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PUBLISHERS 1907 by Microsoft® . S.. A.I)eatb'5 flDot>ern tHanduage Qctics AN INTRODUCTION VULGAR LATIN BY C. GRANDGENT Fbofbssor of Romance Languagss in Harvahd University BOSTON. H. D. HEATH & Digitized CO. C. U.

By D. Digitized by Microsoft® . Heath & Co.V^-^5 3J( Copyright. 1907. C.

I hope. not exhaustively. however. have endeavored to keep I at every stage. H. have tried. that the is Syntax — perhaps unavoidably parts. graphy. furthermore. "^^HILE this book is intended primarily for students of it will. Although it. Digitized byiUicrosoft® . to treat all portions of the subject. but with even fulness I fear. who wish to look further into special My principal authorities are listed in the Bibliotext. somewhat scanty as compared with the other It will be seen that I have continually furnished abundant references for the guidance of those topics. Romance making. abreast of current scholarship.— . I Philology. PREFACE. it be of some interest to has been long in the Classical scholars as well. others are cited in the appropriate places in the C. Grandgent.

. Sense Restricted Sense Extended ... Words used alike in Classic and in Vulgar Latin Words used differently in Classic and in Vulgar Latin ........ and Pronouns Prefixes used with Verbs Suffixes Suflixes for Suffixes for Verbs Nouns Adverbs iv Digitized 18-23 Suffixes for Adjectives Suffixes for 23-25 25-26 27-28 Change of Suffix by Microsoft® . 13 13-16 13-14 14-16 16-28 16-17 Prefixes used with Nouns. with Abbreviations PHONETIC ALPHABET and Other Symbols X. .. Adjectives. ^ . xi x xi xiii-xvi . 9 9-10 10 10-12 Ii>-i2 Particles Words used in Vulgar but not in Classic Latin Native Words Foreign Words I2 Uerivation Post-Verbal Prefixes 13-29 Nauru . 8-9 Synonyms Substitutes.TABLE OF CONTENTS... ^ . . . 6-29 6-12 6 7-8 7 . AND Their Meanings. xvii INTRODUCTION i-S VOCABULARY WoBDS.. Pages MAPS The Roman Empire The Neo-Latin Territory in Europe BIBLIOGRAPHY.. . 7-8 Words used in Classic but not in Vulgar Latin ... .

.Table of Contents. Gerund Gerundive . 30-59 30-32 32-41 32-34 33 33-34 34-38 Pronouns 34 35-36 36-37 37-38 38 ^^38-39 Verbs Adverbs Prepositions 39-41 ^ Conjunctions 41 Use of Inflections Cases 42-59 42-48 42-43 43 43-44 Locative Vocative Genitive Dative Ablative 44-4S 45-47 48^ Accusative Fall of Declension Verb-Forms Impersonal Parts Supine 48 48 48-51 48—49 '. Future Active Participle Digitized 49 49 49 by Microsoft® . Adjectives Pronouns- Verbs Adverbs Fiepositions 28-29 29 20 Conjunctions SYNTAX Order of Words Use of Words Nou»s and Adjectives Comparison Numerals Pronouns Personal and Possessive Pronouns Demonstratives Interrogatives and Relatives Indefinite . . Compounds v Pages 28-29 28 28 28 28 Nouns .

vi Table of Contents. Greek Paroxytones Greek Proparoxytones Other Foreign Words Secondary Stress Unstressed Words 64 64-65 65-66 66 66-67 67-68 68-77 68-70 71-77 Quantity Position Vowel Quantity Vowels in Hiatus Lengthening before Consonants Disappearance of the Old Quantity Development of a New Quantity 72-73 73-75 75-76 76-77 77-104 78-82 82-gi Vowels Greek Vowels Accented Vowels Single Vowels 82-87 82-83 Digitized o by Microsoft® . Pages Present Participle Perfect Participle Infinitive 5° 50 5°~5I 51-52 Voice Mood Imperative Subjunctive 52-54 52 5^-54 54-59 54-5^ Tense The Perfect Tenses Future and Conditional 5^59 60-143 60-61 61-68 61-66 61-62 62-63 63 63 64 64-66 PHONOLOGY Syllabication Accent Primary Stress Vowels in Hiatus Compound Verbs Iliac. Illic Ficatum Numerals Greek Words Greek Oxytones .

.. before Front Vowels and G before Back Vowels and G Final and before Consonants . e vii Pages 83-84 84 ..Table of Contents. 11 2-1 14 Palatals Dentals Liquids 114-118 118-121 121-124 121-123 123-124 L R Sibilants 124-126 127-132 132-137 Nasals Labials P Digitized 132-133 by Microsoft® . ^ »" I o 84 84-85 85-86 H u 86 86-87 87 a Diphthongs te 88-90 88-89 89-90 au eu ce ui Influence of Labials Clerical Latin 90 90 90 91 91 Unaccented Vowels 91-104 in Unaccented Vowels Initial Syllable Hiatus 93-96 96-98 98-99 99-102 102-104 Intertonic Syllable Penult Final Syllable Consonants Latin Consonants Aspirate Gutturals . ... Q. 104-143 106-137 106-107 107-114 109-112 112 C and G Q.

Adjectives Personal Pronouns Possessives Demonstratives Interrogative Indefinite 162-163 163-164 165 165 and Relative Pronouns Pronouns and Adjectives Verbs The Four Conjugations First Conjugation 166-187 166-170 166-167 167 Second Conjugation Third Conjugation Fourth Conjugation Fundamental Changes in 167-170 170 Inflection 170-173 Digitized by Microsoft® . and Sibilants Z Germanic Consonants 141-143 144-187 144-161 144-147 144 145-146 146-147 MORPHOLOGY NotJNS AND Adjectives Gender Masculine and Feminine Masculine and Neuter Feminine and Neuter Declension of Nouns First Declension 147—156 149-151 Second Declension Third Declension Loss of Declension Declension of Adjectives 151-152 152—156 156 157-158 158-159 159-161 161-165 161-162 Comparison Numerals Pronouns and Pronominai. A 138 138 138-139 140 140-141 K. *. r. X Liquids.viii Table of Contents. Pages B F V . n. T e. 133-13S 13s i3S-'37 137 137—141 u Greek Consonants B. Nasals.

Strong Perfects Pluperfect and Future Perfect Perfect Participle 177-180 180-182 183 Personal Mndings 183-185 186-187 189-219 INDEX Digitized by Microsoft® . Inchoative Venbs ix Pages Present Stems Imperfect Perfect 173-174 174-176 176-177 177-182 » Weak Perfects .Table of Contents.

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Cooper. d'Arbois de Jubainville. La dlclinaison en Gaule d.T. Bonnet.. Cooper: F. Heraeus. : Part — — . 1891. I. -Carnoy: A. W. : correct- Die Appendix Probi. Cohn. Le latin d'Espagne d'aprh les inscriptions. Cf. Carnoy. : 1902-03.. Dottin: G. A Latin list of and incorrect spellings. 1901. Per. New ed. Bayard. Die Suffixwandlungen im Vulgdrlatein und im vorlittera- im NeufranzSsischen. G. Chronologie : F. Archiv : Archiv filr lateinische Lexicographie und Crammatik mit Einschluss des dlteren Mittellateins. Corssen : W. Cohn : G. M. 1872. Le latin de saint Cyprien. Claussen. cellaneous studies issued in honor of A. Bausteine: Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie. Dottin. 1905. Introduction 1899. : Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Densusianu. 1890. Le latin de Grigoire de Tours. I. Histoire de la langue roumaine. 2^ ed. 774. 1902. Manuel pour servir h Vltude de I'antiquiti celtique. Bechtel: E. Romanische Forschungen VII. Die griechischen Wbrter im Franzosischen. Leipzig. Silviae Peregrinatio. 1904. Defixionum Tabellae. 1863 1893 Claussen T.Pipoque Densusianu: O. possibly as early as the third century. <J la chronologic du latin vulgaire. (Vol. Bon. Mussafia. Wiener Studien XIV. i). Pr. L. 145 ff. Ueber Aussprache. Audollent: A. in Romor nische Forschungen XV. Digitized b)microsoft® . Corssen. Cf. 1906. S. 278 ft. 1868-70. 1895. Vol.. BIBLIOGRAPHY WITH ABBREVIATIONS. Mohl. Vocalismus und Betonung der rischen Franzosisch nach ihren Spuren lateinischen Sprache. Mllanges Boissier 5-9. Bechtel. 1902. Word Formation in the Roman Sermo Plebeius. AudoUent. Melanges Renier 301-309. Quarterly. A. App. A volume of mis- Bayard : L. D'Arbois: H. ed. 1899. C. I. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. mlrovingienne.

Cf. Le developpement de facere dans langues romanes. Made in France in the eighth Reich. : century. Koff mane. . Hoppe. Hammer. Koschwitz. Hoppe: H. alten Italien. XXII. 48. Die lateinisch-romanischen Elemente im Althochdeutschen. 2d ed. £E. Meyer-Liibke. Entstehung und Entwickelung des Kirchenlateins. Kluge F. Zs. 2d ed. Reichenauer Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. £criture laire. 1901. Haag. 1892. 1901. Made. K. Grammatici Latini. P. 1896 — Futurum G. Draeger.. H. 1893. Foerster and E. ed. probably 521 ff. 1903. Gl. .. Dubois. : W.: 1900. W.. Die Reichenauer Glossen in Zs. Die Latinitdt Fredegars. Kluge. in the eighth Cf. Grundriss der romanischen Philologie. Reviewed by G. Beiheft Gram. Lateinisch-romanisches Wdrterbuch. KofEmane : G. Etude lexicograpkique grammaticale de Kasseler Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. Edon: G. La latiniti d'Ennodius. : Meyer-Liibk'e. G. Franz : 1883. EinfUhrung in das Studium der romanischen les Sprachwissenschaft. W. 1879Digitized by Microsoft® . 1902. 1884.. Syntax und Siil des Tertullian.. Die locale Verbreitungfriihester romanischer Lautwandlungen im. Rydberg. 569. W. 1857-1880. 1904 Haag : O. Romanen und Germanen in ihren Wechselbeziehungen. jd or ninth century. in France. et prononciation du latin savant et du latin popu- 1882. 1898. : : P. 2 1902. W. Keil: H. 1894. Grbber. Die Orthographie lateinischer Worter ingriechischen : : Inschriften. -Grundriss : G. a: Zur Geschichte des franzosischen 3. Draeger: A. — 1888- M. in Archiv saint Jlrome. Einf . Kbrting. Hetzer. 2d 1878. 2d ed. Gl. of Vol. 1903. 1902. Keil. £don. Koschwitz. Goelzer. Grammaire des langues romanes. Rydberg. Historische Syntax der lateinischen Sprache. Franz. Thielmann. XXVI. : : Hammer in Grundriss I^. 498.. Habere mit dem et Infinitiv und die Entstehung des la latiniti de romanischen Futurums. 1890vols.. Facere G. Cassel : II. Franz. 641 7. 3 vols. Dubois A. Eckinger. XIV BlBIJOGRAPHY. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. Paris in Rom. ed. Foerster and E.. Eckinger T. 157. Korting: G. I.

du frangais prilittiraire. Pr. Spr. Studies in the tions. in Itinera hierosolymitana saculi Written probably in the latter part of the fourth century by an ignorant nun. Pirson. G. 1887.. Btudes sur le lexique du latin vulgaire.XXX). ad 367 ff. 451. Itala und Vulgata.S. Lindsay: W. M. and S. Ronsch. G. A. Pirson: J. Loth J. Regnier: A. Etudes sur la langue et la grammaire de Ciciron. Lebreton. ed. Mohl. Thielmann. 1899. 1905. 1901. See Bechtel. Cf. 1869. : Roman Sermo Plebeius. Petite phonltique Phon. sit Quillacq : : J. 1898. : P. Observations on the Use of Certain Prepositions in to the Petronius with special reference Part. Monthly. with special reference to the Latin Sermo Vulgaris. Oliver: A^Oliver. xv W. Marchot. Pass. ad loca sancta. Gamurrini.. Neue: Formenlehre der lateinischen Sprache. 1900. perhaps from Spain. Olcott : G. Meyer-Lubke. Cf. Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. . . H. 1897. Habere mit dem Part. 1886. 1888. The Latin Language. Silvia AquitancE Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. Archiv II. Fortsetzung. Mohl.Bibliography. 509: Peregrinatio iiii-viii. : LiteraturblattfUrgermanischeundromanischePhilologie. Lebreton J. 1892. 1901. Substantives Word Formation of the Latin Inscrip- and Adjectives. 1888. : 1 901. M. Lexique F. Vokalismus der Tonsilben. I goo. PI. Zur Lautlehre der griechischen. N. 1903. : Leipzig. Quomodo lingua latina usus S. Perf Per. Pers. S. Ferotin. Quillacq. Wolfflin in Archiv IV. Geyer. Le viritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. in P. Perf. t^ Verzeichniss der ed. Pogatscher A. Lindsay. La premiire personne du pluriel en gallo-roman. 1898. Neumann Franz Neumann. lateinischen und romanischen Lehnworte im Altenglischen : II. 372. 259. Die lateinische Sfrache in den romanischen : Landern. 1894. Les mots latins dans les langues brittoniques. Loth.'i>(eue. E. Silvice Aquitanm 1898. lat. : F. Digitized by Microsoft® . auf Aussprache und Recht- schreibung beziiglichen Eigenthiimlickkeiten in den Inschriften aus Gallia Narbonensis. De la latinitl des Sermons de saint Augustin. De latinitate libelli qui inscriptus est Peregrinatio loca sancta. Pogatscher. J. : : Ltblt. : La langue des inscriptions de la Gaule. R. Ang^ade. in Grundriss V. J. P. Hilarius. Regnier. Hilarii Tractatus de Mysteriis et Hymni et S. 1892-1902. 'P. Olcott. T. Teil.

Stolz: F. 371. Archiv I. II. Quarterly. Beitrdge zu einer Darstellung der romanischen Elemente im Latein der Historia Francorum des Gregor v. Wblfflin. 422. 264. Windisch.: E. Substrate : G. 276. Le alterazioni fonetiche e morfologiche nel latino di Magno e del suo tempo. which only occasional reference is made are cited in full in Digitized by Microsoft® . fr. 424. 117. Zauner: A. Historische 1894. 1890. V. ^KvA. 171. Som. Grober. 3 vols. Charles Thurot. 539. Die Ausprache des Latein nach physiologisch-historischen Grundsdtzen. Tiktin. Romanische Sprachwissenschaft. XII. 116. Notices et Extraits de divers manuscrits latins pour servir A fhistoire des doctrines grammaticales au moyen dge. H. Urbat. Halle. 125. in Studi Medievali I. VII. Quarter- ly. Der Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. 234. 1868.. Grammatik der lateinischen Sprache. 564. 371. 1903. Four to sLx 1879. : Zeitschrift fiir franzosische Sprache und Litteratur. Tours. IV. Die franzosische und provenzalische Sprache ihre Mundarten. 507. und Thurot : Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits de la Biblioth^que nationale et : attires bibliothiques Vol. Petronius. Sittl: K. Vok. Schuchardt. 1902. I. Waters. Die keltische Sprache. Spr. to Works the text. in 204. III. : Wolfflin : E. Urbat R. 377. Waters: W. Paris.nn&r. : Zeitschrift Jur romanische Philologie. Romania. 100. Seelmann. Lateinische und romanische Comparaiion. in Grundriss P. 1900. Die rumdnische Sprache. 453. Cena Trimalchionis. Sepulcri. Stolz. Sepnlcri : Gregorio A. Paris. Zs. : S. Die lokalen Verschiedenkeiten der lateinischen SpracAe. XQ. in Grundriss P. in Grundriss P. 1&&2. Vulgdrlateinische Substrate romanischer Worter. E. Zs. 138. Vol. 1885. VI. Suchier. 25. 1 856-68. numbers a year. Tiktin : : H. Suchier: H. Bibliography. : Zur Entstehung der romanischen Wortstellung aus der lateinischen. Chemnitz and Leipzig.xvi Richter Elise Richter. Windisch: E.

under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is close. not >• indicates derivation. the source standing at the open end of the figure. . . o = rounded the sound of German = the sound of th in English thin. * (an asterisk) before a word shows that the form attested.PHONETIC ALPHABET AND OTHER SYMBOLS.c = the sound of ch in German ach. the sound of Spanish v and i/i *. =r bilabial /S v. . (a semicircle) under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is not syllabic. whichever way it be turned. SMALL CAPITALS mean that the forms so printed occur in inscriptions (but this indication is used only when for some special reason it seems desirable). := rounded i. S =z > the sound of in English i/iis. The other marks and abbreviations employed are so generally accepted as to need no explanation. J) ii o. q e. = the sound of e in French me. Digitized by Micrqsoft® xvii . = the sound of ng in English long. vowel letter shows that the vowel is open. (an acute accent) after a consonant letter shows that the consonant is (a dot) • C '^ / (a hook)' under a palatal. is conjectural. the sound of German «.

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in adopted by Etruscans and by various n orthern Italy by Ligurians. Sicily became a province in 241. 451-455. northern Cim- Gaul Dacia was colonized in 107 A. Illyria was absorbed after 167. Tiber. IHy- _rians . LATIN. southern Gaul in 120. Spain was made a province in 197. c. Throughout this territory the official language Latin. Venetia cast her lot with Rome in 215. forsaken in the third century. in 50. and quite cut off from the rest of the Latin-speaking world in the sixth. D. and Africa. political changes drove it in the rest of the from Great Britain. The Latinization of these peoples was the work of several centuries^: by 272 b. a little district on the is The Latin tongue was thus extended to many peoples.talyjt_was Italic tribes. Africa after Iberians. all Italy was subdued south of the Macra and the Rubicon. Lat. j._ Germanic and others still. the in 102-1. for the most part. originally the speech of shown by the map was Latium. Illyrians in^sou^hea^emjmd southwestern Italy respectively by and Greeks. civilizations. also Meyer-Lubke. the Orient. Chronologie . Raetia in 15.AN INTRODUCTION TO VULGAR I.n central j. beyond the peninsula it spread among Ligurians.. pp. The and Teutones were destroyed was a province. I Digitized by Microsoft® . representing different races. X. Sfr. tribes._Semites. Sardinia and Corsica in 238. and linguistic habits. Celts. 'See Mohl. tEe bri fall "oO^thage in 146. Celts. Latin language never gained a foothold in Greece. Aquitanians. Empire it has remained.. and. The extent of the Roman Empire on p.

ilex are perhaps Umbrian possibly Etruscan Lat. had a levelling and speech in Italy ^ See Chronologie 133 and I16-120. Spr.g2eaking peoples_ were not_ homogeneous. alL southern Italy was under Oscan influence. and their In Italy the language §peech_reflected_their varied origin. kindred At first there was sturdy resistance. Chronologie 98-99. but especially p^eriods. The before the Social War. Oscan forms are ligud for and k for lege^ pru for pro^ ni for 'The is S. Pomex. Africa. Latin was simply substituted for foreign tongues. It should be remembered. has always been in an unstable condition. 2. 445. The Latin tongue. became more uniform. [§ 2 until the present day. there were at all times. considerable local dive^ences.'' In the outlying provinces. in the main. etc. the resulting geographical dis- crepancies are manifest in early monuments. Italian nn : for nd. The evidence of inscriptions and of grammarians indicates that from the beginning to the end of Roman history speech was constantly changing. piimex. and there was little or no mixture. and has been carried thence to Amerand Asia.2 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. c. The Social War. moreover. but there doubtless were still noticeable differences in pronunciation and even in vocabulary. like every living language. Latm. jfor : e. Digitized may be Oscan. it blended more languages. of Latium was adopted by tribes using. elex for The Italian word zavorra by Microsoft® . and to some degree in the peninsula. nevertheless a few native words were kept. that the language carried effect. conflict of or less with the native idioms . Kff. The map on p. until the 90-89 B. the alteration being most rapid in the earliest and the latest Furthermore. and there must have been a variety of accent.^ When Latin conquered. however. Europe where Latin in its modern forms is now spoken. 464. and Oscan was used in inscriptions until the first century of our era. xi marks the parts of ica.

^ Vulgar Latin naturally developed differently in ^ * Cf Lai. %J3] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Administration and ImiHtary service tended to obliterate distinctions. Republican and early Imperial times educated speech became highly^ artificial. under the Empire the variations probably came to be no greater than those /the^kter colonies a now to be found in the English of the British Empire. . as It is grew out of early Classic Latin. 3 i\2_ik^_J£X?.^ fields: it continues the Classic. the earlier acquisitions received a more popular. XV-XXX. not an independent offshoot of Old Latin: system. and is also between city Injatfi. Roman territory. and from the slang of the lowest quarters of the city. We may say in general that the East. not the primitive. was completelyTaFinized by the fourth "^ "" of With the beginnings culture and literature there came inevitably a divergence between the language of . provinces was not identicial: it represented different chronological stages and different local dialects of jI^aUc^Latin . Digitized by Microsoft® . Literary influence conservative and refining. more offtcial speech. What wecalTVuIit gar Latin is the speech of the middle classes. though affected by all of these. vowel is it Neither the dialect of the slums or of the us of not a few urban and rustic grammarians distinct tell vulgarisms that are not perpetuated in the It is Romance tongues. 3. was constantly developing away from the archaic standard of elegant parlance. 1 .. ugper and that of the lower and^coiintry speech. from the brogue of the country.the classes. 463-464. Cf Cooper ..t&L. drawing away . Spr. from the consciously polite utterance of cultivated society. _excegting ^reece andthe £entiiry after Christ. while popular usage tends to quick change. throughout the Republic and the Empire. .from the everyday language on the other hand. the common idiom.

as far as the levelling inEuence of schot^l and army permitted. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. If we compare that the latter find also a gre at sim plification of inflections.ALjUus--poin-t we ~may_ say that Vulgar XiSi^ stops and the . the universal inclination of language to diverge was reinforced by the original habits of the diverse speakers and by such peculiarities of native accent as hacl survived. some to a desire for differentiation (which lowers i to e to make it more remote from i ).enormous development of modifying and determining words. i6i. . we shall see was always tending to become more flexible and more explicit. being accelerated and the military organization was broken. period lasts. we observe certain changes in pronunciation. YjJgar Lsatijl.^ Ctassic and VulgarXatin. until the dialects of distant localities became mutu^ ally unintelligible. Althou. some to unknown reasons! WEy~" for instance. c. then. Sittl and Hammer. Kiibler Archiv VIII. . inj^e^ixth Jix .A-P. vedus). We rfote an. Digitized by Microsoft® . and the diphthong at is reduced to e). ^l^ various localities. some of which can be ascribed to an inclination to discard those parts of words that are not necessary for their identification (as vetulus when viridis.^ any definite date must be arbitrary. 492-497. some to a tendency to assimi^tejmlike adjacent sounds (so ipse is spoken isse. Pirson and Carnoy also. for African Latin. see Lat.seventh century of our era. progressed. become virdis. tqa^bout -6oo .it is most sharply differentiated from Classic Latin when schools decayed „ ._jjid an abundant use of prefixes and. suftseSWe 4.^ The differentiatign. Furthermore. Spr. from about 200 b.JLQmance languages _begin. B. * For a history of the Latin language. ai almost in iCf.4 . we may put it. such as articles and prepositions. due partly to phonetic but mainly to syntactic causes. roughly The speaking. in the last few centuries of this epoch.

Le veritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 5 universally be came is e. Zur Mulomedicina Chironis in Archiv XII.ijecurring. . 1899. Hetzer in Zs. 259 M. the subsequent developments. XXX).. 4 For the chronology of developments. 25 ff. Aussprache des Latein. Die Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. Seelmann. early and late. Bechtel. 1902. by an uneducated woman (probably a Spanish nun) of the latter good and bad pajt of the.' spells by A. and VII. 278. E. Lommatzsch. Sprachgziellen und Wortquellen des lateiniscken Worierbuchs in Archiv I. "See P. . E. the occasional lapses in cultivated authors. Spr. Cf. Grober. Fcerster in Wiener Studien XIV. 401.Jists„jof JacQlxacJtjOTmjs. For a brief account of the Latin grammarians. S. a few texts w ritten by persons of scanty education. "See 119. 55-67. in inscriptions and early manu- ^scripts'. Zur Sprache der Mulomedicina Chironis in . made in France There is an interesting collection of Defixionum Tabellce.iSgS. Herseus. 367. Wolfflin. the A^endix Probi^ z. and the establishment of unattested Vulgar Latin words. in the eighth century. 204 if. P. a considerable iragment of a description of travel in the East. 1902 . Geyer. Ueber die Latinitat der Peregrinatio ad loca sancta in Archiv IV. Beiheft 7. the nonClassic forms. fourth century^. the distinction of learned and popular words. 6t. see Stolz. Of ^speciaTvalue are the Peregrinatiqjidjqtasancta. 1866-68. S. 455-461. of the^TConraHcel languages. . possib^'as early as the third century'. * Used by H. Die Appendix Probi. 5* Our sou rces of information' concerning the„ current spoken La tin are^ the statements of grammarians^. E. A. Silvia Peregrinatio. Itinera hierosolymitana sceculi mi-viii. 1904. Zur Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. Audollent. and W. Paris in Melanges Renier 301. some . while au did not in Latin generally. in Archiv I. the so-called Glossary of Reichenau. Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. 'See W. 1885. Heraeus. Archiv XIV. Lot. 551. ^ Utilized by E. Melanges Boissier 5 W. W. andrmosTim- ^portant o f_all. . F6rotin. Gioixr. .* All of these are to be used with caution. list of spellings. 301 G. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. ^Cf.Mili/BaoilSisches Uebungsbuch. Schuchardt.glossaries aDi. Meyer-Liibke. a problem as yet unsolved.— An become^ o. G. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. Foerster and KDfSiiitbdnll>fr.. 35. see G. 641 K.

mater. W. {tabanus — ziruiare). 6. 233 ff. {minacicE — nutrire). bene. viridis. filius. pants. ff. amare. {damnum — dui)^ in Arckiv: I. si. For a thorough discussion of reconstructed forms. {Hie — lamna)^ So?^' {lacusta — mille)\ IV. has many poetic figures and many abstract terms unknown to the crowd. II. [abbreviare buttis). too. male. 264ff. altus. audire. ff. pater. On the other hand. WORDS AND THEIR MEANINGS. forming. popular use tends to restrict them. ^See Densusianu. to speak. quando. yj^ (supplement. the vulgar idiom has homely metaphors of its own and numerous specific. Grober.) Worter ff. see G. ff. Examples are : 7. Lateinish-romanisches Worterbuch. . (eber III.I. Herasus. see G. Die romische Soldatensprache in Arckiv XH. 453ff. — icaccubus — curbus).iooff. 149. 422 {pbedire — putidus)-. 1901. Digitized b^Wlicrosoft® . WORDS USED ALIKE IN CLASSIC AND VULGAR LATIN. ff. longus. 125 {quadraginta — rascu' {reburrus — runcare). Die Sprache der romiscken Kinderstube in Archiv XIII. bonus. A. (Jlagrare —gTttta). so cams. VulgSrlateinische Substrate romanischer . dicere. 255. the nucleus of the language. ii6fif. ~ technical words not found in literature. suus)'. vendere. VOCABULARY. This class includes a great mass of words. iiyS. reconstructed out of Romance words. Korting. polite language. puteus. in. 1. speech of the literary and fashionable classes should differ from that of the common people so Literature inclines to extend it is in all civilized communities. V. 138 {hmdus — iticem). 185-203. ff. vacca . (sabanum — lare)^ 234 VI. It is natural that the The the senses of words. 539 —Jiiicum)^ 424£f. 2'/$^. For an approximately complete vocabulary.

be classified under the heads of restriction or extension of meaning. 'authority'. mulier='-vi\ie'. SENSE EXTENDED. nite This happens frequently. words. 272. focus=^iix&\ paganus= 'pagan'. G. Dubois 185-225. Regnier 24. 351—352. 286).. i ^ns— 'chM'. Quillacq 54-79. § 10] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. not 'sophism' nor 'deceit'. viaticum = ']ox\xntY'. : senses. assume to the old one: Bechtel 137. 283. ingenium := 'trick'. etc. not 'strength'. tractatus= 'treatise'. necare = Bon. SENSE RESTRICTED. Per.' to^x^a . Bayard 105. Bon. ro6ur= 'o^. Bayard 63-202.'. = 'rebJiKe§.. Many words kept their literal but lost their metaphorical sense: captio ='a. orbus—'hXmd'.. but there are some examples /(7r^j = 'strong' in all 10. of the examples can ».^ The general use of a word in an extended sense is not common. defi' 9. IN CLASSIC 7 a. yUloi:^. 286. Dubois 220. and also 'continue'. however.'» Many Pirson 260-262. Bon. Very many Classic words are used in Vulgar Latin with a different sense: comparare =^h\xy'. se piicare=' go'. Archiv XII. Hoppe Most 48.11. Capit a ssumed the meaning of fieri potes t: R.. G. 'text'. Pirson 257-258 . lectio =^ 'dxoifin' machinari='g[mA. hcec eestimare non capit. non capit utique videri Deus. new meaning in addition ambulare= 'march'. 8. 1 a. part'. a word assuming a more or concrete signification {^se : icognatus\=z ' brother-in-law coUocare^ 'put to bed' dominicus =: divinus .ct of taking'. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . nor 'best b. etc. WORDS USED DIFFERENTLY AND IN VULGAR LATIN. 235-328. Bon. . non capit prophetam perire. perhaps Cf. 269-270. collocare= 'go to bed'.'k'./22J£Sfe 46. 243.

at. ^: moribund. Dubois 301-308).per. hamo has the sense of French on. Latin words either were not em- II. utrum. cum. terms and some abstract nouns were not needed: frondifer. the French ilj> a. 328. and quasi. Ecclesiastical Latin. Waters Ch. Bon. 3.. etc.8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. WORDS USED Numerous all in m CLASSIC BUT NOT IN VULGAR LATIN. de. is very rich in abstract nouns (G. quoque. igitur.. Bechtel 127 {habebat de eo. proles. fascia means a measure of land. /V/-.13. populus «/««^«j= 'common people'. nam. fletus. quidem. quoad. Regnier 29 {in came paucas habet virgines sanctimoniales). Bayard 83. Per. Bayard 94. Dubois. res is used of persons. Bechtel 144. ut.tes moral obligation. 204. [§ n 'go'. 418. 258 fif.loco forsitan quattuor milia. Very many adverbs and conjunctions dis-"~\ I appeared saltern. Dubois 218. : .). monuments of the Romance languages: so funus. Waters Ch. tamen must have been sed. quod. but most of them are new formations. etc. they were either borDigitized by Microsoft® . Regnier 20. 422 (in area Noe . etc.. although it is common in the Peregrinatio. quin. hand. horrescere. 58 {bella res). 391-397. diu.". ergo.25. donee. Pirson 255 ^^l^lj^j^^ ^^^^ habuit serpentes). autem. G. wW«/« = 'miracles' (in imitation of the Greek). enim. etc. When lost terms were needed for literary or other purposes. Per. 38. 44. apud. quippe. Bon. facere (time)'. Unde came to mean 'and so'. vel. etc. Classic ployed at the vulgar speech or went out of use before the earliest Jubere. satis = 'much'. etiam. to be sure. ^2S= 't^he' and 'he'. ita. sive. . postquam. 66.. G. = 'pass Regnier 27 {quadraglnta dies fecit). unus = 'a'. an. . Poetic aurora. So various prepositions and conjunctions (as ad. Bechtel 144. quomodo) assumed new functions. . 37. quia. replicare= 'reply'. del>ere 'mdica.

Some words were replaced by diminutives. Provengal. i'^o^^ tot hy quanti. Occasionally the substitute aliquis yielded in part to res -vi&y was apparently a slang word: nata.. French and Provencal mansio and hospitale. When Latin had two words nearly synonymous. mansio. French. 336. R. hospitale^. 272. avus by *aviolus. tanti. edere in the main to manducare. R.. . diminutive of avis). 12.\ Dubois 209. R. nunc by hora. senex to vetulus. magnus to grandis. . ^ Zauner 41-4. domus by casa. Italian. .. SYWOHYMS. one often crowded out the other: atrium gave way to cars. sol According to Olcott XVIII. For mansio. R.*avica. vitrUus hypatraster. 313. 472 ferre to portare. G. Rumanian. R.§ 13] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. equus to caballus. R. *filiaster. Provenjal. Portuguese. . Digitized ^^^ by Microsoft® . noverca by *matraster. R. Sometimes a term was replaced by a word not found in Classic Latin at all: anser-wAs driven out by *auca (<. 345. French. caput to testa''. ignis hy focus. 'dwelling') only in . Portuguese prefer casa. R. Rjetian. ^-j 2 parentes .338. Raetian.2. Dubois 220. 324. SUBSTITUTES. ^ * Caput (or rs. clerical 9 rowed from Classic or Latin (as nobilis) or replaced by new constructions (as *carrica for onus). Italian. a. Dubois 212. ^capitia (<^caput) by Spanish and . Indus to jocus. mansio ( Roman. os to bucca. 472.. Among the Romance languages. casa occurs only in Italian inscriptions. 337. omnes by toii. cf.Va&T* capum) is preserved by Rumanian. humerus by spatula. and by villa. emere by comparare. Bechtel i^o^gena to gabata. to genitores. urbs by civitas. Cf Zauner 41-42. cur to quare. b. some nouns by derivative adjectives: avis ^ by aucellus. Spanish. Sometimes the survivor was far from a synonym in Classic Latin: discere was displaced hy apprendere. Italian. privignus by 13. Olcott XXV. crus gave to gamba. testa by Cf.

_ Cis. tamen. appear in Classic Vulgar Latin evidently had many words that do not texts. 403. Some of these were probably old Digitized by Microsoft® . utrum were assumed by si. R. dies largely . G. vetus for [§ 15 by *soUculus. c. paucum tempus for haud diu).). too. became *por. ut were ousted by functions of an. credens. Occasionally. most part by vetulus. ne. infemus. Cf. Ab was made unnecessary by de and per. igitur.lo in part An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. PARTICLES. ergo. pra. and adverbs were lost 14. 15. 395-396. cuculla. Latin: G. mammula-:=^^zxiA\aoVs\t. yielded to apud. apud-<n2iS partially supplanted by adj cum. Italy. Olcott 250-263 {gemelli. etc. ^w^ by diurnus. which replaced /^r and pro in Spain and to a considerable extent in northern Gaul. 121-130 {cereolus. quoniam were often replaced by quomodo. doubtless under the influence of per. erga. and Dacia preferred /^r. neptilla. ex gave to de.). Many prepositions. 184-185. Fro.x\naucella. infemus. WORDS USED IN VULGAR BUT NOT IN CLASSIC LATIN. quod. sed. ver by vemum tempus. 201. Bon. etc. Gl. Reich. words were replaced by phrases: diu by longum tempus (Bon. etc.). d'lJ way pro and per. 4. R. quando. The place of cum was taken various substitutes. 108-121 {brevis. 203. R. to propter were displaced southern Gaul. 472 mane h^ Diminutives were extremely common in late matutinum. Densusianu. 100-107 {arida. hiems by hibernum. conjunctions. Dubois 147 {novellus'). by subsitution. .). by other words. Adjectives used as nouns were etc. frequent also: R. in Gaul. the by quando and other conjunctions. schedula. and other phrases. Autem. etiam. etsi.

and perhaps those of the words meaning 'gape'.. 234. 106. nonnus. bxmca.g. Archiv XIII. ii native terms that do not happen to occur in the works'.. 270-271. Digitized by Microsoft® . although they were doubtless in common use: amma. E. Archiv XIII. mamma. etc. 97. battalia. Pr. SubstrateY. 154. 151— 152. It. Grammont. a. Ch. Archiv VIII. between genitus and from prodest (cf. fin. Onomatopees et Revue des langues romanes XLIV. some were late creations.§ 17] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Archiv XIII. Substrate V. cf. II. § 405). Likewise words made by ono- matopoea. 151-153. etc. circare = 'hnnV . R. Densusianu 196. Archiv XIII.adj. Audollent 199. 421. trepalium. *rettna=: 'rein'.). Korting (found in the 7th century). fuit prode illis.. . ing 'touch'. sed non genttlis. expressifs in M. mots. pappus = 'gra. etc. Archiv XIII. so not improbably the original of the Romance words mean'find'. pudoris finis.. fine fino).by St. 63. Densusianu 190. as *miaulare. drappus. XVII. pa(J>)pa. serutinus. atta. Pirson 244. Waters Ch. 468-469 (^quid enim prode est homini. *prodis. It. Neue II. baro — 'athlete'. tatus. cloppus Densusianu 196. (so. Vr. 16. 158. 237. Archiv XIII. tata. 53. apparently a cross then m. Some of the unattested words were obviously late developments: *finis. 186. adj. 17. Bayard 179 (applied . . Archiv XII. Rom. gente).). Cyprian to the bishop of Carthage). adj. hoc enim prode fit vobis. A few that must have existed are not attested at all: *refusare. 154. norma. 156-157. (Fr. from the noun finis in such phrases as honorum finis. potis est = potest. NATIVE WORDS. prode. Substrate and f. gavia (used by Pliny). detached 176-177). some Were borrowed from other languages. Pirson 243. gent. fins onors.ndta. and 'go' (cf. finis honoris > 484. Some native words are rarely attested. (Fr. Herzog in Bausteine e. *gentis.

modernus. *man{u)aria. schema. *dulcior = 'sweetness'. Gram. confessor = 'martyr'. but a few examples Gl.. *coraticum. prophetare. 211. FOREIGN WORDS. Reich. colaphus. 66. R. numerous verbs in -izare. Waters Ch. dulcor. *soliculus. haunjan. [§ 19 Late Latin was rich in derivatives. G. Dubois 144. (cf. dactylus. Waters Ch. Regnier VIII. We find a large number of Greek words. Introduction) found their way into Latin: bannus. such as alauda. which affected familiarity with Greek. G. sabbatizare. 205-226: anathema. sagma. evangelizare. eunuchizare. will be discussed at length in the following may be given here: post-verbal dolus <dolere. * abbellire . A werra. Judaizare. *nivicare. Reich. §71. According to Olcott XIX. cata pascha). Very many Greek terms used by ecclesiastical writers never became popular. vict(u)alia. This subject chapter. few Celtic terms were adopted. society. cata. Cf. prophetizare. More came in through the Christian vocabulary: angelus. Bon. 224. *vir{t)dura. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. a few of them on the sense of 'every'. 225. catechiblasphemare . Some were introduced by fashionable etc. a distributive preposition. some of popular creation. there are many Greek words in Petronius: hepatia. folUa. Bon. scandalizare. 44. carricare. cf. diaconissa.. African Latin was freest in word formation.. alberca. 12 An 18. 226. Gl. *ausare. thesaurizare . verging 247 {cata mane mane). apparently borrowed by popular speech: amygdalum. baptizare. zelare. wfltan 19. anathematizare. as baptizatio. More Germanic words (of. Bechtel 95 {cata mansiones. colaphizare. as allegorizare. haribergum. and not a few new derivatives. some made by Christian writers. b. vertragus. Digitized by Microsoft® . Pirson 236). zare. hapja.

POST-VERBAL NOUNS. a.* We shall consider first postverbal nouns (i. sub-. saltus — saltare. satire). 21. etc. some of them made with new suffixes (as —icca. " Cooper 246-297. XL VI. G. I.e. 430-693 Densusianu 156-173. Vok. as canere. 35.* popular speech preserved and This freedom of formation was abused by African authors. substantives taken from the roots of verbs). PREFIXES. facility of word formation. AND PRONOUNS. In strictly Classic texts there appear to be no 20. who were especially addicted to prepositional compounds with con-. 367. ADJECTIVES. 130 .§ 22] An Introduction to VulgaW Latin. Cooper XXX ff. Bis. 98.was used with some adjectives and appar: ently with a few nouns bisaccium.or bi. which in- the literary language creased. '^ . Digitized by Microsoft® . Late writings almost all abound in abstract nouns (Cooper 1-2). 2. B. really living suffixes \ but the lost. Petronius. whereas in reality both come from a primitive verb. (pairs in : VII (blamed by St. Vulgar Latin is very rich in derivatives and comit has many affectionate diminutives. a fictitious primitive noun was derived from a number of verbs in Vulgar Latin and in the Romance languages so dolus from dolere. See Gram. G. 170 . Bon.^ PREFIXES USED WITH NOUNS. such as gaudimonium (Waters Ch.. pounds . and finally composite words. 22. Cooper XXXIV. " Cooper XXXVI. —itta)} Petronius shows a fondness for long derivatives. 1. After the model of cantus — cantare. 61). 246-247. in-. ' » bimaritus. 13 DERIVATION. which the noun seems to come from the derivative verb. II. bisacutus. Regnier etc. Augustine). next suffixes. then prefixes.


An Introduction
Ad-, con-, de-,

to Vulgar Latin.


dis—, ex-, in-, re:

and some others were
*adaptus ; commixtius,

occasionally used to form adjectives

G. 160 defamatus ; *disfactus; exsucus; inanimatus ; *replenus.
Cf. G.




Ac-, atque-,

ecce-, eccu-,

met- were used as demonstrative

prefixes to



pronominal adjectives and to adverbs. Eccu— is ecce eum; its origin being forgotten, it was used in

Vulgar Latin as a synonym of ecce. Met, primarily a suffix, came to be used as a prefix through such combinations as semet ipsum, understood as se metipsum. In archaic writings
reinforced demonstratives as eccum, eccam,


ecca, eccillum., eccillam, eccillud, eccistam

are not



Vulgar Latin examples are ac Classic texts they are rare. sic; atque ille-; ecce hie; * eccu iste ; * eccu sic. Substrate VI,





Cf. A.

Kohler, Die Partikel

ecce in

Archiv V,

See §§ 65, 66.



25. Ad-, con—, de-, dis—, ex—, in—, re— were freely used, disbeing mainly a Vulgar Latin prefix: abbreviare, G. 179 * a.d;

cap(i)tare ; adgenuculari, R. 181; adpretiare, R. 181, G. 180;
adpropiare, R. 181, G. 180; adunare, R. 182; confortare, R. 185,

* cominitiare ; complacere, R. 184; deaurare, G. 182 * disjejunare; exaltare, G. 183; excoriare, G. 182; impinguare, G. 181


G. 183; *infurcare; recapitulare, G. 185; *requcerere.
con—, de- lost their special significance;

Ad—, ad— was particularly

favored in Spain, con- in Italy.
ally there

Cf. Lat. Spr. 487.

was a change

of prefix


was used with the

sense of expectare, * convitare sometimes took the place of invitare; dis-

was often substituted

for ex-.


Ab-, contra-, per—, sub-, super supra-, tra trans— were

by Microsoft®

§ 3i]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


used occasionally: * aboculare ; *contrafacere; *perdonare ; subG. 185; * subdudere ; subsannare, R. 199, G. 187; superabundare, G. 187; * super—* suprafacere ; *trabucare ; *transaudire,

annare; transplantare, G. 188.
27. Extra- was sometimes used and 2«/ra— in Italy: * extrabuccare ; 28.
in Italy

and Dacia, infra-

* infraponere ; *intratenere.


e-, ob-, prce-,

pre-, pro-, retro— were apparently

not used to form new verbs in the popular spoken language,
although some of them are occasionally so employed by late
writers: opprobare, G. 184; prcedesiinare, G. 184


prolongare, G. 184.



sometimes replaced by ad—:


> addormire.

Foris and minus came to be used as prefixes in some

Foris was confounded Gaul with the Frankish _;?r- (= ver-) verslahen = Old Fr. See G. Baist, Frdnkisches fir— im altesten Franzosiforbatre. schen in Romanische Forschungen XII, 650; cf. Rom. XXX, For this use of minus, compare the phrase minus est^ 633. caritas in quantum adest in quantum deest, Regnier 109


* minuscredere.






autem minus


Cf. § 245.


Some verbs

take a double prefix

adimplere; coexcitare,

R. 207

(cf. Quintilian, coexercitatus); deexacerbare, R. 207

*deexcitare; *exeligere.




the restoration of the


form of

the primitive verb, was a regular process in Vulgar Latin (cf. §139): aspargo for aspergo is blamed by Velius Longus, £don

Cyprian, Bayard 3; commando is, according to Velius Longus, the usual form, rather than commendo,



used by


S. 60, ifidon

131; consacrati


occur in inscriptions,




Bon. 49°;

^^f^'^i ^30^°





An Introduction
Bon. 490.

to Vulgar Latin.



Computo, 58-64, Bon. 486-493. prdsto seem to cdnsto, consuo, erigo, exeo, infio,

have been regarded as simple verbs

S. 64.

primitive form of prefixes; but this

Late writers were in the habit of restoring the full, was doubtless merely a

matter of spelling, and did not indicate the



In TertuUian, Cyprian, and some others there is generally no assimilation of the prefix other writers, such as

Gregory of Tours, apparently used both assimilated and unassimilated forms. Bayard 12-15: adpetere, conpendium, inproius, obfero, subplanto. Bon. 178-188: adtonitus, conmittere,
inlatus, obprimere, subcuvibere.



in —are; occasionally


Nexhsfrom nouns^ generally end
sometimes in

in -iare or —ire;

which was eventually sup-

planted in Italy and in Gaul by —izare (for pronunciation see

§339)- This last ending came from Greek -dfiv through borrowed words, such as baptizare. For a list of Greek verbs in -i^etv adopted by Christian writers, see R. 248-249 (cf. §19 above); some new formations were used, as catechizare. In early Latin this same ending appears as -issare (attidsso, rhetorisso): see A. Funck, Die Verba auf issare und izare in

Archiv III, 398.


— * dom'nizare;

—plagiare —


oculare; pedinare; plantar.e; potionare; * trepaignire ;



follicare ;

* nivicare ;


Cooper 205-245, Dubois 151-162, Quillacq 41-46, Bonnet 471-474.

"Cf. R. 154-162.

by Microsoft®


§ 36]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

in —are,


Verbs from

and perfect participles e.r\A

—iare, —ire; also in' -icare (cf. albicare), —itare (cf. debilitare,
visitare), —escere


—iscere (cf. canescere, mollescere); possibly


angiistare; *ausare; captivare

confortare ; falsare

gravare ; levare ; * oblltare ; rictare ; Usare ; * abbellire ; tiare ; * captiare ; humiliare ;

— * vanitare —


alleviare; * al-

unire ;


Icetiscere ; vilescere ;

— amari— *blan-




verbs from perfect participles (frequentatives, etc.)

replace the original verbs: adjuvare "> adjutare ; audere'^ausare; canere'^cantare ; uti>usare.

lost their frequentative or inchoative sense







156. in -icqre


Verbs from other verbs end


fodere), —itare (cf. clamitare <,clamare')\ also in -escere, -Iscere
(cf. florescere,

* bullicare

< buUere





inchoative force:

apparescere ;

Vulgar Latin has many old frequentive verbs G. 178-179, Cooper 205. There are some late diminutives in —aculare, —tculare, -uculare, through diminutive nouns or adjecWe find also tives (ci. periculari <,periculum'): * saltlculare. some miscellaneous imitative formations * expaventare (and some others) apparently after the analogy of prasentare * misculare perhaps after maculare.


Greek verbs in -av,

-eiv, etc.,

when taken

into Latin, reg-

KvP€pvav>gubemare ; pXa(r<j}rifidv'>b/asphemare. Cf. Claussen 795. But ^aXS.av>psallere, perhaps through the analogy oifallere: Claussen 796. Germanic verbs in -an or -on regularly passed into the first


in —are:

conjugation in Latin





guidare ; roubon




"jR^etcA. ;

in -jan

went into the fourth
It. guamire. Digitized by Microsofi®


> hatire,


warnjan >

iCf. Quillacq 15-31. as a feminine singular with an augmentative and pejorative signification. 1 [§ 37 SUFFIXES FOR NOUWS. placentia. used to designate a place (as gallinarium). Vulgar in deriva- Petronius. -dnus: see Adjectives. 95. -arium. Ch. Olcott 187-189. 366. was extended: coxale. was extended: clericatus. Olcott 73-78. fragraniia . -ugo were characteristic of rustic speech: —al. Latin. Some go endings. —aria : see -ia. -ens: see Adjectives. —ata : see -ta. were used to form abstract nouns from verbs: Cf. Dubois 99-136. participles H ia (as benevolentia. used to — Haag 41 form f eminines nepta. e. used to form adjectives and also nouns. bonatus. essentia. -entia. -ans. 49-52.8 — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -enda.. in Italy and Gaul * canalia •< canis. Pirson 123. etc. -are. as miraUlia. 95. Bon. are the following: : Ch. Cf. -ar. the collective plural -ilia. . volatilia. 453-463. Cooper 1-91. in a collective sense. 40. were used The Christian writers are especially rich Waters Ch. was used. -ago. -antia. Digitized by Microsoft® . -die. b. for nouns and adjectives: liminare. to form nouns from nouns: g. 31-37. Cf. was extended: breviarium. G. * credeniia . Ch. made from present significantid). apparently. neuter plural of the gerundive. G. too. R. 79-102. -^a. was very fond of diminutives: adules- centulus. porcellus. as senatus (common in Petronius. iio-iii). *sperantia. Cf. 59. -alia. -dtus. -arius: see Adjectives. Bon. *pollicare. Olcott 176-182. 6\. especially names of parts of apparel (as bracchiale). G. *ducatus. 355. (as viaticum) was extended. Cooper in. Cf. Waters Ch. taurellus. The commonest endings -a. * calamarium. 74). 39. tives. R. -igo. -affcum * coraticum. G. Bon. : -anda. socera. Olcott 238-239.i in 37. a neuter plural. as victualia (cf. etc. came to be used as a feminine singular: *facienda.

XXXV. -ellus. Horn- —iceus. -Tela. see A. Bonica. 333ff. Olcott 131-134. from Greek -ia through Christian writers and speakers monarchla. XXXI.- -culum. used to form feminines (as avus. R. Einf. suffixe -arius. etc. and came to be used as a diminutive suffix in Spanish. Pir- son 123. -ensis: see Adjectives. -ia. diminutive (as castellum). was mighty deeds of God Koff'. Arbonenca. Thomas. somewhat extended: Old Fr. Sardinia. XIX. -crum (as miraculum.. possibly of Ligurian origin (Rom. which lost its diminutive force: anulus. was used for many new words: Pr. Karica) first appears in Africa in feminine proper names. -iccus..' *libraria. -entia : see -antia. unaccented. II. —eum : -ia. 91-92. G. porcellus. was used beside -cuius: So * domnicellus. avicula. = ' nouns (as victoria). vitellus. was probably Cf. XX. it was then extended to Spain. -incus or -inguus (as propinguus). being used in pet names. It was often attached to words in -arius. and Nouveaux (aise no. . cf. So calamellus. Rum. etc. Gram. etc. 591. and Rumanian: Sp. See A. philosophia . wvicella. vitulus. -tcca (as Bodicca. —ans. avid): neptia. Digitized by Microsoft® solingo. -enda : see —anda. navi- —ceus. 31-37. —icius: see Adjectives. § 173. For -accus. —eus: see Adjectives. ramenc . -Mum. 457. Pr. as desiderium. Olcott 173-176. —tea: see Archiv fiir das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Litera: turen CXIV. 1-2 1. 283ff. ing in Zs. unaccented. It. abstract extended *fortia fortia n.). hence an ending -fflWa. It may have arisen in the first place from a childish pronunciation of -iclus. : used (cf . -cius: see Adjectives. lavacrum) were occasionally used: *genuculum. Portuguese. manica. —ceus. -uc(c)us. and Dacia. porculus. Cf. anellus . Cf. cula. etc. was often used beside -Ulus. navicella. animalico . Valinca. Cf. see —ium. 19 -cellus. —ens: see Adjectives.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. mane 76). -occus. consirier. Les substantifs en -ier et le essais de philologie fran- Rom. diminutive. -ia. perhaps also *-ingus and locally -ancus. 170. 335. to form pi. 481.

bacito. Florentinus . XXVIII. 343. was probably confounded. Raetia. Fr. in [§ 37 some regions. -men. regards -dttus. R. used to form nouns from adjectives (as munditia -ies). -mentum. . as a suffix for proper names: feminine tus. calcaneum) : see G. like littera beside litera. Olcott 78-80. -mum. It. Olcott 123-131. -io : 134-136. sometimes in Spain and Gaul. used to form nouns from verbs (as certdmen. bonito. cf. (as paffiXurcra. Fr. the i being short in Gaul. Olcott see -iio. Nebitta. etc. but sometimes to form new adjectives to form domnina = 'young lady'. R. doucet. § 172. Pirson 228. Sp. was used for prophetissa. etc. Zimmermann. fioretto. conjectures that have come from the Germanic ending that now appears as in such names as Heinz. Cooper 251. may have arisen from a childish pronun- ciation of -iclus -a: it may Meyer-Liibke. from the Greek Cf. masculine Muritta. -issa. with the -ing. 251. camerlingo. much extended. -laaa. etc. especially -mentum : *gubernamentum. grassetto. in inscriptions in Italy -ittus first appears during the Empire and Dacia.. originally used to indicate a characteristic (as Digitized btbo). Attitta. Sp. Cf. and also for adjectives. lausenga. especially : diminutive nouns. vestimenium). so pythonissd). -iva : see Olcott 224-226. -eum (as cafitium. -itUdo : —ium. —itia. serpentinus. Cf. was used for some nouns and perhaps for adjectives (see -incus above): Pr. (Cooper XLV): *altitia. -Uies. -lius. generally long in the Spanish peninsula and in -Ittus. it was freely used. a German patronymic ending. 22-25. adjectives. amourette. -otus. -icca. Germanissa. li. Zs. Bonitta^ Caritta^ Julitta^ Livitta^ Suavitta. then resemblance. -tnus (as caninus. Cf. Montaninus) originally denoted appurtenance. Pirson 226: Julianeta^ Nonnita^ N'onniit Its origin is unknown. It came to be very widely used as a diminutive suffix for nouns. 56-59. -monium. An It Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Sagitta. were extended.. some new formations: ^dukissa. Cusanca. forms of -dtus. were both are rare in Rumanian -ities especially in the south . see —tUdo. W. A. and central and northern Italy. Cf. Einf. following. —monia: see Olcott 81-82. Olcott 200-204.20 Sp. was by Microsoft® . -dttus as alternative Sardinia: nouns. -ttas : see —tas. then smallness. *granditia. -0 {-onem).

feminine perfect participles with a feminine noun understood. sapor). was freely employed :ya/jfi'aj. in. nativitas . was employed for many new formations of the same kind. casotta. -or {-oreni). prensio. Bayard 19-22. Cf. —trix. -tus and -j«j were preferred in Dacia (Cooper XLV) collecta. timor. -ittus). *nutritio. Cyprian. aggravatio. perfect participles by fourth declension nouns in -tus. 88-122. Olcott 2-23. started perhaps with such forms as defensa. 122. potto). ostensor. later -dta. then as a general moderate diminutive It. see —torium.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and were reinforced —ta. used to form abstract nouns from verbs (as mansio. are very common in St. —sa : see —ia. aiglon. andata. -(orium. *flavor. mensor). e. -sa. 475. 69-82. It. —sor: see -ior. trinitas. —sio : see -ito. Olcott 33-51. recubitus . R. someDigitized by Microsoft® . : -or (-orem). used to form from verbs nouns denoting place. remissa. used to designate the agent -orium . 503-504 {dolor. origin (cf. -sionem). as an augmentative or pejorative. and other late writers: abbreviatio. : extensa. G. lectio. —tor. 453. C. *deUta. —sor (—torem. G. were very freely employed (but show few traces in Ru- manian : Cooper XLV) : necdtor. revoluUo. viror. See Archiv V. as collectus. 83. —sura: see —ilra. as *annatd). Olcott 83-87. used to form abstract nouns (as candor. -sorem). —tas {-tdtem).. etc. -iita. used to denote the agent (as Cf.). They were considerably used to make abstract nouns from verbs (and —ata was sometimes attached to nouns. used to make abstract nouns from adjectives. especially in Gaul: dulcor. -sorium. *movita. common in St. etc. 44-45. Substrate IV. 88. G. It. R. G. —Stus. Pr. aquilotto. 223. -sus: see —ta.G. venuta. purltas . 55-63. *sentor. In Gaul these nouns came to be feminine: Bon. Jerome. Olcott amdtor. So deitas from deus. was apparently used : first of young animals. i. Cf. -Sttus. St. trobaire. R. -sio i^tionem. ostensio. XIII. unknown etc. *lucor. -tricem. G. beveire. 102-106. of see -tor. 222. R. Gaul often as a 56. boccone. *flator. in 21 commonly employed diminutive: g&lo. Cyprian). 85- Bayard 24-25. 63. 415. used as nouns. —sorium: see —torium. Fr. *vendita. 82-83. *perdtta. Olcott 58-69. Bayard 19-22 (very -tio. 45-56. Collin in Archiv XIII.. —sus. Cf. Cf. *reddita. narraius: cf.fossato. -tus.

'^planura. was used for a few new formations *alaudula. —tus: see -ta. by popular etymology. § 171. 197. -IS often clvain'^ sinapis. make abstract nouns servitudo. -Ala. cursorium).: : : 22 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. or -i (Claussen 799) TT^Trepi'^ piper. ^pressorium. fell popular words either or became -a. influenced by olere. instead of -is (Claussen 798) pausis "^pausa. often taking the place of —culum (cubiculum much > accubitorium) (as *C(ssorium. sinape . oratorium. R. kviuj. natatorium. -11. Olcott 51-58. When Greek nouns were endings were adapted as follows: — borrowed by Latin. -as in popular words generally > lampa. gave oleum. -tus (Claussen 798): rpiiKTijs '^ irucia . reposito- rium. tensura. stricturd). R. popular words became -o (Claussen 797) X^wi'> lea. : in late Latin often replacing -or {fervor > *fervurd) were extended. instead of the nominative (Claussen 800-802): iXi^avros'^ elepliantus . -um : Claussen 796. 40-45.)u~^ gumma. 88-90. pressura. were tended. Sometimes the genitive or the accusative was taken as a basis. -s-iira. diminutive (as vitulus). : gummi-s. used to fortitudd). —a. in popular words gave a feminine -ma (Claussen 796-797) > f -pos preceded by a consonant became -fr (Claussen : 797): 'AWfai'5po$>- Alexander. [§ 38 ex- times instrument (as dormitorium. gave : millefolium. Bon. later from adjectives also. G. mensorium. Cf. : became -a. -is. payLda'^ -(an in magida. -e. mesSee sura. ixrikiipvWov. Olcott 194-196. ^•vir'dura. etc. -ura and -t-ura. -iita: Cf. -tuda (-tiidinem). ^6-gy. the -OS. Kbii. > p6KLT-qs -I in became -a (Claussen 798-799) : Xa/iirds -7)S. -aius. nutritura. -ov regularly became respectively -us. *certitudo. used to form abstract nouns from perfect participles (as censura. *frig' dura . from adjectives was extended. -pa cima. ornatura. 31-37. G. Einf. Cf. Olcott 69-73. see —ta. -tura : see —ura. -ta or -us. Digitized by Microsoft® . 38. etc. missorium. boletus. -T7)s became -a. ossulum. There are a few exceptions for special reasons (Claussen 795) cXaiop.

The phonetic development of this suffix was apparently Gaul and some other regions the earliest examples are glan: 'Cf. c. and form nouns of occupation (as aquarius. 464-467. Eon. Cf. Digitized by Microsoft® . -aceus being employed later as an augmentative and pejorative suffix for adjectives and finally for nouns: chartaceus formaceus . Thomas. It. Tuscanus. aKfnriKot'^ scopulus . 164-195). § 39] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. poiens). : see A. regalis. Wolfflin. imaginarius . to denote connection. pelliceus). -tlis. erroneus) were slightly ex- tended: *caroneus. were extended: *cortilis. »?«i/«a»2«. were extended (especially in rustic speech: Cooper iii). -iceus -ictus. a combination of —arius — *capiianus. became and —icius (as sigillaricius).i are the following: 39« The commonest endings : — —abllis see —hilis. used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as Cf. were used freely to ^ currens . —artcius. iTTroTiiXij "^spatula. * setaceus . used also in the masculine to gentarius. 144. 415. -ens {-an/em. *Sicilianus. *ducaHs. geniilis). arespecially in the latter function: . K^paffos : "^cerd-sus *cerSsus. Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise etc. tempaccio. SUFFIXES FOR ADJECTIVES. pomarius). Romanus). 23 The unaccented vowel of the penult was often changed in conformity with Latin habits (Claussen 802-806) Sl&^oKos'^ diabolus diabulus. 143. -entem). Olcott 215-220. G. Dubois 136-151. *leviarius. -ans. spontaneus. used to make from nouns adjectives denoting material (as arenaceus. *werrarius. See E. -oneus —onius (as extraneus. Mapa"^ cithara ciihlra. Bechtel 83. Quillacq 32-40. decanus. Die Adjectiva auf -icius in Archiv V. -arius. popular in Gaul 62 (Hacherece. Olcott 182-187. mixticius. —dneus -anius. -dlis. episcopalis. was much extended. —anus. '^passans^ make adjectives and nouns from verbs: credens. Olcott 226-238. peculiar in — apothecarius *marinarius. Cf. attached to nouns Cf. Olcott 137-173. was used to form adjectives of place (occasionally time) and nouns of office: biduanus. denoting appurtenance (as paganus. Cooper 92-163 (diminutives.). -actus -actus. -Sris (as singularis) was extended: particularis. present participles (as amans.. G. and adjectives. Bechtel 83.

—ceus -cius : see -iceus. A. -ensis. *Frankensis. G. —iceus —icius: see dcetts. § 227. 481 (cf. fageus. -atus. Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise 119. Spanish -ero and Italian -aio are perfectly regular. G. -i [§ 39 glandarius . turrensis. Gram. is . indicibilis. Thomas. diligibilis . sis).' exauguratus. -ier. R. Chairibertus repeatedly used for Charibertus by Fredegarius Haag 7. that -iarius was a. -er. rare in — -{bUis : see —bilis. 159-160. postulates -ar(i)us and -er{i)us. Zs. then —iers. from verbs (as amabilis. Marchot. try to derive all the forms from -arius. XXXI. the derivative was sometimes used as a noun: panne us . querceus. used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as/orenwas greatly extended. -tbilis. adjectives in the popular language: Cf. 155. G. -bUis. P. denoting material (as aureus). and that this pronunciation spread to the neo-Latin speakers. or i before the a. Rom.^* markensis . —iero are probably borrowed. or -dbilis. Cf. Zs. Le suffixe -arius dans les langues romanes. was slightly extended (but is Rumanian: Cooper XLV). 296 (cf. Cf. Die Geschichte des lateinischen Suffixes — arius in den romaniscken Sprachen^ and E. showing that while the French forms may perhaps be derived from -arius and -iarius. Olcott 142). Cf. the derivatives being sometimes employed as nouns * cortensis . Zimmermann. papyrius. e. G. and was much employed rare. Staaff. 34-36). a perfect participle ending (as sceleraius). by the analogy of the plural -ari. 109-116. 222. was much used to : make ratus. anaiiarius. XXVI. — ia (6th century) and sorcerus <C^* sortiarius (8th century) the earliest forms in French and Provenyal are —ers. vallensis. i^t. pronounced —arius. Olcott 339-344. real suffix (cf. suggests that the Germans in Gaul associated -arius with their proper names in -areis 01 —ari. capabilis. I. G. : -eus -ius.24 deria <i_ An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. timo- Olcott 244-250. —ens : see —ans. that -iarius and —carius may have established —iers in French. On the other hand. points out that many words have c. : tabilis . XXI. especially in learned words it is Rumanian (Cooper XLV) acceptabilis . and Bausteine 641). I. in an objective suffix used to make adjectives very common in Christian writers in late Latin. Italian —aro is easily explained and Italian —iere. Phon. the Proven9al cannot. *pagensis. 591. E. too.. 135-140. R. Cf. as -erius or —erus. 137. Zimmermann. *faiatus. Olcott 209-213. Digitized by Microsoft® . especially in popular speech. however. *cariierribilis). and when umlaut affected the a of these.

Tiktin 597. made up of -t-or. 4810. L.' 40. -inus : see Nouns. in St. -oneus : see —dneus. Digitized by Microsoft® . G. was a favorite with Christian writers. dune The usual endings are as follows: — num nunc. very common Jerome: G. Possibly *anc is derived from an in the same Substrate II. It was 'Cf. Dubois 163-171.). : d. lo) Pirson 252 IX. with the or of sense of -Wlis the gerundive: Pr. —s-or H ius (as notare notor notorius. from the Greek cleri- Cf. Gram. —ilis: see —dlis. sliglitly -idus (as rapidus) was extended: exsucidus. 467-470. were used for some new formations: defensorius In Provengal and Rumanian -torius was extended. Rum. —sorius: see —tortus —tortus. '*Frankiscus. was used for -icus in some late words: *Angliscus. I. censere censor censorius). 241. 157-158. -iscus. is Archiv I. -uius (as canutus) was somewhat extended: *camutus. -ulus. was used especially in words 25 : -icus (as medicus) cus. way: -e cf. Cf Olcott . G. etc. probably a fusion of Greek -ktkos {Syriscus) and Germanic -isk (Thiudiscus). SUFFIXES FOR ADVERBS. 155 (Tertullian)j *npidus. one of them from Gaul. ? I. Franz. mansorius. Bon. Olcott 220-223.. diminutive (as albulus). -ivus (as nativus) occurs in a few 224-226. = + . new formations : *restivus. ~ius : see —eus. 552. Cooper 196-204. —Andus (as jocundus) was used in Spanish and Proven9al for a few words Pr. 103-106. Cf. 158. G. donique in cites eight examples of dune. juratoriH. -ittus: see Nouns. — . —ce -c (as ne nee.) Cf. Ill. volon. -inus {as fraxinus) was used for a few adjectives: quercinus. (C. etc. turn tunc) was apparently used to form dum ce (cf. § 40] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. punidor. 193-197 {angelice. promptulus. -sorius. sapidus. -orius: see -iorius.

and in Rumanian nearly all adjectives may be so used (as greii. mente. Later. as It. 339- Repetition was used. multum. and occurs also in Romanice. *mala mente. whence such formations as Brittanice. however. 337. a recu230. pure. Normannice. in Rumanian. . sola mente. jocunda mente. but rata. to adverbs: insiememente. forte. Rom. § SS- 41. common in other late writers: clanculo. Gram. adverbial phrases on the model : ad . though much used in ecclesiastical Latin (G. Cf. adverbs were preserved in comhence other ad- jectives came to be used as adverbs (as W. Cyprian (Bayard 34-35) and some other : writers. This formation is not common. bocconi. Ch. now now so. Zs. II. 428. modo sic modo sic^ nee sursum nee deorsum non cresco. noii). as forti mente. Jerome. In the Romance languages mente was sometimes added comment. 487. Many such mon speech. Adverbs of manner came to be made with the ablative This noun was first used with an adjective to denote a state of mind. Lat. Cyprian (Bayard 32-34). are to be found in Petronius 37. as sometimes in Classic Latin. -iter: see -ter. chiaro. being especially common in St. 45 . obstinata mente. Then it was employed in a more general sense: pari mente. [§ 41 preserved in popular speech in bene. -um generally coincided in pronunciation (multum = multo. . Fr. They are rare in St. perhaps after the Vulgar Latin period. Fr. -0 and etc. male.26 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Spr. It. 58. -ones (in Italy also with- out the preposition) came into use Cf. etc. XXX. 46. XXIX. 245. G. : modo modo =^ •only yesterday. *bona mente. 42. Ch. XXXIII. soave). -tim was favored by St. tarde. etc. It. Ch. piano. a ginocchioni. Ch. Some lons.' ' Waters Ch. * ipsa mente. for emphatic effect. * longa mente. Digitized by Microsoft® .). 197-201 infantiliter.). caldo.' cf. 689. longe. but was not kept alive in popular Latin. Reich. firma mente. Gl. -ter (as brevUer) was not preserved in common speech. mente was used with any adjective that could make an adverb of manner. alto. poco. etc. basso. Many examples so.

460. as are: — The principal types (1) Subsitution of a : rare one -alius — new or common suffix for an old or > -callus : see -tllas. carnatus *carnutus. -drius. Digitized Cohn 274-291. pediculus Cf. 216. —dnus^—dneus: Cohn 160-172." —enus'^-inus: "Byzacenus non Byzacinus. -elus"^ -ellus (common in late Latin): camelus'^ camellus. etc. pavoT~^*pavura. querela'^ guerilla. -^ —iciilus : capUHlus * capttulus . venenum"^ *veninum. Cohn = -ix(-icem): Cohn 147-151. 227.§ 42] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cohn 213I. by Microsoft® . The popular language sometimes manuplus for another. cauda- Cohn —Ic'eus —icius ^=. Cf. Cohn 1 51-154. R. 27 CHANGE OF SUFFIX. cornlciila *cornuula. Cohn -tius'^-itus : vacuus'^*v(lcitus (cf. -drius: see Suffixes for Adjectives. 131. rancor"^* ran- > > cilra. Corssen S. 460. Caper (Keil VII. —iilus'^—ellus: aniilus'^ anellus . Cf. Cohn 180-205. Cf. Cohn 184. loquela per unum /. Cohn 172-180. 460. R. —dtuszzz—ttus=:i—utus: barbatus '^barbutus . -tc-aius *lenficiila. famtlia */amtlia. 65. Cf. extraneus * extranus . : ericius *eruius. Cohn 219-226. lanatus lanutus.. peduculus. Cf. 17-28. —cuius !> cHlus : see -tllus. -ix(-icem) consilium * consilium. Cohn 41-42. 460. Waters Ch. —tllus^—ellus: axtlla"^ ascella. 321. tus cauditus. -iculus =z -UcJilus : ossiculum ossMculum. 96): "querela. Cf." App. lenHc-Ula Cf. suadela"^ suadHla. -iceus -icius 184. subterraneus ^ subterranus. sortcem *sortcem. etc. 42. e. etc. substitutes one suffix for manipulus. (2) Indiscriminate use of two suffixes: — Cf. Cf. ~or(—drem)'^-ura: calor'^*calura. Cohn 42— 52. Pr. avicUla'^ avicllla. (3) Alteration of a suffix: — Cf. -ex(-ecem) -ix(-uem) : vervecem berbicem. Cf. -ilius =^ -ilius : 154-160. R. § 195). Cohn 30-31. loquela'^ loquella. R.

^ranucula. bis coctum. See §§ 24. Cohn 226—264. bene placitum. HOUWS. etc.. But male habitus. 231. . 121 : Greek etc. Acer arbor (> Fr. c. 483.28 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. mentaver) minus pretiare. Cake pistare. Digitized by Microsoft® . G. a contra. — = . . as mortificare: e. uniunigenitus . omnimodus . 191. ADVERBS. ad subito. 131. a foras. erable) alba spina. 46. many verbs in -ficare. Substrate 553-554. 160-170: magnisonans . 426 ad mane. /oris mittere. 194. 234. VERBS. Bechtel loi. There were many compounds made up of a preposition and an adverb: ab ante. incus incudo * inciimtnem. —iculus ? ^^'—Hciilus : genuciclum . G. 483. G. COMPOUNDS. a. ab intus. In church writers there are G. Ill. R.. a semel. 43. 232. a modo. d. etc. crucifigere. 130-134. 47. 484. Bon. PRONOUNS. intra videre. in odio^ loco. Bon. etc. Bechtel loi ad horam 'presently'. avis struthius. . Bon. ij as i: uayijv))'^ 7th century) "^ > Old Fr. genu- G. Bechtel loi. 65. Cohn 264-274. i<)i\ 45. Bechtel loi ad semel. a /oris. 'just now'. R. 4. antemittere. inde fUgere (> Fr. 190. a longe. mente habere (> Pr. These compounds generally belonged to the literary G. . style. 483. etc. G. 203. Reich. etc. I. cornis. Bechtel loi. in Gl. saine. enfuir). medio die. 231. Bechtel loi. b. Bechtel loi. were popular. Bon. medio ADJECTIVES. Bon. 483. R. 44. ab olim. -udo i^udtneni)'^ -umen (-iimtnem) : consuetudo *costumen. Cf. ad sero. manu So tenere. flectere. R. Cf. late pronunciation of [§ 47 -enus'^-lnus through sagina {Vok.

232. Bechtel 102. de semel. Bechtel 102. G.8. Bon. 38) says: Ubi semel res inclinata amici de medio. per girum zxiA per giro ^ circa. Lexique 48. de retro. of . and ad. 203. Haag 75. 85. consist of Bechtel 102. Raetian dad from the Oscan da. et at ubi. Substrate III. 235. R. Digitized by Microsoft® . de inter. Slightly different intus in. Spr.. doe.13. Bechtel 102. R. R. Bechtel loi. de forts. 484. The sic. 203. 74. G. de retro. In any case probably a late product. dad may be it is the result of a fusion rather than a combination of de Some have thought it came from found from the 7th century on he would derive It. R.28. CONJUHCTIONS. were used as prepositions: ab ante. in contra. G. 39.— 49] — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. day-. Some compounds two prepositions: * de ad {y. 484. and some others similar to them. d^ ante. usque hodie. in ante. 23S. It. Per. Bechtel medio. 426. de intus. is A compound made up of preposition + noun found in: in giro (followed 102. g. Bechtel 102. in hodie. * in semel. 203. Cf. compounds. in by the ablative or the accusative). de sub. da. Lat. Sardinian dave. R. de intus. Bechtel 102. R. 232. de super.19. Per. de magis. etc. 49. Bechtel loi. 203. R. 268. G. etc. 72. PREPOSITIONS. 232. de deorsum. 433. Per. At ubi and ad ubi. et Per. G.17. in ante. says da . Spr. R. 235.. 233. 487. Abante. 29 tunc.3. in is Archiv I. ad — — R. e contra. 484-486 (cf. still different nature : ac Per. in contra^ Petronius (Waters Ch.15. following compounds are of a sic. E. 68. f. Bechtel 102. de intra. Bechtel loi. and Old Sp. ^ Romance da. de sursum. 437. is de+ab. de contra. Lat. Lexique 38-47. ex tunc. 75. Bechtel 102. Wolfflin. Mohl. 40. Bon. Bon. Bon. etc. 487. de post. * dabe. 484.).these adverbial Some 40. in mane. dat and from a southern Latin *dadl. 232.

is logical. so to speak. for a comprehensive account of Romance See Elise Richter. is not primarily rhythmic. SYNTAX/ A. It does not permit the arbitrary- separation of osition noun of it members that belong together. Romance more after the word modified. Romance puts the emphasis at the end of the sentence." allow the collocation words of the same part of speech that belong logically in different places. a crescendo. The principle. 50.II. Gram. but psychic.^ is The Romance order of simpler and more rational than that Classic Latin. Latin in the middle. proceeding from the exemplified The modern order is the known to the unknown. as in Ovid's "In nova fert animus mutatas Neither does it dicere formas /corpora. as in the "In multis hoc rebus dicere habemus" of Lucretius. the difference being due to a diverse conception of the structure of language: Latin places the modifier before. Nevertheless there is really a fundamental difference between the old order and the new: Romance has. from which work most of the matter of Digitized this chapter was taken. or the adjective and the modifies. 1903. Ill. however. See Meyer-Liibke. The most irrational features of the Classic Latin construction were surely artifical. such as the prepand the word it governs. ORDER OF WORDS. and were not characteristic of daily speech. by this sentence : The ^ ^ old arrangement " Fabius syptax. byMicrosoft® . Zur Eniwicklung der romanischen Wortsiellitng aus dcr lateinischen. 491). Latin to a certain extent a diminuendo movement {^Lat. Spr.

delebo eum de libro meo. 31 sequatus imperio Hannibalern et virtute et fortuna superiorem vidit. 33. 34). angelus meus praecedet te. it occurs sporadically also in literary authors. There first. it is to be found in Latin. in inscriptions and popular writers. 490). and for centuries the ancient and the modern type were used side by side. et fuit ibi quadraginta diebus et quadraginta noctibus" i^Per. By the fourth century Here is a characteristic passage the new order prevailed." "Hasc loca sunt The change constitutes a progress in language . Digitized According to Meyer- by Microsoft® . all cultivated peoples have made it. et due populum istum quo locutus sum Ego autem in die ultionis tibi. hoc peccatum eorum" {Exodus XXXII.21-24). 51 • old. It is indigenous in Latin. from the Peregrinatio : "Hasc est autem vallis ingens et planissima.§ 52] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin." The following examples illustrate the later structure: "Mors perfecit tua ut essent et natura montuosa impedita ad rem militarem." omnia brevia. tu autem vade. which independently effected the same transformation. But until the fourth century the majority of Latin sentences have the old arrangement. The following is a good sample of the style of the Vulgate: "Cui respondit Dominus Qui peccaverit mihi. while the revolution was in progress. was always a tendency to put a stressed word followed by an unaccented one. in qua filii Israhel commorati sunt his diebus. from the earliest texts down . Spr. Classic Latin may be said to represent an in- termediate stage. visitabo et : 52. not imitated from the Greek. with generally increasing frequency. The modern order was not abruptly substituted for the On the contrary. there was a long struggle. especially in Cicero. Petronius has notably short periods and an approach to the new structure. such as a connective or an atonic pronoun {Lat. 37. quod sanctus Moyses ascendit in montem Domini.

indefinite article developed out of ille A definite and an and unus. and adverbs. malus malus. malum malum. bonis bonis. 53. personal pronouns. prepositions. aiutatemi but or m'aiutate . voit definite article.. In a few other respects the old arrangement lingered and under certain conditions is still preserved . 280. and were attached preferably to the first word in the sentence : . and sometimes the whole predicate precedes in certain constructions the dependent infinitive may stand before the finite verb (as Pr. it was in the early stages of the Romance languages It. Wolfflin 4 bene bene. morir adverbs precede their verb . volgra). Use of In- Repetition writers : for intensive effect is not uncommon . etc. In dependent clauses. Many uses of prepoconnected with the loss of inflections: these will be discussed under the Use of Inflections. when unstressed. fortis fortis. the old order survived longer than in independent. of inflections. precedes its but qui le voit. and so cf. see the 55. §40. I.32 Liibke. Zs. Cf. B. however. in late Commodian. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. : negative and intensive under some circumstances the object may come before the verb. 54- USE OF WORDS. 313. noun in all the The Romance languages except Rumanian and Albanian (Zauner 40). sitions are There were great changes in the functions of pronouns. conjunctions. were always enclitic in Latin. R. vedolo but le non lo vedo. which were naturally of less im- portance. Digitized by Microsoft® . Fr. [§ 55 XXI.For the simplification flections.

See Archiv VIII. melius sanus (Wolfflin 16). magis melior. b. the plus and magis constructions were employed more and more to express a distinct comparison plus : miser in Tertullian. occasionally in : Classic Latin. Anplus congruus and maxime congruus (Wolfflin 16. see Morphology. frequently in late and popular writers • For the forms of numerals. plus popularis. prceclarum. 56. plus formosus in Nemasianus. WUMERALS.§ 57] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. (Wolfflin 46). . etc. old comparative forms remained. toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period. comparative idea. To avoid ambiguity. Augustine's sancta atque dulcissima (Wolfflin 57-63). 166-170. Cf. 33 COMPARISON. Little by little the old comparative and superlative lost 1 from being employed frequently with merely an intensive force (Wolfiflin 83). however. and in hie estfilius mens carissimus. Unus was used as an indefinite article. 415—417). common Adverbs. (Wolfflin 47). as Ovid's inertioratas (Wolfflin 63-68). Vitruvius. this formation came to be popularly regarded as the regular one: magis mirabilem. as omnium levior (Wolfflin 68-71). but no example of has been found.. Finally. The comparative came to be used for a superlative. and the superlative was often really a positive in meaning.. plus felix. //wj levior.' lepida 57. substitute for the superlative In the Romance languages a was made by prefixing the defiit nite article to the comparative. Digitized by Microsoft® . R. BOn. 451. as Plautus. etc. maxime pessima. plus dulce. is likely that this device it existed in late Vulgar Latin. magis . as their precise sense in St. etc. . etc. 280). From early times certain periphrases were used to emphasize the thiravLS. cf. and also for a positive. Commodian. a. in Sidonius Apollinaris (Wolfflin 29). Sepulcri 232 . in Many use. etc. (R.

425 cf. 403-404. Waters Ch. 48. R. tu are very 60. were employed as personal pro- nouns of the third person. PRONOUNS. 26. PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. adeum una sorella. especially the possessives. DEMONSTRATIVES. 948 accessit unus servus. where it was not recog- 62. was often replaced by ille and ipse (Bechtel and eventually was preserved in vulgar speech only in 145). See Lat. The adverb inde : occasionally as a genitive neuter pronoun came to be used nemo inde dubitat. Plautus. especially ilk. Ego and common in Petronius. see Hoppe Bayard 133. . Idem went out of popular use. . 61. Cf. in Classic Latin : 59. 408-409. . Pseud. according as they were accented or unaccented (as suus and sus): see Morphology. . 58. much used in popular speech after the fifth 2. Dubois 333-336b. 489. and 104. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . too. 580. Is. G. Petronius. mulier. ipse. Bon. The demonstratives. . Spr. being replaced by ille For the encroachment of ipse on idem. Regnier 10. Many pronouns developed double forms. [§ 62 una etc. . An . exinde-='¥x. §158. were apparently not century. The personal pronouns came into more and more fre- quent use. except a few of the smallest. 25. suus being generally substituted for ejus.34 . en. the combination eccum {^=ecce eum). Ordinal numerals. Per. Hoppe 102-103. a. Pronouns were much more used than G. There was great irregularity in the use of reflexives.

and iste 405-406. Bayard 130-132). This last compound was used as a neuter pronoun. G. too. lat. as id ipsum velatn. etc. Hie and is. Franz. eeee nunc.). • A combination of two demonstratives was : common in Christian writers iste hie. Intorno ai continuatori neolatini del "ipsu-" in Arehivio glottologieo italiano XV. use. aquese. atque ipse illie est {^Epidicus 91). 65. in id ipsum monastyriu. too. in id ipsam rem. Quillacq 126). R. is ipse.-- ipse ille. Pg. however. 407. was perhaps used as a prefix (^Gram. G. eeee tu. Catalan aqueix. R. eeee we find early eeee ego. eeee ille. Glor. Hoppe 104. were confused by late writers (Bayard 132). influenced in 1 Cf Plautus. especially in Spain and southern Gaul. common 64. of the final stage. aquesse. nized. 424-425. II. R. iste ipse. such combinations being until the probably not reached Vulgar Latin period. and also as a demonstrative adjective. Eeee and eeeum (pronounced eceu) were used as demon- strative prefixes (cf." Digitized by Microsoft® . 35 and in the extremely common phrase idipsum (>It. Mil. 303 (discussing Sp. 25 : " Ubi tu's ? — Eccum. also eeee iste. Toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period hie was apparently going out of 63. with the exception of the neuter hoe. hie ipse. maintains that eceu' was the basis in all the Empire. is the fusion of the two parts into one word. there are examples of iste for hie in Caesar's time (Densusianu 178). where likewise the id lost its significance. common The end Plautus. 2. iste ille. 424 (cf. Ascoli. The last three have left no trace.' as id ipsum sapite.^- desso). meaning 'it' or 'that.§ 65] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. came to be used indiscriminately (G. ille ipse. by atque or ae (as in ac sic). §24): hie. atque is est (^Stiehus 582). 3 II. . Hie. Atque. 2. 424. ille. Franz. I. At any rate. eeeu" was some regions. 646): in Plautus. generally invariable. 3 II.

§ 60. 69. 419-420 {cito proferte mihi stolam illam primam). In Bon. especially ille. 36 An When iste Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the masculine qui tooV in inscriptions. R. : the place of the feminine quce it occurs in Christian inscripR. were used as personal pronouns of the third person. . m. tions from the fifth century on Digitized cf. quod as m. Ego met ipse is blamed by Donatus {Lat. quern for quce. pi.). 67. * ceste. n. is is Cf. §24. quce as m. 22). 427 (iiirum hujic cujus est zona hcBc). * accesie. (395-396). 276 {qui. 391-396 we find qui used as n. guem quis qua very often as n. and pi. as n. R. 8). there was an emphatic form ipsimus (used by This. is. as ace. This use of ipse. . Ille.. : common Audollent 549. is. as 69. 66. Quillacq 126-127. pi. ' this ' eccHste or eccu'tste. XXX. with the prefix met-. 423 {in ipsa multitudine). The ipsemet suffix -met was used also as an intensive prefix. pi. as ace. INTERROGATIVES AND RELATIVES... hie. f. Examples of the others are by no R. means infrequent: hie. These compounds developed into * ecceste. Bon. ipse. it is Furthermore. 484). Beside ipse.. semet ipsum {Philip.. * accelle. were used also as definite Ille in this function very common: R. became * metipsimus. 68. is was probably more literary than popular. Ille. sg. * cueste and * eccelle. by Microsoft® . c. articles. for * accuelle. Petronius: Waters Ch.. II. 391-392. etc. pi. The forms were greatly confused by late writers. In popular speech qui was apparently used regularly for . Cf. people said for ' ' that eccHlle or eccu'ille. ipse. Spr. * accueste. 423—425. * celle. hie. as n.. * cue lie. as f. sg. ille lost [§ 69 and their distinctive force. * eccuelle. * eccueste. becoming metipse through such combinations as temet ipsum {Ecclus.

415- in late popular speech are as follows : — aliquanti took the place of aliqui and aliquot: aliquanta oppida aliquis flourished especially in the west: Sp. 650. Pg. Archiv I. etc. Omnis and omnia were kept Digitized by Microsoft® . *ne^ps^unus. and some new compounds were made. nee unus. along the Mediterranean. Cf. pi. 237. mUltus. Zs. and f.). There may have been a neuter *alid. II. Beiheft 7. 178). gradually encroached on quod: Bon. Jerome. moreover. G. 393. omnis: see totus. 25. mDEFHTITE PRONOUNS. cata tres Hence *cata anus. after the model of id. 390-391. Bon. conjectures *ne inde. hdmo was used sometimes like French on: Per. 55. alguien.). in Italy. *d'unde. and Dacia: Lat. Sardinia. alguem. 416. cepit. Some Classic Latin pronouns fell into disuse. chants. ^ne ipse icnus. was employed as a relative pronoun.' > = ^ magis: see plus. § 84. This confusion is more frequent in late Latin: St. 'some' or 'any. quid: Archiv I. *caf itnus. G. Gram.§ 7i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. d. d. 580.. 394 (^qui f. Meyer-Liibke. alius filius. in certain constructions. The neuter aliquid was more extended aliqui alius : Pr. 53 {^qui for quce in 70. cata was probably introduced. inde came to mean. alques. and alter viere confused in common speech: G. *nec ente or *ne ente was apparently used as an equivalent for nihil. Plautus. 51. by Greek merxard Tfth. Qualis was kept. as a relative. Spr. Snus *aliqu'ilnus * alicUnus. The principal indefinite pronouns 71- and adjectives used G. and eventually * de unde. 415-417. 37 quam). in Italy. sg. nemo judical alterum. nemo was kept nUllus. in such phrases as cata unum Kaf tva. 417. and was used as an interrogative and The adverb unde came to have occasionally the meaning of French dont (Bon. 528 a. quern Quid. § 19. Cf. 485. Haag f.

pronounced also tottus (S. § 1 1 7. iinus. Spr. 109). which" and the ibi 73. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. a pleonastic use of debeo. VERBS. R. quts. tantus totus. The words referring to the "place in "place into which" were confused. ADVERBS. R. There finitive. tot. Unde was employed by Microsoft® in the sense of Digitized . Compare the old is Italian use of dovere. too. 204. 345. Videri. for eo: Lat. 488. G. Jerome.38 faucus. 403). ubi being used for quo. . qualis. Cf. Glor. 336-337. 212. ' anything R. 121) and perhaps *tuttus. §§ 163. also a common pleonastic use of coepi with the in- instead of the perfect: see § 124. [§ 73 plus and magis were confused: tenetur tanto plus timetur. talis. is often used pleonastically Bayard 99-100. «»w. 692. see quantus. 3. being used for quisquis and quicumque (Bayard res and : res nata = ' anyone '. Mil. ' : (G. 427. 691-693: commonens ut 72. Cf. 338. (2). persona. 402-403 ifota tormenta diaboli in me veniant. 409-411). § 53. G. (St. 414. Regnier 108-109 {guanto plus quantus. There are examples as early as Drager 104. tantus replaced quot. Claudian. is . quhquis. 415). G. Propertius: Densusianu 179. This use was common in late Latin: Densusianu 178. . Bechtel 143. Quisque was much extended 135). Frequent in late Latin Bon. quisque. was sometimes used for omnis : Plautus. tantis lacri- 413-415 qui. quanti justi esuriunt. totis horis. custodire debeant. Cf. quique. : 4.

7. according to Mohl. Plus and magis were used more and more for comparison. sed ecce hie est. Regnier The absolute use of non. . and the old comparative and superlative forms became rarer: see § 56. Dubois 332. having been replaced by on. Regnier no. from the third century ex {Lat. Totum occurs often as an adverb: places. meaning 'no'. etc. Lexique 43. G. § 74. Spr. multum. 76. Bechtel 105. 395. and many other 75- Double negation frequent: R. semper semper. Terence.14. 435. were employed as intensives more than in Classic Latin. Wolfflin 5. occurs occasionally: Dieit unus ex uno angulo: Eeee hie Alius ex alio angulo: Non. Bechtel 105. nihil.). 39 'where' (Zj. 342 .§ 78] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. egredere de ecelesia. PREPOSITIONS. Hoppe 38 . . Bene. R. is Ab. muri de lapide de adversario vivo de deeimis. cf. Hoppe 78. 395-396. Cases. 446-447 {nee is fado est. any de. Beiheft fore': 157). usurped the place of which also. . 339. 487. 341 jaspide. de utero matris nati sunt sic. Regnier in. for ne with the subjunctive common: G. 5. also 'therefore' and 'where84. It apparently has no successors in the Romance languages. of Inflections. Repetition was used for in- tensive effect: satis Seneca. Ad for apud occurs Digitized in Plautus. is Per. and magis for potius: Bayard no. aliquid postulare. ggressus de area. Non no. procedit. G. The functions of prepositions were very much extended not found in (Bayard 137-158): see Use 77. . Die amice unde tristis es. Hoppe 38): de palatio exit. of the Italic dialects except Latin. G. 37. . Plus was often substituted for magis. nee de cubiculo . R. . 38. and others by Microsoft® .

[§ 80 (Oliver 5-6). ' . had a great vogue country. but from * (pp. to supplant a critical period for Gaul. apud is repeatedly found for cum in the Latin writers of Gaul. a new word. 489. 390-392. but Pr. where it was kept with the sense of cum: Haag 74. in the Empire. where ab seems Apud is used for cum by Sulpicius to be used for apud). apud.?. in authors of the second and third centuries. Urbat 27 {tractans apud me metipsum. and more frequently by later authors: Lat. G. and common Fer. am amb. ab he takes from apud. Hoppe 37. Pro itself was partially replaced by per (cf. pro memoria illius.. G. 343. § 14). 71) Fr. Digitized by Microsoft® . frequently meant 'concerning': frustrati circa veritatem. but from ad hoc from Italic Pr. but was substituted lor'per in other regions (Urbat 34-35)80. also ab una manu pallas altaris tenerem. nos. Severus. Bechtel 106. and so came cum in that Pro often had the sense of 'for. 343 . Bechtel 105 juxta drachmcB cording to exemplum.^ 79. am. Bechtel 103.. G. except in Gaul. 37. volo pro legentis attendimus locum ilium facilitate abuti sermone vulgato. 42. being. 40 An Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. cum probably disappeared from actual use in Gaul by the fourth century. appo. as he says. derive the Mohl would Old It. . Spr. 75-76). ' : Juxta often signified acjuxta consuetudinem. and cum for apud in Gregory of Tours. aveCj not from apud + hoc. ad For the most part apud-^-a.' and replaced ob and propter : fides pro una muliere perfida. not from apud. Circa. Hoppe Hoppe ' 41. According to F. Bechtel 104. La preposition cum et ses successeurs en gallo-roman in Bausteine 61. Mohl.27- in late writers (R. est oratio. replaced by ad. Super sometimes replaced de: fallere vos super hanc rem. ad post (p. etc. Bechtel 106 super anima commendatus. Urbat 10): ad ipsum fontem facta cf.

Peregrinatio : Qua. 83. 399. Ut 82. he. 430): videte si Ac si frequently did service for potest did. R. cf. . Unde sometimes means therefore for but by late writers. R. with the infinitive «/ is is : not infrequent 549. . 399. same text (37. Cur. Quod to for very common AudoUent ' £0 quod cdLiae 27. et: Per. Quando displaced cum in the quod. and many other places Bon. Quod. 'when'. §§ 70. merely Magis is much employed to indicate a subordinate clause. Regnier in. de forts. 445-446. 24. . 398-400. Bayard 161. in most cases. . 403. and was . Bechtel 119-120. &'took the place of a« and utrum (R. Quomodo became a great favorite. and quoniam : R. ^. etc. aut is sometimes equivalent to et . 8. 13. 48. foras were freely used as prepositions (R. : R.. 41 81. 323. Quia.) seems to be used. encroaches on quando in the 22. Aut cf. 334): subtus terram. etc. 84. Eventually ut was generally discarded. 427—428) are used very often by late writers instead of the accusative and infinitive construction: R. Retro. . 73. CONJUNCTIONS. vade retro me. ut : R. etc. meaning 'and so' or 'so': 40. 6. quia. 403-405. often supplanting quando. 402. G. 424 {unde inquit Dominus). Ac sic recurs continually in the Pere49.' § 84] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. forts. cf. in). etc. temporal sense. 431-432. and 'wherefore': G. Regnier 11 2-1 13. 46. quasi: Per. Tamen in the grinatio. rm\c\\ used in the sense of that ' : Per. quare sometimes replaced ^«^^and quia: G. subtus. guoniam {^SMddlt&r Jubere. Regnier often used for ne and num (G. 39. ' ' ' Digitized by Microsoft® . which in late Latin was often reduced to qui or qua (see § 168) frequently took the place of quod: Regnier 111-112.

of the locative ablative singular in Ttbiiri^ Tivoli . Partsiis > > Parigi Paris. 174-176 . Archiv VIII. in the Peregrinatio fit : There find are. several examples Bechtel no. There is confusion even in Petronius. constructions. [§ 86 C. 412-415. however. CASES. Astis Asti. as time went on. Arimtnt> Rimini. Digitized by Microsoft® . 86. than in the literary language. and very often with place names also. B. : > etc. Florentice^ Firenze. Hence employment arises in late writers a great irregu- of cases^: G. LOCATIVE. The locative. 378.1 42 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Pirson 169-202. 8$. Palestina (G. plural in Andecavis > Flntbus > Fimes. Bianchi With other words. etc. 1. USE OF INFLECTIONS. who occasionally uses the accusative for the dative and the ablative. etc. the locative was replaced by in with the ablative (Hoppe 32 in Alexandria) or by ad with the accusative (Urbat 10). larity in the . 302-326. We remnants of the locative geni- tive in Agrigentt> Girgenti. R. et sic fit missa ecclesitz. from prepositional the beginning. only in names of places. a. Cf. rare in Classic Latin. for confusion after verbs and adjectives.. Quillacq 96- for African Latin. the domi or domo of Cicero becomes in domo in Seneca. In popular speech prepositions were more used. and the use of cases became more and more 103 restricted. Aquis Acqui Aix. 322). remained eventually missa Anastasi. it generally came to be regarded as an inin Archivio glottologico italiano IX. ' " Cf. increasingly took the place of pure case distinctions. ut Clusil~^ Chiusi. of the locative ablative Angers. When the locative of names of localities was kept.

bus gentilibusque multitudo magna (also quidam ex Acts 4. was supplanted by other by the ablative with de (which occurs Examples as early as Plautus). curator de sacra via. II. Pirson 194. de animalibus.§ 89] An . . 528 a. Pir. 396. Hoppe 38. lumine. sometimes by the dative. the genitive probably ceased to be really popular. 40. abound: expers partis Verr. b. 628 aliquid de . Lat. Regnier 54. de pomis =^som& apples. Bon. Urbat 20. 487.' -P^r. XVII. vocatives in -us. R. generally . Cf. R. The genitive. de Deo munus. Sepulcri 217. clerici de ipsa ecclesia. In Vulgar Latin the vocative form probably disappeared entirely. Plautus. c. de coleritieis). Bechtel 104. instead of -e. Spr. 89. de sorore nepus. . Cicero. occur in mens for mi is very common (Regnier 34). son 197. For the partitive genitive we find: nil 53. 12. little. gustabit de meo. 396. terminus de nostra donatione. 39. 481. partem de istius impudentia. de aceto plenum. GENITIVE. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. VOCATIVE. Oliver 14. the nominative in most words in and such words as had a separate vocative form is like it : tended to discard Plautus. as mi 88. such Horace. de nostris bonis.. cited by Draeger I. de oleo. The vocative Classic Latin. etc. Archiv I. neminem de prcesentibus. According to Meyer-Liibke. 6ioff. de spiritu Moysi. 43 variable form we find such locatives used as nominatives : from the third century on Lat. i. except perhaps in a few set phrases.. d. Bechtel 104. R. R. 1.10. 396. 87. save in set combinations. and Livy. domine. possessor de propria terra. Digitized by Microsoft® . IV. quid de scientia. Spr. little by constructions. Hoppe 38. R. 426. aliquid habet de verecundia discipuli. de studentibus. Terence Heaut. cf. 342 numquid Zacchaus de bono habebat.

Cf. Lat Spr.. Spr. S. Inasmuch as the Plautus. in certain . De Re Rustica I. . in honore . ad propinquos restituit. and probably in some proper names: lUna dies. tempore > It. D'Arbois 91-93. a. 135. ad quern dixit. 4. C. 341—342 in /undo ilia villa.. = went to the bishop'. ad me ad Dei officio paratus. di notte tempore (later di notte tempo). Dominus ad restituit Moysen dicit. however.. 1.44 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in the singular of was identical in substitution became very general 64. stable than the genitive: 90. Paoli. 329. ii. Urbat 12. form either with the ablative or with the genitive (e.. ad omnem injuriam im330. etc. G. Urbat 12. de noctis cHjus. fui ad episcopum etc. ange- lorum. The genitive was retained. G. D'Arbois 13 alme Maria. si pecunia most nouns and in the plural of all. in most of the Empire : ait ad me. IV. Livy II. paganorum. etc. 3513. in good many set phrases. ad quern promissio facta. illorum. illujus. 329. dicens ad eum. Per..C. mart maribus). etc. 488. apparet ad agricolas. Bon. Fieri. matre mece. ad me magna nuntiavit. L. Capt. a tendency by the accusative with ad: ad carnuficem dabo. ad vestram 'I Bechtel 102-103. IX. In late Latin a wrong form was often used a deo honorem in an inscription in True. find. causa causis. muro muris. 487. inscription of 57 B. etc. ad id templum data erit. Spr. [§ 90 by the beginning of the third century. G. Plautus. The dative was more Lat. 40. Pirson Digitized omne regnum.. Bechtel 104. DATIVE. : Zs. Sepulcri 218. '^^^ hcec affectionem darem. Varro. loquitur ad Jeremiam. 194. some pronouns. g. as early as Plautus. etc. XXV. I. etc. 13. 1019. patiens. Oliver by Microsoft® . alta node silentia. We it to replace however. It. . est ministerit. in a words that belonged especially to clerical Latin. etc. the fear of ambiguity naturally fostered this practice and the dative. Bechtel 103.

Hoppe 33 . ab sceleribus parce. 481). Regnier 54-56. gaudet de victus necessitate causatur. tibi. elsewhere it probably disappeared from really popular speech by the end of the Empire. and so in 91. 36. de se. super was used: imposuerat manus me misericordiam prastare. digni de cmlo Castores. de vestra rideat CBmulatione. Spr. cited by WolfHin $2. 56. Bechtel 105. R. illui tilt. Hoppe 33. ab a prcemio minorem scriptura sancta commemoratos. super. The dative remained in Dacia.G. Regnier 54. R. Hoppe 105). Hoppe Hoppe 34. 92. ex infirmitate fatigata. XXX. Sepulcri 218. except in pronouns {cici. 45 3-4. and lingered rather late Gaul (Za/. Ab common : ab omni specie idololatrice intactum. Digitized by Microsoft® . 337. 392-395. Sepulcri 218. Hoppe 33. occidam de lancea. Rumanian has kept the dative. St. ab Ariulfi astutia the most frequent erubescens de infamia sua. 393 patrem de regno privavit. Cf. de oculis. 335. ml. ABLATIVE. favored the use of prepositions with the ablative. The analytical tendency of speech. 34. Bechtel 104.. to distinguish its various functions. Sometimes super eum. c. Regnier . 35. De is : Hoppe 14. etc. Bechtel 105.' see Zs. not ad. de virgine natus est. a came superatur. Regnier 51 . de singularitate famosum. 339-342. in its original function and also as a genitive. Hoppe. 426. occurs also: ex causa humana salutis. G. Cyprian. de manibus suis. Hoppe 36. Bechtel de contumelia sua.). 641. G. etc. Bechtel 104 (cf. reinforced by the analogy of prepositional substitutes for the genitive and dative. in the first declension (as case). in feminine adjectives (as romine).§ 92] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. de- ceptus. Ex R. is For de= 'than. de te beati sunt. nobilior de obsoletiore matrice. esse.

in camo amore Dei 9 in bonis operibus abundetis. discenies. Sepulcri 218 pugnare ad ursos. G. 397 . E. diem die. per nomen vocavit. Cf.46 An In is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Hoppe 31 . but very common before the third. Ps. XXXI. ad diem. in aU words. etfreno maxillas eorum constringe. ad unum gladii ictum 93. patrem It is likely that before the patre. D'Arbois footnote 27. because. The fusion of the two cases was doubtless helped by the fact that certain prepositions might be combined with either accusative or ablative. in most of the Latin territory. . The accusative form substituted for the ablative after by Microsoft® Digitized . cum res nostras. fructum fructu. Bechtel 103-104. : [§ 95 often found . Cum cum it was probably not with the accusative is very frequent: cum suos Lat. 347 R. Spr. 488. caput desecare. in inscriptions. in illo die. cum Cf. Spr. for the ablative: . Regnier 60. Lat. its stead. 94. Bechtel 103. Regnier 58 Hoppe 31 in maxilla asina delevi mille vires. K. Bechtel 95 . in fif. 5. 263. the little ablative differed or not at all from the accusative in the : singular of most words causam causa. 488. after the fall of final m and the of quantitative distinctions in unaccented syllables. 344-347. . G. late The use of prepositions became really neccessary in the loss spoken language.. Rand in is Modem Philology II.396-397. and that the ablative and accusative singular were pronounced alike. epistolam. ferventes. ad horam sextam aguntur. donum dono. the accusative being used in J 95- There is evidence of the confusion of accusative and first ablative as early as the century. of the Empire the ablative plural end form was generally discarded. Hoppe 33. Sometimes ad ov per with the accusative is substituted per hoc. quo in tempore. R. etc. sodales.

Bechtel 96 de actus.. D'Arbois 27 de rigna nostra. Bechtel loi . infinem Deus fecit ccelum et terram. de ipsas . ilia. Bechtel 94—101 venit in civitate sua. 96. luce. Bechtel 96 de martyrium. R. R. etc. visa loca sancta omnia {Per. etc. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ablative ist' 97. Bechtel loi — propter populo.6—412. the nominative absolute took 45.. 406-412. videbo te in publicum. 58. the ablative form very often written for . . 406-412. . etc. 8). 406-412. Bechtel 99 lunca. that the ablative absolute survived in a few common 1 like It.. is three times as common as the + ace. .. Bechtel 100. tuos. medium maris. — intra civitate sua. Bechtel 94. 406-412. generally. R. etc. . ad . Bechtel 96. D'Arbois 152. is Conversely. in popular speech.. its place : Bechtel 09-1 1 o. Bechtel 94 ante sole. post . intro spe- — lectione. R. puteo. in correct use of in etc. cib fatto. — — — foras in came conversa.. de camem. circa Bechtel 95 . etc. Bechtel loi. R. Bechtel xoo\ post morte.. Bechtel loi. etc. ecclesia. proper names with as Delia Casa.. The some fixed expressions. etc. ante sole.— — — § 97] — —— — . anno. Hoppe 40-41 12 examples of in + ace. quomodo. — Bechtel 96 — .. probably in some expressions. . Bechtel 97-98 erat in villas. 40... for abl. etc. . such as hora. was kept only in etc. too. + abl. for ace. de. vendere cento soldi. — : pro hoc ipsud. . pari mente. et bene- dicens nos episcopusprofectisumus. the accusative ante cruce. 47 other prepositions: a monazonies. D'Arbois 70-71 ex fines R. — prope super civitate hac.. sine fructum. . de eo torrentem. R. however. Bechtel 95. Hoppe 40-41 in the Per. ecclesia majore. Waters Ch. Bechtel 95 contra ipso loco. pro nos. 410. perhaps in such phrases as It. Digitized by Microsoft® . -juxta aqua ipsa. Bechtel 96 de hoc ipsud. 406-412. per valle and 21 other cases of /ifr+abl. Bechtel 99 . Bechtel 99. . It is likely. in Per. etc.

a. In the parts that remained selves. were replaced by other locutions. however. ad Babyloniatn duxit. 98. 328. ad isfam Duration of time was expressed by per with the ac- cusative. After verbs of motion ad was often used. 2. Cf. in the rest of the Empire only two —a nominative and an accusativenaturally tried to write in ac- ablative. g. Many parts of the verb went out of popular use. The supine disappeared from general the first placed. these obsolete parts were employed by writers with more or less inaccuracy. 99. G. instead of the simple accusative: eamus in forum. Clerics. tota autem nocte vicibus dicuntur p salmi. Waters Ch. being recentury on. 103. per iotos octo dies etc. 327. (i) Supine. cordance with their idea of correct Latin. ^i. [§ 103 ACCUSATIVE. to Vulgar Latin. G. infinitive 102. Only the present active and the present and perfect participles were left intact. By the end of the Vulgar Latin period there probably remained in really popular use (aside from pronouns and a number of set formulas) in Dacia only three cases. Bechtel 103. also is by the ablative Bechtel : 1 08-9. FALL OF DECLENSION.48 An Introduction f. regionem venit. many new tendencies manifested them- IMPERSONAL PARTS. sometimes in. fui ad ecdesiam. Regnier 51-52. Regnier 52. by the infinitive: as cum Digitized by Microsoft® . from use. omatus est. consules ad Africam profecti sunt. VERB-FORMS. and 101. 100.

Spr. for the future (as facturus sum). Augustine. necessitas tacere. G.§ io6] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. R. The gerundive was used est. came to be replaced With the exception by the sometimes with a prep- osition: dat manducare. The ablative form of the gerund substitute for the present participle: ita miserrimus tando. Cap. assurgens popu- lando. The ablative gerund was . however. 389. ejus nomine pugnaturo. (4) 106. (3) Gerundive. qui pertransivit benefaciendo et Cf. cites Livy. Hoppe 105. from the third century on. Lat. Hoppe multa vidi sometimes used for a conditional clause cavendo salvi erimus. 432—433. ex- cept in some standing phrases. 4. conciendo ad se multitudinem. Eventually. 57. esse. 386R. Sermones 225. : sic legendo. 8. 430. it The future active participle Vulgar Latin. 49 veneris ad bibere. it was probably rare in late was used with esse as a substitute Sometimes. Jilius hominis tradendus Cf. of the ablative form. Digitized by Microsoft® . Lat. 363. Draeger II. Densusianu sanando. etc. Future Active Participle. St. G. Terence. 490. G. 847-849. G. took the place of a relative cIzms^: faveant mihi pro Cf. the supine was preserved: Tiktin 596. (2) 104. R. 432. 57 179. quomodo potest hie nobis camem dare ad manducare. Dubois 275. in place of the future: with 388. the gerundive was discarded. Spr. Cf. and Tacitus. 433. R. as a future passive participle. however. 433-434. V. except when style. In Rumanian. 2. the i. hanc Marcion captavit errando. R.erund infinitive. became more and more a fui fugiet Eun. in a literary 388—389. potestatem curare. 490. Gerund..

431-432 {malunt credidisse. but often by a clause in- troduced by quia. ut spiritu valeatnon ignoramus.50 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 659-671.the was replaced sometimes by the passive. Writers occasionally substituted 388. The perfect participle was kept. scribitur. and was used as an : adjective -ans. 371-375. 385. The present participle was kept. 375-385. etc. Bon. quod. 389. however. sciens quod — libenter haberetis hcec cognoscere. : Eva vidisse de- G. 109. Verbs that had no perfect participle were obliged to make one. was replaced by the ablative gerund: see Gerund above. The infinitive + accusative construction was more and third century on: G. as will presently be seen. its use was greatly extended through new methods of forming the passive and the perfect tenses.. it for a relative clause: it Often. (5) [§ no Present Participle. G. etc. often misused the infinitive + accusative: Digitized G. si ipse est ascendens in ccelos. de corpore loquor. legitur dixisse Deus. 377. etc. The perfect and passive infinitive forms eventually In late writers. Bechtel 112—115. (licent eo quod filii Israhel eas posuerint. 107. quoniam. It more avoided from . and as a noun see Derivation. credidit ei quia esset vere Jilius Dei. (7) Infinitive. the perfect instead of the present infinitive very common: R. however. Late writers. Cf. nemo mentiens plorat. 371-373. and. no. 371. 383 . G. G. Sometimes it was employed periphrastically with esse: G. mundus sit.). Suffixes for Adjectives. wishing to avoid vulgarisms. Regnier 63. by Microsoft® . (6) Perfect Participle. is disappeared: see Voice and Tense below. ut. 108. perspicue exposuit quod ager nesciebat quia Jesus erat. G. G.

Bon. Facere mit dem Infinitiv in Archiv III. 51 111. 42. to of the perfect participle ern Italy y?^). of the popular formation . to Under the ' influence of carus '. G. 368. Cf. . quce legi digna sunt. P. Regnier Digitized 63. Regnier 73. the other hand. 366. Bon. male fecisti dare Spiritum sanctum.. Hoppe 60 mors salva erit cum fuerit devorata. etc. It took the place of a relative or indirectly interrogative after certain verbs: clause nesciendo qua petere. G. It wias often used as a noun: totum vivere anima carnis est. It Hoppe malum tions: replaced the subjunctive with ut and similar construcvadent orare. Thielmann. Regnier 74 mihi prcecepit hac loqui. conjectus in carcerem fuerat. venit aliquis audire. up the classic practice as far as they were Although authors kept able. VOICE. Hoppe 42-52: Ninus regnare primus. mean he was loved': flection is loved etc. 647. the infinitive assumed many new and Gerund above. Cf. Hoppe 60. b. Regnier 73.. Spr. amant ignorare. some the — except the perfect gerundive — gradually + esse (in north- disappeared from ordinary speech.§ 112] An On Introduction to Vulgar -Latin. non venit justos vocare. amatus est came Hence amatus fuit signified he Then a whole passive in2 76ff. etc. Bechtel 117. 671-675. facere. 370. per velle perdidit bonum posse. cited in Lat. G. timuisti . revertitur omnis populus resumere se. Regnier 106. Regnier 106. Venantius Fortunatus. non habent unde reddere tibi. aliter exprimere non est. 430. I. 363-370. 490. Bechtel 117: valeamus assumi. see Draeger was made up and. G. some examples may be culled from late writings: denuo factus filius fui. participle The old passive forms extent. 673. permissa est accedere. by Microsoft® .. ' 112. R. est. functions: see Supine bonus et dicere et facere. ipsum vivere accedere est. 177. 363. G. Hoppe 61.

115. Bechtel 115 si scire vultis quid facitis. In the intermediate period the passive was frequently replaced by reflexive and active constructions. Spr. and Dacia by the infinitive: Zat. Gaul. An As Introduction to Vulgar Latin. followed the same Bonnet 402-413. constructions: cum hi omnes tarn excelsi sunt. 114. 455. see c. deponent verbs became active. the subjunctive being used for the third person. se sanare ^= sanari in the 4th century. MOOD. by the indicative (found in Pirminius). 490. Cf. (i) Imperative. and in Italy. sequi. Regnier 69. etc. verbs are used as active verbs by Petronius. facit se hora quinta. I'er. Even in Classic Latin there is often hesita- tion. 55. [§ 117 the passive inflection disappeared. Many deponent course. re- 116. much as it is used by Microsoft® . XXXII. etc. In late vulgar speech mori. The imperative came to be restricted to the second person singular and plural of the present. The subjunctive was limited to fewer functions. homo with the force of French on. -At the end of the Vulgar Latin period it in popular speech. Rom. etc. as in the case oi frusirare frustrari. and littera scripta est vulgar. for the use of 25. being replaced by the indicative in many . and also for the first. very Digitized was probably used.. Bechtel 126. people said littera se scribit and litteram scribunt or litteram scribit homo: ct. (2) Subjunctive. who lived in southern Gaul in the fifth century. irascere irasci. In negative commands the imperative was often placed by the subjunctive. Dubois 275 notes that the forms in -0 are very rare in Ennodius. scribitur When littera seemed archaic. 117.52 113.

53 in the Romance Late writers. Sometimes the subjunctive was replaced by deieo with the infinitive: debeant accipi = accipiantur. Sittl 133-134. in dependent clauses that are not adversa- nor dubitative. R. ecce Pater fecit Filium nasci de fact. The perfect subjunctive the future perfect indicative. place was taken by the infinitive: vergine. : cdntdse. The pluperfect : imperfect subjunctive gradually gave way to the Bellum Africanum {^Lat. Cf. imperfect subjunctive ultimately went out of use. were less logical and evidently less spontaneous than Classic authors in their employment of the subjunctive.iX. G. etc. and with perthis use is common in the fect infinitives like tacuisse for tacere {Lat. Regnier 68-71. •a. 355-357. 428-430. On the other hand. Regnier 27-28. its G. etc. 431 cites many examtimui ne inter nos bella fuissent orta. cf. Gregory the Great (Sepulcri 226) and others. languages. Digitized It was apparently confused with was thus preserved in Spain by Microsoft® . 357-362- (118. Spr. § 72. exWriters of the third and fourth centuries cept in Sardinia. 489: examples from the 4th century). late writers often put the subjunctive where Classic authors would have put the indicative: G. The in the use of it. in indirect In conditions not contrary to tive discourse and indirect questions. 489).&x facio. § III. Spr.§ 119] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. used freely for the imperfect by isset. Sometimes. It apparently began with debuvoluisset. Cf. ples. as In Rumanian the pluperfect subjunctive has assumed the show uncertainty function of a pluperfect indicative 119. the indicative was often substituted for the subjunctive: R. 418. potuisset. while trying to follow the traditional practice.

perf. fect 294-295. rationes cognitas habeo. § 124. The present and imperfect and the present subjunctive remained. Regnier Cf. dialects: cf. way with Even adjectives: miserum habere. yarf«»2 habeo. In late Lastin this compound often had simply a peribi vos meaning: metuo enim ne habeam fatigatos. collocatas habent. Fart. For the imperfect and pluperfect subsee. used in the same Part. 28. or something akin to it: Cato the elder. Fart. 376. [§ 122 and Bausteine Cf. perfect. XXIX. 516. 690. ff. in Classic Latin. I. Draeger 122. perf 372 . 537-538. compertum ego habeo. which led also to thS formation of a new perfect and pluperfect subjunctive. 423. (i) The Perfect Tenses.54 An in Italian i. In the and future perfect indicative great changes took place. perf ^11. 535 is . perf 415. TENSE. pecunias magnas 294. re- Fart. De Lollis in Zs. perf. and Rumanian and V. Crescini in d. junctive. in general.. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 414-415. Draeger 295. etc. quid Athenis exquisitum habeam. C. 689-691. see § 118. omnis res lictas habeo. Part. Fart. I. for the perfect subjunctive. 619. construction very common in Cicero in a sense that closely approaches the perfect: satis . 121. Plautus. 405. The . Sallust. ilia omnia missa habeo. § 119. by Microsoft® . indicative 120. cf. Fart. Tiktin 596. with their old functions. perf. Densusianu 181. Digitized Bon. Part. habeo deliberatum. future. scriptum habeo. perf. however. episcopum invitatum habes. In Classic Latin habeo with the perfect participle was used to express a lasting condition: Hannibal quia fessum It was militem praliis operibusque habebat. Draeger I. the mean- ing of this locution began to shift to the perfect. however. pluperfect. in legal phraseology. perf. § 117. Bon. 518-521.

pouret. quas in cerario conditas habeDraeger I. in some southern Italian dialects (notably in the Rosa in the fresca aulentissima). In the same way a future perfect was made: de Ccesare satis dictum habebo. The old perfect form remained in popular use. si Dominum iratum haberes.. Reich. but still lingered. Regnier 28. its vogue began in Gaul in the fifth century. boltier' in the Old The condiItalian Ritmo Cassinese (^Zs. ortaret. : quam semper cognitam habui. Some late writers were fond of :\ substituting for Cf. in the Spanish peninsula. etc. and continued to be used. and to some extent in Italy. In the Spanish peninsula. § 72. it cxpi with an infinitive: Waters Ch. 294. Eventually an entire perfect inflection was built up with habere or. auret. which came down from the Classic Latin use in conditional sentences. transalaret in etc. however. 620). I [ sometimes with its original sense. etc. The old pluperfect indicative became rarer. the Gl. 70. perf. tional function. gener ally with the aorist sense. sometimes as a preterit. and in the Italian /ora -Cfueram. with the force of a future indicative or subjunctive. perfect bant. Fart. furet. it 55 In popular speech function: perfect form. The old future perfect was apparently confused with the perfect subjunctive. with esse. 541. a compound pluwas constructed Cicero.. 537. perf. the old perfect meaning was not entirely lost. sometimes as a conditional. elsewhere . 543. 489. Digitized by Microsoft® . 124. The preterit use occurs in dixerat. was preserved in Spanish. On the model of this new perfect. XXIX. Old French Sainte Eulalie. in the case of neuter the sixth: Part. 123.§ 124] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. which supplanted more and more the original was increasingly confined to its aorist Lat Spr. Sepulcri 227. in Proven9al.

As the tense became rare in speech. Cf. Bechtel 90-91. which The Latin mistakes were made in writing: Vok.. I. the future in the first two conjugations was suggestive of the imperfect. Pr. Bechtel 112. future was not uniform in the four conjuwas used in three of them and prevailed in two. Sepulcri 225. and in the other two. had some circumlocutions. Digitized by Microsoft® . according to Mohl. pervidet. qiiando mutarisi eras. and we find such 126. the formation in —bo. for the future forms (such periphrases are particularly fre- quent in African church Latin) : (1) The present indicative for the future is common in Cicero in conditional sentences: Lebreton 188-190. which approached the meaning of the future. cantdro. The old audibo. Sepulcri 225-226. cantdre. Furthermore. cum volueris et imus tecum ostendimus tibi. Pers.— S6 in An some Introduction to Vulgar Latin. was liable to confusion with the present subjunctive and indicative. dormibo forms were kept late {Futurum 161). corrigis. jam crastina non eximus. Future and Conditional. 286 ff. delenda est. gations. Draeger I. Regnier Cf. These causes or others made the future unpopular. was native. 98. inquis. [§ 126 dialects of Italy. § 119. Old Sp. only in Rome and the immediate vicinity. and in Dacia: Sp. The substitution si vis ecce ire became frequent in all sorts of constructions: nam modo pedibus duco vos ibi. such as fachabeo dicere. (2) 125. Bechtel 112. Regnier viii. During the Empire there was a strong tendency to substitute these or other constructions Classic Latin turus sum. quando 64. PL 141-142. The old pluperfect subjunctive was used as an imperfect: see § 118. errors as respondeam for respondebo (^Futurum 158). in late pronunciation.

711. Cf. Cf. R. 448 exire habebat. It had become common by the sixth In the early stages of the Romance languages. rebus dicere habemus. . + + It was 5) Vadere. nee verba nobis ista did habent. (3) Velk and /^w^ + infinitive were frequent: G. it many others. . Regnier 29. § 129] An The Introduction to Vulgar Latin. See §§ 105. . in multis hoc . 447 multa habeo dicere. infinitive was another substitute. St. or Digitized by Microsoft® . was habeo with the dicere ^=:. 28. mandare habewas very common in late writers: Hoppe 43 filius Dei mori habuit... infinitive: In Classic Latin habeo habeo quod dicam. 106. Densusianu 181 in Italy . Futurum 48 ff. Hoppe 44 nan habent retribuere. Augustine. Cicero. et sicnihil tuis. ire. Trist. etc. debeo dicere: tibi polliceri. G.. R. 447-449. I. Ad Famil. 447 unde mihi dare habes aquam vivam. Jerome. The form that prevailed. 423. R. Rustica 5. ( ^w^ was a favorite with late nos futuri sumus resurgere. Futurum 180. I. etc. bam. De Re ut id mihi habeam curare.— Servius. cui velle habet. This habeo construction dare habet finally took the sense of a simple future: Tertullian. being so used by Cicero and nius. — St. frobare non habent. Hoppe 44-45 . Hoppe 44 it . aliter prcedicantur bent. Velle in this sense was preserved in Dacia. venire habet. Ovid. 449 Regnier 28. . Regnier century. the oldest Rumanian future is voiujurd or Jurd vom: Tiktin 599. quam evenire haDeus corpus. R. In these senses habes spectare. tantum habeo Lucretius VI. R. as in Sueto- means I. qui nasci habent. Varro. 129. (4) Debere kept in Sardinian. Cf. I 127. venire + infinitive were used also. videre habetis. 57 (2) future participle writers: stc et Bayard 256. later. i. I. 123. 128. 370. habes invenire in manibus — tollere habet. . . however.

in place of amassem the conclusion of a conditional sentence. and in Portuguese it is not completed Old Sp. ista civitas esterminari haberet quod esset venturus et 130.. new form. separation is common in Old Provencal. [§ 130 possibly in the latest stage of Vulgar Latin. There are sure examples from the fifth century on: Lat. Bayard 257. Haag See Morphology. amaturus eram or fui was often used and when amaturus sum was replaced by amare habeo. amare habedicit quod like dixit si possum venire habet. Finally the two words were fused into one. The phrase existed. ready for use. Spr. In Classic Latin. Furthermore. St. although sometimes with him the meaning borders on a real conditional: non traditus autem traduci habebas. or conditional. to match such a sentence as venire habebat or habuit. it was natural that amaturus eram should give m way to bam. there quod was needed a past construction and corresponding to venire habeo. though not immutably. etc. Hilary seem to show a simple conditional use of the compound: quod lex nova dari haberet. garius: Justinianus dicebat 'daras'. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. manifestari habebat. in Classic Latin. but this union was not completed until after the beginnings of the Romance literatures. Quillacq 116. . an imperfect of the was constructed. Hoppe 43-45. the infinitive came to stand regularly. On the model of this future. The earliest examples of the Romance future are found in Fredeyet. Bayard 256.— 58 . pati haberet. and occurs in Old Italian Pg. addarabo. something like si potuissem venire habebam or habui was called for. Digitized by Microsoft® . 489. just before the habeo. So it seems to be used by Tertullian. where it was employed with an implication of obligation or necessity. Haag 54. fazel-o-he. cantare or he cantar. Cyprian and St. 55. Herodes principes sacerdotum ubi nasci habebat Christus interrogat.

Tiktin. XXVIII. not' bvious. cintareasH. parallel to that of the future: Moris hology. Digitized by Microsoft® . for a discussion of the question. of this 59 The development as.§ 130] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. The ')ie origin of the full Rumanian conditional. Bildung des rumanischen Konditionalis in Zs. form in the Romance languages see in general. 691. see H.

phdretra. as in ob-liviscor. that a consonant group. it In the Classic I. Cf. Spr. In Vulgar Latin this : combination almost invariably attracts the accent cathidra. a-mnis. al-ter. all consonant groups. The Latin grammarians seem to have given no heed to actual speech. SYLLABICATION. sic-cus. but to have followed the usage of Greek spelling. or in half of a double consonant: a-ni-ma. They add In point of that etymological considerations often disturb the operation of the rule. The principles of syllabic division are rather difficult to establish. 466. supporting it with purely theoretical considerations. in the spoken language. no-ctem. It is altogether likely. 132. A single consonant between vowels certainly went with the second po-si-tus. in-fans. position. mit-to. The division of j + consonant they regard as uncertain {a-s- trum)\ doubtless in reality the s was nearly syllabic. or in a liquid or nasal followed by another consonantin the next syllable. Quintilian 5 recom- mends vdlucres. poets may or may not make tinebrcB. prop-ter. 131. It is likely that in Old Latin the division came before the Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. fact. S. PHONOLOGY. 132-151. The group mute + liquid makes position in the older dramaafter the first : : tists : Nsevius accents integrant. then. Lat. the syllable always ended in a vowel. except a mute + a liquid. and not pirfe-ctus. was usually divided consonant noc-tem.III. A. etc. According to these writers. made position an^ attracted the accent: perfSc-tus. pro-pter. however. as in Italian.

PRIMARY STRESS. otherwise on the antepenult — developed . 13. after the accent on cd- the preceding vowel. became y. I. 30-34. inUgram. co-liib-ra.. computo. Franz. : We — a. § 132) normally has the stress in Vulgar Latin: cathedra. but subsequently. have seen that Vulgar Latin regularly accents according to the Classic quantitative accentuation. ing to which the accent The falls Classic Latin system — accordis on the penult long. cor exsultat = co r-exsultat. There seem to be a few exceptions to the rule palpres < pdlpebras. The penult vowel before mute + liquid (cf. however. both in the literary and in the spoken language. poltre < *pullitra. 133. and /. In the earliest stage of the language appar- ently fell on the first syllable: Corssen II. if : word began with a vowel B. We speech a that final have reason to believe that in closely connected consonant was carried over to the next word. 892-906 S. Old Fr. if that syllable as early as and remained. some cases in which the Classic principle fails to operate or the Classic stress has been shifted 135. when immediately followed by the 136. the accent falling on the e Digitized by Microsoft® . ACCENT. The Latin accent was probably from regularly stress accent. colubra. Accented vowel of the penult. unchanged: bonitatem. delicto. through the Classic period even after the distinctions of quantity were lost. co-lu-bra. and perhaps : some othfc. Old Fr. the place of the accent was literature began. both consonants were carried over lub-ra. There are. § 136] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. had become fixed : 6i liquid. pi. the beginning a it 134. VOWELS m HIATUS.

pi(teus. adsteti. paries. perdedit. became e but if the preceding consonant was . habMrunf^ * hdb^erunt. p. etc. dedit. 137. COMPOUND VERBS. 668-670. presteti. displtcet>*displdcet. condedit. Lat Spr.62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. tenueram > * tenj^eram. itios were sometimes pronounced duds. C. 1889 (pvte6lis). It was favored also by the analogy of miilier. crededi. 56. parjites^paretes^ C. re- 139. that suos. This change X. II. tuds. I. habuerunt by hdbuit. [§ 139 following vowel: put^olis ~:> mul(eris>muljMs. etc. provided the composite nature of the formation was understood and the parts were recognized (cf. 192. Verbs compounded with prefixes were generally constructed with the accent and the vowel of the simple verb. hiatus seems to have had no on the accent in Latin. imp Itcaf^* imp Heat. 3714 (paretes). S. L. '/« regularly re-nigat. so parietes" L. Cf. became w. battuere being influenced by bdttuo. O. Aside from these cases. seems to be due to a tendency to shift the stress to the more sonorous of two contiguous vowels: cf. S. reddedit. etc. in which the vowel in hiatus is atonic. inclausus. I. Gram. effect diios. however. . 468. tra- addedi. the accent on the preceding syllable: bat{^t)iiere'>* bdtty^ere'> bdttere . consuere by cdnsuo.. > putjdlis. Sepulcri 213-215. b. Digitized by Microsoft® . /. calefacis. Jespersen. It is possible. etc. Cf § 225. 51. Accented u. but * muVeres.. it was palatalized: \i&xwt f aretes. conteneo. tenueram by tenui. 138. reddtdi "^ reddMi. On the same plan new verbs were formed: *de-minat. So 54 . when immediately followed by the vowel falling of the penult. VI. S. Here the shift was apparently due in each case to analogy. suds. Lehrbuch der Phonetik. etc. reiinet > * ret^net. riquirit "^ * requkrit. consuere'>*cdns^ere'> cdnsere . §31): deficit >* disfdcit.

simple translation of (tvkwtov.§ i4i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.Lic. a . a fusion of ficatum and * sicotum. for instance. 515 and XXVIII. It is found in late Latin in the form sycotum. Priscian says ^^ illic pro mice": S. was preferred in and southern Italy. cdlligo and some others not even the composite nature was perceived. ficatum. *ftcatum. all meaning 'liver. XXV. Gaul had ficatum and ficatum. Ficatum. for some unknown reason. which should properly have been pronounced sycotum . came to be used only in the sense of 'read. 42. n. . Through this word there came into use the culinary terms /tedium. *fdcatum. perhaps under the influence of a vulgar *hepdte for hepar. it probably became *secotum. ficotum. Sardinia preserved both ficatum and ficatum. central 2jaA. . the simple verbs having become rare or having taken a different sense: legere. the composite character of the word although the compound was no longer associated capere. 140. fecitum. Schuchardt in Zs. 'liver'. * redpit. and northern Italy. Ascoli 41 See G. Clddat in Revue de philologie fran(aise et de littirature XV. There existed in Greek a word 'figlike'.' Ficatum. which was applied by cooks to a liver. a cross between /««/«/« was kept in Sicily and in the Spanish peninsula. illic accented their last syllable through the analogy of hdc^ hlc. 63 RMpit became being with In felt. n-LAc. . later. The adverbs iliac. *ficotum */dciium. 141. Reetia. 435 L. 235Digitized by Microsoft® . Ficatum or prevailed in Dacia.' c. by a change of suffix. FICATUM. d. (tdicwtoi/ (Pirson 40). Paris in Miscellanea linguistica in onore di Graziadio H.

Optisdna)':>lt. Claussen 809. G. with the Greek > Occasionally the accent was kept by doubling the consonant. terms borrowed by ear from the Greek. iraXa/ir/ ^pd/ma. borrowed Idmpa^s). (1) Greek Oxytones. Ther\.o^'^ spdstnus. 69-70. Greek Paroxytones. The shift was probably due to a tendency to differentiate the numerals from one compare the floating accent in English thirteen^ another in Melanges natural : fourteen. Wahlund. as polifpus. Cf. kTzi<jTo\rj~> epistula —ola. The accentuation times the Greek stress GREEK WORDS. e. voXvTrovs '^ polypus^ irop(f>vpa /jMyiSa. <f>Ld\rj XoXepa > chdlera) > colira. when by Latin.. apparently the first syllable: (2) 145. > ( ^purpura. (>pMd/a)> It. Vok. may represent popular stress. 1 142. fdia. (nraa-it. Tairav6s>* iapinus.vr] <f>apiTpa'>p/tdretra ox phar'etra (cf. § 134). etc. irapa. 42 ff. irapaT-fi^'^ pirata. Xa. 461.tnginta. stressed ^vKwrov.virahersvigintt. 4-5 Pirson 97.. however.qumqudginta. Ti. \ were sometimes accented on the antepenult: Consentius mentions a faulty pronunciation triginta. Somewas preserved. see § 141. Ihm in Archiv VII. Greek paroxytones were mostly accented according to the quantity of the penult: ypa(j>tov>grdp/iium. 337.r/xa-vj'^- were stressed according to the Latin system: ^pa-)QiLT^> drdch{u)ma. S.poKri'^pardbula.TKj6. sometimes the word was made to conform to the Latin principle.. Digitized by Microsoft® . Kafxapa^cdmera. It. tisana. 144. a.'i'^ mdc(k)- tna. etc. II.64 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. lines quarranta occurs in a late inscription.guadraginta. fj. Keil V. Rydberg . mdgida. of Greek words was varied. [§ 145 NUMERALS. 143. See M.ix. 392.ira. etc. Greek oxytones.

are attested: S. Cf. 42).. Claussen 813-814. § 17. 42£f. (3) 147.'Kav&ov'> balneum. S. > ec(^c)Usia. KaXafiOi > calamus. etc. Claussen 814-821. Claus- accentuation: Kxnta. iKKXtjaia the Latin fiipXla^Mblia.>blasp hernia. -ia 146. and sophta.) and produced a new Latin ending -ia. 55-56.<TTopia> kistdria. A few early borrowed words perhaps show the Old Latin Cf. penetrated popular speech {(ro<l>ia> sopMa. The pronunciations melodia. of proparoxytones is The treatment complicated. which was used to form new words: see Derivation.'avfi<l>(ovia>sym- Later a fashionable pronunciation -ia.t&o. phonia.. Greek Proparoxytones. kKo. Gram. Suffixes for Nouns. Cf. the accent remained un- changed phus. Kuiv(im&ov> conopeum -eum —ium. raXaxTov > talintum. When : the penult was short.<j-(^r]fLux. 42-49.- was at first generally assimilated to p\a. (with a KoXa^o^ > cdld- Trpea-ftvrepov > presbyterum new nominative took the prisbyter). -eum -ium. doubtless favored by Cliristian influence. 148. etc. ylvecTK "^ ginesis.. Cf. The ending -2i2. When : the penult vowel was in position. 65 but it more likely that the Italian forms are book-words with a shifted accent. I. Cf.cupressus. sen 809. but their statements are too vague to be of use. XXXI. it accent afivcraoi > abyssus. A.puj<jo%~^* ciiparissosy. 35. a-riirta>s^pia. Digitized jSawTia-fui > baptisma. S. Thomas in Rom.§ 149] ^^ Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. etc. -eum: ^a. Claussen 812. —aav sometimes became -ea -ia. The endings -aa. > platea platea. 149.. sometimes —ea. 2-3. Claussen 810— 811. 'i. by Microsoft® . Late Latin grammarians mention a pro- nunciation of Greek words with the Greek accent (S.

Germanic words were apparently made to conform to Latin types: H'&go HUgun > Hugo Hugdnem > Fr. Ut cdrne carnem liberdns p^rderit quos c6ndidit. Pharo. Tricasses'>Yx. (T'aia. at the beginning of the century. Dottin 103.Tri.pv6<^vKKov Occasionally the consonant group was simplified and the accent remained : > * garofulum. however.66 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 2. of accented and unaccented fifth Thus Sedulius. Ka. t^aWtava'^. Celtic Baiocasses > > Z>urdcasses'^'Px. Hues Hudn.T]\ai> camelus -ellus.o%> bldsphemus (Prudentius). Fisaurum It. judging from phonetic changes late Latin verse. 152. > writes: Beatus iuctor skculi Servile c6rpus fnduit. their original accent. . apparently took the accent in book-words but not in words learned by ear (S.ballcena. j3ovTvpov> *se'- biHtyrum (^milius Macer). Some words have both pronunciations et8<i)A. Some words borrowed from other languages kept e. Dreux. we can determine the rhythm Latin. 153. ayKvpa>dncora. ipr]iuis> eremus eremus : > (Prudentius).. etc. of Vulgar and from semi-popular Kluge 500. a-iKlvov^ linum. As far as SECONDARY STRESS.> sinapi sindpi. etc. 48-49) Ka. ^\axr<^-i]p. 151. contrary to Latin rules (S. Ne Digitized by Microsoft® . 49): Umbrian Fr.ov tdolum (both in Prudentius: Lat. KpoKohaKoi'^ crocodilus. Spr. OTHER FOREIGN WORDS. When the penult vowel was long and not in position. 'ldKioPoi>/dcobus. xa/xtvos it : caminus. became both encdustum and incaustum. 466). it consisted in a tolerably regular alternation syllables. Bayeux. Troyes. [§ 153 'EyKava-Tov.

In late formations e or i in hiatus did not count as a sylla- ble: * cotninitidre. in Latin as in other lan- guages. *parduldre *pardbuldre : > > > filiiis "^^/ilius. colp. dd-tibi. Idcrlmosa. te-videt. Many words. clerc. Gdllias. clirgue while cUr'cum > > > cdlbe while cdlpum > Pr. 67 ' The secondary then. B\i6logn{no beside Bologna. v€ttovdglia beside vittdria. In some derivatives. strong. dolorosa. in Italian. the root syllable may have received an irregular stress through the analogy of the primitive: * drboricellus. it and the vowel bearing it was was apparently treated as an accented vowel: * amicUdtem~^'?x. fell on the second syllable from the tonic: cuptditosus. however. it was weak. Digitized by Microsoft® . especially prepositions and conjunctions. cum Pr. and the secondary was shifted or *pdrauldre. UNSTEESSED WORDS. 38-39) dma-me. unemphatic words. syllables to the beginning or had no accent. 154. as well as some adverbs and pronouns. stress. pldcttiim'^'Pr. Casdrem. but probably the vowel bearing it had more force than a wholly unaccented final vowel: sdcer{>'PY. When it followed the tonic. 156. cave-facias. so. cdlapMin Pr. non-dmat. When the secondary stress preceded the tonic. 155.: § 156] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. In many cases the intervening vowel fell out or lost Then the primary and the secondary ac- lost cent were brought together. sdzer. but clmPr. circum-Utora (Quintilian s). amistdt. F\6rentino beside Fvrenze. Short. cdlidHs cdldus. its syllabic value. and were attached as additional end of other words (S. were used only as enclitics or proclitics.^plach. I. felidtatem.

was doubtless carried over to the next syllable and did not make position: see §133. par-tern > Fr. 73-79. 379-390. became *mais and * mas. 134. For the syllabication of mute + liquid. in connected speech. they tended to become monosyllabic: unstressed magis. however. ' I 159. stressed tended to develop double forms: sua and Cf. see §§132. If such particles had more than one syllable. the consonant. 56-57. did not prevent the development: pa-trem^Y-ic. eccum istum > 'cu" p II. 1110. elision.5"^ illas and sometimes unstressed and * las. Words sometimes sa. per.68 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. part. In some of the Romance languages the development of the preceding vowel. If. Every 'LaXin vowel was by nature either lon^ prshort. but we may surmise that in common speech it was more marked in stressed than in unstressed vowels. QUANTITY. A syllable was long if it contained ( i ) a long vowel or a diphthong or (2) any vowel + a following consonant. sel. see Franz. Mute + liquid Neither. by Microsoft® . the consonant was final and the next word began with a vowel. how great the difference was we do not know. pere. and probable that the beginnings of this differentiation go back to Vulgar Latin times : pa-rem > Old Fr. POSITION. ecce that vowel: ilium v{det^ hic^ (but ecce hie > ecc'tc) For 158. S. apparently. did a final consonant Digitized §133): Jffl-/> Fr. position checked it is 160. (cf. We must distinguish between the quantity of vowels and the quantity of syllables. perhaps influenced proclitic hy plus. 'lu' A 'c'ic dissyllabic beginning with a vowel seems to have regularly lost vldet. sUay- C. 1. . istu' (but iccum istum > eccu'istu'). [§ i6o 157.

^glut[t)tre. etc. this may result merely the case with the doublet czto> S-p.^ ec{c)lesta. cetto. cuppa. diphthongs and long 112-120): cdssus> formosus. which prevailed in Romance. S. ferro <ifer-rum_.* co-pVit. cuor{e) 161. -esse -essem etc. ciepa. citto {C. 69 Compare tus. petto pietra<pe-tra. In some words from bad spelling. 125-126 (Velius Longus and Pompeius). where we have perhaps only a change of suffix. especially before the accent: bal{l)cBna. Cf. siccus ' '' sicccus. mucus miiccus . as seems to be ves(s)ica. Stolz 223-224. Jiipiter Juppiter. In Latin texts there is much confusion of single and double consonants. Many words certainly longing to different Latin dialects. Early in the Empire caussa ss after vowels was apparently reduced to casus. It. cuopre <. doubtless beone with a long vowel + — + a double consonant: brdchium brdcchium . cuba.§ 163] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. copa. stupa stuppa. cf. Similarly one / was lost in mallo. gluto glutto . §163. —Isse —tssem etc. cedo. Sp. formossus > > > mtsit. coupe. I. camelus camellus. Digitized by Microsoft® . 129. perhaps litera littera. missit (S. corpo <:_cdr-pus. coUo < <icd-r. the other with a short vowel . however. Italian fiero <. hoc erat hocc S. paullum.. Stolz 222—225. ii594)>It. in— 132. S. : The The single antiquity of double t is attested by an old inscription Lexique loi. L. 162. mtllia (but not in mille : Pompeius.. but often it must represent an actual difference in pronunciation. Cf. This did not occur. had two forms. c. buc{c)lna. glossa glosa. tap{p)ete. giving Sp. Cf. cupola and erat. — fuore <fd-ris. 118: mIssit) > causa. Fr. mut{t')ire.fiel(^e) Kferl. pupa puppa.fe-rus. coppa . cuve. Fr. j < peccol- lum. 163. 127). biica bucca . (S. § 42 ctpus a single consonant. nollo. in the contracted endings -dsse -dssem etc. It. cot{t)idie. VIII. is common in Greek and Latin manu- scripts: S. cippus.

stilla). chdne{<x°-'^) 261. Rsetia. vowel and the double consonant : angutla (> Sp. In aqua the double con: sonant. S. 164. Die Entwicklung des aqua in den romanischen Sprachen. strinna). (> It. + anguilla—* angutUa (> It. ^Stella Vok. tota. cf. Cf." Cf. tenne. I. iota estreine) (>Sp. lattrones. conservammus. local ing to F. Stella. bascio). (>It.^)—* tdtta (> Pr. * stela (>01d esteile: cf.5 547. XXVI. Stolz 223.488. 485. seemingly a cross between the other two. Gaul. mist * missi 261 {iubimmus iobemmus). 612. bellua. XXIV. mattrona. was very widespread and prevailed in Italy. suppremis. reviewed by Meyer-Lubke in Ltblt. anguila) Fr. tennuis. § 204(2). Sic. Lexique 95-98) + Stella (>It. channe. attested by inscriptions and by Christian poets. baca bacca.^ + strenna = * strenna (> It. So perhaps Diomedes' Itttera: Fr. botte). In late Latin inscriptions and manuscripts a consonant was sometimes doubled before r or u: acqua. Vok. a consonant was doubled 122. conservdmus Vok. toute). jubemus lltus littus. anguilla).70 An To these Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Zs. 403. Beside the two forms indicated. ^(ji. dialect stella) = (>It. Gram. toda) ¥ totta (Keil V. jubemmus. I. This doubling indicates in most cases a Accordpronunciation. voile. messi). suppra. before / and u in the old Italic dialects compare the Italian doubling infabbro. prevalent in Africa or in Italy. frattre. there was occasionally a third. G. * According to Lat. For *iiUius see Digitized by Microsoft® . Archiv XIV. strenna. and a large part of lateinischen See Clara Hiirlimann. toiius was used by Pirminius. I. iConsentius: " per adjectionem litterje io««»! pioioto. 339. Leicique 98-104. etc. having both the long. * butts (<j8oi)tis) *buttis (>It. brdca bracca. [§ 164 may perhaps be added: cdseus * cdsseus bdsium *bassium (>It. Mohl. Spr. 334. 1. strennuor. strena (> Old Fr. cascio).

(S. II. cites Tertullian for an e (S. . mulus Later. similar to i. 2. and several fifth century grammarians plainly distinguish e from e (S. In open syllables. until Consentius.§ i66] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. I. for the vowels of brief duration the tongue was not in lifted quite so high as for those held longer. Writers do not clearly distinguish i and i. as minses. distinguishes two ^-sounds Pompeius. According to Meyer-Liibke. i and u were allowed to drop still lower. II. the same sound in Idtus and Idtus. in 165. is made with the tongue lying flat in the bottom of the mouth. Za(. in iillus and multus. and so Maurus. None of the grammarians apparently distinguished « and «. the quantity of the vowel is ' in general easily ascertained. about 350 a. if the word is used in verse. Terentianus from q (S. which and became e and see §§201. for instance. this nomen and novus. as ocsor. in the fifth century (S. most of the Empire. 151. 182). 212. all : of later date. the vowels having. (S. In Digitized by Microsoft® . perhaps. However may have been. solus sqlet. distinguishes do other grammarians (S.. 216-217). was often used for e in inscriptions (S. long dis- - tinguished only by duration. as menus. In the case of a. but is used for u in inscriptions. and i for e. etc. etc. 146. by 250. Spr. 71 VOWEL QUANTITY. 183-184). 195. 176. the evidence of inscriptions. d. secondus. 211). about 480. 211). 193). 461. e. the distinction U was clear by the first century of our era. and u were eventin ually differentiated. In Vok. long and short e. in debet and mnum \ \ and minus. there was no such differentiation. is given the testimony of grammarians. 200-201). III. 208. : vendo pinus pi^er. from the second century on cs Marius Victorinus. long were close gula. in Vok. Originally. 166. and short vowels were redit. is often used for i in inscriptions.. however. i ff. 467. etc. the short vowels being open while the sentio. 182). 174. i. 175. 0. That is.

by Microsoft® . nutrire. [§ 167 closed syllables and in words not used is by poets the quantity sometimes conOccasionally the in many cases doubtful . Substrate II. their regular quantity in hiatus. Romance undecim. require a short some Romance forms support Classic luridus. sometimes marked in inscriptions. Fr. jectured from the etymology.2^)>oum (and also ovum. with a restora- tion of the V through the plural ova). and the practice of poets was not always in accordance with spoken usage. in Plautus. frIgida. 93. via— via. attested by pIvs piivs. languages. before u was apparently differentiated into 0: dvum> oum (cf. Naturally long vowels. 167. duo>dui = dui. and in Ennius close vowel in the Romance (S. ultra (S. after u had become (see §§ 165.. 98. their Dies. Aulus Gellius prescribes dictum. at least in part. At 208). then. 105). proved old inscriptions . cf. and often shown by subsequent developments in the Romance languages. (S. and. ^T. etc. siius'>Digitized spus> sous (S. probably kept their original Naturally short vowels doubtless had development also: deus = deus. plus kept inscriptions (dIes originally long vowel. found in inscrip- tions. so cut. but the i. any a later stage. 93): these preserved their languages. by S. S. etc. but an inscription has dIctatori (S. 99). loir calls for *gltrem h&siA^ gltrem. Vowels in hiatus with the last syllable offer difficulties. 187). but it is sometimes given by gram- marians. Classic i Latin o&ers frtgidus (of. 105). testimony conflicts: some inscriptions have carIssimo. is The Classic rule that a vowel before another vowel short is not absolute even for verse. others karessimo. 101-102). others demand u.72 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. fut. a. were apparently pronounced also with short u 81-82). VOWELS Ilf HIATUS. although we do find the spellings dius and mius (S. except Spanish.

spellings as Aiiax. 352-355). b. vowels were lengthened before j. words were short. as in ejus. 1894. Jean- jaquet. major. which had begun to assume the functions of quod (see §§69. before a consonant. under the influence of qua and : . cuiius. different theory. Pirson 16). used for quod in late Latin. 104) that the vowels there that is. Quia.§ i7o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Maiiam. Horning in Zs. (S. which prolonged the — first syllable: not pejor. on the other hand. into pei-ius. §208. J. tions in different countries. 82 cf. LENGTHENING BEFORE CONSONANTS. 341. 236). Troija. 236). The Romance languages. maiiorem. but the / was doubled was a glide from the vowel to the/. Recherches sur Forigine de la conjonction 'que' et des formes romanes iquivalentes. 73 varia- 216. Fluere was supplanted in popular usage by plovere Fluvia. we should write Troiia also Priscian analyzes pejus. Quintilian states that Pirson 74. it became qua. had a peculiar development from the sixth century on before a vowel it was pronounced qui' and was confused with quid. 169. 207). 3 II. coiiux. According to some grammarians. with double i (S. Franz. qua{ni). as Cicero approved of Aiiacem. I. Spr. inscriptions such S. a II. gave {Lat. however. Velius Longus adds that etc. Maiiam. etc. ei-ius. see Gram. point to open vowels in pejor. Franz. way to Cf.(4). Cicero preferred aiio. 246-248. §217. We find in eiius.. Troja.: 236. hut peijor. The apparent contradiction disappears tianus Maurus. 168. 170. There may have been other special Cf. 250 in these a. *pldja. Troja. 357-390. XXV. 468). if we accept the statement of Teren- who says (S. Cf.. For another see A. For a still. d. mai-ius Digitized (£don by Microsoft® .

it and the preceding vowel was cesor. 78./. Romance and late Vulgar Latin words with ns (except in Cf. for inscriptions. (2) Before gn vowels were lengthened according to Priscian and inscriptions mark length in dtgnus. etc. 86. S. Before J. u. and the fall was permanent. not f. etc. in-: so infantem through indignus. 467). S. mesis. S. who wrote in the sixth century. beside the old popular *pesare. s: cosul. (cf. for inscriptions. etc. 77-78. cojugi. 400. According to Meyer-Liibke {Gram. n occurred in the middle of many words. Priscian. 90. all trace of the of the vowel: consul consul cosul cosul. lignum. so that the result Digitized was t. or v). tferi. tjk: quinque. . 91). remains. but only after H had be- come i. conjungere through conducere. tion of later date. but insig- It is altogether likely that the n fell through nasalization If so. /.. 172. An Introduction When fell to Vulgar Latin. a very late authority. S.74 171. [§ 172 regularly early in Latin. signum.. Cf §311. «. compounds See S. u. n was followed by a fricative (/. and some philologists regard the passage in question as still still an interpola54. sposus. signum sigillum). The Romance is languages. (i) Vowels were apparently lengthened before Cf. Spr. it was usually restored by the analogy of the full forms con-. Lat. for the usage of Cicero and others. s. as above) are either learned terms or new formaS. sanctus. however. however. coventio. and v only at the end of prefixes. nasality disappeared. the n being restored only in com- lengthened by compensation: pounds before initial nare. t. Archiv XIV. pugnus. (S. but the length and the close quality of the vowel remained. regnum. pignus. coxwenire through continere. the vowel was lengthened. 89.- cf. benegnvs by Microsoft® . 91. tsula. etc. tions: so pensare. the evidence of the inscriptions I. But inasmuch as n occurs before /". call for dtgnus.

unaccented Terentianus Maurus. (S. in unaccented syllables the distinctions were doubtless weaker. of accent. D. the preservation of quantity in post-tonic Digitized mostly in the third and fourth centuries. etc. 311. and we find numerous metrical errors in other late poets: cf. and the plural —es were confounded by 150 A. On shift the other hand. difference in quantity 173. as due to a vulgar or local pronunciation. I. Cornu. J. remained. 722. resulting from the original quantity. as in aut (S. doubtless equivalent to the benIgnus of C. they existed at c. L. 183—184: bence. and were often obliterated. which is 75 in C. tells us that au is short in Other grammarians syllables. 226). prefers to regard such forms as dlgnus. Buck. . (S. warn against quantitative mistakes: so Servius. D.). This seems a very plausible C. DISAPPEARAHCE OF THE OLD QUANTITY. and a was often used for e in inscriptions (S. The was probably greater and more constant in accented than in unaccented vowels. 66). about 250. in so far as all. XII. 174. 2153. The poetry of Commodian. L. XII. 75). in the Classical Review I. in the fourth century.§ 174] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. "miserce dativus est non adverbium. XV. The old quantity itself was It during the Empire. Versbau des Commodian in Bausteine 576. through a by Microsoft® . in stressed syllables. however. through the Latin period and developed further in the Romance languages. for the most part seems to have disappeared from unstressed syllables by the third or fourth century but confusion The nominative singular -is set in as early as the second. show. in the third or fourth century. seems to observe quantity in stressed and to neglect it in unstressed syllables. Latin words borrowed by the Britons. The distinctions in quality. lost." etc. explanation.

Latin words in Anglo-Saxon. It is possible that the quantity of unstressed vowels was better kept in the provinces than in Italy. 65. grammarians blame the confusion of cequus and equus (S. 467). entirely diverse from the old. Spr. 175. i?> e 01 i. fructus by Microsoft® . Digitized fqrmas fori.if>« while u and u.76 syllables: An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Much late poetry disregards quantity altogether. fourth century. In accented syllables there are sporadic examples of confusion by the second century. / At the end of the Latin period a new system of quangrew up. The Latin words in Old High German. and based on th|fe situation of the vowel. dixi plicds. all other vowels 176. [§ 176 Loth 72. for. 178). vendo vents. are distinguished by quality also. retain the quantity of vowels that bear the accent: Pogatscher. clares that "Afrae aures de correptione St. In most of the Empire accented vowels not in position were pronounced long. tity short: sdncto vales. d. and o. 107. distinguish by quantity t and i. Moreover. but mostly in the third and fourth. but probably the disappearance of the old distinction was not general before the fourth and fifth centuries. Latin words borrowed by the Britons from the second to the fifth century. as aques for eques in 197 (S. On the other hand. e and ?. in the Roma (S. Augustine devocalium vel produc- Pompeius and other tione non judicant" (^Lat. and not complete before the end of the sixth. e. d>ii ox 6 while d>o: Franz. taken over in the fifth and sixth centuries. Latin words borrowed by Old High German indicate a retention of long i and u before the accent: Franz. too. 106). 225). show the preservation of the quantity of stressed vowels: Loth 64. criticizes Servius. DEVELOPMENT OF A HEW QUANTITY.

nepotis (A. and the conditions of diphthongization were very diverse in different localities. a. i. An isolated example. occurs in an inscription made a little before 120 a. also ui. Zimmermann in Zs. ^^/a > Old Fr. tre-s. /w>01d Fr. beside a. cuor. e. he puts in the fourth and fifth centuries. 467. «^j>Fr. We shall see presently Digitized by Microsoft® . 213). VOWELS. while a was not' affected by q-aawti-ty. I. syllables before a labial (as in proommus') a short further- more. all stressed vowels were appar- ently long: tempus. southern Gaul. ca-the-drd te-ni-brds . This pronunciation doubtless sprang up with the old. o. which in the transition from Latin to the Romance languages re1 77- It is likely that these in sulted in diphthongization in a large part of the Empire. 735). eu. Portugal.§ 178] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ce. Spr. u. 77 gule. d. Gram. d. in £at. XXV. Latin had the vowels au. In 419 D. have seen (§ 165) ti. 103— u were pronounced open. 178. 561-562.q. he describes it as common to all. cq/r me-l no-s re-m In Spain and in some parts neisf of Gaul. close. porta. t. but as posterior to it the fifth century. Lombardy. We and i. The vowels most affected were e and q. perhaps only a blunder. and in unaccented ii. and Sicily apparently did not participate in this early breaking.f>It. vieni. particularly in northern Gaul: z'f«f. nous. says that the development was and independent in the several Romance languages. nounced new long vowels were promost regions with a circuinflex intonation. : Niipos. cb. Meyer-Liibke in different in Einf. dis- appearance of the which it displaced. the groups that e. goule. (rets. we find vobit for obiit (S. 0. cqr'^lt.

eu generallyremained du. Late words often show Digitized do-Ki/Tiys > ascitis. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin e: a. long or short. a-Ktjvrj'^ sctsna scena. [§ 182 (§§209.nd ce>e. as *waidanjan~>*wadaniare. The history of Greek vowels is very complicated: — GREEK VOWELS. bestemmia. and 180. the Greek This pronunciation was letters were sounded as in Greek. doubtless the ideal of people of fashion. eu (^cduius. (n)Tria~^ sapia. but popular speech substituted for unfamiliar vowels the sounds of the vernacular. iu is found in skiuha?i> ated in some fashion to the Latin system. and ui (as in cut) was lit. 210) that cB>e a. 181. but early in our became t. eu (or iu) appears in treuwa (or triuwa). but also sepia "^ i: It. as In words of more ji\acr<\>r}fi. which became *trewa. by Microsoft® . A. partly from the channel (written or oral) through which they came. was in Greek originally a long e. partly from the various pronunciations of the vowels in the several Greek dialects.iro6riKTf)~:>apotheca^ It. In the Germanic vocabulary there is not much to be noted: at in words adopted early apparently became a. (f>dXayi -> phalanx.78 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. seppia. bottega. so in some late words. * skivare. ceu). popular origin it often had the Greek open sound kKKkfitrU > 182. 179. Per. while au.La > blasphemia > It. it H era : eclesia. The inconsistencies in this substitution arise partly from the different dates at which words were borrowed. was pronounced a: ^axriM^ Phdsis. According to Quintilian (£don 64-65). The foreign vowels of borrowed words were assimil- In the few Celtic words that were taken over there are no important peculiarities.

but sometimes open. pttqcco. rprnKTiji'^ Cf. /.^ purpura. Claussen 853-854. Xpla-ro^'^. ally u: tructa. opiyavos > became e. ^^. Sp. Digitized by Microsoft® . ropvos > tqrnus > It. tapit.. crLvaTn> sinapi^ senape. cf. tttw^os > It. '%Ti<^avo'. ixova<TT'^piov'>raora-n-rj- nastirium. ^(fila-pa^ chrisma> cresima. In popular words it was sometimes close. etc. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 79 40. was generally close. menta. <^iKo'i>phtlus. > artemtsia > Old Fr. ermo. tapis.v6% > orphanus. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: <j><!tKri In popular words it apparently became ^. In popular words it. and occasionally the same word had both pronunciations: a. seems to have had a very open sound. etc.ix6py7)>amurca. apparently became I. it was In assimilated to Latin t: ^lp. KiBpo'i'>cedrus'>In book-words it > Fr. It.. was probably q. pxirov > blttum'> It.'>- Stephanus Stephanus. cresme. t apparently later often e: apOplriKOi > ariAriticus '> It artetico. li bietal It. 1re7rf. ^ia>drrp > boletus. orma. 183.> piper. 184. /iu(rT^ptov> mistirium. "^-phoca.vri^ovo%'>-* antefona'^ Qi\A Fr. 185. open in others. even when long. 9.o'i'> phlmus . Pr. in 186. Old Fr.' It. popular words I In book-words later e oz e. E was close in some It. cedro. occasion- yXStrira > It. Christianus Chres- tianus. etc. antiefne. Claussen 855-857. 80x1^ > dqga> It. apTepXa-M It. piivOrj^ menta'> It. was assimilated to Latin e: yevans Agenesis. Cf. oo-/x'^ >.Chrlstus Chrestus. op<^a. a. Greek dialects. irop^vpo. apa. Tiov Claussen 854-855. K6ppi>gummi. regamo. mienta. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: > cophinus. iKKXriKrCiu "> edisice.p1. Cf. O most dialects was kocjuvo's o. Claussen 869-870. but perhaps dialectically q (cf.. Neumann etc.yermo. I. sometimes open: eprjfios'^ er'mus er'mus'^ It. chiosa.— § i86] An etc. armeise. dqga. at least in the principal dialects. -p-hqra)..

buxus. v regularly was assimilated to Latin u Ionic it jUijXXos 2ig-22i): Pvpara> bursa . perhaps taken mostly from Doric (Claussen 865). Pr. calotta. AudoUent 536." Among the common people the unfamiliar ii was assimilated to i." '^ tymum non tumum. motto. cultivated people adopted for Greek words the Ionic-Attic pronunciation. ''tymum non tu- mum." App. y In the App. 221. In the older borrowed words. 'OXvcro-eu? > Ulixes. etc. in which the ^ is a later local development. 221). An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. later in Attic and became ii." "myrta non murta.vt)> was shortened. > ancilia . Olumpus. Pr. Spr. fivpros busta seems to represent a peculiar local development: cf. Koyxiy <tt/3o<^os [§ 187 chorda. says: "Burrum semper Ennius. — > concha. Pr.. which is genCicero erally represented. 221). The App. . grotta. KpvTTTrj > It. Zefurus. murta. Mva-Ca^ Jfysia Mmsia. Cf.p-q>cumba. According to Cassiodorus. 187. these probably have nothing to do with KoXvizTpa. etc. nunquam Pyrrhum" (S. 468.8o torno. It. In Tp\yTa. (S. App. Pr. originally pronounced u. Y was > strqppus. was unrounded into /. Livius Andronicus In ayKvpa ancora.. in the case of v. > > and a few other words the v for some reason became o. Marsuas. by the spelling y. etc. irv^os mullus. > > > buxida {=pyxis) in Theodorus Priscianus and in glosses. u is the spelling in some words. Cf." "porphyreticum marmor non purpureticum marmor. KpvTrTy)> crupta . — KoKn^o-i^ cqlaphus cojaphus. Lat. which may represent a Greek dialect pronunciation between u and ii: yvpo'i> gyrus gmrus . S. . KviJ. which subsequently. Digitized by Microsoft® . in the 9th or loth century. In inscriptions we find misteriis. truttna the v storax. etc. /iCSos > It. <jTvpai : . 'OSuo-o-eta > Odissta. we find: "Marsyas non in others (S. yppl-q > Claussen 857-860. Pirson 39.yKvKw. Towards the end of the Republic. For some words we find an occasional spelling X. The spelling / occurs sometimes before Augustus 6.. > It.

except before vowels. frequently became qui: The modern Greek pronunciation is represented by some Romance words: afi. Digitized as in -Koivr] >poina. etc. Frigia. 76-77. . MaTa > Maia. however. oTJpt-yya which became It. as in AWiovux > Ethiopia Ethiopia. > It. by Microsoft® became 0. etc..). Cleopatra. j8u^ai'r6s > It. toreomatum from Topfxpa. Claussen 01 originally "became came (S. from the sixth to the fourth century c. originally cb 188. 191. amido. Cf. see § 141. AI timbre. Pr. For o-vkcutoj/." giret.'> w€ipaTyi<s'^ — KA£ki>> Medea. Such forms Clepatra for as " ermeneumata non erminomata" {App. Tu/iTravov > Fr. finally. Cf. giro. probably a local development. tdolum. cf. giro. Cf. or z before vowels. /ceXttJcr/xa > ? It. § Kd 223..v\ov > It. KS/«i>It. Claussen 860-869. i.• ^ ^generally became ^« E3pos > -£'«''«J'.. e. 277). etc. later e. «S(i)Xov> pirata. yrJi/'os — kvkvo%> gesso is e: yvpo% cecino. became ai. Cf. e. oi. Claussen 873-875. Cf. if Pirson 39.rihtui. misterii. > It. 192. which came to be proClaussen nounced 871-872.> platea. 81 has "gyrus non girus. It. Bechtel etc. In -eios -eta —tiov. M. etc. a became Clio. Claussen 872-873. b. bisante. if Audollent 535. This i. about the third century. long. cima. 190. > scilinga. J before consonants. . f.§ 192] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 6r]travp6i> thesaurus. ciurma. which to be pronounced as in ^otfio^'^it Phxbus Phebus Sometimes. /.TSa. KoXoKvuT-q"^ cologuinta. the penult was often shortened: Khj. 189. (as in aiyi^'^ tsgis). <? In Latin. as in Atas > Aiax. Cf. A V> au. £/ was doubtless originally pronounced ei in Greek. may be merely misspellings: Some Romance forms show u: 875-877. was usually pronounced short. later ce (as in poina). then. Kapa^iuriys'^ paradtsus . cf.

especially in the north. But in Gaul. then 'Valuer (whence alicrem alecrem). (i) Some words had a peculiar development: — Beside alacrem the Romance languages seem to postulate alecrem and alej:rem. 171. S. factum. In Latin it usually became u: fipovxo's> bruchus.T\Kov). Rome. ovpavo's'^ Uranus. Reich. (2) (3) For the suffix -arius. C. a. SINGLE VOWELS. « : . 1527 d 33. which was used elsewhere Lat. <u Claussen 877-878. -arius. for cmmeterium < Koi/tjyTiyptov. L. volumptczte in Gl. senetus. L.B. VI. a 194. tantus. see § 171. C.. Beside gravis there was a grevis. under the influence of l?vis: Beside GREVE. which was used in southern Italy. — For vowels in hiatus. I. Substrate II. and Sarthere was a clr^slus. Spr. Cf. then q. 195. ot. and agnetus (for agndtusi) in Fredegarius. Beside cerasus *clra. I. It is possible that dlacer (whence alacrem) > *dlecer (whence alecrem). Cimiterium cymiterium. Spr. 468. Like 193. see § 167. used by Petronius and others: Lat. So beside dinia. CKwas then if. 441. etc. The o was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . 0. Substrate (4) I. Lat.slus. ACCENTED VOWELS. vocatio. [§ 195 "^-foeta. Haag 6. I. patrem. I. crepere. malum « cf. (6) Beside vacuus there was a vHcuus: vocuam. Doric cf. 468. unchanged in the greater part of the Empire: caput. manus. perhaps indicates an ignorant confusion of « ce: KOiixMSia'^ and Cf. (5) jiSKav) there was a melum (<i)i. 544. A regularly remained dat-e. Cf. Claussen 878-879. latus. Kipaaoi) there must have been a Latin * cerlsus.82 as in An iroirjTtji Introduction to Vulgar Latin. N. For nasal vowels. doubtless originally pronounced ou in Greek. it probably had a forward pronunciation tending somewhat toward e: cf. Spr. 468 cf. Olcott 33. 198. became comcedia. see § 39.

etc. became vacdre. 613. which was spoken in nearly the has become i.: Sepulcri 193-194. vindo. cf . Lat.. vacivus 83 {^vacuus). Long e {% 165). etc. and southern Apulia e In old Oscan... In Sicily. -isimus for vir. old vocdre. S. for -elis and —His. I. 127 287-289. also for colustra. filix. minsam. I. Digitized It probably indicates an by Microsoft® . e became i in late {Lexique 106). conjectures that consonant may have tended to raise e to i. dulcido.. however. -elius and —llius. Spr. 466. There is.§ igS] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. of suffix original. vocivus regularly whence by analogy vdcat vScuus became ^vdcitus^ for vocat: Lat. vendere. writings: Gregory the Great has crudilitas. 614-615. Sepulcri. 198. for vindimia instead of vindemia. Carnoy 15 ff. Also Vok. Republican times. I. Cf. verus. for crisco and other verbs for adimplisti. etc. shift of conjugation: see In Gaul this substitution of it i for e was so very com- mon that must signify something. no proof of historical con: nection between the phenomena 197. —esimus. Some of the —esco >-tsco cases are surely due to a §§414-415. —isco for —esco. {ficet in the 3d century. 359-364. Calabria.. probably- at least in most re- gions: debere. for —esco 26o£f. diheto. -Ire. to u. 468. III. iox co- gnusco and other verbs in —usco for -osco. Studi A. T is very often used for e in inscriptions and late —ido for —edo. These spellings are due in the main s -¥ to the identity of /and i in late pronunciation: see § 165.ficit.: for the confusion of -ere and 6911. By a change § which was pronounced remained unchanged in Vulgar Latin. same region. I. debet.). I. 189-190. and -tsco. and conversely ver iox etc. 196. etc. II. 328. in Studi Medievali Medievali I. habetis. {Lexique 115). — in -isco for -esco. This would account for bistia (= bestia) found in late Latin. mercedem. as in cinsum. iox fistus. etc. e. Spr.

etc. minses. Cf. stilla. Cf. Pirson 2-5: lo-ii: requiiscit. piscem. see § 229. For the development (i) of diphthongs. (Lexique 119) mentions a rustic speca for spica. Short i. pronounced / (§ 165). remained unchanged: bene. etc. which was pronounced e (see § 165). festa. 0) . delitus. veir): Lat. : by Microsoft® . qulnque (^Substrate (i) 546). e in nearly all the Empire: btbo. villa. Vok. spelling e for ^ is common from Digitized the third century on frecare. e 199. quiiscit. The 201. It. Fngidus. Cf. Neumann adoliscens. quaginsima. teneo. exit. stiis. Long i. tris. 397. see § 177. criscit. vaster. Archiv (2) Beside ilex there was an elex. etc. minus. tile. this very high Spr. According to Lat. except in Spain. Haag 3iiff. remained unchanged: I. Bon. § i66. Spr. rictu. etc. [§ 201 extremely close pronunciation of the e ern Gaul. venit. (cf. segolo. in north- e>ei (verum> Old Fr. Short e. Lexique 114. i. habitur.84 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. (4). 1 200. viiium. 106-113: minse. fedilis. I. perhaps through association with rtgidus. minsis. became. quincriscens. stiva. must have become *frtgidus ij^frigdus). sidibus. doubtless by the third century and sporadically earlier. rigna. dico. found in Gregory of Tours fur das Studium der neueren Sprachen CXV. Lexique 104-105: ficerent. rigna. i pronounced i (§ 165). circulns. 468. is to be regarded as a new formation on the model of noster rather than as the old form. ferrum. vexit. tepiscit. It is interesting to note that Celtic e also became i: Dottin 99. audtre. ferus. which supplanted vester. later. tulate (4) stegola Varro seems to pos- something like * steva for For St. ficit. mille. vinum. ingraviscente. seniscit. : (3) Beside sicula there was a secula (Lexique Ii9)>-It. riges.ii(i. 8-9: adoliscens.

. and southern did in old Oscan: cf. Spr. see § 167. Pirson 8-10. became i: cf.. For ou 203. ceteneris. 195. i is Bon. solus. 11 7-1 23. karessemo. (Zat. 200-201. > ou. sponsus. nomen. the change For agnusco.. 469. R. etc. -^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . These two islands were taken > from Rome by the Vandals in 458 and added to the African kingdom. 85 menus. often used for e (cf. R. semuL. 106. «. trebus. S. after that they were perhaps isolated: Einf. cognusco. Beside simul there was a *sSmul. corregia. In Sicily. 468. forma. under the influence of dexter: Lat. sebe. (3) Sinister was replaced by sinexter. S. place. as it (§ 165). Spr. AudoUent 535. Quintilian and Varro mention 166) a rustic e for I. Calabria. (i) (2) Beside camtsia there was a camTsia: Substrate I. Long 0. attested also by in- scriptions (S. etc. S. 198): minses. minester. §§ 197. pronounced in Vulgar Latin. at least in hora. etc. accepere. used by Gregory the Great and for ostium others. perhaps through the analogy of semel: Lat. like e from e. Apulia of e to /. § 196. etc.. vea. 468): furma. viduriiis. 468... etc... 214. sene. etc. 6 202. etc. is The spelling u for etc. In Sardinia and a part of Corsica this change did not take and both t and i i. amure. zV/z///). Carnoy 15^-. 541. trea. Stu^i Medievali 613) is perhaps to be ex- plained in this way. etc. in Gaul {^Lat. Spr. Pirson 13. ^/z<^(= minester.. benivolus. Neumann 23-25. see the end of § 197. 463. 463. etc. very common etc...§203] legare. Haag II. Spr. has become § 196. 202). In southern Italy e from i. remained unchanged most regions: colorem. Conversely (S. The popular ustium I.

pi. see Long u. — presumably through Fr. pi. S. pi. became ou or u: cortem 204. 211—212. U is occasionally used for o in inscriptions: lucus." where tutti is defined as alle. cf. Nyrop. (2) Beside totus and *tuttus or *tuctus. § 217. gluria. etc. etc. frundes (for fontes. probably represents a very close sound. mortem.. in mobilis. The rustic Latin funics. in But in Gaul. *tutti or *tucti: It. For the development of diphthongs. Fr.. una. tutt3 . sortem. pronounced u (§ 165). in north- ern Gaul. durus. Pr. remained unchanged most of the Empire: cura. the analogy of mSveo. Grammaire I. remained unchanged: bonus. Italy. 206. solet. No satisfactory explanation has been proposed the most plausible. the influence of cuncti on toti. folia. There are a few peculiar cases: and Sp. Italian tutto . Cf. and western was probably formed a little forward of its normal It was certainly not u. Grammarians mention the protrusion of the lips: S. court.. is that of Mohl. Neapolitan sg. sg. forts. Cassel: " aiatutti. (i) > Old. 216. puni. mueble postulate Cf. tuit. tottus (§ 163). frondes) are perhaps connected with Italian yb«fe and other words containing o for 205. a large part of northern Rsetia it position. § 198. tot. Lexique 102-104.86 etc. later.. perhaps. Short 0." § 177. [§ 206 It Bon. Digitized by Microsoft® . or at least to a tutti. meuble. may have come through 6 pronounced ^ (§ 165). An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. K. some of the Romance forms point to nom. old Fr. App.. 126-130. but it doubtless slightly This pronunciation may have been due to the historique de langue francaise approached it. namely. ^'formica noxi furmica. Cf. forum. q before n + dental. nullus. totto. locus. § 187. sg. Pr. the plural. The Such a form seems to be attested by the Gl. tutto. cognusco. pi. nun. which Haag 13. uuela alle.

and both u and . unda.> mur) but in a few. 617-618. presumably taken very early. 132-135. and Dacia this u : Lat. Pirson 15-17. in Latin words borrowed by the Celts « is generally treated like Celtic (murus ". Spr. Windisch 396-397. criidus > criz) Loth 67-68.). u> Spr. For qu (i) (2) > qu. 217. 469. u 208. fiUvium. 87 linguistic habits of the Celts: u> t in Great Britain cf. In place of niirus we find ndrus (R.. The spelling is common in late documents: "columna non colomna. etc. through the analogy of *nSvius ("bridegroom. 465) and nSra (S. became. pomice. corso. due to the analogy of sdror and * nSvia (" bride. 136. Short the fourth century or earlier." "puella non poella"). 464. people ssiA plSvere (used by Petronius (4) Instead oi pluere axA pKvia and others) and *pldja: Lat. tonica. 467. pronounced u (§ 165). probably by in most of the Empire: bucca. (3) There are other local irregularities. G. see § 167. Cf. toneca. giila. Beside luridus there probably was a *l-S. etc. F. NUptia. culpa. change did not take place. Jleuve. cubtturn). couleuvre. covetum (= is Haag 14. perhaps only orthographic: Lat. jeune call for local q in coliibra. a pomex: Bon. (i) (2) The following special cases are to be noted: — Cf. which lasted down into the Empire. ruptus. servos." "formosus noTiformunsus. In Sardinia. Celtic by the second century. a part of Corsica. > : 207. §§ 169. Bon. 468. and ndra.. 134." from nSvus). Albania. Beside angHstia there must have been *angSstia. tomolus. by Microsoft® . u. Fr. Spr. . 517. Spr." "turma non iorma" (cf. § 217. Digitized Cf. The old spelling for u after v {yoltus. Cf. Pr. Substrate IV. jUvlnis. Mohl pumex there was XXVI. became nSptim: (3) Beside in Zs.§ 2o8] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. « > z (cii^a cili. App." from nSvus) Lat. etc.. 216). "colubemon colober.rdus: Substrate III.

cen224. e. 8). £ for a in dative endings occurs early: Corssen I. 225. came into general use: fenum. septum. Carnoy 79-80. but two parts it became cb. and equus : S. 166—168. 'Sox fenum fcenum... § 78. when Varro cited edus for hadus as a rural form. The Pompeius blames the confusion of csquus spelling e for cb was usual in unacfrom the fourth century on. Cf. In Spanish inscriptions e occurs from the first S. ccelum. in stressed syllables in the first century of our era and later. its and pronounced ai. S. sepes. Spr. [§ 210 DIPHTHOUGS. represents the sound better than ai: E is etc. spellings as fcecit. tury. 465. 178.88 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. says that cb Terentius Scaurus. in stressed syllables (as questor) may be called regular by the century: S. some hundred years later e came into the city and pervaded the middle of the provinces: Lat. In certain words a vulgar and dialect pronunciation com- and Faliscan (Hammer 7. ^ was originally written through the mutual attraction of later e: ccecus. etc. b. especially in Pompeii (presta. 687 ff. preda prceda. qucero. Bechtel Digitized by Microsoft® . Carnoy It was probably general everywhere by the second 69-84. c. The regular change oi ce to e took place largely in Republican times in unaccented syllables. in the first S. sepes 188. S. century: Einf. Hence. 178. Neumann 13 (and Fort- mon to Volscian seizung 21-23): famina. ae 209. by analogy. etc. 210. About the first century b. seta. fifth it cented syllables (as sancte) before the third century. 225. etc. such scBpes both forms were preserved. preda.): found early in Campania. stressed cb was probably still a diphthong in the city but had become e in rustic Latium. quiceti. Cf. Cf. igo. century on (Carnoy 78): questus (2d century).

In C/^j-a. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . Perhaps they represent a provincial pronuncia- tion.C. generally remained in Vulgar*^ Latin: aura. 304.: § 212] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. In Umbrian inscriptions we find Latin. in place of Latin au: and There are some examples in Pompeii. Rome. occur inscriptions Carnoy 85. etc. orum. Glacus. ^^ auris non cotes. Scarus.: into Spr.. 89 75-76: cedat. or possibly (2) they are only orthographic. its existence in 211. are pretty common in various countries Carnoy 86-95. 8. in general. taurus. etc. Pr. original q (i) is proved by the treatment and Spanish it did not become of c in ^ until had broken into uo or ue. coda. such as occludo: Vok. where and second centuries B. Dibmedes. the dialects of northern \i^?s~\(>\./464. 183-184) and for Greek r) (as scanam. 212. Festus cites 95. an Au. Clodius : Ham- and Plotus are common in first mer 4. II. plostrum Carnoy App. with a for au when an u in the next syllable. etc. in the Probus. Carnoy 100 (cludo in two Sp.. is 223 spellings Cladius. orata. toru. pronounced du. grece. century second century Carnoy 85..). coming through derivatives. — speak of a rustic or archaic o for au: Corssen fif. inscriptions of the I St and 2d centuries). 162-164.. oricla". Carnoy 85-86 (clusa. orum. Cf. Umbrian and Faliscan had 4-5. I. in Portuguese as ou. Cf. Pirson 27. The f there S. Hammer : 15-19. R. II. Cludo for claudo is common. and 465-466. and others The grammarians : — . crept was used by the lower classes: Lat. 655-663. Priscian. where au was normally preserved this pronunciation was used also in the country around So. gaudium. 301 S. In Rumanian and Provengal it was preserved as au. Bayard 5. Conversely ce was often erroneouslyused for e (S. Lexique 104). Festus. in Oscan territory. in the first it the city. Vok. ostrum. the earli^est stage of French in Italian causa> chose . Hammer central Italy: Chronologie .

but two parts it became It pcenitet. 464. This rustic and vulgar while the in Romance — which was pronounced — was generally adopted from au was 0. mm227. [§ 216 {^Chronologie Conversely. find amenus. sodes. 1890. auscu/um . Vok. *^^ Cf. " sorex ve\ saurex. Jilodere. 293ff. eheu. S. Hammer 4)= aut. 213. S. 227. became popular: coscus. etc. hUic. (cf. Cf. 227. Cf. Cicero used loreola. seu). pronounced eu (as in ceu. 228. fosnum. S. oricla. 216. stus. Carnoy 84. Marius Victorinus. plodo. see § 431. Lat. au was occasionally used for 160): Festus. Spr. of our era: Cf. poena. Umbrian suffoco. foces. Carnoy 95. was preserved: For the development oifui. eui~us. Europa. The confusion S. ce for ce and e. Ui. pollulum: si audes. plotus occur also. CE was originally written through the mutual attraction of presumably 0. etc. explodo." Cf. ccementa. In the Per. neuter. Bechtel 76. of ce and e is mentioned by late grammarians: In late Latin a bad spelling.go An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. oe 215. coles =^ caulis. II.. Digitized cHi. later e: coepi. heu. eu 214. eu. cxlum. Ola. is its and pronounced oi. I. S. IV. 228. postulated by some Romance forms. may be that for reflected by the spelling phyeb^ E is attested by inscriptions in the first century ceperint. cepi. 0. was not preserved in any popular words. mmrore. we C. ote. L. by Microsoft® . Eu. the intermediate stage Phoebe. illHi. ui pronounced lii. Phebus. Classic fauces. codex. Vulgar Latin in a few words : coda. plaudo. fcemina. * auddere for occtdere. neu. pcenates. 0. lotus.

e. 2. dvum~>* ovum. those of the first syllable had most resistance. juvenis'^*jovenis. q. for the In clerical Latin the vowels were probably pronounced most part as ii). possibly through a lingering the Old Latin accent: cf. in vulgar speech. La vocal tonka alterata da una consonante labiale in Zs. pluere'^ ployere. The discussion is continued by Pieri. see §§ N. A general influence of this kind can hardly be regarded as proved for any combination except ou. but did not fall. qt INFLUENCE OP LABIALS. to Vulgar Latin. Among unstressed vowels. After that. p. and then only Digitized in a part of the Empire. au:=q ox au. etc. Although many examples are cited. i = i. mobilis'^* mqbilis. — For secondary 153-155. — 457. u ^u (or a and ce ^e. For a criticism of the theory. see § 167. the evidence is not convincing. except sporadically. u were lowered one stage labial. ibid. until long after the Vulgar Latin period. UNACCENTED VOWELS. I ' According to some philologists. Pieri. that f. XXVII. CLERICAL LATEff. e=e. La vocal tonka alterata dal contatto d'una consonante labiate in Archivio glottologico italiano XV. until the reforms of Charlemagne.. maintains ceding or following even if it by a preq was separated from the to e. a = a. in general. q. 579. Jluvium'>*flqvium. stress. — vowel by a liquid. see G. a following labial tends to open a vowel: colubra>* colqbra. which 217. Osservazioni al precedence lavoro. § 134. Ascoli. 218. 476. e. by Microsoft® . B. influence of The vowels of the final syllable lost much of their distinct- ness. = 0. became ou: S. 219. d.§ 219] An Introduction c.

i was certainly distinct from Digitized In final i: sentis. forms as infri. (i).92 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 203-208. Fredegarius is very uncertain in his use of unstressed vowels: 220.. "Messala. In early Latin there was an inclination to syncope: ar{i)ddrem. found in place of quasi. but simus was favored by Augustus and by some purists of his time (Lindsay 29). except in initial syllables. According to Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. see Pirson. and even there the difference must have been small. [§ 221 Grammarians sibe are testify to the confusion of and u: S. in unaccented . for o and u. etc. secondary or the primary 47-48. scriptions etc.. Spr. Agrippa pro sumus simus scripserunt. 221. however. iv. developed two forms. in moderation. in Classic and Vulgar Latin: cal{i)dus. Brutus. ID re vailed in Italy and southern Gaul. cf. sibi: S. 21-24. SUmus. spelled both with u and with i: Carnoy 65-69. 30—36. Quase. The former was the one generally adopted in Classic Latin. 196-198. etc. etc. employed only before labials. In inscriptions we find such frig{i)daria. see Pirson 41—47. "in here neque e plane nequi i auditur. maxumus quodlubet"^ guodlibet. vetranus: S. According to Quintilian I. 3 During the Classic period it generally became t: decumus~> decimus." (Weakest were medial vowels immediately following the stress. Lindsay 25-26. syllables: I. For the confusion of unaccented e and i. 251. bdl{i)neum. In Spanish in- we find maximus. dc(^u)lus. 9). 199-200. 2 1 2. This tendency continued. § 419. Lat." In the vulgar speech simus seems to have Cf. Haag 15-24. > maximus. being sometimes accented. av{^i)dere. 466. U was cf. In general Latin quantity did not sensibly affect the quality of unstressed vowels. S. cal[e)fdcere. syllables. jur(^i)go. 7. vtr{i)dis. by Microsoft® . pontufex "^pontifex. siimus -and simus. 35 Franz.

" "vacui gon 224. abiete. 236. is distinguere qucBro.§ 224] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. fectf^Vr. In perfects. /"and u followed by a vowel and beginning a syllable were apparently pronounced as consonants from the earliest times. and u in hiatus with following vowels first lost their syllabic value era. senti. and Seneca: deorsum in Lucretius. a vowel but lost its syllabic value in early Classic times: acua > aqua. Horace. Quintilian and Velius Longus cite the spellings Aiiax. as approved is by Cicero: S. In Greek transliterations kv for qui (as in cf. §187. oKuAas) very common: Eckinger 123-125. rather late: Velius Longus distinguishes aquam from acuam. Pr. the u was ap- parently not reduced to a semivowel until the end of the In some other words the syllabic value of u was kept.. placuit. used before Joseph. probably by the century of our and sporadically earlier. Virgil. > distinguere. will be treated as consonants. Lucilius. So it was in qualis. fluviorutn) are found in Ennius. vaqui. 222. qui. Occasional examples (such as dormio. quem. left a. however. e. facias. Ovid. 232. fis. senttt> It.g. 234. In tibi the final vowel was sometimes long.. Digitized by Microsoft® . UNACCENTED VOWELS IN HIATUS. Horace. vindemiator'va. After gutturals." S. 223. a. nocuit. fudxis. such as Classic period. u followed by a vowel was originally itself. i. sente. Otherwise. alio. then. Maiiam not ab. Lucretius. at least in theory. feci. These. Plautus. fes. Quintilian says that u and i in uos and iam are not vowels: S. "vacua non vaqua. Juvenal. e. App. Bonnet notes that etc. sometimes short. and will be out of consideration in the present chapter. 93 stbi. abietiItalia counts as three syllables in poets of the ' bus in Virgil.

etc. fasiolus. calciare.filius'>ftlius'^Jiljus. and // apparently being contracted into e. valiat. four-syllable induruit are barbarisms Caesellius is undecided whether tenuis has three syllables or two: S. mulierem (% 1^6) ". lancia. 231-232. lintium. Bayard 4." KeilVII. 106. a great confusion of e and i in hiatus: capriolvs (cf. Cf. soave in Italian. however. Audollent 535. R. then. i.. with a narrowing of the mouth-passage. 3714 (Rome)." " sobrius per i non per e scribendum.94 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 234. century or before by the third century. Lauriatus. cavia. it became soef in French. u6 developed differently.dixisse": Carnoy 43). Valerius Probus has parietibus: £don 208. S. 103.. VI. "ares veteres pro anVi. at an early date: arietem (^^\-^6)'> are tern (Varro. App. the / remaining long enough to palatalize the / (the Romance e was doubtless a later analogical development). palleum. noxeus. a new y and a new w. 00. eacit {^=jacei). We have. vinia. desto. earn {=jani).:> Digitized by Microsoft® . aleum. Hence arises. in late Latin. S. So alea>alea'^alja. II>'43. parieUs {%i2t^)>p aretes. in late Latin spelling. I. exiat. tenueram > tenweram (§137). "non iamus sed eamus. §136). prehcndere 225. But the combinations ei -. Pr. ie. it was probably a semi-learned word. Suavis.> mul'erem. was used as a trisyllable by Sedulius in the fifth century. ee. abiat. solia. faciebam'>*facebam. eccu'istay-* ecwista (§65). Caper. Consentius declares that trisyllabic soluit and . [§ 225 early Empire. 232.sapui > saj>ui> sapwi. as e. * de-excito~^* dexctto'^ It. likewise eccu'kic> *eccwic. The pronunciation speech by the first u was probably regular in popular .y Jiliolus>Jiljdlus (§136). Vok. C. coclia. 463. calcius. Uniamenta.. 187. the semivowels pre- sumably developed into the fricative consonants y and w: S. abias. cf- Carnoy 33-35. etc. In the same vi2. L. 06 and u6 into o.

suus'> sus. Reich.. tuum'^tum. equus S. 472: ero). £don 130).. £ruum'>erum {Lat. Bayard 7. doubtless under the influence of vidua. unguntur. ho-Tievex. cf. . " coquens non cocens". cf." Keil VII. Pr. quteius'> quetus. Pirson 57 (cf. § 227] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 217-218. 227. opus. contin{u)ari. ministerW^ ministeri.'). ." Keil VII. before unaccented by the second century: antiquus "> anticus carduus^^cardus. 2 1 7 ) . z/ after all consonants fell before unaccented u probably by the middle of the first century. kept its u: Old Fr. pendere. — cdhdrtew^ cortem. . common Carnoy 43). coquo^coco {App. fell commoner After gutturals. abattas. Carnoy 117. Spr. Furthermore. (Pirson 58) quatro (7th century. "equs non ecus ". in late inscriptions. > ecus {^App.oSmsiT\& mortus. '' coqui non cod. Carnoy 221). quoi{f)tdie> stingo . So apparently aruum^* arum. Audollent See §354. Febr{u)arius. Audollent 536). duodecim'^ dodecim (Pirson 58: dodece). 105. tendere. Caper. "ungue non unge. then *prendere through the analogy of reddere and perhaps also of ascendere. uncis = unguis. the Viduus. Jan{u)arius: Vok.. Gl. Pr. / after a consonant fell before unaccented i: Velius audit '^ audi. S. in quum>cum. tdrqueo>*torquo> *tdrco." " coqus non cocus". hence *cocma). tinguo~^ttngo (Caper. sttnguo > guere non tingere. vef. 226. distinguunf> distingunt (ac- cording to Velius Longus. unguo'>ungo {ungo. coquus'^ cocus {App. Digitized by Microsoft® . inndcuus>inndcus. Similarly. some writers use no u in distinguere. then *cdpenre *cdp'rtre through the analogy of co.'K. quat{t')uor'^quattor (^. U often fell irregularly II. u before stressed u and 0: 536. mortuus'^p- cottidie. cooperire"^ coperlre. qudmddo> comodo. Velius Longus.and perhaps also ol opera. S. S.. "tin352. 95 prendere. 218) quator — in. requebit. battuo "^ batto (cf. defendere. consiln'^ consilt. 351). 468-469. ungi. 106). Pr.

Arunci occurs in manuscripts of Virgil. Farisiis > Parigi. 0^ remained p. in Gallic inscriptions cf. b. ce. 57. 223. I. — Latin /(j/»««j > Classic Jejunus (the original a seems to be preserved in Classic Januarius '^ Jenuarius .. ce all came to be sounded e. fxddre. dtrectus generally '> drictus)\ quirttare~>*dritare. long or short. dvitdtem. 171-1 72. Bechtel 76.. it [§ 229 Longus found etc. Koffmane no. * agurium (cf. cetdtem. and see Audollent 535. e For the confusion of Carnoy 17-33. movetis. Digitized by Microsoft® .. 223 Pirson 26)." S. (Lat. tenere. Dionigi. Lat. 136. etc. Cf. Spr. S. ridemus. Bon. dolere. plordre. golosus gylosus (ior gulosus). (Bcclesia. I. i: should be spelled with double late words. hibernus. i. -n and —ns: Dtonysii>lt. 470) (2) Classic/awKa mimoricB. one can judge from spellings and subsequent developments. Keil VII. gaudere. Julii. i. some Italian (common by i in inscriptions. audere. Caper says "ausculta non asculta. > *jenua > Sardinian genna. Comelii. /^22: Jejunus after prefixes lost its first syllable: * dis-junare. frumentum. In a few words the vowel of the initial syllable was an r: *corrStulare^*^roflare. naufragium. 11. Some minor peculiarities are to be noted: (i) A after/ apparently tended to become e: Old dialect forms) . au became a if there was an accented u in the next syllable. '^senatus non sinatus" App. agusias. a{u)sculto. Agustus is frequent from the second century on. moniti (for muniti). but otherwise remained unchanged (cf. colorem. and u were finally all pronounced 228. necessary to say that Claudii. 470): dilevit. d'rectus (^Vok.96 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 135—138. l remained i. E. lost before also. Vok. Pr. Spr. A(u)gustus. videre. kept It. S. A(u)runci. 470): rddicem. 109. Some however. must have existed 229. is very often replaced divota. valere. Bon. Spr. far as As or u. Lat. debere. INITIAL SYLLABLE. Bon. a was pronounced a. subinde.

de-. Einf. 470.§ 23o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Lexique I2z. fimre'^fenire. front vowel (until the seventh century nearly always an ' later e Mohl's view. also sometimes in serore (Lat. in vulgar speech was often replaced by (cf. Spr. attested by Servius. This led to the prefixing of a 2. Pirson 27. Lindsay 40). C. Vitruvius. analogy of *que quid^ quod (cf. and Old Rumanian. Bon. Spr. which prevailed in Vulgar Latin. is common : in Gregory the etc. salvatico. in very late texts there is frequent confusion of si and sed (Franz. and Spanish. if there was an accented i in the next syllable:^ dividSre'^*devTdlre. Pr. (6) O appears as u mfurmica (App. Au 230. < e In miraUlia the i ap- parently became (5) U and a. According to Mohl. putator O is changed to e in retundus (Vok. Vr. mUtare. 225. in manuscripts and inscriptions. in fourth century inscriptions. cf. (4) / tended to become e. through the influence of the prefix re—. as in 6' before a consonant was doubtless long and sharp.jaian. serorihus. 224 ff. 127). sdlbatec. cf. nise. if i followed. §111. II. Franz. Lat. Italian. so that at the modern a syllabic effect — beginning of a word it had s-chola..Jaiant. e became southern Italy from the fourth to the sixth century RIVOCAVERIT. 3 II. Cf. This perhaps indicates a close pronunciation cf. Lat. turrente (Bon. Lexique \2Z-iz6. oricla. L. cf. 213. was kept by analogy in many words : dUrare. cf. divmus"^ demnus. A form ni for ne is found from early times Pirson 3. Proven9al. § 198. Pr. cf. Lexique 105-108. Lexique 120. z. Rum. Spr.for i in 422-424. century on (Foi. 234-235) . mUrare. 3 II. §§ 212. 470) and/m?- perus (App. 16^. possibly through confusion with dis-. is that original Latin ei. attested from the sixth 87. : 97 Di. Reich. silvdticus> salvaticus (Gl.. etc.. 126. Italian. Carnoy (7) 107). I. §§ 69. II. serori. Lexique > I04ff. 82). cf. in late Latin. Si. sometimes became se. Rom. JUntfSrus'^jeniperus (Lat. 213): App. 470). mcinus vecinus. I. 470) > Old Fr. Great: dirivare. 205) . Old Genoese zagante.. se in Portuguese. nutrire (beside *nqtrire). became instead of Digitized by Microsoft® . the e is perhaps due to the Haag II. Umbrian ate. 131). Old French. by dissimilation. XXXV. salvage. retundatio. Lexique 123. Sfr. Pr^. Italian sed on the model of ched: si is preserved in French. : (3) > *jagante > Old Yr. (Bon. I was occasionally assimilated to a following accented a : ^gdntem It. so *ot (for aut: cf.

(pronounced w-): expiendido. In some regions they began to fall regularly before the close of the Vulgar Latin period. Koffmane 109. ismaragdus. N. Pirson 59-60. Bon. spectante for expectante.. Digitized by Microsoft® . ispose. Spania. 148. fourth and found repeatedly. The The in Latin example probably it is iscolasticus. cdrr(i)care. ^w. st: ginning with Bon. in the third century (Carnoy 114-116). estatio. Isidore. cf. cdp[i)idlis. indistinct towards the erally kept: bdn{i)idtem. Cf. Spania. 3656-. 467. is. — By this term is meant syllable following the secondary and preceding the primary stress. S. but a was gen231. ischola. B. spiratio for inspiratio. instruo for struo. scoriare for excoriare. Bon. isperabi. ab scandalo. in the fifth it is very common: espiritum. S. . hispatii for Bechtel 78. in the seventh century.thus produced was confounded with ex-. Slementum 6limintum. 316-319. The es-. scalciare for excalceare. dil{i)cdtus. istatuam. Pirson 60. IHTERTONIC SYLLABLE. written Barcelona in the second century. prosthetic vowel earliest occurs in Greek inscriptions. 317. isiudio. cirebellum. Latin texts ab rather than a was used before words besc. S. etc. R. of it iscola. [§ 231 often e) to the s or e when tio vowel preceded first is — in i-schola. exs— (pronounced «-) and /«j-. spatii. 445-446. 317 R. II. cdlK^o^cdre. splorator. strumentum.. istare. Dubois 171. Grammarians took But in no note late until St. stantia for instantia. sp. Vowels so situated probably became more and more end of the Empire. etc. frigiddria frigddria. though iscripta. and occasionally disappeared. Vok. dv{i)idtem. Dubois 1 71-17 2. spandere for ex- pandere. 445. mirabilia. etc. Spanus.98 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Estephanus.. tlie C. compardre comperdre. 469-470. not frequently. dub{i)idre. This i came to be regarded as a regular part of the word. ab sceleribus.

R. R. etc. however. F. v^recundia. was weaker and more exposed to syncope. was apparently very Vulgar Latin. XIV.§ 233] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 464.. both types The treatment inconsistent often being preserved in the Romance languages: thus while the literary and official world said {h)dmines (>It. Pirson 51. dixemus. Likewise o and u: ambolare. similarly As far as the general phenomena can be we may say that in popular words in penult tended to (i) fall common speech the vowel of the under the following conditions: — Between any Consonant and a Liquid. etc. 467. The penult. vowel preceded by a consonant and followed by a fell in the earlier part of the Vulgar Digitized 233. in Sepulcri 201—202. vetranus. in the second century b. fall 559. Pir- Franz. Koffmane III. (>Pr. dedcavit.. 118. stablarius. We find in late Latin much confusion of e and /. Neumann in Zs. 116. comare for coronare.. Bon. Cf. liquid A weakened and by Microsoft® . pi. Substrate IV. the uneducated pronounced 'om'nes beside socerum there was sScrum. c. insola. The fall of the vowel of course disturbed the Vulgar Latin rhythm: see § 153. etc. meretis. son 52. Mintsterium apparently became minsterium early enough for the n to before the s: see §171. PENULT. 12. being next to the accent. Neumann 22. Cf. principle tended to oblit- 232. The Vulgar Latin rhythmic erate one of the two post-tonic syllables of proparoxytones. d. uomini). separdre seperdre.. There was probably a conflict between cultivated and popular pronunciation. : Frigdaria occurs Cf. and the conditions differed widely in different regions. of this vowel.• anemis. omne)\ classified. Bon. etc. cf. 99 sdcramintum. 131— 135.

). vowel preceded by a labial and followed by a confall early: 235. scaplas. oclos. Pr. vitulus>veclus. § 259. (2) Between a Labial and any Consonant. cltera. as in saclum. Digitized by Microsoft® . 16-18.'). Vok. Many exI. dedro for dederunt. gracilis. Heraeus. aunclus. mdsc{u)lus. d. ftsiula>*Jiscla. Lexique 64. I. Later they were confused. peduclum. But a few words. Juglus. 234. In vigilafp-* viglat the vowel fell before (2) below. tum. § 284. the vowel seems to have been kept. fecrunt fecru. comp'tus. In some words we find a weakened to e: socro. A sonant was inclined to bublus. Eseram for Isaram. Die Sprache des Petronius und die Glossen. 96. villus. both -clus in {^<i—tlo).stulum> crustlum (found in 18 Cf. Cceseris. Latin originally had the two diminutive endings —clus and -cuius {<i-co-lo). Lexique 63. Carnoy 12. seperat (about 500 A. vic(u)lus. maniplus. 1 digitum> dicCf.^-* spatla.. anglus. see first consonant -Cvas a palatal. both becoming —cuius in Classic Latin. App. vemdc(^u)lus. compera. virginem. Bon. hilerus. Cf. Franz. masclus. frdgilis. [§ 235 Latin period: altra. spec{ii)lum. Waters Ch. e^-16 . App. cdm{i)tem. 195-196. aspra. (cf. These by Plautus. ci.loo An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. a. But if the the ^ began to be palatalized (so apparently in 9 I. App. spatula'.). frigidus^frigdus. Pirson 49-50. bdc{u)lus.' For a vowel between a labial and a liquid. Franz. Oclus and some others occur in Petronius: see W. escaped this absorption: cni. amples are found in inscriptions: AudoUent 538. felicla. at any rate in some regions: bdjulus. dc{ii)lus. Pirson 51. 1899. Pirson 51). 3 To -clus was assimilated in popular Latin the ending -talus: capitulus"^* capiclus . Pr. were kept distinct vulgar speech: artic{u)lus. ins(u)la. 57. D. Pr. which must have been slow in entering the common vocabulary. as in auricula.

in R. * cldvido> claudo (cf. merto. domnus in St. (cf. (4) Miscellaneous. h6m{i')nes jiiv{e)nis . 15-16 (cf. Martial. Franz. . pi. Franz. * dvka "^ auca. Caesar. Franz. 4th century). Franz. Plautus. frigidus by Microsoft® . Waters Ch. 236. (3) Between a Liquid and any Consonant. p I. pi. fulica fulca. dvidus avunculus"^ aunculus. Juvenal. fdbula>*faula *fabla. Augustine. Reich. caldus. the fall When ab or av was brought next to a consonant by it of a following vowel. Pirson 51.. sablum. Cf. ioi tri- dib{i)tum. * ndvitaf. 44. Cato. Pr. Gl. R. *navi- > fragus>naufragus). Ci. 467. sablum. pi. generally became au. 56. valde. but often there were double forms the process began very early audus. Varro. the vowel was kept. c6l{a)phus {ci. 15 soldus. tions: In some words the vowel fell under digitum> dictum. colpus. App. either everywhere or in a large region: drbi^o^rem. Plautus. however. In some words. b{u)la. Varro. gdbata>*gauta *gabta. Ovid. tremulat.. 3 \. . Petronius. Pirson 50. f{b{u)la. Vegetius. i2ff. In d6m(i')nus the mn form may be mane domni. the older: d6m. nibula. pardbula>*paraula *parabla.^-* nautat . lardum. tdbula>*taula *tabla. Horace and Vitruvius. poplus. 13. vdpulo baplo. 13. occurs in Lamna Petronius has bublum. found in glosses. Pliny. hdmula. Digitized different condi§ 233) . virdiaria. virdis. A vowel preceded by a liquid and followed by a consonant was subject to syncope at all periods: ardus. Franz. domnulus. 237. Cf. KofiEmane iii. offla. Waters Ch. 238. Horace. Plautus (cf. Koff109.Jibla. etc. 467. 44. Franz. per- colopabat. : § 238] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Waters Ch. Plautus). p I.).{i')nus. 12. domnicus. pdp{u)lus.

. culicet culcet Cf. Aquitanian. shortened forms were used in other regions. Cato). dominica-^ * dominca. Pirson 50. they had not fallen already. Franz. tdllere > * tolre. p I. § Introduction to Vulgar Latin. carcatus. viaticum. semita'^* senta.: = collocat. fimina *femna. Digitized by Microsoft® . In the App. 239. medicus. 240. ally fell. App." "flavus non Jlaus" "rivus non rius. mdnica'>* manca. clericus^*clercus. we find "avus non aus. c6llocat'>-*colcat. 233). debita~^* depta. The vowels regularly remained through the Vulgar Latin period. Later. Pr. ntHdus>*niiius. but rius is evidently the ancestor of Italian and Spanish rio. 241. posius. vindico. Lucretius. e. they generi. Pompeii (fridam). and Ligurian territory. frdx(i)nus. (fricda). Reich. (3). See Morphology." Aus and flaus have left no representatives. [§ 241 ^frigdus maxima^ masma. Through a large part of the Empire -avit>-aut: umphaut is found in Pompeii. probably late. posturus. dic{i)mus. and a number of vowels otherwise placed fell under different conditions in various regions: pdnere'^*ponre. cdrrico'^*carco. sid(^e)cim. 13-14 (ci. except a and in Celtic. FINAL SYLLABLE. pi2tidus'^*puttus. (2). All three forms are probably examples of a tri- phonetic reduction that affected certain regions. Suchier 732. In the transition from Vulgar Latin to the Romance in so far as languages the vowels in classes (i). etc. Pr.102 An (cf. about the eighth century. Gl. A vowel preceded by </ or ^ and followed by c seems to have remained longer than most other vowels that fell at all: judico. habitus > * abtus. Some of these In a part of Gaul dmita'^* anta. 2d century. pers{i)ca. — were — syncopated with some regularity. rapidus > > *rapdus.

See Franz. Examples: dmds. 243. tristes. but generally they were confounded {Lat. especially e after liquids: Caper. etc. perhaps. conder. Old 'Lz.Xxa. vii. fructu. feci. which in Sicily be- came eventually // t remained // was 0. Spr. The changes in pronunciation led to great confusion in spelling. praber. vii. modern must have been often elided or syncopated in the interior of a phrase.. were not usually distinguished (cf. Lexique 118. which became u in Sicily. In some localities this and this u were kept distinct. mihe. Italian. according to the testimony of numerous inscriptions {Lat. Pr. which left no trace in the Romance famulus. tristem. 469)." "masculus non mascel." ^^figulus nonfigel. t. §210): apte^aptcB. Neumann 7-8 cites ten cases of e for a: Italice. etc. Cf. in late Latin. were all probably sounded e. by Microsoft® . Carnoy45: Digitized dative. cotidia. E and a. etc. u was u. morior." These curious forms are probably not the result of a phonetic development. for / is frequent in the dative and ablative. pradiscer. in I. 244. E luce. tristts. 3 I. dmdt. The App. 41. but are rather due to a local change of languages. sancta. has "barbarus non barbar. It is likely that final vowels were especially ob- scure in Gaul in the sixth and seventh centuries. tribunal{e). E I. corpus. bonds. haber in an inscription. famul = A. a. ablative.§ 244] An Introduction Final vowels. 103 242. iv and I. e. etc. Bechtel 75-76. So. tibe. facul =facilis. Spr. autumnal {e). he i. About the eighth century a probably became ? in northern Gaul. bom. describes the final vowel of here as neither quite e nor quite Cf. was naturally pronounced a. long or short. uxore. "bibere non biber". as in to Vulgar Latin. and i came to be used almost indiscriminately. tanger in manuscripts.. Quintilian says that Livy wrote sibe and quase. 469). sentls. inflection.

With and u it was the same. Bon. Spr. cf. was kept in Digitized some formulas . posuet. Sepulcri 203-204. Neumann 11-13.. Ill.. I. used as a prefix (cf.. Sepulcri 229-230. So et it: Bechtel 88-89. there are between 126 and 563 a. Bon. etc. common in Per. Z.. G. for the vowels i were B. -£?. -ro: inter'>*intre. as well as frequent instances of ablative in um. etc. omnes ^ omnis (3d century).. Cf./^^. monumento ^= monumentum. F. K. K. and 121. Joannis. larly common 42. omnes ^^omnis.. etc. of. Lat. and us for os. E. Minus. In words ofteii used as proclitics final -er. tenit. Bon. 43-44. •quat{u)or'>quatro. accusative plural G|^l|ii Jilius—Jilios. Carnoy 13. it need by Microsoft® . Phon. 11 1. etc. Haag 245. : . C. Sepulcri 201. Cf. Audollent 535. D. became in Gaul mis-. I. [§ 246 Es and are continually interchanged: 24. regis ^reges. Os and us were interchanged from the third century on awi' = annos.. Neumann 11-13. siiper'>-*supre.104 An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. letters The Latin consonant P. ^and Fwere used both and u and for the consonants/ and v. Carnoy 48. CONSONANTS. os The confusion of for us. in us was particu128.. etc. sem- per'^* sempre . an R. §29) as in minus-pretiare. Q.. under the influence of dis-. very etc. 474. H. Vok. 246.4 G. T. -re. movit. Carnoy 13-15. of om for um. S. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin period. Bon.r became Carnoy 221. mares etc. M.. N. X. d. 916. 116. etc. Carnoy 48 bonus = bonos. etc. old letter equivalent to C. 'Im. and um is very common in Per. V. II. = maris. 131 has spoliatur for spoliatot. Bon. 115... also in Gregory the Great.. L. in etc.. 61 examples of u for ablative In Vok.

the Celtic need not be separately studied.. 319-320). Pirson 85. nasals.§ 248] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Pirson 83-91. § 223). which will be treated below (§§338-339). 105 in not be separately considered. For w>j and For double forms like of single cipus ctppus. taken up The Latin consonants will be in the following order: aspirate. Z in Old Latin apparently meant j. Double consonants regularly kept after long their long pronun- ciation: annus. 247. sibilants. Vulgar Latin had a new w and y coming from originally syllabic u. see §§ 162. nullus. Pirson 88. first the native Latin. For Fredegarius see Haag 39-40. e. liquids. sonants The principal developments that affected Latin conmay be summed up as follows: b between vowels was opened into the bilabial fricative /3. next the Greek. In words borrowed from Greek and German there were several foreign consonants. gutturals. 248. h was silent. 158. ^ and g before front vowels were palatalized and were then subject to further alterations. m and n became silent at the end of a word. dentals. consonants are often written single in early inscriptions. Q V= kw (cf. labials. Double cf. later it represented a different Latin version of Greek t. The voicing of intervocalic surds began during the Vulgar Latin period. which will be discussed after the native ones. In addition to the above. In late spelling there is some confusion and double consonants: anos. and thus became identical V. see §161.or ss (S. and n ceased to be sounded before s. with The consonants will now be considered in detail. vacca. palatals. 163. //>/ vowels. passus. terra. which also changed to /8. or / in hiatus: see § 224. the combination Q was generally used only Jf stands for ks. fillio. lastly the Germanic. serra. Bon. Digitized by Microsoft® .

399. in such words as sepu/c/irum. Grammarians felt obliged to discuss in detail the spelling of words with' or without h : S. "adhuc non aduc. vehemens. 249. 267—268. Nigidius Figulus fit to the effect that "rusticus sermo i. the Republic. si speaks of bygone generations as using k very S. G." see S. Pr. very much as happens in Cockney English to-day: for the would-be elegant chommoda. Grammarians say that A is not a letter but a mark There is no trace of Latin k in of aspiration: S. Digitized by Microsoft® . vemens: S. honera : Pompeius notes that k sometimes makes position. of "Arrius. comprendit. If -was weak and uncertain at all times in Latin. Cf.. Cf. Probus states that traho is pronounced trao: Lindsay 57. 264. sometimes does not. S. 250. 266. 263. mi. as in quisquis honos tumuli: Keil V. etc. but Cicero's contemporaries much. [§ 251 LATIN CONSONANTS.. hinsidias. — aspires perperam". cortis. and cites "ados ircosque": S. first XI. Quintilian says the ancients used h but little. 1. Quintilian commends the spelling deprendere: S. 255-256. Initial h was surely very feeble and often silent during In Cicero's time and in the early Empire there was an attempt to revive it in polite society.— io6 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. nil.e. 263-264. doubtless the Romance It languages. Gellius says ahenum. 266. 251. Gellius quotes P. probably disappeared when medial: . which led to frequent misuse by the ignorant." In inscriptions we find such forms as reprehensus aduc.. incohare are archaic calls Terentius Scaurus and vehemens incorrect. Paris in I?om. and both he and Velius Longus declare there is no h \VLprendo: S. being little or nothing more than a breathed on-glide: S. 266. App. 264-265. a. 262-263. 117. as in terga fatigamus hasta. ASPIRATE.

b. other languages: michi. Q F was Audollent 536. Bechtel 78. kw was Before other vowels the regularly kept in most of k. Pr. hostium. probably earlier in local or vulgar iii. as in eastern Italy. omo. condam. oe. etc. hossa. ospitiutn. I. k. 341-344. Q and C: S. secuntur. 265-266. unless analogy led to a substitution of cociior coqui throvigh. '^digitus = digitos. 350reduced to k by the or second century... 254. In Rome are found: e[redes]. 253- C and K did not differ in value except that C some- times did service for dicitos G: App. 107 is dropped in a few inscriptions towards the end of the Republic: arrespex (for haruspex). records a pun of Cicero on cogue and quoque. heremum. I. 82-87. nichil. too. 345. ic. cf. southand Sicily subsequent developments point to a ke. hodio. OSTIA. anc. by Microsoft® . etc. I. cocus : see §226. E. hegit. cottidie. 252. Cf. etc.. § 226. Mens. C.§ 254] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. = coperta.. choante. GUTTURALS. non dicitus". Spr. quooperta cot. R. in quo ante=^inBechtel 78-79. criminately used: abeo. Cf. Bechtel 77-78. haram. etc. S. and H after the third century it is everywhere more or eres. less indisetc. 819. ora. etc.. After h had become pronunciation of medial h as Italian pronunciation of there grew up a school which has persisted in the Latin and has affected some words in silent. 462-463. oratia. 345-346. S. Cf. 351-352. the kw was 340-341. S. I. L. In Pompeii h is freely omitted. 473. abitat. 351. etc. 924. S. S...L. R. the Empire. dialects: Quintilian VI. pronounced kw: 0. 1034. Sheldon in Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Litera- turel (1892). ymnus. ortus. There was some confusion. Before u and first however. of S.. I. I. Vulgar Latin reduction of que to Digitized qui to ki: Lat. C. 264. L. 455. But in Dacia. C.

" "poples noT\ poplex.before vowels. s: sestus is common in inscriptions.: Hence cf. Caper. destera. 221. for some reason.. etc. migat in inscriptions Digitized by Microsoft® . see § 266.. By the second reduced to or third century ks before a consonant was 170. 145. nasco. ^ stood for ks: S. extimare for cestimare. For ks>-)(S. Carnoy 157. 351. cinctivs. found in Spain (so cinqv. 274. Carnoy Eckinger 126 (2eorros)." "locuples non lucuplex. merx. S. mextum for mcestum." In parts of Italy ks between vowels was assimilated into ss by the first century. milex. subornatris. There are some examples. S. Bechtel 139. e. Cf. cf." Keil VII. ubi materia per s. io8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Carnoy 171. fifth tury.. exponere. BissiT BisiT VISIT = vixit. /'m«7/« > prixsilla. 352. 353 (cf. 346. Cinqvaginta. except in mono^prmgnans. 353. 341. ern Gaul apparently sk regularly became ks. "aries non ariex. in late Latin. Lexique 93). etc. xanto. S.. On In norththe other hand. Carnoy 159. S. I. Laqueus seems. to Carnoy have become *laceus: Substrate 255. viscit).'' "miles non milex. as in cresco.: see Melanges Wahlund t^^. Carnoy 158. III. After a consonant ks early tended to become s: Piautus uses mers for est. conjus. gium. The voicing of intervocalic surds doubtless it is early as the fifth century. felis. but this was only local: alesan[der]. as in * essaexire. 256. pregiiax became s. etc. in At about the same time : final ks cojus. S. by analogy. 353. Audollent 537.). began as shown by Anglo-Saxon borrow- ings and by such Latin forms as frigare. es~ for ex. of a metathesis of ks into sk: axilla"^ ascella. cen- inscriptions. buxus'^* buscus vixit>\iyiC\Ti (i. Lindsay 102. first [§ 256 In quinque the w was lost by dissimilation: cinqve. Fr. 353. So ex-^ excutere. ''cah dicendum. dester. App. Vok. but not in syllables etc. 98. sometimes.

t least two centuries earlier. gat. early in the Empire or before. there are many examples from the sixth century: Lat. Digitized by Microsoft® .. i25ff. lebra. Some above examples show that consonants followed by r shared in the voicing. 7th century. etc. Carnoy 123. Haag 27. 32. that t>d'm the fifth century and the beginning of the sixth. southern Italy. however. Spr. but reina. 3 I. kima. noghe < nucem. A. . found in the 4th century. Cf. etc. (i) Cf. 257.. etc. kena. deghe<. and Illyria k' went no further. kera. while c>gz. kelu. cubidus. Haag 27—28. t were voiced in Gaul in the second half of the sixth century. Dalmatia. etc. I. Zs. In Central Sardinia. and Dacia. at least as early as the seventh century. Spr. sigricius ^= secretins. * gratis. siubri. in a few words. in some places perhaps as early as the first century. etc. / 258. etc. Before the front vowels e and the velar stops k and g were drawn forward.. p. on the evidence of inscriptions and manuscripts. Initial c and cr. G seems to have been attracted sooner than k : in Sardinian we find k before e or i preserved as a stop whiles is not decern. 472.g'. Vok. in central and southern Italy. 109 and manuscripts. Haag 28-29. According to Loth 21-26. kircare. Densusianu 111-112. and in Sicily. became g and gr: *gaveola. 474. Dalmatia. immudavit. into a mediopalatal position k'. occubavit. crassus + grossus'^grassus.. Franz. 731. pontivicatus. intervocalic c. XXV. Rydberg. 2d century. and Dacia the k' stage was apparently kept longer than in most regions: Lat. pagandum. maintains.— — § 258] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Voicing was not general. finds in inscriptions some slight evidence of a change of t to d during the Empire. C and G before Front Vowels.. Carnoy eglesia. of the cataveris ^^ cadaveris. Zimmermann. ne121.

3. Pirson iniens. Cf.. fused. Cf. Haag 34 manes 1' . re{g)ina. . etc. Sicily. "-frigida non fricda"). Diez. Stolz 349. praepalatal clerical and Latin: App. recoUiendo. and after a consonant. Lat. Spr. both in popular and in Gerapolis for HierapoHs.>maester. 461 . when it was intervocalic.Gi. Pr. agebat Lat.. in nearly all the Empire. 239. (cf. §233. Troge. agebat ^ aiebat. jSctevTt = viginti. and southwestern Italy remained at the y stage elsewhere the y developed further in the Romance languages. G' by the fourth century had become had opened into y. ingens aiebat. neglienda. Vok. lenubam = Bon.Gi 5. with the following e or i if this vowel was stressed: vi- mag2ster'>*mayister'. Grammaire des langues ro- I. Gepte. genvarivs. . iesta. 460) trienta. but is " weak " before other vowels. Vok. vigtlat had become *viglat. this Haag 33. 250.. colliens. Thm-ot 77. 61. This y." geiuna= Jejuna. and portions of Sardinia. etc. argentum. Tragani. After the accent. 349. Genavam. diriens. fmucrrpo. and digitus in some places had become dictus {Franz. S.e. S.1 1 Some light is thrown on the later clerical pronunciation by a statement in a fragment of a tenth century treatise on Latin pronunciation. Pirson 97 celiens. Voi. 275. 461.. 473. Spr. the regularly remained. II. 173. Pr. in through legit. to the effect g has "its own sound " (i. frigidus in most of the Empire had become frigdus {App. Per. non cakosieis. similarly perhaps the proclitic ma{g)is. II. so *pa{g)e{n)sis.. = conjugi. no An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. genarivs. except colliens when analogy forced *colliente. etc.. "calcostegis Neumann 75. 473..): it its disap- pearance (as in pldngit. Before happened. [§259 259. 15-16): cf. D'Arbois 10.. 3 I. that of English g in gem) before e and /. coi^i. leges. Spain. a part of southwestern Gaul. F. {g)inti. S. II. Agrientum. agere = ^ aiere. Pirson 97 quarranta = qicadraginta. = Sepulcri 205. But sometimes : fused with a following i proparoxy tones roitus {=irdgitus z= rogdtus). maestati.

Vok. 1893. consiensia. in Lat. see H. that c has " its own sound " before c and i. 322 P. or praepalatal.§ 26i] An K' Introduction to Vulgar Latin. intcitamento: P. In the half of the third ce. in 260. G. 1900. fascem. dut'yere. and in Rom. I. 1893. 123-126.S^ was palatalized also: crescere. S. . Cf. of this glide the group then. 359. and is almost like q before other vowels. in the Annuaire de I'^cole pratique des 261. it is stated ts. Mohl. and Libit. between the k' and the following vowel: k'yentu. By the fifth century the k' had passed a little further forward and the Through a modification tsentu. W. XIV. 1 was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . as early as the third ce. 360. ffautes-^tudes. Vok. 348. 1901.1 century: F. duk'yere. etc. Schuchardt. Cf. I. articulation: k'entu. ka. century some writers distinguish Rom. XXX. septrvm. the earlier grammarians: prsepalatal. . Fetite phonetique du franfais prelitieraire. co{g)ndscere. duk'ere. 21-51 (cf.itury must have had nearly front. mediopalatal. in the Comptes rendus des seances de I'Academie des Inscriptions. nascere. in the t's sixth or seventh century. There is no mention of first it by 340. 163. G. 81. For a discussion of the subject. paze (6th or 7th cenFrankish tins (German zins') is from fifth borrowed probably in the 595. Marchot. Guarnerio in Supplementi aWArchivio glottologico italiano IV (1897). Paris in Journal des savants. 51-53. 151.. and qu. In the school pronunciation of the seventh and eighth centuries c before e and i In the treatise cited in the preceding note. 7. Meyer-Liibke in Einf. piscem. k'y had become t'y: t'yentu. S. 617). Thurot 77. in the fifth century we find bintcente. S. developed into or ts: t's'entu or Speakers were apparently unaware of the phenomenon until the assibilation was complete. apparently as and postpalatal. 348 cites fes[it]. XXXIII. everywhere a The next step was the development of an audible glide. a short y. tury). census. E. Zs. XXVI.

siffatto {<. due.. ci. ka. jambe. gamba>'Ex. negare. Intervocalic g before the accent fell in many words in all or a part of the Empire. At the end cf.. cher. 262. (2) C AND G before Back Vowels. See. Vok. § 256. and then developed further: carum>'Fr. dimmi (< die mi). so * ledlis. 50). realis in Gl. 146. in Introduction to Vulgar Latin. y^ 264. probably by the end of the seventh century. found about the sixth century. see Palatals below. through alliteration. fammi {<ifac mi). 242-243). too. S. eccu'hdc.112 An 472. Sfir. however. sic. 129 (other examples in manuscripts. *redlis (for XXX. ecce htc. For a possible indication. For ce. — mainly. g'a. avste. Inasmuch as a had in Gaul a front pronunciation (§ 194). and apparently remained under learned or under analogical influence in others: avstvs from the second century on. in the front of the 263. ga in most of that country became k'a. pacare. negdre. so. Reich. Carnoy 155-160 (who puts the assibilation in the sixth century and earlier). of a local assibilation of c as early as the second century. however. frvalitas. Carnoy 127 (cf. (3) C and G Final and before Consonants. 349. I. the c must have been Digitized lost. Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie [§264 3131!. * liamen. K and g before vowels not formed mouth usually remained unchanged: canis. see Archiv XV. S- — — perhaps 349). gustus. the proclitic eo for ego. of a word the guttural seems : to have been regularly preserved in Vulgar Latin fac. 3 II. Occasionally. by Microsoft® . pagdnus. But ligdre. see Zs. Italian die. Franz. sic factum). hoc.

— sanctum 268. Gram. 472. S. > Fr. Pr. "sagma by Microsoft® . "dumecta S.). Pr. regnancte. frigdus. For kw 266. etc. A. The Celts perhaps pronounced the Latin beginning.. 348. Lat. There is reason to believe. 398*fC'X^um>Vx. S. and likewise substituted x^ fo"^ ^^' Suchier 735. however. in see § 254. §650. Zaf. saint. Spr. App. Lat.). fleuma. santo.. PR/EFETTO. 236-240. 267. fait. "pegma non peuma" Digitized St. LATTVCjE (3OI etc. sante. in the south even in the first century: AVTOR. and «'. that the y was retained very generally in Gaul and perhaps some other regions. ^^auctor non autor". and there is a confusion of si and sic: Franz. Isidore. Carnoy 172. inasmuch as their own rf had as x^ from the become ^f (e.g. cuntis. I. Festus. Cf. Before another consonant k and g were for the most part kept through the Vulgar Latin period: actus. The resultant phenomena can.§268] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. OTOBRIS (380 A. *viglat (§233). 113 no doubt. Gm Pr. 278. XXV. ( i. irqyfua. 476. antiqui quasi dumecita appellabant quae nos dumeia. Einf.. Zs. Old ct Windisch 394." 348.^ Ft. D. Xf some parts was assimilated into U by the beginning of the fourth century.) . 215-224. became um: fraumenta.. 735. see § 255. Spr. 265. oclus. App. be explained otherwise: Irish ocht-n corresponding to Latin octo. * exsire . 9 II. through assimilation to a following initial consonant: PA iot fac. § 186. subsequently drawn forward to the praepalatal position santus. eissir.e. For ks of Italy = x. probably by the century: defuntus. Nkt became yt. otogentos. in Pompeii. however. = qu. Spr. 472. D. 399). In late texts nee is often written ne before a consonant.. sank. fata. which seems to have been assimilated first into nt in parts of the Empire.

gaudium. exagium. Instead i (=/) the spelling mann. 271. y. cunnuscit. hodie. 270. ftlia. Italian sauma [or salma^ dicitur" (i. Pirson 75. cujus. videavi . PALATALS. [§272 quae corrupte vulgo S. rarest in Dacia. aayixa). odium. edmus. renum. 324) and zesv =/esu. eiius. Cf.. between in vowels. Carnoy Digitized by Microsoft® .. Stolz 275. teneaf. Fortsetzung 7. pi{g)ntia. fageus. t. 364 a. In cognosco the decomposed — g generally disappeared. Neu- When y more or y. 272. habeam. and also salma. 115-116. and subjected to further modifications.e. in the latter part of the Empire. Spr. 323) and Zovk^la= Julia (Eckinger 80). assimilated into n or n in others. (S. in popular words apparently became r parts of the Empire: fra{g)rare. Haag 34. followed a consonant. ajutit =adjutet. of ii was often used: coiiugi. Cf. venio. Latin / was pronounced being identical in sound with the consonant that developed out of e and / (§ 224): jam. that consonant was often less assimilated. no SCO. being preserved in some. the after the fall of initial g in gnosco —-into lost in cognatus : word being co~ and Vok. as calma from Soma occurs in Gl. d. Pirson 76. soma. sometimes entirely absorbed by the in Gaul. I. adjuiare. podium. etc. pere{g)rtnum. diumus. Dy and^. Gr. which comes from Koxfrn. Palatalization was commonest probably were reduced to y in vulgar speech: deorsum. ni{g)rum. 239). rcenante. Lat. madias = maias. conjux. audiam. similarly the ^ was sometimes etc. sauma 269. Cf. Reich. inte{g)rum.114 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 327. ZVNIOK = junior (S. Gn was still variously treated in different regions. Compare oz^^ hodie (S.. 476. connato. ZACOiJVS = diaconus.

Waters Ch. = maio. Servius in Virg. 63. by Microsoft® . Vok. n' before the end of the Empire: ftlius. in Yox plUvia a form *pldja was substituted §§ 169. 461. 324. however. Audollent 537 zogenes. S. writes. 339): z^s cf. represented by the spellings Aureia. probably dz : podium proferenda est. di sine sibilo Isidore letter tell grsecum enim nomen est. fiios. teneat.. 321. It. habeo. etc. Georg. Corneius. /'. but not everywhere. In most words the vulgar jv prevailed. His- pania. sacriius—SiaKpiTOi. probably became veniam. had poggio. It hordeurh > It. appears that the labials were not regularly assimi- sapiam > It. from radius Italian has both raggio — — and razzo. St. sappia. y. pranzo. The : dz pronunciation was especially favored after a consonant 273. towards the end of the Empire. sapcha. lated in Vulgar Latin beside abbio." S. II. madio S- 349." S. : orzo. "solent Itali dicere ozie pro hodie. says. Z is often used in inscriptions. S. or dz (cf. ridia =! corrigim. Carnoy 161. Remidium — Eemigium. 115 162. deggio. Carnoy 162. magias ^= maias. and perhaps through slurring due to constant and careless use. The reduced forms cf.§274] ^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. § . licpioi = Sergius. 323. = dies. Haag anoget = *inodiaf. cor- aytos. aios = Carnoy 162. folia. debeo often became *ayo. between vowels. ny.i£=die. Media. This palatal pronunciation may be 327. 208. di. but it we generally cannot whether t. *deyo: cf. means dy. most of the Empire: 274. Gl. tilia. Condianus. 216. debbio. video>*veyo. De. aggio. Digitized etc. Ly. etc. melius. 320. Congianus =. prandium > It. generally prevailed. II. another — doubtless more elegant — pronunciation. The S. mezzo. But through the analogy of audio"^* auyo. Haag 34. Pr. in others especially in Italy the cultivated dz..(4). Reich. juria = jurgia. which was > It. 34. but medium ^^ > It. palea.

. being respectively k'y second and third centuries. I'g' to Vulgar Latin. . etc.y«j/i«'a (in an edict of Diocletian). eAaiov. ocio (389 A. Pirson 71 mendatium. D." In the treatise published by Thurot (see footnote to § 259). Pirson 72. 475. and hence were often confused: a. pudicicia. sty were generally assimilated of sy later: *bassiare. Fr. from oleo. Ssy.). defeniciones (222235 A. ti. An Introduction ll'g'. is pronounced like c. somewhat allium. d. see § 277. malicia.. Pg. oli. 78. Fr. avaricia. etc. as in etiam. we are told that ti. scy. D. silentium. caseus. Spr. olio. Cf. quatio.). Eckinger 99. oracionem (601 a. Bon. p. Vok. / 'i'l^^^y. 'ApovKiavoi = Aruntianus. unless preceded by s. Densusianu in.d. postea. Cy and ty. also in nuncius. consiensia. fascia.. It. collt^t. the an exception-: cf. ocium. see § 296. termina(an acrostic in Com- ciONES in (2d century). Cf. furthermore. etc. a sound similar to English sh in ship: basium. Sp. Digitized by Microsoft® . Riquier 131 &nd pitid in popular speech). 171 especially common in Gallic inscriptions of the seventh century. is Pr. concupiscencia many examples Gaul in the 5th century.. I. According to Albinus (S. isoff. S. staacio (601 a.). /' [§276 later: were probably reduced to ex-eligit. Stolz 51. huile. tercius. modian). Lat. For the confusion 276. ci.). and ty. mansionem. duricia. 321) "benedictio et oratio et talia t debent habere in psenultima syllaba. malleus. 323. justicia. Oleum. D. foreign words borrowed from Latin oleum indicate the same irregularity. In later school pronunciation cy and ty were sounded alike. servicium. tercia. leticia. doubtless became during the VulgHRjatin period /. prophetia. . non c. in the similar in sound. between vowels. For rv. is confused with the spelling c being prescribed in amicicia.ii6 Lly. were very and t'y (cf.

323. Reich. et i". inicio. tercius. It. speties. et plerumque supradictse syllabse in sibilum transeunt. comenzare chminciare. . MARSIANESSES = J/ar/z'a«^«j'M. This explains such seemingly anomalous developments 324. Hence arose numeroimdouble forms: condicio solacium solatium. in some cases." Papirius. T'y developed sporadically in the second century. Vincentl^us. 320) says. (as injustius. so many ^|ftper names. 68. otia. Justitii). see S. Puscariu. gocciare. sotium. 320): "/ustitia ex tribus he goes on to state that it is always so when ti is followed by a vowel other than / (as in Tatius. etc. etc. "lotacismi sunt quotiens post ti. servitium -cium. except in foreign proper names or after j litteris. tristicia. spacio. zodorys = Theodoras. Anitius -cius. 1904. §260): crescentsian[vs]. castius). Gl. etc. tertia syllaba sic sonat quasi constet z. 64. S. conditio. t. Vok. Cf. locally or in the This similarity or identity of sound led. later avarttic^-cia.: audatia. into ts (cf. reviewed in Libit. regfourth. etc. "si dicas Titius. or vice versa: cf. pinguius sonat et perdit sonum suum et accipit sibilum. D. It.vel di^ syllabam sequitur vocalis. Italienischen und Sardischen. 320). 3d ccntury. * gutteare "> Horning in Zs. A. S. Audollent 537. Carnoy 151-154. 545.. by the 140 A. Carnoy 154. Latetnisches ti und ki im Ru7ndnischen." Consentius 'For a different explanation of the Italian and Rumanian developments. Digitized by Microsoft® . cum scribitur. Servius in Don. etc. Cf. as * exquartiare-^YX.^ k'. Pompeius says the same thing at con- siderable length. (S. ularly a school pronunciation with etc.. but not in otii. either whole Empire.. adding (S. am- bicio.. XXIV. A number of words evidently had a popular pronunciation with f and 277. to the substitution of suffixes and to other permanent transfers of words from one class to the other: cf. I. squarciare. 324.§277] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. *cominitiare -ciare. cited by Cassiodorus (S. XXVII. S. ampittfltru. 117 spacium.

. judigsium. The in modern French.. glacies. as 280. Eck- inger 103. d. sepsies. Isidore in justitia: S. etc. Clerical usage for a while doubtless favored sy for ty. 323. . not followed by y. hocsies. S. 323. Vok. cf. vitiutrf^lt. 480. perdo.g. — — S. was easily confused with sy. St. 301-302. say t's'y the At aa intermediate stage between ty and ts grouD. JT'y was assibilated sporadically in the third century.s or sixth. ratio —sio. vezzo. XXVII. The resulting sibilant was different from came from t'y: faciam'^-lt. =^ Afardanus. placeam. dentals were pronounced with the middle of the tongue arched up and the tip touching the gums or teeth. 65 Horn. hence \X?X\2. 153. 320-321. Ztd/t. " ' by Microsoft® . and -igia beside -ezza from -ztia. after the assibilation completed: Mapa-w.ii8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. but names in -tiacum. and not 281.palagio heside patazzo. 225 a. 278. carried into Brittany in the second half of the fifth century. 279. g'. and many words have palatium preserved it in various regions. as in English : S. 307. tersio. assibilated (e. Exai^les are very numerous: observasione. modus. 6th century. d.vo'. 5th century. pretium —sium. 6th cen- tury. Welsh words borrowed from Latin before the fourth century show no assibilation. etc. k'.. fifth but not regularly until the of t'y -wa. Cf. statio —sio.'a. are Metiacus> Messac). DENTALS. faccta.l. Carnoy 154. etc. and the ultimate products have become identical in that which many For regions. diposisio ^= depositio. Pirson 71. D regularly remained unchanged: Digitized dare. Pirson 71. XXXV. see Gutturals. especially in suffixes: —slum. if the /' was rather weak. But the intermediate stages were similar enough to lead to some confusion. [§281 mentions the assibilation in etiam. so facio. servitium —slum..

" adif^ non alipes. S. 365 aput.» Sittl 37. S. § 289. confusion of ad and etc. So the final consonant eventually often dis- appeared. verecvnnvs. Pr. Carnoy 180. it. quid quit. App. period. attendere) but sometimes *ar Romam (cf. 31 1. o\d. 476. set. (3). 311312 "grundio non grunnio. 119 Oscan and Umbrian had nn corresponding to Latin nd: There is some indication that this pronunciation was locally adopted in Latin: agennjE. (2) In a. CO. 282... etc. Intervocalic d. few words d~^r: medidies by dissimilation ^«^«rf««. Digitized by Microsoft® ." Cf. Carnoy 180. 283.. S... northern Italy. and possibly at the end of a phrase apvd apvt. 365-366. 366-367 Some of the confusion was doubtless due to the fall of both d 365 . devocalized before a voiceless : initial consonant. The cases seem to be sporadic and due to different special causes. ilium corpus. the central and southern Italian nn for nd (as quannu for quando) may go back to ancient times Lat. as we may infer from the treatment of the prefix ad~: people probably said not only at te (cf. 358-359. a. Liquids. through the analogy of other neuters. 31 1 Consentius blames " peres pro pedes" S. INQVID. // d may have been .. . dacruma'^ lacrima . id 29. Pr. Spr. arVORSVM =r adversum. At the end of a word there was hesitation between d and S.. and t: see §285. S. In proclitics assimilation naturally went further. Grammarians warn against the Cf.• Cf. ad eos and at ea. set. etc. §283] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and a Similarly intervocalic dr. S. guoi. quo and Haag Illud. arripere). Gaul. : (i) Occasionally (/>/. Cf. capud in Gregory the Great. Carnoy 179-180. etc. If this was the case. . etc." App. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin became 6 in Spain. etc. at. Raetia. S. part of Sardinia: vt3ere':>*vedere. fecit feced. became ilium : Haag 29.

107. ustulare > Pr. Cf. sclit. Italian (except Sardinian).: others appear later in the inscrip- Rome and S. 367-368. but forms without the possibly due to Italian stoneconsonant (as audivi.315. 472. Pr. Rumanian. 105. Ischia. Hammer 28-32. cf.). 8. schioppo. as ama. sitis. §234." For Cf. So probably insula > * isla > * istla > * isda > Final t fell It. dede: S. peria. in Volscian {fasia=fadat). final t disappeared early in the Empire in southern and during the Empire in most of Italy and Dacia. —tulus~^—dus. vixi. seems to have regularly become d: astula> Pr. partem. S. and Sardinia kept the t late. Gaul. facit. etc. its Final nt perhaps lost before consonants: Lat. 367. valia. 312-313 "Martulus non Marculus" "stlataris sine c littera Caper. . often in Umbrian In Latin. 284. f developed: Caper. " capitulum non dicendum. Tl." "vitulus non vidus. and sclitib. .120 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin." capidum. f^habe).(from stlis stlitis). In quadraginta. occasionally in Faliscan: Hammer 5. etc.> *quadro. Lat. however. Pirson 97.?. posui) occur in Gallic inscriptions.. Between j and I z. sure examples of the fall in Latin are found in Pompeii tions in Christian relinque. App. and also Spanish and Portuguese show no trace of final / except in monosyllables. ascla. Digitized by Microsoft® . In early dialects we find such forms as cvpa. 7. The first . later. usclar. Keil VII. Spr. > *scloppus > . [§ 285 either at the same time or became drin Spain and Gaul: quadro'. 8. Fredegarius wrote e for cutters — — t et: Haag 29. It. Spr. Italy. dr~> rr: quarranta. '^ pessulum non pestulum" (hence Italian /ifj'//. Raetia. 285. northern Italy. T usually stloppus remained unchanged : teneo." "vefulus non vedus.

The Romance languages show forms with nt. pos. before a vowel or a voiced consonant. Spr. 473-474. 121 n. Lindsay 124. 287. and northern § 256. § 280): S. ^> d in northern Gaul and Spain. videtur. — 368. Italy probably in the fifth or sixth century: Inscriptions show a few such forms 309) as amadus. inside a phrase. Both st and s are represented in the Romance languages. 288. uses capo: Haag 29. 309. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) or *capum. may have lost its t before consonants as post ilium but pos' me. Cicero favored posmeridianus . In Gaul and Spain. Intervocalic was voiced to d in Spain. Raetia. of final t For the confusion inquid are found. est amatus but es' portatus : Lat. with and without either consonant. e. S. L had a convex formation. Lat. 324) writes: exilem. Such a spelling as Later this retere for reddere (S. restituerun. /. (I) L. likewise. 470. Marius Victorinus preferred posquam : S. like d and "Z t (cf. §283. In inscriptions we find : dedro and dedrot. When did not fall. posuerun. 306-307. Cf. LIQUIDS. 38 (S. Nt. 473-474. d and t. Priscian I.. Cf. and-^J is found: S. cf. moreover. 473. Gaul. 309. S. see §282: capud. in general. triplicem. t 286. tr'p-dr'^dr. Final st. Cf.§288] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in 365. posquam in R. is preserved in the same regions as Pisaurum. According to Velius Longus. 368. may indicate un- certainty in the use of d and t. Pos is very common in inscriptions. it was doubtless often Fredegarius voiced. Spr. feced. ut Plinio sonum habet: quando geminatur secundo loco Digitized by Microsoft® .

It. XXX. this formation led in some regions. mtlle. ut lectus. geline. chaloir and gallina~> Old Fr. silva. See also Zs. to the vocalization of / into u: KavKovXaT<o in an edict of Diocletian. It is likely that / before or after another consonant had a Before thick sound caused by lifting the back of the tongue. from the "pinguis. this elevation. except before i. Vok. An ut il-le.. see §161.d. see §274. a faulty pronunciation of / particularly prevalent in Africa or 648. (2) There are sporadic examples of the dissimilation of two Ts: Digitized by Microsoft® . consonants. in obscure terms. brought about the palatalization of Spanish and Italian clavem kl'ave > Sp. For ly. quando finit nomina vel quando aliquam habet ante se in eadem syllaba sol.. Eckinger 12. 494. zi. consonantem. For sl>stl. sporadically by the fourth century but regularly not until the eighth and ninth and later (^Lat. 325-326. ski. After consonants. chiave." lectum. (i) Metathesis occurs occasionally: Consentius (S. ille). tribunal. According to H. Greece: S. alga. 476). cauculus in manuscripts. It remained unseems to have fallen in For //>/. Have. fiaba. sound — as 50. 327) blames "coacla pro cloaca" " displicina pro disciplina". / regularly changed: luna. fabula^*flaba'y-\\. intervocalic va. Sfr.122 posita. shifted forwards. 301 a. see §284. flavus. sol. etc. etc." heard before a consonant (as in albo. /. II. ut exilis. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 289. plenum. [§ 289 syllabas et Metel-lus.): S. also had the thick is famuXus (but not in similis): thus explained the different fate of a in calere^OXd Fr. medium in aliis. 326. During the Latin period altus. etc. Dunkles undhelles 1 im Lateinischen in the Transactions of the American Philological Association / in : > XXIV." Consentius distinguishes the "sonus which he ascribes to initial and double / (as in lana. Osthoff. Other grammarians blame. clarus.

etc. ndet. locally in aliorsum. in most of the Empire in dorsum. Reich. App. 460-461 Cf. Pr. in inscrip- S. deorsum. (3) Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. 290. Spr.(see § i6r). Bechtel 83: susum very common. has iusu = was Hot consistently carried out everywhere. Pr. 8) says: " Gn. coming from rtt. assimilation versus. 330. introsus. et retrosum. 471. R. Gl. R. Pr. susum occur ha.. 327. 1593. suso. App. susum.. 123 cf. "terebra non tekbra".s pessica. Corssen I. 77. MVNTV for multum. IV. although Moreover. while old rss. The «>j. . in about half the Empire in persua. 307.f It generally resisted In many words. rusus. 330): "Dossum per duo s quam per r quidam ut lenius enuntiaverunt. The principle seems have been that original rs remained. retrorsum. After long vowels the 292. in early writers tions: dextrosus. R : in Classic trill: and Vulgar Latin was probably a gingival S. carrus." Russum rusum. Waters Ch. Cf. being probably somewhat hindered by school inIt took place in the whole territory in deorsum and fluence. we fin(J repeatedly pelegrinus by Microsoft® . cursus.. (i). two r's. there was a strong tendency to dissimilate it was only sporadically carried out: in Old in inscriptions Digitized Latin. —arts after r^-alis. as xcfloralis. 328. while susosusu susum. I. S. 243. ac tota r littera sublata est in eo quod rusum . App. § 281. pater. was early reduced to ss: Lat. 460. sursum. reversus." "cultellum non cuntellum". Pompejus Magnus et scribebat et dicebat kadamitatem pro calamitate. or praepalatal change 291. § 292] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. "flagellum non frag-ellum. C. however. {2)Ji. 309. so sussum>siisum. dossum remained unchanged: susum. Velius to Longus says est (S. rj > J. diosum." Cf. L.

tells 293. 304. 329. 296. Spr. among the soaru. This assimilation was probably not widespread in Latin.. S. early fall of final r mate. plurigo are attested likewise. dietro drieto. Metathesis is not uncommon S. 329. S." S. 330. in most of Italy and Dacia: sdror'. it has left very few traces in the Romance languages. Italian £Occodri//o. The old voiced having become r (S. as in pellabor. 477. Final r. pellicere. cf. orlo. 330— 331. mate. Crocodilus appears as corcodilus. etc. suora. propietas.>. propio. 302. S. criblare. to y in parts of Italy. f. For quatro. 38. [§ 297 also ministorum. : 294. Cf. probably before the end of the Vulgar Latin period. albor. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 331. averlo^ (in Old It.'' propio. except in monosyllables. uxo. Jlagrare. corium'^ *coryu (cf. although may have been reduced and possibly *cqyu SIBILAUTS. fell. S. with the upper surface of the tongue convex (cf. seems to have been dental. coliandrum. Rum. PELLiGE. 329) / us that in elegant speech per before was pronounced pel. etc. as frate. Velius Longus (S. So Italian per lo '^pello. Cf.124 (Sittl An 74). Waters Ch. Lat. \X. merlo. § 280) S. Ry was probably preserved through the Vulgar Latin it period.z\vax\. cocodrilus. quando dico mamor pro eo quod Cf. It. corcodrillus. *sempre.It. perla. : ^ j- Digitized by Microsoft® . est marmor. Classic Latin j was probably ^Iways voiceless and remained so in 297. 307-308.) avello. etc. Consentius mentions "perlum -pro prcslum. 329) says: Pompeius (S. 330 notes prancati. mehtrix. see § 245. cuoto). "Barbarismus. Italian Carlo. 314-315).. Falisci Sittl 11 mentions an in and the Marsi. cf. perpenna ^ Perferna. An intrusive r is found in culcitra. 295.

" tions -s is freely omitted. as far as goes. tste. the nominative singular without s (as Cornelio. and the developwords as hiemps. furnished by such spellings as maximus. rexi. brian PiSAVRESE. etc. but became common by 150 to 200 A. ut ubi opus fuerit excludatur de metro. intervocalic s may have nupsi. cur- 298. ii Umbrian {kumate). the forms without Terentio.) and most popular words it Tuscan is [naso. sumpsi. filio') predominated in (jpntral Italy until the time of Csesar. nepoti. Digitized by~Microsoft® . 471. corroborative evidence.§298] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. unu. 302-304): this in is 125 Vulgar Latin intervocalic s in (S. 361-362. Sittl 27. Cicero (^Lat Spr. however. who cites UmLatin final s was very weak after and t. Cornelio. 471) "subrusticum. rarely in -as: bonu.^ sex. ossum. 8. § 256): was generally preserved: causa. urps. 108): "5 littera hanc habet potestatem. pieta. and often was not is says the loss of —s written.. indicated by the fact that is still generally surd in Spanish [casa. and matrona for matronas. also ment of a / in such become voiced sus. The omission is commonest in nominative -os or —us. etc. D. and occasionCf. This evidently indicates a voicing in late school pronunciation. Cf. etc. At the very end of the Vulgar Latin period. in Classic Latin s some regions (cf. j- ^In the previously cited Latin treatise (see footnote to §259). such as resolvit. Ennius and his followers down to Catullus did S." except in compounds. According to Chronologic 175-186. 361) notes the omission of -s by the ancients.) . pleps. Spr. etc. olim autem politius. S. Final s often fell in ally in Faliscan: Hammer In early 5. etc.." Quintilian also (S. Thurot T]^ y between vowels is described as " weak. Pompeius (Keil V. mtsi. but later it is In the older inscripin the main correctly used until the second century of our era: Lat. not count -j before a consonant in verse: 355-356. but occurs also in -ts and -as. when -j was partially restored.

etc. Cf. find.. For z. -s. Hammer 19-28. tra. For prosthetic i or e before s + consonant. 540. 1938. pronounced and therefore preserved.j.(as prabitor) for the unusual initial pres-: hence It.(but traduire. Vx. C. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. [§302 and prevailed in central Italy in the third century («<7 Cf. trans. 300. probably owing to the previous linguistic habits of the natives. /SvTcpos. examdtis "> dai. tempus>lt.). It. and probably in Dacia. transduco and We sometimes Both forms occur Gaul and Spain before / and v : tra (^ns) luce 0. Audollent In most of Italy. 299. jecit. tion. liberio. tempo. tra{ns')veho. a new nominative constructed from irpeers fell in Italy and elsewhere through the substituva. see § 275. see Gutturals For ss>s. Spain.before d. I. Digitized . see § 161. the In presbyter.126 again. senti.coming from the prefix ex-. 301. tion of the prefix /r. According to Velius Longus (S. and some other regions..traduxit. 471): sentts'^YX. In Old French pasmer (from spasmus) the ^ was lost probably through confusion with es. trei amate. It. For sy. see § 230. traducir). morbu ^ morbus. final J disappeared for good from the common pronunciation in the second and third centuries.*prcebyterum'). prete. cept in monosyllables {^Lat. 316). however. transtulit.«. for ejus. usually preferred tras. tra{ns)posuit . tratransjicio. tres^OXA. L. filio^filios. (later tre^. see § 246 and Greek by Microsoft® Consonants. IX.became and sometimes before m and/. but notes that happens at the end of a doubt- only a conventional abbreviation. tra{ns)misit. 539. cords the omission of -s in as this nearly always less was strongly Carnoy 185-206 reline it is many inscriptions. For assibilaand Palatals. 302. Italy generally favored tra.. Densusianu 122—123. etc. In Gaul. preveire {<. Spr. but das^lt.(but trasporre).

Cf. rigo. 276. n. Priscian." sound between m and n: "Omnes fere aiunt inter m eX n litteras mediam vocem quae non abhorreat ab utraque littera sed neutram proprie exprimat. as / . is 278). described by Nigidius (in Gellius). 269-270. §§ 171. 272. In Classic Latin the nasal naturally took before labials the form of m. comfluo confluo. . amat. mediocre in mediis. S. anguis. ut templum. N. g." 305. comvenio convenio. contineo. M and 304. § 320) gutterals. S." Terentianus Maurus (S. before m. 275): "iVvero sub convexo palati lingua inhaerente gemino naris et oris The same author describes (S. mis-. cor- before s it was Digitized silent [cosul. immitto. must have been partly nasalized. So Marius Victorinus (S. initial and intervocalic. ut magnus. 275).§ 305] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. imperio. y: combura. «'s in Bononia > It. minus. 270. 311). like d and t (§ 280). changed: meus. with an arched tongue: S. noster. etc. and the mouth closure incomplete. n. were the preceding vowel obscure and weak in Classic Latin. as between n and ^ (S. Bologna. 303. conduco. 275) says that for n the air comes through both nose and mouth. was dental or gingival. etc. by 270. regularly venit. and v. iVNCXi. 127 NASALS. innocens. remained unFor the reduction of There was a dissimilation of two M and n. According to Priscian (S. 275) a spiritu explicabitur. 275) Before liquids the nasal was assimilated cf.). ut umbra. probably tives first the pronunciation of these fricabefore changed from bilabial to dentilabial (cf. apertum in principio. "m obscurum in extremitate dictionum sonat. inquit. The y Cf. then n. 269- {colligo. see § 245. S. uncus (cf. final or followed by a consonant.: cf. 279-280. by Microsoft® . before dentals. — or "« adulterinum"— and also nvncqvam.

and even before dentals not always clear (S. The due hesitation and inconsistency in spelling are certainly in part to imperfect articulation. 364. In both old and late inscriptions the nasal is often omitted altogether before a consonant: Decebris. but in great measure also to the mistaken efforts of later writers to restore a real or hypothetical earlier orthography: compare the treatment of prefixes. secudo. S. 286) says: littera "Columnam et consules legimus. nunquam. Carnoy 176. cun navibus : Lat. For the change of rjkt to yt. reliquat. 275): exempta n "iV quoque plenior in primis sonat et in ultimis partibus syllabarum. pricipis. nom paret. In the vulgar speech of the Empire the sound before seems to have been indistinct. de- fuctce. In late Vulgar Latin m. 272): this is indicated by such spellings as senper. locun sanctum... iy carne. forsitam mille. then to nt. Cf. ut nomen. plu. quen. r/ must have been reinforced. frequent. i senatu. 281-285.128 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. decemter. Carnoy 176-177. cur regibus. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . Servius. quamta. 271-272). 273. etc." Cf. 306. 476.. we ci. S. as there is § 32. nomem. S. santo. Pirson 92. quan floridos. nynfis. 307. In inscriptions S. etc. Carnoy 220). largely to mere careless- ness in cutting. occubas.. exeetc. 278. etc. n. 311).. [§307 to a following consonant: Final nasals seem to have been adapted. Priscian (S. etc. Mn seems at one time to have been pronounced m: Quintilian (S. iferos. like medial nasals. Bechtel 81 {forsitam. 276—277. Cicero advocated cun nobis. little trace of confusion in the Romance lan- guages. tan mulieribus. before/ and v there was great uncertainty (cf. §§171. nol lego. cun duce.. nom or non fecit. conplere. and there was apparently some labials doubt before ^« and qu (S. find cun. laterna. see § 267: santa. Carnoy 220. innoceti. Spr.

462. S. The omission of -m and Pr. In Old Latin it was to weak: 130 B. dampnare. 363-364. 356. counteracting a previous ten- dency to although slur the group. 129 stamen. . 308. numqua. the wrong use of it are very frequent in the Per. ide..). on the other hand. cal- the early indi- Romance languages. and conversely forms with a superfluous m. cf. oli. by Microsoft® . Bechtel 80. from the first century. to say. S. unu are very common. Bechtel 91 Digitized cf. eoru. (as in puplu).§309] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. It is likely that this orthography and painful effort to articulate clearly. was probably assimilated into nn in central and southern Italy before the Empire was over {Lat. etc. ut amnis. Cf. 298. septe." Carnoy 166 has Interamico. Spr. Bon. Between is m and j or / a / generally developed in Latin was unvoiced and denasalized before the surd that followed this / was not always written: sum(J))si.. pride. terra. exilior in mediis. for -amn~. passi. Carnoy 166. abundant examples. etc. mecu. Bechtel 107. the latter part of the . dormito for dormitum.. Toward the end of the Empire fashion evidently prescribed cates a conscious a distinct pronunciation of mn. Audollent 539-540. accedere. and dampnum (cf. — that 309. etc. damnum. umpnia. mense. S. mpn is common in 189. App. in the last first two centuries of the Empire the traditional spelling is carefully observed: early and late such forms as dece. The Romance languages it point to the preservation of mn. Late inscriptions. etc. Bechtel •]()•. jacente. m Final m often fell in Umbrian 5. occa- sionally in Faliscan: Hammer 8. : que ad mo- century of the Republic and the dum. 476): Interanniensis. sum(J>)tus. It is often omitted in inscriptions down c. show a fondness for such spellings as calumpnia. and again in late plebeian inscriptions. So R.

but it seems preco- to have been reinforced in Classic speech (S. 274). scarcely any m audible quantum erat. S. cognosco. 106). the final S. of its assimilation to a § following labial (im bello. too. it was assimilated (cf. Spr. 361): see 305. then (by assimilation) before other consonants. Hammer 32-41. etc. of -n in Latin (S. 473. very early.. Digitized by Microsoft® . 364Lat. etc. 282. Final m before vowels seems to have been. ing vowel was nasalized. who notes the omission of -m in many inscriptions under all possible conditions. etc. Final n must have been indistinct (S. 356-358. quern (^quen. he adds that there in tantum ille. (S. [§ 310 ardente lucemam. non is Siciliam": see § 311. For further assimilation.. 361). Carnoy 206-221. as in coactum. ignotus: is Other- wise there no sure proof of the fall but there is abundant evidence 365). I. AudoUent 537). hors. vowels. According to Quintilian is 362). as in cognatus. in poetry it may be disregarded (cf. n of prefixes 274. Cf. In the opinion of Schuchardt. reaches the conclusion that silent at the it became end of polysyllables by the first century. etc. jam. coharere. S. "/« Siciliam dicendum. 286). 274. cf. 110-112. 361): see §305. 360. 358). fix The con— became co— before vowels.tenea{m')\ cum. having disappeared very early before vowels. The Romance languages point to a loss of -m in all words but monosyllables: damnu{m). pdssu{ni). Before consonants S. tan dvrvm. the precedThe contrary view is maintained by Seelmann. from early times. only a weak nasal glide: in circueo it disappears (S. next before spirants and at the end of a phrase. Cato said dice hanc. As the fall of m seems to have been due primarily to a failure to close the lips completely between two it is likely that the nasalization was slight. coicere: S. Caper (Keil VII. cf. S.130 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. Cf. 288-292. Vok. 310. fell Before^. audiendu' st.

as in vicesimus. 286). infas. was probably constant from early in/as. mansus.. covenimus. thensaurus. Stolz 243. inscriptions: cofecisse. —iens'^-ies. as videns. ifimo. 387 a. letter inscriptions: Kki]ix. "consules exempta n littera legimus. 311. Stolz 243fT. convenio'&ie really new formaThe only sure Romance traces of the loss oin tions: S. 459." Cf. Eckinger 80. . App. toties. Plautus repeatedly uses mosTerence seems to intend a rhyme in "neque Stolz 243. v.. however. etc. Pirson 94. R. etc. ^^ i'^ Greek- ko^ous. iventa. ns. cojugi. resurges S. Spr. trare. Before fricatives or spirants n regularly fell. etc. except in monosyllables: ndtne{Ti). mesor messor = mensor. etc. probably through nasalization of the preceding vowel: see § 171.. Carnoy 177. with a superfluous n: fidens =-fides. iferi. 287). Pr. thensaurus. prcBgnas repeatedly.. the n was generally restored by analogy (see 171). Charisius (S. This phenomenon was only thority: partially recognized by Classic au—ensimus -^ -esimus. etc. R. "Hercules non Herculens. if eras. S. cojux. It probably fell late.. 273). cosol. was kept in participles." "occasio non occansio. 131 The Romance languages indicate the disappearance of -n. -onsus>-dsus. (on a (Capua.ifs. libes. 274. d. § App. 274. "ansa non asa" . hortesia. 274.§ 31 1] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Quintilian (S. coin of Vespasian's reign). both forms were used in -e{n)sis (according to Velius Longus../. For final nt. quiensces. mesis. 462. 285. 473. locuplens. Cicero preferred foresia. remasit." Eunuchus 728. cesor. 461Conversely. 274. etc. pes neque mens. coventionid. such words as conjux. AudoUent 538. formosus (S. ifra." In popular speech the times: S. after the Vulgar Latin period: Lat. 281-285. see § 285. occansio. S.). 286) records that "men- sam sine n littera dictam Varro fall ait. non. seme{n) in. 113-115." Before/.. Cf.. ifer cojectis. Pr. 281-285. iferi. Such forms are frequent in cojugi (very common). Digitized by Microsoft® .

299. In central and southern Italy// became the Empire: scritus. Bon. "plasta non blasta" " ziziber non ziziper" cannabis and . (i) F regularly remained unchanged: pater. 314. by Microsoft® . Raetia. Pr. // probably early in 299. hut pensare. App. Pirson 61. Pirson 93. scultor. Lat. 476. [§ 314 before these consonants in Latin are Italian /a«/^ and French in Raetia and convent. 299. Windisch 394). Gaul. 312. opus. 160. under the influence of Celtic *cactos (Welsh caetJi) = Latin captus (Loth 35). Car- noy 165. § 256. and northern Italy: see Cf. etc. etc. the fall of n was permanent. There was some sporadic confusion of/ and b: uvBLlCyE. as was the case with Celtic// (Dottin 100. Before s. (I) P. scripit. 7th century. cf. Digitized became Haag862. lebrm. and the only Romance words containing ns are learned terms or new formations: mesa. Intervocalic / probably became b in the fifth and sixth centuries in Spain. 313.. mesis. etc.. Spr. In a part of Italy /j became ss as early as the isse for ipse is first century: found in Pompeii. LABIALS. settembres. canapa. In a part of Gaul capfivus seems to have been pronounced *cayttvus: it may be that in Gallic speech the pt oi this word became yt. pesat.. Pirson 60-61: labidem. h. sposus. tosus. stubrum. Old Irish secht-n = septem. corpus. It.132 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. or perhaps captivus became first *cactivus. /V likewise br: Abrilis. although at a later date nf became / much of southern France. S..• redemti. etc. to drop In Italy and perhaps elsewhere there was a tendency / between a consonant and an j- or /. S. S. and is attested by Martial and possibly by the icse for ipse mentioned by Suetonius.

§ 3i6]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


In northern Gaul intervocalic/ and/r, even in clerical Latin, /8 and ^r by the seventh century: rivaticus, 629 a. d., Vok. I, 128; cavanna, Gl. Reich.
developed through b and br into
'Soxpe,pi, see § 273.
(2) B.


as in


was not



usually ifemained un-


bene, blitum, oblitus.


Oscan and Umbrian, became vim

in Sicily


southern and central Italy, the
as far north as


being found in inscriptions
Cf. nd, § 281.


Lat. Spr. 476.

Before s or tit

likely that b regularly

became /

in Latin,



was often written

b: absens apsens, ab— apsolvere,

plebs pleps, scribsi scripsi, scribtum scriptum, trabs traps, urbs

urps; App. Pr., "celebs non celeps," "labsus non lapsus."

Final b must have been often assimilated to a following

consonant: sud



a. d.,



In the Empire, especially in the second century,
in inscriptions (cf.

and v were much confused


bixit, botu,

vene, etc., S. 240; Baleria, Balerius, Beneria,


Betrubius, Bictor, bos, valneas, Audollent 536; African birtus, bita, boluntas, Vok. I, 98 bivere, very common, Carnoy

140; baluis, Bechteh"78;

vibit, etc.,

R. 456; bobis in Consenany, traces of

Vok. Ill, 68.

In the

Romance languages

there are few,


such an early interchange.

Probably the confusion was mainly

or wholly graphic, being due to the identity in sound of b and v between vowels (§ 318): Lat. Spr. 473; cf. Einf., § 120. The Spanish levelling of initial b and v does not go back to Vulgar Latin (Carnoy 139— 141); the confusion is far commoner in Italian inscriptions than in Spanish or Gallic (Carnoy 142-146). We find also a change of initial v to b va. north Portuguese, Gascon, south Italian, and Old Rumanian.

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Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


After liquids, too, there was a confusion of b and v in inscriptions, b being substituted for v much oftener than v for
b: Nerba, salbum, serbus, solbit, etc.,

240; berbex, Waters

Ch. 57; solbere, repeatedly, Carnoy 140; solbere, etc., R. 455; App. Pr., "alveus non albeus." In all probability v really changed to b after liquids: see V.


remained unchanged.
Intervocalic b opened into

the development apparin the second,

ently began in the


was well along

Oitovin = and was devitvm, provata, etc., Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95; devere, As V also was pronounced j8, a confusion in spelling S. 240. cvrabit, resulted, b and v being used indiscriminately:

completed, at least in Italy, in the third:

ivbentvtis, nobe,

etc., S.

240; i-vwE.nTE.=jubente, 2d century,

£inf. 127, § 120; cabia
vovis, etc.,

— cavea,

Danuvium, Dibona,


Audollent S3^~537j devitum (6th century), lebis, vibi, Carnoy 134-135; annotavimus, lebat, Bechtel 78;


habe:=ave, rogavo, suabitati,

R. 455— 456;



51, Pirson 61-62,



Carnoy 134-136. became contiguous

Cf. V.

to a following consonant,
Cf. V.

was vocalized

into u: *faula, *paraula, *taula, etc.

became /3r and Dacia.

perhaps not until the end of our period, in northern Gaul, Raetia, part of northern Italy,


as in popular speech: *fa§ula, * tabula, etc.

In the early stages of clerical Latin intervocalic b was pronounced Later, perhaps by the

seventh century,

was sounded


In App. Pr. we find " sibilus non


tions " sifilum pro sibilum" ;


comes from some non-Latin Italic dialect few other words. *a^ea, see § 421. (3) For habebam


(S. 300) menPerhaps the form with/ bubulcus =^ It. bifolco, and a

and Priscian



Be, bi probably remained unchanged, at least in most

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§ 322]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


of the Empire: rabies, rubeus, etc.

For the analogical change

of habeo to *ayo, debeo to *deyo, see § 273.

(3) F-


F was

originally bilabial (S. 294-295), but
of the



by the middle


(S, 295): cf. § 305.

It is the old /, apparently, that is described

by Quintilian

296-297) a plain description of the dentilabial y is given by Terentianus Maurus and Marius Victorinus (S. 296).

Grammarians speak

of an alternation of h


fasena^ harena, fircum'^ hircum, habam'^fabam,
Varro, Ling. Lat.

etc., S.

f: fcedus'^hadus, The /"and 300.

the h doubtless belonged to different dialects in early Latin
§ 97, the

according to

This phenomenon can have no connection with the change of initial/to h in Spanish and Gascon.

/for h was Sabine.

of the

It is

probable that intervocalic

y became

v at the end

Vulgar Latin period

256): alevanii

^ elephanti,

paceveci ^pacifici, pontevecem =. poniificem,




was doubtless originally pronounced w; but, losing its velar element, the sound was reduced, probably During the early in the Empire, to the bilabial fricative /8. Empire Greek-letter inscriptions have ov or ^ for v (Ncpoua or Nep/3a) Ov\av!a = Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95 yS for » is common from the first century on, Eckinger 85-91. Velius Longus, in the middle of the second century, says that the u in ualente is pronounced "cum aliqua aspiratione": S. 232. Hence arises a complete confusion of intervocalic b and v








By. CVRABIT, ivbentvtis, etc, Gregory the Great. This leads


240; jubari iox juvari

to a graphic confusion of

initial b

and v

in inscriptions: biginti, bixit, botv, etc. (so



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An Introduction

to Vulgar Latin.
dentilabial v in


Later the bilabial

p became


of the


cf. §


For the substitution Germanic Consonants.
323. After liquids




or w in a few words, see

this state

/3 seems to have closed regularly into b; was preserved in Rumanian (Densusianu 97, 103105), but elsewhere the p ox v was partially restored by school

influence: cerbvs, corbi, cvrbati, ferbeo,
A. D.),
§ 317.

nerba (about 100

serbat, solbit, E. G. Parodi in Horn.




So vervex became *verbex, then berbex: Waters Ch. 57 BERBECES, 2d Century, Einf. 127, § 120 (also in Gl. ReichJ).

Hence came

hesitation in spelling (^ferveo, ferbui, etc.)


inconsistent results in the


languages: corvus^

corbo corvo, Fr. corbeau; curl/US'^

Ft., Pr. corp, Sp. corvo;



nerbo, Fr. neff; servare, servire'^ It. serbare, servire.

Intervocalic w ox fi had a tendency in older Latin, as Umbrian, to disappear between two like vowels: divtnus'^ dinus (cf. Umbrian deivina> deina, Sittl 26), obHviscor> obliscor, si vis'i> sis. Cf. Lindsay 52. Also, at all times, before or after 0: bovis'^bos; devorsum>dedrsum; faor, Pirson 63; moere, AudoUent 539; Noe/u/Spios, Vok. II, 479; noem[bris], S. 241; '^pavor xiOXL paor," App. Pr.; cf. late noembris, noicius, Lindsay 52. "Favilla xion failla" in App. Pr. seems to be




In the above cases the


apparently was only sporadic.

But before an accented o or u, the w ox p fell regularly in most of the Empire: aunculus, Vok. II, 471 (cf. auncli, Pirson 63); FLAONivs, S. 241; *padnem; *padrem.
Furthermore, intervocalic
popular speech before any


ox p regularly disappeared in probably towards the end of the
vIvs, S. 241 {zLJlaus in



-vos>-vus): flavs,

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etc. datius. 137 App.:>*eccwic. Carnoy 128. 472 (cf. the v was re. eccu' ista'>*eccwista. 113) nous. L. Claussen 847-851. by Microsoft® . and the surds doubtless had a weak. Digitized Cf.§ 328] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin."^ ec{c)lesia. Vva. iKKKyfTia. voiced explosion: so they were not always distinguished by the Latin ear. noum. placuit> placwit. 328. Often. 1. Audollent 539 (cf. triumphaut. and Greek double consonants sometimes became single: vd/xos >nummus. after the analogy of a feminine or a plural form ovum (beside oum) through ova. naufragus. aus. Single consonants sometimes became double in Latin. Lindsay 52. Fr. 471) and others as aum. (S) u. gnaus. the original Latin w (spelled v) had become |8: § 2. primitius. : Cf. rivus (beside rius) through rivi. Keil IV. The Greek liquids. B): Classic . App. Pr. Vulgar aucella. however. 1220.. (i) In inscriptions -vs is common in place of -vvs. Pirson 63). etc. oum in Probus. 327- In Greek the surd and the sonant stops must have than in Latin. /3 became contiguous to a folwas vocalized into u (cf. II. nasals. stored. the sonants were perhaps not fully voiced. Pirson 63. claudo. cited by Schuchardt (Vok. in most cases this probably only graphic: Carnoy 128-131. this. Vok. etc. oum. and sibilants less sharply differentiated been usually remained unchanged in transmission. II. The ^Vm of C. GREEK CONSONANTS. When intervocalic a/ or it lowing consonant. Before 322. I. is evidently intended for csvum. § 167. period: eccu' ktc'. hiatus which had not already become w {%% 223224) probably took that sound by the end of the Vulgar Latin 326. ndcui^ nocwi. rius. vius in Pirson 63). is 325.

y. k. > > . cf. 259. the conis mentioned by Terentius Scaurus and others. 138 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. *. gamba. yoyypoi Cf. t: xoAa^os > colaphus. ch: Claussen 823-833.papo^ cammarus gammarus. cf. 330. This late such cases as Kafiinj Greek pronunciation perhaps accounts for > Lat. remained b. TfL'^um (j-a. later inscriptions.fu > > gumtni. c (S. [§ 332 (i) B. rvp. 'Kixpmp6<i'>- lambros. w. — fusion 346. Crista. Reich. TTvio'i > Kr > 331' g. S. "calatus non galatus" {^ KoXadoi). App. K6p. — 329.iravov > Fr. v sometimes became b. d: l3XauT6i Sometimes. X. explosives 6.p.KO)0(K delta. keSjoos > citrus.. ^iXra^ unvoiced into /. t: blcesus. p. old inscriptions. avrpov^ dndron. became in Old Latin t. 268): (cf. timbre.yfjia> sagma sauma. nimpa. <t>. § a-iriijXvyya > spelunca. sandal. TTuppos burrus. tt. c.p. toKomtov > talentum. cecino. etc. Claussen 838-841.. B. T generally remained c. After nasals. KvPipva. progne.. T. although KavZiTo? for candidus (Eckinger 98) seems to point in that direction: 'Aicpayas > Acragas Agragas. K. Pr. "> purpura. often became g. 7rop<j)vpa. S. we find the People of fashion by Microsoft® . (2) K. Pilipus. S. advCf. bustiola in Gl. g. however. Ta\oi'>rr. 347 buxus.yKri> andngi. 2S9-26a 332. Teodor. r. theywere *Jdcopus (also */dcomus) 'la. Ka. > conger ganger. however. Claussen c. x 252-253): vop^-ipa^ purpura . 8 regularly ydpov>garum. cin in kvki/os > > cicinus > Old. The From the middle of the second century spellings th. n. of a change oi r to d there is no example. A.. It. t regularly came to be pronounced //in Greek: a. etc. KaiPw%>gobius . Digitized b. K. egloge. ph. b. (3) ®.v>gubemare. S.

etc. d. X ><?"• Claussen 831. : letter h is occasionally misused. Fitonis. f is common later in southern Italy. Bechtel 79." 334. Claussen 828.^o'i^ colaphus = colapus. Theos. 256) speaks of using the old. Parthi. cathedra. Fr. zio we have a late development of Claussen 833. Quintilian (S. si aspiretur. 333" tions. 4. etc. 218. By the first century a. It is transposed in Fhitonis." "strofa non stropa". 257-258. unaspirated pronunciation (as pulcros. cf. S. 261. Digitized by Microsoft® . of. neofiti. 0. cru/x<^o)V4a>It. pache.<^ao-i. phitonissm. pantaisar. 79 (cf...avTac7La> > Pr. as in phosit. 256) says there were no aspirate consonants in older Latin. Ki^oXoi > It. <jia. . In <l>aXKaiva> ballcBna. Certainly as early to be the standard as the fourth century (Lindsay 58) pronunciation: App. S-p. footnote to § 259): " T quoque. <f> > b. etc. Eckinger 97. palanca. Matheus ''.. Fr. Cicero (S. Bonnet 141. x^P^ > chorda = corda. so o^-1\kiov for qfficium. S.. ut ather. In hoxri>doga. ut c enuntiatur. App.Xay^ It. Thestius. but popular speech kept the old t.. p. 139 undoubtedly tried to imitate the aspirates (Lindsay 54). " In principio inquam dictionis nulla prescripta causa variari compellitur. ut thiara. Reich.§ 334] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. KoKa. 260. The proper spelling is discussed by gram- marians: S. c. 261): dafne occurs in Pompeii. nothus. iriumpos) in order to be better understood. etheus. zampogna. ^ had developed into / in some places (S. In ^£ros>It. caikoluus. The etc. Thescelus.\os> phaselus faselus . Thiestes.. '^Theophilus non izofilus": (i) Evidence of a late school pronunciation of 6 as ts is to be found in Thurot 78. and some other early adopperhaps the reason is to be sought in a Greek dialect pronunciation: Claussen 829-831. . for new words as well as for old: <TvaOri>spatka— spata. Fitones in Gl. "amfora /came non ampora. cefalo. In late words ^ regularly appears as/.

Judging from inscriptions. lampas. The nasals. as a simple sound. cr 337. : t. see below. There however. but seems to be referring only to Greek speech S.-^ remained unchanged: are. unchanged: <j has probably become For npvj^vre. i/f In ocr/u. and a few other words. Nasals. and ^ were regularly > sinapis. among 36) says that the ancients.8os /talpos > maurus. etc. by Microsoft® . (S) z- Z doubtless had several pronunciations in Greek. In it was represented by jj or s: pAtfl. The For unfamiliar combination lent itself readily to meta- thesis: i^6X\v. and Sibilants. 338. > exodus. 308. From Sulla's time on it was written z in The grammarians throw no light Latin: Claussen 841-843. too. sedano. ss. regularly vop.^ ? > It. it was pronounced in Vulgar Latin dy. Priscian (Keil II. priTmp> Rh in remained unchanged: \a/x7ras> common speech was doubtless pronounced In trkXivov like > It. § 272).I40 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. The liquids regularly rhetor.v>psallere spallere. t. later j' (cf. (Tivain Of the sibilants. see § 300. Greek letter and the lack of a corresponding Latin one Velius Longus discusses z at length. and subsequent developments confirm this view: baptizare Digitized was equivalent to bapti{d)yare. early Latin .'^massa. Cf. Quintilian refers only to the on the Latin pronunciation. — 339. we probably 8. some indica: tions that they were weak before consonants > Pr. but was often replaced.po'i'^ prebiter. Medentius.. have to do with a late Greek change of \ to 336. [§ 339 (4) Liquids. /8oj«. r. by s. 335. orma. bobansa. e^oSos r. > nome. or d as in Saguntum. massa. Claussen 845. is sounded sd. ^dvr] "^ sona (Plautus).

oridium for opvtfi. and to G. h.§ 34i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 141 zelosus to {d)yelosus.. Kotflv^ zvnior. esquena. A. however. zosum z= deorsum. garba > K It. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. zaconus.). 69.. zeta = Koffmane 38 Lazis — dixta. 68 . Pr.. zanuari. no peculiarities. = conjux. can scarcely have come in time to share in the early palatalization of Latin g before front vowels (§§ 25811. b and k came in after the lents: 8. of the consonants offer Most treated as in Latin. D. I. The ending -i{d)yare became very is common: see § The spelling di for z occurs repeatedly: baptidiare found several times in Per. zabulus. being had no Latin equivaFurthermore. so *rik-itia > Pr. is often used for di: .. corresponding Latin sounds had undergone some modification.• frank-iscus>lX. estribar. zebus. GERMANIC CONSONANTS. geisla Fr. giga. jart. ZESv. etc. Lat. Carnoy 163). occurring apparently only in words adopted after Latin intervocalic b had become ^ (§ 318). zdcones. z zabulus. Ladiis. R. A few. 340. seems to have followed a similar course. 33. although have participated also in the later Gallic palatalization of g > before a (§ 263): gilda>lt. Francesco. 239. Cf. and w. *striban > Pr. ZABVLLVS. p. 457-458- In late inscriptions z for/ is common: zerax = Upa^ (202 S. re- mained a stop : roubdn it > It. Franko seems to have been an early acquisition.). It. rubare. garto Old Fr. and is common in inscriptions (cf. Eckinger 80.= Julia.ta. I. resisted front vowels : skena > > Sp. cf. baptidiatus. giscle. 3. Spr. 473. Conversely. Vok. B between vowels. 341. septuazinta. gerbe. 22. skernon > schernire. and its derivatives palatalized In the their k before e and /. Zov\e. etc. Bechtel 79). riqueza. *giga>'Pr. geldra. Carnoy 163. (90. Vok.

W. but in a few it seems to have been sounded kk in the greater part of the Empire: fehu Fr. honte. Pr. hardir. Hs. It. schietto. tarir. 342. Fr. skiuhan'^'Fx.— 142 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Fr. so blank-a'^Yx. Intervocalic h disappeared in most words. Germanic k was modified in the same way before all front vowels (including a): cf. It. But wahta. ht were generally treated tasso. ardire. — > \X. silent in Fr. It. in the seventh century and later. trescar. guiderdone. 343. Pr. Pr. Fr. but apparently was neglected in the rest of the Empire: hanca~^Yx. spehon~>0\6. hanche. Pr.. eschernir. at Germanic w was a strong velar and labial fricative. Fr. regions where Latin eschine. of a At the beginning word it kept its sound in northern Gaul. doubtless adopted at a Tr.gaita. 344. a time when original Latin fricative w (spelled v) It the purely labial ^ (§ 322). Old Sp. espier. Pr. It. esclate. parrjan > Cf. etc. Reich. had become was nearer in it sound to Latin u: see § 326. tasso. tt: pahso > It. prescan Germanic h appeared when Latin h had long been popular speech. apcha. hapja'^Yz. fio . blanche (but It. bianca^. hardjan Old Fr. —jehan > Old It. Bon. Yr. rather than a. schivare. anca. like Latin ss. 445 notes that ab. is used before > > initial ch: ab Chilperico. helme. gaite. Kluge 500. Old Fr. hau- > > > Pr. pahso > It. gecchire. d and widarlon were replaced in Latin by the It. perhaps borrowed at a different date feu. schiatta. cf. different time. It. Fr. espiar. before a (§ 263). became Old guatare. jehir. richesse. Sp. esguiver.. we find Digitized by Microsoft® . hache. helm elmo. jaquir. esclata. — slahta'^-OXA esclet. [§ 344 c was palatalized. nipa The spirants 8 and p t: corresponding stops. gequir. sleht > Pr. In the Gl.

> *wisa guisa. Mackel. See E. etc. through a reinforceit ment of its velar element. Wandali. Through association with Germanic words. Bruckner. Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. 1885. reuuardent. elsewhere. 167 cords Euua. Waddo. and in the in Rsetia this w apparently remained unchanged Vulgar Latin period. 1884. 1899.§ 344] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. In extreme northern and eastern Gaul. Charakteristik der germanischen Elemente im Italienischen.:>*wadum. but Wintrio is spelled Quintrio: Haag 38. Die germanischen Elemente in der franzSsischen und provenzalischen Sprache. Bon. It is generally written w in Fredegarius. the /3 of some Latin words was changed to w: vadum +watan'. in der franzSsischen Sprache. in northwestern Italy. etc. walde. vastare + wost— > *wasiare. Die frdnkischen Elemente W. 143 re- represented by uu. in uuadius. werra > werra guerra. Waltemath. wa (the interjection). became gw: warjan>*warire wisa guarire. W.

293. confusion of gender ensued. fans feminine in late Latin. or [I. 194. GENDER. pulicem. —orem. II. They were grammatical whose observance was a matter of outward form. (4) There were some sporadic changes: duos arbores. Spr. MASCULINE AND FEMININE. turturem. If words lost their differentiating terminations. honor. in the main. -inem. —urem were of uncertain gender ( Gram. 345. G. Bon. Hmor. Spr. through the analogy of the great majority of abstract terms. (5) See also § 351. 503-504): (3) color. Nouns that -icem. had a proparoxytonic accusative in -erem. but there were ( I ) Between masculine and feminine there was not much some important shifts: Feminines of the second declension nearly all became — masculine: fraxinus. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. grex became feminine. ~" confusion. abstract nouns in -or. 461): (2) In Gaul. A. became feminine (Bon. leporem. 464-467): carcerem. cf. 346. 483. 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . castaneus for castanea. Lat. 483 .. marginem. manus. The three genders of Latin were not. n. cucullus and cuculla.IV. MORPHOLOGY. Bon. Lat. sex. etc. 504. ficus. dependent on sex or lack of distinctions. iomus. Feminines of the fourth declension varied (^Gram. I. dolor. Pirion 157.

frigorem. lignus. and neuter in Africa. ra. Beside lUmen. Petronius has thesaurum. 345-349. collus. fatus. *ndminem.Y. there must have been a *pulvus. beside pulvis. Bon. castellus. m. papaver . 2. MAREM. 293. Densusianu 132. VA.. pectorem. These m two genders: filiu{s) — . do^sus (^Mil. etc. laqueum. n.. ciner. frenum -i. 16). and also by the fall of final s in that phenomenon occurred (§ 298). In Classic Latin a number of neuters became masculine balteum -us. D'Arbois 135. 39. for ctnis. Spr. templus. 483). 347. Cf. piper \h&x& must have been *liiminem. Audol- lent 545. etc.. incipit judicius. . 348. 266. roborem. m. lactem {Bacch.. etc. (Za/. etc. *ptperem. marmorem. G. II. signus. Glor. The transition from masculine to neuter was facilitated by the fall of final the regions where changes reduced considerably the distinguishing marks of the (§ 309). vinus. me\_nt]us. see Archiv VIII. Plautus.§ 348] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Waters Ch. Bon. vasus -um. sg. 348. cornu —um —us. 44). thesaurum. Petronius. 4. n. Waters Ch. R. Densusianu 129.. 42. caseum -us. MARIS. cf. b. 270—272. verbus.guttur. calus. balneus. maris nom.. R.. nasuni : —us. ledus —um. 46. nomen. 145 MASCULINE aIiD NEUTER. Conversely we find cinus. lactem. 41. vinus. collus —um. m. 132. In popular and late Latin this tendency was strong: anteClassic. For the confusion of masculine Cf. and f. 173. tergum —us. gladium.. puteum. 507-509. sulphurem. fcenus. Varro. vadum —us. murmur. 57. etc.

277. 4). the characteristic neuter plural inflections came to be -a being regarded as an alternative masculine plural ending: for nervi. Archiv III. and 48. Mare. complete until early Romance times. cf. pointing to such Vulgar Latin constructions as *mihi est grave quod ille non c. give in Italian: sg. Greek neuters in -ma.146 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. So pi. muro. quod. 351 Classic Latin often used not only the singular for the cf. the early stages of the Neuter adjective forms were used for a similar purpose: in Romance languages we find phrases veniat. hunc stagnum. and in Italy and Dacia the distinction disappears even in the nominative singular. FEMININE AND NEUTER. 348. Thus the masculine and neuter fused. however. id ipsum. Zs. hunc vulnere. R. by terra. luoghi luogora. but also the collective plural for the singular Digitized by Microsoft® . 386. plural in a collective sense (as eques. tive h In the third declension the genders are distinguished only in the accusative singular and the nomina- and accusative plural. m. Petronius writes nervia Waters Ch. XXX. Cf. miles. 349. donum hunc scBCulum. 161. est. 45 . etc. in Livy: Draeger I. locus.. for instance. Among pronouns. gender for nouns was probably not Cf. mare. quid. sagma. : if The loss of the neuter became feminine: cyma. popular. 350. perhaps calestem. luogo. Densusianu 132. etc. hunc verbum.. Bon. § 351. etc. influenced f. 266. Nearly all neuters became masculine: os locutus R. generally L. murus.. generally Haag became feminine maris. 635. [§ 351 In the second declension the only difference is in the nominative singular and the nominative and accusative plural. illud or ilium. / muri mura. the : neuter forms were kept to express an indefinite idea hoc. rivus rivora.

Lat. 269. 483. 270. Spr. Spr. R. Archiv XIV. 435. Sardinian. In most of the in central Romance territory the -a forms were kept preserved as plurals only as feminine singulars. 2. Gl. grada occur in late Latin. fusa. the Vulgar Latin period the cases were generally reduced. For the use of cases. Cf. ardet (cf. Audollent 548. but many were and southern Italy and Rumania. 482. Cassel. Aside from these.. 63). of an to pectora maXch qua pectora : Chronologie \()(). see § 349. 5-9. ligna . 147 marmora. frutta. Reich. Old Fr. etc. occurs in late Latin. Reich. 352. This formation in -a was extended to many masculine (cf. fructa. Hence arose such feminine gaudia. In late Latin and early Romance this collective plural —a came to be taken for a feminine singular: tribula sg. in Rumanian y>-««2a < ? *frondia ^frondes. rura: cf. ne forte et mihi hcec eve- R. So the neuter plural forms in -a were preserved in their collective use after the neuter singular forms had disappeared. see § 347. R. marmor. see §§ 85-100. for singular forms as *brachia. palpebrum iox palpebra occurs. *folia. . ingenias. Lat. rama). . simulaehras. gesta. gaudia niat. *pulvus = pulvis.. Convtrstly. {z. in Greek neuters -ma. Bon. Draeger I. dita. cf. sg. The feminine character of such words was *illcB doubtless reinforced by the use. § 349) and even to some feminine nouns: digita. etc. crigne < ? *cnnea = crines. etc. membras.§ 354] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin..% frigora. Gl. which a new plural was created: brachias. It. hie est iesia. DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 353. Digitized by Microsoft® . Apulian.. .. Gl. for instance. For cinus — cinis.. 351. D'Arbois 10. few neuter nouns became feminine: For mare and f. ligna. armentas. By the end of 354.

282-283. whence Italian spene (cf. so friicti. gustus in Petronius . spiritus. — the Cf. jusso. etc. R. Bechtel 86. 260—262. and occasionally in southern Gaul. the fourth and being absorbed by the others. [§ 356 except in Dacia. went into the third res There was also an inflection spes : spene{m). etc. gelus. ablative. glatz. £ai. All the mercatus. etc. fourth declension eventually went over. Digitized by Microsoft® . speni): W. jusso. being assimilated to the third declension: cf. sendti. Heraeus in Archiv XIII. haz. One result of the intermediate confusion was an accusative plural spelling -us which was very common in Gaul: Bon. beside dia. Dies maintained itself. materies -ia. Sp. Bon. 355(i) The number fifth of declensions was reduced to three. see § 359.148 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Sittl in Archiv II. in southern Italy and Sardinia. G. All passed over in the greater part of the Empire. etc. Pr.g/ada. 135./ada. (2) The susianu 133. 337-338. manos. senatus. 544. fructo fructos. Ada. Fifth declension nouns not in -ies rem. The other declensions generally held their own.. Spr. spes spent. lacus. gradus. luxuries —ia.. lucto. Classic Latin and continued in vulgar and late speech: ftcus. transfer of nouns in -ies from the fifth to the first declension began also in Classic Latin: effigies— ia. but -ies was kept in the Spanish peninsula.. 152. 270. but there were a few shifts: — (i) For an inflection mama mamdne(^m). 550. In Dacia the dative singular was to some extent preserved also: '' § 91. as a third declension noun. to two. 356. passes. K. Audollent genum. etc. —a nominative and an accusative- plural following the analogy of the singular. cornum. The transfer from the fourth to the second began in domus. 482. scaiiazre attested Inter: Denfor -OS.

a.) *femdris: cf. Greek nouns 259. apparently became femus {Gl. G. Old Fr. 258Dubois 258. siren '^ sirena. Beside terminus ~i. 280. It probably was not common until late Vulgar Latin or early Romance times. which had only one form in the plural: flia So linguas. fons. Reich. etc.§ 357] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the nominative plural was' by Microsoft® . arroser. Audolfilia{m). So a few Latin nouns: juventus or ~tas > Juventa. and of feminine nouns of the third declension. 259-260).) and probably *potesta. Fr. Libit. cf. rugiada. J where there was only one form. the first: 367. of the third declension sometimes passed into lampas~^lampada. pyxis '^*buxida. G. fonz. ds>dssum (R. Fr. there was a termen terminis. see § 362. lent 546. Beside ervum ervi. Fimus ftmi. Reich. under the influence of stercus. It. 280. Pr. vas>va- sum vasus (Waters Ch. Corpo for corpore occurs in the Per. beside coclear fiitre: was codearium. 483. fall of In Italy and Dacia. the accusative plural form came to be used as a nominative plural. 57). This use was due in the main to the analogy of the singular.). Caput became capus (Pirson 238) and *capum -i: XXVII. fiens. 280. (3) On the other hand. Digitized -s made the accusative plural identical with the singular. femps. Fundus fundi perhaps became fundus *funddris: Old Fr.In countries which did not lose final s {% 298). etc. so apparently ros'.. where the kept instead. h&nc& filias filias. Puulva for pulvis is recorded adsis '> aisida. there was an ervus ervoris: Lat. likewise tempesta {Gl. effondrer. 149 (2) For an inflection Bellus Bellone^m). by Audollent 416. but the old forms were retained also. matres matres. : Bechtel 86.>*rdsum (cf. / 357. G. R. FIRST DECLENSION. Spr. Pr.

c. the nominative plural in some parts of Italy SCALAS. 331. Rom. 152-153. Meyer-Liibke expresses doubt whether the is connected with masculine tatani.ISO (i) An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. sacristano). Spr. an inflection in —dnis. Les accusatifs en -on et en -ain. —enis. etc. cf. often developed. 483. ii. scriba *scribanis (cf. 358. W. Africa. XXXV. Philipon. and also in Latin down to -as was probably old in : B. M. Br^al. § 153): barba barbani. W. famulabus. XXIII. Pupils were taught to inflect Glance Glaucenis. 264).. c. feminabus. etc. Feb. G. Feminine proper names and words denoting persons etc. liberti LIBERTASQVE. fr. 57 B. scrivano). filiabus. mamma mammdnis. Spr. This feminine inflection left some traces in Gaul. had a similar plural. 359. Herseus in Archiv XIII. (R. filiabus. 171.2 01. Pirson 115-116. It. XXV. Nice Nicenis. amita *amitdnis (so Juliana Julianenis in Pirson 143). Rom.. Both mamani and tatani are found in the third W. 70. Chronologie 205-209. filiabus. too. 150. Hic qvescvnt dvs mres dvas filias. and Digitized by Microsoft® . diffusion. It. No foreign or dialect influences are needed to explain the practice.. 198. Archiv N\\\. Paris. Les accusatifs en -ain. This form left no traces in the Romance languages.. Dante's Semele. villabus. D'Arbois 21-24 assumes Celtic influence: hic sunt cartas. See G. cf.. 321. Her^us in Zs. nom.. etc. Some masculine person-names in —a had crisia the same declension {Einf. 136. Journal des savants igoo. but they may have helped its the second century . etc. E. Dalmatia. Celtic. 206. century: feminine -a -ants In Lat. An ablative in -abus is occasionally found: Cassiabus. Salvioni in Rom. XXV.: hence arose Anna Anndnis or -inis. Raetia. etc. or probably under the influence of the consonantal declension of Greek names that was in vogue in schools. sa* sacristanis (cf. MeyerLiibke in Ltblt. pupillabus. etc. rather late. affirms that there was a feminine in -a with a plural in -as in Oscan. deabus. Bon. ahimabus. [§359 According to Mohl. XXXI. p.

§§349. SECOND DECLENSION. Attane. *botula. -e ^ne -me. Andreani. Eugeneti inflection in -dtis. at the beginning of the Romance period. b. etc.. XXVIII. XXXV. R. 351-352. shows that there was also an Cf. especially in southern Some masculines took 362. from 750 on: amitane. 361. from which it was extended to other nouns of relationship and to proper names. extent. XXXV. Lombard madrane. 264. Salvioni. etc. was retained to a considerable and central Italy and Dacia. §§ 347-349. -His. *botella. Rom. Rom. Rom. Ger- From the seventh century on. digita. Zimmermann. the first declension was reduced to this pattern: 360. this -a.. Andreate. — luna facia *folia luna lune lunas luna{s) facia folia f^i^ facias f'^^i^ folias facia(s) folia{s) In Dacia the dative singular {lune. however. the starting-point of all this inflection was bdrba barbdnis. bdrba barbdnis influence of the itself he would ascribe to the synonymous *bdrbo *barb6nis. and -Stis: Aureliati. 2l6. (2) A. barbane. Rom. me -ene. putain. Zs. barbane still exist at both ends of Italy. As neuter nouns became masculine. they assumed. The plural in -a. by the analogy of bracchia.: § 362] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. domnani. XXXV. Agneti. 151 etc. 214-215. G. from Eugenes. Romance. shows that these forms of declenall sion were very common the mediasval Latin documents of parts of Italy. 216. (i) 207. According to Salvioni. etc. Dubois 250. Cf. etc. nonnain. 250. 343.) was kept also. 218. also Joannentis. -i La declinazione imparisillaba in -a -dne. in ig8.. XXXV. etc. Joanneni. the masculine where the masculine and neuter partly in Vulgar Latin but mostly in inflection in those countries differed: vinus. -o -6ne. rama. Italy: Fr. etc. — perhaps under manic influence combined with the analogy of the Latin type Digitized by Microsoft® . 219. In general. Cf. etc. 250. fructa.

212-213. suceroni: Rom. [§ 365 gulo guldnis. Philipon in Rom. In general.- ending was often Bon. at the beginning of the Romance period. See E. etc. some pari. attested in Lucca in 776 {Rom. Vok. — there developed in Gaul. So perhaps Italian Donaioni. spelled In Gaul the accusative -«. etc. Huon. Firmus Firmonis. Cf. I. Apparently traces.. XXXV. a declension -us (or —o) —dnis for masculine Hugo Hugon was Latinized into Hugo Hugdne{m) (cf. 247-249. proper names: 201. XXXI. cf. hence Pitrus or Pitro Petrdne^m).). II. etc. §355. § 152). -« crowded out the rarer which left no sure Digitized by Microsoft® . and possibly Corsican baboni. Vok. Traces of this inflection are to be seen especially in French and Provengal proper names: Foucon. etc. In the accusative plural there was still greater confusion of -is and -es {nubes nubls. Bellus Belloni. Paulus or Paulo Pauldne{ni). Pirson 133:. etc. carried further in common speech: cf. Rsetia. The traces ablative in —e finally triumphed. 365. etc. Giovannoni. etc. Italy. THIRD DECLENSION. In the ablative there was considerable confusion of -z and -e in Classic LatiiK OTan mare. This was 364. cf. 363. and possibly Spain. 87. (1). XXXV. 85. turri turre. the second declension followed this pattern: annu(s) — annu ~o anni anno{s) fa^e(f) fabru —o vinu{s) bracciu *—us fructu(s) vinu -0 vini bracciu —o braccia fructu fructi fructo{s) —o fabri fabro(s) —i —o{s) vmo(s) braccia —a -a The letters enclosed in parentheses were silent in Italy and plural Dacia. but there are of -l: It. XXXV. both in Classic and in Vulgar Latin: -Is. 337-338.. 204). c. G. avus avi>avo avonis.152 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Salvioni in Rom.f. 198.

. etc." Keil VII. Audollent 545-547. 481.. superstitis. R. victore. Petronius (Waters Ch. are best explained. etc. Plautus. 66... Pr. lentis in Priscian.. Chronolo- gie 203. etc. 9.. Audollent 545-547. Prudentius. (^=z. Caper. 116. R. As ~es and ~is came to be pronounced alike before the end to of the Vulgar Latin period (cf. perhaps in late popular Latin. as by Tiktin 565-566. stips^ stipes. These forms prevailed in Romance. Spr. GL Reich. "fames non famis. III. famis. D'Arbois 85-88. Apuleius. Rumanian pint. audace. Vok. Digitized by Microsoft® .. "grus non gruis. without a change of accent. Sepulcri 220. through the analogy of the second declension: see §368. R. suis in Prudentius (F. In the nominative singular the common -^s largely placed the less f requent 244-247. D'Ovidio in critici Raccolta di studii dedicata ad Alessandro JD'Ancona 627). "nubes non nubis". Varro. etc. divite. etc. Petronius (Waters Ch. 105.• -« Vok. it is futile trace the Romance forms phonetically to one source rather than the other. 47).. 45. pedis. or -e fashioned on the model of the oblique cases: so seeps "> sapes. heredes. App. principens antestetis. camis in Livy. §§ 174. aculionis for aculeus). cardonis. tended in popular speech to use for the nominative a form in -is. 263. calcis in Venantius Fortunatus. Nouns which added a syllable in the genitive. 263. cf." App. Jovis. . 153 Italian pani. GL Reich. 243). Ci. nubis. slirpis in Livy. etc. folli tor folks in GL Reich.. 263. Haag 45.. 38). 367. urbis. Ill. lade in Ennius. -es. Waters a Ch. Petronius (Waters Ch. dis- 366. castore. papilionis (cf. latrone. mdis. Pr. etc.principis). bovis in Varro. voluntate.famis. nom. heredes. In Vulgar Latin this formation was extended to words with shift of accent: excellente for excellens in Petronius.. 62).. in Ennius. Lat.§ 367] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Aulus Gellius. travis (three times). I.

(also * damantis. as *ndmes *ndme(s). 367 parentorum is frequent in charters in the Gl. Spr. corpo. etc. timp. etc. first in cf. *cdrpes *cdrpe{s). for *lumine{m). servitor. both the second and -r. etc. In these countries —ora was used as a plural ending (It. 369. were kept also {Lat. hence *me(n')si. declensions: Neuters in which apparently became by Microsoft® masculine or Digitized . Rumanian Tiktin 566. prevailed in Romance. however. however. which. etc. as nomeiji). 482). retained names of and and generally preferred the old nominative But names of persons in -ans and -ens usually made over the nominative: parentis.). but there is virtually no evidence that it started so early: in late Latin. to Bon. cantdtor. Cassel. we find sapienti.. new forms on the masculine pattern. probably in late Vulgar Latin or early Romance. For the nominative-accusative plural. 154 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. hence *cani. beside the old forms. carpi corpora. so. especially those in —ora. etc. Neuters in —n and -s regularly kept their nominative- accusative singular. no form: homo. *amantis.. they constructed. being used mainly in the nominative vocative. doubt. soror. prcBgnans). but in Italy and Rumania the old ones. masculine nouns made over their nominative plural on the model of the second declension. [§ 369 These forms. except for persons. elifanti is common. In most of the Romance languages (but not Spanish). etc. according . and was extended to in Old Italian to the second.). made in Italy in the eighth or ninth century. see § 347. The process may have begun in the Vulgar Latin period. (also presentis. corpus cdrpu(^s). Rum. but infans (also 368. anni. *ndmine{ni). D'Arbois 85-88. lupi. hence *patri. timpuri). which was regarded as the normal masculine type: fllii. too.

Sanguis. . A few feminines in -is apparently became neuters in —us. incudtnis : Lat. 293. and so probably goes back to an Old Latin *cdr Classic cor. sulphurem. but the original forms were kept also: cinis ctnus. Spr. polve may come irorapulver). *pulvus. pulvis whence S-p. 370. (3). pals {It. sangutne(m) also sanguei^m). the third declension must have gone about as follows {-is and -es having coincided in the pronunciation -w) : — (i) No Change of Accent. §356. marmorem. NO CHANGE OF STEM. 2. 348. *cdris = Krjp lajpo's. G. Incus. at the beginning of the Romance period. 113.§ 37i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bon. In general.0. *piperem. Cor apparently made its plural * cores instead of * cordes : according to Mohl. cf. etc. papaverem. and passed into the second declension: cf. the open o would possi- bly be explained as due to a cross between this *cor and the Caput became *capu{ni) or capus (Pirson 238). 155 feminine earlier than the others.. Plautus. polvo. were kept also. But marmor. except Spanish cuerdo. the word shows no trace of d in any of the Romance lan- guages. PERSONS. often developed an accusative singular in -e{m) as well as a nominative-accusative plural in -es: I. 371. 483. iticudis > incudo. § 347. Old Yt. Lexique 21-38. Fxn. Zauner 2.

[§373 change of stem.156 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. .

and the neuter plural (as omnia) was doubtless emr ployed from time to time as an indefinite collective. § was kept to represent a whole idea (cf. . however.§375] An 3. the neuter singular. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 375" The principal types are: — So ager. 157 DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. the neuter adjective forms were less and less used. 350). 374- Adjectives were declined after the same model as nouns. As neuter nouns assumed masculine endings (§ 347).

Pr. 275 (^ci. l_ \ !-. jac^r passed into the -us ~a —um class. m.. there was alacris. m. prcestus. 377. gracilus. miser. 46). firmis.. Romance was: For the new method of comparison. celerus. and conversely benignis. effrenis. Pauper early developed a feminine paupera and later a neuter pauperum: paupera. Cf. pauperorum. magis magls f J Digitized by Microsoft® . R. Waters Ch. so teeter'^ tetrus. Prcecox developed a feminine pracoca: Neue II. not completely evolved in Vulgar Latin. etc. etc.— 158 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. : to 4. Pr. comuna. and there was probably also a feminine * alacra and * alecra. (plus L 1 J ^plus llle-{'^"~. R. App. . Decllvis. etc. The type. COMPARISON. 274. Macer. and f. in376. App. and f.. see § 56. [§377 (3) Originally *feUce(s) One Gender filis fills fellcla in the Nominative Singular. doussa. 162. sublimus. Densusianu 142. prude(s) prude(s) *prudente(s) feUce fellce(s) prudente prudente{s) prudente{s) prudentia prudentia fellceis) fellcla (4) Comparatives apparently did not reconstruct the Nominative Singular: melloif) mellu{s) millu(s) mellore mellore(s) mellora mellSra melidre(s) There was a good deal of confusion of types in Latin times: beside alacer. pauperum. In the the —us —a Romance languages more adjectives went over -um type Pr.. pauperorum. imbecillis also assumed the -us -a —um inflection in the Latin period so trtstis^tristus.

became cinque {Archiv VII.§379] '^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 66) ginta (Archiv Nil. carissimus. Scto ( and Cf. Quinque. grossior So the adverbs: longius. an Unus was probably declined like bonus. Archiv VII. magis. dice offer so cinqua- no peculiarities. septe (and *sette). levior. 5. 221). Quattuor became quattor {Archiv VII. Vulgdrformen lateinischer Zahlworter auf Inschriften in Archiv VII. pessimus.i 378. 65). also as (cf. on the model of dui. (Camoy . 68. Beside Undece there seems to have been * iindece. The old superlatives remained to a considerable extent. §254. the Classic Latin comparatives of many common adjectives remained in use: altior. minus. vivacius. 285). melius. attested in the third cen- tury: Archiv IX. pejus. in the clerical language. minor. *Stto). 558 (cf. by dissimilation. sanctissimus. also ijuatro ^guaitro. see § 225. 65. For dodece. 159 However. proximus. etc. of the Vulgar Latin period dui dot {duoT) duo(s) Its inflection at the was probably: doa{s) — end due doe duas doas d'ua{s) dua doa dua doa In early Romance there was doubtless much confusion of the forms. melior. DHo came by dui. 379. is regular. gravior grevior. "i^. Tredece * See M. Six. II. nSve. sordidius. longior. Ihm. major. as intensives: altissimus. Digitized by Microsoft® . 107). Cf. pejor. It was used indefinite article (§S7) and an indefinite pronoun to be replaced §71). (G. NUMERALS. lows : — The numbers between two and twenty were as fol- Tres probably developed a nominative *irei.

381. Spr. But beside these we Vigtntl. For ducenti. 69). trinta: Archiv VII. * sexdinta. For its plural it had *dui mille or *dui mtl{l)ia. 412) mentions decern et septem. became * quattordece (cf. et (or ac) sex. and French words. are irregular: regularly § 142. Beside sedece there was *dece SeftendScim. but Qulndlce is regular. The tens. went out of use. Rumanian has new formations. the septucu.and the octo. Cf. G. Digitized by Microsoft® . ii.of 70 and 80 were to the type of the others. etc. triginta is.: G. mentioned as a by Consentius. trinta {yinti. so ^dece et (or dcto. Ryd- berg in Milanges Wahlund 337. Centu was regular. * cinqudinta. which account in general for the Italian. * quadrdinta became rr: quarranta Furthermore the dr of found in an inscription.. etc. etc. Archiv VII. regularly [§ 381 also Quattuordecim *quatti!rdece. This change of accent apparently occurred everywhere for the subsequent tens: * guadrdinta. trienta. such as * dui centu. trigtnta must assume for Spanish something like * viinti. Keil V. trecenti. became viinti. *septdinta * settdinta. etc. *dece et (or ac) nHve. made to conform Outside of the Spanish peninsula is -dinta apparently became -dnta. also unus de viginti. Archiv VII. f^ok. * octdinta * ottdinta. 380. in fact. XXV. Priscian (Keil III. Beside this dice et septe ac") there was *dece ac septe .i6o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. beginning with 20. 69. 461. § 225). triinta (§ 259): ISatvTi occurs in a sixth century document of Ravenna. probably anterior to the fall of faulty pronunciation the g. Zs. 392. cf. etc. with an opening of the first i and an early shift of accent. II. * triinta. *nondinta *novdinta. 136. perhaps of the fifth century (Pirson 97. These forms easily contracted into vinti. Provengal.. there were probably new formations. 69). Mille was regular.

262. remained. eo occurs in manuscripts of the See §263. tile and also hic. and interrogative pronouns. relative. to the dative and accusative. ? II. I. and the dative was preserved in personal. the distributive Septimus. nemo inde Regnier no. Examples occur as early as the second century: Franz. etc. As the pronouns came to be expressed more and more. and so was the genitive singular and plural of ille. Primus. kept. quintus were generally bonus. definite genitive: Hoc served in- Inde assumed the function of an dubitat. I. and is were used to supply the lacking pronoun of the third person: cf. According to sixth century. B. inflected like quartus. The genitive was usually lost but ciijus was kept. and iste. B. The ablative gave way . accusative SSs. N. ipse. 161 382. as an indefinite neuter. Lat. The ordinals were best preserved in Italy. after 5th. see § 60. until Ego lost its g in all the territory. but the end of the Vulgar Latin period. Spr. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. but some languages have new formations even for these. demonstrative. The nominative and.§ 385] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 242 is incorrect Digitized by Microsoft® . ipse. secundus. and Catalan ending -enus was employed {septenus ion tertius. in northern Italian. were probably not very commonly used: the Romance languages show many new formations. The ordinal numerals. Provengal. 67.^ ' Meyer-Liibke. 384. — For the use of personal pronouns. PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. §§6o. 484. But his reference to Vok. probably not 385.).

[§ 388 In the last syllable of ttbt. On tibi. i" 243-244. there were formed •. found. from the sixth century on. the pattern of stbt. ^ )86. these are and mt<mihi.ording ti. Franz. Spr. II.1 62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 484. •was carried into nobis. inflection The was probably reduced to: — . acof. stbi the short i prevailed. si beside to Lat. vobis.

These forms survived ma. cut. g II. The former. . 275.. popular speech. nom. Franz. 9 II. When Ule and ute had a really demonstrative force. isti). 3 II. — For the use of demonstratives. The Old Latin genitive illi {ipsi. and the dat. Sicily. ipsi=^ ipse. used by 427. Quillacq 83). was from that. There was another dative form. fratelmo. m. is 163 g The full inflection found in the sixth century: Franz. Ille. and Cato and on the model of illui (and perhaps of quei). istius). the m. Through the analogy of cu^us. sometimes occurred as a dative: Franz. m. by illi. madre- DEMONSTRATIVES. see §§ 61-68. subsequently went out of use. there was tllce (or ille). 390. 9 beside II. Romance: Old \X. 246-260. R. but it disappeared from late Latin. II.§ 390] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. also §392. being confused with the ablative and the accusative. and ipsud for ipsum. sg. used by Apu- and others (Neue II. 9 II. sg. 114. 427. R. illi^ille. we find. f. and the Spanish Illius {ipsins. 283-304. Ipse and isfe followed a similar course ipse however. tilt was replaced in part by illHi. see §§ 60. definite N. they came to be compounded usually with the prefix ecc' or Cf. 274. 275. B. in II. having become archaic in peninsula. 389. 244. 275. others (Neue Digitized by Microsoft® . 276. and the latter is not found in Calabria. illms gave way to iliajus. articles For their function as and personal pronouns. eccu': see § 65. The inflection of tile developed considerably in popu- lar speech. Franz. sg. probably in the sec- ond half of the sixth century. qui: Bon. was partially replaced. Sardinia. however. 273. leius was abandoned: In the dat. framed on the model of cf. 67-68. cf. Franz. Franz. 3.. tilt. 277-279. Audollent 302). illo. the special forms ipsus for R.

which crowded out illtus. to Vulgar Latin. for the dat. Franz. m. illui. Majorca.s replaced by tllum: Neue II. 276. on: Zs. 484: illujus. Ille prevailed. 271-272. R. In parts of northern Spain and southwestern France illorum seems to have become *illurum. 'la' vede(s). be used. except 177. Digitized by Microsoft® . nice. illui.164 An Introduction illcei (illei). illejus. ille. ipsujus. Illorum displaced the f. Illujus. which. and some dialects on the south shore of France. vides lei ta ipsam clavem'>-*vede(^s) iu 'sa' clave'] Lui and 281-283. The popular : inflection. Spr. Ille and ipse were used freely as definite articles from the fourth century on: Densusianu in Sardinia. and illis. 9 II. illdrum. to f. in Romance. are found after the seventh century: Franz. 600. It came. 426. illei are found from the sixth century made genitive. neuter Uludvia. XXVI. did not entirely disappear. these words tended to lose their first syllable (see § 157): tu illam vzdes>*tu 9 II. 619. ipseus. illejus. Lat. illui. through the analogy of illUjus. a part of Catalonia and Gascony. period. was constructed illcejus (illejus). In the on the same pattern (influenced perhaps by guejus). Cf. however. at the end of the Vulgar Latin forms not was something like kept in Romance) elle elli — this (brackets indicating Ma ellejus elli elle ellei ellu [ellujus] elli \ello\ ellui elli ellu ello elli ella elle ? ellu ello ella ? ellqru elluru elli(s) \ellaru\ ellqru elluru ellqru ^im/) ellais) ello(s) ella 392. The 391. [§ 392 which was used beside ilU and Ulm. furthermore. When unaccented. Cf.

Beside ctijus. in common speech. XXVI. and also of the feminine qum. INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS. by the end of the : Vulgar Latin period. 393. quel: Mohl in Zs. qui takes the place of quts. quis. and the substitution of qui for feminine see §§69-70. 165 4. In Christian inscriptions from the fifth century on. B. The combined inflection of qui and quis.§ 395] -^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. — For the use of these pronouns. see cm is found a corresponding feminine quejus. N. 619. to something like this qui — . was probably reduced.

*vais. Lexique 47 and Pr. a. the Eventually Spanish and Portuguese discarded New formations went into the and Sardinian the second." Lexique 47. The Italian present subjunctive dia from dare is associated by Mohl. would connect these forms with Umbrian stahu. Italian development due to the analogy of sia: see §419. FIRST CONJUGATION. to Vulgar Latin. estou. *staunt: Rum. 396. follicare. *vait date. *daunta.. 398. the third in Italy. [§ 398 VERBS. dao. Lexique 47. In the Peregrinatio the second decidedly preponderates over the third (Bechtel 87). daun. " The first conjugation generally held partial. sto. estau. defections into use * dao. PI. werrizare. state. dant and stant there came Old It. that the form is a later. the first and fourth were least affected. For new formations. Sicilian in Spain. Probus. however. in other texts the third gains at the expense of the second. (see §405): cf. in Germanic verbs -on and in by Microsoft® . dau. estaun. its 397. There was some confusion of conjugations. first and fourth. In northern Gaul there may have developed with * stao a * stats and a * stait. on the analogy of {*vao). "adno non adnao. THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. dou. The second gained most fourth in Gaul. etc. but it seems more likely that they were late Latin formations due to an effort to keep the root vowel distinct from the ending. with Umbrian dia. being few and Beside do. 30. Pg. own. Pr.1 66 An Introduction C. (2). Lexique 47-54. Digitized — such as abbreviare. Mohl. It is entirely possible. the third. Pers. Cf.nd *stao. — see §§33-35. I.

tondere. *putrisco. 167 —an (but not -jan) went in the first conjugation: Cf.\i^x\. Lexique 108-109. etc). 1. in Classic : Even miscere (R. especially in Italy. *nocere.. Digitized by Microsoft® . L. luctsco. THIRD CONJUGATION. Monaci. beginning with those that had a perfect in -ui. 1636. I. Itala. respondere (Bechtel 88: responduntur).§402] An Introduction regularly to Vulgar Latin. §36. tive —escere \. 20. habet. The as cadere *cadui. * luctre. While retaining habeo. third conjugation gave a few verbs to the second. p. I. lugere (R. rubare. *mordere. probably through the pronunciation of —eo as —io (see §224): * complire. 400. the verb habere. C. ^^^^ i^ a peculiarity of ancient Umbrian. tergere. adopted the forms *ho or *hao. *hant or * haunt. roubo?i'>lt. lugire (R. 401. 284). at least in Italy. According to Mohl. such perhaps 402. E. under the influence of dare and stare. Luke VI. Latin there was some confusion between the second conjugation and the third fervere. Habere. 399. capere * caput. 8. In Vulgar Latin the second lost some verbs to the third in most of the territory: * ardere. *ridere. 10. sapere sapui: sapere was influ- enced. *putrtre. sometimes became habtre: Vok. Some verbs went into the fourth. t. many become i. and cadere may have followed capere. avire in havite. * has. 284). guidare. fiorlre (R. 266 ff. Italian dialects in which e does not phonetically and even in early Tuscan (cf. The inchoa284). by habere. became —iscere: *florisco. SECOND CONJUGATION. 283). Crestomazia italiana dei primi secoli I. *torcere (for torquere). habent. b. habibai. habes. *impllre. Other verbs passed over locally or occasionally: sediiur. capere may easily have imitated sapere. Bechtel 88. wttan'^lt. * lucere. V. * hat.

Reich. [§ 404 In Spain the third conjugation verbs eventually passed into the second. 'Bt&ide. The present indicative forms must have been something like this: ^vojeo voje^s) — volimu{s) volemu(s) voleste(s) *volete(s) *vole(i) *vqlen(t) The present subjunctive must have been similarly inflected. 403. Dare Z. Pers. PL in 745 A.. strongly influenced by dare and stare. 478). {Pr. voles is found in Volestis. PL 2^). framed on the pattern of potestis. PL 21). D. there doubtless existed *fare {Facere 48). The anomalous posse potui. is twice used by Fredegarius {Pr. Pers.poteo is attested ( 1) Potere. PL 25). *volere. (2) the Volimus Reich. Furthermore. and conformed Velte. however. Pers.1 68 An Introduction all to Vulgar Latin. a sug- gestion of shortening existed in the monosyllabic imperative Digitized by Microsoft® . GL found in the sixth century (^Lat Spr. PL 21). The present like this: have been inflected something passu posso foteo *posseo poieis) *pote(i) — indicative must ^poiemu{s) poteste(s) *potete(s) pqssunif) *poten(t) The present subjunctive must have had corresponding forms. is volemus in the seventh {Pr. their inflection more or less to the regular type. {Pr. potebas Posso for possum is used by in Fredegarius (Haag 60). Pers.A facere were associated in old formulas: Lexique 53. Sardinia. facere 404. velle volui naturally went over to the second conjugation. was discarded in Spain and potebam occur repeatedly in the sixth century 24). This transition was probably helped by a partial fusion of esse and sedere. assumed the infinitive forms potere.-R. Pers. potebo is found in the Gl. Gregory and Fredegarius {Pr.

Zs. which must have led to *fate present indicative certainly had several being on the pattern of the first con- jugation. 121. XXV.§405] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. facio XVIII. Zs. but the present subjunctive retained (see Facere 72. series The one 735). 434): — its old inflection *fao . 169 fac (also /a. beside factte. sets of forms.

forbire . mortri. by the analogy of aperire {sufferit. Germanic verbs in -Jan regularly went into the fourth conjugation in Latin (Kluge 500): furbjan~>\X. fodiri. Spr. cuptre. * offertre. An The vado Introduction.into this conjuga- FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES Romance only Digitized IN INFLECTION. ignire. see § 34. For new formations. . 407. however. developed a form * dire. ^. occurire. cf. St. . For the intrusion of the inchoative -sc. Densusianu 148. its own. Gl. guarnire. §416): *caplre. beside * sequere. Haag 60. Sepulcri 229. deferet. hesiAe. 286. Spr. vadunif) *vaunt *vant 406. ^26. * sequlre. R. Bon. probably in the Vulgar Latin period (cf. tarir. The fourth conjugation usually held — — marrir. C2X0 fugtre. Lexique 62 ). Augustine {Lat. moreover. common in the Vulgate (R.. Cf. and *monre. warnjan'> tion. the entire passive inflection having been discarded: the by Microsoft® . ite(s) etc. Pirson 148. (j^^r^i". d. Verbs in -to tended to pass into the fourth conjugation (see.lyo present. §404) and helped by the analogy of audire. Some others went over. gemire. marrJan>'Fr. *soffertre. 477). Reich. Bechtel 90. FOURTH Vulgar Latin. in 408. Of the personal forms of the verb there remained general use in the following tenses of the active voice. Carnoy 112). doubtless suggested by die ( cf fac and *fare. Lucretius {Lat. first half of the 7th century. such as * abbellire. Dicere. §36. Bon. parrjan^Yv. 477). was influenced by *vao viidimu(s) vddite(s) *vo *vas vadeif) *vait *vat vadeis) *vais imu(s) etc. [§408 facere fare : — present indicative. Pirson 148. Plautus. It. and gained some verbs from the others. offeret. see § 415. * capere . 285). 427. at least locally: *falllre.

amaram. § 4io] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 298 Conversely. The Latin it its perfect sense — §§121-124. as a preterit or a conditional. . some regions the future perfect . See Syntax. esse and the perfect participle: feci"^ habeo factum. the present participle. in various regions: see §124. . imperfect. The supine 409. The old pluperfect indicative (^amaram. For instance: amare. perfect was kept in its preterit sense. See 410. pluperfect. etc. amavi. amando. amassem. amans. In the subjunctive the pluperfect was used instead of the Digitized by Microsoft® . partly by active and reflexive constructions but perfect participle with esse' mainly by a compound of the (m northern Italy fieri): littera ' scriMtur -flittera scripta est (or fit). The entire passive inflection -of came to be replaced. in the by a compound of habere and the "perfect participle case of neuter verbs. amem. 297-302. amatus. Cf. Similar compounds replaced the pluperfect and the future perfect. R. and probably in some standing phrases the gerundive. reverti"^ reversus sum. R. See Syntax. In was replaced. 304. (amaro). some writers substituted R. the gerund (especially the ablative case). towards the end the Vulgar Latin period. cf. the perfect participle. R. For amo. {amarini)\ ama.. audiram) was kept. : Deponent verbs became active cf. the subjunctive present. fell into disuse from the first century on. perfect. in the Vulgar Latin period. rideri. and in instance: some regions the perfect the imperative present. {amandusi). 289.. pluperfect. operare. and in 171 indicative present. etc. R. amabam. §§ 112-114. Of the impersonal forms of the verb there remained: the present active infinitive. 388-389.. 302-304. mentire. the deponent for the active inflection of a few verbs: Petronius.

-ds. etc. Digitized In Italian we by Microsoft® . §118. pdteri. sometimes confused with the pluperfect indicative and later sometimes with the infinitive {dpriro. -dbe(s). in Vulgar Latin and Romance.): amdrem'^amdssem. habemus and habetis eventually. came to be made. which has prevailed in the find. which disappeared everywhere but in Sardinia {facheret. but * amar' abut. The ings. XXIX. or conditional. -dnt. etc. -ete(s). as in the In these formations the unaccented {Ji)ab— first and second persons plural of the future: * amar' -^{b)a. to correspond to the dissyllabic or monosyllabic -dyo. -ds. especially by the infinitive combined with the present indicative of habere {amdbo > amar' habeo): see §§125-129. cridere. from the *amar' -abut. V. Crescini in Zs.): see Spanish and Portuguese. On the model of this new future. as they came to be regarded as mere endold future. —aunt. an imperfect of the late future. -dnt: *amar' —dmu(s). . amd{ve)ro fused with the perThe old future perfect ama. with the exception of ero. *amar' dben(t). but and Macedonian. *amar' -dbe(t). beside -ia from habebam and -dbbi —ibbi from habui. Lollis in Bausteine i . infinitive the perfect of habere (see §130): combined with the imperfect or *amar' ~dbe{b')a{ni) or disappeared. audtrem'^audissem. It is best preserved in is found also in Old Rumanian There are traces of it in Old Italian. De 411. as a future indicative or subjunctive. —at. C.172 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 401): *amar' —dbeo. [§411 imperfect. cf. *amar' -isti. * amar" -dbe(s'). —do. —dbe{t). etc. -dt. &tc. was crowded out by the present and by new formations. *amar' —e'te(s). a form in -ii {amerii). in regions except Gaul and Raetia. 619. In this compound all the various forms of the present indicative of habere were used (see §§273. were reduced to -emu{s). In the first and second persons plural. -dyo. —d.-dben(t) and -d.(ye')rim and apparently remained subjunctive fect — — — — more or all less in use.

hence crederdt). Virgilius Grammaticus (Sepulcri 194) mentions double forms of inchoative verbs. R. etc. The first and third persons were supplied from the present subjunctive. by Microsoft® . Instead of the plural form. tene. INCHOATIVE VERBS..§414] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. crede. French Switzerland. etc. the Landes. The Latin The inchoative ending -sco was preceded by a-. In Veglia. pareeer. are common in Gregory the Great: Sepulcri 193. For the monosyllabic die. irdisser <irdseere. second dmd. in Vok. paresco. 412. Dauphin^. 173 modern language. e—. The imperative disappeared. 413. Lyons. the Abruzzi. Clarisco. to the Romance languages. types —dsco and —osco were sparingly repre- sented and were not extended in late and popular Latin have bequeathed but few verbs con<Sisser<ico(g)ndseere types —esco and —tseo in the third century — — as — such as and . 3.face: R. cf. and a part of Lorraine Only -eseo surneither of these two endings left any trace. There is some evidence of a confusion of -esco and —uco in Latin. duce. while in Old Italian the ei was sometimes detached and used as a preterit. 294. lost their inchoative sense. t—. audi. erubisco. etc. 294. I. such as caleseo ealisco. person singular and plural: credite. See § 115. the second person plural of the present indicative came to be used: adferte> adferitis. amdte. Beam.of avere : it is probably due to the analogy of the first person singular of the weak preterit (credit. Cf. audite.. they Pr. due. Sardinia. 3596. or o—. In some verbs the present subjunctive was used instead of all imperative forms. fae. criseere. and Spain Digitized — Sp. vived in the Tyrol. except the present. tenete. writers sometimes emploved diee. Savoy. §426. 414. dormisco — were extended The and later. the Grisons.

174 An Introduction was preferred For to Vulgar Latin. 291-294. The ending -tsco of the present in Spanish. see E.Jinisse). although fleurit. Rastia. See Archiv Lat. despereissir. XXIV. partientem * sentente. tricts also pene- eventually the present participle ( and in some disand the imperfect indicative Fr. eventually entered into the formation stem of fourth conjugation verbs. Portuguese. Digitized On the other hand. 478. facientem *facente. By the analogy of these. \\. there are traces of -esco. -tsco prevailed fiorisce. il in Pr. but in the earliest texts of France. sentiam * sentam.. etc. Rom. in — It. finis sant. [§416 florecer. etc. Hence forms without the or > > *partente. and Rumania we find a type *finisco *finisce(s) ^Jinisce{i) *Jiniscun{t) The ~sc. by the by Microsoft® . some regions. trated the present subjunctive {Yr. Sardinian. 465.. / 416. Herzog Bausteine 481. or southern Italian. finis sais ) I. the e was occasionally lost in the second conjugation: v^deo *vtdo. finissons. Elsewhere. Zs. fiorire.. * dormo. finissez). — Fr. 81. Many verbs in -io dropped the whenever it was fol- lowed by another vowel. the -sc- was carried throughit out the present indicative (Yx. northern and central _fimmii(s) finite{s) Italy. In the present participle this was a regular phonetic development (see §225): audientem^* audente.then generally disappeared from the infinitive Later. -esco also in Rumanian. There is no direct evidence of this in Latin. partiunt *partunt. nor are there any traces of it 415. / sentieniem > were introduced more less into the indicative and subjunctive: audio * audo. PRESENT STEMS. 4. Spr. XXX.

rego rexi rectus. Old Italian se for e. 417. Italian sei siete is PL 128) went out of for estis. 412. pango panxi panctus. esse. *vkere.. Haag was derived from the ciple — struxi and perfect indicative traxi iractus. * vtdeunt. The verbs struere. j'ungo Cf. stare. 418. to bring it into conformity with the usual third conjugation type.§419] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and the perfect partivexi vectus on the — analogy of ago tectus. lego lectus. Prpvengal ses for Digitized by Microsoft® . cingo cinxi cinctus. 403-406. 416. Considerable alterations use of fieri for esse is (I ) were made in the present indicative and subjunctive. habere. facere. Pers. beside the regular habent.. 401. 397. tego and probably junxi junctus. The Spanish use of probably later than our period. structus. dtcere. present indicative shows some signs of a tendency its to normalize erratic inflection by making all the forms be- gin with The use. tango tactus. trahere. indicate a * setts some evidence of an alternative * siitis sicmus. The guttural Fredegarius. actus. Substrate VI. vtdent. duco duxi ductus. as *trago. etc. *tragebam. ungo unxi unctus. etc. There may have been also *striicere. see § 409. etc. posse. *fragam. vegere {tragere and used by 34) and a whole present and imperfect inflection with —g—. old esum cited by Varro {Fr. underwent considerable changes in the present: see §§273. Esse was made into *essere.. 419. plango planxi planctus. For the sedere for The s. faciunt. and Raetian ses point to a * ses beside es. the second conjugation admitted such f oriris as * habeunt. 131. etc. based on the analogy of dico dixi dictus. debere. Jigo fixi. velle dare. Italian while there of on the model and Raetian siede. trdgere. etc. The verbs vadere. *trdcere. vehere developed infinitive vegere are forms *striigere. also Jingo finxi fictus. 175 analogy of capiunt.

176 es. according to Suetonius. *esmus seems to be a new formation on the analogy of esHs. fiam reand Dacia. (cf. which -was used. . [§420 usually understood as reflexive forms. Pr. XXI. 5. 135. Mohl. see 420. —ebam. was preferred in Spain. Old It. Portugal. which ultimately prevailed: Lexique ^x): fiet is common places sim in northern Italy alternative inflection * siam.). Lat. Spr. — For the loss of the imperfect subjunctive. semo. The endings were -dbam. etc. simus.. Pr. — sem *sea sis simu{s) sidmu(s) site{s) *jfa(j) sea(t) *sidie[s) set sent *sean{i) For Stat. sem. the usual Classic form. etc. and by various purists of the Augustan age (Stolz 58). 478.. would derive it from old esimus. IMPERFECT. Pirson Yt^o. somas.): cf. etc. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. may go back to *sei and *sesf for est In the first person plural sumus became sumus and simus (see §220). Italy. which existed with esum. B. prevailed in southern Gaul. PL 130. northern Gaul. Provengal esmes<. from early times there was a reciproand the Old Latin optative siem. II. iox fit. and the Tyrol (Sp. Rom. In the third conjugatiqjyg^-jyj^^ Ajgaj^g^ developed into -ebam. occurs in Italian documents of the eighth century. see sead in Vok. 42. Pers. sons. N. sumus. that cal influence oifiam. Siamus. 479. The present indicative inflection was doubtless something like this sqm fs est : — sqmu(s) *ses *set} *sest? i^ie(s) semu{s) *esmu{s) *sete(s) *sciie(s)! sqnt (2) In the present subjunctive the analogy of other third conjugation verbs tended to introduce the characteristic vowel a. 347. PI. Hence comes an etc. Pers. Spr. according to Lat. -icbam. by Augustus. It is likely. and Dacia (Pr. § iiS. Dalmatia. Old Fr. too. etc. —ibam.

to a reduction tendency to keep the stress on the characteristic Digitized by Microsoft® . 423. —oleo. must distinguish two types. §318). credia. Hence came an alternative ending —ea for -e/ia. R. A vowel. 287. and fourth conjugation verbs with strong perfects developed a weak one in Vulgar Latin: pr(sstiti> probably All first j>rcBstavi. the weak and the strong: the weak comprises the v. WEAK PERFECTS. —Ibam as in munibam — in early Latin and recurring at later periods (Lindsay 491). which stressed the characteristic vowel of the fourth conjugation. We — — neo. regularly had a perfect in -evi: deleo.. most of them rare 422. -pleo. etc. 445).perfects in which the v is added to a verb-stem (-dvi. vieo. led early. — being common In the fourth conjugation -iebam and -ibam existed side byside from early times (Neue II. territory except common to nearly all the Romance Rumania: Lat. -evi. 2?>q. and also a general inclination to omit v between two i's (see § 324). PERFECT. Spr. 6. a. had weak perfects. 177 22t„ /^i6): faciebam'>-*facebam. *afiea.§423] just as An Introduction -ientem> -entem (see §§ to Vulgar Latin. • salui>salivi. prevailed in popular speech.'Bi. 479. 421. probably through dissimilation. Habebam. which in Romance was widely extended. -tvi). the strong includes all Verbs of the first and fourth conjugations generally others. For further encroachment of the weak type on thb strong. silevit for siluit occurs also. and —iebam disappeared: vestibat. see §426. affecting all the conjugations but the It is ved^a.fleo. Dubois 277-278. in the fourth conjugation. developed another form. first: It. pronounced a^e^a (cf. —Ibam. those of the second and third had mostly all of the second conjugation and Only six verbs strong. sentia.

-dvtmus>-dmus and probably *-dmmus: calcai (Probus). speclarait. denumerat. servio. rise early to a reduction of —avisti. gave —dsti. This -aut prevailed '^'^'^. 152.. fall of v gave rise. as in repetimus. laborait. 216. carried into the first conjugation. I. 476. 17 (Keil II. for —ierunt. II.d. 587). Neue III. Vok. probably to *-aumus: triumphaut in Pompeii. —drunt.L.). petit. II. Spr. 451. — probai {'Prdhns). in the third person singular. 452-454. in the third person singan alternative form. etc. C. 440. perit. "cupit pro cupivit. The A contraction without the . S. The third person singular found in Old Sardinian: Lat. —dvif^dit and -at. etc. contraction without the gave rise. —dstis. A ular. see Neue III. to a desire to distinguish the perfect from the present). 440). Fredegarius (Haag 55). see Servius ad Aen. perit. —dverunt to Much later -dvt>-di.judicat. —ivit to —iit and *-itt. and. and the third person plural. the further reduction of —ivt to which brought about. F^/J. ccelebrasperamus.— 178 An Introduction and to Vulgar Latin. see Neue III. Bon. (Haag 55). etc. *-iut: It.'X. 476. petit. Bayard 60. -/." Priscian XII. -ivistis to —istis. Neue III. locally. as in lenUt. 449." Priscian XII. to fall of v. 241: 65-121 a. —iverunt to —ierunt. vocitamus. in the first person plural. o-cyvoi. Gregory of Tours (Bon. Densusianu I. etc. the reduction of —ivimus to —Imus and probably *—immus (the lengthening of the m being due to compensation and also. 424. in the first and third persons singular *—lrunt: audi. Fredegarius in -ait is 152. redit. perhaps. For -nt. 479. 446-448. The loss of V.. later.. dedicait. Densusianu I. to -aut.m»'W^ol%tm^ and amdo.. and. "fumdt -pro fumavit. edificai. 587). -dvistis. for —imus. memoramus.Lexique 46. 434 (cf. etc. -u and *-u. 17 (Keil II.I. mus. —tt. [§424 of —tvtsit to -tstt still early. Then a contraction of the two vowels gave.

R. which in Vulgar Latin became —dedi This -dedi ^a. Verbs in —evl doubtless had a similar inflection: *delei. on the other hand. 479. (am'ei). ascendiderat. prendiderunt. etc. *-det. 287. The forms — and fourth conjugations. perdidt. *-dem(^m)u{s). pandiderunt. —asfi.. tion. Lat. Pr. of the Romance languages cazif). silevit. the forms with v were not preserved in Romance. *-ejti. Audollent 544. *—desie(s). they apparently did Digitized by Microsoft® . delesti. -derun(f). respondidi. vendidl.. odedere. preserved in some Old French dialects near Douai: 607.s ex(see §139): perdedit. Reich. *-desti. In some (It. ~ivi —isti there- -dvi —dsii -dve{t) —df *~ti —ii -i -dut -dit -dt -weif) *-jut *-{it -lit -it -dvimu(s) -dmu{s) *-dmmu(s) *~dumus -dste(s) -immu{s) -4mu(s) *-jmmu(s) -iste(s) -drunit) *-irun{t) With the exception of -ivi in Old Italian. these endings were carried into other verbs of the third and even the second conjugation first baMi. in Provengal they invaded the also In Dacia.). videderunt (cf. Some other second conjugation verbs apparentlyadopted this perfect: 426. 179 *~aumus Jiom. in the first XXX. etc. were : 425. cor-ii. descendidit. 288. etc.§426] An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. incendederit. this -dedi Through the analogy of -di. etc. Keil IV. Hence arose eventually an inflecset of tion *-^«. : and the of the and fourth conjugations so caderunt. *-ei. -isti. *-n. R. 480.. 184. from which there came a responding to the —ai first endings *-«'. Compounds of dare had a perfect in -dtdi {credidt. fore. helped by dissimilabecame *-deJ. Spr. etc. descendidi. etc. Gl.. edediderit with an extra -de-). tended to many other verbs in -d-: prandidi.

etc. according to Meyer-Liibke. by Microsoft® . 286. -dei. crebbi. salui^ salivi salii *salsi. prendesti. the development of the vi indicates that sort.. wwi. where there was no extended. II. In Italy all strong verbs except esse introduced weak endings in the second person singular and the first and second persons plural: It. etc it In the second and crevi. those that add u to the root. presi. whence and a set of endings -etti. At any rate. etc. stetti<. dlc-s-i = dixi. The -ui type. the Rumania. Reich. moc. §326): placwi. STRONG PERFECTS. conqbbi. . It. but written vi to avoid the doubling of the V.. bib-i. etc.. etc.. tions: This perfect disappeared from the first and fourth conjugacrepui>*crepavi. crevi. Gl. * stetui. (cf. and those that have nothing between the root and the personal endings plac-u-i. and -ei. 427. aperui y^ * aperii *apersi. third conjugations maintained Digitized itself very well: cognovi. dare had (beside diedi^dedi) a perfect arose an inflection side -dei -detti.i8o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Gram. etc. plaudisti for plausisti. also vincisti. under the influence of dejti. §422). R. There are three types those that add s. — — it was sounded wui. [§ 428 not develop at In Italy. In the first class the u lost its syllabic value and became w • — : (cf. Pr. included from the start not only perfects of the placui but also all perfects in -vi not made from the verb-stem such as cognovi. this ending being pronounced wui. 428. 357.. etc. or fiwi in Vulgar Latin: cf. pdvi. all. etc. cf. In -ui and —si types were qucesivi'^^ A few weak verbs adopted strong inflections: * quasi. necui> necavi. Through these endings the weak type encroached somewhat on the strong. movi. sapivi~^ sapui. b.

posui {>posi). > > Cf. Lat. *tanxi. *prensi. coxi. Zimmermann in Archiv XIII. 97. vixi. Lat. Spr. defensi. planxi. *redempsi. frixi. cf. *offersi. *vinsi.> slso *vtscui. XXVIII. *mdrsi. sustuli>*tolui * tolsi. * cadui *cadedi. text sedi>* sedui . which comprised perfects in -si. steti>^\so* stetui. abscd{n)si. — assumed the s. § 165. Spr. vldi'^zlso *vtdui *vtdui. 288. Of the -si class. *sdlsi. with the exception of dedi and steti (also *j/i?/«2). expavi'> expabui. * morsi. etc. movi'. 479. scripsi 163). 480. Lat. natus sum'^*nacui. 479. R. *occlsi. rosi. *punxi. strinxi. risi. legi'>-* legui *lexi. became * sentii. unxi. Lat. *fusi.perfect through having an Cf. rasi. Zs. and possibly a few others. A. sparsi. whose reduplicative character was no longer Digitized by Microsoft® . Some of these — * *responsi. 430. *qucBsi. *acce{n)si. tenui.§ 43o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. divisi. *cursi. *ersi from *lexi. *rosi. mansi. Spr. *tdlsi. peperci^-parcui. *pre{n)si. Among the -i perfects. some thirty-five were preserved arsi. rexi. z/J« also *vtncui *vinsi. *rdsi. i8i It lost gemui{^. and —xi. *imptnxi. messui(J). vixi ". *taxi. fixi. excussi. Spr. texui. the reduplicative formations were discarded in Vulgar Latin. junxi. On the other hand it received many additions: Mbi>*Mbui. *respd{ti)si. —ssi. —stinxi. pinxi. however. luxi. *siirsi. posi. tersi.'). Keil VII. cMdi 479 > (so *rectpui). texui. § perhaps on the model of mtssus. cinxi. sapivi'^ sapui. 288. traxi. Sensi. *pensi. duxi. 94. tinxi. *fusi. veni '^aXso *venui. ertgo. pavi. — — : clausi. 130. In Vulgar Latin there were perhaps some thirty or more new formations: *apersi. molui. * defe(ji)si. *copersi. mlsi (also *mzssi. silui {^silevi). *franxi. s in the perfect participle. 429. torsi. * tensi *te{n)si. pressi. finxi. struxi. *attinxi. *salsi. dixi. * volsi. persi. mulsi. Einf. R. cepi^ caput. Haag 56. *pe{n)si. * occisi.

legi'^* legui. or *cadedi. -i perfects were greatly reduced in to the -a/ or the -si type: number in Some simply disappeared. 431. There were : *fugii. to Vulgar Latin. In an ( cf . and two more were kept beside new formations feci. vidi * vtdui. solvi'^* solsi. * acce(^ n ) si. [§ 431 of dare usually formed their perfect like §426. R. The other Vulgar Latin. fuistis > *fustis. fudi > ) si. defendi >• * defe{ n ) si. 289). effort it was shortened Vulgar Latin seems to show both H and H. while compounds of stare tended to follow the regular first Cecidi beconjugation model (Jtrcestili > pnestavi. pupHgi "> *punxi. fui. cepi'^capui. Reich. some went over fUgi^ > > *fusi. generally became *fum(m)us. was probably foi *fom{m)u(s) *foste(s) foe(t) fue(t) *fgt *fut *forun{t) */urun(t) *f^un{t)} foerun{t)> Digitized by Microsoft® . egi. *te{n)si. the simple verb came * cadui R. but circumdavit in Gl. volvi > * volsi. veni * venui. bibi'^*bibui.*pe{^n)si. tetegi'^* taxi * tanxi. vtci > no additions. but in Classic Latin. Two of the old perfects maintained themselves intact.). a form *fdrunt. to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout §§423-424). fuisti zxi-di. fregi accendi *franxi. The prevailing something fui *fosti like this — with some variations. : There may have been through dissimilation. apparent compounds (cf. fefelli'>*falii. legi > * Kxi. > *fusti. pependiy. fuerunt became *furunt.i82 An Introduction . fuit *fut. prendi > *pre{ n * vinsi. some became weak. In fui the u was originally long. then futm us was often shortened to also. 288. The other reduplicative perfects either disappeared the or passed into si class: cucurri "> * cHrsi . inflection. peperci"^ parcui. momordi'> tetendi'>- *mdrsi. verti. sedi"^* sedui.

. dixero . — 433. 435. 296. tus"^* sonatus. delessem. In the all first conjugation -dtus was preserved and was verbs: /rictus "> fricatus . R. delero. 295. but Pr. When these tenses followed the old types: pldcueram (cf. generally fell into disuse: crepitus^ *crepatus. Reich. PERFECT PARTICIPLE. audlsBayard 60-61 sem. *-dssitis. copertus. — before Cyprien employed only the shortened forms ss. amdssem. Reich. Verbs which had no perfect participle were obliged to form one in order to make their passive and their perfect tenses: ferio. rogitus. The ending —ttus. plicitus"^ plicatus .: It. audt(^e)ro . dixhsem. 1S3 PLUPERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT. R. tonitus'^*tonatus. to *—dssimus. > Digitized by Microsoft® . pldcuero. > vocUus. sonivetatus. aimassions aimassiiz. alarei. amaro. audi{e)ram. preserved at all. *feritus. ortaret in Gl. necius "> necatus . by the analogy of apertus. ^ i^"]). 432. petisset. placutssem. secextended to tus'^secatus. 434. so the new alatus. Spr. In some regions a tendency to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout the pluperfect subjunctive led to a change of —assemus. in the first conjugation. notes that St. Reich. amdssimo amdste.). sublatus (from tollo')'>-tdllttus (^Gl. dixeram. In formations from weak perfects only the contracted forms were used: amdram. cf. Gl. habldsemos habldseis. -assetis. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Fr.§ 435] ^^ 7. Reich. 8. etc.). domitus'> domatus. fecissem. Sp. sublatus>* suffertus. etc. prdvttus. Lat. vetitus Nevertheless there were some new formations in —ttus: *levitus. fkero. cf. 480. amessim amessitz. etc. : In the third conjugation -dtus disappeared oblatus offertus (^Gl. deleram. ficeram.

submonitus > *submo{n)sus. fugitus tus > *fugitus. minutus. etc. perditus *parsus. remained. In the fourth conjugation -Itus was preserved and was extended to nearly all verbs: saltus'>*salltus. * habutus. Eventually -atus was carried further. §435): absconditus'>absco{n)sus . *vendutus. secutus. molitus > * molutus. bibitus^* bibutus . Reich. etc. * solvttus (or *sdltus) beside solutus. * levitus. the other hand. ples. in -itus: gemitus'!.. *mdvitus and *mdssus were formed beside *m. however. On 439. paritus > *paru> *perdutus *persus. [§ 439 436. pds{i)tus. venditus>*vendutus. entirely displace the old perfect participle: natus was kept beside * nascHtus. sensus'>*sentitus.ovutus. jectives. and there were some new formations * solvttus (or *soltus). — and — as *credutus. buius. solitus. but status. *tenutus. and ventus generally became * venutus. statutus. tollitus. Digitized by Microsoft® .184 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. *per- in Sicily encroached largely on -itus. Pirson 152. It did not al- ways. In the second conjugation the rare -etus disappeared as a participial ending: completus. were kept only as ad- 438. *volvitus (or *vdltus) beside volutus. The ending -itus tended to disappear (cf. however. *parutus. *vdlvitus (or *vdllus). consutus. In the third conjugation qumsttus>*gucestus. all periods. dutus. * venutus. were kept. The ending —ictus. 437. A few of these particihowever. sepultus^sepelitus. *vidutus. corres- ponding to -atus and -itus. provitus. creditus'>*credutus. rogitus. belonging to verbs in —uere and tri- —vere {argutus. It was extended to nearly all the verbs that had an -ui perfect: * bibutus. volutus). * movitus. offered a convenient accented form.. Apertus and copertus. solutus. vocitus. old and found in Gl.

tersus. sepultus >• sepelitus. or -utus: captus *capttus. sus. dictus. Lat. fusus. sparsus. Reich. 94. structus. also probably * wwclausus. 480. oc- casionally with a change of stem: ductus . punctus. cretus> *crevutus'>. *vdltus About fifteen verbs (cf. *vidutus. fartus'. Lat. Digitized by Microsoft® . pictus *pinctus. -itus. expansus sensus few verbs replaced the old form by one in -itus or -ietus: * expandutus . scriptus. R. *pendutus. Hr- excussus. Spr. risus. 'salted. texus * texiisecdtus. missus. falsus *fallitus. Keil VII.' maintained itself beside salitus.. messus'^ metitus. vtctus~>* vixutus. sirictus *tanctus'!. *strinctus. pre(n)sus . /ric* surtus for surrectus. victus'>*vin- cutus and *vinctus. frictus "^fricdtus. there were some absco{n)sus. §439). *mossus. *gucestus. Dubois 282. morsus. 480. *persus. new formations in -sus: On the other hand. gavisus>*gaudutus . Lat. te{n)sus. Spr. Salsus. ventus'^*venutus and venttus. stinctus. fixus. sectusy^ * tenutus. R. cogndtus>*conovutus'i.>*farcitus axiAfarsus. *salsus.§ 441] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Spr. A > > > * sentttus . ductus. Several of these developed also a participle in -utus: etc. ex- factus. 441. tentus > > tus. mdtus'>*movutus'> &. and perhaps *sdltus. probably replaced -tus by -atus. Gl. to{n)sus. The ending —sus was defe{n')sus. pe{Ti)sus.viA. fusus "^fundutus. wjwj. pressus. rosus. also perhaps *misus by the analogy of mist. 480. rectus. tus. * suffertus. 295 (very common). mistus. tactus'i tus. There were a few new for- mations in —tus: offertus. tractus. fictus finctus. 185 440. sessus > * sedutus. ma{n)sus. farsus. pastus'>-*pavutus'i. tinctus. Bechtel 91.*mdssus. tortus. *submo{n)sus. fractus *franctus. lectus. saltus'^-* salitus and *salsus. nectus>necdtus. *vistus. 295. *parsus. generally kept: acce{n')sus . divisus. The ending -tus was kept for some twenty verbs.

fez^m. 442. Pr. and doubtless of weak after our period. There are traces of 47. analogical formations. its — tended. Grundriss V. Pers.. assumes that in Italy -as and -es became -i. -0. however. first person plural lost perhaps in the Vulgar Latin period: videmus'>-'St. e. does not support this view. For the reduction of -to to 443. -imus. historically considered. colliget. not found acceptance. PEESONAL ENDINGS. Pr. vezim. —et and -U. This is not a phonetic phe- nomenon. see §416. 445. forms due to Celtic influence. — through the analogy perfects as well. — This theory has In strong perfects the of -tstis first person plural. 670. perhaps S. The evidence. etc. PL. by Microsoft® . As unaccented e. as -s did not fall in this region.1 86 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. *amdmu amdtes dmant like * cdnomus. Meyer-Liibke. 447. from laudas. According to Mohl. 53. Italian lodi and Rumanian lauzi. as t was of the third (cf. were used in northern Gaul instead of canimus. [§ 447 9. whence came the French -ons. In southern and to some extent in northern Gaul the its final s. Pers. This confusion is very frequent in the Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-89. and i came to be pronounced alike (§243). PL 73-80): — dmo dmaa dmat 446. etc. and -Isti. to stress this in ^smiVi: fecimiis>'Pr. It may be that -s was dropped because it was regarded as a characteristic of the second person. inscriptions and elsewhere: Digitized The shift. great confusion ensued between -es and —is. are correctly explained by Tiktin 565-566 as 444. then the accent was shifted to the penult *canomus.

In the present indicative and imperative. kept the old accent (Tiktin 596): iingem. there was an ending *-eunt which was (^habeunt.). to match —^te(^s). 448. 449. -ent. etc. 64. ite in the other conjugations. -/»z«(j'). -imus. Pers. Cf. however. respon- duntur.). Sardinia. Pers. in the sixth or seventh century. —^te. Pr. -ttis. -ent prevailed in cen. -dte(s). The endings -ent and -unt came to be very is much confused frequent in the (* credent. According to Mohl. the third person plural ending -ere was The ending -erunt. —ite generally —Ste(^s). for instance. etc. facimus. in Classic Latin. in southeastern facitis There are some traces of its preservation French dialects also.). ite(s). —die and -^mu(s). -unt was preferred. their interchange Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-90. due to the analogy of -iunt. *vidunt. being attracted by mittimus: Pr. etc.§ 45°] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. see §416. exient. -ite -dmu(s'). discarded. tral and the rest of southern Italy. The Classic distinction was best kept in Gaul and northern Italy. vindett. the con- fusion goes back to early Italic. §416. Rumanian. 112. — — particularly common in Italy: cf. PI. dixerunt.j—th& penult assuming the accent. in the For the reduction of —iunt to -unt. etc. dicUis kept their old forms in many regions. vindem. ways /3 short: debuerunt. Virgil wrote tulerunt. Furthermore.J^kuJ-i n^g^^xd^so^'^i^-i -^--^/^^ . §137. etc. and Dacia. PI. In the perfect. sometimes had a short e (e is common in the comic poets. helped by the analogy of the future — The shift and -{mu{s). accipient. as there are in Italian and French remains of the original accentuation. lingeti. Rastia. became. viderunt. and dicimus. Dalmatia. was perhaps viitttmus. absolvent. 187 was not universal. and a part of southern Italy. in Vulgar Latin this vowel was apparently al450. 30. . in Spain and Portugal. Beside second conjugation.

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47. -I. 240. 25 recomposition 139 verbs 423-4. 230 = 0*78 ab-25 ab-]> au. abyssus 149 ac.1 INDEX. 92 beJEore j 222 Accent 134-58 primary 135-52 Greek words 143-50 other foreign words 15 1-2 acer arbor 43 -aceus 37 acia 355 (2) -acius ^y a contra 47 a(c)qua 164 Acqui Z^ Acragas 330 ac si 83 ac sic 24. 231. 98-9.229 (i) unaccented 228. 355(1) adparescere 34 adpetere 32 Digitized by Microsoft® . 383 abl. 48 abbellire 18. 377 accipient 449 declension 374-9 accubitorium ^'j numerals 378-82 -accus ^y unus (article) 57 Accusative.=accus. 96. words in modern languages. 93. 229 (i).23. 65 accedere(m) 309 accensus 441 -a 37 0181 ab 14. 240. 94-6 aboculare 26 ab olim 47 abs. pi. ad = at 282 ad. 77. 34 abbio 273 abbreviare 25 abbreviatio yj shift 136-8. 243. 82 ace. 244 (i). = abl. N. 94-6 nouns 367 numerals 142 : ace. 84 acua aqua 223 -aculare 35 before s + cons. 78. 383 adnao 397 ace. 450 Towels in hiatus addedi 139 136-8 addormire 25 secondary 153-5 adferitis (imper. adaptus 23 adcap(i)tare 25 433> 447-8. absolute 97 abl.236 ab ante 47. 194-5 absida 356 (3) absolvent 449 -anus 39 ja-> je. 86. adjutare 34 ad mane 47 373. italics to Words printed in Roman type belong to ancient. 441 ad 14.infin. 229 231.— Arabic numerals refer to Paragraphs.28 absconsus 439. 82. 140 iicatum r4i aculionis 367 abeo = habeo 251 224 abias 224 abiat 224 abiete -abilis 39 ab intus 47 abitat 25 1 Ablative 92-7. a 194-5.B. in -us 244.24. 244 accented 39. 90. 431.) 412 unstressed words 156-8 adgenuculari 25 Accented Vowels see ad horam 47 Vowels adimplere 30 accepere 201 Adjectives acceptabilis 39 comparison 56. 228. 243. 94-6.

209-10 unaccented 174. 1 78.194 = -ago 2>7 Agragas 330 Agrientum 259 agurium 228 agustas 228 36 anangi 331 anathema 19 anathematizare 19 anc 40 anc hanc 251 = allium 274 a longe 47 alques 71 alter 71. 209-10. = -t. 210 EEteneris = itineris 201 sequus alid alicunus 71 aliud 71 alio(r)sum 291 = . 359. 244 aecclesia 228 Eedis 366 ffigis -ale y] alecer 195 (i) Alesander 255 alevanti eleph. 71 amnavit 405 amh 424 a mode 47 amourette yj (-ittus) ampitzatru 277 ampora 334 amurca 186 amure 203 amygdalum 19 an II. 187 -ancus 37 (-incus) -anda 37 andare 405 andata 37 (-ta) Andreani 359 (i) Andreate 359 (2) andron 331 anellus 37. 232. 435 allegorizare ig alleviare 34 Agneti 359 (2) agnetus -na.) 40 aiglon yj (-0) altra 233 altrui Aiiax 222 395 ancora 150.281 (i) Eeum = cBvum 324 ^a foras 47 aliquant! 71 aliqui 71 aliquis 13. 178. alumnu (nom.243. 83 -an 36 -aj* a f oris 47 agennae -nd.£6 2> e 209 at 188 altissimus 377 altitia 37 Aiax 188.) 372 adpretiare 25 adpropiare 25 ad semel 47 —aio 39 (-arius) aios =: BjyiQS 272 am 78 ad sero 47 adsteti 139 Aix ajutit = adjutet 272 ad subito 47 adtonitus 32 ad tunc 47 -al37 alacer 195 (i) alare 405. 435 ad ubi 47 aduc 250 adulescentulus 37 adunare 25 alauda 19 alaudula yj alba spina 43 alberca 19 albeus 317 228. altiare 34 altior yj'] anca 343 ancilia 187 395 Agustus 228 ahenum 250 ai >.175.286 amantis (nom. 255 188 seliens = eligens 259 =8-175 alicer 195 (i) agques = e. 222 alto (adv. 244 accented 1 74. 233. Adverbs 73-5 as 174.22 Index.Ethiopia 188 alipes (i) = ad.321 = Alexander alguein 71 alguien 71 -alia 37 38. 405 amei 424 amenus 215 amfora 334 amicicia 276 amadus amido 187 amistat 154 amita 239. 178.281 = aliquot 71 -alis agere ajere 259 aggio 273 aggravatio 37 = 39 alium 224 alius 71 allare 405. 42 Digitized by Microsoft® .) 367 amho 424 amaricare 34 ama(t) 285 ambitare 405 ambolare 232 ambulare 10. 244 -EE = -e 174. 14. albor = arbor 292 .I go aiio 2. 359 (i) amitane 359 (i) amitanis 359 amma 16 243.

260-1 Assimilation 229 (3). 264.24. 282 aput 282 164. 42 Aorist 124 armeise 184 armentas 352 -aro 39 (-arlus) Aroncianos 276 arrespex r= haruspex 251 Arrius 251 arroser 356 (3) arsi Attane 359 atticissare (i) t^^ attinxi 429 Attitta 37 (-ittus) -attus yj at ubi 48 apcha 343 aperii 428 429 -atus 37 (-ta). 211-3. 315 Asti 86 astula 284 at II = ar(i)dorem 219 ar(i)dus 237 aries 225. 42 participle 435. 265. 293. 255. 211 -3 unaccented 228. 223 284 aquilotto 37 (-ottus) asculta 228 Angers 86 angliscus 39 angostia 208 (i) anguil(l)a 163 ang(u)Ius 233 angustiare 34 Anicius 276 -ar37 Arbonenca yj (-incus) a semel 47 aspargo 31 aspectare 25 arbor (masc. 269. 229 au o 229 (7) OK 189 auca 13.) 367 -antia . 265 aspra 233 -asse 161 ardente(m) 309 ardere 399 animabus 358 animalico yj (-icca) Anitius 276 Annanis 359 annare 405 annata yj (-ta) Annenis 359 annitare 405 annotavimus -bi. 68. 325 aucidere 212 -OS 38 -as -i 443 > audace (nom. 78.) 367 audi audivi 227. 440 au 178. 359 (i) anus = annos 244 -anus 39. 307. 392 artic(u)lus 234 > (7) appo 78 apprendere 12 arvorsum (2) = adversum 281 ApHro 410 apsens 315 apsolvere 315 apte =: -se 244 arvum > aram 2z6 aucellus 13. 34. 423 audiendu'st 309 = ascella =r axilla 42. 39.) 346 (4) arb(o)rem 235 arboricellus 153 Aspirates 249-52. anemis 232 -aneus 39. 236 (7) apersi 428. 255 -ans39 anser 13 ad 282 -ata 37 (-ta) -aticum yj atque. 229 accented 178. 310. 255 Digitized by Microsoft® . 65 at = anta 239 ante 96 antemittere 46 antestetis (nom. 228. 282.318 annulare 405 anos = annos 247 ardire 343 -are (infin.Index. 42 angelice 40 angelus 19 191 ascendiderat 426 ascetes 182 ascla apud aqua 14. -dssetis 433 397-8 -are (nouns) y] ares = aries 225 aretem 225 argentum 259 -aria 37 -aricius 39 arida (noun) 13 Assibilation 277-8. 429 apertus 436 arsus 441 artemisia 184 arietico 184 apotheca 182 apothecarius 39 apparescere 35 arthriticus 184 Article 57.) -assem 161 -^ssemus 433 33. 267.^y anticus 226 antiefne 184 antiphona 184 ariex = -s 255 -aris 39 -aris -alis 292 ^ -arius 39 atque ille 24 atque ipse 65 atque is 65 atrium 12 atta 16. 36.

325 av(i)dere 219 avidus 236 aviolus 13 avis 13 avis struthius 43 Bellus -onis 362 bene 40.22 bisaccium 22 bisacutus 22 bisante 187 = = bis Austus 263 aut 174 aut aut 84 -aut -avit 424 .316 bal(i)neum 146. ^ benignis 376 benivolus 201 berbeces 323 Bonitta 37 (-ittus) 424 avo avus 362 avus 13 ayo = habeo 273 = berbex (-ix) 42.316 bianca 341 biber 242 biblia 146 bibui 428 bibutus 438. 324 ausare 18.316 bixit = vi. 333 balneum 146: balneus 347 = bifolco biginti ti 318 (2) = vi. .236. 236 avicella 37. = autem 11.316.316 boccone 37 (-0) bocconi 40 avec 78 avello = -avi ^ = averlo 293 -ai 424 avica 13.316. 359(1) barbane 359(1) barbar 242 barbo -onis 359(1) barbutus 42 baro 16 bassiare 275 = vixit 255 = vi. 416 audivi(t) 2S5 audus 236 -aumus := -avimus 424 aunc(u)lus 234. 439 Bictor 316 biduanus 39 bieta 184 botu vo. 322 -bilis = balteum -us 347 bannus 19 baplo 235 baptidiare 339 baptisma 149 Aureliati 359 (2) aurora 11 aus avus 241. 236. 42. 339 baptizatio 19 barba -anis 359. 162. 74 bene bene 55 benegnus 172 (2) bene placitum 43 Beneria Ve.212 39 bimaritus 22 bintcente vincente 260 bis. 322 botula 361 bovis (nom. 226 Bayeux 151 bel(I)ua 164 blasphemus 150 blasta 312 (i) blitum 184 bob ansa 336 bobis vo.) 367 brae (c) a 163 bracchiale 37 = brac(c)hium 163 brachia 352 Digitized by Microsoft® . 14 5 Authorities autor 266 baptizare 19. 33. 36 blasphemia 146. 324 Aureia -elia 274 Index. 34 ausculum := osc. 241 avaricia 276 ^ bas(s)ium 163 basso 40 battaUa 16 battel 426 ba(t)t(u)ere 137. Balerius Va.316 Bodicca 37 (-icca) boletus 38.22 Bononia 303 bonu 298 bonus = -OS 244 bonus bonus 55 bos =:i vos 316. 184 Bologna 303 bonatus 37 (-atus) Bonica 37 (-icca) bon(i)tatem 231 bonito y] (-ittus) = avire 400 -avit -ait -at -aut 241.3165 322 bis(s)it coctum 43 bivere blaesus 329 blanche 341 blanka 341 blankizare 34 blaspheraare ig.3171323 bestemmia 182 Betrubius 316 beveire y^ (-tor) bi. . 324 botella 361 bottega 182 b see Labials : baboni 362 bac(c)a 163 bacito yj (-ittus) bac(u)lus 234 Baiocasses 151 bajulus 233 Baleria = Va.192 aud(i)entem 416 aud(i)o 272-3. 219 balneus 347 ballaena 150. 182 autumnal (e) 242 auyo 272-3 avau.

163 Cassiabus358 cas(s)us 161 castaneus 346 (i) castellus camera 145 camerlingo 37 (-ing) caminus 150 camisla 201 (i) (3) 347 butyrum 150 buxida 187. 356 (3). 330 Byzacinus 42 c : castius 277 castore (nom.) 367 cammarus 330 canalia yj cani (pi. 383 cf. 33. branca i6 calcis 193 camis (nom. 285. 369 capus 285. Buolognino 154 burrus 330 Burrus 187 bursa 187 buscus 255 iusta 187 but(t)is 163 cals 255 casotta 37 (-ottus) cas(s)eus 163 .) 367 cardu(u)s 226 ce(n)sor 311 census 260 centu 381 ceperint 215 cepi 215 = -avi 424 •^•j = ga.Indkx. 402 -C40 caballus 12 capiclus 234. 231.) 367 224 calcoste(g)is 259 caldo 40 cal(e)facere 219 calefacis 139 calere 288 bruchus 193 pu. pi. 330 cedat caedat 210 cabia =: cavea 318 cactivus 313 cactos 313 capitanus 39 capitium 37 (-ium) capitulus 42. 150. 234 capitus 440 = cedo 162 cadedi 428 cadere 402 caderunt 426 cadui 428 cselebramus (perf .312 (i) bublus 235 bubukus 318 (2) buc(c)a 12. 163 . 347 calumpnia 307 calura 42 camel(l)us 42. 369 caput 13. 71 cata unus 71 cataveris rr -d. 282. 278 capere 8.) 357 (i) Breaking 177 breviarium 37 brevis 13 Brittanice 40 calcius (nom.) 424 cedrus 182 cefalo 334 celeps 315 capriolus 224 captiare 34 cslus 347 Cjeseris 233 caesorium 37 caetk 313 captio 9 captivare 34 captivus 313 celerus 376 -cellus 37 Celtic Words 19 capud 282 capui 428 calamarium 37 calamellus 37 calamus 150 calatus calcai capum 285. 239 cartas (nom.354. 237 calisco 414 calma 268 calotfa 187 caseum -us 347 Cases85-ioo.256 catechizare 19. 195 (3) calcaneum carissimus 377 caritabilis calce pistare 46 calciare 224 39 Caritta 37 (-ittus) Digitized by Microsoft® . 195 (3) cerbus 323 cerebellum 231 cereolus 13 cereseus 195 (3) ceresus 38. 284 capire 406 cap(i)talis 231 cauculus 288 cauditus 42 caus(s)a 161 cavia 224 -ce 40 cecino 187. 163 buUicare 35 buplicae = carum 263 casa 12 cal(i)dusi55. 372. 219. 369 cardonis (nom. 356 (3).) 368 cata 19. 356 buxus 187. cf . 33 cat' cantare 34 unus 71 see Gutturals c for capabilis 39 g 253 cy 276.330 (-ium) cerasus 38.) 367 camutus 39. 42 caroneus 39 carrica 11 car(ri)care 18. 356 (3).

310 cognovi 428 cognusco 197 cohaerere 310 computus 235 comuna 376 con.1 194 certitude cetto 'r^j Index.444 Pronunciation coUiget 444 col(lo)care 9. 297\ 318(1). 239 collo Clerical 218. 271 colaphizare 19 col(a)p(h)us 19. 150. 272.23. of. 325 clausi 429 clausus 441 clavem 288 clavido 236. 330. 276. 379 cocodrilus 294 cinsum = ce- 196 cocus 226 coda 212. 332 cib Clodius 212 cloppus 16 closa 212 Cludo 211 (2) -clus 234 CO quod 282 colomna 208 coloquinta 187 color (fern. 379.411 Digitized by Microsoft® . 310 coicere 310 coiiugi 271 cojectis 311 . 64 comprendit 250 computare 31 circare 16 circueo 309 circumdavit 430 cis 14 cit(h)era. coexercitatus 30 cofecisse 311 96 Compound Words 43-9. 160 coUus -um 347 239 colober 208 Clio 190 colobra 208 (2). 231 clamantis (nom. 231. 31. 233 complacere 25 complire 400 cinus 347. 186. 325 colhe 154 coles 213 i6z -ceus 39 Chairibertus 39 (-anus) chaloir 288 Change of Meaning 8-10 coliandrum 292 coUecta 37 (-ta) collectus yj (-ta) colli(g)ens 259 col(li)gere 31. Clepatra 191 clerc 154 Change of Suffix 42 chan(n)e 163 chartaceus 39 cher 263 chiaro (adv. 277. 311 condam 254 condedit 139 conder(e) 242 condicio 276 conditio 276 civ(i)tas 12. -ara 38. 259*. 197. 187 cimiterium 192 cinctius coclearium 356 (3) coclia commando 31 comment 41 commixtius 23 224 254 cinctus 440 cinqua(gi)nta 254. 154. 380 cinque 254. 269 co(g)nosco 43. 259.) 367 clarisco 414 Cla(u)dius 211 (i) cojugi 311.) 40 chiave 288 Chilperico 343 ckiosa 185 clergue 154 305. 370 cinxi 429 cip(p)us 163 circa 80. 329 191 ciurma -cius 39 of. 276 comitem 235 cima 38. 213 codex 213 coemiterium 192 coepi 72. 139. 130. 233 cito 162 citrus cognatus 9. claudo 236. 124 coexcitare 30 comedo = quo. 333(1) clericatus 37 cler(i)cus 39. 231. 25 concha 186 concupiscencia 276 cohors 12. 153.) 346 (2) colp 154 colustra 197 = coacla 289 (i) 206 cicinus 330 -cillus ]> -cellus 42 coactum 310 coccodrillo 294 cocens 226 comenzare 276 coininciare 276 cominiciare 276 cominitiare 25. X54. 269. 260^. 332 Chrestus 184 chrisma 184 C(h)ristus 184. 12. 217 Chiusi 86 cholera 145 chommoda 25 c(h)orda 186. 332 Conditional 124.226 comoedia 192 comparare 8. 233 Comparison 56 comperare 231. 237.

39 credentia 37 (-antia) " connato 269 conobbi 428 conoisser 413 conopeum 146 conovutus 440 conpendium 32 conplere 306 consacrati 31 conservam(m)us 163 consiensia 260. 396450 Four Conjugations 396407 First 397-8 Second 399-401 Third 402-6 Double: see Double Consonants Germanic : see Germanic Consonants Greek : see Greek Consonants 272 corrigo 305 corrotulare 229 cors 12. 275 227 consilium 42 consili corbeau 323 corbi 323 corbo 323 corcodilus 294 corcodrillus 294 cores = corda 369 corium 294 Comeius =-elius 274 Cornelio (nom.) 298 cornicula 42 cornu -um-us 347.continari 226 contra 96 contra. 355 cor(o)nare 231 corp 323 corpora 369 corpes corpi -ora 369 coi"pore 356 (3) corpo credere 410 credutus 438. 311 conmittere 32 couleuvre 208 (2) court 203 couvent 311 covenimus 311 coventionid 3x1 covetum coxale coxi 429 = cubitum 208 -^j^j copertus 436 cophinus 186 coque 254 coraticimi 18. 311 Weak 422-6 conteneo 139 Perfect Participle 434.1 Index. co(n)jux 171. 160 Fourth 407 Fundamental Changes • 408-12 Imperfect 420-1 constare 31 Inchoative Verbs 413-5 consuere 31. 137 Perfect 422-31 consuetudo 42 Strong 427-31 co(n)sul 171. 34 19s corpo r6o corregia 201 corridije conger 329 Congianus 272 congigi 259 Conjugation 101-30. 439 crepatus 435 crepavi 428 Crescentsiarius 277 cresco 255 cresima 184 cresme 184 crevi (i) 428 292 crevutus 440 criblare crigTie 35 c'ritare 229 consirier yj (-erium) Consonants Aspirate 249-52 Dentals 280-6 = criz 206 = crocitare 35 Digitized by Microsoft® . 255. 254 41 Personal Endings 44250 Pluperfect and Future Perfect 432-3 Present Stems 416-9 Use of Forms 101-30 Conjunctions 82-4 co(n)jus 25. 37 crebbi 428 credea 421 crededi 31. 139 credens (noun) 13. 244. 226. 225 cortensis 39 cortilis cortis 39 250 corvo 323 corvus 323 cosol 311 costumen 42 cosul 305 cot 254 cotes 212 cotidiae 244 cot(t)idie 162. 3ro corso 208 Groups 131-2. confessor 18 confortare 25.26 contrafacere 26 co(n)ventio 171 convltare 25 coperire 225 copersi 429 Gutturals 253-70 Labials 312-26 Latin 246-8 Letters 246 Liquids 2S7-96 Hasals 303-11 Palatals 271-8 Sibilants 297-302 cortera 203.

346 (4) cucullus -a 346 (4) defensus 441 deferet 406 Dative 90-1. 100.196 crocodilus i. -culum -cuius > 37. 322 currens 39 = Intervocalic 283. 392 de foris 47. 372-3 de^£-io 273 defna 324 de inter 48 de intro 47 de intus 47. 95. Definite Article 68. 117. 376 First 357-60 cy 276-8 cy ty277 = cycnus 187. 92. 383 cuerdo 369 culcitra 294 dau 397 daun 397 234 dave 48 de 14. 324 deorsum 224 Cusanca 37 (-^ncus) Wouns 354-73 Shift of Decl. 25 debbio 273 debeo 273 debere 10. 292 Derivation 20-49 descendidi 426 de semel 47 despereifser 414 by Microsoft® . 48. cf. 78.229 (2) deabus 358 de ad 48 de ante 48 deaurare 23. 234 cum (conj. 306 -cellus 42 95 -c(u)lus 42. 355-6. da 48 dedi 430 (i) 229 crucifigere 46 c'rot'lare dacruma 281 dactylus 19 dedicait 424 ded(i)cavit 231 crudilitas 197 -crum 37 (-culum) crupta 187 crus 13 dad 48 Dafne 334 dai 2<)% dampnum 307 crust(u)lum 234 crypta 187 cubidus cupidus 256 Danuvlum 318 dao397 dare 397 datfus 324 dedro dedrot 285 deexacerbare 30 deexcitare 30 defeniciones 276 defensa 37 (-ta) defensi 429 defensorlus 39 = cuculla 13.) 14.289 (2) cuoio 296 cuofre 160 cuore 160. 25 305 77. 226 cum (prep. 82 curabit cursi de-^ di. 409 d : see Dentals dy 272 de post 48 deprendere 250 de retro 47. 48 deltas 27 del(i)catus 227 delitus 198 delta 329 de magis 47 de medio 47 deminat 139 Dentals d 272.) 349 cymba 187 cymiterium 192 cypressus 150 Second 361-3 Third 364-71 Use of Cases 85-100 376 de contra 47 decumus 220 dede = dedit 285 de deorsum 47 Digitized declLvis Deponent Verbs 113. 126 (4) debita 37 deb(i)tum 235. (fem. 177 cnpa(t) 285 cupire 406 cupit 423 cup(p)a 163 cupressus 150 cur 12. 48. cumba 187 cun = cum 305 cunnuscit 269 cimtellum =r cul. 88. 187. de. 286 nd > nn 281 429 cursorium 37 curvus 323 nt 285 St 285 t 284-6 denumer^t 424 deo(r)sum 291. 294 Index.o. 72. 330 cyma38. 81 defuntus 267. 239 decanus 39 dece(m) 309 decern et (or ac) septem 379 dece(m)bris 306 decemter 306 dec(i)mus 239 Declension 85-100. 285 > -avit 318.) 82. 281-3 dy 272 nd nn 281 Final 282. 354-76 Adjectives 374-6 Fall of Decl.23.

412 dice = die 412 dice(m) 309 disfactus 23 dis(je)junare 25. 254. 259 -didi ducatus 37 (-ta) duce due 412 ductus 440 dui 167. 361 digitus 233. 226 dita 351 diu II. 21 dolus dictus := digitus 233.) 349 dormio 224 dormito 309 dormitorium 37 dormo 416 dorsus 347 dossum 291 Diphthongs 36 177. 25 discere 12 disfacit 139 Double 247 = Single 162-3.3 Index. 43> distinguere 223. 355 (2) dietro 292 digita35i. 259 dignus 172 (2) dilevit domatus 435 domin(i)ca 239 dominicus 9.23. 289 (2). 196-9 (I) . 238. 30 . 440 dicere divisus 441 divite (nom. 378 dukissa yj dulcior (noun) 18 — > -dei 426 = dulcor 18. 393 duo 378 duos 138 durare 229 (5) Duration 99 duricia 276 Durocasses 151 duxi 429 (masc. 328 devidere 229 (4) devinus 229 (4) dis. 13 Double Forms 158 Double Negation 75 Double Prefixes 30 doucet 37 (-ittus) doussa 376 drachma 144 drappus 16 d'rectus 229 diurnus 13 divisi Dreux 151 429 drieto 292 406 dicimus 448 dicitis 448 dicitus = -g. etc.) 367 dub(i)tare 231 ducalis 39 divota 229 (2) dixemus 232 dbd429 dodecim 225 doga 186. 167.) e 165. 328 Single >Double 164.253 dictus 166. 238. 328 289 (i) Dissimilation 167. dibeto 196 Dibona 318 die 264. accented 165. 209-16 209-10 de sub 48 de super 48 de sursum 47 detti 426 de unde 70. 406. 37 dies 13. 229 displacet 139 displicina Doable >Single i6i.) 346 (2) dolor 18. devitum 318 dexcito 225 cf . Digitized by Microsoft® . 177. 253. 333 dolor (fem. 239 domnani 359 (i) domnicellus 37 domnicus 235 229 (2) diligibilis 39 domnina 37 domnizare 33 domnulus 235 dint-mi 264 divinus 324 dinus = Dionigi 227 Dionysii 227 diosum = deorsum 291 Diphthongization 177 domnus 235 domus 12 355 dume(c)ta 266 dune 40 d'unde 70. dextro(r)sus 291 deyo 273 dia = dies355 (2). desso 62 dester 255 desto 225 197 donee 11 dont 70 donum (masc. 303. 421.) 346(1). and fem. 229 (4). 196-9. 426. 195 (6). (2ddecl. 393 deus 167 devere 318 devetis 318 au 21 1-3 eu 214 oe 215 ui 216 diposisio 277 dire 406 directus 229 diri(g)ens 259 dirivare 229 (2) dou 397 Double Consonants 161-4. 397 dia 397 diabulus 38 diaconissa 19 Dialects 2. 247. 292.

242 -elius >• -ilius 197 -ellus 37.e 225 = equus 12 equus = sequus 210 -re 245 -er -er 39 (-arius) erable 43 -ere (perf . 326 espiar 343 "pier 343 Digitized by Microsoft® . 65 ecce ego 65 ecce hie 24. 199 n 182 eccu' sic 24 e contra -entia 37 (-antia) -inns 42 -enus > 47 C183 ecus 226 edediderit 426 i eo=:ego 73. 429 -erium 37 erminomata 191 ero 411 -ero 39 (-arius) ersi ericius = jacet 224 earn = jam 224 eacit ejus 170. 365-6. -unt 449 es(i)mus 419 (i) -isimus 197 -esimus esmes 419 (l) eccos 24 eccu.24. 244 egloge 330 e e 165 > > e > e 165 V 182' ei83 e(g)o 60. 413-4 eschernir 341 emere 12 encaustum 149 Enclitics 156 -enda 37 (-anda) : 24 eschine 341 esclate 343 eccillum 24 ecclstam 24 ec(c)lesia 146. 62. 65 ecce iste 24. 364 -V3S -ea 421 -etv 36 ejus 298 eio = -etbv 146 42 erigere 31. 182.) 368 -Irunt 450 eccam 24 eccas 24 ecce. 311 -ent -eunt 416. 243. 263.24. 65 ecce nunc 65 ecce tu 65 eccillam 24 eccillud elimentum 231 -elis >• -ills 197 Elision 157. 449 -ent >. s 177. 14 > -i 244.) 450 -ere -ire 197 erodes 251 > effigia 355 (2) eu 214 effondrer 356 (2) i6 >• e 225 unaccented 219. 65 ecce ille 24. 229 effrenis 376 eglesia 256 (2).> -ido 197 edus haedus 210 e6 >. > 65 > eccu' iste 24. 255 es-7. 385 eo quod 82. 6. 65 eccu' 'ic 326 eccu' ille 24.230. eccum 24. 298 elementum 231 elephantus 38 elex -ebam : see -ea 429 eiii 411 ecca 24 = ilex 200 (2) erubisco 414 elifanti (pi. > = = 444 = ex. 197. 162.exs. 232. 35. 65. 73. 328 Endings Personal 442-50 -esco ]> -isco 197 414 enim 11 escupare 255 -ens 39 (-ans) -e(n)simus 311 -e(n)sis39. no eoru 309 episcopalis 39 epistula 144 > 196-8 e unacc.228.198 e 196-8 Index.) 356 (2) -i 443 -es -es -is 174. > e > y 224 e i 229 s (2) edere 13 edificai e prefixed to + cons. 42 elmo 343 illud 201 elud -elus >• -ellus 42 ervum > erum 226 ervus (3d decl. 424 230 e6 > e 225 -edo . 385 ego-met-ipse 66 et -erem 346 (3) eremus 150 eres 251 190 e-28 -640 -e>-ffi I74>244 -e -ei 411 -eta 146 eiius 271 erga 14 ergo II. 244.538 Esaram 233 -escere 34.

facienda 37 fem(i)na 239 feminabus 358 > exaltare 25 exaugiu^tus 39 excellente (nom. 126 (2). 275 faselus 334 fasena 320 (i) f asia = faciat 285 224 fasiolus -etus 437 see Labials (i) fata 266 eu 214 cu 190 fa 264. 404 fatatus 39 fate fabam 320 404 Eugeneti 359 (2) -eum 37 eunuchizare 19 fab(u)la 236 f ac 264.) 356 (2) fenire 229 (4) factus 440 fenum 209 ferbeo 323 feritus 242 fascit 209 faedus 320 (i) fcemina 209 f acul 434 ferre 12 ferro 160 Digitized by Microsoft® .230 exstinctus 440 exstinxi 429 exsucidus 39 exsucus 23 extensa 37 extimare 255 extra. 404 facheret 410 faciam 278 fadas 224 fac(i)ebam 225. 92.Index. (i) = -it 244. 318 febrarius 226 Eurus 191 -eus39 Euua 344 evangelizare 19 -evi -ei 424 > Evidence 5 ex 14.230. 440 fascia 10. . espiritum 230 exeligit 199 fffinum 209 fffinus esquena 341 esguiver 343 essagium 255 esse 112-4. 277 etsi I \ et sic 47 exodus 337 expabui 42S expandutus 441 expaventare 35 explendido 230 exquartiaxe 276 exs.= as. 77. 25 ex. 274 facimus 448 404 facitis 448 factum 266 facire Feminine femps 356 femus (3d : see Gender (2) decl.23. 266 = = fait 324 266 fallii -esse 161 -essem 161 essere = esse 419 es(t) 285 estatio 230 estau 397 estaun 397 Estephanus 230 estou 397 estribar 341 esum 419 -et et et at ubi . 95 ex. 444 49 . et 84 Ethiopia 188 etiam 11. 255 -ex -ix 42 = fac 412 facentem 416 facere 10.27 extrabuccare 27 extranus 42 ex tunc 47 ezza 277 f : fallire 430 406 441 34 37 familia 42 famis 366 famTfii 264 famul 242 famulabus 358 fante 311 falsare falsitas fallitus faor 324 farcitus 440 fare 404 farsus 440. 420 face feced feci = fecit 282 fec(e)ru(nt) 233 430 fehu 343 felicla 234 felis25. 419 (i) esse essere 419 esse sedere 402 274 exe(m)plu 306 exiat 224 exient 449 347 fageus 39 failla exinde 60 exire 31. 404 faccia 278 fatus 347 taula 236.) 367 excoriare 25 excussi 429 excussus 441 exeligere 30. 14.= es.

) 355 (i) fnindes 205 /^343 fiorentino 154 fioretto yj (-ittus) fiorisce \\^ foris- 29 frunza 351 frutta 351 fugii 430 f ugire 406 fugitus 439 fui 431 forisfacere 29 f orismittere 29 fircum 320 (i) Firenze 86 Firmus -onis 362 fir- 46 formaceus 39 formosus 161 formunsus 208 forsitan 305 forte 40 f ortescere ful(i)ca237 fiscla 234 fistula 234 fistus 197 fix! 34 fumAt 424 fundus (3d decl.7 flaus 240. fiero 160 fiet focus fodiri 8. 201 filiabus filias 33 (2) frigdaria 219. 96 forbatre 2.f:^ forbire 407 frigorem 347 frixl Fimes 86 Final Syllable 240-5 finctus 440 finis (adj.) 356 fundutus 441 funtes 205 (2) fortia 37 fortis 10 fortis fortis 55 429 fixus 441 fossato 2^1 (-ta) funus II fuore 160 Digitized by Microsoft® . 200 (i). fervere 399 fervura 37 fesit flaba 289 (i) flagrare 292 flaonis flator fractus 440 fragellum 289 (2) fragilis 260 324 324 233 >« 343 fezem 44 fiaba 289 (i) fiam 419 (2) fib(u)la 235 ficatum 16.409. 141 ficit 2.) 346 (4) filiaster filio(s) fans 356 frigdura 37 Frigia 187 frig(i)dus 166. 231 fons (fem.Index.) 17 429 263 Foreign Words 19. 256 frenum -us 347 fricatus 435. 440 fricda frigida 238. cf .) 357 13 . filix 298 274 = filios T97 fiUio 247 fonte 205 244 fonz 356 (2) foras 81. 406 folia 352 follia (noun) 18 follicare (i) = 259 f rictus 440 frigare 256. and fern. (mc. 12 419 (2) figel 242 fiios — filios 274 358 (nom. 238. see frondifer 11 fnialitas Germanic Words Greek Words foresia 311 foris 81 and finiscere 35 finxi 429 fructa35i.) 346 florecer 292 414 frate 295 Florentinus 37 ficus (2d decl. 233.) 355 (i) fidens 311 fiele 160 Jiens 356 (2) fieri 112. 361 fructus (2d decl. fragrantia 37 fra(g)rare 270 flavor 37 fletus II Francesco 341 franctus 440 fieuma 268 fleurit 414 ' fictus 197 440 fleuve 208 (2) fioralis Frankensis 39 Frankiscus 39.419 (2) 400 florisco 400 flovium 208 (2). cf. 341 Franko 341 franxi 429 ficus (I) (masc.)346(i) fraumenta 268 frecare 201 . 217 fluviorum 224 feces 213 florire fratelmo 38S frat(t)re 164 frax(i)nus 239. 259 frigora 351 filius 155.

furbjan 407 furma 203 furmica 229
genesis 148, 183 Genitive 88-9, 383 genitores 12 genitus 17
gIut(t)o 163




fusa 3; I

gocciare 276 gcerus 187
golosus 228 gonger 329 goule 177


genna 229
gentilis 17


fusus 441

Future 125-9,411
127-9,411 Periphrastic Put. 126 Pres. for Put. 126 (i) Future Perfect 119, 123-4,
410, 423 g: see Gutturals

gentis (adj.) 17

Hew Put.


= jan- 259
37, (i)



genuflectere 46

genum 355
Gepte 259 geguir 343

233 gradlus 376 grada 35.1 gradus 355 (i)
grandis 12
granditia 37 graphium 145 grassetto 37 (-ittus)

= Hier- 259

gabata 13, 236 gabta 236 gaita 343
gaite 343 galatus 330
gallina 288

gerbe 341

Germanic Consonants
b, c,

grassus 257

= Gratis 257

g 341

gravare 34
gravior 377 grece 210

^,^342 h343 W344
Germanic Endings 36 Germanic Words 19,
340-4 Germanissa 37 Gerund 104

gamba 13, 263, 331 gammanis 330
garba 341 garofulum 149 garum 329 gaudia (sg.) 352 gaudimoniuin 20 gaudutus 44 X gauta 236 gaveola 257 gavia 16
gecchire 343 geisla 341 geiuna je- 259 geline 288

Greek Accent 143-50 Ozytones 144
Paroxytones 145-6 Proparoxytones 147-50 Greek Consonants 327-39
ft 7, S 329
K, V,

Gerundive 103
gesso 187 gesta (sg.) 352 gJga 341 gig'i 341

T 330-1

X 332-4 Liquids 335 Hasals 336

I 337


gigantem 229 (3) ginocchioni 40 Giovannoni 362 giret 187
girus 187
giscle 341 glacia 355 (2)

f 338-9
Greek Endings 36, 38, 146 Greek Vowels 180-93 Diphthongs 188-93 Single Vowels 180-7 Greek Words 19, 36, 38,
gre-U 40 grevior 377
grevis 195 (4)

gelus (2d decl.) 355 (i) gemellus 13

gemire 406 gemitus 439

Glacus 211 (i) gladium 347
glanderia 39 glaiz 355 (2) Glauc6 -^nis 359 Glaucu (nom.) 372 glirem 166
glos(s)a 161, 185

gemui 428
gena 13

Gender 345-53 Fem. and Heat. 351-3 Masc. and Pern. 346 Masc. and Heut. 347-50 Heut.Pl.>Fero.Sg.352 Heut.Pron.and Adj. 350

grex (fem.) 346 (4) grossior 377 gratia 187 gruls (nom.) 367 gninnio 281-

gluria 203
glut(t)ire 162

guarire 344 guarnire 36, 407


by Microsoft®

guaiare 343
hab(i)tus 239 h^buerat 137
hocsies 277

gubernamentum 37
gubernare 36, 330
gtterra 344

guidare 36, 398 guiderdone 342 guisa 344
gul0 37
-i -1338, 186, 330 gustus (2d decl.) 355 (i) guttur (masc.) 347


Gutturals 253-70 c c' 258, 260-1 c g 256-7

> >

habutus 438 hache 343 hackerece 39 hffidus 320 (i) hamula 235 hanca 343 handle 343 hant 401 hao 401 hapja 19, 343

hodie 272 hodio 251


hom(i)nes 232, 235 (pi.) 36S
10, 71


honera 251 honor 346 (2) honte 342 hora 12, 185 hordemn 272
horrescere 11
hortesia 311 hospitale 12

haram 251
hardir 343
harena 320 (i) haribergum 19 has 401 hat 401 hatire 36 hatjan 36


g before back vowels hardjan 343

263 c, g before cons. 265-70 c, g final 264 ct 266

hossa 251 hostium 251 Hugo Hflgon

= Hdgo


huile 274

152, 362


> g' 258-9. z6i

humerus r2
humiliare 34

g intervocalic 263

gm 268
gn 172
gr intervocalic 270




152, 362


net 267
Falateilization 258-62

haunitha 342 haunjan 19 haunt 401 havite 400

165, 200-1, etc.

accented 200-1 I 200

haz 355


hegit 251

260 X 255, 266 gylosus 228 gyrus 187


helm 343
keltne 343

h 249-52

hepatia 19 here 219, 244 heredes (sg.) 367 heremum 251 Hiatus 136-8, 222-7

> e 201 e ^ 201 > 165, 200 i>e2oi > > e 165, 201 (cons.) 222 > y 224 -i > -e 224







habam = fabam 320

hlbemus 13
hie 63-4, 67-8 hie ipse 64

habe = ave 318 habe(b)am 421 hiem(p)s 13, 297 habeo 273 hiens = iens 251 habere 10, 121-4, 127-30, hilerus 233
239, 273, 285, 400, 401, 421, 438, 449

(Greek) 184 (Greek) 38 i^ e 225 ii i 227 prefixed to s cons. 230 unaccented 219, 221,228,


> >


hinsidias 251

hireum 320


haber 242 habe(t) 285 habeunt 416, 449 habibat 400
habire 400

= is- ins- 230 hispatii = spatii 230
historia 146

229(3X4), 240, 243, 244 in hiatus 222, 224-5,


> e 229 (4) > a 229 (3)

ho 40 hoc 63,



-ia 37, 146 -(a 37, 146


by Microsoft®

-iamus 224 -are 33, 34
ille 10,

Future Future
125-9, 411

61-8, 389-92

ipse 64





123-4, 410

-ibo 125
-ic 251



-ica 37 -icare 33, 34, 35 -icca 37


390 ille 390 140


(dat.) 390


-iccus 37

> ilium 282, 350
390 390

= suus


Imperfect 120, 420-1 Perfect 121-4, 422-31 Pluperfect 123-4, 410, 432 Present 120, 273, 397, 401, 403-5, 415, 416-9

-icem 42, 346



-iceus 37, 39, 42
-icius 37, 39, 42


induruit 224


ilium illud 282, 350 illurum 390


-inem 346

-iculare 35 -iculus 42

> -ellus 42

infa(n)s 10, 311 i(n)fans 171
inf antiliter
i(n)feri 171,

im = in 310
imaginarius 39

-icus 39

40 219

idem 61, 3C39 id ipsum 62, 350 idolum 150, 190
-idus 39 -i(d)yare 339 i6 e 225


376 immudavit 256 Imperative 115-6, 412 impinguare 25 impinxi 429


infernus 13 Infinitive

-iebam -ebam 225 -ibam 420
-ie(n)s 311



implicat 139 implire 400


> -fmus 447-8 >

in 86, 92, 95, 96, 97
is 310 inanimatus 23 in ante 47, 48 incendiderit 426

lenubam 259
-ier 39 -iere 39

in- 23, 25 in -t- s

as Noun iii Conjugations 396-407 dicere 406 esse 419 facere 404 for Clause for Imperative 116 for Subjunctive iii, 117 for Supine and Gerund




= gesta 259, 352

311 iferi 311
iferos 306, 311

Inchoative Verbs
inclausus 139 incohare 250
in contra 47, 48 incudo 42, 370


103, 104 habere 400 Passive 109 Perfect 109 with habere 125-9, 4^^ posse 403

ifimo 311 if ra 311

Present Active

102, 109


-4gia 2^^
igitur II, 14

with Accusative
inflare 31


incuminem 42
incus 42 -incus 37 inde 60, 71, 384 inde fugere 46

ignire 33 ignis 12


ignotus 310 -igo 37

Forms 345-450 Use 85-130
infra- 27



227, 423


39 -ilius 42 iliac 140

Indefinite Article 57 Indefinite Pronouns: see

infraponere 27


Indicative Conditional 130, 411
for Imperative 116, 412
for Subjunctive 117

infurcare 25

-ing 37

(dat.) 390

390 illsejus 390

ingenium 9 ingens 259 in giro 48


by Microsoft®

-ingus 37 (-incus) in hodie 47
Initial Syllable

62-4, 67-8 ins- liis- 230


— -is = -es 244, 365-6, 444

-iva 37 iventa 311

inlatus 32 in mane 47

-iscere 34, 35


> > -i 423 > -iut > -it 423

-ivum yj
-ivus 39 -ix 42
-izare 33, 34, 339

medio 48

Ischia 284

innoce(n)ti 306 innocus 226
in odio


ischolasticus 230


inprobus 32 inquid 282 in quo ante 254 -inquus 37 (-incus) ins13-230 in semel 47

-isco for -esco 197, iscripta 230


-'{«" 33
izophilus 333
j 271 jacente(m) 309 jacis 244 Jacobus 150, 329

-iscus 39 is ipse 64


ismaragdus 230 isperabi 230 ispose 230
-issa 37 -issare 33

insiemcmenie 41 insola 232 instruo — struo 230 ins(u)la 171, 233, 284 intcitamento 260 inte(g)rum 270 Interamico 307

Jacomus 329
jagante 229 (3)


-isse 161

-issem 161 -issimus 166

jaiant 229 (3) jajunus 229 (i) jambe 263
-jan 36
janarius 226

230 Interanniensis 307 istatuam 230 Interrogatlves see Pro- iste 63-8, 390-2 nouns iste hie 64 Intertonlc Vowel 231 iste ille 64 intra g6 iste ipse 64 intra- 27 istudio 230 intra tenere 27 it id 282 intravidere 46 -it -et 244, 444 intre 245 ita II intro(r)sus 291 Italia 224 intus in 49 Iteilic Tribes i, 2 -inus 37, 42 -itare 34, 35

jaquir 343
jauzei 426 jehan 343 jehir 343
jejunus 229, 229 (i) jeniperus 229 (5)

= =

jenua 229


jenuarius 229 (i) jeuTie 208 (2)
jinipenis 229 (5)

-Inus 39

> -o 416

-itas 37 -ite -Ite


Joanneni 359 (i) Joannentis 359 (2) Joannis 244
jocus 12


ipsa mente 41 ipse 61-8, 390-2



jovenis 208 (2), 217
jovis 367

64 ipsejus 390 ipsimus 66 ipsud 390
ipsujus 390 ipsus 390
iraisser 413 irascere 413

-itia 37, -ities 37


jubari 322



-ittus 37

-itudo 37 -itus 42 (2), 436, 438, 441 -Itus 435, 438-9


jubem(m)us 163 jubenis 318 jubentutis 318, 322 jubere 11
Judaizare 19
judicat 424

-ium 37
-ius 39

126 (5), 405

> -unt 416
by Microsoft®

-ire 33,


judidus 347 judico 239 judigsium 278


juglus 233 Julianenis 359 Julianeta 37 (-ittus)
Julitta 37 (-ittus)

429 Liaison 133, 159 liamen 263
lexi 428,

intervocalic 324

Voicing 314
laborait =:-avit 424

laceus 254
lacte 367

libe(n)s 311

juncxi 305 juniperus 229 (5) junxi 429
Jup(p)iter 163

jurHtortu 39 juria 272 jur(i)go 219
jusso 355 (i)

lactem 347 lacus (2d decl.) 355 (i) ladro yji ladrone 372


298 (nom. pi.) 357


libraria 37 ligare 201,

ligna (sg.) 352


justitia 276,

justius 277

juv(e)nis 235

juventa 356 (3) juvente 318
juxta 81, 96


246, 253

kadamitatem 289

= candidus 330 karessemo 201 Karica 37 (-icca) kaukoulato cal- 288 kleme(n)s 311 kozous = conjux 311, 339


34 lambros 331 lamna 235 lampada 356 (3) lampa(s) 38, 144, 335 lancia 224 la(n)tema 306 lanutus 42 lapsus 315 laqueum 347 ; cf, 254 lardum 237 Latinization i, 2 latrone (nom.) 367 lat(t)rones 164 lattucae 266 Lauriatus 224 lausenga 37 (-ing)
lauzi 443 Lazis Ladiis 339


lignum -us 172
liminare 37


Unguas (nom.) 357
liniamenta 224


133, 159

lintium 224

Liquids Assimilation 293 Dissimilation 292
Fall Fall



Liquid 237

Vowel before

Liquid 233-4 1 287-9 ly274 Metathesis 294 r 290-6
rs 291 ry 296 lit (t) era 163


kumate 298 ky = qui 187, 223



lebat 318

lit(t)us 163

see Liquids

318 lebra 256

Livitta 37 (-ittus) U 1 161


la ilia 392 Labials Assimilation 313 b 315-9 initial 316 intervocalic 318 by, py, vy 273, 319 f 320-1 Fall of Vowel after Labial 235-6 Influence on Vowels 217



Have 2 88



Locative 86
locun 305 locuplens 311 locuplex 255
lodi 443
loir 166

lectus (p.p.) 440 legare 201

leges 259

(nom.) 367

legui 428

lenticula 42

longa mente 41 longe 40
longior 377


longius 377


longum tempus 13
loquella 42 loreola 213

P 3"-4 U326
V 322-s
after liquid 323

levare 34 leviarius 39


Lost Words 11-4
lotus 213

levitus 435,


by Microsoft®

mam(m)anis 359 matutinus 13 maurus 336 maxime 56 mammula mane 13 13 400 manducare 13 man(i)ca 239 manicd 37 (-icca) maniplus 42. ma(g)is 353 .) 368 me(n)sis 171. and 346 (I) fern. X. 233 lucor 37 lucto 355 (i) maximus 56. 377 luoghi -ora 349 liirdus 207 (i) luridus 166. 347. 66 mal(l)o i6i malus malus 55 mam(m)a 16.) 355 (i) meretis 232 meridjes 281 (2) mer(i)to 237 Masculine : see Gender masc(u)las 234 masma = maxima 238 massa 338 mate(r) 295 materia 355 (2) matrona(s) 298 mat(t)rona 164 Digitized mersi=merx 255 Messac 277 messui 428 messura 37 met. 220.) = magida = 38. 84. 157. 369 3" . cf .24. 259 major 170. 145 ma(r)mor 292 cf . 198.) 349 machina 144 machinari 9 macra 376 madias = majas 272 madio majo 272 madrema 388 maestati 259 maester 259 magias majas 272 marem 347 mares = -is 244 marl -e 364 marinarius 39 maris (masc. 238. 74. 222 Maiiam 222 mais = magis 157. 359 by Microsoft® . 201.) 244 lucSre 399 lucire Index.) 17274 m: see Nasals ma = mea -Ma 38 388 manu tenere 46 Slaps : pp.2o6 luce (dat. 71. 207 (i) luxi 4V 9 luxuria 355 (2) mansorius 39 mansus 441 manuaria iS manuplus 42 manus (masc. 353 me(n)sor 311 56.) = and markensls 39 me(n)sa 311 mense(m) 309 mensi (pi. 349 melum 195 (5) membras 352 memoramus (perf. 347. manner (fern. 369 marrir 407 marrjan 407 Marsianesses 277 magnisonans 44 magnus 12 Maia 188.) 424 -men 37 mendatium 276 fern. 259 ma(g)ister 259 marmora 351 marmorem 347. 377 mala mente 41 male 40 male habitus 44 malicia 276 malleus 274 mensorium 37 menta 184 -mente 41 mente habere 46 mentire 409 Marsuas 187 Marsyas 187 mas = magis 157 mascel 242 -mentum 37 mentus 347 menus 201 mercatus (2d decl. xi Marcianus 278 Marculus 284 mare (fern. 347. 297 maxumiis 220 lucus locus 205 ludus 12 lugere 399 lugire 400 = Meanings Change 10 of of Words 7-10 Meaning 8- manos 355 mansi 429 mansio 12 (i) luminem 347 lunae dies S9 mecu 309 Medea 190 Medentius 338 media 272 medianus 39 medicus 239 medio die 43 medio loco 43 medius 272 meletrix 292 melior 377 melius 56.

229 (4). 136 mulieris 136 natus 13. cf. 387 mi = mihi25o.245 miscere 399 misculare 35 misera 376 mis(s)i x6i.311 11 ny 274 nacui 428 nam — mu. 440. 229 (2) Nebitta 37 (-ittus) nebula 235 necare 9 necator 37 mirabilia 37. 217 334 mutare 229 Digitized (5) nepoti(s) 298 ne'ps'unus 71 by Microsoft® . 429 = mullus 187 mulsi 429 multum 74 multus 71 muntu = multum 289 (2) necatus 435. 381 mn 307 millefolium 38 mil(l)ia 161 mordSre 399 morire 406 moriri 406 n -h fricative ny 274 nasco 255 nascutus 438 nasum -us 347 natatorium 37 nati vitas 37 Morphology 345-45° morsi 429 morsus 441 mortificare 46 mimoriEe 229 (2) minester 201 ministeri(i) 89.228 narratus 37 (-ta) -monium 37 mo(n)strare 311 Nasals 303-11 Final or = monumento = -um 244 Mood 1 1 5-9 morbu(s). 298 + Cons. 377 minus. 75. 311 -m -n falls 309 falls 310 mihe 244 milex 255 mille 161. 245 mis.439 movitus438. 227 mi(ni)sterium 231 minist(r)onun 292 minor 377 minsis 198.245 minus credere 29 minus est 29 minus pretiare 46 minutus 10 > mortu(u)s 226 mossus 438. 294 modernus 18 Metiacus 277 metipse 24. 289 moc 428 (i). 187 meuble 204 (i) meus = mi 87 n: see Nasals mextum — m2estuin mezzo 272 mi r= meus -a 87. Metathesis 245. 438. 231 mis meis 388 mis.324 Moesia 187 molui 428 molutus 439 255 myrta 187 Mysia 187 mysterium 182. 385 miauiare 17 michi 252 mienia 1S4 migat micat 256 monarchia 37 monasterium 182 -monia 37 monibam 420 moniti n + fricative 171. 163. 66 metipsimus 66 metltus 441 207 Mute -t.Liquid mut(t)ire 162 132. 255. cf. 160 mode modo 40 moere = mov. 83. 441 motto 187 movi 428 movit 244 movita37-. 439. 438 naucella 13 naufragus 325 nautat 236 navicella 37 navitat 236 ne 14.Index. 201 minus 201.29. 304-6 171. 440 necavi 428 nee ente 71 nee unus 71 ne ente 71 negare 263 negat 256 mur 206 murare 229 (5) muri -a 349 muritta 37 (-ittus) murta 187 Negation 75 negliencia 259 nemo 71 neofiti missorium 37 mis (s) us 441 mistus 440 mixticius 39 mobilis 204 (i). 440 muc(c)us 163 muebie 204 (i) mul'erem 225 mulier 9. 37 raovutus 438.

40 (Greek) 186 Digitized nora 208 (3) Normannice 40 norus 208 (3) notrire 229 (5) noli 40 -on 36 -ov 38 -iav 38 -ones 40 -oneus 39 by Microsoft® . 197. 311 nubis 366 nulli (gen. 22S. 203 o (Greek) 192 274 38.) 395 nullus 71.208 nepta 37 neptia 37 neptilla 13 Index. 309 nivicare 18. 215 offertus 435. 323 nerbo 323 Neroua 322 nervia 349 Neuter nervus 323. 177. 215 omnes = —is 244 onmimodus 44 omnis 12. 349 see Gender ne 229 (2) ni : = nichil 251 niepos 177 observasione 277 oc 251 occansio 311 occidere 212 occubavit 256 ni(g)rum 270 nihil 71. 71 o for au 212-3 >oe ]>e 06 > o 225 > omo 251 -omus 446 on 71 ou>. nupsi 297 nobe 318 nobilis 11 nobis 318. 100. 274 > ola 213 oleo 373. 229 (5) nutritio 37 odedere 426 Odissia 187 oe 215 oefor xand e 215 offeret offerire offers! nutritura 37 nocui 223. etc. 243. 202-5. 251 nil 250 nimpae 332 nise 229 (4) nitidus 238 nittus 238 Numerals 57-8. 395 num 83 u ob (Greek) i?5 14.324 nova(i)nta 380 novellus 13 novius 207 (2) noxeus 224 ns 171.ou 167 unaccented 219. > > 6 165. Nouns 345-73 see Declension and Gender nous 177. 385 nocere 399 nutrire 166. 250. 234 306. 383 305 accented 202-5 o 202-4 o 197. 229 (6). Absolute 97 non 203 nona(i)nta 380 75. o 165. 328 noembrios 324 noembris 324 noicius 324 nolo 161 ny274 nynfis 306 406 406 429 440 192. 378-82 occu(m)bas 306 occurire 406 Accent 142 nummus 328 nun = non 203 nunc 12 nuncius 276 -occus 37 ocio 276 ocium 276 octa(gi)nta 380 oc(u)lus 219. 167. offla 235 oi>oe>-e ot nome 336 nomem nomes = nomina 369 Nominative 97. 244 u6 o 225 -o 37. 205 5 > 9 205 9>uo oi ou|>-gu 167 o u 202 o ou 203 oleum oli 274 274 oli(m) 309 olio nonna 16 nonnita 37 (-ittus) nonnitus 37 (-ittus) nonnus 16 noptiae 207 (2) 177 192. 79 ob-28 obdormire 28 obferre 32 obliscor 324 oblitare 34 obprimere 32 Nerba3i7. 33 nuncquam 305 nunqua(m) 305.

409 passos 355 paucum tempus 13 ostentare 34 ostia palma 14. 278 parsus 439. 229 (7) pandiderunt 426 paucus 71 paul(l)um 161 Paulus -onis 362 paupera 376 pani 364 panneus 39 pantaisar 332 Digitized = pauperorum 376 pausa 38 pavi 428 by Microsoft® . 217.) 347.) 367 pap(p)a -us 16 papyrius 39 parabula 144. Pans 86 Parisiis 272-8. 318 parcui 428 onus II o 225 operare 409 0(5 > otogentos 266 -ottus 37 ophekion = ofBcium 334 opprobare 28 -or 37.212 orata ou (Greek) 193 ou 167 9u Ouiouia Vibia 318. 107. 259 pari 364 par(i)etes 136.Index. Passive 105. palpebrum 352 pal/ires 134 = hos-25i = ostium 202 ostrum aus. 108. 202-3 -osco ossiculum 42 ossuculum 43 > ssy 275 sty 275 partunt 416 parutus 438.) 367 parentorum 368 p : see Labials paceveci = oratia = Hor-25i Order of Words 50-3. 229 (7) oridium 339 -orlum 37 -orius 39 orma 186. 324 ovum 167. 408 Perfect 102. 225 parietibus 224 oratorium 37 orbus 9 palanca 332 palasium 277 Parigi 86. Active 106 Put.212 aut 213. 322 > = oum 167. 441 part 160 partentem 416 Participle dy 272 g': omatura 37 orphanus 186 ortaret 432 hor-25i ortus see Gutturals gyz72 J271 ly274 ny 274 Put. 296 parsi 429 by 273 c': see Gutturals cy 276. Ordinal Numerals 382 -orem 346 (3) oricla2i2. 439 pasmer 300 passans 39 passi(m) 309 sy 275 ty 276-7 ossulum 37 ossum 356 (3) ostensio 37 ostensor 37 vy273 palatium 277 palleum 224 Passive 112-4. -omus 39 -o«J446 -o(n)sus 311 otia 277 otobris 266 209 paor 324 papaver (masc. oze ozie 324 = > > = hodie 272 = hodie 272 = pacific! 321 8. parecer 414 parens 10. 104.) 349 Present 102. 337 pagandum 256 paganus 263 pa(g)e(n)sis 39. py 273 ry 296 scy 275 40S Particles 156-8 particularis 39 -OS (Greek) 38 Oscan 2 -usco 197. 12 parentis (nom. 227 pari mente 41 227 Palatalization 258-62. 236 parabulare 155 paradisus 190 paraula 236. 369 papilipnis (nom. 42 feminine 346 (2) -re 245 -or -ura 42 -or hora25i ora oracionem 276 aur. 229 (7) ot ote = aut 213. 434-41 = orum = aurum 212 orzo 272 OS (masc. 296 Palatals 271-8.

123-4. 377 pejus 377 pelegrinus 292 pellabor 293 planura yj planxi 429 platea 146. 315 plicare 10. 422-31 = phoca 185 Phoebus 192 Phonology 131-344 Phyebae = Phoebe 215 piano 40 pictus 440 pietas 298 pietra 160 pignus 172 (2) pi(g)ritia podium 272 poella 20S Strong 427-31 Weak 422-6 Perfect Participle Participle : 270 see Pilipus 332 pinctus 440 Perfect Subjunctive 119. 190 Periphrastic Future 126 perit 423 perlum = prse. 235 by Microsoft® .Index. 273 poco 40 perdedit 139. 183. 208 (4). 410 432> 433 Pluperfect Penult 232-9 per 14. 311 pensi 429 pensus 441 plodere2i3 ploja 169. pinl 365 123-4 pinxi 429 per giro 48 piper 38. 99 per pel 293 per 160 per. 441 Pesaro 151 pessica 291 pessimus y]"] pestio 2S4 pectorem 347 pediculus 42 pedis (nom. 273 plostrum 212 plotus 212. 213 plovere 169. 217 Pluperfect 118. 410. 208 (4). 96. 435 plicatus 435 293 293 pello 293 pendutus 441 pellige pellicere peuma 368 ph: see Greek Consonants phalanx 181 pharetra 145 phaselus 334 Phasis 181 pe(n)sare 171. 426 perdita 37 (-ta) perdqnare 26 perdutus 438.26 percolopabat 237 > Phebus 192 phiala 145 philosophia yj philus 184 phimus 184 Phitonis 332 phitonissas 332 Subjunctive 433 "8. 79. 369 per girum 48 piperem 347.) 367 plangit 259 plantare 33 peduclum 234 peduculus 42 pejor 170. pa(v)onem 324 pa(v)orem 324 pavura 42 pavutus 440 paze 260 pectinare 33 perpenna 292 persi 429 pe(r)s(i)ca 239 persona 71 Personal Pronouns: pius 167 placentia 37 plach 154 see placuit 223. 326 plagiare 33 Pronouns persus 439. pIurigo 123. 208 (4). = pr-292 plus 56. 93. 217 pluere 169. 208 (4). igo plaudisti 426 pestulum 284 petft 423 Petrus -onis 362 peito 160 pleps 297. 347. 74 pluvia 169. 369 peria(t) 285 poena 192 poeta 192 poggio 272 polippus 145 poUicare yj pollulum 213 pols 370 poltre 134 polve 370 polvo 370 polypus 145 pomex 207 (2) pirata 144.294 Pisaurese 297 Pisaurum 151 pitocco T85 Digitized pon(e)re 239 pontevecem 321 pontivicatus 256 pontufex 220 poplex 255 pop(u)lus 10. 439 pere 160 pere(g)rinus 270 peres pedes 281 (2) Perfect 121-4.

285 posturus 238 postus 238 Post-Verbal Nouns 21 posueram 285 posuet 244 posui(t) 285 403-5.439 proximus 377 psallere 36. prolongare 28 q 246. 79.) 367 pugnus 172 (2) pulvus 347. 395 prandium 272 pranzo 272 pre. 393-4 quaKs 70. etc. 259 quadra(l)nta 380 qua(9'ro 283 quKSi 426. 383-95 Demonstrative 61-8 Indefinite 71. 401. -^yj pos(t) 96. 41 5> 416-9 presentis (nom. 250 prendiderunt 426 prendo 250 prensi 429 prensio 37 posmeridianus 285 posse 126 (3). = pr<Egnans 255 Pronunciation 131-344 prophetissa 37 prophetizare 19 propietas 292 propio 292 propter 14. 95 pro. 67. 79. 440 cf. 96 provata 318 porphyreticum 187 portare 12 posi posui 428. 370 punctus 440 puni poni 203 = presium 277 pressi 429 pressorium 37 pressura 37 pressus 441 presta 210 presteti 139 frete 300 punidor 39 punxi 429 pupillabus 358 puplu 309 pup(p)a 163 pure 40 puritas 37 purpura 145. 394 quamta 306 quan 305 Digitized by Microsoft® . 387-8 Relative 69-70. 439 = 311 prendere 225. 226. pos(t)quam 11. 226. 380. 403 (i) Possessives: see Pronouns posso 403 postea 275 (i) prensus 441 Prepositions 76-81. 397. 71. 85-g presbyter 148. 384-6 Possessive 60.Index. 311 prEEStare 31 prffistavi 422.28 probai 424 Proclitics 156-8 prodis 17 putrisco 400 puulva 356 (3) Pyrrhus 187 pyxis 187 Progne 330 proles II preefetto 266 prffigna(n)s 255. 429 Position 160-4 positus 238. 186. 300 presbyterum 148 provitus435. 332 purpureticum 1S7 putator = po.28 prebiter 300 Interrogative 7o> 69- quadraginta 142.229 (6) puteolis 136 • potebam 403 (i) potebo 403 (i) poteo 403 (i) potere 403 (i) pdteri 410 potestas 356 (3) potionare 33 potis 17 pretium 277 preveire 300 pride (m) 309 primitius 324 principens 367 pri(n)cipis 306 Prixsilla 255 puteum 347 putrire 400 potius 74 pr:e 14 pr£E-28 prjeber(e) 24? prsecoca 376 praeda 209 prsedestinare 28 prsEdiscer(e) 242 pro 14. 285 Present 120 for Future 126 ptisana 145 pudicicia 276 (i) Stems 273. 330. preda 209 Prefixes 21-32 393-4 Personal 60. qu 223. 254 qu k. 429 quiestus 436. 254 qua 82 > promptulus 39 430 prsstus 376 Pronouns 59-71. por 14 porcellus yj pregnax cf. 252.

379 quel 393 quejus 393 quoque quot quot n Repetition 40. 221 Development of New Quantity 176-7 Disappearance of Old Quantity 173-5 Doubtful Quantity 166 Length before Consonants 170-2 Position 160-4 refusare 17 re(g)alis quiritare 229 quis 69. 309 querceus 39 quercinus 39 querel(l)a 42 rama (pi. 25 recapitulare 25 retro. 200 redft 423 redivit quannu 281 = Win. 244 quat(t)or 226. 281 quinque 172 Quintrio quippe 1 quique 71 (i).quoniam 14. 168 429 = reddere 286 rasio = ratio 277 ratio 277 retina 17 retro 81 razzo 272 re. 429 rhetor 335 rhetorissare 33 richesse 341 rictu quiaeti 209 quicumque 71 quid 350 quidem 11 recubitus yj (-ta) quiensces 311 quietus 225 quin II quinqua(gi)nta 142.) 361 ramenc 37 (-incus) rancura 42 ranucula 42 rap(i)dus 239 rasl restitueram 285 restivus 39 resurge(n)s 311 retenere 31. retundus 229 (6) reuuardent 344 139 reve(r)sus 291 reversus sumrz reverti 410 revolutio 37 rexi 297.254 guages 1 74-5 > = quantu(m) 309 quantus 12. no quooperta = co. replenus 23 55. 393 re(g)ina 259 regis -es 244 = quisque 71 quisquis 71 Unaccented Vowels 221 174. 355 (2) res nata 13. quo 73 quo = quod 282 quoad 11 quod 14. 82. 82. 71 = quod 282 quum r : > cum 226 repositorium 37 reprehensus 250 requeerere 25. 71.23. 82 comodo 226 Vowel Length 165-77 Words from Other Lan. quando 14. quodlubet 220 regnancte 267 regnum 172 (2) Relatives : see Pronouns reli (n) quat 306 relinque 282. 139 redempsi 429 redemti 313 Digitized = rectum igS by Microsoft® . 82.344 = -bit 318 263 Quantity 159-77. 82 quarranta 142.28 retro (r) sum 291 = = redpit 139 recolli(g)endo 259 Recomposition 31. 71. 223 quia 82. 449 responduntur 449 responsi 429 raggio 272 que(m) 309 quen 305. 379 quattordecim 379 quat(t)ro 226. 139 retenet 139 retere questor 210 questus 210 quetus 225 qui 69. 74 12. 71. 71 quare 12. no. rectus 440 32.269 Vowels in Hiatus 167-9 quomodo 14.269 respondere 399. 259. 71 rabies 319 radius 272 rainante = reg. 393 qui quia 82 qui ky 187. 350 = -it 285 remasit 311 Remidium 272 remissa 37 (-ta) ren^gat 139 renum reg. 245. no. 380 quase 244 quasi 83. 380 reculons 40 reddedi 31. 139 requEerit 139 rs see Liquids >• ss 291 requebit 225 res 10. 350. 219.1 Index.

341. rubare nibeus 319 sandal 330 sanguem 370 sanh 267 sapcha 272 sapere 402 sedui 428 sedutus 441 signavi 424 segnai = rugiada 356 nira35r ru(r)sum 291 russum 291 rutare 34 s (3) segolo 200 (3) sei sapiam 272 sapidus 39 sapienti (pi.Index. 14 sed-= se 229 (4) 429 rosum = ros 356 rosus 441 (3) sanctissimus 377 san(c)tus 172 (i). 324 rivaticus rip. 429 440 scriptum 315 scri(p)tus 313. 230 sy 275 scy. 347 rogavo = -bo 318 ro(g)itus 259. Saguntum 338 saine 42 saini 267 sltlbaiec (fern. 428 = si 229 (4) = sit 419 (2) = sibi 201 ^ 419 (i) roborem 347 robur 9. 440 secula 200 (3) Romanice 40 Romanu -pos 38 rosi (nom.268. salivi 428 440 J^= sead sebe salma 268 salsi 428. (stlis) riges = re. 428 satis 74 sem 419 (i) Semele 359 semita 239 semo 419 (i) : see Sibilants final s in ist pers. 367 SiEpia 182 saginae 42 = 284 Sagitta 37 (-ittus) ripidus 39 scloppus 284 scopulus 38 scorlare excor. 398 398 ss 291 36. 201 (2) senape 184 senatus (2d decl.230 scriba -anis 359 = rigueza 341 risi 429 risus 441 rius 241. 441 saltern 11 salticulare 35 secatus 435. 210 scalciare excalceare 230 scandalizare 19 445 initial s + cons. 435 salitus 436. 34r. ssy. 267 sedano 335 sed(e)cim 239 sedere seditur 399 = esse 402.) 349 sffipes sepes saeps 209. = sa = ipsa 392 semper semper 74 sempre 245 semul 201.) 349 scripit 312 (i) scrips! 315. sty. (3) = 229 salbum3i7 salii scrivano 359 scultor 313 se 422. x : salsus 440.) 355 (i) sine 201 sene -sa 37 (-ta) sabbatizare 19 scaplas 234 sablum 233 sacra 376 Sca(u)rus 211 scena 182 (i) = sacramentum 231 359 sacristano 359 sacrista -anis- schema 19 schernire 341 schiatta 343 schietto 343 senex 12 senper 306 semita 239 senta sentam 416 sententem 416 = Digitized by Microsoft® . pi. xi Roman Empire p.314 rivocaverit 229 (2) sagma 19. : 429 Romance Territory p. 419 roubSn rs > 36. ridSre rideri 213 schioppo 284 sclitib. sauma 26S scabia 355 (2) scsena 182.) 372 salvage 229 (3) salvatico 229 (3) salvaticus 229 (3) secu(n)do 306 secuntur 254 sed II.) 368 419 (i) sel 160 selinum 150 sappia 272 sapui 426.igS 399 409 sacritus rigna 198 rikitia 341 Jiimini 86 SidxpiTos 272 sseculum (masc.

233 sepelitus 436.ig8 439 siede 419 (1) soma 268 somas 419 (i) sona 2ona 338 septrum 260 septuazinta 339 septum 209 sepulchrum 251 sequere 406 sequire 406 serbare 323 siem 419 (2) siete 419 (i) siffatto 264 siffler 318 (2) sifilus 318 (2) = signum-us 172 sigricius silevit 422. = secretins 256 347 sonatus 435 sons 419 (i) Sophia 146 -sor 37 sorcerus = sortiarius 39 s^bat 323 serbus 317 Serios Sergius 272 serore so. 38. 234 speca spica 200 (3) = speclarait spectante = -avit 424 = exp. 387 sozer 154 servicium 276 323 servisium 277 servitium 276. 182 seppia 182 sepsies 277 z : see Greek Conso- soltus 438. 440 ss > 275 solingo 37 (-incus) solo (dat. 184. 18 sol(i)dus 237 230 separare seperare 231. 244 solacium 276 sola mente 41 solatium 276 solbere 317 spene^SS (2) speni from spes 355 (2) speramus = -avimus 424 sperantia 37 Digitized by Microsoft® .) 395 solsi s 161 429 440 224 sepes 209 sepia 146. sibl 201. sty. 244. (2). 337 sinatus 228 (-arius) sordidius 377 sorex 42. 429 sentitus 436. 83. 201 sinexter 201 (3) -sic 37 sirena 356 (3) sis si vis 324 -sorium ^y -sorius 39 soro(r) 295 sous = suus 167.^'j final s 298. solbit sentia 421 sentii 42S. 441 solia 323 224 sentor . 150.214 senii 298 Index. sy.z\ sofferire sparsus 441 spasmus 144 spat (h) a 332 spat(u)la 12. 213 soricem 42. 233 soef 2.cons. 213 serra = sera 247 serutinus 16 servare 323 sine 95. etc. sibi 219.230 = 406 si 14. 219. scy. septa (gi)nta 380 septe(m) 309 sidibus = se. ssy. 445 initial s 4.230 Spania 230 = Spanus 230 sparsi 429 J« 419 sest = est 419 (i) set = est 419 (i) set = sed 282 seta 209 setaceus 39 setis = estis 419 (i) 229 385 (4) settembres 313 seus suus 387 soaru 295 soave 224 sobreus 224 socera 37 soc(e)rum 232. soluit sic nants 264 Sicilianus 39 solus 395 solutus 438 solvitus 438. soliculus 13. 221.419 (1) sinapis -e -i 38. 439. si sol 13 = sibi spehon 343 spelunca 329 siam 419 (2) siamus 419 (2) sibe 219. 244.229 (7) serpentinus 37 = = 428 simus 220. 385 385 Sibilants 297-302. 277 servitude 37 ses servire = spacium 276 spallere 337 sive II = es 419 (i) (i) skena 341 skern6n 341 skiuhan 343 slahta 343 sleht 343 spandere exp.

330 talis 71 strlban 341 for Adj. 403. 332 Syncope 219. 430 sietti 426 stetul 426. 40. 229. spes 355 (2) spiritus (2d decl. 441 sus(s)um 291 sutis sursi Stephanus 183 steti 426. 415. 410 Plup. 441 subornatris 255 subplantare 32 sy=ty277 sycotum 141 Syllabication 131-3 = Stella = 198 stingo 226 -stinxi 429 stipes stips 367 subsannare 26 Substitution of subterranus 42 subtus 81 suc(c)us 163 suceroni 362 Words 13 symphonia 146. 231-g Synonyms 12 Syntax 50-130 t : (nom. 428. 430 steva 200 (3) stilla 419 (i) suus 60. 116 for Indie. 96 super.230 spoliatur = -or 244 structus 440 straere 417 strugere 417 spo(n)sus 171 spontaneus 39 squarciare 276 ss s 161 strumentum = inst.) 367 Supine 103 sup(p)ra 164 sup(p)remis 164 supra.26 suprafacere 26 supra 245 -sura 37 Surd Sonant: see Voicing = exp. 419 (i) suora 295 sues 138 super 80. 388 -sus 37.) 349 stahu 397 397 stait 397 stantia= inst.26 superabundare 26 superfacere 26 superstitis (nom. 14.230 struxi 429 stupescere 35 > staacio 276 stablarius 231 stagnum (masc.Index. 84 440 440 strinxi 429 strofa 334 stropa 334 stroppus 186 strinctus strictus for Verbs 33-6 Greek Endings 36. 440 Suffixes 33-42 Cbange of Suffix 42 talentum 149. 38 suis (nom. 419 (2) sublimus 376 429 su(r)sum 291 surtus 440 sus = suus 226. 90. 405. 428.) 367 stlataris 284 stlis 284 stloppus 284 storax 187 stren(n)a 163 stren(n)uor 164 Stress : see Accent stirpis see Dentals ty 276-7 sud=sub3i5 sufferit 406 -ta37 tab(u)la 236 tactus 440 suffertus 435. 369 sumpsi 29S sumptus 308 tan 306 tanctus 440 tanger(e) 242 tantu(m) 309 tantus 71 tanxl 429 tapinus 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . 39 for Adv. 41 for Nouns 37. 397. 118 Pres.230 stais stup(p)a 163 suabitati 318 5uadel(l)a 42 suavis 224 Suavitta 37 (-ittus) sub.) 355 (i) splorator stnicere 417 215 sumus 220. 117 > 277 status 438 397 staunt 397 stegola zoo stel(l)a 163 siaii (3) Imperfect 118 Perfect 119. 38 tamen 11. 387-8 submonsus 439. = Iniperf.26 subaudire 26 subcludere 26 stao 397 stare 397 stasio 277 static subcumbere 32 Subjunctive 117-g for Imper.) 367 sulphurem 347.

318 taurellus 37 taxi 429 telebra ter. 399 trapalium 16 tres 379 tergum -us 347 termen 356 (3) terminaciones 2 76 terra (m) 309 tersi toreomatum 191 -torium 37 -tonus 39 torma = tu. 343 tharrjan 342. 343 tata 16 . 244.) 367 traxi Tense 120-30 tensi 429 tensura 13 tensus 441 t^nueram 137 tenui 42S tenutus 438. 380 trinitas 429 tarsus 441 -Tt\% 38 testa 13 tetrus 376 428 tortus 440 tot 71 tot trinta tris 37 380 taxui 428 204 (2) texutus 440 thahso 342. 385 traducir 299 traduire 299 Tatius 277 tatus 16 taula 236. 399 torsi trescar 342 trib(u)la 235. 198 376 triumphaut 241. 352 tribuna(l) 242. 331 timor (fern.) 74 tous thensaurus 311 — tuus 387 Trogar=-jae 259 Troja 170 Digitized by Microsoft® . 299 trabucare 26 tracere 417 tap(p)ete 162 tarde 40 tarir 342.259 tragere 417 trahere 417 = tempaccio 39 tempesta 356 (3) templus 347 timpuri 369 tinctus 440 tinge 226 tinguere 226 tins -^^ census trans. 429 tolui 428 tomolus =: tumu. 347 threscan 342 tra.) 346 timoratus 39 Tragani (2) = Traj.26.208 tonsus 441 toll(e)re 429 trebus 201 trei = tres 379 298 trei Teodor 332 -ter 40 tardus 276 Terentio = treis 177 tremulat 235 trepaliare 33 = -us 298 tergSre 399 -tor 37 torcere 399 torco 226. 259.26.204(2). 407 -tas 37 tasso 342.2l6 tapis 182 tapit 182 Index. 424 tristus = tres 395 -trix 37 trobaire 37 (-tor) totum (adv.163. 139 tibi 221.208 tomus 186 torqu(e)o 226. 71. 439 tolsi 428.292 -tim 40 timbre 187. 299 transannare 26 tra(ns)duco 299 tra(ns)jicio 299 260 tra(ns)luceo 299 tra(ns)mitto 299 tempo 298 tempus 13 tenit 244 tinxi 429 -tic n transplantare 26 tra(ns)pono 299 tra(ns)tulo 299 ten(n)uis 164 Titius 277 Tivoli 86 tra(ns)veho 299 traps 315 trasporre 299 travis (nom. -anis 359 = tibi 385 -tiacum 277 tibe 244 ti tractatus 9 tractus 440 tradedit 31. Theophilus 333 thesaurizare 19 thesaurus -um 189. 440 239 tollitus 435. 407 theios 333 toto (dat. 289 Tricassas 151 trienta 259 tri(g)inta 142. 325.208 tonatus 435 tondere 399 tonica tu.) 395 tot(t)uS 12.

42 accented 206-8 u 206-7 ii>-u 165.) 429 -unt -ent 449 unus 10. 217 vadere 126 204 (2) -tudo 37 iuii 204 (2) tul£runt 450 tucti > -ellus 42 40 -um vallensis 39 : Unaccented Vowels see valneas = ba. 430 urps 297. 405 vadum 344 -us 347 valde 237 vaUa(t) 224. 367 veni 428. 315. 438.316 -tulus turn = tuum 226. 84.) 244 178. III -uta 37 (-ta) verbex = vervex 323 Verb Forms see Conjugation Use 72. -ura 37. 441 uu unacc. 82. 403 vendita 37 (-ta) 177 u 165. 220 -ugo 37 (-ago) ui 216 V see Labials vacuus 42 195 (6). 206. u 226 uuadius 344 > -uus > -itus 42 -udo ii > -umen 42 uxo(r) 295 uxore (abl. 440 unire 34 Tuscanus 39 iuito 204 (2) tuttus 204 (2) tuus 226.) 367 vendutus 438 vene bene 316 = urbs 12. Troyes 151 tructa 38. 349 * verecundia 231 verecunnus 281 Inflection: > > > utrum II. 208 u cons. 440 venui 428. 39 (5). 2c6 u 208 u ii o 165. 14. 83 ubi 73 -uc(c)us 37 (-icca) -uculare 35 -uculus 42 -utus 39. 284 vedea 421 = ve^ere 283 vef 226 vegere = veh-4i7 uobit = obiit > ve(he)inens 250 vehere 417 vel II velle 126 (3). 393 undecim 166. 430 > > -urem 346 (3) veninum 42 venire 126 (5) venitus 436. 206-8. 438. 187.315 usare 34 Use Use Use of of Cases 85-100 of Inflections 85-130 Words 54-84 venuta 37 (-ta) venutus 436. o 226 vecinus 229 (4) vedus 234. 71. 297. 356 (3) vea via 201 = vecere = veh-4i7 -e 364 -tus 37 (-ta). 228. 14. 387-8 ty 276-7 ty ty > cy 277 > sy 277 uno (dat. 379 -undus 39 ungo 226 unguere 226 unicornis 44 unigenitus 44 vaqua = vacua 223 vaqui vacui 223 vastare 344 vanitare 34 = 187 tuos 138 -tura 37 turrensis 39 turri tumum vasus -um 347.298. 244 in hiatus 222-6 uo >• o 226 uu u 226 o 225 u(5 uu u 226 Uranus 193 urbis (nom. 326 u 178. 57. 440 ver 13 usque hodie 47 ustium 202 Ut II. etc. > -clus 234 388 Vowels unde 10. 223 : vernac(u)lus 234 vemum tempus 13 ve(r)sus 291 vertragus 19 Digitized by Microsoft® . 185 trutina 187 tu 60 -ula 37 (-ulus) Ulixes 187 ultra 166 -ulus 37. 440. 192. 101-30 Verbs : see Verb Forma verbus 347. 285 Valinca 37 (-Incus) . 378. 438. 70.395 unu(s) 29S unxi 429 U(5 >• o 225 uo unacc. 192. 206. 73. 220 ui 216 unaccented 219. 187. 229 (5). 243. 222. 42.Index.

= vac. Vulgar Words 15.) 349 314. 380 vilescere villa 10. 441 vixutus 440 vobis 385 cf. 430 vido vidutus 438. 428 vixi 255. 428. 12. 284 vetus 13 video 272-3 veyo virginem 233 vir(i)diaria 237 vir(i)dis 237 vir(i)dura 18. 429 = vixit 255 cf. 318 . 416.) 367 victualia 18. 430. 19. 239 vibi = bibi 318 iiibit 316 vibit victore (nom. 439 voster 199 (i). 255. 321 volatilia 37 volemus 403 (2) w (Ger. 13. 439. 231 (6) vocatus 435. 285. 283.201 viaticum 8. 358' villabus 358 Vincentzus 277 426 vinctus 440 vincui 428 vincutus 440 vindemiator 224 vindico 239 vindimia 197 vindo = v6. 240-5 in hiatus 222-7 Init. vivacius 377 vixcit = vixit 255 cf. 231 vettovaglia 154 vetulus 12.2l8 vervex 323 ves(s)ica 162 vestibat Index. Quantity 165-77. 440 warjan 344 voluntate (nom. 19 vulnus (masc. 385 Vowels 136-8. 195 vocitus Final Syl.195 (6) vocuus Quantity 221 Voice 1 12-4 Vulgar Latin 3. Accented 194-218 Digitized 344 344 werrarius 39 werrizare 33 wi^arlon 342 19. 221 Unaccented 219-45 (6) Vocabulary 6-49 vocatio videunt 416 vidi 428. 37 viror 37 virtus 10 vlscui visit Influence of Labials 217 Single Vowels 194208 before gn 172 (2) before j 170 before n fricative 171 before nk 172 (i) = = vixi 428.197 -ea 224 vinia vinsi 428. 259.) 367 warnjan 36. 416 vistus 441 visus 441 vitellus Breaking 177 = 37 vitium 278 vitricus 13 Vowels 179 Close and Open 165 Differentiation 165 Celtic = vit(u)lus 234 vivus 324 vius = German Vowels 179 Greek Vowels 180. 286. cf. 438. 428 .195 = video 416 vidui = vidi 428. + vezem 445 vezzo 278 -vui 428 -vi via 167. vinus 347 Clerical Pronun. 429 vinti 380 vincisti Intert. 165-245 watan werra = . 439 Penult 232-9 vac. 167-9 . Syl. 37 victurias 203 vic(u)lus'234. 272-3. Syl. 407 volutus 438 wastare 344 = ^ = = volvitus 438. by Microsoft® .) 344 volere velle 403 (2) w (Latin) 224 voles 403 (2) Waddo 344 volestis 403 (2) wadum 344 volimus 403 (2) wahta 343 volon 39 (-undus) walde 344 volsi 429 Wandali 344 voltus 438.93 in hiatus 136-8. 228-30 259 34 vi(gi)nti 142. 218 Diphthongs 209-16 420 vetatus 435 vet(e)ranus 219. 4 Voicing 256-7.285. 234. 284 videderunt 426 video 272-3. 428. 428 in words borrowed by other languages 1 74-5 Latin Vowels 178 Position 160-4 videre 72. 285. 297. 429 vixi(t) 285 . 441 viduus 226 vieni 177 vig(i)lat 430 Vocative 87 vocitus = vacuus 42. 387 vovis vobis 318 cf .

Index. 339 zeta = diseta 339 zie = die 272 Zesu zins 260 ziziper 312 (i) X 246. Wintrio 344 wlsa 344 witan 36. 339 Digitized by Microsoft® . 266 y (Greek) 187 y (Latin) 224 zagante 229 (3) zampogna 332 zanuari = ja.344 z 246 zabul(l)us zes 219 zacones zaconus ~ dia.339 = dia.339 zebus = die.272 ymnus 251 zerax = liierax 339 zosuin=deorsum 339 Zouleia= Julia 272.339 = dies 272 = Jesu 272. 255.277 Zogenes = Dio.339 Zefurus 187 zelosus 339 2» 333 Zodorus = Theo. 339 = dia. 398 Word Order 50-3 wost.272.

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