the fect infinitives like tacuisse for tacere {Lat. while trying to follow the traditional practice. 357-362- (118. etc. Spr. 355-357. Spr. 428-430. ecce Pater fecit Filium nasci de fact. Regnier 27-28. languages.iX. On the other hand. Sittl 133-134. The perfect subjunctive the future perfect indicative. It apparently began with debuvoluisset. Sometimes the subjunctive was replaced by deieo with the infinitive: debeant accipi = accipiantur. R. in indirect In conditions not contrary to tive discourse and indirect questions. •a. § III. Gregory the Great (Sepulcri 226) and others. exWriters of the third and fourth centuries cept in Sardinia. Cf. imperfect subjunctive ultimately went out of use. etc. in dependent clauses that are not adversa- nor dubitative.&x facio. 418. ples. : cdntdse. § 72. as In Rumanian the pluperfect subjunctive has assumed the show uncertainty function of a pluperfect indicative 119. place was taken by the infinitive: vergine.

De Lollis in Zs. Crescini in d. indicative 120. scriptum habeo. 535 is . way with Even adjectives: miserum habere. Bon. etc. I. collocatas habent. yarf«»2 habeo. 121. for the perfect subjunctive. by Microsoft® . Densusianu 181. in legal phraseology. Part. perf. with their old functions. 689-691. perf. construction very common in Cicero in a sense that closely approaches the perfect: satis .54 An in Italian i. perf. compertum ego habeo. habeo deliberatum. Digitized Bon. 28. Part. Draeger I. [§ 122 and Bausteine Cf. perfect. quid Athenis exquisitum habeam. perf ^11. Plautus. § 117. 423. (i) The Perfect Tenses. The present and imperfect and the present subjunctive remained. pluperfect. rationes cognitas habeo. the mean- ing of this locution began to shift to the perfect. Tiktin 596. ilia omnia missa habeo. 619. perf 415. Regnier Cf. § 124. In late Lastin this compound often had simply a peribi vos meaning: metuo enim ne habeam fatigatos. future. 405. 376. or something akin to it: Cato the elder. and Rumanian and V. re- Fart. fect 294-295. Draeger 295. however. Fart. XXIX. episcopum invitatum habes. pecunias magnas 294. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. junctive. 516. 518-521. Fart. For the imperfect and pluperfect subsee. Sallust. 537-538. in general. perf. dialects: cf. perf. however. perf 372 . which led also to thS formation of a new perfect and pluperfect subjunctive. Fart. 414-415. In the and future perfect indicative great changes took place. The . used in the same Part. In Classic Latin habeo with the perfect participle was used to express a lasting condition: Hannibal quia fessum It was militem praliis operibusque habebat. I.. C. see § 118. Draeger 122. omnis res lictas habeo. in Classic Latin. § 119. 690. TENSE. ff. cf. Fart.

124. The old perfect form remained in popular use. etc. and to some extent in Italy. 123. quas in cerario conditas habeDraeger I. in the case of neuter verbs. I [ sometimes with its original sense. in Proven9al. On the model of this new perfect. with esse. a compound pluwas constructed Cicero. furet. : quam semper cognitam habui. Sepulcri 227. the Gl. 543. it cxpi with an infinitive: Waters Ch. but still lingered. perf. in some southern Italian dialects (notably in the Rosa in the fresca aulentissima).§ 124] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the old perfect meaning was not entirely lost. however. 537. it 55 In popular speech function: perfect form. The preterit use occurs in dixerat. its vogue began in Gaul in the fifth century. The old future perfect was apparently confused with the perfect subjunctive. with the force of a future indicative or subjunctive. in the Spanish peninsula. 620).. perfect bant. was preserved in Spanish. Some late writers were fond of :\ substituting for Cf. transalaret in etc. tional function. which came down from the Classic Latin use in conditional sentences. which supplanted more and more the original was increasingly confined to its aorist Lat Spr. XXIX. perf. Regnier 28. The old pluperfect indicative became rarer. 70. sometimes as a the sixth: Part. si Dominum iratum haberes. sometimes as a preterit. and continued to be used. auret. Digitized by Microsoft® . Old French Sainte Eulalie. 294. 541. § 72.. elsewhere . pouret. boltier' in the Old The condiItalian Ritmo Cassinese (^Zs. gener ally with the aorist sense. ortaret. In the Spanish peninsula. Fart. In the same way a future perfect was made: de Ccesare satis dictum habebo. Eventually an entire perfect inflection was built up with habere or. Reich. and in the Italian /ora -Cfueram. 489. etc.

The substitution si vis ecce ire became frequent in all sorts of constructions: nam modo pedibus duco vos ibi. Bechtel 112. Sepulcri 225. the future in the first two conjugations was suggestive of the imperfect. dormibo forms were kept late {Futurum 161). was native. PL 141-142.— S6 in An some Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The old pluperfect subjunctive was used as an imperfect: see § 118. Cf. future was not uniform in the four conjuwas used in three of them and prevailed in two. Sepulcri 225-226. During the Empire there was a strong tendency to substitute these or other constructions Classic Latin turus sum. gations. Draeger I. had some circumlocutions. qiiando mutarisi eras. delenda est. Pers. cantdre. and in the other two. corrigis. such as fachabeo dicere. These causes or others made the future unpopular. Bechtel 90-91. jam crastina non eximus. Old Sp. cum volueris et imus tecum ostendimus tibi. in late pronunciation. As the tense became rare in speech. only in Rome and the immediate vicinity. (2) 125. Regnier Cf. errors as respondeam for respondebo (^Futurum 158). Furthermore. and in Dacia: Sp. [§ 126 dialects of Italy. which approached the meaning of the future. The old audibo. cantdro. pervidet. was liable to confusion with the present subjunctive and indicative. inquis.. quando 64. 98. and we find such 126. Digitized by Microsoft® . which The Latin mistakes were made in writing: Vok. according to Mohl. the formation in —bo. Bechtel 112. § 119. Future and Conditional. Pr. for the future forms (such periphrases are particularly fre- quent in African church Latin) : (1) The present indicative for the future is common in Cicero in conditional sentences: Lebreton 188-190. I. 286 ff. Regnier viii.

I. 128. St. — St. + + It was 5) Vadere. being so used by Cicero and nius. or Digitized by Microsoft® . Rustica 5. Futurum 48 ff. however. I. Regnier 29. 129. tantum habeo Lucretius VI. R. debeo dicere: tibi polliceri. videre habetis. 123. ( ^w^ was a favorite with late nos futuri sumus resurgere. Regnier century. De Re ut id mihi habeam curare. Cf. later. . aliter prcedicantur bent. I 127. venire + infinitive were used also. (3) Velk and /^w^ + infinitive were frequent: G.. . Jerome. It had become common by the sixth In the early stages of the Romance languages. I. was habeo with the dicere ^=:. Varro. . (4) Debere kept in Sardinian.. . etc.. 711. Hoppe 44-45 . etc. Ovid. 106. bam. Velle in this sense was preserved in Dacia. rebus dicere habemus. habes invenire in manibus — tollere habet. 370. the oldest Rumanian future is voiujurd or Jurd vom: Tiktin 599. R. qui nasci habent. infinitive: In Classic Latin habeo habeo quod dicam. it many others. In these senses habes spectare. i. Hoppe 44 it . cui velle habet. 449 Regnier 28. venire habet. Ad Famil. See §§ 105. mandare habewas very common in late writers: Hoppe 43 filius Dei mori habuit. infinitive was another substitute.— Servius. R. § 129] An The Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 448 exire habebat. This habeo construction dare habet finally took the sense of a simple future: Tertullian. Trist. as in Sueto- means I. The form that prevailed. 423. Densusianu 181 in Italy . Augustine. ire. quam evenire haDeus corpus. . nee verba nobis ista did habent. 28. Futurum 180. 57 (2) future participle writers: stc et Bayard 256. in multis hoc . Hoppe 44 nan habent retribuere. Cf. 447-449. frobare non habent. 447 multa habeo dicere. et sicnihil tuis. G. Cicero. R. Cf. . 447 unde mihi dare habes aquam vivam. R.

St. [§ 130 possibly in the latest stage of Vulgar Latin. and in Portuguese it is not completed Old Sp. Haag 54. Bayard 257. garius: Justinianus dicebat 'daras'. it was natural that amaturus eram should give m way to bam. pati haberet. Furthermore. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. On the model of this future. an imperfect of the was constructed. Bayard 256.— 58 . cantare or he cantar. Digitized by Microsoft® . addarabo. ista civitas esterminari haberet quod esset venturus et 130. fazel-o-he. the infinitive came to stand regularly. Quillacq 116.. There are sure examples from the fifth century on: Lat. ready for use. manifestari habebat. Cyprian and St. though not immutably. amaturus eram or fui was often used and when amaturus sum was replaced by amare habeo. Spr. 55. just before the habeo. and occurs in Old Italian Pg. in Classic Latin. or conditional. to match such a sentence as venire habebat or habuit. etc. Finally the two words were fused into one. In Classic Latin. 489. new form. amare habedicit quod like dixit si possum venire habet. Haag See Morphology. So it seems to be used by Tertullian. Hoppe 43-45. Hilary seem to show a simple conditional use of the compound: quod lex nova dari haberet. but this union was not completed until after the beginnings of the Romance literatures. The earliest examples of the Romance future are found in Fredeyet. separation is common in Old Provencal. something like si potuissem venire habebam or habui was called for. in place of amassem the conclusion of a conditional sentence. The phrase existed. Herodes principes sacerdotum ubi nasci habebat Christus interrogat. where it was employed with an implication of obligation or necessity. although sometimes with him the meaning borders on a real conditional: non traditus autem traduci habebas. . there quod was needed a past construction and corresponding to venire habeo.

§ 130] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. for a discussion of the question. not' bvious. Bildung des rumanischen Konditionalis in Zs. cintareasH. 691. see H. Tiktin. form in the Romance languages see in general. The ')ie origin of the full Rumanian conditional. parallel to that of the future: Moris hology. Digitized by Microsoft® . XXVIII. of this 59 The development as.

sic-cus. pro-pter. Cf. in-fans. It is altogether likely. no-ctem. 466. that a consonant group. The Latin grammarians seem to have given no heed to actual speech. In Vulgar Latin this : combination almost invariably attracts the accent cathidra. but to have followed the usage of Greek spelling. poets may or may not make tinebrcB. prop-ter. Quintilian 5 recom- mends vdlucres. the syllable always ended in a vowel. however. as in ob-liviscor. 131. al-ter. etc. PHONOLOGY. It is likely that in Old Latin the division came before the Digitized by Microsoft® . Lat. etc. fact. The principles of syllabic division are rather difficult to establish. and not pirfe-ctus. except a mute + a liquid. S. made position an^ attracted the accent: perfSc-tus. According to these writers. 132-151. They add In point of that etymological considerations often disturb the operation of the rule. The division of j + consonant they regard as uncertain {a-s- trum)\ doubtless in reality the s was nearly syllabic. all consonant groups. or in half of a double consonant: a-ni-ma. A single consonant between vowels certainly went with the second po-si-tus. phdretra. was usually divided consonant noc-tem. as in Italian. a-mnis. then.III. position. A. it In the Classic I. or in a liquid or nasal followed by another consonantin the next syllable. in the spoken language. 132. The group mute + liquid makes position in the older dramaafter the first : : tists : Nsevius accents integrant. SYLLABICATION. supporting it with purely theoretical considerations. Spr. mit-to.

30-34. became y. the beginning a it 134. co-lu-bra. both in the literary and in the spoken language. § 136] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. pi. both consonants were carried over lub-ra. 133. if that syllable as early as and remained. colubra. if : word began with a vowel B. the accent falling on the e Digitized by Microsoft® . ACCENT. Old Fr. after the accent on cd- the preceding vowel. 892-906 S. the place of the accent was literature began. There are. but subsequently. § 132) normally has the stress in Vulgar Latin: cathedra. cor exsultat = co r-exsultat. have seen that Vulgar Latin regularly accents according to the Classic quantitative accentuation. Franz. The Latin accent was probably from regularly stress accent. when immediately followed by the 136. however. some cases in which the Classic principle fails to operate or the Classic stress has been shifted 135. otherwise on the antepenult — developed . 13. co-liib-ra.. had become fixed : 6i liquid. ing to which the accent The falls Classic Latin system — accordis on the penult long. VOWELS m HIATUS. poltre < *pullitra. In the earliest stage of the language appar- ently fell on the first syllable: Corssen II. delicto. Old Fr. We speech a that final have reason to believe that in closely connected consonant was carried over to the next word. There seem to be a few exceptions to the rule palpres < pdlpebras. and /. and perhaps : some othfc. through the Classic period even after the distinctions of quantity were lost. Accented vowel of the penult. The penult vowel before mute + liquid (cf. : We — a. PRIMARY STRESS. inUgram. computo. unchanged: bonitatem. I.

that suos. parjites^paretes^ C. adsteti. Accented u. presteti. tenueram > * tenj^eram. It was favored also by the analogy of miilier. O. 137. tenueram by tenui. 56. seems to be due to a tendency to shift the stress to the more sonorous of two contiguous vowels: cf. consuere by cdnsuo. etc. tuds. /. I.pi(teus. crededi. suds. paries. re- 139. consuere'>*cdns^ere'> cdnsere . > putjdlis. inclausus. Digitized by Microsoft® . This change X. Gram. etc. reiinet > * ret^net. Cf § 225. I. Verbs compounded with prefixes were generally constructed with the accent and the vowel of the simple verb. Lehrbuch der Phonetik. p. b. C. battuere being influenced by bdttuo. S. 668-670. provided the composite nature of the formation was understood and the parts were recognized (cf. It is possible. II. condedit. S. [§ 139 following vowel: put^olis ~:> mul(eris>muljMs. habuerunt by hdbuit. Here the shift was apparently due in each case to analogy. hiatus seems to have had no on the accent in Latin. . tra- addedi. etc. Aside from these cases. reddedit. perdedit. Jespersen. it was palatalized: \i&xwt f aretes. COMPOUND VERBS. §31): deficit >* disfdcit. 192. itios were sometimes pronounced duds. 1889 (pvte6lis). however. riquirit "^ * requkrit. became w. when immediately followed by the vowel falling of the penult. but * muVeres. 3714 (paretes). S. 138.. imp Itcaf^* imp Heat. 51. habMrunf^ * hdb^erunt.. in which the vowel in hiatus is atonic. Lat Spr. so parietes" L.62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. conteneo. calefacis. On the same plan new verbs were formed: *de-minat. displtcet>*displdcet. 468. the accent on the preceding syllable: bat{^t)iiere'>* bdtty^ere'> bdttere . '/« regularly re-nigat. etc. L. reddtdi "^ reddMi. effect diios. became e but if the preceding consonant was . Sepulcri 213-215. Cf. VI. So 54 . dedit.

(tdicwtoi/ (Pirson 40). and northern Italy. a cross between /««/«/« was kept in Sicily and in the Spanish peninsula. Schuchardt in Zs. 515 and XXVIII. which was applied by cooks to a liver. a fusion of ficatum and * sicotum. 42. the simple verbs having become rare or having taken a different sense: legere. 141. . 235Digitized by Microsoft® . Sardinia preserved both ficatum and ficatum. Priscian says ^^ illic pro mice": S. fecitum. for some unknown reason. Reetia. central 2jaA. Ficatum or prevailed in Dacia. Paris in Miscellanea linguistica in onore di Graziadio H. later. cdlligo and some others not even the composite nature was perceived. *ficotum */dciium. 435 L. The adverbs iliac. *ftcatum. which should properly have been pronounced sycotum . . FICATUM. XXV. Through this word there came into use the culinary terms /tedium. came to be used only in the sense of 'read.Lic. was preferred in and southern Italy. a . . * redpit. the composite character of the word although the compound was no longer associated capere. n. Gaul had ficatum and ficatum. Ficatum. d. ficotum. 'liver'. ficatum. by a change of suffix. Ascoli 41 See G. 63 RMpit became being with In felt. it probably became *secotum.' Ficatum. 140. It is found in late Latin in the form sycotum. *fdcatum. all meaning 'liver. n-LAc. There existed in Greek a word 'figlike'. Clddat in Revue de philologie fran(aise et de littirature XV.§ i4i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. perhaps under the influence of a vulgar *hepdte for hepar.simple translation of (tvkwtov. illic accented their last syllable through the analogy of hdc^ hlc. for instance.' c.

G. voXvTrovs '^ polypus^ irop(f>vpa /jMyiSa. See M. mdgida. § 134). apparently the first syllable: (2) 145. Cf. 69-70.TKj6. Kafxapa^cdmera. S. Xa. 1 142. Claussen 809. Tairav6s>* iapinus. may represent popular stress. Ther\.ira. 144.guadraginta. 337. The accentuation times the Greek stress GREEK WORDS. fj. 143.r/xa-vj'^- were stressed according to the Latin system: ^pa-)QiLT^> drdch{u)ma. see § 141. 4-5 Pirson 97. of Greek words was varied. \ were sometimes accented on the antepenult: Consentius mentions a faulty pronunciation triginta..poKri'^pardbula. Keil V. irapa.. however. tisana. lines quarranta occurs in a late inscription. Ti.virahersvigintt. <f>Ld\rj XoXepa > chdlera) > colira. with the Greek > Occasionally the accent was kept by doubling the consonant. sometimes the word was made to conform to the Latin principle. etc. as polifpus. The shift was probably due to a tendency to differentiate the numerals from one compare the floating accent in English thirteen^ another in Melanges natural : fourteen. stressed ^vKwrov. [§ 145 NUMERALS. fdia. irapaT-fi^'^ pirata. Greek oxytones. Somewas preserved. iraXa/ir/ ^pd/ma. (nraa-it. 461. Vok.'i'^ mdc(k)- tna.vr] <f>apiTpa'>p/tdretra ox phar'etra (cf. kTzi<jTo\rj~> epistula —ola. etc. a. Digitized by Microsoft® .o^'^ spdstnus. Greek Paroxytones. terms borrowed by ear from the Greek. 392.64 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 42 ff. e. Wahlund..qumqudginta.tnginta. (>pMd/a)> It. borrowed Idmpa^s). Ihm in Archiv VII. when by Latin.ix. It. Rydberg . II. etc. Optisdna)':>lt. (1) Greek Oxytones. Greek paroxytones were mostly accented according to the quantity of the penult: ypa(j>tov>grdp/iium. > ( ^purpura.

which was used to form new words: see Derivation. 42-49. are attested: S. 35. The pronunciations melodia. A few early borrowed words perhaps show the Old Latin Cf. Cf. Kuiv(im&ov> conopeum -eum —ium. Claussen 810— 811. When : the penult vowel was in position. iKKXtjaia the Latin fiipXla^Mblia. (with a KoXa^o^ > cdld- Trpea-ftvrepov > presbyterum new nominative took the prisbyter). 149. kKo. The endings -aa. 55-56.. but their statements are too vague to be of use.<j-(^r]fLux. etc. the accent remained un- changed phus. 'i.. -eum: ^a. doubtless favored by Cliristian influence. Claussen 813-814. etc. 2-3. I. Cf.puj<jo%~^* ciiparissosy. S.<TTopia> kistdria. -ia 146. § 17. KaXafiOi > calamus. Claussen 812. When : the penult was short. phonia. A. penetrated popular speech {(ro<l>ia> sopMa. sometimes —ea. sen 809. (3) 147. ylvecTK "^ ginesis. -eum -ium. a-riirta>s^pia. 65 but it more likely that the Italian forms are book-words with a shifted accent.§ 149] ^^ Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. XXXI.- was at first generally assimilated to p\a.. S. Digitized jSawTia-fui > baptisma. —aav sometimes became -ea -ia. Thomas in Rom. > ec(^c)Usia. 42£f. Greek Proparoxytones. Gram. Cf. raXaxTov > talintum. and sophta. 148.) and produced a new Latin ending -ia. by Microsoft® . > platea platea.t&o. Claussen 814-821.>blasp hernia. it accent afivcraoi > abyssus. of proparoxytones is The treatment complicated.. Cf.cupressus. etc.'Kav&ov'> balneum. Claus- accentuation: Kxnta. Late Latin grammarians mention a pro- nunciation of Greek words with the Greek accent (S. Suffixes for Nouns. The ending -2i2.'avfi<l>(ovia>sym- Later a fashionable pronunciation -ia. 42).

466). however. a-iKlvov^ linum. Bayeux. ayKvpa>dncora. 48-49) Ka. Troyes. Tricasses'>Yx. etc.. Dottin 103. When the penult vowel was long and not in position. Fisaurum It. xa/xtvos it : caminus. 'ldKioPoi>/dcobus. 152. Ka. Ne Digitized by Microsoft® . writes: Beatus iuctor skculi Servile c6rpus fnduit. their original accent. 2. [§ 153 'EyKava-Tov.pv6<^vKKov Occasionally the consonant group was simplified and the accent remained : > * garofulum.ballcena.T]\ai> camelus -ellus. Ut cdrne carnem liberdns p^rderit quos c6ndidit. Celtic Baiocasses > > Z>urdcasses'^'Px. apparently took the accent in book-words but not in words learned by ear (S. 151.o%> bldsphemus (Prudentius).ov tdolum (both in Prudentius: Lat. 49): Umbrian Fr. ipr]iuis> eremus eremus : > (Prudentius). Some words borrowed from other languages kept e. As far as SECONDARY STRESS. at the beginning of the century. judging from phonetic changes late Latin verse. became both encdustum and incaustum. of accented and unaccented fifth Thus Sedulius. Some words have both pronunciations et8<i)A. Pharo.Tri. . Germanic words were apparently made to conform to Latin types: H'&go HUgun > Hugo Hugdnem > Fr. we can determine the rhythm Latin. j3ovTvpov> *se'- biHtyrum (^milius Macer).it. it consisted in a tolerably regular alternation syllables. etc. OTHER FOREIGN WORDS. contrary to Latin rules (S. Spr. KpoKohaKoi'^ crocodilus.> sinapi sindpi. of Vulgar and from semi-popular Kluge 500. t^aWtava'^. 153. (T'aia.66 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ^\axr<^-i]p. Hues Hudn. > 150. Dreux.

and were attached as additional end of other words (S. syllables to the beginning or had no accent. sdzer. I. In late formations e or i in hiatus did not count as a sylla- ble: * cotninitidre. 154. dolorosa. stress. te-videt. so. clerc. cum Pr. v€ttovdglia beside vittdria. F\6rentino beside Fvrenze. and the secondary was shifted or *pdrauldre. Many words. as well as some adverbs and pronouns. Digitized by Microsoft® .: § 156] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Gdllias. in Italian. 156. fell on the second syllable from the tonic: cuptditosus. 67 ' The secondary then. were used only as enclitics or proclitics. colp. non-dmat. 155. In many cases the intervening vowel fell out or lost Then the primary and the secondary ac- lost cent were brought together. dd-tibi.^plach. 38-39) dma-me. Idcrlmosa. cdlapMin Pr. clirgue while cUr'cum > > > cdlbe while cdlpum > Pr. circum-Utora (Quintilian s). Short. it was weak. UNSTEESSED WORDS. cave-facias. When the secondary stress preceded the tonic. strong. unemphatic words. When it followed the tonic. it and the vowel bearing it was was apparently treated as an accented vowel: * amicUdtem~^'?x. in Latin as in other lan- guages. especially prepositions and conjunctions. *parduldre *pardbuldre : > > > filiiis "^^/ilius. however. B\i6logn{no beside Bologna. pldcttiim'^'Pr. but probably the vowel bearing it had more force than a wholly unaccented final vowel: sdcer{>'PY. In some derivatives. but clmPr. felidtatem. amistdt. its syllabic value. cdlidHs cdldus. Casdrem. the root syllable may have received an irregular stress through the analogy of the primitive: * drboricellus.

QUANTITY. sUay- C. For the syllabication of mute + liquid. istu' (but iccum istum > eccu'istu'). per. Every 'LaXin vowel was by nature either lon^ prshort. A syllable was long if it contained ( i ) a long vowel or a diphthong or (2) any vowel + a following consonant.5"^ illas and sometimes unstressed and * las. 379-390. the consonant. 56-57. ' I 159. by Microsoft® . position checked it is 160. [§ i6o 157. however. Mute + liquid Neither. . did not prevent the development: pa-trem^Y-ic. see Franz.68 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. did a final consonant Digitized §133): Jffl-/> Fr. If. S. elision. but we may surmise that in common speech it was more marked in stressed than in unstressed vowels. 'lu' A 'c'ic dissyllabic beginning with a vowel seems to have regularly lost vldet. par-tern > Fr. 134. 73-79. see §§132. (cf. perhaps influenced proclitic hy plus. 1110. and probable that the beginnings of this differentiation go back to Vulgar Latin times : pa-rem > Old Fr. pere. the consonant was final and the next word began with a vowel. 1. apparently. POSITION. they tended to become monosyllabic: unstressed magis. was doubtless carried over to the next syllable and did not make position: see §133. in connected speech. Words sometimes sa. If such particles had more than one syllable. eccum istum > 'cu" p II. part. We must distinguish between the quantity of vowels and the quantity of syllables. In some of the Romance languages the development of the preceding vowel. ecce that vowel: ilium v{det^ hic^ (but ecce hie > ecc'tc) For 158. sel. stressed tended to develop double forms: sua and Cf. how great the difference was we do not know. became *mais and * mas.

corpo <:_cdr-pus. gluto glutto . buc{c)lna. ciepa. (S. Cf.. coUo < <icd-r. 163. Many words certainly longing to different Latin dialects. perhaps litera littera. cf.^glut[t)tre. glossa glosa. doubtless beone with a long vowel + — + a double consonant: brdchium brdcchium . formossus > > > mtsit. Italian fiero <. tap{p)ete. § 42 ctpus a single consonant. coppa . nollo.* co-pVit. Stolz 222—225. : The The single antiquity of double t is attested by an old inscription Lexique loi. mucus miiccus . cuor{e) 161. cupola and erat. Early in the Empire caussa ss after vowels was apparently reduced to casus.. cuopre <. In Latin texts there is much confusion of single and double consonants. c. giving Sp. ferro <ifer-rum_. Sp. L. j < peccol- lum. —Isse —tssem etc. hoc erat hocc S. cuba. mtllia (but not in mille : Pompeius. VIII. In some words from bad spelling.fiel(^e) Kferl. mut{t')ire. 162. this may result merely the case with the doublet czto> S-p. cetto. It. in— 132. citto {C. siccus ' '' sicccus. but often it must represent an actual difference in pronunciation. paullum. ii594)>It. -esse -essem etc. stupa stuppa. Similarly one / was lost in mallo. cedo. S. cot{t)idie. cuppa. cuve. §163. Fr. as seems to be ves(s)ica. Cf. 127). I. S.^ ec{c)lesta. 69 Compare tus. 129. Digitized by Microsoft® . Cf. where we have perhaps only a change of suffix. copa. It. Fr. Jiipiter Juppiter. missit (S. which prevailed in Romance. in the contracted endings -dsse -dssem etc. pupa puppa. petto pietra<pe-tra. 125-126 (Velius Longus and Pompeius). biica bucca . etc. is common in Greek and Latin manu- scripts: S. however. diphthongs and long 112-120): cdssus> formosus. 118: mIssit) > causa.§ 163] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. especially before the accent: bal{l)cBna. — fuore <fd-ris. had two forms. Stolz 223-224. camelus camellus. This did not occur.fe-rus. cippus. coupe. the other with a short vowel .

So perhaps Diomedes' Itttera: Fr. reviewed by Meyer-Lubke in Ltblt. botte). stilla). seemingly a cross between the other two.70 An To these Introduction to Vulgar Latin. having both the long. channe. bascio). ^Stella Vok. S.^)—* tdtta (> Pr. tennuis. iota estreine) (>Sp. chdne{<x°-'^) 261. 1.488. a consonant was doubled 122. strinna). jubemmus. 164. 334. toiius was used by Pirminius. For *iiUius see Digitized by Microsoft® . Cf. baca bacca. + anguilla—* angutUa (> It. Lexique 95-98) + Stella (>It. § 204(2). suppra. Sic. Vok. vowel and the double consonant : angutla (> Sp. frattre. ^(ji. mist * missi 261 {iubimmus iobemmus). In aqua the double con: sonant. Stolz 223. Gaul. Beside the two forms indicated. [§ 164 may perhaps be added: cdseus * cdsseus bdsium *bassium (>It.5 547. iConsentius: " per adjectionem litterje io««»! pioioto. mattrona. Spr. XXIV. Leicique 98-104. G. I. messi). toda) ¥ totta (Keil V. strennuor. etc. XXVI. * butts (<j8oi)tis) *buttis (>It. (>It. * According to Lat. voile. there was occasionally a third. suppremis. 339. 612. anguila) Fr. Rsetia. * stela (>01d esteile: cf. brdca bracca. conservdmus Vok. local ing to F. Mohl. toute). anguilla). I. jubemus lltus littus. This doubling indicates in most cases a Accordpronunciation. 403. Zs. Gram. Stella. tenne. before / and u in the old Italic dialects compare the Italian doubling infabbro. prevalent in Africa or in Italy. Archiv XIV.^ + strenna = * strenna (> It. attested by inscriptions and by Christian poets." Cf. In late Latin inscriptions and manuscripts a consonant was sometimes doubled before r or u: acqua. strena (> Old Fr. (> It. conservammus. cascio). and a large part of lateinischen See Clara Hiirlimann. 485. lattrones. cf. strenna. dialect stella) = (>It. was very widespread and prevailed in Italy. tota. bellua. I. Die Entwicklung des aqua in den romanischen Sprachen.

distinguishes two ^-sounds Pompeius. there was no such differentiation. is often used for i in inscriptions.. However may have been. . Terentianus from q (S. 146. etc. III. 193). if the word is used in verse. the evidence of inscriptions. in Vok. distinguishes do other grammarians (S. long dis- - tinguished only by duration. for instance. long and short e. similar to i. for the vowels of brief duration the tongue was not in lifted quite so high as for those held longer. is made with the tongue lying flat in the bottom of the mouth. 2. 71 VOWEL QUANTITY. According to Meyer-Liibke. i. 0. the distinction U was clear by the first century of our era. by 250. 211). In the case of a. as minses. etc. in 165. Writers do not clearly distinguish i and i. 182). mulus Later. Originally. II. secondus. in debet and mnum \ \ and minus. all : of later date. this nomen and novus. : vendo pinus pi^er. None of the grammarians apparently distinguished « and «. 182). 212.. 208. which and became e and see §§201. i ff. perhaps. the vowels having. (S. cites Tertullian for an e (S. about 350 a. (S. II. Za(. 176. In open syllables. 211). however. 174. from the second century on cs Marius Victorinus.§ i66] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. In Digitized by Microsoft® . i and u were allowed to drop still lower. as ocsor. 175. 200-201). until Consentius. is given the testimony of grammarians. the same sound in Idtus and Idtus. the short vowels being open while the sentio. and short vowels were redit. as menus. 216-217). In Vok. 183-184). d. That is. solus sqlet. 151. Spr. 467. most of the Empire.. and several fifth century grammarians plainly distinguish e from e (S. but is used for u in inscriptions. and so Maurus. I. long were close gula. etc. the quantity of the vowel is ' in general easily ascertained. about 480. and u were eventin ually differentiated. e. 461. was often used for e in inscriptions (S. in the fifth century (S. 166. 195. and i for e. in iillus and multus.

others karessimo. by S. 105). via— via. [§ 167 closed syllables and in words not used is by poets the quantity sometimes conOccasionally the in many cases doubtful . (S. 187). plus kept inscriptions (dIes originally long vowel. Aulus Gellius prescribes dictum. is The Classic rule that a vowel before another vowel short is not absolute even for verse. Fr. so cut. cf. Romance undecim. languages. Classic i Latin o&ers frtgidus (of. S. etc. their regular quantity in hiatus. with a restora- tion of the V through the plural ova). and in Ennius close vowel in the Romance (S. after u had become (see §§ 165. nutrire. but the i. and often shown by subsequent developments in the Romance languages. but an inscription has dIctatori (S. were apparently pronounced also with short u 81-82). etc. ultra (S. but it is sometimes given by gram- marians. loir calls for *gltrem h&siA^ gltrem. probably kept their original Naturally short vowels doubtless had development also: deus = deus. fut. 93. in Plautus.2^)>oum (and also ovum. by Microsoft® .72 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. although we do find the spellings dius and mius (S. and the practice of poets was not always in accordance with spoken usage. jectured from the etymology. duo>dui = dui. attested by pIvs piivs. 167. 98. others demand u. testimony conflicts: some inscriptions have carIssimo. before u was apparently differentiated into 0: dvum> oum (cf. frIgida. 93): these preserved their languages. any a later stage. Vowels in hiatus with the last syllable offer difficulties. at least in part. Naturally long vowels. a. proved old inscriptions . 105). siius'>Digitized spus> sous (S. ^T. their Dies. At 208). except Spanish. found in inscrip- tions. and. sometimes marked in inscriptions. 101-102).. Substrate II. VOWELS Ilf HIATUS. 99). require a short some Romance forms support Classic luridus. then.

ei-ius. different theory. §217.. it became qua. Franz. J. cuiius. For a still. Troija. 169. d. Pirson 16). XXV. §208. LENGTHENING BEFORE CONSONANTS. (S. *pldja. under the influence of qua and : . Jean- jaquet. 341. I. way to Cf. Maiiam. For another see A. with double i (S. however. 468). if we accept the statement of Teren- who says (S. as in ejus. words were short. point to open vowels in pejor. 104) that the vowels there that is.: 236. Velius Longus adds that etc. Franz. 73 varia- 216. 82 cf. 236). 168. Spr. 207). 170. Cicero preferred aiio. qua{ni).(4). 357-390. Cf. Quia. into pei-ius. 246-248.§ i7o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Quintilian states that Pirson 74. vowels were lengthened before j. 3 II. Maiiam. 352-355). see Gram. etc. tions in different countries. gave {Lat. before a consonant. used for quod in late Latin. Recherches sur Forigine de la conjonction 'que' et des formes romanes iquivalentes. maiiorem. on the other hand. which prolonged the — first syllable: not pejor. we should write Troiia also Priscian analyzes pejus. Troja. According to some grammarians. major.. There may have been other special Cf. 1894. had a peculiar development from the sixth century on before a vowel it was pronounced qui' and was confused with quid. but the / was doubled was a glide from the vowel to the/. 236). Fluere was supplanted in popular usage by plovere Fluvia. The apparent contradiction disappears tianus Maurus. spellings as Aiiax. We find in eiius. 250 in these a. as Cicero approved of Aiiacem. inscriptions such S. a II. The Romance languages. b. which had begun to assume the functions of quod (see §§69. Horning in Zs. coiiux. mai-ius Digitized (£don by Microsoft® . hut peijor. Troja.

467). tions: so pensare./. s: cosul. who wrote in the sixth century. however. But inasmuch as n occurs before /". it and the preceding vowel was cesor. the n being restored only in com- lengthened by compensation: pounds before initial nare. 77-78. lignum. etc. Before J. mesis. 86. etc. Romance and late Vulgar Latin words with ns (except in Cf. u. . (2) Before gn vowels were lengthened according to Priscian and inscriptions mark length in dtgnus. 91. tjk: quinque. not f. Cf §311. An Introduction When fell to Vulgar Latin. (i) Vowels were apparently lengthened before Cf. (cf. [§ 172 regularly early in Latin. 400. The Romance is languages. and the fall was permanent. coventio. etc. n occurred in the middle of many words. 89. Priscian. t.- cf. for the usage of Cicero and others. as above) are either learned terms or new formaS. S. 90.74 171. it was usually restored by the analogy of the full forms con-. tferi. or v). sanctus. all trace of the of the vowel: consul consul cosul cosul. so that the result Digitized was t. signum sigillum). regnum. tsula. but only after H had be- come i. for inscriptions. remains. S. in-: so infantem through indignus. a very late authority. and some philologists regard the passage in question as still still an interpola54. 172.. S. signum. nasality disappeared. the evidence of the inscriptions I. cojugi. s. but insig- It is altogether likely that the n fell through nasalization If so. compounds See S. coxwenire through continere. /. S. conjungere through conducere. (S. Archiv XIV. for inscriptions. etc. Lat. u. tion of later date. n was followed by a fricative (/. and v only at the end of prefixes. the vowel was lengthened.. beside the old popular *pesare. benegnvs by Microsoft® . pugnus. sposus. call for dtgnus. pignus. «. however. Spr. 78. 91). According to Meyer-Liibke {Gram. but the length and the close quality of the vowel remained.

warn against quantitative mistakes: so Servius. Cornu. The distinctions in quality. in the third or fourth century. (S. (S. lost. I." etc. in the Classical Review I. J. they existed at c. D. and a was often used for e in inscriptions (S. which is 75 in C. and the plural —es were confounded by 150 A. however. doubtless equivalent to the benIgnus of C. 183—184: bence. . The old quantity itself was It during the Empire. The poetry of Commodian. difference in quantity 173. 2153. tells us that au is short in Other grammarians syllables. L. This seems a very plausible C. and we find numerous metrical errors in other late poets: cf. Buck. the preservation of quantity in post-tonic Digitized mostly in the third and fourth centuries. DISAPPEARAHCE OF THE OLD QUANTITY. through a by Microsoft® . On shift the other hand. "miserce dativus est non adverbium. resulting from the original quantity. in the fourth century.§ 174] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. explanation. for the most part seems to have disappeared from unstressed syllables by the third or fourth century but confusion The nominative singular -is set in as early as the second. as in aut (S. about 250. of accent. 722. XII. 66). D. Versbau des Commodian in Bausteine 576.). Latin words borrowed by the Britons. remained. The was probably greater and more constant in accented than in unaccented vowels. seems to observe quantity in stressed and to neglect it in unstressed syllables. etc. 311. as due to a vulgar or local pronunciation. XV. in so far as all. and were often obliterated. through the Latin period and developed further in the Romance languages. prefers to regard such forms as dlgnus. in stressed syllables. 75). 174. show. unaccented Terentianus Maurus. XII. L. in unaccented syllables the distinctions were doubtless weaker. 226).

but probably the disappearance of the old distinction was not general before the fourth and fifth centuries. e and ?. and not complete before the end of the sixth. The Latin words in Old High German. clares that "Afrae aures de correptione St. vendo vents. 178).76 syllables: An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. On the other hand. taken over in the fifth and sixth centuries.if>« while u and u. but mostly in the third and fourth. 467). and o. Latin words borrowed by Old High German indicate a retention of long i and u before the accent: Franz. Digitized fqrmas fori. for. entirely diverse from the old. retain the quantity of vowels that bear the accent: Pogatscher. In accented syllables there are sporadic examples of confusion by the second century. grammarians blame the confusion of cequus and equus (S. In most of the Empire accented vowels not in position were pronounced long. 65. Latin words borrowed by the Britons from the second to the fifth century. are distinguished by quality also. It is possible that the quantity of unstressed vowels was better kept in the provinces than in Italy. 225). as aques for eques in 197 (S. 106). e. DEVELOPMENT OF A HEW QUANTITY. and based on th|fe situation of the vowel. fourth century. Moreover. [§ 176 Loth 72. fructus by Microsoft® . tity short: sdncto vales. in the Roma (S. Latin words in Anglo-Saxon. dixi plicds. Much late poetry disregards quantity altogether. show the preservation of the quantity of stressed vowels: Loth 64. / At the end of the Latin period a new system of quangrew up. Spr. i?> e 01 i. all other vowels 176. 175. criticizes Servius. d. Augustine devocalium vel produc- Pompeius and other tione non judicant" (^Lat. too. distinguish by quantity t and i. d>ii ox 6 while d>o: Franz. 107. u were pronounced open. (rets. o. all stressed vowels were appar- ently long: tempus. while a was not' affected by q-aawti-ty. ca-the-drd te-ni-brds . nepotis (A. I. This pronunciation doubtless sprang up with the old. The vowels most affected were e and q. and Sicily apparently did not participate in this early breaking. which in the transition from Latin to the Romance languages re1 77- It is likely that these in sulted in diphthongization in a large part of the Empire. 213). «^j>Fr. close. dis- appearance of the which it displaced. syllables before a labial (as in proommus') a short further- more. Meyer-Liibke in different in Einf. We shall see presently Digitized by Microsoft® . Latin had the vowels au. i. porta. XXV. u. In 419 D. 103—104. cq/r me-l no-s re-m In Spain and in some parts neisf of Gaul. /w>01d Fr. he describes it as common to all. but as posterior to it the fifth century. Portugal. perhaps only a blunder. tre-s. Zimmermann in Zs. southern Gaul. particularly in northern Gaul: z'f«f. and in unaccented ii. we find vobit for obiit (S. t. vieni.q. d. nous. ^^/a > Old Fr. eu. ce. An isolated example. a. have seen (§ 165) ti. 178. 561-562. also ui. Spr. Lombardy.f>It. 467. 735). Gram. goule. VOWELS.§ 178] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the groups that e. 0. cqr'^lt. cuor. beside a. occurs in an inscription made a little before 120 a. 77 gule. d. he puts in the fourth and fifth centuries. in £at. We and i. and the conditions of diphthongization were very diverse in different localities. nounced new long vowels were promost regions with a circuinflex intonation. cb. : Niipos. says that the development was and independent in the several Romance languages.

long or short. A.nd ce>e. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin e: a.iro6riKTf)~:>apotheca^ It. (f>dXayi -> phalanx. while au. ceu). Per. but also sepia "^ i: It. was in Greek originally a long e. as *waidanjan~>*wadaniare. as In words of more ji\acr<\>r}fi.78 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. partly from the various pronunciations of the vowels in the several Greek dialects. which became *trewa. eu generallyremained du. bottega. (n)Tria~^ sapia. doubtless the ideal of people of fashion. eu (or iu) appears in treuwa (or triuwa). was pronounced a: ^axriM^ Phdsis. 179. According to Quintilian (£don 64-65). a-Ktjvrj'^ sctsna scena. bestemmia. eu (^cduius. 181. and 180. [§ 182 (§§209. the Greek This pronunciation was letters were sounded as in Greek. Late words often show Digitized do-Ki/Tiys > ascitis. The history of Greek vowels is very complicated: — GREEK VOWELS. but popular speech substituted for unfamiliar vowels the sounds of the vernacular. The inconsistencies in this substitution arise partly from the different dates at which words were borrowed. The foreign vowels of borrowed words were assimil- In the few Celtic words that were taken over there are no important peculiarities. seppia. so in some late words. and ui (as in cut) was lit. 210) that cB>e a. iu is found in skiuha?i> ated in some fashion to the Latin system. it H era : eclesia. * skivare. partly from the channel (written or oral) through which they came. but early in our became t. In the Germanic vocabulary there is not much to be noted: at in words adopted early apparently became a. popular origin it often had the Greek open sound kKKkfitrU > 182. by Microsoft® .La > blasphemia > It.

apTepXa-M It. <^iKo'i>phtlus. ally u: tructa. dqga. sometimes open: eprjfios'^ er'mus er'mus'^ It. antiefne. etc. /. mienta. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: > cophinus. li bietal It. apa. O most dialects was kocjuvo's o. popular words I In book-words later e oz e. but perhaps dialectically q (cf. Tiov Claussen 854-855.ix6py7)>amurca.. cf. a.— § i86] An etc.vri^ovo%'>-* antefona'^ Qi\A Fr. op<^a. ermo.> piper. Sp. was generally close. t apparently later often e: apOplriKOi > ariAriticus '> It artetico. /iu(rT^ptov> mistirium. tttw^os > It. Pr. occasion- yXStrira > It. 185. was assimilated to Latin e: yevans Agenesis. "^-phoca. opiyavos > became e. piivOrj^ menta'> It.yermo. Cf.v6% > orphanus. Christianus Chres- tianus. Old Fr.. 183. E was close in some It. etc. '%Ti<^avo'. was probably q. it was In assimilated to Latin t: ^lp. seems to have had a very open sound. pttqcco. iKKXriKrCiu "> edisice. Claussen 869-870. K6ppi>gummi. apparently became I.o'i'> phlmus . In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: <j><!tKri In popular words it apparently became ^. ropvos > tqrnus > It. ixova<TT'^piov'>raora-n-rj- nastirium. ^(fila-pa^ chrisma> cresima. regamo. rprnKTiji'^ Cf. irop^vpo. Greek dialects. crLvaTn> sinapi^ senape. and occasionally the same word had both pronunciations: a. oo-/x'^ >. orma. chiosa.'>- Stephanus Stephanus. Claussen 855-857. I. Xpla-ro^'^. but sometimes open. pxirov > blttum'> It. at least in the principal dialects. 1re7rf. 79 40. in 186. -p-hqra). Neumann etc. tapit. etc. ^ia>drrp > boletus.p1. menta. even when long. armeise.. cresme. KiBpo'i'>cedrus'>In book-words it > Fr.' It. cedro. 80x1^ > dqga> It.Chrlstus Chrestus. ^^. open in others. > artemtsia > Old Fr. Digitized by Microsoft® . 184. It. Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. Cf. In popular words it was sometimes close. In popular words it.^ purpura. Claussen 853-854. tapis. 9.

in the 9th or loth century. App. 'OSuo-o-eta > Odissta. perhaps taken mostly from Doric (Claussen 865). Olumpus. Zefurus. which is genCicero erally represented. yppl-q > Claussen 857-860. 468." App. /iCSos > It. Mva-Ca^ Jfysia Mmsia. > > > buxida {=pyxis) in Theodorus Priscianus and in glosses.vt)> was shortened." "myrta non murta. Koyxiy <tt/3o<^os [§ 187 chorda. AudoUent 536. In the older borrowed words.yKvKw. in the case of v. motto. Pr.. Pr. > It. these probably have nothing to do with KoXvizTpa. etc. u is the spelling in some words." Among the common people the unfamiliar ii was assimilated to i.8o torno. Cf.p-q>cumba. KpvTTTrj > It. Y was > strqppus. etc. 221). Marsuas. Pr. KpvTrTy)> crupta . According to Cassiodorus. etc. etc.. 221. fivpros busta seems to represent a peculiar local development: cf. which may represent a Greek dialect pronunciation between u and ii: yvpo'i> gyrus gmrus . For some words we find an occasional spelling X. (S. by the spelling y. ''tymum non tu- mum. Cf. — > concha. was unrounded into /. Digitized by Microsoft® . — KoKn^o-i^ cqlaphus cojaphus. 221). KviJ. Lat. > ancilia . later in Attic and became ii. Livius Andronicus In ayKvpa ancora. y In the App. > > and a few other words the v for some reason became o. <jTvpai : . In inscriptions we find misteriis. 187. v regularly was assimilated to Latin u Ionic it jUijXXos 2ig-22i): Pvpara> bursa . Spr. originally pronounced u. S. nunquam Pyrrhum" (S. irv^os mullus. in which the ^ is a later local development. The spelling / occurs sometimes before Augustus 6.." "porphyreticum marmor non purpureticum marmor. murta. calotta. Pr." '^ tymum non tumum. we find: "Marsyas non in others (S. It. 'OXvcro-eu? > Ulixes. cultivated people adopted for Greek words the Ionic-Attic pronunciation. buxus. . which subsequently. The App. says: "Burrum semper Ennius. Pirson 39. Towards the end of the Republic. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. grotta. truttna the v storax. . In Tp\yTa.

Pr. may be merely misspellings: Some Romance forms show u: 875-877. misterii.rihtui. the penult was often shortened: Khj. § Kd 223. Claussen 873-875. cf. It. Claussen 01 originally "became came (S. Tu/iTravov > Fr. a became Clio. or z before vowels.. frequently became qui: The modern Greek pronunciation is represented by some Romance words: afi. became ai. later ce (as in poina). was usually pronounced short.. which to be pronounced as in ^otfio^'^it Phxbus Phebus Sometimes. (as in aiyi^'^ tsgis). as in AWiovux > Ethiopia Ethiopia. J before consonants. 190.> platea. etc. > scilinga. oTJpt-yya which became It. Bechtel etc. finally.TSa. by Microsoft® became 0. originally cb 188. 6r]travp6i> thesaurus. cima. e. Cf. M. bisante. if Pirson 39. which came to be proClaussen nounced 871-872. 191. Claussen 860-869. > It. In -eios -eta —tiov.v\ov > It.. about the third century. A V> au. This i. etc. cf. . KoXoKvuT-q"^ cologuinta. as in Atas > Aiax. /. . amido. KS/«i>It. Cf. «S(i)Xov> pirata. tdolum.'> w€ipaTyi<s'^ — KA£ki>> Medea. AI timbre. Kapa^iuriys'^ paradtsus . oi. then. Cleopatra. For o-vkcutoj/. 81 has "gyrus non girus. 277).§ 192] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 76-77. ciurma. if Audollent 535. etc." giret. etc. <? In Latin. Frigia. long. later e. Cf. b. j8u^ai'r6s > It. see § 141. MaTa > Maia. giro. toreomatum from Topfxpa. Cf. /ceXttJcr/xa > ? It. £/ was doubtless originally pronounced ei in Greek. Claussen 872-873. except before vowels. i. however. yrJi/'os — kvkvo%> gesso is e: yvpo% cecino. probably a local development. giro. Cf. > It. from the sixth to the fourth century c. Such forms Clepatra for as " ermeneumata non erminomata" {App. Digitized as in -Koivr] >poina.• ^ ^generally became ^« E3pos > -£'«''«J'. Cf. f. e. 192.). 189.

latus. Cf. ACCENTED VOWELS. see § 39. <u Claussen 877-878. (i) Some words had a peculiar development: — Beside alacrem the Romance languages seem to postulate alecrem and alej:rem. used by Petronius and others: Lat. N. Spr. L. 198. (5) jiSKav) there was a melum (<i)i.B. C. S. a. 171. perhaps indicates an ignorant confusion of « ce: KOiixMSia'^ and Cf. Kipaaoi) there must have been a Latin * cerlsus. Lat. 544. [§ 195 "^-foeta. patrem. A regularly remained dat-e. manus. (2) (3) For the suffix -arius. 468 cf. I. doubtless originally pronounced ou in Greek. 0. ovpavo's'^ Uranus. Haag 6. vocatio. 1527 d 33. volumptczte in Gl. which was used elsewhere Lat. unchanged in the greater part of the Empire: caput. C. VI. which was used in southern Italy. Spr. For nasal vowels. see § 171. SINGLE VOWELS. Substrate II. 468. The o was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . a 194. etc. Olcott 33. It is possible that dlacer (whence alacrem) > *dlecer (whence alecrem). But in Gaul. (6) Beside vacuus there was a vHcuus: vocuam. and agnetus (for agndtusi) in Fredegarius. Beside gravis there was a grevis. 195. I. for cmmeterium < Koi/tjyTiyptov. then q. — For vowels in hiatus. Beside cerasus *clra. Cimiterium cymiterium. Spr. L. and Sarthere was a clr^slus. senetus. « : . see § 167. malum « cf. then 'Valuer (whence alicrem alecrem).82 as in An iroirjTtji Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Rome.T\Kov). it probably had a forward pronunciation tending somewhat toward e: cf. I. Like 193.slus. especially in the north. -arius. Cf. Reich. crepere. became comcedia. under the influence of l?vis: Beside GREVE.. Claussen 878-879. Substrate (4) I. In Latin it usually became u: fipovxo's> bruchus. 441. Doric cf. I. So beside dinia. ot. 468. CKwas then if. tantus. factum.

359-364. mercedem. -isimus for vir. —isco for —esco.§ igS] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.: Sepulcri 193-194. 189-190. By a change § which was pronounced remained unchanged in Vulgar Latin. Some of the —esco >-tsco cases are surely due to a §§414-415.. probably- at least in most re- gions: debere. etc. vocivus regularly whence by analogy vdcat vScuus became ^vdcitus^ for vocat: Lat. iox co- gnusco and other verbs in —usco for -osco. for vindimia instead of vindemia. in Studi Medievali Medievali I. -Ire. 328. conjectures that consonant may have tended to raise e to i. 613. to u. Also Vok. etc. verus. and southern Apulia e In old Oscan. In Sicily. diheto. 614-615. filix. vacivus 83 {^vacuus). Sepulcri.. as in cinsum. and -tsco. no proof of historical con: nection between the phenomena 197. 196.ficit. for -elis and —His. cf . for —esco 26o£f. Studi A. debet. became vacdre. vindo. S. iox fistus. dulcido. I. Digitized It probably indicates an by Microsoft® . 466. which was spoken in nearly the has become i. etc. etc. etc. also for colustra. writings: Gregory the Great has crudilitas. Calabria. Lat. 468. old vocdre. e. for crisco and other verbs for adimplisti. shift of conjugation: see In Gaul this substitution of it i for e was so very com- mon that must signify something. Republican times. minsam. {ficet in the 3d century. This would account for bistia (= bestia) found in late Latin. {Lexique 115). vendere. T is very often used for e in inscriptions and late —ido for —edo. I.. —esimus. Spr. habetis. Cf. of suffix original. and conversely ver iox etc. II. however.. I.: for the confusion of -ere and 6911.). e became i in late {Lexique 106). III.. 198. Spr. — in -isco for -esco. There is. These spellings are due in the main s -¥ to the identity of /and i in late pronunciation: see § 165. Long e {% 165). -elius and —llius. 127 287-289. same region. I. Carnoy 15 ff. I.

rictu. ficit. quiiscit. this very high Spr. sidibus. veir): Lat. Lexique 104-105: ficerent. tris. quincriscens. [§ 201 extremely close pronunciation of the e ern Gaul. habitur. qulnque (^Substrate (i) 546). ingraviscente. Short e. Neumann adoliscens. doubtless by the third century and sporadically earlier. According to Lat. seniscit. stiva. fedilis. teneo. tile. minses. Haag 3iiff. venit. criscit. delitus. festa. etc. Bon. stiis. except in Spain. which supplanted vester. circulns. Cf. rigna. ferus. spelling e for ^ is common from Digitized the third century on frecare. became. 0) . rigna. tulate (4) stegola Varro seems to pos- something like * steva for For St. vexit. For the development (i) of diphthongs. etc. (Lexique 119) mentions a rustic speca for spica. Pirson 2-5: lo-ii: requiiscit. in north- e>ei (verum> Old Fr. viiium. villa. ferrum. see § 229. i pronounced i (§ 165).ii(i. etc. etc. (cf. minsis. Cf. 1 200. stilla. vaster. Long i. quaginsima. Short i. Cf. piscem. Fngidus. : (3) Beside sicula there was a secula (Lexique Ii9)>-It. which was pronounced e (see § 165). remained unchanged: I. 397. segolo. 106-113: minse. The 201. I. It is interesting to note that Celtic e also became i: Dottin 99. audtre. mille. Archiv (2) Beside ilex there was an elex. i. dico. 8-9: adoliscens. e in nearly all the Empire: btbo. perhaps through association with rtgidus. Lexique 114. minus. (4). 468. exit. see § 177. riges. Vok. pronounced / (§ 165). § i66. later. found in Gregory of Tours fur das Studium der neueren Sprachen CXV. vinum. e 199. It.84 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. is to be regarded as a new formation on the model of noster rather than as the old form. Spr. remained unchanged: bene. must have become *frtgidus ij^frigdus). tepiscit. : by Microsoft® .

Apulia of e to /.. became i: cf. nomen. 200-201. 11 7-1 23. accepere.. 85 menus. as it (§ 165). like e from e. Pirson 13. etc. (3) Sinister was replaced by sinexter. Beside simul there was a *sSmul. sebe. trea.. §§ 197.. -^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin.§203] legare. (i) (2) Beside camtsia there was a camTsia: Substrate I. The popular ustium I. Stu^i Medievali 613) is perhaps to be ex- plained in this way. Long 0. very common etc. cognusco.. «. semuL. In southern Italy e from i. sene. S. corregia. 463.. used by Gregory the Great and for ostium others. the change For agnusco. 468. attested also by in- scriptions (S. S. Quintilian and Varro mention 166) a rustic e for I. is The spelling u for etc.. sponsus. has become § 196. etc. 106. see the end of § 197. Calabria. These two islands were taken > from Rome by the Vandals in 458 and added to the African kingdom. Neumann 23-25. AudoUent 535.. minester. at least in hora. often used for e (cf. Pirson 8-10. and southern did in old Oscan: cf. Carnoy 15^-. Conversely (S. 468. amure. in Gaul {^Lat. S. 541. Digitized by Microsoft® . ^/z<^(= minester. ceteneris. 463. viduriiis. karessemo. pronounced in Vulgar Latin. (Zat.. Spr. benivolus. 6 202. etc. etc. 468): furma. etc. R. For ou 203. § 196. In Sardinia and a part of Corsica this change did not take and both t and i i. Haag II. etc. under the influence of dexter: Lat. etc. 198): minses. Spr. Spr. forma. 195. after that they were perhaps isolated: Einf. i is Bon. 202). place. 214. perhaps through the analogy of semel: Lat. R. In Sicily. vea. solus.. etc. see § 167. 469. > ou. etc. trebus. remained unchanged most regions: colorem. Spr.. zV/z///).

^'formica noxi furmica. forum. is that of Mohl. etc. nun. perhaps. sortem. Grammarians mention the protrusion of the lips: S." § 177. durus. — presumably through Fr. Grammaire I. Neapolitan sg. totto. sg. pi. locus. pi. probably represents a very close sound. For the development of diphthongs. gluria.. S. Fr. una.. became ou or u: cortem 204. 216. Digitized by Microsoft® . meuble. puni. The rustic Latin funics. a large part of northern Rsetia it position. tottus (§ 163). 206. Italy. Cassel: " aiatutti. uuela alle. solet. tuit. § 187.86 etc. tutto. pi. frondes) are perhaps connected with Italian yb«fe and other words containing o for 205. 126-130. see Long u. 211—212. mueble postulate Cf. in But in Gaul. in mobilis. pi. K. court. or at least to a tutti. Italian tutto . the analogy of mSveo. remained unchanged: bonus. Cf. forts." where tutti is defined as alle. Pr. may have come through 6 pronounced ^ (§ 165). tutt3 .. § 198. later. frundes (for fontes. remained unchanged most of the Empire: cura. the plural. pronounced u (§ 165). The Such a form seems to be attested by the Gl. Pr. No satisfactory explanation has been proposed the most plausible. which Haag 13. (2) Beside totus and *tuttus or *tuctus. the influence of cuncti on toti. some of the Romance forms point to nom. Lexique 102-104. U is occasionally used for o in inscriptions: lucus. § 217. [§ 206 It Bon. nullus. namely. cf.. *tutti or *tucti: It. mortem. etc. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. old Fr. folia. and western was probably formed a little forward of its normal It was certainly not u. sg. but it doubtless slightly This pronunciation may have been due to the historique de langue francaise approached it. App. tot. Nyrop. There are a few peculiar cases: and Sp. cognusco.. (i) > Old. q before n + dental. in north- ern Gaul. Short 0.

(3) There are other local irregularities. 465) and nSra (S. Albania. toneca. Celtic by the second century. etc. 469. Jleuve. Beside angHstia there must have been *angSstia. u. by Microsoft® . Spr. culpa. and ndra. « > z (cii^a cili. u 208. Substrate IV.> mur) but in a few. see § 167. 136. The spelling is common in late documents: "columna non colomna. in Latin words borrowed by the Celts « is generally treated like Celtic (murus ".). 217. due to the analogy of sdror and * nSvia (" bride. > : 207. For qu (i) (2) > qu. 468. Beside luridus there probably was a *l-S. tomolus. became nSptim: (3) Beside in Zs. Digitized Cf. Pirson 15-17." "puella non poella"). corso. Bon. Cf.. §§ 169. 517.. Short the fourth century or earlier. presumably taken very early. ruptus. App. and both u and . change did not take place. § 217. 87 linguistic habits of the Celts: u> t in Great Britain cf." from nSvus) Lat. G. etc. etc." "turma non iorma" (cf. couleuvre. In Sardinia. Spr. Pr..rdus: Substrate III. people ssiA plSvere (used by Petronius (4) Instead oi pluere axA pKvia and others) and *pldja: Lat. 467." "formosus noTiformunsus." from nSvus). 134. perhaps only orthographic: Lat. (i) (2) The following special cases are to be noted: — Cf. Cf.§ 2o8] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Fr. covetum (= is Haag 14. jeune call for local q in coliibra. tonica. pronounced u (§ 165). F. 617-618. 216). a pomex: Bon. a part of Corsica. servos. cubtturn). NUptia. pomice. 464. unda. fiUvium. through the analogy of *nSvius ("bridegroom. criidus > criz) Loth 67-68. u> Spr. and Dacia this u : Lat. In place of niirus we find ndrus (R. became. . Mohl pumex there was XXVI. which lasted down into the Empire. jUvlnis. giila. Windisch 396-397. "colubemon colober. Spr. 132-135. probably by in most of the Empire: bucca. The old spelling for u after v {yoltus.

quiceti. 465. 225. spellings as fcecit. Bechtel Digitized by Microsoft® . ^ was originally written through the mutual attraction of later e: ccecus. qucero. Carnoy 79-80. S. 'Sox fenum fcenum. Cf. century on (Carnoy 78): questus (2d century). cen224. some hundred years later e came into the city and pervaded the middle of the provinces: Lat. by analogy. such scBpes both forms were preserved. Cf. in the first S. The regular change oi ce to e took place largely in Republican times in unaccented syllables. Neumann 13 (and Fort- mon to Volscian seizung 21-23): famina. c. its and pronounced ai.. The Pompeius blames the confusion of csquus spelling e for cb was usual in unacfrom the fourth century on. igo. In Spanish inscriptions e occurs from the first S. 8). seta. sepes 188. £ for a in dative endings occurs early: Corssen I.88 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 225. especially in Pompeii (presta. About the first century b. preda. Spr. In certain words a vulgar and dialect pronunciation com- and Faliscan (Hammer 7. in stressed syllables (as questor) may be called regular by the century: S. preda prceda. b. § 78. tury. says that cb Terentius Scaurus. etc. sepes. 210. Hence. Carnoy It was probably general everywhere by the second 69-84. in stressed syllables in the first century of our era and later. but two parts it became cb. Cf. 166—168. etc. fifth it cented syllables (as sancte) before the third century. ccelum. when Varro cited edus for hadus as a rural form. 687 ff. 178. and equus : S.. came into general use: fenum. ae 209. century: Einf. e. 178. septum.): found early in Campania. [§ 210 DIPHTHOUGS. represents the sound better than ai: E is etc. etc. S. stressed cb was probably still a diphthong in the city but had become e in rustic Latium.

Umbrian and Faliscan had 4-5. inscriptions of the I St and 2d centuries).. I. grece.. taurus. orum. Rome. 89 75-76: cedat. orum. or possibly (2) they are only orthographic.. In Umbrian inscriptions we find Latin. — speak of a rustic or archaic o for au: Corssen fif. Vok. coda. Hammer central Italy: Chronologie . Bayard 5. in Portuguese as ou. 655-663. 8. Digitized by Microsoft® . original q (i) is proved by the treatment and Spanish it did not become of c in ^ until had broken into uo or ue. Conversely ce was often erroneouslyused for e (S. 212. The f there S. coming through derivatives. its existence in 211. crept was used by the lower classes: Lat. and others The grammarians : — . orata. in Oscan territory.. Cf. pronounced du.: § 212] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Hammer : 15-19. Festus. century second century Carnoy 85. and 465-466. such as occludo: Vok. are pretty common in various countries Carnoy 86-95. in the first it the city. where and second centuries B. where au was normally preserved this pronunciation was used also in the country around So. 162-164. in place of Latin au: and There are some examples in Pompeii. In C/^j-a. toru.). etc. Pr. etc. etc. the earli^est stage of French in Italian causa> chose . Cf. is 223 spellings Cladius. in general. Carnoy 85-86 (clusa. Scarus. occur inscriptions Carnoy 85. Perhaps they represent a provincial pronuncia- tion. Carnoy 100 (cludo in two Sp. with a for au when an u in the next syllable. plostrum Carnoy App. an Au. Festus cites 95. 301 S. Pirson 27. 183-184) and for Greek r) (as scanam. Glacus. in the Probus. ostrum. ^^ auris non cotes. etc.: into Spr. II. Priscian. Cludo for claudo is common. oricla". In Rumanian and Provengal it was preserved as au. Clodius : Ham- and Plotus are common in first mer 4. generally remained in Vulgar*^ Latin: aura. Lexique 104). Dibmedes. R. the dialects of northern \i^?s~\(>\. 304. etc.C. II. gaudium./464.

find amenus. " sorex ve\ saurex. 0. we C. 213. codex.. 227. In the Per. Cf. Eu. became popular: coscus. Carnoy 95. I. S. postulated by some Romance forms. Cicero used loreola. neu. mmrore. 1890. auscu/um . poena. pcenates. Lat. plaudo. explodo. 216. S. ui pronounced lii. fcemina. plodo. Vok. IV. was not preserved in any popular words. au was occasionally used for 160): Festus. stus. fosnum. etc. Umbrian suffoco. heu. Europa. etc. Ui. eu 214. S. S. Hammer 4)= aut. eu. Jilodere. Classic fauces. (cf. Bechtel 76. oe 215. ote. 228. Marius Victorinus. later e: coepi. mm227. eui~us. ccementa. L. This rustic and vulgar while the in Romance — which was pronounced — was generally adopted from au was 0. 227. of our era: Cf.go An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. [§ 216 {^Chronologie Conversely. ce for ce and e. is its and pronounced oi. The confusion S. lotus. 293ff. by Microsoft® . 464. eheu." Cf. oricla. may be that for reflected by the spelling phyeb^ E is attested by inscriptions in the first century ceperint. Phebus. plotus occur also. * auddere for occtdere. *^^ Cf. cepi. was preserved: For the development oifui. see § 431. cxlum. foces. seu). II. 0. CE was originally written through the mutual attraction of presumably 0. of ce and e is mentioned by late grammarians: In late Latin a bad spelling. hUic. Cf. Spr. Ola. 228. sodes. pollulum: si audes. but two parts it became It pcenitet. Digitized cHi. pronounced eu (as in ceu. Carnoy 84. illHi. neuter. coles =^ caulis. the intermediate stage Phoebe. Vulgar Latin in a few words : coda.

The discussion is continued by Pieri. the evidence is not convincing. 218. that f. § 134. u were lowered one stage labial. Although many examples are cited. possibly through a lingering the Old Latin accent: cf. until long after the Vulgar Latin period. those of the first syllable had most resistance. For a criticism of the theory. Among unstressed vowels. until the reforms of Charlemagne. e. in vulgar speech. qt INFLUENCE OP LABIALS. q.. La vocal tonka alterata dal contatto d'una consonante labiate in Archivio glottologico italiano XV. Osservazioni al precedence lavoro. 476. etc. Pieri. p. see G. influence of The vowels of the final syllable lost much of their distinct- ness. 579. After that. I ' According to some philologists. — 457. see § 167. d. Jluvium'>*flqvium. e. — vowel by a liquid. 2. a = a. u ^u (or a and ce ^e. pluere'^ ployere. in general. dvum~>* ovum. XXVII. q. see §§ N. B. au:=q ox au. stress. which 217. became ou: S. but did not fall. for the In clerical Latin the vowels were probably pronounced most part as ii). maintains ceding or following even if it by a preq was separated from the to e.§ 219] An Introduction c. 219. ibid. and then only Digitized in a part of the Empire. = 0. a following labial tends to open a vowel: colubra>* colqbra. i = i. A general influence of this kind can hardly be regarded as proved for any combination except ou. UNACCENTED VOWELS. La vocal tonka alterata da una consonante labiale in Zs. mobilis'^* mqbilis. — For secondary 153-155. to Vulgar Latin. juvenis'^*jovenis. CLERICAL LATEff. by Microsoft® . except sporadically. e=e. Ascoli.

being sometimes accented. For the confusion of unaccented e and i. however. 196-198. syllables: I. developed two forms. According to Quintilian I. except in initial syllables. bdl{i)neum.. In early Latin there was an inclination to syncope: ar{i)ddrem. 30—36. employed only before labials. maxumus quodlubet"^ guodlibet. 199-200. 221. cal[e)fdcere. and even there the difference must have been small. S. iv. Spr." (Weakest were medial vowels immediately following the stress. Haag 15-24. dc(^u)lus. Brutus. etc. in moderation. in unaccented . for o and u. > maximus. 466. vetranus: S. 251. by Microsoft® . etc. scriptions etc. According to Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. see Pirson 41—47. 2 1 2. Fredegarius is very uncertain in his use of unstressed vowels: 220. pontufex "^pontifex. in Classic and Vulgar Latin: cal{i)dus. This tendency continued. In Spanish in- we find maximus. secondary or the primary 47-48. Quase. av{^i)dere. 3 During the Classic period it generally became t: decumus~> decimus. 7. 9). 203-208." In the vulgar speech simus seems to have Cf. Lat. spelled both with u and with i: Carnoy 65-69. [§ 221 Grammarians sibe are testify to the confusion of and u: S. ID re vailed in Italy and southern Gaul. see Pirson. vtr{i)dis. Agrippa pro sumus simus scripserunt.. found in place of quasi. jur(^i)go. Lindsay 25-26. forms as infri. cf. "in here neque e plane nequi i auditur. syllables. In general Latin quantity did not sensibly affect the quality of unstressed vowels. etc. siimus -and simus. sibi: S. but simus was favored by Augustus and by some purists of his time (Lindsay 29). SUmus. (i).92 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. i was certainly distinct from Digitized In final i: sentis. The former was the one generally adopted in Classic Latin. 21-24. 35 Franz. U was cf. "Messala. In inscriptions we find such frig{i)daria. § 419.

Horace. UNACCENTED VOWELS IN HIATUS.. e. After gutturals. facias. Lucilius. So it was in qualis. probably by the century of our and sporadically earlier. a. nocuit. In Greek transliterations kv for qui (as in cf. Lucretius. alio. Digitized by Microsoft® . 232. Plautus. §187." "vacui gon 224. 234. Pr. In perfects.. the u was ap- parently not reduced to a semivowel until the end of the In some other words the syllabic value of u was kept. such as Classic period. > distinguere. Ovid. fes. at least in theory. Juvenal. 236. placuit. will be treated as consonants. Otherwise. Maiiam not ab. App. and u in hiatus with following vowels first lost their syllabic value era. left a. u followed by a vowel was originally itself. 223. fudxis. /"and u followed by a vowel and beginning a syllable were apparently pronounced as consonants from the earliest times. then. Bonnet notes that etc. qui. vindemiator'va. abiete. Quintilian says that u and i in uos and iam are not vowels: S. and Seneca: deorsum in Lucretius. vaqui. and will be out of consideration in the present chapter. 93 stbi." S. e. These. rather late: Velius Longus distinguishes aquam from acuam. fectf^Vr. abietiItalia counts as three syllables in poets of the ' bus in Virgil.§ 224] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. however. "vacua non vaqua. sometimes short. Horace. fluviorutn) are found in Ennius. senttt> It. Quintilian and Velius Longus cite the spellings Aiiax. feci. fis. as approved is by Cicero: S.g. sente. oKuAas) very common: Eckinger 123-125. a vowel but lost its syllabic value in early Classic times: acua > aqua. i. senti. Occasional examples (such as dormio. 222. In tibi the final vowel was sometimes long. quem. Virgil. is distinguere qucBro. used before Joseph.

232. Suavis. Vok. lintium. S. Consentius declares that trisyllabic soluit and .dixisse": Carnoy 43). i. four-syllable induruit are barbarisms Caesellius is undecided whether tenuis has three syllables or two: S. a new y and a new w. Valerius Probus has parietibus: £don 208. 103. was used as a trisyllable by Sedulius in the fifth century. mulierem (% 1^6) ". calcius. desto. 06 and u6 into o. Bayard 4. valiat. Cf. "non iamus sed eamus. 231-232. 234. App. [§ 225 early Empire.filius'>ftlius'^Jiljus. palleum. ie. In the same vi2. cf- Carnoy 33-35.> mul'erem. Pr. earn {=jani). ee. lancia. solia. etc. aleum.y Jiliolus>Jiljdlus (§136). VI. etc. the semivowels pre- sumably developed into the fricative consonants y and w: S. So alea>alea'^alja. a great confusion of e and i in hiatus: capriolvs (cf. exiat. century or before by the third century. noxeus. tenueram > tenweram (§137). 187.:> Digitized by Microsoft® . faciebam'>*facebam. Audollent 535. S. calciare. then. prehcndere 225. * de-excito~^* dexctto'^ It. in late Latin spelling. Uniamenta. however. 3714 (Rome). Caper.94 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. eccu'istay-* ecwista (§65). and // apparently being contracted into e.sapui > saj>ui> sapwi. I.." " sobrius per i non per e scribendum. vinia. abiat. 106. "ares veteres pro anVi. R. u6 developed differently. abias. L. 00. it was probably a semi-learned word.. the / remaining long enough to palatalize the / (the Romance e was doubtless a later analogical development). But the combinations ei -. it became soef in French. C. Hence arises. fasiolus. likewise eccu'kic> *eccwic. 463. Lauriatus. as e. parieUs {%i2t^)>p aretes. coclia. in late Latin. §136).." KeilVII. The pronunciation speech by the first u was probably regular in popular . at an early date: arietem (^^\-^6)'> are tern (Varro. eacit {^=jacei). soave in Italian. with a narrowing of the mouth-passage. cavia. We have. II>'43.

oSmsiT\& mortus. some writers use no u in distinguere. fell commoner After gutturals. Reich.. / after a consonant fell before unaccented i: Velius audit '^ audi. > ecus {^App. coquus'^ cocus {App. Febr{u)arius. duodecim'^ dodecim (Pirson 58: dodece)." " coqus non cocus". in late inscriptions. S. "equs non ecus ". Pr." Keil VII. tuum'^tum. 468-469. kept its u: Old Fr. quat{t')uor'^quattor (^. ho-Tievex. 218) quator — in. U often fell irregularly II. cf. Gl. inndcuus>inndcus. before unaccented by the second century: antiquus "> anticus carduus^^cardus. Jan{u)arius: Vok. Audollent See §354. Similarly. £don 130). £ruum'>erum {Lat. Pr. z/ after all consonants fell before unaccented u probably by the middle of the first century. then *prendere through the analogy of reddere and perhaps also of ascendere. Caper. S. tendere. uncis = unguis. battuo "^ batto (cf.. Bayard 7. common Carnoy 43). vef. abattas. 95 prendere. the Viduus. hence *cocma). So apparently aruum^* arum. (Pirson 58) quatro (7th century. . opus. 217-218.'K. 226. pendere.. Pr. . u before stressed u and 0: 536. cf. defendere. '' coqui non cod." Keil VII. suus'> sus. then *cdpenre *cdp'rtre through the analogy of co. doubtless under the influence of vidua. quteius'> quetus. unguntur. in quum>cum. § 227] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 351). — cdhdrtew^ cortem. sttnguo > guere non tingere. quoi{f)tdie> stingo . Furthermore. S.'). 105. unguo'>ungo {ungo. consiln'^ consilt. Carnoy 221). cooperire"^ coperlre. Spr. Carnoy 117. " coquens non cocens". 472: ero).. 2 1 7 ) . 106). distinguunf> distingunt (ac- cording to Velius Longus. requebit. ungi.and perhaps also ol opera. . "ungue non unge. Digitized by Microsoft® . 227. tdrqueo>*torquo> *tdrco. equus S. Velius Longus. tinguo~^ttngo (Caper. "tin352. qudmddo> comodo. coquo^coco {App. contin{u)ari. mortuus'^p- cottidie. ministerW^ ministeri. Pirson 57 (cf. Audollent 536).

a was pronounced a. A(u)gustus. must have existed 229. I. e For the confusion of Carnoy 17-33. but otherwise remained unchanged (cf. Bechtel 76. etc. kept It. Comelii. A(u)runci. S. 135—138. Digitized by Microsoft® . Koffmane no. b. INITIAL SYLLABLE. valere. frumentum. (Bcclesia. colorem. 171-1 72. ce all came to be sounded e. far as As or u. and see Audollent 535. 223. dtrectus generally '> drictus)\ quirttare~>*dritare. i. some Italian (common by i in inscriptions. Cf. Lat. (Lat.. Lat. -n and —ns: Dtonysii>lt. movetis. Bon. cetdtem. hibernus. 470): dilevit. necessary to say that Claudii. 0^ remained p. E. Farisiis > Parigi. agusias. '^senatus non sinatus" App. — Latin /(j/»««j > Classic Jejunus (the original a seems to be preserved in Classic Januarius '^ Jenuarius . tenere. Agustus is frequent from the second century on.. i. gaudere. one can judge from spellings and subsequent developments. Caper says "ausculta non asculta.96 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bon. Julii. debere. Some minor peculiarities are to be noted: (i) A after/ apparently tended to become e: Old dialect forms) . moniti (for muniti). a{u)sculto. in Gallic inscriptions cf. dvitdtem. is very often replaced divota. ridemus. In a few words the vowel of the initial syllable was an r: *corrStulare^*^roflare. audere. ce. long or short. videre.. lost before also. dolere. and u were finally all pronounced 228. plordre. subinde. /^22: Jejunus after prefixes lost its first syllable: * dis-junare. 470): rddicem. Spr. au became a if there was an accented u in the next syllable. Some however. golosus gylosus (ior gulosus). 11. > *jenua > Sardinian genna. i: should be spelled with double late words. Spr. it [§ 229 Longus found etc. Bon. Dionigi. S. l remained i. d'rectus (^Vok. Spr. fxddre. 470) (2) Classic/awKa mimoricB." S. 57. Pr. Arunci occurs in manuscripts of Virgil. 136. I. 109. naufragium. 223 Pirson 26). * agurium (cf. Keil VII. Vok.

salvatico. Cf. Rom. JUntfSrus'^jeniperus (Lat. sdlbatec. se in Portuguese. cf. by dissimilation. C. Rum. and Old Rumanian. z.. Old Genoese zagante. cf. §111. Sfr. was kept by analogy in many words : dUrare. front vowel (until the seventh century nearly always an ' later e Mohl's view. salvage. turrente (Bon. Carnoy (7) 107). Lat. 16^. Au 230. so *ot (for aut: cf. 470). Lexique > I04ff. and Spanish.. mcinus vecinus. is that original Latin ei. in very late texts there is frequent confusion of si and sed (Franz. Bon. putator O is changed to e in retundus (Vok. §§ 212. 470) and/m?- perus (App. became instead of Digitized by Microsoft® . retundatio. Lexique 105-108. This perhaps indicates a close pronunciation cf. Spr. A form ni for ne is found from early times Pirson 3. L. analogy of *que quid^ quod (cf. which prevailed in Vulgar Latin. is common : in Gregory the etc. century on (Foi.. Pr. 3 II. also sometimes in serore (Lat. 224 ff. Italian sed on the model of ched: si is preserved in French. in fourth century inscriptions. Vitruvius.for i in 422-424. 131). etc. Reich. cf. de-. I was occasionally assimilated to a following accented a : ^gdntem It. oricla. in vulgar speech was often replaced by (cf. (4) / tended to become e. 82). cf. fimre'^fenire. in late Latin. Franz. I. Italian. : 97 Di. 225. mUtare. 234-235) . Lexique I2z. Lat. so that at the modern a syllabic effect — beginning of a word it had s-chola. Pr^. Pr. the e is perhaps due to the Haag II. nise. According to Mohl.Jaiant. < e In miraUlia the i ap- parently became (5) U and a. This led to the prefixing of a 2. : (3) > *jagante > Old Yr. (Bon. Great: dirivare. Lexique 123. nutrire (beside *nqtrire). I. through the influence of the prefix re—. Pirson 27. attested from the sixth 87. 127). if i followed. sometimes became se. Old French. possibly through confusion with dis-. Spr. divmus"^ demnus. 126. (6) O appears as u mfurmica (App. if there was an accented i in the next syllable:^ dividSre'^*devTdlre. in manuscripts and inscriptions. Italian. 205) . 470. §§ 69. serorihus. Einf. 3 II. Lindsay 40). 213): App. Si. e became southern Italy from the fourth to the sixth century RIVOCAVERIT. cf.§ 23o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. II. 213. serori. Spr. II. attested by Servius. Lexique \2Z-iz6. as in 6' before a consonant was doubtless long and sharp. Lexique 120.jaian. Vr. cf. mUrare. Proven9al. XXXV. silvdticus> salvaticus (Gl. § 198. 470) > Old Fr. Umbrian ate..

Isidore. 316-319. dub{i)idre. cdp[i)idlis. 445-446. in the fifth it is very common: espiritum. The The in Latin example probably it is iscolasticus. etc. hispatii for Bechtel 78. R.thus produced was confounded with ex-.. tlie C. B. spatii. Cf. and occasionally disappeared. mirabilia. scalciare for excalceare. 317 R. S.. Pirson 60. cirebellum. Spania. Spania. ismaragdus. ischola. frigiddria frigddria. spectante for expectante. This i came to be regarded as a regular part of the word. [§ 231 often e) to the s or e when tio vowel preceded first is — in i-schola. 317. 3656-. of it iscola. Koffmane 109. exs— (pronounced «-) and /«j-. IHTERTONIC SYLLABLE. . spandere for ex- pandere. sp. Latin texts ab rather than a was used before words besc. though iscripta. Bon. indistinct towards the erally kept: bdn{i)idtem. N. isiudio. ^w. is. dil{i)cdtus. strumentum. estatio. istatuam.(pronounced w-): expiendido. ab scandalo. In some regions they began to fall regularly before the close of the Vulgar Latin period. Estephanus. Grammarians took But in no note late until St. but a was gen231. in the third century (Carnoy 114-116). ab sceleribus. Dubois 1 71-17 2. 445. cf. II. not frequently. 469-470. Pirson 59-60. written Barcelona in the second century. prosthetic vowel earliest occurs in Greek inscriptions. scoriare for excoriare. ispose. etc. cdrr(i)care. Dubois 171. cdlK^o^cdre. st: ginning with Bon. Digitized by Microsoft® . instruo for struo. The es-. Vowels so situated probably became more and more end of the Empire. Bon. etc. S. compardre comperdre. fourth and found repeatedly. spiratio for inspiratio. Slementum 6limintum. stantia for instantia. Spanus. Vok. dv{i)idtem. isperabi. — By this term is meant syllable following the secondary and preceding the primary stress. S. splorator. 467.98 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. istare. 148. in the seventh century.

both types The treatment inconsistent often being preserved in the Romance languages: thus while the literary and official world said {h)dmines (>It. F. 118. and the conditions differed widely in different regions. insola. uomini). liquid A weakened and by Microsoft® .. Neumann 22. 464. : Frigdaria occurs Cf. fall 559. Bon. The Vulgar Latin rhythmic erate one of the two post-tonic syllables of proparoxytones. dedcavit. Bon. The fall of the vowel of course disturbed the Vulgar Latin rhythm: see § 153. etc. 12. of this vowel. PENULT.. in the second century b. however. R. in Sepulcri 201—202. Pirson 51. The penult. being next to the accent. etc. meretis. Koffmane III. 116. Neumann in Zs. comare for coronare. was weaker and more exposed to syncope. dixemus. Cf. vowel preceded by a consonant and followed by a fell in the earlier part of the Vulgar Digitized 233. Mintsterium apparently became minsterium early enough for the n to before the s: see §171..§ 233] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Substrate IV. separdre seperdre. etc. vetranus. We find in late Latin much confusion of e and /. 467. son 52. was apparently very Vulgar Latin.. pi. omne)\ classified. R. Pir- Franz. 131— 135. Cf. c. similarly As far as the general phenomena can be we may say that in popular words in penult tended to (i) fall common speech the vowel of the under the following conditions: — Between any Consonant and a Liquid. XIV. v^recundia. There was probably a conflict between cultivated and popular pronunciation. cf. Likewise o and u: ambolare. (>Pr. stablarius. 99 sdcramintum. etc. principle tended to oblit- 232.• anemis. the uneducated pronounced 'om'nes beside socerum there was sScrum. d.

see first consonant -Cvas a palatal. virginem. as in saclum. Lexique 64. [§ 235 Latin period: altra. d. Die Sprache des Petronius und die Glossen.'). 96. amples are found in inscriptions: AudoUent 538. Later they were confused. e^-16 . Pr. App. cdm{i)tem. vic(u)lus. Juglus. But if the the ^ began to be palatalized (so apparently in 9 I. frdgilis.. Franz. Pirson 49-50. Latin originally had the two diminutive endings —clus and -cuius {<i-co-lo). ins(u)la. D. App. both becoming —cuius in Classic Latin. 234.loo An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. (2) Between a Labial and any Consonant. 57. Vok. In some words we find a weakened to e: socro. which must have been slow in entering the common vocabulary. 1 digitum> dicCf. Many exI. In vigilafp-* viglat the vowel fell before (2) below. Cf.' For a vowel between a labial and a liquid. § 284. a. frigidus^frigdus. aunclus. App. ci. Pr. 16-18. vowel preceded by a labial and followed by a confall early: 235.^-* spatla. Pr. Eseram for Isaram. oclos.). tum. gracilis. Waters Ch. peduclum. both -clus in {^<i—tlo). felicla.). These by Plautus. Cceseris. I. anglus. Digitized by Microsoft® . 1899. But a few words. scaplas. cltera. compera. Bon. masclus. Carnoy 12. hilerus. mdsc{u)lus. § 259. A sonant was inclined to bublus. ftsiula>*Jiscla. dedro for dederunt. villus. Franz. spatula'. Pirson 51). aspra. dc{ii)lus. (cf. 3 To -clus was assimilated in popular Latin the ending -talus: capitulus"^* capiclus . maniplus. Oclus and some others occur in Petronius: see W. were kept distinct vulgar speech: artic{u)lus. spec{ii)lum. Pirson 51. vemdc(^u)lus. Lexique 63. as in auricula.stulum> crustlum (found in 18 Cf. Heraeus. seperat (about 500 A. escaped this absorption: cni. 195-196. fecrunt fecru. comp'tus. at any rate in some regions: bdjulus. bdc{u)lus. vitulus>veclus. the vowel seems to have been kept.

Franz. sablum. (4) Miscellaneous. fdbula>*faula *fabla. Caesar. 4th century). Horace. 44. In some words. Cato. 56. f{b{u)la. 236. Plautus. however. frigidus by Microsoft® . Martial. KofiEmane iii. (cf.^-* nautat . domnus in St. Ci. b{u)la. * cldvido> claudo (cf. Pliny. 15-16 (cf. sablum. In d6m(i')nus the mn form may be mane domni. pi. Pr. . Pirson 51. 44. Franz. tremulat.Jibla. Franz. either everywhere or in a large region: drbi^o^rem. Koff109. A vowel preceded by a liquid and followed by a consonant was subject to syncope at all periods: ardus. 13. Cf. pardbula>*paraula *parabla. Pirson 50. (3) Between a Liquid and any Consonant. . Franz. Plautus (cf.). Augustine. * dvka "^ auca. lardum. colpus. Franz. App. 467. h6m{i')nes jiiv{e)nis . Franz. found in glosses. Juvenal. *navi- > fragus>naufragus). p I. Varro. Vegetius. 237. domnicus. Waters Ch. hdmula. Plautus. caldus. Horace and Vitruvius. Reich. c6l{a)phus {ci. domnulus. fulica fulca. virdiaria. dvidus avunculus"^ aunculus. in R. Digitized different condi§ 233) . Ovid. 238. valde. : § 238] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. nibula.. the vowel was kept. R. 13. Cf. virdis. tions: In some words the vowel fell under digitum> dictum. gdbata>*gauta *gabta. offla. Plautus). the fall When ab or av was brought next to a consonant by it of a following vowel. 12. the older: d6m. pi. etc. Varro.. occurs in Lamna Petronius has bublum. * ndvitaf. 3 \. merto. pdp{u)lus.{i')nus. Waters Ch. poplus. i2ff. Petronius. p I. Waters Ch. Gl. per- colopabat. generally became au. 467. vdpulo baplo. 15 soldus. pi. but often there were double forms the process began very early audus. ioi tri- dib{i)tum. tdbula>*taula *tabla.

p I. App. rapidus > > *rapdus. posius. — were — syncopated with some regularity. Pirson 50. e. dominica-^ * dominca. 241. but rius is evidently the ancestor of Italian and Spanish rio. pers{i)ca. [§ 241 ^frigdus maxima^ masma. we find "avus non aus. tdllere > * tolre. Franz. § Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Aquitanian. mdnica'>* manca. 239. debita~^* depta. Gl. Through a large part of the Empire -avit>-aut: umphaut is found in Pompeii. In the transition from Vulgar Latin to the Romance in so far as languages the vowels in classes (i). Lucretius. Later. clericus^*clercus. carcatus. culicet culcet Cf. vindico. Pompeii (fridam). 2d century. habitus > * abtus. . probably late. FINAL SYLLABLE. ally fell. shortened forms were used in other regions. sid(^e)cim. and a number of vowels otherwise placed fell under different conditions in various regions: pdnere'^*ponre. Cato). Some of these In a part of Gaul dmita'^* anta." "flavus non Jlaus" "rivus non rius. The vowels regularly remained through the Vulgar Latin period.: = collocat. except a and in Celtic. frdx(i)nus. they generi. viaticum. about the eighth century. cdrrico'^*carco. medicus. See Morphology. (2). semita'^* senta. Pr." Aus and flaus have left no representatives. 13-14 (ci. Pr. A vowel preceded by </ or ^ and followed by c seems to have remained longer than most other vowels that fell at all: judico. posturus. 240. Reich. etc. (fricda). dic{i)mus. 233).102 An (cf. Digitized by Microsoft® . they had not fallen already. ntHdus>*niiius. Suchier 732. c6llocat'>-*colcat. fimina *femna. (3). and Ligurian territory. pi2tidus'^*puttus. All three forms are probably examples of a tri- phonetic reduction that affected certain regions. In the App.

has "barbarus non barbar. Neumann 7-8 cites ten cases of e for a: Italice. tristts. sentls. E and a. were not usually distinguished (cf. which became u in Sicily. but are rather due to a local change of languages. uxore. "bibere non biber". feci. iv and I. tanger in manuscripts. See Franz. About the eighth century a probably became ? in northern Gaul. bonds. t. tristem. and i came to be used almost indiscriminately. as in to Vulgar Latin. Pr. 3 I. modern must have been often elided or syncopated in the interior of a phrase. etc. The changes in pronunciation led to great confusion in spelling. Examples: dmds. long or short. sancta. Italian. in I.. Quintilian says that Livy wrote sibe and quase. mihe. vii. E luce. §210): apte^aptcB. perhaps. for / is frequent in the dative and ablative. 41. Spr. was naturally pronounced a. by Microsoft® ." ^^figulus nonfigel. were all probably sounded e. 469). 243. 103 242. cotidia. describes the final vowel of here as neither quite e nor quite Cf. In some localities this and this u were kept distinct.Xxa. he i. u was u. corpus. etc. So." "masculus non mascel. Carnoy45: Digitized dative. etc. but generally they were confounded {Lat. fructu. tribunal{e). which in Sicily be- came eventually // t remained // was 0. Spr. autumnal {e).§ 244] An Introduction Final vowels.. in late Latin. Cf. The App. It is likely that final vowels were especially ob- scure in Gaul in the sixth and seventh centuries." These curious forms are probably not the result of a phonetic development. morior. bom. conder. tristes. famul = A. Lexique 118. inflection. tibe. dmdt. etc. facul =facilis. according to the testimony of numerous inscriptions {Lat. vii. especially e after liquids: Caper. pradiscer. Bechtel 75-76. 469). e. haber in an inscription. ablative. E I. a. which left no trace in the Romance famulus. Old 'Lz. 244. praber.

F. there are between 126 and 563 a. Z.. M. etc. os The confusion of for us. Carnoy 13. = maris. C. -re. Sepulcri 229-230.4 G.. etc. Bon. ^and Fwere used both and u and for the consonants/ and v. CONSONANTS. for the vowels i were B. X. With and u it was the same.. D.. Vok. etc.. Carnoy 13-15. letters The Latin consonant P. Cf. Minus. Bon. also in Gregory the Great. as well as frequent instances of ablative in um. Neumann 11-13. Joannis. T. and us for os. regis ^reges. monumento ^= monumentum. an R. omnes ^^omnis. Sepulcri 201.. 11 1. L. I. Sepulcri 203-204. K. [§ 246 Es and are continually interchanged: 24.. became in Gaul mis-. old letter equivalent to C. In words ofteii used as proclitics final -er.r became Carnoy 221. 474. in us was particu128. d. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin period. Spr. and 121. 246. 916. posuet. Ill. Neumann 11-13. cf.. Carnoy 48.. E. in etc. : . very etc. Bon. common in Per. of om for um.. G. Cf. used as a prefix (cf. V. 43-44. and um is very common in Per. N. -ro: inter'>*intre. under the influence of dis-. larly common 42. movit. of. Audollent 535... S. etc. Lat. II. etc. Q. tenit. was kept in Digitized some formulas . etc. etc. Bon. I.. §29) as in minus-pretiare. Bon. -£?. 'Im. 116. Haag 245. So et it: Bechtel 88-89. Phon. omnes ^ omnis (3d century). mares etc. Os and us were interchanged from the third century on awi' = annos. 115. siiper'>-*supre. it need by Microsoft® .. H./^^. accusative plural G|^l|ii Jilius—Jilios. sem- per'^* sempre .104 An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Carnoy 48 bonus = bonos. •quat{u)or'>quatro. 131 has spoliatur for spoliatot. 61 examples of u for ablative In Vok. K.

Digitized by Microsoft® . the combination Q was generally used only Jf stands for ks. sonants The principal developments that affected Latin conmay be summed up as follows: b between vowels was opened into the bilabial fricative /3. taken up The Latin consonants will be in the following order: aspirate. gutturals. which also changed to /8. the Celtic need not be separately studied. Vulgar Latin had a new w and y coming from originally syllabic u.§ 248] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. fillio. and thus became identical V. nasals. Pirson 88. In late spelling there is some confusion and double consonants: anos. 105 in not be separately considered. 247. consonants are often written single in early inscriptions. which will be discussed after the native ones. Double consonants regularly kept after long their long pronun- ciation: annus. For w>j and For double forms like of single cipus ctppus. passus. The voicing of intervocalic surds began during the Vulgar Latin period..or ss (S. e. 248. or / in hiatus: see § 224. Pirson 83-91. m and n became silent at the end of a word. first the native Latin. labials. nullus. see §161. Pirson 85. Q V= kw (cf. see §§ 162. which will be treated below (§§338-339). liquids. ^ and g before front vowels were palatalized and were then subject to further alterations. 158. 319-320). In words borrowed from Greek and German there were several foreign consonants. sibilants. dentals. Double cf. h was silent. lastly the Germanic. serra. next the Greek. Z in Old Latin apparently meant j. 163. In addition to the above. and n ceased to be sounded before s. § 223). with The consonants will now be considered in detail. For Fredegarius see Haag 39-40. palatals. later it represented a different Latin version of Greek t. terra. vacca. //>/ vowels. Bon.

. If -was weak and uncertain at all times in Latin. 1." see S. first XI. Quintilian commends the spelling deprendere: S.. probably disappeared when medial: . Grammarians felt obliged to discuss in detail the spelling of words with' or without h : S. ASPIRATE. Digitized by Microsoft® . 266. sometimes does not.. si speaks of bygone generations as using k very S. Initial h was surely very feeble and often silent during In Cicero's time and in the early Empire there was an attempt to revive it in polite society. as in terga fatigamus hasta. 399. as in quisquis honos tumuli: Keil V. nil. 255-256. etc. vemens: S. Paris in I?om. 264. 117. and both he and Velius Longus declare there is no h \VLprendo: S. App. Cf. 251. Gellius says ahenum. a. honera : Pompeius notes that k sometimes makes position. 266. which led to frequent misuse by the ignorant. 264-265. Quintilian says the ancients used h but little. 262-263.e. being little or nothing more than a breathed on-glide: S. [§ 251 LATIN CONSONANTS. "adhuc non aduc. 267—268. Probus states that traho is pronounced trao: Lindsay 57. Cf. G. but Cicero's contemporaries much. cortis. 249. incohare are archaic calls Terentius Scaurus and vehemens incorrect. the Republic. doubtless the Romance It languages." In inscriptions we find such forms as reprehensus aduc. Gellius quotes P.— io6 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Grammarians say that A is not a letter but a mark There is no trace of Latin k in of aspiration: S. vehemens. very much as happens in Cockney English to-day: for the would-be elegant chommoda. mi. 266. hinsidias. and cites "ados ircosque": S. 263. Nigidius Figulus fit to the effect that "rusticus sermo i. S. 250. comprendit. 263-264. of "Arrius. Pr. — aspires perperam". in such words as sepu/c/irum.

341-344. 351-352. After h had become pronunciation of medial h as Italian pronunciation of there grew up a school which has persisted in the Latin and has affected some words in silent. S. etc. by Microsoft® . In Rome are found: e[redes]. '^digitus = digitos. I. choante. haram. 265-266.. I. etc. cottidie. 252.. = coperta. omo. Before u and first however. 351. too. Q F was Audollent 536. 264. dialects: Quintilian VI. the Empire. hodio. secuntur. ora. Cf. Q and C: S. Cf. b. etc. 473. k. 254. criminately used: abeo. non dicitus". 462-463. records a pun of Cicero on cogue and quoque. But in Dacia. ymnus. 350reduced to k by the or second century. hegit. cf. S. R. nichil. Cf.. hostium. I. and H after the third century it is everywhere more or eres. L. heremum. probably earlier in local or vulgar iii. kw was Before other vowels the regularly kept in most of k. anc. 345. C. condam. 455. ospitiutn. southand Sicily subsequent developments point to a ke. the kw was 340-341. cocus : see §226. pronounced kw: 0..L. 924. quooperta cot. 82-87. other languages: michi. hossa. Vulgar Latin reduction of que to Digitized qui to ki: Lat. S. 819. 345-346. Mens. oe. etc. I. I. abitat. 1034. in quo ante=^inBechtel 78-79. There was some confusion. Bechtel 77-78. etc. § 226. S. as in eastern Italy. ic. GUTTURALS. Spr. R. E.. OSTIA.. of S.. I. Bechtel 78. etc. 107 is dropped in a few inscriptions towards the end of the Republic: arrespex (for haruspex). C. S. 253- C and K did not differ in value except that C some- times did service for dicitos G: App.§ 254] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. L. In Pompeii h is freely omitted. Pr. less indisetc. Sheldon in Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Litera- turel (1892). C. unless analogy led to a substitution of cociior coqui throvigh. oratia. ortus.

s: sestus is common in inscriptions. Bechtel 139. 274. cinctivs. S. cf. destera. BissiT BisiT VISIT = vixit. found in Spain (so cinqv.). cen- inscriptions. III. nasco." In parts of Italy ks between vowels was assimilated into ss by the first century. Carnoy 158. etc. After a consonant ks early tended to become s: Piautus uses mers for est. Carnoy 157. milex. ''cah dicendum. There are some examples. S. mextum for mcestum. etc. but not in syllables etc. in At about the same time : final ks cojus.. Laqueus seems. 346. dester. On In norththe other hand. 98. viscit). Fr. migat in inscriptions Digitized by Microsoft® . es~ for ex. conjus. 353. ^ stood for ks: S. subornatris. by analogy. felis. in late Latin. "aries non ariex. Carnoy 171. ubi materia per s. began as shown by Anglo-Saxon borrow- ings and by such Latin forms as frigare. 221. So ex-^es.. Caper. xanto. 351. S.'' "miles non milex. Carnoy Eckinger 126 (2eorros). 353. but this was only local: alesan[der]. Cinqvaginta. gium. By the second reduced to or third century ks before a consonant was 170. for some reason. 353. to Carnoy have become *laceus: Substrate 255. S. as in * essaexire.before vowels. Carnoy 159. ern Gaul apparently sk regularly became ks. e. App." "poples noT\ poplex. of a metathesis of ks into sk: axilla"^ ascella. S. 256. excutere." "locuples non lucuplex. For ks>-)(S. etc. fifth tury. first [§ 256 In quinque the w was lost by dissimilation: cinqve. merx.. 145.: see Melanges Wahlund t^^. see § 266. 352. /'m«7/« > prixsilla. io8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 353 (cf." Keil VII. except in mono^prmgnans. as in cresco. I. Vok. extimare for cestimare.: Hence cf. Audollent 537. Lindsay 102. Lexique 93). The voicing of intervocalic surds doubtless it is early as the fifth century. buxus'^* buscus vixit>\iyiC\Ti (i. sometimes. pregiiax became s. exponere.. Cf.

pagandum.. pontivicatus. intervocalic c. Some above examples show that consonants followed by r shared in the voicing. and Dacia. etc. A. I. cubidus. 2d century.. found in the 4th century. Rydberg. gat. etc. and Dacia the k' stage was apparently kept longer than in most regions: Lat. into a mediopalatal position k'. on the evidence of inscriptions and manuscripts. Franz. and Illyria k' went no further. (i) Cf. siubri. kircare. Carnoy 123.g'. 731. sigricius ^= secretins.. Voicing was not general. maintains. kena. Haag 27—28. etc. etc. / 258. early in the Empire or before. Dalmatia. crassus + grossus'^grassus. became g and gr: *gaveola. Before the front vowels e and the velar stops k and g were drawn forward. Haag 28-29. In Central Sardinia. Cf. XXV. i25ff. kera. G seems to have been attracted sooner than k : in Sardinian we find k before e or i preserved as a stop whiles is not decern. while c>gz. t were voiced in Gaul in the second half of the sixth century. kima. Zs. 3 I. Initial c and cr.— — § 258] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. southern Italy. Dalmatia. Densusianu 111-112.. 257. kelu. 474. however. lebra. * gratis. Digitized by Microsoft® . there are many examples from the sixth century: Lat. and in Sicily. in a few words. 109 and manuscripts. finds in inscriptions some slight evidence of a change of t to d during the Empire. deghe<. Haag 27. 7th century. that t>d'm the fifth century and the beginning of the sixth. p. Spr. but reina. 32. . Spr. According to Loth 21-26.t least two centuries earlier. at least as early as the seventh century. noghe < nucem. etc. ne121. etc. C and G before Front Vowels.. Carnoy eglesia. immudavit. in central and southern Italy. 472. of the cataveris ^^ cadaveris. Zimmermann. occubavit. in some places perhaps as early as the first century. Vok.

S. agebat ^ aiebat. Per. II. 473. Pirson 97 quarranta = qicadraginta. and digitus in some places had become dictus {Franz.1 1 Some light is thrown on the later clerical pronunciation by a statement in a fragment of a tenth century treatise on Latin pronunciation. that of English g in gem) before e and /. 239. Spr. argentum. in nearly all the Empire.>maester. (cf.Gi. frigidus in most of the Empire had become frigdus {App. = Sepulcri 205. = conjugi. 173. non cakosieis. 250. II. G' by the fourth century had become had opened into y. diriens. re{g)ina. lenubam = Bon. this Haag 33. so *pa{g)e{n)sis. 349. . recoUiendo. S.e. agebat Lat.. both in popular and in Gerapolis for HierapoHs. Voi. fmucrrpo. to the effect g has "its own sound " (i. 461 . but is " weak " before other vowels. etc. maestati. and southwestern Italy remained at the y stage elsewhere the y developed further in the Romance languages. §233. Vok. Tragani. ingens aiebat. and after a consonant. iesta. "calcostegis Neumann 75. This y. II. 61. Agrientum. Pirson iniens. Digitized by Microsoft® . with the following e or i if this vowel was stressed: vi- mag2ster'>*mayister'. etc. Spr. Vok. colliens.. leges. no An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. jSctevTt = viginti. "-frigida non fricda")." geiuna= Jejuna. Grammaire des langues ro- I. Stolz 349. Cf.. Pirson 97 celiens. coi^i. neglienda. Spain. S. vigtlat had become *viglat. 3 I. etc.Gi 5. etc. 275. Pr. Gepte.. {g)inti. Diez.. 460) trienta. Troge. 3. fused.. agere = ^ aiere. in through legit. Genavam. D'Arbois 10. a part of southwestern Gaul. the regularly remained. Sicily. praepalatal clerical and Latin: App.): it its disap- pearance (as in pldngit. Before happened. genarivs. Pr. Thm-ot 77. Lat. except colliens when analogy forced *colliente. After the accent. similarly perhaps the proclitic ma{g)is.. 15-16): cf.. genvarivs. But sometimes : fused with a following i proparoxy tones roitus {=irdgitus z= rogdtus). and portions of Sardinia. [§259 259. F. 461. Cf. when it was intervocalic. . Haag 34 manes 1' . 473.

Cf. and qu. and in Rom. duk'ere. piscem. G. 348 cites fes[it]. co{g)ndscere. Thurot 77. 617). . Guarnerio in Supplementi aWArchivio glottologico italiano IV (1897). between the k' and the following vowel: k'yentu. Fetite phonetique du franfais prelitieraire. Vok. E. everywhere a The next step was the development of an audible glide. By the fifth century the k' had passed a little further forward and the Through a modification tsentu. in Lat. and is almost like q before other vowels. duk'yere. 1893. mediopalatal. There is no mention of first it by 340. 359. Mohl. see H. in the Comptes rendus des seances de I'Academie des Inscriptions. intcitamento: P. and Libit. septrvm. 7. For a discussion of the subject. as early as the third ce. Vok. fascem. S. in the t's sixth or seventh century. 1901. it is stated ts. G. 322 P. XXX. ka. nascere.S^ was palatalized also: crescere.itury must have had nearly front. 348. 360. 1893. consiensia. I. In the school pronunciation of the seventh and eighth centuries c before e and i In the treatise cited in the preceding note. Cf.. that c has " its own sound " before c and i. a short y. 163. census. the earlier grammarians: prsepalatal. or praepalatal. XIV. XXXIII. dut'yere. 151. XXVI. Meyer-Liibke in Einf. of this glide the group then. S. k'y had become t'y: t'yentu. Marchot. I. W.§ 26i] An K' Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in the Annuaire de I'^cole pratique des 261. 21-51 (cf. Paris in Journal des savants. Schuchardt. apparently as and postpalatal. 51-53. 1 was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . in the fifth century we find bintcente. ffautes-^tudes. articulation: k'entu. 81. century some writers distinguish Rom. tury). etc. 1900. paze (6th or 7th cenFrankish tins (German zins') is from fifth borrowed probably in the 595. Zs. .1 century: F. S. developed into or ts: t's'entu or Speakers were apparently unaware of the phenomenon until the assibilation was complete. 123-126. in 260. In the half of the third ce.

eccu'hdc. I. negare. through alliteration. (3) C and G Final and before Consonants. frvalitas. cher. Vok.112 An 472. found about the sixth century. Occasionally.. S- — — perhaps 349). Italian die. Carnoy 155-160 (who puts the assibilation in the sixth century and earlier). ci. — mainly. K and g before vowels not formed mouth usually remained unchanged: canis. 349. avste. (2) C AND G before Back Vowels. pagdnus. Franz. however. See. But ligdre. negdre. probably by the end of the seventh century. At the end cf. Carnoy 127 (cf. Inasmuch as a had in Gaul a front pronunciation (§ 194). see Zs. gustus. and apparently remained under learned or under analogical influence in others: avstvs from the second century on. y^ 264. the c must have been Digitized lost. pacare. hoc. in the front of the 263. S. *redlis (for XXX. ga in most of that country became k'a. of a local assibilation of c as early as the second century. Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie [§264 3131!. Sfir. so * ledlis. due. dimmi (< die mi). in Introduction to Vulgar Latin. too. siffatto {<. and then developed further: carum>'Fr. gamba>'Ex. fammi {<ifac mi). 50). ka. jambe. Reich. ecce htc. see Palatals below. Intervocalic g before the accent fell in many words in all or a part of the Empire. 3 II. see Archiv XV. so. by Microsoft® . however. For ce. realis in Gl. For a possible indication. § 256. sic factum). * liamen. 129 (other examples in manuscripts. 262. 146. the proclitic eo for ego.. of a word the guttural seems : to have been regularly preserved in Vulgar Latin fac. sic. 242-243). g'a.

and «'. LATTVCjE (3OI etc. Spr.). 9 II. Xf some parts was assimilated into U by the beginning of the fourth century. inasmuch as their own rf had as x^ from the become ^f (e. and likewise substituted x^ fo"^ ^^' Suchier 735. and there is a confusion of si and sic: Franz. D. S.. regnancte. sank. > Fr. Before another consonant k and g were for the most part kept through the Vulgar Latin period: actus. For ks of Italy = x. etc. = qu. be explained otherwise: Irish ocht-n corresponding to Latin octo. irqyfua. Zs. PR/EFETTO. in the south even in the first century: AVTOR." 348. "sagma by Microsoft® . 267.^ Ft. Lat. App. ^^auctor non autor". Festus. santo. Gm Pr.). in Pompeii. subsequently drawn forward to the praepalatal position santus. oclus. 398*fC'X^um>Vx.e. see § 255. frigdus.. There is reason to believe. 476. Gram.) . fleuma. 472. through assimilation to a following initial consonant: PA iot fac. ( i. otogentos. — sanctum 268. "dumecta S. Carnoy 172. 399). * exsire . cuntis. 236-240. however. became um: fraumenta. Spr. in see § 254.. Lat. antiqui quasi dumecita appellabant quae nos dumeia. The Celts perhaps pronounced the Latin beginning. XXV. Pr. Spr. that the y was retained very generally in Gaul and perhaps some other regions. The resultant phenomena can. § 186. D. however. 215-224. eissir. 113 no doubt. App. fait. fata. *viglat (§233). Old ct Windisch 394. Einf. In late texts nee is often written ne before a consonant. saint. 348. §650. I. S. 265.. Cf. A. Pr. Isidore. Zaf. OTOBRIS (380 A. "pegma non peuma" Digitized St. which seems to have been assimilated first into nt in parts of the Empire. 472.§268] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Nkt became yt. For kw 266. sante. probably by the century: defuntus..g. 278. 735.

eiius. as calma from Soma occurs in Gl. [§272 quae corrupte vulgo S. in popular words apparently became r parts of the Empire: fra{g)rare. ZVNIOK = junior (S. madias = maias. Dy and^. Gn was still variously treated in different regions. ni{g)rum. 476. habeam. y. Cf. ajutit =adjutet. diumus.. 239). 270. Lat. exagium. sauma 269. (S. and subjected to further modifications. pi{g)ntia. Fortsetzung 7. fageus. 271. audiam. 327. no SCO. Cf. in the latter part of the Empire. Carnoy Digitized by Microsoft® . pere{g)rtnum. Italian sauma [or salma^ dicitur" (i. ftlia.e. between in vowels. being preserved in some.. Spr. Cf. cunnuscit. hodie. Pirson 75. Haag 34. Instead i (=/) the spelling mann. sometimes entirely absorbed by the in Gaul. rcenante. gaudium. followed a consonant. Pirson 76. d. In cognosco the decomposed — g generally disappeared. Compare oz^^ hodie (S. podium. similarly the ^ was sometimes etc. Gr. t. 272. conjux. Latin / was pronounced being identical in sound with the consonant that developed out of e and / (§ 224): jam. rarest in Dacia. which comes from Koxfrn. venio. cujus. 324) and zesv =/esu. connato.114 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. I. and also salma. teneaf. soma. 323) and Zovk^la= Julia (Eckinger 80). that consonant was often less assimilated. PALATALS. Palatalization was commonest probably were reduced to y in vulgar speech: deorsum. videavi . assimilated into n or n in others. ZACOiJVS = diaconus. adjuiare. 115-116. renum. etc. of ii was often used: coiiugi. Reich. edmus. inte{g)rum. aayixa). Neu- When y more or y. 364 a. the after the fall of initial g in gnosco —-into lost in cognatus : word being co~ and Vok.. Stolz 275. odium.

another — doubtless more elegant — pronunciation. Servius in Virg. magias ^= maias. 461. y. /'. 324. Congianus =." S. Pr. but medium ^^ > It. sacriius—SiaKpiTOi. means dy. licpioi = Sergius. sapcha. most of the Empire: 274. video>*veyo. S. Georg. Carnoy 161. § . Audollent 537 zogenes. cor- aytos. = maio. fiios. from radius Italian has both raggio — — and razzo. palea. Reich. II. Media. Haag anoget = *inodiaf. The reduced forms cf. De. pranzo. which was > It. It hordeurh > It. It... generally prevailed. = dies. 216.i£=die. Corneius. di sine sibilo Isidore letter tell grsecum enim nomen est. n' before the end of the Empire: ftlius. 63. 323. S. writes. etc. Gl. : orzo. 208. aggio. aios = Carnoy 162. *deyo: cf. but it we generally cannot whether t. deggio. 320. "solent Itali dicere ozie pro hodie. and perhaps through slurring due to constant and careless use. But through the analogy of audio"^* auyo. mezzo. His- pania. appears that the labials were not regularly assimi- sapiam > It. ridia =! corrigim. 321. madio S- 349. in others especially in Italy the cultivated dz. lated in Vulgar Latin beside abbio. habeo. Haag 34. etc.§274] ^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. sappia. II. teneat. 339): z^s cf. Z is often used in inscriptions. di. juria = jurgia. ny.(4). towards the end of the Empire. 34. Condianus. by Microsoft® . in Yox plUvia a form *pldja was substituted §§ 169." S. Waters Ch. The : dz pronunciation was especially favored after a consonant 273. probably became veniam. however. says. or dz (cf. Digitized etc. In most words the vulgar jv prevailed. Carnoy 162. between vowels. Ly. probably dz : podium proferenda est. had poggio. debbio. This palatal pronunciation may be 327. debeo often became *ayo. The S. folia. 115 162. represented by the spellings Aureia. prandium > It. tilia. melius. Remidium — Eemigium. but not everywhere. St. Vok.

Densusianu in. 171 especially common in Gallic inscriptions of the seventh century. non c. were very and t'y (cf. Cy and ty. sty were generally assimilated of sy later: *bassiare. According to Albinus (S. between vowels. staacio (601 a. a sound similar to English sh in ship: basium. An Introduction ll'g'. being respectively k'y second and third centuries. duricia. consiensia. D. Oleum. 'ApovKiavoi = Aruntianus. Cf. 78. ocium.ii6 Lly. postea. Riquier 131 &nd pitid in popular speech). Bon. Vok. For the confusion 276. oracionem (601 a. etc. the an exception-: cf. Pirson 72. Lat. / 'i'l^^^y. I'g' to Vulgar Latin. also in nuncius. ocio (389 A.. is pronounced like c. I. Spr. termina(an acrostic in Com- ciONES in (2d century). malicia. caseus. defeniciones (222235 A. It. modian). huile. Eckinger 99. p. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . see § 296. leticia.). mansionem. 475.d. olio. tercius. isoff. avaricia. in the similar in sound. doubtless became during the VulgHRjatin period /. pudicicia. servicium. S. D. 323. silentium.y«j/i«'a (in an edict of Diocletian). scy. etc. In later school pronunciation cy and ty were sounded alike." In the treatise published by Thurot (see footnote to § 259). collt^t. is confused with the spelling c being prescribed in amicicia. we are told that ti. prophetia. foreign words borrowed from Latin oleum indicate the same irregularity. eAaiov. D. For rv. 321) "benedictio et oratio et talia t debent habere in psenultima syllaba.. /' [§276 later: were probably reduced to ex-eligit. see § 277.). Cf. quatio.. from oleo. Fr. Ssy. and hence were often confused: a. .. ci. is Pr. justicia. Fr. unless preceded by s.). Sp. as in etiam. Stolz 51. fascia. .). Pirson 71 mendatium. furthermore. tercia. and ty. malleus. oli. concupiscencia many examples Gaul in the 5th century. somewhat allium. ti. Pg. d.

either whole Empire. so many ^|ftper names. T'y developed sporadically in the second century. It. etc. zodorys = Theodoras. Anitius -cius. Cf. otia. (as injustius. locally or in the This similarity or identity of sound led. cited by Cassiodorus (S. or vice versa: cf. Hence arose numeroimdouble forms: condicio solacium solatium. regfourth. * gutteare "> Horning in Zs. ampittfltru. gocciare.: audatia. 64. into ts (cf. t. etc. D. S. Carnoy 151-154. 320): "/ustitia ex tribus he goes on to state that it is always so when ti is followed by a vowel other than / (as in Tatius. Italienischen und Sardischen. et i". spacio.vel di^ syllabam sequitur vocalis. Justitii). Carnoy 154. 545. except in foreign proper names or after j litteris. etc. but not in otii. Cf. 324. A. am- bicio. 3d ccntury. It. Vincentl^us. Latetnisches ti und ki im Ru7ndnischen. ularly a school pronunciation with etc. by the 140 A. MARSIANESSES = J/ar/z'a«^«j'M. Pompeius says the same thing at con- siderable length. conditio. tertia syllaba sic sonat quasi constet z.. Gl. etc. This explains such seemingly anomalous developments 324. speties. *cominitiare -ciare. "lotacismi sunt quotiens post ti. cum scribitur. . pinguius sonat et perdit sonum suum et accipit sibilum. reviewed in Libit.." Consentius 'For a different explanation of the Italian and Rumanian developments. A number of words evidently had a popular pronunciation with f and 277. Puscariu. §260): crescentsian[vs]. servitium -cium. castius). later avarttic^-cia. inicio. S. 323. squarciare.^ k'." Papirius. 68.§277] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. tristicia. et plerumque supradictse syllabse in sibilum transeunt. "si dicas Titius. I. S. see S. XXVII. sotium. etc.. 320).. as * exquartiare-^YX. tercius. in some cases. Audollent 537. Vok. Servius in Don. XXIV. adding (S. (S. comenzare chminciare. 1904. to the substitution of suffixes and to other permanent transfers of words from one class to the other: cf. Digitized by Microsoft® . 117 spacium. 320) says. Reich.

as 280. The resulting sibilant was different from came from t'y: faciam'^-lt. 225 a. and many words have palatium preserved it in various regions. 320-321. 153. and not 281.. Cf. S. d. 323. =^ Afardanus. after the assibilation completed: Mapa-w. are Metiacus> Messac). JT'y was assibilated sporadically in the third century.'a.vo'. D regularly remained unchanged: Digitized dare. ratio —sio. sepsies. 278. Clerical usage for a while doubtless favored sy for ty. Isidore in justitia: S. hence \X?X\2.palagio heside patazzo.. diposisio ^= depositio. assibilated (e. 307. etc. perdo. dentals were pronounced with the middle of the tongue arched up and the tip touching the gums or teeth. judigsium. especially in suffixes: —slum. if the /' was rather weak.s or sixth. servitium —slum. . DENTALS. XXXV.. and -igia beside -ezza from -ztia. faccta. Carnoy 154. Pirson 71. not followed by y. — — S. Exai^les are very numerous: observasione. [§281 mentions the assibilation in etiam. as in English : S. St. The in modern French. But the intermediate stages were similar enough to lead to some confusion.g. say t's'y the At aa intermediate stage between ty and ts grouD. " ' by Microsoft® . Pirson 71. tersio. modus. carried into Brittany in the second half of the fifth century. vitiutrf^lt. Eck- inger 103. 6th century. 279. vezzo. Vok. cf.. g'. 6th cen- tury. and the ultimate products have become identical in that which many For regions.ii8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 301-302. placeam. d. fifth but not regularly until the of t'y -wa. glacies. Ztd/t. so facio. 65 Horn. Welsh words borrowed from Latin before the fourth century show no assibilation. 5th century. see Gutturals. was easily confused with sy. 480. XXVII. pretium —sium. 323. hocsies.l. etc. k'. etc. but names in -tiacum. statio —sio.

arripere). S.. and a Similarly intervocalic dr. capud in Gregory the Great. (2) In a. few words d~^r: medidies by dissimilation ^«^«rf««. 31 1 Consentius blames " peres pro pedes" S. App. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin became 6 in Spain. as we may infer from the treatment of the prefix ad~: people probably said not only at te (cf. ilium corpus. guoi. §283] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. S. At the end of a word there was hesitation between d and S. devocalized before a voiceless : initial consonant.. etc. 31 1. 358-359. S.» Sittl 37. Digitized by Microsoft® . northern Italy. fecit feced. . arVORSVM =r adversum. the central and southern Italian nn for nd (as quannu for quando) may go back to ancient times Lat. at. and t: see §285. Carnoy 179-180. it. So the final consonant eventually often dis- appeared... Intervocalic d. Liquids. Cf. 366-367 Some of the confusion was doubtless due to the fall of both d 365 . a. set.. set. etc. 365 aput. Carnoy 180. became ilium : Haag 29. quo and Haag Illud. § 289. Spr. quid quit. . 365-366. ad eos and at ea. o\d. S. etc. etc. confusion of ad and etc. 119 Oscan and Umbrian had nn corresponding to Latin nd: There is some indication that this pronunciation was locally adopted in Latin: agennjE.. If this was the case. Grammarians warn against the Cf. S. : (i) Occasionally (/>/. (3). 282.• Cf. 476. 311312 "grundio non grunnio. verecvnnvs. Raetia." App. " adif^ non alipes. The cases seem to be sporadic and due to different special causes. Carnoy 180. and possibly at the end of a phrase apvd apvt. part of Sardinia: vt3ere':>*vedere. INQVID. S. id 29. Gaul. dacruma'^ lacrima . // d may have been . In proclitics assimilation naturally went further." Cf. period. attendere) but sometimes *ar Romam (cf. etc. Pr. CO. Pr. through the analogy of other neuters. 283..

northern Italy. as ama. Digitized by Microsoft® . sclit. posui) occur in Gallic inscriptions. S. T usually stloppus remained unchanged : teneo. §234. 105. The first . Keil VII. Gaul. App.120 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. dr~> rr: quarranta. . 8.315. Ischia. partem. f^habe).: others appear later in the inscrip- Rome and S. In early dialects we find such forms as cvpa. valia. f developed: Caper. > *scloppus > . ustulare > Pr. Cf. It. Spr." For Cf. and Sardinia kept the t late. 367. seems to have regularly become d: astula> Pr. sitis. 367-368. facit. '^ pessulum non pestulum" (hence Italian /ifj'//. . peria. its Final nt perhaps lost before consonants: Lat. but forms without the possibly due to Italian stoneconsonant (as audivi. 472.> *quadro. usclar. 284. 8. occasionally in Faliscan: Hammer 5. schioppo. however. in Volscian {fasia=fadat). Lat. Between j and I z.. 107. Pirson 97. 285." "vitulus non vidus. 312-313 "Martulus non Marculus" "stlataris sine c littera Caper. Italy.?. In quadraginta. etc.(from stlis stlitis). Rumanian." "vefulus non vedus. " capitulum non dicendum. vixi. often in Umbrian In Latin. Pr. Italian (except Sardinian). —tulus~^—dus. 7. sure examples of the fall in Latin are found in Pompeii tions in Christian relinque.). cf. and sclitib. Fredegarius wrote e for cutters — — t et: Haag 29. later. Hammer 28-32. [§ 285 either at the same time or became drin Spain and Gaul: quadro'. Spr." capidum. Raetia. ascla. So probably insula > * isla > * istla > * isda > Final t fell It. Tl. final t disappeared early in the Empire in southern and during the Empire in most of Italy and Dacia. dede: S. etc. and also Spanish and Portuguese show no trace of final / except in monosyllables.

S. cf. feced. 288. § 280): S. Intervocalic was voiced to d in Spain.§288] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. see §282: capud. posuerun. inside a phrase. Cicero favored posmeridianus . Lat. When did not fall. Italy probably in the fifth or sixth century: Inscriptions show a few such forms 309) as amadus. may indicate un- certainty in the use of d and t. uses capo: Haag 29. LIQUIDS. Spr. (I) L. it was doubtless often Fredegarius voiced. 38 (S. posquam in R. 309. est amatus but es' portatus : Lat. in 365. Pos is very common in inscriptions. Nt. pos. Raetia. of final t For the confusion inquid are found.The Romance languages show forms with nt. §283. 306-307. t 286. Both st and s are represented in the Romance languages. and-^J is found: S. 121 n. with and without either consonant. 287. ^> d in northern Gaul and Spain. videtur. tr'p-dr'^dr. restituerun. 309. Final st. Cf. e. d and t. like d and "Z t (cf. Marius Victorinus preferred posquam : S. — 368. Cf. triplicem. 470. is preserved in the same regions as Pisaurum. L had a convex formation. in general. Spr. Priscian I. In Gaul and Spain. 473-474. Gaul. 473. Such a spelling as Later this retere for reddere (S. S. before a vowel or a voiced consonant. ut Plinio sonum habet: quando geminatur secundo loco Digitized by Microsoft® . According to Velius Longus. and northern § 256. moreover. 473-474. Cf. In inscriptions we find : dedro and dedrot. 324) writes: exilem. Lindsay 124. may have lost its t before consonants as post ilium but pos' me.. 368. likewise. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) or *capum. /.

Osthoff. 289. / regularly changed: luna. in obscure terms. sound — as 50. /. clarus. geline. For sl>stl. medium in aliis. fiaba. to the vocalization of / into u: KavKovXaT<o in an edict of Diocletian. etc.): S." heard before a consonant (as in albo. this elevation. etc. plenum. consonantem. 326. 325-326. see §274. from the "pinguis. brought about the palatalization of Spanish and Italian clavem kl'ave > Sp. It remained unseems to have fallen in For //>/. 301 a. see §161. II. It is likely that / before or after another consonant had a Before thick sound caused by lifting the back of the tongue. 494. alga. intervocalic va. ut exilis. see §284.d. 476). sporadically by the fourth century but regularly not until the eighth and ninth and later (^Lat. Sfr. except before i.122 posita. zi. (2) There are sporadic examples of the dissimilation of two Ts: Digitized by Microsoft® . flavus. ut lectus. ski. Eckinger 12. ille). a faulty pronunciation of / particularly prevalent in Africa or 648. chiave. XXX. (i) Metathesis occurs occasionally: Consentius (S. An ut il-le. also had the thick is famuXus (but not in similis): thus explained the different fate of a in calere^OXd Fr. fabula^*flaba'y-\\. etc. Dunkles undhelles 1 im Lateinischen in the Transactions of the American Philological Association / in : > XXIV. 327) blames "coacla pro cloaca" " displicina pro disciplina". According to H.. mtlle. During the Latin period altus.. See also Zs. After consonants. quando finit nomina vel quando aliquam habet ante se in eadem syllaba sol. It. Other grammarians blame. Have. Greece: S. For ly. consonants. sol. this formation led in some regions. cauculus in manuscripts." lectum. chaloir and gallina~> Old Fr. [§ 289 syllabas et Metel-lus." Consentius distinguishes the "sonus which he ascribes to initial and double / (as in lana. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. shifted forwards. silva. tribunal. Vok.

309. (i). 307. Pr. 8) says: " Gn. ndet. locally in aliorsum. Cf. Pr. pater. § 281. has iusu = was Hot consistently carried out everywhere. coming from rtt. Pompejus Magnus et scribebat et dicebat kadamitatem pro calamitate. Spr. After long vowels the 292. or praepalatal change 291. 330): "Dossum per duo s quam per r quidam ut lenius enuntiaverunt. carrus. introsus. Pr.." Russum rusum. I. Corssen I. although Moreover. 460. two r's. was early reduced to ss: Lat. App. we fin(J repeatedly pelegrinus by Microsoft® . R : in Classic trill: and Vulgar Latin was probably a gingival S. there was a strong tendency to dissimilate it was only sporadically carried out: in Old in inscriptions Digitized Latin. "flagellum non frag-ellum. ac tota r littera sublata est in eo quod rusum . Bechtel 83: susum very common. while old rss. R. 123 cf. 290. in early writers tions: dextrosus. dossum remained unchanged: susum. 471. —arts after r^-alis.(see § i6r). as xcfloralis. L. {2)Ji. susum. IV.. 243. Gl. "terebra non tekbra". 460-461 Cf. 77. S." "cultellum non cuntellum"." Cf. C. rusus. while susosusu susum. however. Velius to Longus says est (S. MVNTV for multum. in most of the Empire in dorsum. Waters Ch. 328. reversus. suso. so sussum>siisum. deorsum. susum occur ha. 327. assimilation versus. being probably somewhat hindered by school inIt took place in the whole territory in deorsum and fluence. App. diosum. in inscrip- S. cursus. Reich. et retrosum.. R. § 292] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. sursum. rj > J. The principle seems have been that original rs remained. retrorsum. App. The «>j. . etc. 1593. (3) Marius Victorinus (Keil VI.f It generally resisted In many words. in about half the Empire in persua. 330..s pessica.

314-315). see § 245. tells 293. Final r. coliandrum. So Italian per lo '^pello. Rum. in most of Italy and Dacia: sdror'. orlo. S. dietro drieto. Ry was probably preserved through the Vulgar Latin it period. uxo. corium'^ *coryu (cf. cf. probably before the end of the Vulgar Latin period. Classic Latin j was probably ^Iways voiceless and remained so in 297. Jlagrare. Cf. For quatro. 304. Velius Longus (S. 307-308. est marmor. 477. 296. 329. quando dico mamor pro eo quod Cf. etc. 330.>. 331. f. mate. suora. cocodrilus. etc. [§ 297 also ministorum. propio. Spr. albor. \X. 330 notes prancati. cf. Introduction to Vulgar Latin.It. PELLiGE. 330— 331. 302.. 295. Consentius mentions "perlum -pro prcslum. Cf. 329. Metathesis is not uncommon S. *sempre. It. Crocodilus appears as corcodilus. 329) says: Pompeius (S. pellicere. with the upper surface of the tongue convex (cf. Italian £Occodri//o. averlo^ (in Old It. 329) / us that in elegant speech per before was pronounced pel. The old voiced having become r (S. S. among the soaru. it has left very few traces in the Romance languages. criblare. Falisci Sittl 11 mentions an in and the Marsi. as in pellabor. as frate.) avello. plurigo are attested likewise. fell.z\vax\. § 280) S. S. Lat.. An intrusive r is found in culcitra. seems to have been dental. etc. to y in parts of Italy. S. merlo. although may have been reduced and possibly *cqyu SIBILAUTS. : ^ j- Digitized by Microsoft® . perla. perpenna ^ Perferna. Waters Ch.'' propio. This assimilation was probably not widespread in Latin. cuoto). early fall of final r mate. except in monosyllables. mehtrix. Italian Carlo. : 294. corcodrillus. "Barbarismus.124 (Sittl An 74). propietas. 38." S.

Cornelio. but occurs also in -ts and -as. Final s often fell in ally in Faliscan: Hammer In early 5. and matrona for matronas. D.§298] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. pleps. 8. According to Chronologic 175-186. rarely in -as: bonu. but became common by 150 to 200 A." except in compounds. unu. Cf. olim autem politius. corroborative evidence. and the developwords as hiemps. 471. pieta. indicated by the fact that is still generally surd in Spanish [casa. Sittl 27. the forms without Terentio.. Ennius and his followers down to Catullus did S. Cicero (^Lat Spr. and often was not is says the loss of —s written. 361) notes the omission of -s by the ancients. tste. brian PiSAVRESE. This evidently indicates a voicing in late school pronunciation. Digitized by~Microsoft® . The omission is commonest in nominative -os or —us. cur- 298. filio') predominated in (jpntral Italy until the time of Csesar. but later it is In the older inscripin the main correctly used until the second century of our era: Lat. Thurot T]^ y between vowels is described as " weak. when -j was partially restored. ut ubi opus fuerit excludatur de metro. and occasionCf. S. not count -j before a consonant in verse: 355-356. the nominative singular without s (as Cornelio. 471) "subrusticum. however. urps. Spr. etc. nepoti. who cites UmLatin final s was very weak after and t. such as resolvit. also ment of a / in such become voiced sus. as far as goes. etc. furnished by such spellings as maximus.^ sex.) . § 256): was generally preserved: causa. 108): "5 littera hanc habet potestatem.. Pompeius (Keil V. sumpsi. intervocalic s may have nupsi. etc." tions -s is freely omitted. ii Umbrian {kumate). j- ^In the previously cited Latin treatise (see footnote to §259).) and most popular words it Tuscan is [naso." Quintilian also (S. rexi. mtsi. 302-304): this in is 125 Vulgar Latin intervocalic s in (S. etc. in Classic Latin s some regions (cf. etc. At the very end of the Vulgar Latin period. 361-362. ossum.

). prete. find. IX. In Old French pasmer (from spasmus) the ^ was lost probably through confusion with es. morbu ^ morbus. Spr. the In presbyter. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Italy generally favored tra.(but traduire. transtulit. 301. (later tre^. For z.. 471): sentts'^YX. tempus>lt. According to Velius Longus (S. tra{ns)misit. tra{ns)posuit . etc. It. cept in monosyllables {^Lat. examdtis "> dai. filio^filios. Vx..*prcebyterum'). etc. For sy. 539. pronounced and therefore preserved. Cf. however. In Gaul. 300. Digitized . see § 275. tion. liberio. a new nominative constructed from irpeers fell in Italy and elsewhere through the substituva. 316). tra. senti. and probably in Dacia. probably owing to the previous linguistic habits of the natives. 540. see § 230. jecit. Densusianu 122—123. final J disappeared for good from the common pronunciation in the second and third centuries. -s. and some other regions.«.coming from the prefix ex-. trei amate. 299.became and sometimes before m and/. cords the omission of -s in as this nearly always less was strongly Carnoy 185-206 reline it is many inscriptions. I. trans. see § 246 and Greek by Microsoft® Consonants. For prosthetic i or e before s + consonant. tres^OXA. Audollent In most of Italy. but notes that happens at the end of a doubt- only a conventional abbreviation. tra{ns')veho. usually preferred tras. It. C.before d. traducir). see § 161.. tion of the prefix /r. For assibilaand Palatals. tempo. L. [§302 and prevailed in central Italy in the third century («<7 Cf.(but trasporre). 302. see Gutturals For ss>s. but das^lt.j. for ejus. /SvTcpos. preveire {<.traduxit. 1938. transduco and We sometimes Both forms occur Gaul and Spain before / and v : tra (^ns) luce 0. Hammer 19-28. Spain. tratransjicio.126 again.(as prabitor) for the unusual initial pres-: hence It.

must have been partly nasalized. 303. amat. noster. with an arched tongue: S. «'s in Bononia > It. S. probably tives first the pronunciation of these fricabefore changed from bilabial to dentilabial (cf. — or "« adulterinum"— and also nvncqvam. mediocre in mediis." sound between m and n: "Omnes fere aiunt inter m eX n litteras mediam vocem quae non abhorreat ab utraque littera sed neutram proprie exprimat. before dentals. final or followed by a consonant. was dental or gingival.). 275). 270. 279-280. mis-. §§ 171. S. uncus (cf. ut templum. § 320) gutterals. g." 305. anguis. and the mouth closure incomplete. as between n and ^ (S. imperio. regularly venit. as / . 127 NASALS. ut magnus. then n. see § 245. by 270. 275): "iVvero sub convexo palati lingua inhaerente gemino naris et oris The same author describes (S. and v.§ 305] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. contineo. were the preceding vowel obscure and weak in Classic Latin. 275) says that for n the air comes through both nose and mouth. innocens. N. 275) a spiritu explicabitur. immitto. S. 311). "m obscurum in extremitate dictionum sonat. comfluo confluo. described by Nigidius (in Gellius)." Terentianus Maurus (S. is 278). remained unFor the reduction of There was a dissimilation of two M and n. n. The y Cf. 275) Before liquids the nasal was assimilated cf. So Marius Victorinus (S. before m. S. comvenio convenio. rigo. 269-270. initial and intervocalic. M and 304. minus. 276. changed: meus. conduco. In Classic Latin the nasal naturally took before labials the form of m.: cf. inquit. 272. by Microsoft® . iVNCXi. According to Priscian (S. ut umbra. Cf. n. etc. etc. 269- {colligo. apertum in principio. cor- before s it was Digitized silent [cosul. y: combura. Priscian. like d and t (§ 280). .

cun duce. Carnoy 220. In the vulgar speech of the Empire the sound before seems to have been indistinct. 278. conplere. cun navibus : Lat. Pirson 92. nom or non fecit. Bechtel 81 {forsitam. forsitam mille. 273. before/ and v there was great uncertainty (cf.128 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. like medial nasals. Cf. as there is § 32." Cf. exeetc. find cun. secudo. etc. plu. [§307 to a following consonant: Final nasals seem to have been adapted. de- fuctce. Priscian (S. In inscriptions S. nunquam. Carnoy 220). r/ must have been reinforced. decemter.. In both old and late inscriptions the nasal is often omitted altogether before a consonant: Decebris.. 271-272). n. 476. 306. etc. Servius.. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. pricipis.. 272): this is indicated by such spellings as senper. tan mulieribus. Carnoy 176-177. little trace of confusion in the Romance lan- guages. quamta. 281-285. 364. S. frequent. 276—277. santo. iy carne. 307. cur regibus. iferos. i senatu.. In late Vulgar Latin m. 275): exempta n "iV quoque plenior in primis sonat et in ultimis partibus syllabarum. Carnoy 176. and even before dentals not always clear (S. laterna. locun sanctum. Mn seems at one time to have been pronounced m: Quintilian (S. nynfis. 311). nomem. Spr. but in great measure also to the mistaken efforts of later writers to restore a real or hypothetical earlier orthography: compare the treatment of prefixes. S. largely to mere careless- ness in cutting. we ci. then to nt. For the change of rjkt to yt. see § 267: santa. innoceti. occubas. etc.. Cicero advocated cun nobis. §§171. nol lego. quen. and there was apparently some labials doubt before ^« and qu (S. reliquat. quan floridos. 286) says: littera "Columnam et consules legimus. The due hesitation and inconsistency in spelling are certainly in part to imperfect articulation. ut nomen. nom paret. S.

Bechtel •]()•. numqua. and conversely forms with a superfluous m. 298. oli. pride.§309] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 356. The omission of -m and Pr. on the other hand. was probably assimilated into nn in central and southern Italy before the Empire was over {Lat. Bechtel 107. in the last first two centuries of the Empire the traditional spelling is carefully observed: early and late such forms as dece. show a fondness for such spellings as calumpnia. etc. It is likely that this orthography and painful effort to articulate clearly. umpnia. and dampnum (cf. m Final m often fell in Umbrian 5. Between is m and j or / a / generally developed in Latin was unvoiced and denasalized before the surd that followed this / was not always written: sum(J))si. passi... S. mecu. accedere. jacente. unu are very common. 363-364. sum(J>)tus. ut amnis.). counteracting a previous ten- dency to although slur the group. dormito for dormitum. abundant examples. cf. mpn is common in 189. In Old Latin it was to weak: 130 B. (as in puplu). Spr. etc. Bechtel 91 Digitized cf. S. and again in late plebeian inscriptions. from the first century. The Romance languages it point to the preservation of mn. Toward the end of the Empire fashion evidently prescribed cates a conscious a distinct pronunciation of mn. ide. by Microsoft® . septe. occa- sionally in Faliscan: Hammer 8. . cal- the early indi- Romance languages. for -amn~. 308. Cf. the wrong use of it are very frequent in the Per. to say. mense. Bechtel 80. So R. Bon. Audollent 539-540. Carnoy 166. the latter part of the . eoru. It is often omitted in inscriptions down c. S. terra. dampnare. etc. exilior in mediis.. — that 309. 462. damnum." Carnoy 166 has Interamico. 129 stamen. 476): Interanniensis. App. etc. : que ad mo- century of the Republic and the dum. Late inscriptions.

from early times. 364Lat. who notes the omission of -m in many inscriptions under all possible conditions. scarcely any m audible quantum erat. the final S. cognosco. as in coactum. etc. n of prefixes 274. jam. 288-292. S. 361). 274). Carnoy 206-221.tenea{m')\ cum. cf. next before spirants and at the end of a phrase. audiendu' st. of -n in Latin (S.130 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in poetry it may be disregarded (cf. S. Before consonants S. Final n must have been indistinct (S. 358). AudoUent 537). [§ 310 ardente lucemam. fix The con— became co— before vowels. quern (^quen. etc. According to Quintilian is 362). Vok. Hammer 32-41. For further assimilation. the precedThe contrary view is maintained by Seelmann. he adds that there in tantum ille. non is Siciliam": see § 311. In the opinion of Schuchardt. 361): see 305. Digitized by Microsoft® . it was assimilated (cf. The Romance languages point to a loss of -m in all words but monosyllables: damnu{m). 110-112. 282. 286). 360. 310. Cato said dice hanc. Final m before vowels seems to have been. etc. but it seems preco- to have been reinforced in Classic speech (S. tan dvrvm. of its assimilation to a § following labial (im bello. I.. pdssu{ni). Cf. very early. 106). vowels. 274. as in cognatus. reaches the conclusion that silent at the it became end of polysyllables by the first century. As the fall of m seems to have been due primarily to a failure to close the lips completely between two it is likely that the nasalization was slight.. too. etc. Spr. coharere. then (by assimilation) before other consonants. fell Before^.. (S. 473. only a weak nasal glide: in circueo it disappears (S. "/« Siciliam dicendum. hors. 356-358. ignotus: is Other- wise there no sure proof of the fall but there is abundant evidence 365). Caper (Keil VII. 361): see §305. Cf. coicere: S. having disappeared very early before vowels. S. ing vowel was nasalized. cf.

^^ i'^ Greek- ko^ous. see § 285. ns. ifimo. iferi. cosol. if eras. § App. Pirson 94. mesis.. cojugi. (on a (Capua./. "Hercules non Herculens. ifer cojectis. Such forms are frequent in cojugi (very common). 274. S. convenio'&ie really new formaThe only sure Romance traces of the loss oin tions: S. "consules exempta n littera legimus. toties. 387 a. both forms were used in -e{n)sis (according to Velius Longus. non. Eckinger 80. coventionid. trare. Cicero preferred foresia. 461Conversely. pes neque mens.. R. hortesia. covenimus. S. R. prcBgnas repeatedly." Cf. etc. resurges S. as videns. after the Vulgar Latin period: Lat. with a superfluous n: fidens =-fides. 113-115. etc. formosus (S. 462. 311. It probably fell late.ifs. v. as in vicesimus. remasit. locuplens.. except in monosyllables: ndtne{Ti). cesor. Cf. 473. iferi. inscriptions: cofecisse.. This phenomenon was only thority: partially recognized by Classic au—ensimus -^ -esimus. -onsus>-dsus. 274.§ 31 1] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 281-285. ifra. was kept in participles. coin of Vespasian's reign). occansio. probably through nasalization of the preceding vowel: see § 171. 274.). etc. 274.. Pr. seme{n) in. Charisius (S. 287). 131 The Romance languages indicate the disappearance of -n. thensaurus. mansus. App." In popular speech the times: S. Digitized by Microsoft® . 286) records that "men- sam sine n littera dictam Varro fall ait. AudoUent 538. etc. 273). —iens'^-ies. Stolz 243. quiensces. For final nt. such words as conjux. iventa. 281-285.. was probably constant from early in/as." Before/. Before fricatives or spirants n regularly fell. libes. d. letter inscriptions: Kki]ix. . mesor messor = mensor. Quintilian (S. cojux. 459. Plautus repeatedly uses mosTerence seems to intend a rhyme in "neque Stolz 243. "ansa non asa" .. Spr. 286). 285. the n was generally restored by analogy (see 171). Pr. thensaurus. etc. infas. Carnoy 177." "occasio non occansio." Eunuchus 728.. etc. however. Stolz 243fT.

settembres. /V likewise br: Abrilis. App. and the only Romance words containing ns are learned terms or new formations: mesa. // probably early in 299. 299. or perhaps captivus became first *cactivus. S. (I) P. It. Before s. 160. cf. opus. canapa. 314. 299. etc. Windisch 394). mesis. 7th century. scripit. lebrm. hut pensare. In a part of Gaul capfivus seems to have been pronounced *cayttvus: it may be that in Gallic speech the pt oi this word became yt. to drop In Italy and perhaps elsewhere there was a tendency / between a consonant and an j- or /. by Microsoft® . Pirson 61. LABIALS. In central and southern Italy// became the Empire: scritus. and northern Italy: see Cf. tosus. (i) F regularly remained unchanged: pater. S. Digitized became Haag862. 476. the fall of n was permanent. sposus. Pr. 312. Bon. Raetia... [§ 314 before these consonants in Latin are Italian /a«/^ and French in Raetia and convent. although at a later date nf became / much of southern France. Intervocalic / probably became b in the fifth and sixth centuries in Spain.132 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. There was some sporadic confusion of/ and b: uvBLlCyE. Spr. § 256. pesat. under the influence of Celtic *cactos (Welsh caetJi) = Latin captus (Loth 35). Car- noy 165. Old Irish secht-n = septem.. Pirson 60-61: labidem. Gaul.. Lat. as was the case with Celtic// (Dottin 100. stubrum. etc. In a part of Italy /j became ss as early as the isse for ipse is first century: found in Pompeii. scultor. corpus. "plasta non blasta" " ziziber non ziziper" cannabis and . Pirson 93. etc. S. 313. and is attested by Martial and possibly by the icse for ipse mentioned by Suetonius. h.• redemti. etc.

§ 3i6]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


In northern Gaul intervocalic/ and/r, even in clerical Latin, /8 and ^r by the seventh century: rivaticus, 629 a. d., Vok. I, 128; cavanna, Gl. Reich.
developed through b and br into
'Soxpe,pi, see § 273.
(2) B.


as in


was not



usually ifemained un-


bene, blitum, oblitus.


Oscan and Umbrian, became vim

in Sicily


southern and central Italy, the
as far north as


being found in inscriptions
Cf. nd, § 281.


Lat. Spr. 476.

Before s or tit

likely that b regularly

became /

in Latin,



was often written

b: absens apsens, ab— apsolvere,

plebs pleps, scribsi scripsi, scribtum scriptum, trabs traps, urbs

urps; App. Pr., "celebs non celeps," "labsus non lapsus."

Final b must have been often assimilated to a following

consonant: sud



a. d.,



In the Empire, especially in the second century,
in inscriptions (cf.

and v were much confused


bixit, botu,

vene, etc., S. 240; Baleria, Balerius, Beneria,


Betrubius, Bictor, bos, valneas, Audollent 536; African birtus, bita, boluntas, Vok. I, 98 bivere, very common, Carnoy

140; baluis, Bechteh"78;

vibit, etc.,

R. 456; bobis in Consenany, traces of

Vok. Ill, 68.

In the

Romance languages

there are few,


such an early interchange.

Probably the confusion was mainly

or wholly graphic, being due to the identity in sound of b and v between vowels (§ 318): Lat. Spr. 473; cf. Einf., § 120. The Spanish levelling of initial b and v does not go back to Vulgar Latin (Carnoy 139— 141); the confusion is far commoner in Italian inscriptions than in Spanish or Gallic (Carnoy 142-146). We find also a change of initial v to b va. north Portuguese, Gascon, south Italian, and Old Rumanian.

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Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


After liquids, too, there was a confusion of b and v in inscriptions, b being substituted for v much oftener than v for
b: Nerba, salbum, serbus, solbit, etc.,

240; berbex, Waters

Ch. 57; solbere, repeatedly, Carnoy 140; solbere, etc., R. 455; App. Pr., "alveus non albeus." In all probability v really changed to b after liquids: see V.


remained unchanged.
Intervocalic b opened into

the development apparin the second,

ently began in the


was well along

Oitovin = and was devitvm, provata, etc., Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95; devere, As V also was pronounced j8, a confusion in spelling S. 240. cvrabit, resulted, b and v being used indiscriminately:

completed, at least in Italy, in the third:

ivbentvtis, nobe,

etc., S.

240; i-vwE.nTE.=jubente, 2d century,

£inf. 127, § 120; cabia
vovis, etc.,

— cavea,

Danuvium, Dibona,


Audollent S3^~537j devitum (6th century), lebis, vibi, Carnoy 134-135; annotavimus, lebat, Bechtel 78;


habe:=ave, rogavo, suabitati,

R. 455— 456;



51, Pirson 61-62,



Carnoy 134-136. became contiguous

Cf. V.

to a following consonant,
Cf. V.

was vocalized

into u: *faula, *paraula, *taula, etc.

became /3r and Dacia.

perhaps not until the end of our period, in northern Gaul, Raetia, part of northern Italy,


as in popular speech: *fa§ula, * tabula, etc.

In the early stages of clerical Latin intervocalic b was pronounced Later, perhaps by the

seventh century,

was sounded


In App. Pr. we find " sibilus non


tions " sifilum pro sibilum" ;


comes from some non-Latin Italic dialect few other words. *a^ea, see § 421. (3) For habebam


(S. 300) menPerhaps the form with/ bubulcus =^ It. bifolco, and a

and Priscian



Be, bi probably remained unchanged, at least in most

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§ 322]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


of the Empire: rabies, rubeus, etc.

For the analogical change

of habeo to *ayo, debeo to *deyo, see § 273.

(3) F-


F was

originally bilabial (S. 294-295), but
of the



by the middle


(S, 295): cf. § 305.

It is the old /, apparently, that is described

by Quintilian

296-297) a plain description of the dentilabial y is given by Terentianus Maurus and Marius Victorinus (S. 296).

Grammarians speak

of an alternation of h


fasena^ harena, fircum'^ hircum, habam'^fabam,
Varro, Ling. Lat.

etc., S.

f: fcedus'^hadus, The /"and 300.

the h doubtless belonged to different dialects in early Latin
§ 97, the

according to

This phenomenon can have no connection with the change of initial/to h in Spanish and Gascon.

/for h was Sabine.

of the

It is

probable that intervocalic

y became

v at the end

Vulgar Latin period

256): alevanii

^ elephanti,

paceveci ^pacifici, pontevecem =. poniificem,




was doubtless originally pronounced w; but, losing its velar element, the sound was reduced, probably During the early in the Empire, to the bilabial fricative /8. Empire Greek-letter inscriptions have ov or ^ for v (Ncpoua or Nep/3a) Ov\av!a = Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95 yS for » is common from the first century on, Eckinger 85-91. Velius Longus, in the middle of the second century, says that the u in ualente is pronounced "cum aliqua aspiratione": S. 232. Hence arises a complete confusion of intervocalic b and v








By. CVRABIT, ivbentvtis, etc, Gregory the Great. This leads


240; jubari iox juvari

to a graphic confusion of

initial b

and v

in inscriptions: biginti, bixit, botv, etc. (so



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An Introduction

to Vulgar Latin.
dentilabial v in


Later the bilabial

p became


of the


cf. §


For the substitution Germanic Consonants.
323. After liquids




or w in a few words, see

this state

/3 seems to have closed regularly into b; was preserved in Rumanian (Densusianu 97, 103105), but elsewhere the p ox v was partially restored by school

influence: cerbvs, corbi, cvrbati, ferbeo,
A. D.),
§ 317.

nerba (about 100

serbat, solbit, E. G. Parodi in Horn.




So vervex became *verbex, then berbex: Waters Ch. 57 BERBECES, 2d Century, Einf. 127, § 120 (also in Gl. ReichJ).

Hence came

hesitation in spelling (^ferveo, ferbui, etc.)


inconsistent results in the


languages: corvus^

corbo corvo, Fr. corbeau; curl/US'^

Ft., Pr. corp, Sp. corvo;



nerbo, Fr. neff; servare, servire'^ It. serbare, servire.

Intervocalic w ox fi had a tendency in older Latin, as Umbrian, to disappear between two like vowels: divtnus'^ dinus (cf. Umbrian deivina> deina, Sittl 26), obHviscor> obliscor, si vis'i> sis. Cf. Lindsay 52. Also, at all times, before or after 0: bovis'^bos; devorsum>dedrsum; faor, Pirson 63; moere, AudoUent 539; Noe/u/Spios, Vok. II, 479; noem[bris], S. 241; '^pavor xiOXL paor," App. Pr.; cf. late noembris, noicius, Lindsay 52. "Favilla xion failla" in App. Pr. seems to be




In the above cases the


apparently was only sporadic.

But before an accented o or u, the w ox p fell regularly in most of the Empire: aunculus, Vok. II, 471 (cf. auncli, Pirson 63); FLAONivs, S. 241; *padnem; *padrem.
Furthermore, intervocalic
popular speech before any


ox p regularly disappeared in probably towards the end of the
vIvs, S. 241 {zLJlaus in



-vos>-vus): flavs,

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"^ ec{c)lesia. Claussen 847-851. I. Keil IV. by Microsoft® . rius. B): Classic . II. Single consonants sometimes became double in Latin. is 325. 472 (cf. 327- In Greek the surd and the sonant stops must have than in Latin. Digitized Cf. this. cited by Schuchardt (Vok. Pirson 63. placuit> placwit. 471) and others as aum. Vok. Vva. 113) nous. stored. claudo. The Greek liquids. the v was re. iKKKyfTia. When intervocalic a/ or it lowing consonant. oum. primitius. etc. Lindsay 52. rivus (beside rius) through rivi. Audollent 539 (cf. (S) u. Pr. (i) In inscriptions -vs is common in place of -vvs. noum. gnaus. II. etc. App. voiced explosion: so they were not always distinguished by the Latin ear. the original Latin w (spelled v) had become |8: § 2. Carnoy 128. Vulgar aucella. triumphaut. Pirson 63). aus. : Cf. 1220. Often. 1. and sibilants less sharply differentiated been usually remained unchanged in transmission. period: eccu' ktc'. hiatus which had not already become w {%% 223224) probably took that sound by the end of the Vulgar Latin 326. § 167.:>*eccwic. the sonants were perhaps not fully voiced. Before 322. vius in Pirson 63). /3 became contiguous to a folwas vocalized into u (cf. 137 App. and the surds doubtless had a weak. The ^Vm of C. after the analogy of a feminine or a plural form ovum (beside oum) through ova. however. ndcui^ nocwi. is evidently intended for csvum. datius. 328. L. in most cases this probably only graphic: Carnoy 128-131.. naufragus. oum in Probus. nasals. Fr. etc. eccu' ista'>*eccwista.§ 328] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and Greek double consonants sometimes became single: vd/xos >nummus. GREEK CONSONANTS.

KvPipva. g. old inscriptions. K. of a change oi r to d there is no example. § a-iriijXvyya > spelunca. yoyypoi Cf. v sometimes became b. Pilipus. 330. progne. (2) K. Digitized b. T. > > .p. (3) ®. <t>. Ka. "> purpura. S.. nimpa. x 252-253): vop^-ipa^ purpura . b. Claussen c. the conis mentioned by Terentius Scaurus and others.fu > > gumtni. c. — fusion 346. although KavZiTo? for candidus (Eckinger 98) seems to point in that direction: 'Aicpayas > Acragas Agragas. This late such cases as Kafiinj Greek pronunciation perhaps accounts for > Lat. t: blcesus. t: xoAa^os > colaphus. rvp. etc. however. [§ 332 (i) B. toKomtov > talentum. S. 'Kixpmp6<i'>- lambros. 347 buxus. S. advCf. KaiPw%>gobius . bustiola in Gl. A. 268): (cf. X. we find the People of fashion by Microsoft® . Pr. ph. After nasals.yfjia> sagma sauma. explosives 6.yKri> andngi. TTuppos burrus. y. often became g. K. p. t regularly came to be pronounced //in Greek: a. k. cecino. 259. later inscriptions. App.iravov > Fr. ch: Claussen 823-833. 2S9-26a 332. Crista. S. Reich. tt. cf. keSjoos > citrus. 138 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. however. The From the middle of the second century spellings th.v>gubemare. remained b. became in Old Latin t. cf. *. theywere *Jdcopus (also */dcomus) 'la.papo^ cammarus gammarus. 833-838. avrpov^ dndron. n. d: l3XauT6i Sometimes. etc. ^iXra^ unvoiced into /. B. timbre.p. It. sandal. gamba. "calatus non galatus" {^ KoXadoi). w. > conger ganger. Teodor..KO)0(K delta.. 8 regularly ydpov>garum. TTvio'i > Kr > 331' g. Claussen Ta\oi'>rr. K6p. TfL'^um (j-a.. 7rop<j)vpa. egloge. — 329. c (S. T generally remained c. r. cin in kvki/os > > cicinus > Old.

.<^ao-i. as in phosit. phitonissm. Parthi. S-p.. Bonnet 141. etc. pantaisar. si aspiretur. . In <l>aXKaiva> ballcBna. Cicero (S. cathedra. S. 218. 260. 0.. of. ut ather. In late words ^ regularly appears as/. cru/x<^o)V4a>It. Thestius.\os> phaselus faselus . etc. 139 undoubtedly tried to imitate the aspirates (Lindsay 54). f is common later in southern Italy. Reich.. nothus. S. Quintilian (S. Fitonis. Ki^oXoi > It. and some other early adopperhaps the reason is to be sought in a Greek dialect pronunciation: Claussen 829-831.." "strofa non stropa". <f> > b. 333" tions. zampogna. p.^o'i^ colaphus = colapus. 256) says there were no aspirate consonants in older Latin. It is transposed in Fhitonis. KoKa. The etc. Fr.avTac7La> > Pr. 261): dafne occurs in Pompeii. c. ^ had developed into / in some places (S. d. X ><?"• Claussen 831. '^Theophilus non izofilus": (i) Evidence of a late school pronunciation of 6 as ts is to be found in Thurot 78. Thescelus. x^P^ > chorda = corda. palanca. Bechtel 79. Digitized by Microsoft® . Fitones in Gl. 257-258. The proper spelling is discussed by gram- marians: S. cefalo. By the first century a. 256) speaks of using the old. "amfora /came non ampora. Theos. Claussen 828.. Certainly as early to be the standard as the fourth century (Lindsay 58) pronunciation: App. iriumpos) in order to be better understood. In hoxri>doga. ut thiara. but popular speech kept the old t. etheus. footnote to § 259): " T quoque. ut c enuntiatur. caikoluus. In ^£ros>It. unaspirated pronunciation (as pulcros. neofiti. so o^-1\kiov for qfficium. <jia. Matheus ''. " In principio inquam dictionis nulla prescripta causa variari compellitur. Fr.. App. 79 (cf. pache. : letter h is occasionally misused. etc. Eckinger 97. 4. 261. zio we have a late development of Claussen 833. for new words as well as for old: <TvaOri>spatka— spata. Thiestes.Xay^ It. cf." 334.§ 334] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

From Sulla's time on it was written z in The grammarians throw no light Latin: Claussen 841-843. early Latin . (Tivain Of the sibilants. [§ 339 (4) Liquids. In it was represented by jj or s: pAtfl. and Sibilants.. as a simple sound. orma. ss.-^ remained unchanged: are. have to do with a late Greek change of \ to 336.8os /talpos > maurus. There however. is sounded sd. : t. bobansa. by s. > nome. later j' (cf. § 272). and a few other words. see § 300. sedano. or d as in Saguntum. but was often replaced. 308. some indica: tions that they were weak before consonants > Pr. Quintilian refers only to the on the Latin pronunciation. but seems to be referring only to Greek speech S. The nasals. 335.v>psallere spallere. ^dvr] "^ sona (Plautus). 338. e^oSos r. we probably 8. Cf.po'i'^ prebiter. Nasals. and subsequent developments confirm this view: baptizare Digitized was equivalent to bapti{d)yare. cr 337. regularly vop. unchanged: <j has probably become For npvj^vre. t. /8oj«.. The liquids regularly rhetor. lampas. too. Medentius. massa. Judging from inscriptions. Priscian (Keil II.'^massa. (S) z- Z doubtless had several pronunciations in Greek. it was pronounced in Vulgar Latin dy. — 339. etc. by Microsoft® . among 36) says that the ancients. The For unfamiliar combination lent itself readily to meta- thesis: i^6X\v. Claussen 845. and ^ were regularly > sinapis. i/f In ocr/u. Greek letter and the lack of a corresponding Latin one Velius Longus discusses z at length. see below. > exodus.^ ? > It. r.I40 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. priTmp> Rh in remained unchanged: \a/x7ras> common speech was doubtless pronounced In trkXivov like > It.

gerbe. Vok. zeta = Koffmane 38 Lazis — dixta. I. giga. z zabulus. 473. Bechtel 79). 341. 457-458- In late inscriptions z for/ is common: zerax = Upa^ (202 S. however. 68 . no peculiarities. 3. zanuari. rubare. Vok. Pr.. (90. Carnoy 163. and to G. 22. skernon > schernire. baptidiatus. Digitized by Microsoft® . re- mained a stop : roubdn it > It.. Zov\e. zdcones. riqueza. ZESv. *striban > Pr.• frank-iscus>lX. garto Old Fr. Lat. etc. and its derivatives palatalized In the their k before e and /.). Spr. 340. Conversely. 33. and w.= Julia. Franko seems to have been an early acquisition. so *rik-itia > Pr. Francesco. 141 zelosus to {d)yelosus. esquena. zebus. septuazinta. ZABVLLVS. R. 239. geisla Fr. jart. giscle. The ending -i{d)yare became very is common: see § The spelling di for z occurs repeatedly: baptidiare found several times in Per. resisted front vowels : skena > > Sp. zosum z= deorsum. = conjux. zabulus. Carnoy 163). seems to have followed a similar course. GERMANIC CONSONANTS. although have participated also in the later Gallic palatalization of g > before a (§ 263): gilda>lt. D. 69. Ladiis. oridium for opvtfi. geldra. h. zaconus. and is common in inscriptions (cf.. b and k came in after the lents: 8. corresponding Latin sounds had undergone some modification. garba > K It. estribar. B between vowels. Eckinger 80. Cf. Kotflv^ zvnior. can scarcely have come in time to share in the early palatalization of Latin g before front vowels (§§ 25811. A.. It. etc. being had no Latin equivaFurthermore. *giga>'Pr. is often used for di: . etc. cf. A few.§ 34i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.ta. I. occurring apparently only in words adopted after Latin intervocalic b had become ^ (§ 318). of the consonants offer Most treated as in Latin. p.).

— > \X. apcha. Germanic k was modified in the same way before all front vowels (including a): cf. espiar. esclate. hardir. anca. gaite. 343. Old Fr. Bon. nipa The spirants 8 and p t: corresponding stops. 344. [§ 344 c was palatalized. d and widarlon were replaced in Latin by the It. skiuhan'^'Fx. 445 notes that ab. Fr. in the seventh century and later. gequir. —jehan > Old It. hanche. sleht > Pr. schiatta. Pr. Intervocalic h disappeared in most words. trescar. esguiver. hardjan Old Fr. gecchire. rather than a.. hau- > > > Pr. In the Gl. a time when original Latin fricative w (spelled v) It the purely labial ^ (§ 322). at Germanic w was a strong velar and labial fricative. It. Fr. richesse. different time. tt: pahso > It. doubtless adopted at a Tr. we find Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. It. But wahta. ht were generally treated tasso. Pr. of a At the beginning word it kept its sound in northern Gaul. espier. It. — slahta'^-OXA esclet. Reich. esclata.. hache. tarir. Kluge 500. Fr. prescan Germanic h appeared when Latin h had long been popular speech. W. guiderdone. helme. cf. parrjan > Cf. hapja'^Yz. eschernir. helm elmo. Fr. Sp. Fr.— 142 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. tasso. It. before a (§ 263). but in a few it seems to have been sounded kk in the greater part of the Empire: fehu Fr. perhaps borrowed at a different date feu. is used before > > initial ch: ab Chilperico. Pr. Old Sp. fio . bianca^. spehon~>0\6. jaquir. regions where Latin eschine. Hs. honte. became Old guatare. had become was nearer in it sound to Latin u: see § 326. like Latin ss. so blank-a'^Yx. blanche (but It. 342. Yr. silent in Fr. but apparently was neglected in the rest of the Empire: hanca~^Yx. ardire.gaita. schivare. Pr. jehir. schietto. pahso > It. It. Pr.

143 re- represented by uu. It is generally written w in Fredegarius. 167 cords Euua. Bruckner. > *wisa guisa. 1885. Charakteristik der germanischen Elemente im Italienischen. Through association with Germanic words. werra > werra guerra. Digitized by Microsoft® . in northwestern Italy. elsewhere. in uuadius. Wandali. reuuardent. Waltemath. See E. walde. through a reinforceit ment of its velar element. Bon. the /3 of some Latin words was changed to w: vadum +watan'. etc. 1884. etc. vastare + wost— > *wasiare. In extreme northern and eastern Gaul.:>*wadum.§ 344] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and in the in Rsetia this w apparently remained unchanged Vulgar Latin period. became gw: warjan>*warire wisa guarire. wa (the interjection). Waddo. Mackel. Die frdnkischen Elemente W. W. Die germanischen Elemente in der franzSsischen und provenzalischen Sprache. 1899. but Wintrio is spelled Quintrio: Haag 38. in der franzSsischen Sprache. etc.

(5) See also § 351. Nouns that -icem. G. I. leporem. fans feminine in late Latin. A. became feminine (Bon. 461): (2) In Gaul. but there were ( I ) Between masculine and feminine there was not much some important shifts: Feminines of the second declension nearly all became — masculine: fraxinus. Feminines of the fourth declension varied (^Gram. (4) There were some sporadic changes: duos arbores. ~" confusion. They were grammatical whose observance was a matter of outward form. II. 483 . -inem.IV. MORPHOLOGY. through the analogy of the great majority of abstract terms. confusion of gender ensued. 346. Spr. Bon. Spr. dependent on sex or lack of distinctions. n. 504. in the main. manus. Bon. If words lost their differentiating terminations. grex became feminine. marginem. —urem were of uncertain gender ( Gram. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. 503-504): (3) color. dolor. etc. or [I. sex. honor. 483. abstract nouns in -or.. GENDER. Lat. cf. MASCULINE AND FEMININE. 194. cucullus and cuculla. had a proparoxytonic accusative in -erem. 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . Lat. Hmor. Pirion 157. iomus. castaneus for castanea. —orem. The three genders of Latin were not. pulicem. ficus. 464-467): carcerem. 293. turturem. 345.

. incipit judicius. 348. and f. maris nom. (Za/. etc.. 347. G. D'Arbois 135. 16). m. and also by the fall of final s in that phenomenon occurred (§ 298). 57. lignus. 46. In popular and late Latin this tendency was strong: anteClassic. 39. papaver . *ndminem. me\_nt]us. Waters Ch.. lactem. for ctnis. roborem. pectorem.. Spr. marmorem. lactem {Bacch. . In Classic Latin a number of neuters became masculine balteum -us. m. puteum. ra. b. tergum —us. etc. 483). do^sus (^Mil. collus —um. Petronius has thesaurum. there must have been a *pulvus. 507-509. piper \h&x& must have been *liiminem. collus. Varro. murmur. 345-349. cf. etc. etc.. ciner. fcenus. 266. n. 145 MASCULINE aIiD NEUTER. thesaurum. Beside lUmen. Densusianu 129. 4. frenum -i. n. gladium. 348.§ 348] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 173. MAREM. Glor. vadum —us. Conversely we find cinus. sg. R. VA. Cf. *ptperem. 293. caseum -us. 2. Waters Ch. nasuni : —us. Petronius. sulphurem.Y.. calus. and neuter in Africa. II. Plautus. vasus -um.. vinus. 44). fatus. laqueum. 270—272. see Archiv VIII. These m two genders: filiu{s) — . vinus. frigorem.. m. Audol- lent 545. cornu —um —us. ledus —um. castellus. templus. Densusianu 132. R.guttur. 41. MARIS. etc. Bon. signus. For the confusion of masculine Cf. The transition from masculine to neuter was facilitated by the fall of final the regions where changes reduced considerably the distinguishing marks of the (§ 309). 132. balneus. beside pulvis. Bon. 42. nomen. verbus.

146 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. luogo. Densusianu 132. id ipsum. Archiv III. hunc stagnum. mare. Petronius writes nervia Waters Ch. XXX. generally L. rivus rivora. quid. R. / muri mura. § 351. influenced f. : if The loss of the neuter became feminine: cyma. the characteristic neuter plural inflections came to be -a being regarded as an alternative masculine plural ending: for nervi. murus. 348. hunc vulnere. by terra. for instance. hunc verbum. sagma. complete until early Romance times. 4). Nearly all neuters became masculine: os locutus R.. 350. plural in a collective sense (as eques. etc. donum hunc scBCulum. 161. and 48. Cf. Thus the masculine and neuter fused. the early stages of the Neuter adjective forms were used for a similar purpose: in Romance languages we find phrases veniat. Bon. Among pronouns. 386. 266. 351 Classic Latin often used not only the singular for the cf. miles. locus. popular. est. m. muro. and in Italy and Dacia the distinction disappears even in the nominative singular. illud or ilium. pointing to such Vulgar Latin constructions as *mihi est grave quod ille non c. etc. Zs. 349. cf. however. tive h In the third declension the genders are distinguished only in the accusative singular and the nomina- and accusative plural. 277.. but also the collective plural for the singular Digitized by Microsoft® . the : neuter forms were kept to express an indefinite idea hoc. generally Haag became feminine maris. FEMININE AND NEUTER. in Livy: Draeger I. Greek neuters in -ma.. gender for nouns was probably not Cf. luoghi luogora. give in Italian: sg. 635. 45 . Mare. [§ 351 In the second declension the only difference is in the nominative singular and the nominative and accusative plural. quod. perhaps calestem. etc. So pi.

Hence arose such feminine gaudia. In most of the in central Romance territory the -a forms were kept preserved as plurals only as feminine singulars. but many were and southern Italy and Rumania. It. Old Fr. ardet (cf. grada occur in late Latin. 352. which a new plural was created: brachias. ligna . Cf. cf. Audollent 548. crigne < ? *cnnea = crines. Gl. . for singular forms as *brachia. gesta. Reich. the Vulgar Latin period the cases were generally reduced. armentas. 270. rama). § 349) and even to some feminine nouns: digita. *pulvus = pulvis. membras. R. 63). 483. fusa.. D'Arbois 10. dita.% frigora. ne forte et mihi hcec eve- R. 2. Gl. see § 347. Spr. 269. So the neuter plural forms in -a were preserved in their collective use after the neuter singular forms had disappeared. occurs in late Latin. 482. . few neuter nouns became feminine: For mare and f. This formation in -a was extended to many masculine (cf. R. Sardinian. ligna. ingenias. etc.. see §§ 85-100.. Aside from these. Spr. in Rumanian y>-««2a < ? *frondia ^frondes. {z. Reich. Cassel. rura: cf. The feminine character of such words was *illcB doubtless reinforced by the use.. in Greek neuters -ma. etc. In late Latin and early Romance this collective plural —a came to be taken for a feminine singular: tribula sg. Draeger I.. DECLENSION OF NOUNS. Convtrstly. By the end of 354. . Gl. hie est iesia. palpebrum iox palpebra occurs. simulaehras. Lat.§ 354] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 351. gaudia niat. For the use of cases. Apulian. marmor. frutta. see § 349. 147 marmora. of an to pectora maXch qua pectora : Chronologie \()(). fructa. Archiv XIV. sg. 353. *folia. 435. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . Bon. for instance. Lat. 5-9.. For cinus — cinis.

£ai. 260—262. All passed over in the greater part of the Empire. spes spent. G.. K. gradus. — the Cf. sendti. gelus./ada. being assimilated to the third declension: cf. 544. went into the third res There was also an inflection spes : spene{m). 337-338. manos. so friicti. (2) The susianu 133. luxuries —ia. etc. One result of the intermediate confusion was an accusative plural spelling -us which was very common in Gaul: Bon.. fructo fructos. as a third declension noun. etc. jusso. cornum.148 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 482. Classic Latin and continued in vulgar and late speech: ftcus. whence Italian spene (cf. lacus. R. Bechtel 86. 355(i) The number fifth of declensions was reduced to three.g/ada. Fifth declension nouns not in -ies rem. Digitized by Microsoft® . senatus. spiritus. but there were a few shifts: — (i) For an inflection mama mamdne(^m). see § 359. All the mercatus. gustus in Petronius . to two. Audollent genum. transfer of nouns in -ies from the fifth to the first declension began also in Classic Latin: effigies— ia. scaiiazre attested Inter: Denfor -OS. speni): W. In Dacia the dative singular was to some extent preserved also: '' § 91. Sp. Bon. Heraeus in Archiv XIII. Dies maintained itself. beside dia. Sittl in Archiv II. passes. The other declensions generally held their own. 282-283. —a nominative and an accusative- plural following the analogy of the singular. fourth declension eventually went over. jusso. 550. lucto. 152. but -ies was kept in the Spanish peninsula. [§ 356 except in Dacia. 270. in southern Italy and Sardinia. 135. the fourth and being absorbed by the others. 356. The transfer from the fourth to the second began in domus. ablative. etc.. Pr. haz. glatz. etc. Ada. Spr. materies -ia. etc. and occasionally in southern Gaul.

FIRST DECLENSION. the accusative plural form came to be used as a nominative plural. / 357. etc. and of feminine nouns of the third declension. etc.§ 357] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Pr. Fr. vas>va- sum vasus (Waters Ch. Spr. G. 57). where the kept instead. It. matres matres. 280. 280. but the old forms were retained also. Beside ervum ervi. which had only one form in the plural: flia So linguas. h&nc& filias filias. there was a termen terminis. Beside terminus ~i. : Bechtel 86. likewise tempesta {Gl. 483. fonz. Libit. cf. ds>dssum (R. Reich. rugiada. pyxis '^*buxida. fons. Greek nouns 259. femps. 149 (2) For an inflection Bellus Bellone^m). It probably was not common until late Vulgar Latin or early Romance times. 259-260). arroser. J where there was only one form. Corpo for corpore occurs in the Per. of the third declension sometimes passed into lampas~^lampada. Old Fr. effondrer.. there was an ervus ervoris: Lat. This use was due in the main to the analogy of the singular. fiens. siren '^ sirena. Audolfilia{m). 258Dubois 258. under the influence of stercus. R. see § 362. a. Fr. G.) and probably *potesta.).) *femdris: cf. Digitized -s made the accusative plural identical with the singular.In countries which did not lose final s {% 298). So a few Latin nouns: juventus or ~tas > Juventa. fall of In Italy and Dacia. the nominative plural was' by Microsoft® .>*rdsum (cf. lent 546. the first: 367. beside coclear fiitre: was codearium. G. 280. apparently became femus {Gl. Fimus ftmi. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) and *capum -i: XXVII. Reich. Fundus fundi perhaps became fundus *funddris: Old Fr. by Audollent 416. Puulva for pulvis is recorded adsis '> aisida. Pr. (3) On the other hand. so apparently ros'.

M. It. Herseus in Archiv XIII. —enis. Both mamani and tatani are found in the third W. rather late. This feminine inflection left some traces in Gaul. feminabus.. Celtic. diffusion. 171. but they may have helped its the second century . p. XXV. Pirson 115-116. Archiv N\\\. Spr. or probably under the influence of the consonantal declension of Greek names that was in vogue in schools. Philipon. etc. 264). Salvioni in Rom. G. scriba *scribanis (cf. century: feminine -a -ants In Lat. fr. etc. often developed. 206. famulabus. W. villabus.2 01. filiabus. Feminine proper names and words denoting persons etc. An ablative in -abus is occasionally found: Cassiabus. Journal des savants igoo. Dalmatia. ahimabus.. XXIII. too. 136. cf.. E. etc. cf. filiabus. the nominative plural in some parts of Italy SCALAS. It. XXXV. 152-153. c.ISO (i) An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. D'Arbois 21-24 assumes Celtic influence: hic sunt cartas. had a similar plural. Bon. Raetia. affirms that there was a feminine in -a with a plural in -as in Oscan. 358. (R. Hic qvescvnt dvs mres dvas filias. sacristano). XXV. Her^us in Zs. Chronologie 205-209.. See G. etc. and Digitized by Microsoft® . sa* sacristanis (cf. [§359 According to Mohl. etc. and also in Latin down to -as was probably old in : B. liberti LIBERTASQVE. Africa. Dante's Semele. amita *amitdnis (so Juliana Julianenis in Pirson 143). Les accusatifs en -on et en -ain. 57 B. ii. 321. pupillabus. 483. XXXI. 198. 70. W. c. etc. Les accusatifs en -ain. § 153): barba barbani.. scrivano). an inflection in —dnis. Some masculine person-names in —a had crisia the same declension {Einf. Rom. Nice Nicenis. 359. Pupils were taught to inflect Glance Glaucenis. Br^al. nom. Rom. Paris. mamma mammdnis. 150..: hence arose Anna Anndnis or -inis. Meyer-Liibke expresses doubt whether the is connected with masculine tatani. deabus. Spr. This form left no traces in the Romance languages. No foreign or dialect influences are needed to explain the practice. filiabus. 331. Feb. MeyerLiibke in Ltblt.

shows that these forms of declenall sion were very common the mediasval Latin documents of parts of Italy. barbane still exist at both ends of Italy. Joanneni. from Eugenes. Cf. this -a. etc. Rom. Eugeneti inflection in -dtis. XXXV. 219. According to Salvioni. fructa. etc. shows that there was also an Cf. Rom. etc. Andreate. the starting-point of all this inflection was bdrba barbdnis. 264. 351-352. 250. 218. Zs. Italy: Fr. etc. — perhaps under manic influence combined with the analogy of the Latin type Digitized by Microsoft® . *botula. in ig8. (2) A. Agneti. and -Stis: Aureliati. the first declension was reduced to this pattern: 360. -His.) was kept also. -e ^ne -me. Romance. Ger- From the seventh century on. 250. Cf. Rom. XXXV. from 750 on: amitane. R.: § 362] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. As neuter nouns became masculine. rama. XXVIII. Attane. barbane.. they assumed. XXXV. from which it was extended to other nouns of relationship and to proper names. 361. me -ene. putain. digita. 2l6. however. Zimmermann. domnani. Rom. Salvioni. SECOND DECLENSION. Dubois 250. nonnain. -i La declinazione imparisillaba in -a -dne. also Joannentis. Andreani. -o -6ne. §§349. the masculine where the masculine and neuter partly in Vulgar Latin but mostly in inflection in those countries differed: vinus. bdrba barbdnis influence of the itself he would ascribe to the synonymous *bdrbo *barb6nis. The plural in -a. §§ 347-349.. In general. G. at the beginning of the Romance period. — luna facia *folia luna lune lunas luna{s) facia folia f^i^ facias f'^^i^ folias facia(s) folia{s) In Dacia the dative singular {lune. by the analogy of bracchia. 216. XXXV. Lombard madrane. 343.. (i) 207. extent. especially in southern Some masculines took 362. was retained to a considerable and central Italy and Dacia. 151 etc. 214-215. etc. *botella. b. etc.

204). In the accusative plural there was still greater confusion of -is and -es {nubes nubls. Paulus or Paulo Pauldne{ni). the second declension followed this pattern: annu(s) — annu ~o anni anno{s) fa^e(f) fabru —o vinu{s) bracciu *—us fructu(s) vinu -0 vini bracciu —o braccia fructu fructi fructo{s) —o fabri fabro(s) —i —o{s) vmo(s) braccia —a -a The letters enclosed in parentheses were silent in Italy and plural Dacia. Apparently traces. Salvioni in Rom. Huon. etc. §355. suceroni: Rom.152 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. attested in Lucca in 776 {Rom. Philipon in Rom. 363. etc. Giovannoni. and possibly Spain. some pari. etc. etc. turri turre. 212-213. hence Pitrus or Pitro Petrdne^m). 87. carried further in common speech: cf. See E. Cf. XXXV. XXXV. I. XXXV.- ending was often Bon. a declension -us (or —o) —dnis for masculine Hugo Hugon was Latinized into Hugo Hugdne{m) (cf. both in Classic and in Vulgar Latin: -Is. proper names: 201. etc. Vok. 198. Traces of this inflection are to be seen especially in French and Provengal proper names: Foucon.). 337-338. Pirson 133:. 365. but there are of -l: It. II.. avus avi>avo avonis. XXXI. Firmus Firmonis. This was 364. The traces ablative in —e finally triumphed. In general.f. G.. Rsetia. Italy. -« crowded out the rarer which left no sure Digitized by Microsoft® . [§ 365 gulo guldnis. Vok. 247-249. THIRD DECLENSION. — there developed in Gaul. spelled In Gaul the accusative -«. cf. cf. c. and possibly Corsican baboni. So perhaps Italian Donaioni. 85. In the ablative there was considerable confusion of -z and -e in Classic LatiiK OTan mare. etc. etc. § 152). at the beginning of the Romance period. Bellus Belloni. (1).

Audollent 545-547. In Vulgar Latin this formation was extended to words with shift of accent: excellente for excellens in Petronius. 66. Lat.famis. voluntate. §§ 174. Chronolo- gie 203. GL Reich." Keil VII. audace. R. etc. as by Tiktin 565-566. lade in Ennius. 62).. slirpis in Livy. stips^ stipes. pedis. GL Reich. III. (^=z.. 105. etc.. or -e fashioned on the model of the oblique cases: so seeps "> sapes. As ~es and ~is came to be pronounced alike before the end to of the Vulgar Latin period (cf.• -« Vok. heredes. it is futile trace the Romance forms phonetically to one source rather than the other. folli tor folks in GL Reich.principis). divite. 263. urbis. aculionis for aculeus). latrone. D'Arbois 85-88.. famis. heredes. castore. nom. Jovis.. camis in Livy. cf. principens antestetis. dis- 366. Spr. In the nominative singular the common -^s largely placed the less f requent 244-247. without a change of accent. perhaps in late popular Latin. 116. 367.§ 367] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Nouns which added a syllable in the genitive. victore. Waters a Ch. cardonis. 263. Ill. etc. are best explained. 481.. etc. travis (three times). Sepulcri 220. 243). 47).. 9. I. Aulus Gellius. superstitis.. Ci. D'Ovidio in critici Raccolta di studii dedicata ad Alessandro JD'Ancona 627). Varro. Prudentius. Vok. 263.. These forms prevailed in Romance.. suis in Prudentius (F. Audollent 545-547. Pr. Petronius (Waters Ch. 45. Rumanian pint.. etc. . Petronius (Waters Ch. nubis. "fames non famis. bovis in Varro. 153 Italian pani. Digitized by Microsoft® . Petronius (Waters Ch. R. Pr. Apuleius. through the analogy of the second declension: see §368. papilionis (cf. 38). etc. lentis in Priscian. in Ennius. "grus non gruis. "nubes non nubis"." App.. R. calcis in Venantius Fortunatus. Caper. App. -es. Plautus. Haag 45. tended in popular speech to use for the nominative a form in -is. mdis. etc.

so. made in Italy in the eighth or ninth century. Rumanian Tiktin 566. For the nominative-accusative plural. corpo. no form: homo. but infans (also 368. first in cf. Neuters in —n and -s regularly kept their nominative- accusative singular. (also * damantis. *cdrpes *cdrpe{s).. new forms on the masculine pattern. timp. which was regarded as the normal masculine type: fllii. *amantis. etc.). Spr.. however. cantdtor. hence *patri. masculine nouns made over their nominative plural on the model of the second declension. but there is virtually no evidence that it started so early: in late Latin. except for persons. as nomeiji). according . were kept also {Lat. carpi corpora. as *ndmes *ndme(s). corpus cdrpu(^s). In most of the Romance languages (but not Spanish). 367 parentorum is frequent in charters in the Gl. The process may have begun in the Vulgar Latin period. but in Italy and Rumania the old ones. soror. being used mainly in the nominative vocative. retained names of and and generally preferred the old nominative But names of persons in -ans and -ens usually made over the nominative: parentis. hence *cani. D'Arbois 85-88.). beside the old forms. etc. Rum. and was extended to in Old Italian to the second. *ndmine{ni). 482). we find sapienti. doubt. both the second and -r. [§ 369 These forms. 154 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. for *lumine{m). elifanti is common. declensions: Neuters in which apparently became by Microsoft® masculine or Digitized . 369. they constructed. probably in late Vulgar Latin or early Romance. too. which. lupi. etc. especially those in —ora. servitor. etc. prevailed in Romance. anni. hence *me(n')si. etc. timpuri). prcBgnans). (also presentis. Cassel. In these countries —ora was used as a plural ending (It. etc. see § 347. to Bon. however.

But marmor. papaverem. and so probably goes back to an Old Latin *cdr Classic cor.§ 37i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the word shows no trace of d in any of the Romance lan- guages. 483. §356. Cor apparently made its plural * cores instead of * cordes : according to Mohl. Bon. cf. at the beginning of the Romance period. etc. incudtnis : Lat. 293. § 347. 348. sangutne(m) also sanguei^m). the third declension must have gone about as follows {-is and -es having coincided in the pronunciation -w) : — (i) No Change of Accent. sulphurem. PERSONS. were kept also. Sanguis. but the original forms were kept also: cinis ctnus. 2. *pulvus. Old Yt. polve may come irorapulver). G. . Incus. *piperem. *cdris = Krjp lajpo's. and passed into the second declension: cf.0. marmorem. Spr.. Plautus. In general. pulvis whence S-p. polvo. 371. (3). except Spanish cuerdo. often developed an accusative singular in -e{m) as well as a nominative-accusative plural in -es: I. Lexique 21-38. the open o would possi- bly be explained as due to a cross between this *cor and the Caput became *capu{ni) or capus (Pirson 238). Zauner 2. A few feminines in -is apparently became neuters in —us. pals {It. iticudis > incudo. NO CHANGE OF STEM. 155 feminine earlier than the others. 113. 370. Fxn.

156 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. . [§373 change of stem.

350). however. 374- Adjectives were declined after the same model as nouns. § was kept to represent a whole idea (cf. the neuter adjective forms were less and less used.§375] An 3. 157 DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. and the neuter plural (as omnia) was doubtless emr ployed from time to time as an indefinite collective. 375" The principal types are: — So ager. . Introduction to Vulgar Latin. As neuter nouns assumed masculine endings (§ 347). the neuter singular.

imbecillis also assumed the -us -a —um inflection in the Latin period so trtstis^tristus. pauperorum. magis magls f J Digitized by Microsoft® . there was alacris. In the the —us —a Romance languages more adjectives went over -um type Pr. 377. etc. gracilus. see § 56. App.. Prcecox developed a feminine pracoca: Neue II. comuna. (plus L 1 J ^plus llle-{'^"~. pauperum. l_ \ !-. etc. and f. Macer. Cf. m. prude(s) prude(s) *prudente(s) feUce fellce(s) prudente prudente{s) prudente{s) prudentia prudentia fellceis) fellcla (4) Comparatives apparently did not reconstruct the Nominative Singular: melloif) mellu{s) millu(s) mellore mellore(s) mellora mellSra melidre(s) There was a good deal of confusion of types in Latin times: beside alacer. etc. : to 4. prcestus. Romance was: For the new method of comparison. celerus. 162. doussa. App. R. sublimus. effrenis. The type. Waters Ch. miser. COMPARISON. jac^r passed into the -us ~a —um class.. m. Decllvis. so teeter'^ tetrus. not completely evolved in Vulgar Latin.— 158 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. firmis. and there was probably also a feminine * alacra and * alecra. R.. pauperorum. and conversely benignis. . 46). Pr. Pr. 274. 275 (^ci. [§377 (3) Originally *feUce(s) One Gender filis fills fellcla in the Nominative Singular. Pauper early developed a feminine paupera and later a neuter pauperum: paupera. in376. Densusianu 142. and f.

Archiv VII. carissimus. NUMERALS. Cf. For dodece. attested in the third cen- tury: Archiv IX. 558 (cf. Ihm. is regular. minor. (Camoy . pejor. The old superlatives remained to a considerable extent. Digitized by Microsoft® . melius. Vulgdrformen lateinischer Zahlworter auf Inschriften in Archiv VII. levior. also ijuatro ^guaitro. 379. on the model of dui. etc. Scto ( and Cf. 159 However. Tredece * See M. sanctissimus. pejus. vivacius. Quinque. as intensives: altissimus. the Classic Latin comparatives of many common adjectives remained in use: altior. melior. 65). 68. lows : — The numbers between two and twenty were as fol- Tres probably developed a nominative *irei. dice offer so cinqua- no peculiarities.§379] '^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in the clerical language. gravior grevior. grossior So the adverbs: longius. 5. of the Vulgar Latin period dui dot {duoT) duo(s) Its inflection at the was probably: doa{s) — end due doe duas doas d'ua{s) dua doa dua doa In early Romance there was doubtless much confusion of the forms. minus. sordidius. It was used indefinite article (§S7) and an indefinite pronoun to be replaced §71). proximus. Six. nSve. Beside Undece there seems to have been * iindece. see § 225. DHo came by dui. septe (and *sette). pessimus. *Stto). §254. major. Quattuor became quattor {Archiv VII. 66) ginta (Archiv Nil. also as (cf. 221). 65. (G. an Unus was probably declined like bonus. II. longior. magis. 285). by dissimilation. "i^.i 378. became cinque {Archiv VII. 107).

* octdinta * ottdinta. Priscian (Keil III.: G. the septucu. in fact. etc. *septdinta * settdinta. But beside these we Vigtntl. trienta. 69. These forms easily contracted into vinti. there were probably new formations. etc. probably anterior to the fall of faulty pronunciation the g. Centu was regular. Zs.i6o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 69). trecenti. such as * dui centu. became * quattordece (cf. XXV. For its plural it had *dui mille or *dui mtl{l)ia.and the octo. triinta (§ 259): ISatvTi occurs in a sixth century document of Ravenna. 381. triginta is. etc. *nondinta *novdinta. 136.of 70 and 80 were to the type of the others. Keil V. with an opening of the first i and an early shift of accent. cf. II. Ryd- berg in Milanges Wahlund 337. * triinta. also unus de viginti. regularly [§ 381 also Quattuordecim *quatti!rdece. and French words.. * quadrdinta became rr: quarranta Furthermore the dr of found in an inscription. * cinqudinta. et (or ac) sex. went out of use. 412) mentions decern et septem. Provengal. Cf.. The tens. 392. 69). trinta: Archiv VII. Beside this dice et septe ac") there was *dece ac septe . Mille was etc. but Qulndlce is regular. 380. Digitized by Microsoft® . Rumanian has new formations. perhaps of the fifth century (Pirson 97. ii. trigtnta must assume for Spanish something like * viinti. mentioned as a by Consentius. § 225). are irregular: regularly § 142. *dece et (or ac) nHve. Beside sedece there was *dece SeftendScim. Archiv VII. Spr. became viinti. beginning with 20. For ducenti. Archiv VII. G. 461. * sexdinta. made to conform Outside of the Spanish peninsula is -dinta apparently became -dnta. 400. which account in general for the Italian. This change of accent apparently occurred everywhere for the subsequent tens: * guadrdinta. trinta {yinti. etc. so ^dece et (or dcto. f^ok.

tile and also hic. and so was the genitive singular and plural of ille. Examples occur as early as the second century: Franz. remained. B. ipse. The genitive was usually lost but ciijus was kept. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. were probably not very commonly used: the Romance languages show many new formations. The ordinals were best preserved in Italy. definite genitive: Hoc served in- Inde assumed the function of an dubitat. and is were used to supply the lacking pronoun of the third person: cf. and iste.^ ' Meyer-Liibke. but the end of the Vulgar Latin period. accusative SSs. — For the use of personal pronouns. etc. Spr. I. see § 60. secundus. in northern Italian. quintus were generally bonus. 262. the distributive Septimus. PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. The nominative and. but some languages have new formations even for these.§ 385] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. nemo inde Regnier no. relative. kept.). According to sixth century. 161 382. as an indefinite neuter. and interrogative pronouns. demonstrative. As the pronouns came to be expressed more and more. §§6o. ipse. Primus. eo occurs in manuscripts of the See §263. probably not 385. N. to the dative and accusative. after 5th. until Ego lost its g in all the territory. and Catalan ending -enus was employed {septenus ion tertius. 484. B. inflected like quartus. The ablative gave way . I. The ordinal numerals. 384. 67. Provengal. and the dative was preserved in personal. 242 is incorrect Digitized by Microsoft® . ? II. But his reference to Vok. Lat.

[§ 388 In the last syllable of ttbt.ording ti. the pattern of stbt. Franz. II.1 62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. vobis. On tibi. these are and mt<mihi. Spr. found. from the sixth century on. stbi the short i prevailed. 484. acof. i" 243-244. si beside to Lat. inflection The was probably reduced to: — . ^ )86. there were formed •. •was carried into nobis.

The Old Latin genitive illi {ipsi. ipsi=^ ipse. 246-260. f. 275. is 163 g The full inflection found in the sixth century: Franz. There was another dative form.. madre- DEMONSTRATIVES. 67-68. B. Franz. 9 II. 3 II. tilt was replaced in part by illHi. Franz. framed on the model of cf. 277-279. 273. Sicily. The inflection of tile developed considerably in popu- lar speech. 389. qui: Bon. 274. 244. Ipse and isfe followed a similar course ipse however. cut. 275. g II. and the latter is not found in Calabria. and ipsud for ipsum. being confused with the ablative and the accusative. the special forms ipsus for R. sg. 275. popular speech. Ille. see §§ 61-68. The former. and Cato and on the model of illui (and perhaps of quei). 390. fratelmo. by illi. isti). cf. and the Spanish Illius {ipsins. having become archaic in peninsula.§ 390] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. also §392. illi^ille. m. 9 II. R. 114. When Ule and ute had a really demonstrative force. Sardinia. articles For their function as and personal pronouns. tilt. used by 427. there was tllce (or ille). used by Apu- and others (Neue II. — For the use of demonstratives. we find. 427. istius). but it disappeared from late Latin. sometimes occurred as a dative: Franz. nom.. Audollent 302). Through the analogy of cu^us. Quillacq 83). 9 beside II. These forms survived ma. the m. leius was abandoned: In the dat. and the dat. others (Neue Digitized by Microsoft® . was from that. Romance: Old \X. etc. however. they came to be compounded usually with the prefix ecc' or Cf. see §§ 60. . probably in the sec- ond half of the sixth century. illo. in II. II. sg. subsequently went out of use. m. 283-304. was partially replaced. eccu': see § 65. 3. illms gave way to iliajus. Franz. Franz. sg. 276. definite N. R.

[§ 392 which was used beside ilU and Ulm. m. which. be used. for the dat. illejus. vides lei ta ipsam clavem'>-*vede(^s) iu 'sa' clave'] Lui and 281-283. It came. Ille prevailed. except 177. illui. furthermore. R. nice. Cf. illui. illejus. illui.s replaced by tllum: Neue II.164 An Introduction illcei (illei). illei are found from the sixth century made genitive. ipseus. to Vulgar Latin. was constructed illcejus (illejus). did not entirely disappear. 426. When unaccented. neuter Uludvia. Illujus. Majorca. 'la' vede(s). illdrum. to f. Franz. 600. Lat. and illis. The 391. in Romance. Illorum displaced the f. Ille and ipse were used freely as definite articles from the fourth century on: Densusianu in Sardinia. period. Spr. 271-272. 484: illujus. Cf. 619. ille. The popular : inflection. these words tended to lose their first syllable (see § 157): tu illam vzdes>*tu 9 II. at the end of the Vulgar Latin forms not was something like kept in Romance) elle elli — this (brackets indicating Ma ellejus elli elle ellei ellu [ellujus] elli \ello\ ellui elli ellu ello elli ella elle ? ellu ello ella ? ellqru elluru elli(s) \ellaru\ ellqru elluru ellqru ^im/) ellais) ello(s) ella 392. Digitized by Microsoft® . a part of Catalonia and Gascony. which crowded out illtus. on: Zs. 276. XXVI. In parts of northern Spain and southwestern France illorum seems to have become *illurum. and some dialects on the south shore of France. however. are found after the seventh century: Franz. In the on the same pattern (influenced perhaps by guejus). through the analogy of illUjus. ipsujus. 9 II.

to something like this qui — . INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS. and also of the feminine qum. quel: Mohl in Zs. 165 4. B. N. quis. In Christian inscriptions from the fifth century on. by the end of the : Vulgar Latin period. qui takes the place of quts. The combined inflection of qui and quis. see cm is found a corresponding feminine quejus. was probably reduced. in common speech. XXVI. — For the use of these pronouns. 619. 393. and the substitution of qui for feminine see §§69-70.§ 395] -^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Beside ctijus.

Lexique 47. *daunta. estau. The Italian present subjunctive dia from dare is associated by Mohl. It is entirely possible. estou. Cf. 398. I. on the analogy of {*vao). in Germanic verbs -on and in by Microsoft® . werrizare. daun. The second gained most fourth in Gaul. but it seems more likely that they were late Latin formations due to an effort to keep the root vowel distinct from the ending. dau. however. a. THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. Probus. the Eventually Spanish and Portuguese discarded New formations went into the and Sardinian the second. the third in Italy. to Vulgar Latin. estaun. Italian development due to the analogy of sia: see §419. with Umbrian dia. Mohl. 396. (see §405): cf." Lexique 47. in other texts the third gains at the expense of the second. its 397. Pg. defections into use * dao. state. " The first conjugation generally held partial. Pr. sto.1 66 An Introduction C. the third. etc. In northern Gaul there may have developed with * stao a * stats and a * stait. that the form is a later. first and fourth. being few and Beside do. Sicilian in Spain. [§ 398 VERBS. FIRST CONJUGATION.nd *stao. own. Lexique 47-54. 30. (2). dao. "adno non adnao. There was some confusion of conjugations. dant and stant there came Old It. follicare. *vais. — see §§33-35. Pers. In the Peregrinatio the second decidedly preponderates over the third (Bechtel 87). For new formations. would connect these forms with Umbrian stahu. PI. *staunt: Rum.. the first and fourth were least affected. dou. *vait date. Lexique 47 and Pr. Digitized — such as abbreviare.

and cadere may have followed capere. 10. lugere (R. guidare. sapere sapui: sapere was influ- enced. Monaci. 399. capere may easily have imitated sapere. habes. 20. lugire (R. 284). SECOND CONJUGATION. b. rubare. 1. became —iscere: *florisco. capere * caput. Some verbs went into the fourth. habibai. According to Mohl.\i^x\. by habere. 283). habent. *mordere. tondere. in Classic : Even miscere (R. Bechtel 88. t. beginning with those that had a perfect in -ui. Digitized by Microsoft® . Habere. habet. Itala. tergere. 401. I. Italian dialects in which e does not phonetically and even in early Tuscan (cf. *torcere (for torquere). * luctre. Other verbs passed over locally or occasionally: sediiur. 8. third conjugation gave a few verbs to the second. ^^^^ i^ a peculiarity of ancient Umbrian. THIRD CONJUGATION. Luke VI. *putrisco. probably through the pronunciation of —eo as —io (see §224): * complire. tive —escere \. p. many become i. * has. under the influence of dare and stare. * lucere. *ridere. E. 400. at least in Italy. luctsco. Latin there was some confusion between the second conjugation and the third fervere. 266 ff. fiorlre (R. In Vulgar Latin the second lost some verbs to the third in most of the territory: * ardere. L. 1636.§402] An Introduction regularly to Vulgar Latin. 284). *impllre. * hat. I. such perhaps 402.. sometimes became habtre: Vok. 167 —an (but not -jan) went in the first conjugation: Cf. The as cadere *cadui. While retaining habeo. *nocere. Crestomazia italiana dei primi secoli I. wttan'^lt. *hant or * haunt. C. the verb habere. avire in havite. §36. especially in Italy. The inchoa284). *putrtre. etc). roubo?i'>lt. V. adopted the forms *ho or *hao. Lexique 108-109. respondere (Bechtel 88: responduntur).

is volemus in the seventh {Pr. PL in 745 A.-R. facere 404. is twice used by Fredegarius {Pr. The present like this: have been inflected something passu posso foteo *posseo poieis) *pote(i) — indicative must ^poiemu{s) poteste(s) *potete(s) pqssunif) *poten(t) The present subjunctive must have had corresponding forms. their inflection more or less to the regular type. PL 2^). 403. D. however. assumed the infinitive forms potere. Pers.1 68 An Introduction all to Vulgar Latin. Reich. (2) the Volimus Reich. voles is found in Volestis. {Pr. strongly influenced by dare and stare. velle volui naturally went over to the second conjugation. a sug- gestion of shortening existed in the monosyllabic imperative Digitized by Microsoft® . *volere. was discarded in Spain and potebam occur repeatedly in the sixth century 24). Pers. Pers. {Pr. Furthermore. framed on the pattern of potestis. Dare Z. Gregory and Fredegarius {Pr.. GL found in the sixth century (^Lat Spr. PL 21). Pers. 'Bt&ide. there doubtless existed *fare {Facere 48).poteo is attested ( 1) Potere. PL 25). The present indicative forms must have been something like this: ^vojeo voje^s) — volimu{s) volemu(s) voleste(s) *volete(s) *vole(i) *vqlen(t) The present subjunctive must have been similarly inflected. [§ 404 In Spain the third conjugation verbs eventually passed into the second. 478). Sardinia. The anomalous posse potui. Pers.A facere were associated in old formulas: Lexique 53. and conformed Velte. This transition was probably helped by a partial fusion of esse and sedere. PL 21). potebo is found in the Gl. potebas Posso for possum is used by in Fredegarius (Haag 60).

121. which must have led to *fate present indicative certainly had several being on the pattern of the first con- jugation. Zs. 434): — its old inflection *fao . XXV. facio XVIII. series The one 735). Zs. sets of forms. beside factte. 169 fac (also /a.§405] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. but the present subjunctive retained (see Facere 72.

Lucretius {Lat. ignire. common in the Vulgate (R. at least locally: *falllre. . Gl. in 408. 477). warnjan'> tion. hesiAe. Pirson 148. For the intrusion of the inchoative -sc. Carnoy 112). For new formations. Some others went over. see § 34. Plautus. ite(s) etc. Germanic verbs in -Jan regularly went into the fourth conjugation in Latin (Kluge 500): furbjan~>\X. offeret. C2X0 fugtre.lyo present. was influenced by *vao viidimu(s) vddite(s) *vo *vas vadeif) *vait *vat vadeis) *vais imu(s) etc. Lexique 62 ). [§408 facere fare : — present indicative.into this conjuga- FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES Romance only Digitized IN INFLECTION. 285). §416): *caplre. first half of the 7th century. d. mortri. Bon. and gained some verbs from the others. parrjan^Yv. tarir. the entire passive inflection having been discarded: the by Microsoft® . 427. forbire . . occurire. deferet. Bon. R. Spr. Spr. by the analogy of aperire {sufferit. It. ^26. * sequlre. St. ^. Densusianu 148. FOURTH CONJUGATION. marrJan>'Fr. Bechtel 90. probably in the Vulgar Latin period (cf. developed a form * dire. doubtless suggested by die ( cf fac and *fare. fodiri. * capere . An The vado Introduction. Of the personal forms of the verb there remained general use in the following tenses of the active voice. its own. and *monre. 477). however. guarnire. Cf. Pirson 148. Sepulcri 229. such as * abbellire. beside * sequere. vadunif) *vaunt *vant 406. Augustine {Lat. The fourth conjugation usually held — — marrir. §404) and helped by the analogy of audire. §36. 286. cuptre.. Reich. Haag 60. *soffertre. gemire. moreover. 407. Dicere. Verbs in -to tended to pass into the fourth conjugation (see. (j^^r^i". cf. see § Vulgar Latin. * offertre.

See Syntax. amando. amans. cf. some writers substituted R. The supine 409. the subjunctive present. See Syntax. Similar compounds replaced the pluperfect and the future perfect. some regions the future perfect . pluperfect. and in 171 indicative present. pluperfect. R. perfect was kept in its preterit sense. esse and the perfect participle: feci"^ habeo factum. in various regions: see §124. R. {amandusi). and in instance: some regions the perfect the imperative present. audiram) was kept. imperfect. . mentire. operare. 388-389. rideri. 289. 298 Conversely. in the Vulgar Latin period. Cf. amem. For instance: amare. In was replaced. etc. {amarini)\ ama. In the subjunctive the pluperfect was used instead of the Digitized by Microsoft® . (amaro). amavi.. Of the impersonal forms of the verb there remained: the present active infinitive. and probably in some standing phrases the gerundive. amabam. : Deponent verbs became active cf. reverti"^ reversus sum. fell into disuse from the first century on. etc. 297-302. 304. The entire passive inflection -of came to be replaced. in the by a compound of habere and the "perfect participle case of neuter verbs. R. the present participle. For amo. amatus. amaram.. The Latin it its perfect sense — §§121-124. § 4io] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. See 410. 302-304. R. . perfect. amassem.. the gerund (especially the ablative case). the deponent for the active inflection of a few verbs: Petronius. The old pluperfect indicative (^amaram. as a preterit or a conditional. partly by active and reflexive constructions but perfect participle with esse' mainly by a compound of the (m northern Italy fieri): littera ' scriMtur -flittera scripta est (or fit). towards the end the Vulgar Latin period. the perfect participle. §§ 112-114.

V.-dben(t) and -d. It is best preserved in is found also in Old Rumanian There are traces of it in Old Italian. XXIX. especially by the infinitive combined with the present indicative of habere {amdbo > amar' habeo): see §§125-129. cridere. On the model of this new future. -ds. *amar' -isti. [§411 imperfect. but * amar' abut. or conditional. * amar" -dbe(s'). —aunt. infinitive the perfect of habere (see §130): combined with the imperfect or *amar' ~dbe{b')a{ni) or disappeared. in Vulgar Latin and Romance. Digitized In Italian we by Microsoft® . as in the In these formations the unaccented {Ji)ab— first and second persons plural of the future: * amar' -^{b)a.(ye')rim and apparently remained subjunctive fect — — — — more or all less in use. &tc. -dnt. cf. 401): *amar' —dbeo. -dt.): see Spanish and Portuguese. -dbe(s). -ete(s). with the exception of ero. *amar' —e'te(s). In the first and second persons plural. —dbe{t). The ings. —at. came to be made. -dnt: *amar' —dmu(s). C. Crescini in Zs. pdteri. but and Macedonian. Lollis in Bausteine i . which disappeared everywhere but in Sardinia {facheret. sometimes confused with the pluperfect indicative and later sometimes with the infinitive {dpriro.172 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. *amar' -dbe(t). as a future indicative or subjunctive. an imperfect of the late future. amd{ve)ro fused with the perThe old future perfect ama. habemus and habetis eventually. —d. were reduced to -emu{s). *amar' dben(t). etc. . De 411. etc. etc. from the *amar' -abut. §118. In this compound all the various forms of the present indicative of habere were used (see §§273. to correspond to the dissyllabic or monosyllabic -dyo. beside -ia from habebam and -dbbi —ibbi from habui. in regions except Gaul and Raetia. a form in -ii {amerii). was crowded out by the present and by new formations. as they came to be regarded as mere endold future. audtrem'^audissem. -dyo.): amdrem'^amdssem. —do. -ds. which has prevailed in the find. 619.

Instead of the plural form. due. 294. they Pr. writers sometimes emploved diee. There is some evidence of a confusion of -esco and —uco in Latin. The Latin The inchoative ending -sco was preceded by a-. person singular and plural: credite. the Grisons. etc. For the monosyllabic die. pareeer. t—. R. 414. 412. to the Romance languages. Virgilius Grammaticus (Sepulcri 194) mentions double forms of inchoative verbs. by Microsoft® . etc. Dauphin^. in Vok. In some verbs the present subjunctive was used instead of all imperative forms. The imperative disappeared. I. crede. irdisser <irdseere. while in Old Italian the ei was sometimes detached and used as a preterit. Lyons. erubisco. 3. e—. the second person plural of the present indicative came to be used: adferte> adferitis. 294.. The first and third persons were supplied from the present subjunctive. Savoy. lost their inchoative sense. 3596. Beam. tene.of avere : it is probably due to the analogy of the first person singular of the weak preterit (credit. etc. audi. and a part of Lorraine Only -eseo surneither of these two endings left any trace. 173 modern language. audite.§414] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf.. Sardinia. 413. In Veglia. types —dsco and —osco were sparingly repre- sented and were not extended in late and popular Latin have bequeathed but few verbs con<Sisser<ico(g)ndseere types —esco and —tseo in the third century — — as — such as and . or o—. except the present. criseere. and Spain Digitized — Sp. §426. such as caleseo ealisco. dormisco — were extended The and later. See § 115. amdte. cf. fae. tenete. INCHOATIVE VERBS. hence crederdt). second dmd. duce.face: R. Clarisco. are common in Gregory the Great: Sepulcri 193. paresco. the Landes. the Abruzzi. vived in the Tyrol. French Switzerland.

-tsco prevailed fiorisce. Many verbs in -io dropped the whenever it was fol- lowed by another vowel. finissons. Rastia.Jinisse). -esco also in Rumanian. tricts also pene- eventually the present participle ( and in some disand the imperfect indicative Fr. The ending -tsco of the present in Spanish. sentiam * sentam. * dormo. 291-294. eventually entered into the formation stem of fourth conjugation verbs. finissez). il in Pr. there are traces of -esco. See Archiv Lat. 465. partientem * sentente. Hence forms without the or > > *partente. Sardinian. see E. PRESENT STEMS. XXIV. Rom.then generally disappeared from the infinitive Later. the -sc- was carried throughit out the present indicative (Yx. nor are there any traces of it 415. finis sais ) I. etc.. — Fr. fiorire. 478. In the present participle this was a regular phonetic development (see §225): audientem^* audente. \\.. despereissir. / 416. Herzog Bausteine 481.. facientem *facente. and Rumania we find a type *finisco *finisce(s) ^Jinisce{i) *Jiniscun{t) The ~sc. some regions. There is no direct evidence of this in Latin. northern and central _fimmii(s) finite{s) Italy. Digitized On the other hand. by the by Microsoft® . Zs. Portuguese. in — It. 4. [§416 florecer. finis sant. partiunt *partunt. trated the present subjunctive {Yr. Elsewhere. or southern Italian. 81. but in the earliest texts of France. 174 An Introduction was preferred For to Vulgar Latin. etc. / sentieniem > were introduced more less into the indicative and subjunctive: audio * audo. By the analogy of these. the e was occasionally lost in the second conjugation: v^deo *vtdo. Spr. XXX. although fleurit.

tego and probably junxi junctus. faciunt. and the perfect partivexi vectus on the — analogy of ago tectus. Italian sei siete is PL 128) went out of for estis. beside the regular habent. cingo cinxi cinctus. underwent considerable changes in the present: see §§273. see § 409. Pers. 412. as *trago. *trdcere.. For the sedere for The s. posse. 175 analogy of capiunt. vegere {tragere and used by 34) and a whole present and imperfect inflection with —g—. habere. The guttural Fredegarius. esse. dtcere. 397. Old Italian se for e. Jigo fixi. present indicative shows some signs of a tendency its to normalize erratic inflection by making all the forms be- gin with The use.. lego lectus. duco duxi ductus. There may have been also *striicere. to bring it into conformity with the usual third conjugation type. plango planxi planctus. 131. vehere developed infinitive vegere are forms *striigere. based on the analogy of dico dixi dictus. rego rexi rectus. Haag was derived from the ciple — struxi and perfect indicative traxi iractus. j'ungo Cf. pango panxi panctus. 403-406. trahere. the second conjugation admitted such f oriris as * habeunt. The verbs struere. *fragam.§419] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. trdgere. 401. * vtdeunt. tango tactus. actus. 419. stare. etc. ungo unxi unctus. *vkere. indicate a * setts some evidence of an alternative * siitis sicmus. etc. velle dare. etc. Substrate VI. The verbs vadere. facere.. structus. etc. Italian while there of on the model and Raetian siede. debere. old esum cited by Varro {Fr. Esse was made into *essere. also Jingo finxi fictus. The Spanish use of probably later than our period. etc. vtdent. 416. 417. Considerable alterations use of fieri for esse is (I ) were made in the present indicative and subjunctive. *tragebam. Prpvengal ses for Digitized by Microsoft® . and Raetian ses point to a * ses beside es. 418.

IMPERFECT. Siamus. occurs in Italian documents of the eighth century. which -was used. N. B. In the third conjugatiqjyg^-jyj^^ Ajgaj^g^ developed into -ebam. PL 130. XXI. 479. northern Gaul. Pers. The present indicative inflection was doubtless something like this sqm fs est : — sqmu(s) *ses *set} *sest? i^ie(s) semu{s) *esmu{s) *sete(s) *sciie(s)! sqnt (2) In the present subjunctive the analogy of other third conjugation verbs tended to introduce the characteristic vowel a. sumus. according to Lat. by Augustus. 347. — For the loss of the imperfect subjunctive. Pirson Yt^o. semo. iox fit. Provengal esmes<. Pr. 135. . It is likely. see 420. etc. —ibam.). simus. and Dacia (Pr. the usual Classic form. Rom. Portugal. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Pers. sons. which existed with esum. 42. from early times there was a reciproand the Old Latin optative siem.. and by various purists of the Augustan age (Stolz 58). -icbam. The endings were -dbam. Italy. — sem *sea sis simu{s) sidmu(s) site{s) *jfa(j) sea(t) *sidie[s) set sent *sean{i) For Stat. fiam reand Dacia. Old It. Lat. that cal influence oifiam. 478. sem. etc. (cf.. somas. Pr. etc. would derive it from old esimus. may go back to *sei and *sesf for est In the first person plural sumus became sumus and simus (see §220). —ebam. etc. PI.176 es. too. Spr. Dalmatia. Mohl. was preferred in Spain. II. which ultimately prevailed: Lexique ^x): fiet is common places sim in northern Italy alternative inflection * siam. Spr.): cf. according to Suetonius. [§420 usually understood as reflexive forms. Old Fr. § iiS. and the Tyrol (Sp. see sead in Vok. 5. *esmus seems to be a new formation on the analogy of esHs. prevailed in southern Gaul. Hence comes an etc.

-evi. WEAK PERFECTS. vieo. first: It. etc. led early.'Bi. prevailed in popular speech. those of the second and third had mostly all of the second conjugation and Only six verbs strong. affecting all the conjugations but the It is ved^a. had weak perfects. the weak and the strong: the weak comprises the v. Dubois 277-278. 479. to a reduction tendency to keep the stress on the characteristic Digitized by Microsoft® . the strong includes all Verbs of the first and fourth conjugations generally others. silevit for siluit occurs also. • salui>salivi. *afiea. a. and also a general inclination to omit v between two i's (see § 324). —oleo. Habebam. and fourth conjugation verbs with strong perfects developed a weak one in Vulgar Latin: pr(sstiti> probably All first j>rcBstavi. —Ibam. — being common In the fourth conjugation -iebam and -ibam existed side byside from early times (Neue II. We — — neo. Spr. 423. in the fourth conjugation. -tvi). which stressed the characteristic vowel of the fourth conjugation. sentia.§423] just as An Introduction -ientem> -entem (see §§ to Vulgar Latin. which in Romance was widely extended.fleo. §318). A vowel. 445).. 6. credia. 421. 287. developed another form. probably through dissimilation. Hence came an alternative ending —ea for -e/ia. 177 22t„ /^i6): faciebam'>-*facebam. —Ibam as in munibam — in early Latin and recurring at later periods (Lindsay 491). must distinguish two types. regularly had a perfect in -evi: deleo. most of them rare 422. 2?>q. territory except common to nearly all the Romance Rumania: Lat. see §426. For further encroachment of the weak type on thb strong. PERFECT. and —iebam disappeared: vestibat.perfects in which the v is added to a verb-stem (-dvi. -pleo. pronounced a^e^a (cf. R.

S.Lexique 46. —dvif^dit and -at.L.'X. -dvistis. [§424 of —tvtsit to -tstt still early. as in repetimus. locally. edificai. 452-454. in the first person plural. 451. —dverunt to Much later -dvt>-di. Gregory of Tours (Bon. see Neue III. The A contraction without the . 476. 449. as in lenUt. The third person singular found in Old Sardinian: Lat.. etc. gave —dsti. "fumdt -pro fumavit. probably to *-aumus: triumphaut in Pompeii. Bon. —tt.d. etc. — probai {'Prdhns). The loss of V. 424. dedicait. petit. see Servius ad Aen. o-cyvoi. II. Neue III." Priscian XII. etc. 440). petit. 476. This -aut prevailed '^'^'^. in the third person singular. Neue III. Then a contraction of the two vowels gave. 440. denumerat. ccelebrasperamus. see Neue III. Spr. the reduction of —ivimus to —Imus and probably *—immus (the lengthening of the m being due to compensation and also. later. redit. for —ierunt.m»'W^ol%tm^ and amdo." Priscian XII. perhaps. 479. Fredegarius (Haag 55). and. servio. II. —dstis. 152.).. perit. Densusianu I. -dvtmus>-dmus and probably *-dmmus: calcai (Probus). laborait. rise early to a reduction of —avisti. perit. 17 (Keil II. A ular. Densusianu I. for —imus. fall of v gave rise. C. 587). -u and *-u. I. to fall of v. (Haag 55).. carried into the first conjugation.judicat. 17 (Keil II. F^/J. —iverunt to —ierunt. -ivistis to —istis. Bayard 60. mus. and the third person plural. vocitamus. 446-448. etc. speclarait. 587).— 178 An Introduction and to Vulgar Latin. the further reduction of —ivt to which brought about. *-iut: It. to a desire to distinguish the perfect from the present). 216. -/. 241: 65-121 a. "cupit pro cupivit. Vok. to -aut.I. Fredegarius in -ait is 152. in the third person singan alternative form. memoramus. —drunt. For -nt. and. contraction without the gave rise. etc. 434 (cf. —ivit to —iit and *-itt. in the first and third persons singular *—lrunt: audi..

-isti. *-desti. -derun(f). preserved in some Old French dialects near Douai: 607. descendidi. etc. *—desie(s). the forms with v were not preserved in Romance. etc. R. videderunt (cf. 184. Some other second conjugation verbs apparentlyadopted this perfect: 426. 288.. from which there came a responding to the —ai first endings *-«'. etc. etc. tion. edediderit with an extra -de-). etc.). fore. *-det. in Provengal they invaded the also In Dacia. which in Vulgar Latin became —dedi This -dedi ^a. etc. vendidl. Reich. Keil IV. pandiderunt. Hence arose eventually an inflecset of tion *-^«. Verbs in —evl doubtless had a similar inflection: *delei. they apparently did Digitized by Microsoft® . prendiderunt. in the first XXX.. Lat. —asfi. In some (It. cor-ii.§426] An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 287. Pr. helped by dissimilabecame *-deJ. on the other hand. *-ei. perdidt. ~ivi —isti there- -dvi —dsii -dve{t) —df *~ti —ii -i -dut -dit -dt -weif) *-jut *-{it -lit -it -dvimu(s) -dmu{s) *-dmmu(s) *~dumus -dste(s) -immu{s) -4mu(s) *-jmmu(s) -iste(s) -drunit) *-irun{t) With the exception of -ivi in Old Italian. Spr. descendidit. delesti. *-n. 479. incendederit. *-dem(^m)u{s). Gl. respondidi. (am'ei).. The forms — and fourth conjugations. 480. of the Romance languages cazif). these endings were carried into other verbs of the third and even the second conjugation first baMi. Compounds of dare had a perfect in -dtdi {credidt. odedere. *-ejti.s ex(see §139): perdedit. tended to many other verbs in -d-: prandidi. Audollent 544. ascendiderat. were : 425.. silevit. R. this -dedi Through the analogy of -di. : and the of the and fourth conjugations so caderunt. 179 *~aumus Jiom.

286. dlc-s-i = dixi. etc. etc. STRONG PERFECTS. cf. * stetui. -dei. etc. under the influence of dejti. bib-i. necui> necavi. whence and a set of endings -etti. R.. etc. Gram. b. sapivi~^ sapui. §326): placwi. Through these endings the weak type encroached somewhat on the strong. or fiwi in Vulgar Latin: cf. pdvi. II. crevi. where there was no extended. the development of the vi indicates that sort. all. by Microsoft® . also vincisti. At any rate. aperui y^ * aperii *apersi. according to Meyer-Liibke. plaudisti for plausisti. dare had (beside diedi^dedi) a perfect arose an inflection side -dei -detti. third conjugations maintained Digitized itself very well: cognovi. §422). 357. 427. [§ 428 not develop at In Italy. It.. and -ei. the Rumania.. In the first class the u lost its syllabic value and became w • — : (cf. presi. etc. conqbbi. (cf. moc. The -ui type. those that add u to the root. Gl. There are three types those that add s. prendesti. — — it was sounded wui. crebbi.. etc. included from the start not only perfects of the placui but also all perfects in -vi not made from the verb-stem such as cognovi. movi. but written vi to avoid the doubling of the V. stetti<. wwi. In Italy all strong verbs except esse introduced weak endings in the second person singular and the first and second persons plural: It.i8o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. . Pr. this ending being pronounced wui. and those that have nothing between the root and the personal endings plac-u-i. etc. In -ui and —si types were qucesivi'^^ A few weak verbs adopted strong inflections: * quasi. 428. tions: This perfect disappeared from the first and fourth conjugacrepui>*crepavi. salui^ salivi salii *salsi. etc it In the second and crevi.. Reich.

messui(J). — — : clausi. scripsi 163). * cadui *cadedi. *pe{n)si. *tdlsi. sparsi. XXVIII. texui. vixi ". Keil VII. Lat. some thirty-five were preserved arsi. i8i It lost gemui{^. 479. *occlsi. veni '^aXso *venui. cepi^ caput. *taxi. finxi. z/J« also *vtncui *vinsi. steti>^\so* stetui. * occisi. * volsi. cMdi 479 > (so *rectpui). Spr. frixi. *tanxi. rosi. Lat. the reduplicative formations were discarded in Vulgar Latin. Spr. strinxi. mansi. *siirsi.§ 43o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. —stinxi. *cursi. Haag 56. *ersi from *lexi. dixi. 429. mlsi (also *mzssi. 94. text sedi>* sedui . Lat. Zimmermann in Archiv XIII. tersi. posui {>posi). In Vulgar Latin there were perhaps some thirty or more new formations: *apersi. struxi. sustuli>*tolui * tolsi.'). cinxi. *pre{n)si. torsi. unxi. however. Zs. § 165. natus sum'^*nacui. 97. texui. duxi. On the other hand it received many additions: Mbi>*Mbui. Sensi. Lat. *rdsi. fixi. *respd{ti)si. and possibly a few others. *pensi. s in the perfect participle. > > Cf. rasi. *punxi. whose reduplicative character was no longer Digitized by Microsoft® . tinxi. peperci^-parcui. — assumed the s.> slso *vtscui. *offersi. * morsi. which comprised perfects in -si. became * sentii. R. with the exception of dedi and steti (also *j/i?/«2). *fusi. *copersi. planxi. *redempsi. 130. coxi. rexi. § perhaps on the model of mtssus. pavi. silui {^silevi). movi'. *acce{n)si. Einf. tenui. * defe(ji)si. *salsi. legi'>-* legui *lexi. *fusi. —ssi. Of the -si class. ertgo. cf. A. *vinsi. *rosi. vixi. vldi'^zlso *vtdui *vtdui. persi. Some of these — * *responsi. traxi. expavi'> expabui. defensi. sapivi'^ sapui. posi.perfect through having an Cf. abscd{n)si. 480. and —xi. R. *franxi. junxi. divisi. etc. *prensi. 479. *attinxi. *mdrsi. excussi. pressi. Spr. 288. *imptnxi. *qucBsi. luxi. molui. Among the -i perfects. 430. Spr. *sdlsi. * tensi *te{n)si. mulsi. 288. pinxi. risi.

i82 An Introduction . The prevailing something fui *fosti like this — with some variations. In fui the u was originally long. legi'^* legui. 431. verti. but in Classic Latin. to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout §§423-424). solvi'^* solsi. : There may have been through dissimilation. fuerunt became *furunt. Two of the old perfects maintained themselves intact. vtci > no additions. fuit *fut. sedi"^* sedui. some went over fUgi^ > > *fusi. peperci"^ parcui. *te{n)si. fui. veni * venui. 289). defendi >• * defe{ n ) si. fudi > ) si. a form *fdrunt. then futm us was often shortened to also. the simple verb came * cadui R. [§ 431 of dare usually formed their perfect like §426. egi. prendi > *pre{ n * vinsi. fregi accendi *franxi. There were : *fugii. apparent compounds (cf. bibi'^*bibui. volvi > * volsi. cepi'^capui. The other Vulgar Latin. or *cadedi. tetegi'^* taxi * tanxi. In an ( cf . vidi * vtdui. while compounds of stare tended to follow the regular first Cecidi beconjugation model (Jtrcestili > pnestavi. legi > * Kxi. momordi'> tetendi'>- *mdrsi. but circumdavit in Gl. fuistis > *fustis. generally became *fum(m)us. pupHgi "> *punxi. to Vulgar Latin. pependiy. The other reduplicative perfects either disappeared the or passed into si class: cucurri "> * cHrsi . some became weak. Reich. inflection. * acce(^ n ) si.). -i perfects were greatly reduced in to the -a/ or the -si type: number in Some simply disappeared. effort it was shortened Vulgar Latin seems to show both H and H.*pe{^n)si. was probably foi *fom{m)u(s) *foste(s) foe(t) fue(t) *fgt *fut *forun{t) */urun(t) *f^un{t)} foerun{t)> Digitized by Microsoft® . 288. and two more were kept beside new formations feci. fuisti zxi-di. > *fusti. fefelli'>*falii. R.

amessim amessitz. ortaret in Gl. tonitus'^*tonatus. placutssem.. generally fell into disuse: crepitus^ *crepatus. by the analogy of apertus. alarei. fkero. R. Reich. amaro.). > vocUus. Lat. etc. R. plicitus"^ plicatus . 8. rogitus. audt(^e)ro . preserved at all. deleram. audi{e)ram. Reich.: It. Gl. fecissem. : In the third conjugation -dtus disappeared oblatus offertus (^Gl. to *—dssimus. Fr. amdssem. habldsemos habldseis. 434. sublatus>* suffertus. ficeram. cf. copertus. necius "> necatus . PERFECT PARTICIPLE. domitus'> domatus. prdvttus. dixhsem. Spr. Sp. etc. petisset. dixero . delessem. cf. notes that St. sublatus (from tollo')'>-tdllttus (^Gl. so the new alatus. 435. aimassions aimassiiz. 295. When these tenses followed the old types: pldcueram (cf.). 1S3 PLUPERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT. Reich. — 433. *-dssitis. -assetis. Verbs which had no perfect participle were obliged to form one in order to make their passive and their perfect tenses: ferio. pldcuero. ^ i^"]). *feritus. audlsBayard 60-61 sem. In some regions a tendency to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout the pluperfect subjunctive led to a change of —assemus. tus"^* sonatus. in the first conjugation. delero. — before Cyprien employed only the shortened forms ss. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. The ending —ttus. vetitus Nevertheless there were some new formations in —ttus: *levitus.§ 435] ^^ 7. > Digitized by Microsoft® . In the all first conjugation -dtus was preserved and was verbs: /rictus "> fricatus . secextended to tus'^secatus. Reich. amdssimo amdste. but Pr. 296. dixeram. sonivetatus. In formations from weak perfects only the contracted forms were used: amdram. 480. 432.

* habutus. §435): absconditus'>absco{n)sus . corres- ponding to -atus and -itus. belonging to verbs in —uere and tri- —vere {argutus. *parutus. Digitized by Microsoft® . *vdlvitus (or *vdllus). bibitus^* bibutus . rogitus. jectives. — and — as *credutus. the other hand. ples. It was extended to nearly all the verbs that had an -ui perfect: * bibutus. The ending -itus tended to disappear (cf. venditus>*vendutus. In the second conjugation the rare -etus disappeared as a participial ending: completus. but status. however. *mdvitus and *mdssus were formed beside *m. secutus. statutus. provitus. remained.184 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. were kept only as ad- 438. * levitus. * movitus. etc. paritus > *paru> *perdutus *persus. sepultus^sepelitus. and ventus generally became * venutus. perditus *parsus. *tenutus.. solitus. molitus > * molutus. old and found in Gl. creditus'>*credutus. In the third conjugation qumsttus>*gucestus. [§ 439 436. On 439.ovutus. dutus. minutus. pds{i)tus. etc. It did not al- ways. * venutus. vocitus. were kept. 437. A few of these particihowever. however. *per- in Sicily encroached largely on -itus. In the fourth conjugation -Itus was preserved and was extended to nearly all verbs: saltus'>*salltus. Pirson 152. Reich. fugitus tus > *fugitus. volutus). *vendutus. buius. Eventually -atus was carried further. solutus. and there were some new formations * solvttus (or *soltus). tollitus. all periods. sensus'>*sentitus. *volvitus (or *vdltus) beside volutus.. offered a convenient accented form. submonitus > *submo{n)sus. entirely displace the old perfect participle: natus was kept beside * nascHtus. consutus. *vidutus. * solvttus (or *sdltus) beside solutus. The ending —ictus. Apertus and copertus. in -itus: gemitus'!.

risus. cogndtus>*conovutus'i. cretus> *crevutus'>. 480. tinctus. *persus. texus * texiisecdtus. *gucestus.' maintained itself beside salitus. farsus. fusus "^fundutus. expansus sensus few verbs replaced the old form by one in -itus or -ietus: * expandutus . tus. fractus *franctus. also probably * wwclausus. probably replaced -tus by -atus.. to{n)sus. sessus > * sedutus. Lat. -itus. also perhaps *misus by the analogy of mist. pressus. ventus'^*venutus and venttus. *parsus. 185 440. *vidutus. pre(n)sus . Reich. nectus>necdtus. ma{n)sus. rectus. 480. tersus. sparsus. Spr. or -utus: captus *capttus. Lat. Hr- excussus. Gl. R. §439). divisus. *vdltus About fifteen verbs (cf. pe{Ti)sus. Several of these developed also a participle in -utus: etc. there were some absco{n)sus. sectusy^ * tenutus. Bechtel 91. falsus *fallitus. *salsus. fixus. fartus'. generally kept: acce{n')sus . 295.*mdssus. te{n)sus. structus. 441. victus'>*vin- cutus and *vinctus. tentus > > tus. messus'^ metitus. mdtus'>*movutus'> &. 295 (very common).§ 441] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Dubois 282. Spr. lectus. saltus'^-* salitus and *salsus. sepultus >• sepelitus. Keil VII. tractus. tactus'i tus. ex- factus. *strinctus. dictus. scriptus. 480. pictus *pinctus. mistus.viA. missus. 'salted. gavisus>*gaudutus . *submo{n)sus. sus. rosus. vtctus~>* vixutus. sirictus *tanctus'!. 94. Lat. There were a few new for- mations in —tus: offertus. *mossus. R.>*farcitus axiAfarsus. ductus. /ric* surtus for surrectus. new formations in -sus: On the other hand. The ending -tus was kept for some twenty verbs. stinctus. *vistus. pastus'>-*pavutus'i. punctus. fusus. frictus "^fricdtus. Spr. Salsus. tortus. The ending —sus was defe{n')sus. oc- casionally with a change of stem: ductus . A > > > * sentttus . and perhaps *sdltus. Digitized by Microsoft® . wjwj. fictus finctus. * suffertus. *pendutus. morsus.

-imus. As unaccented e. first person plural lost perhaps in the Vulgar Latin period: videmus'>-'St. etc. —et and -U. The evidence. by Microsoft® . from laudas. There are traces of 47. and i came to be pronounced alike (§243). This is not a phonetic phe- nomenon. It may be that -s was dropped because it was regarded as a characteristic of the second person. colliget. Pers. This confusion is very frequent in the Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-89. fez^m. Italian lodi and Rumanian lauzi. 442. For the reduction of -to to 443. assumes that in Italy -as and -es became -i. In southern and to some extent in northern Gaul the its final s. great confusion ensued between -es and —is. [§ 447 9. Pers. vezim. historically considered. 445. however. analogical formations. whence came the French -ons. PL. as -s did not fall in this region. and doubtless of weak after our period. does not support this view. forms due to Celtic influence. perhaps S. 53. PEESONAL ENDINGS. 447. its — tended. *amdmu amdtes dmant like * cdnomus. Meyer-Liibke. According to Mohl. -0. 670. then the accent was shifted to the penult *canomus. see §416. etc. inscriptions and elsewhere: Digitized The shift. are correctly explained by Tiktin 565-566 as 444.1 86 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Pr. and -Isti. as t was of the third (cf. — This theory has In strong perfects the of -tstis first person plural. to stress this in ^smiVi: fecimiis>'Pr. e. Grundriss V. PL 73-80): — dmo dmaa dmat 446. not found acceptance. were used in northern Gaul instead of canimus. — through the analogy perfects as well. Pr..

etc. -dte(s).J^kuJ-i n^g^^xd^so^'^i^-i -^--^/^^ . 187 was not universal. §137. Virgil wrote tulerunt. 448. etc. their interchange Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-90. see §416. In the present indicative and imperative. facimus. sometimes had a short e (e is common in the comic poets. Furthermore. The endings -ent and -unt came to be very is much confused frequent in the (* credent. 112. as there are in Italian and French remains of the original accentuation. PI. The Classic distinction was best kept in Gaul and northern Italy. discarded. -unt was preferred. became. According to Mohl. etc. -ttis. §416. Cf. and dicimus. PI. there was an ending *-eunt which was (^habeunt. was perhaps viitttmus. *vidunt. vindem. however. —ite generally —Ste(^s). Beside second conjugation. ways /3 short: debuerunt.j—th& penult assuming the accent. —die and -^mu(s). in the For the reduction of —iunt to -unt. Pers. the con- fusion goes back to early Italic. in Classic Latin. the third person plural ending -ere was The ending -erunt. -imus. exient. for instance.). ite in the other conjugations. 449. -ite -dmu(s'). 30. Dalmatia. and Dacia. —^te. due to the analogy of -iunt.). kept the old accent (Tiktin 596): iingem. -ent prevailed in cen. to match —^te(^s). dixerunt. helped by the analogy of the future — The shift and -{mu{s). absolvent. ite(s). accipient. Pers. respon- duntur. etc. and a part of southern Italy. Rastia. vindett. . in Spain and Portugal. viderunt. in southeastern facitis There are some traces of its preservation French dialects also. Rumanian. lingeti. etc. In the perfect. -ent. — — particularly common in Italy: cf. -/»z«(j'). tral and the rest of southern Italy. in Vulgar Latin this vowel was apparently al450. Sardinia.). 64. Pr. in the sixth or seventh century. being attracted by mittimus: Pr. dicUis kept their old forms in many regions.§ 45°] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

Digitized by Microsoft® .

adjutare 34 ad mane 47 373.23.229 (i) unaccented 228. 441 ad 14. 92 beJEore j 222 Accent 134-58 primary 135-52 Greek words 143-50 other foreign words 15 1-2 acer arbor 43 -aceus 37 acia 355 (2) -acius ^y a contra 47 a(c)qua 164 Acqui Z^ Acragas 330 ac si 83 ac sic 24.24. 240. 48 abbellire 18. 243. 383 adnao 397 ace. 34 abbio 273 abbreviare 25 abbreviatio yj shift 136-8. 140 iicatum r4i aculionis 367 abeo = habeo 251 224 abias 224 abiat 224 abiete -abilis 39 ab intus 47 abitat 25 1 Ablative 92-7. N. 94-6 nouns 367 numerals 142 : ace. 78.=accus. 231. 98-9. ad = at 282 ad.— Arabic numerals refer to Paragraphs. 25 recomposition 139 verbs 423-4. 244 accented 39. 230 = 0*78 ab-25 ab-]> au. 243. pi.236 ab ante 47. 450 Towels in hiatus addedi 139 136-8 addormire 25 secondary 153-5 adferitis (imper. 93. 82 ace. 240. italics to Words printed in Roman type belong to ancient. 383 abl.28 absconsus 439. 377 accipient 449 declension 374-9 accubitorium ^'j numerals 378-82 -accus ^y unus (article) 57 Accusative. in -us 244. 229 231. 355(1) adparescere 34 adpetere 32 Digitized by Microsoft® . 96. 47. 194-5 absida 356 (3) absolvent 449 -anus 39 ja-> je. -I.1 INDEX. 65 accedere(m) 309 accensus 441 -a 37 0181 ab 14. 431. words in modern languages. adaptus 23 adcap(i)tare 25 433> 447-8. abyssus 149 ac.infin. 86. 229 (i). 82. 228. absolute 97 abl. 94-6 aboculare 26 ab olim 47 abs. 77. 244 (i). a 194-5. 94-6.) 412 unstressed words 156-8 adgenuculari 25 Accented Vowels see ad horam 47 Vowels adimplere 30 accepere 201 Adjectives acceptabilis 39 comparison 56.B. 90. = abl. 84 acua aqua 223 -aculare 35 before s + cons.

281 (i) Eeum = cBvum 324 ^a foras 47 aliquant! 71 aliqui 71 aliquis 13. 209-10.281 = aliquot 71 -alis agere ajere 259 aggio 273 aggravatio 37 = 39 alium 224 alius 71 allare 405.Ethiopia 188 alipes (i) = ad. 178. 255 188 seliens = eligens 259 =8-175 alicer 195 (i) agques = e. 244 -EE = -e 174. altiare 34 altior yj'] anca 343 ancilia 187 395 Agustus 228 ahenum 250 ai >. 233.I go aiio 2. = -t. 405 amei 424 amenus 215 amfora 334 amicicia 276 amadus amido 187 amistat 154 amita 239. 232. 210 EEteneris = itineris 201 sequus alid alicunus 71 aliud 71 alio(r)sum 291 = .175. albor = arbor 292 .243. 1 78. 244 accented 1 74. 178. 42 Digitized by Microsoft® .286 amantis (nom. 435 ad ubi 47 aduc 250 adulescentulus 37 adunare 25 alauda 19 alaudula yj alba spina 43 alberca 19 albeus 317 228. 71 amnavit 405 amh 424 a mode 47 amourette yj (-ittus) ampitzatru 277 ampora 334 amurca 186 amure 203 amygdalum 19 an II. 359 (i) amitane 359 (i) amitanis 359 amma 16 243. 209-10 unaccented 174.£6 2> e 209 at 188 altissimus 377 altitia 37 Aiax 188. alumnu (nom. 83 -an 36 -aj* a f oris 47 agennae -nd. 244 aecclesia 228 Eedis 366 ffigis -ale y] alecer 195 (i) Alesander 255 alevanti eleph.) 367 amho 424 amaricare 34 ama(t) 285 ambitare 405 ambolare 232 ambulare 10. 435 allegorizare ig alleviare 34 Agneti 359 (2) agnetus -na.321 = Alexander alguein 71 alguien 71 -alia 37 38. Adverbs 73-5 as 174. 14. 359.) 40 aiglon yj (-0) altra 233 altrui Aiiax 222 395 ancora 150.22 Index.194 = -ago 2>7 Agragas 330 Agrientum 259 agurium 228 agustas 228 36 anangi 331 anathema 19 anathematizare 19 anc 40 anc hanc 251 = allium 274 a longe 47 alques 71 alter 71. 222 alto (adv. 187 -ancus 37 (-incus) -anda 37 andare 405 andata 37 (-ta) Andreani 359 (i) Andreate 359 (2) andron 331 anellus 37.) 372 adpretiare 25 adpropiare 25 ad semel 47 —aio 39 (-arius) aios =: BjyiQS 272 am 78 ad sero 47 adsteti 139 Aix ajutit = adjutet 272 ad subito 47 adtonitus 32 ad tunc 47 -al37 alacer 195 (i) alare 405.

anemis 232 -aneus 39.) 367 -antia . 255. 78. 325 aucidere 212 -OS 38 -as -i 443 > audace (nom. 34. 223 284 aquilotto 37 (-ottus) asculta 228 Angers 86 angliscus 39 angostia 208 (i) anguil(l)a 163 ang(u)Ius 233 angustiare 34 Anicius 276 -ar37 Arbonenca yj (-incus) a semel 47 aspargo 31 aspectare 25 arbor (masc. 267.24. 440 au 178. 264. 429 apertus 436 arsus 441 artemisia 184 arietico 184 apotheca 182 apothecarius 39 apparescere 35 arthriticus 184 Article 57. 255 -ans39 anser 13 ad 282 -ata 37 (-ta) -aticum yj atque. 315 Asti 86 astula 284 at II = ar(i)dorem 219 ar(i)dus 237 aries 225. 265 aspra 233 -asse 161 ardente(m) 309 ardere 399 animabus 358 animalico yj (-icca) Anitius 276 Annanis 359 annare 405 annata yj (-ta) Annenis 359 annitare 405 annotavimus -bi. 36. 359 (i) anus = annos 244 -anus 39. 236 (7) apersi 428. 229 accented 178.) 367 audi audivi 227. 260-1 Assimilation 229 (3). 42 participle 435. 42 angelice 40 angelus 19 191 ascendiderat 426 ascetes 182 ascla apud aqua 14.318 annulare 405 anos = annos 247 ardire 343 -are (infin.) 346 (4) arb(o)rem 235 arboricellus 153 Aspirates 249-52. 39.Index. 65 at = anta 239 ante 96 antemittere 46 antestetis (nom. 282 aput 282 164.^y anticus 226 antiefne 184 antiphona 184 ariex = -s 255 -aris 39 -aris -alis 292 ^ -arius 39 atque ille 24 atque ipse 65 atque is 65 atrium 12 atta 16. 269.) -assem 161 -^ssemus 433 33. 293. 282. 42 Aorist 124 armeise 184 armentas 352 -aro 39 (-arlus) Aroncianos 276 arrespex r= haruspex 251 Arrius 251 arroser 356 (3) arsi Attane 359 atticissare (i) t^^ attinxi 429 Attitta 37 (-ittus) -attus yj at ubi 48 apcha 343 aperii 428 429 -atus 37 (-ta). 228. -dssetis 433 397-8 -are (nouns) y] ares = aries 225 aretem 225 argentum 259 -aria 37 -aricius 39 arida (noun) 13 Assibilation 277-8. 423 audiendu'st 309 = ascella =r axilla 42. 310. 229 au o 229 (7) OK 189 auca 13. 255 Digitized by Microsoft® . 211-3. 392 artic(u)lus 234 > (7) appo 78 apprendere 12 arvorsum (2) = adversum 281 ApHro 410 apsens 315 apsolvere 315 apte =: -se 244 arvum > aram 2z6 aucellus 13. 211 -3 unaccented 228. 265. 307. 68.

) 367 brae (c) a 163 bracchiale 37 = brac(c)hium 163 brachia 352 Digitized by Microsoft® . 219 balneus 347 ballaena 150. 241 avaricia 276 ^ bas(s)ium 163 basso 40 battaUa 16 battel 426 ba(t)t(u)ere 137. 42. . 236. 322 botula 361 bovis (nom. 33.192 aud(i)entem 416 aud(i)o 272-3. 359(1) barbane 359(1) barbar 242 barbo -onis 359(1) barbutus 42 baro 16 bassiare 275 = vixit 255 = vi. 162. 333 balneum 146: balneus 347 = bifolco biginti ti 318 (2) = vi.316. 184 Bologna 303 bonatus 37 (-atus) Bonica 37 (-icca) bon(i)tatem 231 bonito y] (-ittus) = avire 400 -avit -ait -at -aut 241.3171323 bestemmia 182 Betrubius 316 beveire y^ (-tor) bi. Balerius Va.236.212 39 bimaritus 22 bintcente vincente 260 bis.316. = autem 11. 324 Aureia -elia 274 Index. 324 ausare 18. 339 baptizatio 19 barba -anis 359.22 bisaccium 22 bisacutus 22 bisante 187 = = bis Austus 263 aut 174 aut aut 84 -aut -avit 424 . . ^ benignis 376 benivolus 201 berbeces 323 Bonitta 37 (-ittus) 424 avo avus 362 avus 13 ayo = habeo 273 = berbex (-ix) 42.22 Bononia 303 bonu 298 bonus = -OS 244 bonus bonus 55 bos =:i vos 316. 36 blasphemia 146.3165 322 bis(s)it coctum 43 bivere blaesus 329 blanche 341 blanka 341 blankizare 34 blaspheraare ig. 226 Bayeux 151 bel(I)ua 164 blasphemus 150 blasta 312 (i) blitum 184 bob ansa 336 bobis vo.316 bianca 341 biber 242 biblia 146 bibui 428 bibutus 438. 74 bene bene 55 benegnus 172 (2) bene placitum 43 Beneria Ve. 34 ausculum := osc.316 boccone 37 (-0) bocconi 40 avec 78 avello = -avi ^ = averlo 293 -ai 424 avica 13. 325 av(i)dere 219 avidus 236 aviolus 13 avis 13 avis struthius 43 Bellus -onis 362 bene 40.316 bixit = vi. 322 -bilis = balteum -us 347 bannus 19 baplo 235 baptidiare 339 baptisma 149 Aureliati 359 (2) aurora 11 aus avus 241.316 bal(i)neum 146. 439 Bictor 316 biduanus 39 bieta 184 botu vo. 14 5 Authorities autor 266 baptizare 19.316 Bodicca 37 (-icca) boletus 38. 182 autumnal (e) 242 auyo 272-3 avau. 236 avicella 37. 416 audivi(t) 2S5 audus 236 -aumus := -avimus 424 aunc(u)lus 234. 324 botella 361 bottega 182 b see Labials : baboni 362 bac(c)a 163 bacito yj (-ittus) bac(u)lus 234 Baiocasses 151 bajulus 233 Baleria = Va.

150.) 367 224 calcoste(g)is 259 caldo 40 cal(e)facere 219 calefacis 139 calere 288 bruchus 193 pu. 195 (3) cerbus 323 cerebellum 231 cereolus 13 cereseus 195 (3) ceresus 38.) 368 cata 19. cf .312 (i) bublus 235 bubukus 318 (2) buc(c)a 12. 231. 284 capire 406 cap(i)talis 231 cauculus 288 cauditus 42 caus(s)a 161 cavia 224 -ce 40 cecino 187.) 424 cedrus 182 cefalo 334 celeps 315 capriolus 224 captiare 34 cslus 347 Cjeseris 233 caesorium 37 caetk 313 captio 9 captivare 34 captivus 313 celerus 376 -cellus 37 Celtic Words 19 capud 282 capui 428 calamarium 37 calamellus 37 calamus 150 calatus calcai capum 285.354.) 367 cardu(u)s 226 ce(n)sor 311 census 260 centu 381 ceperint 215 cepi 215 = -avi 424 •^•j = ga. 356 (3). 369 caput 13. 285.Indkx. 71 cata unus 71 cataveris rr -d. 282. 383 cf. 163 buUicare 35 buplicae = carum 263 casa 12 cal(i)dusi55. 356 buxus 187. 239 cartas (nom. 42 caroneus 39 carrica 11 car(ri)care 18. pi. 33. 219. 195 (3) calcaneum carissimus 377 caritabilis calce pistare 46 calciare 224 39 Caritta 37 (-ittus) Digitized by Microsoft® .) 357 (i) Breaking 177 breviarium 37 brevis 13 Brittanice 40 calcius (nom. 237 calisco 414 calma 268 calotfa 187 caseum -us 347 Cases85-ioo. 234 capitus 440 = cedo 162 cadedi 428 cadere 402 caderunt 426 cadui 428 cselebramus (perf . 369 capus 285. 163 Cassiabus358 cas(s)us 161 castaneus 346 (i) castellus camera 145 camerlingo 37 (-ing) caminus 150 camisla 201 (i) (3) 347 butyrum 150 buxida 187.256 catechizare 19. 369 cardonis (nom. 347 calumpnia 307 calura 42 camel(l)us 42. 372.) 367 camutus 39. 330 cedat caedat 210 cabia =: cavea 318 cactivus 313 cactos 313 capitanus 39 capitium 37 (-ium) capitulus 42. 356 (3). 330 Byzacinus 42 c : castius 277 castore (nom. Buolognino 154 burrus 330 Burrus 187 bursa 187 buscus 255 iusta 187 but(t)is 163 cals 255 casotta 37 (-ottus) cas(s)eus 163 . 33 cat' cantare 34 unus 71 see Gutturals c for capabilis 39 g 253 cy 276. branca i6 calcis 193 camis (nom.) 367 cammarus 330 canalia yj cani (pi.330 (-ium) cerasus 38. 278 capere 8. 356 (3). 163 . 402 -C40 caballus 12 capiclus 234.

Clepatra 191 clerc 154 Change of Suffix 42 chan(n)e 163 chartaceus 39 cher 263 chiaro (adv. 325 colhe 154 coles 213 i6z -ceus 39 Chairibertus 39 (-anus) chaloir 288 Change of Meaning 8-10 coliandrum 292 coUecta 37 (-ta) collectus yj (-ta) colli(g)ens 259 col(li)gere 31. 139. 231. 272. 277. 259*. 64 comprendit 250 computare 31 circare 16 circueo 309 circumdavit 430 cis 14 cit(h)era. 237. 332 cib Clodius 212 cloppus 16 closa 212 Cludo 211 (2) -clus 234 CO quod 282 colomna 208 coloquinta 187 color (fern. 217 Chiusi 86 cholera 145 chommoda 25 c(h)orda 186. 233 complacere 25 complire 400 cinus 347. coexercitatus 30 cofecisse 311 96 Compound Words 43-9. 325 clausi 429 clausus 441 clavem 288 clavido 236. 213 codex 213 coemiterium 192 coepi 72. 231. -ara 38. 130.) 40 chiave 288 Chilperico 343 ckiosa 185 clergue 154 305. 150. 25 concha 186 concupiscencia 276 cohors 12. 332 Chrestus 184 chrisma 184 C(h)ristus 184. 187 cimiterium 192 cinctius coclearium 356 (3) coclia commando 31 comment 41 commixtius 23 224 254 cinctus 440 cinqua(gi)nta 254. 332 Conditional 124. 379. 154. 233 cito 162 citrus cognatus 9. 260^.23.444 Pronunciation coUiget 444 col(lo)care 9. X54. 380 cinque 254. 310 coicere 310 coiiugi 271 cojectis 311 . 186.) 367 clarisco 414 Cla(u)dius 211 (i) cojugi 311.226 comoedia 192 comparare 8. 330. 333(1) clericatus 37 cler(i)cus 39. 12. 233 Comparison 56 comperare 231. 124 coexcitare 30 comedo = quo. 297\ 318(1). 259. 153.1 194 certitude cetto 'r^j Index. 269 co(g)nosco 43. 379 cocodrilus 294 cinsum = ce- 196 cocus 226 coda 212. 370 cinxi 429 cip(p)us 163 circa 80. 271 colaphizare 19 col(a)p(h)us 19. 276. 311 condam 254 condedit 139 conder(e) 242 condicio 276 conditio 276 civ(i)tas 12. of. claudo 236. 197.) 346 (2) colp 154 colustra 197 = coacla 289 (i) 206 cicinus 330 -cillus ]> -cellus 42 coactum 310 coccodrillo 294 cocens 226 comenzare 276 coininciare 276 cominiciare 276 cominitiare 25. 239 collo Clerical 218.411 Digitized by Microsoft® . 269. 160 coUus -um 347 239 colober 208 Clio 190 colobra 208 (2). 276 comitem 235 cima 38. 310 cognovi 428 cognusco 197 cohaerere 310 computus 235 comuna 376 con. 329 191 ciurma -cius 39 of. 231 clamantis (nom. 31.

co(n)jux 171. 34 19s corpo r6o corregia 201 corridije conger 329 Congianus 272 congigi 259 Conjugation 101-30.) 298 cornicula 42 cornu -um-us 347. 139 credens (noun) 13. 226.26 contrafacere 26 co(n)ventio 171 convltare 25 coperire 225 copersi 429 Gutturals 253-70 Labials 312-26 Latin 246-8 Letters 246 Liquids 2S7-96 Hasals 303-11 Palatals 271-8 Sibilants 297-302 cortera 203. 37 crebbi 428 credea 421 crededi 31. 160 Fourth 407 Fundamental Changes • 408-12 Imperfect 420-1 constare 31 Inchoative Verbs 413-5 consuere 31. 137 Perfect 422-31 consuetudo 42 Strong 427-31 co(n)sul 171. 311 conmittere 32 couleuvre 208 (2) court 203 couvent 311 covenimus 311 coventionid 3x1 covetum coxale coxi 429 = cubitum 208 -^j^j copertus 436 cophinus 186 coque 254 coraticimi 18. confessor 18 confortare 25. 255. 39 credentia 37 (-antia) " connato 269 conobbi 428 conoisser 413 conopeum 146 conovutus 440 conpendium 32 conplere 306 consacrati 31 conservam(m)us 163 consiensia 260.continari 226 contra 96 contra. 311 Weak 422-6 conteneo 139 Perfect Participle 434. 254 41 Personal Endings 44250 Pluperfect and Future Perfect 432-3 Present Stems 416-9 Use of Forms 101-30 Conjunctions 82-4 co(n)jus 25. 396450 Four Conjugations 396407 First 397-8 Second 399-401 Third 402-6 Double: see Double Consonants Germanic : see Germanic Consonants Greek : see Greek Consonants 272 corrigo 305 corrotulare 229 cors 12. 244. 225 cortensis 39 cortilis cortis 39 250 corvo 323 corvus 323 cosol 311 costumen 42 cosul 305 cot 254 cotes 212 cotidiae 244 cot(t)idie 162. 275 227 consilium 42 consili corbeau 323 corbi 323 corbo 323 corcodilus 294 corcodrillus 294 cores = corda 369 corium 294 Comeius =-elius 274 Cornelio (nom.1 Index. 3ro corso 208 Groups 131-2. 439 crepatus 435 crepavi 428 Crescentsiarius 277 cresco 255 cresima 184 cresme 184 crevi (i) 428 292 crevutus 440 criblare crigTie 35 c'ritare 229 consirier yj (-erium) Consonants Aspirate 249-52 Dentals 280-6 = criz 206 = crocitare 35 Digitized by Microsoft® . 355 cor(o)nare 231 corp 323 corpora 369 corpes corpi -ora 369 coi"pore 356 (3) corpo credere 410 credutus 438.

226 cum (prep. 48. 25 305 77. 234 cum (conj. 82 curabit cursi de-^ di. 81 defuntus 267. 292 Derivation 20-49 descendidi 426 de semel 47 despereifser 414 by Microsoft® . -culum -cuius > 37. 285 > -avit 318. de.) 349 cymba 187 cymiterium 192 cypressus 150 Second 361-3 Third 364-71 Use of Cases 85-100 376 de contra 47 decumus 220 dede = dedit 285 de deorsum 47 Digitized declLvis Deponent Verbs 113. 286 nd > nn 281 429 cursorium 37 curvus 323 nt 285 St 285 t 284-6 denumer^t 424 deo(r)sum 291. da 48 dedi 430 (i) 229 crucifigere 46 c'rot'lare dacruma 281 dactylus 19 dedicait 424 ded(i)cavit 231 crudilitas 197 -crum 37 (-culum) crupta 187 crus 13 dad 48 Dafne 334 dai 2<)% dampnum 307 crust(u)lum 234 crypta 187 cubidus cupidus 256 Danuvlum 318 dao397 dare 397 datfus 324 dedro dedrot 285 deexacerbare 30 deexcitare 30 defeniciones 276 defensa 37 (-ta) defensi 429 defensorlus 39 = cuculla 13. 346 (4) cucullus -a 346 (4) defensus 441 deferet 406 Dative 90-1. 281-3 dy 272 nd nn 281 Final 282. 409 d : see Dentals dy 272 de post 48 deprendere 250 de retro 47. 92. Definite Article 68. 392 de foris 47. 78. 117. 322 currens 39 = Intervocalic 283. 72. 239 decanus 39 dece(m) 309 decern et (or ac) septem 379 dece(m)bris 306 decemter 306 dec(i)mus 239 Declension 85-100. 88. 100. cf.229 (2) deabus 358 de ad 48 de ante 48 deaurare 23. 383 cuerdo 369 culcitra 294 dau 397 daun 397 234 dave 48 de 14. 376 First 357-60 cy 276-8 cy ty277 = cycnus 187.) 82. 306 -cellus 42 95 -c(u)lus 42. cumba 187 cun = cum 305 cunnuscit 269 cimtellum =r cul. 48. (fem. 294 Index. 126 (4) debita 37 deb(i)tum 235.23.) 14. 354-76 Adjectives 374-6 Fall of Decl. 324 deorsum 224 Cusanca 37 (-^ncus) Wouns 354-73 Shift of Decl. 330 cyma38. 355-6. 177 cnpa(t) 285 cupire 406 cupit 423 cup(p)a 163 cupressus 150 cur 12.289 (2) cuoio 296 cuofre 160 cuore 160.196 crocodilus i. 25 debbio 273 debeo 273 debere 10. 187.o. 95. 372-3 de^£-io 273 defna 324 de inter 48 de intro 47 de intus 47. 48 deltas 27 del(i)catus 227 delitus 198 delta 329 de magis 47 de medio 47 deminat 139 Dentals d 272.

) 346 (2) dolor 18. accented 165. 195 (6). and fem. 30 . etc. 393 duo 378 duos 138 durare 229 (5) Duration 99 duricia 276 Durocasses 151 duxi 429 (masc. 393 deus 167 devere 318 devetis 318 au 21 1-3 eu 214 oe 215 ui 216 diposisio 277 dire 406 directus 229 diri(g)ens 259 dirivare 229 (2) dou 397 Double Consonants 161-4. 239 domnani 359 (i) domnicellus 37 domnicus 235 229 (2) diligibilis 39 domnina 37 domnizare 33 domnulus 235 dint-mi 264 divinus 324 dinus = Dionigi 227 Dionysii 227 diosum = deorsum 291 Diphthongization 177 domnus 235 domus 12 355 dume(c)ta 266 dune 40 d'unde 70. 426. 328 Single >Double 164. 247. 37 dies 13. 25 discere 12 disfacit 139 Double 247 = Single 162-3. 378 dukissa yj dulcior (noun) 18 — > -dei 426 = dulcor 18. 303. 13 Double Forms 158 Double Negation 75 Double Prefixes 30 doucet 37 (-ittus) doussa 376 drachma 144 drappus 16 d'rectus 229 diurnus 13 divisi Dreux 151 429 drieto 292 406 dicimus 448 dicitis 448 dicitus = -g. 209-16 209-10 de sub 48 de super 48 de sursum 47 detti 426 de unde 70. 229 (4). 361 digitus 233. 253. 355 (2) dietro 292 digita35i. 196-9 (I) . 333 dolor (fem.) 346(1). 289 (2). 259 -didi ducatus 37 (-ta) duce due 412 ductus 440 dui 167. 43> distinguere 223.) 367 dub(i)tare 231 ducalis 39 divota 229 (2) dixemus 232 dbd429 dodecim 225 doga 186. 226 dita 351 diu II. 440 dicere divisus 441 divite (nom. 196-9. devitum 318 dexcito 225 cf . desso 62 dester 255 desto 225 197 donee 11 dont 70 donum (masc. dibeto 196 Dibona 318 die 264. 328 devidere 229 (4) devinus 229 (4) dis. 229 displacet 139 displicina Doable >Single i6i. 21 dolus dictus := digitus 233. Digitized by Microsoft® .) e 165. 238. 167. 397 dia 397 diabulus 38 diaconissa 19 Dialects 2.23. 292. 259 dignus 172 (2) dilevit domatus 435 domin(i)ca 239 dominicus 9. 412 dice = die 412 dice(m) 309 disfactus 23 dis(je)junare 25. 406. 421. 254.3 Index. dextro(r)sus 291 deyo 273 dia = dies355 (2). 328 289 (i) Dissimilation 167. (2ddecl. 177.253 dictus 166.) 349 dormio 224 dormito 309 dormitorium 37 dormo 416 dorsus 347 dossum 291 Diphthongs 36 177. 238.

385 ego-met-ipse 66 et -erem 346 (3) eremus 150 eres 251 190 e-28 -640 -e>-ffi I74>244 -e -ei 411 -eta 146 eiius 271 erga 14 ergo II. 65.) 356 (2) -i 443 -es -es -is 174. 65 ecce ille 24. 243.230. s 177.24. 14 > -i 244. no eoru 309 episcopalis 39 epistula 144 > 196-8 e unacc. 244. 199 n 182 eccu' sic 24 e contra -entia 37 (-antia) -inns 42 -enus > 47 C183 ecus 226 edediderit 426 i eo=:ego 73. -unt 449 es(i)mus 419 (i) -isimus 197 -esimus esmes 419 (l) eccos 24 eccu.24. 197. 162. 65 ecce nunc 65 ecce tu 65 eccillam 24 eccillud elimentum 231 -elis >• -ills 197 Elision 157. 311 -ent -eunt 416. 244 egloge 330 e e 165 > > e > e 165 V 182' ei83 e(g)o 60. 429 -erium 37 erminomata 191 ero 411 -ero 39 (-arius) ersi ericius = jacet 224 earn = jam 224 eacit ejus 170. 65 eccu' 'ic 326 eccu' ille 24. 232. 242 -elius >• -ilius 197 -ellus 37. 42 elmo 343 illud 201 elud -elus >• -ellus 42 ervum > erum 226 ervus (3d decl. > e > y 224 e i 229 s (2) edere 13 edificai e prefixed to + cons. 182. 326 espiar 343 "pier 343 Digitized by Microsoft® .) 450 -ere -ire 197 erodes 251 > effigia 355 (2) eu 214 effondrer 356 (2) i6 >• e 225 unaccented 219.e 225 = equus 12 equus = sequus 210 -re 245 -er -er 39 (-arius) erable 43 -ere (perf . 62. 385 eo quod 82.538 Esaram 233 -escere 34. > 65 > eccu' iste 24. 35.198 e 196-8 Index.> -ido 197 edus haedus 210 e6 >.) 368 -Irunt 450 eccam 24 eccas 24 ecce.exs. 328 Endings Personal 442-50 -esco ]> -isco 197 414 enim 11 escupare 255 -ens 39 (-ans) -e(n)simus 311 -e(n)sis39.228. 6. 65 ecce ego 65 ecce hie 24. 263. 73. eccum 24. 413-4 eschernir 341 emere 12 encaustum 149 Enclitics 156 -enda 37 (-anda) : 24 eschine 341 esclate 343 eccillum 24 ecclstam 24 ec(c)lesia 146. 255 es-7. 229 effrenis 376 eglesia 256 (2). > = = 444 = ex. 424 230 e6 > e 225 -edo . 365-6. 65 ecce iste 24. 364 -V3S -ea 421 -etv 36 ejus 298 eio = -etbv 146 42 erigere 31. 298 elementum 231 elephantus 38 elex -ebam : see -ea 429 eiii 411 ecca 24 = ilex 200 (2) erubisco 414 elifanti (pi. 449 -ent >.

) 367 excoriare 25 excussi 429 excussus 441 exeligere 30. 404 faccia 278 fatus 347 taula 236. espiritum 230 exeligit 199 fffinum 209 fffinus esquena 341 esguiver 343 essagium 255 esse 112-4. 126 (2). 404 fatatus 39 fate fabam 320 404 Eugeneti 359 (2) -eum 37 eunuchizare 19 fab(u)la 236 f ac 264. 255 -ex -ix 42 = fac 412 facentem 416 facere 10. 318 febrarius 226 Eurus 191 -eus39 Euua 344 evangelizare 19 -evi -ei 424 > Evidence 5 ex 14. 95 ex. 274 facimus 448 404 facitis 448 factum 266 facire Feminine femps 356 femus (3d : see Gender (2) decl. 440 fascia 10. 92. 420 face feced feci = fecit 282 fec(e)ru(nt) 233 430 fehu 343 felicla 234 felis25.27 extrabuccare 27 extranus 42 ex tunc 47 ezza 277 f : fallire 430 406 441 34 37 familia 42 famis 366 famTfii 264 famul 242 famulabus 358 fante 311 falsare falsitas fallitus faor 324 farcitus 440 fare 404 farsus 440.23. 277 etsi I \ et sic 47 exodus 337 expabui 42S expandutus 441 expaventare 35 explendido 230 exquartiaxe 276 exs. (i) = -it 244. 275 faselus 334 fasena 320 (i) f asia = faciat 285 224 fasiolus -etus 437 see Labials (i) fata 266 eu 214 cu 190 fa 264. 266 = = fait 324 266 fallii -esse 161 -essem 161 essere = esse 419 es(t) 285 estatio 230 estau 397 estaun 397 Estephanus 230 estou 397 estribar 341 esum 419 -et et et at ubi . facienda 37 fem(i)na 239 feminabus 358 > exaltare 25 exaugiu^tus 39 excellente (nom. 77.Index. .= es. 444 49 .) 356 (2) fenire 229 (4) factus 440 fenum 209 ferbeo 323 feritus 242 fascit 209 faedus 320 (i) fcemina 209 f acul 434 ferre 12 ferro 160 Digitized by Microsoft® .230. 419 (i) esse essere 419 esse sedere 402 274 exe(m)plu 306 exiat 224 exient 449 347 fageus 39 failla exinde 60 exire 31.230 exstinctus 440 exstinxi 429 exsucidus 39 exsucus 23 extensa 37 extimare 255 extra. et 84 Ethiopia 188 etiam 11. 14. 404 facheret 410 faciam 278 fadas 224 fac(i)ebam 225. 25 ex.= as.

) 356 fundutus 441 funtes 205 (2) fortia 37 fortis 10 fortis fortis 55 429 fixus 441 fossato 2^1 (-ta) funus II fuore 160 Digitized by Microsoft® . see frondifer 11 fnialitas Germanic Words Greek Words foresia 311 foris 81 and finiscere 35 finxi 429 fructa35i. 233.f:^ forbire 407 frigorem 347 frixl Fimes 86 Final Syllable 240-5 finctus 440 finis (adj. fragrantia 37 fra(g)rare 270 flavor 37 fletus II Francesco 341 franctus 440 fieuma 268 fleurit 414 ' fictus 197 440 fleuve 208 (2) fioralis Frankensis 39 Frankiscus 39.409. fervere 399 fervura 37 fesit flaba 289 (i) flagrare 292 flaonis flator fractus 440 fragellum 289 (2) fragilis 260 324 324 233 >« 343 fezem 44 fiaba 289 (i) fiam 419 (2) fib(u)la 235 ficatum 16. filix 298 274 = filios T97 fiUio 247 fonte 205 244 fonz 356 (2) foras 81. 217 fluviorum 224 feces 213 florire fratelmo 38S frat(t)re 164 frax(i)nus 239. 238.) 346 florecer 292 414 frate 295 Florentinus 37 ficus (2d decl.419 (2) 400 florisco 400 flovium 208 (2).) 355 (i) fnindes 205 /^343 fiorentino 154 fioretto yj (-ittus) fiorisce \\^ foris- 29 frunza 351 frutta 351 fugii 430 f ugire 406 fugitus 439 fui 431 forisfacere 29 f orismittere 29 fircum 320 (i) Firenze 86 Firmus -onis 362 fir- 46 formaceus 39 formosus 161 formunsus 208 forsitan 305 forte 40 f ortescere ful(i)ca237 fiscla 234 fistula 234 fistus 197 fix! 34 fumAt 424 fundus (3d decl.Index. fiero 160 fiet focus fodiri 8. 200 (i). 406 folia 352 follia (noun) 18 follicare (i) = 259 f rictus 440 frigare 256. cf . 259 frigora 351 filius 155.) 346 (4) filiaster filio(s) fans 356 frigdura 37 Frigia 187 frig(i)dus 166.) 357 13 . 231 fons (fem. cf. (mc. and fern. 141 ficit 2. 201 filiabus filias 33 (2) frigdaria 219. 12 419 (2) figel 242 fiios — filios 274 358 (nom. 361 fructus (2d decl.7 flaus 240. 96 forbatre 2. 440 fricda frigida 238.)346(i) fraumenta 268 frecare 201 . 341 Franko 341 franxi 429 ficus (I) (masc.) 355 (i) fidens 311 fiele 160 Jiens 356 (2) fieri 112.) 17 429 263 Foreign Words 19. 256 frenum -us 347 fricatus 435.

furbjan 407 furma 203 furmica 229
genesis 148, 183 Genitive 88-9, 383 genitores 12 genitus 17
gIut(t)o 163




fusa 3; I

gocciare 276 gcerus 187
golosus 228 gonger 329 goule 177


genna 229
gentilis 17


fusus 441

Future 125-9,411
127-9,411 Periphrastic Put. 126 Pres. for Put. 126 (i) Future Perfect 119, 123-4,
410, 423 g: see Gutturals

gentis (adj.) 17

Hew Put.


= jan- 259
37, (i)



genuflectere 46

genum 355
Gepte 259 geguir 343

233 gradlus 376 grada 35.1 gradus 355 (i)
grandis 12
granditia 37 graphium 145 grassetto 37 (-ittus)

= Hier- 259

gabata 13, 236 gabta 236 gaita 343
gaite 343 galatus 330
gallina 288

gerbe 341

Germanic Consonants
b, c,

grassus 257

= Gratis 257

g 341

gravare 34
gravior 377 grece 210

^,^342 h343 W344
Germanic Endings 36 Germanic Words 19,
340-4 Germanissa 37 Gerund 104

gamba 13, 263, 331 gammanis 330
garba 341 garofulum 149 garum 329 gaudia (sg.) 352 gaudimoniuin 20 gaudutus 44 X gauta 236 gaveola 257 gavia 16
gecchire 343 geisla 341 geiuna je- 259 geline 288

Greek Accent 143-50 Ozytones 144
Paroxytones 145-6 Proparoxytones 147-50 Greek Consonants 327-39
ft 7, S 329
K, V,

Gerundive 103
gesso 187 gesta (sg.) 352 gJga 341 gig'i 341

T 330-1

X 332-4 Liquids 335 Hasals 336

I 337


gigantem 229 (3) ginocchioni 40 Giovannoni 362 giret 187
girus 187
giscle 341 glacia 355 (2)

f 338-9
Greek Endings 36, 38, 146 Greek Vowels 180-93 Diphthongs 188-93 Single Vowels 180-7 Greek Words 19, 36, 38,
gre-U 40 grevior 377
grevis 195 (4)

gelus (2d decl.) 355 (i) gemellus 13

gemire 406 gemitus 439

Glacus 211 (i) gladium 347
glanderia 39 glaiz 355 (2) Glauc6 -^nis 359 Glaucu (nom.) 372 glirem 166
glos(s)a 161, 185

gemui 428
gena 13

Gender 345-53 Fem. and Heat. 351-3 Masc. and Pern. 346 Masc. and Heut. 347-50 Heut.Pl.>Fero.Sg.352 Heut.Pron.and Adj. 350

grex (fem.) 346 (4) grossior 377 gratia 187 gruls (nom.) 367 gninnio 281-

gluria 203
glut(t)ire 162

guarire 344 guarnire 36, 407


by Microsoft®

guaiare 343
hab(i)tus 239 h^buerat 137
hocsies 277

gubernamentum 37
gubernare 36, 330
gtterra 344

guidare 36, 398 guiderdone 342 guisa 344
gul0 37
-i -1338, 186, 330 gustus (2d decl.) 355 (i) guttur (masc.) 347


Gutturals 253-70 c c' 258, 260-1 c g 256-7

> >

habutus 438 hache 343 hackerece 39 hffidus 320 (i) hamula 235 hanca 343 handle 343 hant 401 hao 401 hapja 19, 343

hodie 272 hodio 251


hom(i)nes 232, 235 (pi.) 36S
10, 71


honera 251 honor 346 (2) honte 342 hora 12, 185 hordemn 272
horrescere 11
hortesia 311 hospitale 12

haram 251
hardir 343
harena 320 (i) haribergum 19 has 401 hat 401 hatire 36 hatjan 36


g before back vowels hardjan 343

263 c, g before cons. 265-70 c, g final 264 ct 266

hossa 251 hostium 251 Hugo Hflgon

= Hdgo


huile 274

152, 362


> g' 258-9. z6i

humerus r2
humiliare 34

g intervocalic 263

gm 268
gn 172
gr intervocalic 270




152, 362


net 267
Falateilization 258-62

haunitha 342 haunjan 19 haunt 401 havite 400

165, 200-1, etc.

accented 200-1 I 200

haz 355


hegit 251

260 X 255, 266 gylosus 228 gyrus 187


helm 343
keltne 343

h 249-52

hepatia 19 here 219, 244 heredes (sg.) 367 heremum 251 Hiatus 136-8, 222-7

> e 201 e ^ 201 > 165, 200 i>e2oi > > e 165, 201 (cons.) 222 > y 224 -i > -e 224







habam = fabam 320

hlbemus 13
hie 63-4, 67-8 hie ipse 64

habe = ave 318 habe(b)am 421 hiem(p)s 13, 297 habeo 273 hiens = iens 251 habere 10, 121-4, 127-30, hilerus 233
239, 273, 285, 400, 401, 421, 438, 449

(Greek) 184 (Greek) 38 i^ e 225 ii i 227 prefixed to s cons. 230 unaccented 219, 221,228,


> >


hinsidias 251

hireum 320


haber 242 habe(t) 285 habeunt 416, 449 habibat 400
habire 400

= is- ins- 230 hispatii = spatii 230
historia 146

229(3X4), 240, 243, 244 in hiatus 222, 224-5,


> e 229 (4) > a 229 (3)

ho 40 hoc 63,



-ia 37, 146 -(a 37, 146


by Microsoft®

-iamus 224 -are 33, 34
ille 10,

Future Future
125-9, 411

61-8, 389-92

ipse 64





123-4, 410

-ibo 125
-ic 251



-ica 37 -icare 33, 34, 35 -icca 37


390 ille 390 140


(dat.) 390


-iccus 37

> ilium 282, 350
390 390

= suus


Imperfect 120, 420-1 Perfect 121-4, 422-31 Pluperfect 123-4, 410, 432 Present 120, 273, 397, 401, 403-5, 415, 416-9

-icem 42, 346



-iceus 37, 39, 42
-icius 37, 39, 42


induruit 224


ilium illud 282, 350 illurum 390


-inem 346

-iculare 35 -iculus 42

> -ellus 42

infa(n)s 10, 311 i(n)fans 171
inf antiliter
i(n)feri 171,

im = in 310
imaginarius 39

-icus 39

40 219

idem 61, 3C39 id ipsum 62, 350 idolum 150, 190
-idus 39 -i(d)yare 339 i6 e 225


376 immudavit 256 Imperative 115-6, 412 impinguare 25 impinxi 429


infernus 13 Infinitive

-iebam -ebam 225 -ibam 420
-ie(n)s 311



implicat 139 implire 400


> -fmus 447-8 >

in 86, 92, 95, 96, 97
is 310 inanimatus 23 in ante 47, 48 incendiderit 426

lenubam 259
-ier 39 -iere 39

in- 23, 25 in -t- s

as Noun iii Conjugations 396-407 dicere 406 esse 419 facere 404 for Clause for Imperative 116 for Subjunctive iii, 117 for Supine and Gerund




= gesta 259, 352

311 iferi 311
iferos 306, 311

Inchoative Verbs
inclausus 139 incohare 250
in contra 47, 48 incudo 42, 370


103, 104 habere 400 Passive 109 Perfect 109 with habere 125-9, 4^^ posse 403

ifimo 311 if ra 311

Present Active

102, 109


-4gia 2^^
igitur II, 14

with Accusative
inflare 31


incuminem 42
incus 42 -incus 37 inde 60, 71, 384 inde fugere 46

ignire 33 ignis 12


ignotus 310 -igo 37

Forms 345-450 Use 85-130
infra- 27



227, 423


39 -ilius 42 iliac 140

Indefinite Article 57 Indefinite Pronouns: see

infraponere 27


Indicative Conditional 130, 411
for Imperative 116, 412
for Subjunctive 117

infurcare 25

-ing 37

(dat.) 390

390 illsejus 390

ingenium 9 ingens 259 in giro 48


by Microsoft®

-ingus 37 (-incus) in hodie 47
Initial Syllable

62-4, 67-8 ins- liis- 230


— -is = -es 244, 365-6, 444

-iva 37 iventa 311

inlatus 32 in mane 47

-iscere 34, 35


> > -i 423 > -iut > -it 423

-ivum yj
-ivus 39 -ix 42
-izare 33, 34, 339

medio 48

Ischia 284

innoce(n)ti 306 innocus 226
in odio


ischolasticus 230


inprobus 32 inquid 282 in quo ante 254 -inquus 37 (-incus) ins13-230 in semel 47

-isco for -esco 197, iscripta 230


-'{«" 33
izophilus 333
j 271 jacente(m) 309 jacis 244 Jacobus 150, 329

-iscus 39 is ipse 64


ismaragdus 230 isperabi 230 ispose 230
-issa 37 -issare 33

insiemcmenie 41 insola 232 instruo — struo 230 ins(u)la 171, 233, 284 intcitamento 260 inte(g)rum 270 Interamico 307

Jacomus 329
jagante 229 (3)


-isse 161

-issem 161 -issimus 166

jaiant 229 (3) jajunus 229 (i) jambe 263
-jan 36
janarius 226

230 Interanniensis 307 istatuam 230 Interrogatlves see Pro- iste 63-8, 390-2 nouns iste hie 64 Intertonlc Vowel 231 iste ille 64 intra g6 iste ipse 64 intra- 27 istudio 230 intra tenere 27 it id 282 intravidere 46 -it -et 244, 444 intre 245 ita II intro(r)sus 291 Italia 224 intus in 49 Iteilic Tribes i, 2 -inus 37, 42 -itare 34, 35

jaquir 343
jauzei 426 jehan 343 jehir 343
jejunus 229, 229 (i) jeniperus 229 (5)

= =

jenua 229


jenuarius 229 (i) jeuTie 208 (2)
jinipenis 229 (5)

-Inus 39

> -o 416

-itas 37 -ite -Ite


Joanneni 359 (i) Joannentis 359 (2) Joannis 244
jocus 12


ipsa mente 41 ipse 61-8, 390-2



jovenis 208 (2), 217
jovis 367

64 ipsejus 390 ipsimus 66 ipsud 390
ipsujus 390 ipsus 390
iraisser 413 irascere 413

-itia 37, -ities 37


jubari 322



-ittus 37

-itudo 37 -itus 42 (2), 436, 438, 441 -Itus 435, 438-9


jubem(m)us 163 jubenis 318 jubentutis 318, 322 jubere 11
Judaizare 19
judicat 424

-ium 37
-ius 39

126 (5), 405

> -unt 416
by Microsoft®

-ire 33,


judidus 347 judico 239 judigsium 278


juglus 233 Julianenis 359 Julianeta 37 (-ittus)
Julitta 37 (-ittus)

429 Liaison 133, 159 liamen 263
lexi 428,

intervocalic 324

Voicing 314
laborait =:-avit 424

laceus 254
lacte 367

libe(n)s 311

juncxi 305 juniperus 229 (5) junxi 429
Jup(p)iter 163

jurHtortu 39 juria 272 jur(i)go 219
jusso 355 (i)

lactem 347 lacus (2d decl.) 355 (i) ladro yji ladrone 372


298 (nom. pi.) 357


libraria 37 ligare 201,

ligna (sg.) 352


justitia 276,

justius 277

juv(e)nis 235

juventa 356 (3) juvente 318
juxta 81, 96


246, 253

kadamitatem 289

= candidus 330 karessemo 201 Karica 37 (-icca) kaukoulato cal- 288 kleme(n)s 311 kozous = conjux 311, 339


34 lambros 331 lamna 235 lampada 356 (3) lampa(s) 38, 144, 335 lancia 224 la(n)tema 306 lanutus 42 lapsus 315 laqueum 347 ; cf, 254 lardum 237 Latinization i, 2 latrone (nom.) 367 lat(t)rones 164 lattucae 266 Lauriatus 224 lausenga 37 (-ing)
lauzi 443 Lazis Ladiis 339


lignum -us 172
liminare 37


Unguas (nom.) 357
liniamenta 224


133, 159

lintium 224

Liquids Assimilation 293 Dissimilation 292
Fall Fall



Liquid 237

Vowel before

Liquid 233-4 1 287-9 ly274 Metathesis 294 r 290-6
rs 291 ry 296 lit (t) era 163


kumate 298 ky = qui 187, 223



lebat 318

lit(t)us 163

see Liquids

318 lebra 256

Livitta 37 (-ittus) U 1 161


la ilia 392 Labials Assimilation 313 b 315-9 initial 316 intervocalic 318 by, py, vy 273, 319 f 320-1 Fall of Vowel after Labial 235-6 Influence on Vowels 217



Have 2 88



Locative 86
locun 305 locuplens 311 locuplex 255
lodi 443
loir 166

lectus (p.p.) 440 legare 201

leges 259

(nom.) 367

legui 428

lenticula 42

longa mente 41 longe 40
longior 377


longius 377


longum tempus 13
loquella 42 loreola 213

P 3"-4 U326
V 322-s
after liquid 323

levare 34 leviarius 39


Lost Words 11-4
lotus 213

levitus 435,


by Microsoft®

2o6 luce (dat. 207 (i) luxi 4V 9 luxuria 355 (2) mansorius 39 mansus 441 manuaria iS manuplus 42 manus (masc.) 424 -men 37 mendatium 276 fern. 369 3" . 238.) = and markensls 39 me(n)sa 311 mense(m) 309 mensi (pi. 353 me(n)sor 311 56. 233 lucor 37 lucto 355 (i) maximus 56.) 244 lucSre 399 lucire Index. 349 melum 195 (5) membras 352 memoramus (perf. 201. 369 marrir 407 marrjan 407 Marsianesses 277 magnisonans 44 magnus 12 Maia 188. 347. 145 ma(r)mor 292 cf . 359 by Microsoft® .) = magida = 38. X. mam(m)anis 359 matutinus 13 maurus 336 maxime 56 mammula mane 13 13 400 manducare 13 man(i)ca 239 manicd 37 (-icca) maniplus 42. 198. 259 ma(g)ister 259 marmora 351 marmorem 347. 347. 222 Maiiam 222 mais = magis 157. cf .24. 84. 74. and 346 (I) fern. 377 luoghi -ora 349 liirdus 207 (i) luridus 166. 259 major 170. xi Marcianus 278 Marculus 284 mare (fern.) 355 (i) meretis 232 meridjes 281 (2) mer(i)to 237 Masculine : see Gender masc(u)las 234 masma = maxima 238 massa 338 mate(r) 295 materia 355 (2) matrona(s) 298 mat(t)rona 164 Digitized mersi=merx 255 Messac 277 messui 428 messura 37 met. 220. ma(g)is 353 . 71.) 17274 m: see Nasals ma = mea -Ma 38 388 manu tenere 46 Slaps : pp. 297 maxumiis 220 lucus locus 205 ludus 12 lugere 399 lugire 400 = Meanings Change 10 of of Words 7-10 Meaning 8- manos 355 mansi 429 mansio 12 (i) luminem 347 lunae dies S9 mecu 309 Medea 190 Medentius 338 media 272 medianus 39 medicus 239 medio die 43 medio loco 43 medius 272 meletrix 292 melior 377 melius 56. 347. 157.) 349 machina 144 machinari 9 macra 376 madias = majas 272 madio majo 272 madrema 388 maestati 259 maester 259 magias majas 272 marem 347 mares = -is 244 marl -e 364 marinarius 39 maris (masc. manner (fern.) 368 me(n)sis 171. 377 mala mente 41 male 40 male habitus 44 malicia 276 malleus 274 mensorium 37 menta 184 -mente 41 mente habere 46 mentire 409 Marsuas 187 Marsyas 187 mas = magis 157 mascel 242 -mentum 37 mentus 347 menus 201 mercatus (2d decl. 66 mal(l)o i6i malus malus 55 mam(m)a 16.

298 + Cons. 37 raovutus 438. 245 mis.311 11 ny 274 nacui 428 nam — mu.245 minus credere 29 minus est 29 minus pretiare 46 minutus 10 > mortu(u)s 226 mossus 438. 438 naucella 13 naufragus 325 nautat 236 navicella 37 navitat 236 ne 14. 187 meuble 204 (i) meus = mi 87 n: see Nasals mextum — m2estuin mezzo 272 mi r= meus -a 87. 440 muc(c)us 163 muebie 204 (i) mul'erem 225 mulier 9. 438.228 narratus 37 (-ta) -monium 37 mo(n)strare 311 Nasals 303-11 Final or = monumento = -um 244 Mood 1 1 5-9 morbu(s). cf. 387 mi = mihi25o. 439. 289 moc 428 (i). 294 modernus 18 Metiacus 277 metipse 24. 66 metipsimus 66 metltus 441 207 Mute -t.29. cf. 227 mi(ni)sterium 231 minist(r)onun 292 minor 377 minsis 198. 83. 441 motto 187 movi 428 movit 244 movita37-.439 movitus438. 75. 229 (2) Nebitta 37 (-ittus) nebula 235 necare 9 necator 37 mirabilia 37. 311 -m -n falls 309 falls 310 mihe 244 milex 255 mille 161. Metathesis 245. 440. 304-6 171. 229 (4). 201 minus 201. 255.Liquid mut(t)ire 162 132. 160 mode modo 40 moere = mov. 217 334 mutare 229 Digitized (5) nepoti(s) 298 ne'ps'unus 71 by Microsoft® . 385 miauiare 17 michi 252 mienia 1S4 migat micat 256 monarchia 37 monasterium 182 -monia 37 monibam 420 moniti n + fricative 171.Index. 381 mn 307 millefolium 38 mil(l)ia 161 mordSre 399 morire 406 moriri 406 n -h fricative ny 274 nasco 255 nascutus 438 nasum -us 347 natatorium 37 nati vitas 37 Morphology 345-45° morsi 429 morsus 441 mortificare 46 mimoriEe 229 (2) minester 201 ministeri(i) 89. 231 mis meis 388 mis. 377 minus.324 Moesia 187 molui 428 molutus 439 255 myrta 187 Mysia 187 mysterium 182.245 miscere 399 misculare 35 misera 376 mis(s)i x6i. 163. 440 necavi 428 nee ente 71 nee unus 71 ne ente 71 negare 263 negat 256 mur 206 murare 229 (5) muri -a 349 muritta 37 (-ittus) murta 187 Negation 75 negliencia 259 nemo 71 neofiti missorium 37 mis (s) us 441 mistus 440 mixticius 39 mobilis 204 (i). 429 = mullus 187 mulsi 429 multum 74 multus 71 muntu = multum 289 (2) necatus 435. 136 mulieris 136 natus 13.

383 305 accented 202-5 o 202-4 o 197. 229 (6).208 nepta 37 neptia 37 neptilla 13 Index. 100. 79 ob-28 obdormire 28 obferre 32 obliscor 324 oblitare 34 obprimere 32 Nerba3i7. 234 306. offla 235 oi>oe>-e ot nome 336 nomem nomes = nomina 369 Nominative 97. 328 noembrios 324 noembris 324 noicius 324 nolo 161 ny274 nynfis 306 406 406 429 440 192. 309 nivicare 18. 243. 349 see Gender ne 229 (2) ni : = nichil 251 niepos 177 observasione 277 oc 251 occansio 311 occidere 212 occubavit 256 ni(g)rum 270 nihil 71. 22S. > > 6 165. 215 omnes = —is 244 onmimodus 44 omnis 12. etc. 40 (Greek) 186 Digitized nora 208 (3) Normannice 40 norus 208 (3) notrire 229 (5) noli 40 -on 36 -ov 38 -iav 38 -ones 40 -oneus 39 by Microsoft® .) 395 nullus 71. 395 num 83 u ob (Greek) i?5 14. 197. 251 nil 250 nimpae 332 nise 229 (4) nitidus 238 nittus 238 Numerals 57-8. Absolute 97 non 203 nona(i)nta 380 75. 323 nerbo 323 Neroua 322 nervia 349 Neuter nervus 323. nupsi 297 nobe 318 nobilis 11 nobis 318. 203 o (Greek) 192 274 38. 215 offertus 435. 378-82 occu(m)bas 306 occurire 406 Accent 142 nummus 328 nun = non 203 nunc 12 nuncius 276 -occus 37 ocio 276 ocium 276 octa(gi)nta 380 oc(u)lus 219. 202-5. o 165. 177. Nouns 345-73 see Declension and Gender nous 177. 229 (5) nutritio 37 odedere 426 Odissia 187 oe 215 oefor xand e 215 offeret offerire offers! nutritura 37 nocui 223. 71 o for au 212-3 >oe ]>e 06 > o 225 > omo 251 -omus 446 on 71 ou>.324 nova(i)nta 380 novellus 13 novius 207 (2) noxeus 224 ns 171. 250. 385 nocere 399 nutrire 166. 311 nubis 366 nulli (gen. 167. 205 5 > 9 205 9>uo oi ou|>-gu 167 o u 202 o ou 203 oleum oli 274 274 oli(m) 309 olio nonna 16 nonnita 37 (-ittus) nonnitus 37 (-ittus) nonnus 16 noptiae 207 (2) 177 192.ou 167 unaccented 219. 274 > ola 213 oleo 373. 33 nuncquam 305 nunqua(m) 305. 244 u6 o 225 -o 37.

) 347. 217. Ordinal Numerals 382 -orem 346 (3) oricla2i2. 369 papilipnis (nom. parecer 414 parens 10. 236 parabulare 155 paradisus 190 paraula 236. py 273 ry 296 scy 275 40S Particles 156-8 particularis 39 -OS (Greek) 38 Oscan 2 -usco 197. 322 > = oum 167. -omus 39 -o«J446 -o(n)sus 311 otia 277 otobris 266 209 paor 324 papaver (masc. 434-41 = orum = aurum 212 orzo 272 OS (masc. 227 pari mente 41 227 Palatalization 258-62. 225 parietibus 224 oratorium 37 orbus 9 palanca 332 palasium 277 Parigi 86.212 orata ou (Greek) 193 ou 167 9u Ouiouia Vibia 318. 296 parsi 429 by 273 c': see Gutturals cy 276. 202-3 -osco ossiculum 42 ossuculum 43 > ssy 275 sty 275 partunt 416 parutus 438. 259 pari 364 par(i)etes 136. 408 Perfect 102. 439 pasmer 300 passans 39 passi(m) 309 sy 275 ty 276-7 ossulum 37 ossum 356 (3) ostensio 37 ostensor 37 vy273 palatium 277 palleum 224 Passive 112-4. 229 (7) oridium 339 -orlum 37 -orius 39 orma 186. Passive 105. 278 parsus 439. 107. Pans 86 Parisiis 272-8. 409 passos 355 paucum tempus 13 ostentare 34 ostia palma 14. 296 Palatals 271-8. palpebrum 352 pal/ires 134 = hos-25i = ostium 202 ostrum aus. 42 feminine 346 (2) -re 245 -or -ura 42 -or hora25i ora oracionem 276 aur. 324 ovum 167. oze ozie 324 = > > = hodie 272 = hodie 272 = pacific! 321 8.) 367 parentorum 368 p : see Labials paceveci = oratia = Hor-25i Order of Words 50-3. 12 parentis (nom. 337 pagandum 256 paganus 263 pa(g)e(n)sis 39. Active 106 Put. 318 parcui 428 onus II o 225 operare 409 0(5 > otogentos 266 -ottus 37 ophekion = ofBcium 334 opprobare 28 -or 37. 229 (7) pandiderunt 426 paucus 71 paul(l)um 161 Paulus -onis 362 paupera 376 pani 364 panneus 39 pantaisar 332 Digitized = pauperorum 376 pausa 38 pavi 428 by Microsoft® . 104.) 349 Present 102. 108. 441 part 160 partentem 416 Participle dy 272 g': omatura 37 orphanus 186 ortaret 432 hor-25i ortus see Gutturals gyz72 J271 ly274 ny 274 Put. 229 (7) ot ote = aut 213.) 367 pap(p)a -us 16 papyrius 39 parabula 144.Index.212 aut 213.

183. 410 432> 433 Pluperfect Penult 232-9 per 14. 190 Periphrastic Future 126 perit 423 perlum = prse. 422-31 = phoca 185 Phoebus 192 Phonology 131-344 Phyebae = Phoebe 215 piano 40 pictus 440 pietas 298 pietra 160 pignus 172 (2) pi(g)ritia podium 272 poella 20S Strong 427-31 Weak 422-6 Perfect Participle Participle : 270 see Pilipus 332 pinctus 440 Perfect Subjunctive 119. 208 (4). 273 poco 40 perdedit 139. 311 pensi 429 pensus 441 plodere2i3 ploja 169. 377 pejus 377 pelegrinus 292 pellabor 293 planura yj planxi 429 platea 146. 79. 426 perdita 37 (-ta) perdqnare 26 perdutus 438. 217 Pluperfect 118. 217 pluere 169. 435 plicatus 435 293 293 pello 293 pendutus 441 pellige pellicere peuma 368 ph: see Greek Consonants phalanx 181 pharetra 145 phaselus 334 Phasis 181 pe(n)sare 171. 123-4. 74 pluvia 169. 235 by Microsoft® . 315 plicare 10. 93. 208 (4). 439 pere 160 pere(g)rinus 270 peres pedes 281 (2) Perfect 121-4.26 percolopabat 237 > Phebus 192 phiala 145 philosophia yj philus 184 phimus 184 Phitonis 332 phitonissas 332 Subjunctive 433 "8. 208 (4). 96. 441 Pesaro 151 pessica 291 pessimus y]"] pestio 2S4 pectorem 347 pediculus 42 pedis (nom.Index. 208 (4).294 Pisaurese 297 Pisaurum 151 pitocco T85 Digitized pon(e)re 239 pontevecem 321 pontivicatus 256 pontufex 220 poplex 255 pop(u)lus 10. pIurigo 123. 99 per pel 293 per 160 per. 410. 273 plostrum 212 plotus 212. 326 plagiare 33 Pronouns persus 439. 369 peria(t) 285 poena 192 poeta 192 poggio 272 polippus 145 poUicare yj pollulum 213 pols 370 poltre 134 polve 370 polvo 370 polypus 145 pomex 207 (2) pirata 144. pinl 365 123-4 pinxi 429 per giro 48 piper 38. = pr-292 plus 56.) 367 plangit 259 plantare 33 peduclum 234 peduculus 42 pejor 170. 369 per girum 48 piperem 347. 347. pa(v)onem 324 pa(v)orem 324 pavura 42 pavutus 440 paze 260 pectinare 33 perpenna 292 persi 429 pe(r)s(i)ca 239 persona 71 Personal Pronouns: pius 167 placentia 37 plach 154 see placuit 223. igo plaudisti 426 pestulum 284 petft 423 Petrus -onis 362 peito 160 pleps 297. 213 plovere 169.

) 367 pugnus 172 (2) pulvus 347. 394 quamta 306 quan 305 Digitized by Microsoft® . prolongare 28 q 246. 300 presbyterum 148 provitus435. 250 prendiderunt 426 prendo 250 prensi 429 prensio 37 posmeridianus 285 posse 126 (3). 285 posturus 238 postus 238 Post-Verbal Nouns 21 posueram 285 posuet 244 posui(t) 285 403-5.229 (6) puteolis 136 • potebam 403 (i) potebo 403 (i) poteo 403 (i) potere 403 (i) pdteri 410 potestas 356 (3) potionare 33 potis 17 pretium 277 preveire 300 pride (m) 309 primitius 324 principens 367 pri(n)cipis 306 Prixsilla 255 puteum 347 putrire 400 potius 74 pr:e 14 pr£E-28 prjeber(e) 24? prsecoca 376 praeda 209 prsedestinare 28 prsEdiscer(e) 242 pro 14. 67. 79. 226. = pr<Egnans 255 Pronunciation 131-344 prophetissa 37 prophetizare 19 propietas 292 propio 292 propter 14.28 prebiter 300 Interrogative 7o> 69- quadraginta 142. 439 = 311 prendere 225. -^yj pos(t) 96. 330. 370 punctus 440 puni poni 203 = presium 277 pressi 429 pressorium 37 pressura 37 pressus 441 presta 210 presteti 139 frete 300 punidor 39 punxi 429 pupillabus 358 puplu 309 pup(p)a 163 pure 40 puritas 37 purpura 145. 254 qua 82 > promptulus 39 430 prsstus 376 Pronouns 59-71. 403 (i) Possessives: see Pronouns posso 403 postea 275 (i) prensus 441 Prepositions 76-81. 252. 71. 79. 95 pro. 85-g presbyter 148.28 probai 424 Proclitics 156-8 prodis 17 putrisco 400 puulva 356 (3) Pyrrhus 187 pyxis 187 Progne 330 proles II preefetto 266 prffigna(n)s 255. 311 prEEStare 31 prffistavi 422. 384-6 Possessive 60. 440 cf. qu 223. 332 purpureticum 1S7 putator = po. 186.439 proximus 377 psallere 36.Index. 387-8 Relative 69-70. 254 qu k. pos(t)quam 11. preda 209 Prefixes 21-32 393-4 Personal 60. por 14 porcellus yj pregnax cf. 429 Position 160-4 positus 238. 429 quiestus 436. 393-4 quaKs 70. 96 provata 318 porphyreticum 187 portare 12 posi posui 428. etc. 259 quadra(l)nta 380 qua(9'ro 283 quKSi 426. 226. 383-95 Demonstrative 61-8 Indefinite 71. 380. 401. 395 prandium 272 pranzo 272 pre. 41 5> 416-9 presentis (nom. 397. 285 Present 120 for Future 126 ptisana 145 pudicicia 276 (i) Stems 273.

quando 14. 71. 355 (2) res nata 13. 393 re(g)ina 259 regis -es 244 = quisque 71 quisquis 71 Unaccented Vowels 221 174. 71. 259. 244 quat(t)or 226. 168 429 = reddere 286 rasio = ratio 277 ratio 277 retina 17 retro 81 razzo 272 re.269 respondere 399. 82. 449 responduntur 449 responsi 429 raggio 272 que(m) 309 quen 305. 393 qui quia 82 qui ky 187. 71 rabies 319 radius 272 rainante = reg. 281 quinque 172 Quintrio quippe 1 quique 71 (i). 25 recapitulare 25 retro. 223 quia 82. 82. 139 redempsi 429 redemti 313 Digitized = rectum igS by Microsoft® .269 Vowels in Hiatus 167-9 quomodo 14. 350. quo 73 quo = quod 282 quoad 11 quod 14.quoniam 14. no. 82 comodo 226 Vowel Length 165-77 Words from Other Lan. 200 redft 423 redivit quannu 281 = Win. 139 retenet 139 retere questor 210 questus 210 quetus 225 qui 69. 245. 71 = quod 282 quum r : > cum 226 repositorium 37 reprehensus 250 requeerere 25. rectus 440 32. retundus 229 (6) reuuardent 344 139 reve(r)sus 291 reversus sumrz reverti 410 revolutio 37 rexi 297. 74 12. 380 reculons 40 reddedi 31. 380 quase 244 quasi 83. no quooperta = co. replenus 23 55.28 retro (r) sum 291 = = redpit 139 recolli(g)endo 259 Recomposition 31. 221 Development of New Quantity 176-7 Disappearance of Old Quantity 173-5 Doubtful Quantity 166 Length before Consonants 170-2 Position 160-4 refusare 17 re(g)alis quiritare 229 quis 69. 429 rhetor 335 rhetorissare 33 richesse 341 rictu quiaeti 209 quicumque 71 quid 350 quidem 11 recubitus yj (-ta) quiensces 311 quietus 225 quin II quinqua(gi)nta 142. 71. 139 requEerit 139 rs see Liquids >• ss 291 requebit 225 res 10. 219. quodlubet 220 regnancte 267 regnum 172 (2) Relatives : see Pronouns reli (n) quat 306 relinque 282. 350 = -it 285 remasit 311 Remidium 272 remissa 37 (-ta) ren^gat 139 renum reg.23. 82 quarranta 142. 309 querceus 39 quercinus 39 querel(l)a 42 rama (pi.344 = -bit 318 263 Quantity 159-77.1 Index. 82. 71 quare 12.254 guages 1 74-5 > = quantu(m) 309 quantus 12. 379 quel 393 quejus 393 quoque quot quot n Repetition 40.) 361 ramenc 37 (-incus) rancura 42 ranucula 42 rap(i)dus 239 rasl restitueram 285 restivus 39 resurge(n)s 311 retenere 31. 379 quattordecim 379 quat(t)ro 226. no.

367 SiEpia 182 saginae 42 = 284 Sagitta 37 (-ittus) ripidus 39 scloppus 284 scopulus 38 scorlare excor. 435 salitus 436. sauma 26S scabia 355 (2) scsena 182.314 rivocaverit 229 (2) sagma 19. 201 (2) senape 184 senatus (2d decl. = sa = ipsa 392 semper semper 74 sempre 245 semul 201. rubare nibeus 319 sandal 330 sanguem 370 sanh 267 sapcha 272 sapere 402 sedui 428 sedutus 441 signavi 424 segnai = rugiada 356 nira35r ru(r)sum 291 russum 291 rutare 34 s (3) segolo 200 (3) sei sapiam 272 sapidus 39 sapienti (pi.) 349 scripit 312 (i) scrips! 315. Saguntum 338 saine 42 saini 267 sltlbaiec (fern. salivi 428 440 J^= sead sebe salma 268 salsi 428. 347 rogavo = -bo 318 ro(g)itus 259. 14 sed-= se 229 (4) 429 rosum = ros 356 rosus 441 (3) sanctissimus 377 san(c)tus 172 (i). (stlis) riges = re.230 scriba -anis 359 = rigueza 341 risi 429 risus 441 rius 241. 428 = si 229 (4) = sit 419 (2) = sibi 201 ^ 419 (i) roborem 347 robur 9. (3) = 229 salbum3i7 salii scrivano 359 scultor 313 se 422.igS 399 409 sacritus rigna 198 rikitia 341 Jiimini 86 SidxpiTos 272 sseculum (masc. sty.) 349 sffipes sepes saeps 209. xi Roman Empire p. 230 sy 275 scy.) 368 419 (i) sel 160 selinum 150 sappia 272 sapui 426. 428 satis 74 sem 419 (i) Semele 359 semita 239 semo 419 (i) : see Sibilants final s in ist pers. 324 rivaticus rip. 341. 429 440 scriptum 315 scri(p)tus 313. 440 secula 200 (3) Romanice 40 Romanu -pos 38 rosi (nom.) 372 salvage 229 (3) salvatico 229 (3) salvaticus 229 (3) secu(n)do 306 secuntur 254 sed II. 34r. x : salsus 440.268.Index. 210 scalciare excalceare 230 scandalizare 19 445 initial s + cons. 441 saltern 11 salticulare 35 secatus 435. 419 roubSn rs > 36. ridSre rideri 213 schioppo 284 sclitib. ssy. : 429 Romance Territory p. 267 sedano 335 sed(e)cim 239 sedere seditur 399 = esse 402.) 355 (i) sine 201 sene -sa 37 (-ta) sabbatizare 19 scaplas 234 sablum 233 sacra 376 Sca(u)rus 211 scena 182 (i) = sacramentum 231 359 sacristano 359 sacrista -anis- schema 19 schernire 341 schiatta 343 schietto 343 senex 12 senper 306 semita 239 senta sentam 416 sententem 416 = Digitized by Microsoft® . pi. 398 398 ss 291 36.

184.^'j final s 298.cons. (2). 441 solia 323 224 sentor . sibi 219.230 Spania 230 = Spanus 230 sparsi 429 J« 419 sest = est 419 (i) set = est 419 (i) set = sed 282 seta 209 setaceus 39 setis = estis 419 (i) 229 385 (4) settembres 313 seus suus 387 soaru 295 soave 224 sobreus 224 socera 37 soc(e)rum 232. sibl 201. 234 speca spica 200 (3) = speclarait spectante = -avit 424 = exp. 182 seppia 182 sepsies 277 z : see Greek Conso- soltus 438. solbit sentia 421 sentii 42S. 387 sozer 154 servicium 276 323 servisium 277 servitium 276. 221.419 (1) sinapis -e -i 38. 385 385 Sibilants 297-302. etc. 233 soef 2.) 395 solsi s 161 429 440 224 sepes 209 sepia 146. 219. 18 sol(i)dus 237 230 separare seperare 231. 150. 445 initial s 4.z\ sofferire sparsus 441 spasmus 144 spat (h) a 332 spat(u)la 12.229 (7) serpentinus 37 = = 428 simus 220. soliculus 13. 439.ig8 439 siede 419 (1) soma 268 somas 419 (i) sona 2ona 338 septrum 260 septuazinta 339 septum 209 sepulchrum 251 sequere 406 sequire 406 serbare 323 siem 419 (2) siete 419 (i) siffatto 264 siffler 318 (2) sifilus 318 (2) = signum-us 172 sigricius silevit 422. 38. 244.230 = 406 si 14. 213 serra = sera 247 serutinus 16 servare 323 sine 95. 337 sinatus 228 (-arius) sordidius 377 sorex 42. 244. 213 soricem 42. 440 ss > 275 solingo 37 (-incus) solo (dat. septa (gi)nta 380 septe(m) 309 sidibus = se. soluit sic nants 264 Sicilianus 39 solus 395 solutus 438 solvitus 438. ssy. si sol 13 = sibi spehon 343 spelunca 329 siam 419 (2) siamus 419 (2) sibe 219. 277 servitude 37 ses servire = spacium 276 spallere 337 sive II = es 419 (i) (i) skena 341 skern6n 341 skiuhan 343 slahta 343 sleht 343 spandere exp. 201 sinexter 201 (3) -sic 37 sirena 356 (3) sis si vis 324 -sorium ^y -sorius 39 soro(r) 295 sous = suus 167. 244 solacium 276 sola mente 41 solatium 276 solbere 317 spene^SS (2) speni from spes 355 (2) speramus = -avimus 424 sperantia 37 Digitized by Microsoft® . 83. 233 sepelitus 436. sty. 429 sentitus 436. = secretins 256 347 sonatus 435 sons 419 (i) Sophia 146 -sor 37 sorcerus = sortiarius 39 s^bat 323 serbus 317 Serios Sergius 272 serore so. scy.214 senii 298 Index. sy.

230 stais stup(p)a 163 suabitati 318 5uadel(l)a 42 suavis 224 Suavitta 37 (-ittus) sub. 415. 332 Syncope 219.Index. spes 355 (2) spiritus (2d decl. 440 Suffixes 33-42 Cbange of Suffix 42 talentum 149.) 355 (i) splorator stnicere 417 215 sumus 220. 117 > 277 status 438 397 staunt 397 stegola zoo stel(l)a 163 siaii (3) Imperfect 118 Perfect 119. 14.) 349 stahu 397 397 stait 397 stantia= inst. 116 for Indie. 419 (i) suora 295 sues 138 super 80. 90. 118 Pres. 96 super.26 suprafacere 26 supra 245 -sura 37 Surd Sonant: see Voicing = exp. 84 440 440 strinxi 429 strofa 334 stropa 334 stroppus 186 strinctus strictus for Verbs 33-6 Greek Endings 36. 369 sumpsi 29S sumptus 308 tan 306 tanctus 440 tanger(e) 242 tantu(m) 309 tantus 71 tanxl 429 tapinus 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . 387-8 submonsus 439.26 superabundare 26 superfacere 26 superstitis (nom. 441 subornatris 255 subplantare 32 sy=ty277 sycotum 141 Syllabication 131-3 = Stella = 198 stingo 226 -stinxi 429 stipes stips 367 subsannare 26 Substitution of subterranus 42 subtus 81 suc(c)us 163 suceroni 362 Words 13 symphonia 146. 410 Plup. 419 (2) sublimus 376 429 su(r)sum 291 surtus 440 sus = suus 226. 430 steva 200 (3) stilla 419 (i) suus 60. 428.26 subaudire 26 subcludere 26 stao 397 stare 397 stasio 277 static subcumbere 32 Subjunctive 117-g for Imper. 40.) 367 sulphurem 347. 231-g Synonyms 12 Syntax 50-130 t : (nom. 38 suis (nom.230 struxi 429 stupescere 35 > staacio 276 stablarius 231 stagnum (masc. 405.) 367 stlataris 284 stlis 284 stloppus 284 storax 187 stren(n)a 163 stren(n)uor 164 Stress : see Accent stirpis see Dentals ty 276-7 sud=sub3i5 sufferit 406 -ta37 tab(u)la 236 tactus 440 suffertus 435. = Iniperf. 397. 41 for Nouns 37. 229. 38 tamen 11. 430 sietti 426 stetul 426. 388 -sus 37. 39 for Adv.230 spoliatur = -or 244 structus 440 straere 417 strugere 417 spo(n)sus 171 spontaneus 39 squarciare 276 ss s 161 strumentum = inst. 403. 428. 441 sus(s)um 291 sutis sursi Stephanus 183 steti 426.) 367 Supine 103 sup(p)ra 164 sup(p)remis 164 supra. 330 talis 71 strlban 341 for Adj.

352 tribuna(l) 242.208 tonatus 435 tondere 399 tonica tu. 399 trapalium 16 tres 379 tergum -us 347 termen 356 (3) terminaciones 2 76 terra (m) 309 tersi toreomatum 191 -torium 37 -tonus 39 torma = tu. 289 Tricassas 151 trienta 259 tri(g)inta 142. 385 traducir 299 traduire 299 Tatius 277 tatus 16 taula 236. 407 theios 333 toto (dat.204(2).292 -tim 40 timbre 187.259 tragere 417 trahere 417 = tempaccio 39 tempesta 356 (3) templus 347 timpuri 369 tinctus 440 tinge 226 tinguere 226 tins -^^ census trans.2l6 tapis 182 tapit 182 Index. 198 376 triumphaut 241. -anis 359 = tibi 385 -tiacum 277 tibe 244 ti tractatus 9 tractus 440 tradedit 31. 424 tristus = tres 395 -trix 37 trobaire 37 (-tor) totum (adv. 407 -tas 37 tasso 342.208 tomus 186 torqu(e)o 226. 399 torsi trescar 342 trib(u)la 235.26. 244. Theophilus 333 thesaurizare 19 thesaurus -um 189.) 346 timoratus 39 Tragani (2) = Traj. 380 trinitas 429 tarsus 441 -Tt\% 38 testa 13 tetrus 376 428 tortus 440 tot 71 tot trinta tris 37 380 taxui 428 204 (2) texutus 440 thahso 342. 440 239 tollitus 435. 299 trabucare 26 tracere 417 tap(p)ete 162 tarde 40 tarir 342. 318 taurellus 37 taxi 429 telebra ter. 331 timor (fern. 343 tharrjan 342.) 74 tous thensaurus 311 — tuus 387 Trogar=-jae 259 Troja 170 Digitized by Microsoft® .208 tonsus 441 toll(e)re 429 trebus 201 trei = tres 379 298 trei Teodor 332 -ter 40 tardus 276 Terentio = treis 177 tremulat 235 trepaliare 33 = -us 298 tergSre 399 -tor 37 torcere 399 torco 226. 139 tibi 221. 347 threscan 342 tra. 71. 299 transannare 26 tra(ns)duco 299 tra(ns)jicio 299 260 tra(ns)luceo 299 tra(ns)mitto 299 tempo 298 tempus 13 tenit 244 tinxi 429 -tic n transplantare 26 tra(ns)pono 299 tra(ns)tulo 299 ten(n)uis 164 Titius 277 Tivoli 86 tra(ns)veho 299 traps 315 trasporre 299 travis (nom. 343 tata 16 . 259. 439 tolsi 428. 325. 429 tolui 428 tomolus =: tumu.) 395 tot(t)uS 12.26.) 367 traxi Tense 120-30 tensi 429 tensura 13 tensus 441 t^nueram 137 tenui 42S tenutus 438.163.

187. 206. 220 ui 216 unaccented 219.) 429 -unt -ent 449 unus 10. 71. 244 in hiatus 222-6 uo >• o 226 uu u 226 o 225 u(5 uu u 226 Uranus 193 urbis (nom. u 226 uuadius 344 > -uus > -itus 42 -udo ii > -umen 42 uxo(r) 295 uxore (abl. 430 > > -urem 346 (3) veninum 42 venire 126 (5) venitus 436. 222. 228. 315. 82. 2c6 u 208 u ii o 165.298. 387-8 ty 276-7 ty ty > cy 277 > sy 277 uno (dat. 223 : vernac(u)lus 234 vemum tempus 13 ve(r)sus 291 vertragus 19 Digitized by Microsoft® . 356 (3) vea via 201 = vecere = veh-4i7 -e 364 -tus 37 (-ta). 84. 285 Valinca 37 (-Incus) . 83 ubi 73 -uc(c)us 37 (-icca) -uculare 35 -uculus 42 -utus 39. 208 u cons. 192. 57.395 unu(s) 29S unxi 429 U(5 >• o 225 uo unacc. 217 vadere 126 204 (2) -tudo 37 iuii 204 (2) tul£runt 450 tucti > -ellus 42 40 -um vallensis 39 : Unaccented Vowels see valneas = ba.315 usare 34 Use Use Use of of Cases 85-100 of Inflections 85-130 Words 54-84 venuta 37 (-ta) venutus 436. 393 undecim 166. 440 venui 428. 192.Index. 379 -undus 39 ungo 226 unguere 226 unicornis 44 unigenitus 44 vaqua = vacua 223 vaqui vacui 223 vastare 344 vanitare 34 = 187 tuos 138 -tura 37 turrensis 39 turri tumum vasus -um 347. 438. 367 veni 428. 14. 440 ver 13 usque hodie 47 ustium 202 Ut II. 39 (5). o 226 vecinus 229 (4) vedus 234. 440. 42. > -clus 234 388 Vowels unde 10. 430 urps 297. 14. 70. 405 vadum 344 -us 347 valde 237 vaUa(t) 224. 297. Troyes 151 tructa 38.316 -tulus turn = tuum 226.) 367 vendutus 438 vene bene 316 = urbs 12. 243. 206. 438. 284 vedea 421 = ve^ere 283 vef 226 vegere = veh-4i7 uobit = obiit > ve(he)inens 250 vehere 417 vel II velle 126 (3). 440 unire 34 Tuscanus 39 iuito 204 (2) tuttus 204 (2) tuus 226. 185 trutina 187 tu 60 -ula 37 (-ulus) Ulixes 187 ultra 166 -ulus 37. 220 -ugo 37 (-ago) ui 216 V see Labials vacuus 42 195 (6). 326 u 178. 378.) 244 178. 187. 73. 441 uu unacc. 403 vendita 37 (-ta) 177 u 165. 101-30 Verbs : see Verb Forma verbus 347. 349 * verecundia 231 verecunnus 281 Inflection: > > > utrum II. 206-8. 229 (5). III -uta 37 (-ta) verbex = vervex 323 Verb Forms see Conjugation Use 72. -ura 37. 438. 42 accented 206-8 u 206-7 ii>-u 165. etc.

387 vovis vobis 318 cf . 407 volutus 438 wastare 344 = ^ = = volvitus 438. 228-30 259 34 vi(gi)nti 142. 380 vilescere villa 10. 12. 429 = vixit 255 cf.) 367 warnjan 36. 4 Voicing 256-7. 218 Diphthongs 209-16 420 vetatus 435 vet(e)ranus 219. + vezem 445 vezzo 278 -vui 428 -vi via 167. 318 .201 viaticum 8. Quantity 165-77. vivacius 377 vixcit = vixit 255 cf. 239 vibi = bibi 318 iiibit 316 vibit victore (nom. 231 vettovaglia 154 vetulus 12. 286. 439 voster 199 (i). Syl. 285.93 in hiatus 136-8.197 -ea 224 vinia vinsi 428.) 349 314. 428. 284 vetus 13 video 272-3 veyo virginem 233 vir(i)diaria 237 vir(i)dis 237 vir(i)dura 18. 285. 283. = vac. 428. 255.195 = video 416 vidui = vidi 428.) 344 volere velle 403 (2) w (Latin) 224 voles 403 (2) Waddo 344 volestis 403 (2) wadum 344 volimus 403 (2) wahta 343 volon 39 (-undus) walde 344 volsi 429 Wandali 344 voltus 438. 195 vocitus Final Syl. 428 vixi 255. 430.285.) 367 victualia 18. 428 . 19 vulnus (masc. 297. 37 viror 37 virtus 10 vlscui visit Influence of Labials 217 Single Vowels 194208 before gn 172 (2) before j 170 before n fricative 171 before nk 172 (i) = = vixi 428. 358' villabus 358 Vincentzus 277 426 vinctus 440 vincui 428 vincutus 440 vindemiator 224 vindico 239 vindimia 197 vindo = v6. 416. 441 viduus 226 vieni 177 vig(i)lat 430 Vocative 87 vocitus = vacuus 42. 165-245 watan werra = . 240-5 in hiatus 222-7 Init. 13. cf. 167-9 . 19. 284 videderunt 426 video 272-3. Syl. 438. 231 (6) vocatus 435. 439. 441 vixutus 440 vobis 385 cf. 430 vido vidutus 438. 385 Vowels 136-8. 439 Penult 232-9 vac. Vulgar Words 15.195 (6) vocuus Quantity 221 Voice 1 12-4 Vulgar Latin 3. 440 warjan 344 voluntate (nom. vinus 347 Clerical Pronun. 428 in words borrowed by other languages 1 74-5 Latin Vowels 178 Position 160-4 videre 72. 259. 272-3. 429 vixi(t) 285 . 416 vistus 441 visus 441 vitellus Breaking 177 = 37 vitium 278 vitricus 13 Vowels 179 Close and Open 165 Differentiation 165 Celtic = vit(u)lus 234 vivus 324 vius = German Vowels 179 Greek Vowels 180. by Microsoft® . 429 vinti 380 vincisti Intert. 221 Unaccented 219-45 (6) Vocabulary 6-49 vocatio videunt 416 vidi 428. 321 volatilia 37 volemus 403 (2) w (Ger. Accented 194-218 Digitized 344 344 werrarius 39 werrizare 33 wi^arlon 342 19.2l8 vervex 323 ves(s)ica 162 vestibat Index. 37 victurias 203 vic(u)lus'234. 234.

277 Zogenes = Dio. 266 y (Greek) 187 y (Latin) 224 zagante 229 (3) zampogna 332 zanuari = ja. 398 Word Order 50-3 wost.272 ymnus 251 zerax = liierax 339 zosuin=deorsum 339 Zouleia= Julia 272.339 zebus = die. Wintrio 344 wlsa 344 witan 36.344 z 246 zabul(l)us zes 219 zacones zaconus ~ dia. 339 zeta = diseta 339 zie = die 272 Zesu zins 260 ziziper 312 (i) X 246. 255.Index.339 = dies 272 = Jesu 272. 339 Digitized by Microsoft® .339 = dia.339 Zefurus 187 zelosus 339 2» 333 Zodorus = Theo. 339 = dia.272.

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