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2nd semester AY 2010-2011 MS. RHEA BENAVIDES-DE LEON, RND

Based on the works of CTBayaga, RMTMagbuhat and LWTengco

The breakdown of food in the body in preparation for absorption.

Mechanical digestion: food is broken up by the teeth and moved along GI tract by peristalsis. Chemical digestion: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are broken down into nutrients tissues can absorb and use.

Chemical changes occur through hydrolysis (the addition of water and breaking down of food molecules).

Enzymes act on food substances, causing them to break down into simple compounds.

Anatomy of the Digestive System Alimentary Canal or the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) Accessory Digestive Organs Digestive System .


Mouth  Where digestion begins  Salivary amylase acts on starch  Teeth break up food. food mixes with saliva “Bolus” formed  Small amounts of carbohydrates changed .

Esophagus  Food travels through this muscular tube  Connects mouth to stomach  Peristalsis and gravity act to move bolus  Cardiac sphincter opens at lower end of esophagus to allow passage of bolus into stomach .

Stomach  Temporary storage of food  Mixing of food with gastric juices  Regulation of a slow. controlled emptying of food into the intestine  Secretion of the intrinsic factor for vitamin B12 .

rennin breaks down milk proteins  Lipase acts on emulsified fats .Stomach  Hydrochloric acid prepares the gastric area for enzyme action  Pepsin breaks down proteins  In children.

Stomach .

Small Intestine Hormones released • Secretin causes pancreas to release sodium bicarbonate to neutralize acidity of chyme • Cholecystokinin triggers gallbladder to release bile Bile • Emulsifies fat after it is secreted into small intestine • Produced in liver. stored in gallbladder .

• Pancreatic proteases (trypsin.Small Intestine Enzymes are found in the pancreatic juice that is secreted into small intestine. carboxypeptidases): split proteins • Pancreatic amylase: converts starches (polysaccharides) to simple sugars • Pancreatic lipase: reduces fats to fatty acids and glycerol . chymotrypsin.

maltase.Small Intestine  Produces enzymes  Prepares foods for absorption  Lactase. maltose. hairlike projections. sucrose to simple sugars  Peptidases reduce proteins to amino acids  Twenty-two feet long  Villi. increase surface area for maximum absorption . sucrase convert lactose.

Small intestine .

Major tasks of the large intestine: • Absorb water • Synthesize some B vitamins and vitamin K • Collect food residue .Large Intestine Colon walls secrete mucus to protect against acidic digestive juices in chyme.

Large Intestine .

Rectum Holds back semisolid waste from the colon until it is time to defecate. .

Anus Last sphincter in the digestive system Opens up to allow the passage of waste .

liver and gallbladder .Accessory Digestive Organs Organs which assists digestion . teeth. pancreas.salivary glands.

Salivary Glands • Produces and secretes SALIVA – mucus: moistens and binds food into a BOLUS – serous: contains SALIVARY AMYLASE • Has a protective function (lysozyme and antibodies) and allows food to be tasted .

molarsgrinding/mashing .Teeth • Involved in the mastication (chewing) of food – incisors  biting. canines tearing.

Pancreas • A soft triangular gland that extends across the abdomen from the spleen to the duodenum • Produces and secretes digestive enzymes and juices into the duodenum (exocrine) • Produces insulin and glucagon (endocrine) (Mahan & Stump. 1998 ) . Cataldo. & Rolfes. 2004 and Whitney.

2004 and Whitney. excretion. Cataldo.Liver • Largest gland in the body which overlies the stomach • Functions include synthesis of bile salts. 1998 ) . and energy metabolism (Mahan & Stump. & Rolfes. detoxification.

Gallbladder • A small. pear shaped thin-walled sac that stores and concentrates the bile • Releases bile when it receives a signal that fat is present in the duodenum (Mahan & Stump. 2004 and Whitney. Cataldo. 1998 ) . & Rolfes.

Muscular Action of Digestion 1) Peristalsis (peri round. stellein  wrap) • Muscular contractions of the GI tract that push intestinal contents along 2) Stomach Action • The stomach muscles churn and push the chyme downward while the pyloric sphincter is tightly closed. • The stomach wall releases gastric juices to completely liquefy the chyme .

Muscular Action of Digestion 3) Segmentation • A periodic squeezing or partitioning of the intestine at intervals along its length by its circular muscle 4) Sphincter contraction .

Sphincter Contraction a) Upper Esophageal Sphincter • Opens in response to swallowing b) Lower Esophageal Sphincter • A. cardiac sphincter • Prevents gastric reflux c) Pyloric Sphincter • Found at the bottom of the stomach • Prevents intestinal contents from backing up into the stomach .a.k.

Sphincter Contraction d) Ileocecal Valve • Found at the end of the small intestine • Empties the contents of the small intestine e) Anus • Prevents elimination until you choose to perform .

Digestive Glands and their Secretions .

1998 ) .Salivary Glands Gland Salivary glands Target Organ Mouth Secretion Saliva Action .Protects the linings of the mouth. & Rolfes. Cataldo. esophagus and stomach from harmful substances (Mahan & Stump. salt and enzymes that initiate carbohydrate digestion . 2004 and Whitney.Contains water.

1998 ) .Stomach Gland Gastric gland Target Secretion Action Organ Stomach Gastric Fluid: mixes with juice bolus HCl: uncoils proteins & destroys bacteria Enzyme: breaks down proteins Mucus: protects stomach cells (Mahan & Stump. Cataldo. & Rolfes. 2004 and Whitney.

2004 and Whitney. 1998 ) . & Rolfes.Liver Gland Liver Target Organ Gallbladder Secretion Bile Action Bile: an emulsifier that prepares fats and oils for digestion Stored in the gallbladder until needed (Mahan & Stump. Cataldo.

Cataldo. & Rolfes. 1998 ) . 2004 and Whitney. protein and fat (Mahan & Stump.Pancreas Gland Pancreas Target Organ Small intestine Secretion Action Pancreatic Bicarbonate: juice neutralizes acidic gastric juices (pH=8) Pancreatic enzymes: break down carbohydrates.

2004 and Whitney. & Rolfes. 1998 ) . Cataldo.Small intestines Gland Target Organ Small intestine Secretion Action Intestinal glands Intestinal juice Brush border Enzymes: breaks down proteins and carbohydrate fragments Mucus: protects intestinal wall (Mahan & Stump.

Digestive Enzymes Source Mouth Stomach Enzyme Salivary amylase Pepsin Rennin Gastric lipase Pancreatic Amylase Pancreatic Proteases Pancreatic Lipases Lactase Maltase Sucrase Peptidases Food Acted Upon Starch Proteins Proteins in milk Emulsified fat Starch Proteins Fats Lactose Maltose Sucrose Proteins Small Intestine/ Pancreas .

Absorption .

Absorption • Transport of digested end products from the lumen of the GI tract to the blood or lymph – Nutrients must first enter the cells through ACTIVE or PASSIVE TRANSPORT .

. small lipids H2O soluble vitamins Glucose. small ions. large molecules.ABSORPTION OF NUTRIENTS H2O. AA.

Absorption Nutrients MUST BE in their simplest form • Carbohydrates: simple sugars • Proteins: amino acids • Fats: fatty acids and glycerol .

some occurs in the large intestine. and large intestine. . Water is absorbed in the stomach. small intestine.Absorption Most absorption occurs in the small intestine.

Transport .

Transport Process by which the nutrients are delivered to any part of the body and used by any of the cells that need them. .

THE VASCULAR SYSTEM • Is a closed system of vessels through which blood flows continuously. with the heart serving as a pump at the crossover point • The blood simply travels the following route: heart  arteries  capillaries (in intestines)  vein  capillaries (in liver)  vein  heart .

The Vascular System • Artery • A vessel that carries blood away from the heart • Capillary • A small vessel that branches from an artery • The capillary walls serve as the site for the exchange of oxygen. nutrients. and waste materials • Veins • A vessel that carries blood back to the heart .

THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM • • Provides one-way route for fluid from the tissue spaces to enter the blood As muscles contract and create pressure. lymph is squeezed from one portion of the body (large duct behind the heart) to another (vascular system) Materials from the GI tract that enter lymphatic vessels are the large fats and fat soluble vitamins (by-passing the liver) • .

Absorption & Transport .


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