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S. GRANDGENT Fbofbssor of Romance Languagss in Harvahd University BOSTON..I)eatb'5 flDot>ern tHanduage Qctics AN INTRODUCTION VULGAR LATIN BY C. H. HEATH & Digitized CO. C. D. U. PUBLISHERS 1907 by Microsoft® . A.

1907. C. Heath & Co. By D. Digitized by Microsoft® .V^-^5 3J( Copyright.

however. furthermore. to treat all portions of the subject. not exhaustively. PREFACE. Romance making. abreast of current scholarship. somewhat scanty as compared with the other It will be seen that I have continually furnished abundant references for the guidance of those topics. I hope. graphy. it be of some interest to has been long in the Classical scholars as well.— . others are cited in the appropriate places in the C. have tried. I Philology. Digitized byiUicrosoft® . that the is Syntax — perhaps unavoidably parts. H. who wish to look further into special My principal authorities are listed in the Bibliotext. Although it. Grandgent. "^^HILE this book is intended primarily for students of it will. have endeavored to keep I at every stage. but with even fulness I fear.

Sense Restricted Sense Extended .. ..TABLE OF CONTENTS. AND Their Meanings.. ^ .. 8-9 Synonyms Substitutes. . with Abbreviations PHONETIC ALPHABET and Other Symbols X.. ^ ...... 9 9-10 10 10-12 Ii>-i2 Particles Words used in Vulgar but not in Classic Latin Native Words Foreign Words I2 Uerivation Post-Verbal Prefixes 13-29 Nauru . 7-8 Words used in Classic but not in Vulgar Latin . Adjectives. 6-29 6-12 6 7-8 7 . xvii INTRODUCTION i-S VOCABULARY WoBDS. ... and Pronouns Prefixes used with Verbs Suffixes Suflixes for Suffixes for Verbs Nouns Adverbs iv Digitized 18-23 Suffixes for Adjectives Suffixes for 23-25 25-26 27-28 Change of Suffix by Microsoft® .. Words used alike in Classic and in Vulgar Latin Words used differently in Classic and in Vulgar Latin . . 13 13-16 13-14 14-16 16-28 16-17 Prefixes used with Nouns. Pages MAPS The Roman Empire The Neo-Latin Territory in Europe BIBLIOGRAPHY..... xi x xi xiii-xvi . .

Compounds v Pages 28-29 28 28 28 28 Nouns . 30-59 30-32 32-41 32-34 33 33-34 34-38 Pronouns 34 35-36 36-37 37-38 38 ^^38-39 Verbs Adverbs Prepositions 39-41 ^ Conjunctions 41 Use of Inflections Cases 42-59 42-48 42-43 43 43-44 Locative Vocative Genitive Dative Ablative 44-4S 45-47 48^ Accusative Fall of Declension Verb-Forms Impersonal Parts Supine 48 48 48-51 48—49 '. Adjectives Pronouns- Verbs Adverbs Fiepositions 28-29 29 20 Conjunctions SYNTAX Order of Words Use of Words Nou»s and Adjectives Comparison Numerals Pronouns Personal and Possessive Pronouns Demonstratives Interrogatives and Relatives Indefinite . Gerund Gerundive . . .Table of Contents. Future Active Participle Digitized 49 49 49 by Microsoft® .

Greek Paroxytones Greek Proparoxytones Other Foreign Words Secondary Stress Unstressed Words 64 64-65 65-66 66 66-67 67-68 68-77 68-70 71-77 Quantity Position Vowel Quantity Vowels in Hiatus Lengthening before Consonants Disappearance of the Old Quantity Development of a New Quantity 72-73 73-75 75-76 76-77 77-104 78-82 82-gi Vowels Greek Vowels Accented Vowels Single Vowels 82-87 82-83 Digitized o by Microsoft® . Illic Ficatum Numerals Greek Words Greek Oxytones .vi Table of Contents. Pages Present Participle Perfect Participle Infinitive 5° 50 5°~5I 51-52 Voice Mood Imperative Subjunctive 52-54 52 5^-54 54-59 54-5^ Tense The Perfect Tenses Future and Conditional 5^59 60-143 60-61 61-68 61-66 61-62 62-63 63 63 64 64-66 PHONOLOGY Syllabication Accent Primary Stress Vowels in Hiatus Compound Verbs Iliac.

. 104-143 106-137 106-107 107-114 109-112 112 C and G Q. ^ »" I o 84 84-85 85-86 H u 86 86-87 87 a Diphthongs te 88-90 88-89 89-90 au eu ce ui Influence of Labials Clerical Latin 90 90 90 91 91 Unaccented Vowels 91-104 in Unaccented Vowels Initial Syllable Hiatus 93-96 96-98 98-99 99-102 102-104 Intertonic Syllable Penult Final Syllable Consonants Latin Consonants Aspirate Gutturals . Q. 11 2-1 14 Palatals Dentals Liquids 114-118 118-121 121-124 121-123 123-124 L R Sibilants 124-126 127-132 132-137 Nasals Labials P Digitized 132-133 by Microsoft® .Table of Contents... before Front Vowels and G before Back Vowels and G Final and before Consonants . . e vii Pages 83-84 84 ...

Nasals. T e. *. and Sibilants Z Germanic Consonants 141-143 144-187 144-161 144-147 144 145-146 146-147 MORPHOLOGY NotJNS AND Adjectives Gender Masculine and Feminine Masculine and Neuter Feminine and Neuter Declension of Nouns First Declension 147—156 149-151 Second Declension Third Declension Loss of Declension Declension of Adjectives 151-152 152—156 156 157-158 158-159 159-161 161-165 161-162 Comparison Numerals Pronouns and Pronominai. A 138 138 138-139 140 140-141 K. X Liquids.viii Table of Contents. Adjectives Personal Pronouns Possessives Demonstratives Interrogative Indefinite 162-163 163-164 165 165 and Relative Pronouns Pronouns and Adjectives Verbs The Four Conjugations First Conjugation 166-187 166-170 166-167 167 Second Conjugation Third Conjugation Fourth Conjugation Fundamental Changes in 167-170 170 Inflection 170-173 Digitized by Microsoft® . r. 133-13S 13s i3S-'37 137 137—141 u Greek Consonants B. Pages B F V . n.

Table of Contents. Inchoative Venbs ix Pages Present Stems Imperfect Perfect 173-174 174-176 176-177 177-182 » Weak Perfects . Strong Perfects Pluperfect and Future Perfect Perfect Participle 177-180 180-182 183 Personal Mndings 183-185 186-187 189-219 INDEX Digitized by Microsoft® .

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Quarterly. Audollent: A..Pipoque Densusianu: O. Bausteine: Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie. Wiener Studien XIV. M. W. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. in Romor nische Forschungen XV. Bechtel. 2^ ed. AudoUent. possibly as early as the third century. d'Arbois de Jubainville. Mllanges Boissier 5-9. Die Suffixwandlungen im Vulgdrlatein und im vorlittera- im NeufranzSsischen. Chronologie : F. I. 145 ff. D'Arbois: H. 1901. I. Cohn.. cellaneous studies issued in honor of A. 1905. Corssen. BIBLIOGRAPHY WITH ABBREVIATIONS. Pr. 1904. Vol. A volume of mis- Bayard : L. 1899. 1895. Bonnet. App. Cooper: F. Densusianu. Mohl. Bayard. -Carnoy: A. S.T. : Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. : Part — — . I. New ed. <J la chronologic du latin vulgaire. 1906. Mussafia. 1891.. G. 774. Cf. L. 1863 1893 Claussen T. 278 ft. A. ed. Ueber Aussprache. Romanische Forschungen VII. i). Le latin de saint Cyprien. Cf. Histoire de la langue roumaine. 1872. A Latin list of and incorrect spellings. 1868-70. C. Carnoy. Per. Archiv : Archiv filr lateinische Lexicographie und Crammatik mit Einschluss des dlteren Mittellateins. Le latin d'Espagne d'aprh les inscriptions. Claussen. Heraeus. (Vol.Cooper. 1902. 1902. Bon. La dlclinaison en Gaule d. Le latin de Grigoire de Tours. Dottin: G. Digitized b)microsoft® . mlrovingienne. Die griechischen Wbrter im Franzosischen. Silviae Peregrinatio. Manuel pour servir h Vltude de I'antiquiti celtique. : correct- Die Appendix Probi. Cohn : G. Dottin. Corssen : W. Defixionum Tabellae. Word Formation in the Roman Sermo Plebeius. Introduction 1899. Leipzig. Vocalismus und Betonung der rischen Franzosisch nach ihren Spuren lateinischen Sprache. Bechtel: E. : 1902-03. 1890. Melanges Renier 301-309.

KofEmane : G. in France. £don. 1904 Haag : O. Foerster and E. La latiniti d'Ennodius. 1902. H. Romanen und Germanen in ihren Wechselbeziehungen. a: Zur Geschichte des franzosischen 3. W. 498. Le developpement de facere dans langues romanes. 2d ed. Rydberg. Die Latinitdt Fredegars. XIV BlBIJOGRAPHY. Goelzer. Hammer. XXVI. in Archiv saint Jlrome. probably 521 ff. 1903. 1857-1880. 2d ed. Die locale Verbreitungfriihester romanischer Lautwandlungen im. Korting: G. : century. Einf . 1890vols. 1901. Franz. 1893. 1894. alten Italien. 569. Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. in the eighth Cf. 1901. 157. Syntax und Siil des Tertullian. Kluge. Reviewed by G. Habere mit dem et Infinitiv und die Entstehung des la latiniti de romanischen Futurums.. Keil: H. K. Draeger: A. I. 1892. Eckinger T. ed. . Entstehung und Entwickelung des Kirchenlateins. W.. G. Made in France in the eighth Reich. Franz : 1883. Dubois. Grammaire des langues romanes. Facere G. : W. P. £criture laire. Die Orthographie lateinischer Worter ingriechischen : : Inschriften. Hoppe. £E. 1902. — 1888- M. 1879Digitized by Microsoft® . : Meyer-Liibk'e. Franz. Cf. Hetzer. : : Hammer in Grundriss I^. EinfUhrung in das Studium der romanischen les Sprachwissenschaft.. Eckinger. Koff mane. 1903. Keil. Draeger. Kluge F. Grundriss der romanischen Philologie. Paris in Rom. Gl.: 1900. Haag. 48. Zs. Foerster and E.. jd or ninth century. Edon: G. Meyer-Liibke. Kbrting. Dubois A. Die Reichenauer Glossen in Zs. Cassel : II. Lateinisch-romanisches Wdrterbuch. 641 7. Grammatici Latini. 3 vols. W. 2d ed. Etude lexicograpkique grammaticale de Kasseler Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. 1884. 1898. Rydberg. : : P.. XXII.. Koschwitz. 2d 1878. Koschwitz. Gl. Beiheft Gram. et prononciation du latin savant et du latin popu- 1882. Grbber. W.. . Historische Syntax der lateinischen Sprache. Thielmann. of Vol. 2 1902.. 1896 — Futurum G. ed. Made. Reichenauer Glossen in Altfranzosisches Uebungsbuch. Die lateinisch-romanischen Elemente im Althochdeutschen. -Grundriss : G. Hoppe: H.

Le viritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. : 1 901.Bibliography. 1898. 1888. Teil. sit Quillacq : : J. S. Zur Lautlehre der griechischen. 1899. E. De latinitate libelli qui inscriptus est Peregrinatio loca sancta. Lindsay. 1901. R. Lexique F. Wolfflin in Archiv IV. Regnier. Fortsetzung. Substantives Word Formation of the Latin Inscrip- and Adjectives. 372. Quomodo lingua latina usus S. Pr. Pass. 1898. Hilarii Tractatus de Mysteriis et Hymni et S. ad loca sancta. 1894. PI. Gamurrini. La premiire personne du pluriel en gallo-roman. and S. Pirson. : F. De la latinitl des Sermons de saint Augustin. : : Ltblt. Itala und Vulgata. 1892-1902. : Leipzig.. in Grundriss V. 259. Hilarius. See Bechtel. Ronsch. . Studies in the tions. Lebreton. xv W. Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. The Latin Language. ad 367 ff. 1887. 451. Digitized by Microsoft® . 1869. G. Habere mit dem Part. : P. Geyer. Pogatscher. Silvice Aquitanm 1898. Mohl. Petite phonltique Phon. Lindsay: W. Regnier: A. . du frangais prilittiraire. Quillacq. Les mots latins dans les langues brittoniques.'i>(eue. 1901. H. N. Oliver: A^Oliver. Neue: Formenlehre der lateinischen Sprache. 1900. in Itinera hierosolymitana saculi Written probably in the latter part of the fourth century by an ignorant nun. M. Olcott. Cf. lat. t^ Verzeichniss der ed. 1897. lateinischen und romanischen Lehnworte im Altenglischen : II. M. : LiteraturblattfUrgermanischeundromanischePhilologie. 1888. Pogatscher A. J. P. 'P. Cf. Spr. Die lateinische Sfrache in den romanischen : Landern. 1892. auf Aussprache und Recht- schreibung beziiglichen Eigenthiimlickkeiten in den Inschriften aus Gallia Narbonensis. Etudes sur la langue et la grammaire de Ciciron. Observations on the Use of Certain Prepositions in to the Petronius with special reference Part. with special reference to the Latin Sermo Vulgaris. Ang^ade. Pers.XXX). Ferotin. ed. Btudes sur le lexique du latin vulgaire. Mohl. in P. perhaps from Spain. T. Olcott : G. 1903. Marchot.. Lebreton J. : La langue des inscriptions de la Gaule. Perf. Loth J. Loth. Silvia AquitancE Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. 1905. Pirson: J. G. Thielmann. 1886. A. 509: Peregrinatio iiii-viii. Meyer-Lubke. : Roman Sermo Plebeius. J. I goo. Archiv II. Perf Per. Vokalismus der Tonsilben. Monthly.S. Neumann Franz Neumann.

Zs. H. Chemnitz and Leipzig. III. 1868. to Works the text. Four to sLx 1879. Sittl: K. 264. : Wolfflin : E.. 1&&2. Vulgdrlateinische Substrate romanischer Worter. Vok. Lateinische und romanische Comparaiion. 1885.nn&r. Urbat. XII. VI. Der Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. : S. Zauner: A. 507. Quarter- ly. II. : Zeitschrift fiir franzosische Sprache und Litteratur. 234. Beitrdge zu einer Darstellung der romanischen Elemente im Latein der Historia Francorum des Gregor v. Stolz: F. 1900. 171. Quarterly. 424. Paris. 25. numbers a year. 453. Die franzosische und provenzalische Sprache ihre Mundarten. Sepnlcri : Gregorio A. VII. in Grundriss P. Substrate : G. Romania. 1903. Halle. 371. Die Ausprache des Latein nach physiologisch-historischen Grundsdtzen. in Grundriss P. 3 vols. ^KvA. Spr. Historische 1894. 371. Bibliography. 138. Vol. E.: E. in 204. XQ. Waters. I. 539. 1 856-68. Urbat R. Schuchardt. 377. Cena Trimalchionis. Suchier: H. Die rumdnische Sprache. Windisch. Wblfflin. Stolz. 100. fr. Tiktin : : H.xvi Richter Elise Richter. 1890. V. Waters: W. Petronius. 564. 422. Grober. Tours. Le alterazioni fonetiche e morfologiche nel latino di Magno e del suo tempo. : Zur Entstehung der romanischen Wortstellung aus der lateinischen. 1902. Windisch: E. Zs. 116. 117. 276. Die keltische Sprache. Die lokalen Verschiedenkeiten der lateinischen SpracAe. Notices et Extraits de divers manuscrits latins pour servir A fhistoire des doctrines grammaticales au moyen dge. : Zeitschrift Jur romanische Philologie. Paris. Charles Thurot. und Thurot : Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits de la Biblioth^que nationale et : attires bibliothiques Vol. Tiktin. Seelmann. Som. Archiv I. which only occasional reference is made are cited in full in Digitized by Microsoft® . Romanische Sprachwissenschaft. 125. Grammatik der lateinischen Sprache. IV. Suchier. in Studi Medievali I. in Grundriss P. Sepulcri.

(an acute accent) after a consonant letter shows that the consonant is (a dot) • C '^ / (a hook)' under a palatal. SMALL CAPITALS mean that the forms so printed occur in inscriptions (but this indication is used only when for some special reason it seems desirable). Digitized by Micrqsoft® xvii . * (an asterisk) before a word shows that the form attested. S =z > the sound of in English i/iis. is conjectural. the sound of German «.c = the sound of ch in German ach. the sound of Spanish v and i/i *. The other marks and abbreviations employed are so generally accepted as to need no explanation. not >• indicates derivation. = the sound of ng in English long. the source standing at the open end of the figure. whichever way it be turned. . =r bilabial /S v. := rounded i. . under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is close. = the sound of e in French me. J) ii o. q e. (a semicircle) under a vowel letter shows that the vowel is not syllabic. o = rounded the sound of German = the sound of th in English thin.PHONETIC ALPHABET AND OTHER SYMBOLS. vowel letter shows that the vowel is open. .

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Celts. IHy- _rians . tribes. in adopted by Etruscans and by various n orthern Italy by Ligurians. Latin language never gained a foothold in Greece.talyjt_was Italic tribes. Raetia in 15. Throughout this territory the official language Latin. The extent of the Roman Empire on p. civilizations. the in 102-1. Empire it has remained. Aquitanians. The Latinization of these peoples was the work of several centuries^: by 272 b. Tiber. The and Teutones were destroyed was a province. Sardinia and Corsica in 238. Venetia cast her lot with Rome in 215.n central j. 451-455. representing different races. and. northern Cim- Gaul Dacia was colonized in 107 A. Illyrians in^sou^hea^emjmd southwestern Italy respectively by and Greeks._Semites. Illyria was absorbed after 167. Sicily became a province in 241. political changes drove it in the rest of the from Great Britain. Chronologie . pp. and linguistic habits.. Sfr. c. Africa after Iberians. for the most part. in 50. southern Gaul in 120. 'See Mohl.AN INTRODUCTION TO VULGAR I. Lat. beyond the peninsula it spread among Ligurians. I Digitized by Microsoft® . all Italy was subdued south of the Macra and the Rubicon. the Orient. LATIN. D. and Africa._ Germanic and others still. Spain was made a province in 197. j. also Meyer-Lubke. a little district on the is The Latin tongue was thus extended to many peoples. tEe bri fall "oO^thage in 146. originally the speech of shown by the map was Latium. forsaken in the third century. Celts. and quite cut off from the rest of the Latin-speaking world in the sixth.. X.

has always been in an unstable condition. there were at all times. Chronologie 98-99. the alteration being most rapid in the earliest and the latest Furthermore. kindred At first there was sturdy resistance. and has been carried thence to Amerand Asia. Spr. Oscan forms are ligud for and k for lege^ pru for pro^ ni for 'The is S. [§ 2 until the present day. conflict of or less with the native idioms . Kff.'' In the outlying provinces. in the main. considerable local dive^ences. etc. Digitized may be Oscan. The before the Social War. The Latin tongue. and Oscan was used in inscriptions until the first century of our era. but there doubtless were still noticeable differences in pronunciation and even in vocabulary. and there must have been a variety of accent. however. that the language carried effect. 464. It should be remembered. and their In Italy the language §peech_reflected_their varied origin. and there was little or no mixture. 445. Latm. the resulting geographical dis- crepancies are manifest in early monuments. Europe where Latin in its modern forms is now spoken. until the 90-89 B. became more uniform. it blended more languages. and to some degree in the peninsula. 2. c. like every living language. Africa. alL southern Italy was under Oscan influence. ilex are perhaps Umbrian possibly Etruscan Lat. had a levelling and speech in Italy ^ See Chronologie 133 and I16-120. but especially p^eriods. piimex. nevertheless a few native words were kept. Latin was simply substituted for foreign tongues. jfor : e.^ When Latin conquered. The evidence of inscriptions and of grammarians indicates that from the beginning to the end of Roman history speech was constantly changing. The map on p. moreover. Italian nn : for nd.2 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.g2eaking peoples_ were not_ homogeneous. Pomex. The Social War. xi marks the parts of ica. of Latium was adopted by tribes using. elex for The Italian word zavorra by Microsoft® .

not an independent offshoot of Old Latin: system. What wecalTVuIit gar Latin is the speech of the middle classes. and is also between city Injatfi. more offtcial speech. Digitized by Microsoft® . provinces was not identicial: it represented different chronological stages and different local dialects of jI^aUc^Latin . . . not the primitive. drawing away . from the consciously polite utterance of cultivated society. the earlier acquisitions received a more popular. though affected by all of these. the common idiom. and from the slang of the lowest quarters of the city. throughout the Republic and the Empire. from the brogue of the country. was constantly developing away from the archaic standard of elegant parlance.from the everyday language on the other hand. Literary influence conservative and refining. vowel is it Neither the dialect of the slums or of the us of not a few urban and rustic grammarians distinct tell vulgarisms that are not perpetuated in the It is Romance tongues.t&L. Republican and early Imperial times educated speech became highly^ artificial. Roman territory. _excegting ^reece andthe £entiiry after Christ. XV-XXX. 3 i\2_ik^_J£X?. ugper and that of the lower and^coiintry speech. 463-464. Administration and ImiHtary service tended to obliterate distinctions. under the Empire the variations probably came to be no greater than those /the^kter colonies a now to be found in the English of the British Empire..the classes. We may say in general that the East.. %J3] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.^ fields: it continues the Classic. 3. Spr. while popular usage tends to quick change. 1 . Cf Cooper . as It is grew out of early Classic Latin. was completelyTaFinized by the fourth "^ "" of With the beginnings culture and literature there came inevitably a divergence between the language of .^ Vulgar Latin naturally developed differently in ^ * Cf Lai.

vedus). Pirson and Carnoy also.A-P.seventh century of our era. period lasts.enormous development of modifying and determining words. and the diphthong at is reduced to e). We rfote an. ^l^ various localities. become virdis. ai almost in iCf. . from about 200 b. Althou.^ The differentiatign. roughly The speaking. Spr. B. due partly to phonetic but mainly to syntactic causes. Kiibler Archiv VIII. in the last few centuries of this epoch. YjJgar Lsatijl. some to unknown reasons! WEy~" for instance. we shall see was always tending to become more flexible and more explicit. Digitized by Microsoft® .ALjUus--poin-t we ~may_ say that Vulgar XiSi^ stops and the . An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.^ any definite date must be arbitrary. suftseSWe 4. tqa^bout -6oo . for African Latin. progressed._jjid an abundant use of prefixes is most sharply differentiated from Classic Latin when schools decayed „ . we observe certain changes in pronunciation. Sittl and Hammer. If we compare that the latter find also a gre at sim plification of inflections. 492-497. some of which can be ascribed to an inclination to discard those parts of words that are not necessary for their identification (as vetulus when viridis.JLQmance languages _begin. * For a history of the Latin language. c. as far as the levelling inEuence of schot^l and army permitted. . until the dialects of distant localities became mutu^ ally unintelligible. such as articles and prepositions. we may put it.4 . some to a desire for differentiation (which lowers i to e to make it more remote from i ). i6i. some to a tendency to assimi^tejmlike adjacent sounds (so ipse is spoken isse.^ Ctassic and VulgarXatin. the universal inclination of language to diverge was reinforced by the original habits of the diverse speakers and by such peculiarities of native accent as hacl survived. inj^e^ixth Jix . Furthermore. see Lat. being accelerated and the military organization was broken. then.

the subsequent developments. Seelmann. Archiv XIV. andrmosTim- ^portant o f_all.iSgS. the occasional lapses in cultivated authors. 6t. 204 if. 551. .. Wolfflin. Gioixr. Geyer. 367. Le veritable auteur de la Peregrinatio Silvice in Revue des questions historiques LXXIV (N. 1902 . Marchot in Romanische Forschungen XII. Bechtel. W. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 278. Grober. Vokalismus des Vulgdrlateins. 35. and W. P. Sprachgziellen und Wortquellen des lateiniscken Worierbuchs in Archiv I. XXX). Aussprache des Latein. fourth century^.' spells by A.. see G. . Hetzer in Zs. early and late. see Stolz. Zur Sprache der Mulomedicina Chironis in . E. Audollent. a considerable iragment of a description of travel in the East. and the establishment of unattested Vulgar Latin words. Itinera hierosolymitana sceculi mi-viii. Die Appendix Probi. 55-67. 259 M. Fcerster in Wiener Studien XIV. Beiheft 7. Schuchardt. 1866-68. Lot. 5* Our sou rces of information' concerning the„ current spoken La tin are^ the statements of grammarians^. "See 119. E. ^ Utilized by E. the A^endix Probi^ z.glossaries aDi. a problem as yet unsolved. Foerster and KDfSiiitbdnll>fr.— An become^ o. in Archiv I. The Text and a Study of the Latinity. possib^'as early as the third century'. 401. For a brief account of the Latin grammarians. G. 1904. list of spellings. 1902. a few texts w ritten by persons of scanty education. Zur Mulomedicina Chironis in Archiv XII. . Spr. S. . Ueber die Latinitat der Peregrinatio ad loca sancta in Archiv IV. 5 universally be came is e. ^Cf. E. S. Herseus. 'See W. of the^TConraHcel languages. the nonClassic forms. made in France There is an interesting collection of Defixionum Tabellce. some . Zur Appendix Probi in Archiv XI. Of ^speciaTvalue are the Peregrinatiqjidjqtasancta. the distinction of learned and popular words. 1885. Meyer-Liibke.ijecurring. while au did not in Latin generally. Heraeus. in the eighth century. Silvia Peregrinatio. 455-461. A. * Used by H. Lommatzsch.Mili/BaoilSisches Uebungsbuch. in inscriptions and early manu- ^scripts'. 1899. 641 K. . Die Appendix Probi in Archiv XI.* All of these are to be used with caution. F6rotin. "See P. the so-called Glossary of Reichenau. Cf. Melanges Boissier 5 W. Paris in Melanges Renier 301. and VII. 4 For the chronology of developments. by an uneducated woman (probably a Spanish nun) of the latter good and bad pajt of the. 301 G. 25 ff.Jists„jof JacQlxacJtjOTmjs.

. II. ~ technical words not found in literature. (Jlagrare —gTttta). ii6fif.) Worter ff.iooff. 2'/$^. reconstructed out of Romance words. polite language. the vulgar idiom has homely metaphors of its own and numerous specific. 149. V. ff. quando. Die Sprache der romiscken Kinderstube in Archiv XIII. Herasus. A. {tabanus — ziruiare). the nucleus of the language. popular use tends to restrict them. too. ff. ^See Densusianu. 422 {pbedire — putidus)-. Die romische Soldatensprache in Arckiv XH. WORDS USED ALIKE IN CLASSIC AND VULGAR LATIN. WORDS AND THEIR MEANINGS. puteus. ff. vacca . VOCABULARY. {damnum — dui)^ in Arckiv: I. 125 {quadraginta — rascu' {reburrus — runcare). in. speech of the literary and fashionable classes should differ from that of the common people so Literature inclines to extend it is in all civilized communities. see G. yj^ (supplement. ff. dicere. 233 ff. has many poetic figures and many abstract terms unknown to the crowd. Grober. viridis. 138 {hmdus — iticem). 185-203. altus. VulgSrlateinische Substrate romanischer . audire. On the other hand. W. Examples are : 7. For an approximately complete vocabulary.I. amare. so cams. [abbreviare buttis). (sabanum — lare)^ 234 VI. longus. pater. mater. pants. vendere. For a thorough discussion of reconstructed forms. Lateinish-romanisches Worterbuch. 453ff. male. This class includes a great mass of words. forming. filius. (eber III. 6. — icaccubus — curbus). bene. suus)'. 539 —Jiiicum)^ 424£f. 1901. Korting. see G. It is natural that the The the senses of words. bonus. 1. {Hie — lamna)^ So?^' {lacusta — mille)\ IV. si. Digitized b^Wlicrosoft® . 255. {minacicE — nutrire). ff. to speak. 264ff. iiyS.

. Dubois 185-225. Quillacq 54-79. viaticum = ']ox\xntY'. Digitized by Microsoft® . IN CLASSIC 7 a. perhaps Cf. G. non capit utique videri Deus. SENSE RESTRICTED. 351—352.'. etc..' to^x^a . nor 'best b. § 10] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bon. Hoppe Most 48. be classified under the heads of restriction or extension of meaning. Very many Classic words are used in Vulgar Latin with a different sense: comparare =^h\xy'./22J£Sfe 46. Dubois 220. 286. not 'strength'. but there are some examples /(7r^j = 'strong' in all 10. G. Bayard 105. orbus—'hXmd'. not 'sophism' nor 'deceit'. nite This happens frequently. hcec eestimare non capit. Bayard 63-202. necare = Bon. . se piicare=' go'. new meaning in addition ambulare= 'march'. 8. SENSE EXTENDED. Many words kept their literal but lost their metaphorical sense: captio ='a. mulier='-vi\ie'. : senses. 283..ct of taking'. 243. Pirson 257-258 . Per. Bon.^ The general use of a word in an extended sense is not common. 1 a.'» Many Pirson 260-262. assume to the old one: Bechtel 137. Archiv XII. Capit a ssumed the meaning of fieri potes t: R.'k'. lectio =^ 'dxoifin' machinari='g[mA. etc. words. Regnier 24. defi' 9. = 'rebJiKe§. ingenium := 'trick'. 'text'. etc. yUloi:^. non capit prophetam perire. 269-270. 272. ro6ur= 'o^. and also 'continue'. WORDS USED DIFFERENTLY AND IN VULGAR LATIN. Bon. of the examples can ». 235-328. focus=^iix&\ paganus= 'pagan'. a word assuming a more or concrete signification {^se : icognatus\=z ' brother-in-law coUocare^ 'put to bed' dominicus =: divinus . 286). collocare= 'go to bed'. part'. however. i ^ns— 'chM'..11. 'authority'. tractatus= 'treatise'.

populus «/««^«j= 'common people'. Waters Ch. quod. Ecclesiastical Latin. at. cum. Dubois. quoque. satis = 'much'. to be sure. Regnier 29 {in came paucas habet virgines sanctimoniales). the French ilj> a. WORDS USED Numerous all in m CLASSIC BUT NOT IN VULGAR LATIN.8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etiam.13. ergo. postquam.. 3. they were either borDigitized by Microsoft® . Very many adverbs and conjunctions dis-"~\ I appeared saltern. quomodo) assumed new functions. etc. Bon. 422 (in area Noe . quippe. proles. diu. replicare= 'reply'. quoad. monuments of the Romance languages: so funus. 204. Per. tamen must have been sed. 418. 391-397. [§ n 'go'. Unde came to mean 'and so'. vel. Per.. Bayard 94. quia. etc. 37. apud. quin. facere (time)'.per. ita. but most of them are new formations. ut. When lost terms were needed for literary or other purposes. 44. is very rich in abstract nouns (G. G. enim. del>ere 'mdica. etc. Regnier 20. Bon. Waters Ch. Bayard 83. 58 {bella res). nam. unus = 'a'. Pirson 255 ^^l^lj^j^^ ^^^^ habuit serpentes).tes moral obligation. an. = 'pass Regnier 27 {quadraglnta dies fecit).).. and quasi. fletus. So various prepositions and conjunctions (as ad. horrescere. Dubois 218. 328.loco forsitan quattuor milia.. res is used of persons. de. quidem. . hamo has the sense of French on. /V/-. ^: moribund. Bechtel 127 {habebat de eo. 258 fif. Latin words either were not em- II. G. Bechtel 144. . autem. . etc. utrum. 66. donee.". although it is common in the Peregrinatio. hand. : . terms and some abstract nouns were not needed: frondifer. wW«/« = 'miracles' (in imitation of the Greek). 38. fascia means a measure of land. Poetic aurora. ^2S= 't^he' and 'he'.25. sive. etc. Dubois 301-308). igitur. Classic ployed at the vulgar speech or went out of use before the earliest Jubere. Bechtel 144.

For mansio. French. i'^o^^ tot hy quanti. Raetian. Occasionally the substitute aliquis yielded in part to res -vi&y was apparently a slang word: nata. 472 ferre to portare. Provengal.§ 13] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. ^capitia (<^caput) by Spanish and . humerus by spatula. . privignus by 13. domus by casa.Va&T* capum) is preserved by Rumanian. . testa by Cf. When Latin had two words nearly synonymous. ^ * Caput (or rs. . ^ Zauner 41-4.2. casa occurs only in Italian inscriptions. b. hospitale^.. mansio ( Roman. Italian. R. 'dwelling') only in . magnus to grandis. Bechtel i^o^gena to gabata. French and Provencal mansio and hospitale.\ Dubois 209. R. R. senex to vetulus. equus to caballus. clerical 9 rowed from Classic or Latin (as nobilis) or replaced by new constructions (as *carrica for onus). cf. Italian. Provenjal. Digitized ^^^ by Microsoft® . urbs by civitas. R. sol According to Olcott XVIII. Cf Zauner 41-42. Portuguese. R. Indus to jocus. 337.. Sometimes a term was replaced by a word not found in Classic Latin at all: anser-wAs driven out by *auca (<. 12. Dubois 220. diminutive of avis). nunc by hora. caput to testa''.338. edere in the main to manducare. Some words were replaced by diminutives. vitrUus hypatraster. Rjetian. R. SUBSTITUTES. Sometimes the survivor was far from a synonym in Classic Latin: discere was displaced hy apprendere. 336. cur to quare. to genitores. ignis hy focus. avus by *aviolus. os to bucca. tanti. Dubois 212. R. some nouns by derivative adjectives: avis ^ by aucellus. 324.. 472. 313. mansio. crus gave to gamba. Olcott XXV. one often crowded out the other: atrium gave way to cars. . French. ^-j 2 parentes . R. Spanish. *filiaster. Rumanian. 345. G. 272. noverca by *matraster.*avica. a. emere by comparare. Among the Romance languages. omnes by toii. Italian. SYWOHYMS. and by villa. Portuguese prefer casa.

Autem. 472 mane h^ Diminutives were extremely common in late matutinum. Cf. G. yielded to apud. vetus for [§ 15 by *soUculus.). by subsitution. d'lJ way pro and per. erga. words were replaced by phrases: diu by longum tempus (Bon. c. . pra.). 4. infemus. and other phrases. credens. Densusianu. paucum tempus for haud diu). etc. ver by vemum tempus. cuculla. became *por. Gl. dies largely . R. Ab was made unnecessary by de and per. 184-185. infemus. etc.). too. Adjectives used as nouns were etc.x\naucella. ex gave to de. ut were ousted by functions of an. Italy. schedula. 403._ Cis. Some of these were probably old Digitized by Microsoft® . tamen. most part by vetulus. ^w^ by diurnus. The place of cum was taken various substitutes.lo in part An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.). 100-107 {arida. by other words. to propter were displaced southern Gaul. Reich. Olcott 250-263 {gemelli. appear in Classic Vulgar Latin evidently had many words that do not texts. utrum were assumed by si. which replaced /^r and pro in Spain and to a considerable extent in northern Gaul. ergo. quoniam were often replaced by quomodo. etc. igitur. 201. R. 203. Bon. Fro. conjunctions. etiam. Dubois 147 {novellus'). hiems by hibernum. ne. 395-396. frequent also: R. 15. quando. etsi. Occasionally. Many prepositions. R. quod. the by quando and other conjunctions. apud-<n2iS partially supplanted by adj cum. and adverbs were lost 14. Latin: G. WORDS USED IN VULGAR BUT NOT IN CLASSIC LATIN. 108-121 {brevis. in Gaul. sed. 121-130 {cereolus. doubtless under the influence of per. neptilla. mammula-:=^^zxiA\aoVs\t. PARTICLES. and Dacia preferred /^r.

Vr. tatus. serutinus. mamma. etc.. (Fr. Rom. 468-469 (^quid enim prode est homini. 63. fin. etc. hoc enim prode fit vobis.). (so. Neue II. as *miaulare.adj. prode.ndta. Bayard 179 (applied . Ch. 270-271. Herzog in Bausteine e. battalia. Grammont.. (Fr. Archiv XIII. so not improbably the original of the Romance words mean'find'. 234. XVII. baro — 'athlete'. and f. Onomatopees et Revue des langues romanes XLIV. Cyprian to the bishop of Carthage). 154. gent. A few that must have existed are not attested at all: *refusare. Densusianu 190. It. between genitus and from prodest (cf. NATIVE WORDS. adj. etc. Archiv XIII. pudoris finis. ing 'touch'. from the noun finis in such phrases as honorum finis. 237. Archiv XII. 154. finis honoris > 484. . 16. 151-153. trepalium. Some native words are rarely attested. Digitized by Microsoft® . detached 176-177). Archiv XIII. potis est = potest. pappus = 'gra. It. cloppus Densusianu 196. Substrate V. 17. *gentis. § 405). Audollent 199. 151— 152. atta. a. Pr. nonnus. although they were doubtless in common use: amma. fins onors. Substrate ficatum. 97. circare = 'hnnV . E.§ 17] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Archiv XIII. ii native terms that do not happen to occur in the works preserved.. expressifs in M. some Were borrowed from other languages. *rettna=: 'rein'. Waters Ch. gente). 53. *prodis. Densusianu 196. Pirson 243. adj.). II. tata. and 'go' (cf. sed non genttlis. fuit prode St. norma. gavia (used by Pliny). Archiv XIII. SubstrateY.g. 186. fine fino). Pirson 244. Archiv VIII. and perhaps those of the words meaning 'gape'. . apparently a cross then m. Korting (found in the 7th century). bxmca. cf. Some of the unattested words were obviously late developments: *finis. 156-157.'. 421. drappus. pa(J>)pa. Archiv XIII. Likewise words made by ono- matopoea. R. some were late creations. 106..

catechiblasphemare . *man{u)aria. prophetare. colaphizare. such as alauda. alberca. folUa. FOREIGN WORDS. modernus.. R. some of popular creation. dactylus. Regnier VIII. *soliculus. eunuchizare. wfltan 19. According to Olcott XIX. cata pascha). *coraticum. haribergum. 225. a few of them on the sense of 'every'. a distributive preposition. More Germanic words (of. thesaurizare . 224. 211. carricare. scandalizare. Digitized by Microsoft® . Introduction to Vulgar Latin. apparently borrowed by popular speech: amygdalum. G. prophetizare. 12 An 18. colaphus. Bechtel 95 {cata mansiones. and not a few new derivatives. *nivicare. *vir{t)dura. evangelizare. sabbatizare. [§ 19 Late Latin was rich in derivatives. as baptizatio. Some were introduced by fashionable etc. will be discussed at length in the following may be given here: post-verbal dolus <dolere. diaconissa. A werra.. schema. zare. anathematizare. but a few examples Gl. Introduction) found their way into Latin: bannus. verging 247 {cata mane mane). which affected familiarity with Greek. 226. *dulcior = 'sweetness'. haunjan. Reich. sagma. there are many Greek words in Petronius: hepatia. 44. Pirson 236). This subject chapter. Dubois 144. African Latin was freest in word formation. cata. (cf. We find a large number of Greek words.. confessor = 'martyr'. Judaizare. Very many Greek terms used by ecclesiastical writers never became popular. 205-226: anathema. baptizare. Reich. §71. b. zelare. Bon. * abbellire . Gl. cf. vertragus. some made by Christian writers. as allegorizare. Gram. Cf. Waters Ch. vict(u)alia. 66. dulcor. More came in through the Christian vocabulary: angelus. Bon. numerous verbs in -izare. G. few Celtic terms were adopted. hapja. *ausare. Waters Ch. society.

such as gaudimonium (Waters Ch. and finally composite words. Cooper XXXIV. some of them made with new suffixes (as —icca. Bon. as canere.was used with some adjectives and appar: ently with a few nouns bisaccium. whereas in reality both come from a primitive verb. a fictitious primitive noun was derived from a number of verbs in Vulgar Latin and in the Romance languages so dolus from dolere. —itta)} Petronius shows a fondness for long derivatives. In strictly Classic texts there appear to be no 20. G. saltus — saltare. which in- the literary language creased. bisacutus. " Cooper XXXVI. in-.§ 22] An Introduction to VulgaW Latin. 2. 430-693 Densusianu 156-173. 22. 21. 130 . See Gram. 35. Late writings almost all abound in abstract nouns (Cooper 1-2). XL VI. Digitized by Microsoft® . substantives taken from the roots of verbs). etc. Petronius. (pairs in : VII (blamed by St. 98. PREFIXES. sub-.* We shall consider first postverbal nouns (i. Vulgar Latin is very rich in derivatives and comit has many affectionate diminutives. 61). " Cooper 246-297. 367. G. Bis. B. ADJECTIVES. satire). next suffixes. really living suffixes \ but the lost. POST-VERBAL NOUNS. Vok.e. who were especially addicted to prepositional compounds with con-. Augustine). 170 . Regnier etc. then prefixes. 13 DERIVATION. '^ . AND PRONOUNS. which the noun seems to come from the derivative verb. Cooper XXX ff. II.^ PREFIXES USED WITH NOUNS.. facility of word formation.or bi. 246-247. After the model of cantus — cantare. 1. I.* popular speech preserved and This freedom of formation was abused by African authors. a. ' » bimaritus. pounds .


An Introduction
Ad-, con-, de-,

to Vulgar Latin.


dis—, ex-, in-, re:

and some others were
*adaptus ; commixtius,

occasionally used to form adjectives

G. 160 defamatus ; *disfactus; exsucus; inanimatus ; *replenus.
Cf. G.




Ac-, atque-,

ecce-, eccu-,

met- were used as demonstrative

prefixes to



pronominal adjectives and to adverbs. Eccu— is ecce eum; its origin being forgotten, it was used in

Vulgar Latin as a synonym of ecce. Met, primarily a suffix, came to be used as a prefix through such combinations as semet ipsum, understood as se metipsum. In archaic writings
reinforced demonstratives as eccum, eccam,


ecca, eccillum., eccillam, eccillud, eccistam

are not



Vulgar Latin examples are ac Classic texts they are rare. sic; atque ille-; ecce hie; * eccu iste ; * eccu sic. Substrate VI,





Cf. A.

Kohler, Die Partikel

ecce in

Archiv V,

See §§ 65, 66.



25. Ad-, con—, de-, dis—, ex—, in—, re— were freely used, disbeing mainly a Vulgar Latin prefix: abbreviare, G. 179 * a.d;

cap(i)tare ; adgenuculari, R. 181; adpretiare, R. 181, G. 180;
adpropiare, R. 181, G. 180; adunare, R. 182; confortare, R. 185,

* cominitiare ; complacere, R. 184; deaurare, G. 182 * disjejunare; exaltare, G. 183; excoriare, G. 182; impinguare, G. 181


G. 183; *infurcare; recapitulare, G. 185; *requcerere.
con—, de- lost their special significance;

Ad—, ad— was particularly

favored in Spain, con- in Italy.
ally there

Cf. Lat. Spr. 487.

was a change

of prefix


was used with the

sense of expectare, * convitare sometimes took the place of invitare; dis-

was often substituted

for ex-.


Ab-, contra-, per—, sub-, super supra-, tra trans— were

by Microsoft®

§ 3i]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


used occasionally: * aboculare ; *contrafacere; *perdonare ; subG. 185; * subdudere ; subsannare, R. 199, G. 187; superabundare, G. 187; * super—* suprafacere ; *trabucare ; *transaudire,

annare; transplantare, G. 188.
27. Extra- was sometimes used and 2«/ra— in Italy: * extrabuccare ; 28.
in Italy

and Dacia, infra-

* infraponere ; *intratenere.


e-, ob-, prce-,

pre-, pro-, retro— were apparently

not used to form new verbs in the popular spoken language,
although some of them are occasionally so employed by late
writers: opprobare, G. 184; prcedesiinare, G. 184


prolongare, G. 184.



sometimes replaced by ad—:


> addormire.

Foris and minus came to be used as prefixes in some

Foris was confounded Gaul with the Frankish _;?r- (= ver-) verslahen = Old Fr. See G. Baist, Frdnkisches fir— im altesten Franzosiforbatre. schen in Romanische Forschungen XII, 650; cf. Rom. XXX, For this use of minus, compare the phrase minus est^ 633. caritas in quantum adest in quantum deest, Regnier 109


* minuscredere.






autem minus


Cf. § 245.


Some verbs

take a double prefix

adimplere; coexcitare,

R. 207

(cf. Quintilian, coexercitatus); deexacerbare, R. 207

*deexcitare; *exeligere.




the restoration of the


form of

the primitive verb, was a regular process in Vulgar Latin (cf. §139): aspargo for aspergo is blamed by Velius Longus, £don

Cyprian, Bayard 3; commando is, according to Velius Longus, the usual form, rather than commendo,



used by


S. 60, ifidon

131; consacrati


occur in inscriptions,




Bon. 49°;

^^f^'^i ^30^°





An Introduction
Bon. 490.

to Vulgar Latin.



Computo, 58-64, Bon. 486-493. prdsto seem to cdnsto, consuo, erigo, exeo, infio,

have been regarded as simple verbs

S. 64.

primitive form of prefixes; but this

Late writers were in the habit of restoring the full, was doubtless merely a

matter of spelling, and did not indicate the



In TertuUian, Cyprian, and some others there is generally no assimilation of the prefix other writers, such as

Gregory of Tours, apparently used both assimilated and unassimilated forms. Bayard 12-15: adpetere, conpendium, inproius, obfero, subplanto. Bon. 178-188: adtonitus, conmittere,
inlatus, obprimere, subcuvibere.



in —are; occasionally


Nexhsfrom nouns^ generally end
sometimes in

in -iare or —ire;

which was eventually sup-

planted in Italy and in Gaul by —izare (for pronunciation see

§339)- This last ending came from Greek -dfiv through borrowed words, such as baptizare. For a list of Greek verbs in -i^etv adopted by Christian writers, see R. 248-249 (cf. §19 above); some new formations were used, as catechizare. In early Latin this same ending appears as -issare (attidsso, rhetorisso): see A. Funck, Die Verba auf issare und izare in

Archiv III, 398.


— * dom'nizare;

—plagiare —


oculare; pedinare; plantar.e; potionare; * trepaignire ;



follicare ;

* nivicare ;


Cooper 205-245, Dubois 151-162, Quillacq 41-46, Bonnet 471-474.

"Cf. R. 154-162.

by Microsoft®


§ 36]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

in —are,


Verbs from

and perfect participles e.r\A

—iare, —ire; also in' -icare (cf. albicare), —itare (cf. debilitare,
visitare), —escere


—iscere (cf. canescere, mollescere); possibly


angiistare; *ausare; captivare

confortare ; falsare

gravare ; levare ; * oblltare ; rictare ; Usare ; * abbellire ; tiare ; * captiare ; humiliare ;

— * vanitare —


alleviare; * al-

unire ;


Icetiscere ; vilescere ;

— amari— *blan-




verbs from perfect participles (frequentatives, etc.)

replace the original verbs: adjuvare "> adjutare ; audere'^ausare; canere'^cantare ; uti>usare.

lost their frequentative or inchoative sense







156. in -icqre


Verbs from other verbs end


fodere), —itare (cf. clamitare <,clamare')\ also in -escere, -Iscere
(cf. florescere,

* bullicare

< buUere





inchoative force:

apparescere ;

Vulgar Latin has many old frequentive verbs G. 178-179, Cooper 205. There are some late diminutives in —aculare, —tculare, -uculare, through diminutive nouns or adjecWe find also tives (ci. periculari <,periculum'): * saltlculare. some miscellaneous imitative formations * expaventare (and some others) apparently after the analogy of prasentare * misculare perhaps after maculare.


Greek verbs in -av,

-eiv, etc.,

when taken

into Latin, reg-

KvP€pvav>gubemare ; pXa(r<j}rifidv'>b/asphemare. Cf. Claussen 795. But ^aXS.av>psallere, perhaps through the analogy oifallere: Claussen 796. Germanic verbs in -an or -on regularly passed into the first


in —are:

conjugation in Latin





guidare ; roubon




"jR^etcA. ;

in -jan

went into the fourth
It. guamire. Digitized by Microsofi®


> hatire,


warnjan >

apparently. socera. was used. -die. -enda. R. Cooper 1-91. *sperantia. —ata : see -ta. as victualia (cf. G. was extended: coxale. 31-37. 6\. bonatus. for nouns and adjectives: liminare. Pirson 123. b. neuter plural of the gerundive. iio-iii). -dtus. Olcott 187-189. * credeniia . -ugo were characteristic of rustic speech: —al. -^a. as senatus (common in Petronius. was very fond of diminutives: adules- centulus. tives. Cf. Bon. Ch. used to form adjectives and also nouns. too. Latin. -ens: see Adjectives. 79-102. 453-463. were used The Christian writers are especially rich Waters Ch. (as viaticum) was extended. Dubois 99-136. Olcott 73-78. -antia. essentia. 95. a neuter plural. . Cf. Bon. taurellus. were used to form abstract nouns from verbs: Cf. the collective plural -ilia. 366. are the following: : Ch. 40. G. in Italy and Gaul * canalia •< canis. 74). Olcott 176-182. to form nouns from nouns: g. porcellus. in a collective sense. 39. Cf. G. -igo. especially names of parts of apparel (as bracchiale). Olcott 238-239.i in 37. -arius: see Adjectives.8 — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. R. -alia. came to be used as a feminine singular: *facienda. 1 [§ 37 SUFFIXES FOR NOUWS. volatilia. -ans. G. : -anda. *ducatus. The commonest endings -a. *pollicare. fragraniia . 59. * calamarium. Cf. as miraUlia. -are. —aria : see -ia. -dnus: see Adjectives. was extended: breviarium. made from present significantid). was extended: clericatus. -ar. -entia. Quillacq 15-31. used to — Haag 41 form f eminines nepta. etc. as a feminine singular with an augmentative and pejorative signification. Some go endings. Bon. 49-52. -ago. placentia. participles H ia (as benevolentia. 355. Digitized by Microsoft® . 95. -arium.. e. Waters Ch. etc. Cooper in. used to designate a place (as gallinarium). -affcum * coraticum. Ch. Vulgar in deriva- Petronius. iCf.

§ 173. was mighty deeds of God Koff'. XX. XXXV. cf. and came to be used as a diminutive suffix in Spanish. —ens: see Adjectives. —ceus. animalico . Les substantifs en -ier et le essais de philologie fran- Rom. unaccented. Portuguese. see A. somewhat extended: Old Fr. 19 -cellus. 31-37. -cius: see Adjectives. It. navicella. It was often attached to words in -arius. etc. 283ff. etc. consirier. -ia.- -culum. which lost its diminutive force: anulus. -crum (as miraculum. It may have arisen in the first place from a childish pronunciation of -iclus. -enda : see —anda. Valinca. porcellus. -occus. -Tela. 457. Gram. Cf. See A. XIX. 1-2 1.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -ia. II. ing in Zs. unaccented. vitulus. it was then extended to Spain. Olcott 131-134. was used beside -cuius: So * domnicellus. from Greek -ia through Christian writers and speakers monarchla. —icius: see Adjectives. -uc(c)us. diminutive.' *libraria. —tea: see Archiv fiir das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Litera: turen CXIV. 333ff. lavacrum) were occasionally used: *genuculum.. —eus: see Adjectives. Pir- son 123. So calamellus. vitellus. Cf. was used for many new words: Pr. —eum : -ia. porculus. see —ium. 335. being used in pet names. manica. as desiderium. and Nouveaux (aise no. -iccus. Olcott 173-176. For -accus. and Rumanian: Sp. was often used beside -Ulus. G. philosophia . possibly of Ligurian origin (Rom. 591. : used (cf . ramenc . Digitized by Microsoft® solingo. etc. mane 76). Horn- —iceus. XXXI. cula. -ellus. Cf. = ' nouns (as victoria). was probably Cf. abstract extended *fortia fortia n. perhaps also *-ingus and locally -ancus. Thomas. Bonica.). Arbonenca. navi- —ceus. —ans. hence an ending -fflWa.. suffixe -arius. etc. to form pi. 481. diminutive (as castellum). used to form feminines (as avus. Sardinia. -tcca (as Bodicca. 91-92. -Mum. R. avicula. wvicella. -ensis: see Adjectives. and Dacia. . Pr. Rum. -entia : see -antia. avid): neptia. Karica) first appears in Africa in feminine proper names. 170. -incus or -inguus (as propinguus). anellus . Einf.

Pirson 228. Nebitta. It came to be very widely used as a diminutive suffix for nouns. -icca. *granditia. -Uies. was by Microsoft® . camerlingo. conjectures that have come from the Germanic ending that now appears as in such names as Heinz. 56-59. A. -otus. Zs. -eum (as cafitium. with the -ing. Olcott 200-204. Cf. Cf. Montaninus) originally denoted appurtenance. Olcott 123-131. bacito. 251.20 Sp. Fr. -0 {-onem). used to form nouns from verbs (as certdmen. was probably confounded. see —tUdo. Sp. R. may have arisen from a childish pronun- ciation of -iclus -a: it may Meyer-Liibke. serpentinus. cf. as a suffix for proper names: feminine tus. especially -mentum : *gubernamentum. generally long in the Spanish peninsula and in -Ittus. following. -io : 134-136.. Cf. were both are rare in Rumanian -ities especially in the south . especially : diminutive nouns. Germanissa. were extended. -men. Cf. —itia. It. and central and northern Italy.. -tnus (as caninus. Sp. -mentum. Florentinus . used to form nouns from adjectives (as munditia -ies). amourette. 22-25. from the Greek Cf. calcaneum) : see G. -mum. etc. An It Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Raetia. regards -dttus. but sometimes to form new adjectives to form domnina = 'young lady'. forms of -dtus. some new formations: ^dukissa. R. Sagitta. much extended. li. lausenga. was used for some nouns and perhaps for adjectives (see -incus above): Pr. and also for adjectives. Olcott 78-80. then resemblance. W. XXVIII. etc. bonito. a German patronymic ending. Cusanca. Attitta. -lius. Bonitta^ Caritta^ Julitta^ Livitta^ Suavitta. (Cooper XLV): *altitia. -ttas : see —tas. so pythonissd). was used for prophetissa. adjectives. Olcott see -iio. the i being short in Gaul. in [§ 37 some regions. vestimenium). . Einf. sometimes in Spain and Gaul. originally used to indicate a characteristic (as Digitized btbo). -itUdo : —ium. Pirson 226: Julianeta^ Nonnita^ N'onniit Its origin is unknown. doucet. grassetto. in inscriptions in Italy -ittus first appears during the Empire and Dacia. § 172. Cooper 251. -laaa. -dttus as alternative Sardinia: nouns. —monia: see Olcott 81-82. like littera beside litera. -iva : see Olcott 224-226. Zimmermann. -monium. masculine Muritta. Fr. etc. fioretto. 343. it was freely used. -issa. (as paffiXurcra. then smallness.

e. was employed for many new formations of the same kind. 82-83. origin (cf. feminine perfect participles with a feminine noun understood. used to form abstract nouns (as candor. -or {-oreni). Cyprian. R. nativitas . *deUta. 63. Cf. trobaire. —sor: see -ior. St. was freely employed :ya/jfi'aj. -(orium. recubitus . G. venuta. 45-56. -sionem). as an augmentative or pejorative. especially in Gaul: dulcor. -sio i^tionem. then as a general moderate diminutive It. Cyprian). Olcott 33-51. 69-82. *flator. -sorium. Collin in Archiv XIII. trinitas. andata. used as nouns. ostensor. i. 223. Cf. aiglon. 453. *flavor. were very freely employed (but show few traces in Ru- manian : Cooper XLV) : necdtor.. 83. Fr. are very common in St. used to make abstract nouns from adjectives. as *annatd). —sio : see -ito. 55-63. was apparently used : first of young animals. common in St. and were reinforced —ta. used to form abstract nouns from verbs (as mansio. narraius: cf. XIII. —tas {-tdtem). aggravatio. used to form from verbs nouns denoting place. sapor). boccone. -tricem. see —torium. 102-106. Bayard 19-22 (very -tio. G. Olcott amdtor. 503-504 {dolor. remissa. revoluUo. R. lectio. So deitas from deus. of see -tor. and other late writers: abbreviatio. timor. It. potto). -sa. Substrate IV. in 21 commonly employed diminutive: g&lo. perfect participles by fourth declension nouns in -tus. unknown etc. beveire. : extensa. someDigitized by Microsoft® . Jerome. *movita. in. casotta. -tus.§ 37] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. See Archiv V. : -or (-orem). —sa : see —ia. *nutritio. G. viror. Cf. —trix. G. —sura: see —ilra. aquilotto. Olcott 2-23.. mensor). -tus and -j«j were preferred in Dacia (Cooper XLV) collecta. 475. -sorem). *sentor. *lucor. 415.G. ostensio. —Stus. purltas .). -Sttus. *vendita. G. *perdtta. etc. 88. R. R. Gaul often as a 56. Bayard 19-22. 44-45. Cf. 122. C. —sor (—torem. started perhaps with such forms as defensa. prensio. 88-122.fossato. used to denote the agent (as Cf. *reddita. later -dta. Pr. —tor. used to designate the agent -orium . They were considerably used to make abstract nouns from verbs (and —ata was sometimes attached to nouns. Olcott 83-87. -ittus). —sorium: see —torium. -sus: see —ta. 222. Olcott 58-69. etc. as collectus. —sus. In Gaul these nouns came to be feminine: Bon. 85- Bayard 24-25. -iita. It.

Olcott 69-73. Bon. or -i (Claussen 799) TT^Trepi'^ piper. Sometimes the genitive or the accusative was taken as a basis. G. nutritura. gave : millefolium. etc. popular words became -o (Claussen 797) X^wi'> lea. by popular etymology. diminutive (as vitulus). Einf. : in late Latin often replacing -or {fervor > *fervurd) were extended. sinape . § 171. payLda'^ -(an in magida. make abstract nouns servitudo. -um : Claussen 796. -tuda (-tiidinem). R. -tura : see —ura. -pa cima. missorium. -tus (Claussen 798): rpiiKTijs '^ irucia . -ov regularly became respectively -us. mesSee sura. -IS often clvain'^ sinapis. -Ala. -s-iira. pressura. There are a few exceptions for special reasons (Claussen 795) cXaiop. -T7)s became -a. stricturd). later from adjectives also. —tus: see -ta. in popular words gave a feminine -ma (Claussen 796-797) > f -pos preceded by a consonant became -fr (Claussen : 797): 'AWfai'5po$>- Alexander. often taking the place of —culum (cubiculum much > accubitorium) (as *C(ssorium. gave oleum. was used for a few new formations *alaudula. tensura. boletus. -aius. G. Kbii. : gummi-s. -ura and -t-ura. -iita: Cf. R. -e. used to form abstract nouns from perfect participles (as censura. instead of the nominative (Claussen 800-802): iXi^avros'^ elepliantus . oratorium. 31-37. Olcott 51-58. Olcott 194-196. > p6KLT-qs -I in became -a (Claussen 798-799) : Xa/iirds -7)S. When Greek nouns were endings were adapted as follows: — borrowed by Latin. Cf. from adjectives was extended. [§ 38 ex- times instrument (as dormitorium. kviuj. ^•vir'dura. 88-90. fell popular words either or became -a. -ta or -us. *frig' dura . ornatura. see —ta. etc. instead of -is (Claussen 798) pausis "^pausa. -11. '^planura. used to fortitudd). influenced by olere. ossulum. -as in popular words generally > lampa. -is. 40-45. reposito- rium. : became -a. Cf. the -OS. 38. ixrikiipvWov. mensorium. were tended.: : : 22 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. —a. ^6-gy. ^pressorium. natatorium. 197. *certitudo.)u~^ gumma. Digitized by Microsoft® . cursorium).

K^paffos : "^cerd-sus *cerSsus. -ens {-an/em. pomarius). attached to nouns Cf. etc. -dlis. episcopalis. *Sicilianus. * setaceus . iTTroTiiXij "^spatula. Bechtel 83. and form nouns of occupation (as aquarius. popular in Gaul 62 (Hacherece. regalis. SUFFIXES FOR ADJECTIVES. a combination of —arius — *capiianus. Mapa"^ cithara ciihlra. G. -entem). Dubois 136-151. imaginarius . Eon. —anus. used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as Cf. 164-195). -iceus -ictus. 23 The unaccented vowel of the penult was often changed in conformity with Latin habits (Claussen 802-806) Sl&^oKos'^ diabolus diabulus. Wolfflin. arespecially in the latter function: . aKfnriKot'^ scopulus . -arius. poiens). tempaccio. erroneus) were slightly ex- tended: *caroneus. Quillacq 32-40. c. *ducaHs. It. spontaneus. was used to form adjectives of place (occasionally time) and nouns of office: biduanus. present participles (as amans. became and —icius (as sigillaricius). decanus. '^passans^ make adjectives and nouns from verbs: credens. Romanus). 415. Cooper 92-163 (diminutives. geniilis). »?«i/«a»2«. Die Adjectiva auf -icius in Archiv V. Digitized by Microsoft® . and adjectives. § 39] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Tuscanus. 464-467. : see A. -ans. used to make from nouns adjectives denoting material (as arenaceus. Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise etc. *werrarius. were used freely to ^ currens . was much extended.). Cf. -tlis. 143. Olcott 137-173. Cf. to denote connection.i are the following: 39« The commonest endings : — —abllis see —hilis.. Olcott 226-238. G. The phonetic development of this suffix was apparently Gaul and some other regions the earliest examples are glan: 'Cf. *leviarius. used also in the masculine to gentarius. -oneus —onius (as extraneus. -actus -actus. -Sris (as singularis) was extended: particularis. See E. were extended (especially in rustic speech: Cooper iii). Olcott 182-187. Olcott 215-220. 144. —dneus -anius. mixticius. peculiar in — apothecarius *marinarius. denoting appurtenance (as paganus. —artcius. pelliceus). Bechtel 83. were extended: *cortilis. Thomas. -aceus being employed later as an augmentative and pejorative suffix for adjectives and finally for nouns: chartaceus formaceus .

*faiatus. however. Digitized by Microsoft® . Cf. and when umlaut affected the a of these. Olcott 209-213. capabilis. anaiiarius. the derivative was sometimes used as a noun: panne us . 155. by the analogy of the plural -ari. pronounced —arius. -i [§ 39 glandarius . 222. denoting material (as aureus). Olcott 142). diligibilis . Gram.' exauguratus. — ia (6th century) and sorcerus <C^* sortiarius (8th century) the earliest forms in French and Provenyal are —ers. or i before the a. and that this pronunciation spread to the neo-Latin speakers. *pagensis. I. -bUis. Chairibertus repeatedly used for Charibertus by Fredegarius Haag 7. sis). indicibilis. G. 159-160. 137. or -dbilis. G. the Proven9al cannot. fageus. -atus. -ier. —iceus —icius: see dcetts. G. G. papyrius. was slightly extended (but is Rumanian: Cooper XLV). especially in popular speech. showing that while the French forms may perhaps be derived from -arius and -iarius. R. points out that many words have c. and Bausteine 641). is . Marchot. Le suffixe -arius dans les langues romanes. i^t. rare in — -{bUis : see —bilis. : tabilis . -er. suggests that the Germans in Gaul associated -arius with their proper names in -areis 01 —ari. try to derive all the forms from -arius. § 227.24 deria <i_ An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Staaff. XXI. e. the derivatives being sometimes employed as nouns * cortensis . Cf. timo- Olcott 244-250. XXXI. Phon. turrensis. adjectives in the popular language: Cf. -ensis. a perfect participle ending (as sceleraius). Rom. Cf. too. especially in learned words it is Rumanian (Cooper XLV) acceptabilis . querceus. R. Zs. —ens : see —ans. —iero are probably borrowed. that -iarius was a. Zimmermann. -tbilis. from verbs (as amabilis. 109-116. as -erius or —erus. *Frankensis. I. *cariierribilis). 34-36). then —iers. 591. used to make from nouns adjectives of appurtenance (as/orenwas greatly extended. Nouveaux essais de philologie franfaise 119. On the other hand. Spanish -ero and Italian -aio are perfectly regular. vallensis.. —ceus -cius : see -iceus. E. Olcott 339-344. in an objective suffix used to make adjectives very common in Christian writers in late Latin. 481 (cf. real suffix (cf. and was much employed rare. postulates -ar(i)us and -er{i)us. Die Geschichte des lateinischen Suffixes — arius in den romaniscken Sprachen^ and E. : -eus -ius. Zimmermann. Cf. A. was much used to : make ratus. Zs. XXVI.^* markensis . that -iarius and —carius may have established —iers in French. Italian —aro is easily explained and Italian —iere. Thomas. P. G. 135-140. 296 (cf.

-ulus. 467-470. = + . 158. one of them from Gaul. mansorius.) Cf. turn tunc) was apparently used to form dum ce (cf. Cf Olcott . Cf. way: -e cf. punidor. in St. —ilis: see —dlis. -inus {as fraxinus) was used for a few adjectives: quercinus. G. Digitized by Microsoft® . SUFFIXES FOR ADVERBS. : d. Ill. G. etc. G. -iscus. Dubois 163-171. was a favorite with Christian writers. 193-197 {angelice. juratoriH. etc.' 40. 155 (Tertullian)j *npidus. dune The usual endings are as follows: — num nunc. ? I. -sorius. from the Greek cleri- Cf. diminutive (as albulus). sliglitly -idus (as rapidus) was extended: exsucidus. -inus : see Nouns. Cooper 196-204. L. —sorius: see —tortus —tortus. '*Frankiscus. probably a fusion of Greek -ktkos {Syriscus) and Germanic -isk (Thiudiscus). made up of -t-or. was used for -icus in some late words: *Angliscus. Gram.). promptulus. sapidus. Possibly *anc is derived from an in the same Substrate II. lo) Pirson 252 IX. donique in cites eight examples of dune. —Andus (as jocundus) was used in Spanish and Proven9al for a few words Pr. was used especially in words 25 : -icus (as medicus) cus. —s-or H ius (as notare notor notorius. —ce -c (as ne nee. censere censor censorius). with the or of sense of -Wlis the gerundive: Pr. new formations : *restivus. — . -uius (as canutus) was somewhat extended: *camutus. ~ius : see —eus. Franz. I. -oneus : see —dneus. 103-106. Olcott 220-223. -orius: see -iorius. § 40] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 157-158. 552.. very common Jerome: G. It was 'Cf. Bon. Tiktin 597. is Archiv I. 4810. (C. -ittus: see Nouns. 241. volon. -ivus (as nativus) occurs in a few 224-226. Rum. were used for some new formations: defensorius In Provengal and Rumanian -torius was extended.

sola mente.26 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. for emphatic effect. *mala mente. as It. jocunda mente. chiaro. are to be found in Petronius 37. but was not kept alive in popular Latin. Spr. Reich. common in other late writers: clanculo. XXX. but rata. 42. poco. tarde. male. Cf. Some lons. Ch. 689. Later. It.). -um generally coincided in pronunciation (multum = multo. Cyprian (Bayard 34-35) and some other : writers. pure.). as forti mente. Normannice. in Rumanian. firma mente. -tim was favored by St. adverbial phrases on the model : ad . [§ 41 preserved in popular speech in bene. Then it was employed in a more general sense: pari mente. modo sic modo sic^ nee sursum nee deorsum non cresco. and in Rumanian nearly all adjectives may be so used (as greii. piano. as sometimes in Classic Latin. 46. XXXIII. -iter: see -ter. Rom. § SS- 41.' ' Waters Ch. forte. whence such formations as Brittanice. 337. 487. . a ginocchioni. Cyprian (Bayard 32-34). They are rare in St. 245. a recu230. Gram. noii). adverbs were preserved in comhence other ad- jectives came to be used as adverbs (as W. perhaps after the Vulgar Latin period. and occurs also in Romanice. Zs. 58. etc. to adverbs: insiememente. Jerome. though much used in ecclesiastical Latin (G. . being especially common in St. In the Romance languages mente was sometimes added comment. G. bocconi. basso. Ch. This formation is not common. II. Ch. soave). multum. It. caldo. longe. Digitized by Microsoft® . Adverbs of manner came to be made with the ablative This noun was first used with an adjective to denote a state of mind. Ch. Fr. * ipsa mente. 339- Repetition was used. -0 and etc. : modo modo =^ •only yesterday. obstinata mente. mente was used with any adjective that could make an adverb of manner. 45 . Many such mon speech. mente. Lat. Gl. * longa mente. however. XXIX. -ter (as brevUer) was not preserved in common speech. Many examples so. 197-201 infantiliter. etc. now now so. Fr. -ones (in Italy also with- out the preposition) came into use Cf.' cf. etc. *bona mente. alto. 428.

42. —tllus^—ellus: axtlla"^ ascella. R. : ericius *eruius. 27 CHANGE OF SUFFIX. R. 65. Cf. lanatus lanutus. venenum"^ *veninum. by Microsoft® . Cf. ~or(—drem)'^-ura: calor'^*calura. -ilius =^ -ilius : 154-160. -tc-aius *lenficiila. famtlia */amtlia. Cf. Cohn 41-42. carnatus *carnutus." —enus'^-inus: "Byzacenus non Byzacinus. lenHc-Ula Cf. -iculus =z -UcJilus : ossiculum ossMculum. § 195). Cohn 42— 52. (3) Alteration of a suffix: — Cf. peduculus. Corssen S. loquela per unum /. Cohn 180-205. 460. Cohn -tius'^-itus : vacuus'^*v(lcitus (cf. etc. Cf. querela'^ guerilla. -iceus -icius 184. -ex(-ecem) -ix(-uem) : vervecem berbicem.§ 42] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. tus cauditus. cauda- Cohn —Ic'eus —icius ^=. 96): "querela. suadela"^ suadHla. Cohn = -ix(-icem): Cohn 147-151. -drius. Caper (Keil VII. Digitized Cohn 274-291. R. sortcem *sortcem. etc. R. 460. e. extraneus * extranus . -elus"^ -ellus (common in late Latin): camelus'^ camellus." App. pediculus Cf. -^ —iciilus : capUHlus * capttulus . Pr. 460. —dnus^—dneus: Cohn 160-172. Cohn 184. Cohn 30-31. Cohn 172-180. 227. 321. rancor"^* ran- > > cilra. -ix(-icem) consilium * consilium. substitutes one suffix for manipulus. loquela'^ loquella. cornlciila *cornuula. 131. Cf. etc. —cuius !> cHlus : see -tllus. —dtuszzz—ttus=:i—utus: barbatus '^barbutus . Cohn 213I. as are: — The principal types (1) Subsitution of a : rare one -alius — new or common suffix for an old or > -callus : see -tllas. The popular language sometimes manuplus for another.. pavoT~^*pavura. 17-28. Cohn 1 51-154. —iilus'^—ellus: aniilus'^ anellus . Cf. Cohn 219-226. Cf. -drius: see Suffixes for Adjectives. avicUla'^ avicllla. 460. subterraneus ^ subterranus. (2) Indiscriminate use of two suffixes: — Cf. 216. Cf. Waters Ch.

were popular. R. in odio^ loco. 484. bene placitum. style. avis struthius. b. etc. COMPOUNDS. Bon. 190. -udo i^udtneni)'^ -umen (-iimtnem) : consuetudo *costumen. genu- G. saine. See §§ 24. manu So tenere. Bechtel loi ad horam 'presently'. ^ranucula. Reich. G. ab olim. crucifigere. G.28 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. I. late pronunciation of [§ 47 -enus'^-lnus through sagina {Vok. etc. antemittere. 44. 203. —iculus ? ^^'—Hciilus : genuciclum . Bechtel loi. 46. R. uniunigenitus . Bechtel loi. 231. etc. a contra. many verbs in -ficare. PRONOUNS. 'just now'. 43. Bon. Substrate 553-554. 483. omnimodus . Bechtel loi ad semel. VERBS. 483. i<)i\ 45. 131. ADVERBS. etc. 160-170: magnisonans . These compounds generally belonged to the literary G. d. /oris mittere. a modo. as mortificare: e. Cf. a foras. 121 : Greek etc. 194. 130-134. But male habitus. a longe. Digitized by Microsoft® . incus incudo * inciimtnem. Cake pistare. 483. ad subito. 65. Bechtel loi. 483. ad sero. medio die. Bon. . . Bechtel loi. inde fUgere (> Fr. c. a semel.. 47. — = . 4. . cornis. HOUWS. a. a /oris. mentaver) minus pretiare. erable) alba spina. etc. in Gl. There were many compounds made up of a preposition and an adverb: ab ante. R.. R. 234. medio ADJECTIVES. In church writers there are G. Acer arbor (> Fr. Bechtel loi. Cohn 264-274. Cf. Bon. 232. enfuir). G. 191. bis coctum. ab intus. 231. Bon. G. intra videre. ij as i: uayijv))'^ 7th century) "^ > Old Fr. Ill. flectere. 426 ad mane. mente habere (> Pr. Cohn 226—264. .

Lexique 38-47. Mohl. 484-486 (cf. in is Archiv I. Bechtel loi. 38) says: Ubi semel res inclinata amici de medio. 85. de super. is A compound made up of preposition + noun found in: in giro (followed 102. R. * dabe. 203. In any case probably a late product. 437. It. 203. Abante. PREPOSITIONS. R. etc. compounds. 39. Bechtel 102. doe. Spr. At ubi and ad ubi. Wolfflin. de forts. Haag 75. 49. The sic. Bechtel 102. in mane. de sub. ^ Romance da. G. 232.). de contra. G.. Bechtel medio. is de+ab. 40. were used as prepositions: ab ante. R. per girum zxiA per giro ^ circa. R. de sursum. 484.15. 487. 29 tunc. Lexique 48.17. in contra. day-.28. usque hodie. 72.. Bechtel 102. de intra. in hodie. de deorsum. 268. de inter. 433. Bon. R. 233. * in semel. de intus. Digitized by Microsoft® . 487. R. Sardinian dave. Spr. dat and from a southern Latin *dadl. Bechtel loi. R. et at ubi. in ante. Per. 235. Bon. and some others similar to them. of . 68. 484.3. 203. et Per. says da . and ad. 232. in ante. Bechtel 102. 75. de retro. d^ ante. consist of Bechtel 102. de intus. in contra^ Petronius (Waters Ch. Some compounds two prepositions: * de ad {y. Cf. Bon. Raetian dad from the Oscan da. 23S. Bon. e contra.8.— 49] — An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bechtel 102. G. G. CONJUHCTIONS. Per. 203. and Old Sp. Bechtel 102. 232. Slightly different intus in. 74. Bechtel loi. etc.these adverbial Some 40. G. ex tunc. 235. Per. in by the ablative or the accusative). dad may be it is the result of a fusion rather than a combination of de Some have thought it came from found from the 7th century on he would derive It. 484. de semel. Lat. 232.13. Lat. Bechtel 102. de post. R. f. de retro. Substrate III. still different nature : ac Per. g. following compounds are of a sic.19. ad — — R. 426. da. E. de magis. etc.

but psychic. 1903. Latin in the middle. or the adjective and the modifies. ORDER OF WORDS. so to speak. Spr. for a comprehensive account of Romance See Elise Richter. byMicrosoft® . proceeding from the exemplified The modern order is the known to the unknown. as in Ovid's "In nova fert animus mutatas Neither does it dicere formas /corpora." allow the collocation words of the same part of speech that belong logically in different places. Ill. 50. Romance more after the word modified. from which work most of the matter of Digitized this chapter was taken. is not primarily rhythmic. and were not characteristic of daily speech.II. Gram. the difference being due to a diverse conception of the structure of language: Latin places the modifier before.^ is The Romance order of simpler and more rational than that Classic Latin. It does not permit the arbitrary- separation of osition noun of it members that belong together. The principle. See Meyer-Liibke. Nevertheless there is really a fundamental difference between the old order and the new: Romance has. Latin to a certain extent a diminuendo movement {^Lat. however. such as the prepand the word it governs. Zur Eniwicklung der romanischen Wortsiellitng aus dcr lateinischen. a crescendo. SYNTAX/ A. by this sentence : The ^ ^ old arrangement " Fabius syptax. as in the "In multis hoc rebus dicere habemus" of Lucretius. The most irrational features of the Classic Latin construction were surely artifical. Romance puts the emphasis at the end of the sentence. 491). is logical.

" omnia brevia. which independently effected the same transformation. Spr. 34). quod sanctus Moyses ascendit in montem Domini. The modern order was not abruptly substituted for the On the contrary. 31 sequatus imperio Hannibalern et virtute et fortuna superiorem vidit. was always a tendency to put a stressed word followed by an unaccented one. not imitated from the Greek. there was a long struggle.21-24). it is to be found in Latin. et due populum istum quo locutus sum Ego autem in die ultionis tibi." "Hasc loca sunt The change constitutes a progress in language . 490). visitabo et : 52. There first. 37. et fuit ibi quadraginta diebus et quadraginta noctibus" i^Per. 33. But until the fourth century the majority of Latin sentences have the old arrangement. Digitized According to Meyer- by Microsoft® ." The following examples illustrate the later structure: "Mors perfecit tua ut essent et natura montuosa impedita ad rem militarem. tu autem vade. such as a connective or an atonic pronoun {Lat. The following is a good sample of the style of the Vulgate: "Cui respondit Dominus Qui peccaverit mihi. from the Peregrinatio : "Hasc est autem vallis ingens et planissima. it occurs sporadically also in literary authors. delebo eum de libro meo. in qua filii Israhel commorati sunt his diebus. It is indigenous in Latin. angelus meus praecedet te. especially in Cicero.§ 52] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Classic Latin may be said to represent an in- termediate stage. all cultivated peoples have made it. from the earliest texts down . hoc peccatum eorum" {Exodus XXXII. 51 • old. By the fourth century Here is a characteristic passage the new order prevailed. while the revolution was in progress. in inscriptions and popular writers. Petronius has notably short periods and an approach to the new structure. with generally increasing frequency. and for centuries the ancient and the modern type were used side by side.

personal pronouns. fortis fortis. malus malus. the old order survived longer than in independent. In dependent clauses.For the simplification flections. aiutatemi but or m'aiutate . indefinite article developed out of ille A definite and an and unus.. malum malum. morir adverbs precede their verb . R. prepositions. [§ 55 XXI. of inflections. and were attached preferably to the first word in the sentence : . when unstressed. §40. Digitized by Microsoft® . Fr. noun in all the The Romance languages except Rumanian and Albanian (Zauner 40). : negative and intensive under some circumstances the object may come before the verb. In a few other respects the old arrangement lingered and under certain conditions is still preserved . Many uses of prepoconnected with the loss of inflections: these will be discussed under the Use of Inflections. etc. 53. 313. voit definite article. precedes its but qui le voit. in late Commodian. it was in the early stages of the Romance languages It. vedolo but le non lo vedo. sitions are There were great changes in the functions of pronouns. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. bonis bonis. which were naturally of less im- portance. Wolfflin 4 bene bene. see the 55. and adverbs. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. were always enclitic in Latin. and so cf. 280. volgra). however.32 Liibke. conjunctions. Zs. I. B. Cf. Use of In- Repetition writers : for intensive effect is not uncommon . and sometimes the whole predicate precedes in certain constructions the dependent infinitive may stand before the finite verb (as Pr. 54- USE OF WORDS.

etc. however. . (Wolfflin 46). comparative idea. is likely that this device it existed in late Vulgar Latin. see Morphology. Cf. as Ovid's inertioratas (Wolfflin 63-68). See Archiv VIII. 415—417). as omnium levior (Wolfflin 68-71). and also for a positive. Finally. etc. prceclarum. //wj levior. cf. maxime pessima. in Sidonius Apollinaris (Wolfflin 29). 280). To avoid ambiguity. frequently in late and popular writers • For the forms of numerals. Augustine's sancta atque dulcissima (Wolfflin 57-63).§ 57] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. b. plus dulce. (Wolfflin 47). magis . Digitized by Microsoft® . and the superlative was often really a positive in meaning. Sepulcri 232 . a. 451. Anplus congruus and maxime congruus (Wolfflin 16. magis melior. Little by little the old comparative and superlative lost 1 from being employed frequently with merely an intensive force (Wolfiflin 83). 56. as their precise sense in St.. common Adverbs. this formation came to be popularly regarded as the regular one: magis mirabilem. substitute for the superlative In the Romance languages a was made by prefixing the defiit nite article to the comparative. etc. Commodian. etc. Unus was used as an indefinite article..' lepida 57. melius sanus (Wolfflin 16). etc. Vitruvius. toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period. 33 COMPARISON. . R. plus formosus in Nemasianus. plus felix. in Many use. but no example of has been found. occasionally in : Classic Latin. old comparative forms remained. 166-170. WUMERALS. as Plautus. (R. From early times certain periphrases were used to emphasize the thiravLS. and in hie estfilius mens carissimus. The comparative came to be used for a superlative. BOn. the plus and magis constructions were employed more and more to express a distinct comparison plus : miser in Tertullian. plus popularis.

58. Digitized by Microsoft® . Spr. The adverb inde : occasionally as a genitive neuter pronoun came to be used nemo inde dubitat. mulier. 26. 408-409. where it was not recog- 62. was often replaced by ille and ipse (Bechtel and eventually was preserved in vulgar speech only in 145). . ipse. . The demonstratives. 425 cf. PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. adeum una sorella. 48. Petronius. Pseud. were employed as personal pro- nouns of the third person. Ego and common in Petronius. . Hoppe 102-103. much used in popular speech after the fifth 2. PRONOUNS. Pronouns were much more used than G. Cf. Waters Ch. . in Classic Latin : 59. DEMONSTRATIVES. R. see Hoppe Bayard 133. according as they were accented or unaccented (as suus and sus): see Morphology. too. 403-404. were apparently not century. suus being generally substituted for ejus. 948 accessit unus servus. Idem went out of popular use. en. §158. Regnier 10. The personal pronouns came into more and more fre- quent use. . An . See Lat. and 104. Bon. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. exinde-='¥x. G. . Ordinal numerals. 489. especially ilk. a.34 . except a few of the smallest. 61. Per. 25. Dubois 333-336b. the combination eccum {^=ecce eum). especially the possessives. being replaced by ille For the encroachment of ipse on idem. There was great irregularity in the use of reflexives. [§ 62 una etc. Is. Plautus. 580. Many pronouns developed double forms. tu are very 60.

iste ille. common The end Plautus. 35 and in the extremely common phrase idipsum (>It. by atque or ae (as in ac sic). 424-425. Atque. Mil. eeee tu. Franz. meaning 'it' or 'that. etc. 424. R. 3 II. too. atque is est (^Stiehus 582).-- ipse ille. .). where likewise the id lost its significance. hie ipse.§ 65] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. G. 407. iste ipse. Catalan aqueix. The last three have left no trace. there are examples of iste for hie in Caesar's time (Densusianu 178). Eeee and eeeum (pronounced eceu) were used as demon- strative prefixes (cf. especially in Spain and southern Gaul. 2. eeeu" was some regions. lat. atque ipse illie est {^Epidicus 91). was perhaps used as a prefix (^Gram. as id ipsum velatn. Franz. in id ipsum monastyriu. This last compound was used as a neuter pronoun. however. aquesse.' as id ipsum sapite. Bayard 130-132). were confused by late writers (Bayard 132). aquese. ille ipse. Ascoli. R. Hoppe 104. is ipse. use. maintains that eceu' was the basis in all the Empire. 424 (cf. • A combination of two demonstratives was : common in Christian writers iste hie. §24): hie. and iste 405-406. Glor. in id ipsam rem. nized. Toward the end of the Vulgar Latin period hie was apparently going out of 63. with the exception of the neuter hoe. influenced in 1 Cf Plautus." Digitized by Microsoft® . too. II. Intorno ai continuatori neolatini del "ipsu-" in Arehivio glottologieo italiano XV. of the final stage. common 64. Quillacq 126). and also as a demonstrative adjective. 25 : " Ubi tu's ? — Eccum. I. Pg. eeee we find early eeee ego. Hie. G. eeee ille. 3 II. also eeee iste. At any rate. 646): in Plautus. 2. generally invariable. 303 (discussing Sp. came to be used indiscriminately (G. eeee nunc. is the fusion of the two parts into one word. Hie and is.^- desso). ille. such combinations being until the probably not reached Vulgar Latin period. R. 65.

semet ipsum {Philip. ipse. 484). as ace. is was probably more literary than popular. Petronius: Waters Ch. pi. 67. n. R. means infrequent: hie. 419-420 {cito proferte mihi stolam illam primam). there was an emphatic form ipsimus (used by This. especially ille. * accueste. becoming metipse through such combinations as temet ipsum {Ecclus. as 69. The ipsemet suffix -met was used also as an intensive prefix. c. The forms were greatly confused by late writers.. * ceste. pi. the masculine qui tooV in inscriptions. quce as m. 68. * eccueste. INTERROGATIVES AND RELATIVES. quern for quce. 276 {qui. hie. articles. 423—425. sg. hie. 69. by Microsoft® . * eccuelle. Examples of the others are by no R. m. with the prefix met-. In popular speech qui was apparently used regularly for .. Ego met ipse is blamed by Donatus {Lat.. . quod as m. §24. 391-396 we find qui used as n. people said for ' ' that eccHlle or eccu'ille. is. Bon. 391-392. as f. is is Cf. were used also as definite Ille in this function very common: R. guem quis qua very often as n. as n. * accesie. f. ' this ' eccHste or eccu'tste. Cf. ille lost [§ 69 and their distinctive force. ipse. is. . Ille. it is Furthermore.. XXX. * cueste and * eccelle. Quillacq 126-127. * celle. pi. as ace.. 66. 427 (iiirum hujic cujus est zona hcBc). Beside ipse. as n. sg. (395-396). 36 An When iste Introduction to Vulgar Latin. : common Audollent 549. 22). : the place of the feminine quce it occurs in Christian inscripR. pi. became * metipsimus. 8). Spr. and pi. This use of ipse. These compounds developed into * ecceste.. R. etc. II. for * accuelle. § 60. 423 {in ipsa multitudine). tions from the fifth century on Digitized cf. were used as personal pronouns of the third person.). * accelle. * cue lie.. In Bon. Ille.

quid: Archiv I. 237. 416. 53 {^qui for quce in 70. Meyer-Liibke. Cf. Beiheft 7. G. in certain constructions. and was used as an interrogative and The adverb unde came to have occasionally the meaning of French dont (Bon. nemo judical alterum. Some Classic Latin pronouns fell into disuse. and some new compounds were made. conjectures *ne inde. 528 a. alguien. Zs. d. after the model of id. Gram. by Greek merxard Tfth. Spr. chants. Pg. G. and alter viere confused in common speech: G. ^ne ipse icnus. pi. § 19. Omnis and omnia were kept Digitized by Microsoft® . 580. omnis: see totus. etc. *nec ente or *ne ente was apparently used as an equivalent for nihil. 485. Qualis was kept. nemo was kept nUllus.). There may have been a neuter *alid. in Italy. *d'unde. *ne^ps^unus. Archiv I. 37 quam). Cf. The principal indefinite pronouns 71- and adjectives used G. 390-391. *caf itnus.§ 7i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. II. mDEFHTITE PRONOUNS. 'some' or 'any. cata was probably introduced. Snus *aliqu'ilnus * alicUnus. The neuter aliquid was more extended aliqui alius : Pr. d. was employed as a relative pronoun. and f. alius filius. hdmo was used sometimes like French on: Per. along the Mediterranean. 650. 393. and Dacia: Lat. Jerome. § 84. 178). 394 (^qui f. in such phrases as cata unum Kaf tva. Plautus.). 415- in late popular speech are as follows : — aliquanti took the place of aliqui and aliquot: aliquanta oppida aliquis flourished especially in the west: Sp. cepit. gradually encroached on quod: Bon. cata tres Hence *cata anus. 51. 415-417. This confusion is more frequent in late Latin: St.' > = ^ magis: see plus. inde came to mean. as a relative.. Haag f. and eventually * de unde. 417. Sardinia. sg. alques. nee unus. in Italy. 55. moreover. quern Quid. Bon. 25. alguem. mUltus.

. is often used pleonastically Bayard 99-100. 3.38 faucus. § 1 1 7. 204. : 4. 338. «»w. custodire debeant. This use was common in late Latin: Densusianu 178. is . [§ 73 plus and magis were confused: tenetur tanto plus timetur. ADVERBS. totis horis. 488. Videri. also a common pleonastic use of coepi with the in- instead of the perfect: see § 124. quhquis. tot. Regnier 108-109 {guanto plus quantus. Jerome. a pleonastic use of debeo. Compare the old is Italian use of dovere. Frequent in late Latin Bon. talis. 109). ' anything R. 415). 336-337. being used for quisquis and quicumque (Bayard res and : res nata = ' anyone '. which" and the ibi 73. Cf. Quisque was much extended 135). tantus replaced quot. Propertius: Densusianu 179. (St. Cf. persona. 691-693: commonens ut 72. too. Claudian. quts. quique. § 53. qualis. §§ 163. for eo: Lat. quisque. 427. tantus totus. pronounced also tottus (S. 402-403 ifota tormenta diaboli in me veniant. see quantus. (2). quanti justi esuriunt. G. 212. Bechtel 143. ubi being used for quo. There are examples as early as Drager 104. Cf. 345. G. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Mil. 692. 409-411). The words referring to the "place in "place into which" were confused. . 403). VERBS. R. Unde was employed by Microsoft® in the sense of Digitized . ' : (G. Spr. G. There finitive. Glor. tantis lacri- 413-415 qui. 414. 121) and perhaps *tuttus. iinus. was sometimes used for omnis : Plautus. R.

also 'therefore' and 'where84. nee de cubiculo . of Inflections. ggressus de area. from the third century ex {Lat. etc. 76. PREPOSITIONS. Regnier no. and others by Microsoft® . muri de lapide de adversario vivo de deeimis. 341 jaspide. R. . 395. Regnier in. of the Italic dialects except Latin. for ne with the subjunctive common: G. . . 7. Wolfflin 5. 342 . aliquid postulare. 39 'where' (Zj. is Per. were employed as intensives more than in Classic Latin. Ad for apud occurs Digitized in Plautus. G. Die amice unde tristis es. cf. 446-447 {nee is fado est. occurs occasionally: Dieit unus ex uno angulo: Eeee hie Alius ex alio angulo: Non. Terence. 5. according to Mohl. 339. Regnier The absolute use of non. Lexique 43. nihil. Spr. . § 74. procedit. sed ecce hie est. is Ab. . Bene. It apparently has no successors in the Romance languages. Plus and magis were used more and more for comparison. The functions of prepositions were very much extended not found in (Bayard 137-158): see Use 77.§ 78] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Hoppe 38): de palatio exit.14. having been replaced by on. 37. any de. de utero matris nati sunt sic. 395-396. Totum occurs often as an adverb: places. Bechtel 105. and many other 75- Double negation frequent: R. R. Plus was often substituted for magis.). and magis for potius: Bayard no. 435. Bechtel 105. Cases. Hoppe 38 . . semper semper. egredere de ecelesia. and the old comparative and superlative forms became rarer: see § 56. G. Non no. multum. G. usurped the place of which also. 38. meaning 'no'. 487. Beiheft fore': 157). Repetition was used for in- tensive effect: satis Seneca. Hoppe 78. Dubois 332.

Bechtel 103. Hoppe Hoppe ' 41. not from apud. G. frequently meant 'concerning': frustrati circa veritatem. est oratio. except in Gaul. [§ 80 (Oliver 5-6).27- in late writers (R. ad post (p. 343 . as he says. appo. Pro itself was partially replaced by per (cf. etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . Mohl. where it was kept with the sense of cum: Haag 74. . 489. 343. in the Empire. volo pro legentis attendimus locum ilium facilitate abuti sermone vulgato. According to F. but was substituted lor'per in other regions (Urbat 34-35)80. but Pr. also ab una manu pallas altaris tenerem. ' : Juxta often signified acjuxta consuetudinem. but from * (pp. derive the Mohl would Old It. Urbat 27 {tractans apud me metipsum.. Bechtel 104. 75-76).^ 79. Super sometimes replaced de: fallere vos super hanc rem. Spr. Severus. 40 An Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. 37. 42. pro memoria illius. apud is repeatedly found for cum in the Latin writers of Gaul. but from ad hoc from Italic Pr. and more frequently by later authors: Lat. a new word. ad For the most part apud-^-a. Bechtel 106. La preposition cum et ses successeurs en gallo-roman in Bausteine 61. and so came cum in that Pro often had the sense of 'for. where ab seems Apud is used for cum by Sulpicius to be used for apud). being. Bechtel 105 juxta drachmcB cording to exemplum.?. G. Bechtel 106 super anima commendatus. Hoppe 37. G. in authors of the second and third centuries. ab he takes from apud.' and replaced ob and propter : fides pro una muliere perfida. 71) Fr. 390-392. Urbat 10): ad ipsum fontem facta cf. replaced by ad.. am. nos. ' . aveCj not from apud + hoc. cum probably disappeared from actual use in Gaul by the fourth century. apud. § 14). Circa. had a great vogue country. and common Fer. and cum for apud in Gregory of Tours. am amb. to supplant a critical period for Gaul.

399. 402. Quia. 323. which in late Latin was often reduced to qui or qua (see § 168) frequently took the place of quod: Regnier 111-112. 403. 427—428) are used very often by late writers instead of the accusative and infinitive construction: R. 41 81. aut is sometimes equivalent to et . same text (37. quare sometimes replaced ^«^^and quia: G. 83. encroaches on quando in the 22. R. Bayard 161. etc. . and was . . Retro. etc. temporal sense. CONJUNCTIONS. 445-446. vade retro me. de forts. 24. Quomodo became a great favorite. rm\c\\ used in the sense of that ' : Per. Regnier often used for ne and num (G. 8. Tamen in the grinatio. often supplanting quando. 46. he. merely Magis is much employed to indicate a subordinate clause. 73. Bechtel 119-120. and quoniam : R. Quod. and 'wherefore': G. in). Unde sometimes means therefore for but by late writers. . §§ 70.' § 84] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Quando displaced cum in the quod. and many other places Bon. 84. cf. ut : R. : R. 430): videte si Ac si frequently did service for potest did. quia. quasi: Per. 398-400. 13. ' ' ' Digitized by Microsoft® . Quod to for very common AudoUent ' £0 quod cdLiae 27. etc. 334): subtus terram. in most cases. Cur. subtus. Regnier in. meaning 'and so' or 'so': 40. ^. cf. 399. G. 6. . foras were freely used as prepositions (R. Eventually ut was generally discarded. et: Per. Peregrinatio : Qua. &'took the place of a« and utrum (R. Ut 82. 'when'. 424 {unde inquit Dominus). 48. 403-405. R.. forts. guoniam {^SMddlt&r Jubere. etc. 39. with the infinitive «/ is is : not infrequent 549. Regnier 11 2-1 13. Ac sic recurs continually in the Pere49. 431-432. . Aut cf.) seems to be used.

a. Aquis Acqui Aix. Archiv VIII. Florentice^ Firenze. CASES. increasingly took the place of pure case distinctions. and the use of cases became more and more 103 restricted. ut Clusil~^ Chiusi. [§ 86 C. Partsiis > > Parigi Paris. of the locative ablative singular in Ttbiiri^ Tivoli . remained eventually missa Anastasi. the locative was replaced by in with the ablative (Hoppe 32 in Alexandria) or by ad with the accusative (Urbat 10).1 42 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. however. it generally came to be regarded as an inin Archivio glottologico italiano IX. 302-326. We remnants of the locative geni- tive in Agrigentt> Girgenti. Quillacq 96- for African Latin. plural in Andecavis > Flntbus > Fimes. as time went on. Cf. : > etc. 322). Palestina (G. constructions. When the locative of names of localities was kept. larity in the . 378. USE OF INFLECTIONS. 412-415. 1. 8$. Astis Asti. only in names of places. 174-176 . There is confusion even in Petronius. etc.. of the locative ablative Angers. R. Hence employment arises in late writers a great irregu- of cases^: G. etc. B. Digitized by Microsoft® . LOCATIVE. In popular speech prepositions were more used. several examples Bechtel no. the domi or domo of Cicero becomes in domo in Seneca. and very often with place names also. The locative. 86. Bianchi With other words. Pirson 169-202. for confusion after verbs and adjectives. than in the literary language. Arimtnt> Rimini. rare in Classic Latin. in the Peregrinatio fit : There find are. et sic fit missa ecclesitz. who occasionally uses the accusative for the dative and the ablative. from prepositional the beginning. ' " Cf.

lumine. etc. Regnier 54. According to Meyer-Liibke. was supplanted by other by the ablative with de (which occurs Examples as early as Plautus). Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cf. quid de scientia. Bechtel 104. de nostris bonis.. i. Bechtel 104. de studentibus. Pir. Urbat 20. the nominative in most words in and such words as had a separate vocative form is like it : tended to discard Plautus. Lat. II. The vocative Classic Latin. aliquid habet de verecundia discipuli. such Horace. little. bus gentilibusque multitudo magna (also quidam ex Acts 4. Spr. neminem de prcesentibus. 89. The genitive. 43 variable form we find such locatives used as nominatives : from the third century on Lat. 6ioff. vocatives in -us. Cf. clerici de ipsa ecclesia. little by constructions. R. de aceto plenum. 342 numquid Zacchaus de bono habebat. de coleritieis). cited by Draeger I. gustabit de meo. 487. Digitized by Microsoft® . R. domine. instead of -e. R. as mi 88. occur in mens for mi is very common (Regnier 34). d. 396. sometimes by the dative.. Spr. the genitive probably ceased to be really popular. terminus de nostra donatione. de Deo munus. de sorore nepus. Hoppe 38. 528 a. XVII. 396. de oleo. R. 87. and Livy. 39. 1. c. GENITIVE.' -P^r. Cicero. 40. de animalibus. possessor de propria terra. Sepulcri 217. curator de sacra via. generally . de spiritu Moysi. 396.§ 89] An . IV. 481. Hoppe 38. b. Terence Heaut. R. de pomis =^som& apples. In Vulgar Latin the vocative form probably disappeared entirely. Plautus. . Pirson 194. 426. Oliver 14. . partem de istius impudentia. 628 aliquid de . son 197. 12. save in set combinations. except perhaps in a few set phrases. Bon. Archiv I.10. abound: expers partis Verr. For the partitive genitive we find: nil 53. VOCATIVE.

in a words that belonged especially to clerical Latin. matre mece. 3513. '^^^ hcec affectionem darem. etc. etc. Oliver by Microsoft® . We it to replace however. XXV.. ad me magna nuntiavit. 329. the fear of ambiguity naturally fostered this practice and the dative. form either with the ablative or with the genitive (e. D'Arbois 13 alme Maria. illorum. in good many set phrases. etc. Lat Spr. Bechtel 103. in the singular of was identical in substitution became very general 64. est ministerit. G. Pirson Digitized omne regnum. ad propinquos restituit. In late Latin a wrong form was often used a deo honorem in an inscription in Gaul. . 341—342 in /undo ilia villa. The genitive was retained. 487.C. etc. Spr. 488.... de noctis cHjus. dicens ad eum. D'Arbois 91-93. DATIVE. patiens. ii. stable than the genitive: 90. The dative was more Lat. ad omnem injuriam im330. Per. 1019. S. : Zs. 1. ange- lorum. Plautus. [§ 90 by the beginning of the third century. Capt. in certain . De Re Rustica I.. 4. Sepulcri 40. Varro. as early as Plautus.44 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. . IV. G. tempore > It. I. etc. Fieri. in most of the Empire : ait ad me. apparet ad agricolas. C. Dominus ad restituit Moysen dicit. inscription of 57 B. loquitur ad Jeremiam. however. and probably in some proper names: lUna dies. si pecunia most nouns and in the plural of all. 194.. some pronouns. Livy II. True. 135. L. causa causis. Bon. mart maribus). a tendency by the accusative with ad: ad carnuficem dabo. paganorum. etc. Urbat 12. etc. di notte tempore (later di notte tempo). ad quern promissio facta. Spr. Paoli. alta node silentia. 329. Bechtel 104. Inasmuch as the Plautus. 13. IX. = went to the bishop'. It. in honore . a. Cf. illujus. fui ad episcopum etc. ad vestram 'I Bechtel 102-103. ad quern dixit. ad me ad Dei officio paratus. find.. g. ad id templum data erit. G. Urbat 12. muro muris.

Ab common : ab omni specie idololatrice intactum. Cf. Hoppe 36. 335. Bechtel 104. occurs also: ex causa humana salutis. Cyprian. 56. 393 patrem de regno privavit. Hoppe 105). G. de virgine natus est. a came superatur. cited by WolfHin $2. tibi. Bechtel de contumelia sua. 337. Regnier . Digitized by Microsoft® . Ex R. Bechtel 105. occidam de lancea. 392-395. 45 3-4. except in pronouns {cici. esse. to distinguish its various functions.§ 92] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Hoppe 33. R. St.. etc.' see Zs. Hoppe 33 . Bechtel 105. Hoppe. 426. de singularitate famosum. R. Rumanian has kept the dative. de manibus suis. Regnier 54-56. Sepulcri 218. in its original function and also as a genitive. etc. de oculis. Sometimes super eum. reinforced by the analogy of prepositional substitutes for the genitive and dative. G. gaudet de victus necessitate causatur. The analytical tendency of speech. not ad. c. and lingered rather late Gaul (Za/. Regnier 54. Hoppe Hoppe 34. The dative remained in Dacia. De is : Hoppe 14. Hoppe 33. de te beati sunt. in the first declension (as case). super. 641. is For de= 'than. and so in 91. 339-342. 35. favored the use of prepositions with the ablative. ex infirmitate fatigata. ml. illui tilt.G. Regnier 51 . Spr. Bechtel 104 (cf. ABLATIVE. super was used: imposuerat manus me misericordiam prastare. ab sceleribus parce. 36. elsewhere it probably disappeared from really popular speech by the end of the Empire. digni de cmlo Castores.). nobilior de obsoletiore matrice. ab a prcemio minorem scriptura sancta commemoratos. de vestra rideat CBmulatione. ab Ariulfi astutia the most frequent erubescens de infamia sua. Sepulcri 218. 34. de- ceptus. in feminine adjectives (as romine). XXX. de se. 92. 481).

sodales. epistolam. Rand in is Modem Philology II. 488. Sepulcri 218 pugnare ad ursos. . the accusative being used in J 95- There is evidence of the confusion of accusative and first ablative as early as the century. quo in tempore. caput desecare. discenies. Spr. its stead. in most of the Latin territory. diem die. The fusion of the two cases was doubtless helped by the fact that certain prepositions might be combined with either accusative or ablative. Cum cum it was probably not with the accusative is very frequent: cum suos Lat. G. patrem It is likely that before the patre.46 An In is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etfreno maxillas eorum constringe. 5. D'Arbois footnote 27. ad horam sextam aguntur. in camo amore Dei 9 in bonis operibus abundetis. fructum fructu. : [§ 95 often found . Ps. . etc. 488. Lat. 397 . 344-347. but very common before the third. Regnier 58 Hoppe 31 in maxilla asina delevi mille vires. for the ablative: .396-397.. per nomen vocavit. Bechtel 103-104. 347 R. The accusative form substituted for the ablative after by Microsoft® Digitized . and that the ablative and accusative singular were pronounced alike. donum dono. Bechtel 95 . R. Sometimes ad ov per with the accusative is substituted per hoc. K. Hoppe 31 . in illo die. G. because. 94. the little ablative differed or not at all from the accusative in the : singular of most words causam causa. in aU words. Hoppe 33. Spr. E. in inscriptions. ad unum gladii ictum 93. cum Cf. after the fall of final m and the of quantitative distinctions in unaccented syllables. cum res nostras. Regnier 60. late The use of prepositions became really neccessary in the loss spoken language. XXXI. ferventes. Cf. 263. of the Empire the ablative plural end form was generally discarded. Bechtel 103. ad diem. in fif.

. Bechtel 95. perhaps in such phrases as It. . generally. etc. in Per. the ablative form very often written for . too. etc. Bechtel 96 de actus. Bechtel 97-98 erat in villas. Bechtel 100. etc.6—412. visa loca sancta omnia {Per.. etc. Bechtel loi . Bechtel 96 de hoc ipsud. such as hora. 8). medium maris. Hoppe 40-41 in the Per. ecclesia majore. for ace. Waters Ch. et bene- dicens nos episcopusprofectisumus.— — — § 97] — —— — .. ecclesia. 406-412. that the ablative absolute survived in a few common 1 like It.. Digitized by Microsoft® . Bechtel loi. Bechtel 99. Bechtel loi — propter populo. — prope super civitate hac. Bechtel 94 ante sole. . 40. + abl. ante sole. quomodo. ad . Bechtel 95 contra ipso loco. D'Arbois 27 de rigna nostra. R. was kept only in etc. Bechtel 94—101 venit in civitate sua. R. Bechtel 94.. etc. its place : Bechtel 09-1 1 o. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bechtel 99 lunca. pro nos. cib fatto. — — — foras in came conversa. etc. however. circa Bechtel 95 . 406-412. etc. . . pari mente. sine fructum. tuos. Hoppe 40-41 12 examples of in + ace. The some fixed expressions. Bechtel loi. proper names with as Delia Casa. etc. in popular speech. de. puteo. infinem Deus fecit ccelum et terram. D'Arbois 152. 47 other prepositions: a monazonies. — intra civitate sua. ablative ist' 97. Bechtel 99 . Bechtel 96. the nominative absolute took 45.. 406-412. . R. R. R.. is three times as common as the + ace. etc. 406-412. Bechtel 96 de martyrium.. the accusative ante cruce. D'Arbois 70-71 ex fines R. is Conversely. It is likely.. 410. luce.. intro spe- — lectione. . -juxta aqua ipsa. . Bechtel xoo\ post morte. de camem. in correct use of in etc. . — : pro hoc ipsud.. 96. videbo te in publicum. de ipsas . 58. anno. vendere cento soldi. per valle and 21 other cases of /ifr+abl. for abl. R. 406-412.. — Bechtel 96 — . probably in some expressions.. post . ilia. de eo torrentem.

being recentury on.48 An Introduction f. consules ad Africam profecti sunt. 98. G. cordance with their idea of correct Latin. instead of the simple accusative: eamus in forum. regionem venit. After verbs of motion ad was often used. however. a. these obsolete parts were employed by writers with more or less inaccuracy. by the infinitive: as cum Digitized by Microsoft® . Clerics. infinitive 102. In the parts that remained selves. Regnier 51-52. were replaced by other locutions. VERB-FORMS. to Vulgar Latin. Regnier 52. The supine disappeared from general the first placed. Many parts of the verb went out of popular use. 99. many new tendencies manifested them- IMPERSONAL PARTS. from use. 103. (i) Supine. FALL OF DECLENSION. Bechtel 103. ^i. in the rest of the Empire only two —a nominative and an accusativenaturally tried to write in ac- ablative. per iotos octo dies etc. 327. and 101. 100. fui ad ecdesiam. omatus est. tota autem nocte vicibus dicuntur p salmi. Cf. G. also is by the ablative Bechtel : 1 08-9. Only the present active and the present and perfect participles were left intact. ad Babyloniatn duxit. 2. [§ 103 ACCUSATIVE. ad isfam Duration of time was expressed by per with the ac- cusative. By the end of the Vulgar Latin period there probably remained in really popular use (aside from pronouns and a number of set formulas) in Dacia only three cases. g. 328. Waters Ch. sometimes in.

(2) 104.. however. cites Livy. G. 2. Digitized by Microsoft® . R. it was probably rare in late was used with esse as a substitute Sometimes. in a literary 388—389. for the future (as facturus sum). The ablative gerund was . took the place of a relative cIzms^: faveant mihi pro Cf. Augustine.erund infinitive. Densusianu sanando. R. Jilius hominis tradendus Cf. Draeger II. Eventually. R. ejus nomine pugnaturo. potestatem curare. 432. Hoppe multa vidi sometimes used for a conditional clause cavendo salvi erimus. 490. Future Active Participle. from the third century on. etc. 430. Sermones 225. it The future active participle Vulgar Latin. G.§ io6] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. as a future passive participle. V. qui pertransivit benefaciendo et Cf. Gerund. 57 179. quomodo potest hie nobis camem dare ad manducare. 389. 57. conciendo ad se multitudinem. G. 433-434. however. ex- cept in some standing phrases. came to be replaced With the exception by the sometimes with a prep- osition: dat manducare. Spr. the supine was preserved: Tiktin 596. necessitas tacere. in place of the future: with 388. Lat. The ablative form of the gerund substitute for the present participle: ita miserrimus tando. Cf. Cap. 490. assurgens popu- lando. In Rumanian. (4) 106. Lat. 4. (3) Gerundive. 363. The gerundive was used est. R. 433. Hoppe 105. became more and more a fui fugiet Eun. Spr. esse. the gerundive was discarded. St. : sic legendo. Terence. Dubois 275. except when style. the i. and Tacitus. of the ablative form. hanc Marcion captavit errando. 49 veneris ad bibere. 8. 386R. 432—433. 847-849. G.

perspicue exposuit quod ager nesciebat quia Jesus erat. G. ut. its use was greatly extended through new methods of forming the passive and the perfect tenses. It more avoided from . however. (licent eo quod filii Israhel eas posuerint.). 109. Sometimes it was employed periphrastically with esse: G. mundus sit. 108. the perfect instead of the present infinitive very common: R. Suffixes for Adjectives. legitur dixisse Deus. (7) Infinitive. Verbs that had no perfect participle were obliged to make one. was replaced by the ablative gerund: see Gerund above. G. Bechtel 112—115. Cf. de corpore loquor. (6) Perfect Participle. 431-432 {malunt credidisse. G. The present participle was kept. The perfect and passive infinitive forms eventually In late writers. it for a relative clause: it Often. 375-385. 371-373. etc. 371. nemo mentiens plorat. and. 389. ut spiritu valeatnon ignoramus. Late writers. but often by a clause in- troduced by quia. credidit ei quia esset vere Jilius Dei. 371-375. si ipse est ascendens in ccelos. quoniam. as will presently be seen. by Microsoft® . 385. wishing to avoid vulgarisms.. and as a noun see Derivation. : Eva vidisse de- G. etc. G. no. (5) [§ no Present Participle. The infinitive + accusative construction was more and third century on: G. is disappeared: see Voice and Tense below. scribitur. The perfect participle was kept. etc. G. Regnier 63. 383 . quod. and was used as an : adjective -ans. 377.50 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. often misused the infinitive + accusative: Digitized G. Bon. however. Writers occasionally substituted 388. 107.the was replaced sometimes by the passive. sciens quod — libenter haberetis hcec cognoscere. 659-671.

participle The old passive forms extent. b. conjectus in carcerem fuerat. Hoppe 61. Hoppe 60. Cf. G. Hoppe 60 mors salva erit cum fuerit devorata. some examples may be culled from late writings: denuo factus filius fui. It took the place of a relative or indirectly interrogative after certain verbs: clause nesciendo qua petere. male fecisti dare Spiritum sanctum. 430. ' 112.. the infinitive assumed many new and Gerund above. Regnier 106.. Spr. G. Regnier 106. 363-370. amant ignorare. G. non habent unde reddere tibi. R. Bechtel 117. up the classic practice as far as they were Although authors kept able. 366. functions: see Supine bonus et dicere et facere. Bon. 490. cited in Lat. Facere mit dem Infinitiv in Archiv III. amatus est came Hence amatus fuit signified he Then a whole passive in2 76ff. ipsum vivere accedere est. P. to Under the ' influence of carus '. venit aliquis audire. VOICE. see Draeger was made up and. permissa est accedere. G. Regnier 73. Thielmann. 368. 671-675. Venantius Fortunatus. facere. 370. by Microsoft® . It wias often used as a noun: totum vivere anima carnis est. timuisti . Regnier 74 mihi prcecepit hac loqui. 363. Regnier Digitized 63. quce legi digna sunt. G. . Bechtel 117: valeamus assumi. Cf. Regnier 73. per velle perdidit bonum posse. 177. 647. est. revertitur omnis populus resumere se. to of the perfect participle ern Italy y?^). 51 111. some the — except the perfect gerundive — gradually + esse (in north- disappeared from ordinary speech. It Hoppe malum tions: replaced the subjunctive with ut and similar construcvadent orare.§ 112] An On Introduction to Vulgar -Latin. Bon. Hoppe 42-52: Ninus regnare primus.. 673. non venit justos vocare. mean he was loved': flection is loved etc. etc. 42. aliter exprimere non est. of the popular formation . the other hand. etc. I.

homo with the force of French on. Even in Classic Latin there is often hesita- tion. as in the case oi frusirare frustrari. being replaced by the indicative in many . Spr. verbs are used as active verbs by Petronius. Bechtel 126. and also for the first.. Cf. for the use of 25. facit se hora quinta. irascere irasci. I'er. scribitur When littera seemed archaic. Rom. 490. by the indicative (found in Pirminius). etc. (2) Subjunctive. 117. see c. the subjunctive being used for the third person. 115. Dubois 275 notes that the forms in -0 are very rare in Ennodius. -At the end of the Vulgar Latin period it in popular speech. much as it is used by Microsoft® . XXXII. [§ 117 the passive inflection disappeared. and in Italy. people said littera se scribit and litteram scribunt or litteram scribit homo: ct. se sanare ^= sanari in the 4th century. Bechtel 115 si scire vultis quid facitis. and littera scripta est vulgar.52 113. The subjunctive was limited to fewer functions. 114. In the intermediate period the passive was frequently replaced by reflexive and active constructions. 455. (i) Imperative. In negative commands the imperative was often placed by the subjunctive. 55. who lived in southern Gaul in the fifth century. An As Introduction to Vulgar Latin. followed the same Bonnet 402-413. re- 116. Many deponent course. MOOD. In late vulgar speech mori. deponent verbs became active. Gaul. etc. very Digitized was probably used. sequi. Regnier 69. The imperative came to be restricted to the second person singular and plural of the present. and Dacia by the infinitive: Zat. constructions: cum hi omnes tarn excelsi sunt. etc.

The in the use of it. R. Sometimes. the indicative was often substituted for the subjunctive: R. etc. and with perthis use is common in the fect infinitives like tacuisse for tacere {Lat. 489). It apparently began with debuvoluisset. •a. imperfect subjunctive ultimately went out of use. ecce Pater fecit Filium nasci de fact. § III. in indirect In conditions not contrary to tive discourse and indirect questions. were less logical and evidently less spontaneous than Classic authors in their employment of the subjunctive. 431 cites many examtimui ne inter nos bella fuissent orta. while trying to follow the traditional practice. Cf. in dependent clauses that are not adversa- nor dubitative. The pluperfect : imperfect subjunctive gradually gave way to the Bellum Africanum {^Lat. exWriters of the third and fourth centuries cept in Sardinia. Spr. ples. etc. § 72. Spr. Regnier 68-71. 428-430. languages. its G.iX. Sittl 133-134. Regnier 27-28. : cdntdse. 418. 355-357. On the other hand. place was taken by the infinitive: vergine. Cf. 357-362- (118. 53 in the Romance Late writers.&x facio. 489: examples from the 4th century). Gregory the Great (Sepulcri 226) and others. The perfect subjunctive the future perfect indicative. used freely for the imperfect by isset. as In Rumanian the pluperfect subjunctive has assumed the show uncertainty function of a pluperfect indicative 119. G. late writers often put the subjunctive where Classic authors would have put the indicative: G. Sometimes the subjunctive was replaced by deieo with the infinitive: debeant accipi = accipiantur. cf.§ 119] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. potuisset. Digitized It was apparently confused with was thus preserved in Spain by Microsoft® .

however. Fart. § 117. Part. In late Lastin this compound often had simply a peribi vos meaning: metuo enim ne habeam fatigatos. way with Even adjectives: miserum habere. I. etc. 414-415. junctive. XXIX. Sallust. C. 689-691. Densusianu 181. perfect. quid Athenis exquisitum habeam. in general. construction very common in Cicero in a sense that closely approaches the perfect: satis . perf. 619. The present and imperfect and the present subjunctive remained.54 An in Italian i. 537-538. omnis res lictas habeo. in legal phraseology. 405. 423. 516. re- Fart. fect 294-295. Part. scriptum habeo. see § 118. [§ 122 and Bausteine Cf. collocatas habent. Tiktin 596. pluperfect. 690. Crescini in d. ilia omnia missa habeo. perf. and Rumanian and V. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. perf 372 . in Classic Latin. Bon. TENSE. the mean- ing of this locution began to shift to the perfect. perf. by Microsoft® . perf ^11. for the perfect subjunctive. In Classic Latin habeo with the perfect participle was used to express a lasting condition: Hannibal quia fessum It was militem praliis operibusque habebat. dialects: cf. perf. Regnier Cf. Fart. § 124. The . De Lollis in Zs. which led also to thS formation of a new perfect and pluperfect subjunctive. 121. however. Fart. 28. habeo deliberatum. yarf«»2 habeo. used in the same Part. Fart. or something akin to it: Cato the elder. (i) The Perfect Tenses. Draeger 122. 376. perf. cf. with their old functions. pecunias magnas 294. § 119. Digitized Bon.. perf 415. ff. indicative 120. In the and future perfect indicative great changes took place. Draeger I. future. episcopum invitatum habes. compertum ego habeo. 535 is . Plautus. rationes cognitas habeo. For the imperfect and pluperfect subsee. 518-521. Draeger 295. I.

Regnier 28. elsewhere . and continued to be used. 123. etc. The old future perfect was apparently confused with the perfect subjunctive. § 72. it 55 In popular speech function: perfect form. 124. The old pluperfect indicative became rarer. auret.§ 124] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. with esse. in Proven9al. Sepulcri 227. : quam semper cognitam habui. in the Spanish peninsula. Fart. was preserved in Spanish. transalaret in etc. XXIX. 489. however.. Some late writers were fond of :\ substituting for Cf. Digitized by Microsoft® . the old perfect meaning was not entirely lost. it cxpi with an infinitive: Waters Ch. The old perfect form remained in popular use. furet. 541. ortaret. si Dominum iratum haberes. gener ally with the aorist sense. 294. in the case of neuter verbs. the sixth: Part. 620). its vogue began in Gaul in the fifth century. and in the Italian /ora -Cfueram. in some southern Italian dialects (notably in the Rosa in the fresca aulentissima). In the Spanish peninsula. sometimes as a conditional. a compound pluwas constructed Cicero. On the model of this new perfect. pouret. sometimes as a preterit. boltier' in the Old The condiItalian Ritmo Cassinese (^Zs. etc. which came down from the Classic Latin use in conditional sentences. I [ sometimes with its original sense. 543. tional function.. perfect bant. with the force of a future indicative or subjunctive. The preterit use occurs in dixerat. perf. 537. Reich. but still lingered. In the same way a future perfect was made: de Ccesare satis dictum habebo. and to some extent in Italy. 70. which supplanted more and more the original was increasingly confined to its aorist Lat Spr. the Gl. Old French Sainte Eulalie. quas in cerario conditas habeDraeger I. Eventually an entire perfect inflection was built up with habere or.

and in the other two. Sepulcri 225. PL 141-142. was native. Cf. the formation in —bo. according to Mohl. cantdre. § 119. Bechtel 112. Regnier Cf.— S6 in An some Introduction to Vulgar Latin. qiiando mutarisi eras. gations. delenda est. corrigis. The old pluperfect subjunctive was used as an imperfect: see § 118. had some circumlocutions. I. [§ 126 dialects of Italy. which The Latin mistakes were made in writing: Vok. Future and Conditional. The substitution si vis ecce ire became frequent in all sorts of constructions: nam modo pedibus duco vos ibi. dormibo forms were kept late {Futurum 161). errors as respondeam for respondebo (^Futurum 158). Digitized by Microsoft® . Bechtel 90-91. and in Dacia: Sp. cum volueris et imus tecum ostendimus tibi. future was not uniform in the four conjuwas used in three of them and prevailed in two. the future in the first two conjugations was suggestive of the imperfect. Furthermore. for the future forms (such periphrases are particularly fre- quent in African church Latin) : (1) The present indicative for the future is common in Cicero in conditional sentences: Lebreton 188-190. The old audibo. Pr. in late pronunciation. which approached the meaning of the future. Draeger I. Pers. These causes or others made the future unpopular. only in Rome and the immediate vicinity. pervidet. Regnier viii. was liable to confusion with the present subjunctive and indicative. As the tense became rare in speech. Old Sp. 286 ff. such as fachabeo dicere. (2) 125. Bechtel 112. and we find such 126. 98. During the Empire there was a strong tendency to substitute these or other constructions Classic Latin turus sum. Sepulcri 225-226. inquis. cantdro. quando 64.. jam crastina non eximus.

R. Densusianu 181 in Italy .. 448 exire habebat. G. aliter prcedicantur bent. . Velle in this sense was preserved in Dacia. 447-449. infinitive: In Classic Latin habeo habeo quod dicam. 711. nee verba nobis ista did habent. R. Cf. rebus dicere habemus. (3) Velk and /^w^ + infinitive were frequent: G. (4) Debere kept in Sardinian. Hoppe 44 it . Trist. Augustine. Hoppe 44-45 . as in Sueto- means I. Ovid. Regnier 29. + + It was 5) Vadere. or Digitized by Microsoft® . 370. Rustica 5. Futurum 180. R. . etc. infinitive was another substitute. 123. habes invenire in manibus — tollere habet.— Servius. I. quam evenire haDeus corpus. tantum habeo Lucretius VI. I. 447 unde mihi dare habes aquam vivam. 128. This habeo construction dare habet finally took the sense of a simple future: Tertullian. Ad Famil. bam. Cicero. venire habet. It had become common by the sixth In the early stages of the Romance languages.. De Re ut id mihi habeam curare. See §§ 105. Regnier century. I 127. it many others. Varro. Hoppe 44 nan habent retribuere. qui nasci habent. i.. debeo dicere: tibi polliceri. 129. venire + infinitive were used also. I. 447 multa habeo dicere. ( ^w^ was a favorite with late nos futuri sumus resurgere. being so used by Cicero and nius. 28. et sicnihil tuis. however. . . Jerome. Futurum 48 ff. cui velle habet. ire. etc. In these senses habes spectare. Cf. R. . mandare habewas very common in late writers: Hoppe 43 filius Dei mori habuit. the oldest Rumanian future is voiujurd or Jurd vom: Tiktin 599. 449 Regnier 28. R. later. videre habetis. . § 129] An The Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 423. 57 (2) future participle writers: stc et Bayard 256. St. frobare non habent. Cf. — St. was habeo with the dicere ^=:. in multis hoc . The form that prevailed. 106.

manifestari habebat. Haag See Morphology. In Classic Latin. cantare or he cantar.— 58 . Spr. Cyprian and St. The phrase existed. where it was employed with an implication of obligation or necessity. new form. Bayard 257. separation is common in Old Provencal. although sometimes with him the meaning borders on a real conditional: non traditus autem traduci habebas. The earliest examples of the Romance future are found in Fredeyet. ready for use. etc. an imperfect of the was constructed. in Classic Latin. the infinitive came to stand regularly. and in Portuguese it is not completed Old Sp.. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Hoppe 43-45. something like si potuissem venire habebam or habui was called for. Finally the two words were fused into one. 55. just before the habeo. though not immutably. [§ 130 possibly in the latest stage of Vulgar Latin. Herodes principes sacerdotum ubi nasci habebat Christus interrogat. So it seems to be used by Tertullian. amare habedicit quod like dixit si possum venire habet. On the model of this future. garius: Justinianus dicebat 'daras'. Bayard 256. Hilary seem to show a simple conditional use of the compound: quod lex nova dari haberet. amaturus eram or fui was often used and when amaturus sum was replaced by amare habeo. St. in place of amassem the conclusion of a conditional sentence. . but this union was not completed until after the beginnings of the Romance literatures. addarabo. Digitized by Microsoft® . ista civitas esterminari haberet quod esset venturus et 130. 489. fazel-o-he. and occurs in Old Italian Pg. or conditional. Furthermore. There are sure examples from the fifth century on: Lat. Quillacq 116. it was natural that amaturus eram should give m way to bam. there quod was needed a past construction and corresponding to venire habeo. Haag 54. to match such a sentence as venire habebat or habuit. pati haberet.

Digitized by Microsoft® .§ 130] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. of this 59 The development as. not' bvious. for a discussion of the question. see H. The ')ie origin of the full Rumanian conditional. Tiktin. XXVIII. 691. cintareasH. form in the Romance languages see in general. Bildung des rumanischen Konditionalis in Zs. parallel to that of the future: Moris hology.

131. Spr. sic-cus. however. except a mute + a liquid. in the spoken language.III. SYLLABICATION. the syllable always ended in a vowel. Lat. no-ctem. and not pirfe-ctus. The principles of syllabic division are rather difficult to establish. position. a-mnis. In Vulgar Latin this : combination almost invariably attracts the accent cathidra. al-ter. The division of j + consonant they regard as uncertain {a-s- trum)\ doubtless in reality the s was nearly syllabic. 132-151. They add In point of that etymological considerations often disturb the operation of the rule. Cf. or in half of a double consonant: a-ni-ma. It is likely that in Old Latin the division came before the Digitized by Microsoft® . According to these writers. or in a liquid or nasal followed by another consonantin the next syllable. all consonant groups. mit-to. poets may or may not make tinebrcB. then. as in ob-liviscor. The group mute + liquid makes position in the older dramaafter the first : : tists : Nsevius accents integrant. 466. that a consonant group. 132. S. etc. A single consonant between vowels certainly went with the second po-si-tus. in-fans. Quintilian 5 recom- mends vdlucres. It is altogether likely. A. phdretra. was usually divided consonant noc-tem. fact. as in Italian. etc. PHONOLOGY. but to have followed the usage of Greek spelling. made position an^ attracted the accent: perfSc-tus. prop-ter. The Latin grammarians seem to have given no heed to actual speech. it In the Classic I. pro-pter. supporting it with purely theoretical considerations.

became y. PRIMARY STRESS. but subsequently. 133. ACCENT. and /. We speech a that final have reason to believe that in closely connected consonant was carried over to the next word.. if : word began with a vowel B. however. § 132) normally has the stress in Vulgar Latin: cathedra. In the earliest stage of the language appar- ently fell on the first syllable: Corssen II. after the accent on cd- the preceding vowel. 892-906 S. Old Fr. colubra. co-liib-ra. 30-34. poltre < *pullitra. both in the literary and in the spoken language. pi. unchanged: bonitatem. There seem to be a few exceptions to the rule palpres < pdlpebras. 13. both consonants were carried over lub-ra. : We — a. had become fixed : 6i liquid. computo. if that syllable as early as and remained. VOWELS m HIATUS. I. co-lu-bra. the accent falling on the e Digitized by Microsoft® . otherwise on the antepenult — developed . the beginning a it 134. the place of the accent was literature began. The Latin accent was probably from regularly stress accent. and perhaps : some othfc. some cases in which the Classic principle fails to operate or the Classic stress has been shifted 135. delicto. Franz. § 136] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. inUgram. There are. have seen that Vulgar Latin regularly accents according to the Classic quantitative accentuation. when immediately followed by the 136. through the Classic period even after the distinctions of quantity were lost. The penult vowel before mute + liquid (cf. Old Fr. cor exsultat = co r-exsultat. Accented vowel of the penult. ing to which the accent The falls Classic Latin system — accordis on the penult long.

Digitized by Microsoft® . 468. the accent on the preceding syllable: bat{^t)iiere'>* bdtty^ere'> bdttere . displtcet>*displdcet. So 54 . re- 139. parjites^paretes^ C. Verbs compounded with prefixes were generally constructed with the accent and the vowel of the simple verb. crededi. when immediately followed by the vowel falling of the penult. reddedit. however. tuds. perdedit. etc. imp Itcaf^* imp Heat. §31): deficit >* disfdcit. . O. Lat Spr. consuere'>*cdns^ere'> cdnsere . itios were sometimes pronounced duds. Aside from these cases. Cf. tenueram > * tenj^eram. 1889 (pvte6lis). riquirit "^ * requkrit. provided the composite nature of the formation was understood and the parts were recognized (cf. battuere being influenced by bdttuo. Lehrbuch der Phonetik. conteneo. tenueram by tenui. > putjdlis. Gram. became e but if the preceding consonant was . etc. etc. It is possible. hiatus seems to have had no on the accent in Latin. 56. On the same plan new verbs were formed: *de-minat. reddtdi "^ reddMi. COMPOUND VERBS. Here the shift was apparently due in each case to analogy. dedit. but * muVeres. became w. p. that suos. Sepulcri 213-215. 137. S. 3714 (paretes). VI. I. condedit. This change X. I.. C. S. in which the vowel in hiatus is atonic. inclausus. '/« regularly re-nigat. habMrunf^ * hdb^erunt. Accented u. Jespersen. 192. adsteti. Cf § 225. tra- addedi. etc. 138. etc. /. effect diios. suds. 668-670. so parietes" L.pi(teus.62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. it was palatalized: \i&xwt f aretes. reiinet > * ret^net. S. L. b. seems to be due to a tendency to shift the stress to the more sonorous of two contiguous vowels: cf. paries. calefacis. habuerunt by hdbuit. 51. II. [§ 139 following vowel: put^olis ~:> mul(eris>muljMs. It was favored also by the analogy of miilier.. consuere by cdnsuo. presteti.

was preferred in and southern Italy. Ascoli 41 See G. * redpit. a fusion of ficatum and * sicotum. Priscian says ^^ illic pro mice": S. FICATUM. *fdcatum. for instance. which should properly have been pronounced sycotum . later. 141. Sardinia preserved both ficatum and ficatum. 435 L. n.' c. Gaul had ficatum and ficatum. perhaps under the influence of a vulgar *hepdte for hepar. 'liver'. Ficatum. 42. . Paris in Miscellanea linguistica in onore di Graziadio H.§ i4i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. XXV. 140. 515 and XXVIII. n-LAc. ficatum. Schuchardt in Zs. by a change of suffix. the composite character of the word although the compound was no longer associated capere. There existed in Greek a word 'figlike'. It is found in late Latin in the form sycotum. Ficatum or prevailed in Dacia. for some unknown reason. *ftcatum. and northern Italy. illic accented their last syllable through the analogy of hdc^ hlc. a . Clddat in Revue de philologie fran(aise et de littirature XV. 235Digitized by Microsoft® . a cross between /««/«/« was kept in Sicily and in the Spanish peninsula. d. the simple verbs having become rare or having taken a different sense: legere. 63 RMpit became being with In felt. (tdicwtoi/ (Pirson 40). all meaning 'liver. . The adverbs iliac. Reetia. it probably became *secotum. central 2jaA. which was applied by cooks to a liver. cdlligo and some others not even the composite nature was perceived.' Ficatum. fecitum.simple translation of (tvkwtov. . came to be used only in the sense of 'read. Through this word there came into use the culinary terms /tedium. ficotum. *ficotum */dciium.Lic.

The accentuation times the Greek stress GREEK WORDS.. stressed ^vKwrov. however. a. as polifpus. Keil V. Greek oxytones. voXvTrovs '^ polypus^ irop(f>vpa /jMyiSa. Claussen 809. apparently the first syllable: (2) 145.virahersvigintt. irapa. mdgida. 1 142.. (>pMd/a)> It. etc. See M. 392. Ti.64 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. borrowed Idmpa^s). with the Greek > Occasionally the accent was kept by doubling the consonant.vr] <f>apiTpa'>p/tdretra ox phar'etra (cf. Optisdna)':>lt. § 134). e. 4-5 Pirson 97. It. (nraa-it. sometimes the word was made to conform to the Latin principle. Kafxapa^cdmera. 69-70. 143. kTzi<jTo\rj~> epistula —ola. Greek Paroxytones. see § 141.TKj6. <f>Ld\rj XoXepa > chdlera) > colira. Vok. etc. G. Xa. Digitized by Microsoft® . Greek paroxytones were mostly accented according to the quantity of the penult: ypa(j>tov>grdp/iium. Tairav6s>* iapinus. S. fj. Ihm in Archiv VII. Somewas preserved. The shift was probably due to a tendency to differentiate the numerals from one compare the floating accent in English thirteen^ another in Melanges natural : fourteen. Rydberg . II. (1) Greek Oxytones. may represent popular stress. of Greek words was varied. [§ 145 NUMERALS. tisana.. 144. when by Latin.'i'^ mdc(k)- tna.ix. Ther\.o^'^ spdstnus.poKri'^pardbula.guadraginta. 337. fdia. 42 ff. iraXa/ir/ ^pd/ma.r/xa-vj'^- were stressed according to the Latin system: ^pa-)QiLT^> drdch{u)ma. etc. 461. Cf. Wahlund. lines quarranta occurs in a late inscription. \ were sometimes accented on the antepenult: Consentius mentions a faulty pronunciation triginta.ira.tnginta. terms borrowed by ear from the Greek. > ( ^purpura.qumqudginta. irapaT-fi^'^ pirata.

65 but it more likely that the Italian forms are book-words with a shifted accent.'avfi<l>(ovia>sym- Later a fashionable pronunciation -ia. -eum: ^a. phonia.<j-(^r]fLux. > platea platea. Thomas in Rom. Gram. -eum -ium. a-riirta>s^pia. and sophta. the accent remained un- changed phus.puj<jo%~^* ciiparissosy. Claus- accentuation: Kxnta. 2-3.§ 149] ^^ Introduction is to Vulgar Latin. Cf. (with a KoXa^o^ > cdld- Trpea-ftvrepov > presbyterum new nominative took the prisbyter). raXaxTov > talintum. S. Claussen 812. > ec(^c)Usia. but their statements are too vague to be of use. (3) 147. The endings -aa.. Late Latin grammarians mention a pro- nunciation of Greek words with the Greek accent (S. penetrated popular speech {(ro<l>ia> sopMa. 55-56. I.<TTopia> kistdria. Claussen 813-814.cupressus. of proparoxytones is The treatment complicated. etc. etc. A few early borrowed words perhaps show the Old Latin Cf. Cf. by Microsoft® . S. The ending -2i2.>blasp hernia. 42-49.- was at first generally assimilated to p\a. Claussen 814-821. -ia 146.. When : the penult was short. etc. A. 42£f.'Kav&ov'> balneum. are attested: S. sen 809.. it accent afivcraoi > abyssus. KaXafiOi > calamus. Cf. 42). iKKXtjaia the Latin fiipXla^Mblia. Greek Proparoxytones. § 17. The pronunciations melodia. Claussen 810— 811. —aav sometimes became -ea -ia. Digitized jSawTia-fui > baptisma. which was used to form new words: see Derivation.) and produced a new Latin ending -ia. 148. doubtless favored by Cliristian influence.. sometimes —ea. 'i. When : the penult vowel was in position. 35. XXXI. Suffixes for Nouns. Kuiv(im&ov> conopeum -eum —ium. ylvecTK "^ ginesis. kKo. 149.t&o. Cf.

judging from phonetic changes late Latin verse. 151. ayKvpa>dncora.66 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. apparently took the accent in book-words but not in words learned by ear (S. contrary to Latin rules (S.o%> bldsphemus (Prudentius). Ne Digitized by Microsoft® .ov tdolum (both in Prudentius: Lat. of accented and unaccented fifth Thus Sedulius. at the beginning of the century. 152.pv6<^vKKov Occasionally the consonant group was simplified and the accent remained : > * garofulum. Some words borrowed from other languages kept e. of Vulgar and from semi-popular Kluge 500. Spr.> sinapi sindpi. Troyes. became both encdustum and incaustum. t^aWtava'^. OTHER FOREIGN WORDS. etc. Fisaurum It.T]\ai> camelus -ellus. Dottin 'ldKioPoi>/dcobus.ballcena. ipr]iuis> eremus eremus : > (Prudentius). Tricasses'>Yx. it consisted in a tolerably regular alternation syllables.Tri. 2. > 150. KpoKohaKoi'^ crocodilus. ^\axr<^-i]p. 48-49) Ka. When the penult vowel was long and not in position. (T'aia. writes: Beatus iuctor skculi Servile c6rpus fnduit. their original accent. Ut cdrne carnem liberdns p^rderit quos c6ndidit. Some words have both pronunciations et8<i)A. however. Ka. Celtic Baiocasses > > Z>urdcasses'^'Px. Dreux. etc. 466). 49): Umbrian Fr. Hues Hudn. xa/xtvos it : caminus. Germanic words were apparently made to conform to Latin types: H'&go HUgun > Hugo Hugdnem > Fr. a-iKlvov^ linum. 153. j3ovTvpov> *se'- biHtyrum (^milius Macer). we can determine the rhythm Latin. Pharo. Bayeux. [§ 153 'EyKava-Tov. . As far as SECONDARY STRESS.

pldcttiim'^'Pr. in Italian. In some derivatives. the root syllable may have received an irregular stress through the analogy of the primitive: * drboricellus. non-dmat. circum-Utora (Quintilian s). and the secondary was shifted or *pdrauldre. dolorosa. F\6rentino beside Fvrenze. I. dd-tibi. In many cases the intervening vowel fell out or lost Then the primary and the secondary ac- lost cent were brought together. however. Short. cdlidHs cdldus. Many words. When it followed the tonic. sdzer. *parduldre *pardbuldre : > > > filiiis "^^/ilius. its syllabic value. clirgue while cUr'cum > > > cdlbe while cdlpum > Pr. but clmPr. Idcrlmosa. Casdrem. clerc. as well as some adverbs and pronouns. but probably the vowel bearing it had more force than a wholly unaccented final vowel: sdcer{>'PY. te-videt. strong. so. stress. in Latin as in other lan- guages. colp. 156. fell on the second syllable from the tonic: cuptditosus. syllables to the beginning or had no accent. When the secondary stress preceded the tonic. Digitized by Microsoft® . felidtatem. cdlapMin Pr. cave-facias. v€ttovdglia beside vittdria. Gdllias. 38-39) dma-me. it was weak. 154. 67 ' The secondary then. UNSTEESSED WORDS. were used only as enclitics or proclitics. and were attached as additional end of other words (S. 155. unemphatic words.: § 156] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.^plach. it and the vowel bearing it was was apparently treated as an accented vowel: * amicUdtem~^'?x. In late formations e or i in hiatus did not count as a sylla- ble: * cotninitidre. B\i6logn{no beside Bologna. amistdt. cum Pr. especially prepositions and conjunctions.

If such particles had more than one syllable. par-tern > Fr. apparently. did not prevent the development: pa-trem^Y-ic.5"^ illas and sometimes unstressed and * las. 56-57. POSITION. perhaps influenced proclitic hy plus. 379-390. did a final consonant Digitized §133): Jffl-/> Fr. istu' (but iccum istum > eccu'istu'). [§ i6o 157. Every 'LaXin vowel was by nature either lon^ prshort. A syllable was long if it contained ( i ) a long vowel or a diphthong or (2) any vowel + a following consonant. the consonant was final and the next word began with a vowel. ecce that vowel: ilium v{det^ hic^ (but ecce hie > ecc'tc) For 158. Words sometimes sa. ' I 159. the consonant. If. . 134. 'lu' A 'c'ic dissyllabic beginning with a vowel seems to have regularly lost vldet. was doubtless carried over to the next syllable and did not make position: see §133. elision. Mute + liquid Neither. they tended to become monosyllabic: unstressed magis. how great the difference was we do not know. became *mais and * mas. sUay- C. For the syllabication of mute + liquid. (cf. eccum istum > 'cu" p II. QUANTITY. 1. position checked it is 160. 73-79. see §§132. by Microsoft® .68 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. part. per. see Franz. but we may surmise that in common speech it was more marked in stressed than in unstressed vowels. 1110. stressed tended to develop double forms: sua and Cf. S. In some of the Romance languages the development of the preceding vowel. and probable that the beginnings of this differentiation go back to Vulgar Latin times : pa-rem > Old Fr. however. We must distinguish between the quantity of vowels and the quantity of syllables. sel. pere. in connected speech.

cuve. mucus miiccus .fiel(^e) Kferl.. corpo <:_cdr-pus.fe-rus. doubtless beone with a long vowel + — + a double consonant: brdchium brdcchium . c. cuba. in— 132.§ 163] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. ii594)>It. cf. however. tap{p)ete. Cf. is common in Greek and Latin manu- scripts: S. paullum. camelus camellus. but often it must represent an actual difference in pronunciation. citto {C. diphthongs and long 112-120): cdssus> formosus. 163.* co-pVit. S. Many words certainly longing to different Latin dialects. Stolz 222—225. cot{t)idie. especially before the accent: bal{l)cBna. Similarly one / was lost in mallo. In Latin texts there is much confusion of single and double consonants. perhaps litera littera. — fuore <fd-ris. 162. cedo. as seems to be ves(s)ica. 127). It. copa. 125-126 (Velius Longus and Pompeius). hoc erat hocc S. Digitized by Microsoft® . cupola and erat. It. ciepa. This did not occur. ferro <ifer-rum_. -esse -essem etc. Early in the Empire caussa ss after vowels was apparently reduced to casus. cuppa. § 42 ctpus a single consonant. cetto. mtllia (but not in mille : Pompeius. L. buc{c)lna. had two forms. —Isse —tssem etc. Fr. : The The single antiquity of double t is attested by an old inscription Lexique loi. formossus > > > mtsit. VIII. Fr. Stolz 223-224. missit (S. cuopre <. siccus ' '' sicccus. the other with a short vowel . etc. (S. which prevailed in Romance. in the contracted endings -dsse -dssem etc. cuor{e) 161. coupe. 118: mIssit) > causa. stupa stuppa. this may result merely the case with the doublet czto> S-p. Cf.. Sp. petto pietra<pe-tra. pupa puppa. mut{t')ire. coppa . cippus. S. Cf.^ ec{c)lesta. coUo < <icd-r. 69 Compare tus. biica bucca . gluto glutto . where we have perhaps only a change of suffix. Italian fiero <. j < peccol- lum. 129. Jiipiter Juppiter. §163. In some words from bad spelling. giving Sp.^glut[t)tre. glossa glosa. I. nollo.

local ing to F. XXIV. toiius was used by Pirminius. tenne. jubemus lltus littus. reviewed by Meyer-Lubke in Ltblt. (>It. bellua. * According to Lat. mist * missi 261 {iubimmus iobemmus). vowel and the double consonant : angutla (> Sp. tennuis. Archiv XIV. XXVI. + anguilla—* angutUa (> It. 485. stilla). iota estreine) (>Sp.5 547. strinna)." Cf. cascio). Cf. Leicique 98-104. was very widespread and prevailed in Italy. a consonant was doubled 122. S. Mohl. For *iiUius see Digitized by Microsoft® . This doubling indicates in most cases a Accordpronunciation. lattrones. tota. G. mattrona. frattre. Zs. anguilla). 334.^)—* tdtta (> Pr. Lexique 95-98) + Stella (>It. So perhaps Diomedes' Itttera: Fr. jubemmus. ^(ji. Spr. Sic. botte). messi). prevalent in Africa or in Italy. iConsentius: " per adjectionem litterje io««»! pioioto. baca bacca. conservammus. Gaul. voile. Stolz 223. I. § 204(2). suppremis. Stella. suppra. strennuor. before / and u in the old Italic dialects compare the Italian doubling infabbro. dialect stella) = (>It.70 An To these Introduction to Vulgar Latin. cf. there was occasionally a third. Gram.^ + strenna = * strenna (> It. [§ 164 may perhaps be added: cdseus * cdsseus bdsium *bassium (>It. seemingly a cross between the other two. toda) ¥ totta (Keil V. toute). 403. 1. and a large part of lateinischen See Clara Hiirlimann. having both the long. strena (> Old Fr. Beside the two forms indicated. channe. attested by inscriptions and by Christian poets. 339. Vok. anguila) Fr. Die Entwicklung des aqua in den romanischen Sprachen. bascio). ^Stella Vok. In late Latin inscriptions and manuscripts a consonant was sometimes doubled before r or u: acqua. brdca bracca. 612.488. Rsetia. (> It. In aqua the double con: sonant. etc. conservdmus Vok. 164. I. chdne{<x°-'^) 261. strenna. I. * stela (>01d esteile: cf. * butts (<j8oi)tis) *buttis (>It.

and i for e. the evidence of inscriptions. i and u were allowed to drop still lower. however. 146. 0. 183-184). as menus. 182). which and became e and see §§201. in 165. (S. 461. all : of later date. distinguishes two ^-sounds Pompeius. Originally. in Vok. i.. long and short e. from the second century on cs Marius Victorinus. is given the testimony of grammarians. II. 211). in the fifth century (S. similar to i. and short vowels were redit. In the case of a. According to Meyer-Liibke. Za(. but is used for u in inscriptions. etc. II. In Digitized by Microsoft® . 71 VOWEL QUANTITY. and several fifth century grammarians plainly distinguish e from e (S. 216-217). distinguishes do other grammarians (S. In open syllables. the short vowels being open while the sentio. the distinction U was clear by the first century of our era. about 350 a.. in debet and mnum \ \ and minus. I. perhaps. 212. Terentianus from q (S. d. 208. 151. was often used for e in inscriptions (S. : vendo pinus pi^er. i ff. e. etc. there was no such differentiation. Writers do not clearly distinguish i and i. 211). However may have been. That is. None of the grammarians apparently distinguished « and «.. 175. if the word is used in verse. (S. the quantity of the vowel is ' in general easily ascertained. long dis- - tinguished only by duration. 195. this nomen and novus. in iillus and multus. by 250. cites Tertullian for an e (S. about 480. 200-201).§ i66] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 2. long were close gula. III. the same sound in Idtus and Idtus. until Consentius. secondus. Spr. . the vowels having. mulus Later. 467. 193). etc. 174. for the vowels of brief duration the tongue was not in lifted quite so high as for those held longer. is often used for i in inscriptions. for instance. 166. as ocsor. and u were eventin ually differentiated. most of the Empire. In Vok. as minses. is made with the tongue lying flat in the bottom of the mouth. 182). and so Maurus. solus sqlet. 176.

Substrate II. found in inscrip- tions. were apparently pronounced also with short u 81-82). and. Naturally long vowels. is The Classic rule that a vowel before another vowel short is not absolute even for verse. duo>dui = dui. their Dies. others demand u. Fr. Classic i Latin o&ers frtgidus (of. others karessimo. nutrire. 105).2^)>oum (and also ovum. etc. Romance undecim. then. with a restora- tion of the V through the plural ova). ultra (S. VOWELS Ilf HIATUS. require a short some Romance forms support Classic luridus. (S. plus kept inscriptions (dIes originally long vowel. frIgida. 99). any a later stage. ^T. languages. Vowels in hiatus with the last syllable offer difficulties. testimony conflicts: some inscriptions have carIssimo. siius'>Digitized spus> sous (S. Aulus Gellius prescribes dictum. etc. attested by pIvs piivs. [§ 167 closed syllables and in words not used is by poets the quantity sometimes conOccasionally the in many cases doubtful . but the i. and often shown by subsequent developments in the Romance languages. but it is sometimes given by gram- marians. sometimes marked in inscriptions. after u had become (see §§ 165. and in Ennius close vowel in the Romance (S. 93): these preserved their languages. jectured from the etymology. cf. via— via. before u was apparently differentiated into 0: dvum> oum (cf. 98. 105). so cut. a. At 208). 167. but an inscription has dIctatori (S. fut. by S. by Microsoft® . proved old inscriptions . except Spanish. 187).. 101-102). loir calls for *gltrem h&siA^ gltrem. their regular quantity in hiatus. although we do find the spellings dius and mius (S. and the practice of poets was not always in accordance with spoken usage.72 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. S. 93. in Plautus. at least in part. probably kept their original Naturally short vowels doubtless had development also: deus = deus.

see Gram. Quintilian states that Pirson 74. way to Cf. Troja. into pei-ius. had a peculiar development from the sixth century on before a vowel it was pronounced qui' and was confused with quid. We find in eiius. as in ejus. ei-ius.(4). b. different theory. Velius Longus adds that etc. The Romance languages. on the other hand. 246-248. 236). which had begun to assume the functions of quod (see §§69. 3 II. Troja. Pirson 16). etc. XXV. LENGTHENING BEFORE CONSONANTS. 104) that the vowels there that is. as Cicero approved of Aiiacem. hut peijor. 468). gave {Lat. but the / was doubled was a glide from the vowel to the/. 357-390. Franz. with double i (S. 352-355). which prolonged the — first syllable: not pejor. Troija. Horning in Zs. §217. For a still. it became qua. vowels were lengthened before j. cuiius.§ i7o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Cf. d. There may have been other special Cf. The apparent contradiction disappears tianus Maurus. 168. Fluere was supplanted in popular usage by plovere Fluvia. 82 cf. mai-ius Digitized (£don by Microsoft® . 1894. Maiiam. however. under the influence of qua and : . major. 170. Spr. Jean- jaquet. coiiux. spellings as Aiiax. words were short. point to open vowels in pejor. if we accept the statement of Teren- who says (S.: 236. 207). J. 236). (S. Maiiam. 341. we should write Troiia also Priscian analyzes pejus. According to some grammarians. *pldja. Quia. Franz. qua{ni). 73 varia- 216. For another see A. Recherches sur Forigine de la conjonction 'que' et des formes romanes iquivalentes. Cicero preferred aiio.. 169. I. used for quod in late Latin. a II. tions in different countries. before a consonant. §208. maiiorem. inscriptions such S. 250 in these a..

however. 77-78. as above) are either learned terms or new formaS. (S. 78. for inscriptions. 467). s. 91). tjk: quinque. 86. but the length and the close quality of the vowel remained. it and the preceding vowel was cesor. Romance and late Vulgar Latin words with ns (except in Cf. Archiv XIV. and the fall was permanent. coxwenire through continere./. etc. /. The Romance is languages. 172. n occurred in the middle of many words. sanctus. call for dtgnus. who wrote in the sixth century. the evidence of the inscriptions I. 89. compounds See S. u. 90. Priscian. Before J. 400. n was followed by a fricative (/. S. etc. a very late authority. sposus. S. Lat. it was usually restored by the analogy of the full forms con-. so that the result Digitized was t. the n being restored only in com- lengthened by compensation: pounds before initial nare. benegnvs by Microsoft® . not f. tions: so pensare. and v only at the end of prefixes. pignus. (2) Before gn vowels were lengthened according to Priscian and inscriptions mark length in dtgnus. [§ 172 regularly early in Latin. etc. the vowel was lengthened. coventio. Spr. all trace of the of the vowel: consul consul cosul cosul. regnum. tion of later date. S. . pugnus. tferi. conjungere through conducere. t. and some philologists regard the passage in question as still still an interpola54. s: cosul. signum. or v). beside the old popular *pesare.74 171. for inscriptions. but insig- It is altogether likely that the n fell through nasalization If so. 91.. in-: so infantem through indignus. etc. for the usage of Cicero and others. An Introduction When fell to Vulgar Latin. remains. tsula.. but only after H had be- come i.- cf. lignum. According to Meyer-Liibke {Gram. cojugi. (i) Vowels were apparently lengthened before Cf. Cf §311. (cf. nasality disappeared. however. But inasmuch as n occurs before /". S. signum sigillum). «. u. mesis.

doubtless equivalent to the benIgnus of C. in stressed syllables. The distinctions in quality. difference in quantity 173. Buck.§ 174] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. show. in so far as all. 2153. in unaccented syllables the distinctions were doubtless weaker. as due to a vulgar or local pronunciation. tells us that au is short in Other grammarians syllables. XII. On shift the other hand. they existed at c. seems to observe quantity in stressed and to neglect it in unstressed syllables. XII. and a was often used for e in inscriptions (S. The poetry of Commodian. etc. Cornu. through the Latin period and developed further in the Romance languages. unaccented Terentianus Maurus. lost. The was probably greater and more constant in accented than in unaccented vowels. explanation. 66). Latin words borrowed by the Britons. 226). warn against quantitative mistakes: so Servius. D. 174. in the third or fourth century. 75). which is 75 in C. This seems a very plausible C. The old quantity itself was It during the Empire. through a by Microsoft® ." etc. resulting from the original quantity.). about 250. D. DISAPPEARAHCE OF THE OLD QUANTITY. (S. 722. Versbau des Commodian in Bausteine 576. and we find numerous metrical errors in other late poets: cf. in the Classical Review I. I. the preservation of quantity in post-tonic Digitized mostly in the third and fourth centuries. as in aut (S. however. 183—184: bence. remained. and the plural —es were confounded by 150 A. (S. and were often obliterated. . 311. for the most part seems to have disappeared from unstressed syllables by the third or fourth century but confusion The nominative singular -is set in as early as the second. of accent. L. J. XV. in the fourth century. "miserce dativus est non adverbium. prefers to regard such forms as dlgnus. L.

178). e. fructus by Microsoft® . show the preservation of the quantity of stressed vowels: Loth 64. but probably the disappearance of the old distinction was not general before the fourth and fifth centuries. Much late poetry disregards quantity altogether. clares that "Afrae aures de correptione St. d. distinguish by quantity t and i. Latin words borrowed by Old High German indicate a retention of long i and u before the accent: Franz. and not complete before the end of the sixth. 106). d>ii ox 6 while d>o: Franz.if>« while u and u. criticizes Servius. 467). entirely diverse from the old. tity short: sdncto vales. 175. grammarians blame the confusion of cequus and equus (S. Latin words borrowed by the Britons from the second to the fifth century. are distinguished by quality also. in the Roma (S. Augustine devocalium vel produc- Pompeius and other tione non judicant" (^Lat. e and ?. 107. Latin words in Anglo-Saxon. fourth century. retain the quantity of vowels that bear the accent: Pogatscher. Digitized fqrmas fori.76 syllables: An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. i?> e 01 i. taken over in the fifth and sixth centuries. In most of the Empire accented vowels not in position were pronounced long. and o. On the other hand. 65. Spr. In accented syllables there are sporadic examples of confusion by the second century. vendo vents. dixi plicds. as aques for eques in 197 (S. for. 225). The Latin words in Old High German. It is possible that the quantity of unstressed vowels was better kept in the provinces than in Italy. / At the end of the Latin period a new system of quangrew up. Moreover. but mostly in the third and fourth. all other vowels 176. DEVELOPMENT OF A HEW QUANTITY. and based on th|fe situation of the vowel. too. [§ 176 Loth 72.

^^/a > Old Fr. vieni. the groups that e. nepotis (A. perhaps only a blunder. and in unaccented ii. beside a. We shall see presently Digitized by Microsoft® . 178. t. eu. cuor. goule. (rets. u were pronounced open. Meyer-Liibke in different in Einf. e. We and i. we find vobit for obiit (S. I. close. ce. a. An isolated example. cb. dis- appearance of the which it displaced. o. XXV. but as posterior to it the fifth century. cq/r me-l no-s re-m In Spain and in some parts neisf of Gaul. In 419 D. Zimmermann in Zs. says that the development was and independent in the several Romance languages. Gram. he describes it as common to all.§ 178] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. nous.f>It. porta. The vowels most affected were e and q. particularly in northern Gaul: z'f«f. in £at. also ui. 0. nounced new long vowels were promost regions with a circuinflex intonation. which in the transition from Latin to the Romance languages re1 77- It is likely that these in sulted in diphthongization in a large part of the Empire. have seen (§ 165) ti. and the conditions of diphthongization were very diverse in different localities. 735). all stressed vowels were appar- ently long: tempus. cqr'^lt. occurs in an inscription made a little before 120 a. VOWELS. u. i. d. : Niipos. ca-the-drd te-ni-brds . tre-s. 103—104. Portugal. «^j>Fr. This pronunciation doubtless sprang up with the old. Spr. /w>01d Fr. Latin had the vowels au. he puts in the fourth and fifth centuries. and Sicily apparently did not participate in this early breaking. 77 gule. 561-562. while a was not' affected by q-aawti-ty.q. Lombardy. d. 213). syllables before a labial (as in proommus') a short further- more. southern Gaul.

which became *trewa. as *waidanjan~>*wadaniare. seppia. popular origin it often had the Greek open sound kKKkfitrU > 182.78 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. while au. ceu). was pronounced a: ^axriM^ Phdsis. it H era : eclesia. and 180. as In words of more ji\acr<\>r}fi. so in some late words. * skivare. In the Germanic vocabulary there is not much to be noted: at in words adopted early apparently became a. iu is found in skiuha?i> ated in some fashion to the Latin system. but also sepia "^ i: It.iro6riKTf)~:>apotheca^ It. eu (^cduius. the Greek This pronunciation was letters were sounded as in Greek.La > blasphemia > It. by Microsoft® . [§ 182 (§§209. partly from the various pronunciations of the vowels in the several Greek dialects. The inconsistencies in this substitution arise partly from the different dates at which words were borrowed. 179. eu generallyremained du. a-Ktjvrj'^ sctsna scena. 210) that cB>e a. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin e: a. 181. long or short. eu (or iu) appears in treuwa (or triuwa). The history of Greek vowels is very complicated: — GREEK VOWELS. partly from the channel (written or oral) through which they came. (n)Tria~^ sapia. was in Greek originally a long e. Per. A. The foreign vowels of borrowed words were assimil- In the few Celtic words that were taken over there are no important peculiarities. According to Quintilian (£don 64-65). but early in our became t. Late words often show Digitized do-Ki/Tiys > ascitis. but popular speech substituted for unfamiliar vowels the sounds of the vernacular.nd ce>e. and ui (as in cut) was lit. bestemmia. bottega. doubtless the ideal of people of fashion. (f>dXayi -> phalanx.

iKKXriKrCiu "> edisice. dqga. tapit. it was In assimilated to Latin t: ^lp. chiosa. mienta. crLvaTn> sinapi^ senape. op<^a. Pr.. Cf. I. was probably q. apa. <^iKo'i>phtlus. ally u: tructa.> piper. 183. sometimes open: eprjfios'^ er'mus er'mus'^ It. Tiov Claussen 854-855. even when long. 9. 80x1^ > dqga> It. li bietal It. ^^. Claussen 853-854. oo-/x'^ >. K6ppi>gummi. menta. Claussen 855-857. t apparently later often e: apOplriKOi > ariAriticus '> It artetico. Old Fr. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: <j><!tKri In popular words it apparently became ^. Greek dialects. armeise. and occasionally the same word had both pronunciations: a. antiefne. Sp. but perhaps dialectically q (cf.' It.ix6py7)>amurca. orma. In book-words it was assimilated to Latin o: > cophinus. ropvos > tqrnus > It. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Claussen 869-870. "^-phoca. open in others. cf. Digitized by Microsoft® . irop^vpo. ^(fila-pa^ chrisma> cresima. etc. O most dialects was kocjuvo's o. occasion- yXStrira > It. 184. ermo. piivOrj^ menta'> It. pxirov > blttum'> It. regamo.. apTepXa-M It.'>- Stephanus Stephanus. Cf.Chrlstus Chrestus. a. tttw^os > It..yermo. In popular words it. 185. at least in the principal dialects.vri^ovo%'>-* antefona'^ Qi\A Fr. It. '%Ti<^avo'.. pttqcco. 1re7rf. E was close in some It. rprnKTiji'^ Cf. opiyavos > became e. /. popular words I In book-words later e oz e.^ purpura. ixova<TT'^piov'>raora-n-rj- nastirium. tapis.v6% > orphanus. cresme. was generally close. ^ia>drrp > boletus. etc. Christianus Chres- tianus. > artemtsia > Old Fr. cedro. but sometimes open. etc. apparently became I. 79 40.p1. KiBpo'i'>cedrus'>In book-words it > Fr.— § i86] An etc.o'i'> phlmus . in 186. /iu(rT^ptov> mistirium. seems to have had a very open sound. Neumann etc. In popular words it was sometimes close. was assimilated to Latin e: yevans Agenesis. Xpla-ro^'^. -p-hqra).

— > concha. Olumpus. Lat. etc. grotta. According to Cassiodorus. Y was > strqppus. u is the spelling in some words. . Koyxiy <tt/3o<^os [§ 187 chorda. yppl-q > Claussen 857-860. > It.vt)> was shortened. Zefurus. by the spelling y. In the older borrowed words." App. > ancilia .8o torno. says: "Burrum semper Ennius.yKvKw. 468. motto. we find: "Marsyas non in others (S. Cf. in the case of v. — KoKn^o-i^ cqlaphus cojaphus. etc. It. which subsequently." '^ tymum non tumum. nunquam Pyrrhum" (S. later in Attic and became ii. Cf. The spelling / occurs sometimes before Augustus 6. truttna the v storax. etc. 221). /iCSos > It." "myrta non murta. KpvTrTy)> crupta . irv^os mullus. 'OSuo-o-eta > Odissta. etc.p-q>cumba. v regularly was assimilated to Latin u Ionic it jUijXXos 2ig-22i): Pvpara> bursa . > > and a few other words the v for some reason became o. <jTvpai : . was unrounded into /. 221). originally pronounced u." Among the common people the unfamiliar ii was assimilated to i. in which the ^ is a later local development. In Tp\yTa. Digitized by Microsoft® . 'OXvcro-eu? > Ulixes. which may represent a Greek dialect pronunciation between u and ii: yvpo'i> gyrus gmrus . Livius Andronicus In ayKvpa ancora.. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Marsuas. 187. y In the App. 221. ''tymum non tu- mum. Pr. fivpros busta seems to represent a peculiar local development: cf. KviJ. (S. Mva-Ca^ Jfysia Mmsia.. AudoUent 536. murta. For some words we find an occasional spelling X. buxus. In inscriptions we find misteriis.. perhaps taken mostly from Doric (Claussen 865). KpvTTTrj > It. The App. Pr. cultivated people adopted for Greek words the Ionic-Attic pronunciation. Towards the end of the Republic. in the 9th or loth century." "porphyreticum marmor non purpureticum marmor. App. calotta. Pirson 39. Pr. . S. > > > buxida {=pyxis) in Theodorus Priscianus and in glosses. Pr. these probably have nothing to do with KoXvizTpa. which is genCicero erally represented. Spr.

TSa. finally. toreomatum from Topfxpa.'> w€ipaTyi<s'^ — KA£ki>> Medea. AI timbre. Cf. Pr. £/ was doubtless originally pronounced ei in Greek. oi. etc. etc. a became Clio.. e. if Audollent 535. (as in aiyi^'^ tsgis). frequently became qui: The modern Greek pronunciation is represented by some Romance words: afi.. cf. 191.rihtui. if Pirson 39. 190. Cf. was usually pronounced short. etc. KS/«i>It. yrJi/'os — kvkvo%> gesso is e: yvpo% cecino.v\ov > It. f. which came to be proClaussen nounced 871-872. For o-vkcutoj/. Cf. Kapa^iuriys'^ paradtsus . /ceXttJcr/xa > ? It. bisante. may be merely misspellings: Some Romance forms show u: 875-877. 76-77. > scilinga. Claussen 01 originally "became came (S. 189. Tu/iTravov > Fr. KoXoKvuT-q"^ cologuinta. amido." giret. /. misterii. e.• ^ ^generally became ^« E3pos > -£'«''«J'.> platea. or z before vowels. Frigia. Cf. Claussen 873-875. 81 has "gyrus non girus. > It. j8u^ai'r6s > It. Digitized as in -Koivr] >poina. oTJpt-yya which became It. . probably a local development. J before consonants. which to be pronounced as in ^otfio^'^it Phxbus Phebus Sometimes. then. Claussen 860-869. <? In Latin. as in AWiovux > Ethiopia Ethiopia. long. cf. It. Such forms Clepatra for as " ermeneumata non erminomata" {App. Claussen 872-873. giro. became ai. 6r]travp6i> thesaurus. from the sixth to the fourth century c. the penult was often shortened: Khj. > It. «S(i)Xov> pirata. § Kd 223.). originally cb 188. about the third century. A V> au. Bechtel etc. This i. cima.. Cf. In -eios -eta —tiov. except before vowels. later e.§ 192] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. i. as in Atas > Aiax. see § 141. 277). later ce (as in poina). giro. etc. ciurma. by Microsoft® became 0. 192. however. . M. MaTa > Maia. tdolum. Cf. b. Cleopatra.

VI. see § 39. especially in the north. which was used elsewhere Lat. The o was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . (6) Beside vacuus there was a vHcuus: vocuam. used by Petronius and others: Lat. ovpavo's'^ Uranus. <u Claussen 877-878. S. A regularly remained dat-e.B. see § 167. 198. N. a.82 as in An iroirjTtji Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Spr. volumptczte in Gl. It is possible that dlacer (whence alacrem) > *dlecer (whence alecrem). and agnetus (for agndtusi) in Fredegarius. 468. 195. senetus. L. Rome. Beside cerasus *clra. For nasal vowels. 468. (i) Some words had a peculiar development: — Beside alacrem the Romance languages seem to postulate alecrem and alej:rem. 171. Cimiterium cymiterium. then 'Valuer (whence alicrem alecrem). So beside dinia. Cf. 441. ot. unchanged in the greater part of the Empire: caput. Substrate (4) I. patrem. 0. In Latin it usually became u: fipovxo's> bruchus. Claussen 878-879. I. vocatio. I. manus. perhaps indicates an ignorant confusion of « ce: KOiixMSia'^ and Cf. Kipaaoi) there must have been a Latin * cerlsus. 544. Spr. 1527 d 33. Substrate II. doubtless originally pronounced ou in Greek. I. crepere. L. it probably had a forward pronunciation tending somewhat toward e: cf. see § 171. — For vowels in hiatus. which was used in southern Italy. Haag 6. Spr. Like 193. malum « cf. Reich. C.. Doric cf. a 194. became comcedia. latus. [§ 195 "^-foeta. 468 cf. Cf. CKwas then if. SINGLE VOWELS. Lat. I. Beside gravis there was a grevis. C.T\Kov). (5) jiSKav) there was a melum (<i)i. then q. etc. and Sarthere was a clr^slus. tantus. -arius. But in Gaul.slus. factum. « : . ACCENTED VOWELS. (2) (3) For the suffix -arius. for cmmeterium < Koi/tjyTiyptov. under the influence of l?vis: Beside GREVE. Olcott 33.

and -tsco. became vacdre.). and conversely ver iox etc. By a change § which was pronounced remained unchanged in Vulgar Latin. Some of the —esco >-tsco cases are surely due to a §§414-415. III. debet.. filix. I. —isco for —esco. conjectures that consonant may have tended to raise e to i. I. probably- at least in most re- gions: debere. etc. 614-615. Digitized It probably indicates an by Microsoft® . old vocdre. as in cinsum. Spr. iox co- gnusco and other verbs in —usco for -osco. minsam. to u. 359-364. etc. e became i in late {Lexique 106). -Ire. etc.. cf . These spellings are due in the main s -¥ to the identity of /and i in late pronunciation: see § 165.§ igS] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. -isimus for vir. and southern Apulia e In old Oscan. e. same region. no proof of historical con: nection between the phenomena 197.: Sepulcri 193-194. also for colustra. II. T is very often used for e in inscriptions and late —ido for —edo. vocivus regularly whence by analogy vdcat vScuus became ^vdcitus^ for vocat: Lat. 468. I. for -elis and —His... writings: Gregory the Great has crudilitas. vendere.: for the confusion of -ere and 6911. for crisco and other verbs for adimplisti. 328. Republican times. for vindimia instead of vindemia. Also Vok. mercedem. Studi A. {ficet in the 3d century. {Lexique 115). of suffix original. etc. Sepulcri. diheto. I. —esimus. — in -isco for -esco. habetis. dulcido. Carnoy 15 ff. which was spoken in nearly the has become i. Lat. 196. for —esco 26o£f. however. verus. vindo. Long e {% 165). etc. vacivus 83 {^vacuus).. 198.ficit. Calabria. In Sicily. in Studi Medievali Medievali I. There is. 466. 189-190. shift of conjugation: see In Gaul this substitution of it i for e was so very com- mon that must signify something. S. iox fistus. 127 287-289. This would account for bistia (= bestia) found in late Latin. 613. Cf. -elius and —llius. Spr. I.

i pronounced i (§ 165). tile. except in Spain. i. rigna. stiis. quincriscens. Cf. etc. found in Gregory of Tours fur das Studium der neueren Sprachen CXV. ficit. seniscit. 1 200. perhaps through association with rtgidus. Neumann adoliscens. in north- e>ei (verum> Old Fr. 397. fedilis. villa. § i66. which supplanted vester. It. remained unchanged: bene. tris. 106-113: minse. quiiscit. spelling e for ^ is common from Digitized the third century on frecare. venit. veir): Lat. Cf. ferus. Spr. e 199. is to be regarded as a new formation on the model of noster rather than as the old form. criscit. rigna. delitus. According to Lat. Pirson 2-5: lo-ii: requiiscit. exit. Vok. qulnque (^Substrate (i) 546). rictu. 0) . etc. minsis. For the development (i) of diphthongs. pronounced / (§ 165). : by Microsoft® . which was pronounced e (see § 165). minses. e in nearly all the Empire: btbo. teneo. Fngidus. stilla. ingraviscente. Archiv (2) Beside ilex there was an elex. viiium. ferrum. dico.84 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Bon. must have become *frtgidus ij^frigdus). sidibus. etc. Short i. festa. Lexique 104-105: ficerent. vinum. this very high Spr. 468. segolo. Lexique 114. It is interesting to note that Celtic e also became i: Dottin 99. Long i. stiva. Short e. 8-9: adoliscens. The 201. quaginsima. vexit. : (3) Beside sicula there was a secula (Lexique Ii9)>-It. I.ii(i. remained unchanged: I. later. vaster. minus. piscem. Haag 3iiff. circulns. [§ 201 extremely close pronunciation of the e ern Gaul. see § 229. Cf. habitur. etc. see § 177. (Lexique 119) mentions a rustic speca for spica. (4). tulate (4) stegola Varro seems to pos- something like * steva for For St. riges. (cf. doubtless by the third century and sporadically earlier. became. audtre. mille. tepiscit.

nomen. 469. For ou 203. §§ 197. viduriiis.. 468): furma.. 468.. 198): minses. etc.. > ou.. etc. 468. § 196. perhaps through the analogy of semel: Lat. semuL. solus. In Sicily. Long 0. AudoUent 535. after that they were perhaps isolated: Einf. 541. R. Quintilian and Varro mention 166) a rustic e for I... 202). is The spelling u for etc. Spr. see § 167. accepere. 6 202... pronounced in Vulgar Latin. Calabria. and southern did in old Oscan: cf. Spr. In Sardinia and a part of Corsica this change did not take and both t and i i. i is Bon. 463. attested also by in- scriptions (S. under the influence of dexter: Lat. Stu^i Medievali 613) is perhaps to be ex- plained in this way. etc. Neumann 23-25. ^/z<^(= minester. has become § 196. trebus. 463. 200-201.. Digitized by Microsoft® . remained unchanged most regions: colorem. Carnoy 15^-. Pirson 8-10. place. «. amure. S. -^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. minester. at least in hora. S. These two islands were taken > from Rome by the Vandals in 458 and added to the African kingdom. sponsus. used by Gregory the Great and for ostium others. Spr. sebe. ceteneris.§203] legare. 85 menus. often used for e (cf. etc. Beside simul there was a *sSmul. corregia. very common etc. (3) Sinister was replaced by sinexter. Spr. (i) (2) Beside camtsia there was a camTsia: Substrate I. as it (§ 165). 214. trea.. 11 7-1 23. The popular ustium I. R. benivolus. the change For agnusco. see the end of § 197. etc. cognusco. in Gaul {^Lat. sene. etc. became i: cf. (Zat. etc. Apulia of e to /. karessemo. forma. vea. Haag II. In southern Italy e from i. zV/z///). etc. like e from e. etc. S. 195. Conversely (S. 106. Pirson 13.

namely. etc. sortem. U is occasionally used for o in inscriptions: lucus. Fr. ^'formica noxi furmica. tuit. There are a few peculiar cases: and Sp. or at least to a tutti. and western was probably formed a little forward of its normal It was certainly not u. § 198. meuble. which Haag 13. — presumably through Fr. perhaps." where tutti is defined as alle. solet. frondes) are perhaps connected with Italian yb«fe and other words containing o for 205. forts. cf. probably represents a very close sound. court." § 177. tutt3 . Cf. cognusco.. S. etc. § 217. Neapolitan sg. tutto. totto. una. pi. 206. Cf. Short 0. Grammarians mention the protrusion of the lips: S. pi. gluria. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. nun. nullus. Pr. The Such a form seems to be attested by the Gl. durus. locus. in north- ern Gaul. Italy. old Fr. remained unchanged most of the Empire: cura. Lexique 102-104. 211—212. pronounced u (§ 165).. but it doubtless slightly This pronunciation may have been due to the historique de langue francaise approached it. later. folia. tot. frundes (for fontes. [§ 206 It Bon. 126-130. the influence of cuncti on toti. § 187. the plural. a large part of northern Rsetia it position. is that of Mohl. 216. Digitized by Microsoft® . K. *tutti or *tucti: It. some of the Romance forms point to nom. mueble postulate Cf. pi. No satisfactory explanation has been proposed the most plausible. sg. Grammaire I. in mobilis. pi. Italian tutto . see Long u. may have come through 6 pronounced ^ (§ 165).. became ou or u: cortem 204.86 etc. mortem. puni. forum. q before n + dental. in But in Gaul. (2) Beside totus and *tuttus or *tuctus. (i) > Old. App. Nyrop. the analogy of mSveo. remained unchanged: bonus. For the development of diphthongs. tottus (§ 163). sg. Cassel: " aiatutti. The rustic Latin funics.. uuela alle. Pr.

(3) There are other local irregularities. The spelling is common in late documents: "columna non colomna. and Dacia this u : Lat. Pirson 15-17. people ssiA plSvere (used by Petronius (4) Instead oi pluere axA pKvia and others) and *pldja: Lat. In Sardinia. G. Digitized Cf. became." from nSvus) Lat. perhaps only orthographic: Lat. toneca. Celtic by the second century. Beside angHstia there must have been *angSstia. 216). « > z (cii^a cili. 136. Fr. 464. probably by in most of the Empire: bucca. became nSptim: (3) Beside in Zs. which lasted down into the Empire.rdus: Substrate III. by Microsoft® . Cf. 132-135. For qu (i) (2) > qu.> mur) but in a few. In place of niirus we find ndrus (R. 465) and nSra (S. pomice. due to the analogy of sdror and * nSvia (" bride. Spr. Bon. u> Spr. etc. couleuvre. App. presumably taken very early. 217. tomolus. corso. through the analogy of *nSvius ("bridegroom. 134. > : 207. see § 167. jUvlnis. "colubemon colober. ruptus. Beside luridus there probably was a *l-S. NUptia." "puella non poella"). covetum (= is Haag 14." "formosus noTiformunsus. jeune call for local q in coliibra. culpa. The old spelling for u after v {yoltus. servos.). 468. Pr. pronounced u (§ 165). and both u and .§ 2o8] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in Latin words borrowed by the Celts « is generally treated like Celtic (murus ". Cf.. Jleuve. cubtturn)." from nSvus)." "turma non iorma" (cf. Mohl pumex there was XXVI. tonica. u 208. Short the fourth century or earlier. Spr.. giila. and ndra. (i) (2) The following special cases are to be noted: — Cf. 467. u. Albania.. Spr. 87 linguistic habits of the Celts: u> t in Great Britain cf. F. criidus > criz) Loth 67-68. unda. a part of Corsica. etc. §§ 169. a pomex: Bon. fiUvium. 517. change did not take place. 469. § 217. 617-618. . Substrate IV. Windisch 396-397. etc.

465. septum. such scBpes both forms were preserved. century on (Carnoy 78): questus (2d century).): found early in Campania. Cf. some hundred years later e came into the city and pervaded the middle of the provinces: Lat. 225. ccelum. in the first S. in stressed syllables in the first century of our era and later. quiceti. igo. and equus : S. preda. etc.. The regular change oi ce to e took place largely in Republican times in unaccented syllables. Carnoy 79-80. century: Einf. especially in Pompeii (presta. S. cen224. S. 687 ff. ^ was originally written through the mutual attraction of later e: ccecus. when Varro cited edus for hadus as a rural form. spellings as fcecit. Carnoy It was probably general everywhere by the second 69-84. Spr. e. 178. seta. c. etc. says that cb Terentius Scaurus. § 78. in stressed syllables (as questor) may be called regular by the century: S. its and pronounced ai..88 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. sepes. preda prceda. In Spanish inscriptions e occurs from the first S. Neumann 13 (and Fort- mon to Volscian seizung 21-23): famina. 210. b. tury. stressed cb was probably still a diphthong in the city but had become e in rustic Latium. came into general use: fenum. In certain words a vulgar and dialect pronunciation com- and Faliscan (Hammer 7. by analogy. 225. sepes 188. etc. 178. represents the sound better than ai: E is etc. 'Sox fenum fcenum. Hence. fifth it cented syllables (as sancte) before the third century. but two parts it became cb. The Pompeius blames the confusion of csquus spelling e for cb was usual in unacfrom the fourth century on. 166—168. qucero. £ for a in dative endings occurs early: Corssen I. [§ 210 DIPHTHOUGS. Cf. 8). Bechtel Digitized by Microsoft® . About the first century b. Cf. ae 209.

Scarus./464. in Portuguese as ou. Conversely ce was often erroneouslyused for e (S. its existence in 211. in the first it the city. an Au. and others The grammarians : — . 301 S. R. orata. In Rumanian and Provengal it was preserved as au. II. etc. orum. plostrum Carnoy App. in general. where and second centuries B. Cludo for claudo is common. inscriptions of the I St and 2d centuries). are pretty common in various countries Carnoy 86-95. Pr. where au was normally preserved this pronunciation was used also in the country around So. In C/^j-a. Carnoy 100 (cludo in two Sp.C. taurus. Umbrian and Faliscan had 4-5. orum. 162-164. Festus. ostrum.. Clodius : Ham- and Plotus are common in first mer 4. grece. Priscian. in Oscan territory. 655-663. Bayard 5. ^^ auris non cotes. or possibly (2) they are only orthographic. The f there S. Carnoy 85-86 (clusa. Lexique 104).). Pirson 27. the earli^est stage of French in Italian causa> chose . original q (i) is proved by the treatment and Spanish it did not become of c in ^ until had broken into uo or ue. etc. etc. such as occludo: Vok. pronounced du.: into Spr. in the Probus. Festus cites 95. 89 75-76: cedat. Perhaps they represent a provincial pronuncia- tion. 8. 183-184) and for Greek r) (as scanam. toru. with a for au when an u in the next syllable. Dibmedes. in place of Latin au: and There are some examples in Pompeii.. Cf. century second century Carnoy 85. the dialects of northern \i^?s~\(>\. 304. Cf. I. 212. etc. Vok. etc. Hammer : 15-19. In Umbrian inscriptions we find Latin. — speak of a rustic or archaic o for au: Corssen fif.. and 465-466. coming through derivatives. generally remained in Vulgar*^ Latin: aura. crept was used by the lower classes: Lat. is 223 spellings Cladius. gaudium. oricla". II. Digitized by Microsoft® .: § 212] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Rome. coda.. occur inscriptions Carnoy 85. Hammer central Italy: Chronologie . Glacus.

pcenates. Marius Victorinus. mm227. ui pronounced lii. Umbrian suffoco. Vok. the intermediate stage Phoebe. 1890. seu). cepi. etc. postulated by some Romance forms. neuter. S. " sorex ve\ saurex. eu 214." Cf. ccementa. 293ff. was preserved: For the development oifui. by Microsoft® . poena. auscu/um . Phebus. S. 0. * auddere for occtdere. Cf. *^^ Cf. 228. [§ 216 {^Chronologie Conversely. S. of our era: Cf. coles =^ caulis. Ui. 216. mmrore. became popular: coscus. plodo. fcemina. but two parts it became It pcenitet. illHi. 227. 213. eheu. ote. Ola.. ce for ce and e. plotus occur also. eu. find amenus. explodo. 464. heu. pronounced eu (as in ceu. 227. hUic. pollulum: si audes. codex. CE was originally written through the mutual attraction of presumably 0. was not preserved in any popular words. of ce and e is mentioned by late grammarians: In late Latin a bad spelling. Europa. Bechtel 76. sodes. Spr. In the Per. I. Classic fauces. (cf. Jilodere. Eu. fosnum. Cf. lotus. Digitized cHi. IV. L.go An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. II. au was occasionally used for 160): Festus. we C. foces. 228. eui~us. Hammer 4)= aut. plaudo. oricla. cxlum. later e: coepi. Vulgar Latin in a few words : coda. oe 215. 0. Cicero used loreola. Lat. see § 431. etc. Carnoy 84. This rustic and vulgar while the in Romance — which was pronounced — was generally adopted from au was 0. The confusion S. stus. may be that for reflected by the spelling phyeb^ E is attested by inscriptions in the first century ceperint. is its and pronounced oi. S. neu. Carnoy 95.

XXVII. Although many examples are cited. stress. pluere'^ ployere. a = a. Ascoli. maintains ceding or following even if it by a preq was separated from the to e. e=e. UNACCENTED VOWELS. La vocal tonka alterata da una consonante labiale in Zs. to Vulgar Latin.§ 219] An Introduction c. La vocal tonka alterata dal contatto d'una consonante labiate in Archivio glottologico italiano XV. 218. Jluvium'>*flqvium. possibly through a lingering the Old Latin accent: cf. I ' According to some philologists. The discussion is continued by Pieri. until the reforms of Charlemagne. and then only Digitized in a part of the Empire. that f. became ou: S. by Microsoft® . Pieri. 219. q. 476. For a criticism of the theory. in vulgar speech. a following labial tends to open a vowel: colubra>* colqbra. ibid. see §§ N. e. e. for the In clerical Latin the vowels were probably pronounced most part as ii). which 217. 2. — For secondary 153-155. until long after the Vulgar Latin period. qt INFLUENCE OP LABIALS. B. see G. juvenis'^*jovenis. influence of The vowels of the final syllable lost much of their distinct- ness. 579. d. q. After that. mobilis'^* mqbilis.. the evidence is not convincing. Among unstressed vowels. — 457. = 0. those of the first syllable had most resistance. — vowel by a liquid. A general influence of this kind can hardly be regarded as proved for any combination except ou. CLERICAL LATEff. u ^u (or a and ce ^e. see § 167. u were lowered one stage labial. au:=q ox au. in general. except sporadically. Osservazioni al precedence lavoro. but did not fall. etc. i = i. § 134. p. dvum~>* ovum.

in unaccented . etc. i was certainly distinct from Digitized In final i: sentis. In general Latin quantity did not sensibly affect the quality of unstressed vowels. see Pirson 41—47. 2 1 2. and even there the difference must have been small. The former was the one generally adopted in Classic Latin. > maximus. In early Latin there was an inclination to syncope: ar{i)ddrem." (Weakest were medial vowels immediately following the stress. (i). 203-208.92 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 7. S. 466. jur(^i)go. etc. This tendency continued. however. "in here neque e plane nequi i auditur. by Microsoft® . in Classic and Vulgar Latin: cal{i)dus. found in place of quasi. vetranus: S. U was cf. etc. bdl{i)neum.. 9). sibi: S. 196-198. siimus -and simus. ID re vailed in Italy and southern Gaul. cf. Agrippa pro sumus simus scripserunt. In inscriptions we find such frig{i)daria. Lindsay 25-26. see Pirson. According to Marius Victorinus (Keil VI." In the vulgar speech simus seems to have Cf. Haag 15-24. dc(^u)lus. In Spanish in- we find maximus. cal[e)fdcere. [§ 221 Grammarians sibe are testify to the confusion of and u: S. pontufex "^pontifex. secondary or the primary 47-48. av{^i)dere. scriptions etc. 35 Franz. "Messala. employed only before labials. iv. For the confusion of unaccented e and i. § 419. Lat. 199-200. 30—36. SUmus. 251. syllables: I. 21-24. Brutus. in moderation. 3 During the Classic period it generally became t: decumus~> decimus. syllables. forms as infri. spelled both with u and with i: Carnoy 65-69. According to Quintilian I. except in initial syllables. vtr{i)dis. but simus was favored by Augustus and by some purists of his time (Lindsay 29).. 221. for o and u. Spr. Fredegarius is very uncertain in his use of unstressed vowels: 220. developed two forms. Quase. maxumus quodlubet"^ guodlibet. being sometimes accented.

Lucretius. quem.. will be treated as consonants. a. Bonnet notes that etc. Digitized by Microsoft® . abiete. Juvenal. fudxis. u followed by a vowel was originally itself. as approved is by Cicero: S. > distinguere. fectf^Vr. App. Plautus.g. probably by the century of our and sporadically earlier. Pr. After gutturals. the u was ap- parently not reduced to a semivowel until the end of the In some other words the syllabic value of u was kept. alio. Quintilian says that u and i in uos and iam are not vowels: S." "vacui gon 224. Lucilius. nocuit. 232. placuit. rather late: Velius Longus distinguishes aquam from acuam.§ 224] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. a vowel but lost its syllabic value in early Classic times: acua > aqua. In perfects. In tibi the final vowel was sometimes long. and will be out of consideration in the present chapter. senti. vaqui. So it was in qualis. Ovid. is distinguere qucBro. senttt> It. Horace. /"and u followed by a vowel and beginning a syllable were apparently pronounced as consonants from the earliest times. qui. Virgil. Horace. "vacua non vaqua. Maiiam not ab. e. and u in hiatus with following vowels first lost their syllabic value era. abietiItalia counts as three syllables in poets of the ' bus in Virgil.. then. 223. Occasional examples (such as dormio. Quintilian and Velius Longus cite the spellings Aiiax. In Greek transliterations kv for qui (as in cf. 93 stbi. i. 222. 234. and Seneca: deorsum in Lucretius. sometimes short. used before Joseph." S. §187. UNACCENTED VOWELS IN HIATUS. left a. feci. fis. These. sente. at least in theory. oKuAas) very common: Eckinger 123-125. vindemiator'va. such as Classic period. facias. 236. Otherwise. e. fluviorutn) are found in Ennius. fes. however.

solia. 234. But the combinations ei -. 463. VI. at an early date: arietem (^^\-^6)'> are tern (Varro. in late Latin. 06 and u6 into o. L. R. Valerius Probus has parietibus: £don 208. The pronunciation speech by the first u was probably regular in popular . and // apparently being contracted into e. century or before by the third century. etc. App.:> Digitized by Microsoft® . eccu'istay-* ecwista (§65). as e. a new y and a new w. C. 3714 (Rome). palleum. in late Latin spelling. fasiolus. Pr. four-syllable induruit are barbarisms Caesellius is undecided whether tenuis has three syllables or two: S. abias. tenueram > tenweram (§137). "non iamus sed eamus. was used as a trisyllable by Sedulius in the fifth century. * de-excito~^* dexctto'^ It. 187. II>'43.. 103. however. desto. 232. abiat.> mul'erem." " sobrius per i non per e scribendum. ie. "ares veteres pro anVi. soave in Italian. ee. the semivowels pre- sumably developed into the fricative consonants y and w: S. earn {=jani). likewise eccu'kic> *eccwic. In the same vi2.94 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. valiat. Lauriatus. the / remaining long enough to palatalize the / (the Romance e was doubtless a later analogical development). eacit {^=jacei). We have.. Uniamenta. 106.filius'>ftlius'^Jiljus. it was probably a semi-learned word. [§ 225 early Empire. etc. calciare. Audollent 535. i. Bayard 4. lintium. noxeus.y Jiliolus>Jiljdlus (§136). Caper. Cf. aleum. So alea>alea'^alja. u6 developed differently. parieUs {%i2t^)>p aretes." KeilVII. Hence arises. coclia. then.sapui > saj>ui> sapwi. §136). mulierem (% 1^6) ". 231-232. vinia. lancia. cf- Carnoy 33-35. Suavis. Vok.dixisse": Carnoy 43). it became soef in French. exiat. a great confusion of e and i in hiatus: capriolvs (cf.. calcius. S. S. Consentius declares that trisyllabic soluit and . faciebam'>*facebam. 00. prehcndere 225. cavia. I. with a narrowing of the mouth-passage.

" " coqus non cocus".'K. the Viduus. 226. § 227] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. opus. tdrqueo>*torquo> *tdrco. 218) quator — in. Febr{u)arius. before unaccented by the second century: antiquus "> anticus carduus^^cardus. ministerW^ ministeri.. 105. hence *cocma). > ecus {^App. equus S. .and perhaps also ol opera. some writers use no u in distinguere. So apparently aruum^* arum. kept its u: Old Fr. distinguunf> distingunt (ac- cording to Velius Longus. "ungue non unge. . cf. tinguo~^ttngo (Caper." Keil VII. consiln'^ consilt." Keil VII. Bayard 7. (Pirson 58) quatro (7th century. quat{t')uor'^quattor (^. fell commoner After gutturals.oSmsiT\& mortus. 227. '' coqui non cod. inndcuus>inndcus. ungi. tendere. Caper. duodecim'^ dodecim (Pirson 58: dodece). S.'). doubtless under the influence of vidua. Furthermore. quoi{f)tdie> stingo . common Carnoy 43). Audollent See §354. S. Pr. contin{u)ari. Velius Longus. vef. Reich. Spr. Jan{u)arius: Vok. 106). qudmddo> comodo. requebit. quteius'> quetus. in late inscriptions. 2 1 7 ) .. unguo'>ungo {ungo. z/ after all consonants fell before unaccented u probably by the middle of the first century. coquus'^ cocus {App. coquo^coco {App. Gl. " coquens non cocens". Pr. uncis = unguis. abattas. — cdhdrtew^ cortem. "equs non ecus ". in quum>cum. / after a consonant fell before unaccented i: Velius audit '^ audi. . Similarly.. Digitized by Microsoft® . 472: ero). unguntur. Pr. cooperire"^ coperlre. £don 130). 217-218. U often fell irregularly II. Audollent 536). cf. u before stressed u and 0: 536. then *prendere through the analogy of reddere and perhaps also of ascendere. sttnguo > guere non tingere. then *cdpenre *cdp'rtre through the analogy of co. Pirson 57 (cf. Carnoy 117. 468-469. tuum'^tum. defendere.. Carnoy 221). mortuus'^p- cottidie. 95 prendere. battuo "^ batto (cf. pendere. suus'> sus. £ruum'>erum {Lat. 351). S. ho-Tievex. "tin352.

au became a if there was an accented u in the next syllable. etc. S. '^senatus non sinatus" App. and u were finally all pronounced 228. subinde. hibernus. l remained i." S. colorem. i: should be spelled with double late words. Bechtel 76. 223 Pirson 26). Caper says "ausculta non asculta. debere. Cf. plordre. — Latin /(j/»««j > Classic Jejunus (the original a seems to be preserved in Classic Januarius '^ Jenuarius . tenere. S. 136. is very often replaced divota. fxddre. i. a{u)sculto. ce all came to be sounded e. E. must have existed 229. I. Spr. -n and —ns: Dtonysii>lt. dolere. Dionigi. 470): dilevit. naufragium. Farisiis > Parigi. e For the confusion of Carnoy 17-33. lost before also. I. 171-1 72. Some minor peculiarities are to be noted: (i) A after/ apparently tended to become e: Old dialect forms) . > *jenua > Sardinian genna. necessary to say that Claudii. agusias. cetdtem.. Comelii. Some however. Bon. d'rectus (^Vok. long or short. a was pronounced a. Spr. i. (Lat. but otherwise remained unchanged (cf. 0^ remained p. Pr. gaudere.. golosus gylosus (ior gulosus). moniti (for muniti). Lat. Arunci occurs in manuscripts of Virgil. far as As or u. 223. /^22: Jejunus after prefixes lost its first syllable: * dis-junare. ridemus. (Bcclesia. Koffmane no. 135—138. * agurium (cf. 57. movetis. audere. in Gallic inscriptions cf. A(u)gustus. and see Audollent 535. Lat. frumentum. 109. In a few words the vowel of the initial syllable was an r: *corrStulare^*^roflare. valere. 470) (2) Classic/awKa mimoricB. b. A(u)runci. some Italian (common by i in inscriptions. Keil VII. videre. Spr. it [§ 229 Longus found etc.96 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Julii. one can judge from spellings and subsequent developments.. 470): rddicem. Agustus is frequent from the second century on. Digitized by Microsoft® . Vok. Bon. Bon. 11. INITIAL SYLLABLE. dvitdtem. kept It. dtrectus generally '> drictus)\ quirttare~>*dritare. ce.

turrente (Bon. serorihus. if there was an accented i in the next syllable:^ dividSre'^*devTdlre. sometimes became se. : 97 Di. XXXV. cf. (4) / tended to become e. Rom. se in Portuguese. I was occasionally assimilated to a following accented a : ^gdntem It. salvatico. §111. Rum. Pirson 27. front vowel (until the seventh century nearly always an ' later e Mohl's view. which prevailed in Vulgar Latin. cf. if i followed. 82). Lexique I2z. in late Latin.for i in 422-424. Italian sed on the model of ched: si is preserved in French. in fourth century inscriptions. C. I. oricla. 225. According to Mohl. mUrare. as in 6' before a consonant was doubtless long and sharp. nise. and Old Rumanian. Old French.. (Bon. fimre'^fenire. Cf. 3 II. through the influence of the prefix re—. 470) > Old Fr. mcinus vecinus. 205) . century on (Foi. Pr.jaian. by dissimilation. < e In miraUlia the i ap- parently became (5) U and a. is common : in Gregory the etc.Jaiant. cf. Vitruvius. Lexique \2Z-iz6. 234-235) . 470. in vulgar speech was often replaced by (cf. Old Genoese zagante. Italian. cf. Proven9al. 16^. §§ 212. was kept by analogy in many words : dUrare. cf. analogy of *que quid^ quod (cf. Lat. I. divmus"^ demnus. serori. sdlbatec.. attested from the sixth 87. etc. also sometimes in serore (Lat. Sfr. 213): App. This perhaps indicates a close pronunciation cf. Spr. : (3) > *jagante > Old Yr. This led to the prefixing of a 2. became instead of Digitized by Microsoft® . Spr. Spr. 3 II. de-. 470) and/m?- perus (App. is that original Latin ei. nutrire (beside *nqtrire). so *ot (for aut: cf. Lat.. possibly through confusion with dis-. Lexique 105-108. Great: dirivare. so that at the modern a syllabic effect — beginning of a word it had s-chola. Italian. Vr. 213. silvdticus> salvaticus (Gl. § 198. and Spanish. Au 230. Bon. cf.. §§ 69.§ 23o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. A form ni for ne is found from early times Pirson 3. Carnoy (7) 107). Lexique 123. 470). II. salvage. mUtare. the e is perhaps due to the Haag II. 126. 131). retundatio. (6) O appears as u mfurmica (App. II. Reich. JUntfSrus'^jeniperus (Lat. Lexique 120. Franz. L. Einf. 224 ff. Lindsay 40). in manuscripts and inscriptions. Umbrian ate. e became southern Italy from the fourth to the sixth century RIVOCAVERIT. 127). Pr^. putator O is changed to e in retundus (Vok. Pr. Si. Lexique > I04ff. z. attested by Servius. in very late texts there is frequent confusion of si and sed (Franz.

ab scandalo. isperabi. prosthetic vowel earliest occurs in Greek inscriptions. 316-319. instruo for struo. Cf. etc. written Barcelona in the second century. is. Bon. Spania. S. in the third century (Carnoy 114-116). dub{i)idre. spectante for expectante. ^w. Isidore. Vowels so situated probably became more and more end of the Empire. S. S. hispatii for Bechtel 78. Vok.98 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. not frequently. 317. This i came to be regarded as a regular part of the word. 467. Dubois 1 71-17 2. spatii. frigiddria frigddria. Bon. scalciare for excalceare. compardre comperdre. Grammarians took But in no note late until St. mirabilia. st: ginning with Bon. dv{i)idtem. 445. ismaragdus. R. The es-. 148.. dil{i)cdtus. estatio. and occasionally disappeared. cdp[i)idlis.(pronounced w-): expiendido. cdlK^o^cdre. Estephanus. istare. cdrr(i)care. ischola. of it iscola. stantia for instantia. . istatuam. 445-446.thus produced was confounded with ex-. Spanus. Spania. isiudio. spandere for ex- pandere. The The in Latin example probably it is iscolasticus. tlie C. Slementum 6limintum. In some regions they began to fall regularly before the close of the Vulgar Latin period. Digitized by Microsoft® . B. scoriare for excoriare. [§ 231 often e) to the s or e when tio vowel preceded first is — in i-schola. N. in the fifth it is very common: espiritum. exs— (pronounced «-) and /«j-. Latin texts ab rather than a was used before words besc. IHTERTONIC SYLLABLE.. sp. II. etc. splorator. etc. Pirson 59-60. ispose. 317 R. Koffmane 109. but a was gen231. cf. Dubois 171. 3656-. in the seventh century. though iscripta. indistinct towards the erally kept: bdn{i)idtem. strumentum. Pirson 60. fourth and found repeatedly. spiratio for inspiratio. ab sceleribus. — By this term is meant syllable following the secondary and preceding the primary stress. cirebellum. 469-470.

118. The Vulgar Latin rhythmic erate one of the two post-tonic syllables of proparoxytones. similarly As far as the general phenomena can be we may say that in popular words in penult tended to (i) fall common speech the vowel of the under the following conditions: — Between any Consonant and a Liquid. meretis. 464. fall 559.. Substrate IV. Pirson 51. etc.. etc. 131— 135. both types The treatment inconsistent often being preserved in the Romance languages: thus while the literary and official world said {h)dmines (>It. liquid A weakened and by Microsoft® .§ 233] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and the conditions differed widely in different regions. Koffmane III. Bon. stablarius.• anemis. Pir- Franz. comare for coronare. uomini). dedcavit. etc. 116. Cf.. 12. was apparently very Vulgar Latin.. etc. 99 sdcramintum. omne)\ classified. Neumann 22. of this vowel. the uneducated pronounced 'om'nes beside socerum there was sScrum. insola. R. Mintsterium apparently became minsterium early enough for the n to before the s: see §171. R. The fall of the vowel of course disturbed the Vulgar Latin rhythm: see § 153. being next to the accent. cf. Bon. There was probably a conflict between cultivated and popular pronunciation. in the second century b. We find in late Latin much confusion of e and /. XIV. Cf. Neumann in Zs. in Sepulcri 201—202. principle tended to oblit- 232. 467. PENULT. Likewise o and u: ambolare. v^recundia. d. : Frigdaria occurs Cf. was weaker and more exposed to syncope. The penult. dixemus. son 52. separdre seperdre. vowel preceded by a consonant and followed by a fell in the earlier part of the Vulgar Digitized 233. vetranus. (>Pr. c. however. F. pi.

dc{ii)lus. anglus. dedro for dederunt. A sonant was inclined to bublus.loo An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. (cf.'). escaped this absorption: cni. vitulus>veclus. a. Heraeus. Pirson 49-50. 234. d. Die Sprache des Petronius und die Glossen. fecrunt fecru. tum. as in saclum. peduclum. 57. e^-16 . ins(u)la.. In some words we find a weakened to e: socro. aspra. [§ 235 Latin period: altra. Oclus and some others occur in Petronius: see W. maniplus. Carnoy 12. were kept distinct vulgar speech: artic{u)lus. masclus. 1899. Juglus. which must have been slow in entering the common vocabulary. App. compera. Bon. Eseram for Isaram.). ftsiula>*Jiscla. ci. Pirson 51). Pr. Cf. comp'tus. Digitized by Microsoft® . mdsc{u)lus. Waters Ch. App. the vowel seems to have been kept. felicla. see first consonant -Cvas a palatal. 96. oclos. I. gracilis. But a few words. (2) Between a Labial and any Consonant. 16-18. Lexique 63. 1 digitum> dicCf. as in auricula. § 284. Cceseris. virginem. § 259. spatula'. hilerus. 3 To -clus was assimilated in popular Latin the ending -talus: capitulus"^* capiclus . scaplas. Pr. Lexique 64. Pr. These by Plautus. frigidus^frigdus. D. frdgilis. amples are found in inscriptions: AudoUent 538. spec{ii)lum. vowel preceded by a labial and followed by a confall early: 235. cltera. cdm{i)tem. bdc{u)lus. vic(u)lus.stulum> crustlum (found in 18 Cf. Later they were confused. Latin originally had the two diminutive endings —clus and -cuius {<i-co-lo). Franz. But if the the ^ began to be palatalized (so apparently in 9 I. Pirson 51. both becoming —cuius in Classic Latin. seperat (about 500 A. villus. In vigilafp-* viglat the vowel fell before (2) below. App.^-* spatla. Many exI. aunclus. 195-196. at any rate in some regions: bdjulus.). Vok. vemdc(^u)lus. both -clus in {^<i—tlo).' For a vowel between a labial and a liquid. Franz.

Koff109. Waters Ch. Plautus). (3) Between a Liquid and any Consonant. p I. lardum. 4th century). virdis.^-* nautat .. * cldvido> claudo (cf. dvidus avunculus"^ aunculus.Jibla. 238.{i')nus. p I. virdiaria. . offla. pdp{u)lus. fulica fulca. Varro. Franz. Cf. Horace and Vitruvius. 3 \. 467. 236. Martial. Digitized different condi§ 233) . Juvenal. either everywhere or in a large region: drbi^o^rem. the vowel was kept. A vowel preceded by a liquid and followed by a consonant was subject to syncope at all periods: ardus. R. * ndvitaf. 13. domnicus. (cf. Plautus (cf. tremulat. ioi tri- dib{i)tum. pi. nibula. per- colopabat. in R. Pliny. 15-16 (cf. (4) Miscellaneous.). 56. 15 soldus. sablum. poplus. Pirson 50. In some words. pi. gdbata>*gauta *gabta. * dvka "^ auca. Plautus. h6m{i')nes jiiv{e)nis . Waters Ch. however. Franz. c6l{a)phus {ci. Pirson 51. 44. Cf. found in glosses. frigidus by Microsoft® . the fall When ab or av was brought next to a consonant by it of a following vowel. pi. . Augustine. Petronius. 13. f{b{u)la. Plautus. domnulus. pardbula>*paraula *parabla. Franz. vdpulo baplo. but often there were double forms the process began very early audus. 12. Horace. tions: In some words the vowel fell under digitum> dictum. 467. colpus. merto. KofiEmane iii. b{u)la. Franz. Franz. Varro. the older: d6m. sablum. Ovid. 237. Gl. Vegetius. caldus. etc. 44. Waters Ch. Reich. fdbula>*faula *fabla. occurs in Lamna Petronius has bublum.. i2ff. *navi- > fragus>naufragus). Caesar. domnus in St. Ci. Franz. : § 238] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. tdbula>*taula *tabla. hdmula. valde. In d6m(i')nus the mn form may be mane domni. Cato. Pr. generally became au. App.

dominica-^ * dominca. vindico. (2). All three forms are probably examples of a tri- phonetic reduction that affected certain regions. and Ligurian territory. posius. FINAL SYLLABLE. fimina *femna. Later. 13-14 (ci. 239. about the eighth century. frdx(i)nus. medicus. 241. we find "avus non aus. A vowel preceded by </ or ^ and followed by c seems to have remained longer than most other vowels that fell at all: judico. pi2tidus'^*puttus. Through a large part of the Empire -avit>-aut: umphaut is found in Pompeii. but rius is evidently the ancestor of Italian and Spanish rio. 240. pers{i)ca. carcatus. e. Some of these In a part of Gaul dmita'^* anta. Gl. tdllere > * tolre. they had not fallen already." "flavus non Jlaus" "rivus non rius. In the App. sid(^e)cim. ntHdus>*niiius. clericus^*clercus. Cato). culicet culcet Cf. Aquitanian. Pr. debita~^* depta. Reich. they generi. cdrrico'^*carco. c6llocat'>-*colcat. See Morphology. ally fell. Franz. In the transition from Vulgar Latin to the Romance in so far as languages the vowels in classes (i). viaticum. etc. probably late. posturus. p I.: = collocat. shortened forms were used in other regions. mdnica'>* manca. Pompeii (fridam). 2d century. Digitized by Microsoft® . Pr." Aus and flaus have left no representatives. App. Pirson 50. habitus > * abtus. § Introduction to Vulgar Latin. (fricda). dic{i)mus. [§ 241 ^frigdus maxima^ masma.102 An (cf. Suchier 732. except a and in Celtic. Lucretius. — were — syncopated with some regularity. semita'^* senta. The vowels regularly remained through the Vulgar Latin period. and a number of vowels otherwise placed fell under different conditions in various regions: pdnere'^*ponre. . (3). 233). rapidus > > *rapdus.

469). bom. e. E and a. 244. which in Sicily be- came eventually // t remained // was 0. tristem. It is likely that final vowels were especially ob- scure in Gaul in the sixth and seventh centuries. facul =facilis. a. inflection. by Microsoft® . sentls. for / is frequent in the dative and ablative. 243. About the eighth century a probably became ? in northern Gaul. tribunal{e). tanger in manuscripts. describes the final vowel of here as neither quite e nor quite Cf. famul = A. uxore. corpus. morior. and i came to be used almost indiscriminately. The changes in pronunciation led to great confusion in spelling. dmdt." ^^figulus nonfigel. E luce. 3 I. mihe. were not usually distinguished (cf. feci. long or short. Spr. bonds. but generally they were confounded {Lat. E I. has "barbarus non barbar. in late Latin. cotidia. §210): apte^aptcB. haber in an inscription. Cf. especially e after liquids: Caper. ablative. perhaps. vii. t. tristes.. autumnal {e). was naturally pronounced a. which became u in Sicily.§ 244] An Introduction Final vowels. etc. See Franz. but are rather due to a local change of languages.Xxa. "bibere non biber". which left no trace in the Romance famulus. modern must have been often elided or syncopated in the interior of a phrase. 41. Carnoy45: Digitized dative. Old 'Lz. In some localities this and this u were kept distinct. tibe. Bechtel 75-76. as in to Vulgar Latin. according to the testimony of numerous inscriptions {Lat. fructu. Lexique 118. 469).. conder. he i. vii. The App." These curious forms are probably not the result of a phonetic development. in I. Italian. pradiscer." "masculus non mascel. etc. So. etc. 103 242. Quintilian says that Livy wrote sibe and quase. Examples: dmds. Neumann 7-8 cites ten cases of e for a: Italice. praber. Pr. tristts. were all probably sounded e. iv and I. etc. Spr. sancta. u was u.

T. was kept in Digitized some formulas . in etc.4 G. an R. for the vowels i were B. Phon. : . omnes ^ omnis (3d century). 43-44. = maris. 131 has spoliatur for spoliatot. etc. larly common 42. Carnoy 48 bonus = bonos. used as a prefix (cf. etc. G. -re. Neumann 11-13. 11 1.. §29) as in minus-pretiare. monumento ^= monumentum... 115. d. mares etc. 61 examples of u for ablative In Vok. Bon. I. 916. X.. etc. 474. I. and 121. C. Audollent 535. sem- per'^* sempre . With and u it was the same. N.. and us for os. cf. Haag 245. Joannis. old letter equivalent to C. So et it: Bechtel 88-89.. movit. Carnoy 48.104 An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. regis ^reges. Carnoy 13. Vok. Z. os The confusion of for us. K. accusative plural G|^l|ii Jilius—Jilios. Cf. Spr. etc. ^and Fwere used both and u and for the consonants/ and v. M. tenit. •quat{u)or'>quatro. etc. became in Gaul mis-. of om for um. Q. Bon. 246. Lat. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin period.. etc. 116. posuet. very etc. K. common in Per. V. Bon. letters The Latin consonant P. Os and us were interchanged from the third century on awi' = annos. Ill. S. also in Gregory the Great. 'Im./^^. L. under the influence of dis-. Carnoy 13-15. there are between 126 and 563 a. [§ 246 Es and are continually interchanged: 24.. it need by Microsoft® . -£?. Sepulcri 229-230. of. omnes ^^omnis. in us was particu128. Neumann 11-13. as well as frequent instances of ablative in um. etc. II.. Sepulcri 203-204... Bon. and um is very common in Per. siiper'>-*supre. In words ofteii used as proclitics final -er..r became Carnoy 221. E.. -ro: inter'>*intre.. Bon. Minus. Sepulcri 201. Cf. D. F. H. CONSONANTS.

Pirson 83-91. e. which will be treated below (§§338-339). consonants are often written single in early inscriptions. vacca. with The consonants will now be considered in detail. 248. which will be discussed after the native ones. sonants The principal developments that affected Latin conmay be summed up as follows: b between vowels was opened into the bilabial fricative /3. Bon. 105 in not be separately considered. h was silent. The voicing of intervocalic surds began during the Vulgar Latin period. ^ and g before front vowels were palatalized and were then subject to further alterations.§ 248] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. passus. In words borrowed from Greek and German there were several foreign consonants. For w>j and For double forms like of single cipus ctppus. later it represented a different Latin version of Greek t. Pirson 88. Z in Old Latin apparently meant j. next the Greek. liquids. Double consonants regularly kept after long their long pronun- ciation: annus. lastly the Germanic. and n ceased to be sounded before s. 163. sibilants. dentals. gutturals. Vulgar Latin had a new w and y coming from originally syllabic u. and thus became identical V. labials. serra. which also changed to /8. fillio. In addition to the above. 158. § 223). Double cf. taken up The Latin consonants will be in the following order: aspirate. In late spelling there is some confusion and double consonants: anos. nasals. m and n became silent at the end of a word. Q V= kw (cf.or ss (S. terra. 319-320). nullus. Pirson 85. 247. the combination Q was generally used only Jf stands for ks.. see §161. //>/ vowels. or / in hiatus: see § 224. Digitized by Microsoft® . the Celtic need not be separately studied. For Fredegarius see Haag 39-40. palatals. see §§ 162. first the native Latin.

Grammarians felt obliged to discuss in detail the spelling of words with' or without h : S. ASPIRATE. 117. and both he and Velius Longus declare there is no h \VLprendo: S. Paris in I?om. cortis. 263-264. Cf.e. doubtless the Romance It languages. Nigidius Figulus fit to the effect that "rusticus sermo i. — aspires perperam". 1. mi. 267—268. S. which led to frequent misuse by the ignorant. 266. G. Pr. comprendit. in such words as sepu/c/irum. Quintilian commends the spelling deprendere: S. incohare are archaic calls Terentius Scaurus and vehemens incorrect. If -was weak and uncertain at all times in Latin. being little or nothing more than a breathed on-glide: S. 399. 251." In inscriptions we find such forms as reprehensus aduc. [§ 251 LATIN CONSONANTS.. App. 264-265. 262-263." see S. 249. Cf. probably disappeared when medial: . vehemens. Grammarians say that A is not a letter but a mark There is no trace of Latin k in of aspiration: S. 266. 255-256. Digitized by Microsoft® . sometimes does not. and cites "ados ircosque": S. Quintilian says the ancients used h but little. Gellius says ahenum. Probus states that traho is pronounced trao: Lindsay 57. the Republic. hinsidias. 263. as in quisquis honos tumuli: Keil V. first XI. vemens: S.— io6 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Gellius quotes P. si speaks of bygone generations as using k very S. 250. 264. nil.. etc. as in terga fatigamus hasta.. very much as happens in Cockney English to-day: for the would-be elegant chommoda. honera : Pompeius notes that k sometimes makes position. 266. a. Initial h was surely very feeble and often silent during In Cicero's time and in the early Empire there was an attempt to revive it in polite society. but Cicero's contemporaries much. "adhuc non aduc. of "Arrius.

L. hegit. In Pompeii h is freely omitted. choante. heremum.. 350reduced to k by the or second century. quooperta cot. dialects: Quintilian VI. records a pun of Cicero on cogue and quoque. = coperta. I. other languages: michi. Cf. I. omo. cf. 264. I. § 226. ortus. oe. 473. 254. 351. in quo ante=^inBechtel 78-79. too. R. haram. But in Dacia. S. pronounced kw: 0. Bechtel 78. Vulgar Latin reduction of que to Digitized qui to ki: Lat. of S. Before u and first however. ic. kw was Before other vowels the regularly kept in most of k. ymnus. R. C. Q and C: S. After h had become pronunciation of medial h as Italian pronunciation of there grew up a school which has persisted in the Latin and has affected some words in silent. unless analogy led to a substitution of cociior coqui throvigh. hodio. S. probably earlier in local or vulgar iii. 924. 341-344. GUTTURALS. secuntur. hossa... Spr. Cf.. OSTIA. by Microsoft® . L.. 1034. 345-346. Mens. etc. ospitiutn. etc. non dicitus". 462-463. b. 455. Sheldon in Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Litera- turel (1892).L. 265-266. abitat. ora. condam.. etc. 107 is dropped in a few inscriptions towards the end of the Republic: arrespex (for haruspex). C. I. S.. '^digitus = digitos. There was some confusion. hostium. less indisetc. Cf. 82-87.§ 254] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. Pr. anc. 252. 345. I. k. 819. oratia. E. as in eastern Italy. etc.. southand Sicily subsequent developments point to a ke. S. cocus : see §226. S. etc. the Empire. C. and H after the third century it is everywhere more or eres. nichil. Q F was Audollent 536. In Rome are found: e[redes]. 253- C and K did not differ in value except that C some- times did service for dicitos G: App. I. criminately used: abeo. cottidie. the kw was 340-341. 351-352. Bechtel 77-78.

by analogy. S. "aries non ariex. cinctivs. 221. Cf. By the second reduced to or third century ks before a consonant was 170. BissiT BisiT VISIT = vixit. Lindsay 102. The voicing of intervocalic surds doubtless it is early as the fifth century. as in * essaexire. Carnoy 171. es~ for ex. III. cf. 274. Lexique 93). s: sestus is common in inscriptions. S. etc.: Hence cf. nasco. migat in inscriptions Digitized by Microsoft® . etc. /'m«7/« > prixsilla. sometimes. 98.. So ex-^es. S. App. but not in syllables etc. 352." In parts of Italy ks between vowels was assimilated into ss by the first century. first [§ 256 In quinque the w was lost by dissimilation: cinqve. Carnoy 158. in late Latin. io8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.). 353 (cf.before vowels. On In norththe other hand. e. There are some examples. S. S. buxus'^* buscus vixit>\iyiC\Ti (i. in At about the same time : final ks cojus. Laqueus seems. fifth tury. ubi materia per s. viscit). cen- inscriptions. Caper. extimare for cestimare. pregiiax became s. Carnoy 157. ^ stood for ks: S. I. gium. ern Gaul apparently sk regularly became ks. except in mono^prmgnans. Cinqvaginta. Audollent 537. destera. 353. of a metathesis of ks into sk: axilla"^ ascella. 353. Bechtel 139.. 346. After a consonant ks early tended to become s: Piautus uses mers for est. see § 266. ''cah excutere. milex. etc. conjus. 353. dester." "locuples non lucuplex." Keil VII. found in Spain (so cinqv. For ks>-)(S. to Carnoy have become *laceus: Substrate 255.'' "miles non milex. felis. merx. 145. xanto. 351. subornatris.. but this was only local: alesan[der]. 341. Fr." "poples noT\ poplex. for some reason. mextum for mcestum.: see Melanges Wahlund t^^. Carnoy 159. Carnoy Eckinger 126 (2eorros). as in cresco.. 256. Vok. exponere. began as shown by Anglo-Saxon borrow- ings and by such Latin forms as frigare.

Haag 27. etc. Spr. of the cataveris ^^ cadaveris. (i) Cf. Carnoy eglesia. I. i25ff. however. t were voiced in Gaul in the second half of the sixth century. became g and gr: *gaveola. in a few words. According to Loth 21-26. southern Italy. In Central Sardinia. . G seems to have been attracted sooner than k : in Sardinian we find k before e or i preserved as a stop whiles is not decern. Zs. sigricius ^= secretins. but reina. Some above examples show that consonants followed by r shared in the voicing.. early in the Empire or before. etc. Haag 27—28. etc. 2d century. C and G before Front Vowels. 7th century. * gratis. Voicing was not general. kera. 472. on the evidence of inscriptions and manuscripts. Zimmermann. Densusianu 111-112. finds in inscriptions some slight evidence of a change of t to d during the Empire. into a mediopalatal position k'. 731. etc. Before the front vowels e and the velar stops k and g were drawn forward. in central and southern Italy. noghe < nucem.g'. crassus + grossus'^grassus. Carnoy 123. kena. lebra. 257. and in Sicily. and Dacia. 109 and manuscripts. XXV.. ne121. in some places perhaps as early as the first century. gat. Initial c and cr. p. deghe<. siubri. Dalmatia. there are many examples from the sixth century: Lat. occubavit. pontivicatus. immudavit. kircare. 3 I. / 258. Vok. 32. found in the 4th century.. Digitized by Microsoft® . at least as early as the seventh century. Rydberg. and Illyria k' went no further. while c>gz. that t>d'm the fifth century and the beginning of the sixth. Cf.. intervocalic c. pagandum. A.t least two centuries earlier. kelu. maintains. cubidus. Spr. 474.— — § 258] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. kima. etc. etc. Franz. Dalmatia. Haag 28-29. and Dacia the k' stage was apparently kept longer than in most regions: Lat..

etc.. to the effect g has "its own sound " (i. genvarivs. = conjugi. Genavam... Sicily. diriens. Pirson 97 celiens. 250.Gi 5. etc... 275..1 1 Some light is thrown on the later clerical pronunciation by a statement in a fragment of a tenth century treatise on Latin pronunciation. Gepte. D'Arbois 10. coi^i. Thm-ot 77. and portions of Sardinia. Pr. fmucrrpo. iesta. "calcostegis Neumann 75.. Cf. this Haag 33. and digitus in some places had become dictus {Franz. both in popular and in Gerapolis for HierapoHs. jSctevTt = viginti. II." geiuna= Jejuna. . Haag 34 manes 1' . 61. that of English g in gem) before e and /. "-frigida non fricda"). in nearly all the Empire. 461. when it was intervocalic. with the following e or i if this vowel was stressed: vi- mag2ster'>*mayister'. Pirson 97 quarranta = qicadraginta. re{g)ina. G' by the fourth century had become had opened into y. leges. F. 15-16): cf. 460) trienta. S. S. 461 . no An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. maestati. Grammaire des langues ro- I. neglienda. 173. so *pa{g)e{n)sis. colliens.Gi. II. Cf. Troge. Lat. Pirson iniens. except colliens when analogy forced *colliente. Per. Vok. lenubam = Bon. 3.): it its disap- pearance (as in pldngit. 349. {g)inti. Pr. similarly perhaps the proclitic ma{g)is. fused. Digitized by Microsoft® . But sometimes : fused with a following i proparoxy tones roitus {=irdgitus z= rogdtus). argentum. Voi. Tragani. 473. = Sepulcri 205. Diez. agebat ^ aiebat. After the accent. etc. but is " weak " before other vowels.>maester. recoUiendo. Spr. the regularly remained. This y. vigtlat had become *viglat. agere = ^ aiere. [§259 259. etc.e. Spr. a part of southwestern Gaul. non cakosieis. in through legit. 473. agebat Lat. §233. genarivs. frigidus in most of the Empire had become frigdus {App. ingens aiebat. Before happened. and after a consonant. Vok. (cf. Agrientum. Stolz 349.. 239. praepalatal clerical and Latin: App. and southwestern Italy remained at the y stage elsewhere the y developed further in the Romance languages. S. 3 I. . Spain. II.

E. XXXIII. mediopalatal. census. Cf. dut'yere. Marchot. S. and qu. in Lat. . septrvm. that c has " its own sound " before c and i. Cf. In the school pronunciation of the seventh and eighth centuries c before e and i In the treatise cited in the preceding note. . it is stated ts.§ 26i] An K' Introduction to Vulgar Latin. k'y had become t'y: t'yentu. developed into or ts: t's'entu or Speakers were apparently unaware of the phenomenon until the assibilation was complete. and is almost like q before other vowels. Vok. etc. XXX. nascere. Fetite phonetique du franfais prelitieraire. the earlier grammarians: prsepalatal. 81. fascem. in the Comptes rendus des seances de I'Academie des Inscriptions. G. and Libit. duk'ere. I. In the half of the third ce. 1 was probably Digitized by Microsoft® . 7. S. a short y. 1900. apparently as and postpalatal. Mohl. piscem.itury must have had nearly front. century some writers distinguish Rom. W. For a discussion of the subject. in the t's sixth or seventh century. By the fifth century the k' had passed a little further forward and the Through a modification tsentu. see H. co{g)ndscere. or praepalatal.S^ was palatalized also: crescere. 21-51 (cf. 151.1 century: F. 617). Schuchardt. as early as the third ce. 359. 1893. I. 123-126. ffautes-^tudes. There is no mention of first it by 340. G. Thurot 77. in the fifth century we find bintcente.. Guarnerio in Supplementi aWArchivio glottologico italiano IV (1897). 51-53. 1901. duk'yere. Vok. ka. 1893. articulation: k'entu. 348. Paris in Journal des savants. 163. Meyer-Liibke in Einf. 360. and in Rom. between the k' and the following vowel: k'yentu. Zs. tury). S. paze (6th or 7th cenFrankish tins (German zins') is from fifth borrowed probably in the 595. 322 P. everywhere a The next step was the development of an audible glide. in 260. consiensia. 348 cites fes[it]. XIV. XXVI. of this glide the group then. intcitamento: P. in the Annuaire de I'^cole pratique des 261.

(3) C and G Final and before Consonants. g'a. in the front of the 263. * liamen. Bausteine zur romanischen Philologie [§264 3131!. At the end cf. in Introduction to Vulgar Latin. For a possible indication. Inasmuch as a had in Gaul a front pronunciation (§ 194). gamba>'Ex. eccu'hdc. 262. 349. *redlis (for XXX. through alliteration. see Archiv XV. 129 (other examples in manuscripts.. so * ledlis. Italian die. gustus. cher. of a local assibilation of c as early as the second century. Sfir. pagdnus. negdre. y^ 264. frvalitas.. see Zs. 3 II. ga in most of that country became k'a. 146. see Palatals below. dimmi (< die mi). siffatto {<. — mainly. so. hoc. sic. however. 242-243). S- — — perhaps 349). K and g before vowels not formed mouth usually remained unchanged: canis. and then developed further: carum>'Fr. realis in Gl. by Microsoft® . Franz. I. Carnoy 127 (cf. (2) C AND G before Back Vowels. S. pacare. ka. 50). too. avste. probably by the end of the seventh century. jambe. Reich. the proclitic eo for ego. due. But ligdre. and apparently remained under learned or under analogical influence in others: avstvs from the second century on. Vok. ci. See. For ce. of a word the guttural seems : to have been regularly preserved in Vulgar Latin fac. the c must have been Digitized lost. Intervocalic g before the accent fell in many words in all or a part of the Empire. sic factum). Carnoy 155-160 (who puts the assibilation in the sixth century and earlier). fammi {<ifac mi). Occasionally. found about the sixth century. § 256. ecce htc.112 An 472. negare. however.

Lat. PR/EFETTO. §650. Lat. OTOBRIS (380 A.. Before another consonant k and g were for the most part kept through the Vulgar Latin period: actus. Carnoy 172. I. in the south even in the first century: AVTOR. 267. that the y was retained very generally in Gaul and perhaps some other regions.).).g. A. App. Spr. saint. 398*fC'X^um>Vx. fait. D. S. Gm Pr.. sante.. probably by the century: defuntus. santo. however. and likewise substituted x^ fo"^ ^^' Suchier 735. — sanctum 268. be explained otherwise: Irish ocht-n corresponding to Latin octo. 9 II. Isidore. 236-240. ( i. 399). eissir. Festus." 348. In late texts nee is often written ne before a consonant. Pr. S. fata. D. = qu. in Pompeii.. Pr. however. 735. frigdus. in see § 254. "pegma non peuma" Digitized St. Spr. For ks of Italy = x. There is reason to believe. fleuma. For kw 266. inasmuch as their own rf had as x^ from the become ^f (e. Zs. > Fr. 348. Einf. "sagma by Microsoft® . which seems to have been assimilated first into nt in parts of the Empire. Gram.^ Ft. * exsire . sank.e. 278. subsequently drawn forward to the praepalatal position santus. Nkt became yt. 472. otogentos. Old ct Windisch 394. 265. through assimilation to a following initial consonant: PA iot fac. LATTVCjE (3OI etc. 476. § 186. 215-224. regnancte. App. Zaf. Xf some parts was assimilated into U by the beginning of the fourth century. The resultant phenomena can. etc. Cf. "dumecta S. Spr. cuntis. and there is a confusion of si and sic: Franz. antiqui quasi dumecita appellabant quae nos dumeia.. The Celts perhaps pronounced the Latin beginning.) . irqyfua. oclus. 472. and «'. see § 255. XXV. became um: fraumenta. 113 no doubt.§268] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. *viglat (§233). ^^auctor non autor".

Carnoy Digitized by Microsoft® . Cf. gaudium. habeam. ajutit =adjutet. Neu- When y more or y. Fortsetzung 7. teneaf. Lat. ZACOiJVS = diaconus. cunnuscit. Italian sauma [or salma^ dicitur" (i. Gn was still variously treated in different regions. 239). In cognosco the decomposed — g generally disappeared. audiam. videavi . followed a consonant. pere{g)rtnum. hodie. Stolz 275. y. 324) and zesv =/esu. eiius. connato. similarly the ^ was sometimes etc. Pirson 75. Palatalization was commonest probably were reduced to y in vulgar speech: deorsum. ftlia. adjuiare. of ii was often used: coiiugi. rarest in Dacia.. in the latter part of the Empire. that consonant was often less assimilated. [§272 quae corrupte vulgo S. I. t. etc. being preserved in some. fageus.e. PALATALS. the after the fall of initial g in gnosco —-into lost in cognatus : word being co~ and Vok. between in vowels. and also salma. podium. inte{g)rum. pi{g)ntia.114 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. venio. Cf.. Spr. sometimes entirely absorbed by the in Gaul. sauma 269. cujus. Reich. which comes from Koxfrn. as calma from Soma occurs in Gl. and subjected to further modifications. (S. no SCO. 271. in popular words apparently became r parts of the Empire: fra{g)rare. renum. madias = maias. assimilated into n or n in others. 272. d. Dy and^. Haag 34. exagium. conjux. soma. 476. Compare oz^^ hodie (S. Pirson 76. 115-116. ni{g)rum. 364 a. Cf. Instead i (=/) the spelling mann. rcenante. edmus. 327. aayixa). 323) and Zovk^la= Julia (Eckinger 80).. Latin / was pronounced being identical in sound with the consonant that developed out of e and / (§ 224): jam. odium. diumus. ZVNIOK = junior (S. 270. Gr.

prandium > It. appears that the labials were not regularly assimi- sapiam > It. = dies. 321. fiios. De. deggio. 34. S. II. It hordeurh > It. by Microsoft® . II. however. palea. St. 115 162. The S.i£=die. His- pania. sappia. 324. habeo. But through the analogy of audio"^* auyo. Haag anoget = *inodiaf. folia. /'. Servius in Virg. mezzo. tilia. "solent Itali dicere ozie pro hodie.. juria = jurgia.. Corneius. ny. pranzo. magias ^= maias. Remidium — Eemigium. madio S- 349. probably became veniam. debeo often became *ayo. The : dz pronunciation was especially favored after a consonant 273. Congianus =. 323. n' before the end of the Empire: ftlius. 208. teneat. *deyo: cf. In most words the vulgar jv prevailed. licpioi = Sergius. generally prevailed. 216. etc. Condianus. but not everywhere." S. writes. between vowels. in Yox plUvia a form *pldja was substituted §§ 169. Ly. sapcha. Reich. 339): z^s cf. Pr. Haag 34. Waters Ch. di sine sibilo Isidore letter tell grsecum enim nomen est. probably dz : podium proferenda est." S. in others especially in Italy the cultivated dz. etc. Georg. but medium ^^ > It. The reduced forms cf. sacriius—SiaKpiTOi. S. Audollent 537 zogenes. video>*veyo. Digitized etc. Carnoy 161. di. had poggio. says. y. aios = Carnoy 162. = maio. which was > It.§274] ^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 63. means dy. ridia =! corrigim. represented by the spellings Aureia. debbio. It. 320. Vok. : orzo. from radius Italian has both raggio — — and razzo. towards the end of the Empire. cor- aytos. Carnoy 162. This palatal pronunciation may be 327. Media. most of the Empire: 274. Gl. melius. 461. lated in Vulgar Latin beside abbio. or dz (cf.(4). another — doubtless more elegant — pronunciation. Z is often used in inscriptions. § . aggio. and perhaps through slurring due to constant and careless use. but it we generally cannot whether t.

also in nuncius. etc. postea. Digitized by Microsoft® . eAaiov.). the an exception-: cf. unless preceded by s. Stolz 51. collt^t. 171 especially common in Gallic inscriptions of the seventh century. doubtless became during the VulgHRjatin period /. concupiscencia many examples Gaul in the 5th century.. . /' [§276 later: were probably reduced to ex-eligit. caseus. Pg. is pronounced like c. Eckinger 99. quatio. we are told that ti. and hence were often confused: a. D. 323. Fr. prophetia. S. etc.ii6 Lly. / 'i'l^^^y. pudicicia. Cy and ty. servicium. For rv. somewhat allium..d. Cf. ocio (389 A. d.. In later school pronunciation cy and ty were sounded alike. consiensia. Sp. isoff. Vok. fascia. ocium. malleus. ci. It. were very and t'y (cf. justicia. huile. 321) "benedictio et oratio et talia t debent habere in psenultima syllaba. Oleum. . 78. staacio (601 a.). modian). see § 296.. a sound similar to English sh in ship: basium. I. Fr. D. oracionem (601 a. tercia. between vowels. Lat. tercius. oli. as in etiam. etc. non c. 'ApovKiavoi = Aruntianus. defeniciones (222235 A. Bon. Densusianu in. malicia. Spr. Cf. scy.). For the confusion 276. avaricia. in the similar in sound. An Introduction ll'g'.). see § 277. Pirson 72. being respectively k'y second and third centuries. from oleo. and ty. D. Ssy. According to Albinus (S. silentium. foreign words borrowed from Latin oleum indicate the same irregularity. termina(an acrostic in Com- ciONES in (2d century). 475. leticia. Pirson 71 mendatium. furthermore. is confused with the spelling c being prescribed in amicicia. olio. I'g' to Vulgar Latin. ti. mansionem. duricia.y«j/i«'a (in an edict of Diocletian). Riquier 131 &nd pitid in popular speech). sty were generally assimilated of sy later: *bassiare." In the treatise published by Thurot (see footnote to § 259). is Pr. p.

et i". pinguius sonat et perdit sonum suum et accipit sibilum. This explains such seemingly anomalous developments 324. adding (S. locally or in the This similarity or identity of sound led. etc. later avarttic^-cia. or vice versa: cf. §260): crescentsian[vs]. to the substitution of suffixes and to other permanent transfers of words from one class to the other: cf. Reich. A number of words evidently had a popular pronunciation with f and 277. Anitius -cius.§277] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. either whole Empire. Pompeius says the same thing at con- siderable length. servitium -cium. conditio. It. Puscariu. tertia syllaba sic sonat quasi constet z. tristicia. Hence arose numeroimdouble forms: condicio solacium solatium. . 323. *cominitiare -ciare. inicio. Vincentl^us. except in foreign proper names or after j litteris. as * exquartiare-^YX. comenzare chminciare. by the 140 A. A. Cf. Latetnisches ti und ki im Ru7ndnischen. cited by Cassiodorus (S. 3d ccntury. MARSIANESSES = J/ar/z'a«^«j'M. 117 spacium. castius). etc. 68. et plerumque supradictse syllabse in sibilum transeunt. gocciare. Carnoy 151-154. Carnoy 154.: audatia. 320). It.. t." Consentius 'For a different explanation of the Italian and Rumanian developments. ampittfltru. "lotacismi sunt quotiens post ti. so many ^|ftper names. Vok. cum scribitur. Digitized by Microsoft® . but not in otii. XXIV. 64. Audollent 537. D. T'y developed sporadically in the second century. Justitii). (as injustius. * gutteare "> Horning in Zs.^ k'. S. squarciare. Gl. tercius.vel di^ syllabam sequitur vocalis. I. in some cases. 324. see S. etc. "si dicas Titius. speties. Italienischen und Sardischen.. S." Papirius. ularly a school pronunciation with etc. etc. (S. Servius in Don. 545. zodorys = Theodoras. am- bicio. S. regfourth. sotium. reviewed in Libit. spacio. 1904. XXVII. 320): "/ustitia ex tribus he goes on to state that it is always so when ti is followed by a vowel other than / (as in Tatius. Cf.. etc. into ts (cf. 320) says.. otia.

320-321. etc. Vok. The in modern French. vezzo. and the ultimate products have become identical in that which many For regions. Eck- inger 103. 279. Pirson 71. dentals were pronounced with the middle of the tongue arched up and the tip touching the gums or teeth. 307. so facio.vo'. d. placeam. JT'y was assibilated sporadically in the third century. g'. are Metiacus> Messac). XXVII. But the intermediate stages were similar enough to lead to some confusion. Isidore in justitia: S. S. etc. faccta. and many words have palatium preserved it in various regions. was easily confused with sy. 6th cen- tury. 323. — — S. assibilated (e. Exai^les are very numerous: observasione. if the /' was rather weak.. Ztd/t.s or sixth. 153. vitiutrf^lt. ratio —sio. tersio. Clerical usage for a while doubtless favored sy for ty.ii8 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Carnoy 154. Pirson 71.l. DENTALS. statio —sio. after the assibilation completed: Mapa-w. fifth but not regularly until the of t'y -wa. 323. 5th century. glacies. not followed by y. sepsies.g. diposisio ^= depositio. as 280. . " ' by Microsoft® . carried into Brittany in the second half of the fifth century. hence \X?X\2. 278. judigsium.'a. D regularly remained unchanged: Digitized dare. cf. especially in suffixes: —slum. d. say t's'y the At aa intermediate stage between ty and ts grouD. and -igia beside -ezza from -ztia. hocsies.. and not 281. 225 a. Welsh words borrowed from Latin before the fourth century show no assibilation. see Gutturals. but names in -tiacum. XXXV. modus.palagio heside patazzo. k'. The resulting sibilant was different from came from t'y: faciam'^-lt. as in English : S.. etc. perdo. servitium —slum. 301-302.. pretium —sium. =^ Afardanus. 65 Horn. Cf. [§281 mentions the assibilation in etiam. 480. St. 6th century.

If this was the case. etc. 365-366. : (i) Occasionally (/>/. " adif^ non alipes. at. northern Italy. (2) In a. In proclitics assimilation naturally went further. and possibly at the end of a phrase apvd apvt. 366-367 Some of the confusion was doubtless due to the fall of both d 365 . S.. attendere) but sometimes *ar Romam (cf. Raetia. etc. quo and Haag Illud. 119 Oscan and Umbrian had nn corresponding to Latin nd: There is some indication that this pronunciation was locally adopted in Latin: agennjE. INQVID. etc. Gaul. period.. ilium corpus. S. fecit feced. 311312 "grundio non grunnio." Cf. etc. few words d~^r: medidies by dissimilation ^«^«rf««. Carnoy 180.. 282. the central and southern Italian nn for nd (as quannu for quando) may go back to ancient times Lat. Carnoy 179-180. S. set. through the analogy of other neuters. ad eos and at ea. Cf. So the final consonant eventually often dis- appeared. §283] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. o\d...• Cf. devocalized before a voiceless : initial consonant. S. etc. S. 476. Pr. App. Digitized by Microsoft® . Grammarians warn against the Cf. set. (3). guoi. . 365 aput. Carnoy 180. // d may have been . and t: see §285. S. id 29.. part of Sardinia: vt3ere':>*vedere. perhaps at the end of the Vulgar Latin became 6 in Spain.» Sittl 37. as we may infer from the treatment of the prefix ad~: people probably said not only at te (cf. a. Pr. At the end of a word there was hesitation between d and S. dacruma'^ lacrima . arVORSVM =r adversum. CO. 31 1 Consentius blames " peres pro pedes" S. capud in Gregory the Great." App. 31 1. § 289. and a Similarly intervocalic dr. quid quit. became ilium : Haag 29. . arripere). Intervocalic d. it. The cases seem to be sporadic and due to different special causes.. Liquids. 283. verecvnnvs. Spr. confusion of ad and etc. 358-359.

§234. and also Spanish and Portuguese show no trace of final / except in monosyllables. T usually stloppus remained unchanged : teneo. —tulus~^—dus. 285. It. Pr. 367. etc. 105. final t disappeared early in the Empire in southern and during the Empire in most of Italy and Dacia. 8. sure examples of the fall in Latin are found in Pompeii tions in Christian relinque. Rumanian. but forms without the possibly due to Italian stoneconsonant (as audivi." "vefulus non vedus. Keil VII. Italy. peria. 7. Ischia. Gaul. and Sardinia kept the t late. seems to have regularly become d: astula> Pr. usclar." "vitulus non vidus. [§ 285 either at the same time or became drin Spain and Gaul: quadro'. schioppo. facit. S. f^habe). In quadraginta.: others appear later in the inscrip- Rome and S. 107. ustulare > Pr. The first . App. 284.. Fredegarius wrote e for cutters — — t et: Haag 29. 367-368. Raetia. Between j and I z. sclit. 472. Cf. ." For Cf. > *scloppus > . sitis. Hammer 28-32. cf. 312-313 "Martulus non Marculus" "stlataris sine c littera Caper. vixi. as ama. Italian (except Sardinian). later. Pirson 97. Tl. Digitized by Microsoft® . its Final nt perhaps lost before consonants: Lat. So probably insula > * isla > * istla > * isda > Final t fell It. " capitulum non dicendum. dr~> rr: quarranta.315. etc. ascla. often in Umbrian In Latin. f developed: Caper. valia. northern Italy." capidum. occasionally in Faliscan: Hammer 5. 8. In early dialects we find such forms as cvpa. Spr. '^ pessulum non pestulum" (hence Italian /ifj'//.). posui) occur in Gallic inscriptions.?. however.(from stlis stlitis). Spr.120 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and sclitib. Lat. in Volscian {fasia=fadat). . partem. dede: S.> *quadro.

L had a convex formation. inside a phrase. In inscriptions we find : dedro and dedrot. According to Velius Longus. pos. uses capo: Haag 29. est amatus but es' portatus : Lat.The Romance languages show forms with nt. Nt. Cf. Such a spelling as Later this retere for reddere (S. see §282: capud. with and without either consonant. 38 (S. ^> d in northern Gaul and Spain. /. moreover. (I) L. LIQUIDS. Cicero favored posmeridianus . Intervocalic was voiced to d in Spain. Both st and s are represented in the Romance languages. of final t For the confusion inquid are found. Cf. §283. 324) writes: exilem. in general. Pos is very common in inscriptions. likewise. in 365. tr'p-dr'^dr. 288. 470. t 286. like d and "Z t (cf. When did not fall. Marius Victorinus preferred posquam : S. S. posuerun. 306-307. and northern § 256. restituerun. posquam in R. 309. 368. Lindsay 124. Spr. Raetia. ut Plinio sonum habet: quando geminatur secundo loco Digitized by Microsoft® . may have lost its t before consonants as post ilium but pos' me. S. Lat. Priscian I. 473. 309. 287.. and-^J is found: S. — 368. In Gaul and Spain. § 280): S. Spr. it was doubtless often Fredegarius voiced. triplicem. videtur. 473-474. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) or *capum. d and t. Final st. cf. Cf. 121 n. may indicate un- certainty in the use of d and t. e. Gaul. 473-474. before a vowel or a voiced consonant.§288] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. is preserved in the same regions as Pisaurum. Italy probably in the fifth or sixth century: Inscriptions show a few such forms 309) as amadus. feced.

II. (2) There are sporadic examples of the dissimilation of two Ts: Digitized by Microsoft® . consonants. from the "pinguis. / regularly changed: luna. cauculus in manuscripts. except before i. 476). 327) blames "coacla pro cloaca" " displicina pro disciplina". geline. After consonants. 289." heard before a consonant (as in albo. ut lectus. chaloir and gallina~> Old Fr. 325-326. quando finit nomina vel quando aliquam habet ante se in eadem syllaba sol. in obscure terms. Sfr. consonantem. mtlle. to the vocalization of / into u: KavKovXaT<o in an edict of Diocletian. Dunkles undhelles 1 im Lateinischen in the Transactions of the American Philological Association / in : > XXIV.d. sol. alga. fiaba. also had the thick is famuXus (but not in similis): thus explained the different fate of a in calere^OXd Fr. [§ 289 syllabas et Metel-lus. An ut il-le. flavus. sporadically by the fourth century but regularly not until the eighth and ninth and later (^Lat. fabula^*flaba'y-\\. see §161. 301 a. 494. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. For sl>stl. brought about the palatalization of Spanish and Italian clavem kl'ave > Sp. 326. zi. See also Zs.. chiave. a faulty pronunciation of / particularly prevalent in Africa or 648. see §274. Greece: S. this formation led in some regions. Vok. Osthoff. (i) Metathesis occurs occasionally: Consentius (S. shifted forwards. intervocalic va. etc. sound — as 50." Consentius distinguishes the "sonus which he ascribes to initial and double / (as in lana. this elevation. /. etc. During the Latin period altus.. ille). It. For ly. clarus." lectum. According to H. Other grammarians blame. etc.): S. ski. It remained unseems to have fallen in For //>/. see §284. It is likely that / before or after another consonant had a Before thick sound caused by lifting the back of the tongue. plenum. Eckinger 12. ut exilis. Have. XXX.122 posita. silva. tribunal. medium in aliis.

Bechtel 83: susum very common. assimilation versus. App. retrorsum.s pessica. App. although Moreover. in inscrip- S. Gl. two r's. "terebra non tekbra". Spr. susum. 330. 330): "Dossum per duo s quam per r quidam ut lenius enuntiaverunt. 460. R. coming from rtt. Pr. etc. MVNTV for multum. (3) Marius Victorinus (Keil VI. Pr. sursum. § 281. "flagellum non frag-ellum. 290. The principle seems have been that original rs remained. App. Corssen I. so sussum>siisum. has iusu = was Hot consistently carried out everywhere. 123 cf. S. while old rss. rusus. carrus. rj > J. (i). Cf. susum occur ha. Reich. § 292] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. dossum remained unchanged: susum. was early reduced to ss: Lat. suso.(see § i6r). in early writers tions: dextrosus. reversus. in about half the Empire in persua. 309. 328. or praepalatal change 291.f It generally resisted In many words. we fin(J repeatedly pelegrinus by Microsoft® .. I. 8) says: " Gn. deorsum. R : in Classic trill: and Vulgar Latin was probably a gingival S. 307.. . L.. et retrosum. however. diosum. being probably somewhat hindered by school inIt took place in the whole territory in deorsum and fluence. ac tota r littera sublata est in eo quod rusum . while susosusu susum. as xcfloralis. ndet. 327. {2)Ji. introsus. 243. —arts after r^-alis. 77. 460-461 Cf." Russum rusum. Waters Ch. Pr. R. C. IV." Cf. locally in aliorsum. 471. After long vowels the 292. The «>j. 1593. there was a strong tendency to dissimilate it was only sporadically carried out: in Old in inscriptions Digitized Latin. in most of the Empire in dorsum. cursus. Pompejus Magnus et scribebat et dicebat kadamitatem pro calamitate. pater." "cultellum non cuntellum". Velius to Longus says est (S..

§ 280) S. f. 314-315). Spr. Italian £Occodri//o. For quatro. It. merlo. probably before the end of the Vulgar Latin period. S. 296. : 294. propietas. 295. So Italian per lo '^pello. fell. 307-308. 330 notes prancati. propio. Metathesis is not uncommon S. 329) / us that in elegant speech per before was pronounced pel. uxo. 331. see § 245. etc. criblare. "Barbarismus. Jlagrare. *sempre. coliandrum. Lat. S. 38. early fall of final r mate.) avello. pellicere. 330. to y in parts of Italy. cuoto). Crocodilus appears as corcodilus. An intrusive r is found in culcitra. 329. with the upper surface of the tongue convex (cf. suora. cf. [§ 297 also ministorum. corcodrillus. seems to have been dental. although may have been reduced and possibly *cqyu SIBILAUTS. This assimilation was probably not widespread in Latin. in most of Italy and Dacia: sdror'. among the soaru. averlo^ (in Old It. albor. corium'^ *coryu (cf. quando dico mamor pro eo quod Cf. S. PELLiGE. mate. perpenna ^ Perferna. Classic Latin j was probably ^Iways voiceless and remained so in 297.. as in pellabor. cocodrilus. \X. it has left very few traces in the Romance languages. perla. 329) says: Pompeius (S. Italian Carlo.. The old voiced having become r (S. cf. dietro drieto. 304. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Waters Ch. orlo.It. 329. Cf.'' propio. Falisci Sittl 11 mentions an in and the Marsi. Consentius mentions "perlum -pro prcslum. tells 293. : ^ j- Digitized by Microsoft® ." S. 302. Velius Longus (S. mehtrix. as frate. Cf. etc.124 (Sittl An 74). Final r. S. 477. est marmor. plurigo are attested likewise. etc. Rum.>. 330— 331. except in monosyllables.z\vax\. Ry was probably preserved through the Vulgar Latin it period.

and the developwords as hiemps. but became common by 150 to 200 A. § 256): was generally preserved: causa.. tste. pleps. Cf. intervocalic s may have nupsi. and occasionCf. nepoti. urps. 361) notes the omission of -s by the ancients. pieta. etc. unu. sumpsi. According to Chronologic 175-186. not count -j before a consonant in verse: 355-356. Thurot T]^ y between vowels is described as " weak. olim autem politius. At the very end of the Vulgar Latin period. D. S. the nominative singular without s (as Cornelio. j- ^In the previously cited Latin treatise (see footnote to §259). rarely in -as: bonu.) . indicated by the fact that is still generally surd in Spanish [casa. etc. however. ossum. such as resolvit. etc.) and most popular words it Tuscan is [naso. The omission is commonest in nominative -os or —us. filio') predominated in (jpntral Italy until the time of Csesar. etc." tions -s is freely omitted. Digitized by~Microsoft® . brian PiSAVRESE.^ sex." except in compounds.. the forms without Terentio. and often was not is says the loss of —s written. but later it is In the older inscripin the main correctly used until the second century of our era: Lat. corroborative evidence. when -j was partially restored." Quintilian also (S. as far as goes. rexi. Cicero (^Lat Spr. ut ubi opus fuerit excludatur de metro. 108): "5 littera hanc habet potestatem. but occurs also in -ts and -as. mtsi. cur- 298. 302-304): this in is 125 Vulgar Latin intervocalic s in (S. who cites UmLatin final s was very weak after and t. 8. Final s often fell in ally in Faliscan: Hammer In early 5. Spr. Pompeius (Keil V. also ment of a / in such become voiced sus. Sittl 27. ii Umbrian {kumate). 471) "subrusticum. Ennius and his followers down to Catullus did S. This evidently indicates a voicing in late school pronunciation. furnished by such spellings as maximus.§298] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and matrona for matronas. Cornelio. 361-362. 471. etc. in Classic Latin s some regions (cf.

tra{ns)posuit . and probably in Dacia. Cf. 471): sentts'^YX. pronounced and therefore preserved. see § 275. -s. tempo. cept in monosyllables {^Lat. see § 161. Audollent In most of Italy. usually preferred tras. It. see § 230. trei amate. For prosthetic i or e before s + consonant. IX. 301. According to Velius Longus (S. Spain. prete. but notes that happens at the end of a doubt- only a conventional abbreviation. Italy generally favored tra.(as prabitor) for the unusual initial pres-: hence It. a new nominative constructed from irpeers fell in Italy and elsewhere through the substituva.before d. tion. 316). filio^filios. etc. tempus>lt. but das^lt.(but traduire. 539.became and sometimes before m and/. liberio. I. Densusianu 122—123. C.j. final J disappeared for good from the common pronunciation in the second and third centuries. see § 246 and Greek by Microsoft® Consonants. For z. trans. 299. jecit.coming from the prefix ex-. transduco and We sometimes Both forms occur Gaul and Spain before / and v : tra (^ns) luce 0...*prcebyterum'). morbu ^ morbus. preveire {<. Spr. 540.126 again.traduxit. tra{ns)misit..«.(but trasporre). for ejus. cords the omission of -s in as this nearly always less was strongly Carnoy 185-206 reline it is many inscriptions. (later tre^. Hammer 19-28.). [§302 and prevailed in central Italy in the third century («<7 Cf. traducir). see Gutturals For ss>s. tra. For sy. probably owing to the previous linguistic habits of the natives. L. senti. tres^OXA. 302. /SvTcpos. For assibilaand Palatals. tra{ns')veho. 1938. and some other regions. Digitized . Vx. transtulit. etc. the In presbyter. In Gaul. tion of the prefix /r. find. In Old French pasmer (from spasmus) the ^ was lost probably through confusion with es. 300. however. examdtis "> dai. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. It. tratransjicio.

anguis. According to Priscian (S. "m obscurum in extremitate dictionum sonat. 275) says that for n the air comes through both nose and mouth. y: combura. changed: meus." 305. was dental or gingival. 272. as / . must have been partly nasalized. etc. 270. § 320) gutterals. before m. 311). and the mouth closure incomplete. were the preceding vowel obscure and weak in Classic Latin. ut templum. M and 304. inquit. 276. §§ 171. In Classic Latin the nasal naturally took before labials the form of m. imperio. is 278). g. then n.: cf. regularly venit. rigo. remained unFor the reduction of There was a dissimilation of two M and n. 269- {colligo. 303.). minus. 279-280. 269-270. The y Cf. conduco. as between n and ^ (S. S.§ 305] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. . 275) Before liquids the nasal was assimilated cf. before dentals." sound between m and n: "Omnes fere aiunt inter m eX n litteras mediam vocem quae non abhorreat ab utraque littera sed neutram proprie exprimat. described by Nigidius (in Gellius). noster. mediocre in mediis. 127 NASALS. like d and t (§ 280). with an arched tongue: S." Terentianus Maurus (S. uncus (cf. Cf. 275): "iVvero sub convexo palati lingua inhaerente gemino naris et oris The same author describes (S. ut mis-. immitto. n. by 270. «'s in Bononia > It. — or "« adulterinum"— and also nvncqvam. initial and intervocalic. innocens. S. by Microsoft® . probably tives first the pronunciation of these fricabefore changed from bilabial to dentilabial (cf. S. apertum in principio. Priscian. N. see § 245. S. comvenio convenio. iVNCXi. etc. So Marius Victorinus (S. final or followed by a consonant. n. comfluo confluo. 275) a spiritu explicabitur. 275). and v. contineo. ut magnus. Bologna. cor- before s it was Digitized silent [cosul. amat.

quan floridos. iferos. but in great measure also to the mistaken efforts of later writers to restore a real or hypothetical earlier orthography: compare the treatment of prefixes. 476. Carnoy 176. etc. reliquat. For the change of rjkt to yt. etc. 286) says: littera "Columnam et consules legimus. nom paret. before/ and v there was great uncertainty (cf. r/ must have been reinforced. [§307 to a following consonant: Final nasals seem to have been adapted. decemter. quamta. 273. nunquam. conplere. S. innoceti. santo. In the vulgar speech of the Empire the sound before seems to have been indistinct. nom or non fecit. §§171. Spr. Pirson 92. nol lego. Mn seems at one time to have been pronounced m: Quintilian (S. forsitam mille. etc.. plu. Cf. 364. 281-285. largely to mere careless- ness in cutting. In late Vulgar Latin m. In both old and late inscriptions the nasal is often omitted altogether before a consonant: Decebris. cur regibus. locun sanctum.. 272): this is indicated by such spellings as senper. tan mulieribus. Cicero advocated cun nobis. little trace of confusion in the Romance lan- guages. 311). Carnoy 176-177. then to nt. quen. Priscian (S. 307. and even before dentals not always clear (S. cun navibus : Lat. i senatu.128 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. secudo. nomem. Carnoy 220).. n. as there is § 32. 276—277. and there was apparently some labials doubt before ^« and qu (S.. iy carne. occubas. etc. Bechtel 81 {forsitam. pricipis. 278. de- fuctce. 271-272).. 275): exempta n "iV quoque plenior in primis sonat et in ultimis partibus syllabarum. 306. Servius. ut nomen. In inscriptions S. we ci. The due hesitation and inconsistency in spelling are certainly in part to imperfect articulation. exeetc. Digitized by Microsoft® . like medial nasals. cun duce. frequent. nynfis.." Cf. find cun. S. etc. Carnoy 220. laterna. see § 267: santa. S.

counteracting a previous ten- dency to although slur the group. sum(J>)tus. the latter part of the . Bechtel 91 Digitized cf. on the other hand. abundant examples. the wrong use of it are very frequent in the Per. accedere. show a fondness for such spellings as calumpnia. Bon. and again in late plebeian inscriptions. etc. 298. . damnum. Audollent 539-540. occa- sionally in Faliscan: Hammer 8. dampnare. jacente. Spr. Cf. eoru. mense. ut amnis. etc.. by Microsoft® . m Final m often fell in Umbrian 5. Bechtel •]()•. : que ad mo- century of the Republic and the dum. Toward the end of the Empire fashion evidently prescribed cates a conscious a distinct pronunciation of mn. umpnia. S.. mpn is common in 189. etc. 462. 129 stamen. It is often omitted in inscriptions down c. App. unu are very common. 476): Interanniensis. S. for -amn~. cal- the early indi- Romance languages. The Romance languages it point to the preservation of mn. exilior in mediis. The omission of -m and Pr.§309] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. etc. terra. and dampnum (cf. and conversely forms with a superfluous m. mecu.. pride. Bechtel 80. Carnoy 166. Between is m and j or / a / generally developed in Latin was unvoiced and denasalized before the surd that followed this / was not always written: sum(J))si.). from the first century. Bechtel 107. — that 309. passi. was probably assimilated into nn in central and southern Italy before the Empire was over {Lat. cf. 363-364. in the last first two centuries of the Empire the traditional spelling is carefully observed: early and late such forms as dece. So R. numqua. In Old Latin it was to weak: 130 B. dormito for dormitum. ide. It is likely that this orthography and painful effort to articulate clearly. 308. septe. to say. oli. 356. Late inscriptions. (as in puplu). S." Carnoy 166 has Interamico.

106). as in cognatus. scarcely any m audible quantum erat.. non is Siciliam": see § 311. the final S. tan dvrvm. audiendu' st. ignotus: is Other- wise there no sure proof of the fall but there is abundant evidence 365). cf. the precedThe contrary view is maintained by Seelmann. The Romance languages point to a loss of -m in all words but monosyllables: damnu{m). then (by assimilation) before other consonants.. but it seems preco- to have been reinforced in Classic speech (S. as in coactum. Before consonants S. cognosco. next before spirants and at the end of a phrase. 310. (S. As the fall of m seems to have been due primarily to a failure to close the lips completely between two it is likely that the nasalization was slight. AudoUent 537). etc. hors. of its assimilation to a § following labial (im bello. Cato said dice hanc. coharere. 361): see 305. from early times. fell Before^. 356-358. 358). Vok. 274). Hammer 32-41. [§ 310 ardente lucemam. only a weak nasal glide: in circueo it disappears (S. S. Carnoy 206-221. pdssu{ni). 473. coicere: S. 288-292. in poetry it may be disregarded (cf. it was assimilated (cf. S. Spr. quern (^quen. 361): see §305. very early. jam. etc.tenea{m')\ cum. fix The con— became co— before vowels. Cf. vowels. Final m before vowels seems to have been. etc. Caper (Keil VII. According to Quintilian is 362). who notes the omission of -m in many inscriptions under all possible conditions. 282. S. 286). Digitized by Microsoft® . 360. reaches the conclusion that silent at the it became end of polysyllables by the first century. ing vowel was nasalized. "/« Siciliam dicendum. 364Lat. n of prefixes 274. I. Final n must have been indistinct (S. etc.. having disappeared very early before vowels. Cf. In the opinion of Schuchardt. 110-112. too.130 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. of -n in Latin (S. cf. 361). 274. he adds that there in tantum ille. For further assimilation.

if eras. 459. 274. etc. mansus. -onsus>-dsus. "ansa non asa" . etc. however. 274. R. formosus (S./. etc." In popular speech the times: S." Cf. 286). etc. S. Carnoy 177. 273).. covenimus. 285. Spr. toties. after the Vulgar Latin period: Lat. Stolz 243fT. (on a (Capua. hortesia. mesor messor = mensor.§ 31 1] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin." "occasio non occansio. ifra. 311. thensaurus.. with a superfluous n: fidens =-fides. non. iferi. Such forms are frequent in cojugi (very common). cojugi. 387 a. iferi. 462. remasit. resurges S. Pr. coin of Vespasian's reign). libes.. 281-285. such words as conjux. prcBgnas repeatedly. Eckinger 80. Plautus repeatedly uses mosTerence seems to intend a rhyme in "neque Stolz 243. 473. was probably constant from early in/as. inscriptions: cofecisse. This phenomenon was only thority: partially recognized by Classic au—ensimus -^ -esimus. For final nt. Stolz 243. probably through nasalization of the preceding vowel: see § 171. ifer cojectis.. Cicero preferred foresia.. Pirson 94. pes neque mens. see § 285. —iens'^-ies. Cf. Charisius (S. "consules exempta n littera legimus. trare. except in monosyllables: ndtne{Ti). S. ifimo. occansio." Before/. It probably fell late." Eunuchus 728. § App. Before fricatives or spirants n regularly fell. iventa. convenio'&ie really new formaThe only sure Romance traces of the loss oin tions: S. infas. locuplens. cesor.ifs. seme{n) in.. Digitized by Microsoft® . 281-285. cosol. quiensces. ns. 274. R. Pr. was kept in participles. 287). 274. ^^ i'^ Greek- ko^ous. v. etc.. coventionid.). letter inscriptions: Kki]ix. 286) records that "men- sam sine n littera dictam Varro fall ait. as in vicesimus. AudoUent 538. . 113-115. "Hercules non Herculens. both forms were used in -e{n)sis (according to Velius Longus. Quintilian (S. as videns. the n was generally restored by analogy (see 171). 461Conversely. mesis. cojux. 131 The Romance languages indicate the disappearance of -n. thensaurus. App. etc. d..

132 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. settembres. /V likewise br: Abrilis. 160.. opus. S. 314. In a part of Italy /j became ss as early as the isse for ipse is first century: found in Pompeii. Digitized became Haag862. and the only Romance words containing ns are learned terms or new formations: mesa. In central and southern Italy// became the Empire: scritus. cf. etc. stubrum. scripit. LABIALS. (I) P. 299. 312. Pr.. and is attested by Martial and possibly by the icse for ipse mentioned by Suetonius. etc. Windisch 394).• redemti. h. Spr.. by Microsoft® . (i) F regularly remained unchanged: pater. pesat. to drop In Italy and perhaps elsewhere there was a tendency / between a consonant and an j- or /. under the influence of Celtic *cactos (Welsh caetJi) = Latin captus (Loth 35). Raetia. and northern Italy: see Cf. although at a later date nf became / much of southern France. § 256. In a part of Gaul capfivus seems to have been pronounced *cayttvus: it may be that in Gallic speech the pt oi this word became yt. 7th century. sposus. 299. // probably early in 299. Gaul. It. [§ 314 before these consonants in Latin are Italian /a«/^ and French in Raetia and convent. Pirson 61. scultor. Pirson 93. There was some sporadic confusion of/ and b: uvBLlCyE. the fall of n was permanent. 313. as was the case with Celtic// (Dottin 100.. App. 476. canapa. S. lebrm. Before s. "plasta non blasta" " ziziber non ziziper" cannabis and . Intervocalic / probably became b in the fifth and sixth centuries in Spain. tosus. Pirson 60-61: labidem. S. or perhaps captivus became first *cactivus. Bon. etc. Lat. Car- noy 165. Old Irish secht-n = septem. etc. hut pensare. mesis. corpus.

§ 3i6]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


In northern Gaul intervocalic/ and/r, even in clerical Latin, /8 and ^r by the seventh century: rivaticus, 629 a. d., Vok. I, 128; cavanna, Gl. Reich.
developed through b and br into
'Soxpe,pi, see § 273.
(2) B.


as in


was not



usually ifemained un-


bene, blitum, oblitus.


Oscan and Umbrian, became vim

in Sicily


southern and central Italy, the
as far north as


being found in inscriptions
Cf. nd, § 281.


Lat. Spr. 476.

Before s or tit

likely that b regularly

became /

in Latin,



was often written

b: absens apsens, ab— apsolvere,

plebs pleps, scribsi scripsi, scribtum scriptum, trabs traps, urbs

urps; App. Pr., "celebs non celeps," "labsus non lapsus."

Final b must have been often assimilated to a following

consonant: sud



a. d.,



In the Empire, especially in the second century,
in inscriptions (cf.

and v were much confused


bixit, botu,

vene, etc., S. 240; Baleria, Balerius, Beneria,


Betrubius, Bictor, bos, valneas, Audollent 536; African birtus, bita, boluntas, Vok. I, 98 bivere, very common, Carnoy

140; baluis, Bechteh"78;

vibit, etc.,

R. 456; bobis in Consenany, traces of

Vok. Ill, 68.

In the

Romance languages

there are few,


such an early interchange.

Probably the confusion was mainly

or wholly graphic, being due to the identity in sound of b and v between vowels (§ 318): Lat. Spr. 473; cf. Einf., § 120. The Spanish levelling of initial b and v does not go back to Vulgar Latin (Carnoy 139— 141); the confusion is far commoner in Italian inscriptions than in Spanish or Gallic (Carnoy 142-146). We find also a change of initial v to b va. north Portuguese, Gascon, south Italian, and Old Rumanian.

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Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


After liquids, too, there was a confusion of b and v in inscriptions, b being substituted for v much oftener than v for
b: Nerba, salbum, serbus, solbit, etc.,

240; berbex, Waters

Ch. 57; solbere, repeatedly, Carnoy 140; solbere, etc., R. 455; App. Pr., "alveus non albeus." In all probability v really changed to b after liquids: see V.


remained unchanged.
Intervocalic b opened into

the development apparin the second,

ently began in the


was well along

Oitovin = and was devitvm, provata, etc., Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95; devere, As V also was pronounced j8, a confusion in spelling S. 240. cvrabit, resulted, b and v being used indiscriminately:

completed, at least in Italy, in the third:

ivbentvtis, nobe,

etc., S.

240; i-vwE.nTE.=jubente, 2d century,

£inf. 127, § 120; cabia
vovis, etc.,

— cavea,

Danuvium, Dibona,


Audollent S3^~537j devitum (6th century), lebis, vibi, Carnoy 134-135; annotavimus, lebat, Bechtel 78;


habe:=ave, rogavo, suabitati,

R. 455— 456;



51, Pirson 61-62,



Carnoy 134-136. became contiguous

Cf. V.

to a following consonant,
Cf. V.

was vocalized

into u: *faula, *paraula, *taula, etc.

became /3r and Dacia.

perhaps not until the end of our period, in northern Gaul, Raetia, part of northern Italy,


as in popular speech: *fa§ula, * tabula, etc.

In the early stages of clerical Latin intervocalic b was pronounced Later, perhaps by the

seventh century,

was sounded


In App. Pr. we find " sibilus non


tions " sifilum pro sibilum" ;


comes from some non-Latin Italic dialect few other words. *a^ea, see § 421. (3) For habebam


(S. 300) menPerhaps the form with/ bubulcus =^ It. bifolco, and a

and Priscian



Be, bi probably remained unchanged, at least in most

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§ 322]


Introduction to Vulgar Latin.


of the Empire: rabies, rubeus, etc.

For the analogical change

of habeo to *ayo, debeo to *deyo, see § 273.

(3) F-


F was

originally bilabial (S. 294-295), but
of the



by the middle


(S, 295): cf. § 305.

It is the old /, apparently, that is described

by Quintilian

296-297) a plain description of the dentilabial y is given by Terentianus Maurus and Marius Victorinus (S. 296).

Grammarians speak

of an alternation of h


fasena^ harena, fircum'^ hircum, habam'^fabam,
Varro, Ling. Lat.

etc., S.

f: fcedus'^hadus, The /"and 300.

the h doubtless belonged to different dialects in early Latin
§ 97, the

according to

This phenomenon can have no connection with the change of initial/to h in Spanish and Gascon.

/for h was Sabine.

of the

It is

probable that intervocalic

y became

v at the end

Vulgar Latin period

256): alevanii

^ elephanti,

paceveci ^pacifici, pontevecem =. poniificem,




was doubtless originally pronounced w; but, losing its velar element, the sound was reduced, probably During the early in the Empire, to the bilabial fricative /8. Empire Greek-letter inscriptions have ov or ^ for v (Ncpoua or Nep/3a) Ov\av!a = Vibia, Rome, Eckinger 95 yS for » is common from the first century on, Eckinger 85-91. Velius Longus, in the middle of the second century, says that the u in ualente is pronounced "cum aliqua aspiratione": S. 232. Hence arises a complete confusion of intervocalic b and v








By. CVRABIT, ivbentvtis, etc, Gregory the Great. This leads


240; jubari iox juvari

to a graphic confusion of

initial b

and v

in inscriptions: biginti, bixit, botv, etc. (so



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An Introduction

to Vulgar Latin.
dentilabial v in


Later the bilabial

p became


of the


cf. §


For the substitution Germanic Consonants.
323. After liquids




or w in a few words, see

this state

/3 seems to have closed regularly into b; was preserved in Rumanian (Densusianu 97, 103105), but elsewhere the p ox v was partially restored by school

influence: cerbvs, corbi, cvrbati, ferbeo,
A. D.),
§ 317.

nerba (about 100

serbat, solbit, E. G. Parodi in Horn.




So vervex became *verbex, then berbex: Waters Ch. 57 BERBECES, 2d Century, Einf. 127, § 120 (also in Gl. ReichJ).

Hence came

hesitation in spelling (^ferveo, ferbui, etc.)


inconsistent results in the


languages: corvus^

corbo corvo, Fr. corbeau; curl/US'^

Ft., Pr. corp, Sp. corvo;



nerbo, Fr. neff; servare, servire'^ It. serbare, servire.

Intervocalic w ox fi had a tendency in older Latin, as Umbrian, to disappear between two like vowels: divtnus'^ dinus (cf. Umbrian deivina> deina, Sittl 26), obHviscor> obliscor, si vis'i> sis. Cf. Lindsay 52. Also, at all times, before or after 0: bovis'^bos; devorsum>dedrsum; faor, Pirson 63; moere, AudoUent 539; Noe/u/Spios, Vok. II, 479; noem[bris], S. 241; '^pavor xiOXL paor," App. Pr.; cf. late noembris, noicius, Lindsay 52. "Favilla xion failla" in App. Pr. seems to be




In the above cases the


apparently was only sporadic.

But before an accented o or u, the w ox p fell regularly in most of the Empire: aunculus, Vok. II, 471 (cf. auncli, Pirson 63); FLAONivs, S. 241; *padnem; *padrem.
Furthermore, intervocalic
popular speech before any


ox p regularly disappeared in probably towards the end of the
vIvs, S. 241 {zLJlaus in



-vos>-vus): flavs,

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Fr. Pirson 63). this. eccu' ista'>*eccwista. voiced explosion: so they were not always distinguished by the Latin ear. I. however. and Greek double consonants sometimes became single: vd/xos >nummus. When intervocalic a/ or it lowing consonant. App.. hiatus which had not already become w {%% 223224) probably took that sound by the end of the Vulgar Latin 326. in most cases this probably only graphic: Carnoy 128-131. rivus (beside rius) through rivi. oum. L. Single consonants sometimes became double in Latin. 471) and others as aum. II. etc. /3 became contiguous to a folwas vocalized into u (cf. Pr. noum. and sibilants less sharply differentiated been usually remained unchanged in transmission. iKKKyfTia. Often. period: eccu' ktc'. primitius. Audollent 539 (cf. Lindsay 52. oum in Probus. 113) nous. naufragus. the original Latin w (spelled v) had become |8: § 2. Carnoy 128. (i) In inscriptions -vs is common in place of -vvs. datius. 472 (cf. Claussen 847-851. gnaus. Digitized Cf. after the analogy of a feminine or a plural form ovum (beside oum) through ova. the sonants were perhaps not fully voiced. Keil IV. claudo. placuit> placwit. § 167. cited by Schuchardt (Vok. etc. The Greek liquids. 137 App. rius. Pirson 63. is 325. II. ndcui^ nocwi. and the surds doubtless had a weak.:>*eccwic. Vva. B): Classic . the v was re. Vok. is evidently intended for csvum. nasals. The ^Vm of C. (S) u."^ ec{c)lesia. 327- In Greek the surd and the sonant stops must have than in Latin. : Cf. aus. triumphaut. etc.§ 328] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Before 322. 328. 1220. Vulgar aucella. by Microsoft® . vius in Pirson 63). GREEK CONSONANTS. stored. 1.

268): (cf.papo^ cammarus gammarus. keSjoos > citrus. p. Teodor. K. ph. S. This late such cases as Kafiinj Greek pronunciation perhaps accounts for > Lat. etc. theywere *Jdcopus (also */dcomus) 'la. 7rop<j)vpa. 8 regularly ydpov>garum. It. c. (2) K. t regularly came to be pronounced //in Greek: a. w. however. § a-iriijXvyya > spelunca. x 252-253): vop^-ipa^ purpura . cin in kvki/os > > cicinus > Old. t: xoAa^os > colaphus. timbre. T generally remained c. old inscriptions. Digitized b. B. [§ 332 (i) B. (3) ®. rvp. t: blcesus. gamba. 138 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. yoyypoi Cf. v sometimes became b. After nasals. 833-838. y. etc. TTuppos burrus.yKri> andngi.. The From the middle of the second century spellings th. > conger ganger. of a change oi r to d there is no example. Pr.KO)0(K delta.fu > > gumtni. KaiPw%>gobius . K6p. 2S9-26a 332. although KavZiTo? for candidus (Eckinger 98) seems to point in that direction: 'Aicpayas > Acragas Agragas. cf.v>gubemare. T. Claussen c. Ka. n. egloge. explosives 6. TTvio'i > Kr > 331' g. 330.p. TfL'^um (j-a.. tt. S. b. sandal. c (S. the conis mentioned by Terentius Scaurus and others. 'Kixpmp6<i'>- lambros. bustiola in Gl. Reich. progne. advCf. — 329. k.. toKomtov > talentum. later inscriptions. X. became in Old Latin remained b. App. S. Pilipus. — fusion 346. <t>. Crista. cecino. Ta\oi'>rr. 259. cf.. > > . avrpov^ dndron. 347 buxus.p. ch: Claussen 823-833. ^iXra^ unvoiced into /. often became g. we find the People of fashion by Microsoft® . r. "> purpura. nimpa. K. "calatus non galatus" {^ KoXadoi). S. KvPipva. A.yfjia> sagma sauma. Claussen 838-841. d: l3XauT6i Sometimes. *. g.iravov > Fr. however.

cefalo. 218. Bechtel 79. Theos. 4. : letter h is occasionally misused. Eckinger 97. <f> > b.. S. Claussen 828. . Fitones in Gl. of. neofiti. 256) says there were no aspirate consonants in older Latin. KoKa. zio we have a late development of Claussen 833. '^Theophilus non izofilus": (i) Evidence of a late school pronunciation of 6 as ts is to be found in Thurot 78. Thiestes. ^ had developed into / in some places (S. nothus. 261. footnote to § 259): " T quoque..avTac7La> > Pr. Fr. Bonnet 141. d. It is transposed in Fhitonis. The etc. Thestius.. Digitized by Microsoft® . Quintilian (S." "strofa non stropa". so o^-1\kiov for qfficium. etc. "amfora /came non ampora.. 260." 334. unaspirated pronunciation (as pulcros. The proper spelling is discussed by gram- marians: S. S. p. pantaisar. zampogna. cru/x<^o)V4a>It. In late words ^ regularly appears as/. 0. 139 undoubtedly tried to imitate the aspirates (Lindsay 54). etc. etc. f is common later in southern Italy. cf. Reich. Certainly as early to be the standard as the fourth century (Lindsay 58) pronunciation: App. for new words as well as for old: <TvaOri>spatka— spata.\os> phaselus faselus . In <l>aXKaiva> ballcBna. but popular speech kept the old t. ut c enuntiatur.<^ao-i. X ><?"• Claussen 831. <jia. ut ather.§ 334] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. caikoluus. 79 (cf. si aspiretur. In hoxri>doga. Thescelus. palanca. etheus. Matheus ''. ut thiara.^o'i^ colaphus = colapus. S-p. x^P^ > chorda = corda. 256) speaks of using the old. " In principio inquam dictionis nulla prescripta causa variari compellitur. App. Fr. By the first century a. 333" tions. iriumpos) in order to be better understood. 261): dafne occurs in Pompeii.Xay^ It.. Fitonis. cathedra. Cicero (S. as in phosit. . Ki^oXoi > It. and some other early adopperhaps the reason is to be sought in a Greek dialect pronunciation: Claussen 829-831. c. phitonissm. 257-258. In ^£ros>It. Parthi. pache..

r. by Microsoft® . Priscian (Keil II.8os /talpos > maurus.I40 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. — 339. but seems to be referring only to Greek speech S. early Latin . The liquids regularly rhetor.^ ? > It. as a simple sound. ^dvr] "^ sona (Plautus). > exodus. The For unfamiliar combination lent itself readily to meta- thesis: i^6X\v. have to do with a late Greek change of \ to 336. 335. 308. bobansa. Judging from inscriptions. and Sibilants. lampas. From Sulla's time on it was written z in The grammarians throw no light Latin: Claussen 841-843.'^massa. In it was represented by jj or s: pAtfl. unchanged: <j has probably become For npvj^vre. Cf. see below. There however. (S) z- Z doubtless had several pronunciations in Greek. and subsequent developments confirm this view: baptizare Digitized was equivalent to bapti{d)yare. ss. 338. some indica: tions that they were weak before consonants > Pr.po'i'^ prebiter.-^ remained unchanged: are. priTmp> Rh in remained unchanged: \a/x7ras> common speech was doubtless pronounced In trkXivov like > It. and a few other words. /8oj«. later j' (cf.. among 36) says that the ancients. [§ 339 (4) Liquids. is sounded sd. see § 300. (Tivain Of the sibilants. but was often replaced. massa. e^oSos r. regularly vop. or d as in Saguntum. Nasals. sedano.v>psallere spallere. cr 337. t.. etc. Greek letter and the lack of a corresponding Latin one Velius Longus discusses z at length. we probably 8. The nasals. > nome. it was pronounced in Vulgar Latin dy. i/f In ocr/u. orma. § 272). too. Claussen 845. Medentius. by s. and ^ were regularly > sinapis. : t. Quintilian refers only to the on the Latin pronunciation.

141 zelosus to {d)yelosus. is often used for di: . *giga>'Pr. septuazinta. I. cf. etc.. etc. zeta = Koffmane 38 Lazis — dixta. seems to have followed a similar course. baptidiatus. b and k came in after the lents: 8. although have participated also in the later Gallic palatalization of g > before a (§ 263): gilda>lt. 457-458- In late inscriptions z for/ is common: zerax = Upa^ (202 S. and to G. and its derivatives palatalized In the their k before e and /.. B between vowels. geisla Fr. being had no Latin equivaFurthermore. riqueza. corresponding Latin sounds had undergone some modification. zanuari. can scarcely have come in time to share in the early palatalization of Latin g before front vowels (§§ 25811. 68 . 473.). gerbe. R. garba > K It. A few.§ 34i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. GERMANIC CONSONANTS. 3. p. Cf. zebus. giscle.• frank-iscus>lX.ta. 69. Digitized by Microsoft® . 22.. re- mained a stop : roubdn it > It. Franko seems to have been an early acquisition. no peculiarities. Vok. ZESv.). Vok. 33. 239. zabulus. Francesco. estribar. *striban > Pr. D. zdcones. I. of the consonants offer Most treated as in Latin. Bechtel 79).= Julia. z zabulus. and is common in inscriptions (cf. Spr. esquena. Lat. geldra. 340. skernon > schernire. oridium for opvtfi. Zov\e. ZABVLLVS. resisted front vowels : skena > > Sp. (90.. zaconus. and w. A. so *rik-itia > Pr. Conversely. Ladiis. Kotflv^ zvnior. garto Old Fr. etc. giga. 341. zosum z= deorsum. rubare. occurring apparently only in words adopted after Latin intervocalic b had become ^ (§ 318). Eckinger 80. jart. The ending -i{d)yare became very is common: see § The spelling di for z occurs repeatedly: baptidiare found several times in Per. however. It. Pr. = conjux. h. Carnoy 163). Carnoy 163.

different time. we find Digitized by Microsoft® . skiuhan'^'Fx. nipa The spirants 8 and p t: corresponding stops. is used before > > initial ch: ab Chilperico. hanche. became Old guatare. hache. Fr. Pr. jaquir. Germanic k was modified in the same way before all front vowels (including a): cf. 445 notes that ab. —jehan > Old It. perhaps borrowed at a different date feu. But wahta. espier. sleht > Pr. bianca^. blanche (but It. Pr. Kluge 500. Pr. gequir. before a (§ 263). Fr. of a At the beginning word it kept its sound in northern Gaul. hardjan Old Fr. Old Sp. tasso. rather than a. d and widarlon were replaced in Latin by the It. gecchire. 342. espiar. hau- > > > Pr. Old Fr. esclate. Intervocalic h disappeared in most words. trescar.— 142 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. [§ 344 c was palatalized. pahso > It. hapja'^Yz. fio . It. ardire. parrjan > Cf. schiatta. a time when original Latin fricative w (spelled v) It the purely labial ^ (§ 322). schivare. helme. W. 344. tarir. Sp. It. eschernir.. esguiver.. Bon. richesse. Pr.gaita. Fr. in the seventh century and later. apcha. honte. had become was nearer in it sound to Latin u: see § 326. at Germanic w was a strong velar and labial fricative. It. In the Gl. but in a few it seems to have been sounded kk in the greater part of the Empire: fehu Fr. ht were generally treated tasso. — slahta'^-OXA esclet. doubtless adopted at a Tr. regions where Latin eschine. Hs. schietto. It. hardir. cf. helm elmo. silent in Fr. It. Fr. Fr. prescan Germanic h appeared when Latin h had long been popular speech. tt: pahso > It. jehir. esclata. so blank-a'^Yx. 343. spehon~>0\6. guiderdone. — > \X. Reich. but apparently was neglected in the rest of the Empire: hanca~^Yx. Pr. etc. anca. Yr. like Latin ss. gaite.

1884.:>*wadum. vastare + wost— > *wasiare. Wandali. W. werra > werra guerra. elsewhere. in der franzSsischen Sprache. It is generally written w in Fredegarius. Mackel. 143 re- represented by uu. etc. etc. etc. wa (the interjection). 1885. > *wisa guisa. Digitized by Microsoft® . the /3 of some Latin words was changed to w: vadum +watan'. Die frdnkischen Elemente W. Bon. Bruckner. in uuadius. became gw: warjan>*warire wisa guarire.§ 344] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Charakteristik der germanischen Elemente im Italienischen. In extreme northern and eastern Gaul. but Wintrio is spelled Quintrio: Haag 38. 1899. through a reinforceit ment of its velar element. reuuardent. 167 cords Euua. and in the in Rsetia this w apparently remained unchanged Vulgar Latin period. Through association with Germanic words. in northwestern Italy. See E. Die germanischen Elemente in der franzSsischen und provenzalischen Sprache. walde. Waddo. Waltemath.

confusion of gender ensued. iomus. They were grammatical whose observance was a matter of outward form. cf. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. grex became feminine. 293. (4) There were some sporadic changes: duos arbores. Spr. (5) See also § 351. 483. or [I. through the analogy of the great majority of abstract terms. 194. honor. 503-504): (3) color. 345. Pirion 157. ~" confusion. MORPHOLOGY. G. abstract nouns in -or.. -inem. Bon. 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . Hmor. dependent on sex or lack of distinctions. Spr. Lat. manus. had a proparoxytonic accusative in -erem. etc. II. 346. n. became feminine (Bon. dolor. turturem. but there were ( I ) Between masculine and feminine there was not much some important shifts: Feminines of the second declension nearly all became — masculine: fraxinus. ficus. I. The three genders of Latin were not. MASCULINE AND FEMININE. 461): (2) In Gaul. GENDER. 483 . fans feminine in late Latin. —urem were of uncertain gender ( Gram. cucullus and cuculla. 464-467): carcerem. leporem. Lat. A. Feminines of the fourth declension varied (^Gram. 504. pulicem. Bon. If words lost their differentiating terminations. in the main. —orem. marginem. sex. Nouns that -icem.IV. castaneus for castanea.

sulphurem. These m two genders: filiu{s) — . Conversely we find cinus. etc. The transition from masculine to neuter was facilitated by the fall of final the regions where changes reduced considerably the distinguishing marks of the (§ 309). 44). Varro. Densusianu 132. Beside lUmen. Bon. 507-509. Audol- lent 545.. 293. etc. fatus. Glor. ra. puteum. MARIS. vinus. me\_nt]us. 345-349. *ptperem. Densusianu 129. Spr. etc. do^sus (^Mil. Cf.. R. sg.. cf. 46.. 483). In popular and late Latin this tendency was strong: anteClassic. etc.. 132. fcenus. Waters Ch. Petronius has thesaurum. D'Arbois 135. beside pulvis. m. tergum —us. for ctnis. and f. Waters Ch. 145 MASCULINE aIiD NEUTER. lignus. m. In Classic Latin a number of neuters became masculine balteum -us. see Archiv VIII.guttur. 270—272. castellus. (Za/. pectorem. Petronius. 57. signus. etc. collus.. 4. 42. 348. piper \h&x& must have been *liiminem. roborem. lactem. n.Y. 266. murmur. collus —um.. G. caseum -us. 2. cornu —um —us. For the confusion of masculine Cf. n. laqueum. *ndminem. nomen. b. 173. m. vasus -um. R. thesaurum. . verbus. 39. VA. MAREM. frigorem. 348. and also by the fall of final s in that phenomenon occurred (§ 298).§ 348] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. maris nom. and neuter in Africa. Plautus. lactem {Bacch. Bon. ciner. nasuni : —us. marmorem. papaver . frenum -i. ledus —um. II. vinus.. vadum —us. balneus. incipit judicius. 41. gladium. 16). there must have been a *pulvus. templus. 347. calus.

/ muri mura. complete until early Romance times. generally L. hunc verbum. however. id ipsum. 350. est. gender for nouns was probably not Cf. Nearly all neuters became masculine: os locutus R. perhaps calestem. [§ 351 In the second declension the only difference is in the nominative singular and the nominative and accusative plural. murus. in Livy: Draeger I. the early stages of the Neuter adjective forms were used for a similar purpose: in Romance languages we find phrases veniat. hunc stagnum. mare. hunc vulnere. give in Italian: sg. m. etc. § 351. Mare. locus. generally Haag became feminine maris. R. pointing to such Vulgar Latin constructions as *mihi est grave quod ille non c. 386. 348. popular. 45 . XXX. Densusianu 132. muro. and 48. 161.. 635. Greek neuters in -ma. influenced f. Petronius writes nervia Waters Ch. sagma. luogo. Thus the masculine and neuter fused. Bon. : if The loss of the neuter became feminine: cyma. the characteristic neuter plural inflections came to be -a being regarded as an alternative masculine plural ending: for nervi.. 277. quid. etc. by terra. illud or ilium. etc. 349. Zs. Among pronouns. 4). So pi. miles. luoghi luogora. Cf. tive h In the third declension the genders are distinguished only in the accusative singular and the nomina- and accusative plural.146 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. cf. for instance. and in Italy and Dacia the distinction disappears even in the nominative singular. FEMININE AND NEUTER. 266. but also the collective plural for the singular Digitized by Microsoft® . quod. 351 Classic Latin often used not only the singular for the cf. the : neuter forms were kept to express an indefinite idea hoc. donum hunc scBCulum. Archiv III. plural in a collective sense (as eques. rivus rivora.

few neuter nouns became feminine: For mare and f. Hence arose such feminine gaudia. palpebrum iox palpebra occurs. R. The feminine character of such words was *illcB doubtless reinforced by the use. Spr.% frigora. 483. Sardinian. Lat. marmor. 435.. By the end of 354. fusa. Digitized by Microsoft® . 63). D'Arbois 10. *folia.. occurs in late Latin. Convtrstly. Aside from these. ingenias. see § 347.. § 349) and even to some feminine nouns: digita. Draeger I. 2. crigne < ? *cnnea = crines. hie est iesia. grada occur in late Latin. but many were and southern Italy and Rumania. fructa. Archiv XIV. 5-9. ligna. 269. Audollent 548. In most of the in central Romance territory the -a forms were kept preserved as plurals only as feminine singulars. Cassel. of an to pectora maXch qua pectora : Chronologie \()(). Apulian. see § 349. in Rumanian y>-««2a < ? *frondia ^frondes. {z. So the neuter plural forms in -a were preserved in their collective use after the neuter singular forms had disappeared. Cf. for singular forms as *brachia. . Bon. . For the use of cases.§ 354] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 352. For cinus — cinis. for instance. rama). R. etc. in Greek neuters -ma. etc.. In late Latin and early Romance this collective plural —a came to be taken for a feminine singular: tribula sg. . Spr. rura: cf. gaudia niat.. dita. Gl. simulaehras. Lat. cf. 147 marmora. armentas. Old Fr. ardet (cf. etc. sg. which a new plural was created: brachias. Gl. 353. DECLENSION OF NOUNS. the Vulgar Latin period the cases were generally reduced. 270. Gl. Reich. It. frutta. ne forte et mihi hcec eve- R.. *pulvus = pulvis. This formation in -a was extended to many masculine (cf. membras. 482. ligna . gesta. see §§ 85-100. Reich. 351.

beside dia. manos. ablative. All the mercatus. Fifth declension nouns not in -ies rem. fructo fructos. gelus. speni): W. went into the third res There was also an inflection spes : spene{m). whence Italian spene (cf. — the Cf. gustus in Petronius . 482. 356. —a nominative and an accusative- plural following the analogy of the singular. jusso. Pr. spes spent. Audollent genum. scaiiazre attested Inter: Denfor -OS. Bechtel 86. transfer of nouns in -ies from the fifth to the first declension began also in Classic Latin: effigies— ia. glatz. haz. (2) The susianu 133. see § 359. 152. so friicti. and occasionally in southern Gaul. [§ 356 except in Dacia. but there were a few shifts: — (i) For an inflection mama mamdne(^m). etc. Classic Latin and continued in vulgar and late speech: ftcus.. lucto. luxuries —ia. Ada. to two. Sittl in Archiv II. 135. 270. 260—262.. spiritus./ada. The transfer from the fourth to the second began in domus. etc. 355(i) The number fifth of declensions was reduced to three. but -ies was kept in the Spanish peninsula. senatus. as a third declension noun. Sp. Heraeus in Archiv XIII. in southern Italy and Sardinia. Spr. jusso. fourth declension eventually went over. Dies maintained itself. passes. etc.g/ada. The other declensions generally held their own. 550. being assimilated to the third declension: cf. lacus. Bon. K. materies -ia. 337-338. One result of the intermediate confusion was an accusative plural spelling -us which was very common in Gaul: Bon. gradus. 282-283. In Dacia the dative singular was to some extent preserved also: '' § 91. All passed over in the greater part of the Empire. cornum..148 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Digitized by Microsoft® . sendti. £ai. 544. etc. R. the fourth and being absorbed by the others. etc. G.

a. G. : Bechtel 86. which had only one form in the plural: flia So linguas. ds>dssum (R. Audolfilia{m). cf. R. / 357. Digitized -s made the accusative plural identical with the singular. 280. fonz. by Audollent 416. fons. This use was due in the main to the analogy of the singular. and of feminine nouns of the third declension. G. etc. Greek nouns 259. Caput became capus (Pirson 238) and *capum -i: XXVII.).In countries which did not lose final s {% 298). Fr. lent 546. Fr. under the influence of stercus. It probably was not common until late Vulgar Latin or early Romance times. fall of In Italy and Dacia. so apparently ros'. 259-260). 483. of the third declension sometimes passed into lampas~^lampada.. Old Fr. Reich. (3) On the other hand. the first: 367. matres matres. Beside terminus ~i. Beside ervum ervi. Fundus fundi perhaps became fundus *funddris: Old Fr. etc. h&nc& filias filias. Corpo for corpore occurs in the Per. J where there was only one form. 149 (2) For an inflection Bellus Bellone^m). vas>va- sum vasus (Waters Ch.§ 357] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Pr. G. arroser. pyxis '^*buxida. fiens. 258Dubois 258. there was a termen terminis. Fimus ftmi. Reich. siren '^ sirena. effondrer. Libit.) *femdris: cf. beside coclear fiitre: was codearium. but the old forms were retained also. the nominative plural was' by Microsoft® . femps. Pr. Puulva for pulvis is recorded adsis '> aisida. Spr. the accusative plural form came to be used as a nominative plural.>*rdsum (cf. there was an ervus ervoris: Lat. rugiada.) and probably *potesta. where the kept instead. 57). 280. FIRST DECLENSION. apparently became femus {Gl. It. see § 362. likewise tempesta {Gl. So a few Latin nouns: juventus or ~tas > Juventa. 280.

2 01. villabus.. G. —enis. cf. MeyerLiibke in Ltblt. p. Nice Nicenis. This form left no traces in the Romance languages. diffusion.. Spr. 321. Feminine proper names and words denoting persons etc. pupillabus. etc. It. An ablative in -abus is occasionally found: Cassiabus. and also in Latin down to -as was probably old in : B. Dante's Semele. Some masculine person-names in —a had crisia the same declension {Einf.: hence arose Anna Anndnis or -inis. Both mamani and tatani are found in the third W. mamma mammdnis. affirms that there was a feminine in -a with a plural in -as in Oscan. fr. E. nom. XXXV. 359. filiabus. Raetia. an inflection in —dnis. XXXI. Herseus in Archiv XIII. 264). c. etc.ISO (i) An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. feminabus. 70. sacristano). filiabus. 198. D'Arbois 21-24 assumes Celtic influence: hic sunt cartas. too. famulabus. scriba *scribanis (cf.. Hic qvescvnt dvs mres dvas filias. Les accusatifs en -ain. Rom. Meyer-Liibke expresses doubt whether the is connected with masculine tatani. 152-153. Celtic. Bon. XXIII. M. rather late.. ahimabus. had a similar plural. Paris. and Digitized by Microsoft® . amita *amitdnis (so Juliana Julianenis in Pirson 143). but they may have helped its the second century . 206. 57 B. See G. etc. 171. Salvioni in Rom. XXV. 136. 483. liberti LIBERTASQVE. Journal des savants igoo. Pirson 115-116. 150. No foreign or dialect influences are needed to explain the practice. scrivano). Philipon. [§359 According to Mohl. Feb. It. Rom. etc. 358. Pupils were taught to inflect Glance Glaucenis. Les accusatifs en -on et en -ain. or probably under the influence of the consonantal declension of Greek names that was in vogue in schools. the nominative plural in some parts of Italy SCALAS. often developed.. deabus. This feminine inflection left some traces in Gaul. Spr. Dalmatia. c. 331. Chronologie 205-209. etc. § 153): barba barbani. XXV. century: feminine -a -ants In Lat. filiabus. sa* sacristanis (cf. W. Africa. W. Archiv N\\\. (R. cf. Br^al. etc. Her^us in Zs.. ii.

etc. also Joannentis. In general. XXXV. domnani. Romance. was retained to a considerable and central Italy and Dacia.. -i La declinazione imparisillaba in -a -dne. 151 etc. etc. Rom. (i) 207. -His. rama. Rom. 343. this -a. 250. putain. at the beginning of the Romance period. 216. however. *botula. 361. especially in southern Some masculines took 362. Lombard madrane. -e ^ne -me. XXXV. the first declension was reduced to this pattern: 360. The plural in -a. from which it was extended to other nouns of relationship and to proper names. 351-352. extent. SECOND DECLENSION. Rom. 2l6. Attane. etc. Andreate. etc. §§ 347-349. According to Salvioni. by the analogy of bracchia. etc. etc. *botella. me -ene. Andreani. from 750 on: amitane. As neuter nouns became masculine. etc. the masculine where the masculine and neuter partly in Vulgar Latin but mostly in inflection in those countries differed: vinus. XXVIII. in ig8.) was kept also. — luna facia *folia luna lune lunas luna{s) facia folia f^i^ facias f'^^i^ folias facia(s) folia{s) In Dacia the dative singular {lune. 250. Cf. -o -6ne.. barbane still exist at both ends of Italy. Rom. Zimmermann.: § 362] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Zs. (2) A. Agneti. from Eugenes. nonnain. §§349. XXXV. XXXV. b. Cf. barbane. 218. G. Salvioni. shows that these forms of declenall sion were very common the mediasval Latin documents of parts of Italy. 264. shows that there was also an Cf. Italy: Fr. and -Stis: Aureliati. Joanneni. Ger- From the seventh century on. — perhaps under manic influence combined with the analogy of the Latin type Digitized by Microsoft® . fructa. digita.. bdrba barbdnis influence of the itself he would ascribe to the synonymous *bdrbo *barb6nis. R. 219. 214-215. Dubois 250. the starting-point of all this inflection was bdrba barbdnis. Eugeneti inflection in -dtis. they assumed.

See E. etc. 365. In the ablative there was considerable confusion of -z and -e in Classic LatiiK OTan mare. Firmus Firmonis. XXXV. Pirson 133:. proper names: 201. Huon. a declension -us (or —o) —dnis for masculine Hugo Hugon was Latinized into Hugo Hugdne{m) (cf. etc. Philipon in Rom. and possibly Corsican baboni. THIRD DECLENSION. XXXI. and possibly Spain. II. In general. In the accusative plural there was still greater confusion of -is and -es {nubes nubls. 337-338. 198. some pari. etc. cf. 247-249. but there are of -l: It. Salvioni in Rom. etc. -« crowded out the rarer which left no sure Digitized by Microsoft® . Vok. Traces of this inflection are to be seen especially in French and Provengal proper names: Foucon. etc. cf. 212-213. Vok. turri turre.f. [§ 365 gulo guldnis. — there developed in Gaul. spelled In Gaul the accusative -«. 85. at the beginning of the Romance period. Rsetia. the second declension followed this pattern: annu(s) — annu ~o anni anno{s) fa^e(f) fabru —o vinu{s) bracciu *—us fructu(s) vinu -0 vini bracciu —o braccia fructu fructi fructo{s) —o fabri fabro(s) —i —o{s) vmo(s) braccia —a -a The letters enclosed in parentheses were silent in Italy and plural Dacia. Paulus or Paulo Pauldne{ni). Bellus Belloni. attested in Lucca in 776 {Rom. carried further in common speech: cf. XXXV. avus avi>avo avonis. c. (1). The traces ablative in —e finally triumphed. Apparently traces.. §355. G.152 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. I. suceroni: Rom. § 152). Giovannoni. 204). Cf.). XXXV. both in Classic and in Vulgar Latin: -Is. 363.- ending was often Bon.. 87. Italy. This was 364. etc. So perhaps Italian Donaioni. hence Pitrus or Pitro Petrdne^m). etc.

superstitis. App. 66. Sepulcri 220. as by Tiktin 565-566. audace. Prudentius. camis in Livy. Ci.... or -e fashioned on the model of the oblique cases: so seeps "> sapes. are best explained. stips^ stipes. divite. Vok. 45. R. dis- 366. "grus non gruis." App. aculionis for aculeus). GL Reich. Rumanian pint.§ 367] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. heredes. heredes. urbis. Plautus. slirpis in Livy. 243). Chronolo- gie 203. 263. D'Ovidio in critici Raccolta di studii dedicata ad Alessandro JD'Ancona 627). etc. 38). Aulus Gellius. pedis. tended in popular speech to use for the nominative a form in -is.. perhaps in late popular Latin.famis. cf. etc.. etc. Apuleius. Lat. etc. Audollent 545-547. papilionis (cf. R. Varro. 153 Italian pani. latrone... In the nominative singular the common -^s largely placed the less f requent 244-247. etc. D'Arbois 85-88.. Pr. Caper. nubis. As ~es and ~is came to be pronounced alike before the end to of the Vulgar Latin period (cf. Nouns which added a syllable in the genitive. etc. voluntate." Keil VII. cardonis. calcis in Venantius Fortunatus.. Petronius (Waters Ch.principis). In Vulgar Latin this formation was extended to words with shift of accent: excellente for excellens in Petronius. Digitized by Microsoft® . 481. bovis in Varro. Jovis.• -« Vok. 9. "fames non famis.. castore. Petronius (Waters Ch. Waters a Ch. GL Reich. R. Ill. Pr. mdis. Petronius (Waters Ch. 105. 47). These forms prevailed in Romance. 116. it is futile trace the Romance forms phonetically to one source rather than the other. travis (three times). 263. in Ennius. lade in Ennius. 367.. victore. III. Spr. 62). 263. folli tor folks in GL Reich. through the analogy of the second declension: see §368. etc. Haag 45. "nubes non nubis". without a change of accent. Audollent 545-547. famis. suis in Prudentius (F. principens antestetis. -es. I. lentis in Priscian. §§ 174. .. nom. (^=z.

we find sapienti. being used mainly in the nominative vocative. declensions: Neuters in which apparently became by Microsoft® masculine or Digitized . hence *me(n')si. but in Italy and Rumania the old ones. first in cf. D'Arbois 85-88. 367 parentorum is frequent in charters in the Gl. were kept also {Lat. *cdrpes *cdrpe{s). probably in late Vulgar Latin or early Romance. (also presentis. beside the old forms. made in Italy in the eighth or ninth century. etc. etc. For the nominative-accusative plural. for *lumine{m). soror.. servitor. 154 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. too. lupi.. according . [§ 369 These forms. doubt. as *ndmes *ndme(s). corpus cdrpu(^s). hence *patri. In these countries —ora was used as a plural ending (It. but infans (also 368. cantdtor. etc. timpuri). Neuters in —n and -s regularly kept their nominative- accusative singular. masculine nouns made over their nominative plural on the model of the second declension. In most of the Romance languages (but not Spanish).). Cassel. etc. so. The process may have begun in the Vulgar Latin period. carpi corpora. elifanti is common. etc. they constructed. Spr. and was extended to in Old Italian to the second. which was regarded as the normal masculine type: fllii. timp. Rumanian Tiktin 566. but there is virtually no evidence that it started so early: in late Latin. both the second and -r. to Bon. etc. no form: homo. hence *cani. prevailed in Romance. prcBgnans). *ndmine{ni). as nomeiji). see § 347. however. corpo. except for persons. anni. especially those in —ora. *amantis. which. (also * damantis. 369. however. 482). retained names of and and generally preferred the old nominative But names of persons in -ans and -ens usually made over the nominative: parentis. Rum.). new forms on the masculine pattern.

NO CHANGE OF STEM.§ 37i] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 371. *pulvus. (3). papaverem. In general. *piperem. and passed into the second declension: cf. Incus. the word shows no trace of d in any of the Romance lan- guages. 113. cf. *cdris = Krjp lajpo's. Zauner 2. § 347. Cor apparently made its plural * cores instead of * cordes : according to Mohl. but the original forms were kept also: cinis ctnus. 348. incudtnis : Lat. the open o would possi- bly be explained as due to a cross between this *cor and the Caput became *capu{ni) or capus (Pirson 238). 483. except Spanish cuerdo. marmorem.. the third declension must have gone about as follows {-is and -es having coincided in the pronunciation -w) : — (i) No Change of Accent. often developed an accusative singular in -e{m) as well as a nominative-accusative plural in -es: I. sulphurem. pals {It. 293. 370. were kept also. G.0. §356. 155 feminine earlier than the others. and so probably goes back to an Old Latin *cdr Classic cor. Spr. etc. Plautus. . A few feminines in -is apparently became neuters in —us. Old Yt. Bon. But marmor. polve may come irorapulver). Sanguis. at the beginning of the Romance period. PERSONS. polvo. sangutne(m) also sanguei^m). iticudis > incudo. Lexique 21-38. 2. pulvis whence S-p. Fxn.

156 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. [§373 change of stem. .

§ was kept to represent a whole idea (cf. the neuter adjective forms were less and less used. 375" The principal types are: — So ager. and the neuter plural (as omnia) was doubtless emr ployed from time to time as an indefinite collective. however. 374- Adjectives were declined after the same model as nouns. 350). As neuter nouns assumed masculine endings (§ 347). .§375] An 3. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. the neuter singular. 157 DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES.

celerus. Decllvis. firmis.. jac^r passed into the -us ~a —um class. in376. . and there was probably also a feminine * alacra and * alecra. sublimus. etc. Pr. COMPARISON. l_ \ !-. Densusianu 142. Cf. Waters Ch. Macer.— 158 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. effrenis. see § 56. there was alacris. [§377 (3) Originally *feUce(s) One Gender filis fills fellcla in the Nominative Singular. and conversely benignis... Prcecox developed a feminine pracoca: Neue II. 46). so teeter'^ tetrus. etc. m. Romance was: For the new method of comparison. 274. m. gracilus. In the the —us —a Romance languages more adjectives went over -um type Pr. 275 (^ci. (plus L 1 J ^plus llle-{'^"~. R. doussa. etc. pauperorum. pauperorum. App. 377. and f. R. App. Pr. and f. imbecillis also assumed the -us -a —um inflection in the Latin period so trtstis^tristus. The type. comuna. 162. Pauper early developed a feminine paupera and later a neuter pauperum: paupera. prude(s) prude(s) *prudente(s) feUce fellce(s) prudente prudente{s) prudente{s) prudentia prudentia fellceis) fellcla (4) Comparatives apparently did not reconstruct the Nominative Singular: melloif) mellu{s) millu(s) mellore mellore(s) mellora mellSra melidre(s) There was a good deal of confusion of types in Latin times: beside alacer. not completely evolved in Vulgar Latin. : to 4. pauperum. prcestus. miser.. magis magls f J Digitized by Microsoft® .

attested in the third cen- tury: Archiv IX. minus. Archiv VII. of the Vulgar Latin period dui dot {duoT) duo(s) Its inflection at the was probably: doa{s) — end due doe duas doas d'ua{s) dua doa dua doa In early Romance there was doubtless much confusion of the forms. The old superlatives remained to a considerable extent. grossior So the adverbs: longius. It was used indefinite article (§S7) and an indefinite pronoun to be replaced §71). Quinque. Vulgdrformen lateinischer Zahlworter auf Inschriften in Archiv VII. pejus. septe (and *sette). is regular. 65). Scto ( and Cf. vivacius. DHo came by dui. levior. 379. (Camoy . sanctissimus. Cf. pejor. etc. For dodece. on the model of dui. Tredece * See M. minor. proximus. NUMERALS. II. also as (cf. magis. as intensives: altissimus. 66) ginta (Archiv Nil.i 378. 68. 5. 221). Digitized by Microsoft® . 159 However. 65. Quattuor became quattor {Archiv VII. nSve. see § 225. carissimus. (G. longior. Six. 107). 558 (cf. major. melior. Ihm. *Stto). sordidius. also ijuatro ^guaitro. the Classic Latin comparatives of many common adjectives remained in use: altior. "i^. became cinque {Archiv VII. dice offer so cinqua- no peculiarities. an Unus was probably declined like bonus. pessimus. lows : — The numbers between two and twenty were as fol- Tres probably developed a nominative *irei. melius. gravior grevior. by dissimilation. Beside Undece there seems to have been * iindece.§379] '^N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. in the clerical language. §254. 285).

trecenti. triinta (§ 259): ISatvTi occurs in a sixth century document of Ravenna. The tens. Beside this dice et septe ac") there was *dece ac septe . triginta is. ii. the septucu. etc. Archiv VII. beginning with 20. 461.: G. G. etc. etc.i6o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Zs. *nondinta *novdinta. made to conform Outside of the Spanish peninsula is -dinta apparently became -dnta. there were probably new formations. went out of use. Mille was regular. 381. trienta. * triinta. Archiv VII. 392. 136. trigtnta must assume for Spanish something like * viinti. * quadrdinta became rr: quarranta Furthermore the dr of found in an inscription. Rumanian has new formations. 412) mentions decern et septem. in fact. For its plural it had *dui mille or *dui mtl{l)ia. but Qulndlce is regular. 69). perhaps of the fifth century (Pirson 97. regularly [§ 381 also Quattuordecim *quatti!rdece. so ^dece et (or dcto. Provengal. Cf. *dece et (or ac) nHve. Centu was regular. etc. became * quattordece (cf. trinta: Archiv VII. mentioned as a by Consentius. Keil V. with an opening of the first i and an early shift of accent. f^ok.. But beside these we Vigtntl.and the octo. also unus de viginti. etc. These forms easily contracted into vinti. are irregular: regularly § 142. 69. XXV. Ryd- berg in Milanges Wahlund 337. 400. * octdinta * ottdinta.of 70 and 80 were to the type of the others. *septdinta * settdinta. 380. * sexdinta. cf. Digitized by Microsoft® . For ducenti. Priscian (Keil III. et (or ac) sex. § 225). probably anterior to the fall of faulty pronunciation the g. Spr. * cinqudinta. such as * dui centu. became viinti. which account in general for the Italian. Beside sedece there was *dece SeftendScim. 69). trinta {yinti. This change of accent apparently occurred everywhere for the subsequent tens: * guadrdinta.. and French words.

see § 60. remained.). 384. relative. definite genitive: Hoc served in- Inde assumed the function of an dubitat. §§6o. secundus. nemo inde Regnier no. The ordinals were best preserved in Italy. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. The nominative and. in northern Italian. etc. kept. until Ego lost its g in all the territory. and iste. and is were used to supply the lacking pronoun of the third person: cf. to the dative and accusative. and so was the genitive singular and plural of ille. ipse. I. eo occurs in manuscripts of the See §263. after 5th. ? II. Examples occur as early as the second century: Franz. But his reference to Vok.^ ' Meyer-Liibke. I. As the pronouns came to be expressed more and more. and Catalan ending -enus was employed {septenus ion tertius. ipse. 67. inflected like quartus. The genitive was usually lost but ciijus was kept. but some languages have new formations even for these. The ablative gave way . Provengal. demonstrative. PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. but the end of the Vulgar Latin period. 262. 242 is incorrect Digitized by Microsoft® . probably not 385. According to sixth century. N. — For the use of personal pronouns. B. The ordinal numerals. quintus were generally bonus. accusative SSs. were probably not very commonly used: the Romance languages show many new formations. 161 382. the distributive Septimus.§ 385] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and interrogative pronouns. tile and also hic. Primus. Lat. B. 484. Spr. and the dative was preserved in personal. as an indefinite neuter.

On tibi. acof. these are and mt<mihi. Spr. [§ 388 In the last syllable of ttbt. stbi the short i prevailed.ording ti. ^ )86. inflection The was probably reduced to: — . 484. Franz. found. i" 243-244. the pattern of stbt. •was carried into nobis. vobis. II. si beside to Lat. from the sixth century on. there were formed •.1 62 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.

in II. m. 427. 114. Franz. and ipsud for ipsum.§ 390] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. was partially replaced. Franz. 3. 246-260. 390. g II. subsequently went out of use. sometimes occurred as a dative: Franz. 274. 9 II. and Cato and on the model of illui (and perhaps of quei). fratelmo. Franz. leius was abandoned: In the dat. cut. Quillacq 83). f. — For the use of demonstratives. see §§ 60. R. see §§ 61-68. but it disappeared from late Latin. Ipse and isfe followed a similar course ipse however. framed on the model of cf. illms gave way to iliajus. 283-304. being confused with the ablative and the accusative. ipsi=^ ipse. Ille. Romance: Old \X. 275. illi^ille. used by Apu- and others (Neue II. was from that. is 163 g The full inflection found in the sixth century: Franz. The Old Latin genitive illi {ipsi. 275. When Ule and ute had a really demonstrative force. and the Spanish Illius {ipsins. nom. also §392.. Franz. Sicily. 389. sg. 9 II.. cf. having become archaic in peninsula. there was tllce (or ille). qui: Bon. 277-279. m. probably in the sec- ond half of the sixth century. 275. II. we find. 9 beside II. eccu': see § 65. they came to be compounded usually with the prefix ecc' or Cf. and the latter is not found in Calabria. sg. 276. definite N. isti). These forms survived ma. the m. popular speech. Sardinia. sg. Audollent 302). The former. others (Neue Digitized by Microsoft® . and the dat. tilt was replaced in part by illHi. by illi. B. There was another dative form. 3 II. Through the analogy of cu^us. tilt. used by 427. The inflection of tile developed considerably in popu- lar speech. 273. R. etc. the special forms ipsus for R. . however. 244. istius). madre- DEMONSTRATIVES. illo. articles For their function as and personal pronouns. 67-68.

illdrum. Ille prevailed. nice. Digitized by Microsoft® . to f. Cf. 619. In parts of northern Spain and southwestern France illorum seems to have become *illurum. Cf. 9 II. on: Zs. 484: illujus. however. and some dialects on the south shore of France. illui. furthermore. was constructed illcejus (illejus). Lat. ipseus.164 An Introduction illcei (illei). illui. [§ 392 which was used beside ilU and Ulm. neuter Uludvia. 426. a part of Catalonia and Gascony. R. are found after the seventh century: Franz. except 177. Spr. The 391. 600. illejus. Illorum displaced the f. period. The popular : inflection. XXVI.s replaced by tllum: Neue II. did not entirely disappear. to Vulgar Latin. ipsujus. through the analogy of illUjus. illejus. It came. for the dat. and illis. Majorca. which crowded out illtus. in Romance. be used. 271-272. at the end of the Vulgar Latin forms not was something like kept in Romance) elle elli — this (brackets indicating Ma ellejus elli elle ellei ellu [ellujus] elli \ello\ ellui elli ellu ello elli ella elle ? ellu ello ella ? ellqru elluru elli(s) \ellaru\ ellqru elluru ellqru ^im/) ellais) ello(s) ella 392. Illujus. m. these words tended to lose their first syllable (see § 157): tu illam vzdes>*tu 9 II. When unaccented. 'la' vede(s). vides lei ta ipsam clavem'>-*vede(^s) iu 'sa' clave'] Lui and 281-283. which. illei are found from the sixth century made genitive. In the on the same pattern (influenced perhaps by guejus). ille. Ille and ipse were used freely as definite articles from the fourth century on: Densusianu in Sardinia. Franz. illui. 276.

quis. 165 4. B. and also of the feminine qum. Beside ctijus.§ 395] -^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. by the end of the : Vulgar Latin period. — For the use of these pronouns. and the substitution of qui for feminine see §§69-70. to something like this qui — . The combined inflection of qui and quis. N. quel: Mohl in Zs. XXVI. In Christian inscriptions from the fifth century on. 393. INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS. in common speech. qui takes the place of quts. see cm is found a corresponding feminine quejus. was probably reduced. 619.

— see §§33-35. estou. (2). Lexique 47-54. THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. on the analogy of {*vao). a. " The first conjugation generally held partial. the third. Pg. For new formations. follicare. etc. the first and fourth were least affected. 30. would connect these forms with Umbrian stahu. Lexique 47. *staunt: Rum. to Vulgar Latin.nd *stao. *vais. (see §405): cf. In northern Gaul there may have developed with * stao a * stats and a * stait. In the Peregrinatio the second decidedly preponderates over the third (Bechtel 87). Mohl. in other texts the third gains at the expense of the second. its 397. I. estau. dau. with Umbrian dia. defections into use * dao. but it seems more likely that they were late Latin formations due to an effort to keep the root vowel distinct from the ending. werrizare. "adno non adnao. daun. There was some confusion of conjugations. Italian development due to the analogy of sia: see §419. dant and stant there came Old It. Probus. the Eventually Spanish and Portuguese discarded New formations went into the and Sardinian the second. Pr. FIRST CONJUGATION. Lexique 47 and Pr. The Italian present subjunctive dia from dare is associated by Mohl. that the form is a later. It is entirely possible. Digitized — such as abbreviare." Lexique 47. estaun. however. state. *daunta. in Germanic verbs -on and in by Microsoft® . dou. first and fourth. own. sto. Cf. being few and Beside do. 398. 396. Pers.1 66 An Introduction C. The second gained most fourth in Gaul. *vait date. the third in Italy. Sicilian in Spain. PI. dao. [§ 398 VERBS..

b. *impllre. fiorlre (R. 10. I. tive —escere \. Digitized by Microsoft® . * has. habent. t. 401. 283). *hant or * haunt. under the influence of dare and stare. SECOND CONJUGATION. THIRD CONJUGATION. 284). probably through the pronunciation of —eo as —io (see §224): * complire. §36. rubare. at least in Italy. Monaci. 1636. 20. 399. third conjugation gave a few verbs to the second. beginning with those that had a perfect in -ui. tergere. Bechtel 88. tondere.§402] An Introduction regularly to Vulgar Latin. 167 —an (but not -jan) went in the first conjugation: Cf. 266 ff. Crestomazia italiana dei primi secoli I. *torcere (for torquere). habet. * luctre.\i^x\. in Classic : Even miscere (R. by habere. the verb habere. Latin there was some confusion between the second conjugation and the third fervere. lugere (R. adopted the forms *ho or *hao. such perhaps 402. Luke VI. sapere sapui: sapere was influ- enced. The as cadere *cadui. roubo?i'>lt. habes. 400. ^^^^ i^ a peculiarity of ancient Umbrian. Other verbs passed over locally or occasionally: sediiur. etc). many become i. became —iscere: *florisco. respondere (Bechtel 88: responduntur). *putrisco. In Vulgar Latin the second lost some verbs to the third in most of the territory: * ardere. 1. * lucere. *ridere. 284). C. sometimes became habtre: Vok. *nocere. especially in Italy. Lexique 108-109. Italian dialects in which e does not phonetically and even in early Tuscan (cf. p. avire in havite. Itala. luctsco. lugire (R. guidare. capere * caput. and cadere may have followed capere. wttan'^lt. Some verbs went into the fourth. habibai. The inchoa284). According to Mohl. * hat. *putrtre. While retaining habeo. capere may easily have imitated sapere. *mordere. L. 8. V. E.. I. Habere.

Pers.-R. Pers.1 68 An Introduction all to Vulgar Latin. a sug- gestion of shortening existed in the monosyllabic imperative Digitized by Microsoft® . Sardinia. D. is twice used by Fredegarius {Pr. is volemus in the seventh {Pr. {Pr. *volere. This transition was probably helped by a partial fusion of esse and sedere.A facere were associated in old formulas: Lexique 53. however. PL in 745 A. Pers. Furthermore. PL 25).poteo is attested ( 1) Potere. (2) the Volimus Reich. PL 2^).. 403. Gregory and Fredegarius {Pr. PL 21). {Pr. The present indicative forms must have been something like this: ^vojeo voje^s) — volimu{s) volemu(s) voleste(s) *volete(s) *vole(i) *vqlen(t) The present subjunctive must have been similarly inflected. PL 21). there doubtless existed *fare {Facere 48). facere 404. 'Bt&ide. strongly influenced by dare and stare. potebas Posso for possum is used by in Fredegarius (Haag 60). Pers. Reich. velle volui naturally went over to the second conjugation. assumed the infinitive forms potere. The anomalous posse potui. and conformed Velte. 478). voles is found in Volestis. framed on the pattern of potestis. Pers. potebo is found in the Gl. Dare Z. [§ 404 In Spain the third conjugation verbs eventually passed into the second. was discarded in Spain and potebam occur repeatedly in the sixth century 24). their inflection more or less to the regular type. The present like this: have been inflected something passu posso foteo *posseo poieis) *pote(i) — indicative must ^poiemu{s) poteste(s) *potete(s) pqssunif) *poten(t) The present subjunctive must have had corresponding forms. GL found in the sixth century (^Lat Spr.

which must have led to *fate present indicative certainly had several being on the pattern of the first con- jugation.§405] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. 169 fac (also /a. facio XVIII. sets of forms. Zs. 434): — its old inflection *fao . XXV. beside factte. Zs. 121. but the present subjunctive retained (see Facere 72. series The one 735).

For the intrusion of the inchoative Vulgar Latin. probably in the Vulgar Latin period (cf. Haag 60. * offertre. Reich. R. cf. C2X0 fugtre. [§408 facere fare : — present indicative. offeret. For new formations. St. deferet. by the analogy of aperire {sufferit. Sepulcri 229.lyo present. Plautus. Lucretius {Lat. cuptre. Cf. hesiAe. ignire. Gl. (j^^r^i". see § 34. d. FOURTH CONJUGATION. Bon. vadunif) *vaunt *vant 406. 427. ^26. Dicere. 477). warnjan'> tion. It. doubtless suggested by die ( cf fac and *fare. forbire . tarir. at least locally: *falllre. The fourth conjugation usually held — — marrir. Bon. Pirson 148. Verbs in -to tended to pass into the fourth conjugation (see. such as * abbellire. beside * sequere. moreover. An The vado Introduction. §36. and *monre. Carnoy 112). *soffertre. ^. Lexique 62 )..into this conjuga- FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES Romance only Digitized IN INFLECTION. Of the personal forms of the verb there remained general use in the following tenses of the active voice. Densusianu 148. 286. §416): *caplre. ite(s) etc. in 408. first half of the 7th century. Germanic verbs in -Jan regularly went into the fourth conjugation in Latin (Kluge 500): furbjan~>\X. and gained some verbs from the others. Spr. gemire. common in the Vulgate (R. occurire. the entire passive inflection having been discarded: the by Microsoft® . * capere . . . Some others went over. Augustine {Lat. parrjan^Yv. see § 415. 477). 407. was influenced by *vao viidimu(s) vddite(s) *vo *vas vadeif) *vait *vat vadeis) *vais imu(s) etc. marrJan>'Fr. §404) and helped by the analogy of audire. Spr. its own. fodiri. however. Pirson 148. developed a form * dire. mortri. Bechtel 90. guarnire. * sequlre. 285).

etc. amatus. audiram) was kept. amando.. in various regions: see §124. amans. R. R. towards the end the Vulgar Latin period. The Latin it its perfect sense — §§121-124. the perfect participle. in the Vulgar Latin period. reverti"^ reversus sum. the deponent for the active inflection of a few verbs: Petronius. : Deponent verbs became active cf. as a preterit or a conditional. amassem. operare. and in 171 indicative present. Similar compounds replaced the pluperfect and the future perfect. Cf. 304. esse and the perfect participle: feci"^ habeo factum. pluperfect. See 410. {amandusi).. The supine 409. For amo. amavi. imperfect. The old pluperfect indicative (^amaram. cf. . See Syntax. in the by a compound of habere and the "perfect participle case of neuter verbs. For instance: amare. and in instance: some regions the perfect the imperative present. 298 Conversely. In the subjunctive the pluperfect was used instead of the Digitized by Microsoft® . (amaro). amaram. See Syntax. 302-304. The entire passive inflection -of came to be replaced. the gerund (especially the ablative case). {amarini)\ ama. R. Of the impersonal forms of the verb there remained: the present active infinitive.. R. mentire. the subjunctive present. the present participle. . some writers substituted R. In was replaced. 388-389. §§ 112-114. pluperfect. and probably in some standing phrases the gerundive. some regions the future perfect . 289. perfect was kept in its preterit sense. amem. perfect. 297-302. rideri. § 4io] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. partly by active and reflexive constructions but perfect participle with esse' mainly by a compound of the (m northern Italy fieri): littera ' scriMtur -flittera scripta est (or fit). fell into disuse from the first century on. etc. amabam.

etc. -ete(s). *amar' dben(t). V. habemus and habetis eventually. De 411. with the exception of ero. -dnt. On the model of this new future. was crowded out by the present and by new formations. XXIX. In this compound all the various forms of the present indicative of habere were used (see §§273. in Vulgar Latin and Romance. were reduced to -emu{s). sometimes confused with the pluperfect indicative and later sometimes with the infinitive {dpriro. §118. *amar' -isti. -ds. It is best preserved in is found also in Old Rumanian There are traces of it in Old Italian. audtrem'^audissem. etc. as in the In these formations the unaccented {Ji)ab— first and second persons plural of the future: * amar' -^{b)a. 619. —do. which disappeared everywhere but in Sardinia {facheret. or conditional. [§411 imperfect. In the first and second persons plural.): amdrem'^amdssem. pdteri. but * amar' abut. Lollis in Bausteine i . came to be made. —dbe{t). Digitized In Italian we by Microsoft® . -dnt: *amar' —dmu(s). an imperfect of the late future. as a future indicative or subjunctive.): see Spanish and Portuguese. -dyo. -dt. amd{ve)ro fused with the perThe old future perfect ama.-dben(t) and -d. C. . from the *amar' -abut. —at. especially by the infinitive combined with the present indicative of habere {amdbo > amar' habeo): see §§125-129. cridere. as they came to be regarded as mere endold future. but and Macedonian. —d. *amar' —e'te(s). which has prevailed in the find. to correspond to the dissyllabic or monosyllabic -dyo. * amar" -dbe(s'). -ds. &tc. a form in -ii {amerii). -dbe(s). cf. The ings. infinitive the perfect of habere (see §130): combined with the imperfect or *amar' ~dbe{b')a{ni) or disappeared. 401): *amar' —dbeo. beside -ia from habebam and -dbbi —ibbi from habui. *amar' -dbe(t).(ye')rim and apparently remained subjunctive fect — — — — more or all less in use.172 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Crescini in Zs. etc. —aunt. in regions except Gaul and Raetia.

audite. See § 115. dormisco — were extended The and later. Savoy.. R. In Veglia.. audi. t—. tene. 294. person singular and plural: credite. Lyons. the Abruzzi. Virgilius Grammaticus (Sepulcri 194) mentions double forms of inchoative verbs.§414] -A-N Introduction to Vulgar Latin. criseere. Clarisco. while in Old Italian the ei was sometimes detached and used as a preterit. erubisco. 413.face: R. or o—. etc. lost their inchoative sense. Beam. French Switzerland. types —dsco and —osco were sparingly repre- sented and were not extended in late and popular Latin have bequeathed but few verbs con<Sisser<ico(g)ndseere types —esco and —tseo in the third century — — as — such as and . INCHOATIVE VERBS. to the Romance languages. 3596. fae. tenete. except the present. they Pr. There is some evidence of a confusion of -esco and —uco in Latin. the Grisons. 412.of avere : it is probably due to the analogy of the first person singular of the weak preterit (credit. 414. etc. paresco. vived in the Tyrol. are common in Gregory the Great: Sepulcri 193. amdte. in Vok. In some verbs the present subjunctive was used instead of all imperative forms. 3. irdisser <irdseere. by Microsoft® . §426. hence crederdt). such as caleseo ealisco. e—. second dmd. etc. For the monosyllabic die. Instead of the plural form. cf. Cf. the Landes. due. I. Sardinia. Dauphin^. The imperative disappeared. 173 modern language. The first and third persons were supplied from the present subjunctive. 294. writers sometimes emploved diee. The Latin The inchoative ending -sco was preceded by a-. and a part of Lorraine Only -eseo surneither of these two endings left any trace. and Spain Digitized — Sp. the second person plural of the present indicative came to be used: adferte> adferitis. pareeer. crede. duce.

/ sentieniem > were introduced more less into the indicative and subjunctive: audio * audo. finis sais ) I. PRESENT STEMS. See Archiv Lat... in — It. despereissir.. Portuguese. [§416 florecer. Elsewhere. facientem *facente. Herzog Bausteine 481. the -sc- was carried throughit out the present indicative (Yx. There is no direct evidence of this in Latin. partientem * sentente. * dormo. eventually entered into the formation stem of fourth conjugation verbs. Spr. Many verbs in -io dropped the whenever it was fol- lowed by another vowel. fiorire. Digitized On the other hand. \\. The ending -tsco of the present in Spanish. finis sant. etc. sentiam * sentam. 4. Zs. 174 An Introduction was preferred For to Vulgar Latin. Sardinian. il in Pr. -esco also in Rumanian. although fleurit. 291-294. the e was occasionally lost in the second conjugation: v^deo *vtdo. northern and central _fimmii(s) finite{s) Italy. 478. nor are there any traces of it 415. Hence forms without the or > > *partente. 81. In the present participle this was a regular phonetic development (see §225): audientem^* audente. XXX. by the by Microsoft® . 465. trated the present subjunctive {Yr. finissez). / 416. — Fr.then generally disappeared from the infinitive Later. but in the earliest texts of France. there are traces of -esco. Rastia. some regions. partiunt *partunt. and Rumania we find a type *finisco *finisce(s) ^Jinisce{i) *Jiniscun{t) The ~sc. etc. XXIV. or southern Italian. -tsco prevailed fiorisce. see E. tricts also pene- eventually the present participle ( and in some disand the imperfect indicative Fr. Rom.Jinisse). finissons. By the analogy of these.

stare. *tragebam. 417. lego lectus. 131. structus. 403-406. Haag was derived from the ciple — struxi and perfect indicative traxi iractus. Considerable alterations use of fieri for esse is (I ) were made in the present indicative and subjunctive. The verbs vadere. actus. etc. rego rexi rectus. facere. plango planxi planctus. Jigo fixi. *trdcere. posse. Pers. habere. There may have been also *striicere. vegere {tragere and used by 34) and a whole present and imperfect inflection with —g—. beside the regular habent. tango tactus. The guttural Fredegarius. dtcere. old esum cited by Varro {Fr. and the perfect partivexi vectus on the — analogy of ago tectus. trahere. etc. indicate a * setts some evidence of an alternative * siitis sicmus. also Jingo finxi fictus. 175 analogy of capiunt. j'ungo Cf. and Raetian ses point to a * ses beside es. * vtdeunt. as *trago. duco duxi ductus. Old Italian se for e. vehere developed infinitive vegere are forms *striigere. present indicative shows some signs of a tendency its to normalize erratic inflection by making all the forms be- gin with The use. trdgere. velle dare. esse. 401. vtdent. cingo cinxi cinctus. 418. For the sedere for The s. 397. *vkere. 412. The verbs struere. Esse was made into *essere. etc. Italian sei siete is PL 128) went out of for estis.§419] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.. based on the analogy of dico dixi dictus. etc. faciunt. The Spanish use of probably later than our period. underwent considerable changes in the present: see §§273.. pango panxi panctus. see § 409.. Substrate VI. Italian while there of on the model and Raetian siede. Prpvengal ses for Digitized by Microsoft® . 416. 419. ungo unxi unctus. tego and probably junxi junctus. etc. *fragam. debere. to bring it into conformity with the usual third conjugation type. the second conjugation admitted such f oriris as * habeunt.

Italy. too. N. B. fiam reand Dacia. simus. Pers.176 es. Siamus. according to Suetonius. occurs in Italian documents of the eighth century. which -was used. -icbam. 347. IMPERFECT. from early times there was a reciproand the Old Latin optative siem. . The present indicative inflection was doubtless something like this sqm fs est : — sqmu(s) *ses *set} *sest? i^ie(s) semu{s) *esmu{s) *sete(s) *sciie(s)! sqnt (2) In the present subjunctive the analogy of other third conjugation verbs tended to introduce the characteristic vowel a. the usual Classic form. Hence comes an etc. Pr. that cal influence oifiam. 42. The endings were -dbam. [§420 usually understood as reflexive forms. see 420. and Dacia (Pr. may go back to *sei and *sesf for est In the first person plural sumus became sumus and simus (see §220). § iiS. In the third conjugatiqjyg^-jyj^^ Ajgaj^g^ developed into -ebam. semo. 478. Portugal. etc. 5. sumus. would derive it from old esimus. II. It is likely. — sem *sea sis simu{s) sidmu(s) site{s) *jfa(j) sea(t) *sidie[s) set sent *sean{i) For Stat. northern Gaul. iox fit. Old It. by Augustus. Provengal esmes<. and by various purists of the Augustan age (Stolz 58). according to Lat. Lat. Pirson Yt^o.. (cf. somas. — For the loss of the imperfect subjunctive. prevailed in southern Gaul. sem. which ultimately prevailed: Lexique ^x): fiet is common places sim in northern Italy alternative inflection * siam. etc. was preferred in Spain. Mohl. —ebam. sons. 479. Spr. Rom. Dalmatia. etc. 135. —ibam. An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. and the Tyrol (Sp. Old Fr.): cf. etc. see sead in Vok. Spr. *esmus seems to be a new formation on the analogy of esHs. Pers. XXI. Pr. which existed with esum.). PI. PL 130..

the strong includes all Verbs of the first and fourth conjugations generally others. We — — neo. —Ibam as in munibam — in early Latin and recurring at later periods (Lindsay 491). which stressed the characteristic vowel of the fourth conjugation. sentia. those of the second and third had mostly all of the second conjugation and Only six verbs strong. 421. first: It. -evi. • salui>salivi. led early. Hence came an alternative ending —ea for -e/ia. most of them rare 422.. had weak perfects. 177 22t„ /^i6): faciebam'>-*facebam. and also a general inclination to omit v between two i's (see § 324). affecting all the conjugations but the It is ved^a. which in Romance was widely extended. A vowel. PERFECT. silevit for siluit occurs also. and fourth conjugation verbs with strong perfects developed a weak one in Vulgar Latin: pr(sstiti> probably All first j>rcBstavi. developed another form. For further encroachment of the weak type on thb strong. 445).perfects in which the v is added to a verb-stem (-dvi. probably through dissimilation. -tvi). — being common In the fourth conjugation -iebam and -ibam existed side byside from early times (Neue II.'Bi. a. prevailed in popular speech. in the fourth conjugation. regularly had a perfect in -evi: deleo. the weak and the strong: the weak comprises the v. R. territory except common to nearly all the Romance Rumania: Lat. 2?>q. *afiea. §318). pronounced a^e^a (cf. see §426. 6. 423. etc. credia. 287. -pleo. Spr. —oleo. to a reduction tendency to keep the stress on the characteristic Digitized by Microsoft® . and —iebam disappeared: vestibat.§423] just as An Introduction -ientem> -entem (see §§ to Vulgar Latin. Habebam. —Ibam. Dubois 277-278. vieo. WEAK PERFECTS. must distinguish two types.fleo. 479.

" Priscian XII. and. -ivistis to —istis. The loss of V. A ular. Spr. etc." Priscian XII. edificai. —ivit to —iit and *-itt.). the further reduction of —ivt to which brought about. Densusianu I. in the first and third persons singular *—lrunt: audi. 216. and. I. 476. 440). later. as in lenUt. etc. see Servius ad Aen. to a desire to distinguish the perfect from the present). -dvtmus>-dmus and probably *-dmmus: calcai (Probus). Fredegarius in -ait is 152. etc. memoramus. perhaps. This -aut prevailed '^'^'^. — probai {'Prdhns). 476.. 587). —tt. probably to *-aumus: triumphaut in Pompeii. 17 (Keil II. perit. 587). fall of v gave rise.. 434 (cf. —dvif^dit and -at. 452-454. For -nt. The third person singular found in Old Sardinian: Lat. perit. as in repetimus.L. —dverunt to Much later -dvt>-di. for —imus. mus. laborait.. petit. and the third person plural. see Neue III. -u and *-u.judicat. rise early to a reduction of —avisti. in the third person singular. o-cyvoi. Bayard 60.m»'W^ol%tm^ and amdo. see Neue III. redit. 451. etc. 424. Gregory of Tours (Bon. Densusianu I. gave —dsti. to fall of v.I. for —ierunt. *-iut: It. Neue III. Then a contraction of the two vowels gave. C.'X. Vok. to -aut. in the first person plural. speclarait. F^/J. servio. 152. II. —iverunt to —ierunt. petit.— 178 An Introduction and to Vulgar Latin. ccelebrasperamus.d. "cupit pro cupivit. 17 (Keil II. 241: 65-121 a. Fredegarius (Haag 55). the reduction of —ivimus to —Imus and probably *—immus (the lengthening of the m being due to compensation and also. —drunt. vocitamus. —dstis. (Haag 55). The A contraction without the . II. Neue III. -dvistis. locally. etc. 479. dedicait. denumerat. 446-448. -/. carried into the first conjugation. 449. "fumdt -pro fumavit. Bon.. 440. in the third person singan alternative form. [§424 of —tvtsit to -tstt still early.Lexique 46. contraction without the gave rise. S.

ascendiderat. The forms — and fourth conjugations. R. tended to many other verbs in -d-: prandidi. Hence arose eventually an inflecset of tion *-^«. they apparently did Digitized by Microsoft® . *-dem(^m)u{s). (am'ei). Pr. *-ei. —asfi. videderunt (cf. in Provengal they invaded the also In Dacia. respondidi.. this -dedi Through the analogy of -di. odedere. edediderit with an extra -de-). 184. etc. 288.s ex(see §139): perdedit. etc. *—desie(s). Lat. preserved in some Old French dialects near Douai: 607. tion. etc. Reich. fore. Compounds of dare had a perfect in -dtdi {credidt.. Keil IV. these endings were carried into other verbs of the third and even the second conjugation first baMi. silevit. etc.). Gl. -isti. cor-ii. *-ejti. were : 425. in the first XXX. descendidit. Some other second conjugation verbs apparentlyadopted this perfect: 426. 479. ~ivi —isti there- -dvi —dsii -dve{t) —df *~ti —ii -i -dut -dit -dt -weif) *-jut *-{it -lit -it -dvimu(s) -dmu{s) *-dmmu(s) *~dumus -dste(s) -immu{s) -4mu(s) *-jmmu(s) -iste(s) -drunit) *-irun{t) With the exception of -ivi in Old Italian. of the Romance languages cazif).. descendidi. which in Vulgar Latin became —dedi This -dedi ^a. pandiderunt.§426] An is Introduction to Vulgar Latin. helped by dissimilabecame *-deJ. on the other hand. vendidl. : and the of the and fourth conjugations so caderunt. -derun(f). Spr. Verbs in —evl doubtless had a similar inflection: *delei. In some (It. delesti. etc. R. from which there came a responding to the —ai first endings *-«'. 287. prendiderunt. incendederit. 480. the forms with v were not preserved in Romance. 179 *~aumus Jiom.. Audollent 544. *-n. *-det. *-desti. perdidt. etc.

by Microsoft® . movi. and those that have nothing between the root and the personal endings plac-u-i. In Italy all strong verbs except esse introduced weak endings in the second person singular and the first and second persons plural: It. — — it was sounded wui. b. etc. In the first class the u lost its syllabic value and became w • — : (cf.. moc. under the influence of dejti. Reich. third conjugations maintained Digitized itself very well: cognovi. but written vi to avoid the doubling of the V.. where there was no extended. STRONG PERFECTS. conqbbi. . At any rate. the Rumania. necui> necavi. Gl. prendesti. etc. also vincisti. plaudisti for plausisti. etc it In the second and crevi. §326): placwi. presi. Through these endings the weak type encroached somewhat on the strong. etc. * stetui. bib-i. wwi. §422). crebbi. -dei. etc.. all. dlc-s-i = dixi. II.i8o An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. or fiwi in Vulgar Latin: cf. included from the start not only perfects of the placui but also all perfects in -vi not made from the verb-stem such as cognovi. etc. pdvi. and -ei. 286. sapivi~^ sapui. those that add u to the root. dare had (beside diedi^dedi) a perfect arose an inflection side -dei -detti. Pr. There are three types those that add s.. the development of the vi indicates that sort. etc. It. (cf. etc. aperui y^ * aperii *apersi. Gram.. crevi. In -ui and —si types were qucesivi'^^ A few weak verbs adopted strong inflections: * quasi. 428. salui^ salivi salii *salsi. stetti<. [§ 428 not develop at In Italy. tions: This perfect disappeared from the first and fourth conjugacrepui>*crepavi. according to Meyer-Liibke. cf. 427. R. The -ui type. this ending being pronounced wui. whence and a set of endings -etti. 357.

mansi. strinxi. some thirty-five were preserved arsi. cinxi. texui. Of the -si class. mlsi (also *mzssi. Lat. z/J« also *vtncui *vinsi. struxi. *attinxi. *pe{n)si. 429. rexi. natus sum'^*nacui. rasi. * volsi. *fusi. planxi. * defe(ji)si. torsi. silui {^silevi). 288. veni '^aXso *venui.> slso *vtscui. whose reduplicative character was no longer Digitized by Microsoft® . Spr. i8i It lost gemui{^. expavi'> expabui. *qucBsi. etc. *sdlsi. *redempsi. *acce{n)si. messui(J). Zimmermann in Archiv XIII. peperci^-parcui. however. vldi'^zlso *vtdui *vtdui. § 165. * tensi *te{n)si. pinxi. steti>^\so* stetui. ertgo. *taxi. 480. posi. sapivi'^ sapui. Among the -i perfects. * morsi. In Vulgar Latin there were perhaps some thirty or more new formations: *apersi. Lat. with the exception of dedi and steti (also *j/i?/«2). 479. *franxi. became * sentii. sustuli>*tolui * tolsi. *copersi. dixi. cf. *prensi. *salsi. *mdrsi. rosi. *pensi. tinxi. fixi. R. *vinsi. cepi^ caput. movi'. Spr. * occisi. the reduplicative formations were discarded in Vulgar Latin. Keil VII. text sedi>* sedui . pressi. On the other hand it received many additions: Mbi>*Mbui. 94. *respd{ti)si. mulsi. — — : clausi. Lat. and possibly a few others. and —xi. sparsi. junxi. Zs. excussi. which comprised perfects in -si. cMdi 479 > (so *rectpui). *imptnxi. *fusi. luxi. scripsi 163). divisi. Lat. Some of these — * *responsi. tersi.§ 43o] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin.perfect through having an Cf. unxi. posui {>posi). risi. Sensi. § perhaps on the model of mtssus. *pre{n)si. Spr. Spr. *siirsi. vixi ". *punxi. legi'>-* legui *lexi.'). * cadui *cadedi. *occlsi. Einf. *rosi. —stinxi. *tdlsi. 430. pavi. defensi. *ersi from *lexi. *offersi. molui. —ssi. > > Cf. *rdsi. 130. persi. texui. XXVIII. coxi. *cursi. Haag 56. tenui. 479. abscd{n)si. frixi. *tanxi. finxi. 288. s in the perfect participle. R. — assumed the s. A. vixi. traxi. 97. duxi.

to Vulgar Latin. Two of the old perfects maintained themselves intact. but in Classic Latin. In an ( cf . effort it was shortened Vulgar Latin seems to show both H and H. > *fusti. bibi'^*bibui. vtci > no additions. vidi * vtdui. There were : *fugii. prendi > *pre{ n * vinsi. fuisti zxi-di. pupHgi "> *punxi. sedi"^* sedui. In fui the u was originally long. the simple verb came * cadui R. while compounds of stare tended to follow the regular first Cecidi beconjugation model (Jtrcestili > pnestavi. inflection. fefelli'>*falii. volvi > * volsi. : There may have been through dissimilation.). legi > * Kxi.*pe{^n)si. defendi >• * defe{ n ) si. egi. The prevailing something fui *fosti like this — with some variations. veni * venui. R. 288. solvi'^* solsi.i82 An Introduction . legi'^* legui. was probably foi *fom{m)u(s) *foste(s) foe(t) fue(t) *fgt *fut *forun{t) */urun(t) *f^un{t)} foerun{t)> Digitized by Microsoft® . fuerunt became *furunt. * acce(^ n ) si. fuit *fut. a form *fdrunt. pependiy. some became weak. verti. The other reduplicative perfects either disappeared the or passed into si class: cucurri "> * cHrsi . 289). The other Vulgar Latin. [§ 431 of dare usually formed their perfect like §426. 431. fuistis > *fustis. fregi accendi *franxi. generally became *fum(m)us. then futm us was often shortened to also. fudi > ) si. some went over fUgi^ > > *fusi. momordi'> tetendi'>- *mdrsi. and two more were kept beside new formations feci. -i perfects were greatly reduced in to the -a/ or the -si type: number in Some simply disappeared. but circumdavit in Gl. fui. *te{n)si. apparent compounds (cf. or *cadedi. tetegi'^* taxi * tanxi. Reich. to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout §§423-424). cepi'^capui. peperci"^ parcui.

R. 295.: It. : In the third conjugation -dtus disappeared oblatus offertus (^Gl. When these tenses followed the old types: pldcueram (cf. Reich. Fr. rogitus. 8. copertus. delero. R. 432. Reich. amessim amessitz. Introduction to Vulgar Latin. sonivetatus. Sp. audlsBayard 60-61 sem. -assetis. > vocUus. habldsemos habldseis. — 433. Verbs which had no perfect participle were obliged to form one in order to make their passive and their perfect tenses: ferio. by the analogy of apertus. so the new alatus. etc. sublatus>* suffertus. In some regions a tendency to keep the accent on the same syllable throughout the pluperfect subjunctive led to a change of —assemus.). notes that St. delessem. fecissem. plicitus"^ plicatus . pldcuero. domitus'> domatus. alarei. Reich. — before Cyprien employed only the shortened forms ss. tus"^* sonatus. 480. aimassions aimassiiz. audt(^e)ro . Lat. dixhsem. deleram. > Digitized by Microsoft® . preserved at all. Spr. sublatus (from tollo')'>-tdllttus (^Gl. dixeram. petisset. generally fell into disuse: crepitus^ *crepatus.. dixero . 434. to *—dssimus. vetitus Nevertheless there were some new formations in —ttus: *levitus. Gl. In formations from weak perfects only the contracted forms were used: amdram. In the all first conjugation -dtus was preserved and was verbs: /rictus "> fricatus . etc. The ending —ttus. placutssem. 435. 1S3 PLUPERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT. amdssimo amdste. amaro. necius "> necatus . PERFECT PARTICIPLE. Reich. etc. cf. ^ i^"]). 296. cf. amdssem. fkero. audi{e)ram. secextended to tus'^secatus. *-dssitis.§ 435] ^^ 7. in the first conjugation. but Pr.). *feritus. tonitus'^*tonatus. prdvttus. ficeram. ortaret in Gl.

pds{i)tus. statutus. and there were some new formations * solvttus (or *soltus). rogitus.184 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. all periods. The ending -itus tended to disappear (cf. * venutus. *volvitus (or *vdltus) beside volutus. minutus. however. Reich. etc. A few of these particihowever. submonitus > *submo{n)sus. jectives. dutus. *vendutus. in -itus: gemitus'!. Pirson 152. vocitus. belonging to verbs in —uere and tri- —vere {argutus.. *parutus. *vidutus. tollitus. were kept only as ad- 438. provitus. *vdlvitus (or *vdllus). etc. and ventus generally became * venutus. *tenutus. the other hand. *mdvitus and *mdssus were formed beside *m. Apertus and copertus. sensus'>*sentitus. consutus. — and — as *credutus. molitus > * molutus. Eventually -atus was carried further. however. * levitus. In the second conjugation the rare -etus disappeared as a participial ending: completus. In the third conjugation qumsttus>*gucestus. ples. venditus>*vendutus. 437.ovutus. offered a convenient accented form. sepultus^sepelitus. fugitus tus > *fugitus. remained. bibitus^* bibutus . [§ 439 436. secutus. but status. paritus > *paru> *perdutus *persus. * movitus. §435): absconditus'>absco{n)sus . * habutus. It was extended to nearly all the verbs that had an -ui perfect: * bibutus. In the fourth conjugation -Itus was preserved and was extended to nearly all verbs: saltus'>*salltus. Digitized by Microsoft® . volutus). corres- ponding to -atus and -itus. solutus. It did not al- ways. solitus. On 439. The ending —ictus. entirely displace the old perfect participle: natus was kept beside * nascHtus. were kept. perditus *parsus. * solvttus (or *sdltus) beside solutus. creditus'>*credutus.. old and found in Gl. buius. *per- in Sicily encroached largely on -itus.

mistus. Spr. scriptus. te{n)sus. tinctus. Keil VII. fusus. tortus. ductus. Dubois 282. stinctus. sectusy^ * tenutus. There were a few new for- mations in —tus: offertus. cogndtus>*conovutus'i. Spr. -itus. or -utus: captus *capttus. pe{Ti)sus. 295 (very common). ventus'^*venutus and venttus. *pendutus. §439). Digitized by Microsoft® . sparsus. there were some absco{n)sus. ex- factus. *gucestus. Lat. punctus. 480. vtctus~>* vixutus. sus. pictus *pinctus.viA. fartus'. 441. rectus. fusus "^fundutus. R.' maintained itself beside salitus. generally kept: acce{n')sus .§ 441] An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. Salsus. sessus > * sedutus. *vistus. tersus.. nectus>necdtus.>*farcitus axiAfarsus. frictus "^fricdtus. The ending -tus was kept for some twenty verbs. structus. falsus *fallitus. tentus > > tus. pastus'>-*pavutus'i. *strinctus. 295. 480. *vdltus About fifteen verbs (cf. Spr. 480. sirictus *tanctus'!. new formations in -sus: On the other hand. texus * texiisecdtus. *persus. Lat. mdtus'>*movutus'> &. R. Lat. also perhaps *misus by the analogy of mist. pressus. fictus finctus. *mossus. tus. lectus. risus. oc- casionally with a change of stem: ductus . *parsus. 'salted. morsus. tractus. ma{n)sus. pre(n)sus .*mdssus. 185 440. sepultus >• sepelitus. farsus. missus. *submo{n)sus. A > > > * sentttus . divisus. Several of these developed also a participle in -utus: etc. also probably * wwclausus. *vidutus. tactus'i tus. * suffertus. Hr- excussus. cretus> *crevutus'>. messus'^ metitus. rosus. 94. The ending —sus was defe{n')sus. fixus. /ric* surtus for surrectus. Reich. saltus'^-* salitus and *salsus. and perhaps *sdltus. to{n)sus. Gl. expansus sensus few verbs replaced the old form by one in -itus or -ietus: * expandutus . probably replaced -tus by -atus. *salsus. Bechtel 91. fractus *franctus. dictus. wjwj. victus'>*vin- cutus and *vinctus. gavisus>*gaudutus .

53. fez^m. 447. *amdmu amdtes dmant like * cdnomus. then the accent was shifted to the penult *canomus. It may be that -s was dropped because it was regarded as a characteristic of the second person. Meyer-Liibke. and doubtless of weak after our period. vezim. does not support this view. to stress this in ^smiVi: fecimiis>'Pr. Pr. colliget. as t was of the third (cf. — This theory has In strong perfects the of -tstis first person plural. were used in northern Gaul instead of canimus. assumes that in Italy -as and -es became -i. e. Pers. There are traces of 47. as -s did not fall in this region. see §416. This is not a phonetic phe- nomenon. In southern and to some extent in northern Gaul the its final s. and -Isti. For the reduction of -to to 443. analogical formations. etc. —et and -U. great confusion ensued between -es and —is. PL 73-80): — dmo dmaa dmat 446. Grundriss V. perhaps S. -imus.1 86 An Introduction to Vulgar Latin. — through the analogy perfects as well. however. forms due to Celtic influence. The evidence. Italian lodi and Rumanian lauzi. -0. 442.. and i came to be pronounced alike (§243). As unaccented e. Pers. by Microsoft® . etc. inscriptions and elsewhere: Digitized The shift. 445. whence came the French -ons. PL. not found acceptance. [§ 447 9. This confusion is very frequent in the Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-89. from laudas. According to Mohl. first person plural lost perhaps in the Vulgar Latin period: videmus'>-'St. PEESONAL ENDINGS. 670. its — tended. are correctly explained by Tiktin 565-566 as 444. historically considered. Pr.

dicUis kept their old forms in many regions. due to the analogy of -iunt. the third person plural ending -ere was The ending -erunt. discarded. sometimes had a short e (e is common in the comic poets. —ite generally —Ste(^s). §137. Dalmatia. 449. ite(s). their interchange Peregrinatio : Bechtel 88-90. -/»z«(j'). -dte(s). etc. . §416. being attracted by mittimus: Pr. helped by the analogy of the future — The shift and -{mu{s).). Cf. 112. 30. Beside second conjugation. 64. -ite -dmu(s'). in Classic Latin. etc. Sardinia. -imus. accipient. Pr. etc. and Dacia. for instance.J^kuJ-i n^g^^xd^so^'^i^-i -^--^/^^ . According to Mohl. Pers. in the sixth or seventh century. — — particularly common in Italy: cf. facimus. -ent prevailed in cen. ways /3 short: debuerunt. and a part of southern Italy. to match —^te(^s). viderunt. in the For the reduction of —iunt to -unt. Furthermore. lingeti. —^te. In the present indicative and imperative. kept the old accent (Tiktin 596): iingem. PI. —die and -^mu(s). in Vulgar Latin this vowel was apparently al450. there was an ending *-eunt which was (^habeunt. became. etc. -unt was preferred. however. tral and the rest of southern Italy. respon- duntur.§ 45°] ^^ Introduction to Vulgar Latin. exient. in southeastern facitis There are some traces of its preservation French dialects also. The endings -ent and -unt came to be very is much confused frequent in the (* credent. Pers. -ttis. *vidunt. in Spain and Portugal. as there are in Italian and French remains of the original accentuation. the con- fusion goes back to early Italic. 187 was not universal. -ent. ite in the other conjugations. Virgil wrote tulerunt. dixerunt. absolvent. PI. vindem. see §416. Rumanian.). vindett.j—th& penult assuming the accent. The Classic distinction was best kept in Gaul and northern Italy. In the perfect.). etc. 448. was perhaps viitttmus. Rastia. and dicimus.

Digitized by Microsoft® .

228. in -us 244. 377 accipient 449 declension 374-9 accubitorium ^'j numerals 378-82 -accus ^y unus (article) 57 Accusative.— Arabic numerals refer to Paragraphs.229 (i) unaccented 228. 94-6 nouns 367 numerals 142 : ace. 82. italics to Words printed in Roman type belong to ancient. 34 abbio 273 abbreviare 25 abbreviatio yj shift 136-8. words in modern languages.24. a 194-5. 84 acua aqua 223 -aculare 35 before s + cons. ad = at 282 ad. 355(1) adparescere 34 adpetere 32 Digitized by Microsoft® . pi. N. 229 231.1 INDEX.236 ab ante 47. 92 beJEore j 222 Accent 134-58 primary 135-52 Greek words 143-50 other foreign words 15 1-2 acer arbor 43 -aceus 37 acia 355 (2) -acius ^y a contra 47 a(c)qua 164 Acqui Z^ Acragas 330 ac si 83 ac sic 24. 94-6. adaptus 23 adcap(i)tare 25 433> 447-8. 82 ace. 230 = 0*78 ab-25 ab-]> au.B. adjutare 34 ad mane 47 373. 243. 48 abbellire 18. 240. 231. -I. 98-9. 93. 78. 431. 229 (i). absolute 97 abl.infin. 243. 383 adnao 397 ace.23. 47. 441 ad 14. 450 Towels in hiatus addedi 139 136-8 addormire 25 secondary 153-5 adferitis (imper. 96.28 absconsus 439. 244 (i). 90.) 412 unstressed words 156-8 adgenuculari 25 Accented Vowels see ad horam 47 Vowels adimplere 30 accepere 201 Adjectives acceptabilis 39 comparison 56. 240. 86. 94-6 aboculare 26 ab olim 47 abs. = abl.=accus. 140 iicatum r4i aculionis 367 abeo = habeo 251 224 abias 224 abiat 224 abiete -abilis 39 ab intus 47 abitat 25 1 Ablative 92-7. 194-5 absida 356 (3) absolvent 449 -anus 39 ja-> je. 383 abl. 244 accented 39. 65 accedere(m) 309 accensus 441 -a 37 0181 ab 14. abyssus 149 ac. 77. 25 recomposition 139 verbs 423-4.

405 amei 424 amenus 215 amfora 334 amicicia 276 amadus amido 187 amistat 154 amita 239. 255 188 seliens = eligens 259 =8-175 alicer 195 (i) agques = e. 83 -an 36 -aj* a f oris 47 agennae -nd. 178. 233. 42 Digitized by Microsoft® . 435 allegorizare ig alleviare 34 Agneti 359 (2) agnetus -na.22 Index. 359 (i) amitane 359 (i) amitanis 359 amma 16 243.281 = aliquot 71 -alis agere ajere 259 aggio 273 aggravatio 37 = 39 alium 224 alius 71 allare 405.£6 2> e 209 at 188 altissimus 377 altitia 37 Aiax 188.286 amantis (nom. 232. 244 -EE = -e 174. 244 aecclesia 228 Eedis 366 ffigis -ale y] alecer 195 (i) Alesander 255 alevanti eleph.321 = Alexander alguein 71 alguien 71 -alia 37 38. Adverbs 73-5 as 174. 209-10. 1 78. 244 accented 1 74. albor = arbor 292 .243. 14.194 = -ago 2>7 Agragas 330 Agrientum 259 agurium 228 agustas 228 36 anangi 331 anathema 19 anathematizare 19 anc 40 anc hanc 251 = allium 274 a longe 47 alques 71 alter 71. 210 EEteneris = itineris 201 sequus alid alicunus 71 aliud 71 alio(r)sum 291 = .281 (i) Eeum = cBvum 324 ^a foras 47 aliquant! 71 aliqui 71 aliquis 13. 222 alto (adv. = -t. 178. altiare 34 altior yj'] anca 343 ancilia 187 395 Agustus 228 ahenum 250 ai >.) 367 amho 424 amaricare 34 ama(t) 285 ambitare 405 ambolare 232 ambulare 10.I go aiio 2. 359. 187 -ancus 37 (-incus) -anda 37 andare 405 andata 37 (-ta) Andreani 359 (i) Andreate 359 (2) andron 331 anellus 37. 209-10 unaccented 174.175.) 40 aiglon yj (-0) altra 233 altrui Aiiax 222 395 ancora 150. 435 ad ubi 47 aduc 250 adulescentulus 37 adunare 25 alauda 19 alaudula yj alba spina 43 alberca 19 albeus 317 228. 71 amnavit 405 amh 424 a mode 47 amourette yj (-ittus) ampitzatru 277 ampora 334 amurca 186 amure 203 amygdalum 19 an II.Ethiopia 188 alipes (i) = ad. alumnu (nom.) 372 adpretiare 25 adpropiare 25 ad semel 47 —aio 39 (-arius) aios =: BjyiQS 272 am 78 ad sero 47 adsteti 139 Aix ajutit = adjutet 272 ad subito 47 adtonitus 32 ad tunc 47 -al37 alacer 195 (i) alare 405.

42 angelice 40 angelus 19 191 ascendiderat 426 ascetes 182 ascla apud aqua 14. 236 (7) apersi 428. 269. 265 aspra 233 -asse 161 ardente(m) 309 ardere 399 animabus 358 animalico yj (-icca) Anitius 276 Annanis 359 annare 405 annata yj (-ta) Annenis 359 annitare 405 annotavimus -bi. 34. 36.) -assem 161 -^ssemus 433 33. 228. 260-1 Assimilation 229 (3). 440 au 178. 211 -3 unaccented 228. 255 Digitized by Microsoft® .318 annulare 405 anos = annos 247 ardire 343 -are (infin. 282.) 367 -antia . 392 artic(u)lus 234 > (7) appo 78 apprendere 12 arvorsum (2) = adversum 281 ApHro 410 apsens 315 apsolvere 315 apte =: -se 244 arvum > aram 2z6 aucellus 13. -dssetis 433 397-8 -are (nouns) y] ares = aries 225 aretem 225 argentum 259 -aria 37 -aricius 39 arida (noun) 13 Assibilation 277-8. 310.) 367 audi audivi 227. 42 Aorist 124 armeise 184 armentas 352 -aro 39 (-arlus) Aroncianos 276 arrespex r= haruspex 251 Arrius 251 arroser 356 (3) arsi Attane 359 atticissare (i) t^^ attinxi 429 Attitta 37 (-ittus) -attus yj at ubi 48 apcha 343 aperii 428 429 -atus 37 (-ta). 42 participle 435. 423 audiendu'st 309 = ascella =r axilla 42. 267. anemis 232 -aneus 39. 229 au o 229 (7) OK 189 auca 13. 265. 429 apertus 436 arsus 441 artemisia 184 arietico 184 apotheca 182 apothecarius 39 apparescere 35 arthriticus 184 Article 57. 65 at = anta 239 ante 96 antemittere 46 antestetis (nom. 68.24. 307. 229 accented 178. 325 aucidere 212 -OS 38 -as -i 443 > audace (nom. 223 284 aquilotto 37 (-ottus) asculta 228 Angers 86 angliscus 39 angostia 208 (i) anguil(l)a 163 ang(u)Ius 233 angustiare 34 Anicius 276 -ar37 Arbonenca yj (-incus) a semel 47 aspargo 31 aspectare 25 arbor (masc. 255.) 346 (4) arb(o)rem 235 arboricellus 153 Aspirates 249-52.^y anticus 226 antiefne 184 antiphona 184 ariex = -s 255 -aris 39 -aris -alis 292 ^ -arius 39 atque ille 24 atque ipse 65 atque is 65 atrium 12 atta 16. 39.Index. 78. 359 (i) anus = annos 244 -anus 39. 264. 211-3. 293. 315 Asti 86 astula 284 at II = ar(i)dorem 219 ar(i)dus 237 aries 225. 282 aput 282 164. 255 -ans39 anser 13 ad 282 -ata 37 (-ta) -aticum yj atque.

316 Bodicca 37 (-icca) boletus 38.316 bixit = vi. 324 Aureia -elia 274 Index. . 324 ausare 18.316 bianca 341 biber 242 biblia 146 bibui 428 bibutus 438. 184 Bologna 303 bonatus 37 (-atus) Bonica 37 (-icca) bon(i)tatem 231 bonito y] (-ittus) = avire 400 -avit -ait -at -aut 241.212 39 bimaritus 22 bintcente vincente 260 bis. 34 ausculum := osc.) 367 brae (c) a 163 bracchiale 37 = brac(c)hium 163 brachia 352 Digitized by Microsoft® . 36 blasphemia 146.192 aud(i)entem 416 aud(i)o 272-3. 322 botula 361 bovis (nom. .3171323 bestemmia 182 Betrubius 316 beveire y^ (-tor) bi.316 boccone 37 (-0) bocconi 40 avec 78 avello = -avi ^ = averlo 293 -ai 424 avica 13.22 Bononia 303 bonu 298 bonus = -OS 244 bonus bonus 55 bos =:i vos 316. 33. Balerius Va. 241 avaricia 276 ^ bas(s)ium 163 basso 40 battaUa 16 battel 426 ba(t)t(u)ere 137. 333 balneum 146: balneus 347 = bifolco biginti ti 318 (2) = vi. 325 av(i)dere 219 avidus 236 aviolus 13 avis 13 avis struthius 43 Bellus -onis 362 bene 40. 324 botella 361 bottega 182 b see Labials : baboni 362 bac(c)a 163 bacito yj (-ittus) bac(u)lus 234 Baiocasses 151 bajulus 233 Baleria = Va.316. 439 Bictor 316 biduanus 39 bieta 184 botu vo. 14 5 Authorities autor 266 baptizare 19.22 bisaccium 22 bisacutus 22 bisante 187 = = bis Austus 263 aut 174 aut aut 84 -aut -avit 424 . 236.3165 322 bis(s)it coctum 43 bivere blaesus 329 blanche 341 blanka 341 blankizare 34 blaspheraare ig.316 bal(i)neum 146. 162. 416 audivi(t) 2S5 audus 236 -aumus := -avimus 424 aunc(u)lus 234. 219 balneus 347 ballaena 150. 74 bene bene 55 benegnus 172 (2) bene placitum 43 Beneria Ve. = autem 11.236.316. 182 autumnal (e) 242 auyo 272-3 avau. 339 baptizatio 19 barba -anis 359. 42. 236 avicella 37. 226 Bayeux 151 bel(I)ua 164 blasphemus 150 blasta 312 (i) blitum 184 bob ansa 336 bobis vo. 359(1) barbane 359(1) barbar 242 barbo -onis 359(1) barbutus 42 baro 16 bassiare 275 = vixit 255 = vi. 322 -bilis = balteum -us 347 bannus 19 baplo 235 baptidiare 339 baptisma 149 Aureliati 359 (2) aurora 11 aus avus 241. ^ benignis 376 benivolus 201 berbeces 323 Bonitta 37 (-ittus) 424 avo avus 362 avus 13 ayo = habeo 273 = berbex (-ix) 42.

356 (3). 33 cat' cantare 34 unus 71 see Gutturals c for capabilis 39 g 253 cy 276. 347 calumpnia 307 calura 42 camel(l)us 42.) 367 cammarus 330 canalia yj cani (pi. 282. 163 . 369 caput 13.) 424 cedrus 182 cefalo 334 celeps 315 capriolus 224 captiare 34 cslus 347 Cjeseris 233 caesorium 37 caetk 313 captio 9 captivare 34 captivus 313 celerus 376 -cellus 37 Celtic Words 19 capud 282 capui 428 calamarium 37 calamellus 37 calamus 150 calatus calcai capum 285. 42 caroneus 39 carrica 11 car(ri)care 18. 372. 231. 234 capitus 440 = cedo 162 cadedi 428 cadere 402 caderunt 426 cadui 428 cselebramus (perf . 284 capire 406 cap(i)talis 231 cauculus 288 cauditus 42 caus(s)a 161 cavia 224 -ce 40 cecino 187. 163 Cassiabus358 cas(s)us 161 castaneus 346 (i) castellus camera 145 camerlingo 37 (-ing) caminus 150 camisla 201 (i) (3) 347 butyrum 150 buxida 187. pi. 285.) 367 224 calcoste(g)is 259 caldo 40 cal(e)facere 219 calefacis 139 calere 288 bruchus 193 pu. 330 Byzacinus 42 c : castius 277 castore (nom. 219.) 357 (i) Breaking 177 breviarium 37 brevis 13 Brittanice 40 calcius (nom. 163 buUicare 35 buplicae = carum 263 casa 12 cal(i)dusi55. 330 cedat caedat 210 cabia =: cavea 318 cactivus 313 cactos 313 capitanus 39 capitium 37 (-ium) capitulus 42.) 367 cardu(u)s 226 ce(n)sor 311 census 260 centu 381 ceperint 215 cepi 215 = -avi 424 •^•j = ga. 369 capus 285. 402 -C40 caballus 12 capiclus 234.354. 237 calisco 414 calma 268 calotfa 187 caseum -us 347 Cases85-ioo. cf . branca i6 calcis 193 camis (nom.256 catechizare 19. 369 cardonis (nom. 278 capere 8. 150. Buolognino 154 burrus 330 Burrus 187 bursa 187 buscus 255 iusta 187 but(t)is 163 cals 255 casotta 37 (-ottus) cas(s)eus 163 . 356 buxus 187. 356 (3). 383 cf.) 367 camutus 39.) 368 cata 19.Indkx. 195 (3) calcaneum carissimus 377 caritabilis calce pistare 46 calciare 224 39 Caritta 37 (-ittus) Digitized by Microsoft® . 33.330 (-ium) cerasus 38. 71 cata unus 71 cataveris rr -d. 195 (3) cerbus 323 cerebellum 231 cereolus 13 cereseus 195 (3) ceresus 38. 239 cartas (nom.312 (i) bublus 235 bubukus 318 (2) buc(c)a 12. 356 (3).

333(1) clericatus 37 cler(i)cus 39. 237. 154.1 194 certitude cetto 'r^j Index. 277. 325 clausi 429 clausus 441 clavem 288 clavido 236.) 40 chiave 288 Chilperico 343 ckiosa 185 clergue 154 305.) 346 (2) colp 154 colustra 197 = coacla 289 (i) 206 cicinus 330 -cillus ]> -cellus 42 coactum 310 coccodrillo 294 cocens 226 comenzare 276 coininciare 276 cominiciare 276 cominitiare 25. 325 colhe 154 coles 213 i6z -ceus 39 Chairibertus 39 (-anus) chaloir 288 Change of Meaning 8-10 coliandrum 292 coUecta 37 (-ta) collectus yj (-ta) colli(g)ens 259 col(li)gere 31. 276.444 Pronunciation coUiget 444 col(lo)care 9.226 comoedia 192 comparare 8. 380 cinque 254. 259*. coexercitatus 30 cofecisse 311 96 Compound Words 43-9. 370 cinxi 429 cip(p)us 163 circa 80. 124 coexcitare 30 comedo = quo. 379. 64 comprendit 250 computare 31 circare 16 circueo 309 circumdavit 430 cis 14 cit(h)era. 259. 332 cib Clodius 212 cloppus 16 closa 212 Cludo 211 (2) -clus 234 CO quod 282 colomna 208 coloquinta 187 color (fern. 139. 311 condam 254 condedit 139 conder(e) 242 condicio 276 conditio 276 civ(i)tas 12. 231. 239 collo Clerical 218. 269. 271 colaphizare 19 col(a)p(h)us 19. 272. 231. 153. 187 cimiterium 192 cinctius coclearium 356 (3) coclia commando 31 comment 41 commixtius 23 224 254 cinctus 440 cinqua(gi)nta 254. 329 191 ciurma -cius 39 of. X54. 25 concha 186 concupiscencia 276 cohors 12. -ara 38. 310 coicere 310 coiiugi 271 cojectis 311 . 233 cito 162 citrus cognatus 9. 276 comitem 235 cima 38. 12. 233 complacere 25 complire 400 cinus 347. 160 coUus -um 347 239 colober 208 Clio 190 colobra 208 (2). 332 Chrestus 184 chrisma 184 C(h)ristus 184. 217 Chiusi 86 cholera 145 chommoda 25 c(h)orda 186. 379 cocodrilus 294 cinsum = ce- 196 cocus 226 coda 212. 269 co(g)nosco 43.411 Digitized by Microsoft® . of. 260^. claudo 236.23. 231 clamantis (nom. 197. 31. 233 Comparison 56 comperare 231. 186. 213 codex 213 coemiterium 192 coepi 72. 297\ 318(1). Clepatra 191 clerc 154 Change of Suffix 42 chan(n)e 163 chartaceus 39 cher 263 chiaro (adv. 150. 310 cognovi 428 cognusco 197 cohaerere 310 computus 235 comuna 376 con.) 367 clarisco 414 Cla(u)dius 211 (i) cojugi 311. 330. 130. 332 Conditional 124.

1 Index. 254 41 Personal Endings 44250 Pluperfect and Future Perfect 432-3 Present Stems 416-9 Use of Forms 101-30 Conjunctions 82-4 co(n)jus 25. 439 crepatus 435 crepavi 428 Crescentsiarius 277 cresco 255 cresima 184 cresme 184 crevi (i) 428 292 crevutus 440 criblare crigTie 35 c'ritare 229 consirier yj (-erium) Consonants Aspirate 249-52 Dentals 280-6 = criz 206 = crocitare 35 Digitized by Microsoft® . 226. 311 conmittere 32 couleuvre 208 (2) court 203 couvent 311 covenimus 311 coventionid 3x1 covetum coxale coxi 429 = cubitum 208 -^j^j copertus 436 cophinus 186 coque 254 coraticimi 18.continari 226 contra 96 contra. 3ro corso 208 Groups 131-2. 355 cor(o)nare 231 corp 323 corpora 369 corpes corpi -ora 369 coi"pore 356 (3) corpo credere 410 credutus 438. 139 credens (noun) 13.) 298 cornicula 42 cornu -um-us 347. 225 cortensis 39 cortilis cortis 39 250 corvo 323 corvus 323 cosol 311 costumen 42 cosul 305 cot 254 cotes 212 cotidiae 244 cot(t)idie 162. 37 crebbi 428 credea 421 crededi 31. 137 Perfect 422-31 consuetudo 42 Strong 427-31 co(n)sul 171. 255. confessor 18 confortare 25. 275 227 consilium 42 consili corbeau 323 corbi 323 corbo 323 corcodilus 294 corcodrillus 294 cores = corda 369 corium 294 Comeius =-elius 274 Cornelio (nom. 396450 Four Conjugations 396407 First 397-8 Second 399-401 Third 402-6 Double: see Double Consonants Germanic : see Germanic Consonants Greek : see Greek Consonants 272 corrigo 305 corrotulare 229 cors 12. co(n)jux 171. 39 credentia 37 (-antia) " connato 269 conobbi 428 conoisser 413 conopeum 146 conovutus 440 conpendium 32 conplere 306 consacrati 31 conservam(m)us 163 consiensia 260. 311 Weak 422-6 conteneo 139 Perfect Participle 434. 160 Fourth 407 Fundamental Changes • 408-12 Imperfect 420-1 constare 31 Inchoative Verbs 413-5 consuere 31. 244.26 contrafacere 26 co(n)ventio 171 convltare 25 coperire 225 copersi 429 Gutturals 253-70 Labials 312-26 Latin 246-8 Letters 246 Liquids 2S7-96 Hasals 303-11 Palatals 271-8 Sibilants 297-302 cortera 203. 34 19s corpo r6o corregia 201 corridije conger 329 Congianus 272 congigi 259 Conjugation 101-30.

234 cum (conj. 226 cum (prep. Definite Article 68. 281-3 dy 272 nd nn 281 Final 282. 25 debbio 273 debeo 273 debere 10.196 crocodilus i. 239 decanus 39 dece(m) 309 decern et (or ac) septem 379 dece(m)bris 306 decemter 306 dec(i)mus 239 Declension 85-100. 286 nd > nn 281 429 cursorium 37 curvus 323 nt 285 St 285 t 284-6 denumer^t 424 deo(r)sum 291. 95. 48. 88. da 48 dedi 430 (i) 229 crucifigere 46 c'rot'lare dacruma 281 dactylus 19 dedicait 424 ded(i)cavit 231 crudilitas 197 -crum 37 (-culum) crupta 187 crus 13 dad 48 Dafne 334 dai 2<)% dampnum 307 crust(u)lum 234 crypta 187 cubidus cupidus 256 Danuvlum 318 dao397 dare 397 datfus 324 dedro dedrot 285 deexacerbare 30 deexcitare 30 defeniciones 276 defensa 37 (-ta) defensi 429 defensorlus 39 = cuculla 13. 306 -cellus 42 95 -c(u)lus 42. 354-76 Adjectives 374-6 Fall of Decl. 330 cyma38.289 (2) cuoio 296 cuofre 160 cuore 160. 324 deorsum 224 Cusanca 37 (-^ncus) Wouns 354-73 Shift of Decl. 285 > -avit 318. 177 cnpa(t) 285 cupire 406 cupit 423 cup(p)a 163 cupressus 150 cur 12. 100. 322 currens 39 = Intervocalic 283. 81 defuntus 267. 372-3 de^£-io 273 defna 324 de inter 48 de intro 47 de intus 47.) 82. 82 curabit cursi de-^ di. 78. -culum -cuius > 37. 383 cuerdo 369 culcitra 294 dau 397 daun 397 234 dave 48 de 14. 72.229 (2) deabus 358 de ad 48 de ante 48 deaurare 23. 376 First 357-60 cy 276-8 cy ty277 = cycnus 187.) 349 cymba 187 cymiterium 192 cypressus 150 Second 361-3 Third 364-71 Use of Cases 85-100 376 de contra 47 decumus 220 dede = dedit 285 de deorsum 47 Digitized declLvis Deponent Verbs 113.o. 409 d : see Dentals dy 272 de post 48 deprendere 250 de retro 47.23. 48 deltas 27 del(i)catus 227 delitus 198 delta 329 de magis 47 de medio 47 deminat 139 Dentals d 272. cumba 187 cun = cum 305 cunnuscit 269 cimtellum =r cul. 25 305 77. 187. 48. 92. de. 292 Derivation 20-49 descendidi 426 de semel 47 despereifser 414 by Microsoft® . 126 (4) debita 37 deb(i)tum 235. (fem.) 14. 117. 392 de foris 47. 294 Index. cf. 355-6. 346 (4) cucullus -a 346 (4) defensus 441 deferet 406 Dative 90-1.

23. 333 dolor (fem. 259 -didi ducatus 37 (-ta) duce due 412 ductus 440 dui 167. 289 (2). 30 . 247.) 346(1).253 dictus 166. 253. dibeto 196 Dibona 318 die 264. 393 deus 167 devere 318 devetis 318 au 21 1-3 eu 214 oe 215 ui 216 diposisio 277 dire 406 directus 229 diri(g)ens 259 dirivare 229 (2) dou 397 Double Consonants 161-4. 238. 229 (4). 25 discere 12 disfacit 139 Double 247 = Single 162-3. 406. 195 (6). 209-16 209-10 de sub 48 de super 48 de sursum 47 detti 426 de unde 70. dextro(r)sus 291 deyo 273 dia = dies355 (2). 397 dia 397 diabulus 38 diaconissa 19 Dialects 2. 196-9 (I) . 292. 254. 167. Digitized by Microsoft® . 412 dice = die 412 dice(m) 309 disfactus 23 dis(je)junare 25.) e 165. 21 dolus dictus := digitus 233. 196-9. 43> distinguere 223. 226 dita 351 diu II. 239 domnani 359 (i) domnicellus 37 domnicus 235 229 (2) diligibilis 39 domnina 37 domnizare 33 domnulus 235 dint-mi 264 divinus 324 dinus = Dionigi 227 Dionysii 227 diosum = deorsum 291 Diphthongization 177 domnus 235 domus 12 355 dume(c)ta 266 dune 40 d'unde 70. 13 Double Forms 158 Double Negation 75 Double Prefixes 30 doucet 37 (-ittus) doussa 376 drachma 144 drappus 16 d'rectus 229 diurnus 13 divisi Dreux 151 429 drieto 292 406 dicimus 448 dicitis 448 dicitus = -g. devitum 318 dexcito 225 cf . 328 289 (i) Dissimilation 167. (2ddecl.3 Index.) 349 dormio 224 dormito 309 dormitorium 37 dormo 416 dorsus 347 dossum 291 Diphthongs 36 177. 37 dies 13. 303. desso 62 dester 255 desto 225 197 donee 11 dont 70 donum (masc. 421.) 367 dub(i)tare 231 ducalis 39 divota 229 (2) dixemus 232 dbd429 dodecim 225 doga 186. 426. etc. 177. 393 duo 378 duos 138 durare 229 (5) Duration 99 duricia 276 Durocasses 151 duxi 429 (masc. 440 dicere divisus 441 divite (nom. 378 dukissa yj dulcior (noun) 18 — > -dei 426 = dulcor 18. 229 displacet 139 displicina Doable >Single i6i. 328 devidere 229 (4) devinus 229 (4) dis. 355 (2) dietro 292 digita35i. 361 digitus 233.) 346 (2) dolor 18. 259 dignus 172 (2) dilevit domatus 435 domin(i)ca 239 dominicus 9. 238. accented 165. and fem. 328 Single >Double 164.

429 -erium 37 erminomata 191 ero 411 -ero 39 (-arius) ersi ericius = jacet 224 earn = jam 224 eacit ejus 170. 244. 263. 73.exs. 65 ecce nunc 65 ecce tu 65 eccillam 24 eccillud elimentum 231 -elis >• -ills 197 Elision 157. 229 effrenis 376 eglesia 256 (2). 6. > e > y 224 e i 229 s (2) edere 13 edificai e prefixed to + cons. 328 Endings Personal 442-50 -esco ]> -isco 197 414 enim 11 escupare 255 -ens 39 (-ans) -e(n)simus 311 -e(n)sis39.e 225 = equus 12 equus = sequus 210 -re 245 -er -er 39 (-arius) erable 43 -ere (perf . 243. > 65 > eccu' iste 24.228. 244 egloge 330 e e 165 > > e > e 165 V 182' ei83 e(g)o 60.) 450 -ere -ire 197 erodes 251 > effigia 355 (2) eu 214 effondrer 356 (2) i6 >• e 225 unaccented 219. 65 ecce ille 24. > = = 444 = ex.24. 242 -elius >• -ilius 197 -ellus 37. 385 eo quod 82. 182. 62. 364 -V3S -ea 421 -etv 36 ejus 298 eio = -etbv 146 42 erigere 31. 197. 326 espiar 343 "pier 343 Digitized by Microsoft® . 65. 65 ecce ego 65 ecce hie 24. 424 230 e6 > e 225 -edo . 385 ego-met-ipse 66 et -erem 346 (3) eremus 150 eres 251 190 e-28 -640 -e>-ffi I74>244 -e -ei 411 -eta 146 eiius 271 erga 14 ergo II.538 Esaram 233 -escere 34.230.24. 162.) 368 -Irunt 450 eccam 24 eccas 24 ecce. 413-4 eschernir 341 emere 12 encaustum 149 Enclitics 156 -enda 37 (-anda) : 24 eschine 341 esclate 343 eccillum 24 ecclstam 24 ec(c)lesia 146. 255 es-7. s 177.> -ido 197 edus haedus 210 e6 >. 298 elementum 231 elephantus 38 elex -ebam : see -ea 429 eiii 411 ecca 24 = ilex 200 (2) erubisco 414 elifanti (pi. 14 > -i 244. 199 n 182 eccu' sic 24 e contra -entia 37 (-antia) -inns 42 -enus > 47 C183 ecus 226 edediderit 426 i eo=:ego 73. 35. 311 -ent -eunt 416. 449 -ent >. 42 elmo 343 illud 201 elud -elus >• -ellus 42 ervum > erum 226 ervus (3d decl.) 356 (2) -i 443 -es -es -is 174. 65 ecce iste 24. 365-6. -unt 449 es(i)mus 419 (i) -isimus 197 -esimus esmes 419 (l) eccos 24 eccu. eccum 24. 65 eccu' 'ic 326 eccu' ille 24. no eoru 309 episcopalis 39 epistula 144 > 196-8 e unacc. 232.198 e 196-8 Index.

= es. 440 fascia 10. 274 facimus 448 404 facitis 448 factum 266 facire Feminine femps 356 femus (3d : see Gender (2) decl. 404 fatatus 39 fate fabam 320 404 Eugeneti 359 (2) -eum 37 eunuchizare 19 fab(u)la 236 f ac 264. et 84 Ethiopia 188 etiam 11. 444 49 .= as. 404 facheret 410 faciam 278 fadas 224 fac(i)ebam 225. 266 = = fait 324 266 fallii -esse 161 -essem 161 essere = esse 419 es(t) 285 estatio 230 estau 397 estaun 397 Estephanus 230 estou 397 estribar 341 esum 419 -et et et at ubi . 77.) 367 excoriare 25 excussi 429 excussus 441 exeligere 30.23. .230.) 356 (2) fenire 229 (4) factus 440 fenum 209 ferbeo 323 feritus 242 fascit 209 faedus 320 (i) fcemina 209 f acul 434 ferre 12 ferro 160 Digitized by Microsoft® . 92. 126 (2). 95 ex. 420 face feced feci = fecit 282 fec(e)ru(nt) 233 430 fehu 343 felicla 234 felis25. 404 faccia 278 fatus 347 taula 236. 275 faselus 334 fasena 320 (i) f asia = faciat 285 224 fasiolus -etus 437 see Labials (i) fata 266 eu 214 cu 190 fa 264. facienda 37 fem(i)na 239 feminabus 358 > exaltare 25 exaugiu^tus 39 excellente (nom. 14.27 extrabuccare 27 extranus 42 ex tunc 47 ezza 277 f : fallire 430 406 441 34 37 familia 42 famis 366 famTfii 264 famul 242 famulabus 358 fante 311 falsare falsitas fallitus faor 324 farcitus 440 fare 404 farsus 440. 255 -ex -ix 42 = fac 412 facentem 416 facere 10. (i) = -it 244. 277 etsi I \ et sic 47 exodus 337 expabui 42S expandutus 441 expaventare 35 explendido 230 exquartiaxe 276 exs. 25 ex. 318 febrarius 226 Eurus 191 -eus39 Euua 344 evangelizare 19 -evi -ei 424 > Evidence 5 ex 14.230 exstinctus 440 exstinxi 429 exsucidus 39 exsucus 23 extensa 37 extimare 255 extra.Index. 419 (i) esse essere 419 esse sedere 402 274 exe(m)plu 306 exiat 224 exient 449 347 fageus 39 failla exinde 60 exire 31. espiritum 230 exeligit 199 fffinum 209 fffinus esquena 341 esguiver 343 essagium 255 esse 112-4.

256 frenum -us 347 fricatus 435. 361 fructus (2d decl.f:^ forbire 407 frigorem 347 frixl Fimes 86 Final Syllable 240-5 finctus 440 finis (adj. 238.Index. 96 forbatre 2.) 17 429 263 Foreign Words 19.) 346 florecer 292 414 frate 295 Florentinus 37 ficus (2d decl. 233.7 flaus 240. 141 ficit 2. fervere 399 fervura 37 fesit flaba 289 (i) flagrare 292 flaonis flator fractus 440 fragellum 289 (2) fragilis 260 324 324 233 >« 343 fezem 44 fiaba 289 (i) fiam 419 (2) fib(u)la 235 ficatum 16. filix 298 274 = filios T97 fiUio 247 fonte 205 244 fonz 356 (2) foras 81. fragrantia 37 fra(g)rare 270 flavor 37 fletus II Francesco 341 franctus 440 fieuma 268 fleurit 414 ' fictus 197 440 fleuve 208 (2) fioralis Frankensis 39 Frankiscus 39. 200 (i). 12 419 (2) figel 242 fiios — filios 274 358 (nom.) 355 (i) fidens 311 fiele 160 Jiens 356 (2) fieri 112.) 356 fundutus 441 funtes 205 (2) fortia 37 fortis 10 fortis fortis 55 429 fixus 441 fossato 2^1 (-ta) funus II fuore 160 Digitized by Microsoft® . cf . 201 filiabus filias 33 (2) frigdaria 219. 406 folia 352 follia (noun) 18 follicare (i) = 259 f rictus 440 frigare 256. cf. 231 fons (fem.)346(i) fraumenta 268 frecare 201 .409. and fern. (mc. fiero 160 fiet focus fodiri 8. 341 Franko 341 franxi 429 ficus (I) (masc.419 (2) 400 florisco 400 flovium 208 (2). 440 fricda frigida 238. 217 fluviorum 224 feces 213 florire fratelmo 38S frat(t)re 164 frax(i)nus 239. 259 frigora 351 filius 155.) 357 13 . see frondifer 11 fnialitas Germanic Words Greek Words foresia 311 foris 81 and finiscere 35 finxi 429 fructa35i.) 355 (i) fnindes 205 /^343 fiorentino 154 fioretto yj (-ittus) fiorisce \\^ foris- 29 frunza 351 frutta 351 fugii 430 f ugire 406 fugitus 439 fui 431 forisfacere 29 f orismittere 29 fircum 320 (i) Firenze 86 Firmus -onis 362 fir- 46 formaceus 39 formosus 161 formunsus 208 forsitan 305 forte 40 f ortescere ful(i)ca237 fiscla 234 fistula 234 fistus 197 fix! 34 fumAt 424 fundus (3d decl.) 346 (4) filiaster filio(s) fans 356 frigdura 37 Frigia 187 frig(i)dus 166.

furbjan 407 furma 203 furmica 229
genesis 148, 183 Genitive 88-9, 383 genitores 12 genitus 17
gIut(t)o 163




fusa 3; I

gocciare 276 gcerus 187
golosus 228 gonger 329 goule 177


genna 229
gentilis 17


fusus 441

Future 125-9,411
127-9,411 Periphrastic Put. 126 Pres. for Put. 126 (i) Future Perfect 119, 123-4,
410, 423 g: see Gutturals

gentis (adj.) 17

Hew Put.


= jan- 259
37, (i)



genuflectere 46

genum 355
Gepte 259 geguir 343

233 gradlus 376 grada 35.1 gradus 355 (i)
grandis 12
granditia 37 graphium 145 grassetto 37 (-ittus)

= Hier- 259

gabata 13, 236 gabta 236 gaita 343
gaite 343 galatus 330
gallina 288

gerbe 341

Germanic Consonants
b, c,

grassus 257

= Gratis 257

g 341

gravare 34
gravior 377 grece 210

^,^342 h343 W344
Germanic Endings 36 Germanic Words 19,
340-4 Germanissa 37 Gerund 104

gamba 13, 263, 331 gammanis 330
garba 341 garofulum 149 garum 329 gaudia (sg.) 352 gaudimoniuin 20 gaudutus 44 X gauta 236 gaveola 257 gavia 16
gecchire 343 geisla 341 geiuna je- 259 geline 288

Greek Accent 143-50 Ozytones 144
Paroxytones 145-6 Proparoxytones 147-50 Greek Consonants 327-39
ft 7, S 329
K, V,

Gerundive 103
gesso 187 gesta (sg.) 352 gJga 341 gig'i 341

T 330-1

X 332-4 Liquids 335 Hasals 336

I 337


gigantem 229 (3) ginocchioni 40 Giovannoni 362 giret 187
girus 187
giscle 341 glacia 355 (2)

f 338-9
Greek Endings 36, 38, 146 Greek Vowels 180-93 Diphthongs 188-93 Single Vowels 180-7 Greek Words 19, 36, 38,
gre-U 40 grevior 377
grevis 195 (4)

gelus (2d decl.) 355 (i) gemellus 13

gemire 406 gemitus 439

Glacus 211 (i) gladium 347
glanderia 39 glaiz 355 (2) Glauc6 -^nis 359 Glaucu (nom.) 372 glirem 166
glos(s)a 161, 185

gemui 428
gena 13

Gender 345-53 Fem. and Heat. 351-3 Masc. and Pern. 346 Masc. and Heut. 347-50 Heut.Pl.>Fero.Sg.352 Heut.Pron.and Adj. 350

grex (fem.) 346 (4) grossior 377 gratia 187 gruls (nom.) 367 gninnio 281-

gluria 203
glut(t)ire 162

guarire 344 guarnire 36, 407


by Microsoft®

guaiare 343
hab(i)tus 239 h^buerat 137
hocsies 277

gubernamentum 37
gubernare 36, 330
gtterra 344

guidare 36, 398 guiderdone 342 guisa 344
gul0 37
-i -1338, 186, 330 gustus (2d decl.) 355 (i) guttur (masc.) 347


Gutturals 253-70 c c' 258, 260-1 c g 256-7

> >

habutus 438 hache 343 hackerece 39 hffidus 320 (i) hamula 235 hanca 343 handle 343 hant 401 hao 401 hapja 19, 343

hodie 272 hodio 251


hom(i)nes 232, 235 (pi.) 36S
10, 71


honera 251 honor 346 (2) honte 342 hora 12, 185 hordemn 272
horrescere 11
hortesia 311 hospitale 12

haram 251
hardir 343
harena 320 (i) haribergum 19 has 401 hat 401 hatire 36 hatjan 36


g before back vowels hardjan 343

263 c, g before cons. 265-70 c, g final 264 ct 266

hossa 251 hostium 251 Hugo Hflgon

= Hdgo


huile 274

152, 362


> g' 258-9. z6i

humerus r2
humiliare 34

g intervocalic 263

gm 268
gn 172
gr intervocalic 270




152, 362


net 267
Falateilization 258-62

haunitha 342 haunjan 19 haunt 401 havite 400

165, 200-1, etc.

accented 200-1 I 200

haz 355


hegit 251

260 X 255, 266 gylosus 228 gyrus 187


helm 343
keltne 343

h 249-52

hepatia 19 here 219, 244 heredes (sg.) 367 heremum 251 Hiatus 136-8, 222-7

> e 201 e ^ 201 > 165, 200 i>e2oi > > e 165, 201 (cons.) 222 > y 224 -i > -e 224







habam = fabam 320

hlbemus 13
hie 63-4, 67-8 hie ipse 64

habe = ave 318 habe(b)am 421 hiem(p)s 13, 297 habeo 273 hiens = iens 251 habere 10, 121-4, 127-30, hilerus 233
239, 273, 285, 400, 401, 421, 438, 449

(Greek) 184 (Greek) 38 i^ e 225 ii i 227 prefixed to s cons. 230 unaccented 219, 221,228,


> >


hinsidias 251

hireum 320


haber 242 habe(t) 285 habeunt 416, 449 habibat 400
habire 400

= is- ins- 230 hispatii = spatii 230
historia 146

229(3X4), 240, 243, 244 in hiatus 222, 224-5,


> e 229 (4) > a 229 (3)

ho 40 hoc 63,



-ia 37, 146 -(a 37, 146


by Microsoft®

-iamus 224 -are 33, 34
ille 10,

Future Future
125-9, 411

61-8, 389-92

ipse 64





123-4, 410

-ibo 125
-ic 251



-ica 37 -icare 33, 34, 35 -icca 37


390 ille 390 140


(dat.) 390


-iccus 37

> ilium 282, 350
390 390

= suus


Imperfect 120, 420-1 Perfect 121-4, 422-31 Pluperfect 123-4, 410, 432 Present 120, 273, 397, 401, 403-5, 415, 416-9

-icem 42, 346



-iceus 37, 39, 42
-icius 37, 39, 42


induruit 224


ilium illud 282, 350 illurum 390


-inem 346

-iculare 35 -iculus 42

> -ellus 42

infa(n)s 10, 311 i(n)fans 171
inf antiliter
i(n)feri 171,

im = in 310
imaginarius 39

-icus 39

40 219

idem 61, 3C39 id ipsum 62, 350 idolum 150, 190
-idus 39 -i(d)yare 339 i6 e 225


376 immudavit 256 Imperative 115-6, 412 impinguare 25 impinxi 429


infernus 13 Infinitive

-iebam -ebam 225 -ibam 420
-ie(n)s 311



implicat 139 implire 400


> -fmus 447-8 >

in 86, 92, 95, 96, 97
is 310 inanimatus 23 in ante 47, 48 incendiderit 426

lenubam 259
-ier 39 -iere 39

in- 23, 25 in -t- s

as Noun iii Conjugations 396-407 dicere 406 esse 419 facere 404 for Clause for Imperative 116 for Subjunctive iii, 117 for Supine and Gerund




= gesta 259, 352

311 iferi 311
iferos 306, 311

Inchoative Verbs
inclausus 139 incohare 250
in contra 47, 48 incudo 42, 370


103, 104 habere 400 Passive 109 Perfect 109 with habere 125-9, 4^^ posse 403

ifimo 311 if ra 311

Present Active

102, 109


-4gia 2^^
igitur II, 14

with Accusative
inflare 31


incuminem 42
incus 42 -incus 37 inde 60, 71, 384 inde fugere 46

ignire 33 ignis 12


ignotus 310 -igo 37

Forms 345-450 Use 85-130
infra- 27



227, 423


39 -ilius 42 iliac 140

Indefinite Article 57 Indefinite Pronouns: see

infraponere 27


Indicative Conditional 130, 411
for Imperative 116, 412
for Subjunctive 117

infurcare 25

-ing 37

(dat.) 390

390 illsejus 390

ingenium 9 ingens 259 in giro 48


by Microsoft®

-ingus 37 (-incus) in hodie 47
Initial Syllable

62-4, 67-8 ins- liis- 230


— -is = -es 244, 365-6, 444

-iva 37 iventa 311

inlatus 32 in mane 47

-iscere 34, 35


> > -i 423 > -iut > -it 423

-ivum yj
-ivus 39 -ix 42
-izare 33, 34, 339

medio 48

Ischia 284

innoce(n)ti 306 innocus 226
in odio


ischolasticus 230


inprobus 32 inquid 282 in quo ante 254 -inquus 37 (-incus) ins13-230 in semel 47

-isco for -esco 197, iscripta 230


-'{«" 33
izophilus 333
j 271 jacente(m) 309 jacis 244 Jacobus 150, 329

-iscus 39 is ipse 64


ismaragdus 230 isperabi 230 ispose 230
-issa 37 -issare 33

insiemcmenie 41 insola 232 instruo — struo 230 ins(u)la 171, 233, 284 intcitamento 260 inte(g)rum 270 Interamico 307

Jacomus 329
jagante 229 (3)


-isse 161

-issem 161 -issimus 166

jaiant 229 (3) jajunus 229 (i) jambe 263
-jan 36
janarius 226

230 Interanniensis 307 istatuam 230 Interrogatlves see Pro- iste 63-8, 390-2 nouns iste hie 64 Intertonlc Vowel 231 iste ille 64 intra g6 iste ipse 64 intra- 27 istudio 230 intra tenere 27 it id 282 intravidere 46 -it -et 244, 444 intre 245 ita II intro(r)sus 291 Italia 224 intus in 49 Iteilic Tribes i, 2 -inus 37, 42 -itare 34, 35

jaquir 343
jauzei 426 jehan 343 jehir 343
jejunus 229, 229 (i) jeniperus 229 (5)

= =

jenua 229


jenuarius 229 (i) jeuTie 208 (2)
jinipenis 229 (5)

-Inus 39

> -o 416

-itas 37 -ite -Ite


Joanneni 359 (i) Joannentis 359 (2) Joannis 244
jocus 12


ipsa mente 41 ipse 61-8, 390-2



jovenis 208 (2), 217
jovis 367

64 ipsejus 390 ipsimus 66 ipsud 390
ipsujus 390 ipsus 390
iraisser 413 irascere 413

-itia 37, -ities 37


jubari 322



-ittus 37

-itudo 37 -itus 42 (2), 436, 438, 441 -Itus 435, 438-9


jubem(m)us 163 jubenis 318 jubentutis 318, 322 jubere 11
Judaizare 19
judicat 424

-ium 37
-ius 39

126 (5), 405

> -unt 416
by Microsoft®

-ire 33,


judidus 347 judico 239 judigsium 278


juglus 233 Julianenis 359 Julianeta 37 (-ittus)
Julitta 37 (-ittus)

429 Liaison 133, 159 liamen 263
lexi 428,

intervocalic 324

Voicing 314
laborait =:-avit 424

laceus 254
lacte 367

libe(n)s 311

juncxi 305 juniperus 229 (5) junxi 429
Jup(p)iter 163

jurHtortu 39 juria 272 jur(i)go 219
jusso 355 (i)

lactem 347 lacus (2d decl.) 355 (i) ladro yji ladrone 372


298 (nom. pi.) 357


libraria 37 ligare 201,

ligna (sg.) 352


justitia 276,

justius 277

juv(e)nis 235

juventa 356 (3) juvente 318
juxta 81, 96


246, 253

kadamitatem 289

= candidus 330 karessemo 201 Karica 37 (-icca) kaukoulato cal- 288 kleme(n)s 311 kozous = conjux 311, 339


34 lambros 331 lamna 235 lampada 356 (3) lampa(s) 38, 144, 335 lancia 224 la(n)tema 306 lanutus 42 lapsus 315 laqueum 347 ; cf, 254 lardum 237 Latinization i, 2 latrone (nom.) 367 lat(t)rones 164 lattucae 266 Lauriatus 224 lausenga 37 (-ing)
lauzi 443 Lazis Ladiis 339


lignum -us 172
liminare 37


Unguas (nom.) 357
liniamenta 224


133, 159

lintium 224

Liquids Assimilation 293 Dissimilation 292
Fall Fall



Liquid 237

Vowel before

Liquid 233-4 1 287-9 ly274 Metathesis 294 r 290-6
rs 291 ry 296 lit (t) era 163


kumate 298 ky = qui 187, 223



lebat 318

lit(t)us 163

see Liquids

318 lebra 256

Livitta 37 (-ittus) U 1 161


la ilia 392 Labials Assimilation 313 b 315-9 initial 316 intervocalic 318 by, py, vy 273, 319 f 320-1 Fall of Vowel after Labial 235-6 Influence on Vowels 217



Have 2 88



Locative 86
locun 305 locuplens 311 locuplex 255
lodi 443
loir 166

lectus (p.p.) 440 legare 201

leges 259

(nom.) 367

legui 428

lenticula 42

longa mente 41 longe 40
longior 377


longius 377


longum tempus 13
loquella 42 loreola 213

P 3"-4 U326
V 322-s
after liquid 323

levare 34 leviarius 39


Lost Words 11-4
lotus 213

levitus 435,


by Microsoft®

220.24. 347. 233 lucor 37 lucto 355 (i) maximus 56. mam(m)anis 359 matutinus 13 maurus 336 maxime 56 mammula mane 13 13 400 manducare 13 man(i)ca 239 manicd 37 (-icca) maniplus 42.) 349 machina 144 machinari 9 macra 376 madias = majas 272 madio majo 272 madrema 388 maestati 259 maester 259 magias majas 272 marem 347 mares = -is 244 marl -e 364 marinarius 39 maris (masc.) = and markensls 39 me(n)sa 311 mense(m) 309 mensi (pi. 347.) 17274 m: see Nasals ma = mea -Ma 38 388 manu tenere 46 Slaps : pp. 297 maxumiis 220 lucus locus 205 ludus 12 lugere 399 lugire 400 = Meanings Change 10 of of Words 7-10 Meaning 8- manos 355 mansi 429 mansio 12 (i) luminem 347 lunae dies S9 mecu 309 Medea 190 Medentius 338 media 272 medianus 39 medicus 239 medio die 43 medio loco 43 medius 272 meletrix 292 melior 377 melius 56. 145 ma(r)mor 292 cf . 259 major 170. 377 mala mente 41 male 40 male habitus 44 malicia 276 malleus 274 mensorium 37 menta 184 -mente 41 mente habere 46 mentire 409 Marsuas 187 Marsyas 187 mas = magis 157 mascel 242 -mentum 37 mentus 347 menus 201 mercatus (2d decl.2o6 luce (dat. manner (fern. xi Marcianus 278 Marculus 284 mare (fern.) 368 me(n)sis 171. 369 3" . 359 by Microsoft® . 84. 66 mal(l)o i6i malus malus 55 mam(m)a 16. 347. 377 luoghi -ora 349 liirdus 207 (i) luridus 166.) 244 lucSre 399 lucire Index. 198. 74. and 346 (I) fern. 353 me(n)sor 311 56. 369 marrir 407 marrjan 407 Marsianesses 277 magnisonans 44 magnus 12 Maia 188. cf . 201. 349 melum 195 (5) membras 352 memoramus (perf. 222 Maiiam 222 mais = magis 157. 71. ma(g)is 353 .) 424 -men 37 mendatium 276 fern. X. 207 (i) luxi 4V 9 luxuria 355 (2) mansorius 39 mansus 441 manuaria iS manuplus 42 manus (masc. 238. 259 ma(g)ister 259 marmora 351 marmorem 347.) 355 (i) meretis 232 meridjes 281 (2) mer(i)to 237 Masculine : see Gender masc(u)las 234 masma = maxima 238 massa 338 mate(r) 295 materia 355 (2) matrona(s) 298 mat(t)rona 164 Digitized mersi=merx 255 Messac 277 messui 428 messura 37 met. 157.) = magida = 38.

245 minus credere 29 minus est 29 minus pretiare 46 minutus 10 > mortu(u)s 226 mossus 438. 231 mis meis 388 mis. 201 minus 201. 136 mulieris 136 natus 13. Metathesis 245. 440 muc(c)us 163 muebie 204 (i) mul'erem 225 mulier 9. 245 mis. 429 = mullus 187 mulsi 429 multum 74 multus 71 muntu = multum 289 (2) necatus 435. 75. 289 moc 428 (i). 439. 377 minus. 298 + Cons.Index. 440 necavi 428 nee ente 71 nee unus 71 ne ente 71 negare 263 negat 256 mur 206 murare 229 (5) muri -a 349 muritta 37 (-ittus) murta 187 Negation 75 negliencia 259 nemo 71 neofiti missorium 37 mis (s) us 441 mistus 440 mixticius 39 mobilis 204 (i). cf. 294 modernus 18 Metiacus 277 metipse 24. 229 (4). 440. 304-6 171. 441 motto 187 movi 428 movit 244 movita37-.228 narratus 37 (-ta) -monium 37 mo(n)strare 311 Nasals 303-11 Final or = monumento = -um 244 Mood 1 1 5-9 morbu(s).439 movitus438. 217 334 mutare 229 Digitized (5) nepoti(s) 298 ne'ps'unus 71 by Microsoft® .245 miscere 399 misculare 35 misera 376 mis(s)i x6i. 381 mn 307 millefolium 38 mil(l)ia 161 mordSre 399 morire 406 moriri 406 n -h fricative ny 274 nasco 255 nascutus 438 nasum -us 347 natatorium 37 nati vitas 37 Morphology 345-45° morsi 429 morsus 441 mortificare 46 mimoriEe 229 (2) minester 201 ministeri(i) 89. 311 -m -n falls 309 falls 310 mihe 244 milex 255 mille 161. 83. 163.29. 385 miauiare 17 michi 252 mienia 1S4 migat micat 256 monarchia 37 monasterium 182 -monia 37 monibam 420 moniti n + fricative 171. 229 (2) Nebitta 37 (-ittus) nebula 235 necare 9 necator 37 mirabilia 37. 438. 187 meuble 204 (i) meus = mi 87 n: see Nasals mextum — m2estuin mezzo 272 mi r= meus -a 87. 66 metipsimus 66 metltus 441 207 Mute -t. 387 mi = mihi25o. 438 naucella 13 naufragus 325 nautat 236 navicella 37 navitat 236 ne 14. cf. 255.324 Moesia 187 molui 428 molutus 439 255 myrta 187 Mysia 187 mysterium 182. 227 mi(ni)sterium 231 minist(r)onun 292 minor 377 minsis 198.Liquid mut(t)ire 162 132. 37 raovutus 438. 160 mode modo 40 moere = mov.311 11 ny 274 nacui 428 nam — mu.

324 nova(i)nta 380 novellus 13 novius 207 (2) noxeus 224 ns 171. etc. 328 noembrios 324 noembris 324 noicius 324 nolo 161 ny274 nynfis 306 406 406 429 440 192. 205 5 > 9 205 9>uo oi ou|>-gu 167 o u 202 o ou 203 oleum oli 274 274 oli(m) 309 olio nonna 16 nonnita 37 (-ittus) nonnitus 37 (-ittus) nonnus 16 noptiae 207 (2) 177 192. 71 o for au 212-3 >oe ]>e 06 > o 225 > omo 251 -omus 446 on 71 ou>. 323 nerbo 323 Neroua 322 nervia 349 Neuter nervus 323. offla 235 oi>oe>-e ot nome 336 nomem nomes = nomina 369 Nominative 97. 40 (Greek) 186 Digitized nora 208 (3) Normannice 40 norus 208 (3) notrire 229 (5) noli 40 -on 36 -ov 38 -iav 38 -ones 40 -oneus 39 by Microsoft® . 309 nivicare 18. > > 6 165. 177. 250. 274 > ola 213 oleo 373. 22S. 33 nuncquam 305 nunqua(m) 305. 229 (5) nutritio 37 odedere 426 Odissia 187 oe 215 oefor xand e 215 offeret offerire offers! nutritura 37 nocui 223. 311 nubis 366 nulli (gen. 229 (6).ou 167 unaccented 219. 395 num 83 u ob (Greek) i?5 14. Absolute 97 non 203 nona(i)nta 380 75. 79 ob-28 obdormire 28 obferre 32 obliscor 324 oblitare 34 obprimere 32 Nerba3i7. 244 u6 o 225 -o 37. 167. 349 see Gender ne 229 (2) ni : = nichil 251 niepos 177 observasione 277 oc 251 occansio 311 occidere 212 occubavit 256 ni(g)rum 270 nihil 71.208 nepta 37 neptia 37 neptilla 13 Index. 215 omnes = —is 244 onmimodus 44 omnis 12. 203 o (Greek) 192 274 38. 202-5.) 395 nullus 71. 234 306. 383 305 accented 202-5 o 202-4 o 197. nupsi 297 nobe 318 nobilis 11 nobis 318. o 165. 215 offertus 435. 378-82 occu(m)bas 306 occurire 406 Accent 142 nummus 328 nun = non 203 nunc 12 nuncius 276 -occus 37 ocio 276 ocium 276 octa(gi)nta 380 oc(u)lus 219. 100. 385 nocere 399 nutrire 166. Nouns 345-73 see Declension and Gender nous 177. 243. 251 nil 250 nimpae 332 nise 229 (4) nitidus 238 nittus 238 Numerals 57-8. 197.

236 parabulare 155 paradisus 190 paraula 236. 409 passos 355 paucum tempus 13 ostentare 34 ostia palma 14. 369 papilipnis (nom. oze ozie 324 = > > = hodie 272 = hodie 272 = pacific! 321 8. 296 parsi 429 by 273 c': see Gutturals cy 276. 318 parcui 428 onus II o 225 operare 409 0(5 > otogentos 266 -ottus 37 ophekion = ofBcium 334 opprobare 28 -or 37.212 orata ou (Greek) 193 ou 167 9u Ouiouia Vibia 318. 42 feminine 346 (2) -re 245 -or -ura 42 -or hora25i ora oracionem 276 aur. palpebrum 352 pal/ires 134 = hos-25i = ostium 202 ostrum aus. Passive 105. 322 > = oum 167. 225 parietibus 224 oratorium 37 orbus 9 palanca 332 palasium 277 Parigi 86. 296 Palatals 271-8.) 347. 337 pagandum 256 paganus 263 pa(g)e(n)sis 39. 439 pasmer 300 passans 39 passi(m) 309 sy 275 ty 276-7 ossulum 37 ossum 356 (3) ostensio 37 ostensor 37 vy273 palatium 277 palleum 224 Passive 112-4. 107. 229 (7) pandiderunt 426 paucus 71 paul(l)um 161 Paulus -onis 362 paupera 376 pani 364 panneus 39 pantaisar 332 Digitized = pauperorum 376 pausa 38 pavi 428 by Microsoft® . Active 106 Put. 278 parsus 439. py 273 ry 296 scy 275 40S Particles 156-8 particularis 39 -OS (Greek) 38 Oscan 2 -usco 197. 227 pari mente 41 227 Palatalization 258-62. 202-3 -osco ossiculum 42 ossuculum 43 > ssy 275 sty 275 partunt 416 parutus 438. Ordinal Numerals 382 -orem 346 (3) oricla2i2. 324 ovum 167. 104. -omus 39 -o«J446 -o(n)sus 311 otia 277 otobris 266 209 paor 324 papaver (masc. 441 part 160 partentem 416 Participle dy 272 g': omatura 37 orphanus 186 ortaret 432 hor-25i ortus see Gutturals gyz72 J271 ly274 ny 274 Put. 229 (7) oridium 339 -orlum 37 -orius 39 orma 186. Pans 86 Parisiis 272-8. 217.Index.) 349 Present 102. 229 (7) ot ote = aut 213. parecer 414 parens 10. 259 pari 364 par(i)etes 136.) 367 parentorum 368 p : see Labials paceveci = oratia = Hor-25i Order of Words 50-3. 108.212 aut 213. 408 Perfect 102.) 367 pap(p)a -us 16 papyrius 39 parabula 144. 12 parentis (nom. 434-41 = orum = aurum 212 orzo 272 OS (masc.

377 pejus 377 pelegrinus 292 pellabor 293 planura yj planxi 429 platea 146. 315 plicare 10. 183. 369 peria(t) 285 poena 192 poeta 192 poggio 272 polippus 145 poUicare yj pollulum 213 pols 370 poltre 134 polve 370 polvo 370 polypus 145 pomex 207 (2) pirata 144. 369 per girum 48 piperem 347. 273 poco 40 perdedit 139. 79.) 367 plangit 259 plantare 33 peduclum 234 peduculus 42 pejor 170. = pr-292 plus 56. 99 per pel 293 per 160 per. 410. 208 (4). 74 pluvia 169. 426 perdita 37 (-ta) perdqnare 26 perdutus 438. 217 Pluperfect 118.Index. 347. 217 pluere 169. pIurigo 123. pinl 365 123-4 pinxi 429 per giro 48 piper 38. 273 plostrum 212 plotus 212. 208 (4). 422-31 = phoca 185 Phoebus 192 Phonology 131-344 Phyebae = Phoebe 215 piano 40 pictus 440 pietas 298 pietra 160 pignus 172 (2) pi(g)ritia podium 272 poella 20S Strong 427-31 Weak 422-6 Perfect Participle Participle : 270 see Pilipus 332 pinctus 440 Perfect Subjunctive 119.294 Pisaurese 297 Pisaurum 151 pitocco T85 Digitized pon(e)re 239 pontevecem 321 pontivicatus 256 pontufex 220 poplex 255 pop(u)lus 10. 96. 311 pensi 429 pensus 441 plodere2i3 ploja 169. pa(v)onem 324 pa(v)orem 324 pavura 42 pavutus 440 paze 260 pectinare 33 perpenna 292 persi 429 pe(r)s(i)ca 239 persona 71 Personal Pronouns: pius 167 placentia 37 plach 154 see placuit 223. 439 pere 160 pere(g)rinus 270 peres pedes 281 (2) Perfect 121-4. 235 by Microsoft® . 410 432> 433 Pluperfect Penult 232-9 per 14. 123-4. 208 (4). 441 Pesaro 151 pessica 291 pessimus y]"] pestio 2S4 pectorem 347 pediculus 42 pedis (nom. 435 plicatus 435 293 293 pello 293 pendutus 441 pellige pellicere peuma 368 ph: see Greek Consonants phalanx 181 pharetra 145 phaselus 334 Phasis 181 pe(n)sare 171.26 percolopabat 237 > Phebus 192 phiala 145 philosophia yj philus 184 phimus 184 Phitonis 332 phitonissas 332 Subjunctive 433 "8. igo plaudisti 426 pestulum 284 petft 423 Petrus -onis 362 peito 160 pleps 297. 190 Periphrastic Future 126 perit 423 perlum = prse. 208 (4). 93. 213 plovere 169. 326 plagiare 33 Pronouns persus 439.

preda 209 Prefixes 21-32 393-4 Personal 60. 401. 439 = 311 prendere 225.) 367 pugnus 172 (2) pulvus 347. 96 provata 318 porphyreticum 187 portare 12 posi posui 428. pos(t)quam 11. 403 (i) Possessives: see Pronouns posso 403 postea 275 (i) prensus 441 Prepositions 76-81. 300 presbyterum 148 provitus435. 397. 285 Present 120 for Future 126 ptisana 145 pudicicia 276 (i) Stems 273. 71. = pr<Egnans 255 Pronunciation 131-344 prophetissa 37 prophetizare 19 propietas 292 propio 292 propter 14. 429 quiestus 436. 332 purpureticum 1S7 putator = po. 254 qu k. 393-4 quaKs 70. 79. por 14 porcellus yj pregnax cf. 186. 259 quadra(l)nta 380 qua(9'ro 283 quKSi 426.28 prebiter 300 Interrogative 7o> 69- quadraginta 142. 383-95 Demonstrative 61-8 Indefinite 71. prolongare 28 q 246. 254 qua 82 > promptulus 39 430 prsstus 376 Pronouns 59-71. 387-8 Relative 69-70. 85-g presbyter 148. 440 cf. 252. 311 prEEStare 31 prffistavi 422. qu 223. 394 quamta 306 quan 305 Digitized by Microsoft® . 370 punctus 440 puni poni 203 = presium 277 pressi 429 pressorium 37 pressura 37 pressus 441 presta 210 presteti 139 frete 300 punidor 39 punxi 429 pupillabus 358 puplu 309 pup(p)a 163 pure 40 puritas 37 purpura 145.229 (6) puteolis 136 • potebam 403 (i) potebo 403 (i) poteo 403 (i) potere 403 (i) pdteri 410 potestas 356 (3) potionare 33 potis 17 pretium 277 preveire 300 pride (m) 309 primitius 324 principens 367 pri(n)cipis 306 Prixsilla 255 puteum 347 putrire 400 potius 74 pr:e 14 pr£E-28 prjeber(e) 24? prsecoca 376 praeda 209 prsedestinare 28 prsEdiscer(e) 242 pro 14. 384-6 Possessive 60. 41 5> 416-9 presentis (nom. etc.28 probai 424 Proclitics 156-8 prodis 17 putrisco 400 puulva 356 (3) Pyrrhus 187 pyxis 187 Progne 330 proles II preefetto 266 prffigna(n)s 255. 226. 226. -^yj pos(t) 96. 380. 429 Position 160-4 positus 238. 95 pro. 395 prandium 272 pranzo 272 pre. 250 prendiderunt 426 prendo 250 prensi 429 prensio 37 posmeridianus 285 posse 126 (3).Index. 330. 79. 285 posturus 238 postus 238 Post-Verbal Nouns 21 posueram 285 posuet 244 posui(t) 285 403-5.439 proximus 377 psallere 36. 67.

rectus 440 32. 82 quarranta 142.quoniam 14. 221 Development of New Quantity 176-7 Disappearance of Old Quantity 173-5 Doubtful Quantity 166 Length before Consonants 170-2 Position 160-4 refusare 17 re(g)alis quiritare 229 quis 69.1 Index. 380 quase 244 quasi 83. 259. 82. quando 14. 139 requEerit 139 rs see Liquids >• ss 291 requebit 225 res 10. 71 quare 12.254 guages 1 74-5 > = quantu(m) 309 quantus 12. 379 quel 393 quejus 393 quoque quot quot n Repetition 40. no. 429 rhetor 335 rhetorissare 33 richesse 341 rictu quiaeti 209 quicumque 71 quid 350 quidem 11 recubitus yj (-ta) quiensces 311 quietus 225 quin II quinqua(gi)nta 142. 139 redempsi 429 redemti 313 Digitized = rectum igS by Microsoft® . 168 429 = reddere 286 rasio = ratio 277 ratio 277 retina 17 retro 81 razzo 272 re. 200 redft 423 redivit quannu 281 = Win. 139 retenet 139 retere questor 210 questus 210 quetus 225 qui 69. 393 qui quia 82 qui ky 187. no quooperta = co. 380 reculons 40 reddedi 31. 71.23. 379 quattordecim 379 quat(t)ro 226. 309 querceus 39 quercinus 39 querel(l)a 42 rama (pi.269 respondere 399.) 361 ramenc 37 (-incus) rancura 42 ranucula 42 rap(i)dus 239 rasl restitueram 285 restivus 39 resurge(n)s 311 retenere 31. 355 (2) res nata 13. 244 quat(t)or 226. quodlubet 220 regnancte 267 regnum 172 (2) Relatives : see Pronouns reli (n) quat 306 relinque 282. 74 12. 219. 281 quinque 172 Quintrio quippe 1 quique 71 (i). 449 responduntur 449 responsi 429 raggio 272 que(m) 309 quen 305. 82. 82 comodo 226 Vowel Length 165-77 Words from Other Lan. 71 rabies 319 radius 272 rainante = reg. 223 quia 82. no.344 = -bit 318 263 Quantity 159-77. quo 73 quo = quod 282 quoad 11 quod 14. 25 recapitulare 25 retro. 350 = -it 285 remasit 311 Remidium 272 remissa 37 (-ta) ren^gat 139 renum reg. 71. 71. replenus 23 55. 350. 71 = quod 282 quum r : > cum 226 repositorium 37 reprehensus 250 requeerere 25. retundus 229 (6) reuuardent 344 139 reve(r)sus 291 reversus sumrz reverti 410 revolutio 37 rexi 297. 82. 393 re(g)ina 259 regis -es 244 = quisque 71 quisquis 71 Unaccented Vowels 221 174. 245.269 Vowels in Hiatus 167-9 quomodo 14.28 retro (r) sum 291 = = redpit 139 recolli(g)endo 259 Recomposition 31.

268.) 349 scripit 312 (i) scrips! 315. ridSre rideri 213 schioppo 284 sclitib. 341. 14 sed-= se 229 (4) 429 rosum = ros 356 rosus 441 (3) sanctissimus 377 san(c)tus 172 (i). 267 sedano 335 sed(e)cim 239 sedere seditur 399 = esse 402. 441 saltern 11 salticulare 35 secatus 435.314 rivocaverit 229 (2) sagma 19. 324 rivaticus rip. 419 roubSn rs > 36. salivi 428 440 J^= sead sebe salma 268 salsi 428.) 372 salvage 229 (3) salvatico 229 (3) salvaticus 229 (3) secu(n)do 306 secuntur 254 sed II. ssy. 201 (2) senape 184 senatus (2d decl. = sa = ipsa 392 semper semper 74 sempre 245 semul 201. (stlis) riges = re.230 scriba -anis 359 = rigueza 341 risi 429 risus 441 rius 241. xi Roman Empire p. 428 = si 229 (4) = sit 419 (2) = sibi 201 ^ 419 (i) roborem 347 robur 9.) 368 419 (i) sel 160 selinum 150 sappia 272 sapui 426. Saguntum 338 saine 42 saini 267 sltlbaiec (fern. x : salsus 440. 428 satis 74 sem 419 (i) Semele 359 semita 239 semo 419 (i) : see Sibilants final s in ist pers.igS 399 409 sacritus rigna 198 rikitia 341 Jiimini 86 SidxpiTos 272 sseculum (masc. sty. 230 sy 275 scy. 440 secula 200 (3) Romanice 40 Romanu -pos 38 rosi (nom.) 355 (i) sine 201 sene -sa 37 (-ta) sabbatizare 19 scaplas 234 sablum 233 sacra 376 Sca(u)rus 211 scena 182 (i) = sacramentum 231 359 sacristano 359 sacrista -anis- schema 19 schernire 341 schiatta 343 schietto 343 senex 12 senper 306 semita 239 senta sentam 416 sententem 416 = Digitized by Microsoft® . 347 rogavo = -bo 318 ro(g)itus 259.Index. 435 salitus 436.) 349 sffipes sepes saeps 209. 429 440 scriptum 315 scri(p)tus 313. sauma 26S scabia 355 (2) scsena 182. (3) = 229 salbum3i7 salii scrivano 359 scultor 313 se 422. 398 398 ss 291 36. 210 scalciare excalceare 230 scandalizare 19 445 initial s + cons. : 429 Romance Territory p. 367 SiEpia 182 saginae 42 = 284 Sagitta 37 (-ittus) ripidus 39 scloppus 284 scopulus 38 scorlare excor. pi. 34r. rubare nibeus 319 sandal 330 sanguem 370 sanh 267 sapcha 272 sapere 402 sedui 428 sedutus 441 signavi 424 segnai = rugiada 356 nira35r ru(r)sum 291 russum 291 rutare 34 s (3) segolo 200 (3) sei sapiam 272 sapidus 39 sapienti (pi.

scy. 233 sepelitus 436. (2). 439. 244. si sol 13 = sibi spehon 343 spelunca 329 siam 419 (2) siamus 419 (2) sibe 219. 213 soricem 42. sibl 201. 182 seppia 182 sepsies 277 z : see Greek Conso- soltus 438. 277 servitude 37 ses servire = spacium 276 spallere 337 sive II = es 419 (i) (i) skena 341 skern6n 341 skiuhan 343 slahta 343 sleht 343 spandere exp. 221. 385 385 Sibilants 297-302.419 (1) sinapis -e -i 38. 233 soef 2.229 (7) serpentinus 37 = = 428 simus 220. septa (gi)nta 380 septe(m) 309 sidibus = se. soluit sic nants 264 Sicilianus 39 solus 395 solutus 438 solvitus 438. 83. 234 speca spica 200 (3) = speclarait spectante = -avit 424 = exp. 18 sol(i)dus 237 230 separare seperare 231.230 Spania 230 = Spanus 230 sparsi 429 J« 419 sest = est 419 (i) set = est 419 (i) set = sed 282 seta 209 setaceus 39 setis = estis 419 (i) 229 385 (4) settembres 313 seus suus 387 soaru 295 soave 224 sobreus 224 socera 37 soc(e)rum 232. 184. 440 ss > 275 solingo 37 (-incus) solo (dat. 213 serra = sera 247 serutinus 16 servare 323 sine 95. ssy.cons. 445 initial s 4. 201 sinexter 201 (3) -sic 37 sirena 356 (3) sis si vis 324 -sorium ^y -sorius 39 soro(r) 295 sous = suus 167.^'j final s 298. solbit sentia 421 sentii 42S. = secretins 256 347 sonatus 435 sons 419 (i) Sophia 146 -sor 37 sorcerus = sortiarius 39 s^bat 323 serbus 317 Serios Sergius 272 serore so. 244. 387 sozer 154 servicium 276 323 servisium 277 servitium 276. soliculus 13. 244 solacium 276 sola mente 41 solatium 276 solbere 317 spene^SS (2) speni from spes 355 (2) speramus = -avimus 424 sperantia 37 Digitized by Microsoft® . sy. etc.ig8 439 siede 419 (1) soma 268 somas 419 (i) sona 2ona 338 septrum 260 septuazinta 339 septum 209 sepulchrum 251 sequere 406 sequire 406 serbare 323 siem 419 (2) siete 419 (i) siffatto 264 siffler 318 (2) sifilus 318 (2) = signum-us 172 sigricius silevit 422. 441 solia 323 224 sentor . sibi 219.) 395 solsi s 161 429 440 224 sepes 209 sepia 146. 429 sentitus 436. 337 sinatus 228 (-arius) sordidius 377 sorex 42.230 = 406 si 14.z\ sofferire sparsus 441 spasmus 144 spat (h) a 332 spat(u)la 12. 150. 38.214 senii 298 Index. sty. 219.

330 talis 71 strlban 341 for Adj. 430 steva 200 (3) stilla 419 (i) suus 60. 118 Pres. spes 355 (2) spiritus (2d decl. 90.26 subaudire 26 subcludere 26 stao 397 stare 397 stasio 277 static subcumbere 32 Subjunctive 117-g for Imper. 428. 39 for Adv. 430 sietti 426 stetul 426. 415.230 spoliatur = -or 244 structus 440 straere 417 strugere 417 spo(n)sus 171 spontaneus 39 squarciare 276 ss s 161 strumentum = inst. 405. 419 (i) suora 295 sues 138 super 80. 231-g Synonyms 12 Syntax 50-130 t : (nom.26 superabundare 26 superfacere 26 superstitis (nom. 116 for Indie. 41 for Nouns 37. 419 (2) sublimus 376 429 su(r)sum 291 surtus 440 sus = suus 226. 38 tamen 11. 441 sus(s)um 291 sutis sursi Stephanus 183 steti 426.26 suprafacere 26 supra 245 -sura 37 Surd Sonant: see Voicing = exp. 403. 397.230 struxi 429 stupescere 35 > staacio 276 stablarius 231 stagnum (masc. 387-8 submonsus 439. = Iniperf. 40. 332 Syncope 219.Index. 229.230 stais stup(p)a 163 suabitati 318 5uadel(l)a 42 suavis 224 Suavitta 37 (-ittus) sub. 440 Suffixes 33-42 Cbange of Suffix 42 talentum 149.) 367 sulphurem 347. 428. 441 subornatris 255 subplantare 32 sy=ty277 sycotum 141 Syllabication 131-3 = Stella = 198 stingo 226 -stinxi 429 stipes stips 367 subsannare 26 Substitution of subterranus 42 subtus 81 suc(c)us 163 suceroni 362 Words 13 symphonia 146.) 355 (i) splorator stnicere 417 215 sumus 220.) 349 stahu 397 397 stait 397 stantia= inst. 369 sumpsi 29S sumptus 308 tan 306 tanctus 440 tanger(e) 242 tantu(m) 309 tantus 71 tanxl 429 tapinus 144 Digitized by Microsoft® . 38 suis (nom.) 367 Supine 103 sup(p)ra 164 sup(p)remis 164 supra.) 367 stlataris 284 stlis 284 stloppus 284 storax 187 stren(n)a 163 stren(n)uor 164 Stress : see Accent stirpis see Dentals ty 276-7 sud=sub3i5 sufferit 406 -ta37 tab(u)la 236 tactus 440 suffertus 435. 388 -sus 37. 410 Plup. 14. 84 440 440 strinxi 429 strofa 334 stropa 334 stroppus 186 strinctus strictus for Verbs 33-6 Greek Endings 36. 117 > 277 status 438 397 staunt 397 stegola zoo stel(l)a 163 siaii (3) Imperfect 118 Perfect 119. 96 super.

) 346 timoratus 39 Tragani (2) = Traj. 198 376 triumphaut 241. 429 tolui 428 tomolus =: tumu.292 -tim 40 timbre 187. 347 threscan 342 tra.) 395 tot(t)uS 12. 424 tristus = tres 395 -trix 37 trobaire 37 (-tor) totum (adv. 343 tharrjan 342.208 tomus 186 torqu(e)o 226. 407 theios 333 toto (dat.163. 325. 259. 318 taurellus 37 taxi 429 telebra ter.26. 399 torsi trescar 342 trib(u)la 235. 399 trapalium 16 tres 379 tergum -us 347 termen 356 (3) terminaciones 2 76 terra (m) 309 tersi toreomatum 191 -torium 37 -tonus 39 torma = tu. 289 Tricassas 151 trienta 259 tri(g)inta 142. -anis 359 = tibi 385 -tiacum 277 tibe 244 ti tractatus 9 tractus 440 tradedit 31. 71. 299 trabucare 26 tracere 417 tap(p)ete 162 tarde 40 tarir 342.26. 331 timor (fern.204(2).259 tragere 417 trahere 417 = tempaccio 39 tempesta 356 (3) templus 347 timpuri 369 tinctus 440 tinge 226 tinguere 226 tins -^^ census trans. 244.208 tonsus 441 toll(e)re 429 trebus 201 trei = tres 379 298 trei Teodor 332 -ter 40 tardus 276 Terentio = treis 177 tremulat 235 trepaliare 33 = -us 298 tergSre 399 -tor 37 torcere 399 torco 226. 139 tibi 221.) 367 traxi Tense 120-30 tensi 429 tensura 13 tensus 441 t^nueram 137 tenui 42S tenutus 438. 440 239 tollitus 435. Theophilus 333 thesaurizare 19 thesaurus -um 189.) 74 tous thensaurus 311 — tuus 387 Trogar=-jae 259 Troja 170 Digitized by Microsoft® .208 tonatus 435 tondere 399 tonica tu.2l6 tapis 182 tapit 182 Index. 439 tolsi 428. 299 transannare 26 tra(ns)duco 299 tra(ns)jicio 299 260 tra(ns)luceo 299 tra(ns)mitto 299 tempo 298 tempus 13 tenit 244 tinxi 429 -tic n transplantare 26 tra(ns)pono 299 tra(ns)tulo 299 ten(n)uis 164 Titius 277 Tivoli 86 tra(ns)veho 299 traps 315 trasporre 299 travis (nom. 385 traducir 299 traduire 299 Tatius 277 tatus 16 taula 236. 380 trinitas 429 tarsus 441 -Tt\% 38 testa 13 tetrus 376 428 tortus 440 tot 71 tot trinta tris 37 380 taxui 428 204 (2) texutus 440 thahso 342. 343 tata 16 . 407 -tas 37 tasso 342. 352 tribuna(l) 242.

229 (5). 101-30 Verbs : see Verb Forma verbus 347. 84. 356 (3) vea via 201 = vecere = veh-4i7 -e 364 -tus 37 (-ta).316 -tulus turn = tuum 226. 430 urps 297. 284 vedea 421 = ve^ere 283 vef 226 vegere = veh-4i7 uobit = obiit > ve(he)inens 250 vehere 417 vel II velle 126 (3). 440. 403 vendita 37 (-ta) 177 u 165. 2c6 u 208 u ii o 165. 208 u cons. 206. -ura 37. 220 ui 216 unaccented 219. 83 ubi 73 -uc(c)us 37 (-icca) -uculare 35 -uculus 42 -utus 39. 441 uu unacc.298.) 367 vendutus 438 vene bene 316 = urbs 12. > -clus 234 388 Vowels unde 10. 187. 206. 367 veni 428. 393 undecim 166. 387-8 ty 276-7 ty ty > cy 277 > sy 277 uno (dat.395 unu(s) 29S unxi 429 U(5 >• o 225 uo unacc. 438. u 226 uuadius 344 > -uus > -itus 42 -udo ii > -umen 42 uxo(r) 295 uxore (abl. 326 u 178. o 226 vecinus 229 (4) vedus 234. 217 vadere 126 204 (2) -tudo 37 iuii 204 (2) tul£runt 450 tucti > -ellus 42 40 -um vallensis 39 : Unaccented Vowels see valneas = ba. 222. 440 unire 34 Tuscanus 39 iuito 204 (2) tuttus 204 (2) tuus 226. 243. etc. 57. 405 vadum 344 -us 347 valde 237 vaUa(t) 224. 438. 39 (5). 297. 440 ver 13 usque hodie 47 ustium 202 Ut II. 192.Index.315 usare 34 Use Use Use of of Cases 85-100 of Inflections 85-130 Words 54-84 venuta 37 (-ta) venutus 436. 185 trutina 187 tu 60 -ula 37 (-ulus) Ulixes 187 ultra 166 -ulus 37. 14. 228.) 244 178. 315. 244 in hiatus 222-6 uo >• o 226 uu u 226 o 225 u(5 uu u 226 Uranus 193 urbis (nom. 14. 285 Valinca 37 (-Incus) . 220 -ugo 37 (-ago) ui 216 V see Labials vacuus 42 195 (6). 73. 223 : vernac(u)lus 234 vemum tempus 13 ve(r)sus 291 vertragus 19 Digitized by Microsoft® . 70.) 429 -unt -ent 449 unus 10. 71. 42 accented 206-8 u 206-7 ii>-u 165. 206-8. 82. Troyes 151 tructa 38. 192. 349 * verecundia 231 verecunnus 281 Inflection: > > > utrum II. 42. 378. 379 -undus 39 ungo 226 unguere 226 unicornis 44 unigenitus 44 vaqua = vacua 223 vaqui vacui 223 vastare 344 vanitare 34 = 187 tuos 138 -tura 37 turrensis 39 turri tumum vasus -um 347. 430 > > -urem 346 (3) veninum 42 venire 126 (5) venitus 436. 187. 440 venui 428. 438. III -uta 37 (-ta) verbex = vervex 323 Verb Forms see Conjugation Use 72.

428 in words borrowed by other languages 1 74-5 Latin Vowels 178 Position 160-4 videre 72. 430 vido vidutus 438.2l8 vervex 323 ves(s)ica 162 vestibat Index. 387 vovis vobis 318 cf . 283. 438.195 (6) vocuus Quantity 221 Voice 1 12-4 Vulgar Latin 3. 4 Voicing 256-7. Accented 194-218 Digitized 344 344 werrarius 39 werrizare 33 wi^arlon 342 19. 165-245 watan werra = . 231 (6) vocatus 435.201 viaticum 8.) 367 victualia 18.) 349 314. 195 vocitus Final Syl. 441 viduus 226 vieni 177 vig(i)lat 430 Vocative 87 vocitus = vacuus 42. 231 vettovaglia 154 vetulus 12. 255. 428. Quantity 165-77. 318 . 285. Syl. vinus 347 Clerical Pronun. 380 vilescere villa 10. 240-5 in hiatus 222-7 Init. 284 vetus 13 video 272-3 veyo virginem 233 vir(i)diaria 237 vir(i)dis 237 vir(i)dura 18. 385 Vowels 136-8.285. 13. 239 vibi = bibi 318 iiibit 316 vibit victore (nom. = vac. 407 volutus 438 wastare 344 = ^ = = volvitus 438. 321 volatilia 37 volemus 403 (2) w (Ger. 439. 428 vixi 255. 37 victurias 203 vic(u)lus'234. vivacius 377 vixcit = vixit 255 cf. 259. 19. 439 Penult 232-9 vac. 441 vixutus 440 vobis 385 cf. 416 vistus 441 visus 441 vitellus Breaking 177 = 37 vitium 278 vitricus 13 Vowels 179 Close and Open 165 Differentiation 165 Celtic = vit(u)lus 234 vivus 324 vius = German Vowels 179 Greek Vowels 180.195 = video 416 vidui = vidi 428. + vezem 445 vezzo 278 -vui 428 -vi via 167. 428. 428 .) 367 warnjan 36. Vulgar Words 15. 285. 272-3.197 -ea 224 vinia vinsi 428.93 in hiatus 136-8. 234.) 344 volere velle 403 (2) w (Latin) 224 voles 403 (2) Waddo 344 volestis 403 (2) wadum 344 volimus 403 (2) wahta 343 volon 39 (-undus) walde 344 volsi 429 Wandali 344 voltus 438. 218 Diphthongs 209-16 420 vetatus 435 vet(e)ranus 219. 429 = vixit 255 cf. 19 vulnus (masc. cf. 12. 429 vixi(t) 285 . 284 videderunt 426 video 272-3. 416. by Microsoft® . 37 viror 37 virtus 10 vlscui visit Influence of Labials 217 Single Vowels 194208 before gn 172 (2) before j 170 before n fricative 171 before nk 172 (i) = = vixi 428. 167-9 . 429 vinti 380 vincisti Intert. 297. 228-30 259 34 vi(gi)nti 142. 439 voster 199 (i). 440 warjan 344 voluntate (nom. Syl. 430. 286. 358' villabus 358 Vincentzus 277 426 vinctus 440 vincui 428 vincutus 440 vindemiator 224 vindico 239 vindimia 197 vindo = v6. 221 Unaccented 219-45 (6) Vocabulary 6-49 vocatio videunt 416 vidi 428.

277 Zogenes = Dio. 339 Digitized by Microsoft® .272.Index.339 = dia. 339 = dia. 266 y (Greek) 187 y (Latin) 224 zagante 229 (3) zampogna 332 zanuari = ja.339 Zefurus 187 zelosus 339 2» 333 Zodorus = Theo. Wintrio 344 wlsa 344 witan 36.339 = dies 272 = Jesu 272. 339 zeta = diseta 339 zie = die 272 Zesu zins 260 ziziper 312 (i) X 246. 255.339 zebus = die. 398 Word Order 50-3 wost.272 ymnus 251 zerax = liierax 339 zosuin=deorsum 339 Zouleia= Julia 272.344 z 246 zabul(l)us zes 219 zacones zaconus ~ dia.

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .

Digitized by Microsoft® .